15 U.S.C.
United States Code, 2010 Edition
Title 15 - COMMERCE AND TRADE
CHAPTER 34 - ANTITRUST CIVIL PROCESS
From the U.S. Government Printing Office, www.gpo.gov

CHAPTER 34—ANTITRUST CIVIL PROCESS

Sec.
1311.
Definitions.
1312.
Civil investigative demands.
1313.
Custodian of documents, answers and transcripts.
1314.
Judicial proceedings.

        

§1311. Definitions

For the purposes of this chapter—

(a) The term “antitrust law” includes:

(1) Each provision of law defined as one of the antitrust laws by section 12 of this title; and

(2) Any statute enacted on and after September 19, 1962, by the Congress which prohibits, or makes available to the United States in any court of the United States any civil remedy with respect to any restraint upon or monopolization of interstate or foreign trade or commerce;


(b) The term “antitrust order” means any final order, decree, or judgment of any court of the United States, duly entered in any case or proceeding arising under any antitrust law;

(c) The term “antitrust investigation” means any inquiry conducted by any antitrust investigator for the purpose of ascertaining whether any person is or has been engaged in any antitrust violation or in any activities in preparation for a merger, acquisition, joint venture, or similar transaction, which, if consummated, may result in an antitrust violation;

(d) The term “antitrust violation” means any act or omission in violation of any antitrust law, any antitrust order or, with respect to the International Antitrust Enforcement Assistance Act of 1994 [15 U.S.C. 6201 et seq.], any of the foreign antitrust laws;

(e) The term “antitrust investigator” means any attorney or investigator employed by the Department of Justice who is charged with the duty of enforcing or carrying into effect any antitrust law;

(f) The term “person” means any natural person, partnership, corporation, association, or other legal entity, including any person acting under color or authority of State law;

(g) The term “documentary material” includes the original or any copy of any book, record, report, memorandum, paper, communication, tabulation, chart, or other document, and any product of discovery;

(h) The term “custodian” means the custodian or any deputy custodian designated under section 1313(a) of this title;

(i) The term “product of discovery” includes without limitation the original or duplicate of any deposition, interrogatory, document, thing, result of the inspection of land or other property, examination, or admission obtained by any method of discovery in any judicial litigation or in any administrative litigation of an adversarial nature; any digest, analysis, selection, compilation, or any derivation thereof; and any index or manner of access thereto; and

(j) The term “agent” includes any person retained by the Department of Justice in connection with the enforcement of the antitrust laws.

(k) The term “foreign antitrust laws” has the meaning given such term in section 12 of the International Antitrust Enforcement Assistance Act of 1994 [15 U.S.C. 6211].

(Pub. L. 87–664, §2, Sept. 19, 1962, 76 Stat. 548; Pub. L. 94–435, title I, §101, Sept. 30, 1976, 90 Stat. 1383; Pub. L. 96–349, §§2(a), 7(a)(1), Sept. 12, 1980, 94 Stat. 1154, 1158; Pub. L. 103–438, §3(e)(1)(A), Nov. 2, 1994, 108 Stat. 4598.)

References in Text

This chapter, referred to in opening phrase, was in the original “this Act”, meaning Pub. L. 87–664, which is classified generally to this chapter. For complete classification of this Act to the Code, see Short Title note below and Tables.

The International Antitrust Enforcement Assistance Act of 1994, referred to in subsec. (d), is Pub. L. 103–438, Nov. 2, 1994, 108 Stat. 4597, which is classified principally to chapter 88 (§6201 et seq.) of this title. For complete classification of this Act to the Code, see Short Title note set out under section 6201 of this title and Tables.

Amendments

1994—Subsec. (d). Pub. L. 103–438, §3(e)(1)(A)(i), substituted “, any” for “or any” and inserted before semicolon at end “or, with respect to the International Antitrust Enforcement Assistance Act of 1994, any of the foreign antitrust laws”.

Subsec. (k). Pub. L. 103–438, §3(e)(1)(A)(ii), added subsec. (k).

1980—Subsec. (g). Pub. L. 96–349, §2(a)(1), extended definition of “documentary material” to include any product of discovery.

Subsec. (h). Pub. L. 96–349, §2(a)(2), substituted a semicolon for period at end.

Subsec. (i). Pub. L. 96–349, §2(a)(3), added subsec. (i).

Subsec. (j). Pub. L. 96–349, §7(a)(1), added subsec. (j).

