2 U.S.C.
United States Code, 2010 Edition
Title 2 - THE CONGRESS
CHAPTER 17A - CONGRESSIONAL BUDGET AND FISCAL OPERATIONS
SUBCHAPTER II - FISCAL PROCEDURES
From the U.S. Government Printing Office, www.gpo.gov

SUBCHAPTER II—FISCAL PROCEDURES

Part A—General Provisions

§651. Budget-related legislation not subject to appropriations

(a) Controls on certain budget-related legislation not subject to appropriations

It shall not be in order in either the House of Representatives or the Senate to consider any bill or joint resolution (in the House of Representatives only, as reported), amendment, motion, or conference report that provides—

(1) new authority to enter into contracts under which the United States is obligated to make outlays;

(2) new authority to incur indebtedness (other than indebtedness incurred under chapter 31 of title 31) for the repayment of which the United States is liable; or

(3) new credit authority;


unless that bill, joint resolution, amendment, motion, or conference report also provides that the new authority is to be effective for any fiscal year only to the extent or in the amounts provided in advance in appropriation Acts.

(b) Legislation providing new entitlement authority

(1) Point of order.—It shall not be in order in either the House of Representatives or the Senate to consider any bill or joint resolution (in the House of Representatives only, as reported), amendment, motion, or conference report that provides new entitlement authority that is to become effective during the current fiscal year.

(2) If any committee of the House of Representatives or the Senate reports any bill or resolution which provides new entitlement authority which is to become effective during a fiscal year and the amount of new budget authority which will be required for such fiscal year if such bill or resolution is enacted as so reported exceeds the appropriate allocation of new budget authority reported under section 633(b) of this title in connection with the most recently agreed to concurrent resolution on the budget for such fiscal year, such bill or resolution shall then be referred to the Committee on Appropriations of the Senate or may then be referred to the Committee on Appropriations of the House, as the case may be, with instructions to report it, with the committee's recommendations, within 15 calendar days (not counting any day on which that House is not in session) beginning with the day following the day on which it is so referred. If the Committee on Appropriations of either House fails to report a bill or resolution referred to it under this paragraph within such 15-day period, the committee shall automatically be discharged from further consideration of such bill or resolution and such bill or resolution shall be placed on the appropriate calendar.

(3) The Committee on Appropriations of each House shall have jurisdiction to report any bill or resolution referred to it under paragraph (2) with an amendment which limits the total amount of new spending authority provided in such bill or resolution.

(c) Exceptions

(1) Subsections (a) and (b) of this section shall not apply to new authority described in those subsections if outlays from that new authority will flow—

(A) from a trust fund established by the Social Security Act (as in effect on July 12, 1974) [42 U.S.C. 301 et seq.]; or

(B) from any other trust fund, 90 percent or more of the receipts of which consist or will consist of amounts (transferred from the general fund of the Treasury) equivalent to amounts of taxes (related to the purposes for which such outlays are or will be made) received in the Treasury under specified provisions of the Internal Revenue Code of 1986 [26 U.S.C. 1 et seq.].


(2) Subsections (a) and (b) of this section shall not apply to new authority described in those subsections to the extent that—

(A) the outlays resulting therefrom are made by an organization which is (i) a mixed-ownership Government corporation (as defined in section 9101(2) of title 31), or (ii) a wholly owned Government corporation (as defined in section 9101(3) of title 31) which is specifically exempted by law from compliance with any or all of the provisions of chapter 91 of title 31, as of December 12, 1985; or

(B) the outlays resulting therefrom consist exclusively of the proceeds of gifts or bequests made to the United States for a specific purpose.

(Pub. L. 93–344, title IV, §401, July 12, 1974, 88 Stat. 317; Pub. L. 99–177, title II, §211, Dec. 12, 1985, 99 Stat. 1056; Pub. L. 99–514, §2, Oct. 22, 1986, 100 Stat. 2095; Pub. L. 101–508, title XIII, §13207(a)(1)(F), (G), Nov. 5, 1990, 104 Stat. 1388–617, 1388–618; Pub. L. 105–33, title X, §10116(a)(1)–(5), Aug. 5, 1997, 111 Stat. 690, 691.)

References in Text

The Social Security Act, referred to in subsec. (c)(1)(A), is act Aug. 14, 1935, ch. 531, 49 Stat. 620, as amended, which is classified generally to chapter 7 (§301 et seq.) of Title 42, The Public Health and Welfare. For complete classification of this Act to the Code, see section 1305 of Title 42 and Tables.

The Internal Revenue Code of 1986, referred to in subsec. (c)(1)(B), is classified generally to Title 26, Internal Revenue Code.

Codification

In subsec. (c)(2)(A), “section 9101(2) of title 31”, “section 9101(3) of title 31”, and “chapter 91 of title 31” were substituted for “section 201 of the Government Corporation Control Act [31 U.S.C. 856]”, “section 101 of such Act [31 U.S.C. 846]”, and “that Act”, respectively, on authority of Pub. L. 97–258, §4(b), Sept. 13, 1982, 96 Stat. 1067, the first section of which enacted Title 31, Money and Finance.

Section was formerly classified to section 1351 of Title 31 prior to the general revision and enactment of Title 31, Money and Finance, by Pub. L. 97–258, §1, Sept. 13, 1982, 96 Stat. 877.

Amendments

1997—Pub. L. 105–33, §10116(a)(1)(A), substituted “Budget-related legislation not subject to appropriations” for “Bills providing new spending authority” as section catchline.

Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 105–33, §10116(a)(1)(B), added subsec. (a) and struck out heading and text of former subsec. (a). Text read as follows: “It shall not be in order in either the House of Representatives or the Senate to consider any bill, joint resolution, amendment, motion, or conference report, as reported to its House which provides new spending authority described in subsection (c)(2)(A) or (B) of this section, unless that bill, resolution, conference report, or amendment also provides that such new spending authority as described in subsection (c)(2)(A) or (B) of this section is to be effective for any fiscal year only to such extent or in such amounts as are provided in appropriation Acts.”

