15 U.S.C.
United States Code, 2010 Edition
Title 15 - COMMERCE AND TRADE
CHAPTER 52 - ELECTRIC AND HYBRID VEHICLE RESEARCH, DEVELOPMENT, AND DEMONSTRATION
From the U.S. Government Printing Office, www.gpo.gov

CHAPTER 52—ELECTRIC AND HYBRID VEHICLE RESEARCH, DEVELOPMENT, AND DEMONSTRATION

Sec.
2501.
Congressional findings and policy.
2502.
Definitions.
2503.
Duties of Secretary of Energy.
2504.
Coordination between Secretary of Energy and other agencies.
2505.
Research and development.
2506.
Demonstrations.
2507.
Contracts.
2508.
Encouragement and protection of small business.
2509.
Loan guarantees.
2510.
Use of electric and hybrid vehicles by Federal agencies.
2511.
Patents.
2512.
Studies.
2513.
Repealed.
2514.
Authorization for appropriations.

        

§2501. Congressional findings and policy

(a) The Congress finds and declares that—

(1) the Nation's dependence on foreign sources of petroleum must be reduced, as such dependence jeopardizes national security, inhibits foreign policy, and undermines economic well-being;

(2) the Nation's balance of payments is threatened by the need to import oil for the production of liquid fuel for gasoline-powered vehicles;

(3) the single largest use of petroleum supplies is in the field of transportation, for gasoline- and diesel-powered motor vehicles;

(4) the expeditious introduction of electric and hybrid vehicles into the Nation's transportation fleet would substantially reduce such use and dependence;

(5) such introduction is practicable and would be advantageous because—

(A) most urban driving consists of short trips, which are within the capability of electric and hybrid vehicles;

(B) much rural and agricultural driving of automobiles, tractors, and trucks is within the capability of such vehicles;

(C) electric and hybrid vehicles are more reliable and practical now than in the past because propulsion, control, and battery technologies have improved, and further significant improvements in such technologies are possible in the near term;

(D) electric and hybrid vehicles use little or no energy when stopped in traffic, in contrast to conventional automobiles and trucks;

(E) the power requirements of such vehicles could be satisfied by charging them during off-peak periods when existing electric generating plants are underutilized, thereby permitting more efficient use of existing generating capacity;

(F) such vehicles do not emit any significant pollutants or noise; and

(G) it is environmentally desirable for transportation systems to be powered from central sources, because pollutants emitted from stationary sources (such as electric generating plants) are potentially easier to control than pollutants emitted from moving vehicles; and


(6) the introduction of electric and hybrid vehicles would be facilitated by the establishment of a Federal program of research, development, and demonstration to explore electric and hybrid vehicle technologies.


(b) It is therefore declared to be the policy of the Congress in this chapter to—

(1) encourage and support accelerated research into, and development of, electric and hybrid vehicle technologies;

(2) demonstrate the economic and technological practicability of electric and hybrid vehicles for personal and commercial use in urban areas and for agricultural and personal use in rural areas;

(3) facilitate, and remove barriers to, the use of electric and hybrid vehicles in lieu of gasoline- and diesel-powered motor vehicles, where practicable; and

(4) promote the substitution of electric and hybrid vehicles for many gasoline- and diesel-powered vehicles currently used in routine short-haul, low-load applications, where such substitution would be beneficial.

(Pub. L. 94–413, §2, Sept. 17, 1976, 90 Stat. 1260.)

Short Title

Section 1 of Pub. L. 94–413 provided: “That this Act [enacting this chapter and amending sections 2451 and 2473 of Title 42, The Public Health and Welfare] may be cited as the ‘Electric and Hybrid Vehicle Research, Development, and Demonstration Act of 1976’.”

§2502. Definitions

As used in this chapter, the term—

(1) Omitted

(2) “advanced electric or hybrid vehicle” means a vehicle which—

(A) minimizes the total amount of energy to be consumed with respect to its fabrication, operation, and disposal, and represents a substantial improvement over existing electric and hybrid vehicles with respect to the total amount of energy so consumed;

(B) is capable of being mass-produced and operated at a cost and in a manner which is sufficiently competitive to enable it to be produced and sold in numbers representing a reasonable portion of the market;

(C) is safe, damage-resistant, easy to repair, durable, and operates with sufficient performance with respect to acceleration, cold-weather starting, cruising speed, and other performance factors; and

(D) at a minimum, can be produced, distributed, operated, and disposed of in compliance with any applicable requirement of Federal law;


(3) “commercial electric or hybrid vehicle” includes any electric or hybrid vehicle which can be used (A) for business or agricultural production purposes on farms (e.g. tractors and trucks) or in rural areas, or (B) for commercial purposes in urban areas;

(4) “electric vehicle” means a vehicle which is powered by an electric motor drawing current from rechargeable storage batteries, fuel cells, or other portable sources of electrical current, and which may include a nonelectrical source of power designed to charge batteries and components thereof;

(5) “hybrid vehicle” means a vehicle propelled by a combination of an electric motor and an internal combustion engine or other power source and components thereof;

(6) “project” means the Electric and Hybrid Vehicle Research, Development, and Demonstration Project established under section 2503(a) of this title;

(7) Omitted

(8) “small business concern” shall have the meaning prescribed by the Secretary of Energy after consultation with the Small Business Administration.

(Pub. L. 94–413, §3, Sept. 17, 1976, 90 Stat. 1261; Pub. L. 95–91, title III, §301(a), Aug. 4, 1977, 91 Stat. 577.)

Codification

Par. (1), which read “ ‘Administrator’ means the Administrator of the Energy Research and Development Administration”, has been omitted from the Code in view of the termination of the Energy Research and Development Administration and the transfer of the functions of the Administration and the Administrator thereof to the Secretary of Energy pursuant to sections 301(a) and 703 of Pub. L. 95–91 which are classified to sections 7151(a) and 7293 of Title 42, The Public Health and Welfare. “Secretary of Energy” has been substituted for “Administrator” wherever appearing in this chapter.

Par. (7), which read “ ‘Secretary’ means the Secretary of Transportation”, has been omitted from the Code as unnecessary. In view of the substitution of “Secretary of Energy” for “Administrator” in this chapter, and for clarity, “Secretary of Transportation” has been substituted for “Secretary” wherever appearing in this chapter.