1976—Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 94–435, §101(1), in par. (1) inserted “and” after semicolon preceding par. (2), struck out par. (2) which included the Federal Trade Commission Act in definition of antitrust law for purposes of this chapter, redesignated par. (3) as (2), struck out “(A)” before “any restraint”, and struck out subpar. (B) which related to any unfair trade practice in or affecting interstate or foreign trade or commerce.

Subsec. (c). Pub. L. 94–435, §101(2), inserted “or in any activities in preparation for a merger, acquisition, joint venture, or similar transaction, which if consummated, may result in an antitrust violation;” after “engaged in any antitrust violation”.

Subsec. (f). Pub. L. 94–435, §101(3), included “any natural person” and “any person acting under color or authority of State law” in definition of “person”.

Subsec. (h). Pub. L. 94–435, §101(4), substituted “the custodian” for “the antitrust document custodian”.

Effective Date of 1976 Amendment

Section 106 of Pub. L. 94–435 provided that: “The amendments to the Antitrust Civil Process Act [see section 1 of Pub. L. 87–664 set out as a Short Title note under this section] and to section 1505 of title 18, United States Code, made by this title [title I of Pub. L. 94–435] shall take effect on the date of enactment of this Act [Sept. 30, 1976], except section 3(i)(8) of the Antitrust Civil Process Act [section 1312(i)(8) of this title] (as amended by this Act) shall take effect on the later of (1) the date of enactment of this Act [Sept. 30, 1976], or (2) October 1, 1976. Any such amendment which provides for the production of documentary material, answers to interrogatories, or oral testimony shall apply to any act or practice without regard to the date on which it occurred.”

Short Title of 1980 Amendment

Section 1 of Pub. L. 96–349 provided: “That this Act [amending sections 15, 15a, 15c, 16, 18, and 1311 to 1314 of this title, section 1905 of Title 18, Crimes and Criminal Procedure, and section 1927 of Title 28, Judiciary and Judicial Procedure, and enacting provisions set out as notes under sections 15, 16, and 18 of this title] may be cited as the ‘Antitrust Procedural Improvements Act of 1980’.”

Short Title

Section 1 of Pub. L. 87–664 provided: “That this Act [enacting this chapter and amending section 1505 of Title 18, Crimes and Criminal Procedure] may be cited as the ‘Antitrust Civil Process Act’.”

Savings Provision

Section 7 of Pub. L. 87–664 provided that: “Nothing contained in this Act [see Short Title note above] shall impair the authority of the Attorney General, the Assistant Attorney General in charge of the Antitrust Division of the Department of Justice, or any antitrust investigator to (a) lay before any grand jury impaneled before any district court of the United States any evidence concerning any alleged antitrust violation, (b) invoke the power of any such court to compel the production of any evidence before any such grand jury, or (c) institute any proceeding for the enforcement of any order or process issued in execution of such power, or to punish disobedience of any such order of process by any person, including a natural person.”

§1312. Civil investigative demands

(a) Issuance; service; production of material; testimony

Whenever the Attorney General, or the Assistant Attorney General in charge of the Antitrust Division of the Department of Justice, has reason to believe that any person may be in possession, custody, or control of any documentary material, or may have any information, relevant to a civil antitrust investigation or, with respect to the International Antitrust Enforcement Assistance Act of 1994 [15 U.S.C. 6201 et seq.], an investigation authorized by section 3 of such Act [15 U.S.C. 6202], he may, prior to the institution of a civil or criminal proceeding by the United States thereon, issue in writing, and cause to be served upon such person, a civil investigative demand requiring such person to produce such documentary material for inspection any copying or reproduction, to answer in writing written interrogatories, to give oral testimony concerning documentary material or information, or to furnish any combination of such material, answers, or testimony. Whenever a civil investigative demand is an express demand for any product of discovery, the Attorney General or the Assistant Attorney General in charge of the Antitrust Division shall cause to be served, in any manner authorized by this section, a copy of such demand upon the person from whom the discovery was obtained and notify the person to whom such demand is issued of the date on which such copy was served.

