21 U.S.C.
United States Code, 2010 Edition
Title 21 - FOOD AND DRUGS
CHAPTER 9 - FEDERAL FOOD, DRUG, AND COSMETIC ACT
SUBCHAPTER VII - GENERAL AUTHORITY
Part A - General Administrative Provisions
From the U.S. Government Printing Office, www.gpo.gov

Part A—General Administrative Provisions

§371. Regulations and hearings

(a) Authority to promulgate regulations

The authority to promulgate regulations for the efficient enforcement of this chapter, except as otherwise provided in this section, is vested in the Secretary.

(b) Regulations for imports and exports

The Secretary of the Treasury and the Secretary of Health and Human Services shall jointly prescribe regulations for the efficient enforcement of the provisions of section 381 of this title, except as otherwise provided therein. Such regulations shall be promulgated in such manner and take effect at such time, after due notice, as the Secretary of Health and Human Services shall determine.

(c) Conduct of hearings

Hearings authorized or required by this chapter shall be conducted by the Secretary or such officer or employee as he may designate for the purpose.

(d) Effectiveness of definitions and standards of identity

The definitions and standards of identity promulgated in accordance with the provisions of this chapter shall be effective for the purposes of the enforcement of this chapter, notwithstanding such definitions and standards as may be contained in other laws of the United States and regulations promulgated thereunder.

(e) Procedure for establishment

(1) Any action for the issuance, amendment, or repeal of any regulation under section 343(j), 344(a), 346, 351(b), or 352(d) or (h) of this title, and any action for the amendment or repeal of any definition and standard of identity under section 341 of this title for any dairy product (including products regulated under parts 131, 133 and 135 of title 21, Code of Federal Regulations) shall be begun by a proposal made (A) by the Secretary on his own initiative, or (B) by petition of any interested person, showing reasonable grounds therefor, filed with the Secretary. The Secretary shall publish such proposal and shall afford all interested persons an opportunity to present their views thereon, orally or in writing. As soon as practicable thereafter, the Secretary shall by order act upon such proposal and shall make such order public. Except as provided in paragraph (2), the order shall become effective at such time as may be specified therein, but not prior to the day following the last day on which objections may be filed under such paragraph.

(2) On or before the thirtieth day after the date on which an order entered under paragraph (1) is made public, any person who will be adversely affected by such order if placed in effect may file objections thereto with the Secretary, specifying with particularity the provisions of the order deemed objectionable, stating the grounds therefor, and requesting a public hearing upon such objections. Until final action upon such objections is taken by the Secretary under paragraph (3), the filing of such objections shall operate to stay the effectiveness of those provisions of the order to which the objections are made. As soon as practicable after the time for filing objections has expired the Secretary shall publish a notice in the Federal Register specifying those parts of the order which have been stayed by the filing of objections and, if no objections have been filed, stating that fact.

(3) As soon as practicable after such request for a public hearing, the Secretary, after due notice, shall hold such a public hearing for the purpose of receiving evidence relevant and material to the issues raised by such objections. At the hearing, any interested person may be heard in person or by representative. As soon as practicable after completion of the hearing, the Secretary shall by order act upon such objections and make such order public. Such order shall be based only on substantial evidence of record at such hearing and shall set forth, as part of the order, detailed findings of fact on which the order is based. The Secretary shall specify in the order the date on which it shall take effect, except that it shall not be made to take effect prior to the ninetieth day after its publication unless the Secretary finds that emergency conditions exist necessitating an earlier effective date, in which event the Secretary shall specify in the order his findings as to such conditions.

(f) Review of order

(1) In a case of actual controversy as to the validity of any order under subsection (e) of this section, any person who will be adversely affected by such order if placed in effect may at any time prior to the ninetieth day after such order is issued file a petition with the United States court of appeals for the circuit wherein such person resides or has his principal place of business, for a judicial review of such order. A copy of the petition shall be forthwith transmitted by the clerk of the court to the Secretary or other officer designated by him for that purpose. The Secretary thereupon shall file in the court the record of the proceedings on which the Secretary based his order, as provided in section 2112 of title 28.

