21 U.S.C.
United States Code, 2010 Edition
Title 21 - FOOD AND DRUGS
CHAPTER 9 - FEDERAL FOOD, DRUG, AND COSMETIC ACT
SUBCHAPTER IV - FOOD
From the U.S. Government Printing Office, www.gpo.gov

SUBCHAPTER IV—FOOD

§341. Definitions and standards for food

Whenever in the judgment of the Secretary such action will promote honesty and fair dealing in the interest of consumers, he shall promulgate regulations fixing and establishing for any food, under its common or usual name so far as practicable, a reasonable definition and standard of identity, a reasonable standard of quality, or reasonable standards of fill of container. No definition and standard of identity and no standard of quality shall be established for fresh or dried fruits, fresh or dried vegetables, or butter, except that definitions and standards of identity may be established for avocadoes, cantaloupes, citrus fruits, and melons. In prescribing any standard of fill of container, the Secretary shall give due consideration to the natural shrinkage in storage and in transit of fresh natural food and to need for the necessary packing and protective material. In the prescribing of any standard of quality for any canned fruit or canned vegetable, consideration shall be given and due allowance made for the differing characteristics of the several varieties of such fruit or vegetable. In prescribing a definition and standard of identity for any food or class of food in which optional ingredients are permitted, the Secretary shall, for the purpose of promoting honesty and fair dealing in the interest of consumers, designate the optional ingredients which shall be named on the label. Any definition and standard of identity prescribed by the Secretary for avocadoes, cantaloupes, citrus fruits, or melons shall relate only to maturity and to the effects of freezing.

(June 25, 1938, ch. 675, §401, 52 Stat. 1046; Apr. 15, 1954, ch. 143, §1, 68 Stat. 54; Aug. 1, 1956, ch. 861, §1, 70 Stat. 919; Pub. L. 103–80, §3(h), Aug. 13, 1993, 107 Stat. 776.)

Amendments

1993—Pub. L. 103–80 substituted “or reasonable standards of fill of container. No definition” for “and/or reasonable standards of fill of container: Provided, That no definition”.

1956—Act Aug. 1, 1956, designated provisions constituting subsec. (a) as entire section and repealed subsec. (b) which provided the procedure for establishment of regulations and is covered by section 371(e) of this title.

1954—Act Apr. 15, 1954, designated existing provisions as subsec. (a) and added subsec. (b).

Savings Provision

Section 3 of act Aug. 1, 1956, provided that: “In any case in which, prior to the enactment of this Act [Aug. 1, 1956], a public hearing has been begun in accordance with section 401 of the Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act [341 of this title] upon a proposal to issue, amend, or repeal any regulation contemplated by such section, or has been begun in accordance with section 701(e) of such Act [section 371(e) of this title] upon a proposal to issue, amend, or repeal any regulation contemplated by section 403(j), 404(a), 406(a) or (b), 501(b), 502(d), 502(h), 504 or 604 of such Act [section 343(j), 344(a), 346(a) or (b), 351(b), 352(d), 352(h), 354, or 364 of this title], the provisions of such section 401 or 701(e), as the case may be, as in force immediately prior to the date of the enactment of this Act [Aug. 1, 1956], shall be applicable as though this Act [amending this section and section 371(e) of this title] had not been enacted.”

Transfer of Functions

For transfer of functions of Federal Security Administrator to Secretary of Health, Education, and Welfare [now Health and Human Services], and of Food and Drug Administration in the Department of Agriculture to Federal Security Agency, see notes set out under section 321 of this title.

Food Safety and Security Strategy

Pub. L. 107–188, title III, §301, June 12, 2002, 116 Stat. 662, provided that:

“(a) In General.—The President's Council on Food Safety (as established by Executive Order No. 13100 [set out below]) shall, in consultation with the Secretary of Transportation, the Secretary of the Treasury, other relevant Federal agencies, the food industry, consumer and producer groups, scientific organizations, and the States, develop a crisis communications and education strategy with respect to bioterrorist threats to the food supply. Such strategy shall address threat assessments; technologies and procedures for securing food processing and manufacturing facilities and modes of transportation; response and notification procedures; and risk communications to the public.

“(b) Authorization of Appropriations.—For the purpose of implementing the strategy developed under subsection (a), there are authorized to be appropriated $750,000 for fiscal year 2002, and such sums as may be necessary for each subsequent fiscal year.”

Food Safety Commission

Pub. L. 107–171, title X, §10807, May 13, 2002, 116 Stat. 527, provided that:

“(a) Establishment.—

“(1) In general.—There is established a commission to be known as the ‘Food Safety Commission’ (referred to in this section as the ‘Commission’).

“(2) Membership.—

“(A) Composition.—The Commission shall be composed of 15 members (including a Chairperson, appointed by the President[)].

“(B) Eligibility.—

“(i) In general.—Members of the Commission—

     “(I) shall have specialized training or significant experience in matters under the jurisdiction of the Commission; and

     “(II) shall represent, at a minimum—

“(aa) consumers;

“(bb) food scientists;

“(cc) the food industry; and

“(dd) health professionals.

“(ii) Federal employees.—Not more than 3 members of the Commission may be Federal employees.

“(C) Date of appointments.—The appointment of the members of the Commission shall be made as soon as practicable after the date on which funds authorized to be appropriated under subsection (e)(1) are made available.

“(D) Vacancies.—A vacancy on the Commission—

“(i) shall not affect the powers of the Commission; and

“(ii) shall be filled—

     “(I) not later than 60 days after the date on which the vacancy occurs; and

     “(II) in the same manner as the original appointment was made.

“(3) Meetings.—

“(A) Initial meeting.—The initial meeting of the Commission shall be conducted not later than 30 days after the date of appointment of the final member of the Commission.

“(B) Other meetings.—The Commission shall meet at the call of the Chairperson.

“(4) Quorum; standing rules.—

“(A) Quorum.—A majority of the members of the Commission shall constitute a quorum to conduct business.

“(B) Standing rules.—At the first meeting of the Commission, the Commission shall adopt standing rules of the Commission to guide the conduct of business and decisionmaking of the Commission.

“(b) Duties.—

“(1) Recommendations.—The Commission shall make specific recommendations to enhance the food safety system of the United States, including a description of how each recommendation would improve food safety.

“(2) Components.—Recommendations made by the Commission under paragraph (1) shall address all food available commercially in the United States.

“(3) Report.—Not later than 1 year after the date on which the Commission first meets, the Commission shall submit to the President and Congress—

“(A) the findings, conclusions, and recommendations of the Commission, including a description of how each recommendation would improve food safety;

“(B) a summary of any other material used by the Commission in the preparation of the report under this paragraph; and

“(C) if requested by 1 or more members of the Commission, a statement of the minority views of the Commission.

“(c) Powers of the Commission.—

“(1) Hearings.—The Commission may, for the purpose of carrying out this section, hold such hearings, meet and act at such times and places, take such testimony, and receive such evidence as the Commission considers advisable.

“(2) Information from federal agencies.—

“(A) In general.—The Commission may secure directly, from any Federal agency, such information as the Commission considers necessary to carry out this section.

“(B) Provision of information.—

“(i) In general.—Subject to subparagraph (C), on the request of the Commission, the head of a Federal agency described in subparagraph (A) may furnish information requested by the Commission to the Commission.

“(ii) Administration.—The furnishing of information by a Federal agency to the Commission shall not be considered a waiver of any exemption available to the agency under section 552 of title 5, United States Code.

“(C) Information to be kept confidential.—

“(i) In general.—For purposes of section 1905 of title 18, United States Code—

     “(I) the Commission shall be considered an agency of the Federal Government; and

     “(II) any individual employed by an individual, entity, or organization that is a party to a contract with the Commission under this section shall be considered an employee of the Commission.

“(ii) Prohibition on disclosure.—Information obtained by the Commission, other than information that is available to the public, shall not be disclosed to any person in any manner except to an employee of the Commission as described in clause (i), for the purpose of receiving, reviewing, or processing the information.

“(d) Commission Personnel Matters.—

“(1) Members.—

“(A) Compensation.—A member of the Commission shall serve without compensation for the services of the member on the Commission.

“(B) Travel expenses.—A member of the Commission shall be allowed travel expenses, including per diem in lieu of subsistence, at rates authorized for an employee of an agency under subchapter I of chapter 57 of title 5, United States Code, while away from the home or regular place of business of the member in the performance of the duties of the Commission.

“(2) Staff.—

“(A) In general.—The Chairperson of the Commission may, without regard to the civil service laws (including regulations), appoint and terminate the appointment of an executive director and such other additional personnel as are necessary to enable the Commission to perform the duties of the Commission.

“(B) Confirmation of executive director.—The employment of an executive director shall be subject to confirmation by the Commission.

“(C) Compensation.—

“(i) In general.—Except as provided in clause (ii), the Chairperson of the Commission may fix the compensation of the executive director and other personnel without regard to the provisions of chapter 51 and subchapter III of chapter 53 of title 5, United States Code, relating to classification of positions and General Schedule pay rates.

“(ii) Maximum rate of pay.—The rate of pay for the executive director and other personnel shall not exceed the rate payable for level II of the Executive Schedule under section 5316 of title 5, United States Code.

“(3) Detail of federal government employees.—

“(A) In general.—An employee of the Federal Government may be detailed to the Commission, without reimbursement, for such period of time as is permitted by law.

“(B) Civil service status.—The detail of the employee shall be without interruption or loss of civil service status or privilege.

“(4) Procurement of temporary and intermittent services.—The Chairperson of the Commission may procure temporary and intermittent services in accordance with section 3109(b) of title 5, United States Code, at rates for individuals that do not exceed the daily equivalent of the annual rate of basic pay prescribed for level II of the Executive Schedule under section 5316 of that title.

“(e) Authorization of Appropriations.—

“(1) In general.—There is authorized to be appropriated such sums as are necessary to carry out this section.

“(2) Limitation.—No payment may be made under subsection (d) except to the extent provided for in advance in an appropriations Act.

“(f) Termination.—The Commission shall terminate on the date that is 60 days after the date on which the Commission submits the recommendations and report under subsection (b)(3).”

Ex. Ord. No. 13100. President's Council on Food Safety

Ex. Ord. No. 13100, Aug. 25, 1998, 63 F.R. 45661, as amended by Ex. Ord. No. 13286, §16, Feb. 28, 2003, 68 F.R. 10623, provided:

By the authority vested in me as President by the Constitution and the laws of the United States of America, and in order to improve the safety of the food supply through science-based regulation and well-coordinated inspection, enforcement, research, and education programs, it is hereby ordered as follows:

Section 1. Establishment of President's Council on Food Safety. (a) There is established the President's Council on Food Safety (“Council”). The Council shall comprise the Secretaries of Agriculture, Commerce, Health and Human Services, and Homeland Security, the Director of the Office of Management and Budget (OMB), the Administrator of the Environmental Protection Agency, the Assistant to the President for Science and Technology/Director of the Office of Science and Technology Policy, the Assistant to the President for Domestic Policy, and the Director of the National Partnership for Reinventing Government. The Council shall consult with other Federal agencies and State, local, and tribal government agencies, and consumer, producer, scientific, and industry groups, as appropriate.

(b) The Secretaries of Agriculture and of Health and Human Services and the Assistant to the President for Science and Technology/Director of the Office of Science and Technology Policy shall serve as Joint Chairs of the Council.

Sec. 2. Purpose. The purpose of the Council shall be to develop a comprehensive strategic plan for Federal food safety activities, taking into consideration the findings and recommendations of the National Academy of Sciences report “Ensuring Safe Food from Production to Consumption” and other input from the public on how to improve the effectiveness of the current food safety system. The Council shall make recommendations to the President on how to advance Federal efforts to implement a comprehensive science-based strategy to improve the safety of the food supply and to enhance coordination among Federal agencies, State, local, and tribal governments, and the private sector. The Council shall advise Federal agencies in setting priority areas for investment in food safety.

Sec. 3. Specific Activities and Functions. (a) The Council shall develop a comprehensive strategic Federal food safety plan that contains specific recommendations on needed changes, including measurable outcome goals. The principal goal of the plan should be the establishment of a seamless, science-based food safety system. The plan should address the steps necessary to achieve this goal, including the key public health, resource, and management issues regarding food safety. The planning process should consider both short-term and long-term issues including new and emerging threats and the special needs of vulnerable populations such as children and the elderly. In developing this plan, the Council shall consult with all interested parties, including State and local agencies, tribes, consumers, producers, industry, and academia.

(b) Consistent with the comprehensive strategic Federal food safety plan described in section 3(a) of this order, the Council shall advise agencies of priority areas for investment in food safety and ensure that Federal agencies annually develop coordinated food safety budgets for submission to the OMB that sustain and strengthen existing capacities, eliminate duplication, and ensure the most effective use of resources for improving food safety. The Council shall also ensure that Federal agencies annually develop a unified budget for submission to the OMB for the President's Food Safety Initiative and such other food safety issues as the Council determines appropriate.

(c) The Council shall ensure that the Joint Institute for Food Safety Research (JIFSR), in consultation with the National Science and Technology Council, establishes mechanisms to guide Federal research efforts toward the highest priority food safety needs. The JIFSR shall report to the Council on a regular basis on its efforts: (i) to develop a strategic plan for conducting food safety research activities consistent with the President's Food Safety Initiative and such other food safety activities as the JIFSR determines appropriate; and (ii) to coordinate efficiently, within the executive branch and with the private sector and academia, all Federal food safety research.

Sec. 4. Cooperation. All actions taken by the Council shall, as appropriate, promote partnerships and cooperation with States, tribes, and other public and private sector efforts wherever possible to improve the safety of the food supply.

Sec. 5. General Provisions. This order is intended only to improve the internal management of the executive branch and is not intended to, nor does it, create any right or benefit, substantive or procedural, enforceable at law by a party against the United States, its agencies, its officers or any person. Nothing in this order shall affect or alter the statutory responsibilities of any Federal agency charged with food safety responsibilities.

§342. Adulterated food

A food shall be deemed to be adulterated—

(a) Poisonous, insanitary, etc., ingredients

(1) If it bears or contains any poisonous or deleterious substance which may render it injurious to health; but in case the substance is not an added substance such food shall not be considered adulterated under this clause if the quantity of such substance in such food does not ordinarily render it injurious to health.1 (2)(A) if it bears or contains any added poisonous or added deleterious substance (other than a substance that is a pesticide chemical residue in or on a raw agricultural commodity or processed food, a food additive, a color additive, or a new animal drug) that is unsafe within the meaning of section 346 of this title; or (B) if it bears or contains a pesticide chemical residue that is unsafe within the meaning of section 346a(a) of this title; or (C) if it is or if it bears or contains (i) any food additive that is unsafe within the meaning of section 348 of this title; or (ii) a new animal drug (or conversion product thereof) that is unsafe within the meaning of section 360b of this title; or (3) if it consists in whole or in part of any filthy, putrid, or decomposed substance, or if it is otherwise unfit for food; or (4) if it has been prepared, packed, or held under insanitary conditions whereby it may have become contaminated with filth, or whereby it may have been rendered injurious to health; or (5) if it is, in whole or in part, the product of a diseased animal or of an animal which has died otherwise than by slaughter; or (6) if its container is composed, in whole or in part, of any poisonous or deleterious substance which may render the contents injurious to health; or (7) if it has been intentionally subjected to radiation, unless the use of the radiation was in conformity with a regulation or exemption in effect pursuant to section 348 of this title.

(b) Absence, substitution, or addition of constituents

(1) If any valuable constituent has been in whole or in part omitted or abstracted therefrom; or (2) if any substance has been substituted wholly or in part therefor; or (3) if damage or inferiority has been concealed in any manner; or (4) if any substance has been added thereto or mixed or packed therewith so as to increase its bulk or weight, or reduce its quality or strength, or make it appear better or of greater value than it is.

(c) Color additives

If it is, or it bears or contains, a color additive which is unsafe within the meaning of section 379e(a) of this title.

(d) Confectionery containing alcohol or nonnutritive substance

If it is confectionery, and—

(1) has partially or completely imbedded therein any nonnutritive object, except that this subparagraph shall not apply in the case of any nonnutritive object if, in the judgment of the Secretary as provided by regulations, such object is of practical functional value to the confectionery product and would not render the product injurious or hazardous to health;

(2) bears or contains any alcohol other than alcohol not in excess of one-half of 1 per centum by volume derived solely from the use of flavoring extracts, except that this clause shall not apply to confectionery which is introduced or delivered for introduction into, or received or held for sale in, interstate commerce if the sale of such confectionery is permitted under the laws of the State in which such confectionery is intended to be offered for sale;

(3) bears or contains any nonnutritive substance, except that this subparagraph shall not apply to a safe nonnutritive substance which is in or on confectionery by reason of its use for some practical functional purpose in the manufacture, packaging, or storage of such confectionery if the use of the substance does not promote deception of the consumer or otherwise result in adulteration or misbranding in violation of any provision of this chapter, except that the Secretary may, for the purpose of avoiding or resolving uncertainty as to the application of this subparagraph, issue regulations allowing or prohibiting the use of particular nonnutritive substances.

(e) Oleomargarine containing filthy, putrid, etc., matter

If it is oleomargarine or margarine or butter and any of the raw material used therein consisted in whole or in part of any filthy, putrid, or decomposed substance, or such oleomargarine or margarine or butter is otherwise unfit for food.

(f) Dietary supplement or ingredient: safety

(1) If it is a dietary supplement or contains a dietary ingredient that—

(A) presents a significant or unreasonable risk of illness or injury under—

(i) conditions of use recommended or suggested in labeling, or

(ii) if no conditions of use are suggested or recommended in the labeling, under ordinary conditions of use;


(B) is a new dietary ingredient for which there is inadequate information to provide reasonable assurance that such ingredient does not present a significant or unreasonable risk of illness or injury;

(C) the Secretary declares to pose an imminent hazard to public health or safety, except that the authority to make such declaration shall not be delegated and the Secretary shall promptly after such a declaration initiate a proceeding in accordance with sections 554 and 556 of title 5 to affirm or withdraw the declaration; or

(D) is or contains a dietary ingredient that renders it adulterated under paragraph (a)(1) under the conditions of use recommended or suggested in the labeling of such dietary supplement.


In any proceeding under this subparagraph, the United States shall bear the burden of proof on each element to show that a dietary supplement is adulterated. The court shall decide any issue under this paragraph on a de novo basis.

(2) Before the Secretary may report to a United States attorney a violation of paragraph 2 (1)(A) for a civil proceeding, the person against whom such proceeding would be initiated shall be given appropriate notice and the opportunity to present views, orally and in writing, at least 10 days before such notice, with regard to such proceeding.

(g) Dietary supplement: manufacturing practices

(1) If it is a dietary supplement and it has been prepared, packed, or held under conditions that do not meet current good manufacturing practice regulations, including regulations requiring, when necessary, expiration date labeling, issued by the Secretary under subparagraph (2).

(2) The Secretary may by regulation prescribe good manufacturing practices for dietary supplements. Such regulations shall be modeled after current good manufacturing practice regulations for food and may not impose standards for which there is no current and generally available analytical methodology. No standard of current good manufacturing practice may be imposed unless such standard is included in a regulation promulgated after notice and opportunity for comment in accordance with chapter 5 of title 5.

(h) Reoffer of food previously denied admission

If it is an article of food imported or offered for import into the United States and the article of food has previously been refused admission under section 381(a) of this title, unless the person reoffering the article affirmatively establishes, at the expense of the owner or consignee of the article, that the article complies with the applicable requirements of this chapter, as determined by the Secretary.

(i) Noncompliance with sanitary transportation practices

If it is transported or offered for transport by a shipper, carrier by motor vehicle or rail vehicle, receiver, or any other person engaged in the transportation of food under conditions that are not in compliance with regulations promulgated under section 350e of this title.

(June 25, 1938, ch. 675, §402, 52 Stat. 1046; Mar. 16, 1950, ch. 61, §3(d), 64 Stat. 21; July 22, 1954, ch. 559, §2, 68 Stat. 511; July 9, 1956, ch. 530, 70 Stat. 512; Pub. L. 85–929, §3(a), (b), Sept. 6, 1958, 72 Stat. 1784; Pub. L. 86–2, Mar. 17, 1959, 73 Stat. 3; Pub. L. 86–618, title I, §§102(a)(1), (2), 105(c), July 12, 1960, 74 Stat. 397, 398, 404; Pub. L. 89–477, June 29, 1966, 80 Stat. 231; Pub. L. 90–399, §104, July 13, 1968, 82 Stat. 352; Pub. L. 99–252, §10, Feb. 27, 1986, 100 Stat. 35; Pub. L. 102–571, title I, §107(4), Oct. 29, 1992, 106 Stat. 4499; Pub. L. 103–80, §3(i), Aug. 13, 1993, 107 Stat. 776; Pub. L. 103–417, §§4, 9, Oct. 25, 1994, 108 Stat. 4328, 4332; Pub. L. 104–170, title IV, §404, Aug. 3, 1996, 110 Stat. 1514; Pub. L. 107–188, title III, §309, June 12, 2002, 116 Stat. 673; Pub. L. 109–59, title VII, §7202(a), Aug. 10, 2005, 119 Stat. 1911.)

Amendments

2005—Par. (i). Pub. L. 109–59 added par. (i).

2002—Par. (h). Pub. L. 107–188 added par. (h).

1996—Par. (a). Pub. L. 104–170 added subpar. (2) and struck out former subpar. (2) which read as follows: “(2)(A) if it bears or contains any added poisonous or added deleterious substance (other than one which is (i) a pesticide chemical in or on a raw agricultural commodity; (ii) a food additive; (iii) a color additive; or (iv) a new animal drug) which is unsafe within the meaning of section 346 of this title, or (B) if it is a raw agricultural commodity and it bears or contains a pesticide chemical which is unsafe within the meaning of section 346a(a) of this title, or (C) if it is, or if it bears or contains, any food additive which is unsafe within the meaning of section 348 of this title: Provided, That where a pesticide chemical has been used in or on a raw agricultural commodity in conformity with an exemption granted or a tolerance prescribed under section 346a of this title and such raw agricultural commodity has been subjected to processing such as canning, cooking, freezing, dehydrating, or milling, the residue of such pesticide chemical remaining in or on such processed food shall, notwithstanding the provisions of sections 346 and 348 of this title, not be deemed unsafe if such residue in or on the raw agricultural commodity has been removed to the extent possible in good manufacturing practice and the concentration of such residue in the processed food when ready to eat is not greater than the tolerance prescribed for the raw agricultural commodity, or (D) if it is, or it bears or contains, a new animal drug (or conversion product thereof) which is unsafe within the meaning of section 360b of this title;”. That part of Pub. L. 104–170 which directed the substitution of “or (3) if it consists” for “(3) if it consists” was executed by making the substitution for “(3) If it consists” to reflect the probable intent of Congress.

1994—Par. (f). Pub. L. 103–417, §4, added par. (f).

Par. (g). Pub. L. 103–417, §9, added par. (g).

1993—Par. (a). Pub. L. 103–80, §3(i)(1), substituted a period for “; or” at end of subpar. (1) and “If it” for “if it” at beginning of par. (3). That part of Pub. L. 103–80, §3(i)(1), which directed the substitution of a period for “; or” at end of subpar. (2) could not be executed because “; or” did not appear.

Par. (d)(1). Pub. L. 103–80, §3(i)(2), substituted “, except that this subparagraph” for “: Provided, That this clause”.

Par. (d)(3). Pub. L. 103–80, §3(i)(3), substituted “, except that this subparagraph shall not apply” for “: Provided, That this clause shall not apply” and “, except that the Secretary may, for the purpose of avoiding or resolving uncertainty as to the application of this subparagraph” for “: And provided further, That the Secretary may, for the purpose of avoiding or resolving uncertainty as to the application of this clause”.

1992—Par. (c). Pub. L. 102–571 substituted “379e(a)” for “376(a)”.

1986—Par. (d)(2). Pub. L. 99–252 inserted provision that this clause not apply to confectionery introduced or delivered for introduction into or received or held for sale in, interstate commerce if the sale is permitted under the laws of the State in which the confectionery is intended to be offered for sale.

1968—Par. (a)(2). Pub. L. 90–399 added cls. (A)(iv) and (D).

1966—Par. (d). Pub. L. 89–477 permitted the imbedding of nonnutritive objects in confectionery foods if in the judgment of the Secretary of Health, Education, and Welfare, as provided by regulation, the imbedding of the object is of practical functional value to the confectionery product and would not render it injurious or hazardous to health, raised to one-half of 1 per centum by volume the upper limit for the allowable use of alcohol derived solely from the use of flavoring extracts, allowed the use of safe nonnutritive substances in and on confectionery foods by reason of their use for some practical and functional purpose in the manufacture, packaging, or storage of the confectionery foods if the use of the substances does not promote deception of the consumer or otherwise result in adulteration or misbranding, authorized the Secretary to issue regulations on the use of particular nonnutritive substances, and removed reference to nonnutritive masticatory substances added to chewing gum and harmless flavoring, harmless resinous glaze not in excess of four-tenths of 1 per centum, natural gum, authorized coloring, and pectin.

1960—Par. (a). Pub. L. 86–618, §102(a)(1), substituted “other than one which is (i) a pesticide chemical in or on a raw agricultural commodity; (ii) a food additive; or (iii) a color additive” for “(except a pesticide chemical in or on a raw agricultural commodity and except a food additive)” in cl. (2)(A).

Par. (c). Pub. L. 86–618, §102(a)(2), amended par. (c) generally, substituting provisions deeming a food adulterated if it is, or it bears or contains, a color additive which is unsafe within the meaning of section 376 of this title for provisions which related to food that bears or contains a coal-tar color other than one from a batch that has been certified in accordance with regulations as provided by section 346 of this title, and struck out provisos which related to the use of color on oranges.

Par. (d). Pub. L. 86–618, §105(c), substituted “authorized coloring” for “harmless coloring”.

1959—Par. (c). Pub. L. 86–2 extended from Mar. 1, 1959, to May 1, 1959, the period during which par. is inapplicable to oranges which have been colored with F.D. & C. Red 32, and inserted proviso requiring Secretary to establish regulations prescribing the conditions under which Citrus Red No. 2 may be safely used in coloring certain mature oranges, and providing for separately listing and for certification of batches of such color.

1958—Par. (a). Pub. L. 85–929, among other changes, inserted cl. (2)(C) relating to food additive unsafe within the meaning of section 348 of this title, and to pesticide chemical, and added cl. (7) relating to radiated food.

1956—Par. (c). Act July 9, 1956, inserted second proviso relating to coloring of oranges.

1954—Par. (a)(2). Act July 22, 1954, provided in the case of any raw agricultural commodity bearing or containing a pesticide chemical, that such commodity shall be deemed to be adulterated if such pesticide chemical is unsafe within the meaning of section 346a of this title.

1950—Par. (e). Act Mar. 16, 1950, added par. (e).

Effective Date of 2005 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 109–59 effective Oct. 1, 2005, see section 7204 of Pub. L. 109–59, set out as a note under section 331 of this title.

Effective Date of 1968 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 90–399 effective on first day of thirteenth calendar month after July 13, 1968, see section 108(a) of Pub. L. 90–399, set out as an Effective Date and Transitional Provisions note under section 360b of this title.

Effective Date of 1960 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 86–618 effective July 12, 1960, subject to the provisions of section 203 of Pub. L. 86–618, see section 202 of Pub. L. 86–618, set out as a note under section 379e of this title.

Effective Date of Nematocide, Plant Regulator, Defoliant, and Desiccant Amendment of 1959

Effective date of par. (a)(2) as in force prior to July 22, 1954, with respect to particular commercial use of a nematocide, plant regulator, defoliant, or desiccant in or on a raw agricultural commodity made before Jan. 1, 1958, see section 3(b) of Pub. L. 86–139, Aug. 7, 1959, 73 Stat. 288.

Effective Date of 1958 Amendment

Section 6 of Pub. L. 85–929, as amended by Pub. L. 87–19, §2, Apr. 7, 1961, 75 Stat. 42; Pub. L. 88–625, §2, Oct. 3, 1964, 78 Stat. 1002, provided that:

“(a) Except as provided in subsections (b) and (c) of this section, this Act [amending this section, sections 321, 331, 346, and 348 of this title, and section 210 of Title 42, The Public Health and Welfare, and enacting provisions set out as notes under sections 321 and 451 of this title] shall take effect on the date of its enactment [Sept. 6, 1958].

“(b) Except as provided in subsection (c) of this section, section 3 of this Act [amending this section and section 346 of this title] shall take effect on the one hundred and eightieth day after the date of enactment of this Act [Sept. 6, 1958].

“(c) With respect to any particular commercial use of a food additive, if such use was made of such additive before January 1, 1958, section 3 of this Act [amending this section and section 346 of this title] shall take effect—

“(1) Either (A) one year after the effective date established in subsection (b) of this section, or (B) at the end of such additional period (but not later than two years from such effective date established in subsection (b)) as the Secretary of Health, Education, and Welfare [now Health and Human Services] may prescribe on the basis of a finding that such extension involves no undue risk to the public health and that conditions exist which necessitate the prescribing of such an additional period, or

“(2) on the date on which an order with respect to such use under section 409 of the Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act [section 348 of this title] becomes effective,

whichever date first occurs. Whenever the Secretary has, pursuant to clause (1)(B) of this subsection, extended the effective date of section 3 of this Act [amending this section] to March 5, 1961, or has on that date a request for such extension pending before him, with respect to any such particular use of a food additive, he may, notwithstanding the parenthetical time limitation in that clause, further extend such effective date, not beyond June 30, 1964, under the authority of that clause (but subject to clause (2)) with respect to such use of the additive (or a more limited specified use or uses thereof) if, in addition to making the findings required by clause (1)(B), he finds (i) that bona fide action to determine the applicability of such section 409 [section 348 of this title] to such use or uses, or to develop the scientific data necessary for action under such section, was commenced by an interested person before March 6, 1960, and was thereafter pursued with reasonable diligence, and (ii) that in the Secretary's judgment such extension is consistent with the objective of carrying to completion in good faith, as soon as reasonably practicable, the scientific investigations necessary as a basis for action under such section 409 [section 348 of this title]: Provided, That if the Secretary has, pursuant to this sentence, granted an extension to June 30, 1964, he may, upon making the findings required by clause (1)(B) of this subsection and clauses (i) and (ii) of this sentence, further extend such effective date, but not beyond December 31, 1965. The Secretary may at any time terminate an extension so granted if he finds that it should not have been granted, or that by reason of a change in circumstances the basis for such extension no longer exists, or that there has been a failure to comply with a requirement for submission of progress reports or with other conditions attached to such extension.”

Effective Date of 1954 Amendment

Section 5 of act July 22, 1954, provided that: “This Act [amending this section and section 321 of this title and enacting sections 346a and 346b of this title] shall take effect upon the date of its enactment [July 22, 1954], except that with respect to pesticide chemicals for which tolerances or exemptions have not been established under section 408 of the Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act [section 346a of this title], the amendment to section 402(a) of such Act [par. (a) of this section] made by section 2 of this Act shall not be effective—

“(1) for the period of one year following the date of the enactment of this Act [July 22, 1954]; or

“(2) for such additional period following such period of one year, but not extending beyond two years after the date of the enactment of this Act [July 22, 1954] as the Secretary of Health, Education, and Welfare [now Health and Human Services] may prescribe on the basis of a finding that conditions exist which necessitate the prescribing of such additional period.”

Effective Date of 1950 Amendment

Amendment by act Mar. 16, 1950, effective July 1, 1950, see section 7 of act Mar. 16, 1950, set out as an Effective Date note under section 347 of this title.

Effective Date; Postponement

Par. (c) effective Jan. 1, 1940, see act June 23, 1939, ch. 242, 53 Stat. 853, set out as an Effective Date; Postponement in Certain Cases note under section 301 of this title.

Short Title

Pub. L. 88–625, §1, Oct. 3, 1964, 78 Stat. 1002, provided: “That this Act [amending provisions set out as a note under this section and section 135 of Title 7, Agriculture] may be cited as the ‘Food Additives Transitional Provisions Amendment of 1964’.”

Transfer of Functions

For transfer of functions of Federal Security Administrator to Secretary of Health, Education, and Welfare [now Health and Human Services], and of Food and Drug Administration in the Department of Agriculture to Federal Security Agency, see notes set out under section 321 of this title.

Updating Guidance Relating to Fish and Fisheries Products Hazards and Controls

Pub. L. 111–353, title I, §103(h), Jan. 4, 2011, 124 Stat. 3898, provided that: “The Secretary shall, not later than 180 days after the date of enactment of this Act [Jan. 4, 2011], update the Fish and Fisheries Products Hazards and Control Guidance to take into account advances in technology that have occurred since the previous publication of such Guidance by the Secretary.”

Guidance Relating to Post Harvest Processing of Raw Oysters

Pub. L. 111–353, title I, §114, Jan. 4, 2011, 124 Stat. 3921, provided that:

“(a) In General.—Not later than 90 days prior to the issuance of any guidance, regulation, or suggested amendment by the Food and Drug Administration to the National Shellfish Sanitation Program's Model Ordinance, or the issuance of any guidance or regulation by the Food and Drug Administration relating to the Seafood Hazard Analysis Critical Control Points Program of the Food and Drug Administration (parts 123 and 1240 of title 21, Code of Federal Regulations (or any successor regulations)[)], where such guidance, regulation or suggested amendment relates to post harvest processing for raw oysters, the Secretary shall prepare and submit to the Committee on Health, Education, Labor, and Pensions of the Senate and the Committee on Energy and Commerce of the House of Representatives a report which shall include—

“(1) an assessment of how post harvest processing or other equivalent controls feasibly may be implemented in the fastest, safest, and most economical manner;

“(2) the projected public health benefits of any proposed post harvest processing;

“(3) the projected costs of compliance with such post harvest processing measures;

“(4) the impact post harvest processing is expected to have on the sales, cost, and availability of raw oysters;

“(5) criteria for ensuring post harvest processing standards will be applied equally to shellfish imported from all nations of origin;

“(6) an evaluation of alternative measures to prevent, eliminate, or reduce to an acceptable level the occurrence of foodborne illness; and

“(7) the extent to which the Food and Drug Administration has consulted with the States and other regulatory agencies, as appropriate, with regard to post harvest processing measures.

“(b) Limitation.—Subsection (a) shall not apply to the guidance described in section 103(h) [section 103(h) of Pub. L. 111–353, set out as a note above].

“(c) Review and Evaluation.—Not later than 30 days after the Secretary issues a proposed regulation or guidance described in subsection (a), the Comptroller General of the United States shall—

“(1) review and evaluate the report described in (a) and report to Congress on the findings of the estimates and analysis in the report;

“(2) compare such proposed regulation or guidance to similar regulations or guidance with respect to other regulated foods, including a comparison of risks the Secretary may find associated with seafood and the instances of those risks in such other regulated foods; and

“(3) evaluate the impact of post harvest processing on the competitiveness of the domestic oyster industry in the United States and in international markets.

“(d) Waiver.—The requirement of preparing a report under subsection (a) shall be waived if the Secretary issues a guidance that is adopted as a consensus agreement between Federal and State regulators and the oyster industry, acting through the Interstate Shellfish Sanitation Conference.

“(e) Public Access.—Any report prepared under this section shall be made available to the public.”

Domestic Fish or Fish Product Compliance With Food Safety Standards or Procedures Deemed To Have Met Requirements for Federal Commodity Purchase Programs

Pub. L. 104–180, title VII, §733, Aug. 6, 1996, 110 Stat. 1601, provided that: “Hereafter, notwithstanding any other provision of law, any domestic fish or fish product produced in compliance with food safety standards or procedures accepted by the Food and Drug Administration as satisfying the requirements of the ‘Procedures for the Safe and Sanitary Processing and Importing of Fish and Fish Products’ (published by the Food and Drug Administration as a final regulation in the Federal Register of December 18, 1995), shall be deemed to have met any inspection requirements of the Department of Agriculture or other Federal agency for any Federal commodity purchase program, including the program authorized under section 32 of the Act of August 24, 1935 (7 U.S.C. 612c) except that the Department of Agriculture or other Federal agency may utilize lot inspection to establish a reasonable degree of certainty that fish or fish products purchased under a Federal commodity purchase program, including the program authorized under section 32 of the Act of August 24, 1935 (7 U.S.C. 612c), meet Federal product specifications.”

1 So in original. The period probably should be “; or”.

2 So in original. Probably should be “subparagraph”.

§343. Misbranded food

A food shall be deemed to be misbranded—

(a) False or misleading label

If (1) its labeling is false or misleading in any particular, or (2) in the case of a food to which section 350 of this title applies, its advertising is false or misleading in a material respect or its labeling is in violation of section 350(b)(2) of this title.

(b) Offer for sale under another name

If it is offered for sale under the name of another food.

(c) Imitation of another food

If it is an imitation of another food, unless its label bears, in type of uniform size and prominence, the word “imitation” and, immediately thereafter, the name of the food imitated.

(d) Misleading container

If its container is so made, formed, or filled as to be misleading.

(e) Package form

If in package form unless it bears a label containing (1) the name and place of business of the manufacturer, packer, or distributor; and (2) an accurate statement of the quantity of the contents in terms of weight, measure, or numerical count, except that under clause (2) of this paragraph reasonable variations shall be permitted, and exemptions as to small packages shall be established, by regulations prescribed by the Secretary.

(f) Prominence of information on label

If any word, statement, or other information required by or under authority of this chapter to appear on the label or labeling is not prominently placed thereon with such conspicuousness (as compared with other words, statements, designs, or devices, in the labeling) and in such terms as to render it likely to be read and understood by the ordinary individual under customary conditions of purchase and use.

(g) Representation as to definition and standard of identity

If it purports to be or is represented as a food for which a definition and standard of identity has been prescribed by regulations as provided by section 341 of this title, unless (1) it conforms to such definition and standard, and (2) its label bears the name of the food specified in the definition and standard, and, insofar as may be required by such regulations, the common names of optional ingredients (other than spices, flavoring, and coloring) present in such food.

(h) Representation as to standards of quality and fill of container

If it purports to be or is represented as—

(1) a food for which a standard of quality has been prescribed by regulations as provided by section 341 of this title, and its quality falls below such standard, unless its label bears, in such manner and form as such regulations specify, a statement that it falls below such standard;

(2) a food for which a standard or standards of fill of container have been prescribed by regulations as provided by section 341 of this title, and it falls below the standard of fill of container applicable thereto, unless its label bears, in such manner and form as such regulations specify, a statement that it falls below such standard; or

(3) a food that is pasteurized unless—

(A) such food has been subjected to a safe process or treatment that is prescribed as pasteurization for such food in a regulation promulgated under this chapter; or

(B)(i) such food has been subjected to a safe process or treatment that—

(I) is reasonably certain to achieve destruction or elimination in the food of the most resistant microorganisms of public health significance that are likely to occur in the food;

(II) is at least as protective of the public health as a process or treatment described in subparagraph (A);

(III) is effective for a period that is at least as long as the shelf life of the food when stored under normal and moderate abuse conditions; and

(IV) is the subject of a notification to the Secretary, including effectiveness data regarding the process or treatment; and


(ii) at least 120 days have passed after the date of receipt of such notification by the Secretary without the Secretary making a determination that the process or treatment involved has not been shown to meet the requirements of subclauses (I) through (III) of clause (i).


For purposes of paragraph (3), a determination by the Secretary that a process or treatment has not been shown to meet the requirements of subclauses (I) through (III) of subparagraph (B)(i) shall constitute final agency action under such subclauses.

(i) Label where no representation as to definition and standard of identity

Unless its label bears (1) the common or usual name of the food, if any there be, and (2) in case it is fabricated from two or more ingredients, the common or usual name of each such ingredient and if the food purports to be a beverage containing vegetable or fruit juice, a statement with appropriate prominence on the information panel of the total percentage of such fruit or vegetable juice contained in the food; except that spices, flavorings, and colors not required to be certified under section 379e(c) of this title 1 unless sold as spices, flavorings, or such colors, may be designated as spices, flavorings, and colorings without naming each. To the extent that compliance with the requirements of clause (2) of this paragraph is impracticable, or results in deception or unfair competition, exemptions shall be established by regulations promulgated by the Secretary.

(j) Representation for special dietary use

If it purports to be or is represented for special dietary uses, unless its label bears such information concerning its vitamin, mineral, and other dietary properties as the Secretary determines to be, and by regulations prescribes as, necessary in order fully to inform purchasers as to its value for such uses.

(k) Artificial flavoring, artificial coloring, or chemical preservatives

If it bears or contains any artificial flavoring, artificial coloring, or chemical preservative, unless it bears labeling stating that fact, except that to the extent that compliance with the requirements of this paragraph is impracticable, exemptions shall be established by regulations promulgated by the Secretary. The provisions of this paragraph and paragraphs (g) and (i) with respect to artificial coloring shall not apply in the case of butter, cheese, or ice cream. The provisions of this paragraph with respect to chemical preservatives shall not apply to a pesticide chemical when used in or on a raw agricultural commodity which is the produce of the soil.

(l) Pesticide chemicals on raw agricultural commodities

If it is a raw agricultural commodity which is the produce of the soil, bearing or containing a pesticide chemical applied after harvest, unless the shipping container of such commodity bears labeling which declares the presence of such chemical in or on such commodity and the common or usual name and the function of such chemical, except that no such declaration shall be required while such commodity, having been removed from the shipping container, is being held or displayed for sale at retail out of such container in accordance with the custom of the trade.

(m) Color additives

If it is a color additive, unless its packaging and labeling are in conformity with such packaging and labeling requirements, applicable to such color additive, as may be contained in regulations issued under section 379e of this title.

(n) Packaging or labeling of drugs in violation of regulations

If its packaging or labeling is in violation of an applicable regulation issued pursuant to section 1472 or 1473 of title 15.