(b) Contents; return date for demand for product of discovery

Each such demand shall—

(1) state the nature of—

(A) the conduct constituting the alleged antitrust violation, or

(B) the activities in preparation for a merger, acquisition, joint venture, or similar transaction, which, if consummated, may result in an antitrust violation,


which are under investigation and the provision of law applicable thereto;

(2) if it is a demand for production of documentary material—

(A) describe the class or classes of documentary material to be produced thereunder with such definiteness and certainty as to permit such material to be fairly identified;

(B) prescribe a return date or dates which will provide a reasonable period of time within which the material so demanded may be assembled and made available for inspection and copying or reproduction; and

(C) identify the custodian to whom such material shall be made available; or


(3) if it is a demand for answers to written interrogatories—

(A) propound with definiteness and certainty the written interrogatories to be answered;

(B) prescribe a date or dates at which time answers to written interrogatories shall be submitted; and

(C) identify the custodian to whom such answers shall be submitted; or


(4) if it is a demand for the giving of oral testimony—

(A) prescribe a date, time, and place at which oral testimony shall be commenced; and

(B) identify an antitrust investigator who shall conduct the examination and the custodian to whom the transcript of such examination shall be submitted.


Any such demand which is an express demand for any product of discovery shall not be returned or returnable until twenty days after a copy of such demand has been served upon the person from whom the discovery was obtained.

(c) Protected material or information; demand for product of discovery superseding disclosure restrictions except trial preparation materials

(1) No such demand shall require the production of any documentary material, the submission of any answers to written interrogatories, or the giving of any oral testimony, if such material, answers, or testimony would be protected from disclosure under—

(A) the standards applicable to subpenas or subpenas duces tecum issued by a court of the United States in aid of a grand jury investigation, or

(B) the standards applicable to discovery requests under the Federal Rules of Civil Procedure, to the extent that the application of such standards to any such demand is appropriate and consistent with the provisions and purposes of this chapter.


(2) Any such demand which is an express demand for any product of discovery supersedes any inconsistent order, rule, or provision of law (other than this chapter) preventing or restraining disclosure of such product of discovery to any person. Disclosure of any product of discovery pursuant to any such express demand does not constitute a waiver of any right or privilege, including without limitation any right or privilege which may be invoked to resist discovery of trial preparation materials, to which the person making such disclosure may be entitled.

(d) Service; jurisdiction

(1) Any such demand may be served by any antitrust investigator, or by any United States marshal or deputy marshal, at any place within the territorial jurisdiction of any court of the United States.

(2) any such demand or any petition filed under section 1314 of this title may be served upon any person who is not to be found within the territorial jurisdiction of any court of the United States, in such manner as the Federal Rules of Civil Procedure prescribe for service in a foreign country. To the extent that the courts of the United States can assert jurisdiction over such person consistent with due process, the United States District Court for the District of Columbia shall have the same jurisdiction to take any action respecting compliance with this chapter by such person that such court would have if such person were personally within the jurisdiction of such court.

(e) Service upon legal entities and natural persons

(1) Service of any such demand or of any petition filed under section 1314 of this title may be made upon a partnership, corporation, association, or other legal entity by—

(A) delivering a duly executed copy thereof to any partner, executive officer, managing agent, or general agent thereof, or to any agent thereof authorized by appointment or by law to receive service of process on behalf of such partnership, corporation, association, or entity;

(B) delivering a duly executed copy thereof to the principal office or place of business of the partnership, corporation, association, or entity to be served; or

(C) depositing such copy in the United States mails, by registered or certified mail, return receipt requested, duly addressed to such partnership, corporation, association, or entity at its principal office or place of business.


(2) Service of any such demand or of any petition filed under section 1314 of this title may be made upon any natural person by—

(A) delivering a duly executed copy thereof to the person to be served; or

(B) depositing such copy in the United States mails by registered or certified mail, return receipt requested, duly addressed to such person at his residence or principal office or place of business.

(f) Proof of service

A verified return by the individual serving any such demand or petition setting forth the manner of such service shall be proof of such service. In the case of service by registered or certified mail, such return shall be accompanied by the return post office receipt of delivery of such demand.

(g) Sworn certificates

The production of documentary material in response to a demand served pursuant to this section shall be made under a sworn certificate, in such form as the demand designates, by the person, if a natural person, to whom the demand is directed or, if not a natural person, by a person or persons having knowledge of the facts and circumstances relating to such production, to the effect that all of the documentary material required by the demand and in the possession, custody, or control of the person to whom the demand is directed has been produced and made available to the custodian.