(2) If the petitioner applies to the court for leave to adduce additional evidence, and shows to the satisfaction of the court that such additional evidence is material and that there were reasonable grounds for the failure to adduce such evidence in the proceeding before the Secretary, the court may order such additional evidence (and evidence in rebuttal thereof) to be taken before the Secretary, and to be adduced upon the hearing, in such manner and upon such terms and conditions as to the court may seem proper. The Secretary may modify his findings as to the facts, or make new findings, by reason of the additional evidence so taken, and he shall file such modified or new findings, and his recommendation, if any, for the modification or setting aside of his original order, with the return of such additional evidence.

(3) Upon the filing of the petition referred to in paragraph (1) of this subsection, the court shall have jurisdiction to affirm the order, or to set it aside in whole or in part, temporarily or permanently. If the order of the Secretary refuses to issue, amend, or repeal a regulation and such order is not in accordance with law the court shall by its judgment order the Secretary to take action, with respect to such regulation, in accordance with law. The findings of the Secretary as to the facts, if supported by substantial evidence, shall be conclusive.

(4) The judgment of the court affirming or setting aside, in whole or in part, any such order of the Secretary shall be final, subject to review by the Supreme Court of the United States upon certiorari or certification as provided in section 1254 of title 28.

(5) Any action instituted under this subsection shall survive notwithstanding any change in the person occupying the office of Secretary or any vacancy in such office.

(6) The remedies provided for in this subsection shall be in addition to and not in substitution for any other remedies provided by law.

(g) Copies of records of hearings

A certified copy of the transcript of the record and proceedings under subsection (e) of this section shall be furnished by the Secretary to any interested party at his request, and payment of the costs thereof, and shall be admissible in any criminal, libel for condemnation, exclusion of imports, or other proceeding arising under or in respect to this chapter, irrespective of whether proceedings with respect to the order have previously been instituted or become final under subsection (f) of this section.

(h) Guidance documents

(1)(A) The Secretary shall develop guidance documents with public participation and ensure that information identifying the existence of such documents and the documents themselves are made available to the public both in written form and, as feasible, through electronic means. Such documents shall not create or confer any rights for or on any person, although they present the views of the Secretary on matters under the jurisdiction of the Food and Drug Administration.

(B) Although guidance documents shall not be binding on the Secretary, the Secretary shall ensure that employees of the Food and Drug Administration do not deviate from such guidances without appropriate justification and supervisory concurrence. The Secretary shall provide training to employees in how to develop and use guidance documents and shall monitor the development and issuance of such documents.

(C) For guidance documents that set forth initial interpretations of a statute or regulation, changes in interpretation or policy that are of more than a minor nature, complex scientific issues, or highly controversial issues, the Secretary shall ensure public participation prior to implementation of guidance documents, unless the Secretary determines that such prior public participation is not feasible or appropriate. In such cases, the Secretary shall provide for public comment upon implementation and take such comment into account.

(D) For guidance documents that set forth existing practices or minor changes in policy, the Secretary shall provide for public comment upon implementation.

(2) In developing guidance documents, the Secretary shall ensure uniform nomenclature for such documents and uniform internal procedures for approval of such documents. The Secretary shall ensure that guidance documents and revisions of such documents are properly dated and indicate the nonbinding nature of the documents. The Secretary shall periodically review all guidance documents and, where appropriate, revise such documents.

(3) The Secretary, acting through the Commissioner, shall maintain electronically and update and publish periodically in the Federal Register a list of guidance documents. All such documents shall be made available to the public.

(4) The Secretary shall ensure that an effective appeals mechanism is in place to address complaints that the Food and Drug Administration is not developing and using guidance documents in accordance with this subsection.

