15 U.S.C.
United States Code, 2010 Edition
Title 15 - COMMERCE AND TRADE
CHAPTER 69 - COOPERATIVE RESEARCH
From the U.S. Government Printing Office, www.gpo.gov

CHAPTER 69—COOPERATIVE RESEARCH

Sec.
4301.
Definitions.
4302.
Rule of reason standard.
4303.
Limitation on recovery.
4304.
Award of costs, including attorney's fees, to substantially prevailing party; offset.
4305.
Disclosure of joint venture.
4306.
Application of section 4303 protections to production of products, processes, and services.

        

§4301. Definitions

(a) For purposes of this chapter:

(1) The term “antitrust laws” has the meaning given it in subsection (a) of section 12 of this title, except that such term includes section 45 of this title to the extent that such section 45 of this title applies to unfair methods of competition.

(2) The term “Attorney General” means the Attorney General of the United States.

(3) The term “Commission” means the Federal Trade Commission.

(4) The term “person” has the meaning given it in subsection (a) of section 12 of this title.

(5) The term “State” has the meaning given it in section 15g(2) of this title.

(6) The term “joint venture” means any group of activities, including attempting to make, making, or performing a contract, by two or more persons for the purpose of—

(A) theoretical analysis, experimentation, or systematic study of phenomena or observable facts,

(B) the development or testing of basic engineering techniques,

(C) the extension of investigative findings or theory of a scientific or technical nature into practical application for experimental and demonstration purposes, including the experimental production and testing of models, prototypes, equipment, materials, and processes,

(D) the production of a product, process, or service,

(E) the testing in connection with the production of a product, process, or service by such venture,

(F) the collection, exchange, and analysis of research or production information, or

(G) any combination of the purposes specified in subparagraphs (A), (B), (C), (D), (E), and (F),


and may include the establishment and operation of facilities for the conducting of such venture, the conducting of such venture on a protected and proprietary basis, and the prosecuting of applications for patents and the granting of licenses for the results of such venture, but does not include any activity specified in subsection (b) of this section.

(7) The term “standards development activity” means any action taken by a standards development organization for the purpose of developing, promulgating, revising, amending, reissuing, interpreting, or otherwise maintaining a voluntary consensus standard, or using such standard in conformity assessment activities, including actions relating to the intellectual property policies of the standards development organization.

(8) The term “standards development organization” means a domestic or international organization that plans, develops, establishes, or coordinates voluntary consensus standards using procedures that incorporate the attributes of openness, balance of interests, due process, an appeals process, and consensus in a manner consistent with the Office of Management and Budget Circular Number A–119, as revised February 10, 1998. The term “standards development organization” shall not, for purposes of this chapter, include the parties participating in the standards development organization.

(9) The term “technical standard” has the meaning given such term in section 12(d)(4) 1 of the National Technology Transfer and Advancement Act of 1995.

(10) The term “voluntary consensus standard” has the meaning given such term in Office of Management and Budget Circular Number A–119, as revised February 10, 1998.


(b) The term “joint venture” excludes the following activities involving two or more persons:

(1) exchanging information among competitors relating to costs, sales, profitability, prices, marketing, or distribution of any product, process, or service if such information is not reasonably required to carry out the purpose of such venture,

(2) entering into any agreement or engaging in any other conduct restricting, requiring, or otherwise involving the marketing, distribution, or provision by any person who is a party to such venture of any product, process, or service, other than—

(A) the distribution among the parties to such venture, in accordance with such venture, of a product, process, or service produced by such venture,

(B) the marketing of proprietary information, such as patents and trade secrets, developed through such venture formed under a written agreement entered into before June 10, 1993, or

(C) the licensing, conveying, or transferring of intellectual property, such as patents and trade secrets, developed through such venture formed under a written agreement entered into on or after June 10, 1993,


(3) entering into any agreement or engaging in any other conduct—

(A) to restrict or require the sale, licensing, or sharing of inventions, developments, products, processes, or services not developed through, or produced by, such venture, or

(B) to restrict or require participation by any person who is a party to such venture in other research and development activities,


that is not reasonably required to prevent misappropriation of proprietary information contributed by any person who is a party to such venture or of the results of such venture,

(4) entering into any agreement or engaging in any other conduct allocating a market with a competitor,

(5) exchanging information among competitors relating to production (other than production by such venture) of a product, process, or service if such information is not reasonably required to carry out the purpose of such venture,

(6) entering into any agreement or engaging in any other conduct restricting, requiring, or otherwise involving the production (other than the production by such venture) of a product, process, or service,

(7) using existing facilities for the production of a product, process, or service by such venture unless such use involves the production of a new product or technology, and

(8) except as provided in paragraphs (2), (3), and (6), entering into any agreement or engaging in any other conduct to restrict or require participation by any person who is a party to such venture, in any unilateral or joint activity that is not reasonably required to carry out the purpose of such venture.