(h) Interrogatories

Each interrogatory in a demand served pursuant to this section shall be answered separately and fully in writing under oath, unless it is objected to, in which event the reasons for the objection shall be stated in lieu of an answer, and it shall be submitted under a sworn certificate, in such form as the demand designates, by the person, if a natural person, to whom the demand is directed or, if not a natural person, by a person or persons responsible for answering each interrogatory, to the effect that all information required by the demand and in the possession, custody, control, or knowledge of the person to whom the demand is directed has been submitted.

(i) Oral examinations

(1) The examination of any person pursuant to a demand for oral testimony served under this section shall be taken before an officer authorized to administer oaths and affirmations by the laws of the United States or of the place where the examination is held. The officer before whom the testimony is to be taken shall put the witness on oath or affirmation and shall personally, or by someone acting under his direction and in his presence, record the testimony of the witness. The testimony shall be taken stenographically and transcribed. When the testimony is fully transcribed, the officer before whom the testimony is taken shall promptly transmit a copy of the transcript of the testimony to the custodian.

(2) The antitrust investigator or investigators conducting the examination shall exclude from the place where the examination is held all other persons except the person being examined, his counsel, the officer before whom the testimony is to be taken, and any stenographer taking such testimony. The provisions of section 30 1 of this title shall not apply to such examinations.

(3) The oral testimony of any person taken pursuant to a demand served under this section shall be taken in the judicial district of the United States within which such person resides, is found, or transacts business, or in such other place as may be agreed upon by the antitrust investigator conducting the examination and such person.

(4) When the testimony is fully transcribed, the antitrust investigator or the officer shall afford the witness (who may be accompanied by counsel) a reasonable opportunity to examine the transcript; and the transcript shall be read to or by the witness, unless such examination and reading are waived by the witness. Any changes in form or substance which the witness desires to make shall be entered and identified upon the transcript by the officer or the antitrust investigator with a statement of the reasons given by the witness for making such changes. The transcript shall then be signed by the witness, unless the witness in writing waives the signing, is ill, cannot be found, or refuses to sign. If the transcript is not signed by the witness within thirty days of his being afforded a reasonable opportunity to examine it, the officer or the antitrust investigator shall sign it and state on the record the fact of the waiver, illness, absence of the witness, or the refusal to sign, together with the reason, if any, given therefor.

(5) The officer shall certify on the transcript that the witness was duly sworn by him and that the transcript is a true record of the testimony given by the witness, and the officer or antitrust investigator shall promptly deliver it or send it by registered or certified mail to the custodian.

(6) Upon payment of reasonable charges therefor, the antitrust investigator shall furnish a copy of the transcript to the witness only, except that the Assistant Attorney General in charge of the Antitrust Division may for good cause limit such witness to inspection of the official transcript of his testimony.

(7)(A) Any person compelled to appear under a demand for oral testimony pursuant to this section may be accompanied, represented, and advised by counsel. Counsel may advise such person, in confidence, either upon the request of such person or upon counsel's own initiative, with respect to any question asked of such person. Such person or counsel may object on the record to any question, in whole or in part, and shall briefly state for the record the reason for the objection. An objection may properly be made, received, and entered upon the record when it is claimed that such person is entitled to refuse to answer the question on grounds of any constitutional or other legal right or privilege, including the privilege against self-incrimination. Such person shall not otherwise object to or refuse to answer any question, and shall not by himself or through counsel otherwise interrupt the oral examination. If such person refuses to answer any question, the antitrust investigator conducting the examination may petition the district court of the United States pursuant to section 1314 of this title for an order compelling such person to answer such question.

(B) If such person refuses to answer any question on grounds of the privilege against self-incrimination, the testimony of such person may be compelled in accordance with the provisions of Part V of title 18.

(8) Any person appearing for oral examination pursuant to a demand served under this section shall be entitled to the same fees and mileage which are paid to witnesses in the district courts of the United States.

(Pub. L. 87–664, §3, Sept. 19, 1962, 76 Stat. 548; Pub. L. 94–435, title I, §102, Sept. 30, 1976, 90 Stat. 1384; Pub. L. 96–349, §2(b)(1)–(3), Sept. 12, 1980, 94 Stat. 1154; Pub. L. 103–438, §3(e)(1)(B), Nov. 2, 1994, 108 Stat. 4598.)

References in Text

The International Antitrust Enforcement Assistance Act of 1994, referred to in subsec. (a), is Pub. L. 103–438, Nov. 2, 1994, 108 Stat. 4597, which is classified principally to chapter 88 (§6201 et seq.) of this title. For complete classification of this Act to the Code, see Short Title note set out under section 6201 of this title and Tables.