Subsec. (b). Pub. L. 105–33, §10116(a)(2)(A), inserted “new” before “entitlement” in heading.

Subsec. (b)(1). Pub. L. 105–33, §10116(a)(2)(B), added par. (1) and struck out former par. (1) which read as follows: “It shall not be in order in either the House of Representatives or the Senate to consider any bill, joint resolution, amendment, motion, or conference report, as reported to its House, which provides new spending authority described in subsection (c)(2)(C) of this section which is to become effective before the first day of the fiscal year which begins during the calendar year in which such bill or resolution is reported.”

Subsec. (b)(2). Pub. L. 105–33, §10116(a)(2)(C), substituted “new entitlement authority” for “new spending authority described in subsection (c)(2)(C) of this section” and “of the Senate or may then be referred to the Committee on Appropriations of the House, as the case may be,” for “of that House”.

Subsec. (c). Pub. L. 105–33, §10116(a)(5), redesignated subsec. (d) as (c).

Pub. L. 105–33, §10116(a)(3), struck out subsec. (c) which defined terms “new spending authority” and “spending authority”.

Subsec. (d). Pub. L. 105–33, §10116(a)(5), redesignated subsec. (d) as (c).

Subsec. (d)(1). Pub. L. 105–33, §10116(a)(4)(A), which directed substitution of “new authority described in those subsections if outlays from that new authority will flow” for “new spending authority if the budget authority for outlays which result from such new spending authority is derived”, was executed by making the substitution for “new spending authority if the budget authority for outlays which will result from such new spending authority is derived” in introductory provisions to reflect the probable intent of Congress.

Subsec. (d)(2), (3). Pub. L. 105–33, §10116(a)(4)(B), (C), redesignated par. (3) as (2), substituted “new authority described in those subsections” for “new spending authority” in introductory provisions, and struck out former par. (2) which read as follows: “Subsections (a) and (b) of this section shall not apply to new spending authority which is an amendment to or extension of chapter 67 of title 31, or a continuation of the program of fiscal assistance to State and local governments provided by that chapter, to the extent so provided in the bill or resolution providing such authority.”

1990—Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 101–508, §13207(a)(1)(F), substituted “bill, joint resolution, amendment, motion, or conference report” for “bill, resolution, or conference report” and struck out “(or any amendment which provides such new spending authority)” after “subsection (c)(2)(A) or (B) of this section”.

Subsec. (b)(1). Pub. L. 101–508, §13207(a)(1)(G), substituted “bill, joint resolution, amendment, motion, or conference report, as reported to its House” for “bill or resolution” and struck out “(or any amendment which provides such new spending authority)” after “subsection (c)(2)(C) of this section”.

1986—Subsec. (d)(1)(B). Pub. L. 99–514 substituted “Internal Revenue Code of 1986” for “Internal Revenue Code of 1954”.

1985—Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 99–177 amended subsec. (a) generally, inserting provisions relating to applicability to conference reports.

Subsec. (b). Pub. L. 99–177, in amending section generally, reenacted subsec. (b) without change.

Subsec. (c). Pub. L. 99–177, in amending subsec. (c) generally, added pars. (2)(D) and (E).

Subsec. (d). Pub. L. 99–177, in amending subsec. (d) generally, reenacted pars. (1) and (2) without change, and inserted reference to December 12, 1985, in par. (3).

Effective Date of 1985 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 99–177 effective Dec. 12, 1985, and applicable with respect to fiscal years beginning after Sept. 30, 1985, see section 275(a)(1) of Pub. L. 99–177, set out as an Effective and Termination Dates note under section 900 of this title.

Effective Date

Section 905(c) of Pub. L. 93–344 (formerly set out as a note under section 621 of this title) provided that except as provided in section 906 of Pub. L. 93–344 (formerly set out as a note under section 632 of this title) this section shall take effect on the first day of the second regular session of the Ninety-fourth Congress.

§652. Repealed. Pub. L. 105–33, title X, §10116(b), Aug. 5, 1997, 111 Stat. 692

Section, Pub. L. 93–344, title IV, §402, July 12, 1974, 88 Stat. 318; Pub. L. 99–177, title II, §212, Dec. 12, 1985, 99 Stat. 1058; Pub. L. 101–508, title XIII, §13207(a)(1)(H), Nov. 5, 1990, 104 Stat. 1388–618, related to legislation providing new credit authority.

§653. Analysis by Congressional Budget Office

The Director of the Congressional Budget Office shall, to the extent practicable, prepare for each bill or resolution of a public character reported by any committee of the House of Representatives or the Senate (except the Committee on Appropriations of each House), and submit to such committee—

(1) an estimate of the costs which would be incurred in carrying out such bill or resolution in the fiscal year in which it is to become effective and in each of the 4 fiscal years following such fiscal year, together with the basis for each such estimate;

(2) a comparison of the estimates of costs described in paragraph (1) with any available estimates of costs made by such committee or by any Federal agency; and

(3) a description of each method for establishing a Federal financial commitment contained in such bill or resolution.


The estimates, comparison, and description so submitted shall be included in the report accompanying such bill or resolution if timely submitted to such committee before such report is filed.

(Pub. L. 93–344, title IV, §402, formerly §403, July 12, 1974, 88 Stat. 320; Pub. L. 97–108, §2(a), Dec. 23, 1981, 95 Stat. 1510; Pub. L. 99–177, title II, §213, Dec. 12, 1985, 99 Stat. 1059; Pub. L. 104–4, title I, §104, Mar. 22, 1995, 109 Stat. 62; renumbered §402, Pub. L. 105–33, title X, §10116(c)(1), Aug. 5, 1997, 111 Stat. 692.)