(c) The term “standards development activity” excludes the following activities:

(1) Exchanging information among competitors relating to cost, sales, profitability, prices, marketing, or distribution of any product, process, or service that is not reasonably required for the purpose of developing or promulgating a voluntary consensus standard, or using such standard in conformity assessment activities.

(2) Entering into any agreement or engaging in any other conduct that would allocate a market with a competitor.

(3) Entering into any agreement or conspiracy that would set or restrain prices of any good or service.

(Pub. L. 98–462, §2, Oct. 11, 1984, 98 Stat. 1815; Pub. L. 103–42, §3(b), (c), June 10, 1993, 107 Stat. 117, 118; Pub. L. 108–237, title I, §103, June 22, 2004, 118 Stat. 663.)

References in Text

Section 12(d) of the National Technology Transfer and Advancement Act of 1995, referred to in subsec. (a)(9), is section 12(d) of Pub. L. 104–113, which is set out as a note under section 272 of this title.

Amendments

2004—Subsec. (a)(7) to (10). Pub. L. 108–237, §103(1), added pars. (7) to (10).

Subsec. (c). Pub. L. 108–237, §103(2), added subsec. (c).

1993—Subsec. (a)(6). Pub. L. 103–42, §3(b), struck out “research and development” after “joint” in introductory provisions, inserted subpars. (D) and (E), redesignated former subpars. (D) and (E) as (F) and (G), respectively, inserted “or production” after “research” in subpar. (F), substituted “(D), (E), and (F)” for “and (D)” in subpar. (G), and substituted “such venture” for “research” after “facilities for the conducting of” in concluding provisions.

Subsec. (b). Pub. L. 103–42, §3(c)(1), struck out “research and development” before “venture” in introductory provisions.

Subsec. (b)(1). Pub. L. 103–42, §3(c)(2), substituted “if such information is not reasonably required to carry out” for “that is not reasonably required to conduct the research and development that is”.

Subsec. (b)(2). Pub. L. 103–42, §3(c)(3), amended par. (2) generally. Prior to amendment, par. (2) read as follows: “entering into any agreement or engaging in any other conduct restricting, requiring, or otherwise involving the production or marketing by any person who is a party to such venture of any product, process, or service, other than the production or marketing of proprietary information developed through such venture, such as patents and trade secrets, and”.

Subsec. (b)(3). Pub. L. 103–42, §3(c)(4), in subpar. (A) substituted “, developments, products, processes, or services not developed through, or produced by,” for “or developments not developed through”, in subpar. (B) substituted “any person who is a party to such venture” for “such party”, and at end of concluding provisions substituted comma for period.

Subsec. (b)(4) to (8). Pub. L. 103–42, §3(c)(5), added pars. (4) to (8).

Short Title of 2004 Amendment

Pub. L. 108–237, title I, §101, June 22, 2004, 118 Stat. 661, provided that: “This title [amending this section and sections 4302 to 4305 of this title and enacting provisions set out as notes under this section] may be cited as the ‘Standards Development Organization Advancement Act of 2004’.”

Short Title of 1993 Amendment

Section 1 of Pub. L. 103–42 provided that: “This Act [enacting section 4306 of this title, amending this section and sections 4302 to 4305 of this title, enacting provisions set out as notes under this section and section 4305 of this title, and amending a provision set out as a note under this section] may be cited as the ‘National Cooperative Production Amendments of 1993’.”

Short Title

Section 1 of Pub. L. 98–462, as amended by Pub. L. 103–42, §3(a), June 10, 1993, 107 Stat. 117, provided that: “This Act [enacting this chapter] may be cited as the ‘National Cooperative Research and Production Act of 1993’.”