This chapter, referred to in subsecs. (c)(1)(B), (2) and (d), was in the original “this Act”, meaning Pub. L. 87–664, which is classified generally to this chapter. For complete classification of this Act to the Code, see Short Title note set out under section 1311 of this title and Tables.

Section 30 of this title, referred to in subsec. (i)(2), was repealed by Pub. L. 107–273, div. C, title IV, §14102(f), Nov. 2, 2002, 116 Stat. 1922.

Amendments

1994—Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 103–438 inserted “or, with respect to the International Antitrust Enforcement Assistance Act of 1994, an investigation authorized by section 3 of such Act” after “investigation” and “by the United States” after “proceeding”.

1980—Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 96–349, §2(b)(1), inserted provision for service and notice of a civil investigative demand for any product of discovery.

Subsec. (b). Pub. L. 96–349, §2(b)(2), inserted provision respecting time demand for product of discovery is returnable.

Subsec. (c). Pub. L. 96–349, §2(b)(3), designated existing provisions as par. (1), redesignated as cls. (A) and (B) former cls. (1) and (2), and added par. (2).

1976—Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 94–435 struck out “under investigation” before “may be in possession”, inserted “or may have any information” after “any documentary material”, and inserted provision requiring the production of documentary material for inspection or reproduction, answers in writing to written interrogatories, the giving of oral testimony concerning documentary material or information, and the furnishing of any combination of such material, answers, or testimony.

Subsec. (b). Pub. L. 94–435 restructured subsec. (b) and as so restructured, in par. (1) inserted provisions of cl. (B), in par. (2), added cls. (B) and (C), in par. (3) substituted provisions relating to written interrogatories for provisions relating to prescription of a return date for demanded material, and in par. (4), substituted provisions relating to oral testimony for provisions requiring a demand to identify the custodian to whom demanded material shall be made available.

Subsec. (c). Pub. L. 94–435 inserted provision relating to the submission of answers to written interrogatories and the giving of oral testimony, struck out provisions of par. (1) relating to the reasonableness requirement for demands for documentary material, redesignated par. (2) as (1) and provided that protected status of any information or material would be determined by standards applicable in the case of a subpena or subpena duces tecum issued by a court of the United States, and added par. (2).

Subsec. (d). Pub. L. 94–435 redesignated existing provisions as par. (1) and added par. (2).

Subsec. (e). Pub. L. 94–435 redesignated existing provisions as par. (1), inserted “return receipt requested” after “certified mail” in par. (C), and added par. (2).

Subsecs. (g) to (i). Pub. L. 94–435 added subsecs. (g) to (i).

Effective Date of 1976 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 94–435 effective Sept. 30, 1976, except subsec. (i)(8) of this section effective Oct. 1, 1976, see section 106 of Pub. L. 94–435, set out as a note under section 1311 of this title.

1 See References in Text note below.

§1313. Custodian of documents, answers and transcripts

(a) Designation

The Assistant Attorney General in charge of the Antitrust Division of the Department of Justice shall designate an antitrust investigator to serve as custodian of documentary material, answers to interrogatories, and transcripts of oral testimony received under this chapter, and such additional antitrust investigators as he shall determine from time to time to be necessary to serve as deputies to such officer.

(b) Production of materials

Any person, upon whom any demand under section 1312 of this title for the production of documentary material has been duly served, shall make such material available for inspection and copying or reproduction to the custodian designated therein at the principal place of business of such person (or at such other place as such custodian and such person thereafter may agree and prescribe in writing or as the court may direct, pursuant to section 1314(d) 1 of this title) on the return date specified in such demand (or on such later date as such custodian may prescribe in writing). Such person may upon written agreement between such person and the custodian substitute copies for originals of all or any part of such material.

(c) Responsibility for materials; disclosure

(1) The custodian to whom any documentary material, answers to interrogatories, or transcripts of oral testimony are delivered shall take physical possession thereof, and shall be responsible for the use made thereof and for the return of documentary material, pursuant to this chapter.

(2) The custodian may cause the preparation of such copies of such documentary material, answers to interrogatories, or transcripts of oral testimony as may be required for official use by any duly authorized official, employee, or agent of the Department of Justice under regulations which shall be promulgated by the Attorney General. Notwithstanding paragraph (3) of this subsection, such material, answers, and transcripts may be used by any such official, employee, or agent in connection with the taking of oral testimony pursuant to this chapter.