Codification

Section was formerly classified to section 1353 of Title 31 prior to the general revision and enactment of Title 31, Money and Finance, by Pub. L. 97–258, §1, Sept. 13, 1982, 96 Stat. 877.

Prior Provisions

A prior section 402 of Pub. L. 93–344 was classified to section 652 of this title prior to repeal by Pub. L. 105–33.

Amendments

1995—Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 104–4, §104(2), struck out subsection designation.

Subsec. (a)(2). Pub. L. 104–4, §104(1)(A), (C), redesignated par. (3) as (2) and struck out former par. (2), which read as follows: “an estimate of the cost which would be incurred by State and local governments in carrying out or complying with any significant bill or resolution in the fiscal year in which it is to become effective and in each of the four fiscal years following such fiscal year, together with the basis for each such estimate;”.

Subsec. (a)(3). Pub. L. 104–4, §104(1)(C), redesignated par. (4) as (3). Former par. (3) redesignated (2).

Pub. L. 104–4, §104(1)(B), which directed the substitution of “paragraph (1)” for “paragraphs (1) and (2)”, was executed by making the substitution for “paragraph (1) and (2)” to reflect the probable intent of Congress.

Subsec. (a)(4). Pub. L. 104–4, §104(1)(C), redesignated par. (4) as (3).

Subsecs. (b), (c). Pub. L. 104–4, §104(3), struck out subsecs. (b) and (c) which read as follows:

“(b) For purposes of subsection (a)(2) of this section, the term ‘local government’ has the same meaning as in section 6501 of title 31.

“(c) For purposes of subsection (a)(2) of this section, the term ‘significant bill or resolution’ is defined as any bill or resolution which in the judgment of the Director of the Congressional Budget Office is likely to result in an annual cost to State and local governments of $200,000,000 or more, or is likely to have exceptional fiscal consequences for a geographic region or a particular level of government.”

1985—Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 99–177 added par. (4) and substituted “estimates, comparison, and description” for “estimates and comparison” in last sentence.

1981—Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 97–108, §2(a)(1)–(6), designated existing provisions as subsec. (a), added par. (2), redesignated former par. (2) as (3), in par. (3) as so redesignated, substituted “estimates” for “estimate” in two places, and substituted reference to pars. (1) and (2) for reference to par. (1), and in provision following par. (3) substituted “estimates” for “estimate”.

Subsecs. (b) and (c). Pub. L. 97–108, §2(a)(7), added subsecs. (b) and (c).

Effective Date of 1995 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 104–4 effective Jan. 1, 1996, or on the date 90 days after appropriations are made available as authorized under section 1516 of this title, whichever is earlier, and applicable to legislation considered on and after such date, see section 110 of Pub. L. 104–4, set out as an Effective Date note under section 1511 of this title.

Effective Date of 1985 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 99–177 effective Dec. 12, 1985, and applicable with respect to fiscal years beginning after Sept. 30, 1985, see section 275(a)(1) of Pub. L. 99–177, set out as an Effective and Termination Dates note under section 900 of this title.

Effective Date of 1981 Amendment

Section 2(b) of Pub. L. 97–108 provided that: “The amendments made by subsection (a) [amending this section] shall apply with respect to bills or resolutions reported by committees of the House of Representatives and the Senate after September 30, 1982.”

Effective Date

Amendment by Pub. L. 93–344 effective on day on which first Director of Congressional Budget Office is appointed under section 601(a) of this title, see section 905(b) of Pub. L. 93–344, formerly set out as an Effective Date note under section 621 of this title.

Authorization of Appropriations

Section 3 of Pub. L. 97–108 provided that: “There are authorized to be appropriated such sums as may be necessary to carry out this Act [amending this section and enacting provisions set out as notes under this section and section 621 of this title].”

Expiration of Authorization

Section 4 of Pub. L. 97–108, which provided for expiration on Sept. 30, 1987, of authorization granted under Pub. L. 97–108, which amended this section and enacted provisions set out as notes under sections 621 and 653 of this title, was repealed by Pub. L. 100–119, title II, §204, Sept. 29, 1987, 101 Stat. 784.

§654. Study by Government Accountability Office of forms of Federal financial commitment not reviewed annually by Congress

The Government Accountability Office shall study those provisions of law which provide mandatory spending and report to the Congress its recommendations for the appropriate form of financing for activities or programs financed by such provisions not later than eighteen months after December 12, 1985. Such report shall be revised from time to time.

(Pub. L. 93–344, title IV, §404, formerly §405, as added Pub. L. 99–177, title II, §214, Dec. 12, 1985, 99 Stat. 1059; renumbered §404 and amended Pub. L. 105–33, title X, §10116(c)(1), (2), Aug. 5, 1997, 111 Stat. 692; Pub. L. 108–271, §8(b), July 7, 2004, 118 Stat. 814.)

Prior Provisions

A prior section 404 of Pub. L. 93–344, which is not classified to the Code, was renumbered section 403 by Pub. L. 105–33, title X, §10116(c)(1), Aug. 5, 1997, 111 Stat. 692.

Amendments

2004—Pub. L. 108–271 substituted “Government Accountability Office” for “General Accounting Office” in section catchline and text.

1997—Pub. L. 105–33, §10116(c)(2), substituted “mandatory spending” for “spending authority as described by section 651(c)(2) of this title and which provide permanent appropriations,”.

Effective Date

Section effective Dec. 12, 1985, and applicable with respect to fiscal years beginning after Sept. 30, 1985, see section 275(a)(1) of Pub. L. 99–177, set out as an Effective and Termination Dates note under section 900 of this title.