(5) Not later than July 1, 2000, the Secretary after evaluating the effectiveness of the Good Guidance Practices document, published in the Federal Register at 62 Fed. Reg. 8961, shall promulgate a regulation consistent with this subsection specifying the policies and procedures of the Food and Drug Administration for the development, issuance, and use of guidance documents.

(June 25, 1938, ch. 675, §701, 52 Stat. 1055; June 25, 1948, ch. 646, §32, 62 Stat. 991; Apr. 15, 1954, ch. 143, §2, 68 Stat. 55; Aug. 1, 1956, ch. 861, §2, 70 Stat. 919; Pub. L. 85–791, §21, Aug. 28, 1958, 72 Stat. 948; Pub. L. 86–618, title I, §103(a)(4), July 12, 1960, 74 Stat. 398; Pub. L. 101–535, §8, Nov. 8, 1990, 104 Stat. 2365; Pub. L. 102–300, §6(b)(1), June 16, 1992, 106 Stat. 240; Pub. L. 103–80, §§3(y), (dd)(1), 4(c), Aug. 13, 1993, 107 Stat. 778, 779; Pub. L. 103–396, §3(b), Oct. 22, 1994, 108 Stat. 4155; Pub. L. 105–115, title IV, §405, Nov. 21, 1997, 111 Stat. 2368.)

Amendments

1997—Subsec. (h). Pub. L. 105–115 added subsec. (h).

1994—Subsec. (e)(1). Pub. L. 103–396 which directed the amendment of par. (1) by striking out “or maple syrup (regulated under section 168.140 of title 21, Code of Federal Regulations).”, was executed by striking out “or maple sirup (regulated under section 168.140 of title 21, Code of Federal Regulations)” before “shall be begun by a proposal”, to reflect the probable intent of Congress.

1993—Subsec. (b). Pub. L. 103–80, §3(dd)(1), substituted “Health and Human Services” for “Agriculture” in two places.

Subsec. (e)(1). Pub. L. 103–80, §4(c), made technical correction to directory language of Pub. L. 101–535, §8. See 1990 Amendment note below.

Pub. L. 103–80, §3(y)(1), struck out period after second reference to “Regulations)”.

Subsec. (f)(4). Pub. L. 103–80, §3(y)(2), substituted reference to section 1254 of title 28 for “sections 239 and 240 of the Judicial Code, as amended”.

1992—Subsec. (b). Pub. L. 102–300, which directed the substitution of “Health and Human Services” for “Health, Education, and Welfare”, could not be executed because such words did not appear in the original statutory text. See 1993 Amendment note above and Transfer of Functions note below.

1990—Subsec. (e)(1). Pub. L. 101–535, §8, as amended by Pub. L. 103–80, §4(c), substituted “Any action for the issuance, amendment, or repeal of any regulation under section 343(j), 344(a), 346, 351(b), or 352(d) or (h) of this title, and any action for the amendment or repeal of any definition and standard of identity under section 341 of this title for any dairy product (including products regulated under parts 131, 133 and 135 of title 21, Code of Federal Regulations) or maple sirup (regulated under section 168.140 of title 21, Code of Federal Regulations)” for “Any action for the issuance, amendment, or repeal of any regulation under section 341, 343(j), 344(a), 346, 351(b), or 352(d) or (h) of this title”.

1960—Subsec. (e). Pub. L. 86–618 substituted “section 341, 343(j), 344(a), 346, 351(b), or 352(d) or (h), of this title” for “section 341, 343(j), 344(a), 346(a) or (b), 351(b), 352(d) or (h), 354 or 364 of this title”.

1958—Subsec. (f)(1). Pub. L. 85–791, §21(a), substituted provisions requiring transmission of a copy of the petition by clerk to Secretary, and filing of the record by Secretary, for provisions which permitted service of summons and petition any place in United States and required Secretary to certify and file transcript of the proceedings and record upon service.