(o) Repealed. Pub. L. 106–554, §1(a)(1) [title V, §517], Dec. 21, 2000, 114 Stat. 2763, 2763A–73

(p) Repealed. Pub. L. 104–124, §1, Apr. 1, 1996, 110 Stat. 882

(q) Nutrition information

(1) Except as provided in subparagraphs (3), (4), and (5), if it is a food intended for human consumption and is offered for sale, unless its label or labeling bears nutrition information that provides—

(A)(i) the serving size which is an amount customarily consumed and which is expressed in a common household measure that is appropriate to the food, or

(ii) if the use of the food is not typically expressed in a serving size, the common household unit of measure that expresses the serving size of the food,

(B) the number of servings or other units of measure per container,

(C) the total number of calories—

(i) derived from any source, and

(ii) derived from the total fat,


in each serving size or other unit of measure of the food,

(D) the amount of the following nutrients: Total fat, saturated fat, cholesterol, sodium, total carbohydrates, complex carbohydrates, sugars, dietary fiber, and total protein contained in each serving size or other unit of measure,

(E) any vitamin, mineral, or other nutrient required to be placed on the label and labeling of food under this chapter before October 1, 1990, if the Secretary determines that such information will assist consumers in maintaining healthy dietary practices.


The Secretary may by regulation require any information required to be placed on the label or labeling by this subparagraph or subparagraph (2)(A) to be highlighted on the label or labeling by larger type, bold type, or contrasting color if the Secretary determines that such highlighting will assist consumers in maintaining healthy dietary practices.

(2)(A) If the Secretary determines that a nutrient other than a nutrient required by subparagraph (1)(C), (1)(D), or (1)(E) should be included in the label or labeling of food subject to subparagraph (1) for purposes of providing information regarding the nutritional value of such food that will assist consumers in maintaining healthy dietary practices, the Secretary may by regulation require that information relating to such additional nutrient be included in the label or labeling of such food.

(B) If the Secretary determines that the information relating to a nutrient required by subparagraph (1)(C), (1)(D), or (1)(E) or clause (A) of this subparagraph to be included in the label or labeling of food is not necessary to assist consumers in maintaining healthy dietary practices, the Secretary may by regulation remove information relating to such nutrient from such requirement.

(3) For food that is received in bulk containers at a retail establishment, the Secretary may, by regulation, provide that the nutrition information required by subparagraphs (1) and (2) be displayed at the location in the retail establishment at which the food is offered for sale.

(4)(A) The Secretary shall provide for furnishing the nutrition information required by subparagraphs (1) and (2) with respect to raw agricultural commodities and raw fish by issuing voluntary nutrition guidelines, as provided by clause (B) or by issuing regulations that are mandatory as provided by clause (D).

(B)(i) Upon the expiration of 12 months after November 8, 1990, the Secretary, after providing an opportunity for comment, shall issue guidelines for food retailers offering raw agricultural commodities or raw fish to provide nutrition information specified in subparagraphs (1) and (2). Such guidelines shall take into account the actions taken by food retailers during such 12-month period to provide to consumers nutrition information on raw agricultural commodities and raw fish. Such guidelines shall only apply—

(I) in the case of raw agricultural commodities, to the 20 varieties of vegetables most frequently consumed during a year and the 20 varieties of fruit most frequently consumed during a year, and

(II) to the 20 varieties of raw fish most frequently consumed during a year.


The vegetables, fruits, and raw fish to which such guidelines apply shall be determined by the Secretary by regulation and the Secretary may apply such guidelines regionally.

(ii) Upon the expiration of 12 months after November 8, 1990, the Secretary shall issue a final regulation defining the circumstances that constitute substantial compliance by food retailers with the guidelines issued under subclause (i). The regulation shall provide that there is not substantial compliance if a significant number of retailers have failed to comply with the guidelines. The size of the retailers and the portion of the market served by retailers in compliance with the guidelines shall be considered in determining whether the substantial-compliance standard has been met.

(C)(i) Upon the expiration of 30 months after November 8, 1990, the Secretary shall issue a report on actions taken by food retailers to provide consumers with nutrition information for raw agricultural commodities and raw fish under the guidelines issued under clause (A). Such report shall include a determination of whether there is substantial compliance with the guidelines.

(ii) If the Secretary finds that there is substantial compliance with the guidelines, the Secretary shall issue a report and make a determination of the type required in subclause (i) every two years.

(D)(i) If the Secretary determines that there is not substantial compliance with the guidelines issued under clause (A), the Secretary shall at the time such determination is made issue proposed regulations requiring that any person who offers raw agricultural commodities or raw fish to consumers provide, in a manner prescribed by regulations, the nutrition information required by subparagraphs (1) and (2). The Secretary shall issue final regulations imposing such requirements 6 months after issuing the proposed regulations. The final regulations shall become effective 6 months after the date of their promulgation.

(ii) Regulations issued under subclause (i) may require that the nutrition information required by subparagraphs (1) and (2) be provided for more than 20 varieties of vegetables, 20 varieties of fruit, and 20 varieties of fish most frequently consumed during a year if the Secretary finds that a larger number of such products are frequently consumed. Such regulations shall permit such information to be provided in a single location in each area in which raw agricultural commodities and raw fish are offered for sale. Such regulations may provide that information shall be expressed as an average or range per serving of the same type of raw agricultural commodity or raw fish. The Secretary shall develop and make available to the persons who offer such food to consumers the information required by subparagraphs (1) and (2).

(iii) Regulations issued under subclause (i) shall permit the required information to be provided in each area of an establishment in which raw agricultural commodities and raw fish are offered for sale. The regulations shall permit food retailers to display the required information by supplying copies of the information provided by the Secretary, by making the information available in brochure, notebook or leaflet form, or by posting a sign disclosing the information. Such regulations shall also permit presentation of the required information to be supplemented by a video, live demonstration, or other media which the Secretary approves.

(E) For purposes of this subparagraph, the term “fish” includes freshwater or marine fin fish, crustaceans, and mollusks, including shellfish, amphibians, and other forms of aquatic animal life.

(F) No person who offers raw agricultural commodities or raw fish to consumers may be prosecuted for minor violations of this subparagraph if there has been substantial compliance with the requirements of this paragraph.

(5)(A) Subparagraphs (1), (2), (3), and (4) shall not apply to food—

(i) except as provided in clause (H)(ii)(III), which is served in restaurants or other establishments in which food is served for immediate human consumption or which is sold for sale or use in such establishments,

(ii) except as provided in clause (H)(ii)(III), which is processed and prepared primarily in a retail establishment, which is ready for human consumption, which is of the type described in subclause (i), and which is offered for sale to consumers but not for immediate human consumption in such establishment and which is not offered for sale outside such establishment,

(iii) which is an infant formula subject to section 350a of this title,

(iv) which is a medical food as defined in section 360ee(b) of this title, or

(v) which is described in section 345(2) of this title.


(B) Subparagraphs (1) and (2) shall not apply to the label of a food if the Secretary determines by regulations that compliance with such subparagraphs is impracticable because the package of such food is too small to comply with the requirements of such subparagraphs and if the label of such food does not contain any nutrition information.

(C) If a food contains insignificant amounts, as determined by the Secretary, of all the nutrients required by subparagraphs (1) and (2) to be listed in the label or labeling of food, the requirements of such subparagraphs shall not apply to such food if the label, labeling, or advertising of such food does not make any claim with respect to the nutritional value of such food. If a food contains insignificant amounts, as determined by the Secretary, of more than one-half the nutrients required by subparagraphs (1) and (2) to be in the label or labeling of the food, the Secretary shall require the amounts of such nutrients to be stated in a simplified form prescribed by the Secretary.

(D) If a person offers food for sale and has annual gross sales made or business done in sales to consumers which is not more than $500,000 or has annual gross sales made or business done in sales of food to consumers which is not more than $50,000, the requirements of subparagraphs (1), (2), (3), and (4) shall not apply with respect to food sold by such person to consumers unless the label or labeling of food offered by such person provides nutrition information or makes a nutrition claim.

(E)(i) During the 12-month period for which an exemption from subparagraphs (1) and (2) is claimed pursuant to this subclause, the requirements of such subparagraphs shall not apply to any food product if—

(I) the labeling for such product does not provide nutrition information or make a claim subject to paragraph (r),

(II) the person who claims for such product an exemption from such subparagraphs employed fewer than an average of 100 full-time equivalent employees,

(III) such person provided the notice described in subclause (iii), and

(IV) in the case of a food product which was sold in the 12-month period preceding the period for which an exemption was claimed, fewer than 100,000 units of such product were sold in the United States during such preceding period, or in the case of a food product which was not sold in the 12-month period preceding the period for which such exemption is claimed, fewer than 100,000 units of such product are reasonably anticipated to be sold in the United States during the period for which such exemption is claimed.


(ii) During the 12-month period after the applicable date referred to in this sentence, the requirements of subparagraphs (1) and (2) shall not apply to any food product which was first introduced into interstate commerce before May 8, 1994, if the labeling for such product does not provide nutrition information or make a claim subject to paragraph (r), if such person provided the notice described in subclause (iii), and if—

(I) during the 12-month period preceding May 8, 1994, the person who claims for such product an exemption from such subparagraphs employed fewer than an average of 300 full-time equivalent employees and fewer than 600,000 units of such product were sold in the United States,

(II) during the 12-month period preceding May 8, 1995, the person who claims for such product an exemption from such subparagraphs employed fewer than an average of 300 full-time equivalent employees and fewer than 400,000 units of such product were sold in the United States, or

(III) during the 12-month period preceding May 8, 1996, the person who claims for such product an exemption from such subparagraphs employed fewer than an average of 200 full-time equivalent employees and fewer than 200,000 units of such product were sold in the United States.


(iii) The notice referred to in subclauses (i) and (ii) shall be given to the Secretary prior to the beginning of the period during which the exemption under subclause (i) or (ii) is to be in effect, shall state that the person claiming such exemption for a food product has complied with the applicable requirements of subclause (i) or (ii), and shall—

(I) state the average number of full-time equivalent employees such person employed during the 12 months preceding the date such person claims such exemption,

(II) state the approximate number of units the person claiming the exemption sold in the United States,

(III) if the exemption is claimed for a food product which was sold in the 12-month period preceding the period for which the exemption was claimed, state the approximate number of units of such product which were sold in the United States during such preceding period, and, if the exemption is claimed for a food product which was not sold in such preceding period, state the number of units of such product which such person reasonably anticipates will be sold in the United States during the period for which the exemption was claimed, and

(IV) contain such information as the Secretary may require to verify the information required by the preceding provisions of this subclause if the Secretary has questioned the validity of such information.


If a person is not an importer, has fewer than 10 full-time equivalent employees, and sells fewer than 10,000 units of any food product in any year, such person is not required to file a notice for such product under this subclause for such year.

(iv) In the case of a person who claimed an exemption under subclause (i) or (ii), if, during the period of such exemption, the number of full-time equivalent employees of such person exceeds the number in such subclause or if the number of food products sold in the United States exceeds the number in such subclause, such exemption shall extend to the expiration of 18 months after the date the number of full-time equivalent employees or food products sold exceeded the applicable number.

(v) For any food product first introduced into interstate commerce after May 8, 2002, the Secretary may by regulation lower the employee or units of food products requirement of subclause (i) if the Secretary determines that the cost of compliance with such lower requirement will not place an undue burden on persons subject to such lower requirement.

(vi) For purposes of subclauses (i), (ii), (iii), (iv), and (v)—

(I) the term “unit” means the packaging or, if there is no packaging, the form in which a food product is offered for sale to consumers,

(II) the term “food product” means food in any sized package which is manufactured by a single manufacturer or which bears the same brand name, which bears the same statement of identity, and which has similar preparation methods, and

(III) the term “person” in the case of a corporation includes all domestic and foreign affiliates of the corporation.


(F) A dietary supplement product (including a food to which section 350 of this title applies) shall comply with the requirements of subparagraphs (1) and (2) in a manner which is appropriate for the product and which is specified in regulations of the Secretary which shall provide that—

(i) nutrition information shall first list those dietary ingredients that are present in the product in a significant amount and for which a recommendation for daily consumption has been established by the Secretary, except that a dietary ingredient shall not be required to be listed if it is not present in a significant amount, and shall list any other dietary ingredient present and identified as having no such recommendation;

(ii) the listing of dietary ingredients shall include the quantity of each such ingredient (or of a proprietary blend of such ingredients) per serving;

(iii) the listing of dietary ingredients may include the source of a dietary ingredient; and

(iv) the nutrition information shall immediately precede the ingredient information required under subclause (i), except that no ingredient identified pursuant to subclause (i) shall be required to be identified a second time.


(G) Subparagraphs (1), (2), (3), and (4) shall not apply to food which is sold by a food distributor if the food distributor principally sells food to restaurants or other establishments in which food is served for immediate human consumption and does not manufacture, process, or repackage the food it sells.

(H) Restaurants, Retail Food Establishments, and Vending Machines.—

(i) General requirements for restaurants and similar retail food establishments.—Except for food described in subclause (vii), in the case of food that is a standard menu item that is offered for sale in a restaurant or similar retail food establishment that is part of a chain with 20 or more locations doing business under the same name (regardless of the type of ownership of the locations) and offering for sale substantially the same menu items, the restaurant or similar retail food establishment shall disclose the information described in subclauses (ii) and (iii).

(ii) Information required to be disclosed by restaurants and retail food establishments.—Except as provided in subclause (vii), the restaurant or similar retail food establishment shall disclose in a clear and conspicuous manner—

(I)(aa) in a nutrient content disclosure statement adjacent to the name of the standard menu item, so as to be clearly associated with the standard menu item, on the menu listing the item for sale, the number of calories contained in the standard menu item, as usually prepared and offered for sale; and

(bb) a succinct statement concerning suggested daily caloric intake, as specified by the Secretary by regulation and posted prominently on the menu and designed to enable the public to understand, in the context of a total daily diet, the significance of the caloric information that is provided on the menu;

(II)(aa) in a nutrient content disclosure statement adjacent to the name of the standard menu item, so as to be clearly associated with the standard menu item, on the menu board, including a drive-through menu board, the number of calories contained in the standard menu item, as usually prepared and offered for sale; and

(bb) a succinct statement concerning suggested daily caloric intake, as specified by the Secretary by regulation and posted prominently on the menu board, designed to enable the public to understand, in the context of a total daily diet, the significance of the nutrition information that is provided on the menu board;

(III) in a written form, available on the premises of the restaurant or similar retail establishment and to the consumer upon request, the nutrition information required under clauses (C) and (D) of subparagraph (1); and

(IV) on the menu or menu board, a prominent, clear, and conspicuous statement regarding the availability of the information described in item (III).


(iii) Self-service food and food on display.—Except as provided in subclause (vii), in the case of food sold at a salad bar, buffet line, cafeteria line, or similar self-service facility, and for self-service beverages or food that is on display and that is visible to customers, a restaurant or similar retail food establishment shall place adjacent to each food offered a sign that lists calories per displayed food item or per serving.

(iv) Reasonable basis.—For the purposes of this clause, a restaurant or similar retail food establishment shall have a reasonable basis for its nutrient content disclosures, including nutrient databases, cookbooks, laboratory analyses, and other reasonable means, as described in section 101.10 of title 21, Code of Federal Regulations (or any successor regulation) or in a related guidance of the Food and Drug Administration.

(v) Menu variability and combination meals.—The Secretary shall establish by regulation standards for determining and disclosing the nutrient content for standard menu items that come in different flavors, varieties, or combinations, but which are listed as a single menu item, such as soft drinks, ice cream, pizza, doughnuts, or children's combination meals, through means determined by the Secretary, including ranges, averages, or other methods.

(vi) Additional information.—If the Secretary determines that a nutrient, other than a nutrient required under subclause (ii)(III), should be disclosed for the purpose of providing information to assist consumers in maintaining healthy dietary practices, the Secretary may require, by regulation, disclosure of such nutrient in the written form required under subclause (ii)(III).

(vii) Nonapplicability to certain food.—

(I) In general.—Subclauses (i) through (vi) do not apply to—

(aa) items that are not listed on a menu or menu board (such as condiments and other items placed on the table or counter for general use);

(bb) daily specials, temporary menu items appearing on the menu for less than 60 days per calendar year, or custom orders; or

(cc) such other food that is part of a customary market test appearing on the menu for less than 90 days, under terms and conditions established by the Secretary.


(II) Written forms.—Subparagraph (5)(C) shall apply to any regulations promulgated under subclauses (ii)(III) and (vi).


(viii) Vending machines.—

(I) In general.—In the case of an article of food sold from a vending machine that—

(aa) does not permit a prospective purchaser to examine the Nutrition Facts Panel before purchasing the article or does not otherwise provide visible nutrition information at the point of purchase; and

(bb) is operated by a person who is engaged in the business of owning or operating 20 or more vending machines,


the vending machine operator shall provide a sign in close proximity to each article of food or the selection button that includes a clear and conspicuous statement disclosing the number of calories contained in the article.


(ix) Voluntary provision of nutrition information.—

(I) In general.—An authorized official of any restaurant or similar retail food establishment or vending machine operator not subject to the requirements of this clause may elect to be subject to the requirements of such clause, by registering biannually the name and address of such restaurant or similar retail food establishment or vending machine operator with the Secretary, as specified by the Secretary by regulation.

(II) Registration.—Within 120 days of March 23, 2010, the Secretary shall publish a notice in the Federal Register specifying the terms and conditions for implementation of item (I), pending promulgation of regulations.

(III) Rule of construction.—Nothing in this subclause shall be construed to authorize the Secretary to require an application, review, or licensing process for any entity to register with the Secretary, as described in such item.


(x) Regulations.—

(I) Proposed regulation.—Not later than 1 year after March 23, 2010, the Secretary shall promulgate proposed regulations to carry out this clause.

(II) Contents.—In promulgating regulations, the Secretary shall—

(aa) consider standardization of recipes and methods of preparation, reasonable variation in serving size and formulation of menu items, space on menus and menu boards, inadvertent human error, training of food service workers, variations in ingredients, and other factors, as the Secretary determines; and

(bb) specify the format and manner of the nutrient content disclosure requirements under this subclause.


(III) Reporting.—The Secretary shall submit to the Committee on Health, Education, Labor, and Pensions of the Senate and the Committee on Energy and Commerce of the House of Representatives a quarterly report that describes the Secretary's progress toward promulgating final regulations under this subparagraph.


(xi) Definition.—In this clause, the term “menu” or “menu board” means the primary writing of the restaurant or other similar retail food establishment from which a consumer makes an order selection.

(r) Nutrition levels and health-related claims

(1) Except as provided in clauses (A) through (C) of subparagraph (5), if it is a food intended for human consumption which is offered for sale and for which a claim is made in the label or labeling of the food which expressly or by implication—

(A) characterizes the level of any nutrient which is of the type required by paragraph (q)(1) or (q)(2) to be in the label or labeling of the food unless the claim is made in accordance with subparagraph (2), or

(B) characterizes the relationship of any nutrient which is of the type required by paragraph (q)(1) or (q)(2) to be in the label or labeling of the food to a disease or a health-related condition unless the claim is made in accordance with subparagraph (3) or (5)(D).


A statement of the type required by paragraph (q) that appears as part of the nutrition information required or permitted by such paragraph is not a claim which is subject to this paragraph and a claim subject to clause (A) is not subject to clause (B).

(2)(A) Except as provided in subparagraphs (4)(A)(ii) and (4)(A)(iii) and clauses (A) through (C) of subparagraph (5), a claim described in subparagraph (1)(A)—

(i) may be made only if the characterization of the level made in the claim uses terms which are defined in regulations of the Secretary,

(ii) may not state the absence of a nutrient unless—

(I) the nutrient is usually present in the food or in a food which substitutes for the food as defined by the Secretary by regulation, or

(II) the Secretary by regulation permits such a statement on the basis of a finding that such a statement would assist consumers in maintaining healthy dietary practices and the statement discloses that the nutrient is not usually present in the food,


(iii) may not be made with respect to the level of cholesterol in the food if the food contains, as determined by the Secretary by regulation, fat or saturated fat in an amount which increases to persons in the general population the risk of disease or a health related condition which is diet related unless—

(I) the Secretary finds by regulation that the level of cholesterol is substantially less than the level usually present in the food or in a food which substitutes for the food and which has a significant market share, or the Secretary by regulation permits a statement regarding the absence of cholesterol on the basis of a finding that cholesterol is not usually present in the food and that such a statement would assist consumers in maintaining healthy dietary practices and the regulation requires that the statement disclose that cholesterol is not usually present in the food, and

(II) the label or labeling of the food discloses the level of such fat or saturated fat in immediate proximity to such claim and with appropriate prominence which shall be no less than one-half the size of the claim with respect to the level of cholesterol,


(iv) may not be made with respect to the level of saturated fat in the food if the food contains cholesterol unless the label or labeling of the food discloses the level of cholesterol in the food in immediate proximity to such claim and with appropriate prominence which shall be no less than one-half the size of the claim with respect to the level of saturated fat,

(v) may not state that a food is high in dietary fiber unless the food is low in total fat as defined by the Secretary or the label or labeling discloses the level of total fat in the food in immediate proximity to such statement and with appropriate prominence which shall be no less than one-half the size of the claim with respect to the level of dietary fiber, and

(vi) may not be made if the Secretary by regulation prohibits the claim because the claim is misleading in light of the level of another nutrient in the food.


(B) If a claim described in subparagraph (1)(A) is made with respect to a nutrient in a food and the Secretary makes a determination that the food contains a nutrient at a level that increases to persons in the general population the risk of a disease or health-related condition that is diet related, the label or labeling of such food shall contain, prominently and in immediate proximity to such claim, the following statement: “See nutrition information for ______ content.” The blank shall identify the nutrient associated with the increased disease or health-related condition risk. In making the determination described in this clause, the Secretary shall take into account the significance of the food in the total daily diet.

(C) Subparagraph (2)(A) does not apply to a claim described in subparagraph (1)(A) and contained in the label or labeling of a food if such claim is contained in the brand name of such food and such brand name was in use on such food before October 25, 1989, unless the brand name contains a term defined by the Secretary under subparagraph (2)(A)(i). Such a claim is subject to paragraph (a).

(D) Subparagraph (2) does not apply to a claim described in subparagraph (1)(A) which uses the term “diet” and is contained in the label or labeling of a soft drink if (i) such claim is contained in the brand name of such soft drink, (ii) such brand name was in use on such soft drink before October 25, 1989, and (iii) the use of the term “diet” was in conformity with section 105.66 of title 21 of the Code of Federal Regulations. Such a claim is subject to paragraph (a).

(E) Subclauses (i) through (v) of subparagraph (2)(A) do not apply to a statement in the label or labeling of food which describes the percentage of vitamins and minerals in the food in relation to the amount of such vitamins and minerals recommended for daily consumption by the Secretary.

(F) Subclause (i) clause (A) does not apply to a statement in the labeling of a dietary supplement that characterizes the percentage level of a dietary ingredient for which the Secretary has not established a reference daily intake, daily recommended value, or other recommendation for daily consumption.

(G) A claim of the type described in subparagraph (1)(A) for a nutrient, for which the Secretary has not promulgated a regulation under clause (A)(i), shall be authorized and may be made with respect to a food if—

(i) a scientific body of the United States Government with official responsibility for public health protection or research directly relating to human nutrition (such as the National Institutes of Health or the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention) or the National Academy of Sciences or any of its subdivisions has published an authoritative statement, which is currently in effect, which identifies the nutrient level to which the claim refers;

(ii) a person has submitted to the Secretary, at least 120 days (during which the Secretary may notify any person who is making a claim as authorized by clause (C) that such person has not submitted all the information required by such clause) before the first introduction into interstate commerce of the food with a label containing the claim, (I) a notice of the claim, which shall include the exact words used in the claim and shall include a concise description of the basis upon which such person relied for determining that the requirements of subclause (i) have been satisfied, (II) a copy of the statement referred to in subclause (i) upon which such person relied in making the claim, and (III) a balanced representation of the scientific literature relating to the nutrient level to which the claim refers;

(iii) the claim and the food for which the claim is made are in compliance with clauses (A) and (B), and are otherwise in compliance with paragraph (a) and section 321(n) of this title; and

(iv) the claim is stated in a manner so that the claim is an accurate representation of the authoritative statement referred to in subclause (i) and so that the claim enables the public to comprehend the information provided in the claim and to understand the relative significance of such information in the context of a total daily diet.


For purposes of this clause, a statement shall be regarded as an authoritative statement of a scientific body described in subclause (i) only if the statement is published by the scientific body and shall not include a statement of an employee of the scientific body made in the individual capacity of the employee.

(H) A claim submitted under the requirements of clause (G) may be made until—

(i) such time as the Secretary issues a regulation—

(I) prohibiting or modifying the claim and the regulation has become effective, or

(II) finding that the requirements of clause (G) have not been met, including finding that the petitioner had not submitted all the information required by such clause; or


(ii) a district court of the United States in an enforcement proceeding under subchapter III of this chapter has determined that the requirements of clause (G) have not been met.


(3)(A) Except as provided in subparagraph (5), a claim described in subparagraph (1)(B) may only be made—

(i) if the claim meets the requirements of the regulations of the Secretary promulgated under clause (B), and

(ii) if the food for which the claim is made does not contain, as determined by the Secretary by regulation, any nutrient in an amount which increases to persons in the general population the risk of a disease or health-related condition which is diet related, taking into account the significance of the food in the total daily diet, except that the Secretary may by regulation permit such a claim based on a finding that such a claim would assist consumers in maintaining healthy dietary practices and based on a requirement that the label contain a disclosure of the type required by subparagraph (2)(B).


(B)(i) The Secretary shall promulgate regulations authorizing claims of the type described in subparagraph (1)(B) only if the Secretary determines, based on the totality of publicly available scientific evidence (including evidence from well-designed studies conducted in a manner which is consistent with generally recognized scientific procedures and principles), that there is significant scientific agreement, among experts qualified by scientific training and experience to evaluate such claims, that the claim is supported by such evidence.

(ii) A regulation described in subclause (i) shall describe—

(I) the relationship between a nutrient of the type required in the label or labeling of food by paragraph (q)(1) or (q)(2) and a disease or health-related condition, and

(II) the significance of each such nutrient in affecting such disease or health-related condition.


(iii) A regulation described in subclause (i) shall require such claim to be stated in a manner so that the claim is an accurate representation of the matters set out in subclause (ii) and so that the claim enables the public to comprehend the information provided in the claim and to understand the relative significance of such information in the context of a total daily diet.

(C) Notwithstanding the provisions of clauses (A)(i) and (B), a claim of the type described in subparagraph (1)(B) which is not authorized by the Secretary in a regulation promulgated in accordance with clause (B) shall be authorized and may be made with respect to a food if—

(i) a scientific body of the United States Government with official responsibility for public health protection or research directly relating to human nutrition (such as the National Institutes of Health or the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention) or the National Academy of Sciences or any of its subdivisions has published an authoritative statement, which is currently in effect, about the relationship between a nutrient and a disease or health-related condition to which the claim refers;

(ii) a person has submitted to the Secretary, at least 120 days (during which the Secretary may notify any person who is making a claim as authorized by clause (C) that such person has not submitted all the information required by such clause) before the first introduction into interstate commerce of the food with a label containing the claim, (I) a notice of the claim, which shall include the exact words used in the claim and shall include a concise description of the basis upon which such person relied for determining that the requirements of subclause (i) have been satisfied, (II) a copy of the statement referred to in subclause (i) upon which such person relied in making the claim, and (III) a balanced representation of the scientific literature relating to the relationship between a nutrient and a disease or health-related condition to which the claim refers;

(iii) the claim and the food for which the claim is made are in compliance with clause (A)(ii) and are otherwise in compliance with paragraph (a) and section 321(n) of this title; and

(iv) the claim is stated in a manner so that the claim is an accurate representation of the authoritative statement referred to in subclause (i) and so that the claim enables the public to comprehend the information provided in the claim and to understand the relative significance of such information in the context of a total daily diet.


For purposes of this clause, a statement shall be regarded as an authoritative statement of a scientific body described in subclause (i) only if the statement is published by the scientific body and shall not include a statement of an employee of the scientific body made in the individual capacity of the employee.

(D) A claim submitted under the requirements of clause (C) may be made until—

(i) such time as the Secretary issues a regulation under the standard in clause (B)(i)—

(I) prohibiting or modifying the claim and the regulation has become effective, or

(II) finding that the requirements of clause (C) have not been met, including finding that the petitioner has not submitted all the information required by such clause; or


(ii) a district court of the United States in an enforcement proceeding under subchapter III of this chapter has determined that the requirements of clause (C) have not been met.


(4)(A)(i) Any person may petition the Secretary to issue a regulation under subparagraph (2)(A)(i) or (3)(B) relating to a claim described in subparagraph (1)(A) or (1)(B). Not later than 100 days after the petition is received by the Secretary, the Secretary shall issue a final decision denying the petition or file the petition for further action by the Secretary. If the Secretary does not act within such 100 days, the petition shall be deemed to be denied unless an extension is mutually agreed upon by the Secretary and the petitioner. If the Secretary denies the petition or the petition is deemed to be denied, the petition shall not be made available to the public. If the Secretary files the petition, the Secretary shall deny the petition or issue a proposed regulation to take the action requested in the petition not later than 90 days after the date of such decision. If the Secretary does not act within such 90 days, the petition shall be deemed to be denied unless an extension is mutually agreed upon by the Secretary and the petitioner. If the Secretary issues a proposed regulation, the rulemaking shall be completed within 540 days of the date the petition is received by the Secretary. If the Secretary does not issue a regulation within such 540 days, the Secretary shall provide the Committee on Commerce of the House of Representatives and the Committee on Labor and Human Resources of the Senate the reasons action on the regulation did not occur within such 540 days.

(ii) Any person may petition the Secretary for permission to use in a claim described in subparagraph (1)(A) terms that are consistent with the terms defined by the Secretary under subparagraph (2)(A)(i). Within 90 days of the submission of such a petition, the Secretary shall issue a final decision denying the petition or granting such permission.

(iii) Any person may petition the Secretary for permission to use an implied claim described in subparagraph (1)(A) in a brand name. After publishing notice of an opportunity to comment on the petition in the Federal Register and making the petition available to the public, the Secretary shall grant the petition if the Secretary finds that such claim is not misleading and is consistent with terms defined by the Secretary under subparagraph (2)(A)(i). The Secretary shall grant or deny the petition within 100 days of the date it is submitted to the Secretary and the petition shall be considered granted if the Secretary does not act on it within such 100 days.

(B) A petition under clause (A)(i) respecting a claim described in subparagraph (1)(A) or (1)(B) shall include an explanation of the reasons why the claim meets the requirements of this paragraph and a summary of the scientific data which supports such reasons.

(C) If a petition for a regulation under subparagraph (3)(B) relies on a report from an authoritative scientific body of the United States, the Secretary shall consider such report and shall justify any decision rejecting the conclusions of such report.

(5)(A) This paragraph does not apply to infant formulas subject to section 350a(h) of this title and medical foods as defined in section 360ee(b) of this title.

(B) Subclauses (iii) through (v) of subparagraph (2)(A) and subparagraph (2)(B) do not apply to food which is served in restaurants or other establishments in which food is served for immediate human consumption or which is sold for sale or use in such establishments.

(C) A subparagraph (1)(A) claim made with respect to a food which claim is required by a standard of identity issued under section 341 of this title shall not be subject to subparagraph (2)(A)(i) or (2)(B).

(D) A subparagraph (1)(B) claim made with respect to a dietary supplement of vitamins, minerals, herbs, or other similar nutritional substances shall not be subject to subparagraph (3) but shall be subject to a procedure and standard, respecting the validity of such claim, established by regulation of the Secretary.

(6) For purposes of paragraph (r)(1)(B), a statement for a dietary supplement may be made if—

(A) the statement claims a benefit related to a classical nutrient deficiency disease and discloses the prevalence of such disease in the United States, describes the role of a nutrient or dietary ingredient intended to affect the structure or function in humans, characterizes the documented mechanism by which a nutrient or dietary ingredient acts to maintain such structure or function, or describes general well-being from consumption of a nutrient or dietary ingredient,

(B) the manufacturer of the dietary supplement has substantiation that such statement is truthful and not misleading, and

(C) the statement contains, prominently displayed and in boldface type, the following: “This statement has not been evaluated by the Food and Drug Administration. This product is not intended to diagnose, treat, cure, or prevent any disease.”.


A statement under this subparagraph may not claim to diagnose, mitigate, treat, cure, or prevent a specific disease or class of diseases. If the manufacturer of a dietary supplement proposes to make a statement described in the first sentence of this subparagraph in the labeling of the dietary supplement, the manufacturer shall notify the Secretary no later than 30 days after the first marketing of the dietary supplement with such statement that such a statement is being made.

(7) The Secretary may make proposed regulations issued under this paragraph effective upon publication pending consideration of public comment and publication of a final regulation if the Secretary determines that such action is necessary—

(A) to enable the Secretary to review and act promptly on petitions the Secretary determines provide for information necessary to—

(i) enable consumers to develop and maintain healthy dietary practices;

(ii) enable consumers to be informed promptly and effectively of important new knowledge regarding nutritional and health benefits of food; or

(iii) ensure that scientifically sound nutritional and health information is provided to consumers as soon as possible; or


(B) to enable the Secretary to act promptly to ban or modify a claim under this paragraph.


Such proposed regulations shall be deemed final agency action for purposes of judicial review.

(s) Dietary supplements

If—

(1) it is a dietary supplement; and

(2)(A) the label or labeling of the supplement fails to list—

(i) the name of each ingredient of the supplement that is described in section 321(ff) of this title; and

(ii)(I) the quantity of each such ingredient; or

(II) with respect to a proprietary blend of such ingredients, the total quantity of all ingredients in the blend;


(B) the label or labeling of the dietary supplement fails to identify the product by using the term “dietary supplement”, which term may be modified with the name of such an ingredient;

(C) the supplement contains an ingredient described in section 321(ff)(1)(C) of this title, and the label or labeling of the supplement fails to identify any part of the plant from which the ingredient is derived;

(D) the supplement—

(i) is covered by the specifications of an official compendium;

(ii) is represented as conforming to the specifications of an official compendium; and

(iii) fails to so conform; or


(E) the supplement—

(i) is not covered by the specifications of an official compendium; and

(ii)(I) fails to have the identity and strength that the supplement is represented to have; or

(II) fails to meet the quality (including tablet or capsule disintegration), purity, or compositional specifications, based on validated assay or other appropriate methods, that the supplement is represented to meet.


A dietary supplement shall not be deemed misbranded solely because its label or labeling contains directions or conditions of use or warnings.

(t) Catfish

If it purports to be or is represented as catfish, unless it is fish classified within the family Ictaluridae.

(u) Ginseng

If it purports to be or is represented as ginseng, unless it is an herb or herbal ingredient derived from a plant classified within the genus Panax.

(v) Failure to label; health threat

If—

(1) it fails to bear a label required by the Secretary under section 381(n)(1) of this title (relating to food refused admission into the United States);

(2) the Secretary finds that the food presents a threat of serious adverse health consequences or death to humans or animals; and

(3) upon or after notifying the owner or consignee involved that the label is required under section 381 of this title, the Secretary informs the owner or consignee that the food presents such a threat.

(w) Major food allergen labeling requirements

(1) If it is not a raw agricultural commodity and it is, or it contains an ingredient that bears or contains, a major food allergen, unless either—

(A) the word “Contains”, followed by the name of the food source from which the major food allergen is derived, is printed immediately after or is adjacent to the list of ingredients (in a type size no smaller than the type size used in the list of ingredients) required under subsections (g) and (i) of this section; or

(B) the common or usual name of the major food allergen in the list of ingredients required under subsections (g) and (i) of this section is followed in parentheses by the name of the food source from which the major food allergen is derived, except that the name of the food source is not required when—

(i) the common or usual name of the ingredient uses the name of the food source from which the major food allergen is derived; or

(ii) the name of the food source from which the major food allergen is derived appears elsewhere in the ingredient list, unless the name of the food source that appears elsewhere in the ingredient list appears as part of the name of a food ingredient that is not a major food allergen under section 321(qq)(2)(A) or (B) of this title.


(2) As used in this subsection, the term “name of the food source from which the major food allergen is derived” means the name described in section 321(qq)(1) of this title; provided that in the case of a tree nut, fish, or Crustacean shellfish, the term “name of the food source from which the major food allergen is derived” means the name of the specific type of nut or species of fish or Crustacean shellfish.

(3) The information required under this subsection may appear in labeling in lieu of appearing on the label only if the Secretary finds that such other labeling is sufficient to protect the public health. A finding by the Secretary under this paragraph (including any change in an earlier finding under this paragraph) is effective upon publication in the Federal Register as a notice.

(4) Notwithstanding subsection (g), (i), or (k) of this section, or any other law, a flavoring, coloring, or incidental additive that is, or that bears or contains, a major food allergen shall be subject to the labeling requirements of this subsection.

(5) The Secretary may by regulation modify the requirements of subparagraph (A) or (B) of paragraph (1), or eliminate either the requirement of subparagraph (A) or the requirements of subparagraph (B) of paragraph (1), if the Secretary determines that the modification or elimination of the requirement of subparagraph (A) or the requirements of subparagraph (B) is necessary to protect the public health.

(6)(A) Any person may petition the Secretary to exempt a food ingredient described in section 321(qq)(2) of this title from the allergen labeling requirements of this subsection.

(B) The Secretary shall approve or deny such petition within 180 days of receipt of the petition or the petition shall be deemed denied, unless an extension of time is mutually agreed upon by the Secretary and the petitioner.

(C) The burden shall be on the petitioner to provide scientific evidence (including the analytical method used to produce the evidence) that demonstrates that such food ingredient, as derived by the method specified in the petition, does not cause an allergic response that poses a risk to human health.

(D) A determination regarding a petition under this paragraph shall constitute final agency action.

(E) The Secretary shall promptly post to a public site all petitions received under this paragraph within 14 days of receipt and the Secretary shall promptly post the Secretary's response to each.

(7)(A) A person need not file a petition under paragraph (6) to exempt a food ingredient described in section 321(qq)(2) of this title from the allergen labeling requirements of this subsection, if the person files with the Secretary a notification containing—

(i) scientific evidence (including the analytical method used) that demonstrates that the food ingredient (as derived by the method specified in the notification, where applicable) does not contain allergenic protein; or

(ii) a determination by the Secretary that the ingredient does not cause an allergic response that poses a risk to human health under a premarket approval or notification program under section 348 of this title.


(B) The food ingredient may be introduced or delivered for introduction into interstate commerce as a food ingredient that is not a major food allergen 90 days after the date of receipt of the notification by the Secretary, unless the Secretary determines within the 90-day period that the notification does not meet the requirements of this paragraph, or there is insufficient scientific evidence to determine that the food ingredient does not contain allergenic protein or does not cause an allergenic response that poses a risk to human health.

(C) The Secretary shall promptly post to a public site all notifications received under this subparagraph within 14 days of receipt and promptly post any objections thereto by the Secretary.

(x) Nonmajor food allergen labeling requirements

Notwithstanding subsection (g), (i), or (k) of this section, or any other law, a spice, flavoring, coloring, or incidental additive that is, or that bears or contains, a food allergen (other than a major food allergen), as determined by the Secretary by regulation, shall be disclosed in a manner specified by the Secretary by regulation.

(y) Dietary supplements

If it is a dietary supplement that is marketed in the United States, unless the label of such dietary supplement includes a domestic address or domestic phone number through which the responsible person (as described in section 379aa–1 of this title) may receive a report of a serious adverse event with such dietary supplement.

(June 25, 1938, ch. 675, §403, 52 Stat. 1047; Pub. L. 86–537, §1, June 29, 1960, 74 Stat. 251; Pub. L. 86–618, title I, §102(a)(3), July 12, 1960, 74 Stat. 398; Pub. L. 91–601, §6(c), formerly §7(c), Dec. 30, 1970, 84 Stat. 1673, renumbered Pub. L. 97–35, title XII, §1205(c), Aug. 13, 1981, 95 Stat. 716; Pub. L. 94–278, title V, §502(a)(1), Apr. 22, 1976, 90 Stat. 411; Pub. L. 95–203, §4(a)(1), (b)(1), Nov. 23, 1977, 91 Stat. 1452, 1453; Pub. L. 101–535, §§2(a), 3(a), 7, Nov. 8, 1990, 104 Stat. 2353, 2357, 2364; Pub. L. 102–108, §2(a), (c), Aug. 17, 1991, 105 Stat. 549; Pub. L. 102–571, title I, §107(5), (6), Oct. 29, 1992, 106 Stat. 4499; Pub. L. 103–80, §§2(b), 3(j), Aug. 13, 1993, 107 Stat. 773, 776; Pub. L. 103–417, §§6, 7(a)–(c), 10(c), Oct. 25, 1994, 108 Stat. 4329, 4330, 4332; Pub. L. 104–124, §1, Apr. 1, 1996, 110 Stat. 882; Pub. L. 105–115, title III, §§301–305, Nov. 21, 1997, 111 Stat. 2350–2353; Pub. L. 106–554, §1(a)(1) [title V, §517], Dec. 21, 2000, 114 Stat. 2763, 2763A–73; Pub. L. 107–171, title X, §§10806(a)(2), (b)(2), 10808(b), May 13, 2002, 116 Stat. 526, 527, 530; Pub. L. 107–188, title III, §308(b), June 12, 2002, 116 Stat. 672; Pub. L. 108–282, title II, §203(a), Aug. 2, 2004, 118 Stat. 906; Pub. L. 109–462, §3(c), Dec. 22, 2006, 120 Stat. 3475; Pub. L. 111–148, title IV, §4205(a), (b), Mar. 23, 2010, 124 Stat. 573.)

Amendments

2010—Par. (q)(5)(A)(i). Pub. L. 111–148, §4205(a)(1), inserted “except as provided in clause (H)(ii)(III),” before “which is served”.

Par. (q)(5)(A)(ii). Pub. L. 111–148, §4205(a)(2), inserted “except as provided in clause (H)(ii)(III),” before “which is processed”.

Par. (q)(5)(H). Pub. L. 111–148, §4205(b), added cl. (H).

2006—Par. (y). Pub. L. 109–462 added par. (y).

2004—Pars. (w), (x). Pub. L. 108–282 added pars. (w) and (x).

2002—Par. (h). Pub. L. 107–171, §10808(b), added subpar. (3) and concluding provisions.

Par. (t). Pub. L. 107–171, §10806(a)(2), added par. (t).

Par. (u). Pub. L. 107–171, §10806(b)(2), added par. (u).

Par. (v). Pub. L. 107–188 added par. (v).

2000—Par. (o). Pub. L. 106–554, which directed repeal of section 403(o) of the Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act, was executed by repealing par. (o) of this section, which is section 403 of the Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act, to reflect the probable intent of Congress. Prior to repeal, par. (o) provided that a food containing saccharin was to be deemed misbranded unless a specified warning statement was placed in a conspicuous place on its label.

