15 U.S.C.
United States Code, 2010 Edition
Title 15 - COMMERCE AND TRADE
CHAPTER 2A - SECURITIES AND TRUST INDENTURES
From the U.S. Government Printing Office, www.gpo.gov

CHAPTER 2A—SECURITIES AND TRUST INDENTURES

SUBCHAPTER I—DOMESTIC SECURITIES

Sec.
77a.
Short title.
77b.
Definitions; promotion of efficiency, competition, and capital formation.
77b–1.
Swap agreements.
77c.
Classes of securities under this subchapter.
77d.
Exempted transactions.
77e.
Prohibitions relating to interstate commerce and the mails.
77f.
Registration of securities.
77g.
Information required in registration statement.
77h.
Taking effect of registration statements and amendments thereto.
77h–1.
Cease-and-desist proceedings.
77i.
Court review of orders.
77j.
Information required in prospectus.
77k.
Civil liabilities on account of false registration statement.
77l.
Civil liabilities arising in connection with prospectuses and communications.
77m.
Limitation of actions.
77n.
Contrary stipulations void.
77o.
Liability of controlling persons.
77p.
Additional remedies; limitation on remedies.
77q.
Fraudulent interstate transactions.
77r.
Exemption from State regulation of securities offerings.
77r–1.
Preemption of State law.
77s.
Special powers of Commission.
77t.
Injunctions and prosecution of offenses.
77u.
Hearings by Commission.
77v.
Jurisdiction of offenses and suits.
77w.
Unlawful representations.
77x.
Penalties.
77y.
Jurisdiction of other Government agencies over securities.
77z.
Separability.
77z–1.
Private securities litigation.
77z–2.
Application of safe harbor for forward-looking statements.
77z–2a.
Conflicts of interest relating to certain securitizations.
77z–3.
General exemptive authority.
77aa.
Schedule of information required in registration statement.

        

SUBCHAPTER II—FOREIGN SECURITIES

77bb.
“Corporation of Foreign Security Holders”; creation; principal office; branch offices.
77cc.
Directors of Corporation; appointment, term of office, and removal.
77dd.
Powers and duties of Corporation, generally.
77ee.
Directors of Corporation, powers and duties generally.
77ff.
Accounts and annual balance sheet of Corporation; audits.
77gg.
Annual report by Corporation; printing and distribution.
77hh.
Assessments by Corporation on holders of foreign securities.
77ii.
Subscriptions accepted by Corporation as loans; repayment.
77jj.
Loans to Corporation from Reconstruction Finance Corporation authorized.
77kk.
Representations by Corporation as acting for Department of State or United States forbidden; interference with foreign negotiations forbidden.
77ll.
Effective date of subchapter.
77mm.
Short title.

        

SUBCHAPTER III—TRUST INDENTURES

77aaa.
Short title.
77bbb.
Necessity for regulation.
77ccc.
Definitions.
77ddd.
Exempted securities and transactions.
77eee.
Securities required to be registered under Securities Act.
77fff.
Securities not registered under Securities Act.
77ggg.
Qualification of indentures covering securities not required to be registered.
77hhh.
Integration of procedure with Securities Act and other Acts.
77iii.
Effective time of qualification.
77jjj.
Eligibility and disqualification of trustee.
77kkk.
Preferential collection of claims against obligor.
77lll.
Bondholders’ lists.
77mmm.
Reports by indenture trustee.
77nnn.
Reports by obligor; evidence of compliance with indenture provisions.
77ooo.
Duties and responsibility of the trustee.
77ppp.
Directions and waivers by bondholders; prohibition of impairment of holder's right to payment; record date.
77qqq.
Special powers of trustee; duties of paying agents.
77rrr.
Effect of prescribed indenture provisions.
77sss.
Rules, regulations, and orders.
77ttt.
Hearings by Commission.
77uuu.
Special powers of the Commission.
77vvv.
Judicial review.
77www.
Liability for misleading statements.
77xxx.
Unlawful representations.
77yyy.
Penalties.
77zzz.
Effect on existing law.
77aaaa.
Contrary stipulations void.
77bbbb.
Separability.

        

SUBCHAPTER I—DOMESTIC SECURITIES

§77a. Short title

This subchapter may be cited as the “Securities Act of 1933”.

(May 27, 1933, ch. 38, title I, §1, 48 Stat. 74.)

Short Title of 1980 Amendment

Pub. L. 96–477, title VI, §601, Oct. 21, 1980, 94 Stat. 2294, provided that: “This title [amending sections 77b and 77d of this title] may be cited as the ‘Small Business Issuers’ Simplification Act of 1980’.”

§77b. Definitions; promotion of efficiency, competition, and capital formation

(a) Definitions

When used in this subchapter, unless the context otherwise requires—

(1) The term “security” means any note, stock, treasury stock, security future, bond, debenture, evidence of indebtedness, certificate of interest or participation in any profit-sharing agreement, collateral-trust certificate, preorganization certificate or subscription, transferable share, investment contract, voting-trust certificate, certificate of deposit for a security, fractional undivided interest in oil, gas, or other mineral rights, any put, call, straddle, option, or privilege on any security, certificate of deposit, or group or index of securities (including any interest therein or based on the value thereof), or any put, call, straddle, option, or privilege entered into on a national securities exchange relating to foreign currency, or, in general, any interest or instrument commonly known as a “security”, or any certificate of interest or participation in, temporary or interim certificate for, receipt for, guarantee of, or warrant or right to subscribe to or purchase, any of the foregoing.

(2) The term “person” means an individual, a corporation, a partnership, an association, a joint-stock company, a trust, any unincorporated organization, or a government or political subdivision thereof. As used in this paragraph the term “trust” shall include only a trust where the interest or interests of the beneficiary or beneficiaries are evidenced by a security.

(3) The term “sale” or “sell” shall include every contract of sale or disposition of a security or interest in a security, for value. The term “offer to sell”, “offer for sale”, or “offer” shall include every attempt or offer to dispose of, or solicitation of an offer to buy, a security or interest in a security, for value. The terms defined in this paragraph and the term “offer to buy” as used in subsection (c) of section 77e of this title shall not include preliminary negotiations or agreements between an issuer (or any person directly or indirectly controlling or controlled by an issuer, or under direct or indirect common control with an issuer) and any underwriter or among underwriters who are or are to be in privity of contract with an issuer (or any person directly or indirectly controlling or controlled by an issuer, or under direct or indirect common control with an issuer). Any security given or delivered with, or as a bonus on account of, any purchase of securities or any other thing, shall be conclusively presumed to constitute a part of the subject of such purchase and to have been offered and sold for value. The issue or transfer of a right or privilege, when originally issued or transferred with a security, giving the holder of such security the right to convert such security into another security of the same issuer or of another person, or giving a right to subscribe to another security of the same issuer or of another person, which right cannot be exercised until some future date, shall not be deemed to be an offer or sale of such other security; but the issue or transfer of such other security upon the exercise of such right of conversion or subscription shall be deemed a sale of such other security. Any offer or sale of a security futures product by or on behalf of the issuer of the securities underlying the security futures product, an affiliate of the issuer, or an underwriter, shall constitute a contract for sale of, sale of, offer for sale, or offer to sell the underlying securities.

(4) The term “issuer” means every person who issues or proposes to issue any security; except that with respect to certificates of deposit, voting-trust certificates, or collateral-trust certificates, or with respect to certificates of interest or shares in an unincorporated investment trust not having a board of directors (or persons performing similar functions) or of the fixed, restricted management, or unit type, the term “issuer” means the person or persons performing the acts and assuming the duties of depositor or manager pursuant to the provisions of the trust or other agreement or instrument under which such securities are issued; except that in the case of an unincorporated association which provides by its articles for limited liability of any or all of its members, or in the case of a trust, committee, or other legal entity, the trustees or members thereof shall not be individually liable as issuers of any security issued by the association, trust, committee, or other legal entity; except that with respect to equipment-trust certificates or like securities, the term “issuer” means the person by whom the equipment or property is or is to be used; and except that with respect to fractional undivided interests in oil, gas, or other mineral rights, the term “issuer” means the owner of any such right or of any interest in such right (whether whole or fractional) who creates fractional interests therein for the purpose of public offering.

(5) The term “Commission” means the Securities and Exchange Commission.

(6) The term “Territory” means Puerto Rico, the Virgin Islands, and the insular possessions of the United States.

(7) The term “interstate commerce” means trade or commerce in securities or any transportation or communication relating thereto among the several States or between the District of Columbia or any Territory of the United States and any State or other Territory, or between any foreign country and any State, Territory, or the District of Columbia, or within the District of Columbia.

(8) The term “registration statement” means the statement provided for in section 77f of this title, and includes any amendment thereto and any report, document, or memorandum filed as part of such statement or incorporated therein by reference.

(9) The term “write” or “written” shall include printed, lithographed, or any means of graphic communication.

(10) The term “prospectus” means any prospectus, notice, circular, advertisement, letter, or communication, written or by radio or television, which offers any security for sale or confirms the sale of any security; except that (a) a communication sent or given after the effective date of the registration statement (other than a prospectus permitted under subsection (b) of section 77j of this title) shall not be deemed a prospectus if it is proved that prior to or at the same time with such communication a written prospectus meeting the requirements of subsection (a) of section 77j of this title at the time of 1 such communication was sent or given to the person to whom the communication was made, and (b) a notice, circular, advertisement, letter, or communication in respect of a security shall not be deemed to be a prospectus if it states from whom a written prospectus meeting the requirements of section 77j of this title may be obtained and, in addition, does no more than identify the security, state the price thereof, state by whom orders will be executed, and contain such other information as the Commission, by rules or regulations deemed necessary or appropriate in the public interest and for the protection of investors, and subject to such terms and conditions as may be prescribed therein, may permit.

(11) The term “underwriter” means any person who has purchased from an issuer with a view to, or offers or sells for an issuer in connection with, the distribution of any security, or participates or has a direct or indirect participation in any such undertaking, or participates or has a participation in the direct or indirect underwriting of any such undertaking; but such term shall not include a person whose interest is limited to a commission from an underwriter or dealer not in excess of the usual and customary distributors’ or sellers’ commission. As used in this paragraph the term “issuer” shall include, in addition to an issuer, any person directly or indirectly controlling or controlled by the issuer, or any person under direct or indirect common control with the issuer.

(12) The term “dealer” means any person who engages either for all or part of his time, directly or indirectly, as agent, broker, or principal, in the business of offering, buying, selling, or otherwise dealing or trading in securities issued by another person.

(13) The term “insurance company” means a company which is organized as an insurance company, whose primary and predominant business activity is the writing of insurance or the reinsuring of risks underwritten by insurance companies, and which is subject to supervision by the insurance commissioner, or a similar official or agency, of a State or territory or the District of Columbia; or any receiver or similar official or any liquidating agent for such company, in his capacity as such.

(14) The term “separate account” means an account established and maintained by an insurance company pursuant to the laws of any State or territory of the United States, the District of Columbia, or of Canada or any province thereof, under which income, gains and losses, whether or not realized, from assets allocated to such account, are, in accordance with the applicable contract, credited to or charged against such account without regard to other income, gains, or losses of the insurance company.

(15) The term “accredited investor” shall mean—

(i) a bank as defined in section 77c(a)(2) of this title whether acting in its individual or fiduciary capacity; an insurance company as defined in paragraph (13) of this subsection; an investment company registered under the Investment Company Act of 1940 [15 U.S.C. 80a–1 et seq.] or a business development company as defined in section 2(a)(48) of that Act [15 U.S.C. 80a–2(a)(48)]; a Small Business Investment Company licensed by the Small Business Administration; or an employee benefit plan, including an individual retirement account, which is subject to the provisions of the Employee Retirement Income Security Act of 1974 [29 U.S.C. 1001 et seq.], if the investment decision is made by a plan fiduciary, as defined in section 3(21) of such Act [29 U.S.C. 1002(21)], which is either a bank, insurance company, or registered investment adviser; or

(ii) any person who, on the basis of such factors as financial sophistication, net worth, knowledge, and experience in financial matters, or amount of assets under management qualifies as an accredited investor under rules and regulations which the Commission shall prescribe.


(16) The terms “security future”, “narrow-based security index”, and “security futures product” have the same meanings as provided in section 78c(a)(55) of this title.

(b) Consideration of promotion of efficiency, competition, and capital formation

Whenever pursuant to this subchapter the Commission is engaged in rulemaking and is required to consider or determine whether an action is necessary or appropriate in the public interest, the Commission shall also consider, in addition to the protection of investors, whether the action will promote efficiency, competition, and capital formation.

(May 27, 1933, ch. 38, title I, §2, 48 Stat. 74; June 6, 1934, ch. 404, title II, §201, 48 Stat. 905; Aug. 10, 1954, ch. 667, title I, §§1–4, 68 Stat. 683, 684; Pub. L. 86–70, §12(a), June 25, 1959, 73 Stat. 143; Pub. L. 86–624, §7(a), July 12, 1960, 74 Stat. 412; Pub. L. 91–547, §27(a), Dec. 14, 1970, 84 Stat. 1433; Pub. L. 96–477, title VI, §603, Oct. 21, 1980, 94 Stat. 2294; Pub. L. 97–303, §1, Oct. 13, 1982, 96 Stat. 1409; Pub. L. 100–181, title II, §§201, 202, Dec. 4, 1987, 101 Stat. 1252; Pub. L. 104–290, title I, §106(a), Oct. 11, 1996, 110 Stat. 3424; Pub. L. 105–353, title III, §301(a)(1), Nov. 3, 1998, 112 Stat. 3235; Pub. L. 106–554, §1(a)(5) [title II, §208(a)(1)], Dec. 21, 2000, 114 Stat. 2763, 2763A–434; Pub. L. 111–203, title VII, §768(a), July 21, 2010, 124 Stat. 1800.)

Amendment of Subsection (a)

Pub. L. 111–203, title VII, §§768(a), 774, July 21, 2010, 124 Stat. 1800, 1802, provided that, effective on the later of 360 days after July 21, 2010, or, to the extent a provision of subtitle B (§§761–774) of title VII of Pub. L. 111–203 requires a rulemaking, not less than 60 days after publication of the final rule or regulation implementing such provision of subtitle B, subsection (a) of this section is amended as follows:

(1) in paragraph (1), by inserting “security-based swap,” after “security future,”;

(2) in paragraph (3), by adding at the end the following: “Any offer or sale of a security-based swap by or on behalf of the issuer of the securities upon which such security-based swap is based or is referenced, an affiliate of the issuer, or an underwriter, shall constitute a contract for sale of, sale of, offer for sale, or offer to sell such securities.”; and

(3) by adding at the end the following:

(17) The terms “swap” and “security-based swap” have the same meanings as in section 1a of title 7.

(18) The terms “purchase” or “sale” of a security-based swap shall be deemed to mean the execution, termination (prior to its scheduled maturity date), assignment, exchange, or similar transfer or conveyance of, or extinguishing of rights or obligations under, a security-based swap, as the context may require.

References in Text

The Investment Company Act of 1940, referred to in subsec. (a)(15)(i), is title I of act Aug. 22, 1940, ch. 686, 54 Stat. 789, as amended, which is classified generally to subchapter I (§80a–1 et seq.) of chapter 2D of this title. For complete classification of this Act to the Code, see section 80a–51 of this title and Tables.

The Employee Retirement Income Security Act of 1974, referred to in subsec. (a)(15)(i), is Pub. L. 93–406, Sept. 2, 1974, 88 Stat. 829, as amended, which is classified principally to chapter 18 (§1001 et seq.) of Title 29, Labor. For complete classification of this Act to the Code, see Short Title note set out under section 1001 of Title 29 and Tables.

Codification

Words “Philippine Islands” deleted from definition of term “Territory” under authority of Proc. No. 2695, eff. July 4, 1946, 11 F.R. 7517, 60 Stat. 1352, which granted independence to the Philippine Islands. Proc. No. 2695 was issued pursuant to section 1394 of Title 22, Foreign Relations and Intercourse, and is set out as a note under that section.

Amendments

2000—Subsec. (a)(1). Pub. L. 106–554, §1(a)(5) [title II, §208(a)(1)(A)], inserted “security future,” after “treasury stock,”.

Subsec. (a)(3). Pub. L. 106–554, §1(a)(5) [title II, §208(a)(1)(B)], inserted at end “Any offer or sale of a security futures product by or on behalf of the issuer of the securities underlying the security futures product, an affiliate of the issuer, or an underwriter, shall constitute a contract for sale of, sale of, offer for sale, or offer to sell the underlying securities.”

Subsec. (a)(16). Pub. L. 106–554, §1(a)(5) [title II, §208(a)(1)(C)], added par. (16).

1998—Subsec. (a)(15)(i). Pub. L. 105–353 made technical amendment to reference in original act which appears in text as reference to section 77c(a)(2) of this title and inserted “of this subsection” after “paragraph (13)”.

1996—Pub. L. 104–290 designated existing provisions as subsec. (a), inserted heading, and added subsec. (b).

1987—Par. (5). Pub. L. 100–181, §201, substituted “Securities and Exchange Commission” for “Federal Trade Commission”.

Par. (6). Pub. L. 100–181, §202, struck out reference to Canal Zone.

1982—Par. (1). Pub. L. 97–303 inserted “any put, call, straddle, option, or privilege on any security, certificate of deposit, or group or index of securities (including any interest therein or based on the value thereof), or any put, call, straddle, option, or privilege entered into on a national securities exchange relating to foreign currency,” after “mineral rights,”.

1980—Par. (15). Pub. L. 96–477 added par. (15).

1970—Pars. (13), (14). Pub. L. 91–547 added pars. (13) and (14).

1960—Par. (6). Pub. L. 86–624 struck out reference to Hawaii.

1959—Par. (6). Pub. L. 86–70 struck out reference to Alaska.

1954—Act Aug. 10, 1954, in pars. (3), (8), (10), and (11), redefined term “sale” so as to distinguish between “offers” and “sales”, clarified definition of “registration statement”, and conformed definition of “prospectus” to changes made by act Aug. 10, 1954, to sections 77e and 77j of this title.

1934—Act June 6, 1934, amended pars. (1), (4), and (10).

Effective Date of 2010 Amendment

Pub. L. 111–203, title VII, §774, July 21, 2010, 124 Stat. 1802, provided that: “Unless otherwise provided, the provisions of this subtitle [subtitle B (§§761–774) of title VII of Pub. L. 111–203, enacting subchapter II (§8341 et seq.) of chapter 109 and sections 78c–3 to 78c–5, 78j–2, 78m–1, and 78o–10 of this title, amending this section and sections 77b–1, 77e, 77q, 78c, 78c–1, 78f, 78i, 78j, 78m, 78o, 78p, 78q–1, 78t, 78u–1, 78u–2, 78bb, 78dd, 78mm, 80a–2, and 80b–2 of this title, and amending provisions set out as a note under section 78c of this title] shall take effect on the later of 360 days after the date of the enactment of this subtitle [July 21, 2010] or, to the extent a provision of this subtitle requires a rulemaking, not less than 60 days after publication of the final rule or regulation implementing such provision of this subtitle.”

Effective Date of 1970 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 91–547 effective Dec. 14, 1970, see section 30 of Pub. L. 91–547, set out as a note under section 80a–52 of this title.

Effective Date of 1954 Amendment

Section 501 of act Aug. 10, 1954, provided that: “This Act [amending this section and sections 77c to 77e, 77j, 77l, 77q, 77v, 77ccc to 77fff, 77xxx, 78k, 78l, 80a–2 and 80a–24 of this title] shall take effect sixty days after the date of its enactment [Aug. 10, 1954].”

Transfer of Functions

For transfer of functions of Securities and Exchange Commission, with certain exceptions, to Chairman of such Commission, see Reorg. Plan No. 10 of 1950, §§1, 2, eff. May 24, 1950, 15 F.R. 3175, 64 Stat. 1265, set out under section 78d of this title.

Adjusting the Accredited Investor Standard

Pub. L. 111–203, title IV, §413, July 21, 2010, 124 Stat. 1577, provided that:

“(a) In General.—The [Securities and Exchange] Commission shall adjust any net worth standard for an accredited investor, as set forth in the rules of the Commission under the Securities Act of 1933 [15 U.S.C. 77a et seq.], so that the individual net worth of any natural person, or joint net worth with the spouse of that person, at the time of purchase, is more than $1,000,000 (as such amount is adjusted periodically by rule of the Commission), excluding the value of the primary residence of such natural person, except that during the 4-year period that begins on the date of enactment of this Act [July 21, 2010], any net worth standard shall be $1,000,000, excluding the value of the primary residence of such natural person.

“(b) Review and Adjustment.—

“(1) Initial review and adjustment.—

“(A) Initial review.—The Commission may undertake a review of the definition of the term ‘accredited investor’, as such term applies to natural persons, to determine whether the requirements of the definition, excluding the requirement relating to the net worth standard described in subsection (a), should be adjusted or modified for the protection of investors, in the public interest, and in light of the economy.

“(B) Adjustment or modification.—Upon completion of a review under subparagraph (A), the Commission may, by notice and comment rulemaking, make such adjustments to the definition of the term ‘accredited investor’, excluding adjusting or modifying the requirement relating to the net worth standard described in subsection (a), as such term applies to natural persons, as the Commission may deem appropriate for the protection of investors, in the public interest, and in light of the economy.

“(2) Subsequent reviews and adjustment.—

“(A) Subsequent reviews.—Not earlier than 4 years after the date of enactment of this Act [July 21, 2010], and not less frequently than once every 4 years thereafter, the Commission shall undertake a review of the definition, in its entirety, of the term ‘accredited investor’, as defined in section 230.215 of title 17, Code of Federal Regulations, or any successor thereto, as such term applies to natural persons, to determine whether the requirements of the definition should be adjusted or modified for the protection of investors, in the public interest, and in light of the economy.

“(B) Adjustment or modification.—Upon completion of a review under subparagraph (A), the Commission may, by notice and comment rulemaking, make such adjustments to the definition of the term ‘accredited investor’, as defined in section 230.215 of title 17, Code of Federal Regulations, or any successor thereto, as such term applies to natural persons, as the Commission may deem appropriate for the protection of investors, in the public interest, and in light of the economy.”

1 So in original.

§77b–1. Swap agreements

(a) Non-security-based swap agreements

The definition of “security” in section 77b(a)(1) of this title does not include any non-security-based swap agreement (as defined in section 206C of the Gramm-Leach-Bliley Act).

(b) Security-based swap agreements

(1) The definition of “security” in section 77b(a)(1) of this title does not include any security-based swap agreement (as defined in section 206B of the Gramm-Leach-Bliley Act).

(2) The Commission is prohibited from registering, or requiring, recommending, or suggesting, the registration under this subchapter of any security-based swap agreement (as defined in section 206B of the Gramm-Leach-Bliley Act). If the Commission becomes aware that a registrant has filed a registration statement with respect to such a swap agreement, the Commission shall promptly so notify the registrant. Any such registration statement with respect to such a swap agreement shall be void and of no force or effect.

(3) The Commission is prohibited from—

(A) promulgating, interpreting, or enforcing rules; or

(B) issuing orders of general applicability;


under this subchapter in a manner that imposes or specifies reporting or recordkeeping requirements, procedures, or standards as prophylactic measures against fraud, manipulation, or insider trading with respect to any security-based swap agreement (as defined in section 206B of the Gramm-Leach-Bliley Act).

(4) References in this subchapter to the “purchase” or “sale” of a security-based swap agreement shall be deemed to mean the execution, termination (prior to its scheduled maturity date), assignment, exchange, or similar transfer or conveyance of, or extinguishing of rights or obligations under, a security-based swap agreement (as defined in section 206B of the Gramm-Leach-Bliley Act), as the context may require.

(May 27, 1933, ch. 38, title I, §2A, as added Pub. L. 106–554, §1(a)(5) [title III, §302(a)], Dec. 21, 2000, 114 Stat. 2763, 2763A–451; amended Pub. L. 111–203, title VII, §762(c)(1), July 21, 2010, 124 Stat. 1759.)

Amendment of Section

Pub. L. 111–203, title VII, §§762(c)(1), 774, July 21, 2010, 124 Stat. 1759, 1802, provided that, effective on the later of 360 days after July 21, 2010, or, to the extent a provision of subtitle B (§§761–774) of title VII of Pub. L. 111–203 requires a rulemaking, not less than 60 days after publication of the final rule or regulation implementing such provision of subtitle B, this section is amended as follows:

(1) by striking subsection (a) and reserving that subsection; and

(2) by striking “(as defined in section 206B of the Gramm-Leach-Bliley Act)” each place that such term appears and inserting “(as defined in section 78c(a)(78) of this title)”.

References in Text

Sections 206B and 206C of the Gramm-Leach-Bliley Act, referred to in text, are sections 206B and 206C of Pub. L. 106–102 which are set out in a note under section 78c of this title.

Effective Date of 2010 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 111–203 effective on the later of 360 days after July 21, 2010, or, to the extent a provision of subtitle B (§§761–774) of title VII of Pub. L. 111–203 requires a rulemaking, not less than 60 days after publication of the final rule or regulation implementing such provision of subtitle B, see section 774 of Pub. L. 111–203, set out as a note under section 77b of this title.

§77c. Classes of securities under this subchapter

(a) Exempted securities

Except as hereinafter expressly provided, the provisions of this subchapter shall not apply to any of the following classes of securities:

(1) Reserved.

(2) Any security issued or guaranteed by the United States or any territory thereof, or by the District of Columbia, or by any State of the United States, or by any political subdivision of a State or territory, or by any public instrumentality of one or more States or territories, or by any person controlled or supervised by and acting as an instrumentality of the Government of the United States pursuant to authority granted by the Congress of the United States; or any certificate of deposit for any of the foregoing; or any security issued or guaranteed by any bank; or any security issued by or representing an interest in or a direct obligation of a Federal Reserve bank; or any interest or participation in any common trust fund or similar fund that is excluded from the definition of the term “investment company” under section 3(c)(3) of the Investment Company Act of 1940 [15 U.S.C. 80a–3(c)(3)]; or any security which is an industrial development bond (as defined in section 103(c)(2) 1 of title 26) the interest on which is excludable from gross income under section 103(a)(1) 1 of title 26 if, by reason of the application of paragraph (4) or (6) of section 103(c) 1 of title 26 (determined as if paragraphs (4)(A), (5), and (7) were not included in such section 103(c)),1 paragraph (1) of such section 103(c) 1 does not apply to such security; or any interest or participation in a single trust fund, or in a collective trust fund maintained by a bank, or any security arising out of a contract issued by an insurance company, which interest, participation, or security is issued in connection with (A) a stock bonus, pension, or profit-sharing plan which meets the requirements for qualification under section 401 of title 26, (B) an annuity plan which meets the requirements for the deduction of the employer's contributions under section 404(a)(2) of title 26, (C) a governmental plan as defined in section 414(d) of title 26 which has been established by an employer for the exclusive benefit of its employees or their beneficiaries for the purpose of distributing to such employees or their beneficiaries the corpus and income of the funds accumulated under such plan, if under such plan it is impossible, prior to the satisfaction of all liabilities with respect to such employees and their beneficiaries, for any part of the corpus or income to be used for, or diverted to, purposes other than the exclusive benefit of such employees or their beneficiaries, or (D) a church plan, company, or account that is excluded from the definition of an investment company under section 3(c)(14) of the Investment Company Act of 1940 [15 U.S.C. 80a–3(c)(14)], other than any plan described in subparagraph (A), (B), (C), or (D) of this paragraph (i) the contributions under which are held in a single trust fund or in a separate account maintained by an insurance company for a single employer and under which an amount in excess of the employer's contribution is allocated to the purchase of securities (other than interests or participations in the trust or separate account itself) issued by the employer or any company directly or indirectly controlling, controlled by, or under common control with the employer, (ii) which covers employees some or all of whom are employees within the meaning of section 401(c)(1) of title 26, or (iii) which is a plan funded by an annuity contract described in section 403(b) of title 26. The Commission, by rules and regulations or order, shall exempt from the provisions of section 77e of this title any interest or participation issued in connection with a stock bonus, pension, profit-sharing, or annuity plan which covers employees some or all of whom are employees within the meaning of section 401(c)(1) of title 26, if and to the extent that the Commission determines this to be necessary or appropriate in the public interest and consistent with the protection of investors and the purposes fairly intended by the policy and provisions of this subchapter. For purposes of this paragraph, a security issued or guaranteed by a bank shall not include any interest or participation in any collective trust fund maintained by a bank; and the term “bank” means any national bank, or banking institution organized under the laws of any State, territory, or the District of Columbia, the business of which is substantially confined to banking and is supervised by the State or territorial banking commission or similar official; except that in the case of a common trust fund or similar fund, or a collective trust fund, the term “bank” has the same meaning as in the Investment Company Act of 1940 [15 U.S.C. 80a–1 et seq.];

(3) Any note, draft, bill of exchange, or banker's acceptance which arises out of a current transaction or the proceeds of which have been or are to be used for current transactions, and which has a maturity at the time of issuance of not exceeding nine months, exclusive of days of grace, or any renewal thereof the maturity of which is likewise limited;

(4) Any security issued by a person organized and operated exclusively for religious, educational, benevolent, fraternal, charitable, or reformatory purposes and not for pecuniary profit, and no part of the net earnings of which inures to the benefit of any person, private stockholder, or individual, or any security of a fund that is excluded from the definition of an investment company under section 3(c)(10)(B) of the Investment Company Act of 1940 [15 U.S.C. 80a–3(c)(10)(B)];

(5) Any security issued (A) by a savings and loan association, building and loan association, cooperative bank, homestead association, or similar institution, which is supervised and examined by State or Federal authority having supervision over any such institution; or (B) by (i) a farmer's cooperative organization exempt from tax under section 521 of title 26, (ii) a corporation described in section 501(c)(16) of title 26 and exempt from tax under section 501(a) of title 26, or (iii) a corporation described in section 501(c)(2) of title 26 which is exempt from tax under section 501(a) of title 26 and is organized for the exclusive purpose of holding title to property, collecting income therefrom, and turning over the entire amount thereof, less expenses, to an organization or corporation described in clause (i) or (ii);

(6) Any interest in a railroad equipment trust. For purposes of this paragraph “interest in a railroad equipment trust” means any interest in an equipment trust, lease, conditional sales contract, or other similar arrangement entered into, issued, assumed, guaranteed by, or for the benefit of, a common carrier to finance the acquisition of rolling stock, including motive power;

(7) Certificates issued by a receiver or by a trustee or debtor in possession in a case under title 11, with the approval of the court;

(8) Any insurance or endowment policy or annuity contract or optional annuity contract, issued by a corporation subject to the supervision of the insurance commissioner, bank commissioner, or any agency or officer performing like functions, of any State or Territory of the United States or the District of Columbia;

(9) Except with respect to a security exchanged in a case under title 11, any security exchanged by the issuer with its existing security holders exclusively where no commission or other remuneration is paid or given directly or indirectly for soliciting such exchange;

(10) Except with respect to a security exchanged in a case under title 11, any security which is issued in exchange for one or more bona fide outstanding securities, claims or property interests, or partly in such exchange and partly for cash, where the terms and conditions of such issuance and exchange are approved, after a hearing upon the fairness of such terms and conditions at which all persons to whom it is proposed to issue securities in such exchange shall have the right to appear, by any court, or by any official or agency of the United States, or by any State or Territorial banking or insurance commission or other governmental authority expressly authorized by law to grant such approval;

(11) Any security which is a part of an issue offered and sold only to persons resident within a single State or Territory, where the issuer of such security is a person resident and doing business within or, if a corporation, incorporated by and doing business within, such State or Territory.

(12) Any equity security issued in connection with the acquisition by a holding company of a bank under section 1842(a) of title 12 or a savings association under section 1467a(e) of title 12, if—

(A) the acquisition occurs solely as part of a reorganization in which security holders exchange their shares of a bank or savings association for shares of a newly formed holding company with no significant assets other than securities of the bank or savings association and the existing subsidiaries of the bank or savings association;

(B) the security holders receive, after that reorganization, substantially the same proportional share interests in the holding company as they held in the bank or savings association, except for nominal changes in shareholders’ interests resulting from lawful elimination of fractional interests and the exercise of dissenting shareholders’ rights under State or Federal law;

(C) the rights and interests of security holders in the holding company are substantially the same as those in the bank or savings association prior to the transaction, other than as may be required by law; and

(D) the holding company has substantially the same assets and liabilities, on a consolidated basis, as the bank or savings association had prior to the transaction.


For purposes of this paragraph, the term “savings association” means a savings association (as defined in section 1813(b) of title 12) the deposits of which are insured by the Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation.

(13) Any security issued by or any interest or participation in any church plan, company or account that is excluded from the definition of an investment company under section 3(c)(14) of the Investment Company Act of 1940 [15 U.S.C. 80a–3(c)(14)].

(14) Any security futures product that is—

(A) cleared by a clearing agency registered under section 78q–1 of this title or exempt from registration under subsection (b)(7) of such section 78q–1; and

(B) traded on a national securities exchange or a national securities association registered pursuant to section 78o–3(a) of this title.

(b) Additional exemptions

The Commission may from time to time by its rules and regulations, and subject to such terms and conditions as may be prescribed therein, add any class of securities to the securities exempted as provided in this section, if it finds that the enforcement of this subchapter with respect to such securities is not necessary in the public interest and for the protection of investors by reason of the small amount involved or the limited character of the public offering; but no issue of securities shall be exempted under this subsection where the aggregate amount at which such issue is offered to the public exceeds $5,000,000.

(c) Securities issued by small investment company

The Commission may from time to time by its rules and regulations and subject to such terms and conditions as may be prescribed therein, add to the securities exempted as provided in this section any class of securities issued by a small business investment company under the Small Business Investment Act of 1958 [15 U.S.C. 661 et seq.] if it finds, having regard to the purposes of that Act, that the enforcement of this subchapter with respect to such securities is not necessary in the public interest and for the protection of investors.

(May 27, 1933, ch. 38, title I, §3, 48 Stat. 75; June 6, 1934, ch. 404, title II, §202, 48 Stat. 906; Feb. 4, 1887, ch. 104, title II, §214, as added Aug. 9, 1935, ch. 498, 49 Stat. 557; amended June 29, 1938, ch. 811, §15, 52 Stat. 1240; May 15, 1945, ch. 122, 59 Stat. 167; Aug. 10, 1954, ch. 667, title I, §5, 68 Stat. 684; Pub. L. 85–699, title III, §307(a), Aug. 21, 1958, 72 Stat. 694; Pub. L. 91–373, title IV, §401(a), Aug. 10, 1970, 84 Stat. 718; Pub. L. 91–547, §27(b), (c), Dec. 14, 1970, 84 Stat. 1434; Pub. L. 91–565, Dec. 19, 1970, 84 Stat. 1480; Pub. L. 91–567, §6(a), Dec. 22, 1970, 84 Stat. 1498; Pub. L. 94–210, title III, §308(a)(1), (3), Feb. 5, 1976, 90 Stat. 56, 57; Pub. L. 95–283, §18, May 21, 1978, 92 Stat. 275; Pub. L. 95–425, §2, Oct. 6, 1978, 92 Stat. 962; Pub. L. 95–598, title III, §306, Nov. 6, 1978, 92 Stat. 2674; Pub. L. 96–477, title III, §301, title VII, §701, Oct. 21, 1980, 94 Stat. 2291, 2294; Pub. L. 97–261, §19(d), Sept. 20, 1982, 96 Stat. 1121; Pub. L. 99–514, §2, Oct. 22, 1986, 100 Stat. 2095; Pub. L. 100–181, title II, §§203, 204, Dec. 4, 1987, 101 Stat. 1252; Pub. L. 103–325, title III, §320, Sept. 23, 1994, 108 Stat. 2225; Pub. L. 104–62, §3, Dec. 8, 1995, 109 Stat. 684; Pub. L. 104–290, title V, §508(b), Oct. 11, 1996, 110 Stat. 3447; Pub. L. 106–102, title II, §221(a), Nov. 12, 1999, 113 Stat. 1401; Pub. L. 106–554, §1(a)(5) [title II, §208(a)(2)], Dec. 21, 2000, 114 Stat. 2763, 2763A–435; Pub. L. 108–359, §1(b), Oct. 25, 2004, 118 Stat. 1666; Pub. L. 111–203, title IX, §985(a)(1), July 21, 2010, 124 Stat. 1933.)

References in Text

Section 103 of title 26, referred to in subsec. (a)(2), which related to interest on certain governmental obligations was amended generally by Pub. L. 99–514, title XIII, §1301(a), Oct. 22, 1986, 100 Stat. 2602, and as so amended relates to interest on State and local bonds. Section 103(b)(2) (formerly section 103(c)(2)), which prior to the general amendment defined industrial development bond, relates to the applicability of the interest exclusion to arbitrage bonds.

The Investment Company Act of 1940, referred to in subsec. (a)(2), is title I of act Aug. 22, 1940, ch. 686, 54 Stat. 789, as amended, which is classified generally to subchapter I (§80a–1 et seq.) of chapter 2D of this title. For complete classification of this Act to the Code, see section 80a–51 of this title and Tables.

The Small Business Investment Act of 1958, referred to in subsec. (c), is Pub. L. 85–699, Aug. 21, 1958, 72 Stat. 689, as amended, which is classified principally to chapter 14B (§661 et seq.) of this title. For complete classification of this Act to the Code, see Short Title note set out under section 661 of this title and Tables.

Amendments

2010—Subsec. (a)(4). Pub. L. 111–203 substituted “individual,” for “individual;”.

2004—Subsec. (a)(2). Pub. L. 108–359 struck out “or” before “(C) a governmental plan” and substituted “or (D) a church plan, company, or account that is excluded from the definition of an investment company under section 3(c)(14) of the Investment Company Act of 1940, other than any plan described in subparagraph (A), (B), (C), or (D)” for “other than any plan described in clause (A), (B), or (C)”.

2000—Subsec. (a)(14). Pub. L. 106–554 added par. (14).

1999—Subsec. (a)(2). Pub. L. 106–102 substituted “or any interest or participation in any common trust fund or similar fund that is excluded from the definition of the term ‘investment company’ under section 3(c)(3) of the Investment Company Act of 1940” for “or any interest or participation in any common trust fund or similar fund maintained by a bank exclusively for the collective investment and reinvestment of assets contributed thereto by such bank in its capacity as trustee, executor, administrator, or guardian”.

1996—Subsec. (a)(13). Pub. L. 104–290 added par. (13).

1995—Subsec. (a)(4). Pub. L. 104–62 inserted at end “or any security of a fund that is excluded from the definition of an investment company under section 3(c)(10)(B) of the Investment Company Act of 1940;”.

1994—Subsec. (a)(12). Pub. L. 103–325 added par. (12).

1987—Subsec. (a)(1). Pub. L. 100–181, §203, substituted “Reserved.” for “Any security which, prior to or within sixty days after May 27, 1933, has been sold or disposed of by the issuer or bona fide offered to the public, but this exemption shall not apply to any new offering of any such security by an issuer or underwriter subsequent to such sixty days;”.

Subsec. (a)(5)(A). Pub. L. 100–181, §204, struck out “, except that the foregoing exemption shall not apply with respect to any such security where the issuer takes from the total amount paid or deposited by the purchaser, by way of any fee, cash value or other device whatsoever, either upon termination of the investment at maturity or before maturity, an aggregate amount in excess of 3 per centum of the face value of such security” after “any such institution”.

1986—Subsec. (a)(2), (5). Pub. L. 99–514 substituted “Internal Revenue Code of 1986” for “Internal Revenue Code of 1954” wherever appearing, which for purposes of codification was translated as “title 26” thus requiring no change in text.

1982—Subsec. (a)(6). Pub. L. 97–261 struck out provisions relating to any security issued by a motor carrier subject to provisions of section 314 [11302] of title 49.

1980—Subsec. (a)(2). Pub. L. 96–477, §701, provided that single trust funds did not have to be maintained by banks in order to qualify for exemption from the provisions of this subchapter, substituted provisions relating to securities arising out of contracts issued by insurance companies for provisions relating to separate accounts maintained by insurance companies, provided that an interest, participation, or security could be issued in connection with certain governmental plans as defined in section 414(d) of title 26 and qualify for exemption from the provisions of this subchapter, and excluded from exemption plans described in cls. (A), (B), or (C) of par. (2) which were funded by annuity contracts described in section 403(b) of title 26.

Subsec. (b). Pub. L. 96–477, §301, substituted “$5,000,000” for “$2,000,000”.

1978—Subsec. (a)(7). Pub. L. 95–598, §306(a), substituted “or debtor in possession in a case under title 11” for “in bankruptcy”.

Subsec. (a)(9), (10). Pub. L. 95–598, §306(b), substituted “Except with respect to a security exchanged in a case under title 11, any” for “Any”.

Subsec. (b). Pub. L. 95–425 substituted “$2,000,000” for “$1,500,000”.

Pub. L. 95–283 substituted “$1,500,000” for “$500,000”.

1976—Subsec. (a)(6). Pub. L. 94–210 substituted provisions relating to any security issued by a motor carrier subject to the provisions of section 314 of title 49 or any interest in a railroad equipment trust, and provisions defining “interest in a railroad equipment trust”, for provisions relating to any security issued by a common or contract carrier, subject to the provisions of section 20a of title 49.