§655. Off-budget agencies, programs, and activities

(a) Notwithstanding any other provision of law, budget authority, credit authority, and estimates of outlays and receipts for activities of the Federal budget which are off-budget immediately prior to December 12, 1985, not including activities of the Federal Old-Age and Survivors Insurance and Federal Disability Insurance Trust Funds, shall be included in a budget submitted pursuant to section 1105 of title 31 and in a concurrent resolution on the budget reported pursuant to section 632 or section 635 of this title and shall be considered, for purposes of this Act, budget authority, outlays, and spending authority in accordance with definitions set forth in this Act.

(b) All receipts and disbursements of the Federal Financing Bank with respect to any obligations which are issued, sold, or guaranteed by a Federal agency shall be treated as a means of financing such agency for purposes of section 1105 of title 31 and for purposes of this Act.

(Pub. L. 93–344, title IV, §405, formerly §406, as added Pub. L. 99–177, title II, §214, Dec. 12, 1985, 99 Stat. 1059; renumbered §405, Pub. L. 105–33, title X, §10116(c)(1), Aug. 5, 1997, 111 Stat. 692.)

References in Text

This Act, referred to in text, means Pub. L. 93–344, July 12, 1974, 88 Stat. 297, as amended, known as the Congressional Budget and Impoundment Control Act of 1974, which enacted chapters 17, 17A, and 17B, and section 190a–3 of this title and sections 11a, 11c, 11d, 1020a of former Title 31, Money and Finance, amended sections 11, 665, 701, 1020, 1151, 1152, 1153, and 1154 of former Title 31, section 105 of Title 1, General Provisions, sections 190b and 190d of this title, repealed sections 571 and 581c–1 of former Title 31, and sections 66 and 81 of this title, and enacted provisions set out as notes under sections 190a–1, 621, 632, and 682 of this title, section 105 of Title 1, and section 1020 of former Title 31. For complete classification of this Act to the Code, see Short Title note set out under section 621 of this title and Tables.

Prior Provisions

A prior section 405 of Pub. L. 93–344 was renumbered section 404 and is classified to section 654 of this title.

Effective Date

Section effective Dec. 12, 1985, and applicable with respect to fiscal years beginning after Sept. 30, 1985, see section 275(a)(1) of Pub. L. 99–177, set out as an Effective and Termination Dates note under section 900 of this title.

§656. Member User Group

The Speaker of the House of Representatives, after consulting with the Minority Leader of the House, may appoint a Member User Group for the purpose of reviewing budgetary scorekeeping rules and practices of the House and advising the Speaker from time to time on the effect and impact of such rules and practices.

(Pub. L. 93–344, title IV, §406, formerly §407, as added Pub. L. 99–177, title II, §214, Dec. 12, 1985, 99 Stat. 1060; renumbered §406, Pub. L. 105–33, title X, §10116(c)(1), Aug. 5, 1997, 111 Stat. 692.)

Prior Provisions

A prior section 406 of Pub. L. 93–344 was renumbered section 405 and is classified to section 655 of this title.

Effective Date

Section effective Dec. 12, 1985, and applicable with respect to fiscal years beginning after Sept. 30, 1985, see section 275(a)(1) of Pub. L. 99–177, set out as an Effective and Termination Dates note under section 900 of this title.

Part B—Federal Mandates

§658. Definitions

For purposes of this part:

(1) Agency

The term “agency” has the same meaning as defined in section 551(1) of title 5, but does not include independent regulatory agencies.

(2) Amount

The term “amount”, with respect to an authorization of appropriations for Federal financial assistance, means the amount of budget authority for any Federal grant assistance program or any Federal program providing loan guarantees or direct loans.

(3) Direct costs

The term “direct costs”—

(A)(i) in the case of a Federal intergovernmental mandate, means the aggregate estimated amounts that all State, local, and tribal governments would be required to spend or would be prohibited from raising in revenues in order to comply with the Federal intergovernmental mandate; or

(ii) in the case of a provision referred to in paragraph (5)(A)(ii), means the amount of Federal financial assistance eliminated or reduced;

(B) in the case of a Federal private sector mandate, means the aggregate estimated amounts that the private sector will be required to spend in order to comply with the Federal private sector mandate;

(C) shall be determined on the assumption that—

(i) State, local, and tribal governments, and the private sector will take all reasonable steps necessary to mitigate the costs resulting from the Federal mandate, and will comply with applicable standards of practice and conduct established by recognized professional or trade associations; and

(ii) reasonable steps to mitigate the costs shall not include increases in State, local, or tribal taxes or fees; and


(D) shall not include—

(i) estimated amounts that the State, local, and tribal governments (in the case of a Federal intergovernmental mandate) or the private sector (in the case of a Federal private sector mandate) would spend—

(I) to comply with or carry out all applicable Federal, State, local, and tribal laws and regulations in effect at the time of the adoption of the Federal mandate for the same activity as is affected by that Federal mandate; or

(II) to comply with or carry out State, local, and tribal governmental programs, or private-sector business or other activities in effect at the time of the adoption of the Federal mandate for the same activity as is affected by that mandate; or


(ii) expenditures to the extent that such expenditures will be offset by any direct savings to the State, local, and tribal governments, or by the private sector, as a result of—

(I) compliance with the Federal mandate; or

(II) other changes in Federal law or regulation that are enacted or adopted in the same bill or joint resolution or proposed or final Federal regulation and that govern the same activity as is affected by the Federal mandate.

(4) Direct savings

The term “direct savings”, when used with respect to the result of compliance with the Federal mandate—

(A) in the case of a Federal intergovernmental mandate, means the aggregate estimated reduction in costs to any State, local, or tribal government as a result of compliance with the Federal intergovernmental mandate; and

(B) in the case of a Federal private sector mandate, means the aggregate estimated reduction in costs to the private sector as a result of compliance with the Federal private sector mandate.