(3) Except as otherwise provided in this section, while in the possession of the custodian, no documentary material, answers to interrogatories, or transcripts of oral testimony, or copies thereof, so produced shall be available for examination, without the consent of the person who produced such material, answers, or transcripts, and, in the case of any product of discovery produced pursuant to an express demand for such material, of the person from whom the discovery was obtained, by any individual other than a duly authorized official, employee, or agent of the Department of Justice. Nothing in this section is intended to prevent disclosure to either body of the Congress or to any authorized committee or subcommittee thereof.

(4) While in the possession of the custodian and under such reasonable terms and conditions as the Attorney General shall prescribe, (A) documentary material and answers to interrogatories shall be available for examination by the person who produced such material or answers, or by any duly authorized representative of such person, and (B) transcripts of oral testimony shall be available for examination by the person who produced such testimony, or his counsel.

(d) Use of investigative files

(1) Whenever any attorney of the Department of Justice has been designated to appear before any court, grand jury, or Federal administrative or regulatory agency in any case or proceeding, the custodian of any documentary material, answers to interrogatories, or transcripts of oral testimony may deliver to such attorney such material, answers, or transcripts for official use in connection with any such case, grand jury, or proceeding as such attorney determines to be required. Upon the completion of any such case, grand jury, or proceeding, such attorney shall return to the custodian any such material, answers, or transcripts so delivered which have not passed into the control of such court, grand jury, or agency through the introduction thereof into the record of such case or proceeding.

(2) The custodian of any documentary material, answers to interrogatories, or transcripts of oral testimony may deliver to the Federal Trade Commission, in response to a written request, copies of such material, answers, or transcripts for use in connection with an investigation or proceeding under the Commission's jurisdiction. Such material, answers, or transcripts may only be used by the Commission in such manner and subject to such conditions as apply to the Department of Justice under this chapter.

(e) Return of material to producer

If any documentary material has been produced in the course of any antitrust investigation by any person pursuant to a demand under this chapter and—

(1) any case or proceeding before any court or grand jury arising out of such investigation, or any proceeding before any Federal administrative or regulatory agency involving such material, has been completed, or

(2) no case or proceeding, in which such material may be used, has been commenced within a reasonable time after completion of the examination and analysis of all documentary material and other information assembled in the course of such investigation,


the custodian shall, upon written request of the person who produced such material, return to such person any such material (other than copies thereof furnished to the custodian pursuant to subsection (b) of this section or made by the Department of Justice pursuant to subsection (c) of this section) which has not passed into the control of any court, grand jury, or agency through the introduction thereof into the record of such case or proceeding.

(f) Appointment of successor custodians

In the event of the death, disability, or separation from service in the Department of Justice of the custodian of any documentary material, answers to interrogatories, or transcripts of oral testimony produced under any demand issued pursuant to this chapter, or the official relief of such custodian from responsibility for the custody and control of such material, answers, or transcripts, the Assistant Attorney General in charge of the Antitrust Division shall promptly (1) designate another antitrust investigator to serve as custodian of such material, answers, or transcripts, and (2) transmit in writing to the person who produced such material, answers, or testimony notice as to the identity and address of the successor so designated. Any successor designated under this subsection shall have with regard to such material, answers, or transcripts all duties and responsibilities imposed by this chapter upon his predecessor in office with regard thereto, except that he shall not be held responsible for any default or dereliction which occurred prior to his designation.

(Pub. L. 87–664, §4, Sept. 19, 1962, 76 Stat. 549; Pub. L. 94–435, title I, §103, Sept. 30, 1976, 90 Stat. 1387; Pub. L. 96–349, §§2(b)(4), 7(a)(2), Sept. 12, 1980, 94 Stat. 1155, 1158.)

References in Text

Section 1314(d) of this title, referred to in subsec. (b), was redesignated section 1314(e) of this title by Pub. L. 96–349.

This chapter, referred to in subsecs. (c), (e), and (f), was in the original “this Act”, meaning Pub. L. 87–664, which is classified generally to this chapter. For complete classification of this Act to the Code, see Short Title note set out under section 1311 of this title and Tables.

Amendments

1980—Subsec. (c)(2). Pub. L. 96–349, §7(a)(2), provided for use of copies of documentary material by agents of the Department of Justice, including use by such agents in connection with the taking of oral testimony.