Transfer of Functions

In par. (8), “Secretary of Energy” substituted for “Administrator” pursuant to section 301(a) of Pub. L. 95–91, see Codification note set out above.

§2503. Duties of Secretary of Energy

(a) Establishment of project

The Secretary of Energy shall promptly establish, as an organizational entity within the Department of Energy, the Electric and Hybrid Vehicle Research, Development, and Demonstration Project.

(b) Management of project; arrangements with competent agencies

The Secretary of Energy shall have the responsibility for the overall management of the project. The Secretary of Energy may enter into any agreement or other arrangement with the National Aeronautics and Space Administration, the Department of Transportation, the National Science Foundation, the Environmental Protection Agency, the Department of Housing and Urban Development, the Department of Agriculture, or any other Federal agency, pursuant to which such agency shall conduct such specified parts or aspects of the project as the Secretary of Energy deems necessary or appropriate and within the particular competence of such agency, to the extent that such agency has capabilities which would enable it to contribute to the success of the project and the attainment of the purposes of this chapter.

(c) Promotion of research and development; demonstration projects; consumer needs; resulting changes

In providing for the effective management of this project, the Secretary of Energy shall have specific responsibility to—

(1) promote basic and applied research on electric and hybrid vehicle batteries, controls, and motors;

(2) determine optimum overall electric and hybrid vehicle design;

(3) conduct demonstration projects with respect to the feasibility of commercial electric and hybrid vehicles (A) by contracting for the purchase or lease of electric and hybrid vehicles for practical use, and (B) by entering into arrangements, with other governmental entities and with nongovernmental entities, for the operation of such vehicles;

(4) ascertain consumer needs and desires so as to match the design of electric and hybrid vehicles to their potential market; and

(5) ascertain the long-term changes in road design, urban planning, traffic management, maintenance facilities, utility rate structures, and tax policies which are needed to facilitate the manufacture and use of electric and hybrid vehicles in accordance with sections 2512 and 2513 1 of this title.

(Pub. L. 94–413, §4, Sept. 17, 1976, 90 Stat. 1262; Pub. L. 95–91, title III, §301(a), Aug. 4, 1977, 91 Stat. 577.)

References in Text

Section 2513 of this title, referred to in subsec. (c)(5), was repealed by Pub. L. 104–66, title I, §1051(o), Dec. 21, 1995, 109 Stat. 717.

Transfer of Functions

“Department of Energy” substituted for “Energy Research and Development Administration” in subsec. (a), and “Secretary of Energy” substituted for “Administrator” wherever appearing, pursuant to section 301(a) of Pub. L. 95–91, see Codification note set out under section 2502 of this title.

1 See References in Text note below.

§2504. Coordination between Secretary of Energy and other agencies

(a) Consultation with Secretary of Transportation

In carrying out the project established under section 2503 of this title, the Secretary of Energy shall, to the maximum extent practicable, consult and coordinate with the Secretary of Transportation, with respect to any functions of the Secretary of Energy under this chapter which relate to regulatory activities or other responsibilities of the Secretary of Transportation, including safety and damageability programs.

(b) Assistance from other agencies

Each department, agency, and instrumentality of the executive branch of the Federal Government shall carefully consider any written request from the Secretary of Energy, or the head of any agency to which the Secretary of Energy has delegated responsibility for specified parts or aspects of the project, to furnish such assistance, on a reimbursable basis, as the Secretary of Energy or such head deems necessary to carry out the project and to achieve the purposes of this chapter. Such assistance may include transfer of personnel with their consent and without prejudice to their position and rating.

(Pub. L. 94–413, §5, Sept. 17, 1976, 90 Stat. 1262; Pub. L. 95–91, title III, §301(a), Aug. 4, 1977, 91 Stat. 577.)

Codification

In subsec. (a), “Secretary of Transportation” substituted for “Secretary” for clarity, see Codification note set out under section 2502 of this title.

Transfer of Functions

“Secretary of Energy” substituted in text for “Administrator” pursuant to section 301(a) of Pub. L. 95–91, see Codification note set out under section 2502 of this title.

§2505. Research and development

The Secretary of Energy, acting through appropriate agencies and contractors, shall initiate and provide for the conduct of research and development in areas related to electric and hybrid vehicles, including—

(1) energy storage technology, including batteries and their potential for convenient recharging;

(2) vehicle control systems and overall design for energy conservation, including the use of regenerative braking;

(3) urban design and traffic management to promote maximum transportation-related energy conservation and minimum transportation-related degradation of the environment; and

(4) vehicle design which emphasizes durability, length of practical lifetime, ease of repair, and interchangeability and replaceability of parts.

(Pub. L. 94–413, §6, Sept. 17, 1976, 90 Stat. 1263; Pub. L. 95–91, title III, §301(a), Aug. 4, 1977, 91 Stat. 577.)

Transfer of Functions

“Secretary of Energy” substituted in text for “Administrator” pursuant to section 301(a) of Pub. L. 95–91, see Codification note set out under section 2502 of this title.

§2506. Demonstrations

(a) Data development; baseline data; acquisition of vehicles

Within 12 months after September 17, 1976, the Secretary of Energy shall develop data characterizing the present state-of-the-art with respect to electric and hybrid vehicles. The data so developed shall serve as baseline data to be utilized in order (1) to compare improvements in electric and hybrid vehicle technologies; (2) to assist in establishing the performance standards under subsection (b)(1) of this section; and (3) to otherwise assist in carrying out the purposes of this section. In developing any such data, the Secretary of Energy shall purchase or lease a reasonable number of such vehicles or enter into such other arrangements as the Secretary of Energy deems necessary to carry out the purposes of this subsection.