1970—Subsec. (a)(2). Pub. L. 91–567 exempted any interest or participation in any common trust fund or similar fund maintained by a bank exclusively for the collective investment and reinvestment of assets contributed thereto by such bank in its capacity as trustee, executor, administrator, or guardian, any security which is an industrial development bond the interest on which is excludable from gross income under section 103(a)(1) of title 26, any interest or participation in a single or collective trust fund maintained by a bank or in a separate account maintained by an insurance company which interest or participation is issued in connection with a stock bonus, pension, or profit-sharing plan which meets the requirements for qualification under section 401 of title 26, or an annuity plan which meets the requirements for the deduction of the employer's contribution under section 404(a)(2) of title 26, directed the Commission to exempt from the provisions of section 77e of this title any interest or participation issued in connection with a stock bonus, pension, profit-sharing, or annuity plan which covers employees some or all of whom are employees within the meaning of section 401(c)(1) of title 26 if and to the extent that the Commission determines this to be necessary or appropriate in the public interest and consistent with the protection of investors, and provided that for the purposes of this paragraph a security issued or guaranteed by a bank shall not include any interest or participation in any collective trust fund maintained by a bank, and that in the case of a common trust fund or similar fund, or a collective trust fund, the term “bank” has the same meaning as in the Investment Company Act of 1940.

Pub. L. 91–547, §27(b), struck out reference to industrial development bonds the interest on which is excludable from gross income under section 103(a)(1) of title 26; and exempted from registration provisions interests or participations in common trust funds maintained by a bank for collective investment of assets held by it in a fiduciary capacity interests or participations in bank collective trust funds maintained for funding of employees’ stock bonus, pension, or profit-sharing plans; interests or participations in separate accounts maintained by insurance companies for funding certain stock-bonus, pension, or profit-sharing plans which meet the requirements for qualification under section 401 of title 26; and interests or participations issued by bank collective trust funds or insurance company separate accounts for funding certain stock-bonus, pension, profit-sharing, or annuity plans when the Commission by rule, regulation, or order determines this to be necessary in the public interest; provided that a security issued or guaranteed by a bank shall not include any interest or participation in any collective trust fund maintained by a bank; substituted where first appearing “security issued or guaranteed by any bank” for “security issued or guaranteed by any national bank, or by any banking institution organized under the laws of any State or Territory or the District of Columbia, the business of which is substantially confined to banking and is supervised by the State or Territorial banking commission or similar official”, the latter provision now incorporated in a separate definition of term “bank”; and made the Investment Company Act definition of bank applicable as in the case of a common trust fund or similar fund, or a collective trust fund.

Pub. L. 91–373 inserted reference to industrial development bonds the interest on which is excludable from gross income under section 103(a)(1) of title 26.

Subsec. (a)(5). Pub. L. 91–547, §27(c), designated existing provisions as cl. (A), included cooperative bank issues, required the issuer to be an institution which is supervised and examined by State or Federal authority having supervision over such institution, struck out “substantially all the business of which is confined to the making of loans to members” after “similar institution” and substituted provisions designated as cl. (B) for prior provision relating to a security issued by a farmers’ cooperative association as defined in paragraphs (12), (13), and (14) of section 103 of the Revenue Act of 1932.

Subsec. (b). Pub. L. 91–565 substituted “$500,000” for “$300,000”.

1958—Subsec. (c). Pub. L. 85–699 added subsec. (c).

1954—Subsec. (a)(11). Act Aug. 10, 1954, inserted “offered and” before “sold”.

1945—Subsec. (b). Act May 15, 1945, substituted “$300,000” for “$100,000”.

1938—Subsec. (a)(6). Act June 29, 1938, reenacted par. (6) without change.

1935—Subsec. (a)(6). Act Feb. 4, 1887, as added by act Aug. 9, 1935, included a security issued by a contract carrier.

1934—Subsec. (a). Act June 6, 1934, amended pars. (2), (4), and (8) and added pars. (9) to (11).

Effective Date of 2010 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 111–203 effective 1 day after July 21, 2010, except as otherwise provided, see section 4 of Pub. L. 111–203, set out as an Effective Date note under section 5301 of Title 12, Banks and Banking.

Effective Date of 1999 Amendment

Pub. L. 106–102, title II, §225, Nov. 12, 1999, 113 Stat. 1402, provided that: “This subtitle [subtitle B (§§211–225) of title II of Pub. L. 106–102, enacting section 80b–10a of this title and amending this section and sections 78c, 80a–2, 80a–3, 80a–9, 80a–10, 80a–17, 80a–26, 80a–34, and 80b–2 of this title] shall take effect 18 months after the date of the enactment of this Act [Nov. 12, 1999].”

Effective Date of 1995 Amendment

Section 7 of Pub. L. 104–62 provided that: “This Act [enacting section 80a–3a of this title, amending this section and sections 78c, 78l, 80a–3, 80a–7, and 80b–3 of this title, and enacting provisions set out as a note under section 80a–51 of this title] and the amendments made by this Act shall apply in all administrative and judicial actions pending on or commenced after the date of enactment of this Act [Dec. 8, 1995], as a defense to any claim that any person, security, interest, or participation of the type described in this Act and the amendments made by this Act is subject to the provisions of the Securities Act of 1933 [15 U.S.C. 77a et seq.], the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 [15 U.S.C. 78a et seq.], the Investment Company Act of 1940 [15 U.S.C. 80a–1 et seq.], or the Investment Advisers Act of 1940 [15 U.S.C. 80b–1 et seq.], or any State statute or regulation preempted as provided in section 6 of this Act [enacting section 80a–3a of this title], except as otherwise specifically provided in such Acts or State law.”

Effective Date of 1982 Amendment

Section 31 of Pub. L. 97–261 provided that:

“(a) Except as provided in subsections (b) and (c) of this section, this Act [see Tables for classification] shall take effect on the 60th day after the date of enactment of this Act [Sept. 20, 1982].

“(b) The amendment made by section 10(e)(4) of this Act [amending provisions set out as a note under former section 10706 of Title 49, Transportation] shall take effect on October 1, 1982.

“(c) The provisions of sections 6(g) and 30 of this Act [amending former sections 10922 and 10525 of Title 49, respectively] shall take effect on the date of enactment of this Act [Sept. 20, 1982].”

Effective Date of 1978 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 95–598 effective Oct. 1, 1979, see section 402(a) of Pub. L. 95–598 set out as an Effective Date note preceding section 101 of Title 11, Bankruptcy.

Effective Date of 1976 Amendment

Section 308(d)(1) of Pub. L. 94–210 provided that: “The amendments made by subsection (a) of this section [amending this section, section 77s of this title, and section 314 of former Title 49, Transportation] shall take effect on the 60th day after the date of enactment of this Act [Feb. 5, 1976], but shall not apply to any bona fide offering of a security made by the issuer, or by or through an underwriter, before such 60th day.”

Effective Date of 1970 Amendments

Section 6(d) of Pub. L. 91–567 provided that: “The amendments made by this section [amending this section and sections 77ddd and 78c of this title] shall apply with respect to securities sold after January 1, 1970.”

Amendment by Pub. L. 91–547 effective Dec. 14, 1970, see section 30 of Pub. L. 91–547, set out as a note under section 80a–52 of this title.

Section 401(c) of Pub. L. 91–373 provided that: “The amendments made by this section [amending this section and section 78c of this title] shall apply with respect to securities sold after January 1, 1970.”

Effective Date of 1954 Amendment

Amendment by act Aug. 10, 1954, effective 60 days after Aug. 10, 1954, see note under section 77b of this title.

Repeals

Section 214 of act Feb. 4, 1887 (the Interstate Commerce Act), as added Aug. 9, 1935, ch. 498, 49 Stat. 557, cited as a credit to this section, was repealed by Pub. L. 97–449, §7(b), Jan. 12, 1983, 96 Stat. 2443, 2444.

Transfer of Functions

For transfer of functions of Securities and Exchange Commission, with certain exceptions, to Chairman of such Commission, see Reorg. Plan No. 10 of 1950, §§1, 2, eff. May 24, 1950, 15 F.R. 3175, 64 Stat. 1265, set out under section 78d of this title.

Further Promoting the Adoption of the NAIC Model Regulations That Enhance Protection of Seniors and Other Consumers

Pub. L. 111–203, title IX, §989J, July 21, 2010, 124 Stat. 1949, provided that:

“(a) In General.—The Commission shall treat as exempt securities described under section 3(a)(8) of the Securities Act of 1933 (15 U.S.C. 77c(a)(8)) any insurance or endowment policy or annuity contract or optional annuity contract—

“(1) the value of which does not vary according to the performance of a separate account;

“(2) that—

“(A) satisfies standard nonforfeiture laws or similar requirements of the applicable State at the time of issue; or

“(B) in the absence of applicable standard nonforfeiture laws or requirements, satisfies the Model Standard Nonforfeiture Law for Life Insurance or Model Standard Nonforfeiture Law for Individual Deferred Annuities, or any successor model law, as published by the National Association of Insurance Commissioners; and

“(3) that is issued—

“(A) on and after June 16, 2013, in a State, or issued by an insurance company that is domiciled in a State, that—

“(i) adopts rules that govern suitability requirements in the sale of an insurance or endowment policy or annuity contract or optional annuity contract, which shall substantially meet or exceed the minimum requirements established by the Suitability in Annuity Transactions Model Regulation adopted by the National Association of Insurance Commissioners in March 2010; and

“(ii) adopts rules that substantially meet or exceed the minimum requirements of any successor modifications to the model regulations described in subparagraph (A) within 5 years of the adoption by the Association of any further successors thereto; or

“(B) by an insurance company that adopts and implements practices on a nationwide basis for the sale of any insurance or endowment policy or annuity contract or optional annuity contract that meet or exceed the minimum requirements established by the National Association of Insurance Commissioners Suitability in Annuity Transactions Model Regulation (Model 275), and any successor thereto, and is therefore subject to examination by the State of domicile of the insurance company, or by any other State where the insurance company conducts sales of such products, for the purpose of monitoring compliance under this section.

“(b) Rule of Construction.—Nothing in this section shall be construed to affect whether any insurance or endowment policy or annuity contract or optional annuity contract that is not described in this section is or is not an exempt security under section 3(a)(8) of the Securities Act of 1933 (15 U.S.C. 77c(a)(8)).”

[For definitions of terms used in section 989J of Pub. L. 111–203, set out above, see section 5301 of Title 12, Banks and Banking.]

Securities and Investment Company Provisions Inapplicable to Certain Life Insurance Benefits Issued Prior to March 23, 1959

Section 29 of Pub. L. 91–547 provided that: “The provisions of the Securities Act of 1933 [this subchapter] and the Investment Company Act of 1940 [section 80a–1 et seq. of this title] shall not apply, except for purposes of definition of terms used in this section, to any interest or participation (including any separate account or other fund providing for the sharing of income or gains and losses, and any interest or participation in such account or fund) in any contract, certificate, or policy providing for life insurance benefits which was issued prior to March 23, 1959, by an insurance company, if (1) the form of such contract, certificate, or policy was approved by the insurance commissioner, or similar official or agency, of a State, territory or the District of Columbia, and (2) under such contract, certificate, or policy not to exceed 49 per centum of the gross premiums or other consideration paid was to be allocated to a separate account or other fund providing for the sharing of income or gains and losses. Nothing herein contained shall be taken to imply that any such interest or participation constitutes a ‘security’ under any other laws of the United States.”

1 See References in Text note below.

§77d. Exempted transactions

The provisions of section 77e of this title shall not apply to—

(1) transactions by any person other than an issuer, underwriter, or dealer.

(2) transactions by an issuer not involving any public offering.

(3) transactions by a dealer (including an underwriter no longer acting as an underwriter in respect of the security involved in such transaction), except—

(A) transactions taking place prior to the expiration of forty days after the first date upon which the security was bona fide offered to the public by the issuer or by or through an underwriter,

(B) transactions in a security as to which a registration statement has been filed taking place prior to the expiration of forty days after the effective date of such registration statement or prior to the expiration of forty days after the first date upon which the security was bona fide offered to the public by the issuer or by or through an underwriter after such effective date, whichever is later (excluding in the computation of such forty days any time during which a stop order issued under section 77h of this title is in effect as to the security), or such shorter period as the Commission may specify by rules and regulations or order, and

(C) transactions as to securities constituting the whole or a part of an unsold allotment to or subscription by such dealer as a participant in the distribution of such securities by the issuer or by or through an underwriter.


With respect to transactions referred to in clause (B), if securities of the issuer have not previously been sold pursuant to an earlier effective registration statement the applicable period, instead of forty days, shall be ninety days, or such shorter period as the Commission may specify by rules and regulations or order.

(4) brokers’ transactions executed upon customers’ orders on any exchange or in the over-the-counter market but not the solicitation of such orders.

(5) transactions involving offers or sales by an issuer solely to one or more accredited investors, if the aggregate offering price of an issue of securities offered in reliance on this paragraph does not exceed the amount allowed under section 77c(b) of this title, if there is no advertising or public solicitation in connection with the transaction by the issuer or anyone acting on the issuer's behalf, and if the issuer files such notice with the Commission as the Commission shall prescribe.

(May 27, 1933, ch. 38, title I, §4, 48 Stat. 77; June 6, 1934, ch. 404, title II, §203, 48 Stat. 906; Aug. 10, 1954, ch. 667, title I, §6, 68 Stat. 684; Pub. L. 88–467, §12, Aug. 20, 1964, 78 Stat. 580; Pub. L. 94–29, §30, June 4, 1975, 89 Stat. 169; Pub. L. 96–477, title VI, §602, Oct. 21, 1980, 94 Stat. 2294; Pub. L. 111–203, title IX, §944(a), July 21, 2010, 124 Stat. 1897.)

Amendments

2010—Pars. (5), (6). Pub. L. 111–203 redesignated par. (6) as (5) and struck out former par. (5) which related to exemption for certain transactions involving offers or sales of one or more promissory notes directly secured by a first lien on a single parcel of real estate upon which is located a dwelling or other residential or commercial structure, and exemption for certain transactions between entities involving non-assignable contracts to buy or sell the foregoing securities which are to be completed within two years.

1980—Par. (6). Pub. L. 96–477 added par. (6).

1975—Par. (5). Pub. L. 94–29 added par. (5).

1964—Pub. L. 88–467 substituted “shall not apply to—” for “shall not apply to any of the following transactions:” in introductory text.

Par. (1). Pub. L. 88–467 reenacted existing first provision of par. (1) and struck out second and third provisions, which are incorporated in pars. (2) and (3)(A) to (C).

Par. (2). Pub. L. 88–467 redesignated existing second provision of par. (1) as (2). Former par. (2) redesignated (4).

Par. (3). Pub. L. 88–467 redesignated existing third provision of par. (1) as (3), designated the excepted transactions as cls. (A) to (C), inserted in cl. (B) “or such shorter period as the Commission may specify by rules and regulations or order” and inserted sentence relating to the applicable period to transactions referred to in clause (B).

Par. (4). Pub. L. 88–467 redesignated former par. (2) as (4) and substituted “over-the-counter market” for “open or counter market”.

1954—Act Aug. 10, 1954, reduced from 1 year to 40 days the period during which the delivery of a prospectus is required in trading transactions as distinguished from initial distribution of the new securities.

1934—Act June 6, 1934, among other changes, repealed par. (3), provisions of which were replaced by section 77c(9), (10) of this title.

Effective Date of 2010 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 111–203 effective 1 day after July 21, 2010, except as otherwise provided, see section 4 of Pub. L. 111–203, set out as an Effective Date note under section 5301 of Title 12, Banks and Banking.

Effective Date of 1975 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 94–29 effective June 4, 1975, see section 31(a) of Pub. L. 94–29, set out as a note under section 78b of this title.

Effective Date of 1964 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 88–467 effective Aug. 20, 1964, see section 13 of Pub. L. 88–467, set out as a note under section 78c of this title.

Effective Date of 1954 Amendment

Amendment by act Aug. 10, 1954, effective 60 days after Aug. 10, 1954, see note under section 77b of this title.

Transfer of Functions

For transfer of functions of Securities and Exchange Commission, with certain exceptions, to Chairman of such Commission, see Reorg. Plan No. 10 of 1950, §§1, 2, eff. May 24, 1950, 15 F.R. 3175, 64 Stat. 1265, set out under section 78d of this title.

Disqualifying Felons and Other “Bad Actors” From Regulation D Offerings

Pub. L. 111–203, title IX, §926, July 21, 2010, 124 Stat. 1851, provided that: “Not later than 1 year after the date of enactment of this Act [July 21, 2010], the Commission shall issue rules for the disqualification of offerings and sales of securities made under section 230.506 of title 17, Code of Federal Regulations, that—

“(1) are substantially similar to the provisions of section 230.262 of title 17, Code of Federal Regulations, or any successor thereto; and

“(2) disqualify any offering or sale of securities by a person that—

“(A) is subject to a final order of a State securities commission (or an agency or officer of a State performing like functions), a State authority that supervises or examines banks, savings associations, or credit unions, a State insurance commission (or an agency or officer of a State performing like functions), an appropriate Federal banking agency, or the National Credit Union Administration, that—

“(i) bars the person from—

     “(I) association with an entity regulated by such commission, authority, agency, or officer;

     “(II) engaging in the business of securities, insurance, or banking; or

     “(III) engaging in savings association or credit union activities; or

“(ii) constitutes a final order based on a violation of any law or regulation that prohibits fraudulent, manipulative, or deceptive conduct within the 10-year period ending on the date of the filing of the offer or sale; or

“(B) has been convicted of any felony or misdemeanor in connection with the purchase or sale of any security or involving the making of any false filing with the Commission.”

[For definitions of terms used in section 926 of Pub. L. 111–203, set out above, see section 5301 of Title 12, Banks and Banking.]

§77e. Prohibitions relating to interstate commerce and the mails

(a) Sale or delivery after sale of unregistered securities

Unless a registration statement is in effect as to a security, it shall be unlawful for any person, directly or indirectly—

(1) to make use of any means or instruments of transportation or communication in interstate commerce or of the mails to sell such security through the use or medium of any prospectus or otherwise; or

(2) to carry or cause to be carried through the mails or in interstate commerce, by any means or instruments of transportation, any such security for the purpose of sale or for delivery after sale.

(b) Necessity of prospectus meeting requirements of section 77j of this title

It shall be unlawful for any person, directly or indirectly—

(1) to make use of any means or instruments of transportation or communication in interstate commerce or of the mails to carry or transmit any prospectus relating to any security with respect to which a registration statement has been filed under this subchapter, unless such prospectus meets the requirements of section 77j of this title; or

(2) to carry or cause to be carried through the mails or in interstate commerce any such security for the purpose of sale or for delivery after sale, unless accompanied or preceded by a prospectus that meets the requirements of subsection (a) of section 77j of this title.

(c) Necessity of filing registration statement

It shall be unlawful for any person, directly or indirectly, to make use of any means or instruments of transportation or communication in interstate commerce or of the mails to offer to sell or offer to buy through the use or medium of any prospectus or otherwise any security, unless a registration statement has been filed as to such security, or while the registration statement is the subject of a refusal order or stop order or (prior to the effective date of the registration statement) any public proceeding or examination under section 77h of this title.

(May 27, 1933, ch. 38, title I, §5, 48 Stat. 77; June 6, 1934, ch. 404, title II, §204, 48 Stat. 906; Aug. 10, 1954, ch. 667, title I, §7, 68 Stat. 684; Pub. L. 111–203, title VII, §768(b), July 21, 2010, 124 Stat. 1801.)

Amendment of Section

Pub. L. 111–203, title VII, §§768(b), 774, July 21, 2010, 124 Stat. 1801, 1802, provided that, effective on the later of 360 days after July 21, 2010, or, to the extent a provision of subtitle B (§§761–774) of title VII of Pub. L. 111–203 requires a rulemaking, not less than 60 days after publication of the final rule or regulation implementing such provision of subtitle B, this section is amended by adding at the end the following:

(d) Security-based swaps

Notwithstanding the provisions of section 77c or 77d of this title, unless a registration statement meeting the requirements of section 77j(a) of this title is in effect as to a security-based swap, it shall be unlawful for any person, directly or indirectly, to make use of any means or instruments of transportation or communication in interstate commerce or of the mails to offer to sell, offer to buy or purchase or sell a security-based swap to any person who is not an eligible contract participant as defined in section 1a(18) of title 7.

Amendments

1954—Subsec. (a)(1). Act Aug. 10, 1954, struck out “or offer to buy” after “to sell”.

Subsec. (b). Act Aug. 10, 1954, in par. (1) substituted “with respect to which a registration statement has been filed” for “registered” and in par. (2) omitted “to” after “to carry or” and inserted “subsection (a) of” before “section 77j of this title”.

Subsec. (c). Act Aug. 10, 1954, added subsec. (c).

1934—Act June 6, 1934, repealed subsec. (c), the provisions of which were replaced by section 77c(a)(11) of this title.

Effective Date of 2010 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 111–203 effective on the later of 360 days after July 21, 2010, or, to the extent a provision of subtitle B (§§761–774) of title VII of Pub. L. 111–203 requires a rulemaking, not less than 60 days after publication of the final rule or regulation implementing such provision of subtitle B, see section 774 of Pub. L. 111–203, set out as a note under section 77b of this title.

Effective Date of 1954 Amendment

Amendment by act Aug. 10, 1954, effective 60 days after Aug. 10, 1954, see note under section 77b of this title.

Increased Access to Foreign Business Information

Pub. L. 104–290, title I, §109, Oct. 11, 1996, 110 Stat. 3426, provided that: “Not later than 1 year after the date of enactment of this Act [Oct. 11, 1996], the Commission shall adopt rules under the Securities Act of 1933 [15 U.S.C. 77a et seq.] concerning the status under the registration provisions of the Securities Act of 1933 of foreign press conferences and foreign press releases by persons engaged in the offer and sale of securities.”

§77f. Registration of securities

(a) Method of registration

Any security may be registered with the Commission under the terms and conditions hereinafter provided, by filing a registration statement in triplicate, at least one of which shall be signed by each issuer, its principal executive officer or officers, its principal financial officer, its comptroller or principal accounting officer, and the majority of its board of directors or persons performing similar functions (or, if there is no board of directors or persons performing similar functions, by the majority of the persons or board having the power of management of the issuer), and in case the issuer is a foreign or Territorial person by its duly authorized representative in the United States; except that when such registration statement relates to a security issued by a foreign government, or political subdivision thereof, it need be signed only by the underwriter of such security. Signatures of all such persons when written on the said registration statements shall be presumed to have been so written by authority of the person whose signature is so affixed and the burden of proof, in the event such authority shall be denied, shall be upon the party denying the same. The affixing of any signature without the authority of the purported signer shall constitute a violation of this subchapter. A registration statement shall be deemed effective only as to the securities specified therein as proposed to be offered.

(b) Registration fee

(1) Recovery of cost of services

The Commission shall, in accordance with this subsection, collect registration fees that are designed to recover the costs to the government of the securities registration process, and costs related to such process, including enforcement activities, policy and rulemaking activities, administration, legal services, and international regulatory activities.

(2) Fee payment required

At the time of filing a registration statement, the applicant shall pay to the Commission a fee at a rate that shall be equal to $92 per $1,000,000 of the maximum aggregate price at which such securities are proposed to be offered, except that during fiscal year 2003 and any succeeding fiscal year such fee shall be adjusted pursuant to paragraph (5) or (6).

(3) Offsetting collections

Fees collected pursuant to this subsection for any fiscal year—

(A) shall be deposited and credited as offsetting collections to the account providing appropriations to the Commission; and

(B) except as provided in paragraph (9), shall not be collected for any fiscal year except to the extent provided in advance in appropriation Acts.

(4) General revenues prohibited

No fees collected pursuant to this subsection for fiscal year 2002 or any succeeding fiscal year shall be deposited and credited as general revenue of the Treasury.

(5) Annual adjustment

For each of the fiscal years 2003 through 2011, the Commission shall by order adjust the rate required by paragraph (2) for such fiscal year to a rate that, when applied to the baseline estimate of the aggregate maximum offering prices for such fiscal year, is reasonably likely to produce aggregate fee collections under this subsection that are equal to the target offsetting collection amount for such fiscal year.

(6) Final rate adjustment

For fiscal year 2012 and all of the succeeding fiscal years, the Commission shall by order adjust the rate required by paragraph (2) for all of such fiscal years to a rate that, when applied to the baseline estimate of the aggregate maximum offering prices for fiscal year 2012, is reasonably likely to produce aggregate fee collections under this subsection in fiscal year 2012 equal to the target offsetting collection amount for fiscal year 2011.

(7) Pro rata application

The rates per $1,000,000 required by this subsection shall be applied pro rata to amounts and balances of less than $1,000,000.

(8) Review and effective date

In exercising its authority under this subsection, the Commission shall not be required to comply with the provisions of section 553 of title 5. An adjusted rate prescribed under paragraph (5) or (6) and published under paragraph (10) shall not be subject to judicial review. Subject to paragraphs (3)(B) and (9)—

(A) an adjusted rate prescribed under paragraph (5) shall take effect on the later of—

(i) the first day of the fiscal year to which such rate applies; or

(ii) five days after the date on which a regular appropriation to the Commission for such fiscal year is enacted; and


(B) an adjusted rate prescribed under paragraph (6) shall take effect on the later of—

(i) the first day of fiscal year 2012; or

(ii) five days after the date on which a regular appropriation to the Commission for fiscal year 2012 is enacted.

(9) Lapse of appropriation

If on the first day of a fiscal year a regular appropriation to the Commission has not been enacted, the Commission shall continue to collect fees (as offsetting collections) under this subsection at the rate in effect during the preceding fiscal year, until 5 days after the date such a regular appropriation is enacted.

(10) Publication

The Commission shall publish in the Federal Register notices of the rate applicable under this subsection and under sections 78m(e) and 78n(g) 1 of this title for each fiscal year not later than April 30 of the fiscal year preceding the fiscal year to which such rate applies, together with any estimates or projections on which such rate is based.

(11) Definitions

For purposes of this subsection:

(A) Target offsetting collection amount

The target offsetting collection amount for each of the fiscal years 2002 through 2011 is determined according to the following table:


 
Target offsetting
Fiscal year:
collection amount
 2002
$377,000,000
 2003
$435,000,000
 2004
$467,000,000
 2005
$570,000,000
 2006
$689,000,000
 2007
$214,000,000
 2008
$234,000,000
 2009
$284,000,000
 2010
$334,000,000
 2011
$394,000,000

        

(B) Baseline estimate of the aggregate maximum offering prices

The baseline estimate of the aggregate maximum offering prices for any fiscal year is the baseline estimate of the aggregate maximum offering price at which securities are proposed to be offered pursuant to registration statements filed with the Commission during such fiscal year as determined by the Commission, after consultation with the Congressional Budget Office and the Office of Management and Budget, using the methodology required for projections pursuant to section 907 of title 2.

(c) Time registration effective

The filing with the Commission of a registration statement, or of an amendment to a registration statement, shall be deemed to have taken place upon the receipt thereof, but the filing of a registration statement shall not be deemed to have taken place unless it is accompanied by a United States postal money order or a certified bank check or cash for the amount of the fee required under subsection (b) of this section.

(d) Information available to public

The information contained in or filed with any registration statement shall be made available to the public under such regulations as the Commission may prescribe, and copies thereof, photostatic or otherwise, shall be furnished to every applicant at such reasonable charge as the Commission may prescribe.

(May 27, 1933, ch. 38, title I, §6, 48 Stat. 78; Pub. L. 89–289, §1, Oct. 22, 1965, 79 Stat. 1051; Pub. L. 100–181, title II, §205, Dec. 4, 1987, 101 Stat. 1252; Pub. L. 104–290, title IV, §404, Oct. 11, 1996, 110 Stat. 3441; Pub. L. 107–123, §4, Jan. 16, 2002, 115 Stat. 2393; Pub. L. 111–203, title IX, §991(b)(1), July 21, 2010, 124 Stat. 1951.)

Amendment of Subsection (b)

Pub. L. 111–203, title IX, §991(b)(1), (4), July 21, 2010, 124 Stat. 1951, 1953, provided that, effective Oct. 1, 2011, subsection (b) of this section is amended as follows:

(1) by striking “offsetting” each place that term appears and inserting “fee”;

(2) by striking paragraphs (1), (3), (4), (6), (8), and (9);

(3) by redesignating paragraphs (2), (5), (7), (10), and (11) as paragraphs (1), (2), (3), (5), and (6), respectively;

(4) in paragraph (1), as so redesignated, by striking “paragraph (5) or (6).” and inserting “paragraph (2).”;

(5) in paragraph (2), as so redesignated—

(A) by striking “of the fiscal years 2003 through 2011” and inserting “fiscal year”; and

(B) by striking “paragraph (2)” and inserting “paragraph (1)”;

(6) by inserting after paragraph (3), as so redesignated, the following:

“(4) Review and effective date

“In exercising its authority under this subsection, the Commission shall not be required to comply with the provisions of section 553 of title 5. An adjusted rate prescribed under paragraph (2) and published under paragraph (5) shall not be subject to judicial review. An adjusted rate prescribed under paragraph (2) shall take effect on the first day of the fiscal year to which such rate applies.”;


(7) in paragraph (5), as so redesignated, by striking “April 30” and inserting “August 31”; and

(8) in paragraph (6), as so redesignated—

(A) by striking “of the fiscal years 2002 through 2011” and inserting “fiscal year”; and

(B) by inserting at the end of the table in subparagraph (A) the following:

 
  
 “2012 $425,000,000
 2013 $455,000,000
 2014 $485,000,000
 2015 $515,000,000
 2016 $550,000,000
 2017 $585,000,000
 2018 $620,000,000
 2019 $660,000,000
 2020 $705,000,000
 2021 and each fiscal year thereafter An amount that is equal to the target fee collection amount for the prior fiscal year, adjusted by the rate of inflation.”

See Effective Date of 2010 Amendment note below.

References in Text

Sections 78m(e) and 78n(g) of this title, referred to in subsec. (b)(10), were in the original, “sections 13(e) and 14(g)” and were translated as meaning sections 13(e) and 14(g) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 to reflect the probable intent of Congress.

Amendments

2002—Subsec. (b)(2) to (11). Pub. L. 107–123 added pars. (2) to (11) and struck out former pars. (2) to (5), which required fee payment, set out rates for general revenue and offsetting collection fees, and required pro rata rates for amounts and balances equal to less than $1,000,000.

1996—Subsec. (b). Pub. L. 104–290 inserted heading and amended text of subsec. (b) generally. Prior to amendment, text read as follows: “At the time of filing a registration statement the applicant shall pay to the Commission a fee of one-fiftieth of 1 per centum of the maximum aggregate price at which such securities are proposed to be offered, but in no case shall such fee be less than $100.”

1987—Subsec. (e). Pub. L. 100–181 struck out subsec. (e) which provided that no registration statement should be filed within the first 40 days following May 27, 1933.

1965—Subsec. (b). Pub. L. 89–289 substituted “one-fiftieth” for “one one-hundredth” and “$100” for “$25”.

Effective Date of 2010 Amendment

Pub. L. 111–203, title IX, §991(b)(4), July 21, 2010, 124 Stat. 1953, provided that: “The amendments made by this subsection [amending this section and sections 78m and 78n of this title] shall take effect on October 1, 2011, except that for fiscal year 2012, the [Securities and Exchange] Commission shall publish the rate established under section 6(b) of the Securities Act of 1933 (15 U.S.C. 77f(b)), as amended by this Act, on August 31, 2011.”

Effective Date of 2002 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 107–123 effective Oct. 1, 2001, except that authorities provided by subsec. (b)(9) of this section to not apply until Oct. 1, 2002, see section 11 of Pub. L. 107–123, set out as a note under section 78ee of this title.

Effective Date of 1965 Amendment

Section 2 of Pub. L. 89–289 provided that: “The amendment made by the first section of this Act [amending this section] shall take effect January 1, 1966.”

Transfer of Functions

For transfer of functions of Securities and Exchange Commission, with certain exceptions, to Chairman of such Commission, see Reorg. Plan No. 10 of 1950, §§1, 2, eff. May 24, 1950, 15 F.R. 3175, 64 Stat. 1265, set out under section 78d of this title.

Increase in Registration Fees and Deposit Into Treasury

Pub. L. 105–46, §113, Sept. 30, 1997, 111 Stat. 1156, provided that the amount made available to the Securities and Exchange Commission, under the heading Salaries and Expenses, was to include, in addition to direct appropriations, the amount collected under the fee rate and offsetting collection authority contained in Public Law 104–208, which fee rate and offsetting collection authority was to remain in effect during the period of Pub. L. 105–46 which provided continuing appropriations for fiscal year 1998.

Pub. L. 104–208, div. A, title I, §101(a) [title V], Sept. 30, 1996, 110 Stat. 3009, 3009–61, which provided in part that on Sept. 30, 1996, the rate of fees under subsec. (b) of this section were increased from one-fiftieth of one percentum to one-thirty-third of one percentum, and such increase was to be deposited as an offsetting collection to this appropriation, to remain available until expended, to recover costs of services of the securities registration process, was from the Departments of Commerce, Justice, and State, the Judiciary, and Related Agencies Appropriations Act, 1997, and was not repeated in subsequent appropriations acts. Similar provisions were contained in the following prior appropriation acts:

Pub. L. 104–134, title I, §101[(a)] [title V], Apr. 26, 1996, 110 Stat. 1321, 1321–60; renumbered title I, Pub. L. 104–140, §1(a), May 2, 1996, 110 Stat. 1327.

Pub. L. 104–99, title II, §209, Jan. 26, 1996, 110 Stat. 37.

Pub. L. 104–56, §119, Nov. 20, 1995, 109 Stat. 552.

Pub. L. 104–54, §119, Nov. 19, 1995, 109 Stat. 544.

Pub. L. 104–31, §120, Sept. 30, 1995, 109 Stat. 282.

Pub. L. 103–352, Oct. 10, 1994, 108 Stat. 3148.

Pub. L. 103–121, title I, Oct. 27, 1993, 107 Stat. 1168.

Pub. L. 102–395, title I, Oct. 6, 1992, 106 Stat. 1848.

Pub. L. 102–140, title I, Oct. 28, 1991, 105 Stat. 798.

Pub. L. 101–515, title V, Nov. 5, 1990, 104 Stat. 2139.

Pub. L. 101–162, title V, Nov. 21, 1989, 103 Stat. 1022.

1 See References in Text note below.

§77g. Information required in registration statement

(a) In general

The registration statement, when relating to a security other than a security issued by a foreign government, or political subdivision thereof, shall contain the information, and be accompanied by the documents, specified in Schedule A of section 77aa of this title, and when relating to a security issued by a foreign government, or political subdivision thereof, shall contain the information, and be accompanied by the documents, specified in Schedule B of section 77aa of this title; except that the Commission may by rules or regulations provide that any such information or document need not be included in respect of any class of issuers or securities if it finds that the requirement of such information or document is inapplicable to such class and that disclosure fully adequate for the protection of investors is otherwise required to be included within the registration statement. If any accountant, engineer, or appraiser, or any person whose profession gives authority to a statement made by him, is named as having prepared or certified any part of the registration statement, or is named as having prepared or certified a report or valuation for use in connection with the registration statement, the written consent of such person shall be filed with the registration statement. If any such person is named as having prepared or certified a report or valuation (other than a public official document or statement) which is used in connection with the registration statement, but is not named as having prepared or certified such report or valuation for use in connection with the registration statement, the written consent of such person shall be filed with the registration statement unless the Commission dispenses with such filing as impracticable or as involving undue hardship on the person filing the registration statement. Any such registration statement shall contain such other information, and be accompanied by such other documents, as the Commission may by rules or regulations require as being necessary or appropriate in the public interest or for the protection of investors.

(b) Registration statement for blank check companies

(1) The Commission shall prescribe special rules with respect to registration statements filed by any issuer that is a blank check company. Such rules may, as the Commission determines necessary or appropriate in the public interest or for the protection of investors—

(A) require such issuers to provide timely disclosure, prior to or after such statement becomes effective under section 77h of this title, of (i) information regarding the company to be acquired and the specific application of the proceeds of the offering, or (ii) additional information necessary to prevent such statement from being misleading;

(B) place limitations on the use of such proceeds and the distribution of securities by such issuer until the disclosures required under subparagraph (A) have been made; and

(C) provide a right of rescission to shareholders of such securities.


(2) The Commission may, as it determines consistent with the public interest and the protection of investors, by rule or order exempt any issuer or class of issuers from the rules prescribed under paragraph (1).

(3) For purposes of paragraph (1) of this subsection, the term “blank check company” means any development stage company that is issuing a penny stock (within the meaning of section 78c(a)(51) of this title) and that—

(A) has no specific business plan or purpose; or

(B) has indicated that its business plan is to merge with an unidentified company or companies.

(c) Disclosure requirements

(1) In general

The Commission shall adopt regulations under this subsection requiring each issuer of an asset-backed security to disclose, for each tranche or class of security, information regarding the assets backing that security.

(2) Content of regulations

In adopting regulations under this subsection, the Commission shall—

(A) set standards for the format of the data provided by issuers of an asset-backed security, which shall, to the extent feasible, facilitate comparison of such data across securities in similar types of asset classes; and

(B) require issuers of asset-backed securities, at a minimum, to disclose asset-level or loan-level data, if such data are necessary for investors to independently perform due diligence, including—

(i) data having unique identifiers relating to loan brokers or originators;

(ii) the nature and extent of the compensation of the broker or originator of the assets backing the security; and

(iii) the amount of risk retention by the originator and the securitizer of such assets.

(d) Registration statement for asset-backed securities

Not later than 180 days after July 21, 2010, the Commission shall issue rules relating to the registration statement required to be filed by any issuer of an asset-backed security (as that term is defined in section 78c(a)(77) of this title) that require any issuer of an asset-backed security—

(1) to perform a review of the assets underlying the asset-backed security; and

(2) to disclose the nature of the review under paragraph (1).

(May 27, 1933, ch. 38, title I, §7, 48 Stat. 78; Pub. L. 101–429, title V, §508, Oct. 15, 1990, 104 Stat. 956; Pub. L. 111–203, title IX, §§942(b), 945, July 21, 2010, 124 Stat. 1897, 1898.)

Amendments

2010—Subsec. (c). Pub. L. 111–203, §942(b), added subsec. (c).

Subsec. (d). Pub. L. 111–203, §945, added subsec. (d).

1990—Pub. L. 101–429 designated existing provision as subsec. (a) and added subsec. (b).

Effective Date of 2010 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 111–203 effective 1 day after July 21, 2010, except as otherwise provided, see section 4 of Pub. L. 111–203, set out as an Effective Date note under section 5301 of Title 12, Banks and Banking.

Effective Date of 1990 Amendment

Section 1(c) of Pub. L. 101–429 provided that:

“(1) In general.—Except as provided in paragraphs (2) and (3), the amendments made by this Act [enacting sections 77h–1, 78q–2, 78u–2, and 78u–3 of this title, amending this section and sections 77t, 78c, 78o, 78o–3, 78o–4, 78q–1, 78u, 78u–1, 78w, 78cc, 80a–9, 80a–41, 80b–3, 80b–9, and 80b–14 of this title, and enacting provisions set out as notes under sections 78a, 78o, and 78s of this title] shall be effective upon enactment [Oct. 15, 1990].

“(2) Civil penalties.—

“(A) In general.—No civil penalty may be imposed pursuant to the amendments made by this Act on the basis of conduct occurring before the date of enactment of this Act [Oct. 15, 1990].

“(B) Accounting and disgorgement.—Subparagraph (A) shall not operate to preclude the Securities and Exchange Commission from ordering an accounting or disgorgement pursuant to the amendments made by this Act.

“(3) Special rules for title v.—

“(A) Sections 503 and 504.—Except as provided in subparagraph (C), sections 503 [amending section 78c of this title] and 504 [amending section 78o of this title and enacting provisions set out as a note under section 78o of this title] shall be effective 12 months after the date of enactment of this Act [Oct. 15, 1990] or upon the issuance of final regulations initially implementing such section [Such regulations were issued effective Apr. 28, 1992. See 57 F.R. 18004, 18037.], whichever is earlier.

“(B) Sections 505 and 508.—Except as provided in subparagraph (C), sections 505 [amending section 78o of this title] and 508 [amending this section] shall be effective 18 months after the date of enactment of this Act or upon the issuance of final regulations initially implementing such sections [Such regulations were issued effective Apr. 28, 1992. See 57 F.R. 18004, 18037.], whichever is earlier.

“(C) Commencement of rulemaking.—Not later than 180 days after the date of enactment of this Act, the Commission shall commence rulemaking proceedings to implement sections 503, 505, and 508.”

Transfer of Functions

For transfer of functions of Securities and Exchange Commission, with certain exceptions, to Chairman of such Commission, see Reorg. Plan No. 10 of 1950, §§1, 2, eff. May 24, 1950, 15 F.R. 3175, 64 Stat. 1265, set out under section 78d of this title.

§77h. Taking effect of registration statements and amendments thereto

(a) Effective date of registration statement

Except as hereinafter provided, the effective date of a registration statement shall be the twentieth day after the filing thereof or such earlier date as the Commission may determine, having due regard to the adequacy of the information respecting the issuer theretofore available to the public, to the facility with which the nature of the securities to be registered, their relationship to the capital structure of the issuer and the rights of holders thereof can be understood, and to the public interest and the protection of investors. If any amendment to any such statement is filed prior to the effective date of such statement, the registration statement shall be deemed to have been filed when such amendment was filed; except that an amendment filed with the consent of the Commission, prior to the effective date of the registration statement, or filed pursuant to an order of the Commission, shall be treated as a part of the registration statement.