Subsec. (f)(3). Pub. L. 85–791, §21(b), inserted “Upon the filing of the petition referred to in paragraph (1) of this subsection”.

1956—Subsec. (e). Act Aug. 1, 1956, simplified procedures governing prescribing of regulations under certain provisions of this chapter.

1954—Subsec. (e). Act Apr. 15, 1954, struck out reference to section 341 of this title, before “343(j)”, such section 341 now containing its own provisions with respect to hearings regarding the establishment of food standards.

Change of Name

Circuit Court of Appeals of the United States changed to United States court of appeals by act June 25, 1948, eff. Sept. 1, 1948.

Effective Date of 1997 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 105–115 effective 90 days after Nov. 21, 1997, except as otherwise provided, see section 501 of Pub. L. 105–115, set out as a note under section 321 of this title.

Effective Date of 1960 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 86–618 effective July 12, 1960, subject to the provisions of section 203 of Pub. L. 86–618, see section 202 of Pub. L. 86–618, set out as a note under section 379e of this title.

Construction of Amendments by Pub. L. 101–535

Amendments by Pub. L. 101–535 not to be construed to alter the authority of the Secretary of Health and Human Services and the Secretary of Agriculture under the Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act (21 U.S.C. 301 et seq.), the Federal Meat Inspection Act (21 U.S.C. 601 et seq.), the Poultry Products Inspection Act (21 U.S.C. 451 et seq.), and the Egg Products Inspection Act (21 U.S.C. 1031 et seq.), see section 9 of Pub. L. 101–535, set out as a note under section 343 of this title.

Savings Provision

Savings clause of act Aug. 1, 1956, see note set out under section 341 of this title.

Transfer of Functions

Secretary and Department of Health, Education, and Welfare redesignated Secretary and Department of Health and Human Services by Pub. L. 96–88, title V, §509(b), Oct. 17, 1979, 93 Stat. 695, which is classified to section 3508(b) of Title 20, Education.

For transfer of functions of Federal Security Administrator to Secretary of Health, Education, and Welfare [now Health and Human Services], and of Food and Drug Administration in the Department of Agriculture to Federal Security Agency, see notes set out under section 321 of this title.

Approval of Supplemental Applications for Approved Products

Section 403 of Pub. L. 105–115 provided that:

“(a) Standards.—Not later than 180 days after the date of enactment of this Act [Nov. 21, 1997], the Secretary of Health and Human Services shall publish in the Federal Register standards for the prompt review of supplemental applications submitted for approved articles under the Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act (21 U.S.C. 301 et seq.) or section 351 of the Public Health Service Act (42 U.S.C. 262).

“(b) Guidance to Industry.—Not later than 180 days after the date of enactment of this Act [Nov. 21, 1997], the Secretary shall issue final guidances to clarify the requirements for, and facilitate the submission of data to support, the approval of supplemental applications for the approved articles described in subsection (a). The guidances shall—

“(1) clarify circumstances in which published matter may be the basis for approval of a supplemental application;

“(2) specify data requirements that will avoid duplication of previously submitted data by recognizing the availability of data previously submitted in support of an original application; and

“(3) define supplemental applications that are eligible for priority review.

“(c) Responsibilities of Centers.—The Secretary shall designate an individual in each center within the Food and Drug Administration (except the Center for Food Safety and Applied Nutrition) to be responsible for—

“(1) encouraging the prompt review of supplemental applications for approved articles; and

“(2) working with sponsors to facilitate the development and submission of data to support supplemental applications.

“(d) Collaboration.—The Secretary shall implement programs and policies that will foster collaboration between the Food and Drug Administration, the National Institutes of Health, professional medical and scientific societies, and other persons, to identify published and unpublished studies that may support a supplemental application, and to encourage sponsors to make supplemental applications or conduct further research in support of a supplemental application based, in whole or in part, on such studies.”