1997—Par. (r)(2)(B). Pub. L. 105–115, §305, amended cl. (B) generally. Prior to amendment, cl. (B) read as follows: “If a claim described in subparagraph (1)(A) is made with respect to a nutrient in a food, the label or labeling of such food shall contain, prominently and in immediate proximity to such claim, the following statement: ‘See __________ for nutrition information.’. In the statement—

“(i) the blank shall identify the panel on which the information described in the statement may be found, and

“(ii) if the Secretary determines that the food contains a nutrient at a level which increases to persons in the general population the risk of a disease or health-related condition which is diet related, taking into account the significance of the food in the total daily diet, the statement shall also identify such nutrient.”

Par. (r)(2)(G), (H). Pub. L. 105–115, §304, added cls. (G) and (H).

Par. (r)(3)(C), (D). Pub. L. 105–115, §303, added cls. (C) and (D).

Par. (r)(4)(A)(i). Pub. L. 105–115, §302, inserted after second sentence “If the Secretary does not act within such 100 days, the petition shall be deemed to be denied unless an extension is mutually agreed upon by the Secretary and the petitioner.”, inserted “or the petition is deemed to be denied” after “If the Secretary denies the petition”, and inserted at end “If the Secretary does not act within such 90 days, the petition shall be deemed to be denied unless an extension is mutually agreed upon by the Secretary and the petitioner. If the Secretary issues a proposed regulation, the rulemaking shall be completed within 540 days of the date the petition is received by the Secretary. If the Secretary does not issue a regulation within such 540 days, the Secretary shall provide the Committee on Commerce of the House of Representatives and the Committee on Labor and Human Resources of the Senate the reasons action on the regulation did not occur within such 540 days.”

Par. (r)(7). Pub. L. 105–115, §301, added subpar. (7).

1996—Par. (p). Pub. L. 104–124 struck out par. (p), which deemed products containing saccharin and offered for sale, but not for immediate consumption, by retail establishment, to be misbranded, unless notice of information required by subsec. (o) was provided by manufacturer and prominently displayed near product.

1994—Par. (q)(5)(F). Pub. L. 103–417, §7(b), amended cl. (F) generally. Prior to amendment, cl. (F) read as follows: “If a food to which section 350 of this title applies (as defined in section 350(c) of this title) contains one or more of the nutrients required by subparagraph (1) or (2) to be in the label or labeling of the food, the label or labeling of such food shall comply with the requirements of subparagraphs (1) and (2) in a manner which is appropriate for such food and which is specified in regulations of the Secretary.”

Par. (r)(2)(F). Pub. L. 103–417, §7(c), added cl. (F).

Par. (r)(6). Pub. L. 103–417, §6, added subpar. (6).

Par. (s). Pub. L. 103–417, §10(c), inserted at end: “A dietary supplement shall not be deemed misbranded solely because its label or labeling contains directions or conditions of use or warnings.”

Pub. L. 103–417, §7(a), added par. (s).

1993—Par. (e). Pub. L. 103–80, §3(j)(1), substituted “count, except that” for “count: Provided, That”.

Par. (i). Pub. L. 103–80, §3(j)(2), substituted “unless sold as spices, flavorings, or such colors” for “, other than those sold as such” and “naming each. To the extent” for “naming each: Provided, That, to the extent”.

Par. (k). Pub. L. 103–80, §3(j)(3), substituted “, except that” for “: Provided, That”.

Par. (l). Pub. L. 103–80, §3(j)(4), substituted “chemical, except that” for “chemical: Provided, however, That”.

Par. (q)(5)(E) to (G). Pub. L. 103–80, §2(b), added cl. (E) and redesignated former cls. (E) and (F) as (F) and (G), respectively.

Par. (r)(1)(B). Pub. L. 103–80, §3(j)(5), substituted “(5)(D)” for “5(D)”.

Par. (r)(4)(B). Pub. L. 103–80, §3(j)(6), substituted “paragraph” for “subsection”.

1992—Par. (i). Pub. L. 102–571, §107(5), substituted “379e(c)” for “376(c)”.

Par. (m). Pub. L. 102–571, §107(6), substituted “379e” for “376”.

1991—Par. (i). Pub. L. 102–108, §2(c), amended directory language of Pub. L. 101–535, §7(1), (3). See 1990 Amendment note below.

Par. (q)(4)(A). Pub. L. 102–108, §2(a), substituted “(D)” for “(C)”.

1990—Par. (i). Pub. L. 101–535, §7, as amended by Pub. L. 102–108, §2(c), substituted “Unless” for “If it is not subject to the provisions of paragraph (g) unless”, inserted “and if the food purports to be a beverage containing vegetable or fruit juice, a statement with appropriate prominence on the information panel of the total percentage of such fruit or vegetable juice contained in the food”, and substituted “colors not required to be certified under section 376(c) of this title” for “colorings” the first time appearing.

Par. (q). Pub. L. 101–535, §2(a), added par. (q).

Par. (r). Pub. L. 101–535, §3(a), added par. (r).

1977—Par. (o). Pub. L. 95–203, §4(a)(1), added par. (o).

Par. (p). Pub. L. 95–203, §4(b)(1), added par. (p).

1976—Par. (a). Pub. L. 94–278 inserted “(1)” after “If” and inserted “, or (2) in the case of a food to which section 350 of this title applies, its advertising is false or misleading in a material respect or its labeling is in violation of section 350(b)(2) of this title” after “any particular”.

1970—Par. (n). Pub. L. 91–601 added par. (n).

1960—Par. (k). Pub. L. 86–537, §1(1), exempted pesticide chemicals when used in or on a raw agricultural commodity which is the produce of the soil.

Par. (l). Pub. L. 86–537, §1(2), added par. (l).

Par. (m). Pub. L. 86–618 added par. (m).

Change of Name

Committee on Commerce of House of Representatives changed to Committee on Energy and Commerce of House of Representatives, and jurisdiction over matters relating to securities and exchanges and insurance generally transferred to Committee on Financial Services of House of Representatives by House Resolution No. 5, One Hundred Seventh Congress, Jan. 3, 2001.

Committee on Labor and Human Resources of Senate changed to Committee on Health, Education, Labor, and Pensions of Senate by Senate Resolution No. 20, One Hundred Sixth Congress, Jan. 19, 1999.

Effective Date of 2006 Amendment

Pub. L. 109–462, §3(d)(1), (2), Dec. 22, 2006, 120 Stat. 3475, provided that:

“(1) In general.—Except as provided in paragraph (2), the amendments made by this section [enacting section 379aa–1 of this title and amending this section and section 331 of this title] shall take effect 1 year after the date of enactment of this Act [Dec. 22, 2006].

“(2) Misbranding.—Section 403(y) of the Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act [21 U.S.C. 343(y)] (as added by this section) shall apply to any dietary supplement labeled on or after the date that is 1 year after the date of enactment of this Act [Dec. 22, 2006].”

Effective Date of 2004 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 108–282 applicable to any food that is labeled on or after Jan. 1, 2006, see section 203(d) of Pub. L. 108–282, set out as a note under section 321 of this title.

Effective Date of 1997 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 105–115 effective 90 days after Nov. 21, 1997, except as otherwise provided, see section 501 of Pub. L. 105–115, set out as a note under section 321 of this title.

Effective Date of 1994 Amendment

Section 7(e) of Pub. L. 103–417 provided that: “Dietary supplements—

“(1) may be labeled after the date of the enactment of this Act [Oct. 25, 1994] in accordance with the amendments made by this section [amending this section and section 350 of this title], and

“(2) shall be labeled after December 31, 1996, in accordance with such amendments.”

Effective Date of 1990 Amendment

Section 10(a) of Pub. L. 101–535, as amended by Pub. L. 102–571, title II, §202(a)(3), Oct. 29, 1992, 106 Stat. 4501, provided that:

“(1) Except as provided in paragraph (2)—

“(A) the amendments made by section 2 [amending this section] shall take effect 6 months after—

“(i) the date of the promulgation of all final regulations required to implement section 403(q) of the Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act [21 U.S.C. 343(q)], or

“(ii) if such regulations are not promulgated, the date proposed regulations are to be considered as such final regulations [Nov. 8, 1992, see 57 F.R. 56347],

except that section 403(q)(4) of such Act shall take effect as prescribed by such section,

“(B) the amendments made by section 3 [amending this section] shall take effect 6 months after—

“(i) the date of the promulgation of final regulations to implement section 403(r) of the Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act, or

“(ii) if such regulations are not promulgated, the date proposed regulations are to be considered as such final regulations [Nov. 8, 1992, see 57 F.R. 56347], except that any person marketing a food the brand name of which contains a term defined by the Secretary under section 403(r)(2)(A)(i) of the Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act shall be given an additional 6 months to comply with section 3,

“(C) the amendments made by section 4 [amending section 337 of this title] shall take effect 24 months after the date of the enactment of this Act [Nov. 8, 1990], except that such amendments shall take effect with respect to such dietary supplements [probably means dietary supplements of vitamins, minerals, herbs, or other similar nutritional substances, see section 202(a)(1) of Pub. L. 102–571, set out below] on December 31, 1993, and

“(D) the amendments made by section 5 [amending sections 321 and 345 of this title] shall take effect on the date the amendments made by section 3 take effect.

“(2) Section 403(q) of the Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act (as added by section 2) shall not apply with respect to food which was labeled before the effective date of the amendments made by section 2 and section 403(r) of the Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act (as added by section 3) shall not apply with respect to food which was labeled before the effective date of the amendments made by section 3.

“(3)(A) If the Secretary finds that a person who is subject to section 403(q)(4) of such Act is unable to comply with the requirements of such section upon the effective date of final regulations to implement section 403(q) of such Act or of proposed regulations to be considered as such final regulations because the Secretary has not made available to such person the information required by such section, the Secretary shall delay the application of such section to such person for such time as the Secretary may require to provide such information.

“(B) If the Secretary finds that compliance with section 403(q) or 403(r)(2) of such Act would cause an undue economic hardship, the Secretary may delay the application of such sections for no more than one year.”

Section 10(c) of Pub. L. 101–535, as amended by Pub. L. 102–108, §1, Aug. 17, 1991, 105 Stat. 549; Pub. L. 102–571, title I, §107(17), Oct. 29, 1992, 106 Stat. 4500, provided that:

“(1) Except as provided in paragraphs (2) and (3), the amendments made by section 7 [amending this section] shall take effect one year after the date of the enactment of this Act [Nov. 8, 1990].

“(2)(A) If a food subject to section 403(g) of the Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act [21 U.S.C. 343(g)] or a food with one or more colors required to be certified under section 721(c) [of the Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act, 21 U.S.C. 379e(c)] bears a label which was printed before July 1, 1991, and which is attached to the food before May 8, 1993, such food shall not be subject to the amendments made by section 7(1) and section 7(3) [amending this section].

“(B) If a food described in subparagraph (A)—

“(i) bears a label which was printed after July 1, 1991, but before the date the proposed regulation described in clause (ii) takes effect as a final regulation and which was attached to the food before May 8, 1993, and

“(ii) meets the requirements of the proposed regulation of the Secretary of Health and Human Services published in 56 Fed. Reg. 28592–28636 (June 21, 1991) as it pertains to the amendments made by this Act [see Short Title of 1990 Amendment note set out under section 301 of this title],

such food shall not be subject to the amendments made by section 7(1) and section 7(3) [amending this section].

“(3) A food purported to be a beverage containing a vegetable or fruit juice which bears a label attached to the food before May 8, 1993, shall not be subject to the amendments made by section 7(2) [amending this section].”

Effective Date of 1977 Amendment

Section 4(a)(2) of Pub. L. 95–203 provided that: “The amendment made by paragraph (1) [amending this section] shall apply only with respect to food introduced or delivered for introduction in interstate commerce on and after the 90th day after the date of the enactment of this Act [Nov. 23, 1977].”

Section 4(b)(2) of Pub. L. 95–203 provided that: “The amendment made by paragraph (1) [amending this section] shall apply with respect to food which is sold in retail establishments on or after the 90th day after the effective date of the regulations of the Secretary of Health, Education, and Welfare [now Secretary of Health and Human Services] under paragraph (p)(4) of the Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act [21 U.S.C. 343(p)(4)].”

Effective Date of 1976 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 94–278 effective 180 days after Apr. 22, 1976, see section 502(c) of Pub. L. 94–278, set out as a note under section 334 of this title.

Effective Date of 1970 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 91–601 effective Dec. 30, 1970, and regulations establishing special packaging standards effective no sooner than 180 days or later than one year from date regulations are final, or an earlier date published in Federal Register, see section 8 of Pub. L. 91–601, set out as an Effective Date note under section 1471 of Title 15, Commerce and Trade.

Effective Date of 1960 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 86–618 effective July 12, 1960, subject to the provisions of section 203 of Pub. L. 86–618, see section 202 of Pub. L. 86–618, set out as a note under section 379e of this title.

Effective Date; Postponement

Subsecs. (e)(1) and (g) to (k) effective Jan. 1, 1940, and such subsections effective July 1, 1940, as provided by regulations for certain lithographed labeling and containers bearing certain labeling, see act June 23, 1939, ch. 242, 53 Stat. 853, set out as an Effective Date; Postponement in Certain Cases note under section 301 of this title.

Construction of Amendment by Pub. L. 111–148

Pub. L. 111–148, title IV, §4205(d), Mar. 23, 2010, 124 Stat. 576, provided that: “Nothing in the amendments made by this section [amending this section and section 343–1 of this title] shall be construed—

“(1) to preempt any provision of State or local law, unless such provision establishes or continues into effect nutrient content disclosures of the type required under section 403(q)(5)(H) of the Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act [21 U.S.C. 343(q)(5)(H)] (as added by subsection (b)) and is expressly preempted under subsection (a)(4) of such section;

“(2) to apply to any State or local requirement respecting a statement in the labeling of food that provides for a warning concerning the safety of the food or component of the food; or

“(3) except as provided in section 403(q)(5)(H)(ix) of the Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act [21 U.S.C. 343(q)(5)(H)(ix)] (as added by subsection (b)), to apply to any restaurant or similar retail food establishment other than a restaurant or similar retail food establishment described in section 403(q)(5)(H)(i) of such Act [21 U.S.C. 343(q)(5)(H)(i)].”

Construction of Amendment by Pub. L. 108–282

Pub. L. 108–282, title II, §203(b), Aug. 2, 2004, 118 Stat. 908, provided that: “The amendments made by this section [amending this section and sections 321 and 343–1 of this title] that require a label or labeling for major food allergens do not alter the authority of the Secretary of Health and Human Services under the Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act (21 U.S.C. 301 et seq.) to require a label or labeling for other food allergens.”

Construction of Amendment by Pub. L. 107–188

Nothing in amendment by Pub. L. 107–188 to be construed to limit authority of Secretary of Health and Human Services or Secretary of the Treasury to require marking of articles of food imported or offered for import into the United States which are refused admission, see section 308(c) of Pub. L. 107–188, set out as a note under section 381 of this title.

Construction of Amendments by Pub. L. 101–535

Section 9 of Pub. L. 101–535 provided that: “The amendments made by this Act [enacting section 343–1 of this title and amending this section and sections 321, 337, 345, and 371 of this title] shall not be construed to alter the authority of the Secretary of Health and Human Services and the Secretary of Agriculture under the Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act [21 U.S.C. 301 et seq.], the Federal Meat Inspection Act [21 U.S.C. 601 et seq.], the Poultry Products Inspection Act [21 U.S.C. 451 et seq.], and the Egg Products Inspection Act [21 U.S.C. 1031 et seq.].”

Findings

Pub. L. 108–282, title II, §202, Aug. 2, 2004, 118 Stat. 905, provided that: “Congress finds that—

“(1) it is estimated that—

“(A) approximately 2 percent of adults and about 5 percent of infants and young children in the United States suffer from food allergies; and

“(B) each year, roughly 30,000 individuals require emergency room treatment and 150 individuals die because of allergic reactions to food;

“(2)(A) eight major foods or food groups—milk, eggs, fish, Crustacean shellfish, tree nuts, peanuts, wheat, and soybeans—account for 90 percent of food allergies;

“(B) at present, there is no cure for food allergies; and

“(C) a food allergic consumer must avoid the food to which the consumer is allergic;

“(3)(A) in a review of the foods of randomly selected manufacturers of baked goods, ice cream, and candy in Minnesota and Wisconsin in 1999, the Food and Drug Administration found that 25 percent of sampled foods failed to list peanuts or eggs as ingredients on the food labels; and

“(B) nationally, the number of recalls because of unlabeled allergens rose to 121 in 2000 from about 35 a decade earlier;

“(4) a recent study shows that many parents of children with a food allergy were unable to correctly identify in each of several food labels the ingredients derived from major food allergens;

“(5)(A) ingredients in foods must be listed by their ‘common or usual name’;

“(B) in some cases, the common or usual name of an ingredient may be unfamiliar to consumers, and many consumers may not realize the ingredient is derived from, or contains, a major food allergen; and

“(C) in other cases, the ingredients may be declared as a class, including spices, flavorings, and certain colorings, or are exempt from the ingredient labeling requirements, such as incidental additives; and

“(6)(A) celiac disease is an immune-mediated disease that causes damage to the gastrointestinal tract, central nervous system, and other organs;

“(B) the current recommended treatment is avoidance of glutens in foods that are associated with celiac disease; and

“(C) a multicenter, multiyear study estimated that the prevalence of celiac disease in the United States is 0.5 to 1 percent of the general population.”

Regulations

Section 2(b) of Pub. L. 101–535, as amended by Pub. L. 102–571, title II, §202(a)(2)(A), (B), Oct. 29, 1992, 106 Stat. 4500, 4501, provided that:

“(1) The Secretary of Health and Human Services shall issue proposed regulations to implement section 403(q) of the Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act [21 U.S.C. 343(q)] within 12 months after the date of the enactment of this Act [Nov. 8, 1990], except that the Secretary shall issue, not later than June 15, 1993, proposed regulations that are applicable to dietary supplements of vitamins, minerals, herbs, or other similar nutritional substances to implement such section. Not later than 24 months after the date of the enactment of this Act, the Secretary shall issue final regulations to implement the requirements of such section, except that the Secretary shall issue, not later than December 31, 1993, such a final regulation applicable to dietary supplements of vitamins, minerals, herbs, or other similar nutritional substances..[sic] Such regulations shall—

“(A) require the required information to be conveyed to the public in a manner which enables the public to readily observe and comprehend such information and to understand its relative significance in the context of a total daily diet,

“(B) include regulations which establish standards, in accordance with paragraph (1)(A), to define serving size or other unit of measure for food,

“(C) permit the label or labeling of food to include nutrition information which is in addition to the information required by such section 403(q) and which is of the type described in subparagraph (1) or (2) of such section, and

“(D) permit the nutrition information on the label or labeling of a food to remain the same or permit the information to be stated as a range even though (i) there are minor variations in the nutritional value of the food which occur in the normal course of the production or processing of the food, or (ii) the food is comprised of an assortment of similar foods which have variations in nutritional value.

“(2) If the Secretary of Health and Human Services does not promulgate final regulations under paragraph (1) upon the expiration of 24 months after the date of the enactment of this Act, the proposed regulations issued in accordance with paragraph (1) shall be considered as the final regulations upon the expiration of such 24 months, except that the proposed regulations applicable to dietary supplements of vitamins, minerals, herbs, or other similar nutritional substances shall not be considered to be final regulations until December 31, 1993. There shall be promptly published in the Federal Register notice of new status of the proposed regulations [see 57 F.R. 56347].

“(3) If the Secretary of Health and Human Services does not promulgate final regulations under section 403(q)(4) of the Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act upon the expiration of 6 months after the date on which the Secretary makes a finding that there has been no substantial compliance with section 403(q)(4)(C) of such Act, the proposed regulations issued in accordance with such section shall be considered as the final regulations upon the expiration of such 6 months. There shall be promptly published in the Federal Register notice of new status of the proposed regulations.”

[Section 202(a)(2)(C) of Pub. L. 102–571 provided that: “The amendments made by subparagraph (B) [amending sections 2(b) and 3(b) of Pub. L. 101–535, set out above and below] shall not be construed to modify the effective date of final regulations under sections 2(b) and 3(b) of the Nutrition Labeling and Education Act of 1990 [Pub. L. 101–535] (21 U.S.C. 343 note) with respect to foods that are not such dietary supplements.”]

Section 3(b) of Pub. L. 101–535, as amended by Pub. L. 102–571, title II, §202(a)(2)(A), (B), Oct. 29, 1992, 106 Stat. 4500, 4501, provided that:

“(1)(A) Within 12 months of the date of the enactment of this Act [Nov. 8, 1990], the Secretary of Health and Human Services shall issue proposed regulations to implement section 403(r) of the Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act [21 U.S.C. 343(r)], except that the Secretary shall issue, not later than June 15, 1993, proposed regulations that are applicable to dietary supplements of vitamins, minerals, herbs, or other similar nutritional substances to implement such section. Such regulations—

“(i) shall identify claims described in section 403(r)(1)(A) of such Act which comply with section 403(r)(2) of such Act,

“(ii) shall identify claims described in section 403(r)(1)(B) of such Act which comply with section 403(r)(3) of such Act,

“(iii) shall, in defining terms used to characterize the level of any nutrient in food under section 403(r)(2)(A)(i) of such Act, define—

“(I) free,

“(II) low,

“(III) light or lite,

“(IV) reduced,

“(V) less, and

“(VI) high,

unless the Secretary finds that the use of any such term would be misleading,

“(iv) shall permit statements describing the amount and percentage of nutrients in food which are not misleading and are consistent with the terms defined in section 403(r)(2)(A)(i) of such Act,

“(v) shall provide that if multiple claims subject to section 403(r)(1)(A) of such Act are made on a single panel of the food label or page of a labeling brochure, a single statement may be made to satisfy section 403(r)(2)(B) of such Act,

“(vi) shall determine whether claims respecting the following nutrients and diseases meet the requirements of section 403(r)(3) of such Act: Calcium and osteoporosis, dietary fiber and cancer, lipids and cardiovascular disease, lipids and cancer, sodium and hypertension, and dietary fiber and cardiovascular disease,

“(vii) shall not require a person who proposes to make a claim described in section 403(r)(1)(B) of such Act which is in compliance with such regulations to secure the approval of the Secretary before making such claim,

“(viii) may permit a claim described in section 403(r)(1)(A) of such Act to be made for butter,

“(ix) may, in defining terms under section 403(r)(2)(A)(i), include similar terms which are commonly understood to have the same meaning, and

“(x) shall establish, as required by section 403(r)(5)(D), the procedure and standard respecting the validity of claims made with respect to a dietary supplement of vitamins, minerals, herbs, or other similar nutritional substances and shall determine whether claims respecting the following nutrients and diseases meet the requirements of section 403(r)(5)(D) of such Act: folic acid and neural tube defects, antioxident [sic] vitamins and cancer, zinc and immune function in the elderly, and omega-3 fatty acids and heart disease.

“(B) Not later than 24 months after the date of the enactment of this Act, the Secretary shall issue final regulations to implement section 403(r) of the Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act, except that the Secretary shall issue, not later than December 31, 1993, such a final regulation applicable to dietary supplements of vitamins, minerals, herbs, or other similar nutritional substances..[sic]

“(2) If the Secretary does not promulgate final regulations under paragraph (1)(B) upon the expiration of 24 months after the date of the enactment of this Act, the proposed regulations issued in accordance with paragraph (1)(A) shall be considered as the final regulations upon the expiration of such 24 months, except that the proposed regulations applicable to dietary supplements of vitamins, minerals, herbs, or other similar nutritional substances shall not be considered to be final regulations until December 31, 1993. There shall be promptly published in the Federal Register notice of the new status of the proposed regulations [see 57 F.R. 56347].”

[For construction of amendment made by section 202(a)(2)(B) of Pub. L. 102–571 to section 3(b) of Pub. L. 101–535 set out above, see section 202(a)(2)(C) of Pub. L. 102–571 set out above following section 2(b) of Pub. L. 101–535.]

Transfer of Functions

For transfer of functions of Federal Security Administrator to Secretary of Health, Education, and Welfare [now Health and Human Services], and of Food and Drug Administration in the Department of Agriculture to Federal Security Agency, see notes set out under section 321 of this title.

Rulemaking on Labeling

Pub. L. 108–282, title II, §206, Aug. 2, 2004, 118 Stat. 910, provided that: “Not later than 2 years after the date of enactment of this Act [Aug. 2, 2004], the Secretary of Health and Human Services, in consultation with appropriate experts and stakeholders, shall issue a proposed rule to define, and permit use of, the term ‘gluten-free’ on the labeling of foods. Not later than 4 years after the date of enactment of this Act, the Secretary shall issue a final rule to define, and permit use of, the term ‘gluten-free’ on the labeling of foods.”

Pub. L. 107–171, title X, §10809, May 13, 2002, 116 Stat. 531, provided that: “The Secretary of Health and Human Services (referred to in this section as the ‘Secretary’) shall publish a proposed rule and, with due consideration to public comment, a final rule to revise, as appropriate, the current regulation governing the labeling of foods that have been treated to reduce pest infestation or pathogens by treatment by irradiation using radioactive isotope, electronic beam, or x-ray. Pending promulgation of the final rule required by this subsection [probably should be “this section”], any person may petition the Secretary for approval of labeling, which is not false or misleading in any material respect, of a food which has been treated by irradiation using radioactive isotope, electronic beam, or x-ray. The Secretary shall approve or deny such a petition within 180 days of receipt of the petition, or the petition shall be deemed denied, except to the extent additional agency review is mutually agreed upon by the Secretary and the petitioner. Any denial of a petition under this subsection shall constitute final agency action subject to judicial review by the United States Court of Appeals for the District of Columbia Circuit. Any labeling approved through the foregoing petition process shall be subject to the provisions of the final rule referred to in the first sentence of the subparagraph on the effective date of such final rule.”

Commission on Dietary Supplement Labels

Section 12 of Pub. L. 103–417 provided that:

“(a) Establishment.—There shall be established as an independent agency within the executive branch a commission to be known as the Commission on Dietary Supplement Labels (hereafter in this section referred to as the ‘Commission’).

“(b) Membership.—

“(1) Composition.—The Commission shall be composed of 7 members who shall be appointed by the President.

“(2) Expertise requirement.—The members of the Commission shall consist of individuals with expertise and experience in dietary supplements and in the manufacture, regulation, distribution, and use of such supplements. At least three of the members of the Commission shall be qualified by scientific training and experience to evaluate the benefits to health of the use of dietary supplements and one of such three members shall have experience in pharmacognosy, medical botany, traditional herbal medicine, or other related sciences. Members and staff of the Commission shall be without bias on the issue of dietary supplements.

“(c) Functions of the Commission.—The Commission shall conduct a study on, and provide recommendations for, the regulation of label claims and statements for dietary supplements, including the use of literature in connection with the sale of dietary supplements and procedures for the evaluation of such claims. In making such recommendations, the Commission shall evaluate how best to provide truthful, scientifically valid, and not misleading information to consumers so that such consumers may make informed and appropriate health care choices for themselves and their families.

“(d) Administrative Powers of the Commission.—

“(1) Hearings.—The Commission may hold hearings, sit and act at such times and places, take such testimony, and receive such evidence as the Commission considers advisable to carry out the purposes of this section.

“(2) Information from federal agencies.—The Commission may secure directly from any Federal department or agency such information as the Commission considers necessary to carry out the provisions of this section.

“(3) Authorization of appropriations.—There are authorized to be appropriated such sums as may be necessary to carry out this section.

“(e) Reports and Recommendations.—

“(1) Final report required.—Not later than 24 months after the date of enactment of this Act [Oct. 25, 1994], the Commission shall prepare and submit to the President and to the Congress a final report on the study required by this section.

“(2) Recommendations.—The report described in paragraph (1) shall contain such recommendations, including recommendations for legislation, as the Commission deems appropriate.

“(3) Action on recommendations.—Within 90 days of the issuance of the report under paragraph (1), the Secretary of Health and Human Services shall publish in the Federal Register a notice of any recommendation of Commission for changes in regulations of the Secretary for the regulation of dietary supplements and shall include in such notice a notice of proposed rulemaking on such changes together with an opportunity to present views on such changes. Such rulemaking shall be completed not later than 2 years after the date of the issuance of such report. If such rulemaking is not completed on or before the expiration of such 2 years, regulations of the Secretary published in 59 FR 395–426 on January 4, 1994, shall not be in effect.”

Extension of Compliance Deadline for Certain Food Products Packaged Prior to August 8, 1994

Pub. L. 103–261, May 26, 1994, 108 Stat. 705, provided: “That before August 8, 1994, sections 403(q) and 403(r)(2) of the Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act [21 U.S.C. 343(q), (r)(2)] and the provision of section 403(i) of such Act added by section 7(2) of the Nutrition Labeling and Education Act of 1990 [Pub. L. 101–535], shall not apply with respect to a food product which is contained in a package for which the label was printed before May 8, 1994 (or before August 8, 1994, in the case of a juice or milk food product if the person responsible for the labeling of such food product exercised due diligence in obtaining before such date labels which are in compliance with such sections 403(q) and 403(r)(2) and such provision of section 403(i)), if, before June 15, 1994, the person who introduces or delivers for introduction such food product into interstate commerce submits to the Secretary of Health and Human Services a certification that such person will comply with this section and will comply with such sections 403(q) and 403(r)(2) and such provision of section 403(i) after August 8, 1994.”

Limitations on Application of Small Business Exemption

Section 2(a) of Pub. L. 103–80 provided that:

“(1) Before may 8, 1995.—Before May 8, 1995, the exemption provided by section 403(q)(5)(D) of the Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act [21 U.S.C. 343(q)(5)(D)] shall be available in accordance with the regulations of the Secretary of Health and Human Services published at 21 C.F.R. 101.9(j)(1)(i)(1993).

“(2) After may 8, 1995.—After May 8, 1995, the exemption provided by section 403(q)(5)(D) of the Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act shall only be available with respect to food when it is sold to consumers.”

Prohibition on Implementation of Pub. L. 101–535 With Respect to Dietary Supplements

Section 202(a)(1) of Pub. L. 102–571 provided that: “Notwithstanding any other provision of law and except as provided in subsection (b) [set out as a note below] and in the amendment made by paragraph (2)(A) [amending provisions set out as notes above], the Secretary of Health and Human Services may not implement the Nutrition Labeling and Education Act of 1990 (Public Law 101–535; 104 Stat. 2353) [see Short Title of 1990 Amendments note set out under section 301 of this title], or any amendment made by such Act, earlier than December 15, 1993, with respect to dietary supplements of vitamins, minerals, herbs, or other similar nutritional substances.”

Health Claims Made With Respect to Dietary Supplements

Section 202(b) of Pub. L. 102–571 provided that: “Notwithstanding section 403(r)(5)(D) of the Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act (21 U.S.C. 343(r)(5)(D)) and subsection (a) [enacting provisions set out as notes above and amending provisions set out as notes above and under section 343–1 of this title], the Secretary of Health and Human Services may, earlier than December 15, 1993, approve claims made with respect to dietary supplements of vitamins, minerals, herbs, or other similar nutritional substances that are claims described in clauses (vi) and (x) of section 3(b)(1)(A) of the Nutrition Labeling and Education Act of 1990 [Pub. L. 101–535] (21 U.S.C. 343 note).”

United States Recommended Daily Allowances of Vitamins or Minerals

Section 203 of Pub. L. 102–571 provided that: “Notwithstanding any other provision of Federal law, no regulations that require the use of, or are based upon, recommended daily allowances of vitamins or minerals may be promulgated before November 8, 1993 (other than regulations establishing the United States recommended daily allowances specified at section 101.9(c)(7)(iv) of title 21, Code of Federal Regulations, as in effect on October 6, 1992, or regulations under section 403(r)(1)(A) of the Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act (21 U.S.C. 343(r)(1)(A)) that are based on such recommended daily allowances).”

Consumer Education

Section 2(c) of Pub. L. 101–535 provided that: “The Secretary of Health and Human Services shall carry out activities which educate consumers about—

“(1) the availability of nutrition information in the label or labeling of food, and

“(2) the importance of that information in maintaining healthy dietary practices.”

Studies Concerning Carcinogenic and Other Toxic Substances in Food and Impurities in and Toxicity of Saccharin

Section 2 of Pub. L. 95–203 directed Secretary of Health, Education, and Welfare to conduct a study concerning carcinogenic and other toxic substances in food and impurities in and toxicity of saccharin and make a report respecting the carcinogenic and other substances to Committee on Human Resources of the Senate within 12 months of Nov. 23, 1977, and a report respecting saccharin to such committee within 15 months of Nov. 23, 1977.

Report to Congressional Committees Respecting Action Taken Pursuant to Former Par. (o)(2)

Section 4(a)(3) of Pub. L. 95–203 provided that the Secretary was to report to specified congressional committees any action taken under former par. (o)(2) of this section.

State or Territorial Requirements

Section 2 of Pub. L. 86–537 provided that: “Nothing in the amendments made by the first section of this Act [amending this section] shall affect any requirement of the laws of any State or Territory.”

1 So in original. Probably should be followed by a comma.

§343–1. National uniform nutrition labeling

(a) Except as provided in subsection (b) of this section, no State or political subdivision of a State may directly or indirectly establish under any authority or continue in effect as to any food in interstate commerce—

(1) any requirement for a food which is the subject of a standard of identity established under section 341 of this title that is not identical to such standard of identity or that is not identical to the requirement of section 343(g) of this title, except that this paragraph does not apply to a standard of identity of a State or political subdivision of a State for maple syrup that is of the type required by sections 341 and 343(g) of this title,

(2) any requirement for the labeling of food of the type required by section 343(c), 343(e), 343(i)(2), 343(w), or 343(x) of this title that is not identical to the requirement of such section, except that this paragraph does not apply to a requirement of a State or political subdivision of a State that is of the type required by section 343(c) of this title and that is applicable to maple syrup,

(3) any requirement for the labeling of food of the type required by section 343(b), 343(d), 343(f), 343(h), 343(i)(1), or 343(k) of this title that is not identical to the requirement of such section, except that this paragraph does not apply to a requirement of a State or political subdivision of a State that is of the type required by section 343(h)(1) of this title and that is applicable to maple syrup,

(4) any requirement for nutrition labeling of food that is not identical to the requirement of section 343(q) of this title, except that this paragraph does not apply to food that is offered for sale in a restaurant or similar retail food establishment that is not part of a chain with 20 or more locations doing business under the same name (regardless of the type of ownership of the locations) and offering for sale substantially the same menu items unless such restaurant or similar retail food establishment complies with the voluntary provision of nutrition information requirements under section 343(q)(5)(H)(ix) of this title, or

(5) any requirement respecting any claim of the type described in section 343(r)(1) of this title made in the label or labeling of food that is not identical to the requirement of section 343(r) of this title, except a requirement respecting a claim made in the label or labeling of food which is exempt under section 343(r)(5)(B) of this title.


Paragraph (3) shall take effect in accordance with section 6(b) of the Nutrition Labeling and Education Act of 1990.

(b) Upon petition of a State or a political subdivision of a State, the Secretary may exempt from subsection (a) of this section, under such conditions as may be prescribed by regulation, any State or local requirement that—

(1) would not cause any food to be in violation of any applicable requirement under Federal law,

(2) would not unduly burden interstate commerce, and

(3) is designed to address a particular need for information which need is not met by the requirements of the sections referred to in subsection (a) of this section.

(June 25, 1938, ch. 675, §403A, as added Pub. L. 101–535, §6(a), Nov. 8, 1990, 104 Stat. 2362; amended Pub. L. 102–108, §2(b), Aug. 17, 1991, 105 Stat. 549; Pub. L. 103–396, §3(a), Oct. 22, 1994, 108 Stat. 4154; Pub. L. 108–282, title II, §203(c)(2), Aug. 2, 2004, 118 Stat. 908; Pub. L. 111–148, title IV, §4205(c), Mar. 23, 2010, 124 Stat. 576.)

References in Text

Section 6(b) of the Nutrition Labeling and Education Act of 1990 [Pub. L. 101–535], referred to in subsec. (a), is set out below.

Amendments

2010—Subsec. (a)(4). Pub. L. 111–148 substituted “except that this paragraph does not apply to food that is offered for sale in a restaurant or similar retail food establishment that is not part of a chain with 20 or more locations doing business under the same name (regardless of the type of ownership of the locations) and offering for sale substantially the same menu items unless such restaurant or similar retail food establishment complies with the voluntary provision of nutrition information requirements under section 343(q)(5)(H)(ix) of this title” for “except a requirement for nutrition labeling of food which is exempt under subclause (i) or (ii) of section 343(q)(5)(A) of this title”.

2004—Subsec. (a)(2). Pub. L. 108–282 substituted “343(i)(2), 343(w), or 343(x)” for “or 343(i)(2)”.

1994—Subsec. (a)(1). Pub. L. 103–396, §3(a)(1), inserted at end “except that this paragraph does not apply to a standard of identity of a State or political subdivision of a State for maple syrup that is of the type required by sections 341 and 343(g) of this title,”.

Subsec. (a)(2). Pub. L. 103–396, §3(a)(2), inserted at end “except that this paragraph does not apply to a requirement of a State or political subdivision of a State that is of the type required by section 343(c) of this title and that is applicable to maple syrup,”.

Subsec. (a)(3). Pub. L. 103–396, §3(a)(3), inserted at end “except that this paragraph does not apply to a requirement of a State or political subdivision of a State that is of the type required by section 343(h)(1) of this title and that is applicable to maple syrup,”.

1991—Subsec. (a)(5). Pub. L. 102–108 substituted “section 343(r)(5)(B) of this title” for “clause (B) of such section”.

Effective Date of 2004 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 108–282 applicable to any food that is labeled on or after Jan. 1, 2006, see section 203(d) of Pub. L. 108–282, set out as a note under section 321 of this title.

Effective Date

Section 10(b) of Pub. L. 101–535, as amended by Pub. L. 102–571, title I, §107(16), title II, §202(a)(4), Oct. 29, 1992, 106 Stat. 4499, 4501, provided that:

“(1) In general.—Except as provided in paragraph (2), the amendments made by section 6 [enacting this section] shall take effect—

“(A) with respect to a requirement of a State or political subdivision described in paragraph (1) of section 403A(a) of the Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act [subsec. (a)(1) of this section], on the date of the enactment of this Act [Nov. 8, 1990],

“(B) with respect to a requirement of a State or political subdivision described in paragraph (2) of section 403A(a) of the Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act, one year after the date of the enactment of this Act,

“(C) with respect to a requirement of a State or political subdivision described in paragraph (3) of section 403A(a) of the Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act, as prescribed by section 6(b) of the Nutrition Labeling and Education Act of 1990 [Pub. L. 101–535, set out below],

“(D) with respect to a requirement of a State or political subdivision described in paragraph (4) of section 403A(a) of the Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act, on the date regulations to implement section 403(q) of such Act [21 U.S.C. 343(q)] take effect, and

“(E) with respect to a requirement of a State or political subdivision described in paragraph (5) of section 403A(a) of the Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act, on the date regulations to implement section 403(r) of such Act take effect.

“(2) Exception.—If a State or political subdivision submits a petition under section 403A(b) of the Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act for a requirement described in section 403A(a) of such Act within 18 months of the date of the enactment of this Act, paragraphs (3) through (5) of such section 403A(a) shall not apply with respect to such State or political subdivision requirement until—

“(A) 24 months after the date of the enactment of this Act, or

“(B) action on the petition,

whichever occurs later.

“(3) Requirements pertaining to certain claims.—Notwithstanding subparagraphs (D) and (E) of paragraph (1) and except with respect to claims approved in accordance with section 202(b) of the Dietary Supplement Act of 1992 [Pub. L. 102–571, set out as a note under section 343 of this title], the requirements described in paragraphs (4) and (5) of section 403A(a) of the Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act (21 U.S.C. 343–1(a)(4) and (5)) that pertain to dietary supplements of vitamins, minerals, herbs, or other similar nutritional substances shall not take effect until the date final regulations take effect to implement subsection (q) or (r), as appropriate, of section 403 of such Act with respect to such dietary supplements.”

Section 6(b) of Pub. L. 101–535 provided that:

“(1) For the purpose of implementing section 403A(a)(3) [21 U.S.C. 343–1(a)(3)], the Secretary of Health and Human Services shall enter into a contract with a public or nonprofit private entity to conduct a study of—

“(A) State and local laws which require the labeling of food that is of the type required by sections 403(b), 403(d), 403(f), 403(h), 403(i)(1), and 403(k) of the Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act [21 U.S.C. 343(b), (d), (f), (h), (i)(1), (k)], and

“(B) the sections of the Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act referred to in subparagraph (A) and the regulations issued by the Secretary to enforce such sections to determine whether such sections and regulations adequately implement the purposes of such sections.

“(2) The contract under paragraph (1) shall provide that the study required by such paragraph shall be completed within 6 months of the date of the enactment of this Act [Nov. 8, 1990].

“(3)(A) Within 9 months of the date of the enactment of this Act, the Secretary shall publish a proposed list of sections which are adequately being implemented by regulations as determined under paragraph (1)(B) and sections which are not adequately being implemented by regulations as so determined. After publication of the lists, the Secretary shall provide 60 days for comments on such lists.

“(B) Within 24 months of the date of the enactment of this Act, the Secretary shall publish a final list of sections which are adequately being implemented by regulations and a list of sections which are not adequately being implemented by regulations. With respect to a section which is found by the Secretary to be adequately implemented, no State or political subdivision of a State may establish or continue in effect as to any food in interstate commerce any requirement which is not identical to the requirement of such section.

“(C) Within 24 months of the date of the enactment of this Act, the Secretary shall publish proposed revisions to the regulations found to be inadequate under subparagraph (B) and within 30 months of such date shall issue final revisions. Upon the effective date of such final revisions, no State or political subdivision may establish or continue in effect any requirement which is not identical to the requirement of the section which had its regulations revised in accordance with this subparagraph.

“(D)(i) If the Secretary does not issue a final list in accordance with subparagraph (B), the proposed list issued under subparagraph (A) shall be considered the final list and States and political subdivisions shall be preempted with respect to sections found to be adequate in such proposed list in accordance with subparagraph (B).

“(ii) If the Secretary does not issue final revisions of regulations in accordance with subparagraph (C), the proposed revisions issued under such subparagraph shall be considered the final revisions and States and political subdivisions shall be preempted with respect to sections the regulations of which are revised by the proposed revisions.