(b) Performance standards; factors considered; vehicle uses; revision; transmission of standards to Congress

(1) Within 15 months after September 17, 1976, the Secretary of Energy shall promulgate rules establishing performance standards for electric and hybrid vehicles to be purchased or leased pursuant to subsection (c)(1) of this section. The standards so developed shall take into account the factors of energy conservation, urban traffic characteristics, patterns of use for “second” vehicles, consumer preferences, maintenance needs, battery recharging characteristics, agricultural requirements, materials demand and their ability to be recycled, vehicle safety and insurability, cost, and other relevant considerations, as such factors and considerations particularly apply to or affect vehicles with electric or hybrid propulsion systems. Such standards are to be developed taking into account (A) the best current state-of-the-art, and (B) reasonable estimates as to the future state-of-the-art, based on projections of results from the research and development conducted under section 2505 of this title. In developing such standards, the Secretary of Energy shall consult with appropriate experts concerning design needs for electric and hybrid vehicles which are compatible with long-range urban planning, traffic management, and vehicle safety.

(2) Separate performance standards shall be established under subsection (b)(1) of this section with respect to (A) electric or hybrid vehicles for personal use, and (B) commercial electric or hybrid vehicles. Such performance standards shall represent the minimum level of performance which is required with respect to any vehicles purchased or leased pursuant to subsection (c) of this section. Initial performance standards under subsection (b)(1) of this section shall be set at such levels as the Secretary of Energy determines are necessary to promote the acquisition and use of such vehicles for transportation purposes which are within the capability (as determined by the Secretary of Energy) of electric and hybrid vehicles.

(3) Such performance standards shall be revised, by rule, periodically as the state-of-the-art improves.

(4) The Secretary of Energy shall transmit to the Speaker of the House of Representatives and the President of the Senate, and to the Committee on Science, Space, and Technology of the House of Representatives and the Committee on Energy and Natural Resources of the Senate, the performance standards developed under paragraph (1) and all revised performance standards established in connection with the demonstrations specified in subsection (c)(2) of this section.

(c) Contracts for vehicle purchase or lease; delivery requirements; demonstration criteria and duration; availability of information for leasing and procurements

(1) The Secretary of Energy shall, within 6 months after the date of promulgation of performance standards pursuant to subsection (b)(1) of this section, institute the first contracts for the purchase or lease of electric or hybrid vehicles which satisfy the performance standards set forth under subsection (b)(1) of this section. The delivery of such vehicles shall be completed according to the expedited best effort of the administering agency and the selected manufacturer. To the extent practicable, vehicles purchased or leased under such contracts shall represent a cross-section of the available technologies and of actual or potential vehicle use.

(2) Thereafter, according to a planned schedule, the Secretary of Energy shall contract for the purchase or lease of additional electric or hybrid vehicles which satisfy amended performance standards and represent continuing improvements in state-of-the-art. In conducting demonstrations, the Secretary of Energy shall consider—

(A) the need and intent of the Congress to stimulate and encourage private sector production as well as public knowledge, acceptance, and use of electric and hybrid vehicles; and

(B) demonstration of varying degrees of vehicle operations, management, and control for maximum widespread effectiveness and exposure to public use.


(3) The demonstration period shall extend through the fiscal year 1986, with purchase or leasing continuing through the fiscal year 1984. During the demonstration period the Secretary of Energy shall demonstrate 7,500 to 10,000 electric and hybrid vehicles. No more than 400 vehicles may be procured for this purpose during fiscal year 1978. In order to allow industry time for advanced planning, the size and nature of projected electric and hybrid vehicle leasing and procurements will be made public by the administering agency. Publications under the preceding sentence (each covering a period of two years) shall be released annually starting at an appropriate time in the fiscal year 1978.

(d) Arrangements for the demonstration of vehicles

The Secretary of Energy, in supervising the demonstration of vehicles acquired under subsection (c) of this section, shall make such arrangements as may be necessary or appropriate—

(1)(A) to make such vehicles available to Federal agencies and to State or local governments and other persons for individual or business use (including farms). The individuals and businesses involved shall be selected by an equitable process which assures that the Secretary of Energy will receive accurate and adequate data on vehicle performance, including representative geographical and climatological information and data on user reaction to the utilization of electric and hybrid vehicles. Such individuals and businesses shall be given the option of purchasing or leasing such vehicles under terms and conditions which will promote their widespread use;

(B) to pay the differential operating costs of such vehicles to the extent necessary to assure the adequate demonstration of such vehicles;

(2) for demonstration maintenance projects, including maintenance organization and equipment needs and model training projects for maintenance procedures; and

(3) for the dissemination of data on electric and hybrid vehicle safety and operating characteristics (including nontechnical descriptive data which shall be made available by the Government Printing Office) (A) to Federal, State, and local consumer affairs agencies and groups; (B) to Federal, State, and local agricultural and rural agencies and groups; and (C) to the public.

(e) Displacement of private procurement; reports to congressional committees; reduction of number purchased

(1) At least 60 days prior to entering into any contract for the purchase or lease of any electric or hybrid vehicle under subsection (c)(1) of this section or any advanced electric or hybrid vehicle under subsection (c)(2) of this section, the Secretary of Energy shall determine (A) if the purchase or lease of the number of such vehicles specified in such subsection (c)(1) or (c)(2) of this section will, with high probability, displace the normal level of private procurement of such vehicles which would conform to the applicable performance standards promulgated pursuant to subsection (b) of this section and which would be used in the United States, and (B) if such displacement will occur, the necessary extent of such displacement in order to carry out the purposes of this chapter.

(2) The Secretary of Energy shall reduce the number of vehicles for which he shall contract for the purchase or lease under subsection (c)(1) or (c)(2) of this section by the number determined under subsection (e)(1)(A) of this section as modified by subsection (e)(1)(B) of this section, except in no event shall he contract for the purchase or lease pursuant to subsection (c)(1) of this section of less than 1,000 electric or hybrid vehicles, and in no event shall he contract for the purchase or lease pursuant to subsection (c)(2) of this section of less than 2,500 advanced electric or hybrid vehicles unless he determines on the basis of responses to the solicitations for proposals for such contracts, under the provisions of subsections (c)(1) and (c)(2) of this section that lesser numbers of such vehicles which satisfy the applicable performance standards will be available within the delivery periods. All other provisions of subsection (c) of this section shall apply.