Hearings Pending on April 15, 1954, With Respect to Food Standards

Provisions of this chapter in effect prior to Apr. 15, 1954, as applicable with respect to hearings begun prior to such date under subsection (e) of this section, regarding food standards, see Savings Provisions note set out under section 341 of this title.

§372. Examinations and investigations

(a) Authority to conduct

(1)(A) The Secretary is authorized to conduct examinations and investigations for the purposes of this chapter through officers and employees of the Department or through any health, food, or drug officer or employee of any State, Territory, or political subdivision thereof, duly commissioned by the Secretary as an officer of the Department.

(B)(i) For a tobacco product, to the extent feasible, the Secretary shall contract with the States in accordance with this paragraph to carry out inspections of retailers within that State in connection with the enforcement of this chapter.

(ii) The Secretary shall not enter into any contract under clause (i) with the government of any of the several States to exercise enforcement authority under this chapter on Indian country without the express written consent of the Indian tribe involved.

(2)(A) In addition to the authority established in paragraph (1), the Secretary, pursuant to a memorandum of understanding between the Secretary and the head of another Federal department or agency, is authorized to conduct examinations and investigations for the purposes of this chapter through the officers and employees of such other department or agency, subject to subparagraph (B). Such a memorandum shall include provisions to ensure adequate training of such officers and employees to conduct the examinations and investigations. The memorandum of understanding shall contain provisions regarding reimbursement. Such provisions may, at the sole discretion of the head of the other department or agency, require reimbursement, in whole or in part, from the Secretary for the examinations or investigations performed under this section by the officers or employees of the other department or agency.

(B) A memorandum of understanding under subparagraph (A) between the Secretary and another Federal department or agency is effective only in the case of examinations or inspections at facilities or other locations that are jointly regulated by the Secretary and such department or agency.

(C) For any fiscal year in which the Secretary and the head of another Federal department or agency carries out one or more examinations or inspections under a memorandum of understanding under subparagraph (A), the Secretary and the head of such department or agency shall with respect to their respective departments or agencies submit to the committees of jurisdiction (authorizing and appropriating) in the House of Representatives and the Senate a report that provides, for such year—

(i) the number of officers or employees that carried out one or more programs, projects, or activities under such memorandum;

(ii) the number of additional articles that were inspected or examined as a result of such memorandum; and

(iii) the number of additional examinations or investigations that were carried out pursuant to such memorandum.


(3) In the case of food packed in the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico or a Territory the Secretary shall attempt to make inspection of such food at the first point of entry within the United States when, in his opinion and with due regard to the enforcement of all the provisions of this chapter, the facilities at his disposal will permit of such inspection.

(4) For the purposes of this subsection, the term “United States” means the States and the District of Columbia.

(b) Availability to owner of part of analysis samples

Where a sample of a food, drug, or cosmetic is collected for analysis under this chapter the Secretary shall, upon request, provide a part of such official sample for examination or analysis by any person named on the label of the article, or the owner thereof, or his attorney or agent; except that the Secretary is authorized, by regulations, to make such reasonable exceptions from, and impose such reasonable terms and conditions relating to, the operation of this subsection as he finds necessary for the proper administration of the provisions of this chapter.

(c) Records of other departments and agencies

For purposes of enforcement of this chapter, records of any department or independent establishment in the executive branch of the Government shall be open to inspection by any official of the Department duly authorized by the Secretary to make such inspection.

(d) Information on patents for drugs

The Secretary is authorized and directed, upon request from the Under Secretary of Commerce for Intellectual Property and Director of the United States Patent and Trademark Office, to furnish full and complete information with respect to such questions relating to drugs as the Director may submit concerning any patent application. The Secretary is further authorized, upon receipt of any such request, to conduct or cause to be conducted, such research as may be required.