Construction of 2004 Amendment

Pub. L. 108–237, title I, §108, June 22, 2004, 118 Stat. 665, provided that: “Nothing in this title [amending this section and sections 4302 to 4305 of this title and enacting provisions set out as notes under this section] shall be construed to alter or modify the antitrust treatment under existing law of—

“(1) parties participating in standards development activity of standards development organizations within the scope of this title, including the existing standard under which the conduct of the parties is reviewed, regardless of the standard under which the conduct of the standards development organizations in which they participate are reviewed, or

“(2) other organizations and parties engaged in standard-setting processes not within the scope of this amendment to the title.”

Findings and Purpose

Pub. L. 108–237, title I, §102, June 22, 2004, 118 Stat. 661, provided that: “The Congress finds the following:

“(1) In 1993, the Congress amended and renamed the National Cooperative Research Act of 1984 (now known as the National Cooperative Research and Production Act of 1993 (15 U.S.C. 4301 et seq.)) by enacting the National Cooperative Production Amendments of 1993 (Public Law 103–42 [see Short Title of 1993 Amendment note set out above]) to encourage the use of collaborative, procompetitive activity in the form of research and production joint ventures that provide adequate disclosure to the antitrust enforcement agencies about the nature and scope of the activity involved.

“(2) Subsequently, in 1995, the Congress in enacting the National Technology Transfer and Advancement Act of 1995 (15 U.S.C. 272 note) [Pub. L. 104–113; see Short Title of 1996 Amendment note set out under section 3701 of this title] recognized the importance of technical standards developed by voluntary consensus standards bodies to our national economy by requiring the use of such standards to the extent practicable by Federal agencies and by encouraging Federal agency representatives to participate in ongoing standards development activities. The Office of Management and Budget on February 18, 1998, revised Circular A–119 to reflect these changes made in law.

“(3) Following enactment of the National Technology Transfer and Advancement Act of 1995, technical standards developed or adopted by voluntary consensus standards bodies have replaced thousands of unique Government standards and specifications allowing the national economy to operate in a more unified fashion.

“(4) Having the same technical standards used by Federal agencies and by the private sector permits the Government to avoid the cost of developing duplicative Government standards and to more readily use products and components designed for the commercial marketplace, thereby enhancing quality and safety and reducing costs.

“(5) Technical standards are written by hundreds of nonprofit voluntary consensus standards bodies in a nonexclusionary fashion, using thousands of volunteers from the private and public sectors, and are developed under the standards development principles set out in Circular Number A–119, as revised February 18, 1998, of the Office of Management and Budget, including principles that require openness, balance, transparency, consensus, and due process. Such principles provide for—

“(A) notice to all parties known to be affected by the particular standards development activity,

“(B) the opportunity to participate in standards development or modification,

“(C) balancing interests so that standards development activities are not dominated by any single group of interested persons,

“(D) readily available access to essential information regarding proposed and final standards,

“(E) the requirement that substantial agreement be reached on all material points after the consideration of all views and objections, and

“(F) the right to express a position, to have it considered, and to appeal an adverse decision.

“(6) There are tens of thousands of voluntary consensus standards available for government use. Most of these standards are kept current through interim amendments and interpretations, issuance of addenda, and periodic reaffirmation, revision, or reissuance every 3 to 5 years.

“(7) Standards developed by government entities generally are not subject to challenge under the antitrust laws.

“(8) Private developers of the technical standards that are used as Government standards are often not similarly protected, leaving such developers vulnerable to being named as codefendants in lawsuits even though the likelihood of their being held liable is remote in most cases, and they generally have limited resources to defend themselves in such lawsuits.

“(9) Standards development organizations do not stand to benefit from any antitrust violations that might occur in the voluntary consensus standards development process.

“(10) As was the case with respect to research and production joint ventures before the passage of the National Cooperative Research and Production Act of 1993, if relief from the threat of liability under the antitrust laws is not granted to voluntary consensus standards bodies, both regarding the development of new standards and efforts to keep existing standards current, such bodies could be forced to cut back on standards development activities at great financial cost both to the Government and to the national economy.”

Section 2 of Pub. L. 103–42 provided that:

“(a) Findings.—The Congress finds that—

“(1) technological innovation and its profitable commercialization are critical components of the ability of the United States to raise the living standards of Americans and to compete in world markets;

“(2) cooperative arrangements among nonaffiliated businesses in the private sector are often essential for successful technological innovation; and

“(3) the antitrust laws may have been mistakenly perceived to inhibit procompetitive cooperative innovation arrangements, and so clarification serves a useful purpose in helping to promote such arrangements.