Subsec. (c)(3). Pub. L. 96–349, §§2(b)(4), 7(a)(2), inserted “, and, in the case of any product of discovery produced pursuant to an express demand for such material, of the person from whom the discovery was obtained” before “, by any individual” and reference to “agent” of the Department of Justice.

1976—Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 94–435 substituted “custodian of documentary material, answers to interrogatories, and transcripts of oral testimony received under this chapter” for “antitrust documentary custodian”.

Subsec. (b). Pub. L. 94–435 struck out “issued” after “any demand”, inserted “for the production of documentary material” before “has been duly served”, and substituted “copies for originals of all or any part of such material” for “for copies of all or any part of such material originals thereof”.

Subsec. (c). Pub. L. 94–435, among other changes, inserted provisions relating to answers to interrogatories and transcripts of oral testimony and, in par. (1), substituted “of documentary material” for “thereof”, in par. (2), inserted “by any duly authorized official or employee of the Department of Justice” after “for official use”, and inserted a provision relating to the use of documentary material, answers to interrogatories, and transcripts in connection with the taking of oral testimony, in par. (3), inserted “Except as otherwise provided in this section” before “while in the possession”, substituted “no documentary material” for “no material”, “official” for “officer, member”, and inserted provision relating to disclosure of information to Congress or authorized committees or subcommittees thereof, in par. (4), added cl. (B).

Subsec. (d). Pub. L. 94–435, among other changes, in par. (1), inserted provisions relating to answers to interrogatories and transcripts of oral testimony, substituted a provision that an attorney designated under this section be from the Department of Justice for a provision that a designated attorney be appearing on behalf of the United States, provided that such an attorney can make an appearance under this section before a Federal administrative or regulatory agency in addition to a court or grand jury, and added par. (2).

Subsec. (e). Pub. L. 94–435, among other changes, inserted provisions of subsec. (f) relating to the institution of a case or proceeding within a reasonable time after examination and analysis of any evidence assembled during the course of an investigation, and relating to written demand for the return of such material, and, in addition, provided that copies furnished the custodian pursuant to subsec. (b) of this section need not be returned by the custodian.

Subsecs. (f), (g). Pub. L. 94–435 redesignated subsec. (g) as (f). Former subsec. (f) redesignated (e)(2).

Effective Date of 1976 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 94–435 effective Sept. 30, 1976, see section 106 of Pub. L. 94–435, set out as a note under section 1311 of this title.

1 See References in Text note below.

§1314. Judicial proceedings

(a) Petition for enforcement; venue

Whenever any person fails to comply with any civil investigative demand duly served upon him under section 1312 of this title or whenever satisfactory copying or reproduction of any such material cannot be done and such person refuses to surrender such material, the Attorney General, through such officers or attorneys as he may designate, may file, in the district court of the United States for any judicial district in which such person resides, is found, or transacts business, and serve upon such person a petition for an order of such court for the enforcement of this chapter.

(b) Petition for order modifying or setting aside demand; time for petition; suspension of time allowed for compliance with demand during pendency of petition; grounds for relief

(1) Within twenty days after the service of any such demand upon any person, or at any time before the return date specified in the demand, whichever period is shorter, or within such period exceeding twenty days after service or in excess of such return date as may be prescribed in writing, subsequent to service, by any antitrust investigator named in the demand, such person may file and serve upon such antitrust investigator, and in the case of any express demand for any product of discovery upon the person from whom such discovery was obtained, a petition for an order modifying or setting aside such demand—

(A) in the district court of the United States for the judicial district within which such person resides, is found, or transacts business; or

(B) in the case of a petition addressed to an express demand for any product of discovery, only in the district court of the United States for the judicial district in which the proceeding in which such discovery was obtained is or was last pending.


(2) The time allowed for compliance with the demand in whole or in part as deemed proper and ordered by the court shall not run during the pendency of such petition in the court, except that such person shall comply with any portions of the demand not sought to be modified or set aside. Such petition shall specify each ground upon which the petitioner relies in seeking such relief and may be based upon any failure of such demand to comply with the provisions of this chapter, or upon any constitutional or other legal right or privilege of such person.