(b) Incomplete or inaccurate registration statement

If it appears to the Commission that a registration statement is on its face incomplete or inaccurate in any material respect, the Commission may, after notice by personal service or the sending of confirmed telegraphic notice not later than ten days after the filing of the registration statement, and opportunity for hearing (at a time fixed by the Commission) within ten days after such notice by personal service or the sending of such telegraphic notice, issue an order prior to the effective date of registration refusing to permit such statement to become effective until it has been amended in accordance with such order. When such statement has been amended in accordance with such order the Commission shall so declare and the registration shall become effective at the time provided in subsection (a) of this section or upon the date of such declaration, whichever date is the later.

(c) Effective date of amendment to registration statement

An amendment filed after the effective date of the registration statement, if such amendment, upon its face, appears to the Commission not to be incomplete or inaccurate in any material respect, shall become effective on such date as the Commission may determine, having due regard to the public interest and the protection of investors.

(d) Untrue statements or omissions in registration statement

If it appears to the Commission at any time that the registration statement includes any untrue statement of a material fact or omits to state any material fact required to be stated therein or necessary to make the statements therein not misleading, the Commission may, after notice by personal service or the sending of confirmed telegraphic notice, and after opportunity for hearing (at a time fixed by the Commission) within fifteen days after such notice by personal service or the sending of such telegraphic notice, issue a stop order suspending the effectiveness of the registration statement. When such statement has been amended in accordance with such stop order, the Commission shall so declare and thereupon the stop order shall cease to be effective.

(e) Examination for issuance of stop order

The Commission is empowered to make an examination in any case in order to determine whether a stop order should issue under subsection (d) of this section. In making such examination the Commission or any officer or officers designated by it shall have access to and may demand the production of any books and papers of, and may administer oaths and affirmations to and examine, the issuer, underwriter, or any other person, in respect of any matter relevant to the examination, and may, in its discretion, require the production of a balance sheet exhibiting the assets and liabilities of the issuer, or its income statement, or both, to be certified to by a public or certified accountant approved by the Commission. If the issuer or underwriter shall fail to cooperate, or shall obstruct or refuse to permit the making of an examination, such conduct shall be proper ground for the issuance of a stop order.

(f) Notice requirements

Any notice required under this section shall be sent to or served on the issuer, or, in case of a foreign government or political subdivision thereof, to or on the underwriter, or, in the case of a foreign or Territorial person, to or on its duly authorized representative in the United States named in the registration statement, properly directed in each case of telegraphic notice to the address given in such statement.

(May 27, 1933, ch. 38, title I, §8, 48 Stat. 79; Aug. 22, 1940, ch. 686, title III, §301, 54 Stat. 857.)

Amendments

1940—Subsec. (a). Act Aug. 22, 1940, amended subsec. (a) generally.

Transfer of Functions

For transfer of functions of Securities and Exchange Commission, with certain exceptions, to Chairman of such Commission, see Reorg. Plan No. 10 of 1950, §§1, 2, eff. May 24, 1950, 15 F.R. 3175, 64 Stat. 1265, set out under section 78d of this title.

§77h–1. Cease-and-desist proceedings

(a) Authority of Commission

If the Commission finds, after notice and opportunity for hearing, that any person is violating, has violated, or is about to violate any provision of this subchapter, or any rule or regulation thereunder, the Commission may publish its findings and enter an order requiring such person, and any other person that is, was, or would be a cause of the violation, due to an act or omission the person knew or should have known would contribute to such violation, to cease and desist from committing or causing such violation and any future violation of the same provision, rule, or regulation. Such order may, in addition to requiring a person to cease and desist from committing or causing a violation, require such person to comply, or to take steps to effect compliance, with such provision, rule, or regulation, upon such terms and conditions and within such time as the Commission may specify in such order. Any such order may, as the Commission deems appropriate, require future compliance or steps to effect future compliance, either permanently or for such period of time as the Commission may specify, with such provision, rule, or regulation with respect to any security, any issuer, or any other person.

(b) Hearing

The notice instituting proceedings pursuant to subsection (a) of this section shall fix a hearing date not earlier than 30 days nor later than 60 days after service of the notice unless an earlier or a later date is set by the Commission with the consent of any respondent so served.

(c) Temporary order

(1) In general

Whenever the Commission determines that the alleged violation or threatened violation specified in the notice instituting proceedings pursuant to subsection (a) of this section, or the continuation thereof, is likely to result in significant dissipation or conversion of assets, significant harm to investors, or substantial harm to the public interest, including, but not limited to, losses to the Securities Investor Protection Corporation, prior to the completion of the proceedings, the Commission may enter a temporary order requiring the respondent to cease and desist from the violation or threatened violation and to take such action to prevent the violation or threatened violation and to prevent dissipation or conversion of assets, significant harm to investors, or substantial harm to the public interest as the Commission deems appropriate pending completion of such proceeding. Such an order shall be entered only after notice and opportunity for a hearing, unless the Commission determines that notice and hearing prior to entry would be impracticable or contrary to the public interest. A temporary order shall become effective upon service upon the respondent and, unless set aside, limited, or suspended by the Commission or a court of competent jurisdiction, shall remain effective and enforceable pending the completion of the proceedings.

(2) Applicability

This subsection shall apply only to a respondent that acts, or, at the time of the alleged misconduct acted, as a broker, dealer, investment adviser, investment company, municipal securities dealer, government securities broker, government securities dealer, or transfer agent, or is, or was at the time of the alleged misconduct, an associated person of, or a person seeking to become associated with, any of the foregoing.

(d) Review of temporary orders

(1) Commission review

At any time after the respondent has been served with a temporary cease-and-desist order pursuant to subsection (c) of this section, the respondent may apply to the Commission to have the order set aside, limited, or suspended. If the respondent has been served with a temporary cease-and-desist order entered without a prior Commission hearing, the respondent may, within 10 days after the date on which the order was served, request a hearing on such application and the Commission shall hold a hearing and render a decision on such application at the earliest possible time.

(2) Judicial review

Within—

(A) 10 days after the date the respondent was served with a temporary cease-and-desist order entered with a prior Commission hearing, or

(B) 10 days after the Commission renders a decision on an application and hearing under paragraph (1), with respect to any temporary cease-and-desist order entered without a prior Commission hearing,


the respondent may apply to the United States district court for the district in which the respondent resides or has its principal place of business, or for the District of Columbia, for an order setting aside, limiting, or suspending the effectiveness or enforcement of the order, and the court shall have jurisdiction to enter such an order. A respondent served with a temporary cease-and-desist order entered without a prior Commission hearing may not apply to the court except after hearing and decision by the Commission on the respondent's application under paragraph (1) of this subsection.

(3) No automatic stay of temporary order

The commencement of proceedings under paragraph (2) of this subsection shall not, unless specifically ordered by the court, operate as a stay of the Commission's order.

(4) Exclusive review

Section 77i(a) of this title shall not apply to a temporary order entered pursuant to this section.

(e) Authority to enter order requiring accounting and disgorgement

In any cease-and-desist proceeding under subsection (a) of this section, the Commission may enter an order requiring accounting and disgorgement, including reasonable interest. The Commission is authorized to adopt rules, regulations, and orders concerning payments to investors, rates of interest, periods of accrual, and such other matters as it deems appropriate to implement this subsection.

(f) Authority of the Commission to prohibit persons from serving as officers or directors

In any cease-and-desist proceeding under subsection (a) of this section, the Commission may issue an order to prohibit, conditionally or unconditionally, and permanently or for such period of time as it shall determine, any person who has violated section 77q(a)(1) of this title or the rules or regulations thereunder, from acting as an officer or director of any issuer that has a class of securities registered pursuant to section 78l of this title, or that is required to file reports pursuant to section 78o(d) of this title, if the conduct of that person demonstrates unfitness to serve as an officer or director of any such issuer.

(g) Authority to impose money penalties

(1) Grounds

In any cease-and-desist proceeding under subsection (a), the Commission may impose a civil penalty on a person if the Commission finds, on the record, after notice and opportunity for hearing, that—

(A) such person—

(i) is violating or has violated any provision of this subchapter, or any rule or regulation issued under this subchapter; or

(ii) is or was a cause of the violation of any provision of this subchapter, or any rule or regulation thereunder; and


(B) such penalty is in the public interest.

(2) Maximum amount of penalty

(A) First tier

The maximum amount of a penalty for each act or omission described in paragraph (1) shall be $7,500 for a natural person or $75,000 for any other person.

(B) Second tier

Notwithstanding subparagraph (A), the maximum amount of penalty for each such act or omission shall be $75,000 for a natural person or $375,000 for any other person, if the act or omission described in paragraph (1) involved fraud, deceit, manipulation, or deliberate or reckless disregard of a regulatory requirement.

(C) Third tier

Notwithstanding subparagraphs (A) and (B), the maximum amount of penalty for each such act or omission shall be $150,000 for a natural person or $725,000 for any other person, if—

(i) the act or omission described in paragraph (1) involved fraud, deceit, manipulation, or deliberate or reckless disregard of a regulatory requirement; and

(ii) such act or omission directly or indirectly resulted in—

(I) substantial losses or created a significant risk of substantial losses to other persons; or

(II) substantial pecuniary gain to the person who committed the act or omission.

(3) Evidence concerning ability to pay

In any proceeding in which the Commission may impose a penalty under this section, a respondent may present evidence of the ability of the respondent to pay such penalty. The Commission may, in its discretion, consider such evidence in determining whether such penalty is in the public interest. Such evidence may relate to the extent of the ability of the respondent to continue in business and the collectability of a penalty, taking into account any other claims of the United States or third parties upon the assets of the respondent and the amount of the assets of the respondent.

(May 27, 1933, ch. 38, title I, §8A, as added Pub. L. 101–429, title I, §102, Oct. 15, 1990, 104 Stat. 933; amended Pub. L. 107–204, title XI, §1105(b), July 30, 2002, 116 Stat. 809; Pub. L. 111–203, title IX, §929P(a)(1), July 21, 2010, 124 Stat. 1862.)

Amendments

2010—Subsec. (g). Pub. L. 111–203 added subsec. (g).

2002—Subsec. (f). Pub. L. 107–204 added subsec. (f).

Effective Date of 2010 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 111–203 effective 1 day after July 21, 2010, except as otherwise provided, see section 4 of Pub. L. 111–203, set out as an Effective Date note under section 5301 of Title 12, Banks and Banking.

Effective Date

Section effective Oct. 15, 1990, with provisions relating to civil penalties and accounting and disgorgement, see section 1(c)(1) and (2) of Pub. L. 101–429, set out in an Effective Date of 1990 Amendment note under section 77g of this title.

§77i. Court review of orders

(a) Any person aggrieved by an order of the Commission may obtain a review of such order in the court of appeals of the United States, within any circuit wherein such person resides or has his principal place of business, or in the United States Court of Appeals for the District of Columbia, by filing in such Court, within sixty days after the entry of such order, a written petition praying that the order of the Commission be modified or be set aside in whole or in part. A copy of such petition shall be forthwith transmitted by the clerk of the court to the Commission, and thereupon the Commission shall file in the court the record upon which the order complained of was entered, as provided in section 2112 of title 28. No objection to the order of the Commission shall be considered by the court unless such objection shall have been urged before the Commission. The finding of the Commission as to the facts, if supported by evidence, shall be conclusive. If either party shall apply to the court for leave to adduce additional evidence, and shall show to the satisfaction of the court that such additional evidence is material and that there were reasonable grounds for failure to adduce such evidence in the hearing before the Commission, the court may order such additional evidence to be taken before the Commission and to be adduced upon the hearing in such manner and upon such terms and conditions as to the court may seem proper. The Commission may modify its findings as to the facts, by reason of the additional evidence so taken, and it shall file such modified or new findings, which, if supported by evidence, shall be conclusive, and its recommendation, if any, for the modification or setting aside of the original order. The jurisdiction of the court shall be exclusive and its judgment and decree, affirming, modifying, or setting aside, in whole or in part, any order of the Commission, shall be final, subject to review by the Supreme Court of the United States upon certiorari or certification as provided in section 1254 of title 28.

(b) The commencement of proceedings under subsection (a) of this section shall not, unless specifically ordered by the court, operate as a stay of the Commission's order.

(May 27, 1933, ch. 38, title I, §9, 48 Stat. 80; Pub. L. 85–791, §9, Aug. 28, 1958, 72 Stat. 945; Pub. L. 100–181, title II, §206, Dec. 4, 1987, 101 Stat. 1252.)

Amendments

1987—Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 100–181 substituted “court of appeals” for “Circuit Court of Appeals”, “United States Court of Appeals for the District of Columbia, by filing in such Court” for “Court of Appeals of the District of Columbia, by filing in such court”, and “section 1254 of title 28” for “sections 239 and 240 of the Judicial Code, as amended (U.S.C., title 28, secs. 346 and 347)”.

1958—Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 85–791, in second sentence, substituted “transmitted by the clerk of the court to” for “served upon”, struck out “certify and” before “file in the court”, struck out “a transcript of” after “file in the court”, and inserted “as provided in section 2112 of title 28”.

Transfer of Functions

For transfer of functions of Securities and Exchange Commission, with certain exceptions, to Chairman of such Commission, see Reorg. Plan No. 10 of 1950, §§1, 2, eff. May 24, 1950, 15 F.R. 3175, 64 Stat. 1265, set out under section 78d of this title.

§77j. Information required in prospectus

(a) Information in registration statement; documents not required

Except to the extent otherwise permitted or required pursuant to this subsection or subsections (c), (d), or (e) of this section—

(1) a prospectus relating to a security other than a security issued by a foreign government or political subdivision thereof, shall contain the information contained in the registration statement, but it need not include the documents referred to in paragraphs (28) to (32), inclusive, of schedule A of section 77aa of this title;

(2) a prospectus relating to a security issued by a foreign government or political subdivision thereof shall contain the information contained in the registration statement, but it need not include the documents referred to in paragraphs (13) and (14) of schedule B of section 77aa of this title;

(3) notwithstanding the provisions of paragraphs (1) and (2) of this subsection when a prospectus is used more than nine months after the effective date of the registration statement, the information contained therein shall be as of a date not more than sixteen months prior to such use, so far as such information is known to the user of such prospectus or can be furnished by such user without unreasonable effort or expense;

(4) there may be omitted from any prospectus any of the information required under this subsection which the Commission may by rules or regulations designate as not being necessary or appropriate in the public interest or for the protection of investors.

(b) Summarizations and omissions allowed by rules and regulations

In addition to the prospectus permitted or required in subsection (a) of this section, the Commission shall by rules or regulations deemed necessary or appropriate in the public interest or for the protection of investors permit the use of a prospectus for the purposes of subsection (b)(1) of section 77e of this title which omits in part or summarizes information in the prospectus specified in subsection (a) of this section. A prospectus permitted under this subsection shall, except to the extent the Commission by rules or regulations deemed necessary or appropriate in the public interest or for the protection of investors otherwise provides, be filed as part of the registration statement but shall not be deemed a part of such registration statement for the purposes of section 77k of this title. The Commission may at any time issue an order preventing or suspending the use of a prospectus permitted under this subsection, if it has reason to believe that such prospectus has not been filed (if required to be filed as part of the registration statement) or includes any untrue statement of a material fact or omits to state any material fact required to be stated therein or necessary to make the statements therein, in the light of the circumstances under which such prospectus is or is to be used, not misleading. Upon issuance of an order under this subsection, the Commission shall give notice of the issuance of such order and opportunity for hearing by personal service or the sending of confirmed telegraphic notice. The Commission shall vacate or modify the order at any time for good cause or if such prospectus has been filed or amended in accordance with such order.

(c) Additional information required by rules and regulations

Any prospectus shall contain such other information as the Commission may by rules or regulations require as being necessary or appropriate in the public interest or for the protection of investors.

(d) Classification of prospectuses

In the exercise of its powers under subsections (a), (b), or (c) of this section, the Commission shall have authority to classify prospectuses according to the nature and circumstances of their use or the nature of the security, issue, issuer, or otherwise, and, by rules and regulations and subject to such terms and conditions as it shall specify therein, to prescribe as to each class the form and contents which it may find appropriate and consistent with the public interest and the protection of investors.

(e) Information in conspicuous part of prospectus

The statements or information required to be included in a prospectus by or under authority of subsections (a), (b), (c), or (d) of this section, when written, shall be placed in a conspicuous part of the prospectus and, except as otherwise permitted by rules or regulations, in type as large as that used generally in the body of the prospectus.

(f) Prospectus consisting of radio or television broadcast

In any case where a prospectus consists of a radio or television broadcast, copies thereof shall be filed with the Commission under such rules and regulations as it shall prescribe. The Commission may by rules and regulations require the filing with it of forms and prospectuses used in connection with the offer or sale of securities registered under this subchapter.

(May 27, 1933, ch. 38, title I, §10, 48 Stat. 81; June 6, 1934, ch. 404, title II, §205, 48 Stat. 906; Aug. 10, 1954, ch. 667, title I, §8, 68 Stat. 685.)

Amendments

1954—Act Aug. 10, 1954, complemented changes in section 77e of this title by act Aug. 10, 1954, permitted offering activities in the waiting period and in so doing rearranged the sequence of the subsections, added new text contained in subsec. (b), and renumbered subsecs. (c) and (d) as (e) and (f), respectively.

1934—Subsec. (b)(1). Act June 6, 1934, amended par. (1).

Effective Date of 1954 Amendment

Amendment by act Aug. 10, 1954, effective 60 days after Aug. 10, 1954, see note under section 77b of this title.

Transfer of Functions

For transfer of functions of Securities and Exchange Commission, with certain exceptions, to Chairman of such Commission, see Reorg. Plan No. 10 of 1950, §§1, 2, eff. May 24, 1950, 15 F.R. 3175, 64 Stat. 1265, set out under section 78d of this title.

§77k. Civil liabilities on account of false registration statement

(a) Persons possessing cause of action; persons liable

In case any part of the registration statement, when such part became effective, contained an untrue statement of a material fact or omitted to state a material fact required to be stated therein or necessary to make the statements therein not misleading, any person acquiring such security (unless it is proved that at the time of such acquisition he knew of such untruth or omission) may, either at law or in equity, in any court of competent jurisdiction, sue—

(1) every person who signed the registration statement;

(2) every person who was a director of (or person performing similar functions) or partner in the issuer at the time of the filing of the part of the registration statement with respect to which his liability is asserted;

(3) every person who, with his consent, is named in the registration statement as being or about to become a director, person performing similar functions, or partner;

(4) every accountant, engineer, or appraiser, or any person whose profession gives authority to a statement made by him, who has with his consent been named as having prepared or certified any part of the registration statement, or as having prepared or certified any report or valuation which is used in connection with the registration statement, with respect to the statement in such registration statement, report, or valuation, which purports to have been prepared or certified by him;

(5) every underwriter with respect to such security.


If such person acquired the security after the issuer has made generally available to its security holders an earning statement covering a period of at least twelve months beginning after the effective date of the registration statement, then the right of recovery under this subsection shall be conditioned on proof that such person acquired the security relying upon such untrue statement in the registration statement or relying upon the registration statement and not knowing of such omission, but such reliance may be established without proof of the reading of the registration statement by such person.

(b) Persons exempt from liability upon proof of issues

Notwithstanding the provisions of subsection (a) of this section no person, other than the issuer, shall be liable as provided therein who shall sustain the burden of proof—

(1) that before the effective date of the part of the registration statement with respect to which his liability is asserted (A) he had resigned from or had taken such steps as are permitted by law to resign from, or ceased or refused to act in, every office, capacity, or relationship in which he was described in the registration statement as acting or agreeing to act, and (B) he had advised the Commission and the issuer in writing that he had taken such action and that he would not be responsible for such part of the registration statement; or

(2) that if such part of the registration statement became effective without his knowledge, upon becoming aware of such fact he forthwith acted and advised the Commission, in accordance with paragraph (1) of this subsection, and, in addition, gave reasonable public notice that such part of the registration statement had become effective without his knowledge; or

(3) that (A) as regards any part of the registration statement not purporting to be made on the authority of an expert, and not purporting to be a copy of or extract from a report or valuation of an expert, and not purporting to be made on the authority of a public official document or statement, he had, after reasonable investigation, reasonable ground to believe and did believe, at the time such part of the registration statement became effective, that the statements therein were true and that there was no omission to state a material fact required to be stated therein or necessary to make the statements therein not misleading; and (B) as regards any part of the registration statement purporting to be made upon his authority as an expert or purporting to be a copy of or extract from a report or valuation of himself as an expert, (i) he had, after reasonable investigation, reasonable ground to believe and did believe, at the time such part of the registration statement became effective, that the statements therein were true and that there was no omission to state a material fact required to be stated therein or necessary to make the statements therein not misleading, or (ii) such part of the registration statement did not fairly represent his statement as an expert or was not a fair copy of or extract from his report or valuation as an expert; and (C) as regards any part of the registration statement purporting to be made on the authority of an expert (other than himself) or purporting to be a copy of or extract from a report or valuation of an expert (other than himself), he had no reasonable ground to believe and did not believe, at the time such part of the registration statement became effective, that the statements therein were untrue or that there was an omission to state a material fact required to be stated therein or necessary to make the statements therein not misleading, or that such part of the registration statement did not fairly represent the statement of the expert or was not a fair copy of or extract from the report or valuation of the expert; and (D) as regards any part of the registration statement purporting to be a statement made by an official person or purporting to be a copy of or extract from a public official document, he had no reasonable ground to believe and did not believe, at the time such part of the registration statement became effective, that the statements therein were untrue, or that there was an omission to state a material fact required to be stated therein or necessary to make the statements therein not misleading, or that such part of the registration statement did not fairly represent the statement made by the official person or was not a fair copy of or extract from the public official document.

(c) Standard of reasonableness

In determining, for the purpose of paragraph (3) of subsection (b) of this section, what constitutes reasonable investigation and reasonable ground for belief, the standard of reasonableness shall be that required of a prudent man in the management of his own property.

(d) Effective date of registration statement with regard to underwriters

If any person becomes an underwriter with respect to the security after the part of the registration statement with respect to which his liability is asserted has become effective, then for the purposes of paragraph (3) of subsection (b) of this section such part of the registration statement shall be considered as having become effective with respect to such person as of the time when he became an underwriter.

(e) Measure of damages; undertaking for payment of costs

The suit authorized under subsection (a) of this section may be to recover such damages as shall represent the difference between the amount paid for the security (not exceeding the price at which the security was offered to the public) and (1) the value thereof as of the time such suit was brought, or (2) the price at which such security shall have been disposed of in the market before suit, or (3) the price at which such security shall have been disposed of after suit but before judgment if such damages shall be less than the damages representing the difference between the amount paid for the security (not exceeding the price at which the security was offered to the public) and the value thereof as of the time such suit was brought: Provided, That if the defendant proves that any portion or all of such damages represents other than the depreciation in value of such security resulting from such part of the registration statement, with respect to which his liability is asserted, not being true or omitting to state a material fact required to be stated therein or necessary to make the statements therein not misleading, such portion of or all such damages shall not be recoverable. In no event shall any underwriter (unless such underwriter shall have knowingly received from the issuer for acting as an underwriter some benefit, directly or indirectly, in which all other underwriters similarly situated did not share in proportion to their respective interests in the underwriting) be liable in any suit or as a consequence of suits authorized under subsection (a) of this section for damages in excess of the total price at which the securities underwritten by him and distributed to the public were offered to the public. In any suit under this or any other section of this subchapter the court may, in its discretion, require an undertaking for the payment of the costs of such suit, including reasonable attorney's fees, and if judgment shall be rendered against a party litigant, upon the motion of the other party litigant, such costs may be assessed in favor of such party litigant (whether or not such undertaking has been required) if the court believes the suit or the defense to have been without merit, in an amount sufficient to reimburse him for the reasonable expenses incurred by him, in connection with such suit, such costs to be taxed in the manner usually provided for taxing of costs in the court in which the suit was heard.

(f) Joint and several liability; liability of outside director

(1) Except as provided in paragraph (2), all or any one or more of the persons specified in subsection (a) of this section shall be jointly and severally liable, and every person who becomes liable to make any payment under this section may recover contribution as in cases of contract from any person who, if sued separately, would have been liable to make the same payment, unless the person who has become liable was, and the other was not, guilty of fraudulent misrepresentation.

(2)(A) The liability of an outside director under subsection (e) of this section shall be determined in accordance with section 78u–4(f) of this title.

(B) For purposes of this paragraph, the term “outside director” shall have the meaning given such term by rule or regulation of the Commission.

(g) Offering price to public as maximum amount recoverable

In no case shall the amount recoverable under this section exceed the price at which the security was offered to the public.

(May 27, 1933, ch. 38, title I, §11, 48 Stat. 82; June 6, 1934, ch. 404, title II, §206, 48 Stat. 907; Pub. L. 104–67, title II, §201(b), Dec. 22, 1995, 109 Stat. 762; Pub. L. 105–353, title III, §301(a)(2), Nov. 3, 1998, 112 Stat. 3235.)

Amendments

1998—Subsec. (f)(2)(A). Pub. L. 105–353 made technical amendment to reference in original act which appears in text as reference to section 78u–4(f) of this title.

1995—Subsec. (f). Pub. L. 104–67 designated existing provisions as par. (1), substituted “Except as provided in paragraph (2), all” for “All”, and added par. (2).

1934—Subsec. (a). Act June 6, 1934, inserted last par.

Subsecs. (b)(3), (c) to (e). Act June 6, 1934, amended subsecs. (b)(3) and (c) to (e).

Effective Date of 1995 Amendment

Section 202 of title II of Pub. L. 104–67 provided that: “The amendments made by this title [amending this section and section 78u–4 of this title] shall not affect or apply to any private action arising under the securities laws commenced before and pending on the date of enactment of this Act [Dec. 22, 1995].”

Construction of 1995 Amendment

Nothing in amendment by Pub. L. 104–67 to be deemed to create or ratify any implied right of action, or to prevent Commission, by rule or regulation, from restricting or otherwise regulating private actions under Securities Exchange Act of 1934 (15 U.S.C. 78a et seq.), see section 203 of Pub. L. 104–67, set out as a Construction note under section 78j–1 of this title.

Transfer of Functions

For transfer of functions of Securities and Exchange Commission, with certain exceptions, to Chairman of such Commission, see Reorg. Plan No. 10 of 1950, §§1, 2, eff. May 24, 1950, 15 F.R. 3175, 64 Stat. 1265, set out under section 78d of this title.

§77l. Civil liabilities arising in connection with prospectuses and communications

(a) In general

Any person who—

(1) offers or sells a security in violation of section 77e of this title, or

(2) offers or sells a security (whether or not exempted by the provisions of section 77c of this title, other than paragraphs (2) and (14) of subsection (a) of said section), by the use of any means or instruments of transportation or communication in interstate commerce or of the mails, by means of a prospectus or oral communication, which includes an untrue statement of a material fact or omits to state a material fact necessary in order to make the statements, in the light of the circumstances under which they were made, not misleading (the purchaser not knowing of such untruth or omission), and who shall not sustain the burden of proof that he did not know, and in the exercise of reasonable care could not have known, of such untruth or omission,


shall be liable, subject to subsection (b) of this section, to the person purchasing such security from him, who may sue either at law or in equity in any court of competent jurisdiction, to recover the consideration paid for such security with interest thereon, less the amount of any income received thereon, upon the tender of such security, or for damages if he no longer owns the security.

(b) Loss causation

In an action described in subsection (a)(2) of this section, if the person who offered or sold such security proves that any portion or all of the amount recoverable under subsection (a)(2) of this section represents other than the depreciation in value of the subject security resulting from such part of the prospectus or oral communication, with respect to which the liability of that person is asserted, not being true or omitting to state a material fact required to be stated therein or necessary to make the statement not misleading, then such portion or amount, as the case may be, shall not be recoverable.

(May 27, 1933, ch. 38, title I, §12, 48 Stat. 84; Aug. 10, 1954, ch. 667, title I, §9, 68 Stat. 686; Pub. L. 104–67, title I, §105, Dec. 22, 1995, 109 Stat. 757; Pub. L. 106–554, §1(a)(5) [title II, §208(a)(3)], Dec. 21, 2000, 114 Stat. 2763, 2763A–435.)

Amendments

2000—Subsec. (a)(2). Pub. L. 106–554 substituted “paragraphs (2) and (14)” for “paragraph (2)”.

1995—Pub. L. 104–67 designated existing provisions as subsec. (a), inserted heading, inserted “, subject to subsection (b) of this section,” after “shall be liable” in concluding provisions, and added subsec. (b).

1954—Act Aug. 10, 1954, inserted “offers or” before “sells” in pars. (1) and (2).

Effective Date of 1995 Amendment

Section 108 of title I of Pub. L. 104–67 provided that: “The amendments made by this title [enacting sections 77z–1, 77z–2, 78u–4, and 78u–5 of this title and amending this section and sections 77t, 78o, 78t, and 78u of this title and section 1964 of Title 18, Crimes and Criminal Procedure] shall not affect or apply to any private action arising under title I of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 [15 U.S.C. 78a et seq.] or title I of the Securities Act of 1933 [15 U.S.C. 77a et seq.], commenced before and pending on the date of enactment of this Act [Dec. 22, 1995].”

Effective Date of 1954 Amendment

Amendment by act Aug. 10, 1954, effective 60 days after Aug. 10, 1954, see note under section 77b of this title.

Construction of 1995 Amendment

Nothing in amendment by Pub. L. 104–67 to be deemed to create or ratify any implied right of action, or to prevent Commission, by rule or regulation, from restricting or otherwise regulating private actions under Securities Exchange Act of 1934 (15 U.S.C. 78a et seq.), see section 203 of Pub. L. 104–67, set out as a Construction note under section 78j–1 of this title.

§77m. Limitation of actions

No action shall be maintained to enforce any liability created under section 77k or 77l(a)(2) of this title unless brought within one year after the discovery of the untrue statement or the omission, or after such discovery should have been made by the exercise of reasonable diligence, or, if the action is to enforce a liability created under section 77l(a)(1) of this title, unless brought within one year after the violation upon which it is based. In no event shall any such action be brought to enforce a liability created under section 77k or 77l(a)(1) of this title more than three years after the security was bona fide offered to the public, or under section 77l(a)(2) of this title more than three years after the sale.

(May 27, 1933, ch. 38, title I, §13, 48 Stat. 84; June 6, 1934, ch. 404, title II, §207, 48 Stat. 908; Pub. L. 105–353, title III, §301(a)(3), Nov. 3, 1998, 112 Stat. 3235.)

Amendments

1998—Pub. L. 105–353 substituted “77l(a)(2)” for “77l(2)” in two places and “77l(a)(1)” for “77l(1)” in two places.

1934—Act June 6, 1934, substituted “one year” for “two years”, “three years” for “ten years”, and inserted “or under section 77l(2) of this title more than three years after the sale”.

§77n. Contrary stipulations void

Any condition, stipulation, or provision binding any person acquiring any security to waive compliance with any provision of this subchapter or of the rules and regulations of the Commission shall be void.

(May 27, 1933, ch. 38, title I, §14, 48 Stat. 84.)

Transfer of Functions

For transfer of functions of Securities and Exchange Commission, with certain exceptions, to Chairman of such Commission, see Reorg. Plan No. 10 of 1950, §§1, 2, eff. May 24, 1950, 15 F.R. 3175, 64 Stat. 1265, set out under section 78d of this title.

§77o. Liability of controlling persons

(a) Controlling persons

Every person who, by or through stock ownership, agency, or otherwise, or who, pursuant to or in connection with an agreement or understanding with one or more other persons by or through stock ownership, agency, or otherwise, controls any person liable under sections 77k or 77l of this title, shall also be liable jointly and severally with and to the same extent as such controlled person to any person to whom such controlled person is liable, unless the controlling person had no knowledge of or reasonable ground to believe in the existence of the facts by reason of which the liability of the controlled person is alleged to exist.

(b) Prosecution of persons who aid and abet violations

For purposes of any action brought by the Commission under subparagraph (b) or (d) of section 77t of this title, any person that knowingly or recklessly provides substantial assistance to another person in violation of a provision of this chapter, or of any rule or regulation issued under this chapter, shall be deemed to be in violation of such provision to the same extent as the person to whom such assistance is provided.

(May 27, 1933, ch. 38, title I, §15, 48 Stat. 84; June 6, 1934, ch. 404, title II, §208, 48 Stat. 908; Pub. L. 111–203, title IX, §929M(a), July 21, 2010, 124 Stat. 1861.)

Amendments

2010—Pub. L. 111–203 designated existing provisions as subsec. (a), inserted heading, and added subsec. (b).

1934—Act June 6, 1934, exempted from liability controlling persons having no knowledge or reasonable grounds for belief.

Effective Date of 2010 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 111–203 effective 1 day after July 21, 2010, except as otherwise provided, see section 4 of Pub. L. 111–203, set out as an Effective Date note under section 5301 of Title 12, Banks and Banking.

§77p. Additional remedies; limitation on remedies

(a) Remedies additional

Except as provided in subsection (b) of this section, the rights and remedies provided by this subchapter shall be in addition to any and all other rights and remedies that may exist at law or in equity.

(b) Class action limitations

No covered class action based upon the statutory or common law of any State or subdivision thereof may be maintained in any State or Federal court by any private party alleging—

(1) an untrue statement or omission of a material fact in connection with the purchase or sale of a covered security; or

(2) that the defendant used or employed any manipulative or deceptive device or contrivance in connection with the purchase or sale of a covered security.

(c) Removal of covered class actions

Any covered class action brought in any State court involving a covered security, as set forth in subsection (b) of this section, shall be removable to the Federal district court for the district in which the action is pending, and shall be subject to subsection (b) of this section.

(d) Preservation of certain actions

(1) Actions under State law of State of incorporation

(A) Actions preserved

Notwithstanding subsection (b) or (c) of this section, a covered class action described in subparagraph (B) of this paragraph that is based upon the statutory or common law of the State in which the issuer is incorporated (in the case of a corporation) or organized (in the case of any other entity) may be maintained in a State or Federal court by a private party.

(B) Permissible actions

A covered class action is described in this subparagraph if it involves—

(i) the purchase or sale of securities by the issuer or an affiliate of the issuer exclusively from or to holders of equity securities of the issuer; or

(ii) any recommendation, position, or other communication with respect to the sale of securities of the issuer that—

(I) is made by or on behalf of the issuer or an affiliate of the issuer to holders of equity securities of the issuer; and

(II) concerns decisions of those equity holders with respect to voting their securities, acting in response to a tender or exchange offer, or exercising dissenters’ or appraisal rights.

(2) State actions

(A) In general

Notwithstanding any other provision of this section, nothing in this section may be construed to preclude a State or political subdivision thereof or a State pension plan from bringing an action involving a covered security on its own behalf, or as a member of a class comprised solely of other States, political subdivisions, or State pension plans that are named plaintiffs, and that have authorized participation, in such action.

(B) “State pension plan” defined

For purposes of this paragraph, the term “State pension plan” means a pension plan established and maintained for its employees by the government of the State or political subdivision thereof, or by any agency or instrumentality thereof.

(3) Actions under contractual agreements between issuers and indenture trustees

Notwithstanding subsection (b) or (c) of this section, a covered class action that seeks to enforce a contractual agreement between an issuer and an indenture trustee may be maintained in a State or Federal court by a party to the agreement or a successor to such party.

(4) Remand of removed actions

In an action that has been removed from a State court pursuant to subsection (c) of this section, if the Federal court determines that the action may be maintained in State court pursuant to this subsection, the Federal court shall remand such action to such State court.

(e) Preservation of State jurisdiction

The securities commission (or any agency or office performing like functions) of any State shall retain jurisdiction under the laws of such State to investigate and bring enforcement actions.

(f) Definitions

For purposes of this section, the following definitions shall apply:

(1) Affiliate of the issuer

The term “affiliate of the issuer” means a person that directly or indirectly, through one or more intermediaries, controls or is controlled by or is under common control with, the issuer.

(2) Covered class action

(A) In general

The term “covered class action” means—

(i) any single lawsuit in which—

(I) damages are sought on behalf of more than 50 persons or prospective class members, and questions of law or fact common to those persons or members of the prospective class, without reference to issues of individualized reliance on an alleged misstatement or omission, predominate over any questions affecting only individual persons or members; or

(II) one or more named parties seek to recover damages on a representative basis on behalf of themselves and other unnamed parties similarly situated, and questions of law or fact common to those persons or members of the prospective class predominate over any questions affecting only individual persons or members; or


(ii) any group of lawsuits filed in or pending in the same court and involving common questions of law or fact, in which—

(I) damages are sought on behalf of more than 50 persons; and

(II) the lawsuits are joined, consolidated, or otherwise proceed as a single action for any purpose.

(B) Exception for derivative actions

Notwithstanding subparagraph (A), the term “covered class action” does not include an exclusively derivative action brought by one or more shareholders on behalf of a corporation.

(C) Counting of certain class members

For purposes of this paragraph, a corporation, investment company, pension plan, partnership, or other entity, shall be treated as one person or prospective class member, but only if the entity is not established for the purpose of participating in the action.

(D) Rule of construction

Nothing in this paragraph shall be construed to affect the discretion of a State court in determining whether actions filed in such court should be joined, consolidated, or otherwise allowed to proceed as a single action.

(3) Covered security

The term “covered security” means a security that satisfies the standards for a covered security specified in paragraph (1) or (2) of section 77r(b) of this title at the time during which it is alleged that the misrepresentation, omission, or manipulative or deceptive conduct occurred, except that such term shall not include any debt security that is exempt from registration under this subchapter pursuant to rules issued by the Commission under section 77d(2) of this title.

(May 27, 1933, ch. 38, title I, §16, 48 Stat. 84; Pub. L. 105–353, title I, §101(a)(1), Nov. 3, 1998, 112 Stat. 3227.)

Amendments

1998—Pub. L. 105–353 amended section catchline and text generally. Prior to amendment, text read as follows: “The rights and remedies provided by this subchapter shall be in addition to any and all other rights and remedies that may exist at law or in equity.”

Effective Date of 1998 Amendment

Pub. L. 105–353, title I, §101(c), Nov. 3, 1998, 112 Stat. 3233, provided that: “The amendments made by this section [amending this section and sections 77v, 77z–1, 78u–4, and 78bb of this title] shall not affect or apply to any action commenced before and pending on the date of enactment of this Act [Nov. 3, 1998].”

§77q. Fraudulent interstate transactions

(a) Use of interstate commerce for purpose of fraud or deceit

It shall be unlawful for any person in the offer or sale of any securities or any security-based swap agreement (as defined in section 206B of the Gramm-Leach-Bliley Act) by the use of any means or instruments of transportation or communication in interstate commerce or by use of the mails, directly or indirectly—

(1) to employ any device, scheme, or artifice to defraud, or

(2) to obtain money or property by means of any untrue statement of a material fact or any omission to state a material fact necessary in order to make the statements made, in light of the circumstances under which they were made, not misleading; or

(3) to engage in any transaction, practice, or course of business which operates or would operate as a fraud or deceit upon the purchaser.

(b) Use of interstate commerce for purpose of offering for sale

It shall be unlawful for any person, by the use of any means or instruments of transportation or communication in interstate commerce or by the use of the mails, to publish, give publicity to, or circulate any notice, circular, advertisement, newspaper, article, letter, investment service, or communication which, though not purporting to offer a security for sale, describes such security for a consideration received or to be received, directly or indirectly, from an issuer, underwriter, or dealer, without fully disclosing the receipt, whether past or prospective, of such consideration and the amount thereof.

(c) Exemptions of section 77c not applicable to this section

The exemptions provided in section 77c of this title shall not apply to the provisions of this section.

(d) Authority with respect to security-based swap agreements

The authority of the Commission under this section with respect to security-based swap agreements (as defined in section 206B of the Gramm-Leach-Bliley Act) shall be subject to the restrictions and limitations of section 77b–1(b) of this title.

(May 27, 1933, ch. 38, title I, §17, 48 Stat. 84; Aug. 10, 1954, ch. 667, title I, §10, 68 Stat. 686; Pub. L. 106–554, §1(a)(5) [title III, §302(b), (c)], Dec. 21, 2000, 114 Stat. 2763, 2763A–452; Pub. L. 111–203, title VII, §762(c)(2), July 21, 2010, 124 Stat. 1759.)

Amendment of Subsections (a) and (d)

Pub. L. 111–203, title VII, §§762(c)(2), 774, July 21, 2010, 124 Stat. 1759, 1802, provided that, effective on the later of 360 days after July 21, 2010, or, to the extent a provision of subtitle B (§§761–774) of title VII of Pub. L. 111–203 requires a rulemaking, not less than 60 days after publication of the final rule or regulation implementing such provision of subtitle B, this section is amended as follows:

(1) in subsection (a)—

(A) by inserting “(including security-based swaps)” after “securities”; and

(B) by striking “(as defined in section 206B of the Gramm-Leach-Bliley Act)” and inserting “(as defined in section 78c(a)(78) of this title)”; and

(2) in subsection (d), by striking “206B of the Gramm-Leach-Bliley Act” and inserting “78c(a)(78) of this title”.

References in Text

Section 206B of the Gramm-Leach-Bliley Act, referred to in subsecs. (a) and (d), is section 206B of Pub. L. 106–102 which is set out in a note under section 78c of this title.