(Pub. L. 94–413, §7, Sept. 17, 1976, 90 Stat. 1263; Pub. L. 95–91, title III, §301(a), Aug. 4, 1977, 91 Stat. 577; Pub. L. 95–238, title VI, §601, Feb. 25, 1978, 92 Stat. 91; Pub. L. 96–470, title I, §105, Oct. 19, 1980, 94 Stat. 2238; Pub. L. 97–375, title I, §106(b), Dec. 21, 1982, 96 Stat. 1820; Pub. L. 103–437, §5(d)(1), Nov. 2, 1994, 108 Stat. 4582.)

Amendments

1994—Subsec. (b)(4). Pub. L. 103–437 substituted “Committee on Science, Space, and Technology” for “Committee on Science and Technology”.

1982—Subsec. (e)(1). Pub. L. 97–375 struck out provision that at the time any determination on the displacement of private procurement of hybrid vehicles was made, that Secretary of Energy transmit such determination, with relevant supporting information, to the Committee on Science and Technology of the House and the Committee on Commerce, Science, and Transportation of the Senate.

1980—Subsec. (c)(4). Pub. L. 96–470 struck out par. (4) which provided that if the Administrator determines on the basis of his annual review of the program that at least 200 vehicles cannot be added to the project during fiscal year 1978, at least 600 during fiscal year 1979, at least 1,700 during fiscal year 1980, and at least 7,500 in the aggregate during the fiscal years 1981 through 1984, he immediately forward a detailed explanation to Congress.

1978—Subsec. (b)(3). Pub. L. 95–238, §601(a), struck out requirement that rules promulgated under par. (1) be amended not later than 6 months prior to the date for contracts specified in subsec. (c)(2) of this section.

Subsec. (b)(4). Pub. L. 95–238, §601(b), substituted provisions relating to transmission of standards developed under par. (1) and all revised standards established in connection with the demonstrations specified in subsec. (c)(2) of this section, for provisions relating to transmission of standards developed under par. (1) as revised and currently in effect prior to contracts for the production of vehicles under subsec. (c)(2) of this section.

Subsec. (c). Pub. L. 95–238, §601(c), in par. (1) substituted provisions relating to the first contracts for purchase or lease of vehicles and delivery of such vehicles, for provisions relating to contracts for the purchase or lease of 2,500 vehicles and delivery of such vehicles within 39 months after Sept. 17, 1976, in par. (2) substituted provisions relating to contracts for the purchase or lease of additional vehicles which satisfy amended performance standards and are improvements in the state-of-the-art and criteria for demonstrations, for provisions relating to contracts for the purchase or lease of 5,000 advanced vehicles and delivery of such vehicles within 72 months after Sept. 17, 1976, with an extention of the delivery period for 6 additional months, and added pars. (3) and (4).

Change of Name

Committee on Science, Space, and Technology of House of Representatives treated as referring to Committee on Science of House of Representatives by section 1(a) of Pub. L. 104–14, set out as a note preceding section 21 of Title 2, The Congress. Committee on Science of House of Representatives changed to Committee on Science and Technology of House of Representatives by House Resolution No. 6, One Hundred Tenth Congress, Jan. 5, 2007.

Transfer of Functions

“Secretary of Energy” substituted for “Administrator” in subsecs. (a), (b)(1), (2), (d), and (e) pursuant to section 301(a) of Pub. L. 95–91, see Codification note set out under section 2502 of this title.

§2507. Contracts

(a) Research, development, and demonstration

The Secretary of Energy shall provide funds, by contract, to initiate, continue, supplement, and maintain research, development, and demonstration activities which are necessary to carry out the purposes of the project. The Secretary of Energy may enter into such contracts with any Federal agency, laboratory, university, nonprofit organization, industrial organization, public or private agency, institution, organization, corporation, partnership, or individual.

(b) Consultation

In addition to the requirements of sections 2503 and 2504 of this title, the Secretary of Energy, in the exercise of his duties and responsibilities under this section, shall consult with the Department of Transportation, the Environmental Protection Agency, the National Aeronautics and Space Administration, the Department of Agriculture, and representatives of other appropriate Federal agencies, and shall establish procedures for periodic consultation with representatives of science, industry, and such other groups as may have special expertise in electric and hybrid vehicle research, development, and demonstration.

(c) Rules of Secretary of Energy; funding applications; required advertising

Each contract under this section shall be entered into in accordance with such rules as the Secretary of Energy may prescribe in accordance with the provisions of this section. Each application for funding shall be made in writing in such form and with such content and other submissions as the Secretary of Energy shall require. The Secretary of Energy may enter into contracts under this section without regard to section 6101 of title 41.

(d) Purchase or lease of demonstration vehicles pursuant to agreements and utilization of Federal forms of assistance and participation authorized under other statutory provisions

In addition to contracting for the purchase or lease of vehicles when conducting the demonstrations established under section 2506 of this title, the Secretary of Energy may acquire or secure use of such vehicles, or have such vehicles acquired or used by others, by making agreements and utilizing various forms of Federal assistance and participation which is authorized under the Energy Reorganization Act of 1974 (Public Law 93–438) [42 U.S.C. 5801 et seq.] and the Federal Nonnuclear Energy Research and Development Act of 1974 (Public Law 93–577) [42 U.S.C. 5901 et seq.].

(e) Cost-sharing and use of American materials for demonstrations

When contracting and otherwise using Federal funds to conduct demonstrations under this chapter, the Secretary of Energy shall seek cost-sharing with others to the maximum extent practical. During the first 2 years of demonstration activities the Secretary of Energy may enter into procurement or lease contracts for purposes of carrying out demonstrations under this chapter without regard to the provisions of chapter 83 of title 41.

(Pub. L. 94–413, §8, Sept. 17, 1976, 90 Stat. 1266; Pub. L. 95–91, title III, §301(a), Aug. 4, 1977, 91 Stat. 577; Pub. L. 95–238, title VI, §602, Feb. 25, 1978, 92 Stat. 92.)

References in Text

The Energy Reorganization Act of 1974 (Public Law 93–438), referred to in subsec. (d), is Pub. L. 93–438, Oct. 11, 1974, 88 Stat. 1233, as amended, which is classified principally to chapter 73 (§5801 et seq.) of Title 42, The Public Health and Welfare. For complete classification of this Act to the Code, see Short Title note set out under section 5801 of Title 42 and Tables.