(c) Petition for order modifying or setting aside demand for production of product of discovery; grounds for relief; stay of compliance with demand and of running of time allowed for compliance with demand

Whenever any such demand is an express demand for any product of discovery, the person from whom such discovery was obtained may file, at any time prior to compliance with such express demand, in the district court of the United States for the judicial district in which the proceeding in which such discovery was obtained is or was last pending, and serve upon any antitrust investigator named in the demand and upon the recipient of the demand, a petition for an order of such court modifying or setting aside those portions of the demand requiring production of any such product of discovery. Such petition shall specify each ground upon which the petitioner relies in seeking such relief and may be based upon any failure of such portions of the demand to comply with the provisions of this chapter, or upon any constitutional or other legal right or privilege of the petitioner. During the pendency of such petition, the court may stay, as it deems proper, compliance with the demand and the running of the time allowed for compliance with the demand.

(d) Petition for order requiring performance by custodian of duties; venue

At any time during which any custodian is in custody or control of any documentary material or answers to interrogatories delivered, or transcripts of oral testimony given by any person in compliance with any such demand, such person, and, in the case of an express demand for any product of discovery, the person from whom such discovery was obtained, may file, in the district court of the United States for the judicial district within which the office of such custodian is situated, and serve upon such custodian a petition for an order of such court requiring the performance by such custodian of any duty imposed upon him by this chapter.

(e) Jurisdiction; appeal; contempts

Whenever any petition is filed in any district court of the United States under this section, such court shall have jurisdiction to hear and determine the matter so presented, and to enter such order or orders as may be required to carry into effect the provisions of this chapter. Any final order so entered shall be subject to appeal pursuant to section 1291 of title 28. Any disobedience of any final order entered under this section by any court shall be punished as a contempt thereof.

(f) Applicability of Federal Rules of Civil Procedure

To the extent that such rules may have application and are not inconsistent with the provisions of this chapter, the Federal Rules of Civil Procedure shall apply to any petition under this chapter.

(g) Disclosure exemption

Any documentary material, answers to written interrogatories, or transcripts of oral testimony provided pursuant to any demand issued under this chapter shall be exempt from disclosure under section 552 of title 5.

(Pub. L. 87–664, §5, Sept. 19, 1962, 76 Stat. 551; Pub. L. 94–435, title I, §104, Sept. 30, 1976, 90 Stat. 1389; Pub. L. 96–349, §2(b)(5), Sept. 12, 1980, 94 Stat. 1155.)

References in Text

This chapter, referred to in text, was in the original “this Act”, meaning Pub. L. 87–664, which is classified generally to this chapter. For complete classification of this Act to the Code, see Short Title note set out under section 1311 of this title and Tables.

The Federal Rules of Civil Procedure, referred to in subsec. (f), are set out in the Appendix to Title 28, Judiciary and Judicial Procedure.

Amendments

1980—Subsec. (b). Pub. L. 96–349, §2(b)(5)(A), designated existing provisions as par. (1), provided for filing and serving a petition for an order modifying or setting aside a demand in the case of an express demand for any product of discovery upon the person from whom the discovery was obtained, incorporated existing provision in cl. (A), added cl. (B), and designated existing provisions as par. (2).

Subsecs. (c), (d). Pub. L. 96–349, §2(b)(5)(B) to (D), added subsec. (c), redesignated former subsec. (c) as (d) and authorized petition, in the case of an express demand for any product of discovery, by the person from whom the discovery was obtained, for an order requiring performance by the custodian of his duties. Former subsec. (d) redesignated (e).

Subsecs. (e) to (g). Pub. L. 96–349, §2(b)(5)(B), redesignated former subsecs. (d) to (f) as (e) to (g), respectively.

1976—Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 94–435, §104(a), struck out provision which permitted a petition for an enforcement order to be filed in the judicial district where a person who had failed to comply with a demand and who transacted business in one or more districts, maintained his principal place of business, or in such other district, in which such person transacted business, as was agreed upon by the parties to the petition.

Subsec. (b). Pub. L. 94–435, §104(b), (c), inserted “or within such period exceeding twenty days after service or in excess of such return date as may be prescribed in writing, subsequent to service, by any antitrust investigator named in the demand,” after “whichever period is shorter”, substituted “antitrust investigator” for “custodian” before “a petition for an order”, and inserted proviso that petitioner should comply with portions of a contested demand which are not being challenged.

Subsec. (c). Pub. L. 94–435, §104(d), substituted “or answers to interrogatories delivered, or transcripts of oral testimony given” for “delivered”.

Subsec. (f). Pub. L. 94–435, §104(e), added subsec. (f).

Effective Date of 1976 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 94–435 effective Sept. 30, 1976, see section 106 of Pub. L. 94–435, set out as a note under section 1311 of this title.