Amendments

2000—Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 106–554, §1(a)(5) [title III, §302(b)], amended subsec. (a) generally. Prior to amendment, subsec. (a) read as follows: “It shall be unlawful for any person in the offer or sale of any securities by the use of any means or instruments of transportation or communication in interstate commerce or by the use of the mails, directly or indirectly—

“(1) to employ any device, scheme, or artifice to defraud, or

“(2) to obtain money or property by means of any untrue statement of a material fact or any omission to state a material fact necessary in order to make the statements made, in the light of the circumstances under which they were made, not misleading, or

“(3) to engage in any transaction, practice, or course of business which operates or would operate as a fraud or deceit upon the purchaser.”

Subsec. (d). Pub. L. 106–554, §1(a)(5) [title III, §302(c)], added subsec. (d).

1954—Subsec. (a). Act Aug. 10, 1954, inserted “offer or” before “sale” in introductory text.

Effective Date of 2010 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 111–203 effective on the later of 360 days after July 21, 2010, or, to the extent a provision of subtitle B (§§761–774) of title VII of Pub. L. 111–203 requires a rulemaking, not less than 60 days after publication of the final rule or regulation implementing such provision of subtitle B, see section 774 of Pub. L. 111–203, set out as a note under section 77b of this title.

Effective Date of 1954 Amendment

Amendment by act Aug. 10, 1954, effective 60 days after Aug. 10, 1954, see note under section 77b of this title.

§77r. Exemption from State regulation of securities offerings

(a) Scope of exemption

Except as otherwise provided in this section, no law, rule, regulation, or order, or other administrative action of any State or any political subdivision thereof—

(1) requiring, or with respect to, registration or qualification of securities, or registration or qualification of securities transactions, shall directly or indirectly apply to a security that—

(A) is a covered security; or

(B) will be a covered security upon completion of the transaction;


(2) shall directly or indirectly prohibit, limit, or impose any conditions upon the use of—

(A) with respect to a covered security described in subsection (b) of this section, any offering document that is prepared by or on behalf of the issuer; or

(B) any proxy statement, report to shareholders, or other disclosure document relating to a covered security or the issuer thereof that is required to be and is filed with the Commission or any national securities organization registered under section 78o–3 of this title, except that this subparagraph does not apply to the laws, rules, regulations, or orders, or other administrative actions of the State of incorporation of the issuer; or


(3) shall directly or indirectly prohibit, limit, or impose conditions, based on the merits of such offering or issuer, upon the offer or sale of any security described in paragraph (1).

(b) Covered securities

For purposes of this section, the following are covered securities:

(1) Exclusive Federal registration of nationally traded securities

A security is a covered security if such security is—

(A) listed, or authorized for listing, on the New York Stock Exchange or the American Stock Exchange, or listed, or authorized for listing, on the National Market System of the Nasdaq Stock Market (or any successor to such entities);

(B) listed, or authorized for listing, on a national securities exchange (or tier or segment thereof) that has listing standards that the Commission determines by rule (on its own initiative or on the basis of a petition) are substantially similar to the listing standards applicable to securities described in subparagraph (A); or

(C) a security of the same issuer that is equal in seniority or that is a senior security to a security described in subparagraph (A) or (B).

(2) Exclusive Federal registration of investment companies

A security is a covered security if such security is a security issued by an investment company that is registered, or that has filed a registration statement, under the Investment Company Act of 1940 [15 U.S.C. 80a–1 et seq.].

(3) Sales to qualified purchasers

A security is a covered security with respect to the offer or sale of the security to qualified purchasers, as defined by the Commission by rule. In prescribing such rule, the Commission may define the term “qualified purchaser” differently with respect to different categories of securities, consistent with the public interest and the protection of investors.

(4) Exemption in connection with certain exempt offerings

A security is a covered security with respect to a transaction that is exempt from registration under this subchapter pursuant to—

(A) paragraph (1) or (3) of section 77d of this title, and the issuer of such security files reports with the Commission pursuant to section 78m or 78o(d) of this title;

(B) section 77d(4) of this title;

(C) section 77c(a) of this title, other than the offer or sale of a security that is exempt from such registration pursuant to paragraph (4), (10), or (11) of such section, except that a municipal security that is exempt from such registration pursuant to paragraph (2) of such section is not a covered security with respect to the offer or sale of such security in the State in which the issuer of such security is located; or

(D) Commission rules or regulations issued under section 77d(2) of this title, except that this subparagraph does not prohibit a State from imposing notice filing requirements that are substantially similar to those required by rule or regulation under section 77d(2) of this title that are in effect on September 1, 1996.

(c) Preservation of authority

(1) Fraud authority

Consistent with this section, the securities commission (or any agency or office performing like functions) of any State shall retain jurisdiction under the laws of such State to investigate and bring enforcement actions with respect to fraud or deceit, or unlawful conduct by a broker or dealer, in connection with securities or securities transactions.

(2) Preservation of filing requirements

(A) Notice filings permitted

Nothing in this section prohibits the securities commission (or any agency or office performing like functions) of any State from requiring the filing of any document filed with the Commission pursuant to this subchapter, together with annual or periodic reports of the value of securities sold or offered to be sold to persons located in the State (if such sales data is not included in documents filed with the Commission), solely for notice purposes and the assessment of any fee, together with a consent to service of process and any required fee.

(B) Preservation of fees

(i) In general

Until otherwise provided by law, rule, regulation, or order, or other administrative action of any State or any political subdivision thereof, adopted after October 11, 1996, filing or registration fees with respect to securities or securities transactions shall continue to be collected in amounts determined pursuant to State law as in effect on the day before October 11, 1996.

(ii) Schedule

The fees required by this subparagraph shall be paid, and all necessary supporting data on sales or offers for sales required under subparagraph (A), shall be reported on the same schedule as would have been applicable had the issuer not relied on the exemption provided in subsection (a) of this section.

(C) Availability of preemption contingent on payment of fees

(i) In general

During the period beginning on October 11, 1996, and ending 3 years after October 11, 1996, the securities commission (or any agency or office performing like functions) of any State may require the registration of securities issued by any issuer who refuses to pay the fees required by subparagraph (B).

(ii) Delays

For purposes of this subparagraph, delays in payment of fees or underpayments of fees that are promptly remedied shall not constitute a refusal to pay fees.

(D) Fees not permitted on listed securities

Notwithstanding subparagraphs (A), (B), and (C), no filing or fee may be required with respect to any security that is a covered security pursuant to subsection (b)(1) of this section, or will be such a covered security upon completion of the transaction, or is a security of the same issuer that is equal in seniority or that is a senior security to a security that is a covered security pursuant to subsection (b)(1) of this section.

(3) Enforcement of requirements

Nothing in this section shall prohibit the securities commission (or any agency or office performing like functions) of any State from suspending the offer or sale of securities within such State as a result of the failure to submit any filing or fee required under law and permitted under this section.

(d) Definitions

For purposes of this section, the following definitions shall apply:

(1) Offering document

The term “offering document”—

(A) has the meaning given the term “prospectus” in section 77b(a)(10) of this title, but without regard to the provisions of subparagraphs (a) and (b) of that section; and

(B) includes a communication that is not deemed to offer a security pursuant to a rule of the Commission.

(2) Prepared by or on behalf of the issuer

Not later than 6 months after October 11, 1996, the Commission shall, by rule, define the term “prepared by or on behalf of the issuer” for purposes of this section.

(3) State

The term “State” has the same meaning as in section 78c of this title.

(4) Senior security

The term “senior security” means any bond, debenture, note, or similar obligation or instrument constituting a security and evidencing indebtedness, and any stock of a class having priority over any other class as to distribution of assets or payment of dividends.

(May 27, 1933, ch. 38, title I, §18, 48 Stat. 85; Pub. L. 104–290, title I, §102(a), Oct. 11, 1996, 110 Stat. 3417; Pub. L. 105–353, title III, §§301(a)(4), 302, Nov. 3, 1998, 112 Stat. 3235, 3237; Pub. L. 111–203, title IX, §985(a)(2), July 21, 2010, 124 Stat. 1933.)

References in Text

The Investment Company Act of 1940, referred to in subsec. (b)(2), is title I of act Aug. 22, 1940, ch. 686, 54 Stat. 789, as amended, which is classified generally to subchapter I (§80a–1 et seq.) of chapter 2D of this title. For complete classification of this Act to the Code, see section 80a–51 of this title and Tables.

Amendments

2010—Subsec. (b)(1)(C). Pub. L. 111–203, §985(a)(2)(A), substituted “(C) a security” for “(C) is a security”.

Subsec. (c)(2)(B)(i). Pub. L. 111–203, §985(a)(2)(B), substituted “State or” for “State, or”.

1998—Subsec. (b)(1)(A). Pub. L. 105–353, §301(a)(4)(A), inserted “, or authorized for listing,” after “Exchange, or listed”.

Subsec. (b)(4)(C). Pub. L. 105–353, §302, substituted “paragraph (4), (10), or (11)” for “paragraph (4) or (11)”.

Subsec. (c)(2)(B)(i), (C)(i). Pub. L. 105–353, §301(a)(4)(B), (C), made technical amendments to references in original act which appear in text as references to October 11, 1996.

Subsec. (d)(1)(A). Pub. L. 105–353, §301(a)(4)(D), substituted “section 77b(a)(10)” for “section 77b(10)” and “subparagraphs (a) and (b)” for “subparagraphs (A) and (B)”.

Subsec. (d)(2). Pub. L. 105–353, §301(a)(4)(E), made technical amendment to reference in original act which appears in text as reference to October 11, 1996.

Subsec. (d)(4). Pub. L. 105–353, §301(a)(4)(F), substituted “The term” for “For purposes of this paragraph, the term”.

1996—Pub. L. 104–290 substituted “Exemption from State regulation of securities offerings” for “State control of securities” as section catchline and amended text generally. Prior to amendment, text read as follows: “Nothing in this subchapter shall affect the jurisdiction of the securities commission (or any agency or office performing like functions) of any State or Territory of the United States, or the District of Columbia, over any security or any person.”

Effective Date of 2010 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 111–203 effective 1 day after July 21, 2010, except as otherwise provided, see section 4 of Pub. L. 111–203, set out as an Effective Date note under section 5301 of Title 12, Banks and Banking.

Transfer of Functions

For transfer of functions of Securities and Exchange Commission, with certain exceptions, to Chairman of such Commission, see Reorg. Plan No. 10 of 1950, §§1, 2, eff. May 24, 1950, 15 F.R. 3175, 64 Stat. 1265, set out under section 78d of this title.

Study and Report on Uniformity of State Regulatory Requirements

Section 102(b) of Pub. L. 104–290 provided that: “The Commission shall conduct a study, after consultation with States, issuers, brokers, and dealers, on the extent to which uniformity of State regulatory requirements for securities or securities transactions has been achieved for securities that are not covered securities (within the meaning of section 18 of the Securities Act of 1933 [15 U.S.C. 77r], as amended by paragraph (1) of this subsection). Not later than 1 year after the date of enactment of this Act [Oct. 11, 1996], the Commission shall submit a report to the Congress on the results of such study.”

§77r–1. Preemption of State law

(a) Authority to purchase, hold, and invest in securities; securities considered as obligations of United States

(1) Any person, trust, corporation, partnership, association, business trust, or business entity created pursuant to or existing under the laws of the United States or any State shall be authorized to purchase, hold, and invest in securities that are—

(A) offered and sold pursuant to section 77d(5) of this title,

(B) mortgage related securities (as that term is defined in section 78c(a)(41) of this title),

(C) small business related securities (as defined in section 78c(a)(53) of this title), or

(D) securities issued or guaranteed by the Federal Home Loan Mortgage Corporation or the Federal National Mortgage Association,


to the same extent that such person, trust, corporation, partnership, association, business trust, or business entity is authorized under any applicable law to purchase, hold or invest in obligations issued by or guaranteed as to principal and interest by the United States or any agency or instrumentality thereof.

(2) Where State law limits the purchase, holding, or investment in obligations issued by the United States by such a person, trust, corporation, partnership, association, business trust, or business entity, such securities that are—

(A) offered and sold pursuant to section 77d(5) of this title,

(B) mortgage related securities (as that term is defined in section 78c(a)(41) of this title),

(C) small business related securities (as defined in section 78c(a)(53) of this title), or

(D) securities issued or guaranteed by the Federal Home Loan Mortgage Corporation or the Federal National Mortgage Association,


shall be considered to be obligations issued by the United States for purposes of the limitation.

(b) Exception; validity of contracts under prior law

The provisions of subsection (a) of this section shall not apply with respect to a particular person, trust, corporation, partnership, association, business trust, or business entity or class thereof in any State that, prior to the expiration of seven years after October 3, 1984, enacts a statute that specifically refers to this section and either prohibits or provides for a more limited authority to purchase, hold, or invest in such securities by any person, trust, corporation, partnership, association, business trust, or business entity or class thereof than is provided in subsection (a) of this section. The enactment by any State of any statute of the type described in the preceding sentence shall not affect the validity of any contractual commitment to purchase, hold, or invest that was made prior thereto and shall not require the sale or other disposition of any securities acquired prior thereto.

(c) Registration and qualification requirements; exemption; subsequent enactment by State

Any securities that are offered and sold pursuant to section 77d(5) of this title, that are mortgage related securities (as that term is defined in section 78c(a)(41) of this title), or that are small business related securities (as defined in section 78c(a)(53) of this title) shall be exempt from any law of any State with respect to or requiring registration or qualification of securities or real estate to the same extent as any obligation issued by or guaranteed as to principal and interest by the United States or any agency or instrumentality thereof. Any State may, prior to the expiration of seven years after October 3, 1984, enact a statute that specifically refers to this section and requires registration or qualification of any such security on terms that differ from those applicable to any obligation issued by the United States.

(d) Implementation

(1) Limitation

The provisions of subsections (a) and (b) of this section concerning small business related securities shall not apply with respect to a particular person, trust, corporation, partnership, association, business trust, or business entity or class thereof in any State that, prior to the expiration of 7 years after September 23, 1994, enacts a statute that specifically refers to this section and either prohibits or provides for a more limited authority to purchase, hold, or invest in such small business related securities by any person, trust, corporation, partnership, association, business trust, or business entity or class thereof than is provided in this section. The enactment by any State of any statute of the type described in the preceding sentence shall not affect the validity of any contractual commitment to purchase, hold, or invest that was made prior to such enactment, and shall not require the sale or other disposition of any small business related securities acquired prior to the date of such enactment.

(2) State registration or qualification requirements

Any State may, not later than 7 years after September 23, 1994, enact a statute that specifically refers to this section and requires registration or qualification of any small business related securities on terms that differ from those applicable to any obligation issued by the United States.

(Pub. L. 98–440, title I, §106, Oct. 3, 1984, 98 Stat. 1691; Pub. L. 103–325, title II, §207, Sept. 23, 1994, 108 Stat. 2199.)

Codification

Section was enacted as part of the Secondary Mortgage Market Enhancement Act of 1984, and not as part of the Securities Act of 1933, which comprises this subchapter.

Amendments

1994—Subsec. (a)(1)(B) to (D). Pub. L. 103–325, §207(a), struck out “or” at end of subpar. (B), added subpar. (C), and redesignated former subpar. (C) as (D).

Subsec. (a)(2)(B) to (D). Pub. L. 103–325, §207(b), struck out “or” at end of subpar. (B), added subpar. (C), and redesignated former subpar. (C) as (D).

Subsec. (c). Pub. L. 103–325, §207(c), in first sentence substituted “, that” for “or that” before “are mortgage related securities” and inserted “, or that are small business related securities (as defined in section 78c(a)(53) of this title)” before “shall be exempt”.

Subsec. (d). Pub. L. 103–325, §207(d), added subsec. (d).

§77s. Special powers of Commission

(a) Rules and regulations

The Commission shall have authority from time to time to make, amend, and rescind such rules and regulations as may be necessary to carry out the provisions of this subchapter, including rules and regulations governing registration statements and prospectuses for various classes of securities and issuers, and defining accounting, technical, and trade terms used in this subchapter. Among other things, the Commission shall have authority, for the purposes of this subchapter, to prescribe the form or forms in which required information shall be set forth, the items or details to be shown in the balance sheet and earning statement, and the methods to be followed in the preparation of accounts, in the appraisal or valuation of assets and liabilities, in the determination of depreciation and depletion, in the differentiation of recurring and nonrecurring income, in the differentiation of investment and operating income, and in the preparation, where the Commission deems it necessary or desirable, of consolidated balance sheets or income accounts of any person directly or indirectly controlling or controlled by the issuer, or any person under direct or indirect common control with the issuer. The rules and regulations of the Commission shall be effective upon publication in the manner which the Commission shall prescribe. No provision of this subchapter imposing any liability shall apply to any act done or omitted in good faith in conformity with any rule or regulation of the Commission, notwithstanding that such rule or regulation may, after such act or omission, be amended or rescinded or be determined by judicial or other authority to be invalid for any reason.

(b) Recognition of accounting standards

(1) In general

In carrying out its authority under subsection (a) of this section and under section 13(b) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 [15 U.S.C. 78m(b)], the Commission may recognize, as “generally accepted” for purposes of the securities laws, any accounting principles established by a standard setting body—

(A) that—

(i) is organized as a private entity;

(ii) has, for administrative and operational purposes, a board of trustees (or equivalent body) serving in the public interest, the majority of whom are not, concurrent with their service on such board, and have not been during the 2-year period preceding such service, associated persons of any registered public accounting firm;

(iii) is funded as provided in section 7219 of this title;

(iv) has adopted procedures to ensure prompt consideration, by majority vote of its members, of changes to accounting principles necessary to reflect emerging accounting issues and changing business practices; and

(v) considers, in adopting accounting principles, the need to keep standards current in order to reflect changes in the business environment, the extent to which international convergence on high quality accounting standards is necessary or appropriate in the public interest and for the protection of investors; and


(B) that the Commission determines has the capacity to assist the Commission in fulfilling the requirements of subsection (a) of this section and section 13(b) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 [15 U.S.C. 78m(b)], because, at a minimum, the standard setting body is capable of improving the accuracy and effectiveness of financial reporting and the protection of investors under the securities laws.

(2) Annual report

A standard setting body described in paragraph (1) shall submit an annual report to the Commission and the public, containing audited financial statements of that standard setting body.

(c) Production of evidence

For the purpose of all investigations which, in the opinion of the Commission, are necessary and proper for the enforcement of this subchapter, any member of the Commission or any officer or officers designated by it are empowered to administer oaths and affirmations, subpena witnesses, take evidence, and require the production of any books, papers, or other documents which the Commission deems relevant or material to the inquiry. Such attendance of witnesses and the production of such documentary evidence may be required from any place in the United States or any Territory at any designated place of hearing.

(d) Federal and State cooperation

(1) The Commission is authorized to cooperate with any association composed of duly constituted representatives of State governments whose primary assignment is the regulation of the securities business within those States, and which, in the judgment of the Commission, could assist in effectuating greater uniformity in Federal-State securities matters. The Commission shall, at its discretion, cooperate, coordinate, and share information with such an association for the purposes of carrying out the policies and projects set forth in paragraphs (2) and (3).

(2) It is the declared policy of this subsection that there should be greater Federal and State cooperation in securities matters, including—

(A) maximum effectiveness of regulation,

(B) maximum uniformity in Federal and State regulatory standards,

(C) minimum interference with the business of capital formation, and

(D) a substantial reduction in costs and paperwork to diminish the burdens of raising investment capital (particularly by small business) and to diminish the costs of the administration of the Government programs involved.


(3) The purpose of this subsection is to engender cooperation between the Commission, any such association of State securities officials, and other duly constituted securities associations in the following areas:

(A) the sharing of information regarding the registration or exemption of securities issues applied for in the various States;

(B) the development and maintenance of uniform securities forms and procedures; and

(C) the development of a uniform exemption from registration for small issuers which can be agreed upon among several States or between the States and the Federal Government. The Commission shall have the authority to adopt such an exemption as agreed upon for Federal purposes. Nothing in this chapter shall be construed as authorizing preemption of State law.


(4) In order to carry out these policies and purposes, the Commission shall conduct an annual conference as well as such other meetings as are deemed necessary, to which representatives from such securities associations, securities self-regulatory organizations, agencies, and private organizations involved in capital formation shall be invited to participate.

(5) For fiscal year 1982, and for each of the three succeeding fiscal years, there are authorized to be appropriated such amounts as may be necessary and appropriate to carry out the policies, provisions, and purposes of this subsection. Any sums so appropriated shall remain available until expended.

(6) Notwithstanding any other provision of law, neither the Commission nor any other person shall be required to establish any procedures not specifically required by the securities laws, as that term is defined in section 3(a)(47) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 [15 U.S.C. 78c(a)(47)], or by chapter 5 of title 5, in connection with cooperation, coordination, or consultation with—

(A) any association referred to in paragraph (1) or (3) or any conference or meeting referred to in paragraph (4), while such association, conference, or meeting is carrying out activities in furtherance of the provisions of this subsection; or

(B) any forum, agency, or organization, or group referred to in section 80c–1 of this title, while such forum, agency, organization, or group is carrying out activities in furtherance of the provisions of such section 80c–1.


As used in this paragraph, the terms “association”, “conference”, “meeting”, “forum”, “agency”, “organization”, and “group” include any committee, subgroup, or representative of such entities.

(e) Evaluation of rules or programs

For the purpose of evaluating any rule or program of the Commission issued or carried out under any provision of the securities laws, as defined in section 3 of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 (15 U.S.C. 78c), and the purposes of considering, proposing, adopting, or engaging in any such rule or program or developing new rules or programs, the Commission may—

(1) gather information from and communicate with investors or other members of the public;

(2) engage in such temporary investor testing programs as the Commission determines are in the public interest or would protect investors; and

(3) consult with academics and consultants, as necessary to carry out this subsection.

(f) Rule of construction

For purposes of the Paperwork Reduction Act (44 U.S.C. 3501 et seq.), any action taken under subsection (e) shall not be construed to be a collection of information.

(g) Funding for the GASB

(1) In general

The Commission may, subject to the limitations imposed by section 15B of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 (15 U.S.C. 78o–4), require a national securities association registered under the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 [15 U.S.C. 78a et seq.] to establish—

(A) a reasonable annual accounting support fee to adequately fund the annual budget of the Governmental Accounting Standards Board (referred to in this subsection as the “GASB”); and

(B) rules and procedures, in consultation with the principal organizations representing State governors, legislators, local elected officials, and State and local finance officers, to provide for the equitable allocation, assessment, and collection of the accounting support fee established under subparagraph (A) from the members of the association, and the remittance of all such accounting support fees to the Financial Accounting Foundation.

(2) Annual budget

For purposes of this subsection, the annual budget of the GASB is the annual budget reviewed and approved according to the internal procedures of the Financial Accounting Foundation.

(3) Use of funds

Any fees or funds collected under this subsection shall be used to support the efforts of the GASB to establish standards of financial accounting and reporting recognized as generally accepted accounting principles applicable to State and local governments of the United States.

(4) Limitation on fee

The annual accounting support fees collected under this subsection for a fiscal year shall not exceed the recoverable annual budgeted expenses of the GASB (which may include operating expenses, capital, and accrued items).

(5) Rules of construction

(A) Fees not public monies

Accounting support fees collected under this subsection and other receipts of the GASB shall not be considered public monies of the United States.

(B) Limitation on authority of the Commission

Nothing in this subsection shall be construed to—

(i) provide the Commission or any national securities association direct or indirect oversight of the budget or technical agenda of the GASB; or

(ii) affect the setting of generally accepted accounting principles by the GASB.

(C) Noninterference with States

Nothing in this subsection shall be construed to impair or limit the authority of a State or local government to establish accounting and financial reporting standards.

(May 27, 1933, ch. 38, title I, §19, 48 Stat. 85; June 6, 1934, ch. 404, title II, §209, 48 Stat. 908; Pub. L. 94–210, title III, §308(a)(2), Feb. 5, 1976, 90 Stat. 57; Pub. L. 96–477, title V, §505, Oct. 21, 1980, 94 Stat. 2292; Pub. L. 100–181, title II, §207, Dec. 4, 1987, 101 Stat. 1252; Pub. L. 107–204, title I, §108(a), July 30, 2002, 116 Stat. 768; Pub. L. 111–203, title IX, §§912, 978(a), 985(a)(3), July 21, 2010, 124 Stat. 1824, 1924, 1933.)

References in Text

The Paperwork Reduction Act, referred to in subsec. (f), probably means chapter 35 (§3501 et seq.) of Title 44, Public Printing and Documents. See Short Title note set out under section 3501 of Title 44.

The Securities Exchange Act of 1934, referred to in subsec. (g)(1), is act June 6, 1934, ch. 404, 48 Stat. 881, which is classified principally to chapter 2B (§78a et seq.) of this title. For complete classification of this Act to the Code, see section 78a of this title and Tables.

Amendments

2010—Subsec. (d)(6)(A). Pub. L. 111–203, §985(a)(3), which directed substitution of “in paragraph (1) or (3)” for “in paragraph (1) of (3)”, could not be executed because the phrase “in paragraph (1) of (3)” did not appear.

Subsecs. (e), (f). Pub. L. 111–203, §912, added subsecs. (e) and (f).

Subsec. (g). Pub. L. 111–203, §978(a), added subsec. (g).

2002—Subsecs. (b) to (d). Pub. L. 107–204 added subsec. (b) and redesignated former subsecs. (b) and (c) as (c) and (d), respectively.

1987—Subsec. (c)(6). Pub. L. 100–181 added par. (6).

1980—Subsec. (c). Pub. L. 96–477 added subsec. (c).

1976—Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 94–210 struck out provisions relating to rules and regulations applicable to any common carrier subject to the provisions of section 20 of title 49.

1934—Subsec. (a). Act June 6, 1934, inserted “technical” in first sentence and inserted last sentence.

Effective Date of 2010 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 111–203 effective 1 day after July 21, 2010, except as otherwise provided, see section 4 of Pub. L. 111–203, set out as an Effective Date note under section 5301 of Title 12, Banks and Banking.

Effective Date of 1980 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 96–477 effective Jan. 1, 1981, see section 507 of Pub. L. 96–477, set out as an Effective Date note under section 80c of this title.

Effective Date of 1976 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 94–210 effective on 60th day after Feb. 5, 1976, but not applicable to any bona fide offering of a security made by the issuer, or by or through an underwriter, before such 60th day, see section 308(d)(1) of Pub. L. 94–210, set out as a note under section 77c of this title.

Transfer of Functions

For transfer of functions of Securities and Exchange Commission, with certain exceptions, to Chairman of such Commission, see Reorg. Plan No. 10 of 1950, §§1, 2, eff. May 24, 1950, 15 F.R. 3175, 64 Stat. 1265, set out under section 78d of this title.

§77t. Injunctions and prosecution of offenses

(a) Investigation of violations

Whenever it shall appear to the Commission, either upon complaint or otherwise, that the provisions of this subchapter, or of any rule or regulation prescribed under authority thereof, have been or are about to be violated, it may, in its discretion, either require or permit such person to file with it a statement in writing, under oath, or otherwise, as to all the facts and circumstances concerning the subject matter which it believes to be in the public interest to investigate, and may investigate such facts.

(b) Action for injunction or criminal prosecution in district court

Whenever it shall appear to the Commission that any person is engaged or about to engage in any acts or practices which constitute or will constitute a violation of the provisions of this subchapter, or of any rule or regulation prescribed under authority thereof, the Commission may, in its discretion, bring an action in any district court of the United States, or United States court of any Territory, to enjoin such acts or practices, and upon a proper showing, a permanent or temporary injunction or restraining order shall be granted without bond. The Commission may transmit such evidence as may be available concerning such acts or practices to the Attorney General who may, in his discretion, institute the necessary criminal proceedings under this subchapter. Any such criminal proceeding may be brought either in the district wherein the transmittal of the prospectus or security complained of begins, or in the district wherein such prospectus or security is received.

(c) Writ of mandamus

Upon application of the Commission, the district courts of the United States and the United States courts of any Territory shall have jurisdiction to issue writs of mandamus commanding any person to comply with the provisions of this subchapter or any order of the Commission made in pursuance thereof.

(d) Money penalties in civil actions

(1) Authority of Commission

Whenever it shall appear to the Commission that any person has violated any provision of this subchapter, the rules or regulations thereunder, or a cease-and-desist order entered by the Commission pursuant to section 77h–1 of this title, other than by committing a violation subject to a penalty pursuant to section 78u–1 of this title, the Commission may bring an action in a United States district court to seek, and the court shall have jurisdiction to impose, upon a proper showing, a civil penalty to be paid by the person who committed such violation.

(2) Amount of penalty

(A) First tier

The amount of the penalty shall be determined by the court in light of the facts and circumstances. For each violation, the amount of the penalty shall not exceed the greater of (i) $5,000 for a natural person or $50,000 for any other person, or (ii) the gross amount of pecuniary gain to such defendant as a result of the violation.

(B) Second tier

Notwithstanding subparagraph (A), the amount of penalty for each such violation shall not exceed the greater of (i) $50,000 for a natural person or $250,000 for any other person, or (ii) the gross amount of pecuniary gain to such defendant as a result of the violation, if the violation described in paragraph (1) involved fraud, deceit, manipulation, or deliberate or reckless disregard of a regulatory requirement.

(C) Third tier

Notwithstanding subparagraphs (A) and (B), the amount of penalty for each such violation shall not exceed the greater of (i) $100,000 for a natural person or $500,000 for any other person, or (ii) the gross amount of pecuniary gain to such defendant as a result of the violation, if—

(I) the violation described in paragraph (1) involved fraud, deceit, manipulation, or deliberate or reckless disregard of a regulatory requirement; and

(II) such violation directly or indirectly resulted in substantial losses or created a significant risk of substantial losses to other persons.

(3) Procedures for collection

(A) Payment of penalty to Treasury

A penalty imposed under this section shall be payable into the Treasury of the United States, except as otherwise provided in section 7246 of this title and section 78u–6 of this title.

(B) Collection of penalties

If a person upon whom such a penalty is imposed shall fail to pay such penalty within the time prescribed in the court's order, the Commission may refer the matter to the Attorney General who shall recover such penalty by action in the appropriate United States district court.

(C) Remedy not exclusive

The actions authorized by this subsection may be brought in addition to any other action that the Commission or the Attorney General is entitled to bring.

(D) Jurisdiction and venue

For purposes of section 77v of this title, actions under this section shall be actions to enforce a liability or a duty created by this subchapter.

(4) Special provisions relating to a violation of a cease-and-desist order

In an action to enforce a cease-and-desist order entered by the Commission pursuant to section 77h–1 of this title, each separate violation of such order shall be a separate offense, except that in the case of a violation through a continuing failure to comply with such an order, each day of the failure to comply with the order shall be deemed a separate offense.

(e) Authority of court to prohibit persons from serving as officers and directors

In any proceeding under subsection (b) of this section, the court may prohibit, conditionally or unconditionally, and permanently or for such period of time as it shall determine, any person who violated section 77q(a)(1) of this title from acting as an officer or director of any issuer that has a class of securities registered pursuant to section 78l of this title or that is required to file reports pursuant to section 78o(d) of this title if the person's conduct demonstrates unfitness to serve as an officer or director of any such issuer.

(f) Prohibition of attorneys’ fees paid from Commission disgorgement funds

Except as otherwise ordered by the court upon motion by the Commission, or, in the case of an administrative action, as otherwise ordered by the Commission, funds disgorged as the result of an action brought by the Commission in Federal court, or as a result of any Commission administrative action, shall not be distributed as payment for attorneys’ fees or expenses incurred by private parties seeking distribution of the disgorged funds.

(g) Authority of a court to prohibit persons from participating in an offering of penny stock

(1) In general

In any proceeding under subsection (a) of this section against any person participating in, or, at the time of the alleged misconduct, who was participating in, an offering of penny stock, the court may prohibit that person from participating in an offering of penny stock, conditionally or unconditionally, and permanently or for such period of time as the court shall determine.

(2) Definition

For purposes of this subsection, the term “person participating in an offering of penny stock” includes any person engaging in activities with a broker, dealer, or issuer for purposes of issuing, trading, or inducing or attempting to induce the purchase or sale of, any penny stock. The Commission may, by rule or regulation, define such term to include other activities, and may, by rule, regulation, or order, exempt any person or class of persons, in whole or in part, conditionally or unconditionally, from inclusion in such term.

(May 27, 1933, ch. 38, title I, §20, 48 Stat. 86; Pub. L. 100–181, title II, §208, Dec. 4, 1987, 101 Stat. 1253; Pub. L. 101–429, title I, §101, Oct. 15, 1990, 104 Stat. 932; Pub. L. 104–67, title I, §103(b)(1), Dec. 22, 1995, 109 Stat. 756; Pub. L. 107–204, title III, §§305(a)(2), 308(d)(3), title VI, §603(b), July 30, 2002, 116 Stat. 779, 785, 795; Pub. L. 111–203, title IX, §923(a)(1), July 21, 2010, 124 Stat. 1849.)

Amendments

2010—Subsec. (d)(3)(A). Pub. L. 111–203 inserted “and section 78u–6 of this title” after “section 7246 of this title”.

2002—Subsec. (d)(3)(A). Pub. L. 107–204, §308(d)(3), inserted “, except as otherwise provided in section 7246 of this title” before period at end.

Subsec. (e). Pub. L. 107–204, §305(a)(2), substituted “unfitness” for “substantial unfitness”.

Subsec. (g). Pub. L. 107–204, §603(b), added subsec. (g).

1995—Subsec. (f). Pub. L. 104–67 added subsec. (f).

1990—Subsecs. (d), (e). Pub. L. 101–429 added subsecs. (d) and (e).

1987—Subsec. (b). Pub. L. 100–181, §208(a), inserted first sentence and struck out former first sentence containing similar provisions.

Subsec. (c). Pub. L. 100–181, §208(b), amended subsec. (c) generally.

Effective Date of 2010 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 111–203 effective 1 day after July 21, 2010, except as otherwise provided, see section 4 of Pub. L. 111–203, set out as an Effective Date note under section 5301 of Title 12, Banks and Banking.

Effective Date of 1995 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 104–67 not to affect or apply to any private action arising under this subchapter or title I of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 (15 U.S.C. 78a et seq.), commenced before and pending on Dec. 22, 1995, see section 108 of Pub. L. 104–67, set out as a note under section 77l of this title.

Effective Date of 1990 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 101–429 effective Oct. 15, 1990, with provisions relating to civil penalties and accounting and disgorgement, see section 1(c)(1) and (2) of Pub. L. 101–429, set out in a note under section 77g of this title.

Construction of 1995 Amendment

Nothing in amendment by Pub. L. 104–67 to be deemed to create or ratify any implied right of action, or to prevent Commission, by rule or regulation, from restricting or otherwise regulating private actions under Securities Exchange Act of 1934 (15 U.S.C. 78a et seq.), see section 203 of Pub. L. 104–67, set out as a Construction note under section 78j–1 of this title.

Transfer of Functions

For transfer of functions of Securities and Exchange Commission, with certain exceptions, to Chairman of such Commission, see Reorg. Plan No. 10 of 1950, §§1, 2, eff. May 24, 1950, 15 F.R. 3175, 64 Stat. 1265, set out under section 78d of this title.

§77u. Hearings by Commission

All hearings shall be public and may be held before the Commission or an officer or officers of the Commission designated by it, and appropriate records thereof shall be kept.

(May 27, 1933, ch. 38, title I, §21, 48 Stat. 86.)

Transfer of Functions

For transfer of functions of Securities and Exchange Commission, with certain exceptions, to Chairman of such Commission, see Reorg. Plan No. 10 of 1950, §§1, 2, eff. May 24, 1950, 15 F.R. 3175, 64 Stat. 1265, set out under section 78d of this title.

§77v. Jurisdiction of offenses and suits

(a) Federal and State courts; venue; service of process; review; removal; costs

The district courts of the United States and the United States courts of any Territory shall have jurisdiction of offenses and violations under this subchapter and under the rules and regulations promulgated by the Commission in respect thereto, and, concurrent with State and Territorial courts, except as provided in section 77p of this title with respect to covered class actions, of all suits in equity and actions at law brought to enforce any liability or duty created by this subchapter. Any such suit or action may be brought in the district wherein the defendant is found or is an inhabitant or transacts business, or in the district where the offer or sale took place, if the defendant participated therein, and process in such cases may be served in any other district of which the defendant is an inhabitant or wherever the defendant may be found. In any action or proceeding instituted by the Commission under this subchapter in a United States district court for any judicial district, a subpoena issued to compel the attendance of a witness or the production of documents or tangible things (or both) at a hearing or trial may be served at any place within the United States. Rule 45(c)(3)(A)(ii) of the Federal Rules of Civil Procedure shall not apply to a subpoena issued under the preceding sentence. Judgments and decrees so rendered shall be subject to review as provided in sections 1254, 1291, 1292, and 1294 of title 28. Except as provided in section 77p(c) of this title, no case arising under this subchapter and brought in any State court of competent jurisdiction shall be removed to any court of the United States. No costs shall be assessed for or against the Commission in any proceeding under this subchapter brought by or against it in the Supreme Court or such other courts.

(b) Contumacy or refusal to obey subpena; contempt

In case of contumacy or refusal to obey a subpena issued to any person, any of the said United States courts, within the jurisdiction of which said person guilty of contumacy or refusal to obey is found or resides, upon application by the Commission may issue to such person an order requiring such person to appear before the Commission, or one of its examiners designated by it, there to produce documentary evidence if so ordered, or there to give evidence touching the matter in question; and any failure to obey such order of the court may be punished by said court as a contempt thereof.

(c) Extraterritorial jurisdiction

The district courts of the United States and the United States courts of any Territory shall have jurisdiction of an action or proceeding brought or instituted by the Commission or the United States alleging a violation of section 77q(a) of this title involving—

(1) conduct within the United States that constitutes significant steps in furtherance of the violation, even if the securities transaction occurs outside the United States and involves only foreign investors; or

(2) conduct occurring outside the United States that has a foreseeable substantial effect within the United States.

(May 27, 1933, ch. 38, title I, §22, 48 Stat. 86; June 25, 1936, ch. 804, 49 Stat. 1921; June 25, 1948, ch. 646, §32(b), 62 Stat. 991; May 24, 1949, ch. 139, §127, 63 Stat. 107; Aug. 10, 1954, ch. 667, title I, §11, 68 Stat. 686; Pub. L. 91–452, title II, §213, Oct. 15, 1970, 84 Stat. 929; Pub. L. 100–181, title II, §209, Dec. 4, 1987, 101 Stat. 1253; Pub. L. 105–353, title I, §101(a)(3), Nov. 3, 1998, 112 Stat. 3230; Pub. L. 111–203, title IX, §§929E(a), 929P(b)(1), July 21, 2010, 124 Stat. 1853, 1864.)

References in Text

The Federal Rules of Civil Procedure, referred to in subsec. (a), are set out in the Appendix to Title 28, Judiciary and Judicial Procedure.

Codification

As originally enacted subsec. (a) contained references to the Supreme Court of the District of Columbia. Act June 25, 1936, substituted “the district court of the United States for the District of Columbia” for “the Supreme Court of the District of Columbia”, and act June 25, 1948, as amended by act May 24, 1949, substituted “United States District Court for the District of Columbia” for “district court of the United States for the District of Columbia”. Pub. L. 100–181 struck out reference to the United States District Court for the District of Columbia. Previously, such reference had been editorially eliminated as superfluous in view of section 132(a) of Title 28, Judiciary and Judicial Procedure, which provides that “There shall be in each judicial district a district court which shall be a court of record known as the United States District Court for the district”, and section 88 of Title 28 which provides that “the District of Columbia constitutes one judicial district”.

Amendments

2010—Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 111–203, §929E(a), inserted after second sentence “In any action or proceeding instituted by the Commission under this subchapter in a United States district court for any judicial district, a subpoena issued to compel the attendance of a witness or the production of documents or tangible things (or both) at a hearing or trial may be served at any place within the United States. Rule 45(c)(3)(A)(ii) of the Federal Rules of Civil Procedure shall not apply to a subpoena issued under the preceding sentence.”

Subsec. (c). Pub. L. 111–203, §929P(b)(1), added subsec. (c).

1998—Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 105–353 inserted “except as provided in section 77p of this title with respect to covered class actions,” after “Territorial courts,” in first sentence and substituted “Except as provided in section 77p(c) of this title, no case” for “No case” in penultimate sentence.

1987—Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 100–181 substituted “United States and” for “United States, the”, struck out “, and the United States District Court for the District of Columbia” after “Territory”, and substituted “sections 1254, 1291, 1292, and 1294 of title 28” for “sections 128 and 240 of the Judicial Code, as amended (U.S.C., title 28, secs. 225 and 347)”. See Codification note above.

1970—Subsec. (c). Pub. L. 91–452 struck out subsec. (c) which related to immunity from prosecution of any individual compelled to testify or produce evidence, documentary or otherwise, after claiming his privilege against self-incrimination.

1954—Subsec. (a). Act Aug. 10, 1954, inserted “offer or” before “sale” in second sentence.

Effective Date of 2010 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 111–203 effective 1 day after July 21, 2010, except as otherwise provided, see section 4 of Pub. L. 111–203, set out as an Effective Date note under section 5301 of Title 12, Banks and Banking.

Effective Date of 1998 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 105–353 not to affect or apply to any action commenced before and pending on Nov. 3, 1998, see section 101(c) of Pub. L. 105–353, set out as a note under section 77p of this title.

Effective Date of 1970 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 91–452 effective on sixtieth day following Oct. 15, 1970, see section 260 of Pub. L. 91–452, set out as an Effective Date; Savings Provision note under section 6001 of Title 18, Crimes and Criminal Procedure.