The Federal Nonnuclear Energy Research and Development Act of 1974 (Public Law 93–577), referred to in subsec. (d), is Pub. L. 93–577, Dec. 31, 1974, 88 Stat. 1878, as amended, which is classified generally to chapter 74 (§5901 et seq.) of Title 42. For complete classification of this Act to the Code, see Short Title note set out under section 5901 of Title 42 and Tables.

Codification

In subsec. (b), the words “the Federal Energy Administration,” which followed “Environmental Protection Agency,” have been omitted from the Code in view of the termination of the Federal Energy Administration and the transfer of the functions of the Administration to the Secretary of Energy pursuant to sections 301(a) and 703 of Pub. L. 95–91 which are classified to sections 7151(a) and 7293 of Title 42, The Public Health and Welfare. This transfer would result in this phrase being redundant in that it would provide for the Secretary of Energy to consult with the Secretary of Energy.

In subsec. (c), “section 6101 of title 41” substituted for “section 3709 of the Revised Statutes (41 U.S.C. 5)” on authority of Pub. L. 111–350, §6(c), Jan. 4, 2011, 124 Stat. 3854, which Act enacted Title 41, Public Contracts.

In subsec. (e), “chapter 83 of title 41” substituted for “title III of the Act of March 3, 1933 (47 Stat. 1520; 41 U.S.C. 10a–10c)” on authority of Pub. L. 111–350, §6(c), Jan. 4, 2011, 124 Stat. 3854, which Act enacted Title 41, Public Contracts.

Amendments

1978—Subsecs. (d), (e). Pub. L. 95–238 added subsecs. (d) and (e).

Transfer of Functions

“Secretary of Energy” substituted for “Administrator” in subsecs. (a) to (c) and the first time it appears in subsec. (e) pursuant to section 301(a) of Pub. L. 95–91, see Codification note set out under section 2502 of this title.

§2508. Encouragement and protection of small business

(a) Opportunity to participate

The Secretary of Energy shall take such steps as are feasible to assure that small business concerns have a realistic and adequate opportunity to participate in the project.

(b) Reservation of funds

To assist in accomplishing the objectives of subsection (a) of this section, the Secretary of Energy shall reserve, for contracts with small business concerns, a reasonable portion of the funds made available pursuant to this chapter for research, development, or demonstration of electric or hybrid vehicles.

(c) Contract terms and conditions; planning grants

The Secretary of Energy shall, in addition to the requirements set forth in subsections (a) and (b) of this section—

(1) include in all contracts for research, development, or demonstration of electric or hybrid vehicles such terms, conditions, and payment schedules as may assist in meeting the needs of small business concerns, and shall take steps to avoid the inclusion in such contracts of any terms, conditions, or penalties which would tend to prevent such concerns from participating in the program under this chapter; and

(2) make planning grants available to qualified small business concerns which require assistance in developing, submitting, and entering into such contracts.

(Pub. L. 94–413, §9, Sept. 17, 1976, 90 Stat. 1266; Pub. L. 95–91, title III, §301(a), Aug. 4, 1977, 91 Stat. 577.)

Transfer of Functions

“Secretary of Energy” substituted in text for “Administrator” pursuant to section 301(a) of Pub. L. 95–91, see Codification note set out under section 2502 of this title.

§2509. Loan guarantees

(a) Congressional policy

It is the policy of the Congress to assist in the introduction into the Nation's transportation fleet of electric and hybrid vehicles and to assure that qualified small business concerns and other qualified borrowers are not excluded from participation in such development due to lack of adequate capital. Accordingly, it is the policy of the Congress to provide guarantees of loans made for such purposes.

(b) Encouragement of commercial production; purpose of loans

In order to encourage the commercial production of electric and hybrid vehicles, the Secretary of Energy is authorized to guarantee, and to enter into commitments to guarantee, principal and interest on loans made by lenders to qualified borrowers, primarily small business concerns, for the purposes of—

(1) research and development related to electric and hybrid vehicle technology;

(2) prototype development for such vehicles and parts thereof;

(3) construction of capital equipment related to research on, and development and production of, electric and hybrid vehicles and components; or

(4) initial operating expenses associated with the development and production of electric and hybrid vehicles and components.

(c) Maximum amount of loan guarantee

Any guarantee under this section shall apply only to so much of the principal amount of the loan involved as does not exceed 90 percentum of the aggregate cost of the activity with respect to which the loan is made.

(d) Terms and conditions of guarantee

Loan guarantees under this section shall be on such terms and conditions as the Secretary of Energy determines, except that a guarantee shall be made under this section only if—

(1) the loan bears interest at a rate not to exceed such annual percent on the principal obligation outstanding as the Secretary of Energy determines to be reasonable, taking into account the range of interest rates prevailing in the private sector for similar loans and risks by the United States;

(2) the terms of such loan require full repayment over a period not to exceed 15 years;

(3) in the judgment of the Secretary of Energy, the amount of the loan (when combined with amounts available to the qualified borrower from other sources) will be sufficient to carry out the activity with respect to which the loan is made;

(4) in the judgment of the Secretary of Energy, there is reasonable assurance of repayment of the loan by the qualified borrower; and

(5) no loan shall be guaranteed by the Secretary of Energy under subsection (b) of this section unless the Secretary of Energy finds that no other reasonable means of financing or refinancing is reasonably available to the applicant.

(e) Maximum guarantee per loan; maximum of aggregate guarantees; Electric and Hybrid Vehicle Development Fund; establishment, funding, etc.

(1) The amount of the guarantee of any loan shall not exceed $3,000,000, unless the Secretary of Energy finds that a higher guarantee level for specific loan guarantees is necessary in order to carry out the purposes of this chapter. If the Secretary of Energy makes such finding, he shall immediately report that finding to the Speaker of the House of Representatives, the President of the Senate, the Committee on Science, Space, and Technology of the House of Representatives, and the Committee on Commerce, Science, and Transportation of the Senate.

(2) The aggregate amount of guarantees outstanding under this section at any one time shall not exceed $60,000,000.