(5) Federal intergovernmental mandate

The term “Federal intergovernmental mandate” means—

(A) any provision in legislation, statute, or regulation that—

(i) would impose an enforceable duty upon State, local, or tribal governments, except—

(I) a condition of Federal assistance; or

(II) a duty arising from participation in a voluntary Federal program, except as provided in subparagraph (B)); 1 or


(ii) would reduce or eliminate the amount of authorization of appropriations for—

(I) Federal financial assistance that would be provided to State, local, or tribal governments for the purpose of complying with any such previously imposed duty unless such duty is reduced or eliminated by a corresponding amount; or

(II) the control of borders by the Federal Government; or reimbursement to State, local, or tribal governments for the net cost associated with illegal, deportable, and excludable aliens, including court-mandated expenses related to emergency health care, education or criminal justice; when such a reduction or elimination would result in increased net costs to State, local, or tribal governments in providing education or emergency health care to, or incarceration of, illegal aliens; except that this subclause shall not be in effect with respect to a State, local, or tribal government, to the extent that such government has not fully cooperated in the efforts of the Federal Government to locate, apprehend, and deport illegal aliens;


(B) any provision in legislation, statute, or regulation that relates to a then-existing Federal program under which $500,000,000 or more is provided annually to State, local, and tribal governments under entitlement authority, if the provision—

(i)(I) would increase the stringency of conditions of assistance to State, local, or tribal governments under the program; or

(II) would place caps upon, or otherwise decrease, the Federal Government's responsibility to provide funding to State, local, or tribal governments under the program; and

(ii) the State, local, or tribal governments that participate in the Federal program lack authority under that program to amend their financial or programmatic responsibilities to continue providing required services that are affected by the legislation, statute, or regulation.

(6) Federal mandate

The term “Federal mandate” means a Federal intergovernmental mandate or a Federal private sector mandate, as defined in paragraphs (5) and (7).

(7) Federal private sector mandate

The term “Federal private sector mandate” means any provision in legislation, statute, or regulation that—

(A) would impose an enforceable duty upon the private sector except—

(i) a condition of Federal assistance; or

(ii) a duty arising from participation in a voluntary Federal program; or


(B) would reduce or eliminate the amount of authorization of appropriations for Federal financial assistance that will be provided to the private sector for the purposes of ensuring compliance with such duty.

(8) Local government

The term “local government” has the same meaning as defined in section 6501(6) of title 31.

(9) Private sector

The term “private sector” means all persons or entities in the United States, including individuals, partnerships, associations, corporations, and educational and nonprofit institutions, but shall not include State, local, or tribal governments.

(10) Regulation; rule

The term “regulation” or “rule” (except with respect to a rule of either House of the Congress) has the meaning of “rule” as defined in section 601(2) of title 5.

(11) Small government

The term “small government” means any small governmental jurisdictions defined in section 601(5) of title 5 and any tribal government.

(12) State

The term “State” has the same meaning as defined in section 6501(9) of title 31.

(13) Tribal government

The term “tribal government” means any Indian tribe, band, nation, or other organized group or community, including any Alaska Native village or regional or village corporation as defined in or established pursuant to the Alaska Native Claims Settlement Act (85 Stat. 688; 43 U.S.C. 1601 et seq.) which is recognized as eligible for the special programs and services provided by the United States to Indians because of their special status as Indians.

(Pub. L. 93–344, title IV, §421, as added Pub. L. 104–4, title I, §101(a)(2), Mar. 22, 1995, 109 Stat. 50.)

References in Text

The Alaska Native Claims Settlement Act, referred to in par. (13), is Pub. L. 92–203, Dec. 18, 1971, 85 Stat. 688, as amended, which is classified generally to chapter 33 (§1601 et seq.) of Title 43, Public Lands. For complete classification of this Act to the Code, see Short Title note set out under section 1601 of Title 43 and Tables.

Effective Date

Part effective Jan. 1, 1996, or on the date 90 days after appropriations are made available as authorized under section 1516 of this title, whichever is earlier, and applicable to legislation considered on and after such date, see section 110 of Pub. L. 104–4, set out as a note under section 1511 of this title.

1 So in original. Second closing parenthesis probably should not appear.

§658a. Exclusions

This part shall not apply to any provision in a bill, joint resolution, amendment, motion, or conference report before Congress that—

(1) enforces constitutional rights of individuals;

(2) establishes or enforces any statutory rights that prohibit discrimination on the basis of race, color, religion, sex, national origin, age, handicap, or disability;

(3) requires compliance with accounting and auditing procedures with respect to grants or other money or property provided by the Federal Government;

(4) provides for emergency assistance or relief at the request of any State, local, or tribal government or any official of a State, local, or tribal government;

(5) is necessary for the national security or the ratification or implementation of international treaty obligations;

(6) the President designates as emergency legislation and that the Congress so designates in statute; or

(7) relates to the old-age, survivors, and disability insurance program under title II of the Social Security Act [42 U.S.C. 401 et seq.] (including taxes imposed by sections 3101(a) and 3111(a) of title 26 (relating to old-age, survivors, and disability insurance)).

(Pub. L. 93–344, title IV, §422, as added Pub. L. 104–4, title I, §101(a)(2), Mar. 22, 1995, 109 Stat. 53.)

References in Text

The Social Security Act, referred to in par. (7), is act Aug. 14, 1935, ch. 531, 49 Stat. 620, as amended. Title II of the Act is classified generally to subchapter II (§401 et seq.) of chapter 7 of Title 42, The Public Health and Welfare. For complete classification of this Act to the Code, see section 1305 of Title 42 and Tables.

§658b. Duties of Congressional committees

(a) In general

When a committee of authorization of the Senate or the House of Representatives reports a bill or joint resolution of public character that includes any Federal mandate, the report of the committee accompanying the bill or joint resolution shall contain the information required by subsections (c) and (d) of this section.