“(b) Purpose.—It is the purpose of this Act [see Short Title of 1993 Amendment note above] to promote innovation, facilitate trade, and strengthen the competitiveness of the United States in world markets by clarifying the applicability of the rule of reason standard and establishing a procedure under which businesses may notify the Department of Justice and Federal Trade Commission of their cooperative ventures and thereby qualify for a single-damages limitation on civil antitrust liability.”

1 So in original. Probably should be section “12(d)(5)”.

§4302. Rule of reason standard

In any action under the antitrust laws, or under any State law similar to the antitrust laws, the conduct of—

(1) any person in making or performing a contract to carry out a joint venture, or

(2) a standards development organization while engaged in a standards development activity,


shall not be deemed illegal per se; such conduct shall be judged on the basis of its reasonableness, taking into account all relevant factors affecting competition, including, but not limited to, effects on competition in properly defined, relevant research, development, product, process, and service markets. For the purpose of determining a properly defined, relevant market, worldwide capacity shall be considered to the extent that it may be appropriate in the circumstances.

(Pub. L. 98–462, §3, Oct. 11, 1984, 98 Stat. 1816; Pub. L. 103–42, §3(d), June 10, 1993, 107 Stat. 119; Pub. L. 108–237, title I, §104, June 22, 2004, 118 Stat. 663.)

Amendments

2004—Pub. L. 108–237 substituted “of—

“(1) any person in making or performing a contract to carry out a joint venture, or

“(2) a standards development organization while engaged in a standards development activity,

shall” for “of any person in making or performing a contract to carry out a joint venture shall”.

1993—Pub. L. 103–42 substituted “joint venture” for “joint research and development venture” and “, development, product, process, and service” for “and development” and inserted at end “For the purpose of determining a properly defined, relevant market, worldwide capacity shall be considered to the extent that it may be appropriate in the circumstances.”

§4303. Limitation on recovery

(a) Amount recoverable

Notwithstanding section 15 of this title and in lieu of the relief specified in such section, any person who is entitled to recovery on a claim under such section shall recover the actual damages sustained by such person, interest calculated at the rate specified in section 1961 of title 28 on such actual damages as specified in subsection (d) of this section, and the cost of suit attributable to such claim, including a reasonable attorney's fee pursuant to section 4304 of this title if such claim—

(1) results from conduct that is within the scope of a notification that has been filed under section 4305(a) of this title for a joint venture, or for a standards development activity engaged in by a standards development organization against which such claim is made, and

(2) is filed after such notification becomes effective pursuant to section 4305(c) of this title.

(b) Recovery by States

Notwithstanding section 15c of this title, and in lieu of the relief specified in such section, any State that is entitled to monetary relief on a claim under such section shall recover the total damage sustained as described in subsection (a)(1) of such section, interest calculated at the rate specified in section 1961 of title 28 on such total damage as specified in subsection (d) of this section, and the cost of suit attributable to such claim, including a reasonable attorney's fee pursuant to section 15c of this title if such claim—

(1) results from conduct that is within the scope of a notification that has been filed under section 4305(a) of this title for a joint venture, or for a standards development activity engaged in by a standards development organization against which such claim is made, and

(2) is filed after such notification becomes effective pursuant to section 4305(c) of this title.

(c) Conduct similar under State law

Notwithstanding any provision of any State law providing damages for conduct similar to that forbidden by the antitrust laws, any person who is entitled to recovery on a claim under such provision shall not recover in excess of the actual damages sustained by such person, interest calculated at the rate specified in section 1961 of title 28 on such actual damages as specified in subsection (d) of this section, and the cost of suit attributable to such claim, including a reasonable attorney's fee pursuant to section 4304 of this title if such claim—

(1) results from conduct that is within the scope of a notification that has been filed under section 4305(a) of this title for a joint venture, or for a standards development activity engaged in by a standards development organization against which such claim is made, and

(2) is filed after notification has become effective pursuant to section 4305(c) of this title.

(d) Interest

Interest shall be awarded on the damages involved for the period beginning on the earliest date for which injury can be established and ending on the date of judgment, unless the court finds that the award of all or part of such interest is unjust in the circumstances.