(3)(A) There is established in the Treasury of the United States an Electric and Hybrid Vehicle Development Fund (hereinafter in this paragraph referred to as the “fund”), which shall be available to the Secretary of Energy for carrying out the loan guarantee and principal and interest assistance program authorized by this chapter, including the payment of administrative expenses incurred in connection therewith. Moneys in the fund not needed for current operations may, with the approval of the Secretary of the Treasury, be invested in bonds or other obligations of, or guaranteed by, the United States.

(B) There shall be paid into the fund such part of the amounts appropriated pursuant to section 2514 of this title as the Secretary of Energy deems necessary to carry out the purposes of this chapter and such amounts as may be returned to the United States pursuant to subsection (g) of this section, and the amounts in the fund shall remain available until expended, except that after the expiration of the 7-year period established by subsection (h) of this section such amounts in the fund as are not required to secure outstanding guarantee obligations shall be paid into the general fund of the Treasury.

(C) If at any time the moneys available in the fund are insufficient to enable the Secretary of Energy to discharge his responsibilities under this section, he shall issue to the Secretary of the Treasury notes or other obligations in such forms and denominations, bearing such maturities, and subject to such terms and conditions as may be prescribed by the Secretary of the Treasury. This borrowing authority shall be effective only to such extent or in such amounts as are specified in appropriation Acts. Such authority shall be without fiscal year limitation. Redemption of such notes or obligations shall be made by the Secretary of Energy from appropriations or other moneys available under this chapter. Such notes or other obligations shall bear interest at a rate determined by the Secretary of the Treasury, which shall not be less than a rate determined by taking into consideration the average market yield on outstanding marketable obligations of the United States of comparable maturities during the month preceding the issuance of the notes or other obligations. The Secretary of the Treasury shall purchase any notes or other obligations issued hereunder and for that purpose he is authorized to use as a public debt transaction the proceeds from the sale of any securities issued under chapter 31 of title 31, and the purposes for which securities may be issued under that chapter are extended to include any purchase of such notes or obligations. The Secretary of the Treasury may at any time sell any of the notes or other obligations acquired by him under this subsection. All redemptions, purchases, and sales by the Secretary of the Treasury of such notes or other obligations shall be treated as public debt transactions of the United States.

(D) Business-type financial reports covering the operations of the fund shall be submitted to the Congress by the Secretary of Energy annually upon the completion of the appropriate accounting period.

(f) Qualified borrower

As used in this section, the term “qualified borrower” means any partnership, corporation, or other legal entity which (as determined by the Secretary of Energy) has presented satisfactory evidence of an interest in electric or hybrid vehicle technology and is capable of performing research or completing the development and production of electric or hybrid vehicles or any components thereof in an acceptable manner.

(g) Payment of principal and interest; default; recovery of losses

(1) With respect to any loan guaranteed pursuant to this section, the Secretary of Energy is authorized to enter into a contract to pay, and to pay, the lender for and on behalf of the borrower the principal and interest charges which become due and payable on the unpaid balance of such loan if the Secretary of Energy finds—

(A) that the borrower is unable to meet principal and interest charges, that it is in the public interest to permit the borrower to continue to pursue the purposes of the project, and that the probable net cost to the Federal Government in paying such principal will be less than that which would result in the event of a default; and

(B) that the amount of such principal and interest charges which the Secretary of Energy is authorized to pay shall be no greater than the amount of principal and interest which the borrower is obligated to pay under the loan agreement.


(2) In the event of any default by a qualified borrower on a guaranteed loan, the Secretary of Energy is authorized to make payment in accordance with the guarantee, and the Attorney General shall take such action as may be appropriate to recover the amounts of such payments (including any payment of principal and interest under paragraph (1)) from such assets of the defaulting borrower as are associated with the activity with respect to which the loan was made or from any other surety included in the terms of the guarantee.

(h) Seven year limitation

No loan guarantee shall be made, or interest assistance contracts entered into, pursuant to this section, after the expiration of the 7-year period following September 17, 1976.

(i) Citizenship of applicant; corporations; waiver

An applicant seeking a guarantee under this section must be a citizen or national of the United States. A corporation, partnership, firm, or association shall not be deemed to be a citizen or national of the United States unless the Secretary of Energy determines that it satisfactorily meets all the requirements of section 50501 of title 46, for determining such citizenship, except that the provisions in subsections (a) and (b) of such section 50501 concerning (1) the citizenship of officers or directors of a corporation, and (2) the interest required to be owned in the case of a corporation, association, or partnership operating a vessel in the coastwise trade, shall not be applicable. The Secretary of Energy, in consultation with the Secretary of State, may waive such requirements in the case of a corporation, partnership, firm, or association, controlling interest in which is owned by citizens of countries which are participants in the International Energy Agreement.

(j) Pledge of full faith and credit of United States

The full faith and credit of the United States is pledged to the payment of all obligations incurred under this section.

(Pub. L. 94–413, §10, Sept. 17, 1976, 90 Stat. 1267; Pub. L. 95–91, title III, §301(a), Aug. 4, 1977, 91 Stat. 577; Pub. L. 95–238, title VI, §603, Feb. 25, 1978, 92 Stat. 93; Pub. L. 103–437, §5(d)(2), Nov. 2, 1994, 108 Stat. 4582.)

Codification

In subsec. (e)(3)(C), “chapter 31 of title 31” and “that chapter” substituted for “the Second Liberty Bond Act, as amended” and “that Act”, respectively, on authority of Pub. L. 97–258, §4(b), Sept. 13, 1982, 96 Stat. 1067, the first section of which enacted Title 31, Money and Finance.

In subsec. (i), “section 50501 of title 46” substituted for “section 2 of the Shipping Act of 1916 (46 U.S.C. 802)” and “subsections (a) and (b) of such section 50501” substituted for “subsection (a) of such section 2” on authority of Pub. L. 109–304, §18(c), Oct. 6, 2006, 120 Stat. 1709, section 8(b) of which enacted parts A and B of subtitle V of Title 46, Shipping.

Amendments

1994—Subsec. (e)(1). Pub. L. 103–437 substituted “Committee on Science, Space, and Technology” for “Committee on Science and Technology” and “Committee on Commerce, Science, and Transportation” for “Committee on Commerce”.