(b) Submission of bills to Director

When a committee of authorization of the Senate or the House of Representatives orders reported a bill or joint resolution of a public character, the committee shall promptly provide the bill or joint resolution to the Director of the Congressional Budget Office and shall identify to the Director any Federal mandates contained in the bill or resolution.

(c) Reports on Federal mandates

Each report described under subsection (a) of this section shall contain—

(1) an identification and description of any Federal mandates in the bill or joint resolution, including the direct costs to State, local, and tribal governments, and to the private sector, required to comply with the Federal mandates;

(2) a qualitative, and if practicable, a quantitative assessment of costs and benefits anticipated from the Federal mandates (including the effects on health and safety and the protection of the natural environment); and

(3) a statement of the degree to which a Federal mandate affects both the public and private sectors and the extent to which Federal payment of public sector costs or the modification or termination of the Federal mandate as provided under section 658d(a)(2) of this title would affect the competitive balance between State, local, or tribal governments and the private sector including a description of the actions, if any, taken by the committee to avoid any adverse impact on the private sector or the competitive balance between the public sector and the private sector.

(d) Intergovernmental mandates

If any of the Federal mandates in the bill or joint resolution are Federal intergovernmental mandates, the report required under subsection (a) of this section shall also contain—

(1)(A) a statement of the amount, if any, of increase or decrease in authorization of appropriations under existing Federal financial assistance programs, or of authorization of appropriations for new Federal financial assistance, provided by the bill or joint resolution and usable for activities of State, local, or tribal governments subject to the Federal intergovernmental mandates;

(B) a statement of whether the committee intends that the Federal intergovernmental mandates be partly or entirely unfunded, and if so, the reasons for that intention; and

(C) if funded in whole or in part, a statement of whether and how the committee has created a mechanism to allocate the funding in a manner that is reasonably consistent with the expected direct costs among and between the respective levels of State, local, and tribal government;

(2) any existing sources of Federal assistance in addition to those identified in paragraph (1) that may assist State, local, and tribal governments in meeting the direct costs of the Federal intergovernmental mandates; and

(3) if the bill or joint resolution would make the reduction specified in section 658(5)(B)(i)(II) of this title, a statement of how the committee specifically intends the States to implement the reduction and to what extent the legislation provides additional flexibility, if any, to offset the reduction.

(e) Preemption clarification and information

When a committee of authorization of the Senate or the House of Representatives reports a bill or joint resolution of public character, the committee report accompanying the bill or joint resolution shall contain, if relevant to the bill or joint resolution, an explicit statement on the extent to which the bill or joint resolution is intended to preempt any State, local, or tribal law, and, if so, an explanation of the effect of such preemption.

(f) Publication of statement from Director

(1) In general

Upon receiving a statement from the Director under section 658c of this title, a committee of the Senate or the House of Representatives shall publish the statement in the committee report accompanying the bill or joint resolution to which the statement relates if the statement is available at the time the report is printed.

(2) Other publication of statement of Director

If the statement is not published in the report, or if the bill or joint resolution to which the statement relates is expected to be considered by the Senate or the House of Representatives before the report is published, the committee shall cause the statement, or a summary thereof, to be published in the Congressional Record in advance of floor consideration of the bill or joint resolution.

(Pub. L. 93–344, title IV, §423, as added Pub. L. 104–4, title I, §101(a)(2), Mar. 22, 1995, 109 Stat. 53; amended Pub. L. 106–141, §2(a), Dec. 7, 1999, 113 Stat. 1699.)

Amendments

1999—Subsec. (d)(3). Pub. L. 106–141 added par. (3).

§658c. Duties of Director; statements on bills and joint resolutions other than appropriations bills and joint resolutions

(a) Federal intergovernmental mandates in reported bills and resolutions

For each bill or joint resolution of a public character reported by any committee of authorization of the Senate or the House of Representatives, the Director of the Congressional Budget Office shall prepare and submit to the committee a statement as follows:

(1) Contents

If the Director estimates that the direct cost of all Federal intergovernmental mandates in the bill or joint resolution will equal or exceed $50,000,000 (adjusted annually for inflation) in the fiscal year in which any Federal intergovernmental mandate in the bill or joint resolution (or in any necessary implementing regulation) would first be effective or in any of the 4 fiscal years following such fiscal year, the Director shall so state, specify the estimate, and briefly explain the basis of the estimate.

(2) Estimates

Estimates required under paragraph (1) shall include estimates (and brief explanations of the basis of the estimates) of—

(A) the total amount of direct cost of complying with the Federal intergovernmental mandates in the bill or joint resolution;

(B) if the bill or resolution contains an authorization of appropriations under section 658d(a)(2)(B) of this title, the amount of new budget authority for each fiscal year for a period not to exceed 10 years beyond the effective date necessary for the direct cost of the intergovernmental mandate; and

(C) the amount, if any, of increase in authorization of appropriations under existing Federal financial assistance programs, or of authorization of appropriations for new Federal financial assistance, provided by the bill or joint resolution and usable by State, local, or tribal governments for activities subject to the Federal intergovernmental mandates.

(3) Additional flexibility information

The Director shall include in the statement submitted under this subsection, in the case of legislation that makes changes as described in section 658(5)(B)(i)(II) of this title—

(A) if no additional flexibility is provided in the legislation, a description of whether and how the States can offset the reduction under existing law; or

(B) if additional flexibility is provided in the legislation, whether the resulting savings would offset the reductions in that program assuming the States fully implement that additional flexibility.

(4) Estimate not feasible

If the Director determines that it is not feasible to make a reasonable estimate that would be required under paragraphs (1) and (2), the Director shall not make the estimate, but shall report in the statement that the reasonable estimate cannot be made and shall include the reasons for that determination in the statement. If such determination is made by the Director, a point of order under this part shall lie only under section 658d(a)(1) of this title and as if the requirement of section 658d(a)(1) of this title had not been met.