(e) Powers of enforcement personnel

Any officer or employee of the Department designated by the Secretary to conduct examinations, investigations, or inspections under this chapter relating to counterfeit drugs may, when so authorized by the Secretary—

(1) carry firearms;

(2) execute and serve search warrants and arrest warrants;

(3) execute seizure by process issued pursuant to libel under section 334 of this title;

(4) make arrests without warrant for offenses under this chapter with respect to such drugs if the offense is committed in his presence or, in the case of a felony, if he has probable cause to believe that the person so arrested has committed, or is committing, such offense; and

(5) make, prior to the institution of libel proceedings under section 334(a)(2) of this title, seizures of drugs or containers or of equipment, punches, dies, plates, stones, labeling, or other things, if they are, or he has reasonable grounds to believe that they are, subject to seizure and condemnation under such section 334(a)(2). In the event of seizure pursuant to this paragraph (5), libel proceedings under section 334(a)(2) of this title shall be instituted promptly and the property seized be placed under the jurisdiction of the court.

(June 25, 1938, ch. 675, §702, 52 Stat. 1056; Pub. L. 87–781, title III, §§307(b), 308, Oct. 10, 1962, 76 Stat. 796; Pub. L. 89–74, §8(a), July 15, 1965, 79 Stat. 234; Pub. L. 91–513, title II, §701(f), Oct. 27, 1970, 84 Stat. 1282; Pub. L. 102–300, §6(b)(2), June 16, 1992, 106 Stat. 240; Pub. L. 103–80, §3(dd)(2), Aug. 13, 1993, 107 Stat. 779; Pub. L. 106–113, div. B, §1000(a)(9) [title IV, §4732(b)(12)], Nov. 29, 1999, 113 Stat. 1536, 1501A–584; Pub. L. 107–188, title III, §314, June 12, 2002, 116 Stat. 674; Pub. L. 111–31, div. A, title I, §103(g), June 22, 2009, 123 Stat. 1837.)

Amendments

2009—Subsec. (a)(1). Pub. L. 111–31 designated existing provisions as subpar. (A) and added subpar. (B).

2002—Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 107–188 inserted “(1)” before “The Secretary is authorized to conduct”, added par. (2), inserted “(3)” before “In the case of food packed”, and substituted “(4) For the purposes of this subsection,” for “For the purposes of this subsection”.

1999—Subsec. (d). Pub. L. 106–113, in first sentence, substituted “Under Secretary of Commerce for Intellectual Property and Director of the United States Patent and Trademark Office” for “Commissioner of Patents” and “Director” for “Commissioner”.

1993—Subsec. (c). Pub. L. 103–80 struck out “of Agriculture” after “Department”.

1992—Subsec. (c). Pub. L. 102–300, which directed the amendment of subsec. (c) by striking out “of Health, Education, and Welfare”, could not be executed because such words did not appear in the original statutory text. See 1993 Amendment note above and Transfer of Functions note below.

1970—Subsec. (e). Pub. L. 91–513 struck out reference to depressant or stimulant drugs.

1965—Subsec. (e). Pub. L. 89–74 added subsec. (e).

1962—Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 87–781, §307(b), inserted “the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico or” before “a Territory the Secretary”.

Subsec. (d). Pub. L. 87–781, §308, added subsec. (d).

Effective Date of 1999 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 106–113 effective 4 months after Nov. 29, 1999, see section 1000(a)(9) [title IV, §4731] of Pub. L. 106–113, set out as a note under section 1 of Title 35, Patents.

Effective Date of 1970 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 91–513 effective on first day of seventh calendar month that begins after Oct. 26, 1970, see section 704 of Pub. L. 91–513, set out as an Effective Date note under section 801 of this title.

Effective Date of 1965 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 89–74 effective July 15, 1965, see section 11 of Pub. L. 89–74, set out as a note under section 321 of this title.

Savings Provision

Amendment by Pub. L. 91–513 not to affect or abate any prosecutions for any violation of law or any civil seizures or forfeitures and injunctive proceedings commenced prior to the effective date of such amendment, and all administrative proceedings pending before the Bureau of Narcotics and Dangerous Drugs [now Drug Enforcement Administration] on Oct. 27, 1970, to be continued and brought to final determination in accord with laws and regulations in effect prior to Oct. 27, 1970, see section 702 of Pub. L. 91–513, set out as a note under section 321 of this title.