1978—Subsec. (e)(3). Pub. L. 95–238, §603(a)(1), added par. (3).

Subsec. (g). Pub. L. 95–238, §603(b), inserted provisions relating to payment of principal by the Administrator.

Subsec. (h). Pub. L. 95–238, §603(c), substituted “7” for “5”.

Subsec. (j). Pub. L. 95–238, §603(a)(2), added subsec. (j).

Change of Name

Committee on Science, Space, and Technology of House of Representatives treated as referring to Committee on Science of House of Representatives by section 1(a) of Pub. L. 104–14, set out as a note preceding section 21 of Title 2, The Congress. Committee on Science of House of Representatives changed to Committee on Science and Technology of House of Representatives by House Resolution No. 6, One Hundred Tenth Congress, Jan. 5, 2007.

Transfer of Functions

“Secretary of Energy” substituted for “Administrator” in subsecs. (b), (d), (e)(1), (f), and (i) pursuant to section 301(a) of Pub. L. 95–91, see Codification note set out under section 2502 of this title.

§2510. Use of electric and hybrid vehicles by Federal agencies

The Postmaster General of the United States Postal Service, the Administrator of the General Services Administration, the Secretary of Defense, and the heads of other Federal agencies shall—

(1) carry out a study of the practicability of using electric and hybrid vehicles in the performance of some or all of the functions of their agencies; and

(2) arrange for the introduction of electric and hybrid vehicles into their fleets as soon as possible.


For competitive procurement purposes in purchasing such vehicles, life-cycle costing and any beneficial air pollution control characteristics of electric and hybrid vehicles shall be fully taken into account. If the head of the agency involved determines that electric or hybrid vehicles are technologically practicable, but that they are not completely economically competitive with conventional vehicles, the Secretary of Energy may, for purposes of the demonstration program described in section 2506 of this title, pay to such agency the incremental costs of the electric or hybrid vehicles, including differential operating costs.

(Pub. L. 94–413, §11, Sept. 17, 1976, 90 Stat. 1268; Pub. L. 95–91, title III, §301(a), Aug. 4, 1977, 91 Stat. 577.)

Transfer of Functions

“Secretary of Energy” substituted in text for “Administrator” pursuant to section 301(a) of Pub. L. 95–91, see Codification note set out under section 2502 of this title.

§2511. Patents

Section 5908 of title 42 shall apply to any contract (including any assignment, substitution of parties, or subcontract thereunder), entered into, made, or issued by the Secretary of Energy pursuant to section 2507 of this title.

(Pub. L. 94–413, §12, Sept. 17, 1976, 90 Stat. 1269; Pub. L. 95–91, title III, §301(a), Aug. 4, 1977, 91 Stat. 577.)

Transfer of Functions

“Secretary of Energy” substituted in text for “Administrator” pursuant to section 301(a) of Pub. L. 95–91, see Codification note set out under section 2502 of this title.

§2512. Studies

(a) Bias of surface transportation systems; submission of report

The Secretary of Energy shall conduct a study to determine the existence of any tax, regulatory, traffic, urban design, rural electrical, or other institutional factor which tends or may tend to bias surface transportation systems toward vehicles of particular characteristics. The Secretary of Energy shall submit a report to the Congress on the findings and conclusions of such study, within 1 year after September 17, 1976. The report shall include any legislative or other recommendations of the Secretary of Energy.

(b) Material demand and pollution effect; impact statement

The Secretary of Energy shall conduct a continuing assessment of the long-range material demand and pollution effects which may result from or in connection with the electrification of urban traffic. Such assessment shall include a statement of the Secretary of Energy's current findings in each report submitted under section 2513 1 of this title. Any environmental impact statement which may be filed under a Federal law with respect to research, development, or demonstration activities under this chapter shall include reference to the matters which are subject to assessment under this subsection.

(c) Incentives to encourage utilization; inclusion of electric vehicles in calculation of average fuel economy; evaluation program; annual report; final report and recommendations to Congress on January 1, 1987

The Secretary of Energy shall perform, or cause to be performed, studies and research on incentives to promote broader utilization and consumer acceptance of electric and hybrid vehicle technologies. A description and a statement of the findings of such studies and research activities shall be included in each report submitted under section 2513 1 of this title.

(1) The Secretary of Energy in consultation with the Secretary of Transportation and the Administrator of the Environmental Protection Agency is authorized and directed to conduct a seven-year evaluation program of the inclusion of electric vehicles, as defined in section 512(b)(2) 1 of the Motor Vehicle Information and Cost Savings Act (15 U.S.C. 2012(b)(2)), in the calculation of average fuel economy pursuant to section 32904(a)(1) of title 49 to determine the value and implications of such inclusion as an incentive for the early initiation of industrial engineering development and initial commercialization of electric vehicles in the United States. The evaluation program shall be conducted in parallel with the research and development activities of section 2505 of this title and demonstration activities of section 2506 of this title to provide all necessary information no later than January 1, 1987, for the private sector and Federal, State and local officials to make required decisions for the full commercialization of electric vehicles in the United States.

(2) The Administrator of the Environmental Protection Agency, in consultation with the Secretary of Energy and the Secretary of Transportation, shall implement immediately the evaluation program by promulgating, within sixty days of January 7, 1980, regulations to include electric vehicles in average fuel economy calculations under section 32904(a)(1) of title 49.

(3) The Secretary of Energy, in consultation with the Secretary of Transportation and the Administrator of the Environmental Protection Agency, shall include a full discussion of this evaluation program in the annual report required by section 2513 1 of this title in each year after promulgation of the regulations under paragraph (2). The Secretary of Energy, in consultation with the Secretary of Transportation and the Administrator of the Environmental Protection Agency, shall submit to the Congress on January 1, 1987, a final report on the results of the evaluation program and any recommendations regarding the continued inclusion of electric vehicles in the average fuel economy calculations under part C of subtitle VI of title 49.

(d) Safety standards and regulations

The Secretary of Transportation shall conduct a study of the current and future applicability of safety standards and regulations to electric and hybrid vehicles. The Secretary of Transportation shall report the results of such study to the Secretary of Energy and the Congress within 1 year after September 17, 1976.