“(E) Subsection (b) of section 403A of the Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act shall apply with respect to the prohibition prescribed by subparagraphs (B) and (C).”

Construction of Pub. L. 101–535

Section 6(c) of Pub. L. 101–535 provided that:

“(1) The Nutrition Labeling and Education Act of 1990 [Pub. L. 101–535, see Short Title of 1990 Amendment note set out under section 301 of this title] shall not be construed to preempt any provision of State law, unless such provision is expressly preempted under section 403A of the Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act [this section].

“(2) The amendment made by subsection (a) [enacting this section] and the provisions of subsection (b) [set out as a note above] shall not be construed to apply to any requirement respecting a statement in the labeling of food that provides for a warning concerning the safety of the food or component of the food.

“(3) The amendment made by subsection (a), the provisions of subsection (b) and paragraphs (1) and (2) of this subsection shall not be construed to affect preemption, express or implied, of any such requirement of a State or political subdivision, which may arise under the Constitution, any provision of the Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act [this chapter] not amended by subsection (a), any other Federal law, or any Federal regulation, order, or other final agency action reviewable under chapter 7 of title 5, United States Code.”

Amendments by Pub. L. 101–535 not to be construed to alter the authority of the Secretary of Health and Human Services and the Secretary of Agriculture under the Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act (21 U.S.C. 301 et seq.), the Federal Meat Inspection Act (21 U.S.C. 601 et seq.), the Poultry Products Inspection Act (21 U.S.C. 451 et seq.), and the Egg Products Inspection Act (21 U.S.C. 1031 et seq.), see section 9 of Pub. L. 101–535, set out as a note under section 343 of this title.

Delayed Applicability of Certain Provisions

Pub. L. 102–408, title III, §310, Oct. 13, 1992, 106 Stat. 2090, provided that: “Notwithstanding any other provision of law, section 403A(a)(1) of the Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act (21 U.S.C. 343–1(a)(1)) shall not apply with respect to any requirement of any State or political subdivision regarding maple syrup until September 1, 1994.”

§343–2. Dietary supplement labeling exemptions

(a) In general

A publication, including an article, a chapter in a book, or an official abstract of a peer-reviewed scientific publication that appears in an article and was prepared by the author or the editors of the publication, which is reprinted in its entirety, shall not be defined as labeling when used in connection with the sale of a dietary supplement to consumers when it—

(1) is not false or misleading;

(2) does not promote a particular manufacturer or brand of a dietary supplement;

(3) is displayed or presented, or is displayed or presented with other such items on the same subject matter, so as to present a balanced view of the available scientific information on a dietary supplement;

(4) if displayed in an establishment, is physically separate from the dietary supplements; and

(5) does not have appended to it any information by sticker or any other method.

(b) Application

Subsection (a) of this section shall not apply to or restrict a retailer or wholesaler of dietary supplements in any way whatsoever in the sale of books or other publications as a part of the business of such retailer or wholesaler.

(c) Burden of proof

In any proceeding brought under subsection (a) of this section, the burden of proof shall be on the United States to establish that an article or other such matter is false or misleading.

(June 25, 1938, ch. 675, §403B, as added Pub. L. 103–417, §5, Oct. 25, 1994, 108 Stat. 4328.)

§343–3. Disclosure

(a) No provision of section 321(n), 343(a), or 348 of this title shall be construed to require on the label or labeling of a food a separate radiation disclosure statement that is more prominent than the declaration of ingredients required by section 343(i)(2) of this title.

(b) In this section, the term “radiation disclosure statement” means a written statement that discloses that a food has been intentionally subject to radiation.

(June 25, 1938, ch. 675, §403C, as added Pub. L. 105–115, title III, §306, Nov. 21, 1997, 111 Stat. 2353.)

Effective Date

Section effective 90 days after Nov. 21, 1997, except as otherwise provided, see section 501 of Pub. L. 105–115, set out as an Effective Date of 1997 Amendment note under section 321 of this title.

§343a. Repealed. Pub. L. 106–554, §1(a)(1) [title V, §517], Dec. 21, 2000, 114 Stat. 2763, 2763A–73

Section, Pub. L. 95–203, §4(c), (d), Nov. 23, 1977, 91 Stat. 1453, 1454, related to distribution of information on health risks of saccharin.

§344. Emergency permit control

(a) Conditions on manufacturing, processing, etc., as health measure

Whenever the Secretary finds after investigation that the distribution in interstate commerce of any class of food may, by reason of contamination with micro-organisms during the manufacture, processing, or packing thereof in any locality, be injurious to health, and that such injurious nature cannot be adequately determined after such articles have entered interstate commerce, he then, and in such case only, shall promulgate regulations providing for the issuance, to manufacturers, processors, or packers of such class of food in such locality, of permits to which shall be attached such conditions governing the manufacture, processing, or packing of such class of food, for such temporary period of time, as may be necessary to protect the public health; and after the effective date of such regulations, and during such temporary period, no person shall introduce or deliver for introduction into interstate commerce any such food manufactured, processed, or packed by any such manufacturer, processor, or packer unless such manufacturer, processor, or packer holds a permit issued by the Secretary as provided by such regulations.

(b) Violation of permit; suspension and reinstatement

The Secretary is authorized to suspend immediately upon notice any permit issued under authority of this section if it is found that any of the conditions of the permit have been violated. The holder of a permit so suspended shall be privileged at any time to apply for the reinstatement of such permit, and the Secretary shall, immediately after prompt hearing and an inspection of the establishment, reinstate such permit if it is found that adequate measures have been taken to comply with and maintain the conditions of the permit, as originally issued or as amended.

(c) Inspection of permit-holding establishments

Any officer or employee duly designated by the Secretary shall have access to any factory or establishment, the operator of which holds a permit from the Secretary, for the purpose of ascertaining whether or not the conditions of the permit are being complied with, and denial of access for such inspection shall be ground for suspension of the permit until such access is freely given by the operator.

(June 25, 1938, ch. 675, §404, 52 Stat. 1048.)

Transfer of Functions

For transfer of functions of Federal Security Administrator to Secretary of Health, Education, and Welfare [now Health and Human Services], and of Food and Drug Administration in the Department of Agriculture to Federal Security Agency, see notes set out under section 321 of this title.

§345. Regulations making exemptions

The Secretary shall promulgate regulations exempting from any labeling requirement of this chapter (1) small open containers of fresh fruits and fresh vegetables and (2) food which is, in accordance with the practice of the trade, to be processed, labeled, or repacked in substantial quantities at establishments other than those where originally processed or packed, on condition that such food is not adulterated or misbranded under the provisions of this chapter upon removal from such processing, labeling, or repacking establishment. This section does not apply to the labeling requirements of sections 343(q) and 343(r) of this title.

(June 25, 1938, ch. 675, §405, 52 Stat. 1049; Pub. L. 101–535, §5(a), Nov. 8, 1990, 104 Stat. 2362.)

Amendments

1990—Pub. L. 101–535 inserted at end “This section does not apply to the labeling requirements of sections 343(q) and 343(r) of this title.”

Effective Date of 1990 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 101–535 effective six months after the date of the promulgation of final regulations to implement section 343(r) of this title, or if such regulations are not promulgated, the date proposed regulations are to be considered as such final regulations (Nov. 8, 1992), with exception for persons marketing food the brand name of which contains a term defined by the Secretary under section 343(r)(2)(A)(i) of this title, see section 10(a) of Pub. L. 101–535, set out as a note under section 343 of this title.

Construction of Amendments by Pub. L. 101–535

Amendments by Pub. L. 101–535 not to be construed to alter authority of Secretary of Health and Human Services and Secretary of Agriculture under the Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act (21 U.S.C. 301 et seq.), the Federal Meat Inspection Act (21 U.S.C. 601 et seq.), the Poultry Products Inspection Act (21 U.S.C. 451 et seq.), and the Egg Products Inspection Act (21 U.S.C. 1031 et seq.), see section 9 of Pub. L. 101–535, set out as a note under section 343 of this title.

Transfer of Functions

For transfer of functions of Federal Security Administrator to Secretary of Health, Education, and Welfare [now Health and Human Services], and of Food and Drug Administration in the Department of Agriculture to Federal Security Agency, see notes set out under section 321 of this title.

§346. Tolerances for poisonous or deleterious substances in food; regulations

Any poisonous or deleterious substance added to any food, except where such substance is required in the production thereof or cannot be avoided by good manufacturing practice shall be deemed to be unsafe for purposes of the application of clause (2)(A) of section 342(a) of this title; but when such substance is so required or cannot be so avoided, the Secretary shall promulgate regulations limiting the quantity therein or thereon to such extent as he finds necessary for the protection of public health, and any quantity exceeding the limits so fixed shall also be deemed to be unsafe for purposes of the application of clause (2)(A) of section 342(a) of this title. While such a regulation is in effect limiting the quantity of any such substance in the case of any food, such food shall not, by reason of bearing or containing any added amount of such substance, be considered to be adulterated within the meaning of clause (1) of section 342(a) of this title. In determining the quantity of such added substance to be tolerated in or on different articles of food the Secretary shall take into account the extent to which the use of such substance is required or cannot be avoided in the production of each such article, and the other ways in which the consumer may be affected by the same or other poisonous or deleterious substances.

(June 25, 1938, ch. 675, §406, 52 Stat. 1049; Pub. L. 85–929, §3(c), Sept. 6, 1958, 72 Stat. 1785; Pub. L. 86–618, title I, §103(a)(1), July 12, 1960, 74 Stat. 398.)

Amendments

1960—Pub. L. 86–618 repealed subsec. (b) which required Secretary to promulgate regulations for listing of coal-tar colors.

1958—Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 85–929 substituted “clause (2)(A)” for “clause (2)” in first sentence.

Effective Date of 1960 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 86–618 effective July 12, 1960, subject to the provisions of section 203 of Pub. L. 86–618, see section 202 of Pub. L. 86–618, set out as a note under section 379e of this title.

Effective Date of Nematocide, Plant Regulator, Defoliant, and Desiccant Amendment of 1959

Effective date of subsec. (a) as in force prior to July 22, 1954, with respect to particular commercial use of a nematocide, plant regulator, defoliant, or desiccant in or on a raw agricultural commodity made before Jan. 1, 1958, see section 3(b) of Pub. L. 86–139, Aug. 7, 1959, 73 Stat. 288.

Effective Date of 1958 Amendment

For effective date of amendment by Pub. L. 85–929, see section 6(b), (c) of Pub. L. 85–929, set out as a note under section 342 of this title.

Transfer of Functions

Functions vested in Secretary of Health, Education, and Welfare [now Health and Human Services] in establishing tolerances for pesticide chemicals under this section together with authority to monitor compliance with tolerances and effectiveness of surveillance and enforcement and to provide technical assistance to States and conduct research under this chapter and section 201 et seq. of Title 42, The Public Health and Welfare, transferred to Administrator of Environmental Protection Agency by Reorg. Plan No. 3 of 1970, §2(a)(4), eff. Dec. 2, 1970, 35 F.R. 15623, 84 Stat. 2086, set out in the Appendix to Title 5, Government Organization and Employees.

For transfer of functions of Federal Security Administrator to Secretary of Health, Education, and Welfare [now Health and Human Services], and of Food and Drug Administration to Federal Security Agency, see notes set out under section 321 of this title.

§346a. Tolerances and exemptions for pesticide chemical residues

(a) Requirement for tolerance or exemption

(1) General rule

Except as provided in paragraph (2) or (3), any pesticide chemical residue in or on a food shall be deemed unsafe for the purpose of section 342(a)(2)(B) of this title unless—

(A) a tolerance for such pesticide chemical residue in or on such food is in effect under this section and the quantity of the residue is within the limits of the tolerance; or

(B) an exemption from the requirement of a tolerance is in effect under this section for the pesticide chemical residue.


For the purposes of this section, the term “food”, when used as a noun without modification, shall mean a raw agricultural commodity or processed food.

(2) Processed food

Notwithstanding paragraph (1)—

(A) if a tolerance is in effect under this section for a pesticide chemical residue in or on a raw agricultural commodity, a pesticide chemical residue that is present in or on a processed food because the food is made from that raw agricultural commodity shall not be considered unsafe within the meaning of section 342(a)(2)(B) of this title despite the lack of a tolerance for the pesticide chemical residue in or on the processed food if the pesticide chemical has been used in or on the raw agricultural commodity in conformity with a tolerance under this section, such residue in or on the raw agricultural commodity has been removed to the extent possible in good manufacturing practice, and the concentration of the pesticide chemical residue in the processed food is not greater than the tolerance prescribed for the pesticide chemical residue in the raw agricultural commodity; or

(B) if an exemption for the requirement for a tolerance is in effect under this section for a pesticide chemical residue in or on a raw agricultural commodity, a pesticide chemical residue that is present in or on a processed food because the food is made from that raw agricultural commodity shall not be considered unsafe within the meaning of section 342(a)(2)(B) of this title.

(3) Residues of degradation products

If a pesticide chemical residue is present in or on a food because it is a metabolite or other degradation product of a precursor substance that itself is a pesticide chemical or pesticide chemical residue, such a residue shall not be considered to be unsafe within the meaning of section 342(a)(2)(B) of this title despite the lack of a tolerance or exemption from the need for a tolerance for such residue in or on such food if—

(A) the Administrator has not determined that the degradation product is likely to pose any potential health risk from dietary exposure that is of a different type than, or of a greater significance than, any risk posed by dietary exposure to the precursor substance;

(B) either—

(i) a tolerance is in effect under this section for residues of the precursor substance in or on the food, and the combined level of residues of the degradation product and the precursor substance in or on the food is at or below the stoichiometrically equivalent level that would be permitted by the tolerance if the residue consisted only of the precursor substance rather than the degradation product; or

(ii) an exemption from the need for a tolerance is in effect under this section for residues of the precursor substance in or on the food; and


(C) the tolerance or exemption for residues of the precursor substance does not state that it applies only to particular named substances and does not state that it does not apply to residues of the degradation product.

(4) Effect of tolerance or exemption

While a tolerance or exemption from the requirement for a tolerance is in effect under this section for a pesticide chemical residue with respect to any food, the food shall not by reason of bearing or containing any amount of such a residue be considered to be adulterated within the meaning of section 342(a)(1) of this title.

(b) Authority and standard for tolerance

(1) Authority

The Administrator may issue regulations establishing, modifying, or revoking a tolerance for a pesticide chemical residue in or on a food—

(A) in response to a petition filed under subsection (d) of this section; or

(B) on the Administrator's own initiative under subsection (e) of this section.


As used in this section, the term “modify” shall not mean expanding the tolerance to cover additional foods.

(2) Standard

(A) General rule

(i) Standard

The Administrator may establish or leave in effect a tolerance for a pesticide chemical residue in or on a food only if the Administrator determines that the tolerance is safe. The Administrator shall modify or revoke a tolerance if the Administrator determines it is not safe.

(ii) Determination of safety

As used in this section, the term “safe”, with respect to a tolerance for a pesticide chemical residue, means that the Administrator has determined that there is a reasonable certainty that no harm will result from aggregate exposure to the pesticide chemical residue, including all anticipated dietary exposures and all other exposures for which there is reliable information.

(iii) Rule of construction

With respect to a tolerance, a pesticide chemical residue meeting the standard under clause (i) is not an eligible pesticide chemical residue for purposes of subparagraph (B).

(B) Tolerances for eligible pesticide chemical residues

(i) Definition

As used in this subparagraph, the term “eligible pesticide chemical residue” means a pesticide chemical residue as to which—

(I) the Administrator is not able to identify a level of exposure to the residue at which the residue will not cause or contribute to a known or anticipated harm to human health (referred to in this section as a “nonthreshold effect”);

(II) the lifetime risk of experiencing the nonthreshold effect is appropriately assessed by quantitative risk assessment; and

(III) with regard to any known or anticipated harm to human health for which the Administrator is able to identify a level at which the residue will not cause such harm (referred to in this section as a “threshold effect”), the Administrator determines that the level of aggregate exposure is safe.

(ii) Determination of tolerance

Notwithstanding subparagraph (A)(i), a tolerance for an eligible pesticide chemical residue may be left in effect or modified under this subparagraph if—

(I) at least one of the conditions described in clause (iii) is met; and

(II) both of the conditions described in clause (iv) are met.

(iii) Conditions regarding use

For purposes of clause (ii), the conditions described in this clause with respect to a tolerance for an eligible pesticide chemical residue are the following:

(I) Use of the pesticide chemical that produces the residue protects consumers from adverse effects on health that would pose a greater risk than the dietary risk from the residue.

(II) Use of the pesticide chemical that produces the residue is necessary to avoid a significant disruption in domestic production of an adequate, wholesome, and economical food supply.

(iv) Conditions regarding risk

For purposes of clause (ii), the conditions described in this clause with respect to a tolerance for an eligible pesticide chemical residue are the following:

(I) The yearly risk associated with the nonthreshold effect from aggregate exposure to the residue does not exceed 10 times the yearly risk that would be allowed under subparagraph (A) for such effect.

(II) The tolerance is limited so as to ensure that the risk over a lifetime associated with the nonthreshold effect from aggregate exposure to the residue is not greater than twice the lifetime risk that would be allowed under subparagraph (A) for such effect.

(v) Review

Five years after the date on which the Administrator makes a determination to leave in effect or modify a tolerance under this subparagraph, and thereafter as the Administrator deems appropriate, the Administrator shall determine, after notice and opportunity for comment, whether it has been demonstrated to the Administrator that a condition described in clause (iii)(I) or clause (iii)(II) continues to exist with respect to the tolerance and that the yearly and lifetime risks from aggregate exposure to such residue continue to comply with the limits specified in clause (iv). If the Administrator determines by such date that such demonstration has not been made, the Administrator shall, not later than 180 days after the date of such determination, issue a regulation under subsection (e)(1) of this section to modify or revoke the tolerance.

(vi) Infants and children

Any tolerance under this subparagraph shall meet the requirements of subparagraph (C).

(C) Exposure of infants and children

In establishing, modifying, leaving in effect, or revoking a tolerance or exemption for a pesticide chemical residue, the Administrator—

(i) shall assess the risk of the pesticide chemical residue based on—

(I) available information about consumption patterns among infants and children that are likely to result in disproportionately high consumption of foods containing or bearing such residue among infants and children in comparison to the general population;

(II) available information concerning the special susceptibility of infants and children to the pesticide chemical residues, including neurological differences between infants and children and adults, and effects of in utero exposure to pesticide chemicals; and

(III) available information concerning the cumulative effects on infants and children of such residues and other substances that have a common mechanism of toxicity; and


(ii) shall—

(I) ensure that there is a reasonable certainty that no harm will result to infants and children from aggregate exposure to the pesticide chemical residue; and

(II) publish a specific determination regarding the safety of the pesticide chemical residue for infants and children.


The Secretary of Health and Human Services and the Secretary of Agriculture, in consultation with the Administrator, shall conduct surveys to document dietary exposure to pesticides among infants and children. In the case of threshold effects, for purposes of clause (ii)(I) an additional tenfold margin of safety for the pesticide chemical residue and other sources of exposure shall be applied for infants and children to take into account potential pre- and post-natal toxicity and completeness of the data with respect to exposure and toxicity to infants and children. Notwithstanding such requirement for an additional margin of safety, the Administrator may use a different margin of safety for the pesticide chemical residue only if, on the basis of reliable data, such margin will be safe for infants and children.

(D) Factors

In establishing, modifying, leaving in effect, or revoking a tolerance or exemption for a pesticide chemical residue, the Administrator shall consider, among other relevant factors—

(i) the validity, completeness, and reliability of the available data from studies of the pesticide chemical and pesticide chemical residue;

(ii) the nature of any toxic effect shown to be caused by the pesticide chemical or pesticide chemical residue in such studies;

(iii) available information concerning the relationship of the results of such studies to human risk;

(iv) available information concerning the dietary consumption patterns of consumers (and major identifiable subgroups of consumers);

(v) available information concerning the cumulative effects of such residues and other substances that have a common mechanism of toxicity;

(vi) available information concerning the aggregate exposure levels of consumers (and major identifiable subgroups of consumers) to the pesticide chemical residue and to other related substances, including dietary exposure under the tolerance and all other tolerances in effect for the pesticide chemical residue, and exposure from other non-occupational sources;

(vii) available information concerning the variability of the sensitivities of major identifiable subgroups of consumers;

(viii) such information as the Administrator may require on whether the pesticide chemical may have an effect in humans that is similar to an effect produced by a naturally occurring estrogen or other endocrine effects; and

(ix) safety factors which in the opinion of experts qualified by scientific training and experience to evaluate the safety of food additives are generally recognized as appropriate for the use of animal experimentation data.

(E) Data and information regarding anticipated and actual residue levels

(i) Authority

In establishing, modifying, leaving in effect, or revoking a tolerance for a pesticide chemical residue, the Administrator may consider available data and information on the anticipated residue levels of the pesticide chemical in or on food and the actual residue levels of the pesticide chemical that have been measured in food, including residue data collected by the Food and Drug Administration.

(ii) Requirement

If the Administrator relies on anticipated or actual residue levels in establishing, modifying, or leaving in effect a tolerance, the Administrator shall pursuant to subsection (f)(1) of this section require that data be provided five years after the date on which the tolerance is established, modified, or left in effect, and thereafter as the Administrator deems appropriate, demonstrating that such residue levels are not above the levels so relied on. If such data are not so provided, or if the data do not demonstrate that the residue levels are not above the levels so relied on, the Administrator shall, not later than 180 days after the date on which the data were required to be provided, issue a regulation under subsection (e)(1) of this section, or an order under subsection (f)(2) of this section, as appropriate, to modify or revoke the tolerance.

(F) Percent of food actually treated

In establishing, modifying, leaving in effect, or revoking a tolerance for a pesticide chemical residue, the Administrator may, when assessing chronic dietary risk, consider available data and information on the percent of food actually treated with the pesticide chemical (including aggregate pesticide use data collected by the Department of Agriculture) only if the Administrator—

(i) finds that the data are reliable and provide a valid basis to show what percentage of the food derived from such crop is likely to contain such pesticide chemical residue;

(ii) finds that the exposure estimate does not understate exposure for any significant subpopulation group;

(iii) finds that, if data are available on pesticide use and consumption of food in a particular area, the population in such area is not dietarily exposed to residues above those estimated by the Administrator; and

(iv) provides for the periodic reevaluation of the estimate of anticipated dietary exposure.

(3) Detection methods

(A) General rule

A tolerance for a pesticide chemical residue in or on a food shall not be established or modified by the Administrator unless the Administrator determines, after consultation with the Secretary, that there is a practical method for detecting and measuring the levels of the pesticide chemical residue in or on the food.

(B) Detection limit

A tolerance for a pesticide chemical residue in or on a food shall not be established at or modified to a level lower than the limit of detection of the method for detecting and measuring the pesticide chemical residue specified by the Administrator under subparagraph (A).

(4) International standards

In establishing a tolerance for a pesticide chemical residue in or on a food, the Administrator shall determine whether a maximum residue level for the pesticide chemical has been established by the Codex Alimentarius Commission. If a Codex maximum residue level has been established for the pesticide chemical and the Administrator does not propose to adopt the Codex level, the Administrator shall publish for public comment a notice explaining the reasons for departing from the Codex level.

(c) Authority and standard for exemptions

(1) Authority

The Administrator may issue a regulation establishing, modifying, or revoking an exemption from the requirement for a tolerance for a pesticide chemical residue in or on food—

(A) in response to a petition filed under subsection (d) of this section; or

(B) on the Administrator's initiative under subsection (e) of this section.

(2) Standard

(A) General rule

(i) Standard

The Administrator may establish or leave in effect an exemption from the requirement for a tolerance for a pesticide chemical residue in or on food only if the Administrator determines that the exemption is safe. The Administrator shall modify or revoke an exemption if the Administrator determines it is not safe.

(ii) Determination of safety

The term “safe”, with respect to an exemption for a pesticide chemical residue, means that the Administrator has determined that there is a reasonable certainty that no harm will result from aggregate exposure to the pesticide chemical residue, including all anticipated dietary exposures and all other exposures for which there is reliable information.

(B) Factors

In making a determination under this paragraph, the Administrator shall take into account, among other relevant considerations, the considerations set forth in subparagraphs (C) and (D) of subsection (b)(2) of this section.

(3) Limitation

An exemption from the requirement for a tolerance for a pesticide chemical residue in or on food shall not be established or modified by the Administrator unless the Administrator determines, after consultation with the Secretary—

(A) that there is a practical method for detecting and measuring the levels of such pesticide chemical residue in or on food; or

(B) that there is no need for such a method, and states the reasons for such determination in issuing the regulation establishing or modifying the exemption.

(d) Petition for tolerance or exemption

(1) Petitions and petitioners

Any person may file with the Administrator a petition proposing the issuance of a regulation—

(A) establishing, modifying, or revoking a tolerance for a pesticide chemical residue in or on a food; or

(B) establishing, modifying, or revoking an exemption from the requirement of a tolerance for such a residue.

(2) Petition contents

(A) Establishment

A petition under paragraph (1) to establish a tolerance or exemption for a pesticide chemical residue shall be supported by such data and information as are specified in regulations issued by the Administrator, including—

(i)(I) an informative summary of the petition and of the data, information, and arguments submitted or cited in support of the petition; and

(II) a statement that the petitioner agrees that such summary or any information it contains may be published as a part of the notice of filing of the petition to be published under this subsection and as part of a proposed or final regulation issued under this section;

(ii) the name, chemical identity, and composition of the pesticide chemical residue and of the pesticide chemical that produces the residue;

(iii) data showing the recommended amount, frequency, method, and time of application of that pesticide chemical;

(iv) full reports of tests and investigations made with respect to the safety of the pesticide chemical, including full information as to the methods and controls used in conducting those tests and investigations;

(v) full reports of tests and investigations made with respect to the nature and amount of the pesticide chemical residue that is likely to remain in or on the food, including a description of the analytical methods used;

(vi) a practical method for detecting and measuring the levels of the pesticide chemical residue in or on the food, or for exemptions, a statement why such a method is not needed;

(vii) a proposed tolerance for the pesticide chemical residue, if a tolerance is proposed;

(viii) if the petition relates to a tolerance for a processed food, reports of investigations conducted using the processing method(s) used to produce that food;

(ix) such information as the Administrator may require to make the determination under subsection (b)(2)(C) of this section;

(x) such information as the Administrator may require on whether the pesticide chemical may have an effect in humans that is similar to an effect produced by a naturally occurring estrogen or other endocrine effects;

(xi) information regarding exposure to the pesticide chemical residue due to any tolerance or exemption already granted for such residue;

(xii) practical methods for removing any amount of the residue that would exceed any proposed tolerance; and

(xiii) such other data and information as the Administrator requires by regulation to support the petition.


If information or data required by this subparagraph is available to the Administrator, the person submitting the petition may cite the availability of the information or data in lieu of submitting it. The Administrator may require a petition to be accompanied by samples of the pesticide chemical with respect to which the petition is filed.

(B) Modification or revocation

The Administrator may by regulation establish the requirements for information and data to support a petition to modify or revoke a tolerance or to modify or revoke an exemption from the requirement for a tolerance.

(3) Notice

A notice of the filing of a petition that the Administrator determines has met the requirements of paragraph (2) shall be published by the Administrator within 30 days after such determination. The notice shall announce the availability of a description of the analytical methods available to the Administrator for the detection and measurement of the pesticide chemical residue with respect to which the petition is filed or shall set forth the petitioner's statement of why such a method is not needed. The notice shall include the summary required by paragraph (2)(A)(i)(I).

(4) Actions by the Administrator

(A) In general

The Administrator shall, after giving due consideration to a petition filed under paragraph (1) and any other information available to the Administrator—

(i) issue a final regulation (which may vary from that sought by the petition) establishing, modifying, or revoking a tolerance for the pesticide chemical residue or an exemption of the pesticide chemical residue from the requirement of a tolerance (which final regulation shall be issued without further notice and without further period for public comment);

(ii) issue a proposed regulation under subsection (e) of this section, and thereafter issue a final regulation under such subsection; or

(iii) issue an order denying the petition.

(B) Priorities

The Administrator shall give priority to petitions for the establishment or modification of a tolerance or exemption for a pesticide chemical residue that appears to pose a significantly lower risk to human health from dietary exposure than pesticide chemical residues that have tolerances in effect for the same or similar uses.

(C) Expedited review of certain petitions

(i) Date certain for review

If a person files a complete petition with the Administrator proposing the issuance of a regulation establishing a tolerance or exemption for a pesticide chemical residue that presents a lower risk to human health than a pesticide chemical residue for which a tolerance has been left in effect or modified under subsection (b)(2)(B) of this section, the Administrator shall complete action on such petition under this paragraph within 1 year.

(ii) Required determinations

If the Administrator issues a final regulation establishing a tolerance or exemption for a safer pesticide chemical residue under clause (i), the Administrator shall, not later than 180 days after the date on which the regulation is issued, determine whether a condition described in subclause (I) or (II) of subsection (b)(2)(B)(iii) of this section continues to exist with respect to a tolerance that has been left in effect or modified under subsection (b)(2)(B) of this section. If such condition does not continue to exist, the Administrator shall, not later than 180 days after the date on which the determination under the preceding sentence is made, issue a regulation under subsection (e)(1) of this section to modify or revoke the tolerance.

(e) Action on Administrator's own initiative

(1) General rule

The Administrator may issue a regulation—

(A) establishing, modifying, suspending under subsection (l)(3) of this section, or revoking a tolerance for a pesticide chemical or a pesticide chemical residue;

(B) establishing, modifying, suspending under subsection (l)(3) of this section, or revoking an exemption of a pesticide chemical residue from the requirement of a tolerance; or

(C) establishing general procedures and requirements to implement this section.

(2) Notice

Before issuing a final regulation under paragraph (1), the Administrator shall issue a notice of proposed rulemaking and provide a period of not less than 60 days for public comment on the proposed regulation, except that a shorter period for comment may be provided if the Administrator for good cause finds that it would be in the public interest to do so and states the reasons for the finding in the notice of proposed rulemaking.

(f) Special data requirements

(1) Requiring submission of additional data

If the Administrator determines that additional data or information are reasonably required to support the continuation of a tolerance or exemption that is in effect under this section for a pesticide chemical residue on a food, the Administrator shall—

(A) issue a notice requiring the person holding the pesticide registrations associated with such tolerance or exemption to submit the data or information under section 3(c)(2)(B) of the Federal Insecticide, Fungicide, and Rodenticide Act [7 U.S.C. 136a(c)(2)(B)];

(B) issue a rule requiring that testing be conducted on a substance or mixture under section 4 of the Toxic Substances Control Act [15 U.S.C. 2603]; or

(C) publish in the Federal Register, after first providing notice and an opportunity for comment of not less than 60 days’ duration, an order—

(i) requiring the submission to the Administrator by one or more interested persons of a notice identifying the person or persons who will submit the required data and information;

(ii) describing the type of data and information required to be submitted to the Administrator and stating why the data and information could not be obtained under the authority of section 3(c)(2)(B) of the Federal Insecticide, Fungicide, and Rodenticide Act [7 U.S.C. 136a(c)(2)(B)] or section 4 of the Toxic Substances Control Act [15 U.S.C. 2603];

(iii) describing the reports of the Administrator required to be prepared during and after the collection of the data and information;

(iv) requiring the submission to the Administrator of the data, information, and reports referred to in clauses (ii) and (iii); and

(v) establishing dates by which the submissions described in clauses (i) and (iv) must be made.


The Administrator may under subparagraph (C) revise any such order to correct an error. The Administrator may under this paragraph require data or information pertaining to whether the pesticide chemical may have an effect in humans that is similar to an effect produced by a naturally occurring estrogen or other endocrine effects.

(2) Noncompliance

If a submission required by a notice issued in accordance with paragraph (1)(A), a rule issued under paragraph (1)(B), or an order issued under paragraph (1)(C) is not made by the time specified in such notice, rule, or order, the Administrator may by order published in the Federal Register modify or revoke the tolerance or exemption in question. In any review of such an order under subsection (g)(2) of this section, the only material issue shall be whether a submission required under paragraph (1) was not made by the time specified.

(g) Effective date, objections, hearings, and administrative review

(1) Effective date

A regulation or order issued under subsection (d)(4), (e)(1), or (f)(2) of this section shall take effect upon publication unless the regulation or order specifies otherwise. The Administrator may stay the effectiveness of the regulation or order if, after issuance of such regulation or order, objections are filed with respect to such regulation or order pursuant to paragraph (2).

(2) Further proceedings

(A) Objections

Within 60 days after a regulation or order is issued under subsection (d)(4), (e)(1)(A), (e)(1)(B), (f)(2), (n)(3), or (n)(5)(C) of this section, any person may file objections thereto with the Administrator, specifying with particularity the provisions of the regulation or order deemed objectionable and stating reasonable grounds therefor. If the regulation or order was issued in response to a petition under subsection (d)(1) of this section, a copy of each objection filed by a person other than the petitioner shall be served by the Administrator on the petitioner.

(B) Hearing

An objection may include a request for a public evidentiary hearing upon the objection. The Administrator shall, upon the initiative of the Administrator or upon the request of an interested person and after due notice, hold a public evidentiary hearing if and to the extent the Administrator determines that such a public hearing is necessary to receive factual evidence relevant to material issues of fact raised by the objections. The presiding officer in such a hearing may authorize a party to obtain discovery from other persons and may upon a showing of good cause made by a party issue a subpoena to compel testimony or production of documents from any person. The presiding officer shall be governed by the Federal Rules of Civil Procedure in making any order for the protection of the witness or the content of documents produced and shall order the payment of reasonable fees and expenses as a condition to requiring testimony of the witness. On contest, such a subpoena may be enforced by a Federal district court.

(C) Final decision

As soon as practicable after receiving the arguments of the parties, the Administrator shall issue an order stating the action taken upon each such objection and setting forth any revision to the regulation or prior order that the Administrator has found to be warranted. If a hearing was held under subparagraph (B), such order and any revision to the regulation or prior order shall, with respect to questions of fact at issue in the hearing, be based only on substantial evidence of record at such hearing, and shall set forth in detail the findings of facts and the conclusions of law or policy upon which the order or regulation is based.

(h) Judicial review

(1) Petition

In a case of actual controversy as to the validity of any regulation issued under subsection (e)(1)(C) of this section, or any order issued under subsection (f)(1)(C) or (g)(2)(C) of this section, or any regulation that is the subject of such an order, any person who will be adversely affected by such order or regulation may obtain judicial review by filing in the United States Court of Appeals for the circuit wherein that person resides or has its principal place of business, or in the United States Court of Appeals for the District of Columbia Circuit, within 60 days after publication of such order or regulation, a petition praying that the order or regulation be set aside in whole or in part.

(2) Record and jurisdiction

A copy of the petition under paragraph (1) shall be forthwith transmitted by the clerk of the court to the Administrator, or any officer designated by the Administrator for that purpose, and thereupon the Administrator shall file in the court the record of the proceedings on which the Administrator based the order or regulation, as provided in section 2112 of title 28. Upon the filing of such a petition, the court shall have exclusive jurisdiction to affirm or set aside the order or regulation complained of in whole or in part. As to orders issued following a public evidentiary hearing, the findings of the Administrator with respect to questions of fact shall be sustained only if supported by substantial evidence when considered on the record as a whole.

(3) Additional evidence

If a party applies to the court for leave to adduce additional evidence and shows to the satisfaction of the court that the additional evidence is material and that there were reasonable grounds for the failure to adduce the evidence in the proceeding before the Administrator, the court may order that the additional evidence (and evidence in rebuttal thereof) shall be taken before the Administrator in the manner and upon the terms and conditions the court deems proper. The Administrator may modify prior findings as to the facts by reason of the additional evidence so taken and may modify the order or regulation accordingly. The Administrator shall file with the court any such modified finding, order, or regulation.

(4) Final judgment; Supreme Court review

The judgment of the court affirming or setting aside, in whole or in part, any regulation or any order and any regulation which is the subject of such an order shall be final, subject to review by the Supreme Court of the United States as provided in section 1254 of title 28. The commencement of proceedings under this subsection shall not, unless specifically ordered by the court to the contrary, operate as a stay of a regulation or order.

(5) Application

Any issue as to which review is or was obtainable under this subsection shall not be the subject of judicial review under any other provision of law.

(i) Confidentiality and use of data

(1) General rule

Data and information that are or have been submitted to the Administrator under this section or section 348 of this title in support of a tolerance or an exemption from a tolerance shall be entitled to confidential treatment for reasons of business confidentiality and to exclusive use and data compensation to the same extent provided by sections 3 and 10 of the Federal Insecticide, Fungicide, and Rodenticide Act [7 U.S.C. 136a, 136h].

(2) Exceptions

(A) In general

Data and information that are entitled to confidential treatment under paragraph (1) may be disclosed, under such security requirements as the Administrator may provide by regulation, to—

(i) employees of the United States authorized by the Administrator to examine such data and information in the carrying out of their official duties under this chapter or other Federal statutes intended to protect the public health; or

(ii) contractors with the United States authorized by the Administrator to examine such data and information in the carrying out of contracts under this chapter or such statutes.

(B) Congress

This subsection does not authorize the withholding of data or information from either House of Congress or from, to the extent of matter within its jurisdiction, any committee or subcommittee of such committee or any joint committee of Congress or any subcommittee of such joint committee.

(3) Summaries

Notwithstanding any provision of this subsection or other law, the Administrator may publish the informative summary required by subsection (d)(2)(A)(i) of this section and may, in issuing a proposed or final regulation or order under this section, publish an informative summary of the data relating to the regulation or order.

(j) Status of previously issued regulations

(1) Regulations under section 346

Regulations affecting pesticide chemical residues in or on raw agricultural commodities promulgated, in accordance with section 371(e) of this title, under the authority of section 346(a) 1 of this title upon the basis of public hearings instituted before January 1, 1953, shall be deemed to be regulations issued under this section and shall be subject to modification or revocation under subsections (d) and (e) of this section, and shall be subject to review under subsection (q) of this section.

(2) Regulations under section 348

Regulations that established tolerances for substances that are pesticide chemical residues in or on processed food, or that otherwise stated the conditions under which such pesticide chemicals could be safely used, and that were issued under section 348 of this title on or before August 3, 1996, shall be deemed to be regulations issued under this section and shall be subject to modification or revocation under subsection (d) or (e) of this section, and shall be subject to review under subsection (q) of this section.

(3) Regulations under section 346a

Regulations that established tolerances or exemptions under this section that were issued on or before August 3, 1996, shall remain in effect unless modified or revoked under subsection (d) or (e) of this section, and shall be subject to review under subsection (q) of this section.

(4) Certain substances

With respect to a substance that is not included in the definition of the term “pesticide chemical” under section 321(q)(1) of this title but was so included on the day before October 30, 1998, the following applies as of October 30, 1998:

(A) Notwithstanding paragraph (2), any regulation applying to the use of the substance that was in effect on the day before October 30, 1998, and was on such day deemed in such paragraph to have been issued under this section, shall be considered to have been issued under section 348 of this title.

(B) Notwithstanding paragraph (3), any regulation applying to the use of the substance that was in effect on such day and was issued under this section (including any such regulation issued before August 3, 1996) is deemed to have been issued under section 348 of this title.

(k) Transitional provision

If, on the day before August 3, 1996, a substance that is a pesticide chemical was, with respect to a particular pesticidal use of the substance and any resulting pesticide chemical residue in or on a particular food—

(1) regarded by the Administrator or the Secretary as generally recognized as safe for use within the meaning of the provisions of subsection (a) of this section or section 321(s) of this title as then in effect; or

(2) regarded by the Secretary as a substance described by section 321(s)(4) of this title;


such a pesticide chemical residue shall be regarded as exempt from the requirement for a tolerance, as of August 3, 1996. The Administrator shall by regulation indicate which substances are described by this subsection. Any exemption under this subsection may be modified or revoked as if it had been issued under subsection (c) of this section.

(l) Harmonization with action under other laws

(1) Coordination with FIFRA

To the extent practicable and consistent with the review deadlines in subsection (q) of this section, in issuing a final rule under this subsection that suspends or revokes a tolerance or exemption for a pesticide chemical residue in or on food, the Administrator shall coordinate such action with any related necessary action under the Federal Insecticide, Fungicide, and Rodenticide Act [7 U.S.C. 136 et seq.].

(2) Revocation of tolerance or exemption following cancellation of associated registrations

If the Administrator, acting under the Federal Insecticide, Fungicide, and Rodenticide Act, cancels the registration of each pesticide that contains a particular pesticide chemical and that is labeled for use on a particular food, or requires that the registration of each such pesticide be modified to prohibit its use in connection with the production, storage, or transportation of such food, due in whole or in part to dietary risks to humans posed by residues of that pesticide chemical on that food, the Administrator shall revoke any tolerance or exemption that allows the presence of the pesticide chemical, or any pesticide chemical residue that results from its use, in or on that food. Subsection (e) of this section shall apply to actions taken under this paragraph. A revocation under this paragraph shall become effective not later than 180 days after—

(A) the date by which each such cancellation of a registration has become effective; or

(B) the date on which the use of the canceled pesticide becomes unlawful under the terms of the cancellation, whichever is later.

(3) Suspension of tolerance or exemption following suspension of associated registrations

(A) Suspension

If the Administrator, acting under the Federal Insecticide, Fungicide, and Rodenticide Act, suspends the use of each registered pesticide that contains a particular pesticide chemical and that is labeled for use on a particular food, due in whole or in part to dietary risks to humans posed by residues of that pesticide chemical on that food, the Administrator shall suspend any tolerance or exemption that allows the presence of the pesticide chemical, or any pesticide chemical residue that results from its use, in or on that food. Subsection (e) of this section shall apply to actions taken under this paragraph. A suspension under this paragraph shall become effective not later than 60 days after the date by which each such suspension of use has become effective.

(B) Effect of suspension

The suspension of a tolerance or exemption under subparagraph (A) shall be effective as long as the use of each associated registration of a pesticide is suspended under the Federal Insecticide, Fungicide, and Rodenticide Act. While a suspension of a tolerance or exemption is effective the tolerance or exemption shall not be considered to be in effect. If the suspension of use of the pesticide under that Act is terminated, leaving the registration of the pesticide for such use in effect under that Act, the Administrator shall rescind any associated suspension of tolerance or exemption.