Effective Date of 1954 Amendment

Amendment by act Aug. 10, 1954, effective 60 days after Aug. 10, 1954, see note under section 77b of this title.

Savings Provision

Amendment by Pub. L. 91–452 not to affect any immunity to which any individual is entitled under this section by reason of any testimony given before the sixtieth day following Oct. 15, 1970, see section 260 of Pub. L. 91–452, set out as an Effective Date; Savings Provision note under section 6001 of Title 18, Crimes and Criminal Procedure.

Transfer of Functions

For transfer of functions of Securities and Exchange Commission, with certain exceptions, to Chairman of such Commission, see Reorg. Plan No. 10 of 1950, §§1, 2, eff. May 24, 1950, 15 F.R. 3175, 64 Stat. 1265, set out under section 78d of this title.

§77w. Unlawful representations

Neither the fact that the registration statement for a security has been filed or is in effect nor the fact that a stop order is not in effect with respect thereto shall be deemed a finding by the Commission that the registration statement is true and accurate on its face or that it does not contain an untrue statement of fact or omit to state a material fact, or be held to mean that the Commission has in any way passed upon the merits of, or given approval to, such security. It shall be unlawful to make, or cause to be made to any prospective purchaser any representation contrary to the foregoing provisions of this section.

(May 27, 1933, ch. 38, title I, §23, 48 Stat. 87.)

Transfer of Functions

For transfer of functions of Securities and Exchange Commission, with certain exceptions, to Chairman of such Commission, see Reorg. Plan No. 10 of 1950, §§1, 2, eff. May 24, 1950, 15 F.R. 3175, 64 Stat. 1265, set out under section 78d of this title.

§77x. Penalties

Any person who willfully violates any of the provisions of this subchapter, or the rules and regulations promulgated by the Commission under authority thereof, or any person who willfully, in a registration statement filed under this subchapter, makes any untrue statement of a material fact or omits to state any material fact required to be stated therein or necessary to make the statements therein not misleading, shall upon conviction be fined not more than $10,000 or imprisoned not more than five years, or both.

(May 27, 1933, ch. 38, title I, §24, 48 Stat. 87; Pub. L. 94–29, §27(a), June 4, 1975, 89 Stat. 163.)

Amendments

1975—Pub. L. 94–29 substituted “$10,000” for “$5,000”.

Effective Date of 1975 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 94–29 effective June 4, 1975, see section 31(a) of Pub. L. 94–29, set out as a note under section 78b of this title.

Transfer of Functions

For transfer of functions of Securities and Exchange Commission, with certain exceptions, to Chairman of such Commission, see Reorg. Plan No. 10 of 1950, §§1, 2, eff. May 24, 1950, 15 F.R. 3175, 64 Stat. 1265, set out under section 78d of this title.

§77y. Jurisdiction of other Government agencies over securities

Nothing in this subchapter shall relieve any person from submitting to the respective supervisory units of the Government of the United States information, reports, or other documents that may be required by any provision of law.

(May 27, 1933, ch. 38, title I, §25, 48 Stat. 87.)

§77z. Separability

If any provision of this chapter, or the application of such provision to any person or circumstance, shall be held invalid, the remainder of this chapter, or the application of such provision to persons or circumstances other than those as to which it is held invalid, shall not be affected thereby.

(May 27, 1933, ch. 38, title I, §26, 48 Stat. 88.)

§77z–1. Private securities litigation

(a) Private class actions

(1) In general

The provisions of this subsection shall apply to each private action arising under this subchapter that is brought as a plaintiff class action pursuant to the Federal Rules of Civil Procedure.

(2) Certification filed with complaint

(A) In general

Each plaintiff seeking to serve as a representative party on behalf of a class shall provide a sworn certification, which shall be personally signed by such plaintiff and filed with the complaint, that—

(i) states that the plaintiff has reviewed the complaint and authorized its filing;

(ii) states that the plaintiff did not purchase the security that is the subject of the complaint at the direction of plaintiff's counsel or in order to participate in any private action arising under this subchapter;

(iii) states that the plaintiff is willing to serve as a representative party on behalf of a class, including providing testimony at deposition and trial, if necessary;

(iv) sets forth all of the transactions of the plaintiff in the security that is the subject of the complaint during the class period specified in the complaint;

(v) identifies any other action under this subchapter, filed during the 3-year period preceding the date on which the certification is signed by the plaintiff, in which the plaintiff has sought to serve, or served, as a representative party on behalf of a class; and

(vi) states that the plaintiff will not accept any payment for serving as a representative party on behalf of a class beyond the plaintiff's pro rata share of any recovery, except as ordered or approved by the court in accordance with paragraph (4).

(B) Nonwaiver of attorney-client privilege

The certification filed pursuant to subparagraph (A) shall not be construed to be a waiver of the attorney-client privilege.

(3) Appointment of lead plaintiff

(A) Early notice to class members

(i) In general

Not later than 20 days after the date on which the complaint is filed, the plaintiff or plaintiffs shall cause to be published, in a widely circulated national business-oriented publication or wire service, a notice advising members of the purported plaintiff class—

(I) of the pendency of the action, the claims asserted therein, and the purported class period; and

(II) that, not later than 60 days after the date on which the notice is published, any member of the purported class may move the court to serve as lead plaintiff of the purported class.

(ii) Multiple actions

If more than one action on behalf of a class asserting substantially the same claim or claims arising under this subchapter is filed, only the plaintiff or plaintiffs in the first filed action shall be required to cause notice to be published in accordance with clause (i).

(iii) Additional notices may be required under Federal rules

Notice required under clause (i) shall be in addition to any notice required pursuant to the Federal Rules of Civil Procedure.

(B) Appointment of lead plaintiff

(i) In general

Not later than 90 days after the date on which a notice is published under subparagraph (A)(i), the court shall consider any motion made by a purported class member in response to the notice, including any motion by a class member who is not individually named as a plaintiff in the complaint or complaints, and shall appoint as lead plaintiff the member or members of the purported plaintiff class that the court determines to be most capable of adequately representing the interests of class members (hereafter in this paragraph referred to as the “most adequate plaintiff”) in accordance with this subparagraph.

(ii) Consolidated actions

If more than one action on behalf of a class asserting substantially the same claim or claims arising under this subchapter has been filed, and any party has sought to consolidate those actions for pretrial purposes or for trial, the court shall not make the determination required by clause (i) until after the decision on the motion to consolidate is rendered. As soon as practicable after such decision is rendered, the court shall appoint the most adequate plaintiff as lead plaintiff for the consolidated actions in accordance with this subparagraph.

(iii) Rebuttable presumption

(I) In general

Subject to subclause (II), for purposes of clause (i), the court shall adopt a presumption that the most adequate plaintiff in any private action arising under this subchapter is the person or group of persons that—

(aa) has either filed the complaint or made a motion in response to a notice under subparagraph (A)(i);

(bb) in the determination of the court, has the largest financial interest in the relief sought by the class; and

(cc) otherwise satisfies the requirements of Rule 23 of the Federal Rules of Civil Procedure.

(II) Rebuttal evidence

The presumption described in subclause (I) may be rebutted only upon proof by a member of the purported plaintiff class that the presumptively most adequate plaintiff—

(aa) will not fairly and adequately protect the interests of the class; or

(bb) is subject to unique defenses that render such plaintiff incapable of adequately representing the class.

(iv) Discovery

For purposes of this subparagraph, discovery relating to whether a member or members of the purported plaintiff class is the most adequate plaintiff may be conducted by a plaintiff only if the plaintiff first demonstrates a reasonable basis for a finding that the presumptively most adequate plaintiff is incapable of adequately representing the class.

(v) Selection of lead counsel

The most adequate plaintiff shall, subject to the approval of the court, select and retain counsel to represent the class.

(vi) Restrictions on professional plaintiffs

Except as the court may otherwise permit, consistent with the purposes of this section, a person may be a lead plaintiff, or an officer, director, or fiduciary of a lead plaintiff, in no more than 5 securities class actions brought as plaintiff class actions pursuant to the Federal Rules of Civil Procedure during any 3-year period.

(4) Recovery by plaintiffs

The share of any final judgment or of any settlement that is awarded to a representative party serving on behalf of a class shall be equal, on a per share basis, to the portion of the final judgment or settlement awarded to all other members of the class. Nothing in this paragraph shall be construed to limit the award of reasonable costs and expenses (including lost wages) directly relating to the representation of the class to any representative party serving on behalf of the class.

(5) Restrictions on settlements under seal

The terms and provisions of any settlement agreement of a class action shall not be filed under seal, except that on motion of any party to the settlement, the court may order filing under seal for those portions of a settlement agreement as to which good cause is shown for such filing under seal. For purposes of this paragraph, good cause shall exist only if publication of a term or provision of a settlement agreement would cause direct and substantial harm to any party.

(6) Restrictions on payment of attorneys’ fees and expenses

Total attorneys’ fees and expenses awarded by the court to counsel for the plaintiff class shall not exceed a reasonable percentage of the amount of any damages and prejudgment interest actually paid to the class.

(7) Disclosure of settlement terms to class members

Any proposed or final settlement agreement that is published or otherwise disseminated to the class shall include each of the following statements, along with a cover page summarizing the information contained in such statements:

(A) Statement of plaintiff recovery

The amount of the settlement proposed to be distributed to the parties to the action, determined in the aggregate and on an average per share basis.

(B) Statement of potential outcome of case

(i) Agreement on amount of damages

If the settling parties agree on the average amount of damages per share that would be recoverable if the plaintiff prevailed on each claim alleged under this subchapter, a statement concerning the average amount of such potential damages per share.

(ii) Disagreement on amount of damages

If the parties do not agree on the average amount of damages per share that would be recoverable if the plaintiff prevailed on each claim alleged under this subchapter, a statement from each settling party concerning the issue or issues on which the parties disagree.

(iii) Inadmissibility for certain purposes

A statement made in accordance with clause (i) or (ii) concerning the amount of damages shall not be admissible in any Federal or State judicial action or administrative proceeding, other than an action or proceeding arising out of such statement.

(C) Statement of attorneys’ fees or costs sought

If any of the settling parties or their counsel intend to apply to the court for an award of attorneys’ fees or costs from any fund established as part of the settlement, a statement indicating which parties or counsel intend to make such an application, the amount of fees and costs that will be sought (including the amount of such fees and costs determined on an average per share basis), and a brief explanation supporting the fees and costs sought.

(D) Identification of lawyers’ representatives

The name, telephone number, and address of one or more representatives of counsel for the plaintiff class who will be reasonably available to answer questions from class members concerning any matter contained in any notice of settlement published or otherwise disseminated to the class.

(E) Reasons for settlement

A brief statement explaining the reasons why the parties are proposing the settlement.

(F) Other information

Such other information as may be required by the court.

(8) Attorney conflict of interest

If a plaintiff class is represented by an attorney who directly owns or otherwise has a beneficial interest in the securities that are the subject of the litigation, the court shall make a determination of whether such ownership or other interest constitutes a conflict of interest sufficient to disqualify the attorney from representing the plaintiff class.

(b) Stay of discovery; preservation of evidence

(1) In general

In any private action arising under this subchapter, all discovery and other proceedings shall be stayed during the pendency of any motion to dismiss, unless the court finds, upon the motion of any party, that particularized discovery is necessary to preserve evidence or to prevent undue prejudice to that party.

(2) Preservation of evidence

During the pendency of any stay of discovery pursuant to this subsection, unless otherwise ordered by the court, any party to the action with actual notice of the allegations contained in the complaint shall treat all documents, data compilations (including electronically recorded or stored data), and tangible objects that are in the custody or control of such person and that are relevant to the allegations, as if they were the subject of a continuing request for production of documents from an opposing party under the Federal Rules of Civil Procedure.

(3) Sanction for willful violation

A party aggrieved by the willful failure of an opposing party to comply with paragraph (2) may apply to the court for an order awarding appropriate sanctions.

(4) Circumvention of stay of discovery

Upon a proper showing, a court may stay discovery proceedings in any private action in a State court as necessary in aid of its jurisdiction, or to protect or effectuate its judgments, in an action subject to a stay of discovery pursuant to this subsection.

(c) Sanctions for abusive litigation

(1) Mandatory review by court

In any private action arising under this subchapter, upon final adjudication of the action, the court shall include in the record specific findings regarding compliance by each party and each attorney representing any party with each requirement of Rule 11(b) of the Federal Rules of Civil Procedure as to any complaint, responsive pleading, or dispositive motion.

(2) Mandatory sanctions

If the court makes a finding under paragraph (1) that a party or attorney violated any requirement of Rule 11(b) of the Federal Rules of Civil Procedure as to any complaint, responsive pleading, or dispositive motion, the court shall impose sanctions on such party or attorney in accordance with Rule 11 of the Federal Rules of Civil Procedure. Prior to making a finding that any party or attorney has violated Rule 11 of the Federal Rules of Civil Procedure, the court shall give such party or attorney notice and an opportunity to respond.

(3) Presumption in favor of attorneys’ fees and costs

(A) In general

Subject to subparagraphs (B) and (C), for purposes of paragraph (2), the court shall adopt a presumption that the appropriate sanction—

(i) for failure of any responsive pleading or dispositive motion to comply with any requirement of Rule 11(b) of the Federal Rules of Civil Procedure is an award to the opposing party of the reasonable attorneys’ fees and other expenses incurred as a direct result of the violation; and

(ii) for substantial failure of any complaint to comply with any requirement of Rule 11(b) of the Federal Rules of Civil Procedure is an award to the opposing party of the reasonable attorneys’ fees and other expenses incurred in the action.

(B) Rebuttal evidence

The presumption described in subparagraph (A) may be rebutted only upon proof by the party or attorney against whom sanctions are to be imposed that—

(i) the award of attorneys’ fees and other expenses will impose an unreasonable burden on that party or attorney and would be unjust, and the failure to make such an award would not impose a greater burden on the party in whose favor sanctions are to be imposed; or

(ii) the violation of Rule 11(b) of the Federal Rules of Civil Procedure was de minimis.

(C) Sanctions

If the party or attorney against whom sanctions are to be imposed meets its burden under subparagraph (B), the court shall award the sanctions that the court deems appropriate pursuant to Rule 11 of the Federal Rules of Civil Procedure.

(d) Defendant's right to written interrogatories

In any private action arising under this subchapter in which the plaintiff may recover money damages only on proof that a defendant acted with a particular state of mind, the court shall, when requested by a defendant, submit to the jury a written interrogatory on the issue of each such defendant's state of mind at the time the alleged violation occurred.

(May 27, 1933, ch. 38, title I, §27, as added Pub. L. 104–67, title I, §101(a), Dec. 22, 1995, 109 Stat. 737; amended Pub. L. 105–353, title I, §101(a)(2), title III, §301(a)(5), Nov. 3, 1998, 112 Stat. 3230, 3235.)

References in Text

The Federal Rules of Civil Procedure, referred to in subsecs. (a)(1), (3)(A)(iii), (B)(iii)(I)(cc), (vi), (b)(2), and (c), are set out in the Appendix to Title 28, Judiciary and Judicial Procedure.

Amendments

1998—Pub. L. 105–353, §301(a)(5), made technical correction relating to placement of section in subchapter.

Subsec. (b)(4). Pub. L. 105–353, §101(a)(2), added par. (4).

Effective Date of 1998 Amendment

Amendment by section 101(a)(2) of Pub. L. 105–353 not to affect or apply to any action commenced before and pending on Nov. 3, 1998, see section 101(c) of Pub. L. 105–353, set out as a note under section 77p of this title.

Effective Date

Section not to affect or apply to any private action arising under this subchapter or title I of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 (15 U.S.C. 78a et seq.), commenced before and pending on Dec. 22, 1995, see section 108 of Pub. L. 104–67, set out as an Effective Date of 1995 Amendment note under section 77l of this title.

Construction

Nothing in section to be deemed to create or ratify any implied right of action, or to prevent Commission, by rule or regulation, from restricting or otherwise regulating private actions under Securities Exchange Act of 1934 (15 U.S.C. 78a et seq.), see section 203 of Pub. L. 104–67, set out as a note under section 78j–1 of this title.

§77z–2. Application of safe harbor for forward-looking statements

(a) Applicability

This section shall apply only to a forward-looking statement made by—

(1) an issuer that, at the time that the statement is made, is subject to the reporting requirements of section 78m(a) or section 78o(d) of this title;

(2) a person acting on behalf of such issuer;

(3) an outside reviewer retained by such issuer making a statement on behalf of such issuer; or

(4) an underwriter, with respect to information provided by such issuer or information derived from information provided by the issuer.

(b) Exclusions

Except to the extent otherwise specifically provided by rule, regulation, or order of the Commission, this section shall not apply to a forward-looking statement—

(1) that is made with respect to the business or operations of the issuer, if the issuer—

(A) during the 3-year period preceding the date on which the statement was first made—

(i) was convicted of any felony or misdemeanor described in clauses (i) through (iv) of section 78o(b)(4)(B) of this title; or

(ii) has been made the subject of a judicial or administrative decree or order arising out of a governmental action that—

(I) prohibits future violations of the antifraud provisions of the securities laws;

(II) requires that the issuer cease and desist from violating the antifraud provisions of the securities laws; or

(III) determines that the issuer violated the antifraud provisions of the securities laws;


(B) makes the forward-looking statement in connection with an offering of securities by a blank check company;

(C) issues penny stock;

(D) makes the forward-looking statement in connection with a rollup transaction; or

(E) makes the forward-looking statement in connection with a going private transaction; or


(2) that is—

(A) included in a financial statement prepared in accordance with generally accepted accounting principles;

(B) contained in a registration statement of, or otherwise issued by, an investment company;

(C) made in connection with a tender offer;

(D) made in connection with an initial public offering;

(E) made in connection with an offering by, or relating to the operations of, a partnership, limited liability company, or a direct participation investment program; or

(F) made in a disclosure of beneficial ownership in a report required to be filed with the Commission pursuant to section 78m(d) of this title.

(c) Safe harbor

(1) In general

Except as provided in subsection (b) of this section, in any private action arising under this subchapter that is based on an untrue statement of a material fact or omission of a material fact necessary to make the statement not misleading, a person referred to in subsection (a) of this section shall not be liable with respect to any forward-looking statement, whether written or oral, if and to the extent that—

(A) the forward-looking statement is—

(i) identified as a forward-looking statement, and is accompanied by meaningful cautionary statements identifying important factors that could cause actual results to differ materially from those in the forward-looking statement; or

(ii) immaterial; or


(B) the plaintiff fails to prove that the forward-looking statement—

(i) if made by a natural person, was made with actual knowledge by that person that the statement was false or misleading; or

(ii) if made by a business entity, was—

(I) made by or with the approval of an executive officer of that entity, and

(II) made or approved by such officer with actual knowledge by that officer that the statement was false or misleading.

(2) Oral forward-looking statements

In the case of an oral forward-looking statement made by an issuer that is subject to the reporting requirements of section 78m(a) or section 78o(d) of this title, or by a person acting on behalf of such issuer, the requirement set forth in paragraph (1)(A) shall be deemed to be satisfied—

(A) if the oral forward-looking statement is accompanied by a cautionary statement—

(i) that the particular oral statement is a forward-looking statement; and

(ii) that the actual results could differ materially from those projected in the forward-looking statement; and


(B) if—

(i) the oral forward-looking statement is accompanied by an oral statement that additional information concerning factors that could cause actual results to differ materially from those in the forward-looking statement is contained in a readily available written document, or portion thereof;

(ii) the accompanying oral statement referred to in clause (i) identifies the document, or portion thereof, that contains the additional information about those factors relating to the forward-looking statement; and

(iii) the information contained in that written document is a cautionary statement that satisfies the standard established in paragraph (1)(A).

(3) Availability

Any document filed with the Commission or generally disseminated shall be deemed to be readily available for purposes of paragraph (2).

(4) Effect on other safe harbors

The exemption provided for in paragraph (1) shall be in addition to any exemption that the Commission may establish by rule or regulation under subsection (g) of this section.

(d) Duty to update

Nothing in this section shall impose upon any person a duty to update a forward-looking statement.

(e) Dispositive motion

On any motion to dismiss based upon subsection (c)(1) of this section, the court shall consider any statement cited in the complaint and cautionary statement accompanying the forward-looking statement, which are not subject to material dispute, cited by the defendant.

(f) Stay pending decision on motion

In any private action arising under this subchapter, the court shall stay discovery (other than discovery that is specifically directed to the applicability of the exemption provided for in this section) during the pendency of any motion by a defendant for summary judgment that is based on the grounds that—

(1) the statement or omission upon which the complaint is based is a forward-looking statement within the meaning of this section; and

(2) the exemption provided for in this section precludes a claim for relief.

(g) Exemption authority

In addition to the exemptions provided for in this section, the Commission may, by rule or regulation, provide exemptions from or under any provision of this subchapter, including with respect to liability that is based on a statement or that is based on projections or other forward-looking information, if and to the extent that any such exemption is consistent with the public interest and the protection of investors, as determined by the Commission.

(h) Effect on other authority of Commission

Nothing in this section limits, either expressly or by implication, the authority of the Commission to exercise similar authority or to adopt similar rules and regulations with respect to forward-looking statements under any other statute under which the Commission exercises rulemaking authority.

(i) Definitions

For purposes of this section, the following definitions shall apply:

(1) Forward-looking statement

The term “forward-looking statement” means—

(A) a statement containing a projection of revenues, income (including income loss), earnings (including earnings loss) per share, capital expenditures, dividends, capital structure, or other financial items;

(B) a statement of the plans and objectives of management for future operations, including plans or objectives relating to the products or services of the issuer;

(C) a statement of future economic performance, including any such statement contained in a discussion and analysis of financial condition by the management or in the results of operations included pursuant to the rules and regulations of the Commission;

(D) any statement of the assumptions underlying or relating to any statement described in subparagraph (A), (B), or (C);

(E) any report issued by an outside reviewer retained by an issuer, to the extent that the report assesses a forward-looking statement made by the issuer; or

(F) a statement containing a projection or estimate of such other items as may be specified by rule or regulation of the Commission.

(2) Investment company

The term “investment company” has the same meaning as in section 80a–3(a) of this title.

(3) Penny stock

The term “penny stock” has the same meaning as in section 78c(a)(51) of this title, and the rules and regulations, or orders issued pursuant to that section.

(4) Going private transaction

The term “going private transaction” has the meaning given that term under the rules or regulations of the Commission issued pursuant to section 78m(e) of this title.

(5) Securities laws

The term “securities laws” has the same meaning as in section 78c of this title.

(6) Person acting on behalf of an issuer

The term “person acting on behalf of an issuer” means an officer, director, or employee of the issuer.

(7) Other terms

The terms “blank check company”, “rollup transaction”, “partnership”, “limited liability company”, “executive officer of an entity” and “direct participation investment program”, have the meanings given those terms by rule or regulation of the Commission.

(May 27, 1933, ch. 38, title I, §27A, as added Pub. L. 104–67, title I, §102(a), Dec. 22, 1995, 109 Stat. 749; amended Pub. L. 105–353, title III, §301(a)(5), Nov. 3, 1998, 112 Stat. 3235; Pub. L. 111–203, title IX, §985(a)(4), July 21, 2010, 124 Stat. 1933.)

Amendments

2010—Subsec. (c)(1)(B)(ii). Pub. L. 111–203 substituted comma for semicolon after “entity” in introductory provisions.

1998—Pub. L. 105–353 made technical correction relating to placement of section in subchapter.

Effective Date of 2010 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 111–203 effective 1 day after July 21, 2010, except as otherwise provided, see section 4 of Pub. L. 111–203, set out as an Effective Date note under section 5301 of Title 12, Banks and Banking.

Effective Date

Section not to affect or apply to any private action arising under this subchapter or title I of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 (15 U.S.C. 78a et seq.), commenced before and pending on Dec. 22, 1995, see section 108 of Pub. L. 104–67, set out as an Effective Date of 1995 Amendment note under section 77l of this title.

Construction

Nothing in section deemed to create or ratify any implied right of action, or to prevent Commission, by rule or regulation, from restricting or otherwise regulating private actions under Securities Exchange Act of 1934 (15 U.S.C. 78a et seq.), see section 203 of Pub. L. 104–67, set out as a note under section 78j–1 of this title.

§77z–2a. Conflicts of interest relating to certain securitizations

(a) In general

An underwriter, placement agent, initial purchaser, or sponsor, or any affiliate or subsidiary of any such entity, of an asset-backed security (as such term is defined in section 78c of this title, which for the purposes of this section shall include a synthetic asset-backed security), shall not, at any time for a period ending on the date that is one year after the date of the first closing of the sale of the asset-backed security, engage in any transaction that would involve or result in any material conflict of interest with respect to any investor in a transaction arising out of such activity.

(b) Rulemaking

Not later than 270 days after July 21, 2010, the Commission shall issue rules for the purpose of implementing subsection (a).

(c) Exception

The prohibitions of subsection (a) shall not apply to—

(1) risk-mitigating hedging activities in connection with positions or holdings arising out of the underwriting, placement, initial purchase, or sponsorship of an asset-backed security, provided that such activities are designed to reduce the specific risks to the underwriter, placement agent, initial purchaser, or sponsor associated with positions or holdings arising out of such underwriting, placement, initial purchase, or sponsorship; or

(2) purchases or sales of asset-backed securities made pursuant to and consistent with—

(A) commitments of the underwriter, placement agent, initial purchaser, or sponsor, or any affiliate or subsidiary of any such entity, to provide liquidity for the asset-backed security, or

(B) bona fide market-making in the asset backed security.

(d) Rule of construction

This subsection 1 shall not otherwise limit the application of section 78o–11 of this title.

(May 27, 1933, ch. 38, title I, §27B, as added Pub. L. 111–203, title VI, §621(a), July 21, 2010, 124 Stat. 1631.)

Effective Date

Pub. L. 111–203, title VI, §621(b), July 21, 2010, 124 Stat. 1632, provided that: “Section 27B of the Securities Act of 1933 [15 U.S.C. 77z–2a], as added by this section, shall take effect on the effective date of final rules issued by the [Securities and Exchange] Commission under subsection (b) of such section 27B, except that subsections (b) and (d) of such section 27B shall take effect on the date of enactment of this Act [July 21, 2010].”

1 So in original. Probably should be “section”.

§77z–3. General exemptive authority

The Commission, by rule or regulation, may conditionally or unconditionally exempt any person, security, or transaction, or any class or classes of persons, securities, or transactions, from any provision or provisions of this subchapter or of any rule or regulation issued under this subchapter, to the extent that such exemption is necessary or appropriate in the public interest, and is consistent with the protection of investors.

(May 27, 1933, ch. 38, title I, §28, as added Pub. L. 104–290, title I, §105(a), Oct. 11, 1996, 110 Stat. 3424; amended Pub. L. 105–353, title III, §301(a)(5), Nov. 3, 1998, 112 Stat. 3235.)

Amendments

1998—Pub. L. 105–353 made technical correction relating to placement of section in subchapter.

§77aa. Schedule of information required in registration statement

schedule a

(1) The name under which the issuer is doing or intends to do business;

(2) the name of the State or other sovereign power under which the issuer is organized;

(3) the location of the issuer's principal business office, and if the issuer is a foreign or territorial person, the name and address of its agent in the United States authorized to receive notice;

(4) the names and addresses of the directors or persons performing similar functions, and the chief executive, financial and accounting officers, chosen or to be chosen if the issuer be a corporation, association, trust, or other entity; of all partners, if the issuer be a partnership; and of the issuer, if the issuer be an individual; and of the promoters in the case of a business to be formed, or formed within two years prior to the filing of the registration statement;

(5) the names and addresses of the underwriters;

(6) the names and addresses of all persons, if any, owning of record or beneficially, if known, more than 10 per centum of any class of stock of the issuer, or more than 10 per centum in the aggregate of the outstanding stock of the issuer as of a date within twenty days prior to the filing of the registration statement;

(7) the amount of securities of the issuer held by any person specified in paragraphs (4), (5), and (6) of this schedule, as of a date within twenty days prior to the filing of the registration statement, and, if possible, as of one year prior thereto, and the amount of the securities, for which the registration statement is filed, to which such persons have indicated their intention to subscribe;

(8) the general character of the business actually transacted or to be transacted by the issuer;

(9) a statement of the capitalization of the issuer, including the authorized and outstanding amounts of its capital stock and the proportion thereof paid up, the number and classes of shares in which such capital stock is divided, par value thereof, or if it has no par value, the stated or assigned value thereof, a description of the respective voting rights, preferences, conversion and exchange rights, rights to dividends, profits, or capital of each class, with respect to each other class, including the retirement and liquidation rights or values thereof;

(10) a statement of the securities, if any, covered by options outstanding or to be created in connection with the security to be offered, together with the names and addresses of all persons, if any, to be allotted more than 10 per centum in the aggregate of such options;

(11) the amount of capital stock of each class issued or included in the shares of stock to be offered;

(12) the amount of the funded debt outstanding and to be created by the security to be offered, with a brief description of the date, maturity, and character of such debt, rate of interest, character of amortization provisions, and the security, if any, therefor. If substitution of any security is permissible, a summarized statement of the conditions under which such substitution is permitted. If substitution is permissible without notice, a specific statement to that effect;

(13) the specific purposes in detail and the approximate amounts to be devoted to such purposes, so far as determinable, for which the security to be offered is to supply funds, and if the funds are to be raised in part from other sources, the amounts thereof and the sources thereof, shall be stated;

(14) the remuneration, paid or estimated to be paid, by the issuer or its predecessor, directly or indirectly, during the past year and ensuing year to (a) the directors or persons performing similar functions, and (b) its officers and other persons, naming them wherever such remuneration exceeded $25,000 during any such year;

(15) the estimated net proceeds to be derived from the security to be offered;

(16) the price at which it is proposed that the security shall be offered to the public or the method by which such price is computed and any variation therefrom at which any portion of such security is proposed to be offered to any persons or classes of persons, other than the underwriters, naming them or specifying the class. A variation in price may be proposed prior to the date of the public offering of the security, but the Commission shall immediately be notified of such variation;

(17) all commissions or discounts paid or to be paid, directly or indirectly, by the issuer to the underwriters in respect of the sale of the security to be offered. Commissions shall include all cash, securities, contracts, or anything else of value, paid, to be set aside, disposed of, or understandings with or for the benefit of any other persons in which any underwriter is interested, made, in connection with the sale of such security. A commission paid or to be paid in connection with the sale of such security by a person in which the issuer has an interest or which is controlled or directed by, or under common control with, the issuer shall be deemed to have been paid by the issuer. Where any such commission is paid the amount of such commission paid to each underwriter shall be stated;

(18) the amount or estimated amounts, itemized in reasonable detail, of expenses, other than commissions specified in paragraph (17) of this schedule, incurred or borne by or for the account of the issuer in connection with the sale of the security to be offered or properly chargeable thereto, including legal, engineering, certification, authentication, and other charges;

(19) the net proceeds derived from any security sold by the issuer during the two years preceding the filing of the registration statement, the price at which such security was offered to the public, and the names of the principal underwriters of such security;

(20) any amount paid within two years preceding the filing of the registration statement or intended to be paid to any promoter and the consideration for any such payment;

(21) the names and addresses of the vendors and the purchase price of any property, or good will, acquired or to be acquired, not in the ordinary course of business, which is to be defrayed in whole or in part from the proceeds of the security to be offered, the amount of any commission payable to any person in connection with such acquisition, and the name or names of such person or persons, together with any expense incurred or to be incurred in connection with such acquisition, including the cost of borrowing money to finance such acquisition;

(22) full particulars of the nature and extent of the interest, if any, of every director, principal executive officer, and of every stockholder holding more than 10 per centum of any class of stock or more than 10 per centum in the aggregate of the stock of the issuer, in any property acquired, not in the ordinary course of business of the issuer, within two years preceding the filing of the registration statement or proposed to be acquired at such date;

(23) the names and addresses of counsel who have passed on the legality of the issue;

(24) dates of and parties to, and the general effect concisely stated of every material contract made, not in the ordinary course of business, which contract is to be executed in whole or in part at or after the filing of the registration statement or which contract has been made not more than two years before such filing. Any management contract or contract providing for special bonuses or profit-sharing arrangements, and every material patent or contract for a material patent right, and every contract by or with a public utility company or an affiliate thereof, providing for the giving or receiving of technical or financial advice or service (if such contract may involve a charge to any party thereto at a rate in excess of $2,500 per year in cash or securities or anything else of value), shall be deemed a material contract;

(25) a balance sheet as of a date not more than ninety days prior to the date of the filing of the registration statement showing all of the assets of the issuer, the nature and cost thereof, whenever determinable, in such detail and in such form as the Commission shall prescribe (with intangible items segregated), including any loan in excess of $20,000 to any officer, director, stockholder or person directly or indirectly controlling or controlled by the issuer, or person under direct or indirect common control with the issuer. All the liabilities of the issuer in such detail and such form as the Commission shall prescribe, including surplus of the issuer showing how and from what sources such surplus was created, all as of a date not more than ninety days prior to the filing of the registration statement. If such statement be not certified by an independent public or certified accountant, in addition to the balance sheet required to be submitted under this schedule, a similar detailed balance sheet of the assets and liabilities of the issuer, certified by an independent public or certified accountant, of a date not more than one year prior to the filing of the registration statement, shall be submitted;

(26) a profit and loss statement of the issuer showing earnings and income, the nature and source thereof, and the expenses and fixed charges in such detail and such form as the Commission shall prescribe for the latest fiscal year for which such statement is available and for the two preceding fiscal years, year by year, or, if such issuer has been in actual business for less than three years, then for such time as the issuer has been in actual business, year by year. If the date of the filing of the registration statement is more than six months after the close of the last fiscal year, a statement from such closing date to the latest practicable date. Such statement shall show what the practice of the issuer has been during the three years or lesser period as to the character of the charges, dividends or other distributions made against its various surplus accounts, and as to depreciation, depletion, and maintenance charges, in such detail and form as the Commission shall prescribe, and if stock dividends or avails from the sale of rights have been credited to income, they shall be shown separately with a statement of the basis upon which the credit is computed. Such statement shall also differentiate between any recurring and nonrecurring income and between any investment and operating income. Such statement shall be certified by an independent public or certified accountant;

(27) if the proceeds, or any part of the proceeds, of the security to be issued is to be applied directly or indirectly to the purchase of any business, a profit and loss statement of such business certified by an independent public or certified accountant, meeting the requirements of paragraph (26) of this schedule, for the three preceding fiscal years, together with a balance sheet, similarly certified, of such business, meeting the requirements of paragraph (25) of this schedule of a date not more than ninety days prior to the filing of the registration statement or at the date such business was acquired by the issuer if the business was acquired by the issuer more than ninety days prior to the filing of the registration statement;

(28) a copy of any agreement or agreements (or, if identical agreements are used, the forms thereof) made with any underwriter, including all contracts and agreements referred to in paragraph (17) of this schedule;

(29) a copy of the opinion or opinions of counsel in respect to the legality of the issue, with a translation of such opinion, when necessary, into the English language;

(30) a copy of all material contracts referred to in paragraph (24) of this schedule, but no disclosure shall be required of any portion of any such contract if the Commission determines that disclosure of such portion would impair the value of the contract and would not be necessary for the protection of the investors;

(31) unless previously filed and registered under the provisions of this subchapter, and brought up to date, (a) a copy of its articles of incorporation, with all amendments thereof and of its existing bylaws or instruments corresponding thereto, whatever the name, if the issuer be a corporation; (b) copy of all instruments by which the trust is created or declared, if the issuer is a trust; (c) a copy of its articles of partnership or association and all other papers pertaining to its organization, if the issuer is a partnership, unincorporated association, joint-stock company, or any other form of organization; and

(32) a copy of the underlying agreements or indentures affecting any stock, bonds, or debentures offered or to be offered.

In case of certificates of deposit, voting trust certificates, collateral trust certificates, certificates of interest or shares in unincorporated investment trusts, equipment trust certificates, interim or other receipts for certificates, and like securities, the Commission shall establish rules and regulations requiring the submission of information of a like character applicable to such cases, together with such other information as it may deem appropriate and necessary regarding the character, financial or otherwise, of the actual issuer of the securities and/or the person performing the acts and assuming the duties of depositor or manager.

schedule b

(1) Name of borrowing government or subdivision thereof;

(2) specific purposes in detail and the approximate amounts to be devoted to such purposes, so far as determinable, for which the security to be offered is to supply funds, and if the funds are to be raised in part from other sources, the amounts thereof and the sources thereof, shall be stated;

(3) the amount of the funded debt and the estimated amount of the floating debt outstanding and to be created by the security to be offered, excluding intergovernmental debt, and a brief description of the date, maturity, character of such debt, rate of interest, character of amortization provisions, and the security, if any, therefor. If substitution of any security is permissible, a statement of the conditions under which such substitution is permitted. If substitution is permissible without notice, a specific statement to that effect;

(4) whether or not the issuer or its predecessor has, within a period of twenty years prior to the filing of the registration statement, defaulted on the principal or interest of any external security, excluding intergovernmental debt, and, if so, the date, amount, and circumstances of such default, and the terms of the succeeding arrangement, if any;

(5) the receipts, classified by source, and the expenditures, classified by purpose, in such detail and form as the Commission shall prescribe for the latest fiscal year for which such information is available and the two preceding fiscal years, year by year;

(6) the names and addresses of the underwriters;

(7) the name and address of its authorized agent, if any, in the United States;

(8) the estimated net proceeds to be derived from the sale in the United States of the security to be offered;

(9) the price at which it is proposed that the security shall be offered in the United States to the public or the method by which such price is computed. A variation in price may be proposed prior to the date of the public offering of the security, but the Commission shall immediately be notified of such variation;

(10) all commissions paid or to be paid, directly or indirectly, by the issuer to the underwriters in respect of the sale of the security to be offered. Commissions shall include all cash, securities, contracts, or anything else of value, paid, to be set aside, disposed of, or understandings with or for the benefit of any other persons in which the underwriter is interested, made, in connection with the sale of such security. Where any such commission is paid, the amount of such commission paid to each underwriter shall be stated;

(11) the amount or estimated amounts, itemized in reasonable detail, of expenses, other than the commissions specified in paragraph (10) of this schedule, incurred or borne by or for the account of the issuer in connection with the sale of the security to be offered or properly chargeable thereto, including legal, engineering, certification, and other charges;

(12) the names and addresses of counsel who have passed upon the legality of the issue;

(13) a copy of any agreement or agreements made with any underwriter governing the sale of the security within the United States; and

(14) an agreement of the issuer to furnish a copy of the opinion or opinions of counsel in respect to the legality of the issue, with a translation, where necessary, into the English language. Such opinion shall set out in full all laws, decrees, ordinances, or other acts of Government under which the issue of such security has been authorized.

(May 27, 1933, ch. 38, title I, schedules A, B, 48 Stat. 88, 91; Pub. L. 105–353, title III, §301(a)(6), Nov. 3, 1998, 112 Stat. 3235.)

Amendments

1998—Schedule A, par. (28). Pub. L. 105–353 substituted “identical” for “identic”.

Transfer of Functions

For transfer of functions of Securities and Exchange Commission, with certain exceptions, to Chairman of such Commission, see Reorg. Plan No. 10 of 1950, §§1, 2, eff. May 24, 1950, 15 F.R. 3175, 64 Stat. 1265, set out under section 78d of this title.

SUBCHAPTER II—FOREIGN SECURITIES

§77bb. “Corporation of Foreign Security Holders”; creation; principal office; branch offices

For the purpose of protecting, conserving, and advancing the interests of the holders of foreign securities in default, there is hereby created a body corporate with the name “Corporation of Foreign Security Holders” (herein called the “Corporation”). The principal office of the Corporation shall be located in the District of Columbia, but there may be established agencies or branch offices in any city or cities of the United States under rules and regulations prescribed by the board of directors.

(May 27, 1933, ch. 38, title II, §201, 48 Stat. 92.)

§77cc. Directors of Corporation; appointment, term of office, and removal

The control and management of the Corporation shall be vested in a board of six directors, who shall be appointed and hold office in the following manner: As soon as practicable after the date this chapter takes effect the Federal Trade Commission (hereinafter in this subchapter called “Commission”) shall appoint six directors, and shall designate a chairman and a vice chairman from among their number. After the directors designated as chairman and vice chairman cease to be directors, their successors as chairman and vice chairman shall be elected by the board of directors itself. Of the directors first appointed, two shall continue in office for a term of two years, two for a term of four years, and two for a term of six years, from the date this chapter takes effect, the term of each to be designated by the Commission at the time of appointment. Their successors shall be appointed by the Commission, each for a term of six years from the date of the expiration of the term for which his predecessor was appointed, except that any person appointed to fill a vacancy occurring prior to the expiration of the term for which his predecessor was appointed shall be appointed only for the unexpired term of such predecessor. No person shall be eligible to serve as a director who within the five years preceding has had any interest, direct or indirect, in any corporation, company, partnership, bank, or association which has sold or offered for sale any foreign securities. The office of a director shall be vacated if the board of directors shall, at a meeting specially convened for that purpose, by resolution passed by a majority of at least two-thirds of the board of directors, remove such member from office, provided that the member whom it is proposed to remove shall have seven days’ notice sent to him of such meeting, and that he may be heard.

(May 27, 1933, ch. 38, title II, §202, 48 Stat. 93.)