(b) Federal private sector mandates in reported bills and joint resolutions

For each bill or joint resolution of a public character reported by any committee of authorization of the Senate or the House of Representatives, the Director of the Congressional Budget Office shall prepare and submit to the committee a statement as follows:

(1) Contents

If the Director estimates that the direct cost of all Federal private sector mandates in the bill or joint resolution will equal or exceed $100,000,000 (adjusted annually for inflation) in the fiscal year in which any Federal private sector mandate in the bill or joint resolution (or in any necessary implementing regulation) would first be effective or in any of the 4 fiscal years following such fiscal year, the Director shall so state, specify the estimate, and briefly explain the basis of the estimate.

(2) Estimates

Estimates required under paragraph (1) shall include estimates (and a brief explanation of the basis of the estimates) of—

(A) the total amount of direct costs of complying with the Federal private sector mandates in the bill or joint resolution; and

(B) the amount, if any, of increase in authorization of appropriations under existing Federal financial assistance programs, or of authorization of appropriations for new Federal financial assistance, provided by the bill or joint resolution usable by the private sector for the activities subject to the Federal private sector mandates.

(3) Estimate not feasible

If the Director determines that it is not feasible to make a reasonable estimate that would be required under paragraphs (1) and (2), the Director shall not make the estimate, but shall report in the statement that the reasonable estimate cannot be made and shall include the reasons for that determination in the statement.

(c) Legislation falling below direct costs thresholds

If the Director estimates that the direct costs of a Federal mandate will not equal or exceed the thresholds specified in subsections (a) and (b) of this section, the Director shall so state and shall briefly explain the basis of the estimate.

(d) Amended bills and joint resolutions; conference reports

If a bill or joint resolution is passed in an amended form (including if passed by one House as an amendment in the nature of a substitute for the text of a bill or joint resolution from the other House) or is reported by a committee of conference in amended form, and the amended form contains a Federal mandate not previously considered by either House or which contains an increase in the direct cost of a previously considered Federal mandate, then the committee of conference shall ensure, to the greatest extent practicable, that the Director shall prepare a statement as provided in this subsection or a supplemental statement for the bill or joint resolution in that amended form.

(Pub. L. 93–344, title IV, §424, as added Pub. L. 104–4, title I, §101(a)(2), Mar. 22, 1995, 109 Stat. 55; amended Pub. L. 106–141, §2(b), Dec. 7, 1999, 113 Stat. 1699.)

Amendments

1999—Subsec. (a)(3), (4). Pub. L. 106–141 added par. (3) and redesignated former par. (3) as (4).

§658d. Legislation subject to point of order

(a) In general

It shall not be in order in the Senate or the House of Representatives to consider—

(1) any bill or joint resolution that is reported by a committee unless the committee has published a statement of the Director on the direct costs of Federal mandates in accordance with section 658b(f) of this title before such consideration, except this paragraph shall not apply to any supplemental statement prepared by the Director under section 658c(d) of this title; and

(2) any bill, joint resolution, amendment, motion, or conference report that would increase the direct costs of Federal intergovernmental mandates by an amount that causes the thresholds specified in section 658c(a)(1) of this title to be exceeded, unless—

(A) the bill, joint resolution, amendment, motion, or conference report provides new budget authority or new entitlement authority in the House of Representatives or direct spending authority in the Senate for each fiscal year for such mandates included in the bill, joint resolution, amendment, motion, or conference report in an amount equal to or exceeding the direct costs of such mandate; or

(B) the bill, joint resolution, amendment, motion, or conference report includes an authorization for appropriations in an amount equal to or exceeding the direct costs of such mandate, and—

(i) identifies a specific dollar amount of the direct costs of such mandate for each year up to 10 years during which such mandate shall be in effect under the bill, joint resolution, amendment, motion or conference report, and such estimate is consistent with the estimate determined under subsection (e) of this section for each fiscal year;

(ii) identifies any appropriation bill that is expected to provide for Federal funding of the direct cost referred to under clause (i); and

(iii)(I) provides that for any fiscal year the responsible Federal agency shall determine whether there are insufficient appropriations for that fiscal year to provide for the direct costs under clause (i) of such mandate, and shall (no later than 30 days after the beginning of the fiscal year) notify the appropriate authorizing committees of Congress of the determination and submit either—

(aa) a statement that the agency has determined, based on a re-estimate of the direct costs of such mandate, after consultation with State, local, and tribal governments, that the amount appropriated is sufficient to pay for the direct costs of such mandate; or

(bb) legislative recommendations for either implementing a less costly mandate or making such mandate ineffective for the fiscal year;


(II) provides for expedited procedures for the consideration of the statement or legislative recommendations referred to in subclause (I) by Congress no later than 30 days after the statement or recommendations are submitted to Congress; and

(III) provides that such mandate shall—

(aa) in the case of a statement referred to in subclause (I)(aa), cease to be effective 60 days after the statement is submitted unless Congress has approved the agency's determination by joint resolution during the 60-day period;

(bb) cease to be effective 60 days after the date the legislative recommendations of the responsible Federal agency are submitted to Congress under subclause (I)(bb) unless Congress provides otherwise by law; or

(cc) in the case that such mandate that has not yet taken effect, continue not to be effective unless Congress provides otherwise by law.

(b) Rule of construction

The provisions of subsection (a)(2)(B)(iii) of this section shall not be construed to prohibit or otherwise restrict a State, local, or tribal government from voluntarily electing to remain subject to the original Federal intergovernmental mandate, complying with the programmatic or financial responsibilities of the original Federal intergovernmental mandate and providing the funding necessary consistent with the costs of Federal agency assistance, monitoring, and enforcement.