(4) Tolerances for unavoidable residues

In connection with action taken under paragraph (2) or (3), or with respect to pesticides whose registrations were suspended or canceled prior to August 3, 1996, under the Federal Insecticide, Fungicide, and Rodenticide Act, if the Administrator determines that a residue of the canceled or suspended pesticide chemical will unavoidably persist in the environment and thereby be present in or on a food, the Administrator may establish a tolerance for the pesticide chemical residue. In establishing such a tolerance, the Administrator shall take into account both the factors set forth in subsection (b)(2) of this section and the unavoidability of the residue. Subsection (e) of this section shall apply to the establishment of such tolerance. The Administrator shall review any such tolerance periodically and modify it as necessary so that it allows no greater level of the pesticide chemical residue than is unavoidable.

(5) Pesticide residues resulting from lawful application of pesticide

Notwithstanding any other provision of this chapter, if a tolerance or exemption for a pesticide chemical residue in or on a food has been revoked, suspended, or modified under this section, an article of that food shall not be deemed unsafe solely because of the presence of such pesticide chemical residue in or on such food if it is shown to the satisfaction of the Secretary that—

(A) the residue is present as the result of an application or use of a pesticide at a time and in a manner that was lawful under the Federal Insecticide, Fungicide, and Rodenticide Act; and

(B) the residue does not exceed a level that was authorized at the time of that application or use to be present on the food under a tolerance, exemption, food additive regulation, or other sanction then in effect under this chapter;


unless, in the case of any tolerance or exemption revoked, suspended, or modified under this subsection or subsection (d) or (e) of this section, the Administrator has issued a determination that consumption of the legally treated food during the period of its likely availability in commerce will pose an unreasonable dietary risk.

(6) Tolerance for use of pesticides under an emergency exemption

If the Administrator grants an exemption under section 18 of the Federal Insecticide, Fungicide, and Rodenticide Act (7 U.S.C. 136p) for a pesticide chemical, the Administrator shall establish a tolerance or exemption from the requirement for a tolerance for the pesticide chemical residue. Such a tolerance or exemption from a tolerance shall have an expiration date. The Administrator may establish such a tolerance or exemption without providing notice or a period for comment on the tolerance or exemption. The Administrator shall promulgate regulations within 365 days after August 3, 1996, governing the establishment of tolerances and exemptions under this paragraph. Such regulations shall be consistent with the safety standard under subsections (b)(2) and (c)(2) of this section and with section 18 of the Federal Insecticide, Fungicide, and Rodenticide Act.

(m) Fees

(1) Amount

The Administrator shall by regulation require the payment of such fees as will in the aggregate, in the judgment of the Administrator, be sufficient over a reasonable term to provide, equip, and maintain an adequate service for the performance of the Administrator's functions under this section. Under the regulations, the performance of the Administrator's services or other functions under this section, including—

(A) the acceptance for filing of a petition submitted under subsection (d) of this section;

(B) establishing, modifying, leaving in effect, or revoking a tolerance or establishing, modifying, leaving in effect, or revoking an exemption from the requirement for a tolerance under this section;

(C) the acceptance for filing of objections under subsection (g) of this section; or

(D) the certification and filing in court of a transcript of the proceedings and the record under subsection (h) of this section;


may be conditioned upon the payment of such fees. The regulations may further provide for waiver or refund of fees in whole or in part when in the judgment of the Administrator such a waiver or refund is equitable and not contrary to the purposes of this subsection.

(2) Deposit

All fees collected under paragraph (1) shall be deposited in the Reregistration and Expedited Processing Fund created by section 4(k) of the Federal Insecticide, Fungicide, and Rodenticide Act [7 U.S.C. 136a–1(k)]. Such fees shall be available to the Administrator, without fiscal year limitation, for the performance of the Administrator's services or functions as specified in paragraph (1).

(3) Prohibition

During the period beginning on October 1, 2007, and ending on September 30, 2012, the Administrator shall not collect any tolerance fees under paragraph (1).

(n) National uniformity of tolerances

(1) “Qualifying pesticide chemical residue” defined

For purposes of this subsection, the term “qualifying pesticide chemical residue” means a pesticide chemical residue resulting from the use, in production, processing, or storage of a food, of a pesticide chemical that is an active ingredient and that—

(A) was first approved for such use in a registration of a pesticide issued under section 3(c)(5) of the Federal Insecticide, Fungicide, and Rodenticide Act [7 U.S.C. 136a(c)(5)] on or after April 25, 1985, on the basis of data determined by the Administrator to meet all applicable requirements for data prescribed by regulations in effect under that Act [7 U.S.C. 136 et seq.] on April 25, 1985; or

(B) was approved for such use in a reregistration eligibility determination issued under section 4(g) of that Act [7 U.S.C. 136a–1(g)] on or after August 3, 1996.

(2) “Qualifying Federal determination” defined

For purposes of this subsection, the term “qualifying Federal determination” means a tolerance or exemption from the requirement for a tolerance for a qualifying pesticide chemical residue that—

(A) is issued under this section after August 3, 1996, and determined by the Administrator to meet the standard under subsection (b)(2)(A) (in the case of a tolerance) or (c)(2) (in the case of an exemption) of this section; or

(B)(i) pursuant to subsection (j) of this section is remaining in effect or is deemed to have been issued under this section, or is regarded under subsection (k) of this section as exempt from the requirement for a tolerance; and

(ii) is determined by the Administrator to meet the standard under subsection (b)(2)(A) (in the case of a tolerance) or (c)(2) (in the case of an exemption) of this section.

(3) Limitation

The Administrator may make the determination described in paragraph (2)(B)(ii) only by issuing a rule in accordance with the procedure set forth in subsection (d) or (e) of this section and only if the Administrator issues a proposed rule and allows a period of not less than 30 days for comment on the proposed rule. Any such rule shall be reviewable in accordance with subsections (g) and (h) of this section.

(4) State authority

Except as provided in paragraphs (5), (6), and (8) no State or political subdivision may establish or enforce any regulatory limit on a qualifying pesticide chemical residue in or on any food if a qualifying Federal determination applies to the presence of such pesticide chemical residue in or on such food, unless such State regulatory limit is identical to such qualifying Federal determination. A State or political subdivision shall be deemed to establish or enforce a regulatory limit on a pesticide chemical residue in or on a food if it purports to prohibit or penalize the production, processing, shipping, or other handling of a food because it contains a pesticide residue (in excess of a prescribed limit).

(5) Petition procedure

(A) In general

Any State may petition the Administrator for authorization to establish in such State a regulatory limit on a qualifying pesticide chemical residue in or on any food that is not identical to the qualifying Federal determination applicable to such qualifying pesticide chemical residue.

(B) Petition requirements

Any petition under subparagraph (A) shall—

(i) satisfy any requirements prescribed, by rule, by the Administrator; and

(ii) be supported by scientific data about the pesticide chemical residue that is the subject of the petition or about chemically related pesticide chemical residues, data on the consumption within such State of food bearing the pesticide chemical residue, and data on exposure of humans within such State to the pesticide chemical residue.

(C) Authorization

The Administrator may, by order, grant the authorization described in subparagraph (A) if the Administrator determines that the proposed State regulatory limit—

(i) is justified by compelling local conditions; and

(ii) would not cause any food to be a violation of Federal law.

(D) Treatment

In lieu of any action authorized under subparagraph (C), the Administrator may treat a petition under this paragraph as a petition under subsection (d) of this section to modify or revoke a tolerance or an exemption. If the Administrator determines to treat a petition under this paragraph as a petition under subsection (d) of this section, the Administrator shall thereafter act on the petition pursuant to subsection (d) of this section.

(E) Review

Any order of the Administrator granting or denying the authorization described in subparagraph (A) shall be subject to review in the manner described in subsections (g) and (h) of this section.

(6) Urgent petition procedure

Any State petition to the Administrator pursuant to paragraph (5) that demonstrates that consumption of a food containing such pesticide residue level during the period of the food's likely availability in the State will pose a significant public health threat from acute exposure shall be considered an urgent petition. If an order by the Administrator to grant or deny the requested authorization in an urgent petition is not made within 30 days of receipt of the petition, the petitioning State may establish and enforce a temporary regulatory limit on a qualifying pesticide chemical residue in or on the food. The temporary regulatory limit shall be validated or terminated by the Administrator's final order on the petition.

(7) Residues from lawful application

No State or political subdivision may enforce any regulatory limit on the level of a pesticide chemical residue that may appear in or on any food if, at the time of the application of the pesticide that resulted in such residue, the sale of such food with such residue level was lawful under this section and under the law of such State, unless the State demonstrates that consumption of the food containing such pesticide residue level during the period of the food's likely availability in the State will pose an unreasonable dietary risk to the health of persons within such State.

(8) Savings

Nothing in this chapter preempts the authority of any State or political subdivision to require that a food containing a pesticide chemical residue bear or be the subject of a warning or other statement relating to the presence of the pesticide chemical residue in or on such food.

(o) Consumer right to know

Not later than 2 years after August 3, 1996, and annually thereafter, the Administrator shall, in consultation with the Secretary of Agriculture and the Secretary of Health and Human Services, publish in a format understandable to a lay person, and distribute to large retail grocers for public display (in a manner determined by the grocer), the following information, at a minimum:

(1) A discussion of the risks and benefits of pesticide chemical residues in or on food purchased by consumers.

(2) A listing of actions taken under subparagraph (B) of subsection (b)(2) of this section that may result in pesticide chemical residues in or on food that present a yearly or lifetime risk above the risk allowed under subparagraph (A) of such subsection, and the food on which the pesticide chemicals producing the residues are used.

(3) Recommendations to consumers for reducing dietary exposure to pesticide chemical residues in a manner consistent with maintaining a healthy diet, including a list of food that may reasonably substitute for food listed under paragraph (2).


Nothing in this subsection shall prevent retail grocers from providing additional information.

(p) Estrogenic substances screening program

(1) Development

Not later than 2 years after August 3, 1996, the Administrator shall in consultation with the Secretary of Health and Human Services develop a screening program, using appropriate validated test systems and other scientifically relevant information, to determine whether certain substances may have an effect in humans that is similar to an effect produced by a naturally occurring estrogen, or such other endocrine effect as the Administrator may designate.

(2) Implementation

Not later than 3 years after August 3, 1996, after obtaining public comment and review of the screening program described in paragraph (1) by the scientific advisory panel established under section 25(d) of the Federal Insecticide, Fungicide, and Rodenticide Act [7 U.S.C. 136w(d)] or the science advisory board established by section 4365 2 of title 42, the Administrator shall implement the program.

(3) Substances

In carrying out the screening program described in paragraph (1), the Administrator—

(A) shall provide for the testing of all pesticide chemicals; and

(B) may provide for the testing of any other substance that may have an effect that is cumulative to an effect of a pesticide chemical if the Administrator determines that a substantial population may be exposed to such substance.

(4) Exemption

Notwithstanding paragraph (3), the Administrator may, by order, exempt from the requirements of this section a biologic substance or other substance if the Administrator determines that the substance is anticipated not to produce any effect in humans similar to an effect produced by a naturally occurring estrogen.

(5) Collection of information

(A) In general

The Administrator shall issue an order to a registrant of a substance for which testing is required under this subsection, or to a person who manufactures or imports a substance for which testing is required under this subsection, to conduct testing in accordance with the screening program described in paragraph (1), and submit information obtained from the testing to the Administrator, within a reasonable time period that the Administrator determines is sufficient for the generation of the information.

(B) Procedures

To the extent practicable the Administrator shall minimize duplicative testing of the same substance for the same endocrine effect, develop, as appropriate, procedures for fair and equitable sharing of test costs, and develop, as necessary, procedures for handling of confidential business information.

(C) Failure of registrants to submit information

(i) Suspension

If a registrant of a substance referred to in paragraph (3)(A) fails to comply with an order under subparagraph (A) of this paragraph, the Administrator shall issue a notice of intent to suspend the sale or distribution of the substance by the registrant. Any suspension proposed under this paragraph shall become final at the end of the 30-day period beginning on the date that the registrant receives the notice of intent to suspend, unless during that period a person adversely affected by the notice requests a hearing or the Administrator determines that the registrant has complied fully with this paragraph.

(ii) Hearing

If a person requests a hearing under clause (i), the hearing shall be conducted in accordance with section 554 of title 5. The only matter for resolution at the hearing shall be whether the registrant has failed to comply with an order under subparagraph (A) of this paragraph. A decision by the Administrator after completion of a hearing shall be considered to be a final agency action.

(iii) Termination of suspensions

The Administrator shall terminate a suspension under this subparagraph issued with respect to a registrant if the Administrator determines that the registrant has complied fully with this paragraph.

(D) Noncompliance by other persons

Any person (other than a registrant) who fails to comply with an order under subparagraph (A) shall be liable for the same penalties and sanctions as are provided under section 16 of the Toxic Substances Control Act [15 U.S.C. 2615] in the case of a violation referred to in that section. Such penalties and sanctions shall be assessed and imposed in the same manner as provided in such section 16.

(6) Agency action

In the case of any substance that is found, as a result of testing and evaluation under this section, to have an endocrine effect on humans, the Administrator shall, as appropriate, take action under such statutory authority as is available to the Administrator, including consideration under other sections of this chapter, as is necessary to ensure the protection of public health.

(7) Report to Congress

Not later than 4 years after August 3, 1996, the Administrator shall prepare and submit to Congress a report containing—

(A) the findings of the Administrator resulting from the screening program described in paragraph (1);

(B) recommendations for further testing needed to evaluate the impact on human health of the substances tested under the screening program; and

(C) recommendations for any further actions (including any action described in paragraph (6)) that the Administrator determines are appropriate based on the findings.

(q) Schedule for review

(1) In general

The Administrator shall review tolerances and exemptions for pesticide chemical residues in effect on the day before August 3, 1996, as expeditiously as practicable, assuring that—

(A) 33 percent of such tolerances and exemptions are reviewed within 3 years of August 3, 1996;

(B) 66 percent of such tolerances and exemptions are reviewed within 6 years of August 3, 1996; and

(C) 100 percent of such tolerances and exemptions are reviewed within 10 years of August 3, 1996.


In conducting a review of a tolerance or exemption, the Administrator shall determine whether the tolerance or exemption meets the requirements of subsections 3 (b)(2) or (c)(2) of this section and shall, by the deadline for the review of the tolerance or exemption, issue a regulation under subsection (d)(4) or (e)(1) of this section to modify or revoke the tolerance or exemption if the tolerance or exemption does not meet such requirements.

(2) Priorities

In determining priorities for reviewing tolerances and exemptions under paragraph (1), the Administrator shall give priority to the review of the tolerances or exemptions that appear to pose the greatest risk to public health.

(3) Publication of schedule

Not later than 12 months after August 3, 1996, the Administrator shall publish a schedule for review of tolerances and exemptions established prior to August 3, 1996. The determination of priorities for the review of tolerances and exemptions pursuant to this subsection is not a rulemaking and shall not be subject to judicial review, except that failure to take final action pursuant to the schedule established by this paragraph shall be subject to judicial review.

(r) Temporary tolerance or exemption

The Administrator may, upon the request of any person who has obtained an experimental permit for a pesticide chemical under the Federal Insecticide, Fungicide, and Rodenticide Act [7 U.S.C. 136 et seq.] or upon the Administrator's own initiative, establish a temporary tolerance or exemption for the pesticide chemical residue for the uses covered by the permit. Subsections (b)(2), (c)(2), (d), and (e) of this section shall apply to actions taken under this subsection.

(s) Savings clause

Nothing in this section shall be construed to amend or modify the provisions of the Toxic Substances Control Act [15 U.S.C. 2601 et seq.] or the Federal Insecticide, Fungicide, and Rodenticide Act [7 U.S.C. 136 et seq.].

(June 25, 1938, ch. 675, §408, as added July 22, 1954, ch. 559, §3, 68 Stat. 511; amended Pub. L. 85–791, §20, Aug. 28, 1958, 72 Stat. 947; Pub. L. 91–515, title VI, §601(d)(1), Oct. 30, 1970, 84 Stat. 1311; Pub. L. 92–157, title III, §303(a), Nov. 18, 1971, 85 Stat. 464; Pub. L. 92–516, §3(3), Oct. 21, 1972, 86 Stat. 998; Pub. L. 98–620, title IV, §402(25)(A), Nov. 8, 1984, 98 Stat. 3359; Pub. L. 102–300, §6(b)(1), June 16, 1992, 106 Stat. 240; Pub. L. 102–571, title I, §107(7), Oct. 29, 1992, 106 Stat. 4499; Pub. L. 103–80, §3(k), Aug. 13, 1993, 107 Stat. 776; Pub. L. 104–170, title IV, §405, Aug. 3, 1996, 110 Stat. 1514; Pub. L. 105–324, §2(b), Oct. 30, 1998, 112 Stat. 3036; Pub. L. 110–94, §4(d)(2), Oct. 9, 2007, 121 Stat. 1002.)

References in Text

The Federal Rules of Civil Procedure, referred to in subsec. (g)(2)(B), are set out in the Appendix to Title 28, Judiciary and Judicial Procedure.

Section 346 of this title, referred to in subsec. (j)(1), originally consisted of subsecs. (a) and (b). Subsec. (a) was redesignated as the entire section 346 and subsec. (b) was repealed by Pub. L. 86–618, title I, §103(a)(1), 74 Stat. 398.

The Federal Insecticide, Fungicide, and Rodenticide Act, referred to in subsecs. (l), (n)(1)(A), (r), and (s), is act June 25, 1947, ch. 125, as amended generally by Pub. L. 92–516, Oct. 21, 1972, 86 Stat. 973, which is classified generally to subchapter II (§136 et seq.) of chapter 6 of Title 7, Agriculture. For complete classification of this Act to the Code, see Short Title note set out under section 136 of Title 7 and Tables.

Section 4365 of title 42, referred to in subsec. (p)(2), was in the original “section 8 of the Environmental Research, Development, and Demonstration Act of 1978”, and was translated as meaning section 8 of the Environmental Research, Development, and Demonstration Authorization Act of 1978, to reflect the probable intent of Congress.

The Toxic Substances Control Act, referred to in subsec. (s), is Pub. L. 94–469, Oct. 11, 1976, 90 Stat. 2003, as amended, which is classified generally to chapter 53 (§2601 et seq.) of Title 15, Commerce and Trade. For complete classification of this Act to the Code, see Short Title note set out under section 2601 of Title 15 and Tables.

Codification

August 3, 1996, referred to in subsecs. (k), (n)(1)(B), (2)(A), and (p)(1), (2), (7), was in the original references to the date of enactment of this subsection and the date of enactment of this section, which was translated as meaning the date of enactment of Pub. L. 104–170, which amended this section generally, to reflect the probable intent of Congress.

Amendments

2007—Subsec. (m)(3). Pub. L. 110–94 added par. (3).

1998—Subsec. (j)(4). Pub. L. 105–324 added par. (4).

1996—Pub. L. 104–170 amended section generally, substituting, in subsec. (a), provisions relating to requirement for tolerance or exemption for provisions relating to conditions for safety; in subsec. (b), provisions relating to authority and standard for tolerance for provisions relating to establishment of tolerances; in subsec. (c), provisions relating to authority and standard for exemptions for provisions relating to exemptions; in subsec. (d), provisions relating to petition for tolerance or exemption for provisions relating to regulations pursuant to petition, publication of notice, time for issuance, referral to advisory committees, effective date, and hearings; in subsec. (e), provisions relating to action on Administrator's own initiative for provisions relating to regulations pursuant to Administrator's proposals; in subsec. (f), provisions relating to special data requirements for provisions relating to data submitted as confidential; in subsec. (g), provisions relating to effective date, objections, hearings, and administrative review for provisions relating to advisory committees and their appointment, composition, compensation, and clerical assistance; in subsec. (h), provisions relating to judicial review for provisions relating to right of consultation; in subsec. (i), provisions relating to confidentiality and use of data for provisions relating to judicial review; in subsec. (j), provisions relating to status of previously issued regulations for provisions relating to temporary tolerances; in subsec. (k), provisions relating to transitions for provisions relating to regulations based on public hearings before January 1, 1953; in subsec. (l), provisions relating to harmonization with action under other laws for provisions relating to pesticides under Federal Insecticide, Fungicide, and Rodenticide Act, functions of Administrator of Environmental Protection Agency, certifications, hearings, time limitations, opinions, and regulations; in subsec. (m), provisions relating to fees for provisions relating to amendment of regulations; in subsec. (n), provisions relating to national uniformity of tolerances for provisions relating to guaranties; in subsec. (o), provisions relating to consumer right to know for provisions relating to payment of fees, services or functions conditioned on payment, and waiver or refund of fees; and adding subsecs. (p) to (s).

1993—Pub. L. 103–80, §3(k)(6), substituted “Administrator” for “Secretary” wherever appearing except when followed by “of Agriculture”.

Subsec. (a)(1). Pub. L. 103–80, §3(k)(1), substituted “Administrator of the Environmental Protection Agency (hereinafter in this section referred to as the ‘Administrator’)” for “Secretary of Health and Human Services”.

Subsec. (d)(5). Pub. L. 103–80, §3(k)(2), substituted “section 556(c) of title 5” for “section 7(c) of the Administrative Procedure Act (5 U.S.C., sec. 1006(c))”.

Subsec. (l). Pub. L. 103–80, §3(k)(3), substituted “In the event” for “It the event” before “a hearing is requested”.

Subsec. (n). Pub. L. 103–80, §3(k)(4), made technical amendment to reference to section 333(c) of this title to reflect amendment of corresponding provision of original act.

Subsec. (o). Pub. L. 103–80, §3(k)(5), which directed the substitution of “Administrator” for “Secretary of Health and Human Services” wherever appearing in the original text, was executed by making the substitution in the first sentence before “shall by regulation require”, the only place “Secretary of Health and Human Services” appeared in the original text.

1992—Subsecs. (a), (d), (h), (i), (l), (m), (o). Pub. L. 102–300 substituted “Health and Human Services” for “Health, Education, and Welfare” wherever appearing in the original statutory text.

Subsec. (g). Pub. L. 102–571 substituted “379e” for “376”.

1984—Subsec. (i)(5). Pub. L. 98–620 struck out provision that required the court to advance on the docket and expedite the disposition of all causes filed therein pursuant to this section.

1972—Subsecs. (d)(1), (e), (l). Pub. L. 92–516 substituted references to pesticide for references to economic poison wherever appearing therein.

1971—Subsec. (g). Pub. L. 92–157 struck out “, which the Secretary shall by rules and regulations prescribe,” after “as compensation for their services a reasonable per diem” prior to amendment in 1970, by Pub. L. 91–515, which overlooked such language when amending subsec. (g) as provided in 1970 Amendment note.

1970—Subsec. (g). Pub. L. 91–515 substituted provisions authorizing members of an advisory committee to receive compensation and travel expenses in accordance with section 376(b)(5)(D) of this title, for provisions authorizing such members to receive as compensation a reasonable per diem for time actually spent on committee work, and necessary traveling and subsistence expenses while serving away from their places of residence.

1958—Subsec. (i)(2). Pub. L. 85–791, §20(a), in first sentence, substituted “transmitted by the clerk of the court to the Secretary, or” for “served upon the Secretary, or upon”, substituted “file in the court the record of the proceedings” for “certify and file in the court a transcript of the proceedings and the record”, and inserted “as provided in section 2112 of title 28”, and which, in second sentence, substituted “the filing of such petition” for “such filing”.

Subsec. (i)(3). Pub. L. 85–791, §20(b), in first sentence, substituted “transmitted by the clerk of the court to the Secretary of Agriculture, or” for “served upon the Secretary of Agriculture, or upon”, substituted “file in the court the record of the proceedings” for “certify and file in the court a transcript of the proceedings and the record”, and inserted “as provided in section 2112 of title 28”, and, in second sentence, substituted “the filing of such petition” for “such filing”.

Effective Date of 2007 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 110–94 effective Oct. 1, 2007, see section 6 of Pub. L. 110–94, set out as a note under section 136a of Title 7, Agriculture.

Effective Date of 1984 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 98–620 not applicable to cases pending on Nov. 8, 1984, see section 403 of Pub. L. 98–620, set out as an Effective Date note under section 1657 of Title 28, Judiciary and Judicial Procedure.

Effective Date of 1972 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 92–516 effective at close of Oct. 21, 1972, except if regulations are necessary for implementation of any provision that becomes effective on Oct. 21, 1972, and continuation in effect of subchapter I of chapter 6 of Title 7, Agriculture, and regulations thereunder, relating to control of economic poisons, as in existence prior to Oct. 21, 1972, until superseded by provisions of Pub. L. 92–516 and regulations thereunder, see section 4 of Pub. L. 92–516, set out as an Effective Date note under section 136 of Title 7.

Tolerance Fees

Pub. L. 108–199, div. G, title V, §501(d)(2), Jan. 23, 2004, 118 Stat. 422, provided that: “Notwithstanding section 408(m)(1) of the Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act (21 U.S.C. 346a(m)(1)), during the period beginning on October 1, 2003, and ending on September 30, 2008, the Administrator of the Environmental Protection Agency shall not collect any tolerance fees under that section.”

Data Collection Activities To Assure Health of Infants and Children

Section 301 of Pub. L. 104–170 provided that:

“(a) In General.—The Secretary of Agriculture, in consultation with the Administrator of the Environmental Protection Agency and the Secretary of Health and Human Services, shall coordinate the development and implementation of survey procedures to ensure that adequate data on food consumption patterns of infants and children are collected.

“(b) Procedures.—To the extent practicable, the procedures referred to in subsection (a) shall include the collection of data on food consumption patterns of a statistically valid sample of infants and children.

“(c) Residue Data Collection.—The Secretary of Agriculture shall ensure that the residue data collection activities conducted by the Department of Agriculture in cooperation with the Environmental Protection Agency and the Department of Health and Human Services, provide for the improved data collection of pesticide residues, including guidelines for the use of comparable analytical and standardized reporting methods, and the increased sampling of foods most likely consumed by infants and children.”

1 See References in Text note below.

2 See References in Text note below.

3 So in original. Probably should be “subsection”.

§346b. Authorization of appropriations

There are authorized to be appropriated, out of any moneys in the Treasury not otherwise appropriated, such sums as may be necessary for the purpose and administration of sections 321(q), (r), 342(a)(2), and 346a of this title.

(July 22, 1954, ch. 559, §4, 68 Stat. 517.)

Codification

Section was not enacted as part of the Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act which comprises this chapter.

§347. Intrastate sales of colored oleomargarine

(a) Law governing

Colored oleomargarine or colored margarine which is sold in the same State or Territory in which it is produced shall be subject in the same manner and to the same extent to the provisions of this chapter as if it had been introduced in interstate commerce.

(b) Labeling and packaging requirements

No person shall sell, or offer for sale, colored oleomargarine or colored margarine unless—

(1) such oleomargarine or margarine is packaged,

(2) the net weight of the contents of any package sold in a retail establishment is one pound or less,

(3) there appears on the label of the package (A) the word “oleomargarine” or “margarine” in type or lettering at least as large as any other type or lettering on such label, and (B) a full and accurate statement of all the ingredients contained in such oleomargarine or margarine, and

(4) each part of the contents of the package is contained in a wrapper which bears the word “oleomargarine” or “margarine” in type or lettering not smaller than 20-point type.


The requirements of this subsection shall be in addition to and not in lieu of any of the other requirements of this chapter.

(c) Sales in public eating places

No person shall possess in a form ready for serving colored oleomargarine or colored margarine at a public eating place unless a notice that oleomargarine or margarine is served is displayed prominently and conspicuously in such place and in such manner as to render it likely to be read and understood by the ordinary individual being served in such eating place or is printed or is otherwise set forth on the menu in type or lettering not smaller than that normally used to designate the serving of other food items. No person shall serve colored oleomargarine or colored margarine at a public eating place, whether or not any charge is made therefor, unless (1) each separate serving bears or is accompanied by labeling identifying it as oleomargarine or margarine, or (2) each separate serving thereof is triangular in shape.

(d) Exemption from labeling requirements

Colored oleomargarine or colored margarine when served with meals at a public eating place shall at the time of such service be exempt from the labeling requirements of section 343 of this title (except paragraphs (a) and (f)) if it complies with the requirements of subsection (b) of this section.

(e) Color content of oleomargarine

For the purpose of this section colored oleomargarine or colored margarine is oleomargarine or margarine having a tint or shade containing more than one and six-tenths degrees of yellow, or of yellow and red collectively, but with an excess of yellow over red, measured in terms of Lovibond tintometer scale or its equivalent.

(June 25, 1938, ch. 675, §407, as added Mar. 16, 1950, ch. 61, §3(c), 64 Stat. 20.)

Effective Date

Section 7 of act Mar. 16, 1950, provided that: “This Act [enacting this section and sections 347a and 347b of this title and amending sections 331 and 342 of this title and sections 45 and 55 of Title 15, Commerce and Trade] shall become effective on July 1, 1950.”

Transfer of Appropriations

Section 5 of act Mar. 16, 1950, provided that: “So much of the unexpended balances of appropriations, allocations, or other funds (including funds available for the fiscal year ending June 30, 1950) for the use of the Bureau of Internal Revenue of the Treasury Department in the exercise of functions under the Oleomargarine Tax Act (26 U.S.C., §2300, subchapter A) [now section 4591 et seq. of Title 26, Internal Revenue Code], as the Director of the Bureau of the Budget [now Director of the Office of Management and Budget] may determine, shall be transferred to the Federal Security Agency (Food and Drug Administration) [now the Department of Health and Human Services] for use in the enforcement of this Act [see Effective Date note above].”

§347a. Congressional declaration of policy regarding oleomargarine sales

The Congress finds and declares that the sale, or the serving in public eating places, of colored oleomargarine or colored margarine without clear identification as such or which is otherwise adulterated or misbranded within the meaning of this chapter depresses the market in interstate commerce for butter and for oleomargarine or margarine clearly identified and neither adulterated nor misbranded, and constitutes a burden on interstate commerce in such articles. Such burden exists, irrespective of whether such oleomargarine or margarine originates from an interstate source or from the State in which it is sold.

(Mar. 16, 1950, ch. 61, §3(a), 64 Stat. 20.)

Codification

Section was not enacted as part of the Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act which comprises this chapter.

Effective Date

Section effective July 1, 1950, see section 7 of act Mar. 16, 1950, set out as a note under section 347 of this title.

§347b. Contravention of State laws

Nothing in this Act shall be construed as authorizing the possession, sale, or serving of colored oleomargarine or colored margarine in any State or Territory in contravention of the laws of such State or Territory.

(Mar. 16, 1950, ch. 61, §6, 64 Stat. 22.)

References in Text

This Act, referred to in text, is act Mar. 16, 1950, ch. 61, 64 Stat. 20, which is classified to sections 331, 342, 347 to 347b of this title, and sections 45 and 55 of Title 15, Commerce and Trade. For complete classification of this Act to the Code, see Tables.

Codification

Section was not enacted as part of the Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act which comprises this chapter.

Effective Date

Section effective July 1, 1950, see section 7 of act Mar. 16, 1950, set out as a note under section 347 of this title.

§348. Food additives

(a) Unsafe food additives; exception for conformity with exemption or regulation

A food additive shall, with respect to any particular use or intended use of such additives, be deemed to be unsafe for the purposes of the application of clause (2)(C) of section 342(a) of this title, unless—

(1) it and its use or intended use conform to the terms of an exemption which is in effect pursuant to subsection (j) of this section;

(2) there is in effect, and it and its use or intended use are in conformity with, a regulation issued under this section prescribing the conditions under which such additive may be safely used; or

(3) in the case of a food additive as defined in this chapter that is a food contact substance, there is—

(A) in effect, and such substance and the use of such substance are in conformity with, a regulation issued under this section prescribing the conditions under which such additive may be safely used; or

(B) a notification submitted under subsection (h) of this section that is effective.


While such a regulation relating to a food additive, or such a notification under subsection (h)(1) of this section relating to a food additive that is a food contact substance, is in effect, and has not been revoked pursuant to subsection (i) of this section, a food shall not, by reason of bearing or containing such a food additive in accordance with the regulation or notification, be considered adulterated under section 342(a)(1) of this title.

(b) Petition for regulation prescribing conditions of safe use; contents; description of production methods and controls; samples; notice of regulation

(1) Any person may, with respect to any intended use of a food additive, file with the Secretary a petition proposing the issuance of a regulation prescribing the conditions under which such additive may be safely used.

(2) Such petition shall, in addition to any explanatory or supporting data, contain—

(A) the name and all pertinent information concerning such food additive, including, where available, its chemical identity and composition;

(B) a statement of the conditions of the proposed use of such additive, including all directions, recommendations, and suggestions proposed for the use of such additive, and including specimens of its proposed labeling;

(C) all relevant data bearing on the physical or other technical effect such additive is intended to produce, and the quantity of such additive required to produce such effect;

(D) a description of practicable methods for determining the quantity of such additive in or on food, and any substance formed in or on food, because of its use; and

(E) full reports of investigations made with respect to the safety for use of such additive, including full information as to the methods and controls used in conducting such investigations.


(3) Upon request of the Secretary, the petitioner shall furnish (or, if the petitioner is not the manufacturer of such additive, the petitioner shall have the manufacturer of such additive furnish, without disclosure to the petitioner) a full description of the methods used in, and the facilities and controls used for, the production of such additive.

(4) Upon request of the Secretary, the petitioner shall furnish samples of the food additive involved, or articles used as components thereof, and of the food in or on which the additive is proposed to be used.

(5) Notice of the regulation proposed by the petitioner shall be published in general terms by the Secretary within thirty days after filing.

(c) Approval or denial of petition; time for issuance of order; evaluation of data; factors

(1) The Secretary shall—

(A) by order establish a regulation (whether or not in accord with that proposed by the petitioner) prescribing, with respect to one or more proposed uses of the food additive involved, the conditions under which such additive may be safely used (including, but not limited to, specifications as to the particular food or classes of food in or in which such additive may be used, the maximum quantity which may be used or permitted to remain in or on such food, the manner in which such additive may be added to or used in or on such food, and any directions or other labeling or packaging requirements for such additive deemed necessary by him to assure the safety of such use), and shall notify the petitioner of such order and the reasons for such action; or

(B) by order deny the petition, and shall notify the petitioner of such order and of the reasons for such action.


(2) The order required by paragraph (1)(A) or (B) of this subsection shall be issued within ninety days after the date of filing of the petition, except that the Secretary may (prior to such ninetieth day), by written notice to the petitioner, extend such ninety-day period to such time (not more than one hundred and eighty days after the date of filing of the petition) as the Secretary deems necessary to enable him to study and investigate the petition.

(3) No such regulation shall issue if a fair evaluation of the data before the Secretary—

(A) fails to establish that the proposed use of the food additive, under the conditions of use to be specified in the regulation, will be safe: Provided, That no additive shall be deemed to be safe if it is found to induce cancer when ingested by man or animal, or if it is found, after tests which are appropriate for the evaluation of the safety of food additives, to induce cancer in man or animal, except that this proviso shall not apply with respect to the use of a substance as an ingredient of feed for animals which are raised for food production, if the Secretary finds (i) that, under the conditions of use and feeding specified in proposed labeling and reasonably certain to be followed in practice, such additive will not adversely affect the animals for which such feed is intended, and (ii) that no residue of the additive will be found (by methods of examination prescribed or approved by the Secretary by regulations, which regulations shall not be subject to subsections (f) and (g) of this section) in any edible portion of such animal after slaughter or in any food yielded by or derived from the living animal; or

(B) shows that the proposed use of the additive would promote deception of the consumer in violation of this chapter or would otherwise result in adulteration or in misbranding of food within the meaning of this chapter.


(4) If, in the judgment of the Secretary, based upon a fair evaluation of the data before him, a tolerance limitation is required in order to assure that the proposed use of an additive will be safe, the Secretary—

(A) shall not fix such tolerance limitation at a level higher than he finds to be reasonably required to accomplish the physical or other technical effect for which such additive is intended; and

(B) shall not establish a regulation for such proposed use if he finds upon a fair evaluation of the data before him that such data do not establish that such use would accomplish the intended physical or other technical effect.


(5) In determining, for the purposes of this section, whether a proposed use of a food additive is safe, the Secretary shall consider among other relevant factors—

(A) the probable consumption of the additive and of any substance formed in or on food because of the use of the additive;

(B) the cumulative effect of such additive in the diet of man or animals, taking into account any chemically or pharmacologically related substance or substances in such diet; and

(C) safety factors which in the opinion of experts qualified by scientific training and experience to evaluate the safety of food additives are generally recognized as appropriate for the use of animal experimentation data.

(d) Regulation issued on Secretary's initiative

The Secretary may at any time, upon his own initiative, propose the issuance of a regulation prescribing, with respect to any particular use of a food additive, the conditions under which such additive may be safely used, and the reasons therefor. After the thirtieth day following publication of such a proposal, the Secretary may by order establish a regulation based upon the proposal.

(e) Publication and effective date of orders

Any order, including any regulation established by such order, issued under subsection (c) or (d) of this section, shall be published and shall be effective upon publication, but the Secretary may stay such effectiveness if, after issuance of such order, a hearing is sought with respect to such order pursuant to subsection (f) of this section.

(f) Objections and public hearing; basis and contents of order; statement

(1) Within thirty days after publication of an order made pursuant to subsection (c) or (d) of this section, any person adversely affected by such an order may file objections thereto with the Secretary, specifying with particularity the provisions of the order deemed objectionable, stating reasonable grounds therefor, and requesting a public hearing upon such objections. The Secretary shall, after due notice, as promptly as possible hold such public hearing for the purpose of receiving evidence relevant and material to the issues raised by such objections. As soon as practicable after completion of the hearing, the Secretary shall by order act upon such objections and make such order public.

(2) Such order shall be based upon a fair evaluation of the entire record at such hearing, and shall include a statement setting forth in detail the findings and conclusions upon which the order is based.

(3) The Secretary shall specify in the order the date on which it shall take effect, except that it shall not be made to take effect prior to the ninetieth day after its publication, unless the Secretary finds that emergency conditions exist necessitating an earlier effective date, in which event the Secretary shall specify in the order his findings as to such conditions.

(g) Judicial review

(1) In a case of actual controversy as to the validity of any order issued under subsection (f) of this section, including any order thereunder with respect to amendment or repeal of a regulation issued under this section, any person who will be adversely affected by such order may obtain judicial review by filing in the United States Court of Appeals for the circuit wherein such person resides or has his principal place of business, or in the United States Court of Appeals for the District of Columbia Circuit, within sixty days after the entry of such order, a petition praying that the order be set aside in whole or in part.

(2) A copy of such petition shall be forthwith transmitted by the clerk of the court to the Secretary, or any officer designated by him for that purpose, and thereupon the Secretary shall file in the court the record of the proceedings on which he based his order, as provided in section 2112 of title 28. Upon the filing of such petition the court shall have jurisdiction, which upon the filing of the record with it shall be exclusive, to affirm or set aside the order complained of in whole or in part. Until the filing of the record the Secretary may modify or set aside his order. The findings of the Secretary with respect to questions of fact shall be sustained if based upon a fair evaluation of the entire record at such hearing.

(3) The court, on such judicial review, shall not sustain the order of the Secretary if he failed to comply with any requirement imposed on him by subsection (f)(2) of this section.

(4) If application is made to the court for leave to adduce additional evidence, the court may order such additional evidence to be taken before the Secretary and to be adduced upon the hearing in such manner and upon such terms and conditions as to the court may seem proper, if such evidence is material and there were reasonable grounds for failure to adduce such evidence in the proceedings below. The Secretary may modify his findings as to the facts and order by reason of the additional evidence so taken, and shall file with the court such modified findings and order.

(5) The judgment of the court affirming or setting aside, in whole or in part, any order under this section shall be final, subject to review by the Supreme Court of the United States upon certiorari or certification as provided in section 1254 of title 28. The commencement of proceedings under this section shall not, unless specifically ordered by the court to the contrary, operate as a stay of an order.

(h) Notification relating to food contact substance

(1) Subject to such regulations as may be promulgated under paragraph (3), a manufacturer or supplier of a food contact substance may, at least 120 days prior to the introduction or delivery for introduction into interstate commerce of the food contact substance, notify the Secretary of the identity and intended use of the food contact substance, and of the determination of the manufacturer or supplier that the intended use of such food contact substance is safe under the standard described in subsection (c)(3)(A) of this section. The notification shall contain the information that forms the basis of the determination and all information required to be submitted by regulations promulgated by the Secretary.

(2)(A) A notification submitted under paragraph (1) shall become effective 120 days after the date of receipt by the Secretary and the food contact substance may be introduced or delivered for introduction into interstate commerce, unless the Secretary makes a determination within the 120-day period that, based on the data and information before the Secretary, such use of the food contact substance has not been shown to be safe under the standard described in subsection (c)(3)(A) of this section, and informs the manufacturer or supplier of such determination.

(B) A decision by the Secretary to object to a notification shall constitute final agency action subject to judicial review.

(C) In this paragraph, the term “food contact substance” means the substance that is the subject of a notification submitted under paragraph (1), and does not include a similar or identical substance manufactured or prepared by a person other than the manufacturer identified in the notification.

(3)(A) The process in this subsection shall be utilized for authorizing the marketing of a food contact substance except where the Secretary determines that submission and review of a petition under subsection (b) of this section is necessary to provide adequate assurance of safety, or where the Secretary and any manufacturer or supplier agree that such manufacturer or supplier may submit a petition under subsection (b) of this section.

(B) The Secretary is authorized to promulgate regulations to identify the circumstances in which a petition shall be filed under subsection (b) of this section, and shall consider criteria such as the probable consumption of such food contact substance and potential toxicity of the food contact substance in determining the circumstances in which a petition shall be filed under subsection (b) of this section.

(4) The Secretary shall keep confidential any information provided in a notification under paragraph (1) for 120 days after receipt by the Secretary of the notification. After the expiration of such 120 days, the information shall be available to any interested party except for any matter in the notification that is a trade secret or confidential commercial information.

(5)(A)(i) Except as provided in clause (ii), the notification program established under this subsection shall not operate in any fiscal year unless—

(I) an appropriation equal to or exceeding the applicable amount under clause (iv) is made for such fiscal year for carrying out such program in such fiscal year; and

(II) the Secretary certifies that the amount appropriated for such fiscal year for the Center for Food Safety and Applied Nutrition of the Food and Drug Administration (exclusive of the appropriation referred to in subclause (I)) equals or exceeds the amount appropriated for the Center for fiscal year 1997, excluding any amount appropriated for new programs.