§77dd. Powers and duties of Corporation, generally

The Corporation shall have power to adopt, alter, and use a corporate seal; to make contracts; to lease such real estate as may be necessary for the transaction of its business; to sue and be sued, to complain and to defend, in any court of competent jurisdiction, State or Federal; to require from trustees, financial agents, or dealers in foreign securities information relative to the original or present holders of foreign securities and such other information as may be required, and to issue subpenas therefor; to take over the functions of any fiscal and paying agents of any foreign securities in default; to borrow money for the purposes of this subchapter, and to pledge as collateral for such loans any securities deposited with the Corporation pursuant to this subchapter; by and with the consent and approval of the Commission to select, employ, and fix the compensation of officers, directors, members of committees, employees, attorneys, and agents of the Corporation, without regard to the provisions of other laws applicable to the employment and compensation of officers or employees of the United States; to define their authority and duties, require bonds of them and fix the penalties thereof, and to dismiss at pleasure such officers, employees, attorneys, and agents; and to prescribe, amend, and repeal, by its board of directors, bylaws, rules, and regulations governing the manner in which its general business may be conducted and the powers granted to it by law may be exercised and enjoyed, together with provisions for such committees and the functions thereof as the board of directors may deem necessary for facilitating its business under this subchapter. The board of directors of the Corporation shall determine and prescribe the manner in which its obligations shall be incurred and its expenses allowed and paid.

(May 27, 1933, ch. 38, title II, §203, 48 Stat. 93.)

§77ee. Directors of Corporation, powers and duties generally

The board of directors may—

(1) Convene meetings of holders of foreign securities.

(2) Invite the deposit and undertake the custody of foreign securities which have defaulted in the payment either of principal or interest, and issue receipts or certificates in the place of securities so deposited.

(3) Appoint committees from the directors of the Corporation and/or all other persons to represent holders of any class or classes of foreign securities which have defaulted in the payment either of principal or interest and determine and regulate the functions of such committees. The chairman and vice chairman of the board of directors shall be ex officio chairman and vice chairman of each committee.

(4) Negotiate and carry out, or assist in negotiating and carrying out, arrangements for the resumption of payments due or in arrears in respect of any foreign securities in default or for rearranging the terms on which such securities may in future be held or for converting and exchanging the same for new securities or for any other object in relation thereto; and under this paragraph any plan or agreement made with respect to such securities shall be binding upon depositors, providing that the consent of holders resident in the United States of 60 per centum of the securities deposited with the Corporation shall be obtained.

(5) Undertake, superintend, or take part in the collection and application of funds derived from foreign securities which come into the possession of or under the control or management of the Corporation.

(6) Collect, preserve, publish, circulate, and render available in readily accessible form, when deemed essential or necessary, documents, statistics, reports, and information of all kinds in respect of foreign securities, including particularly records of foreign external securities in default and records of the progress made toward the payment of past-due obligations.

(7) Take such steps as it may deem expedient with the view of securing the adoption of clear and simple forms of foreign securities and just and sound principles in the conditions and terms thereof.

(8) Generally, act in the name and on behalf of the holders of foreign securities the care or representation of whose interests may be entrusted to the Corporation; conserve and protect the rights and interests of holders of foreign securities issued, sold, or owned in the United States; adopt measures for the protection, vindication, and preservation or reservation of the rights and interests of holders of foreign securities either on any default in or on breach or contemplated breach of the conditions on which such foreign securities may have been issued, or otherwise; obtain for such holders such legal and other assistance and advice as the board of directors may deem expedient; and do all such other things as are incident or conducive to the attainment of the above objects.

(May 27, 1933, ch. 38, title II, §204, 48 Stat. 94.)

§77ff. Accounts and annual balance sheet of Corporation; audits

The board of directors shall cause accounts to be kept of all matters relating to or connected with the transactions and business of the Corporation, and cause a general account and balance sheet of the Corporation to be made out in each year, and cause all accounts to be audited by one or more auditors who shall examine the same and report thereon to the board of directors.

(May 27, 1933, ch. 38, title II, §205, 48 Stat. 94.)

§77gg. Annual report by Corporation; printing and distribution

The Corporation shall make, print, and make public an annual report of its operations during each year, send a copy thereof, together with a copy of the account and balance sheet and auditor's report, to the Commission and to both Houses of Congress, and provide one copy of such report but not more than one on the application of any person and on receipt of a sum not exceeding $1: Provided, That the board of directors in its discretion may distribute copies gratuitously.

(May 27, 1933, ch. 38, title II, §206, 48 Stat. 95.)

§77hh. Assessments by Corporation on holders of foreign securities

The Corporation may in its discretion levy charges, assessed on a pro rata basis, on the holders of foreign securities deposited with it: Provided, That any charge levied at the time of depositing securities with the Corporation shall not exceed one fifth of 1 per centum of the face value of such securities: Provided further, That any additional charges shall bear a close relationship to the cost of operations and negotiations including those enumerated in sections 77dd and 77ee of this title and shall not exceed 1 per centum of the face value of such securities.

(May 27, 1933, ch. 38, title II, §207, 48 Stat. 95.)

§77ii. Subscriptions accepted by Corporation as loans; repayment

The Corporation may receive subscriptions from any person, foundation with a public purpose, or agency of the United States Government, and such subscriptions may, in the discretion of the board of directors, be treated as loans repayable when and as the board of directors shall determine.

(May 27, 1933, ch. 38, title II, §208, 48 Stat. 95.)

§77jj. Loans to Corporation from Reconstruction Finance Corporation authorized

The Reconstruction Finance Corporation is authorized to loan out of its funds not to exceed $75,000 for the use of the Corporation.

(May 27, 1933, ch. 38, title II, §209, 48 Stat. 95.)

Abolition of Reconstruction Finance Corporation

Section 6(a) of Reorg. Plan No. 1 of 1957, eff. June 30, 1957, 22 F.R. 4633, 71 Stat. 647, set out as a note under section 601 of this title, abolished the Reconstruction Finance Corporation.

§77kk. Representations by Corporation as acting for Department of State or United States forbidden; interference with foreign negotiations forbidden

Notwithstanding the foregoing provisions of this subchapter, it shall be unlawful for, and nothing in this subchapter shall be taken or construed as permitting or authorizing, the Corporation in this subchapter created, or any committee of said Corporation, or any person or persons acting for or representing or purporting to represent it—

(a) to claim or assert or pretend to be acting for or to represent the Department of State or the United States Government;

(b) to make any statements or representations of any kind to any foreign government or its officials or the officials of any political subdivision of any foreign government that said Corporation or any committee thereof or any individual or individuals connected therewith were speaking or acting for the said Department of State or the United States Government; or

(c) to do any act directly or indirectly which would interfere with or obstruct or hinder or which might be calculated to obstruct, hinder, or interfere with the policy or policies of the said Department of State or the Government of the United States or any pending or contemplated diplomatic negotiations, arrangements, business or exchanges between the Government of the United States or said Department of State and any foreign government or any political subdivision thereof.

(May 27, 1933, ch. 38, title II, §210, 48 Stat. 95.)

§77ll. Effective date of subchapter

This subchapter shall not take effect until the President finds that its taking effect is in the public interest and by proclamation so declares.

(May 27, 1933, ch. 38, title II, §211, 48 Stat. 95.)

§77mm. Short title

This subchapter may be cited as the “Corporation of Foreign Bondholders Act, 1933.”

(May 27, 1933, ch. 38, title II, §212, 48 Stat. 95.)

SUBCHAPTER III—TRUST INDENTURES

§77aaa. Short title

This subchapter may be cited as the “Trust Indenture Act of 1939.”

(May 27, 1933, ch. 38, title III, §301, as added Aug. 3, 1939, ch. 411, 53 Stat. 1149.)

Short Title of 1990 Amendment

Pub. L. 101–550, title IV, §401, Nov. 15, 1990, 104 Stat. 2721, provided that: “This title [amending sections 77ccc to 77eee, 77iii to 77rrr, and 77vvv of this title] may be cited as the ‘Trust Indenture Reform Act of 1990’.”

§77bbb. Necessity for regulation

(a) Practices adversely affecting public

Upon the basis of facts disclosed by the reports of the Securities and Exchange Commission made to the Congress pursuant to section 78jj of this title and otherwise disclosed and ascertained, it is hereby declared that the national public interest and the interest of investors in notes, bonds, debentures, evidences of indebtedness, and certificates of interest or participation therein, which are offered to the public, are adversely affected—

(1) when the obligor fails to provide a trustee to protect and enforce the rights and to represent the interests of such investors, notwithstanding the fact that (A) individual action by such investors for the purpose of protecting and enforcing their rights is rendered impracticable by reason of the disproportionate expense of taking such action, and (B) concerted action by such investors in their common interest through representatives of their own selection is impeded by reason of the wide dispersion of such investors through many States, and by reason of the fact that information as to the names and addresses of such investors generally is not available to such investors;

(2) when the trustee does not have adequate rights and powers, or adequate duties and responsibilities, in connection with matters relating to the protection and enforcement of the rights of such investors; when, notwithstanding the obstacles to concerted action by such investors, and the general and reasonable assumption by such investors that the trustee is under an affirmative duty to take action for the protection and enforcement of their rights, trust indentures (A) generally provide that the trustee shall be under no duty to take any such action, even in the event of default, unless it receives notice of default, demand for action, and indemnity, from the holders of substantial percentages of the securities outstanding thereunder, and (B) generally relieve the trustee from liability even for its own negligent action or failure to act;

(3) when the trustee does not have resources commensurate with its responsibilities, or has any relationship to or connection with the obligor or any underwriter of any securities of the obligor, or holds, beneficially or otherwise, any interest in the obligor or any such underwriter, which relationship, connection, or interest involves a material conflict with the interests of such investors;

(4) when the obligor is not obligated to furnish to the trustee under the indenture and to such investors adequate current information as to its financial condition, and as to the performance of its obligations with respect to the securities outstanding under such indenture; or when the communication of such information to such investors is impeded by the fact that information as to the names and addresses of such investors generally is not available to the trustee and to such investors;

(5) when the indenture contains provisions which are misleading or deceptive, or when full and fair disclosure is not made to prospective investors of the effect of important indenture provisions; or

(6) when, by reason of the fact that trust indentures are commonly prepared by the obligor or underwriter in advance of the public offering of the securities to be issued thereunder, such investors are unable to participate in the preparation thereof, and, by reason of their lack of understanding of the situation, such investors would in any event be unable to procure the correction of the defects enumerated in this subsection.

(b) Declaration of policy

Practices of the character above enumerated have existed to such an extent that, unless regulated, the public offering of notes, bonds, debentures, evidences of indebtedness, and certificates of interest or participation therein, by the use of means and instruments of transportation and communication in interstate commerce and of the mails, is injurious to the capital markets, to investors, and to the general public; and it is hereby declared to be the policy of this subchapter, in accordance with which policy all the provisions of this subchapter shall be interpreted, to meet the problems and eliminate the practices, enumerated in this section, connected with such public offerings.

(May 27, 1933, ch. 38, title III, §302, as added Aug. 3, 1939, ch. 411, 53 Stat. 1150.)

References in Text

Section 78jj of this title, referred to in subsec. (a), was omitted from the Code.

Transfer of Functions

For transfer of functions of Securities and Exchange Commission, with certain exceptions, to Chairman of such Commission, see Reorg. Plan No. 10 of 1950, §§1, 2, eff. May 24, 1950, 15 F.R. 3175, 64 Stat. 1265, set out under section 78d of this title.

§77ccc. Definitions

When used in this subchapter, unless the context otherwise requires—

(1) Any term defined in section 2 of the Securities Act of 1933 [15 U.S.C. 77b], and not otherwise defined in this section shall have the meaning assigned to such term in such section 2 [15 U.S.C. 77b].

(2) The terms “sale”, “sell”, “offer to sell”, “offer for sale”, and “offer” shall include all transactions included in such terms as provided in paragraph (3) of section 2(a) of the Securities Act of 1933 [15 U.S.C. 77b(a)], except that an offer or sale of a certificate of interest or participation shall be deemed an offer or sale of the security or securities in which such certificate evidences an interest or participation if and only if such certificate gives the holder thereof the right to convert the same into such security or securities.

(3) The term “prospectus” shall have the meaning assigned to such term in paragraph (10) of section 2(a) of the Securities Act of 1933 [15 U.S.C. 77b(a)], except that in the case of securities which are not registered under the Securities Act of 1933 [15 U.S.C. 77a et seq.], such term shall not include any communication (A) if it is proved that prior to or at the same time with such communication a written statement if any required by section 77fff of this title was sent or given to the persons to whom the communication was made, or (B) if such communication states from whom such statement may be obtained (if such statement is required by rules or regulations under paragraphs (1) or (2) of subsection (b) of section 77fff of this title) and, in addition, does no more than identify the security, state the price thereof, state by whom orders will be executed and contain such other information as the Commission, by rules or regulations deemed necessary or appropriate in the public interest or for the protection of investors, and subject to such terms and conditions as may be prescribed therein, may permit.

(4) The term “underwriter” means any person who has purchased from an issuer with a view to, or offers or sells for an issuer in connection with, the distribution of any security, or participates or has a direct or indirect participation in any such undertaking, or participates or has a participation in the direct or indirect underwriting of any such undertaking; but such term shall not include a person whose interest is limited to a commission from an underwriter or dealer not in excess of the usual and customary distributors’ or sellers’ commission.

(5) The term “director” means any director of a corporation, or any individual performing similar functions with respect to any organization whether incorporated or unincorporated.

(6) The term “executive officer” means the president, every vice president, every trust officer, the cashier, the secretary, and the treasurer of a corporation, and any individual customarily performing similar functions with respect to any organization whether incorporated or unincorporated, but shall not include the chairman of the board of directors.

(7) The term “indenture” means any mortgage, deed of trust, trust or other indenture, or similar instrument or agreement (including any supplement or amendment to any of the foregoing), under which securities are outstanding or are to be issued, whether or not any property, real or personal, is, or is to be, pledged, mortgaged, assigned, or conveyed thereunder.

(8) The term “application” or “application for qualification” means the application provided for in section 77eee of this title or section 77ggg of this title, and includes any amendment thereto and any report, document, or memorandum accompanying such application or incorporated therein by reference.

(9) The term “indenture to be qualified” means (A) the indenture under which there has been or is to be issued a security in respect of which a particular registration statement has been filed, or (B) the indenture in respect of which a particular application has been filed.

(10) The term “indenture trustee” means each trustee under the indenture to be qualified, and each successor trustee.

(11) The term “indenture security” means any security issued or issuable under the indenture to be qualified.

(12) The term “obligor”, when used with respect to any such indenture security, means every person (including a guarantor) who is liable thereon, and, if such security is a certificate of interest or participation, such term means also every person (including a guarantor) who is liable upon the security or securities in which such certificate evidences an interest or participation; but such term shall not include the trustee under an indenture under which certificates of interest or participation, equipment trust certificates, or like securities are outstanding.

(13) The term “paying agent”, when used with respect to any such indenture security, means any person authorized by an obligor thereon (A) to pay the principal of or interest on such security on behalf of such obligor, or (B) if such security is a certificate of interest or participation, equipment trust certificate, or like security, to make such payment on behalf of the trustee.

(14) The term “State” means any State of the United States.

(15) The term “Commission” means the Securities and Exchange Commission.

(16) The term “voting security” means any security presently entitling the owner or holder thereof to vote in the direction or management of the affairs of a person, or any security issued under or pursuant to any trust, agreement, or arrangement whereby a trustee or trustees or agent or agents for the owner or holder of such security are presently entitled to vote in the direction or management of the affairs of a person; and a specified percentage of the voting securities of a person means such amount of the outstanding voting securities of such person as entitles the holder or holders thereof to cast such specified percentage of the aggregate votes which the holders of all the outstanding voting securities of such person are entitled to cast in the direction or management of the affairs of such person.

(17) The terms “Securities Act of 1933” [15 U.S.C. 77a et seq.] and “Securities Exchange Act of 1934” [15 U.S.C. 78a et seq.] shall be deemed to refer, respectively, to such Acts, as amended, whether amended prior to or after the enactment of this subchapter.

(18) The term “Bankruptcy Act” means the Bankruptcy Act or title 11.

(May 27, 1933, ch. 38, title III, §303, as added Aug. 3, 1939, ch. 411, 53 Stat. 1151; amended Aug. 10, 1954, ch. 667, title III, §301, 68 Stat. 686; Pub. L. 95–598, title III, §307, Nov. 6, 1978, 92 Stat. 2674; Pub. L. 100–181, title V, §§501, 502, Dec. 4, 1987, 101 Stat. 1260; Pub. L. 101–550, title IV, §402, Nov. 15, 1990, 104 Stat. 2722; Pub. L. 105–353, title III, §301(e)(1), Nov. 3, 1998, 112 Stat. 3237; Pub. L. 111–203, title IX, §986(b)(1), July 21, 2010, 124 Stat. 1935.)

References in Text

The Securities Act of 1933, referred to in pars. (3) and (17), is act May 27, 1933, ch. 38, title I, 48 Stat. 74, which is classified generally to subchapter I (§77a et seq.) of this chapter. For complete classification of this Act to the Code, see section 77a of this title and Tables.

The Securities Exchange Act of 1934, referred to in par. (17), is act June 6, 1934, ch. 404, 48 Stat. 881, which is classified principally to chapter 2B (§78a et seq.) of this title. For complete classification of this Act to the Code, see section 78a of this title and Tables.

The Bankruptcy Act, referred to in par. (18), is act July 1, 1898, ch. 541, 30 Stat. 544, as amended, which was classified generally to former Title 11, Bankruptcy. The Act was repealed effective Oct. 1, 1979, by Pub. L. 95–598, §§401(a), 402(a), Nov. 6, 1978, 92 Stat. 2682, section 101 of which enacted revised Title 11.

Amendments

2010—Par. (17). Pub. L. 111–203 added par. (17) and struck out former par. (17) which read as follows: “The terms ‘Securities Act of 1933,’ ‘Securities Exchange Act of 1934,’ and ‘Public Utility Holding Company Act of 1935’ shall be deemed to refer, respectively, to such Acts, as amended, whether amended prior to or after the enactment of this subchapter.”

1998—Pars. (2), (3). Pub. L. 105–353 substituted “section 2(a)” for “section 2”.

1990—Par. (8). Pub. L. 101–550 inserted “section 77eee of this title or” after “provided for in”.

1987—Par. (4). Pub. L. 100–181, §501, substituted “undertaking” for “undertakng”.

Par. (12). Pub. L. 100–181, §502, inserted “(including a guarantor)” after “person” in two places.

1978—Par. (18). Pub. L. 95–598 substituted “Bankruptcy Act or title 11” for “Act entitled ‘An Act to establish a uniform system of bankruptcy throughout the United States’, approved July 1, 1898, as amended, whether amended prior to or after August 3, 1939”.

1954—Pars. (1) to (4). Act Aug. 10, 1954, made formal changes in order to conform to amendments made by act Aug. 10, 1954, to sections 77b, 77e, and 77j of this title.

Effective Date of 2010 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 111–203 effective 1 day after July 21, 2010, except as otherwise provided, see section 4 of Pub. L. 111–203, set out as an Effective Date note under section 5301 of Title 12, Banks and Banking.

Effective Date of 1978 Amendment

Amendment effective Oct. 1, 1979, see section 402(a) of Pub. L. 95–598 set out as an Effective Date note preceding section 101 of Title 11, Bankruptcy.

Effective Date of 1954 Amendment

Amendment by act Aug. 10, 1954, effective 60 days after Aug. 10, 1954, see note under section 77b of this title.

Transfer of Functions

For transfer of functions of Securities and Exchange Commission, with certain exceptions, to Chairman of such Commission, see Reorg. Plan No. 10 of 1950, §§1, 2, eff. May 24, 1950, 15 F.R. 3175, 64 Stat. 1265, set out under section 78d of this title.

§77ddd. Exempted securities and transactions

(a) Specific securities exempted

The provisions of this subchapter shall not apply to any of the following securities:

(1) any security other than (A) a note, bond, debenture, or evidence of indebtedness, whether or not secured, or (B) a certificate of interest or participation in any such note, bond, debenture, or evidence of indebtedness, or (C) a temporary certificate for, or guarantee of, any such note, bond, debenture, evidence of indebtedness, or certificate;

(2) any certificate of interest or participation in two or more securities having substantially different rights and privileges, or a temporary certificate for any such certificate;

(3) Repealed. Pub. L. 101–550, title IV, §403(1)(A), Nov. 15, 1990, 104 Stat. 2722.

(4)(A) any security exempted from the provisions of the Securities Act of 1933 [15 U.S.C. 77a et seq.] by paragraphs (2) to (8), (11), or (13) of section 3(a) thereof [15 U.S.C. 77c(a)];

(B) any security exempted from the provisions of the Securities Act of 1933, as amended [15 U.S.C. 77a et seq.], by paragraph (2) of subsection 3(a) thereof, as amended by section 401 of the Employment Security Amendments of 1970 [15 U.S.C. 77c(a)(2)];

(5) any security issued under a mortgage indenture as to which a contract of insurance under the National Housing Act [12 U.S.C. 1701 et seq.] is in effect; and any such security shall be deemed to be exempt from the provisions of the Securities Act of 1933 [15 U.S.C. 77a et seq.] to the same extent as though such security were specifically enumerated in section 3(a)(2) of such Act [15 U.S.C. §77c(a)(2)];

(6) any note, bond, debenture, or evidence of indebtedness issued or guaranteed by a foreign government or by a subdivision, department, municipality, agency, or instrumentality thereof;

(7) any guarantee of any security which is exempted by this subsection;

(8) any security which has been or is to be issued otherwise than under an indenture, but this exemption shall not be applied within a period of twelve consecutive months to an aggregate principal amount of securities of the same issuer greater than the figure stated in section 3(b) of the Securities Act of 1933 [15 U.S.C. 77c(b)] limiting exemptions thereunder, or such lesser amount as the Commission may establish by its rules and regulations;

(9) any security which has been or is to be issued under an indenture which limits the aggregate principal amount of securities at any time outstanding thereunder to $10,000,000, or such lesser amount as the Commission may establish by its rules and regulations, but this exemption shall not be applied within a period of thirty-six consecutive months to more than $10,000,000 aggregate principal amount of securities of the same issuer, or such lesser amount as the Commission may establish by its rules and regulations; or

(10) any security issued under a mortgage or trust deed indenture as to which a contract of insurance under title XI of the National Housing Act [12 U.S.C. 1749aaa et seq.] is in effect; and any such security shall be deemed to be exempt from the provisions of the Securities Act of 1933 [15 U.S.C. 77a et seq.] to the same extent as though such security were specifically enumerated in section 3(a)(2), as amended, of the Securities Act of 1933 [15 U.S.C. 77c(a)(2)].


In computing the aggregate principal amount of securities to which the exemptions provided by paragraphs (8) and (9) of this subsection may be applied, securities to which the provisions of sections 77eee and 77fff of this title would not have applied, irrespective of the provisions of those paragraphs, shall be disregarded.

(b) Application of sections 77eee and 77fff

The provisions of sections 77eee and 77fff of this title shall not apply (1) to any of the transactions exempted from the provisions of section 5 of the Securities Act of 1933 [15 U.S.C. 77e] by section 4 thereof [15 U.S.C. 77d] or (2) to any transaction which would be so exempted but for the last sentence of paragraph (11) of section 2(a) of such Act [15 U.S.C. 77b(a)].

(c) Securities issued or proposed to be issued under indenture

The Commission shall, on application by the issuer and after opportunity for hearing thereon, by order exempt from any one or more provisions of this subchapter any security issued or proposed to be issued under any indenture under which, at the time such application is filed, securities referred to in paragraph (3) of subsection (a) of this section are outstanding or on January 1, 1959, such securities were outstanding, if and to the extent that the Commission finds that compliance with such provision or provisions, through the execution of a supplemental indenture or otherwise—

(1) would require, by reason of the provisions of such indenture, or the provisions of any other indenture or agreement made prior to August 3, 1939, or the provisions of any applicable law, the consent of the holders of securities outstanding under any such indenture or agreement; or

(2) would impose an undue burden on this issuer, having due regard to the public interest and the interests of investors.

(d) Exemptions in public interest

The Commission may, by rules or regulations upon its own motion, or by order on application by an interested person, exempt conditionally or unconditionally any person, registration statement, indenture, security or transaction, or any class or classes of persons, registration statements, indentures, securities, or transactions, from any one or more of the provisions of this subchapter, if and to the extent that such exemption is necessary or appropriate in the public interest and consistent with the protection of investors and the purposes fairly intended by this subchapter. The Commission shall by rules and regulations determine the procedures under which an exemption under this subsection shall be granted, and may, in its sole discretion, decline to entertain any application for an order of exemption under this subsection.

(e) Securities issued by small investment company

The Commission may from time to time by its rules and regulations, and subject to such terms and conditions as may be prescribed herein, add to the securities exempted as provided in this section any class of securities issued by a small business investment company under the Small Business Investment Act of 1958 [15 U.S.C. 661 et seq.] if it finds, having regard to the purposes of that Act, that the enforcement of this subchapter with respect to such securities is not necessary in the public interest and for the protection of investors.

(May 27, 1933, ch. 38, title III, §304, as added Aug. 3, 1939, ch. 411, 53 Stat. 1153; amended Aug. 10, 1954, ch. 667, title III, §302, 68 Stat. 687; Pub. L. 85–699, title III, §307(b), Aug. 21, 1958, 72 Stat. 694; Pub. L. 86–760, Sept. 13, 1960, 74 Stat. 902; Pub. L. 89–754, title V, §504(b), Nov. 3, 1966, 80 Stat. 1278; Pub. L. 91–567, §6(c), Dec. 22, 1970, 84 Stat. 1499; Pub. L. 96–477, title III, §302, Oct. 21, 1980, 94 Stat. 2291; Pub. L. 101–550, title IV, §403, Nov. 15, 1990, 104 Stat. 2722; Pub. L. 104–290, title V, §508(e), Oct. 11, 1996, 110 Stat. 3448; Pub. L. 105–353, title III, §301(e)(2), Nov. 3, 1998, 112 Stat. 3237; Pub. L. 111–203, title IX, §985(c)(1), July 21, 2010, 124 Stat. 1934.)

References in Text

The Securities Act of 1933, referred to in subsec. (a)(4), (5), and (10), is act May 27, 1933, ch. 38, title I, 48 Stat. 74, which is classified generally to subchapter I (§77a et seq.) of this chapter. For complete classification of this Act to the Code, see section 77a of this title and Tables.

The National Housing Act, referred to in subsec. (a)(5), is act June 27, 1934, ch. 847, 48 Stat. 1246, which is classified generally to chapter 13 (§1701 et seq.) of Title 12, Banks and Banking. Provisions of that act relating to insurance of mortgages are contained in section 1707 et seq. of Title 12. Title XI of the National Housing Act, is classified to subchapter IX–B (§1749aaa et seq.) of chapter 13 of Title 12. For complete classification of this Act to the Code, see References in Text note set out under section 1701 of Title 12 and Tables.

The Small Business Investment Act of 1958, referred to in subsec. (e), is Pub. L. 85–699, Aug. 21, 1958, 72 Stat. 689, which is classified principally to chapter 14B (§661 et seq.) of this title. For complete classification of this Act to the Code, see Short Title note set out under section 661 of this title and Tables.

Amendments

2010—Subsec. (b). Pub. L. 111–203 substituted “section 2(a) of such Act” for “section 2 of such Act”.

1998—Subsec. (a)(4)(A). Pub. L. 105–353 substituted “(13) of section” for “(14) of subsection”.

1996—Subsec. (a)(4)(A). Pub. L. 104–290 substituted “(11), or (14)” for “or (11)”.

1990—Subsec. (a)(3). Pub. L. 101–550, §403(1)(A), struck out par. (3) which read as follows: “any security which, prior to or within six months after August 3, 1939, has been sold or disposed of by the issuer or bona fide offered to the public, but this exemption shall not apply to any new offering of any such security by an issuer subsequent to such six months;”.

Subsec. (a)(4)(A). Pub. L. 101–550, §403(1)(B), struck out “, as heretofore amended,” after “1933”.

Subsec. (d). Pub. L. 101–550, §403(2), added subsec. (d) and struck out former subsec. (d) which read as follows: “The Commission may, on application by the issuer and after opportunity for hearing thereon, by order exempt from any one or more of the provisions of this subchapter any security issued or proposed to be issued by a person organized and existing under the laws of a foreign government or a political subdivision thereof, if and to the extent that the Commission finds that compliance with such provision or provisions is not necessary in the public interest and for the protection of investors.”

1980—Subsec. (a)(8). Pub. L. 96–477, §302(a), substituted “an aggregate principal amount of securities of the same issuer greater than the figure stated in section 3(b) of the Securities Act of 1933 limiting exemptions thereunder, or such lesser amount as the Commission may establish by its rules and regulations” for “more than $250,000 aggregate principal amount of any securities of the same issuer”.

Subsec. (a)(9). Pub. L. 96–477, §302(b), substituted “$10,000,000, or such lesser amount as the Commission may establish by its rules and regulations” for “$1,000,000 or less”, “more than $10,000,000” for “more than $1,000,000”, and inserted “, or such lesser amount as the Commission may establish by its rules and regulations” after “same issuer”.

1970—Subsec. (a)(4). Pub. L. 91–567 designated existing provisions as cl. (A) and added cl. (B).

1966—Subsec. (a)(10). Pub. L. 89–754 added par. (10).

1960—Subsec. (c). Pub. L. 86–760 inserted “or on January 1, 1959, such securities were outstanding”.

1958—Subsec. (e). Pub. L. 85–699 added subsec. (e).

1954—Subsec. (b). Act Aug. 10, 1954, struck out “as heretofore amended,”.

Effective Date of 2010 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 111–203 effective 1 day after July 21, 2010, except as otherwise provided, see section 4 of Pub. L. 111–203, set out as an Effective Date note under section 5301 of Title 12, Banks and Banking.

Effective Date of 1970 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 91–567 applicable with respect to securities sold after Jan. 1, 1970, see section 6(d) of Pub. L. 91–567, set out as a note under section 77c of this title.

Effective Date of 1954 Amendment

Amendment by act Aug. 10, 1954, effective 60 days after Aug. 10, 1954, see note under section 77b of this title.

Transfer of Functions

For transfer of functions of Securities and Exchange Commission, with certain exceptions, to Chairman of such Commission, see Reorg. Plan No. 10 of 1950, §§1, 2, eff. May 24, 1950, 15 F.R. 3175, 64 Stat. 1265, set out under section 78d of this title.

§77eee. Securities required to be registered under Securities Act

(a) Information required

Subject to the provisions of section 77ddd of this title, a registration statement relating to a security shall include the following information and documents, as though such inclusion were required by the provisions of section 7 of the Securities Act of 1933 [15 U.S.C. 77g]—

(1) such information and documents as the Commission may by rules and regulations prescribe in order to enable the Commission to determine whether any person designated to act as trustee under the indenture under which such security has been or is to be issued is eligible to act as such under subsection (a) of section 77jjj of this title; and

(2) an analysis of any provisions of such indenture with respect to (A) the definition of what shall constitute a default under such indenture, and the withholding of notice to the indenture security holders of any such default, (B) the authentication and delivery of the indenture securities and the application of the proceeds thereof, (C) the release or the release and substitution of any property subject to the lien of the indenture, (D) the satisfaction and discharge of the indenture, and (E) the evidence required to be furnished by the obligor upon the indenture securities to the trustee as to compliance with the conditions and covenants provided for in such indenture.


The information and documents required by paragraph (1) of this subsection with respect to the person designated to act as indenture trustee shall be contained in a separate part of such registration statement, which part shall be signed by such person. Such part of the registration statement shall be deemed to be a document filed pursuant to this subchapter, and the provisions of sections 11, 12, 17, and 24 of the Securities Act of 1933 [15 U.S.C. 77k, 77l, 77q, 77x] shall not apply to statements therein or omissions therefrom.

(b) Refusal of registration statement

(1) Except as may be permitted by paragraph (2) of this subsection, the Commission shall issue an order prior to the effective date of registration refusing to permit such a registration statement to become effective, if it finds that—

(A) the security to which such registration statement relates has not been or is not to be issued under an indenture; or

(B) any person designated as trustee under such indenture is not eligible to act as such under subsection (a) of section 77jjj of this title;


but no such order shall be issued except after notice and opportunity for hearing within the periods and in the manner required with respect to refusal orders pursuant to section 8(b) of the Securities Act of 1933 [15 U.S.C. 77h(b)]. If and when the Commission deems that the objections on which such order was based have been met, the Commission shall enter an order rescinding such refusal order, and the registration shall become effective at the time provided in section 8(a) of the Securities Act of 1933 [15 U.S.C. 77h(a)], or upon the date of such rescission, whichever shall be the later.

(2) In the case of securities registered under the Securities Act of 1933 [15 U.S.C. 77a et seq.], which securities are eligible to be issued, offered, or sold on a delayed basis by or on behalf of the registrant, the Commission shall not be required to issue an order pursuant to paragraph (1) of subsection (b) of this section for failure to designate a trustee eligible to act under subsection (a) of section 77jjj of this title if, in accordance with such rules and regulations as may be prescribed by the Commission, the issuer of such securities files an application for the purpose of determining such trustee's eligibility under subsection (a) of section 77jjj of this title. The Commission shall issue an order prior to the effective date of such application refusing to permit the application to become effective, if it finds that any person designated as trustee under such indenture is not eligible to act as such under subsection (a) of section 77jjj of this title, but no order shall be issued except after notice and opportunity for hearing within the periods and in the manner required with respect to refusal orders pursuant to section 8(b) of the Securities Act of 1933 [15 U.S.C. 77h(b)]. If after notice and opportunity for hearing the Commission issues an order under this provision, the obligor shall within 5 calendar days appoint a trustee meeting the requirements of subsection (a) of section 77jjj of this title. No such appointment shall be effective and such refusal order shall not be rescinded by the Commission until a person eligible to act as trustee under subsection (a) of section 77jjj of this title has been appointed. If no order is issued, an application filed pursuant to this paragraph shall be effective the tenth day after filing thereof or such earlier date as the Commission may determine, having due regard to the adequacy of information provided therein, the public interest, and the protection of investors.

(c) Information required in prospectus

A prospectus relating to any such security shall include to the extent the Commission may prescribe by rules and regulations as necessary and appropriate in the public interest or for the protection of investors, as though such inclusion were required by section 10 of the Securities Act of 1933 [15 U.S.C. 77j], a written statement containing the analysis set forth in the registration statement, of any indenture provisions with respect to the matters specified in paragraph (2) of subsection (a) of this section, together with a supplementary analysis, prepared by the Commission, of such provisions and of the effect thereof, if, in the opinion of the Commission, the inclusion of such supplementary analysis is necessary or appropriate in the public interest or for the protection of investors, and the Commission so declares by order after notice and, if demanded by the issuer, opportunity for hearing thereon. Such order shall be entered prior to the effective date of registration, except that if opportunity for hearing thereon is demanded by the issuer such order shall be entered within a reasonable time after such opportunity for hearing.

(d) Applicability of other statutory provisions

The provisions of sections 11, 12, 17, and 24 of the Securities Act of 1933 [15 U.S.C. 77k, 77l, 77q, 77x], and the provisions of sections 77www and 77yyy of this title, shall not apply to statements in or omissions from any analysis required under the provisions of this section or section 77fff or 77ggg of this title.

(May 27, 1933, ch. 38, title III, §305, as added Aug. 3, 1939, ch. 411, 53 Stat. 1154; amended Aug. 10, 1954, ch. 667, title III, §303, 68 Stat. 687; Pub. L. 101–550, title IV, §404, Nov. 15, 1990, 104 Stat. 2722.)

References in Text

The Securities Act of 1933, referred to in subsec. (b)(2), is act May 27, 1933, ch. 38, title I, 48 Stat. 74, as amended, which is classified generally to subchapter I (§77a et seq.) of this chapter. For complete classification of this Act to the Code, see section 77a of this title and Tables.

Amendments

1990—Subsec. (a)(1). Pub. L. 101–550, §404(1), struck out “or has a conflicting interest as defined in subsection (b) of section 77jjj of this title” after “section 77jjj of this title”.

Subsec. (b). Pub. L. 101–550, §404(2), designated existing provisions as par. (1), substituted “Except as may be permitted by paragraph (2) of this subsection, the Commission shall issue” for “The Commission shall issue”, redesignated former par. (1) as subpar. (a) and inserted “or” at end, struck out former par. (2) which authorized Commission to prohibit a registration statement from taking effect if it finds that such indenture does not conform to requirements of sections 77jjj to 77rrr of this title, redesignated former par. (3) as subpar. (B) and struck out “or has any conflicting interest as defined in subsection (b) of section 77jjj of this title” after “section 77jjj of this title”, and added par. (2).

1954—Subsec. (c). Act Aug. 10, 1954, authorized the Commission to prescribe by rule and regulation the extent to which summaries of indenture provisions must be contained in prospectuses.

Effective Date of 1954 Amendment

Amendment by act Aug. 10, 1954, effective 60 days after Aug. 10, 1954, see note under section 77b of this title.

Transfer of Functions

For transfer of functions of Securities and Exchange Commission, with certain exceptions, to Chairman of such Commission, see Reorg. Plan No. 10 of 1950, §§1, 2, eff. May 24, 1950, 15 F.R. 3175, 64 Stat. 1265, set out under section 78d of this title.

§77fff. Securities not registered under Securities Act

(a) Prohibitions affecting unregistered securities not issued under indenture

In the case of any security which is not registered under the Securities Act of 1933 [15 U.S.C. 77a et seq.] and to which this subsection is applicable notwithstanding the provisions of section 77ddd of this title, unless such security has been or is to be issued under an indenture and an application for qualification is effective as to such indenture, it shall be unlawful for any person, directly or indirectly—

(1) to make use of any means or instruments of transportation or communication in interstate commerce or of the mails to sell such security through the use or medium of any prospectus or otherwise; or

(2) to carry or cause to be carried through the mails or interstate commerce, by any means or instruments of transportation, any such security for the purpose of sale or for delivery after sale.

(b) Prohibitions affecting unregistered securities issued under indenture

In the case of any security which is not registered under the Securities Act of 1933 [15 U.S.C. 77a et seq.], but which has been or is to be issued under an indenture as to which an application for qualification is effective, it shall be unlawful for any person, directly or indirectly—

(1) to make use of any means or instruments of transportation or communication in interstate commerce or of the mails to carry or transmit any prospectus relating to any such security, unless such prospectus, to the extent the Commission may prescribe by rules and regulations as necessary and appropriate in the public interest or for the protection of investors, includes or is accompanied by a written statement that contains the information specified in subsection (c) of section 77eee of this title; or

(2) to carry or to cause to be carried through the mails or in interstate commerce any such security for the purpose of sale or for delivery after sale, unless, to the extent the Commission may prescribe by rules and regulations as necessary or appropriate in the public interest or for the protection of investors, accompanied or preceded by a written statement that contains the information specified in subsection (c) of section 77eee of this title.

(c) Necessity of issuance under indenture; application for qualification

It shall be unlawful for any person, directly or indirectly, to make use of any means or instruments of transportation or communication in interstate commerce or of the mails to offer to sell through the use or medium of any prospectus or otherwise any security which is not registered under the Securities Act of 1933 [15 U.S.C. 77a et seq.] and to which this subsection is applicable notwithstanding the provisions of section 77ddd of this title, unless such security has been or is to be issued under an indenture and an application for qualification has been filed as to such indenture, or while the application is the subject of a refusal order or stop order or (prior to qualification) any public proceeding or examination under section 77ggg(c) of this title.

(May 27, 1933, ch. 38, title III, §306, as added Aug. 3, 1939, ch. 411, 53 Stat. 1155; amended Aug. 10, 1954, ch. 667, title III, §304, 68 Stat. 687.)

References in Text

The Securities Act of 1933, referred to in subsecs. (a) to (c), is act May 27, 1933, ch. 38, title I, 48 Stat. 74, as amended, which is classified generally to subchapter I (§77a et seq.) of this chapter. For complete classification of this Act to the Code, see section 77a of this title and Tables.

Amendments

1954—Subsec. (b). Act Aug. 10, 1954, authorized the Commission to prescribe the extent to which summaries of indenture provisions must be used in the sale of specified types of securities.

Subsec. (c). Act Aug. 10, 1954, added subsec. (c).

Effective Date of 1954 Amendment

Amendment by act Aug. 10, 1954, effective 60 days after Aug. 10, 1954, see note under section 77b of this title.

Transfer of Functions

For transfer of functions of Securities and Exchange Commission, with certain exceptions, to Chairman of such Commission, see Reorg. Plan No. 10 of 1950, §§1, 2, eff. May 24, 1950, 15 F.R. 3175, 64 Stat. 1265, set out under section 78d of this title.

§77ggg. Qualification of indentures covering securities not required to be registered

(a) Application; information required; availability of information to public

In the case of any security which is not required to be registered under the Securities Act of 1933 [15 U.S.C. 77a et seq.] and to which subsection (a) of section 77fff of this title is applicable notwithstanding the provisions of section 77ddd of this title, an application for qualification of the indenture under which such security has been or is to be issued shall be filed with the Commission by the issuer of such security. Each such application shall be in such form, and shall be signed in such manner, as the Commission may by rules and regulations prescribe as necessary or appropriate in the public interest or for the protection of investors. Each such application shall include the information and documents required by subsection (a) of section 77eee of this title. The information and documents required by paragraph (1) of such subsection with respect to the person designated to act as indenture trustee shall be contained in a separate part of such application, which part shall be signed by such person. Each such application shall also include such of the other information and documents which would be required to be filed in order to register such indenture security under the Securities Act of 1933 as the Commission may by rules and regulations prescribe as necessary or appropriate in the public interest or for the protection of investors. An application may be withdrawn by the applicant at any time prior to the effective date thereof. Subject to the provisions of section 77uuu of this title, the information and documents contained in or filed with any application shall be made available to the public under such regulations as the Commission may prescribe, and copies thereof, photostatic or otherwise, shall be furnished to every applicant therefor at such reasonable charge as the Commission may prescribe.