(e) Rule of construction

Subsections (a), (b), and (c) of this section shall not be construed to modify the liability under the antitrust laws of any person (other than a standards development organization) who—

(1) directly (or through an employee or agent) participates in a standards development activity with respect to which a violation of any of the antitrust laws is found,

(2) is not a fulltime employee of the standards development organization that engaged in such activity, and

(3) is, or is an employee or agent of a person who is, engaged in a line of commerce that is likely to benefit directly from the operation of the standards development activity with respect to which such violation is found.

(f) Applicability

This section shall be applicable only if the challenged conduct of a person defending against a claim is not in violation of any decree or order, entered or issued after October 11, 1984, in any case or proceeding under the antitrust laws or any State law similar to the antitrust laws challenging such conduct as part of a joint venture, or of a standards development activity engaged in by a standards development organization.

(Pub. L. 98–462, §4, Oct. 11, 1984, 98 Stat. 1816; Pub. L. 103–42, §3(e)(1), June 10, 1993, 107 Stat. 119; Pub. L. 108–237, title I, §105, June 22, 2004, 118 Stat. 663.)

Amendments

2004—Subsecs. (a)(1), (b)(1), (c)(1). Pub. L. 108–237, §105(1), inserted “, or for a standards development activity engaged in by a standards development organization against which such claim is made” after “joint venture”.

Subsec. (e). Pub. L. 108–237, §105(3), added subsec. (e). Former subsec. (e) redesignated (f).

Pub. L. 108–237, §105(2)(A), inserted “, or of a standards development activity engaged in by a standards development organization” before period at end.

Subsec. (f). Pub. L. 108–237, §105(2)(B), redesignated subsec. (e) as (f).

1993—Subsecs. (a) to (c). Pub. L. 103–42, §3(e)(1)(A), (B), in introductory provisions inserted “of this section” after “subsection (d)” and in par. (1) substituted “joint venture” for “joint research and development venture”.

Subsec. (e). Pub. L. 103–42, §3(e)(1)(A), (C), substituted “October 11, 1984,” for “the effective date of this Act” and substituted “joint venture” for “joint research and development venture”.

§4304. Award of costs, including attorney's fees, to substantially prevailing party; offset

(a) Notwithstanding sections 15 and 26 of this title, in any claim under the antitrust laws, or any State law similar to the antitrust laws, based on the conducting of a joint venture, or of a standards development activity engaged in by a standards development organization, the court shall, at the conclusion of the action—

(1) award to a substantially prevailing claimant the cost of suit attributable to such claim, including a reasonable attorney's fee, or

(2) award to a substantially prevailing party defending against any such claim the cost of suit attributable to such claim, including a reasonable attorney's fee, if the claim, or the claimant's conduct during the litigation of the claim, was frivolous, unreasonable, without foundation, or in bad faith.


(b) The award made under subsection (a) of this section may be offset in whole or in part by an award in favor of any other party for any part of the cost of suit, including a reasonable attorney's fee, attributable to conduct during the litigation by any prevailing party that the court finds to be frivolous, unreasonable, without foundation, or in bad faith.

(c) Subsections (a) and (b) of this section shall not apply with respect to any person who—

(1) directly participates in a standards development activity with respect to which a violation of any of the antitrust laws is found,

(2) is not a fulltime employee of a standards development organization that engaged in such activity, and

(3) is, or is an employee or agent of a person who is, engaged in a line of commerce that is likely to benefit directly from the operation of the standards development activity with respect to which such violation is found.

(Pub. L. 98–462, §5, Oct. 11, 1984, 98 Stat. 1817; Pub. L. 103–42, §3(e)(2), June 10, 1993, 107 Stat. 119; Pub. L. 108–237, title I, §106, June 22, 2004, 118 Stat. 664.)

Amendments

2004—Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 108–237, §106(1), inserted “, or of a standards development activity engaged in by a standards development organization” after “joint venture” in introductory provisions.

Subsec. (c). Pub. L. 108–237, §106(2), added subsec. (c).

1993—Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 103–42 substituted “joint venture” for “joint research and development venture” in introductory provisions.

§4305. Disclosure of joint venture

(a) Written notifications; filing

(1) Any party to a joint venture, acting on such venture's behalf, may, not later than 90 days after entering into a written agreement to form such venture or not later than 90 days after October 11, 1984, whichever is later, file simultaneously with the Attorney General and the Commission a written notification disclosing—

(A) the identities of the parties to such venture,

(B) the nature and objectives of such venture, and

(C) if a purpose of such venture is the production of a product, process, or service, as referred to in section 4301(a)(6)(D) of this title, the identity and nationality of any person who is a party to such venture, or who controls any party to such venture whether separately or with one or more other persons acting as a group for the purpose of controlling such party.