(ii) The Secretary shall, not later than April 1, 1999, begin accepting and reviewing notifications submitted under the notification program established under this subsection if—

(I) an appropriation equal to or exceeding the applicable amount under clause (iii) is made for the last six months of fiscal year 1999 for carrying out such program during such period; and

(II) the Secretary certifies that the amount appropriated for such period for the Center for Food Safety and Applied Nutrition of the Food and Drug Administration (exclusive of the appropriation referred to in subclause (I)) equals or exceeds an amount equivalent to one-half the amount appropriated for the Center for fiscal year 1997, excluding any amount appropriated for new programs.


(iii) For the last six months of fiscal year 1999, the applicable amount under this clause is $1,500,000, or the amount specified in the budget request of the President for the six-month period involved for carrying out the notification program in fiscal year 1999, whichever is less.

(iv) For fiscal year 2000 and subsequent fiscal years, the applicable amount under this clause is $3,000,000, or the amount specified in the budget request of the President for the fiscal year involved for carrying out the notification program under this subsection, whichever is less.

(B) For purposes of carrying out the notification program under this subsection, there are authorized to be appropriated such sums as may be necessary for each of the fiscal years 1999 through fiscal year 2003, except that such authorization of appropriations is not effective for a fiscal year for any amount that is less than the applicable amount under clause (iii) or (iv) of subparagraph (A), whichever is applicable.

(C) Not later than April 1 of fiscal year 1998 and February 1 of each subsequent fiscal year, the Secretary shall submit a report to the Committees on Appropriations of the House of Representatives and the Senate, the Committee on Commerce of the House of Representatives, and the Committee on Labor and Human Resources of the Senate that provides an estimate of the Secretary of the costs of carrying out the notification program established under this subsection for the next fiscal year.

(6) In this section, the term “food contact substance” means any substance intended for use as a component of materials used in manufacturing, packing, packaging, transporting, or holding food if such use is not intended to have any technical effect in such food.

(i) Amendment or repeal of regulations

The Secretary shall by regulation prescribe the procedure by which regulations under the foregoing provisions of this section may be amended or repealed, and such procedure shall conform to the procedure provided in this section for the promulgation of such regulations. The Secretary shall by regulation prescribe the procedure by which the Secretary may deem a notification under subsection (h) of this section to no longer be effective.

(j) Exemptions for investigational use

Without regard to subsections (b) to (i), inclusive, of this section, the Secretary shall by regulation provide for exempting from the requirements of this section any food additive, and any food bearing or containing such additive, intended solely for investigational use by qualified experts when in his opinion such exemption is consistent with the public health.

(June 25, 1938, ch. 675, §409, as added Pub. L. 85–929, §4, Sept. 6, 1958, 72 Stat. 1785; amended Pub. L. 86–546, §2, June 29, 1960, 74 Stat. 255; Pub. L. 87–781, title I, §104(f)(1), Oct. 10, 1962, 76 Stat. 785; Pub. L. 98–620, title IV, §402(25)(B), Nov. 8, 1984, 98 Stat. 3359; Pub. L. 105–115, title III, §309, Nov. 21, 1997, 111 Stat. 2354.)

Amendments

1997—Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 105–115, §309(a)(4), in closing provisions, substituted “While such a regulation relating to a food additive, or such a notification under subsection (h)(1) of this section relating to a food additive that is a food contact substance, is in effect, and has not been revoked pursuant to subsection (i) of this section, a food shall not, by reason of bearing or containing such a food additive in accordance with the regulation or notification, be considered adulterated under section 342(a)(1) of this title.” for “While such a regulation relating to a food additive is in effect, a food shall not, by reason of bearing or containing such an additive in accordance with the regulation, be considered adulterated within the meaning of clause (1) of section 342(a) of this title.”

Subsec. (a)(1). Pub. L. 105–115, §309(a)(1), substituted “subsection (j)” for “subsection (i)”.

Subsec. (a)(3). Pub. L. 105–115, §309(a)(1)(B), (2), (3), added par. (3).

Subsec. (h). Pub. L. 105–115, §309(b)(2), added subsec. (h). Former subsec. (h) redesignated (i).

Subsec. (i). Pub. L. 105–115, §309(b)(1), (3), redesignated subsec. (h) as (i) and inserted at end “The Secretary shall by regulation prescribe the procedure by which the Secretary may deem a notification under subsection (h) of this section to no longer be effective.”

Subsec. (j). Pub. L. 105–115, §309(b)(1), (4), redesignated subsec. (i) as (j) and substituted “subsections (b) to (i)” for “subsections (b) to (h)”.

1984—Subsec. (g)(2). Pub. L. 98–620 struck out provision that required the court to advance on the docket and expedite the disposition of all causes filed therein pursuant to this section.

1962—Subsec. (c)(3)(A). Pub. L. 87–781 excepted proviso from applying to use of a substance as an ingredient of feed for animals raised for food production, if under conditions of use specified in proposed labeling, and which conditions are reasonably certain to be followed in practice, such additive will not adversely affect the animals and no residue will be found in any edible portion of such animal after slaughter, or in any food from the living animal.

1960—Subsec. (g)(2). Pub. L. 86–546 substituted “forthwith transmitted by the clerk of the court to the Secretary, or any officer” for “served upon the Secretary, or upon any officer”, “shall file in the court the record of the proceedings on which he based his order, as provided in section 2112 of title 28” for “shall certify and file in the court a transcript of the proceedings and the record on which he based his order”, and “Upon the filing of such petition the court shall have jurisdiction, which upon the filing of the record with it shall be exclusive,” for “Upon such filing, the court shall have exclusive jurisdiction”, and inserted sentence authorizing the Secretary to modify or set aside his order until the filing of the record.

Change of Name

Committee on Commerce of House of Representatives changed to Committee on Energy and Commerce of House of Representatives, and jurisdiction over matters relating to securities and exchanges and insurance generally transferred to Committee on Financial Services of House of Representatives by House Resolution No. 5, One Hundred Seventh Congress, Jan. 3, 2001.

Committee on Labor and Human Resources of Senate changed to Committee on Health, Education, Labor, and Pensions of Senate by Senate Resolution No. 20, One Hundred Sixth Congress, Jan. 19, 1999.

Effective Date of 1997 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 105–115 effective 90 days after Nov. 21, 1997, except as otherwise provided, see section 501 of Pub. L. 105–115, set out as a note under section 321 of this title.

Effective Date of 1984 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 98–620 not applicable to cases pending on Nov. 8, 1984, see section 403 of Pub. L. 98–620, set out as an Effective Date note under section 1657 of Title 28, Judiciary and Judicial Procedure.

Effective Date of 1962 Amendment; Exceptions

Amendment by Pub. L. 87–781 effective Oct. 10, 1962, see section 107 of Pub. L. 87–781, set out as an Effective Date of 1962 Amendment note under section 321 of this title.

Effective Date

Section effective Sept. 6, 1958, see section 6(a) of Pub. L. 85–929, set out as an Effective Date of 1958 Amendment note under section 342 of this title.

Glass and Ceramic Ware

Section 308 of Pub. L. 105–115 provided that:

“(a) In General.—The Secretary may not implement any requirement which would ban, as an unapproved food additive, lead and cadmium based enamel in the lip and rim area of glass and ceramic ware before the expiration of one year after the date such requirement is published.

“(b) Lead and Cadmium Based Enamel.—Unless the Secretary determines, based on available data, that lead and cadmium based enamel on glass and ceramic ware—

“(1) which has less than 60 millimeters of decorating area below the external rim, and

“(2) which is not, by design, representation, or custom of usage intended for use by children,

is unsafe, the Secretary shall not take any action before January 1, 2003, to ban lead and cadmium based enamel on such glass and ceramic ware. Any action taken after January 1, 2003, to ban such enamel on such glass and ceramic ware as an unapproved food additive shall be taken by regulation and such regulation shall provide that such products shall not be removed from the market before 1 year after publication of the final regulation.”

Moratorium on Authority of Secretary With Respect to Saccharin

Pub. L. 95–203, §3, Nov. 23, 1977, 91 Stat. 1452, as amended by Pub. L. 96–88, title V, §509(b), Oct. 17, 1979, 93 Stat. 695; Pub. L. 96–273, June 17, 1980, 94 Stat. 536; Pub. L. 97–42, §2, Aug. 14, 1981, 95 Stat. 946; Pub. L. 98–22, §2, Apr. 22, 1983, 97 Stat. 173; Pub. L. 99–46, May 24, 1985, 99 Stat. 81; Pub. L. 100–71, title I, §101, July 11, 1987, 101 Stat. 431; Pub. L. 102–142, title VI, Oct. 28, 1991, 105 Stat. 910; Pub. L. 104–180, title VI, §602, Aug. 6, 1996, 110 Stat. 1594, provided that: “During the period ending May 1, 2002, the Secretary—

“(1) may not amend or revoke the interim food additive regulation of the Food and Drug Administration of the Department of Health and Human Services applicable to saccharin and published on March 15, 1977 (section 180.37 of part 180, subchapter B, chapter 1, title 21, Code of Federal Regulations (42 Fed. Reg. 14638)), or

“(2) may, except as provided in section 4 [enacting section 343a of this title, amending sections 321 and 343 of this title, and enacting provisions set out as notes under section 343 of this title] and the amendments made by such section, not take any other action under the Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act [this chapter] to prohibit or restrict the sale or distribution of saccharin, any food permitted by such interim food additive regulation to contain saccharin, or any drug or cosmetic containing saccharin,

solely on the basis of the carcinogenic or other toxic effect of saccharin as determined by any study made available to the Secretary before the date of the enactment of this Act [Nov. 23, 1977] which involved human studies or animal testing, or both.”

For definition of “saccharin” as used in this note, see section 2(d) of Pub. L. 95–203.

§349. Bottled drinking water standards; publication in Federal Register

(a) Except as provided in subsection (b) of this section, whenever the Administrator of the Environmental Protection Agency prescribes interim or revised national primary drinking water regulations under section 1412 of the Public Health Service Act [42 U.S.C. 300g–1], the Secretary shall consult with the Administrator and within 180 days after the promulgation of such drinking water regulations either promulgate amendments to regulations under this chapter applicable to bottled drinking water or publish in the Federal Register his reasons for not making such amendments.

(b)(1) Not later than 180 days before the effective date of a national primary drinking water regulation promulgated by the Administrator of the Environmental Protection Agency for a contaminant under section 1412 of the Safe Drinking Water Act (42 U.S.C. 300g–1), the Secretary shall promulgate a standard of quality regulation under this subsection for that contaminant in bottled water or make a finding that such a regulation is not necessary to protect the public health because the contaminant is contained in water in public water systems (as defined under section 1401(4) of such Act (42 U.S.C. 300f(4))) but not in water used for bottled drinking water. The effective date for any such standard of quality regulation shall be the same as the effective date for such national primary drinking water regulation, except for any standard of quality of regulation promulgated by the Secretary before August 6, 1996, for which (as of August 6, 1996) an effective date had not been established. In the case of a standard of quality regulation to which such exception applies, the Secretary shall promulgate monitoring requirements for the contaminants covered by the regulation not later than 2 years after August 6, 1996.

(2) A regulation issued by the Secretary as provided in this subsection shall include any monitoring requirements that the Secretary determines appropriate for bottled water.

(3) A regulation issued by the Secretary as provided in this subsection shall require the following:

(A) In the case of contaminants for which a maximum contaminant level is established in a national primary drinking water regulation under section 1412 of the Safe Drinking Water Act (42 U.S.C. 300g–1), the regulation under this subsection shall establish a maximum contaminant level for the contaminant in bottled water which is no less stringent than the maximum contaminant level provided in the national primary drinking water regulation.

(B) In the case of contaminants for which a treatment technique is established in a national primary drinking water regulation under section 1412 of the Safe Drinking Water Act (42 U.S.C. 300g–1), the regulation under this subsection shall require that bottled water be subject to requirements no less protective of the public health than those applicable to water provided by public water systems using the treatment technique required by the national primary drinking water regulation.


(4)(A) If the Secretary does not promulgate a regulation under this subsection within the period described in paragraph (1), the national primary drinking water regulation referred to in paragraph (1) shall be considered, as of the date on which the Secretary is required to establish a regulation under paragraph (1), as the regulation applicable under this subsection to bottled water.

(B) In the case of a national primary drinking water regulation that pursuant to subparagraph (A) is considered to be a standard of quality regulation, the Secretary shall, not later than the applicable date referred to in such subparagraph, publish in the Federal Register a notice—

(i) specifying the contents of such regulation, including monitoring requirements; and

(ii) providing that for purposes of this paragraph the effective date for such regulation is the same as the effective date for the regulation for purposes of the Safe Drinking Water Act [42 U.S.C. 300f et seq.] (or, if the exception under paragraph (1) applies to the regulation, that the effective date for the regulation is not later than 2 years and 180 days after August 6, 1996).

(June 25, 1938, ch. 675, §410, as added Pub. L. 93–523, §4, Dec. 16, 1974, 88 Stat. 1694; amended Pub. L. 104–182, title III, §305, Aug. 6, 1996, 110 Stat. 1684.)

References in Text

The Safe Drinking Water Act, referred to in subsec. (b)(4)(B)(ii), is title XIV of act July 1, 1944, as added Dec. 16, 1974, Pub. L. 93–523, §2(a), 88 Stat. 1660, as amended, which is classified generally to subchapter XII (§300f et seq.) of chapter 6A of Title 42, The Public Health and Welfare. For complete classification of this Act to the Code, see Short Title note set out under section 201 of Title 42 and Tables.

Amendments

1996—Pub. L. 104–182 substituted “(a) Except as provided in subsection (b) of this section, whenever” for “Whenever” and added subsec. (b).

Bottled Water Study

Section 114(b) of Pub. L. 104–182 provided that: “Not later than 18 months after the date of enactment of this Act [Aug. 6, 1996], the Administrator of the Food and Drug Administration, in consultation with the Administrator of the Environmental Protection Agency, shall publish for public notice and comment a draft study on the feasibility of appropriate methods, if any, of informing customers of the contents of bottled water. The Administrator of the Food and Drug Administration shall publish a final study not later than 30 months after the date of enactment of this Act.”

§350. Vitamins and minerals

(a) Authority and limitations of Secretary; applicability

(1) Except as provided in paragraph (2)—

(A) the Secretary may not establish, under section 321(n), 341, or 343 of this title, maximum limits on the potency of any synthetic or natural vitamin or mineral within a food to which this section applies;

(B) the Secretary may not classify any natural or synthetic vitamin or mineral (or combination thereof) as a drug solely because it exceeds the level of potency which the Secretary determines is nutritionally rational or useful;

(C) the Secretary may not limit, under section 321(n), 341, or 343 of this title, the combination or number of any synthetic or natural—

(i) vitamin,

(ii) mineral, or

(iii) other ingredient of food,


within a food to which this section applies.


(2) Paragraph (1) shall not apply in the case of a vitamin, mineral, other ingredient of food, or food, which is represented for use by individuals in the treatment or management of specific diseases or disorders, by children, or by pregnant or lactating women. For purposes of this subparagraph,1 the term “children” means individuals who are under the age of twelve years.

(b) Labeling and advertising requirements for foods

(1) A food to which this section applies shall not be deemed under section 343 of this title to be misbranded solely because its label bears, in accordance with section 343(i)(2) of this title, all the ingredients in the food or its advertising contains references to ingredients in the food which are not vitamins or minerals.

(2) The labeling for any food to which this section applies may not list its ingredients which are not dietary supplement ingredients described in section 321(ff) of this title (i) except as a part of a list of all the ingredients of such food, and (ii) unless such ingredients are listed in accordance with applicable regulations under section 343 of this title. To the extent that compliance with clause (i) of this subparagraph is impracticable or results in deception or unfair competition, exemptions shall be established by regulations promulgated by the Secretary.

(c) Definitions

(1) For purposes of this section, the term “food to which this section applies” means a food for humans which is a food for special dietary use—

(A) which is or contains any natural or synthetic vitamin or mineral, and

(B) which—

(i) is intended for ingestion in tablet, capsule, powder, softgel, gelcap, or liquid form, or

(ii) if not intended for ingestion in such a form, is not represented as conventional food and is not represented for use as a sole item of a meal or of the diet.


(2) For purposes of paragraph (1)(B)(i), a food shall be considered as intended for ingestion in liquid form only if it is formulated in a fluid carrier and it is intended for ingestion in daily quantities measured in drops or similar small units of measure.

(3) For purposes of paragraph (1) and of section 343(j) of this title insofar as that section is applicable to food to which this section applies, the term “special dietary use” as applied to food used by man means a particular use for which a food purports or is represented to be used, including but not limited to the following:

(A) Supplying a special dietary need that exists by reason of a physical, physiological, pathological, or other condition, including but not limited to the condition of disease, convalescence, pregnancy, lactation, infancy, allergic hypersensitivity to food, underweight, overweight, or the need to control the intake of sodium.

(B) Supplying a vitamin, mineral, or other ingredient for use by man to supplement his diet by increasing the total dietary intake.

(C) Supplying a special dietary need by reason of being a food for use as the sole item of the diet.

(June 25, 1938, ch. 675, §411, as added Pub. L. 94–278, title V, §501(a), Apr. 22, 1976, 90 Stat. 410; amended Pub. L. 103–417, §§3(c), 7(d), Oct. 25, 1994, 108 Stat. 4328, 4331.)

Amendments

1994—Subsec. (b)(2). Pub. L. 103–417, §7(d), redesignated subpar. (A) as par. (2), substituted “dietary supplement ingredients described in section 321(ff) of this title” for “vitamins or minerals”, and struck out former subpar. (B), which read as follows: “Notwithstanding the provisions of subparagraph (A), the labeling and advertising for any food to which this section applies may not give prominence to or emphasize ingredients which are not—

“(i) vitamins,

“(ii) minerals, or

“(iii) represented as a source of vitamins or minerals.”

Subsec. (c)(1)(B)(i). Pub. L. 103–417, §3(c)(1), inserted “powder, softgel, gelcap,” after “capsule,”.

Subsec. (c)(1)(B)(ii). Pub. L. 103–417, §3(c)(2), struck out “does not simulate and” after “in such a form,”.

Effective Date of 1994 Amendment

For provision that dietary supplements may be labeled after Oct. 25, 1994, in accordance with amendments made by section 7(d) of Pub. L. 103–417, and shall be so labeled after Dec. 31, 1996, see section 7(e) of Pub. L. 103–417, set out as a note under section 343 of this title.

Amendment of Inconsistent Regulations by Secretary

Section 501(b) of Pub. L. 94–278, as amended by Pub. L. 96–88, title V, §509(b), Oct. 17, 1979, 93 Stat. 695, provided that: “The Secretary of Health and Human Services shall amend any regulation promulgated under the Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act [this chapter] which is inconsistent with section 411 of such Act [section 350 of this title] (as added by subsection (a)) and such amendments shall be promulgated in accordance with section 553 of title 5, United States Code.”

1 So in original. Probably should be “paragraph”.

§350a. Infant formulas

(a) Adulteration

An infant formula, including an infant formula powder, shall be deemed to be adulterated if—

(1) such infant formula does not provide nutrients as required by subsection (i) of this section,

(2) such infant formula does not meet the quality factor requirements prescribed by the Secretary under subsection (b)(1) of this section, or

(3) the processing of such infant formula is not in compliance with the good manufacturing practices and the quality control procedures prescribed by the Secretary under subsection (b)(2) of this section.

(b) Requirements for quality factors, good manufacturing practices, and retention of records

(1) The Secretary shall by regulation establish requirements for quality factors for infant formulas to the extent possible consistent with current scientific knowledge, including quality factor requirements for the nutrients required by subsection (i) of this section.

(2)(A) The Secretary shall by regulation establish good manufacturing practices for infant formulas, including quality control procedures that the Secretary determines are necessary to assure that an infant formula provides nutrients in accordance with this subsection and subsection (i) of this section and is manufactured in a manner designed to prevent adulteration of the infant formula.

(B) The good manufacturing practices and quality control procedures prescribed by the Secretary under subparagraph (A) shall include requirements for—

(i) the testing, in accordance with paragraph (3) and by the manufacturer of an infant formula or an agent of such manufacturer, of each batch of infant formula for each nutrient required by subsection (i) of this section before the distribution of such batch,

(ii) regularly scheduled testing, by the manufacturer of an infant formula or an agent of such manufacturer, of samples of infant formulas during the shelf life of such formulas to ensure that such formulas are in compliance with this section,

(iii) in-process controls including, where necessary, testing required by good manufacturing practices designed to prevent adulteration of each batch of infant formula, and

(iv) the conduct by the manufacturer of an infant formula or an agent of such manufacturer of regularly scheduled audits to determine that such manufacturer has complied with the regulations prescribed under subparagraph (A).


In prescribing requirements for audits under clause (iv), the Secretary shall provide that such audits be conducted by appropriately trained individuals who do not have any direct responsibility for the manufacture or production of infant formula.

(3)(A) At the final product stage, each batch of infant formula shall be tested for vitamin A, vitamin B1, vitamin C, and vitamin E to ensure that such infant formula is in compliance with the requirements of this subsection and subsection (i) of this section relating to such vitamins.

(B) Each nutrient premix used in the manufacture of an infant formula shall be tested for each relied upon nutrient required by subsection (i) of this section which is contained in such premix to ensure that such premix is in compliance with its specifications or certifications by a premix supplier.

(C) During the manufacturing process or at the final product stage and before distribution of an infant formula, an infant formula shall be tested for all nutrients required to be included in such formula by subsection (i) of this section for which testing has not been conducted pursuant to subparagraph (A) or (B). Testing under this subparagraph shall be conducted to—

(i) ensure that each batch of such infant formula is in compliance with the requirements of subsection (i) of this section relating to such nutrients, and

(ii) confirm that nutrients contained in any nutrient premix used in such infant formula are present in each batch of such infant formula in the proper concentration.


(D) If the Secretary adds a nutrient to the list of nutrients in the table in subsection (i) of this section, the Secretary shall by regulation require that the manufacturer of an infant formula test each batch of such formula for such new nutrient in accordance with subparagraph (A), (B), or (C).

(E) For purposes of this paragraph, the term “final product stage” means the point in the manufacturing process, before distribution of an infant formula, at which an infant formula is homogenous and is not subject to further degradation.

(4)(A) The Secretary shall by regulation establish requirements respecting the retention of records. Such requirements shall provide for—

(i) the retention of all records necessary to demonstrate compliance with the good manufacturing practices and quality control procedures prescribed by the Secretary under paragraph (2), including records containing the results of all testing required under paragraph (2)(B),

(ii) the retention of all certifications or guarantees of analysis by premix suppliers,

(iii) the retention by a premix supplier of all records necessary to confirm the accuracy of all premix certifications and guarantees of analysis,

(iv) the retention of—

(I) all records pertaining to the microbiological quality and purity of raw materials used in infant formula powder and in finished infant formula, and

(II) all records pertaining to food packaging materials which show that such materials do not cause an infant formula to be adulterated within the meaning of section 342(a)(2)(C) of this title,


(v) the retention of all records of the results of regularly scheduled audits conducted pursuant to the requirements prescribed by the Secretary under paragraph (2)(B)(iv), and

(vi) the retention of all complaints and the maintenance of files with respect to, and the review of, complaints concerning infant formulas which may reveal the possible existence of a hazard to health.


(B)(i) Records required under subparagraph (A) with respect to an infant formula shall be retained for at least one year after the expiration of the shelf life of such infant formula. Except as provided in clause (ii), such records shall be made available to the Secretary for review and duplication upon request of the Secretary.

(ii) A manufacturer need only provide written assurances to the Secretary that the regularly scheduled audits required by paragraph (2)(B)(iv) are being conducted by the manufacturer, and need not make available to the Secretary the actual written reports of such audits.

(c) Registration of persons distributing new infant formula

(1) No person shall introduce or deliver for introduction into interstate commerce any new infant formula unless—

(A) such person has, before introducing such new infant formula, or delivering such new infant formula for introduction, into interstate commerce, registered with the Secretary the name of such person, the place of business of such person, and all establishments at which such person intends to manufacture such new infant formula, and

(B) such person has at least 90 days before marketing such new infant formula, made the submission to the Secretary required by subsection (c)(1) of this section.


(2) For purposes of paragraph (1), the term “new infant formula” includes—

(A) an infant formula manufactured by a person which has not previously manufactured an infant formula, and

(B) an infant formula manufactured by a person which has previously manufactured infant formula and in which there is a major change, in processing or formulation, from a current or any previous formulation produced by such manufacturer.


For purposes of this paragraph, the term “major change” has the meaning given to such term in section 106.30(c)(2) of title 21, Code of Federal Regulations (as in effect on August 1, 1986), and guidelines issued thereunder.

(d) Submission of information about new infant formula required

(1) A person shall, with respect to any infant formula subject to subsection (c) of this section, make a submission to the Secretary which shall include—

(A) the quantitative formulation of the infant formula,

(B) a description of any reformulation of the formula or change in processing of the infant formula,

(C) assurances that the infant formula will not be marketed unless it meets the requirements of subsections (b)(1) and (i) of this section, as demonstrated by the testing required under subsection (b)(3) of this section, and

(D) assurances that the processing of the infant formula complies with subsection (b)(2) of this section.


(2) After the first production of an infant formula subject to subsection (c) of this section, and before the introduction into interstate commerce of such formula, the manufacturer of such formula shall submit to the Secretary, in such form as may be prescribed by the Secretary, a written verification which summarizes test results and records demonstrating that such formula complies with the requirements of subsections (b)(1), (b)(2)(A), (b)(2)(B)(i), (b)(2)(B)(iii), (b)(3)(A), (b)(3)(C), and (i) of this section.

(3) If the manufacturer of an infant formula for commercial or charitable distribution for human consumption determines that a change in the formulation of the formula or a change in the processing of the formula may affect whether the formula is adulterated under subsection (a) of this section, the manufacturer shall, before the first processing of such formula, make the submission to the Secretary required by paragraph (1).

(e) Additional notice requirements for manufacturer

(1) If the manufacturer of an infant formula has knowledge which reasonably supports the conclusion that an infant formula which has been processed by the manufacturer and which has left an establishment subject to the control of the manufacturer—

(A) may not provide the nutrients required by subsection (i) of this section, or

(B) may be otherwise adulterated or misbranded,


the manufacturer shall promptly notify the Secretary of such knowledge. If the Secretary determines that the infant formula presents a risk to human health, the manufacturer shall immediately take all actions necessary to recall shipments of such infant formula from all wholesale and retail establishments, consistent with recall regulations and guidelines issued by the Secretary.

(2) For purposes of paragraph (1), the term “knowledge” as applied to a manufacturer means (A) the actual knowledge that the manufacturer had, or (B) the knowledge which a reasonable person would have had under like circumstances or which would have been obtained upon the exercise of due care.

(f) Procedures applicable to recalls by manufacturer; regulatory oversight

(1) If a recall of infant formula is begun by a manufacturer, the recall shall be carried out in accordance with such requirements as the Secretary shall prescribe under paragraph (2) and—

(A) the Secretary shall, not later than the 15th day after the beginning of such recall and at least once every 15 days thereafter until the recall is terminated, review the actions taken under the recall to determine whether the recall meets the requirements prescribed under paragraph (2), and

(B) the manufacturer shall, not later than the 14th day after the beginning of such recall and at least once every 14 days thereafter until the recall is terminated, report to the Secretary the actions taken to implement the recall.


(2) The Secretary shall by regulation prescribe the scope and extent of recalls of infant formulas necessary and appropriate for the degree of risks to human health presented by the formula subject to the recall.

(3) The Secretary shall by regulation require each manufacturer of an infant formula who begins a recall of such formula because of a risk to human health to request each retail establishment at which such formula is sold or available for sale to post at the point of purchase of such formula a notice of such recall at such establishment for such time that the Secretary determines necessary to inform the public of such recall.

(g) Recordkeeping requirements for manufacturer; regulatory oversight and enforcement

(1) Each manufacturer of an infant formula shall make and retain such records respecting the distribution of the infant formula through any establishment owned or operated by such manufacturer as may be necessary to effect and monitor recalls of the formula. Such records shall be retained for at least one year after the expiration of the shelf life of the infant formula.

(2) To the extent that the Secretary determines that records are not being made or maintained in accordance with paragraph (1), the Secretary may by regulation prescribe the records required to be made under paragraph (1) and requirements respecting the retention of such records under such paragraph. Such regulations shall take effect on such date as the Secretary prescribes but not sooner than the 180th day after the date such regulations are promulgated. Such regulations shall apply only with respect to distributions of infant formulas made after such effective date.

(h) Exemptions; regulatory oversight

(1) Any infant formula which is represented and labeled for use by an infant—

(A) who has an inborn error of metabolism or a low birth weight, or

(B) who otherwise has an unusual medical or dietary problem,


is exempt from the requirements of subsections (a), (b), and (c) of this section. The manufacturer of an infant formula exempt under this paragraph shall, in the case of the exempt formula, be required to provide the notice required by subsection (e)(1) of this section only with respect to adulteration or misbranding described in subsection (e)(1)(B) of this section and to comply with the regulations prescribed by the Secretary under paragraph (2).

(2) The Secretary may by regulation establish terms and conditions for the exemption of an infant formula from the requirements of subsections (a), (b), and (c) of this section. An exemption of an infant formula under paragraph (1) may be withdrawn by the Secretary if such formula is not in compliance with applicable terms and conditions prescribed under this paragraph.

(i) Nutrient requirements

(1) An infant formula shall contain nutrients in accordance with the table set out in this subsection or, if revised by the Secretary under paragraph (2), as so revised.

(2) The Secretary may by regulation—

(A) revise the list of nutrients in the table in this subsection, and

(B) revise the required level for any nutrient required by the table.

NUTRIENTS
Nutrient Minimum aMaximum a
Protein (gm) 1.8 b  4.5.
Fat:
gm 3.3  6.0.
percent cal 30.0  54.0.
Essential fatty acids   (linoeate):
percent cal 2.7
mg 300.0
Vitamins:
A (IU) 250.0 (75 µg)c 750.0 (225 µg).c
D (IU) 40.0 100.0.
K (µg) 4.0
E (IU) 0.7 (with 0.7 IU/gm linoleic acid)
C (ascorbic acid) (mg) 8.0
B1 (thiamine) (µg) 40.0
B2 (riboflavin) (µg) 60.0
B6 (pyridoxine) (µg) 35.0 (with 15 µg/gm of protein in formula)
B12 (µg) 0.15
Niacin (µg) 250.0
Folic acid (µg) 4.0
Pantothenic acid (µg) 300.0
Biotin (µg) 1.5 d
Choline (mg) 7.0 d
Inositol (mg) 4.0 d
Minerals:
Calcium (mg) 50.0 e
Phosphorus (mg) 25.0 e
Magnesium (mg) 6.0
Iron (mg) 0.15
Iodine (µg) 5.0
Zinc (mg) 0.5
Copper (µg) 60.0
Manganese (µg) 5.0
Sodium (mg) 20.0  60.0.
Potassium (mg) 80.0 200.0.
Chloride (mg) 55.0 150.0.

a Stated per 100 kilocalories.

b The source of protein shall be at least nutritionally equivalent to casein.

c Retinol equivalents.

d Required to be included in this amount only in formulas which are not milk-based.

e Calcium to phosphorus ratio must be no less than 1.1 nor more than 2.0.

(June 25, 1938, ch. 675, §412, as added Pub. L. 96–359, §2, Sept. 26, 1980, 94 Stat. 1190; amended Pub. L. 99–570, title IV, §4014(a), (b)(1), Oct. 27, 1986, 100 Stat. 3207–116, 3207–120; Pub. L. 103–80, §3(l), Aug. 13, 1993, 107 Stat. 777.)

Amendments

1993—Subsec. (h)(1). Pub. L. 103–80 substituted “(e)(1)(B) of this section” for “(c)(1)(B) of this section,” in concluding provisions.

1986—Subsecs. (a) to (d). Pub. L. 99–570, §4014(a)(7), added subsecs. (a) to (d) and struck out former subsecs. (a) relating to adulteration and regulatory oversight, (b) relating to notice to the Secretary by a manufacturer and requirements and scope of that notice, (c) relating to additional notice requirements for the manufacturer, and (d) relating to procedures applicable to recalls by a manufacturer.

Subsecs. (e), (f). Pub. L. 99–570, §4014(a)(1), (7), added subsecs. (e) and (f) and redesignated former subsecs. (e) and (f) as (g) and (h), respectively.

Subsec. (g). Pub. L. 99–570, §4014(a)(1), (2), redesignated subsec. (e) as (g) and substituted “Such records shall be retained for at least one year after the expiration of the shelf life of the infant formula” for “No manufacturer shall be required under this subsection to retain any record respecting the distribution of an infant formula for a period of longer than 2 years from the date the record was made”. Former subsec. (g) redesignated (i).

Subsec. (h). Pub. L. 99–570, §4014(a)(1), redesignated subsec. (f) as (h).

Subsec. (h)(1). Pub. L. 99–570, §4014(a)(3), (4), substituted “(a), (b), and (c)” for “(a) and (b)” and “(e)(1)” for “(c)(1)”.

Pub. L. 99–570, §4014(a)(5), which directed that “(d)(1)(B)” be substituted for “(e)(1)(B)” in second sentence could not be executed because “(e)(1)(B)” did not appear. See 1993 Amendment note above.

Subsec. (h)(2). Pub. L. 99–570, §4014(a)(6), substituted “(a), (b), and (c)” for “(a) and (b)”.

Subsec. (i). Pub. L. 99–570, §4014(a)(1), (b)(1), redesignated subsec. (g) as (i), designated existing provisions as par. (1), substituted “paragraph (2)” for “subsection (a)(2) of this section”, substituted a period for the colon after “as so revised”, and added par. (2).

Effective Date of 1980 Amendment

Section 6 of Pub. L. 96–359 provided that: “Section 412 of the Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act (added by section 2) [this section] shall apply with respect to infant formulas manufactured on or after the 90th day after the date of the enactment of this Act [Sept. 26, 1980].”

§350b. New dietary ingredients

(a) In general

A dietary supplement which contains a new dietary ingredient shall be deemed adulterated under section 342(f) of this title unless it meets one of the following requirements:

(1) The dietary supplement contains only dietary ingredients which have been present in the food supply as an article used for food in a form in which the food has not been chemically altered.

(2) There is a history of use or other evidence of safety establishing that the dietary ingredient when used under the conditions recommended or suggested in the labeling of the dietary supplement will reasonably be expected to be safe and, at least 75 days before being introduced or delivered for introduction into interstate commerce, the manufacturer or distributor of the dietary ingredient or dietary supplement provides the Secretary with information, including any citation to published articles, which is the basis on which the manufacturer or distributor has concluded that a dietary supplement containing such dietary ingredient will reasonably be expected to be safe.


The Secretary shall keep confidential any information provided under paragraph (2) for 90 days following its receipt. After the expiration of such 90 days, the Secretary shall place such information on public display, except matters in the information which are trade secrets or otherwise confidential, commercial information.

(b) Petition

Any person may file with the Secretary a petition proposing the issuance of an order prescribing the conditions under which a new dietary ingredient under its intended conditions of use will reasonably be expected to be safe. The Secretary shall make a decision on such petition within 180 days of the date the petition is filed with the Secretary. For purposes of chapter 7 of title 5, the decision of the Secretary shall be considered final agency action.

(c) Notification

(1) In general

If the Secretary determines that the information in a new dietary ingredient notification submitted under this section for an article purported to be a new dietary ingredient is inadequate to establish that a dietary supplement containing such article will reasonably be expected to be safe because the article may be, or may contain, an anabolic steroid or an analogue of an anabolic steroid, the Secretary shall notify the Drug Enforcement Administration of such determination. Such notification by the Secretary shall include, at a minimum, the name of the dietary supplement or article, the name of the person or persons who marketed the product or made the submission of information regarding the article to the Secretary under this section, and any contact information for such person or persons that the Secretary has.

(2) Definitions

For purposes of this subsection—

(A) the term “anabolic steroid” has the meaning given such term in section 802(41) of this title; and

(B) the term “analogue of an anabolic steroid” means a substance whose chemical structure is substantially similar to the chemical structure of an anabolic steroid.

(d) “New dietary ingredient” defined

For purposes of this section, the term “new dietary ingredient” means a dietary ingredient that was not marketed in the United States before October 15, 1994 and does not include any dietary ingredient which was marketed in the United States before October 15, 1994.

(June 25, 1938, ch. 675, §413, as added Pub. L. 103–417, §8, Oct. 25, 1994, 108 Stat. 4331; amended Pub. L. 111–353, title I, §113(a), Jan. 4, 2011, 124 Stat. 3920.)

Amendments

2011—Subsecs. (c), (d). Pub. L. 111–353 added subsec. (c) and redesignated former subsec. (c) as (d).

Guidance

Pub. L. 111–353, title I, §113(b), Jan. 4, 2011, 124 Stat. 3921, provided that: “Not later than 180 days after the date of enactment of this Act [Jan. 4, 2011], the Secretary shall publish guidance that clarifies when a dietary supplement ingredient is a new dietary ingredient, when the manufacturer or distributor of a dietary ingredient or dietary supplement should provide the Secretary with information as described in section 413(a)(2) of the Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act [21 U.S.C. 350b(a)(2)], the evidence needed to document the safety of new dietary ingredients, and appropriate methods for establishing the identify [sic] of a new dietary ingredient.”

Construction of 2011 Amendment

Nothing in amendment by Pub. L. 111–353 to be construed to apply to certain alcohol-related facilities, to alter jurisdiction and authorities established under certain other Acts, or in a manner inconsistent with international agreements to which the United States is a party, see sections 2206, 2251, and 2252 of this title.

§350c. Maintenance and inspection of records

(a) Records inspection

(1) Adulterated food

If the Secretary has a reasonable belief that an article of food, and any other article of food that the Secretary reasonably believes is likely to be affected in a similar manner, is adulterated and presents a threat of serious adverse health consequences or death to humans or animals, each person (excluding farms and restaurants) who manufactures, processes, packs, distributes, receives, holds, or imports such article shall, at the request of an officer or employee duly designated by the Secretary, permit such officer or employee, upon presentation of appropriate credentials and a written notice to such person, at reasonable times and within reasonable limits and in a reasonable manner, to have access to and copy all records relating to such article, and to any other article of food that the Secretary reasonably believes is likely to be affected in a similar manner, that are needed to assist the Secretary in determining whether the food is adulterated and presents a threat of serious adverse health consequences or death to humans or animals.

(2) Use of or exposure to food of concern

If the Secretary believes that there is a reasonable probability that the use of or exposure to an article of food, and any other article of food that the Secretary reasonably believes is likely to be affected in a similar manner, will cause serious adverse health consequences or death to humans or animals, each person (excluding farms and restaurants) who manufactures, processes, packs, distributes, receives, holds, or imports such article shall, at the request of an officer or employee duly designated by the Secretary, permit such officer or employee, upon presentation of appropriate credentials and a written notice to such person, at reasonable times and within reasonable limits and in a reasonable manner, to have access to and copy all records relating to such article and to any other article of food that the Secretary reasonably believes is likely to be affected in a similar manner, that are needed to assist the Secretary in determining whether there is a reasonable probability that the use of or exposure to the food will cause serious adverse health consequences or death to humans or animals.

(3) Application

The requirement under paragraphs (1) and (2) applies to all records relating to the manufacture, processing, packing, distribution, receipt, holding, or importation of such article maintained by or on behalf of such person in any format (including paper and electronic formats) and at any location.

(b) Regulations concerning recordkeeping

The Secretary, in consultation and coordination, as appropriate, with other Federal departments and agencies with responsibilities for regulating food safety, may by regulation establish requirements regarding the establishment and maintenance, for not longer than two years, of records by persons (excluding farms and restaurants) who manufacture, process, pack, transport, distribute, receive, hold, or import food, which records are needed by the Secretary for inspection to allow the Secretary to identify the immediate previous sources and the immediate subsequent recipients of food, including its packaging, in order to address credible threats of serious adverse health consequences or death to humans or animals. The Secretary shall take into account the size of a business in promulgating regulations under this section.

(c) Protection of sensitive information

The Secretary shall take appropriate measures to ensure that there are in effect effective procedures to prevent the unauthorized disclosure of any trade secret or confidential information that is obtained by the Secretary pursuant to this section.

(d) Limitations

This section shall not be construed—

(1) to limit the authority of the Secretary to inspect records or to require establishment and maintenance of records under any other provision of this chapter;

(2) to authorize the Secretary to impose any requirements with respect to a food to the extent that it is within the exclusive jurisdiction of the Secretary of Agriculture pursuant to the Federal Meat Inspection Act (21 U.S.C. 601 et seq.), the Poultry Products Inspection Act (21 U.S.C. 451 et seq.), or the Egg Products Inspection Act (21 U.S.C. 1031 et seq.);

(3) to have any legal effect on section 552 of title 5 or section 1905 of title 18; or

(4) to extend to recipes for food, financial data, pricing data, personnel data, research data, or sales data (other than shipment data regarding sales).

(June 25, 1938, ch. 675, §414, as added Pub. L. 107–188, title III, §306(a), June 12, 2002, 116 Stat. 669; amended Pub. L. 111–353, title I, §101(a), Jan. 4, 2011, 124 Stat. 3886.)

References in Text

The Federal Meat Inspection Act, referred to in subsec. (d)(2), is titles I to IV of act Mar. 4, 1907, ch. 2907, as added Pub. L. 90–201, Dec. 15, 1967, 81 Stat. 584, which are classified generally to subchapters I to IV (§601 et seq.) of chapter 12 of this title. For complete classification of this Act to the Code, see Short Title note set out under section 601 of this title and Tables.

The Poultry Products Inspection Act, referred to in subsec. (d)(2), is Pub. L. 85–172, Aug. 28, 1957, 71 Stat. 441, which is classified generally to chapter 10 (§451 et seq.) of this title. For complete classification of this Act to the Code, see Short Title note set out under section 451 of this title and Tables.

The Egg Products Inspection Act, referred to in subsec. (d)(2), is Pub. L. 91–597, Dec. 29, 1970, 84 Stat. 1620, which is classified principally to chapter 15 (§1031 et seq.) of this title. For complete classification of this Act to the Code, see Short Title note set out under section 1031 of this title and Tables.