(b) Filing of application

The filing with the Commission of an application, or of an amendment to an application, shall be deemed to have taken place upon the receipt thereof by the Commission.

(c) Applicability of other statutory provisions

The provisions of section 77h of this title and the provisions of subsection (b) of section 77eee of this title shall apply with respect to every such application, as though such application were a registration statement filed pursuant to the provisions of the Securities Act of 1933 [15 U.S.C. 77a et seq.].

(May 27, 1933, ch. 38, title III, §307, as added Aug. 3, 1939, ch. 411, 53 Stat. 1156; amended Pub. L. 107–123, §7, Jan. 16, 2002, 115 Stat. 2397.)

References in Text

The Securities Act of 1933, referred to in subsecs. (a) and (c), is act May 27, 1933, ch. 38, title I, 48 Stat. 74, as amended, which is classified generally to subchapter I (§77a et seq.) of this chapter. For complete classification of this Act to the Code, see section 77a of this title and Tables.

Amendments

2002—Subsec. (b). Pub. L. 107–123 substituted “Commission” for “Commission, but, in the case of an application, only if it is accompanied or preceded by payment to the Commission of a filing fee in the amount of $100, such payment to be made in cash or by United States postal money order or certified or bank check, or in such other medium of payment as the Commission may authorize by rule and regulation”.

Effective Date of 2002 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 107–123 effective Oct. 1, 2001, see section 11 of Pub. L. 107–123, set out as a note under section 78ee of this title.

Transfer of Functions

For transfer of functions of Securities and Exchange Commission, with certain exceptions, to Chairman of such Commission, see Reorg. Plan No. 10 of 1950, §§1, 2, eff. May 24, 1950, 15 F.R. 3175, 64 Stat. 1265, set out under section 78d of this title.

§77hhh. Integration of procedure with Securities Act and other Acts

(a) Incorporation by reference

The Commission, by such rules and regulations or orders as it deems necessary or appropriate in the public interest or for the protection of investors, shall authorize the filing of any information or documents required to be filed with the Commission under this subchapter, or under the Securities Act of 1933 [15 U.S.C. 77a et seq.] or the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 [15 U.S.C. 78a et seq.], by incorporating by reference any information or documents on file with the Commission under this subchapter or under any such Act.

(b) Consolidation of applications, reports, etc.

The Commission, by such rules and regulations or orders as it deems necessary or appropriate in the public interest or for the protection of investors, shall provide for the consolidation of applications, reports, and proceedings under this subchapter with registration statements, applications, reports, and proceedings under the Securities Act of 1933 [15 U.S.C. 77a et seq.] or the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 [15 U.S.C. 78a et seq.].

(May 27, 1933, ch. 38, title III, §308, as added Aug. 3, 1939, ch. 411, 53 Stat. 1156; amended Pub. L. 111–203, title IX, §986(b)(2), July 21, 2010, 124 Stat. 1936.)

References in Text

The Securities Act of 1933, referred to in subsecs. (a) and (b), is act May 27, 1933, ch. 38, title I, 48 Stat. 74, which is classified generally to subchapter I (§77a et seq.) of this chapter. For complete classification of this Act to the Code, see section 77a of this title and Tables.

The Securities Exchange Act of 1934, referred to in subsecs. (a) and (b), is act June 6, 1934, ch. 404, 48 Stat. 881, which is classified principally to chapter 2B (§78a et seq.) of this title. For complete classification of this Act to the Code, see section 78a of this title and Tables.

Amendments

2010—Pub. L. 111–203 substituted “Securities Act of 1933 or the Securities Exchange Act of 1934” for “Securities Act of 1933, the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, or the Public Utility Holding Company Act of 1935” in subsecs. (a) and (b).

Effective Date of 2010 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 111–203 effective 1 day after July 21, 2010, except as otherwise provided, see section 4 of Pub. L. 111–203, set out as an Effective Date note under section 5301 of Title 12, Banks and Banking.

Transfer of Functions

For transfer of functions of Securities and Exchange Commission, with certain exceptions, to Chairman of such Commission, see Reorg. Plan No. 10 of 1950, §§1, 2, eff. May 24, 1950, 15 F.R. 3175, 64 Stat. 1265, set out under section 78d of this title.

§77iii. Effective time of qualification

(a) Effective time of registration or application for qualification of indenture

The indenture under which a security has been or is to be issued shall be deemed to have been qualified under this subchapter—

(1) when registration becomes effective as to such security; or

(2) when an application for the qualification of such indenture becomes effective, pursuant to section 77ggg of this title.

(b) Stop orders after effective time of qualification

After qualification has become effective as to the indenture under which a security has been or is to be issued, no stop order shall be issued pursuant to section 77h(d) of this title, suspending the effectiveness of the registration statement relating to such security or of the application for qualification of such indenture, except on one or more of the grounds specified in section 77h of this title, or the failure of the issuer to file an application as provided for by section 77eee(b)(2) of this title.

(c) Effect of subsequent rule or regulation on qualification

The making, amendment, or rescission of a rule, regulation, or order under the provisions of this subchapter (except to the extent authorized by subsection (a) of section 77nnn of this title with respect to rules and regulations prescribed pursuant to such subsection) shall not affect the qualification, form, or interpretation of any indenture as to which qualification became effective prior to the making, amendment, or rescission of such rule, regulation, or order.

(d) Liability of trustee under qualified indenture

No trustee under an indenture which has been qualified under this subchapter shall be subject to any liability because of any failure of such indenture to comply with any of the provisions of this subchapter, or any rule, regulation, or order thereunder.

(e) Power of Commission to conduct investigation

Nothing in this subchapter shall be construed as empowering the Commission to conduct an investigation or other proceeding for the purpose of determining whether the provisions of an indenture which has been qualified under this subchapter are being complied with, or to enforce such provisions.

(May 27, 1933, ch. 38, title III, §309, as added Aug. 3, 1939, ch. 411, 53 Stat. 1157; amended Pub. L. 101–550, title IV, §405, Nov. 15, 1990, 104 Stat. 2723.)

Amendments

1990—Subsec. (b). Pub. L. 101–550 inserted before period at end “, or the failure of the issuer to file an application as provided for by section 77eee(b)(2) of this title”.

Transfer of Functions

For transfer of functions of Securities and Exchange Commission, with certain exceptions, to Chairman of such Commission, see Reorg. Plan No. 10 of 1950, §§1, 2, eff. May 24, 1950, 15 F.R. 3175, 64 Stat. 1265, set out under section 78d of this title.

§77jjj. Eligibility and disqualification of trustee

(a) Persons eligible for appointment as trustee

(1) There shall at all times be one or more trustees under every indenture qualified or to be qualified pursuant to this subchapter, at least one of whom shall at all times be a corporation organized and doing business under the laws of the United States or of any State or Territory or of the District of Columbia or a corporation or other person permitted to act as trustee by the Commission (referred to in this subchapter as the institutional trustee), which (A) is authorized under such laws to exercise corporate trust powers, and (B) is subject to supervision or examination by Federal, State, Territorial, or District of Columbia authority. The Commission may, pursuant to such rules and regulations as it may prescribe, or by order on application, permit a corporation or other person organized and doing business under the laws of a foreign government to act as sole trustee under an indenture qualified or to be qualified pursuant to this subchapter, if such corporation or other person (i) is authorized under such laws to exercise corporate trust powers, and (ii) is subject to supervision or examination by authority of such foreign government or a political subdivision thereof substantially equivalent to supervision or examination applicable to United States institutional trustees. In prescribing such rules and regulations or making such order, the Commission shall consider whether under such laws, a United States institutional trustee is eligible to act as sole trustee under an indenture relating to securities sold within the jurisdiction of such foreign government.

(2) Such institution 1 trustee shall have at all times a combined capital and surplus of a specified minimum amount, which shall not be less than $150,000. If such institutional trustee publishes reports of condition at least annually, pursuant to law or to the requirements of said supervising or examining authority, the indenture may provide that, for the purposes of this paragraph, the combined capital and surplus of such trustee shall be deemed to be its combined capital and surplus as set forth in its most recent report of condition so published.

(3) If the indenture to be qualified requires or permits the appointment of one or more co-trustees in addition to such institutional trustee, the rights, powers, duties, and obligations conferred or imposed upon the trustees or any of them shall be conferred or imposed upon and exercised or performed by such institutional trustee, or such institutional trustee and such co-trustees jointly, except to the extent that under any law of any jurisdiction in which any particular act or acts are to be performed, such institutional trustee shall be incompetent or unqualified to perform such act or acts, in which event such rights, powers, duties, and obligations shall be exercised and performed by such co-trustees.

(4) In the case of certificates of interest or participation, the indenture trustee or trustees shall have the legal power to exercise all of the rights, powers, and privileges of a holder of the security or securities in which such certificates evidence an interest or participation.

(5) No obligor upon the indenture securities or person directly or indirectly controlling, controlled by, or under common control with such obligor shall serve as trustee upon such indenture securities.

(b) Disqualification of trustee

If any indenture trustee has or shall acquire any conflicting interest as hereinafter defined—

(i) then, within 90 days after ascertaining that it has such conflicting interest, and if the default (as defined in the next sentence) to which such conflicting interest relates has not been cured or duly waived or otherwise eliminated before the end of such 90-day period, such trustee shall either eliminate such conflicting interest or, except as otherwise provided below in this subsection, resign, and the obligor upon the indenture securities shall take prompt steps to have a successor appointed in the manner provided in the indenture;

(ii) in the event that such trustee shall fail to comply with the provisions of clause (i) of this subsection, such trustee shall, within 10 days after the expiration of such 90-day period, transmit notice of such failure to the indenture security holders in the manner and to the extent provided in subsection (c) of section 77mmm of this title; and

(iii) subject to the provisions of subsection (e) of section 77ooo of this title, unless such trustee's duty to resign is stayed as provided below in this subsection, any security holder who has been a bona fide holder of indenture securities for at least six months may, on behalf of himself and all others similarly situated, petition any court of competent jurisdiction for the removal of such trustee, and the appointment of a successor, if such trustee fails, after written request thereof by such holder to comply with the provisions of clause (i) of this subsection.


For the purposes of this subsection, an indenture trustee shall be deemed to have a conflicting interest if the indenture securities are in default (as such term is defined in such indenture, but exclusive of any period of grace or requirement of notice) and—

(1) such trustee is trustee under another indenture under which any other securities, or certificates of interest or participation in any other securities, of an obligor upon the indenture securities are outstanding or is trustee for more than one outstanding series of securities, as hereafter defined, under a single indenture of an obligor, unless—

(A) the indenture securities are collateral trust notes under which the only collateral consists of securities issued under such other indenture,

(B) such other indenture is a collateral trust indenture under which the only collateral consists of indenture securities, or

(C) such obligor has no substantial unmortgaged assets and is engaged primarily in the business of owning, or of owning and developing and/or operating, real estate, and the indenture to be qualified and such other indenture are secured by wholly separate and distinct parcels of real estate:


Provided, That the indenture to be qualified shall automatically be deemed (unless it is expressly provided therein that such provision is excluded) to contain a provision excluding from the operation of this paragraph other series under such indenture, and any other indenture or indentures under which other securities, or certificates of interest or participation in other securities, of such an obligor are outstanding, if—

(i) the indenture to be qualified and any such other indenture or indentures (and all series of securities issuable thereunder) are wholly unsecured and rank equally, and such other indenture or indentures (and such series) are specifically described in the indenture to be qualified or are thereafter qualified under this subchapter, unless the Commission shall have found and declared by order pursuant to subsection (b) of section 77eee of this title or subsection (c) of section 77ggg of this title that differences exist between the provisions of the indenture (or such series) to be qualified and the provisions of such other indenture or indentures (or such series) which are so likely to involve a material conflict of interest as to make it necessary in the public interest or for the protection of investors to disqualify such trustee from acting as such under one of such indentures, or

(ii) the issuer shall have sustained the burden of proving, on application to the Commission and after opportunity for hearing thereon, that trusteeship under the indenture to be qualified and such other indenture or under more than one outstanding series under a single indenture is not so likely to involve a material conflict of interest as to make it necessary in the public interest or for the protection of investors to disqualify such trustee from acting as such under one of such indentures or with respect to such series;


(2) such trustee or any of its directors or executive officers is an underwriter for an obligor upon the indenture securities;

(3) such trustee directly or indirectly controls or is directly or indirectly controlled by or is under direct or indirect common control with an underwriter for an obligor upon the indenture securities;

(4) such trustee or any of its directors or executive officers is a director, officer, partner, employee, appointee, or representative of an obligor upon the indenture securities, or of an underwriter (other than the trustee itself) for such an obligor who is currently engaged in the business of underwriting, except that—

(A) one individual may be a director and/or an executive officer of the trustee and a director and/or an executive officer of such obligor, but may not be at the same time an executive officer of both the trustee and of such obligor,

(B) if and so long as the number of directors of the trustee in office is more than nine, one additional individual may be a director and/or an executive officer of the trustee and a director of such obligor, and

(C) such trustee may be designated by any such obligor or by any underwriter for any such obligor, to act in the capacity of transfer agent, registrar, custodian, paying agent, fiscal agent, escrow agent, or depositary, or in any other similar capacity, or, subject to the provisions of paragraph (1) of this subsection, to act as trustee, whether under an indenture or otherwise;


(5) 10 per centum or more of the voting securities of such trustee is beneficially owned either by an obligor upon the indenture securities or by any director, partner or executive officer thereof, or 20 per centum or more of such voting securities is beneficially owned, collectively by any two or more of such persons; or 10 per centum or more of the voting securities of such trustee is beneficially owned either by an underwriter for any such obligor or by any director, partner, or executive officer thereof, or is beneficially owned, collectively, by any two or more such persons;

(6) such trustee is the beneficial owner of, or holds as collateral security for an obligation which is in default as hereinafter defined—

(A) 5 per centum or more of the voting securities, or 10 per centum or more of any other class of security, of an obligor upon the indenture securities, not including indentures 2 securities and securities issued under any other indenture under which such trustee is also trustee, or

(B) 10 per centum or more of any class of security of an underwriter for any such obligor;


(7) such trustee is the beneficial owner of, or holds as collateral security for an obligation which is in default as hereinafter defined, 5 per centum or more of the voting securities of any person who, to the knowledge of the trustee, owns 10 per centum or more of the voting securities of, or controls directly or indirectly or is under direct or indirect common control with, an obligor upon the indenture securities;

(8) such trustee is the beneficial owner of, or holds as collateral security for an obligation which is in default as hereinafter defined, 10 per centum or more of any class of security of any person who, to the knowledge of the trustee, owns 50 per centum or more of the voting securities of an obligor upon the indenture securities;

(9) such trustee owns, on the date of default upon the indenture securities (as such term is defined in such indenture but exclusive of any period of grace or requirement of notice) or any anniversary of such default while such default upon the indenture securities remains outstanding, in the capacity of executor, administrator, testamentary or inter vivos trustee, guardian, committee or conservator, or in any other similar capacity, an aggregate of 25 per centum or more of the voting securities, or of any class of security, of any person, the beneficial ownership of a specified percentage of which would have constituted a conflicting interest under paragraph (6), (7), or (8) of this subsection. As to any such securities of which the indenture trustee acquired ownership through becoming executor, administrator or testamentary trustee of an estate which include them, the provisions of the preceding sentence shall not apply for a period of not more than 2 years from the date of such acquisition, to the extent that such securities included in such estate do not exceed 25 per centum of such voting securities or 25 per centum of any such class of security. Promptly after the dates of any such default upon the indenture securities and annually in each succeeding year that the indenture securities remain in default the trustee shall make a check of its holding of such securities in any of the above-mentioned capacities as of such dates. If the obligor upon the indenture securities fails to make payment in full of principal or interest under such indenture when and as the same becomes due and payable, and such failure continues for 30 days thereafter, the trustee shall make a prompt check of its holdings of such securities in any of the above-mentioned capacities as of the date of the expiration of such 30-day period, and after such date, notwithstanding the foregoing provisions of this paragraph, all such securities so held by the trustee, with sole or joint control over such securities vested in it, shall be considered as though beneficially owned by such trustee, for the purposes of paragraphs (6), (7), and (8) of this subsection; or

(10) except under the circumstances described in paragraphs 3 (1), (3), (4), (5) or (6) of section 77kkk(b) of this title, the trustee shall be or shall become a creditor of the obligor.


For purposes of paragraph (1) of this subsection, and of section 77ppp(a) of this title, the term “series of securities” or “series” means a series, class or group of securities issuable under an indenture pursuant to whose terms holders of one such series may vote to direct the indenture trustee, or otherwise take action pursuant to a vote of such holders, separately from holders of another such series: Provided, That “series of securities” or “series” shall not include any series of securities issuable under an indenture if all such series rank equally and are wholly unsecured.

The specification of percentages in paragraphs (5) to (9), inclusive, of this subsection shall not be construed as indicating that the ownership of such percentages of the securities of a person is or is not necessary or sufficient to constitute direct or indirect control for the purposes of paragraph (3) or (7) of this subsection.

For the purposes of paragraphs (6), (7), (8), and (9) of this subsection—

(A) the terms “security” and “securities” shall include only such securities as are generally known as corporate securities, but shall not include any note or other evidence of indebtedness issued to evidence an obligation to repay moneys lent to a person by one or more banks, trust companies, or banking firms, or any certificate of interest or participation in any such note or evidence of indebtedness;

(B) an obligation shall be deemed to be in default when a default in payment of principal shall have continued for thirty days or more, and shall not have been cured; and

(C) the indenture trustee shall not be deemed the owner or holder of (i) any security which it holds as collateral security (as trustee or otherwise) for any obligation which is not in default as above defined, or (ii) any security which it holds as collateral security under the indenture to be qualified, irrespective of any default thereunder, or (iii) any security which it holds as agent for collection, or as custodian, escrow agent or depositary, or in any similar representative capacity.


For the purposes of this subsection, the term “underwriter” when used with reference to an obligor upon the indenture securities means every person who, within one year prior to the time as of which the determination is made, was an underwriter of any security of such obligor outstanding at the time of the determination.

Except in the case of a default in the payment of the principal of or interest on any indenture security, or in the payment of any sinking or purchase fund installment, the indenture trustee shall not be required to resign as provided by this subsection if such trustee shall have sustained the burden of proving, on application to the Commission and after opportunity for hearing thereon, that—

(i) the default under the indenture may be cured or waived during a reasonable period and under the procedures described in such application, and

(ii) a stay of the trustee's duty to resign will not be inconsistent with the interests of holders of the indenture securities. The filing of such an application shall automatically stay the performance of the duty to resign until the Commission orders otherwise.


Any resignation of an indenture trustee shall become effective only upon the appointment of a successor trustee and such successor's acceptance of such an appointment.

(May 27, 1933, ch. 38, title III, §310, as added Aug. 3, 1939, ch. 411, 53 Stat. 1157; amended Pub. L. 101–550, title IV, §§406–408, Nov. 15, 1990, 104 Stat. 2723, 2724; Pub. L. 111–203, title IX, §986(b)(3), July 21, 2010, 124 Stat. 1936.)

Amendments

2010—Subsec. (c). Pub. L. 111–203 struck out subsec. (c). Text read as follows: “The Public Utility Holding Company Act of 1935 shall not be held to establish or authorize the establishment of any standards regarding the eligibility and qualifications of any trustee or prospective trustee under an indenture to be qualified under this subchapter, or regarding the provisions to be included in any such indenture with respect to the eligibility and qualifications of the trustee thereunder, other than those established by the provisions of this section.”

1990—Subsec. (a)(1). Pub. L. 101–550, §406(1)–(4), substituted “There shall” for “The indenture to be qualified shall require that there shall”, and “under every indenture qualified or to be qualified pursuant to this subchapter” for “thereunder”, inserted “or a corporation or other person permitted to act as trustee by the Commission” before “(referred to”, and inserted at end “The Commission may, pursuant to such rules and regulations as it may prescribe, or by order on application, permit a corporation or other person organized and doing business under the laws of a foreign government to act as sole trustee under an indenture qualified or to be qualified pursuant to this subchapter, if such corporation or other person (i) is authorized under such laws to exercise corporate trust powers, and (ii) is subject to supervision or examination by authority of such foreign government or a political subdivision thereof substantially equivalent to supervision or examination applicable to United States institutional trustees. In prescribing such rules and regulations or making such order, the Commission shall consider whether under such laws, a United States institutional trustee is eligible to act as sole trustee under an indenture relating to securities sold within the jurisdiction of such foreign government.”

Subsec. (a)(2). Pub. L. 101–550, §406(5), which directed the substitution of “Such institution” for “The indenture to be qualified shall require that such institution”, was executed by making the substitution for “The indenture to be qualified shall require that such institutional”, as the probable intent of Congress.

Subsec. (a)(3). Pub. L. 101–550, §406(6), struck out “such indenture shall provide that” before “the rights”.

Subsec. (a)(4). Pub. L. 101–550, §406(7), (8), struck out “the indenture to be qualified shall require that” before “the indenture” and inserted “shall” after “trustee or trustees”.

Subsec. (a)(5). Pub. L. 101–550, §407, added par. (5).

Subsec. (b). Pub. L. 101–550, §408, amended subsec. (b) generally.

Effective Date of 2010 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 111–203 effective 1 day after July 21, 2010, except as otherwise provided, see section 4 of Pub. L. 111–203, set out as an Effective Date note under section 5301 of Title 12, Banks and Banking.

Transfer of Functions

For transfer of functions of Securities and Exchange Commission, with certain exceptions, to Chairman of such Commission, see Reorg. Plan No. 10 of 1950, §§1, 2, eff. May 24, 1950, 15 F.R. 3175, 64 Stat. 1265, set out under section 78d of this title.

1 So in original. Probably should be “institutional”.

2 So in original. Probably should be “indenture”.

3 So in original. Probably should be “paragraph”.

§77kkk. Preferential collection of claims against obligor

(a) Trustee as creditor of obligor

Subject to the provisions of subsection (b) of this section, if the indenture trustee shall be, or shall become, a creditor, directly or indirectly, secured or unsecured, of an obligor upon the indenture securities, within three months prior to a default as defined in the last paragraph of this subsection, or subsequent to such a default, then, unless and until such default shall be cured, such trustee shall set apart and hold in a special account for the benefit of the trustee individually and the indenture security holders—

(1) an amount equal to any and all reductions in the amount due and owing upon any claim as such creditor in respect of principal or interest, effected after the beginning of such three months’ period and valid as against such obligor and its other creditors, except any such reduction resulting from the receipt or disposition of any property described in paragraph (2) of this subsection, or from the exercise of any right of setoff which the trustee could have exercised if a petition in bankruptcy had been filed by or against such obligor upon the date of such default; and

(2) all property received in respect of any claim as such creditor, either as security therefor, or in satisfaction or composition thereof, or otherwise, after the beginning of such three months’ period, or an amount equal to the proceeds of any such property, if disposed of, subject, however, to the rights, if any, of such obligor and its other creditors in such property or such proceeds.


Nothing herein contained shall affect the right of the indenture trustee—

(A) to retain for its own account (i) payments made on account of any such claim by any person (other than such obligor) who is liable thereon, and (ii) the proceeds of the bona fide sale of any such claim by the trustee to a third person, and (iii) distributions made in cash, securities, or other property in respect of claims filed against such obligor in bankruptcy or receivership or in proceedings for reorganization pursuant to the Bankruptcy Act or applicable State law;

(B) to realize, for its own account, upon any property held by it as security for any such claim, if such property was so held prior to the beginning of such three months’ period;

(C) to realize, for its own account, but only to the extent of the claim hereinafter mentioned, upon any property held by it as security for any such claim, if such claim was created after the beginning of such three months’ period and such property was received as security therefor simultaneously with the creation thereof, and if the trustee shall sustain the burden of proving that at the time such property was so received the trustee had no reasonable cause to believe that a default as defined in the last paragraph of this subsection would occur within three months; or

(D) to receive payment on any claim referred to in paragraph (B) or (C) of this subsection, against the release of any property held as security for such claim as provided in said paragraph (B) or (C), as the case may be, to the extent of the fair value of such property.


For the purposes of paragraphs (B), (C), and (D) of this subsection, property substituted after the beginning of such three months’ period for property held as security at the time of such substitution shall, to the extent of the fair value of the property released, have the same status as the property released, and, to the extent that any claim referred to in any of such paragraphs is created in renewal of or in substitution for or for the purpose of repaying or refunding any preexisting claim of the indenture trustee as such creditor, such claim shall have the same status as such preexisting claim.

If the trustee shall be required to account, the funds and property held in such special account and the proceeds thereof shall be apportioned between the trustee and the indenture security holders in such manner that the trustee and the indenture security holders realize, as a result of payments from such special account and payments of dividends on claims filed against such obligor in bankruptcy or receivership or in proceedings for reorganization pursuant to the Bankruptcy Act or applicable State law, the same percentage of their respective claims, figured before crediting to the claim of the trustee anything on account of the receipt by it from such obligor of the funds and property in such special account and before crediting to the respective claims of the trustee and the indenture security holders dividends on claims filed against such obligor in bankruptcy or receivership or in proceedings for reorganization pursuant to the Bankruptcy Act or applicable State law, but after crediting thereon receipts on account of the indebtedness represented by their respective claims from all sources other than from such dividends and from the funds and property so held in such special account. As used in this paragraph, with respect to any claim, the term “dividends” shall include any distribution with respect to such claim, in bankruptcy or receivership or in proceedings for reorganization pursuant to the Bankruptcy Act or applicable State law, whether such distribution is made in cash, securities, or other property, but shall not include any such distribution with respect to the secured portion, if any, of such claim. The court in which such bankruptcy, receivership, or proceeding for reorganization is pending shall have jurisdiction (i) to apportion between the indenture trustee and the indenture security holders, in accordance with the provisions of this paragraph, the funds and property held in such special account and the proceeds thereof, or (ii) in lieu of such apportionment, in whole or in part, to give to the provisions of this paragraph due consideration in determining the fairness of the distributions to be made to the indenture trustee and the indenture security holders with respect to their respective claims, in which event it shall not be necessary to liquidate or to appraise the value of any securities or other property held in such special account or as security for any such claim, or to make a specific allocation of such distributions as between the secured and unsecured portions of such claims, or otherwise to apply the provisions of this paragraph as a mathematical formula.

Any indenture trustee who has resigned or been removed after the beginning of such three months’ period shall be subject to the provisions of this subsection as though such resignation or removal had not occurred. Any indenture trustee who has resigned or been removed prior to the beginning of such three months’ period shall be subject to the provisions of this subsection if and only if the following conditions exist—

(i) the receipt of property or reduction of claim which would have given rise to the obligation to account, if such indenture trustee had continued as trustee, occurred after the beginning of such three months’ period; and

(ii) such receipt of property or reduction of claim occurred within three months after such resignation or removal.


As used in this subsection, the term “default” means any failure to make payment in full of principal or interest, when and as the same becomes due and payable, under any indenture which has been qualified under this subchapter, and under which the indenture trustee is trustee and the person of whom the indenture trustee is directly or indirectly a creditor is an obligor; and the term “indenture security holder” means all holders of securities outstanding under any such indenture under which any such default exists. In any case commenced under the Bankruptcy Act of July 1, 1898, or any amendment thereto enacted prior to November 6, 1978, all references to periods of three months shall be deemed to be references to periods of four months.

(b) Exclusion of creditor relationship arising from specified classes

The indenture to be qualified shall automatically be deemed (unless it is expressly provided therein that any such provision is excluded) to contain provisions excluding from the operation of subsection (a) of this section a creditor relationship arising from—

(1) the ownership or acquisition of securities issued under any indenture, or any security or securities having a maturity of one year or more at the time of acquisition by the indenture trustee;

(2) advances authorized by a receivership or bankruptcy court of competent jurisdiction, or by the indenture, for the purpose of preserving the property subject to the lien of the indenture or of discharging tax liens or other prior liens or encumbrances on the trust estate, if notice of such advance and of the circumstances surrounding the making thereof is given to the indenture security holders, at the time and in the manner provided in the indenture;

(3) disbursements made in the ordinary course of business in the capacity of trustee under an indenture, transfer agent, registrar, custodian, paying agent, fiscal agent or depositary, or other similar capacity;

(4) an indebtedness created as a result of services rendered or premises rented; or an indebtedness created as a result of goods or securities sold in a cash transaction as defined in the indenture;

(5) the ownership of stock or of other securities of a corporation organized under the provisions of section 25(a) 1 of the Federal Reserve Act, as amended [12 U.S.C. 611 et seq.], which is directly or indirectly a creditor of an obligor upon the indenture securities; or

(6) the acquisition, ownership, acceptance, or negotiation of any drafts, bills of exchange, acceptances, or obligations which fall within the classification of self-liquidating paper as defined in the indenture.

(May 27, 1933, ch. 38, title III, §311, as added Aug. 3, 1939, ch. 411, 53 Stat. 1161; amended Pub. L. 101–550, title IV, §409, Nov. 15, 1990, 104 Stat. 2728; Pub. L. 111–203, title IX, §986(b)(4), July 21, 2010, 124 Stat. 1936.)

References in Text

Section 25(a) of the Federal Reserve Act, as amended, referred to in subsec. (b)(5), which is classified to subchapter II (§611 et seq.) of chapter 6 of Title 12, Banks and Banking, was renumbered section 25A of that act by Pub. L. 102–242, title I, §142(e)(2), Dec. 19, 1991, 105 Stat. 2281.

Amendments

2010—Subsec. (c). Pub. L. 111–203 struck out subsec. (c) which related to issue or sale of securities by a registered holding company.

1990—Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 101–550, §409(1)–(4), struck out “the indenture to be qualified shall provide that” before “if” in first par., substituted “If” for “The indenture to be qualified shall provide that, if” in third par., substituted “three months” for “four months” and “three months’ ” for “four months’ ” wherever appearing, and inserted at end “In any case commenced under the Bankruptcy Act of July 1, 1898, or any amendment thereto enacted prior to November 6, 1978, all references to periods of three months shall be deemed to be references to periods of four months.”

Subsec. (b). Pub. L. 101–550, §409(5), substituted “shall automatically be deemed (unless it is expressly provided therein that any such provision is excluded) to” for “may”.

Effective Date of 2010 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 111–203 effective 1 day after July 21, 2010, except as otherwise provided, see section 4 of Pub. L. 111–203, set out as an Effective Date note under section 5301 of Title 12, Banks and Banking.

Transfer of Functions

For transfer of functions of Securities and Exchange Commission, with certain exceptions, to Chairman of such Commission, see Reorg. Plan No. 10 of 1950, §§1, 2, eff. May 24, 1950, 15 F.R. 3175, 64 Stat. 1265, set out under section 78d of this title.

1 See References in Text note below.

§77lll. Bondholders’ lists

(a) Periodic filing of information by obligor with trustee

Each obligor upon the indenture securities shall furnish or cause to be furnished to the institutional trustee thereunder at stated intervals of not more than six months, and at such other times as such trustee may request in writing, all information in the possession or control of such obligor, or of any of its paying agents, as to the names and addresses of the indenture security holders, and requiring such trustee to preserve, in as current a form as is reasonably practicable, all such information so furnished to it or received by it in the capacity of paying agent.

(b) Access of information to security holders

Within five business days after the receipt by the institutional trustee of a written application by any three or more indenture security holders stating that the applicants desire to communicate with other indenture security holders with respect to their rights under such indenture or under the indenture securities, and accompanied by a copy of the form of proxy or other communication which such applicants propose to transmit, and by reasonable proof that each such applicant has owned an indenture security for a period of at least six months preceding the date of such application, such institutional trustee shall, at its election, either—

(1) afford to such applicants access to all information so furnished to or received by such trustee; or

(2) inform such applicants as to the approximate number of indenture security holders according to the most recent information so furnished to or received by such trustee, and as to the approximate cost of mailing to such indenture security holders the form of proxy or other communication, if any, specified in such application.


If such trustee shall elect not to afford to such applicants access to such information, such trustee shall, upon the written request of such applicants, mail to all such indenture security holders copies of the form of proxy or other communication which is specified in such request, with reasonable promptness after a tender to such trustee of the material to be mailed and of payment, or provision for the payment, of the reasonable expenses of such mailing, unless within five days after such tender, such trustee shall mail to such applicants, and file with the Commission together with a copy of the material to be mailed, a written statement to the effect that, in the opinion of such trustee, such mailing would be contrary to the best interests of the indenture security holders or would be in violation of applicable law. Such written statement shall specify the basis of such opinion. After opportunity for hearing upon the objections specified in the written statement so filed, the Commission may, and if demanded by such trustee or by such applicants shall, enter an order either sustaining one or more of such objections or refusing to sustain any of them. If the Commission shall enter an order refusing to sustain any of such objections, or if, after the entry of an order sustaining one or more of such objections, the Commission shall find, after notice and opportunity for hearing, that all objections so sustained have been met, and shall enter an order so declaring, such trustee shall mail copies of such material to all such indenture security holders with reasonable promptness after the entry of such order and the renewal of such tender.

(c) Disclosure of information deemed not violative of any law

The disclosure of any such information as to the names and addresses of the indenture security holders in accordance with the provisions of this section, regardless of the source from which such information was derived, shall not be deemed to be a violation of any existing law, or of any law hereafter enacted which does not specifically refer to this section, nor shall such trustee be held accountable by reason of mailing any material pursuant to a request made under subsection (b) of this section.

(May 27, 1933, ch. 38, title III, §312, as added Aug. 3, 1939, ch. 411, 53 Stat. 1164; amended Pub. L. 101–550, title IV, §410, Nov. 15, 1990, 104 Stat. 2728.)

Amendments

1990—Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 101–550, §410(1), (2), substituted “Each obligor” for “The indenture to be qualified shall contain provisions requiring each obligor” and “indenture securities shall” for “indenture securities to”.

Subsec. (b). Pub. L. 101–550, §410(3), substituted “Within” for “The indenture to be qualified shall also contain provisions requiring that, within”.

Transfer of Functions

For transfer of functions of Securities and Exchange Commission, with certain exceptions, to Chairman of such Commission, see Reorg. Plan No. 10 of 1950, §§1, 2, eff. May 24, 1950, 15 F.R. 3175, 64 Stat. 1265, set out under section 78d of this title.

§77mmm. Reports by indenture trustee

(a) Report to security holders; time; contents

The indenture trustee shall transmit to the indenture security holders as hereinafter provided, at stated intervals of not more than 12 months, a brief report with respect to any of the following events which may have occurred within the previous 12 months (but if no such event has occurred within such period no report need be transmitted):— 1

(1) any change to its eligibility and its qualifications under section 77jjj of this title;

(2) the creation of or any material change to a relationship specified in paragraph 2 (1) through (10) of section 77jjj(b) of this title;

(3) the character and amount of any advances made by it, as indenture trustee, which remain unpaid on the date of such report, and for the reimbursement of which it claims or may claim a lien or charge, prior to that of the indenture securities, on the trust estate or on property or funds held or collected by it as such trustee, if such advances so remaining unpaid aggregate more than one-half of 1 per centum of the principal amount of the indenture securities outstanding on such date;

(4) any change to the amount, interest rate, and maturity date of all other indebtedness owning to it in its individual capacity, on the date of such report, by the obligor upon the indenture securities, with a brief description of any property held as collateral security therefor, except an indebtedness based upon a creditor relationship arising in any manner described in paragraphs (2), (3), (4), or (6) of subsection (b) of section 77kkk of this title;

(5) any change to the property and funds physically in its possession as indenture trustee on the date of such report;

(6) any release, or release and substitution, of property subject to the lien of the indenture (and the consideration therefor, if any) which it has not previously reported;

(7) any additional issue of indenture securities which it has not previously reported; and

(8) any action taken by it in the performance of its duties under the indenture which it has not previously reported and which in its opinion materially affects the indenture securities or the trust estate, except action in respect of a default, notice of which has been or is to be withheld by it in accordance with an indenture provision authorized by subsection (b) of section 77ooo of this title.

(b) Additional reports to security holders

The indenture trustee shall transmit to the indenture security holders as hereinafter provided, within the times hereinafter specified, a brief report with respect to—

(1) the release, or release and substitution, of property subject to the lien of the indenture (and the consideration therefor, if any) unless the fair value of such property, as set forth in the certificate or opinion required by paragraph (1) of subsection (d) of section 77nnn of this title, is less than 10 per centum of the principal amount of indenture securities outstanding at the time of such release, or such release and substitution, such report to be so transmitted within 90 days after such time; and

(2) the character and amount of any advances made by it as such since the date of the last report transmitted pursuant to the provisions of subsection (a) of this section (or if no such report has yet been so transmitted, since the date of execution of the indenture), for the reimbursement of which it claims or may claim a lien or charge, prior to that of the indenture securities, on the trust estate or on property or funds held or collected by it as such trustee, and which it has not previously reported pursuant to this paragraph, if such advances remaining unpaid at any time aggregate more than 10 per centum of the principal amount of indenture securities outstanding at such time, such report to be so transmitted within 90 days after such time.

(c) Additional parties to whom reports to be transmitted

Reports pursuant to this section shall be transmitted by mail—

(1) to all registered holders of indenture securities, as the names and addresses of such holders appear upon the registration books of the obligor upon the indenture securities;

(2) to such holders of indenture securities as have, within the two years preceding such transmission, filed their names and addresses with the indenture trustee for that purpose; and

(3) except in the case of reports pursuant to subsection (b) of this section, to all holders of indenture securities whose names and addresses have been furnished to or received by the indenture trustee pursuant to section 77lll of this title.

(d) Filing of report with stock exchanges

A copy of each such report shall, at the time of such transmission to indenture security holders, be filed with each stock exchange upon which the indenture securities are listed, and also with the Commission.

(May 27, 1933, ch. 38, title III, §313, as added Aug. 3, 1939, ch. 411, 53 Stat. 1165; amended Pub. L. 101–550, title IV, §§411, 412, Nov. 15, 1990, 104 Stat. 2729; Pub. L. 105–353, title III, §301(e)(3), Nov. 3, 1998, 112 Stat. 3237.)

Amendments

1998—Subsec. (a)(4). Pub. L. 105–353, §301(e)(3)(A), inserted “any change to” before “the amount”.

Subsec. (a)(6). Pub. L. 105–353, §301(e)(3)(B), struck out “any change to” before “any release”.

1990—Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 101–550, §411(1), (2), substituted “The indenture trustee shall” for “The indenture to be qualified shall contain provisions requiring the indenture trustee to” and inserted “any of the following events which may have occurred within the previous 12 months (but if no such event has occurred within such period no report need be transmitted):” after “a brief report with respect to”.

Subsec. (a)(1). Pub. L. 101–550, §411(3), (4), inserted “any change to” before “its eligibility” and struck out “, or in lieu thereof, if to the best of its knowledge it has continued to be eligible and qualified under such section, a written statement to such effect” after “of this title”.

Subsec. (a)(2). Pub. L. 101–550, §411(5), added par. (2) and redesignated former par. (2) as (3).

Subsec. (a)(3), (4). Pub. L. 101–550, §411(5)(A), redesignated pars. (2) and (3) as (3) and (4), respectively. Former par. (4) redesignated (5).

Subsec. (a)(5). Pub. L. 101–550, §411(5)(A), redesignated par. (4) as (5). Former par. (5) redesignated (6).

Pub. L. 101–550, §411(3), inserted “any change to” after the paragraph designation.

Subsec. (a)(6). Pub. L. 101–550, §411(5)(A), redesignated par. (5) as (6). Former par. (6) redesignated (7).

Pub. L. 101–550, §411(3), inserted “any change to” after the paragraph designation.

Subsec. (a)(7), (8). Pub. L. 101–550, §411(5)(A), redesignated pars. (6) and (7) as (7) and (8), respectively.

Subsec. (b). Pub. L. 101–550, §412(1), substituted “The indenture trustee shall” for “The indenture to be qualified shall also contain provisions requiring the indenture trustee to”.

Subsec. (c). Pub. L. 101–550, §412(2), substituted “Reports” for “The indenture to be qualified shall also provide that reports”.

Subsec. (d). Pub. L. 101–550, §412(3), substituted “A copy” for “The indenture to be qualified shall also provide that a copy”.

Transfer of Functions

For transfer of functions of Securities and Exchange Commission, with certain exceptions, to Chairman of such Commission, see Reorg. Plan No. 10 of 1950, §§1, 2, eff. May 24, 1950, 15 F.R. 3175, 64 Stat. 1265, set out under section 78d of this title.