Any party to such venture, acting on such venture's behalf, may file additional disclosure notifications pursuant to this section as are appropriate to extend the protections of section 4303 of this title. In order to maintain the protections of section 4303 of this title, such venture shall, not later than 90 days after a change in its membership, file simultaneously with the Attorney General and the Commission a written notification disclosing such change.

(2) A standards development organization may, not later than 90 days after commencing a standards development activity engaged in for the purpose of developing or promulgating a 1 voluntary consensus standards or not later than 90 days after June 22, 2004, whichever is later, file simultaneously with the Attorney General and the Commission, a written notification disclosing—

(A) the name and principal place of business of the standards development organization, and

(B) documents showing the nature and scope of such activity.


Any standards development organization may file additional disclosure notifications pursuant to this section as are appropriate to extend the protections of section 4303 of this title to standards development activities that are not covered by the initial filing or that have changed significantly since the initial filing.

(b) Publication; Federal Register; notice

Except as provided in subsection (e) of this section, not later than 30 days after receiving a notification filed under subsection (a) of this section, the Attorney General or the Commission shall publish in the Federal Register a notice with respect to such venture that identifies the parties to such venture and that describes in general terms the area of planned activity of such venture, or a notice with respect to such standards development activity that identifies the standards development organization engaged in such activity and that describes such activity in general terms. Prior to its publication, the contents of such notice shall be made available to the parties to such venture or available to such organization, as the case may be.

(c) Effect of notice

If with respect to a notification filed under subsection (a) of this section, notice is published in the Federal Register, then such notification shall operate to convey the protections of section 4303 of this title as of the earlier of—

(1) the date of publication of notice under subsection (b) of this section, or

(2) if such notice is not so published within the time required by subsection (b) of this section, after the expiration of the 30-day period beginning on the date the Attorney General or the Commission receives the applicable information described in subsection (a) of this section.

(d) Exemption; disclosure; information

Except with respect to the information published pursuant to subsection (b) of this section—

(1) all information and documentary material submitted as part of a notification filed pursuant to this section, and

(2) all other information obtained by the Attorney General or the Commission in the course of any investigation, administrative proceeding, or case, with respect to a potential violation of the antitrust laws by the joint venture, or the standards development activity, with respect to which such notification was filed,


shall be exempt from disclosure under section 552 of title 5, and shall not be made publicly available by any agency of the United States to which such section applies except in a judicial or administrative proceeding in which such information and material is subject to any protective order.

(e) Withdrawal of notification

Any person or standards development organization that files a notification pursuant to this section may withdraw such notification before notice of the joint venture involved is published under subsection (b) of this section. Any notification so withdrawn shall not be subject to subsection (b) of this section and shall not confer the protections of section 4303 of this title on any person or any standards development organization with respect to whom such notification was filed.

(f) Judicial review; inapplicable with respect to notifications

Any action taken or not taken by the Attorney General or the Commission with respect to notifications filed pursuant to this section shall not be subject to judicial review.

(g) Admissibility into evidence; disclosure of conduct; publication of notice; supporting or answering claims under antitrust laws

(1) Except as provided in paragraph (2), for the sole purpose of establishing that a person or standards development organization is entitled to the protections of section 4303 of this title, the fact of disclosure of conduct under subsection (a) of this section and the fact of publication of a notice under subsection (b) of this section shall be admissible into evidence in any judicial or administrative proceeding.

(2) No action by the Attorney General or the Commission taken pursuant to this section shall be admissible into evidence in any such proceeding for the purpose of supporting or answering any claim under the antitrust laws or under any State law similar to the antitrust laws.

(Pub. L. 98–462, §6, Oct. 11, 1984, 98 Stat. 1818; Pub. L. 103–42, §3(f), June 10, 1993, 107 Stat. 119; Pub. L. 108–237, title I, §107, June 22, 2004, 118 Stat. 664.)

Amendments

2004—Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 108–237, §107(1), designated existing provisions as par. (1), redesignated former pars. (1) to (3) as subpars. (A) to (C), respectively, of par. (1), and added par. (2).