(e) Regenerative braking systems

The Secretary of Energy shall conduct a study to determine the overall effectiveness and feasibility of including regenerative braking systems on electric and other automobiles in order to recover energy. In such study the Secretary of Energy shall—

(1) review the history of regenerative braking devices;

(2) describe relevant experimental test data and theoretical calculations with respect to such devices;

(3) assess the net energy impacts and cost effectiveness of such devices;

(4) examine present patents and patent policy regarding such devices; and

(5) determine whether regenerative braking should be used on some of the advanced electric or hybrid vehicles to be purchased or leased pursuant to section 2506(c)(2) of this title.


The Secretary of Energy shall submit a report to the Congress on the findings and conclusions of such study within 1 year after September 17, 1976.

(Pub. L. 94–413, §13, Sept. 17, 1976, 90 Stat. 1269; Pub. L. 95–91, title III, §301(a), Aug. 4, 1977, 91 Stat. 577; Pub. L. 96–185, §18, Jan. 7, 1980, 93 Stat. 1336.)

References in Text

Section 2513 of this title, referred to in subsecs. (b) and (c), was repealed by Pub. L. 104–66, title I, §1051(o), Dec. 21, 1995, 109 Stat. 717.

Section 512(b)(2) of the Motor Vehicle Information and Cost Savings Act (15 U.S.C. 2012(b)(2)), referred to in subsec. (c)(1), was repealed by Pub. L. 103–272, §7(b), July 5, 1994, 108 Stat. 1379, the first section of which enacted subtitles II, III, and V to X of Title 49, Transportation.

Codification

In subsec. (c), “section 32904(a)(1) of title 49” substituted for “section 503(a)(1) and (2) of the Motor Vehicle Information and Cost Savings Act (15 U.S.C. 2003(a)(1) and (2))” and “section 503(a)(1) and (2) of the Motor Vehicle Information and Cost Savings Act”, and “part C of subtitle VI of title 49” substituted for “the Motor Vehicle Information and Cost Savings Act [15 U.S.C. 1901 et seq.]” on authority of Pub. L. 103–272, §6(b), July 5, 1994, 108 Stat. 1378, the first section of which enacted subtitles II, III, and V to X of Title 49, Transportation, and on authority of Pub. L. 103–429, §10(b), Oct. 31, 1994, 108 Stat. 4391, section 6(43)(B) of which enacted section 32918 as part of part C of subtitle VI of Title 49.

January 7, 1980, referred to in subsec. (c)(2), was in the original “enactment of the Act” which has been translated as meaning the date of enactment of Pub. L. 96–185 as the probable intent of Congress in view of the fact that section 18 of Pub. L. 96–185 enacted subsec. (c)(1) to (3) of this section.

A part of par. (2) of section 2512(c) of the Electric and Hybrid Vehicle Research, Development, and Demonstration Act of 1976, as added by Pub. L. 96–185, has not been included in the text of subsec. (c)(2) of this section. The omitted provision consists of directory language for an amendment of section 2003 of this title and the indicated amendment has been executed to the text of that section as directed.

In subsec. (d), “Secretary of Transportation” substituted for “Secretary” in two places for clarity, see Codification note set out under section 2502 of this title.

Amendments

1980—Subsec. (c)(1) to (3). Pub. L. 96–185 added pars. (1) to (3).

Transfer of Functions

“Secretary of Energy” substituted for “Administrator” in subsecs. (a), (b), (d), and (e) pursuant to section 301(a) of Pub. L. 95–91, see Codification note set out under section 2502 of this title.

Electric Vehicles

Pub. L. 100–494, §7, Oct. 14, 1988, 102 Stat. 2452, directed Secretary of Transportation to study whether regulations should be amended or promulgated to stimulate production and introduction of electric and solar-powered vehicles into commerce and to report to Congress on results of study, prior to repeal by Pub. L. 103–272, §7(b), July 5, 1994, 108 Stat. 1379.

1 See References in Text note below.

§2513. Repealed. Pub. L. 104–66, title I, §1051(o), Dec. 21, 1995, 109 Stat. 717

Section, Pub. L. 94–413, §14, Sept. 17, 1976, 90 Stat. 1270; Pub. L. 95–91, title III, §301(a), Aug. 4, 1977, 91 Stat. 577, directed Secretary of Energy to submit to Congress annual reports on activities under this chapter.

§2514. Authorization for appropriations

(a) There are authorized to be appropriated to the Secretary of Energy, for purposes of carrying out this chapter, (1) not to exceed $30,000,000 for the fiscal year ending September 30, 1977, except that at least $10,000,000 of such authorization shall be allocated for battery research and development; (2) not to exceed $40,000,000 for the fiscal year ending September 30, 1978; (3) not to exceed $25,000,000 for the fiscal year ending September 30, 1979; (4) not to exceed $20,000,000 for the fiscal year ending September 30, 1980; and (5) not to exceed $45,000,000 for the fiscal year ending September 30, 1981. Any amount appropriated pursuant to this section shall remain available until expended, and any amount authorized for any fiscal year prior to the fiscal year ending September 30, 1981, but not appropriated, may be appropriated for any succeeding fiscal year through the fiscal year ending September 30, 1983.

(b) Any moneys received by the Secretary of Energy from vehicle sales or leases or other activities under this chapter may be retained and used for purposes of carrying out this chapter, notwithstanding the provisions of section 3302(b) of title 31, and may remain available until expended; but the amount authorized to be appropriated for any fiscal year under subsection (a) of this section shall be reduced by the amount of the moneys so received in that year.

(Pub. L. 94–413, §16, Sept. 17, 1976, 90 Stat. 1270; Pub. L. 95–91, title III, §301(a), Aug. 4, 1977, 91 Stat. 577.)

Codification

In subsec. (b), “section 3302(b) of title 31” substituted for “section 3617 of the Revised Statutes (31 U.S.C. 484)” on authority of Pub. L. 97–258, §4(b), Sept. 13, 1982, 96 Stat. 1067, the first section of which enacted Title 31, Money and Finance.

Transfer of Functions

“Secretary of Energy” substituted in text for “Administrator” pursuant to section 301(a) of Pub. L. 95–91, see Codification note set out under section 2502 of this title.