1 So in original. The colon probably should not appear.

2 So in original. Probably should be “paragraphs”.

§77nnn. Reports by obligor; evidence of compliance with indenture provisions

(a) Periodic reports

Each person who, as set forth in the registration statement or application, is or is to be an obligor upon the indenture securities covered thereby shall—

(1) file with the indenture trustee copies of the annual reports and of the information, documents, and other reports (or copies of such portions of any of the foregoing as the Commission may by rules and regulations prescribe) which such obligor is required to file with the Commission pursuant to section 78m or 78o(d) of this title; or, if the obligor is not required to file information, documents, or reports pursuant to either of such sections, then to file with the indenture trustee and the Commission, in accordance with rules and regulations prescribed by the Commission, such of the supplementary and periodic information, documents, and reports which may be required pursuant to section 78m of this title, in respect of a security listed and registered on a national securities exchange as may be prescribed in such rules and regulations;

(2) file with the indenture trustee and the Commission, in accordance with rules and regulations prescribed by the Commission, such additional information, documents, and reports with respect to compliance by such obligor with the conditions and covenants provided for in the indenture, as may be required by such rules and regulations, including, in the case of annual reports, if required by such rules and regulations, certificates or opinions of independent public accountants, conforming to the requirements of subsection (e) of this section, as to compliance with conditions or covenants, compliance with which is subject to verification by accountants, but no such certificate or opinion shall be required as to any matter specified in clauses (A), (B), or (C) of paragraph (3) of subsection (c) of this section;

(3) transmit to the holders of the indenture securities upon which such person is an obligor, in the manner and to the extent provided in subsection (c) of section 77mmm of this title, such summaries of any information, documents, and reports required to be filed by such obligor pursuant to the provisions of paragraph (1) or (2) of this subsection as may be required by rules and regulations prescribed by the Commission; and

(4) furnish to the indenture trustee, not less often than annually, a brief certificate from the principal executive officer, principal financial officer or principal accounting officer as to his or her knowledge of such obligor's compliance with all conditions and covenants under the indenture. For purposes of this paragraph, such compliance shall be determined without regard to any period of grace or requirement of notice provided under the indenture.


The rules and regulations prescribed under this subsection shall be such as are necessary or appropriate in the public interest or for the protection of investors, having due regard to the types of indentures, and the nature of the business of the class of obligors affected thereby, and the amount of indenture securities outstanding under such indentures, and, in the case of any such rules and regulations prescribed after the indentures to which they apply have been qualified under this subchapter, the additional expense, if any, of complying with such rules and regulations. Such rules and regulations may be prescribed either before or after qualification becomes effective as to any such indenture.

(b) Evidence of recording of indenture

If the indenture to be qualified is or is to be secured by the mortgage or pledge of property, the obligor upon the indenture securities shall furnish to the indenture trustee—

(1) promptly after the execution and delivery of the indenture, an opinion of counsel (who may be of counsel for such obligor) either stating that in the opinion of such counsel the indenture has been properly recorded and filed so as to make effective the lien intended to be created thereby, and reciting the details of such action, or stating that in the opinion of such counsel no such action is necessary to make such lien effective; and

(2) at least annually after the execution and delivery of the indenture, an opinion of counsel (who may be of counsel for such obligor) either stating that in the opinion of such counsel such action has been taken with respect to the recording, filing, re-recording, and refiling of the indenture as is necessary to maintain the lien of such indenture, and reciting the details of such action, or stating that in the opinion of such counsel no such action is necessary to maintain such lien.

(c) Evidence of compliance with conditions precedent

The obligor upon the indenture securities shall furnish to the indenture trustee evidence of compliance with the conditions precedent, if any, provided for in the indenture (including any covenants compliance with which constitutes a condition precedent) which relate to the authentication and delivery of the indenture securities, to the release or the release and substitution of property subject to the lien of the indenture, to the satisfaction and discharge of the indenture, or to any other action to be taken by the indenture trustee at the request or upon the application of such obligor. Such evidence shall consist of the following:

(1) certificates or opinions made by officers of such obligor who are specified in the indenture, stating that such conditions precedent have been complied with;

(2) an opinion of counsel (who may be of counsel for such obligor) stating that in his opinion such conditions precedent have been complied with; and

(3) in the case of conditions precedent compliance with which is subject to verification by accountants (such as conditions with respect to the preservation of specified ratios, the amount of net quick assets, negative-pledge clauses, and other similar specific conditions), a certificate or opinion of an accountant, who, in the case of any such conditions precedent to the authentication and delivery of indenture securities, and not otherwise, shall be an independent public accountant selected or approved by the indenture trustee in the exercise of reasonable care, if the aggregate principal amount of such indenture securities and of other indenture securities authenticated and delivered since the commencement of the then current calendar year (other than those with respect to which a certificate or opinion of an accountant is not required, or with respect to which a certificate or opinion of an independent public accountant has previously been furnished) is 10 per centum or more of the aggregate amount of the indenture securities at the time outstanding; but no certificate or opinion need be made by any person other than an officer or employee of such obligor who is specified in the indenture, as to (A) dates or periods not covered by annual reports required to be filed by the obligor, in the case of conditions precedent which depend upon a state of facts as of a date or dates or for a period or periods different from that required to be covered by such annual reports, or (B) the amount and value of property additions, except as provided in paragraph (3) of subsection (d) of this section, or (C) the adequacy of depreciation, maintenance, or repairs.

(d) Certificates of fair value

If the indenture to be qualified is or is to be secured by the mortgage or pledge of property or securities, the obligor upon the indenture securities shall furnish to the indenture trustee a certificate or opinion of an engineer, appraiser, or other expert as to the fair value—

(1) of any property or securities to be released from the lien of the indenture, which certificate or opinion shall state that in the opinion of the person making the same the proposed release will not impair the security under such indenture in contravention of the provisions thereof, and requiring further that such certificate or opinion shall be made by an independent engineer, appraiser, or other expert, if the fair value of such property or securities and of all other property or securities released since the commencement of the then current calendar year, as set forth in the certificates or opinions required by this paragraph, is 10 per centum or more of the aggregate principal amount of the indenture securities at the time outstanding; but such a certificate or opinion of an independent engineer, appraiser, or other expert shall not be required in the case of any release of property or securities, if the fair value thereof as set forth in the certificate or opinion required by this paragraph is less than $25,000 or less than 1 per centum of the aggregate principal amount of the indenture securities at the time outstanding;

(2) to such obligor of any securities (other than indenture securities and securities secured by a lien prior to the lien of the indenture upon property subject to the lien of the indenture), the deposit of which with the trustee is to be made the basis for the authentication and delivery of indenture securities, the withdrawal of cash constituting a part of the trust estate or the release of property or securities subject to the lien of the indenture, and requiring further that if the fair value to such obligor of such securities and of all other such securities made the basis of any such authentication and delivery, withdrawal, or release since the commencement of the then current calendar year, as set forth in the certificates or opinions required by this paragraph, is 10 per centum or more of the aggregate principal amount of the indenture securities at the time outstanding, such certificate or opinion shall be made by an independent engineer, appraiser, or other expert and, in the case of the authentication and delivery of indenture securities, shall cover the fair value to such obligor of all other such securities so deposited since the commencement of the current calendar year as to which a certificate or opinion of an independent engineer, appraiser, or other expert has not previously been furnished; but such a certificate of an independent engineer, appraiser, or other expert shall not be required with respect to any securities so deposited, if the fair value thereof to such obligor as set forth in the certificate or opinion required by this paragraph is less than $25,000 or less than 1 per centum of the aggregate principal amount of the indenture securities at the time outstanding; and

(3) to such obligor of any property the subjection of which to the lien of the indenture is to be made the basis for the authentication and delivery of indenture securities, the withdrawal of cash constituting a part of the trust estate, or the release of property or securities subject to the lien of the indenture, and requiring further that if

(A) within six months prior to the d‘te of acquisition thereof by such obligor, such property has been used or operated, by a person or persons other than such obligor, in a business similar to that in which it has been or is to be used or operated by such obligor, and

(B) the fair value to such obligor of such property as set forth in such certificate or opinion is not less than $25,000 and not less than 1 per centum of the aggregate principal amount of the indenture securities at the time outstanding,


such certificate or opinion shall be made by an independent engineer, appraiser, or other expert and, in the case of the authentication and delivery of indenture securities, shall cover the fair value to the obligor of any property so used or operated which has been so subjected to the lien of the indenture since the commencement of the then current calendar year, and as to which a certificate or opinion of an independent engineer, appraiser, or other expert has not previously been furnished.


The indenture to be qualified shall automatically be deemed (unless it is expressly provided therein that such provision is excluded) to provide that any such certificate or opinion may be made by an officer or employee of the obligor upon the indenture securities who is duly authorized to make such certificate or opinion by the obligor from time to time, except in cases in which this subsection requires that such certificate or opinion be made by an independent person. In such cases, such certificate or opinion shall be made by an independent engineer, appraiser, or other expert selected or approved by the indenture trustee in the exercise of reasonable care.

(e) Recitals as to basis of certificate or opinion

Each certificate or opinion with respect to compliance with a condition or covenant provided for in the indenture (other than certificates provided pursuant to subsection (a)(4) of this section) shall include (1) a statement that the person making such certificate or opinion has read such covenant or condition; (2) a brief statement as to the nature and scope of the examination or investigation upon which the statements or opinions contained in such certificate or opinion are based; (3) a statement that, in the opinion of such person, he has made such examination or investigation as is necessary to enable him to express an informed opinion as to whether or not such covenant or condition has been complied with; and (4) a statement as to whether or not, in the opinion of such person, such condition or covenant has been complied with.

(f) Parties may provide for additional evidence

Nothing in this section shall be construed either as requiring the inclusion in the indenture to be qualified of provisions that the obligor upon the indenture securities shall furnish to the indenture trustee any other evidence of compliance with the conditions and covenants provided for in the indenture than the evidence specified in this section, or as preventing the inclusion of such provisions in such indenture, if the parties so agree.

(May 27, 1933, ch. 38, title III, §314, as added Aug. 3, 1939, ch. 411, 53 Stat. 1167; amended Pub. L. 101–550, title IV, §413, Nov. 15, 1990, 104 Stat. 2729.)

Amendments

1990—Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 101–550, §413(1)–(6), in introductory provision substituted “Each” for “The indenture to be qualified shall contain provisions requiring each” and inserted “shall” after “thereby” and in pars. (1) to (3) struck out “to” after the paragraph designation, and directed the addition of par. (4) at the end which was executed by inserting par. (4) after par. (3) to reflect the probable intent of Congress.

Subsec. (b). Pub. L. 101–550, §413(7), (8), struck out “such indenture shall contain provisions requiring” before “the obligor” and substituted “securities shall furnish” for “securities to furnish”.

Subsec. (c). Pub. L. 101–550, §413(9), (10), substituted “The obligor” for “The indenture to be qualified shall contain provisions requiring the obligor” and “securities shall furnish” for “securities to furnish”.

Subsec. (d). Pub. L. 101–550, §413(11), (13), (14), substituted “the obligor upon the indenture securities shall furnish to the indenture trustee a certificate or opinion of an engineer, appraiser, or other expert as to the fair value” for “such indenture shall contain provisions” in introductory provisions and “The indenture to be qualified shall automatically be deemed (unless it is expressly provided therein that such provision is excluded) to provide that” for “If the indenture to be qualified so provides,” and “duly authorized to make such certificate or opinion by the obligor from time to time” for “specified in the indenture” in penultimate sentence.

Subsec. (d)(1) to (3). Pub. L. 101–550, §413(12), which directed that “requiring the obligor upon the indenture securities to furnish to the indenture trustee a certificate or opinion of an engineer, appraiser or other expert as to the fair value” be struck out after the paragraph designations in pars. (1) to (3), was executed by striking out “requiring the obligor upon the indenture securities to furnish to the indenture trustee a certificate or opinion of an engineer, appraiser, or other expert as to the fair value”, as the probable intent of Congress.

Subsec. (e). Pub. L. 101–550, §413(15), inserted “(other than certificates provided pursuant to subsection (a)(4) of this section)” after “indenture”.

Transfer of Functions

For transfer of functions of Securities and Exchange Commission, with certain exceptions, to Chairman of such Commission, see Reorg. Plan No. 10 of 1950, §§1, 2, eff. May 24, 1950, 15 F.R. 3175, 64 Stat. 1265, set out under section 78d of this title.

§77ooo. Duties and responsibility of the trustee

(a) Duties prior to default

The indenture to be qualified shall automatically be deemed (unless it is expressly provided therein that any such provision is excluded) to provide that, prior to default (as such term is defined in such indenture)—

(1) the indenture trustee shall not be liable except for the performance of such duties as are specifically set out in such indenture; and

(2) the indenture trustee may conclusively rely, as to the truth of the statements and the correctness of the opinions expressed therein, in the absence of bad faith on the part of such trustee, upon certificates or opinions conforming to the requirements of the indenture;


but the indenture trustee shall examine the evidence furnished to it pursuant to section 77nnn of this title to determine whether or not such evidence conforms to the requirements of the indenture.

(b) Notice of defaults

The indenture trustee shall give to the indenture security holders, in the manner and to the extent provided in subsection (c) of section 77mmm of this title, notice of all defaults known to the trustee, within ninety days after the occurrence thereof: Provided, That such indenture shall automatically be deemed (unless it is expressly provided therein that such provision is excluded) to provide that, except in the case of default in the payment of the principal of or interest on any indenture security, or in the payment of any sinking or purchase fund installment, the trustee shall be protected in withholding such notice if and so long as the board of directors, the executive committee, or a trust committee of directors and/or responsible officers, of the trustee in good faith determine that the withholding of such notice is in the interests of the indenture security holders.

(c) Duties of the trustee in case of default

The indenture trustee shall exercise in case of default (as such term is defined in such indenture) such of the rights and powers vested in it by such indenture, and to use the same degree of care and skill in their exercise, as a prudent man would exercise or use under the circumstances in the conduct of his own affairs.

(d) Responsibility of the trustee

The indenture to be qualified shall not contain any provisions relieving the indenture trustee from liability for its own negligent action, its own negligent failure to act, or its own willful misconduct, except that—

(1) such indenture shall automatically be deemed (unless it is expressly provided therein that any such provision is excluded) to contain the provisions authorized by paragraphs (1) and (2) of subsection (a) of this section;

(2) such indenture shall automatically be deemed (unless it is expressly provided therein that any such provision is excluded) to contain provisions protecting the indenture trustee from liability for any error of judgment made in good faith by a responsible officer or officers of such trustee, unless it shall be proved that such trustee was negligent in ascertaining the pertinent facts; and

(3) such indenture shall automatically be deemed (unless it is expressly provided therein that any such provision is excluded) to contain provisions protecting the indenture trustee with respect to any action taken or omitted to be taken by it in good faith in accordance with the direction of the holders of not less than a majority in principal amount of the indenture securities at the time outstanding (determined as provided in subsection (a) of section 77ppp of this title) relating to the time, method, and place of conducting any proceeding for any remedy available to such trustee, or exercising any trust or power conferred upon such trustee, under such indenture.

(e) Undertaking for costs

The indenture to be qualified shall automatically be deemed (unless it is expressly provided therein that any such provision is excluded) to contain provisions to the effect that all parties thereto, including the indenture security holders, agree that the court may in its discretion require, in any suit for the enforcement of any right or remedy under such indenture, or in any suit against the trustee for any action taken or omitted by it as trustee, the filing by any party litigant in such suit of an undertaking to pay the costs of such suit, and that such court may in its discretion assess reasonable costs, including reasonable attorney's fees, against any party litigant in such suit, having due regard to the merits and good faith of the claims or defenses made by such party litigant: Provided, That the provisions of this subsection shall not apply to any suit instituted by such trustee, to any suit instituted by any indenture security holder, or group of indenture security holders, holding in the aggregate more than 10 per centum in principal amount of the indenture securities outstanding, or to any suit instituted by any indenture security holder for the enforcement of the payment of the principal of or interest on any indenture security, on or after the respective due dates expressed in such indenture security.

(May 27, 1933, ch. 38, title III, §315, as added Aug. 3, 1939, ch. 411, 53 Stat. 1171; amended Pub. L. 101–550, title IV, §414, Nov. 15, 1990, 104 Stat. 2730.)

Amendments

1990—Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 101–550, §414(1), (2), substituted “The indenture to be qualified shall automatically be deemed (unless it is expressly provided therein that any such provision is excluded) to” for “The indenture to be qualified may” and “the indenture trustee shall examine” for “such indenture shall contain provisions requiring the indenture trustee to examine”.

Subsec. (b). Pub. L. 101–550, §414(3), (4), substituted “The indenture trustee shall” for “The indenture to be qualified shall contain provisions requiring the indenture trustee to” and “That such indenture shall automatically be deemed (unless it is expressly provided therein that such provision is excluded) to” for “That such indenture may”.

Subsec. (c). Pub. L. 101–550, §414(3), substituted “The indenture trustee shall” for “The indenture to be qualified shall contain provisions requiring the indenture trustee to”.

Subsec. (d)(1) to (3). Pub. L. 101–550, §414(5), substituted “such indenture shall automatically be deemed (unless it is expressly provided therein that any such provision is excluded) to” for “such indenture may”.

Subsec. (e). Pub. L. 101–550, §414(1), substituted “The indenture to be qualified shall automatically be deemed (unless it is expressly provided therein that any such provision is excluded) to” for “The indenture to be qualified may”.

§77ppp. Directions and waivers by bondholders; prohibition of impairment of holder's right to payment; record date

(a) Directions and waivers by bondholders

The indenture to be qualified—

(1) shall automatically be deemed (unless it is expressly provided therein that any such provision is excluded) to contain provisions authorizing the holders of not less than a majority in principal amount of the indenture securities or if expressly specified in such indenture, of any series of securities at the time outstanding (A) to direct the time, method, and place of conducting any proceeding for any remedy available to such trustee, or exercising any trust or power conferred upon such trustee, under such indenture, or (B) on behalf of the holders of all such indenture securities, to consent to the waiver of any past default and its consequences; or

(2) may contain provisions authorizing the holders of not less than 75 per centum in principal amount of the indenture securities or if expressly specified in such indenture, of any series of securities at the time outstanding to consent on behalf of the holders of all such indenture securities to the postponement of any interest payment for a period not exceeding three years from its due date.


For the purposes of this subsection and paragraph (3) of subsection (d) of section 77ooo of this title, in determining whether the holders of the required principal amount of indenture securities have concurred in any such direction or consent, indenture securities owned by any obligor upon the indenture securities, or by any person directly or indirectly controlling or controlled by or under direct or indirect common control with any such obligor, shall be disregarded, except that for the purposes of determining whether the indenture trustee shall be protected in relying on any such direction or consent, only indenture securities which such trustee knows are so owned shall be so disregarded.

(b) Prohibition of impairment of holder's right to payment

Notwithstanding any other provision of the indenture to be qualified, the right of any holder of any indenture security to receive payment of the principal of and interest on such indenture security, on or after the respective due dates expressed in such indenture security, or to institute suit for the enforcement of any such payment on or after such respective dates, shall not be impaired or affected without the consent of such holder, except as to a postponement of an interest payment consented to as provided in paragraph (2) of subsection (a) of this section, and except that such indenture may contain provisions limiting or denying the right of any such holder to institute any such suit, if and to the extent that the institution or prosecution thereof or the entry of judgment therein would, under applicable law, result in the surrender, impairment, waiver, or loss of the lien of such indenture upon any property subject to such lien.

(c) Record date

The obligor upon any indenture qualified under this subchapter may set a record date for purposes of determining the identity of indenture security holders entitled to vote or consent to any action by vote or consent authorized or permitted by subsection (a) of this section. Unless the indenture provides otherwise, such record date shall be the later of 30 days prior to the first solicitation of such consent or the date of the most recent list of holders furnished to the trustee pursuant to section 77lll of this title prior to such solicitation.

(May 27, 1933, ch. 38, title III, §316, as added Aug. 3, 1939, ch. 411, 53 Stat. 1172; amended Pub. L. 101–550, title IV, §415, Nov. 15, 1990, 104 Stat. 2731.)

Amendments

1990—Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 101–550, §415(1)–(3), in introductory provisions struck out “may contain provisions” after “qualified”, in par. (1) inserted “shall automatically be deemed (unless it is expressly provided therein that any such provision is excluded) to contain provisions” before “authorizing the holders” and “or if expressly specified in such indenture, of any series of securities” after “principal amount of the indenture securities”, and in par. (2) inserted “may contain provisions” before “authorizing the holders” and “or if expressly specified in such indenture, of any series of securities” after “principal amount of the indenture securities”.

Subsec. (b). Pub. L. 101–550, §415(5), which directed the substitution of “of the indenture to be qualified” for “thereof”, was executed by making the substitution for “thereof” the first time appearing, as the probable intent of Congress.

Subsec. (c). Pub. L. 101–550, §415(6), added subsec. (c).

§77qqq. Special powers of trustee; duties of paying agents

(a) The indenture trustee shall be authorized—

(1) in the case of a default in payment of the principal of any indenture security, when and as the same shall become due and payable, or in the case of a default in payment of the interest on any such security, when and as the same shall become due and payable and the continuance of such default for such period as may be prescribed in such indenture, to recover judgment, in its own name and as trustee of an express trust, against the obligor upon the indenture securities for the whole amount of such principal and interest remaining unpaid; and

(2) to file such proofs of claim and other papers or documents as may be necessary or advisable in order to have the claims of such trustee and of the indenture security holders allowed in any judicial proceedings relative to the obligor upon the indenture securities, its creditors, or its property.


(b) Each paying agent shall hold in trust for the benefit of the indenture security holders or the indenture trustee all sums held by such paying agent for the payment of the principal of or interest on the indenture securities, and shall give to such trustee notice of any default by any obligor upon the indenture securities in the making of any such payment.

(May 27, 1933, ch. 38, title III, §317, as added Aug. 3, 1939, ch. 411, 53 Stat. 1173; amended Pub. L. 101–550, title IV, §416, Nov. 15, 1990, 104 Stat. 2731; Pub. L. 111–203, title IX, §985(c)(2), July 21, 2010, 124 Stat. 1934.)

Amendments

2010—Subsec. (a)(1). Pub. L. 111–203 substituted “(1) in the” for “(1) , in the”.

1990—Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 101–550, §416(1)–(3), in introductory provisions, substituted “trustee shall be authorized” for “to be qualified shall contain provisions”, in par. (1) struck out “authorizing the indenture trustee” after the paragraph designation, and in par. (2) struck out “authorizing such trustee” after the paragraph designation.

Subsec. (b). Pub. L. 101–550, §416(4), substituted “Each” for “The indenture to be qualified shall provide that each”.

Effective Date of 2010 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 111–203 effective 1 day after July 21, 2010, except as otherwise provided, see section 4 of Pub. L. 111–203, set out as an Effective Date note under section 5301 of Title 12, Banks and Banking.

§77rrr. Effect of prescribed indenture provisions

(a) Imposed duties to control

If any provision of the indenture to be qualified limits, qualifies, or conflicts with the duties imposed by operation of subsection (c) of this section, the imposed duties shall control.

(b) Additional provisions

The indenture to be qualified may contain, in addition to provisions specifically authorized under this subchapter to be included therein, any other provisions the inclusion of which is not in contravention of any provision of this subchapter.

(c) Provisions governing qualified indentures

The provisions of sections 77jjj to and including 77qqq of this title that impose duties on any person (including provisions automatically deemed included in an indenture unless the indenture provides that such provisions are excluded) are a part of and govern every qualified indenture, whether or not physically contained therein, shall be deemed retroactively to govern each indenture heretofore qualified, and prospectively to govern each indenture hereafter qualified under this subchapter and shall be deemed retroactively to amend and supersede inconsistent provisions in each such indenture heretofore qualified. The foregoing provisions of this subsection shall not be deemed to effect the inclusion (by retroactive amendment or otherwise) in the text of any indenture heretofore qualified of any of the optional provisions contemplated by section 77jjj(b)(1), 77kkk(b), 77nnn(d), 77ooo(a), 77ooo(b), 77ooo(d), 77ooo(e), or 77ppp(a)(1) of this title.

(May 27, 1933, ch. 38, title III, §318, as added Aug. 3, 1939, ch. 411, 53 Stat. 1173; amended Pub. L. 101–550, title IV, §417, Nov. 15, 1990, 104 Stat. 2731.)

Amendments

1990—Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 101–550, §417(1), added subsec. (a) and struck out former subsec. (a) which read as follows: “The indenture to be qualified shall provide that if any provision thereof limits, qualifies, or conflicts with another provision which is required to be included in such indenture by any of sections 77jjj to 77qqq of this title, inclusive, such required provision shall control.”

Subsec. (c). Pub. L. 101–550, §417(2), added subsec. (c).

§77sss. Rules, regulations, and orders

(a) Authority of Commission; subject matter of rules, etc.

The Commission shall have authority from time to time to make, issue, amend, and rescind such rules and regulations and such orders as it may deem necessary or appropriate in the public interest or for the protection of investors to carry out the provisions of this subchapter, including rules and regulations defining accounting, technical, and trade terms used in this subchapter. Among other things, the Commission shall have authority, (1) by rules and regulations, to prescribe for the purposes of section 77jjj(b) of this title the method (to be fixed in indentures to be qualified under this subchapter) of calculating percentages of voting securities and other securities; (2) by rules and regulations, to prescribe the definitions of the terms “cash transaction” and “self-liquidating paper” which shall be included in indentures to be qualified under this subchapter, which definitions shall include such of the creditor relationships referred to in paragraphs (4) and (6) of subsection (b) of section 77kkk of this title as to which the Commission determines that the application of subsection (a) of section 77kkk of this title is not necessary in the public interest or for the protection of investors, having due regard for the purposes of such subsection; and (3) for the purposes of this subchapter, to prescribe the form or forms in which information required in any statement, application, report, or other document filed with the Commission shall be set forth. For the purpose of its rules or regulations the Commission may classify persons, securities, indentures, and other matters within its jurisdiction and prescribe different requirements for different classes of persons, securities, indentures, or matters.

(b) Rules and regulations effective upon publication

Subject to the provisions of chapter 15 of title 44 and regulations prescribed under the authority thereof, the rules and regulations of the Commission under this subchapter shall be effective upon publication in the manner which the Commission shall prescribe, or upon such later date as may be provided in such rules and regulations.

(c) Exemption from liability for any acts taken in good faith in conformity with rules, etc.

No provision of this subchapter imposing any liability shall apply to any act done or omitted in good faith in conformity with any rule, regulation, or order of the Commission, notwithstanding that such rule, regulation, or order may, after such act or omission, be amended or rescinded or be determined by judicial or other authority to be invalid for any reason.

(May 27, 1933, ch. 38, title III, §319, as added Aug. 3, 1939, ch. 411, 53 Stat. 1173; Pub. L. 105–353, title III, §301(e)(4), Nov. 3, 1998, 112 Stat. 3237.)

Amendments

1998—Subsec. (b). Pub. L. 105–353 substituted “chapter 15 of title 44” for “the Federal Register Act”.

Transfer of Functions

For transfer of functions of Securities and Exchange Commission, with certain exceptions, to Chairman of such Commission, see Reorg. Plan No. 10 of 1950, §§1, 2, eff. May 24, 1950, 15 F.R. 3175, 64 Stat. 1265, set out under section 78d of this title.

§77ttt. Hearings by Commission

Hearings may be public and may be held before the Commission, any member or members thereof, or any officer or officers of the Commission designated by it, and appropriate records thereof shall be kept.

(May 27, 1933, ch. 38, title III, §320, as added Aug. 3, 1939, ch. 411, 53 Stat. 1174.)

Transfer of Functions

For transfer of functions of Securities and Exchange Commission, with certain exceptions, to Chairman of such Commission, see Reorg. Plan No. 10 of 1950, §§1, 2, eff. May 24, 1950, 15 F.R. 3175, 64 Stat. 1265, set out under section 78d of this title.

§77uuu. Special powers of the Commission

(a) Investigatory powers

For the purpose of any investigation or any other proceeding which, in the opinion of the Commission, is necessary and proper for the enforcement of this subchapter, any member of the Commission, or any officer thereof designated by it, is empowered to administer oaths and affirmations, subpena witnesses, compel their attendance, take evidence, and require the production of any books, papers, correspondence, memoranda, contracts, agreements, or other records which the Commission deems relevant or material to the inquiry. Such attendance of witnesses and the production of any such books, papers, correspondence, memoranda, contracts, agreements, or other records may be required from any place in the United States or in any Territory at any designated place of investigation or hearing. In addition, the Commission shall have the powers with respect to investigations and hearings, and with respect to the enforcement of, and offenses and violations under, this subchapter and rules and regulations and orders prescribed under the authority thereof, provided in sections 77t and 77v(b), (c) of this title.

(b) Availability of reports from other offices; restrictions

The Treasury Department, the Comptroller of the Currency, the Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System, the Federal Reserve Banks, and the Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation are authorized, under such conditions as they may prescribe, to make available to the Commission such reports, records, or other information as they may have available with respect to trustees or prospective trustees under indentures qualified or to be qualified under this subchapter, and to make through their examiners or other employees for the use of the Commission, examinations of such trustees or prospective trustees. Every such trustee or prospective trustee shall, as a condition precedent to qualification of such indenture, consent that reports of examinations by Federal, State, Territorial, or District authorities may be furnished by such authorities to the Commission upon request therefor.

Notwithstanding any provision of this subchapter, no report, record, or other information made available to the Commission under this subsection, no report of an examination made under this subsection for the use of the Commission, no report of an examination made of any trustee or prospective trustee by any Federal, State, Territorial, or District authority having jurisdiction to examine or supervise such trustee, no report made by any such trustee or prospective trustee to any such authority, and no correspondence between any such authority and any such trustee or prospective trustee, shall be divulged or made known or available by the Commission or any member, officer, agent, or employee thereof, to any person other than a member, officer, agent, or employee of the Commission: Provided, That the Commission may make available to the Attorney General of the United States, in confidence, any information obtained from such records, reports of examination, other reports, or correspondence, and deemed necessary by the Commission, or requested by him, for the purpose of enabling him to perform his duties under this subchapter.

(c) Investigation of prospective trustees

Any investigation of a prospective trustee, or any proceeding or requirement for the purpose of obtaining information regarding a prospective trustee, under any provision of this subchapter, shall be limited—

(1) to determining whether such prospective trustee is qualified to act as trustee under the provisions of subsection (b) of section 77jjj of this title;

(2) to requiring the inclusion in the registration statement or application of information with respect to the eligibility of such prospective trustee under paragraph (1) of subsection (a) of section 77jjj of this title; and

(3) to requiring the inclusion in the registration statement or application of the most recent published report of condition of such prospective trustee, as described in paragraph (2) of subsection (a) of section 77jjj of this title, or, if the indenture does not contain the provision with respect to combined capital and surplus authorized by the last sentence of paragraph (2) of subsection (a) of section 77jjj of this title, to determining whether such prospective trustee is eligible to act as such under paragraph (2) of subsection (a) of section 77jjj of this title.

(d) Appointment and compensation of employees; lease and allocation of real property

The provisions section 78d(b) of this title shall be applicable with respect to the power of the Commission—

(1) to appoint and fix the compensation of such employees as may be necessary for carrying out its functions under this subchapter, and

(2) to lease and allocate such real property as may be necessary for carrying out its functions under this subchapter.

(May 27, 1933, ch. 38, title III, §321, as added Aug. 3, 1939, ch. 411, 53 Stat. 1174; amended Pub. L. 101–550, title I, §104(b), Nov. 15, 1990, 104 Stat. 2714.)

Amendments

1990—Subsec. (d). Pub. L. 101–550 amended subsec. (d) generally. Prior to amendment, subsec. (d) read as follows: “The provisions of section 78d(b) of this title shall be applicable with respect to the power of the Commission to appoint and fix the compensation of such officers, attorneys, examiners, and other experts, and such other officers and employees, as may be necessary for carrying out its functions under this subchapter.”

Transfer of Functions

For transfer of functions of Securities and Exchange Commission, with certain exceptions, to Chairman of such Commission, see Reorg. Plan No. 10 of 1950, §§1, 2, eff. May 24, 1950, 15 F.R. 3175, 64 Stat. 1265, set out under section 78d of this title.

Exception as to Transfer of Functions

Functions vested by any provision of law in Comptroller of the Currency, referred to in this section, not included in transfer of functions of officers, agencies and employees of Department of the Treasury to Secretary of the Treasury, made by Reorg. Plan No. 26 of 1950, §1, eff. July 31, 1950, 15 F.R. 4935, 64 Stat. 1280. See section 321(c)(2) of Title 31, Money and Finance.

§77vvv. Judicial review

(a) Review of orders

Orders of the Commission under this subchapter (including orders pursuant to the provisions of sections 77eee(b) and 77ggg(c) of this title) shall be subject to review in the same manner, upon the same conditions, and to the same extent, as provided in section 9 of the Securities Act of 1933 [15 U.S.C. 77i], with respect to orders of the Commission under such Act.

(b) Jurisdiction of offenses and suits

Jurisdiction of offenses and violations under, and jurisdiction and venue of suits and actions brought to enforce any liability or duty created by, this subchapter, or any rules or regulations or orders prescribed under the authority thereof, shall be as provided in section 22(a) of the Securities Act of 1933 [15 U.S.C. 77v(a)].

(May 27, 1933, ch. 38, title III, §322, as added Aug. 3, 1939, ch. 411, 53 Stat. 1175; amended Pub. L. 101–550, title IV, §418, Nov. 15, 1990, 104 Stat. 2732.)

References in Text

Such Act, referred to in subsec. (a), means the Securities Act of 1933, approved May 27, 1933, ch. 38, title I, 48 Stat. 74, as amended, which is classified generally to subchapter I (§77a et seq.) of this chapter. For complete classification of this Act to the Code, see section 77a of this title and Tables.

Amendments

1990—Subsec. (b). Pub. L. 101–550 inserted “or duty” after “any liability”.

Transfer of Functions

For transfer of functions of Securities and Exchange Commission, with certain exceptions, to Chairman of such Commission, see Reorg. Plan No. 10 of 1950, §§1, 2, eff. May 24, 1950, 15 F.R. 3175, 64 Stat. 1265, set out under section 78d of this title.

§77www. Liability for misleading statements

(a) Any person who shall make or cause to be made any statement in any application, report, or document filed with the Commission pursuant to any provisions of this subchapter, or any rule, regulation, or order thereunder, which statement was at the time and in the light of the circumstances under which it was made false or misleading with respect to any material fact, or who shall omit to state any material fact required to be stated therein or necessary to make the statements therein not misleading, shall be liable to any person (not knowing that such statement was false or misleading or of such omission) who, in reliance upon such statement or omission, shall have purchased or sold a security issued under the indenture to which such application, report, or document relates, for damages caused by such reliance, unless the person sued shall prove that he acted in good faith and had no knowledge that such statement was false or misleading or of such omission. A person seeking to enforce such liability may sue at law or in equity in any court of competent jurisdiction. In any such suit the court may, in its discretion, require an undertaking for the payment of the costs of such suit and assess reasonable costs, including reasonable attorneys’ fees, against either party litigant, having due regard to the merits and good faith of the suit or defense. No action shall be maintained to enforce any liability created under this section unless brought within one year after the discovery of the facts constituting the cause of action and within three years after such cause of action accrued.

(b) The rights and remedies provided by this subchapter shall be in addition to any and all other rights and remedies that may exist under the Securities Act of 1933 [15 U.S.C. 77a et seq.] or the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 [15 U.S.C. 78a et seq.], or otherwise at law or in equity; but no person permitted to maintain a suit for damages under the provisions of this subchapter shall recover, through satisfaction of judgment in one or more actions, a total amount in excess of his actual damages on account of the act complained of.

(May 27, 1933, ch. 38, title III, §323, as added Aug. 3, 1939, ch. 411, 53 Stat. 1176; amended Pub. L. 111–203, title IX, §986(b)(5), July 21, 2010, 124 Stat. 1936.)

References in Text

The Securities Act of 1933, referred to in subsec. (b), is act May 27, 1933, ch. 38, title I, 48 Stat. 74, which is classified generally to subchapter I (§77a et seq.) of this chapter. For complete classification of this Act to the Code, see section 77a of this title and Tables.

The Securities Exchange Act of 1934, referred to in subsec. (b), is act June 6, 1934, ch. 404, 48 Stat. 881, which is classified principally to chapter 2B (§78a et seq.) of this title. For complete classification of this Act to the Code, see section 78a of this title and Tables.

Amendments

2010—Subsec. (b). Pub. L. 111–203 substituted “Securities Act of 1933 or the Securities Exchange Act of 1934” for “Securities Act of 1933, or the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, or the Public Utility Holding Company Act of 1935”.

Effective Date of 2010 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 111–203 effective 1 day after July 21, 2010, except as otherwise provided, see section 4 of Pub. L. 111–203, set out as an Effective Date note under section 5301 of Title 12, Banks and Banking.

Transfer of Functions

For transfer of functions of Securities and Exchange Commission, with certain exceptions, to Chairman of such Commission, see Reorg. Plan No. 10 of 1950, §§1, 2, eff. May 24, 1950, 15 F.R. 3175, 64 Stat. 1265, set out under section 78d of this title.

§77xxx. Unlawful representations

It shall be unlawful for any person in offering, selling or issuing any security to represent or imply in any manner whatsoever that any action or failure to act by the Commission in the administration of this subchapter means that the Commission has in any way passed upon the merits of, or given approval to, any trustee, indenture or security, or any transaction or transactions therein, or that any such action or failure to act with regard to any statement or report filed with or examined by the Commission pursuant to this subchapter or any rule, regulation, or order thereunder, has the effect of a finding by the Commission that such statement or report is true and accurate on its face or that it is not false or misleading.

(May 27, 1933, ch. 38, title III, §324, as added Aug. 3, 1939, ch. 411, 53 Stat. 1176; amended Aug. 10, 1954, ch. 667, title III, §305, 68 Stat. 688.)

Amendments

1954—Act Aug. 10, 1954, substituted “offering, selling, or issuing” for “issuing or selling”.

Effective Date of 1954 Amendment

Amendment by act Aug. 10, 1954, effective 60 days after Aug. 10, 1954, see note under section 77b of this title.

Transfer of Functions

For transfer of functions of Securities and Exchange Commission, with certain exceptions, to Chairman of such Commission, see Reorg. Plan No. 10 of 1950, §§1, 2, eff. May 24, 1950, 15 F.R. 3175, 64 Stat. 1265, set out under section 78d of this title.

§77yyy. Penalties

Any person who willfully violates any provision of this subchapter or any rule, regulation, or order thereunder, or any person who willfully, in any application, report, or document filed or required to be filed under the provisions of this subchapter or any rule, regulation, or order thereunder, makes any untrue statement of a material fact or omits to state any material fact required to be stated therein or necessary to make the statements therein not misleading, shall upon conviction be fined not more than $10,000 or imprisoned not more than five years, or both.

(May 27, 1933, ch. 38, title III, §325, as added Aug. 3, 1939, ch. 411, 53 Stat. 1177; amended Pub. L. 94–29, §27(d), June 4, 1975, 89 Stat. 163.)

Amendments

1975—Pub. L. 94–29 substituted “$10,000” for “$5,000”.

Effective Date of 1975 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 94–29 effective June 4, 1975, see section 31(a) of Pub. L. 94–29, set out as a note under section 78b of this title.

§77zzz. Effect on existing law

Except as otherwise expressly provided, nothing in this subchapter shall affect (1) the jurisdiction of the Commission under the Securities Act of 1933 [15 U.S.C. 77a et seq.] or the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 [15 U.S.C. 78a et seq.] over any person, security, or contract, or (2) the rights, obligations, duties, or liabilities of any person under such acts; nor shall anything in this subchapter affect the jurisdiction of any other commission, board, agency, or officer of the United States or of any State or political subdivision of any State, over any person or security, insofar as such jurisdiction does not conflict with any provision of this subchapter or any rule, regulation, or order thereunder.

(May 27, 1933, ch. 38, title III, §326, as added Aug. 3, 1939, ch. 411, 53 Stat. 1177; amended Pub. L. 111–203, title IX, §986(b)(6), July 21, 2010, 124 Stat. 1936.)

References in Text

The Securities Act of 1933, referred to in text, is act May 27, 1933, ch. 38, title I, 48 Stat. 74, which is classified generally to subchapter I (§77a et seq.) of this chapter. For complete classification of this Act to the Code, see section 77a of this title and Tables.

The Securities Exchange Act of 1934, referred to in text, is act June 6, 1934, ch. 404, 48 Stat. 881, which is classified principally to chapter 2B (§78a et seq.) of this title. For complete classification of this Act to the Code, see section 78a of this title and Tables.

Amendments

2010—Pub. L. 111–203 substituted “Securities Act of 1933 or the Securities Exchange Act of 1934” for “Securities Act of 1933, or the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, or the Public Utility Holding Company Act of 1935,”.

Effective Date of 2010 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 111–203 effective 1 day after July 21, 2010, except as otherwise provided, see section 4 of Pub. L. 111–203, set out as an Effective Date note under section 5301 of Title 12, Banks and Banking.

Transfer of Functions

For transfer of functions of Securities and Exchange Commission, with certain exceptions, to Chairman of such Commission, see Reorg. Plan No. 10 of 1950, §§1, 2, eff. May 24, 1950, 15 F.R. 3175, 64 Stat. 1265, set out under section 78d of this title.

§77aaaa. Contrary stipulations void

Any condition, stipulation, or provision binding any person to waive compliance with any provision of this subchapter or with any rule, regulation, or order thereunder shall be void.

(May 27, 1933, ch. 38, title III, §327, as added Aug. 3, 1939, ch. 411, 53 Stat. 1177.)

§77bbbb. Separability

If any provision of this subchapter or the application of such provision to any person or circumstance shall be held invalid, the remainder of the subchapter and the application of such provision to persons or circumstances other than those as to which it is held invalid shall not be affected thereby.

(May 27, 1933, ch. 38, title III, §328, as added Aug. 3, 1939, ch. 411, 53 Stat. 1177.)