(c) Committee on Appropriations

(1) Application

The provisions of subsection (a) of this section—

(A) shall not apply to any bill or resolution reported by the Committee on Appropriations of the Senate or the House of Representatives; except

(B) shall apply to—

(i) any legislative provision increasing direct costs of a Federal intergovernmental mandate contained in any bill or resolution reported by the Committee on Appropriations of the Senate or House of Representatives;

(ii) any legislative provision increasing direct costs of a Federal intergovernmental mandate contained in any amendment offered to a bill or resolution reported by the Committee on Appropriations of the Senate or House of Representatives;

(iii) any legislative provision increasing direct costs of a Federal intergovernmental mandate in a conference report accompanying a bill or resolution reported by the Committee on Appropriations of the Senate or House of Representatives; and

(iv) any legislative provision increasing direct costs of a Federal intergovernmental mandate contained in any amendments in disagreement between the two Houses to any bill or resolution reported by the Committee on Appropriations of the Senate or House of Representatives.

(2) Certain provisions stricken in Senate

Upon a point of order being made by any Senator against any provision listed in paragraph (1)(B), and the point of order being sustained by the Chair, such specific provision shall be deemed stricken from the bill, resolution, amendment, amendment in disagreement, or conference report and may not be offered as an amendment from the floor.

(d) Determinations of applicability to pending legislation

For purposes of this section, in the Senate, the presiding officer of the Senate shall consult with the Committee on Governmental Affairs, to the extent practicable, on questions concerning the applicability of this part to a pending bill, joint resolution, amendment, motion, or conference report.

(e) Determinations of Federal mandate levels

For purposes of this section, in the Senate, the levels of Federal mandates for a fiscal year shall be determined based on the estimates made by the Committee on the Budget.

(Pub. L. 93–344, title IV, §425, as added Pub. L. 104–4, title I, §101(a)(2), Mar. 22, 1995, 109 Stat. 56.)

Change of Name

Committee on Governmental Affairs of Senate changed to Committee on Homeland Security and Governmental Affairs of Senate, effective Jan. 4, 2005, by Senate Resolution No. 445, One Hundred Eighth Congress, Oct. 9, 2004.

§658e. Provisions relating to House of Representatives

(a) Enforcement in House of Representatives

It shall not be in order in the House of Representatives to consider a rule or order that waives the application of section 658d of this title.

(b) Disposition of points of order

(1) Application to House of Representatives

This subsection shall apply only to the House of Representatives.

(2) Threshold burden

In order to be cognizable by the Chair, a point of order under section 658d of this title or subsection (a) of this section must specify the precise language on which it is premised.

(3) Question of consideration

As disposition of points of order under section 658d of this title or subsection (a) of this section, the Chair shall put the question of consideration with respect to the proposition that is the subject of the points of order.

(4) Debate and intervening motions

A question of consideration under this section shall be debatable for 10 minutes by each Member initiating a point of order and for 10 minutes by an opponent on each point of order, but shall otherwise be decided without intervening motion except one that the House adjourn or that the Committee of the Whole rise, as the case may be.

(5) Effect on amendment in order as original text

The disposition of the question of consideration under this subsection with respect to a bill or joint resolution shall be considered also to determine the question of consideration under this subsection with respect to an amendment made in order as original text.

(Pub. L. 93–344, title IV, §426, as added Pub. L. 104–4, title I, §101(a)(2), Mar. 22, 1995, 109 Stat. 59.)

§658f. Requests to Congressional Budget Office from Senators

At the written request of a Senator, the Director shall, to the extent practicable, prepare an estimate of the direct costs of a Federal intergovernmental mandate contained in an amendment of such Senator.

(Pub. L. 93–344, title IV, §427, as added Pub. L. 104–4, title I, §101(a)(2), Mar. 22, 1995, 109 Stat. 59.)

§658g. Clarification of application

(a) In general

This part applies to any bill, joint resolution, amendment, motion, or conference report that reauthorizes appropriations, or that amends existing authorizations of appropriations, to carry out any statute, or that otherwise amends any statute, only if enactment of the bill, joint resolution, amendment, motion, or conference report—

(1) would result in a net reduction in or elimination of authorization of appropriations for Federal financial assistance that would be provided to State, local, or tribal governments for use for the purpose of complying with any Federal intergovernmental mandate, or to the private sector for use to comply with any Federal private sector mandate, and would not eliminate or reduce duties established by the Federal mandate by a corresponding amount; or

(2) would result in a net increase in the aggregate amount of direct costs of Federal intergovernmental mandates or Federal private sector mandates other than as described in paragraph (1).

(b) Direct costs

(1) In general

For purposes of this part, the direct cost of the Federal mandates in a bill, joint resolution, amendment, motion, or conference report that reauthorizes appropriations, or that amends existing authorizations of appropriations, to carry out a statute, or that otherwise amends any statute, means the net increase, resulting from enactment of the bill, joint resolution, amendment, motion, or conference report, in the amount described under paragraph (2)(A) over the amount described under paragraph (2)(B).

(2) Amounts

The amounts referred to under paragraph (1) are—

(A) the aggregate amount of direct costs of Federal mandates that would result under the statute if the bill, joint resolution, amendment, motion, or conference report is enacted; and

(B) the aggregate amount of direct costs of Federal mandates that would result under the statute if the bill, joint resolution, amendment, motion, or conference report were not enacted.

(3) Extension of authorization of appropriations

For purposes of this section, in the case of legislation to extend authorization of appropriations, the authorization level that would be provided by the extension shall be compared to the authorization level for the last year in which authorization of appropriations is already provided.

(Pub. L. 93–344, title IV, §428, as added Pub. L. 104–4, title I, §101(a)(2), Mar. 22, 1995, 109 Stat. 59.)