Transfer of Functions

For transfer of functions of Federal Security Administrator to Secretary of Health, Education, and Welfare [now Health and Human Services], and of Food and Drug Administration in the Department of Agriculture to Federal Security Agency, see note set out under section 41 of this title.

§372a. Transferred

Codification

Section, act June 25, 1938, ch. 675, §702A, formerly June 30, 1906, ch. 3915, §10A, as added June 22, 1934, ch. 712, 48 Stat. 1204, and amended, which related to examination of sea food, was renumbered section 706 of act June 25, 1938, by Pub. L. 102–571, title I, §106(3), Oct. 29, 1992, 106 Stat. 4498, and transferred to section 376 of this title.

§373. Records

(a) In general

For the purpose of enforcing the provisions of this chapter, carriers engaged in interstate commerce, and persons receiving food, drugs, devices, tobacco products, or cosmetics in interstate commerce or holding such articles so received, shall, upon the request of an officer or employee duly designated by the Secretary, permit such officer or employee, at reasonable times, to have access to and to copy all records showing the movement in interstate commerce of any food, drug, device, tobacco product, or cosmetic, or the holding thereof during or after such movement, and the quantity, shipper, and consignee thereof; and it shall be unlawful for any such carrier or person to fail to permit such access to and copying of any such record so requested when such request is accompanied by a statement in writing specifying the nature or kind of food, drug, device, tobacco product, or cosmetic to which such request relates, except that evidence obtained under this section, or any evidence which is directly or indirectly derived from such evidence, shall not be used in a criminal prosecution of the person from whom obtained, and except that carriers shall not be subject to the other provisions of this chapter by reason of their receipt, carriage, holding, or delivery of food, drugs, devices, tobacco products, or cosmetics in the usual course of business as carriers, except as provided in subsection (b) of this section.

(b) Food transportation records

A shipper, carrier by motor vehicle or rail vehicle, receiver, or other person subject to section 350e of this title shall, on request of an officer or employee designated by the Secretary, permit the officer or employee, at reasonable times, to have access to and to copy all records that the Secretary requires to be kept under section 350e(c)(1)(E) of this title.

(June 25, 1938, ch. 675, §703, 52 Stat. 1057; Pub. L. 91–452, title II, §230, Oct. 15, 1970, 84 Stat. 930; Pub. L. 103–80, §3(z), Aug. 13, 1993, 107 Stat. 778; Pub. L. 109–59, title VII, §7202(c), Aug. 10, 2005, 119 Stat. 1913; Pub. L. 111–31, div. A, title I, §103(h), June 22, 2009, 123 Stat. 1837.)

Amendments

2009—Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 111–31 inserted “tobacco product,” after “device,” in two places and “tobacco products,” after “devices,” in two places.

2005—Pub. L. 109–59 struck out “of interstate shipment” after “Records” in section catchline, designated existing provisions as subsec. (a), inserted subsec. heading, substituted “carriers, except as provided in subsection (b) of this section” for “carriers” before period at end, and added subsec. (b).

1993—Pub. L. 103–80 substituted “, except that” for “: Provided, That” and “, and except that” for “: Provided further, That”.

1970—Pub. L. 91–452 inserted “, or any evidence which is directly or indirectly derived from such evidence,” after “under this section”.

Effective Date of 2005 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 109–59 effective Oct. 1, 2005, see section 7204 of Pub. L. 109–59, set out as a note under section 331 of this title.

Effective Date of 1970 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 91–452 effective on sixtieth day following Oct. 15, 1970, and not to affect any immunity to which any individual is entitled under this section by reason of any testimony given before sixtieth day following Oct. 15, 1970, see section 260 of Pub. L. 91–452, set out as an Effective Date; Savings Provision note under section 6001 of Title 18, Crimes and Criminal Procedure.