Subsec. (b). Pub. L. 108–237, §107(2), inserted “, or a notice with respect to such standards development activity that identifies the standards development organization engaged in such activity and that describes such activity in general terms” before period at end of first sentence and “or available to such organization, as the case may be” before period at end of last sentence.

Subsec. (d)(2). Pub. L. 108–237, §107(3), inserted “, or the standards development activity,” after “venture”.

Subsec. (e). Pub. L. 108–237, §107(4), substituted “person or standards development organization that” for “person who” and inserted “or any standards development organization” after “on any person”.

Subsec. (g)(1). Pub. L. 108–237, §107(5), inserted “or standards development organization” after “person”.

1993—Pub. L. 103–42, §3(f)(1), substituted “joint venture” for “joint research and development venture” in section catchline.

Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 103–42, §3(f)(2), (3), substituted “joint venture” for “joint research and development venture” and “October 11, 1984” for “the date of the enactment of this Act” and added par. (3).

Subsecs. (d)(2), (e). Pub. L. 103–42, §3(f)(3), substituted “joint venture” for “joint research and development venture”.

Reports on Joint Ventures and United States Competitiveness

Section 4 of Pub. L. 103–42 provided that:

“(a) Purpose.—The purpose of the reports required by this section is to inform Congress and the American people of the effect of the National Cooperative Research and Production Act of 1993 [15 U.S.C. 4301 et seq.] on the competitiveness of the United States in key technological areas of research, development, and production.

“(b) Annual Report by the Attorney General.—In the 30-day period beginning at each 1-year interval in the 6-year period beginning on the date of the enactment of this Act [June 10, 1993], the Attorney General shall submit to the Committee on the Judiciary of the House of Representatives and the Committee on the Judiciary of the Senate—

“(1) a list of joint ventures for which notice was filed under section 6(a) of the National Cooperative Research and Production Act of 1993 [15 U.S.C. 4305(a)] during the 12-month period for which such report is made, including—

“(A) the purpose of each joint venture;

“(B) the identity of each party described in section 6(a)(1) of such Act; and

“(C) the identity and nationality of each person described in section 6(a)(3) of such Act; and

“(2) a list of cases and proceedings, if any, brought during such period under the antitrust laws by the Department of Justice, and by the Federal Trade Commission, with respect to joint ventures for which notice was filed under such section at any time.

“(c) Triennial Report by the Attorney General.—In the 30-day period beginning at each 3-year interval in the 6-year period beginning on the date of the enactment of this Act [June 10, 1993], the Attorney General, after consultation with such other agencies as the Attorney General considers to be appropriate, shall submit to the Committee on the Judiciary of the House of Representatives and the Committee on the Judiciary of the Senate a description of the technological areas most commonly pursued by joint ventures for production for which notice was filed under section 6(a) of the National Cooperative Research and Production Act of 1993 [15 U.S.C. 4305(a)] during the 3-year period for which such report is made, and an analysis of the trends in the competitiveness of United States industry in such areas.

“(d) Review of Antitrust Treatment Under Foreign Laws.—In the three 30-day periods beginning 1 year, 3 years, and 6 years after the date of the enactment of this Act [June 10, 1993], the Attorney General, after consultation with such other agencies as the Attorney General considers to be appropriate, shall submit to the Committee on the Judiciary of the House of Representatives and the Committee on the Judiciary of the Senate a report on the antitrust treatment of United States businesses with respect to participation in joint ventures for production, under the law of each foreign nation any of whose domestic businesses disclosed its nationality under section 6(a)(3) of the National Cooperative Research and Production Act of 1993 [15 U.S.C. 4305(a)(3)] at any time.”

1 So in original.

§4306. Application of section 4303 protections to production of products, processes, and services

Notwithstanding sections 4303 and 4305 of this title, the protections of section 4303 of this title shall not apply with respect to a joint venture's production of a product, process, or service, as referred to in section 4301(a)(6)(D) of this title, unless—

(1) the principal facilities for such production are located in the United States or its territories, and

(2) each person who controls any party to such venture (including such party itself) is a United States person, or a foreign person from a country whose law accords antitrust treatment no less favorable to United States persons than to such country's domestic persons with respect to participation in joint ventures for production.

(Pub. L. 98–462, §7, as added Pub. L. 103–42, §3(g), June 10, 1993, 107 Stat. 119.)