Amendments

2011—Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 111–353 reenacted heading without change, designated existing provisions as par. (1) and inserted heading, substituted “If the Secretary has a reasonable belief that an article of food, and any other article of food that the Secretary reasonably believes is likely to be affected in a similar manner, is” for “If the Secretary has a reasonable belief that an article of food is”, inserted “, and to any other article of food that the Secretary reasonably believes is likely to be affected in a similar manner,” after “relating to such article”, struck out at end “The requirement under the preceding sentence applies to all records relating to the manufacture, processing, packing, distribution, receipt, holding, or importation of such article maintained by or on behalf of such person in any format (including paper and electronic formats) and at any location.”, and added pars. (2) and (3).

Expedited Rulemaking

Pub. L. 107–188, title III, §306(d), June 12, 2002, 116 Stat. 670, provided that: “Not later than 18 months after the date of the enactment of this Act [June 12, 2002], the Secretary shall promulgate proposed and final regulations establishing recordkeeping requirements under subsection 414(b) of the Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act [21 U.S.C. 350c(b)] (as added by subsection (a)).”

Construction of 2011 Amendment

Nothing in amendment by Pub. L. 111–353 to be construed to apply to certain alcohol-related facilities, to alter jurisdiction and authorities established under certain other Acts, or in a manner inconsistent with international agreements to which the United States is a party, see sections 2206, 2251, and 2252 of this title.

§350d. Registration of food facilities

(a) Registration

(1) In general

The Secretary shall by regulation require that any facility engaged in manufacturing, processing, packing, or holding food for consumption in the United States be registered with the Secretary. To be registered—

(A) for a domestic facility, the owner, operator, or agent in charge of the facility shall submit a registration to the Secretary; and

(B) for a foreign facility, the owner, operator, or agent in charge of the facility shall submit a registration to the Secretary and shall include with the registration the name of the United States agent for the facility.

(2) Registration

An entity (referred to in this section as the “registrant”) shall submit a registration under paragraph (1) to the Secretary containing information necessary to notify the Secretary of the name and address of each facility at which, and all trade names under which, the registrant conducts business, the e-mail address for the contact person of the facility or, in the case of a foreign facility, the United States agent for the facility, and, when determined necessary by the Secretary through guidance, the general food category (as identified under section 170.3 of title 21, Code of Federal Regulations, or any other food categories as determined appropriate by the Secretary, including by guidance) of any food manufactured, processed, packed, or held at such facility. The registration shall contain an assurance that the Secretary will be permitted to inspect such facility at the times and in the manner permitted by this chapter. The registrant shall notify the Secretary in a timely manner of changes to such information.

(3) Biennial registration renewal

During the period beginning on October 1 and ending on December 31 of each even-numbered year, a registrant that has submitted a registration under paragraph (1) shall submit to the Secretary a renewal registration containing the information described in paragraph (2). The Secretary shall provide for an abbreviated registration renewal process for any registrant that has not had any changes to such information since the registrant submitted the preceding registration or registration renewal for the facility involved.

(4) Procedure

Upon receipt of a completed registration described in paragraph (1), the Secretary shall notify the registrant of the receipt of such registration and assign a registration number to each registered facility.

(5) List

The Secretary shall compile and maintain an up-to-date list of facilities that are registered under this section. Such list and any registration documents submitted pursuant to this subsection shall not be subject to disclosure under section 552 of title 5. Information derived from such list or registration documents shall not be subject to disclosure under section 552 of title 5 to the extent that it discloses the identity or location of a specific registered person.

(b) Suspension of registration

(1) In general

If the Secretary determines that food manufactured, processed, packed, received, or held by a facility registered under this section has a reasonable probability of causing serious adverse health consequences or death to humans or animals, the Secretary may by order suspend the registration of a facility—

(A) that created, caused, or was otherwise responsible for such reasonable probability; or

(B)(i) that knew of, or had reason to know of, such reasonable probability; and

(ii) packed, received, or held such food.

(2) Hearing on suspension

The Secretary shall provide the registrant subject to an order under paragraph (1) with an opportunity for an informal hearing, to be held as soon as possible but not later than 2 business days after the issuance of the order or such other time period, as agreed upon by the Secretary and the registrant, on the actions required for reinstatement of registration and why the registration that is subject to suspension should be reinstated. The Secretary shall reinstate a registration if the Secretary determines, based on evidence presented, that adequate grounds do not exist to continue the suspension of the registration.

(3) Post-hearing corrective action plan; vacating of order

(A) Corrective action plan

If, after providing opportunity for an informal hearing under paragraph (2), the Secretary determines that the suspension of registration remains necessary, the Secretary shall require the registrant to submit a corrective action plan to demonstrate how the registrant plans to correct the conditions found by the Secretary. The Secretary shall review such plan not later than 14 days after the submission of the corrective action plan or such other time period as determined by the Secretary.

(B) Vacating of order

Upon a determination by the Secretary that adequate grounds do not exist to continue the suspension actions required by the order, or that such actions should be modified, the Secretary shall promptly vacate the order and reinstate the registration of the facility subject to the order or modify the order, as appropriate.

(4) Effect of suspension

If the registration of a facility is suspended under this subsection, no person shall import or export food into the United States from such facility, offer to import or export food into the United States from such facility, or otherwise introduce food from such facility into interstate or intrastate commerce in the United States.

(5) Regulations

(A) In general

The Secretary shall promulgate regulations to implement this subsection. The Secretary may promulgate such regulations on an interim final basis.

(B) Registration requirement

The Secretary may require that registration under this section be submitted in an electronic format. Such requirement may not take effect before the date that is 5 years after January 4, 2011.

(6) Application date

Facilities shall be subject to the requirements of this subsection beginning on the earlier of—

(A) the date on which the Secretary issues regulations under paragraph (5); or

(B) 180 days after January 4, 2011.

(7) No delegation

The authority conferred by this subsection to issue an order to suspend a registration or vacate an order of suspension shall not be delegated to any officer or employee other than the Commissioner.

(c) Facility

For purposes of this section:

(1) The term “facility” includes any factory, warehouse, or establishment (including a factory, warehouse, or establishment of an importer) that manufactures, processes, packs, or holds food. Such term does not include farms; restaurants; other retail food establishments; nonprofit food establishments in which food is prepared for or served directly to the consumer; or fishing vessels (except such vessels engaged in processing as defined in section 123.3(k) of title 21, Code of Federal Regulations).

(2) The term “domestic facility” means a facility located in any of the States or Territories.

(3)(A) The term “foreign facility” means a facility that manufacturers, processes, packs, or holds food, but only if food from such facility is exported to the United States without further processing or packaging outside the United States.

(B) A food may not be considered to have undergone further processing or packaging for purposes of subparagraph (A) solely on the basis that labeling was added or that any similar activity of a de minimis nature was carried out with respect to the food.

(d) Rule of construction

Nothing in this section shall be construed to authorize the Secretary to require an application, review, or licensing process for a facility to be registered, except with respect to the reinstatement of a registration that is suspended under subsection (b).

(June 25, 1938, ch. 675, §415, as added Pub. L. 107–188, title III, §305(a), June 12, 2002, 116 Stat. 667; amended Pub. L. 111–353, title I, §102(a)–(b)(1), (d)(2), Jan. 4, 2011, 124 Stat. 3887, 3889.)

Amendments

2011—Subsec. (a)(2). Pub. L. 111–353, §102(a)(1), (b)(1)(A), substituted “conducts business, the e-mail address for the contact person of the facility or, in the case of a foreign facility, the United States agent for the facility, and” for “conducts business and”, inserted “, or any other food categories as determined appropriate by the Secretary, including by guidance” after “Code of Federal Regulations”, and inserted after first sentence “The registration shall contain an assurance that the Secretary will be permitted to inspect such facility at the times and in the manner permitted by this chapter.”

Subsec. (a)(3) to (5). Pub. L. 111–353, §102(a)(2), (3), added par. (3) and redesignated former pars. (3) and (4) as (4) and (5), respectively.

Subsecs. (b), (c). Pub. L. 111–353, §102(b)(1)(B), (C), added subsec. (b) and redesignated former subsec. (b) as (c). Former subsec. (c) redesignated (d).

Subsec. (d). Pub. L. 111–353, §102(b)(1)(B), (d)(2), redesignated subsec. (c) as (d) and inserted “for a facility to be registered, except with respect to the reinstatement of a registration that is suspended under subsection (b)” before period at end.

Regulations

Pub. L. 111–353, title I, §102(c), Jan. 4, 2011, 124 Stat. 3889, provided that:

“(1) Retail food establishment.—The Secretary shall amend the definition of the term ‘retail food establishment’ in section in [sic] 1.227(b)(11) of title 21, Code of Federal Regulations[,] to clarify that, in determining the primary function of an establishment or a retail food establishment under such section, the sale of food products directly to consumers by such establishment and the sale of food directly to consumers by such retail food establishment include—

“(A) the sale of such food products or food directly to consumers by such establishment at a roadside stand or farmers’ market where such stand or market is located other than where the food was manufactured or processed;

“(B) the sale and distribution of such food through a community supported agriculture program; and

“(C) the sale and distribution of such food at any other such direct sales platform as determined by the Secretary.

“(2) Definitions.—For purposes of paragraph (1)—

“(A) the term ‘community supported agriculture program’ has the same meaning given the term ‘community supported agriculture (CSA) program’ in section 249.2 of title 7, Code of Federal Regulations (or any successor regulation); and

“(B) the term ‘consumer’ does not include a business.”

Pub. L. 111–353, title I, §103(c), Jan. 4, 2011, 124 Stat. 3896, provided that:

“(1) Proposed rulemaking.—

“(A) In general.—Not later than 9 months after the date of enactment of this Act [Jan. 4, 2011], the Secretary of Health and Human Services (referred to in this subsection as the ‘Secretary’) shall publish a notice of proposed rulemaking in the Federal Register to promulgate regulations with respect to—

“(i) activities that constitute on-farm packing or holding of food that is not grown, raised, or consumed on such farm or another farm under the same ownership for purposes of section 415 of the Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act (21 U.S.C. 350d), as amended by this Act; and

“(ii) activities that constitute on-farm manufacturing or processing of food that is not consumed on that farm or on another farm under common ownership for purposes of such section 415.

“(B) Clarification.—The rulemaking described under subparagraph (A) shall enhance the implementation of such section 415 and clarify the activities that are included as part of the definition of the term ‘facility’ under such section 415. Nothing in this Act [see Short Title note set out under section 2201 of this title] authorizes the Secretary to modify the definition of the term ‘facility’ under such section.

“(C) Science-based risk analysis.—In promulgating regulations under subparagraph (A), the Secretary shall conduct a science-based risk analysis of—

“(i) specific types of on-farm packing or holding of food that is not grown, raised, or consumed on such farm or another farm under the same ownership, as such packing and holding relates to specific foods; and

“(ii) specific on-farm manufacturing and processing activities as such activities relate to specific foods that are not consumed on that farm or on another farm under common ownership.

“(D) Authority with respect to certain facilities.—

“(i) In general.—In promulgating the regulations under subparagraph (A), the Secretary shall consider the results of the science-based risk analysis conducted under subparagraph (C), and shall exempt certain facilities from the requirements in section 418 of the Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act [21 U.S.C. 350g] (as added by this section), including hazard analysis and preventive controls, and the mandatory inspection frequency in section 421 of such Act [21 U.S.C. 350j] (as added by section 201), or modify the requirements in such sections 418 or 421, as the Secretary determines appropriate, if such facilities are engaged only in specific types of on-farm manufacturing, processing, packing, or holding activities that the Secretary determines to be low risk involving specific foods the Secretary determines to be low risk.

“(ii) Limitation.—The exemptions or modifications under clause (i) shall not include an exemption from the requirement to register under section 415 of the Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act (21 U.S.C. 350d), as amended by this Act, if applicable, and shall apply only to small businesses and very small businesses, as defined in the regulation promulgated under section 418(n) of the Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act (as added under subsection (a)).

“(2) Final regulations.—Not later than 9 months after the close of the comment period for the proposed rulemaking under paragraph (1), the Secretary shall adopt final rules with respect to—

“(A) activities that constitute on-farm packing or holding of food that is not grown, raised, or consumed on such farm or another farm under the same ownership for purposes of section 415 of the Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act (21 U.S.C. 350d), as amended by this Act;

“(B) activities that constitute on-farm manufacturing or processing of food that is not consumed on that farm or on another farm under common ownership for purposes of such section 415; and

“(C) the requirements under sections 418 and 421 of the Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act [21 U.S.C. 350g, 350j], as added by this Act, from which the Secretary may issue exemptions or modifications of the requirements for certain types of facilities.”

Pub. L. 107–188, title III, §305(e), June 12, 2002, 116 Stat. 669, provided that: “Not later than 18 months after the date of the enactment of this Act [June 12, 2002], the Secretary of Health and Human Services shall promulgate proposed and final regulations for the requirement of registration under section 415 of the Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act [21 U.S.C. 350d] (as added by subsection (a) of this section). Such requirement of registration takes effect—

“(1) upon the effective date of such final regulations; or

“(2) upon the expiration of such 18-month period if the final regulations have not been made effective as of the expiration of such period, subject to compliance with the final regulations when the final regulations are made effective.”

Construction of 2011 Amendment

Nothing in amendments by Pub. L. 111–353 to be construed to alter jurisdiction and authorities established under certain other Acts or in a manner inconsistent with international agreements to which the United States is a party, see sections 2251 and 2252 of this title.

Small Entity Compliance Policy Guide

Pub. L. 111–353, title I, §102(b)(2), Jan. 4, 2011, 124 Stat. 3888, provided that: “Not later than 180 days after the issuance of the regulations promulgated under section 415(b)(5) of the Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act [21 U.S.C. 350d(b)(5)] (as added by this section), the Secretary shall issue a small entity compliance policy guide setting forth in plain language the requirements of such regulations to assist small entities in complying with registration requirements and other activities required under such section.”

Electronic Filing

Pub. L. 107–188, title III, §305(d), June 12, 2002, 116 Stat. 668, provided that: “For the purpose of reducing paperwork and reporting burdens, the Secretary of Health and Human Services may provide for, and encourage the use of, electronic methods of submitting to the Secretary registrations required pursuant to this section [enacting this section, amending sections 331 and 381 of this title, and enacting provisions set out as a note under this section]. In providing for the electronic submission of such registrations, the Secretary shall ensure adequate authentication protocols are used to enable identification of the registrant and validation of the data as appropriate.”

§350e. Sanitary transportation practices

(a) Definitions

In this section:

(1) Bulk vehicle

The term “bulk vehicle” includes a tank truck, hopper truck, rail tank car, hopper car, cargo tank, portable tank, freight container, or hopper bin, and any other vehicle in which food is shipped in bulk, with the food coming into direct contact with the vehicle.

(2) Transportation

The term “transportation” means any movement in commerce by motor vehicle or rail vehicle.

(b) Regulations

The Secretary shall by regulation require shippers, carriers by motor vehicle or rail vehicle, receivers, and other persons engaged in the transportation of food to use sanitary transportation practices prescribed by the Secretary to ensure that food is not transported under conditions that may render the food adulterated.

(c) Contents

The regulations under subsection (b) of this section shall—

(1) prescribe such practices as the Secretary determines to be appropriate relating to—

(A) sanitation;

(B) packaging, isolation, and other protective measures;

(C) limitations on the use of vehicles;

(D) information to be disclosed—

(i) to a carrier by a person arranging for the transport of food; and

(ii) to a manufacturer or other person that—

(I) arranges for the transportation of food by a carrier; or

(II) furnishes a tank vehicle or bulk vehicle for the transportation of food; and


(E) recordkeeping; and


(2) include—

(A) a list of nonfood products that the Secretary determines may, if shipped in a bulk vehicle, render adulterated food that is subsequently transported in the same vehicle; and

(B) a list of nonfood products that the Secretary determines may, if shipped in a motor vehicle or rail vehicle (other than a tank vehicle or bulk vehicle), render adulterated food that is simultaneously or subsequently transported in the same vehicle.

(d) Waivers

(1) In general

The Secretary may waive any requirement under this section, with respect to any class of persons, vehicles, food, or nonfood products, if the Secretary determines that the waiver—

(A) will not result in the transportation of food under conditions that would be unsafe for human or animal health; and

(B) will not be contrary to the public interest.

(2) Publication

The Secretary shall publish in the Federal Register any waiver and the reasons for the waiver.

(e) Preemption

(1) In general

A requirement of a State or political subdivision of a State that concerns the transportation of food is preempted if—

(A) complying with a requirement of the State or political subdivision and a requirement of this section, or a regulation prescribed under this section, is not possible; or

(B) the requirement of the State or political subdivision as applied or enforced is an obstacle to accomplishing and carrying out this section or a regulation prescribed under this section.

(2) Applicability

This subsection applies to transportation that occurs on or after the effective date of the regulations promulgated under subsection (b) of this section.

(f) Assistance of other agencies

The Secretary of Transportation, the Secretary of Agriculture, the Administrator of the Environmental Protection Agency, and the heads of other Federal agencies, as appropriate, shall provide assistance on request, to the extent resources are available, to the Secretary for the purposes of carrying out this section.

(June 25, 1938, ch. 675, §416, as added Pub. L. 109–59, title VII, §7202(b), Aug. 10, 2005, 119 Stat. 1911.)

Effective Date

Section effective Oct. 1, 2005, see section 7204 of Pub. L. 109–59, set out as an Effective Date of 2005 Amendment note under section 331 of this title.

Regulations

Pub. L. 111–353, title I, §111(a), Jan. 4, 2011, 124 Stat. 3916, provided that: “Not later than 18 months after the date of enactment of this Act [Jan. 4, 2011], the Secretary shall promulgate regulations described in section 416(b) of the Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act (21 U.S.C. 350e(b)).”

§350f. Reportable food registry

(a) Definitions

In this section:

(1) Responsible party

The term “responsible party”, with respect to an article of food, means a person that submits the registration under section 350d(a) of this title for a food facility that is required to register under section 350d(a) of this title, at which such article of food is manufactured, processed, packed, or held.

(2) Reportable food

The term “reportable food” means an article of food (other than infant formula) for which there is a reasonable probability that the use of, or exposure to, such article of food will cause serious adverse health consequences or death to humans or animals.

(b) Establishment

(1) In general

Not later than 1 year after September 27, 2007, the Secretary shall establish within the Food and Drug Administration a Reportable Food Registry to which instances of reportable food may be submitted by the Food and Drug Administration after receipt of reports under subsection (d), via an electronic portal, from—

(A) Federal, State, and local public health officials; or

(B) responsible parties.

(2) Review by Secretary

The Secretary shall promptly review and assess the information submitted under paragraph (1) for the purposes of identifying reportable food, submitting entries to the Reportable Food Registry, acting under subsection (c), and exercising other existing food safety authorities under this chapter to protect the public health.

(c) Issuance of an alert by the Secretary

(1) In general

The Secretary shall issue, or cause to be issued, an alert or a notification with respect to a reportable food using information from the Reportable Food Registry as the Secretary deems necessary to protect the public health.

(2) Effect

Paragraph (1) shall not affect the authority of the Secretary to issue an alert or a notification under any other provision of this chapter.

(d) Reporting and notification

(1) In general

Except as provided in paragraph (2), as soon as practicable, but in no case later than 24 hours after a responsible party determines that an article of food is a reportable food, the responsible party shall—

(A) submit a report to the Food and Drug Administration through the electronic portal established under subsection (b) that includes the data elements described in subsection (e) (except the elements described in paragraphs (8), (9), and (10) of such subsection); and

(B) investigate the cause of the adulteration if the adulteration of the article of food may have originated with the responsible party.

(2) No report required

A responsible party is not required to submit a report under paragraph (1) if—

(A) the adulteration originated with the responsible party;

(B) the responsible party detected the adulteration prior to any transfer to another person of such article of food; and

(C) the responsible party—

(i) corrected such adulteration; or

(ii) destroyed or caused the destruction of such article of food.

(3) Reports by public health officials

A Federal, State, or local public health official may submit a report about a reportable food to the Food and Drug Administration through the electronic portal established under subsection (b) that includes the data elements described in subsection (e) that the official is able to provide.

(4) Report number

The Secretary shall ensure that, upon submission of a report under paragraph (1) or (3), a unique number is issued through the electronic portal established under subsection (b) to the person submitting such report, by which the Secretary is able to link reports about the reportable food submitted and amended under this subsection and identify the supply chain for such reportable food.

(5) Review

The Secretary shall promptly review a report submitted under paragraph (1) or (3).

(6) Response to report submitted by a responsible party

After consultation with the responsible party that submitted a report under paragraph (1), the Secretary may require such responsible party to perform, as soon as practicable, but in no case later than a time specified by the Secretary, 1 or more of the following:

(A) Amend the report submitted by the responsible party under paragraph (1) to include the data element described in subsection (e)(9).

(B) Provide a notification—

(i) to the immediate previous source of the article of food, if the Secretary deems necessary;

(ii) to the immediate subsequent recipient of the article of food, if the Secretary deems necessary; and

(iii) that includes—

(I) the data elements described in subsection (e) that the Secretary deems necessary;

(II) the actions described under paragraph (7) that the recipient of the notification shall perform, as required by the Secretary; and

(III) any other information that the Secretary may require.

(7) Subsequent reports and notifications

Except as provided in paragraph (8), the Secretary may require a responsible party to perform, as soon as practicable, but in no case later than a time specified by the Secretary, after the responsible party receives a notification under subparagraph (C) or paragraph (6)(B), 1 or more of the following:

(A) Submit a report to the Food and Drug Administration through the electronic portal established under subsection (b) that includes those data elements described in subsection (e) and other information that the Secretary deems necessary.

(B) Investigate the cause of the adulteration if the adulteration of the article of food may have originated with the responsible party.

(C) Provide a notification—

(i) to the immediate previous source of the article of food, if the Secretary deems necessary;

(ii) to the immediate subsequent recipient of the article of food, if the Secretary deems necessary; and

(iii) that includes—

(I) the data elements described in subsection (e) that the Secretary deems necessary;

(II) the actions described under this paragraph that the recipient of the notification shall perform, as required by the Secretary; and

(III) any other information that the Secretary may require.

(8) Amended report

If a responsible party receives a notification under paragraph (6)(B) or paragraph (7)(C) with respect to an article of food after the responsible party has submitted a report to the Food and Drug Administration under paragraph (1) with respect to such article of food—

(A) the responsible party is not required to submit an additional report or make a notification under paragraph (7); and

(B) the responsible party shall amend the report submitted by the responsible party under paragraph (1) to include the data elements described in paragraph (9), and, with respect to both such notification and such report, paragraph (11) of subsection (e).

(e) Data elements

The data elements described in this subsection are the following:

(1) The registration numbers of the responsible party under section 350d(a)(3) 1 of this title.

(2) The date on which an article of food was determined to be a reportable food.

(3) A description of the article of food including the quantity or amount.

(4) The extent and nature of the adulteration.

(5) If the adulteration of the article of food may have originated with the responsible party, the results of the investigation required under paragraph (1)(B) or (7)(B) of subsection (d), as applicable and when known.

(6) The disposition of the article of food, when known.

(7) Product information typically found on packaging including product codes, use-by dates, and names of manufacturers, packers, or distributors sufficient to identify the article of food.

(8) Contact information for the responsible party.

(9) The contact information for parties directly linked in the supply chain and notified under paragraph (6)(B) or (7)(C) of subsection (d), as applicable.

(10) The information required by the Secretary to be included in a notification provided by the responsible party involved under paragraph (6)(B) or (7)(C) of subsection (d) or required in a report under subsection (d)(7)(A).

(11) The unique number described in subsection (d)(4).

(f) Critical information

Except with respect to fruits and vegetables that are raw agricultural commodities, not more than 18 months after January 4, 2011, the Secretary may require a responsible party to submit to the Secretary consumer-oriented information regarding a reportable food, which shall include—

(1) a description of the article of food as provided in subsection (e)(3);

(2) as provided in subsection (e)(7), affected product identification codes, such as UPC, SKU, or lot or batch numbers sufficient for the consumer to identify the article of food;

(3) contact information for the responsible party as provided in subsection (e)(8); and

(4) any other information the Secretary determines is necessary to enable a consumer to accurately identify whether such consumer is in possession of the reportable food.

(g) Grocery store notification

(1) Action by Secretary

The Secretary shall—

(A) prepare the critical information described under subsection (f) for a reportable food as a standardized one-page summary;

(B) publish such one-page summary on the Internet website of the Food and Drug Administration in a format that can be easily printed by a grocery store for purposes of consumer notification.

(2) Action by grocery store

A notification described under paragraph (1)(B) shall include the date and time such summary was posted on the Internet website of the Food and Drug Administration.

(h) Consumer notification

(1) In general

If a grocery store sold a reportable food that is the subject of the posting and such establishment is part of 2 chain of establishments with 15 or more physical locations, then such establishment shall, not later than 24 hours after a one page summary described in subsection (g) is published, prominently display such summary or the information from such summary via at least one of the methods identified under paragraph (2) and maintain the display for 14 days.

(2) List of conspicuous locations

Not more than 1 year after January 4, 2011, the Secretary shall develop and publish a list of acceptable conspicuous locations and manners, from which grocery stores shall select at least one, for providing the notification required in paragraph (1). Such list shall include—

(A) posting the notification at or near the register;

(B) providing the location of the reportable food;

(C) providing targeted recall information given to customers upon purchase of a food; and

(D) other such prominent and conspicuous locations and manners utilized by grocery stores as of January 4, 2011, to provide notice of such recalls to consumers as considered appropriate by the Secretary.

(i) Coordination of Federal, State, and local efforts

(1) Department of Agriculture

In implementing this section, the Secretary shall—

(A) share information and coordinate regulatory efforts with the Department of Agriculture; and

(B) if the Secretary receives a report submitted about a food within the jurisdiction of the Department of Agriculture, promptly provide such report to the Department of Agriculture.

(2) States and localities

In implementing this section, the Secretary shall work with the State and local public health officials to share information and coordinate regulatory efforts, in order to—

(A) help to ensure coverage of the safety of the food supply chain, including those food establishments regulated by the States and localities that are not required to register under section 350d of this title; and

(B) reduce duplicative regulatory efforts.

(j) Maintenance and inspection of records

The responsible party shall maintain records related to each report received, notification made, and report submitted to the Food and Drug Administration under this section for 2 years. A responsible party shall, at the request of the Secretary, permit inspection of such records as provided for section 3 350c of this title.

(k) Request for information

Except as provided by section 350d(a)(4) 1 of this title, section 552 of title 5 shall apply to any request for information regarding a record in the Reportable Food Registry.

(l) Safety report

A report or notification under subsection (d) shall be considered to be a safety report under section 379v of this title and may be accompanied by a statement, which shall be part of any report released for public disclosure, that denies that the report or the notification constitutes an admission that the product involved caused or contributed to a death, serious injury, or serious illness.

(m) Admission

A report or notification under this section shall not be considered an admission that the article of food involved is adulterated or caused or contributed to a death, serious injury, or serious illness.

(n) Homeland Security notification

If, after receiving a report under subsection (d), the Secretary believes such food may have been deliberately adulterated, the Secretary shall immediately notify the Secretary of Homeland Security. The Secretary shall make relevant information from the Reportable Food Registry available to the Secretary of Homeland Security.

(June 25, 1938, ch. 675, §417, as added Pub. L. 110–85, title X, §1005(b), Sept. 27, 2007, 121 Stat. 965; amended Pub. L. 111–353, title II, §211(a), Jan. 4, 2011, 124 Stat. 3951.)

References in Text

Section 350d(a)(3), (4) of this title, referred to in subsecs. (e)(1) and (k), was redesignated section 350d(a)(4), (5), respectively, of this title by Pub. L. 111–353, title I, §102(a)(2), Jan. 4, 2011, 124 Stat. 3887.

Amendments

2011—Subsecs. (f) to (n). Pub. L. 111–353 added subsecs. (f) to (h) and redesignated former subsecs. (f) to (k) as (i) to (n), respectively.

Effective Date

Pub. L. 110–85, title X, §1005(e), Sept. 27, 2007, 121 Stat. 969, provided that: “The requirements of section 417(d) of the Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act [21 U.S.C. 350f(d)], as added by subsection (a) [probably should be (b)], shall become effective 1 year after the date of the enactment of this Act [Sept. 27, 2007].”

Construction of 2011 Amendment

Nothing in amendment by Pub. L. 111–353 to be construed to apply to certain alcohol-related facilities, to alter jurisdiction and authorities established under certain other Acts, or in a manner inconsistent with international agreements to which the United States is a party, see sections 2206, 2251, and 2252 of this title.

Findings

Pub. L. 110–85, title X, §1005(a), Sept. 27, 2007, 121 Stat. 964, provided that: “Congress makes the following findings:

“(1) In 1994, Congress passed the Dietary Supplement Health and Education Act of 1994 (Public Law 103–417) [see Short Title of 1994 Amendments note set out under section 301 of this title] to provide the Food and Drug Administration the legal framework which is intended to ensure that dietary supplements are safe and properly labeled foods.

“(2) In 2006, Congress passed the Dietary Supplement and Nonprescription Drug Consumer Protection Act (Public Law 109–462) [see Short Title of 2006 Amendment note set out under section 301 of this title] to establish a mandatory reporting system of serious adverse events for nonprescription drugs and dietary supplements sold and consumed in the United States.

“(3) The adverse event reporting system created under the Dietary Supplement and Nonprescription Drug Consumer Protection Act is intended to serve as an early warning system for potential public health issues associated with the use of these products.

“(4) A reliable mechanism to track patterns of adulteration in food would support efforts by the Food and Drug Administration to target limited inspection resources to protect the public health.”

Guidance

Pub. L. 110–85, title X, §1005(f), Sept. 27, 2007, 121 Stat. 969, provided that: “Not later than 9 months after the date of the enactment of this Act [Sept. 27, 2007], the Secretary [of Health and Human Services] shall issue a guidance to industry about submitting reports to the electronic portal established under section 417 of the Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act [21 U.S.C. 350f] (as added by this section) and providing notifications to other persons in the supply chain of an article of food under such section 417.”

1 See References in Text note below.

2 So in original. Probably should be followed by “a”.

3 So in original. Probably should be “in section”.

§350g. Hazard analysis and risk-based preventive controls

(a) In general

The owner, operator, or agent in charge of a facility shall, in accordance with this section, evaluate the hazards that could affect food manufactured, processed, packed, or held by such facility, identify and implement preventive controls to significantly minimize or prevent the occurrence of such hazards and provide assurances that such food is not adulterated under section 342 of this title or misbranded under section 343(w) of this title, monitor the performance of those controls, and maintain records of this monitoring as a matter of routine practice.

(b) Hazard analysis

The owner, operator, or agent in charge of a facility shall—

(1) identify and evaluate known or reasonably foreseeable hazards that may be associated with the facility, including—

(A) biological, chemical, physical, and radiological hazards, natural toxins, pesticides, drug residues, decomposition, parasites, allergens, and unapproved food and color additives; and

(B) hazards that occur naturally, or may be unintentionally introduced; and


(2) identify and evaluate hazards that may be intentionally introduced, including by acts of terrorism; and

(3) develop a written analysis of the hazards.

(c) Preventive controls

The owner, operator, or agent in charge of a facility shall identify and implement preventive controls, including at critical control points, if any, to provide assurances that—

(1) hazards identified in the hazard analysis conducted under subsection (b)(1) will be significantly minimized or prevented;

(2) any hazards identified in the hazard analysis conducted under subsection (b)(2) will be significantly minimized or prevented and addressed, consistent with section 350i of this title, as applicable; and

(3) the food manufactured, processed, packed, or held by such facility will not be adulterated under section 342 of this title or misbranded under section 343(w) of this title.

(d) Monitoring of effectiveness

The owner, operator, or agent in charge of a facility shall monitor the effectiveness of the preventive controls implemented under subsection (c) to provide assurances that the outcomes described in subsection (c) shall be achieved.

(e) Corrective actions

The owner, operator, or agent in charge of a facility shall establish procedures to ensure that, if the preventive controls implemented under subsection (c) are not properly implemented or are found to be ineffective—

(1) appropriate action is taken to reduce the likelihood of recurrence of the implementation failure;

(2) all affected food is evaluated for safety; and

(3) all affected food is prevented from entering into commerce if the owner, operator or agent in charge of such facility cannot ensure that the affected food is not adulterated under section 342 of this title or misbranded under section 343(w) of this title.

(f) Verification

The owner, operator, or agent in charge of a facility shall verify that—

(1) the preventive controls implemented under subsection (c) are adequate to control the hazards identified under subsection (b);

(2) the owner, operator, or agent is conducting monitoring in accordance with subsection (d);

(3) the owner, operator, or agent is making appropriate decisions about corrective actions taken under subsection (e);

(4) the preventive controls implemented under subsection (c) are effectively and significantly minimizing or preventing the occurrence of identified hazards, including through the use of environmental and product testing programs and other appropriate means; and

(5) there is documented, periodic reanalysis of the plan under subsection (i) to ensure that the plan is still relevant to the raw materials, conditions and processes in the facility, and new and emerging threats.

(g) Recordkeeping

The owner, operator, or agent in charge of a facility shall maintain, for not less than 2 years, records documenting the monitoring of the preventive controls implemented under subsection (c), instances of nonconformance material to food safety, the results of testing and other appropriate means of verification under subsection (f)(4), instances when corrective actions were implemented, and the efficacy of preventive controls and corrective actions.

(h) Written plan and documentation

The owner, operator, or agent in charge of a facility shall prepare a written plan that documents and describes the procedures used by the facility to comply with the requirements of this section, including analyzing the hazards under subsection (b) and identifying the preventive controls adopted under subsection (c) to address those hazards. Such written plan, together with the documentation described in subsection (g), shall be made promptly available to a duly authorized representative of the Secretary upon oral or written request.

(i) Requirement to reanalyze

The owner, operator, or agent in charge of a facility shall conduct a reanalysis under subsection (b) whenever a significant change is made in the activities conducted at a facility operated by such owner, operator, or agent if the change creates a reasonable potential for a new hazard or a significant increase in a previously identified hazard or not less frequently than once every 3 years, whichever is earlier. Such reanalysis shall be completed and additional preventive controls needed to address the hazard identified, if any, shall be implemented before the change in activities at the facility is operative. Such owner, operator, or agent shall revise the written plan required under subsection (h) if such a significant change is made or document the basis for the conclusion that no additional or revised preventive controls are needed. The Secretary may require a reanalysis under this section to respond to new hazards and developments in scientific understanding, including, as appropriate, results from the Department of Homeland Security biological, chemical, radiological, or other terrorism risk assessment.

(j) Exemption for seafood, juice, and low-acid canned food facilities subject to HACCP

(1) In general

This section shall not apply to a facility if the owner, operator, or agent in charge of such facility is required to comply with, and is in compliance with, 1 of the following standards and regulations with respect to such facility:

(A) The Seafood Hazard Analysis Critical Control Points Program of the Food and Drug Administration.

(B) The Juice Hazard Analysis Critical Control Points Program of the Food and Drug Administration.

(C) The Thermally Processed Low-Acid Foods Packaged in Hermetically Sealed Containers standards of the Food and Drug Administration (or any successor standards).

(2) Applicability

The exemption under paragraph (1)(C) shall apply only with respect to microbiological hazards that are regulated under the standards for Thermally Processed Low-Acid Foods Packaged in Hermetically Sealed Containers under part 113 of chapter 1 21, Code of Federal Regulations (or any successor regulations).

(k) Exception for activities of facilities subject to section 350h of this title

This section shall not apply to activities of a facility that are subject to section 350h of this title.

(l) Modified requirements for qualified facilities

(1) Qualified facilities

(A) In general

A facility is a qualified facility for purposes of this subsection if the facility meets the conditions under subparagraph (B) or (C).

(B) Very small business

A facility is a qualified facility under this subparagraph—

(i) if the facility, including any subsidiary or affiliate of the facility, is, collectively, a very small business (as defined in the regulations promulgated under subsection (n)); and

(ii) in the case where the facility is a subsidiary or affiliate of an entity, if such subsidiaries or affiliates, are, collectively, a very small business (as so defined).

(C) Limited annual monetary value of sales

(i) In general

A facility is a qualified facility under this subparagraph if clause (ii) applies—

(I) to the facility, including any subsidiary or affiliate of the facility, collectively; and

(II) to the subsidiaries or affiliates, collectively, of any entity of which the facility is a subsidiary or affiliate.

(ii) Average annual monetary value

This clause applies if—

(I) during the 3-year period preceding the applicable calendar year, the average annual monetary value of the food manufactured, processed, packed, or held at such facility (or the collective average annual monetary value of such food at any subsidiary or affiliate, as described in clause (i)) that is sold directly to qualified end-users during such period exceeded the average annual monetary value of the food manufactured, processed, packed, or held at such facility (or the collective average annual monetary value of such food at any subsidiary or affiliate, as so described) sold by such facility (or collectively by any such subsidiary or affiliate) to all other purchasers during such period; and

(II) the average annual monetary value of all food sold by such facility (or the collective average annual monetary value of such food sold by any subsidiary or affiliate, as described in clause (i)) during such period was less than $500,000, adjusted for inflation.

(2) Exemption

A qualified facility—

(A) shall not be subject to the requirements under subsections (a) through (i) and subsection (n) in an applicable calendar year; and

(B) shall submit to the Secretary—

(i)(I) documentation that demonstrates that the owner, operator, or agent in charge of the facility has identified potential hazards associated with the food being produced, is implementing preventive controls to address the hazards, and is monitoring the preventive controls to ensure that such controls are effective; or

(II) documentation (which may include licenses, inspection reports, certificates, permits, credentials, certification by an appropriate agency (such as a State department of agriculture), or other evidence of oversight), as specified by the Secretary, that the facility is in compliance with State, local, county, or other applicable non-Federal food safety law; and

(ii) documentation, as specified by the Secretary in a guidance document issued not later than 1 year after January 4, 2011, that the facility is a qualified facility under paragraph (1)(B) or (1)(C).

(3) Withdrawal; rule of construction

(A) In general

In the event of an active investigation of a foodborne illness outbreak that is directly linked to a qualified facility subject to an exemption under this subsection, or if the Secretary determines that it is necessary to protect the public health and prevent or mitigate a foodborne illness outbreak based on conduct or conditions associated with a qualified facility that are material to the safety of the food manufactured, processed, packed, or held at such facility, the Secretary may withdraw the exemption provided to such facility under this subsection.

(B) Rule of construction

Nothing in this subsection shall be construed to expand or limit the inspection authority of the Secretary.

(4) Definitions

In this subsection:

(A) Affiliate

The term “affiliate” means any facility that controls, is controlled by, or is under common control with another facility.

(B) Qualified end-user

The term “qualified end-user”, with respect to a food, means—

(i) the consumer of the food; or

(ii) a restaurant or retail food establishment (as those terms are defined by the Secretary for purposes of section 350d of this title) that—

(I) is located—

(aa) in the same State as the qualified facility that sold the food to such restaurant or establishment; or

(bb) not more than 275 miles from such facility; and


(II) is purchasing the food for sale directly to consumers at such restaurant or retail food establishment.

(C) Consumer

For purposes of subparagraph (B), the term “consumer” does not include a business.

(D) Subsidiary

The term “subsidiary” means any company which is owned or controlled directly or indirectly by another company.

(5) Study

(A) In general

The Secretary, in consultation with the Secretary of Agriculture, shall conduct a study of the food processing sector regulated by the Secretary to determine—

(i) the distribution of food production by type and size of operation, including monetary value of food sold;

(ii) the proportion of food produced by each type and size of operation;

(iii) the number and types of food facilities co-located on farms, including the number and proportion by commodity and by manufacturing or processing activity;

(iv) the incidence of foodborne illness originating from each size and type of operation and the type of food facilities for which no reported or known hazard exists; and

(v) the effect on foodborne illness risk associated with commingling, processing, transporting, and storing food and raw agricultural commodities, including differences in risk based on the scale and duration of such activities.

(B) Size

The results of the study conducted under subparagraph (A) shall include the information necessary to enable the Secretary to define the terms “small business” and “very small business”, for purposes of promulgating the regulation under subsection (n). In defining such terms, the Secretary shall include consideration of harvestable acres, income, the number of employees, and the volume of food harvested.

(C) Submission of report

Not later than 18 months after January 4, 2011, the Secretary shall submit to Congress a report that describes the results of the study conducted under subparagraph (A).

(6) No preemption

Nothing in this subsection preempts State, local, county, or other non-Federal law regarding the safe production of food. Compliance with this subsection shall not relieve any person from liability at common law or under State statutory law.

(7) Notification to consumers

(A) In general

A qualified facility that is exempt from the requirements under subsections (a) through (i) and subsection (n) and does not prepare documentation under paragraph (2)(B)(i)(I) shall—

(i) with respect to a food for which a food packaging label is required by the Secretary under any other provision of this chapter, include prominently and conspicuously on such label the name and business address of the facility where the food was manufactured or processed; or

(ii) with respect to a food for which a food packaging label is not required by the Secretary under any other provisions of this chapter, prominently and conspicuously display, at the point of purchase, the name and business address of the facility where the food was manufactured or processed, on a label, poster, sign, placard, or documents delivered contemporaneously with the food in the normal course of business, or, in the case of Internet sales, in an electronic notice.

(B) No additional label

Subparagraph (A) does not provide authority to the Secretary to require a label that is in addition to any label required under any other provision of this chapter.

(m) Authority with respect to certain facilities

The Secretary may, by regulation, exempt or modify the requirements for compliance under this section with respect to facilities that are solely engaged in the production of food for animals other than man, the storage of raw agricultural commodities (other than fruits and vegetables) intended for further distribution or processing, or the storage of packaged foods that are not exposed to the environment.

(n) Regulations

(1) In general

Not later than 18 months after January 4, 2011, the Secretary shall promulgate regulations—

(A) to establish science-based minimum standards for conducting a hazard analysis, documenting hazards, implementing preventive controls, and documenting the implementation of the preventive controls under this section; and

(B) to define, for purposes of this section, the terms “small business” and “very small business”, taking into consideration the study described in subsection (l)(5).

(2) Coordination

In promulgating the regulations under paragraph (1)(A), with regard to hazards that may be intentionally introduced, including by acts of terrorism, the Secretary shall coordinate with the Secretary of Homeland Security, as appropriate.

(3) Content

The regulations promulgated under paragraph (1)(A) shall—

(A) provide sufficient flexibility to be practicable for all sizes and types of facilities, including small businesses such as a small food processing facility co-located on a farm;

(B) comply with chapter 35 of title 44 (commonly known as the “Paperwork Reduction Act”), with special attention to minimizing the burden (as defined in section 3502(2) of such title) on the facility, and collection of information (as defined in section 3502(3) of such title), associated with such regulations;

(C) acknowledge differences in risk and minimize, as appropriate, the number of separate standards that apply to separate foods; and

(D) not require a facility to hire a consultant or other third party to identify, implement, certify, or audit preventative controls, except in the case of negotiated enforcement resolutions that may require such a consultant or third party.

(4) Rule of construction

Nothing in this subsection shall be construed to provide the Secretary with the authority to prescribe specific technologies, practices, or critical controls for an individual facility.

(5) Review

In promulgating the regulations under paragraph (1)(A), the Secretary shall review regulatory hazard analysis and preventive control programs in existence on January 4, 2011, including the Grade “A” Pasteurized Milk Ordinance to ensure that such regulations are consistent, to the extent practicable, with applicable domestic and internationally-recognized standards in existence on such date.

(o) Definitions

For purposes of this section:

(1) Critical control point

The term “critical control point” means a point, step, or procedure in a food process at which control can be applied and is essential to prevent or eliminate a food safety hazard or reduce such hazard to an acceptable level.

(2) Facility

The term “facility” means a domestic facility or a foreign facility that is required to register under section 350d of this title.

(3) Preventive controls

The term “preventive controls” means those risk-based, reasonably appropriate procedures, practices, and processes that a person knowledgeable about the safe manufacturing, processing, packing, or holding of food would employ to significantly minimize or prevent the hazards identified under the hazard analysis conducted under subsection (b) and that are consistent with the current scientific understanding of safe food manufacturing, processing, packing, or holding at the time of the analysis. Those procedures, practices, and processes may include the following:

(A) Sanitation procedures for food contact surfaces and utensils and food-contact surfaces of equipment.

(B) Supervisor, manager, and employee hygiene training.

(C) An environmental monitoring program to verify the effectiveness of pathogen controls in processes where a food is exposed to a potential contaminant in the environment.

(D) A food allergen control program.

(E) A recall plan.

(F) Current Good Manufacturing Practices (cGMPs) under part 110 of title 21, Code of Federal Regulations (or any successor regulations).

(G) Supplier verification activities that relate to the safety of food.

(June 25, 1938, ch. 675, §418, as added Pub. L. 111–353, title I, §103(a), Jan. 4, 2011, 124 Stat. 3889.)

Effective Date

Pub. L. 111–353, title I, §103(i), Jan. 4, 2011, 124 Stat. 3898, provided that:

“(1) General rule.—The amendments made by this section [enacting this section and amending section 331 of this title] shall take effect 18 months after the date of enactment of this Act [Jan. 4, 2011].

“(2) Flexibility for small businesses.—Notwithstanding paragraph (1)—

“(A) the amendments made by this section shall apply to a small business (as defined in the regulations promulgated under section 418(n) of the Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act [21 U.S.C. 350g(n)] (as added by this section)) beginning on the date that is 6 months after the effective date of such regulations; and

“(B) the amendments made by this section shall apply to a very small business (as defined in such regulations) beginning on the date that is 18 months after the effective date of such regulations.”

Construction

Nothing in this section to be construed to apply to certain alcohol-related facilities, to alter jurisdiction and authorities established under certain other Acts, or in a manner inconsistent with international agreements to which the United States is a party, see sections 2206, 2251, and 2252 of this title.

Guidance Document

Pub. L. 111–353, title I, §103(b), Jan. 4, 2011, 124 Stat. 3896, provided that: “The Secretary shall issue a guidance document related to the regulations promulgated under subsection (b)(1) [probably means 21 U.S.C. 350g(n)(1)] with respect to the hazard analysis and preventive controls under section 418 of the Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act [21 U.S.C. 350g] (as added by subsection (a)).”

Small Entity Compliance Policy Guide

Pub. L. 111–353, title I, §103(d), Jan. 4, 2011, 124 Stat. 3898, provided that: “Not later than 180 days after the issuance of the regulations promulgated under subsection (n) of section 418 of the Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act [21 U.S.C. 350g(n)] (as added by subsection (a)), the Secretary shall issue a small entity compliance policy guide setting forth in plain language the requirements of such section 418 and this section [enacting this section, amending section 331 of this title, and enacting provisions set out as notes under this section and sections 342 and 350d of this title] to assist small entities in complying with the hazard analysis and other activities required under such section 418 and this section.”

No Effect on HACCP Authorities

Pub. L. 111–353, title I, §103(f), Jan. 4, 2011, 124 Stat. 3898, provided that: “Nothing in the amendments made by this section [enacting this section and amending section 331 of this title] limits the authority of the Secretary under the Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act (21 U.S.C. 301 et seq.) or the Public Health Service Act (42 U.S.C. 201 et seq.) to revise, issue, or enforce Hazard Analysis Critical Control [Points] programs and the Thermally Processed Low-Acid Foods Packaged in Hermetically Sealed Containers standards.”

Dietary Supplements

Pub. L. 111–353, title I, §103(g), Jan. 4, 2011, 124 Stat. 3898, provided that: “Nothing in the amendments made by this section [enacting this section and amending section 331 of this title] shall apply to any facility with regard to the manufacturing, processing, packing, or holding of a dietary supplement that is in compliance with the requirements of sections 402(g)(2) and 761 of the Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act (21 U.S.C. 342(g)(2), 379aa–1).”

1 So in original. Probably should be “title”.

§350h. Standards for produce safety

(a) Proposed rulemaking

(1) In general

(A) Rulemaking

Not later than 1 year after January 4, 2011, the Secretary, in coordination with the Secretary of Agriculture and representatives of State departments of agriculture (including with regard to the national organic program established under the Organic Foods Production Act of 1990 [7 U.S.C. 6501 et seq.]), and in consultation with the Secretary of Homeland Security, shall publish a notice of proposed rulemaking to establish science-based minimum standards for the safe production and harvesting of those types of fruits and vegetables, including specific mixes or categories of fruits and vegetables, that are raw agricultural commodities for which the Secretary has determined that such standards minimize the risk of serious adverse health consequences or death.

(B) Determination by Secretary

With respect to small businesses and very small businesses (as such terms are defined in the regulation promulgated under subparagraph (A)) that produce and harvest those types of fruits and vegetables that are raw agricultural commodities that the Secretary has determined are low risk and do not present a risk of serious adverse health consequences or death, the Secretary may determine not to include production and harvesting of such fruits and vegetables in such rulemaking, or may modify the applicable requirements of regulations promulgated pursuant to this section.

(2) Public input

During the comment period on the notice of proposed rulemaking under paragraph (1), the Secretary shall conduct not less than 3 public meetings in diverse geographical areas of the United States to provide persons in different regions an opportunity to comment.

(3) Content

The proposed rulemaking under paragraph (1) shall—

(A) provide sufficient flexibility to be applicable to various types of entities engaged in the production and harvesting of fruits and vegetables that are raw agricultural commodities, including small businesses and entities that sell directly to consumers, and be appropriate to the scale and diversity of the production and harvesting of such commodities;

(B) include, with respect to growing, harvesting, sorting, packing, and storage operations, science-based minimum standards related to soil amendments, hygiene, packaging, temperature controls, animals in the growing area, and water;

(C) consider hazards that occur naturally, may be unintentionally introduced, or may be intentionally introduced, including by acts of terrorism;

(D) take into consideration, consistent with ensuring enforceable public health protection, conservation and environmental practice standards and policies established by Federal natural resource conservation, wildlife conservation, and environmental agencies;

(E) in the case of production that is certified organic, not include any requirements that conflict with or duplicate the requirements of the national organic program established under the Organic Foods Production Act of 1990, while providing the same level of public health protection as the requirements under guidance documents, including guidance documents regarding action levels, and regulations under the FDA Food Safety Modernization Act; and

(F) define, for purposes of this section, the terms “small business” and “very small business”.

(4) Prioritization

The Secretary shall prioritize the implementation of the regulations under this section for specific fruits and vegetables that are raw agricultural commodities based on known risks which may include a history and severity of foodborne illness outbreaks.

(b) Final regulation

(1) In general

Not later than 1 year after the close of the comment period for the proposed rulemaking under subsection (a), the Secretary shall adopt a final regulation to provide for minimum science-based standards for those types of fruits and vegetables, including specific mixes or categories of fruits or vegetables, that are raw agricultural commodities, based on known safety risks, which may include a history of foodborne illness outbreaks.

(2) Final regulation

The final regulation shall—

(A) provide for coordination of education and enforcement activities by State and local officials, as designated by the Governors of the respective States or the appropriate elected State official as recognized by State statute; and

(B) include a description of the variance process under subsection (c) and the types of permissible variances the Secretary may grant.

(3) Flexibility for small businesses

Notwithstanding paragraph (1)—

(A) the regulations promulgated under this section shall apply to a small business (as defined in the regulation promulgated under subsection (a)(1)) after the date that is 1 year after the effective date of the final regulation under paragraph (1); and

(B) the regulations promulgated under this section shall apply to a very small business (as defined in the regulation promulgated under subsection (a)(1)) after the date that is 2 years after the effective date of the final regulation under paragraph (1).

(c) Criteria

(1) In general

The regulations adopted under subsection (b) shall—

(A) set forth those procedures, processes, and practices that the Secretary determines to minimize the risk of serious adverse health consequences or death, including procedures, processes, and practices that the Secretary determines to be reasonably necessary to prevent the introduction of known or reasonably foreseeable biological, chemical, and physical hazards, including hazards that occur naturally, may be unintentionally introduced, or may be intentionally introduced, including by acts of terrorism, into fruits and vegetables, including specific mixes or categories of fruits and vegetables, that are raw agricultural commodities and to provide reasonable assurances that the produce is not adulterated under section 342 of this title;

(B) provide sufficient flexibility to be practicable for all sizes and types of businesses, including small businesses such as a small food processing facility co-located on a farm;

(C) comply with chapter 35 of title 44 (commonly known as the “Paperwork Reduction Act”), with special attention to minimizing the burden (as defined in section 3502(2) of such title) on the business, and collection of information (as defined in section 3502(3) of such title), associated with such regulations;

(D) acknowledge differences in risk and minimize, as appropriate, the number of separate standards that apply to separate foods; and

(E) not require a business to hire a consultant or other third party to identify, implement, certify, compliance 1 with these procedures, processes, and practices, except in the case of negotiated enforcement resolutions that may require such a consultant or third party; and

(F) permit States and foreign countries from which food is imported into the United States to request from the Secretary variances from the requirements of the regulations, subject to paragraph (2), where the State or foreign country determines that the variance is necessary in light of local growing conditions and that the procedures, processes, and practices to be followed under the variance are reasonably likely to ensure that the produce is not adulterated under section 342 of this title and to provide the same level of public health protection as the requirements of the regulations adopted under subsection (b).

(2) Variances

(A) Requests for variances

A State or foreign country from which food is imported into the United States may in writing request a variance from the Secretary. Such request shall describe the variance requested and present information demonstrating that the variance does not increase the likelihood that the food for which the variance is requested will be adulterated under section 342 of this title, and that the variance provides the same level of public health protection as the requirements of the regulations adopted under subsection (b). The Secretary shall review such requests in a reasonable timeframe.

(B) Approval of variances

The Secretary may approve a variance in whole or in part, as appropriate, and may specify the scope of applicability of a variance to other similarly situated persons.

(C) Denial of variances

The Secretary may deny a variance request if the Secretary determines that such variance is not reasonably likely to ensure that the food is not adulterated under section 342 of this title and is not reasonably likely to provide the same level of public health protection as the requirements of the regulation adopted under subsection (b). The Secretary shall notify the person requesting such variance of the reasons for the denial.

(D) Modification or revocation of a variance

The Secretary, after notice and an opportunity for a hearing, may modify or revoke a variance if the Secretary determines that such variance is not reasonably likely to ensure that the food is not adulterated under section 342 of this title and is not reasonably likely to provide the same level of public health protection as the requirements of the regulations adopted under subsection (b).

(d) Enforcement

The Secretary may coordinate with the Secretary of Agriculture and, as appropriate, shall contract and coordinate with the agency or department designated by the Governor of each State to perform activities to ensure compliance with this section.

(e) Guidance

(1) In general

Not later than 1 year after January 4, 2011, the Secretary shall publish, after consultation with the Secretary of Agriculture, representatives of State departments of agriculture, farmer representatives, and various types of entities engaged in the production and harvesting or importing of fruits and vegetables that are raw agricultural commodities, including small businesses, updated good agricultural practices and guidance for the safe production and harvesting of specific types of fresh produce under this section.

(2) Public meetings

The Secretary shall conduct not fewer than 3 public meetings in diverse geographical areas of the United States as part of an effort to conduct education and outreach regarding the guidance described in paragraph (1) for persons in different regions who are involved in the production and harvesting of fruits and vegetables that are raw agricultural commodities, including persons that sell directly to consumers and farmer representatives, and for importers of fruits and vegetables that are raw agricultural commodities.

(3) Paperwork reduction

The Secretary shall ensure that any updated guidance under this section will—

(A) provide sufficient flexibility to be practicable for all sizes and types of facilities, including small businesses such as a small food processing facility co-located on a farm; and

(B) acknowledge differences in risk and minimize, as appropriate, the number of separate standards that apply to separate foods.

(f) Exemption for direct farm marketing

(1) In general

A farm shall be exempt from the requirements under this section in a calendar year if—

(A) during the previous 3-year period, the average annual monetary value of the food sold by such farm directly to qualified end-users during such period exceeded the average annual monetary value of the food sold by such farm to all other buyers during such period; and

(B) the average annual monetary value of all food sold during such period was less than $500,000, adjusted for inflation.

(2) Notification to consumers

(A) In general

A farm that is exempt from the requirements under this section shall—

(i) with respect to a food for which a food packaging label is required by the Secretary under any other provision of this chapter, include prominently and conspicuously on such label the name and business address of the farm where the produce was grown; or

(ii) with respect to a food for which a food packaging label is not required by the Secretary under any other provision of this chapter, prominently and conspicuously display, at the point of purchase, the name and business address of the farm where the produce was grown, on a label, poster, sign, placard, or documents delivered contemporaneously with the food in the normal course of business, or, in the case of Internet sales, in an electronic notice.

(B) No additional label

Subparagraph (A) does not provide authority to the Secretary to require a label that is in addition to any label required under any other provision of this chapter.

(3) Withdrawal; rule of construction

(A) In general

In the event of an active investigation of a foodborne illness outbreak that is directly linked to a farm subject to an exemption under this subsection, or if the Secretary determines that it is necessary to protect the public health and prevent or mitigate a foodborne illness outbreak based on conduct or conditions associated with a farm that are material to the safety of the food produced or harvested at such farm, the Secretary may withdraw the exemption provided to such farm under this subsection.

(B) Rule of construction

Nothing in this subsection shall be construed to expand or limit the inspection authority of the Secretary.

(4) Definitions

(A) Qualified end-user

In this subsection, the term “qualified end-user”, with respect to a food means—

(i) the consumer of the food; or

(ii) a restaurant or retail food establishment (as those terms are defined by the Secretary for purposes of section 350d of this title) that is located—

(I) in the same State as the farm that produced the food; or

(II) not more than 275 miles from such farm.

(B) Consumer

For purposes of subparagraph (A), the term “consumer” does not include a business.

(5) No preemption

Nothing in this subsection preempts State, local, county, or other non-Federal law regarding the safe production, harvesting, holding, transportation, and sale of fresh fruits and vegetables. Compliance with this subsection shall not relieve any person from liability at common law or under State statutory law.

(6) Limitation of effect

Nothing in this subsection shall prevent the Secretary from exercising any authority granted in the other sections of this chapter.

(g) Clarification

This section shall not apply to produce that is produced by an individual for personal consumption.

(h) Exception for activities of facilities subject to section 350g of this title

This section shall not apply to activities of a facility that are subject to section 350g of this title.

(June 25, 1938, ch. 675, §419, as added Pub. L. 111–353, title I, §105(a), Jan. 4, 2011, 124 Stat. 3899.)

References in Text

The Organic Foods Production Act of 1990, referred to in subsec. (a)(1)(A), (3)(E), is title XXI of Pub. L. 101–624, Nov. 28, 1990, 104 Stat. 3935, which is classified generally to chapter 94 (§6501 et seq.) of Title 7, Agriculture. For complete classification of this Act to the Code, see Short Title note set out under section 6501 of Title 7 and Tables.

The FDA Food Safety Modernization Act, referred to in subsec. (a)(3)(E), is Pub. L. 111–353, Jan. 4, 2011, 124 Stat. 3885, which enacted chapter 27 (§2201 et seq.) and sections 350g to 350l–1, 379j–31, 384a to 384d, 399c, and 399d of this title, section 7625 of Title 7, Agriculture, and section 280g–16 of Title 42, The Public Health and Welfare, amended sections 331, 333, 334, 350b to 350d, 350f, 374, 381, 393, and 399 of this title and section 247b–20 of Title 42, and enacted provisions set out as notes under sections 331, 334, 342, 350b, 350d, 350e, 350g to 350j, 350l, and 381 of this title. For complete classification of this Act to the Code, see Short Title note set out under section 2201 of this title and Tables.

Construction

Nothing in this section to be construed to apply to certain alcohol-related facilities, to alter jurisdiction and authorities established under certain other Acts, or in a manner inconsistent with international agreements to which the United States is a party, see sections 2206, 2251, and 2252 of this title.

Small Entity Compliance Policy Guide

Pub. L. 111–353, title I, §105(b), Jan. 4, 2011, 124 Stat. 3904, provided that: “Not later than 180 days after the issuance of regulations under section 419 of the Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act [21 U.S.C. 350h] (as added by subsection (a)), the Secretary of Health and Human Services shall issue a small entity compliance policy guide setting forth in plain language the requirements of such section 419 and to assist small entities in complying with standards for safe production and harvesting and other activities required under such section.”

No Effect on HACCP Authorities

Pub. L. 111–353, title I, §105(d), Jan. 4, 2011, 124 Stat. 3905, provided that: “Nothing in the amendments made by this section [enacting this section and amending section 331 of this title] limits the authority of the Secretary [of Health and Human Services] under the Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act (21 U.S.C. 301 et seq.) or the Public Health Service Act (42 U.S.C. 201 et seq.) to revise, issue, or enforce product and category-specific regulations, such as the Seafood Hazard Analysis Critical Controls Points Program, the Juice Hazard Analysis Critical Control [Points] Program, and the Thermally Processed Low-Acid Foods Packaged in Hermetically Sealed Containers standards.”

1 So in original. Probably should be “or certify compliance”.

§350i. Protection against intentional adulteration

(a) Determinations

(1) In general

The Secretary shall—

(A) conduct a vulnerability assessment of the food system, including by consideration of the Department of Homeland Security biological, chemical, radiological, or other terrorism risk assessments;

(B) consider the best available understanding of uncertainties, risks, costs, and benefits associated with guarding against intentional adulteration of food at vulnerable points; and

(C) determine the types of science-based mitigation strategies or measures that are necessary to protect against the intentional adulteration of food.

(2) Limited distribution

In the interest of national security, the Secretary, in consultation with the Secretary of Homeland Security, may determine the time, manner, and form in which determinations made under paragraph (1) are made publicly available.

(b) Regulations

Not later than 18 months after January 4, 2011, the Secretary, in coordination with the Secretary of Homeland Security and in consultation with the Secretary of Agriculture, shall promulgate regulations to protect against the intentional adulteration of food subject to this chapter. Such regulations shall—

(1) specify how a person shall assess whether the person is required to implement mitigation strategies or measures intended to protect against the intentional adulteration of food; and

(2) specify appropriate science-based mitigation strategies or measures to prepare and protect the food supply chain at specific vulnerable points, as appropriate.

(c) Applicability

Regulations promulgated under subsection (b) shall apply only to food for which there is a high risk of intentional contamination, as determined by the Secretary, in consultation with the Secretary of Homeland Security, under subsection (a), that could cause serious adverse health consequences or death to humans or animals and shall include those foods—

(1) for which the Secretary has identified clear vulnerabilities (including short shelf-life or susceptibility to intentional contamination at critical control points); and

(2) in bulk or batch form, prior to being packaged for the final consumer.

(d) Exception

This section shall not apply to farms, except for those that produce milk.

(e) Definition

For purposes of this section, the term “farm” has the meaning given that term in section 1.227 of title 21, Code of Federal Regulations (or any successor regulation).

(June 25, 1938, ch. 675, §420, as added Pub. L. 111–353, title I, §106(a), Jan. 4, 2011, 124 Stat. 3905.)

Construction

Nothing in this section to be construed to apply to certain alcohol-related facilities, to alter jurisdiction and authorities established under certain other Acts, or in a manner inconsistent with international agreements to which the United States is a party, see sections 2206, 2251, and 2252 of this title.

Guidance Documents

Pub. L. 111–353, title I, §106(b), Jan. 4, 2011, 124 Stat. 3906, provided that:

“(1) In general.—Not later than 1 year after the date of enactment of this Act [Jan. 4, 2011], the Secretary of Health and Human Services, in consultation with the Secretary of Homeland Security and the Secretary of Agriculture, shall issue guidance documents related to protection against the intentional adulteration of food, including mitigation strategies or measures to guard against such adulteration as required under section 420 of the Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act [21 U.S.C. 450i], as added by subsection (a).

“(2) Content.—The guidance documents issued under paragraph (1) shall—

“(A) include a model assessment for a person to use under subsection (b)(1) of section 420 of the Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act, as added by subsection (a);

“(B) include examples of mitigation strategies or measures described in subsection (b)(2) of such section; and

“(C) specify situations in which the examples of mitigation strategies or measures described in subsection (b)(2) of such section are appropriate.

“(3) Limited distribution.—In the interest of national security, the Secretary of Health and Human Services, in consultation with the Secretary of Homeland Security, may determine the time, manner, and form in which the guidance documents issued under paragraph (1) are made public, including by releasing such documents to targeted audiences.”

Periodic Review

Pub. L. 111–353, title I, §106(c), Jan. 4, 2011, 124 Stat. 3906, provided that: “The Secretary of Health and Human Services shall periodically review and, as appropriate, update the regulations under section 420(b) of the Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act [21 U.S.C. 450i(b)], as added by subsection (a), and the guidance documents under subsection (b) [section 106(b) of Pub. L. 111–353, set out above].”

§350j. Targeting of inspection resources for domestic facilities, foreign facilities, and ports of entry; annual report

(a) Identification and inspection of facilities

(1) Identification

The Secretary shall identify high-risk facilities and shall allocate resources to inspect facilities according to the known safety risks of the facilities, which shall be based on the following factors:

(A) The known safety risks of the food manufactured, processed, packed, or held at the facility.

(B) The compliance history of a facility, including with regard to food recalls, outbreaks of foodborne illness, and violations of food safety standards.

(C) The rigor and effectiveness of the facility's hazard analysis and risk-based preventive controls.

(D) Whether the food manufactured, processed, packed, or held at the facility meets the criteria for priority under section 381(h)(1) of this title.

(E) Whether the food or the facility that manufactured, processed, packed, or held such food has received a certification as described in section 381(q) or 384b of this title, as appropriate.

(F) Any other criteria deemed necessary and appropriate by the Secretary for purposes of allocating inspection resources.

(2) Inspections

(A) In general

Beginning on January 4, 2011, the Secretary shall increase the frequency of inspection of all facilities.

(B) Domestic high-risk facilities

The Secretary shall increase the frequency of inspection of domestic facilities identified under paragraph (1) as high-risk facilities such that each such facility is inspected—

(i) not less often than once in the 5-year period following January 4, 2011; and

(ii) not less often than once every 3 years thereafter.

(C) Domestic non-high-risk facilities

The Secretary shall ensure that each domestic facility that is not identified under paragraph (1) as a high-risk facility is inspected—

(i) not less often than once in the 7-year period following January 4, 2011; and

(ii) not less often than once every 5 years thereafter.

(D) Foreign facilities

(i) Year 1

In the 1-year period following January 4, 2011, the Secretary shall inspect not fewer than 600 foreign facilities.

(ii) Subsequent years

In each of the 5 years following the 1-year period described in clause (i), the Secretary shall inspect not fewer than twice the number of foreign facilities inspected by the Secretary during the previous year.

(E) Reliance on Federal, State, or local inspections

In meeting the inspection requirements under this subsection for domestic facilities, the Secretary may rely on inspections conducted by other Federal, State, or local agencies under interagency agreement, contract, memoranda of understanding, or other obligation.

(b) Identification and inspection at ports of entry

The Secretary, in consultation with the Secretary of Homeland Security, shall allocate resources to inspect any article of food imported into the United States according to the known safety risks of the article of food, which shall be based on the following factors:

(1) The known safety risks of the food imported.

(2) The known safety risks of the countries or regions of origin and countries through which such article of food is transported.

(3) The compliance history of the importer, including with regard to food recalls, outbreaks of foodborne illness, and violations of food safety standards.

(4) The rigor and effectiveness of the activities conducted by the importer of such article of food to satisfy the requirements of the foreign supplier verification program under section 384a of this title.

(5) Whether the food importer participates in the voluntary qualified importer program under section 384b of this title.

(6) Whether the food meets the criteria for priority under section 381(h)(1) of this title.

(7) Whether the food or the facility that manufactured, processed, packed, or held such food received a certification as described in section 381(q) or 384b of this title.

(8) Any other criteria deemed necessary and appropriate by the Secretary for purposes of allocating inspection resources.

(c) Interagency agreements with respect to seafood

(1) In general

The Secretary of Health and Human Services, the Secretary of Commerce, the Secretary of Homeland Security, the Chairman of the Federal Trade Commission, and the heads of other appropriate agencies may enter into such agreements as may be necessary or appropriate to improve seafood safety.

(2) Scope of agreements

The agreements under paragraph (1) may include—

(A) cooperative arrangements for examining and testing seafood imports that leverage the resources, capabilities, and authorities of each party to the agreement;

(B) coordination of inspections of foreign facilities to increase the percentage of imported seafood and seafood facilities inspected;

(C) standardization of data on seafood names, inspection records, and laboratory testing to improve interagency coordination;

(D) coordination to detect and investigate violations under applicable Federal law;

(E) a process, including the use or modification of existing processes, by which officers and employees of the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration may be duly designated by the Secretary to carry out seafood examinations and investigations under section 381 of this title or section 203 of the Food Allergen Labeling and Consumer Protection Act of 2004;

(F) the sharing of information concerning observed non-compliance with United States food requirements domestically and in foreign nations and new regulatory decisions and policies that may affect the safety of food imported into the United States;

(G) conducting joint training on subjects that affect and strengthen seafood inspection effectiveness by Federal authorities; and

(H) outreach on Federal efforts to enhance seafood safety and compliance with Federal food safety requirements.

(d) Coordination

The Secretary shall improve coordination and cooperation with the Secretary of Agriculture and the Secretary of Homeland Security to target food inspection resources.

(e) Facility

For purposes of this section, the term “facility” means a domestic facility or a foreign facility that is required to register under section 350d of this title.

(June 25, 1938, ch. 675, §421, as added Pub. L. 111–353, title II, §201(a), Jan. 4, 2011, 124 Stat. 3923.)

References in Text

Section 203 of the Food Allergen Labeling and Consumer Protection Act of 2004, referred to in subsec. (c)(2)(E), is section 203 of Pub. L. 108–282, Aug. 2, 2004, 118 Stat. 906, which amended sections 321, 343, and 343–1 of this title and enacted provisions set out as notes under sections 321 and 343 of this title.

Construction

Nothing in this section to be construed to apply to certain alcohol-related facilities, to alter jurisdiction and authorities established under certain other Acts, or in a manner inconsistent with international agreements to which the United States is a party, see sections 2206, 2251, and 2252 of this title.

Advisory Committee Consultation

Pub. L. 111–353, title II, §201(c), Jan. 4, 2011, 124 Stat. 3926, provided that: “In allocating inspection resources as described in section 421 of the Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act [21 U.S.C. 450j] (as added by subsection (a)), the Secretary may, as appropriate, consult with any relevant advisory committee within the Department of Health and Human Services.”

§350k. Laboratory accreditation for analyses of foods

(a) Recognition of laboratory accreditation

(1) In general

Not later than 2 years after January 4, 2011, the Secretary shall—

(A) establish a program for the testing of food by accredited laboratories;

(B) establish a publicly available registry of accreditation bodies recognized by the Secretary and laboratories accredited by a recognized accreditation body, including the name of, contact information for, and other information deemed appropriate by the Secretary about such bodies and laboratories; and

(C) require, as a condition of recognition or accreditation, as appropriate, that recognized accreditation bodies and accredited laboratories report to the Secretary any changes that would affect the recognition of such accreditation body or the accreditation of such laboratory.

(2) Program requirements

The program established under paragraph (1)(A) shall provide for the recognition of laboratory accreditation bodies that meet criteria established by the Secretary for accreditation of laboratories, including independent private laboratories and laboratories run and operated by a Federal agency (including the Department of Commerce), State, or locality with a demonstrated capability to conduct 1 or more sampling and analytical testing methodologies for food.

(3) Increasing the number of qualified laboratories

The Secretary shall work with the laboratory accreditation bodies recognized under paragraph (1), as appropriate, to increase the number of qualified laboratories that are eligible to perform testing under subparagraph 1 (b) beyond the number so qualified on January 4, 2011.

(4) Limited distribution

In the interest of national security, the Secretary, in coordination with the Secretary of Homeland Security, may determine the time, manner, and form in which the registry established under paragraph (1)(B) is made publicly available.

(5) Foreign laboratories

Accreditation bodies recognized by the Secretary under paragraph (1) may accredit laboratories that operate outside the United States, so long as such laboratories meet the accreditation standards applicable to domestic laboratories accredited under this section.

(6) Model laboratory standards

The Secretary shall develop model standards that a laboratory shall meet to be accredited by a recognized accreditation body for a specified sampling or analytical testing methodology and included in the registry provided for under paragraph (1). In developing the model standards, the Secretary shall consult existing standards for guidance. The model standards shall include—

(A) methods to ensure that—

(i) appropriate sampling, analytical procedures (including rapid analytical procedures), and commercially available techniques are followed and reports of analyses are certified as true and accurate;

(ii) internal quality systems are established and maintained;

(iii) procedures exist to evaluate and respond promptly to complaints regarding analyses and other activities for which the laboratory is accredited; and

(iv) individuals who conduct the sampling and analyses are qualified by training and experience to do so; and


(B) any other criteria determined appropriate by the Secretary.

(7) Review of recognition

To ensure compliance with the requirements of this section, the Secretary—

(A) shall periodically, and in no case less than once every 5 years, reevaluate accreditation bodies recognized under paragraph (1) and may accompany auditors from an accreditation body to assess whether the accreditation body meets the criteria for recognition; and

(B) shall promptly revoke the recognition of any accreditation body found not to be in compliance with the requirements of this section, specifying, as appropriate, any terms and conditions necessary for laboratories accredited by such body to continue to perform testing as described in this section.

(b) Testing procedures

(1) In general

Not later than 30 months after January 4, 2011, food testing shall be conducted by Federal laboratories or non-Federal laboratories that have been accredited for the appropriate sampling or analytical testing methodology or methodologies by a recognized accreditation body on the registry established by the Secretary under subsection (a)(1)(B) whenever such testing is conducted—

(A) by or on behalf of an owner or consignee—

(i) in response to a specific testing requirement under this chapter or implementing regulations, when applied to address an identified or suspected food safety problem; and

(ii) as required by the Secretary, as the Secretary deems appropriate, to address an identified or suspected food safety problem; or


(B) on behalf of an owner or consignee—

(i) in support of admission of an article of food under section 381(a) of this title; and

(ii) under an Import Alert that requires successful consecutive tests.

(2) Results of testing

The results of any such testing shall be sent directly to the Food and Drug Administration, except the Secretary may by regulation exempt test results from such submission requirement if the Secretary determines that such results do not contribute to the protection of public health. Test results required to be submitted may be submitted to the Food and Drug Administration through electronic means.

(3) Exception

The Secretary may waive requirements under this subsection if—

(A) a new methodology or methodologies have been developed and validated but a laboratory has not yet been accredited to perform such methodology or methodologies; and

(B) the use of such methodology or methodologies are necessary to prevent, control, or mitigate a food emergency or foodborne illness outbreak.

(c) Review by Secretary

If food sampling and testing performed by a laboratory run and operated by a State or locality that is accredited by a recognized accreditation body on the registry established by the Secretary under subsection (a) result in a State recalling a food, the Secretary shall review the sampling and testing results for the purpose of determining the need for a national recall or other compliance and enforcement activities.

(d) No limit on Secretarial authority

Nothing in this section shall be construed to limit the ability of the Secretary to review and act upon information from food testing, including determining the sufficiency of such information and testing.

(June 25, 1938, ch. 675, §422, as added Pub. L. 111–353, title II, §202(a), Jan. 4, 2011, 124 Stat. 3926.)

Construction

Nothing in this section to be construed to apply to certain alcohol-related facilities, to alter jurisdiction and authorities established under certain other Acts, or in a manner inconsistent with international agreements to which the United States is a party, see sections 2206, 2251, and 2252 of this title.

1 So in original. Probably should be “subsection”.

§350l. Mandatory recall authority

(a) Voluntary procedures

If the Secretary determines, based on information gathered through the reportable food registry under section 350f of this title or through any other means, that there is a reasonable probability that an article of food (other than infant formula) is adulterated under section 342 of this title or misbranded under section 343(w) of this title and the use of or exposure to such article will cause serious adverse health consequences or death to humans or animals, the Secretary shall provide the responsible party (as defined in section 350f of this title) with an opportunity to cease distribution and recall such article.

(b) Prehearing order to cease distribution and give notice

(1) In general

If the responsible party refuses to or does not voluntarily cease distribution or recall such article within the time and in the manner prescribed by the Secretary (if so prescribed), the Secretary may, by order require, as the Secretary deems necessary, such person to—

(A) immediately cease distribution of such article; and

(B) as applicable, immediately notify all persons—

(i) manufacturing, processing, packing, transporting, distributing, receiving, holding, or importing and selling such article; and

(ii) to which such article has been distributed, transported, or sold, to immediately cease distribution of such article.1

(2) Required additional information

(A) In general

If an article of food covered by a recall order issued under paragraph (1)(B) has been distributed to a warehouse-based third party logistics provider without providing such provider sufficient information to know or reasonably determine the precise identity of the article of food covered by a recall order that is in its possession, the notice provided by the responsible party subject to the order issued under paragraph (1)(B) shall include such information as is necessary for the warehouse-based third party logistics provider to identify the food.

(B) Rules of construction

Nothing in this paragraph shall be construed—

(i) to exempt a warehouse-based third party logistics provider from the requirements of this chapter, including the requirements in this section and section 350c of this title; or

(ii) to exempt a warehouse-based third party logistics provider from being the subject of a mandatory recall order.

(3) Determination to limit areas affected

If the Secretary requires a responsible party to cease distribution under paragraph (1)(A) of an article of food identified in subsection (a), the Secretary may limit the size of the geographic area and the markets affected by such cessation if such limitation would not compromise the public health.

(c) Hearing on order

The Secretary shall provide the responsible party subject to an order under subsection (b) with an opportunity for an informal hearing, to be held as soon as possible, but not later than 2 days after the issuance of the order, on the actions required by the order and on why the article that is the subject of the order should not be recalled.

(d) Post-hearing recall order and modification of order

(1) Amendment of order

If, after providing opportunity for an informal hearing under subsection (c), the Secretary determines that removal of the article from commerce is necessary, the Secretary shall, as appropriate—

(A) amend the order to require recall of such article or other appropriate action;

(B) specify a timetable in which the recall shall occur;

(C) require periodic reports to the Secretary describing the progress of the recall; and

(D) provide notice to consumers to whom such article was, or may have been, distributed.

(2) Vacating of order

If, after such hearing, the Secretary determines that adequate grounds do not exist to continue the actions required by the order, or that such actions should be modified, the Secretary shall vacate the order or modify the order.

(e) Rule regarding alcoholic beverages

The Secretary shall not initiate a mandatory recall or take any other action under this section with respect to any alcohol beverage until the Secretary has provided the Alcohol and Tobacco Tax and Trade Bureau with a reasonable opportunity to cease distribution and recall such article under the Alcohol and Tobacco Tax and Trade Bureau authority.

(f) Cooperation and consultation

The Secretary shall work with State and local public health officials in carrying out this section, as appropriate.

(g) Public notification

In conducting a recall under this section, the Secretary shall—

(1) ensure that a press release is published regarding the recall, as well as alerts and public notices, as appropriate, in order to provide notification—

(A) of the recall to consumers and retailers to whom such article was, or may have been, distributed; and

(B) that includes, at a minimum—

(i) the name of the article of food subject to the recall;

(ii) a description of the risk associated with such article; and

(iii) to the extent practicable, information for consumers about similar articles of food that are not affected by the recall;


(2) consult the policies of the Department of Agriculture regarding providing to the public a list of retail consignees receiving products involved in a Class I recall and shall consider providing such a list to the public, as determined appropriate by the Secretary; and

(3) if available, publish on the Internet Web site of the Food and Drug Administration an image of the article that is the subject of the press release described in (1).2

(h) No delegation

The authority conferred by this section to order a recall or vacate a recall order shall not be delegated to any officer or employee other than the Commissioner.

(i) Effect

Nothing in this section shall affect the authority of the Secretary to request or participate in a voluntary recall, or to issue an order to cease distribution or to recall under any other provision of this chapter or under the Public Health Service Act [42 U.S.C. 201 et seq.].

(j) Coordinated communication

(1) In general

To assist in carrying out the requirements of this subsection, the Secretary shall establish an incident command operation or a similar operation within the Department of Health and Human Services that will operate not later than 24 hours after the initiation of a mandatory recall or the recall of an article of food for which the use of, or exposure to, such article will cause serious adverse health consequences or death to humans or animals.

(2) Requirements

To reduce the potential for miscommunication during recalls or regarding investigations of a food borne illness outbreak associated with a food that is subject to a recall, each incident command operation or similar operation under paragraph (1) shall use regular staff and resources of the Department of Health and Human Services to—

(A) ensure timely and coordinated communication within the Department, including enhanced communication and coordination between different agencies and organizations within the Department;

(B) ensure timely and coordinated communication from the Department, including public statements, throughout the duration of the investigation and related foodborne illness outbreak;

(C) identify a single point of contact within the Department for public inquiries regarding any actions by the Secretary related to a recall;

(D) coordinate with Federal, State, local, and tribal authorities, as appropriate, that have responsibilities related to the recall of a food or a foodborne illness outbreak associated with a food that is subject to the recall, including notification of the Secretary of Agriculture and the Secretary of Education in the event such recalled food is a commodity intended for use in a child nutrition program (as identified in section 1769f(b) of title 42); and

(E) conclude operations at such time as the Secretary determines appropriate.

(3) Multiple recalls

The Secretary may establish multiple or concurrent incident command operations or similar operations in the event of multiple recalls or foodborne illness outbreaks necessitating such action by the Department of Health and Human Services.

(June 25, 1938, ch. 675, §423, as added Pub. L. 111–353, title II, §206(a), Jan. 4, 2011, 124 Stat. 3939.)

References in Text

The Public Health Service Act, referred to in subsec. (i), is act July 1, 1944, ch. 373, 58 Stat. 682, which is classified generally to chapter 6A (§201 et seq.) of Title 42, The Public Health and Welfare. For complete classification of this Act to the Code, see Short Title note set out under section 201 of Title 42 and Tables.

Construction

Nothing in this section to be construed to alter jurisdiction and authorities established under certain other Acts or in a manner inconsistent with international agreements to which the United States is a party, see sections 2251 and 2252 of this title.

Search Engine

Pub. L. 111–353, title II, §206(b), Jan. 4, 2011, 124 Stat. 3942, provided that: “Not later than 90 days after the date of enactment of this Act [Jan. 4, 2011], the Secretary shall modify the Internet Web site of the Food and Drug Administration to include a search engine that—

“(1) is consumer-friendly, as determined by the Secretary; and

“(2) provides a means by which an individual may locate relevant information regarding each article of food subject to a recall under section 423 of the Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act [21 U.S.C. 350l] and the status of such recall (such as whether a recall is ongoing or has been completed).”

1 So in original. The words “to immediately cease distribution of such article.” probably should follow cl. (ii).

2 So in original. Probably should be “paragraph (1).”

§350l–1. Annual report to Congress

(1) In general

Not later than 2 years after January 4, 2011, and annually thereafter, the Secretary of Health and Human Services (referred to in this section as the “Secretary”) shall submit a report to the Committee on Health, Education, Labor, and Pensions of the Senate and the Committee on Energy and Commerce of the House of Representatives on the use of recall authority under section 350l of this title (as added by subsection (a)) 1 and any public health advisories issued by the Secretary that advise against the consumption of an article of food on the ground that the article of food is adulterated and poses an imminent danger to health.

(2) Content

The report under paragraph (1) shall include, with respect to the report year—

(A) the identity of each article of food that was the subject of a public health advisory described in paragraph (1), an opportunity to cease distribution and recall under subsection (a) of section 350l of this title, or a mandatory recall order under subsection (b) of such section;

(B) the number of responsible parties, as defined in section 350f of this title, formally given the opportunity to cease distribution of an article of food and recall such article, as described in section 350l(a) of such title;

(C) the number of responsible parties described in subparagraph (B) who did not cease distribution of or recall an article of food after given the opportunity to cease distribution or recall under section 350l(a) of this title;

(D) the number of recall orders issued under section 350l(b) of this title; and

(E) a description of any instances in which there was no testing that confirmed adulteration of an article of food that was the subject of a recall under section 350l(b) of this title or a public health advisory described in paragraph (1).

(Pub. L. 111–353, title II, §206(f), Jan. 4, 2011, 124 Stat. 3943.)

References in Text

Subsection (a), referred to in par. (1), means subsec. (a) of section 206 of Pub. L. 111–353.

Codification

Section was enacted as part of the FDA Food Safety Modernization Act, and not as part of the Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act which comprises this chapter.

Construction

Nothing in this section to be construed to alter jurisdiction and authorities established under certain other Acts or in a manner inconsistent with international agreements to which the United States is a party, see sections 2251 and 2252 of this title.

1 See References in Text note below.