Transfer of Functions

For transfer of functions of Federal Security Administrator to Secretary of Health, Education, and Welfare [now Health and Human Services], and of Food and Drug Administration in the Department of Agriculture to Federal Security Agency, see notes set out under section 321 of this title.

§374. Inspection

(a) Right of agents to enter; scope of inspection; notice; promptness; exclusions

(1) For purposes of enforcement of this chapter, officers or employees duly designated by the Secretary, upon presenting appropriate credentials and a written notice to the owner, operator, or agent in charge, are authorized (A) to enter, at reasonable times, any factory, warehouse, or establishment in which food, drugs, devices, tobacco products, or cosmetics are manufactured, processed, packed, or held, for introduction into interstate commerce or after such introduction, or to enter any vehicle being used to transport or hold such food, drugs, devices, tobacco products, or cosmetics in interstate commerce; and (B) to inspect, at reasonable times and within reasonable limits and in a reasonable manner, such factory, warehouse, establishment, or vehicle and all pertinent equipment, finished and unfinished materials, containers, and labeling therein. In the case of any person (excluding farms and restaurants) who manufactures, processes, packs, transports, distributes, holds, or imports foods, the inspection shall extend to all records and other information described in section 350c of this title, when the standard for records inspection under paragraph (1) or (2) of section 350c(a) of this title applies, subject to the limitations established in section 350c(d) of this title. In the case of any factory, warehouse, establishment, or consulting laboratory in which prescription drugs, nonprescription drugs intended for human use, restricted devices, or tobacco products are manufactured, processed, packed, or held, the inspection shall extend to all things therein (including records, files, papers, processes, controls, and facilities) bearing on whether prescription drugs, nonprescription drugs intended for human use, restricted devices, or tobacco products which are adulterated or misbranded within the meaning of this chapter, or which may not be manufactured, introduced into interstate commerce, or sold, or offered for sale by reason of any provision of this chapter, have been or are being manufactured, processed, packed, transported, or held in any such place, or otherwise bearing on violation of this chapter. No inspection authorized by the preceding sentence or by paragraph (3) shall extend to financial data, sales data other than shipment data, pricing data, personnel data (other than data as to qualification of technical and professional personnel performing functions subject to this chapter), and research data (other than data relating to new drugs, antibiotic drugs, devices, and tobacco products and subject to reporting and inspection under regulations lawfully issued pursuant to section 355(i) or (k) of this title, section 360i of this title, section 360j(g) of this title, or subchapter IX and data relating to other drugs, devices, or tobacco products which in the case of a new drug would be subject to reporting or inspection under lawful regulations issued pursuant to section 355(j) of this title). A separate notice shall be given for each such inspection, but a notice shall not be required for each entry made during the period covered by the inspection. Each such inspection shall be commenced and completed with reasonable promptness.

(2) The provisions of the third sentence of paragraph (1) shall not apply to—

(A) pharmacies which maintain establishments in conformance with any applicable local laws regulating the practice of pharmacy and medicine and which are regularly engaged in dispensing prescription drugs or devices, upon prescriptions of practitioners licensed to administer such drugs or devices to patients under the care of such practitioners in the course of their professional practice, and which do not, either through a subsidiary or otherwise, manufacture, prepare, propagate, compound, or process drugs or devices for sale other than in the regular course of their business of dispensing or selling drugs or devices at retail;

(B) practitioners licensed by law to prescribe or administer drugs, or prescribe or use devices, as the case may be, and who manufacture, prepare, propagate, compound, or process drugs, or manufacture or process devices, solely for use in the course of their professional practice;

(C) persons who manufacture, prepare, propagate, compound, or process drugs or manufacture or process devices, solely for use in research, teaching, or chemical analysis and not for sale;

(D) such other classes of persons as the Secretary may by regulation exempt from the application of this section upon a finding that inspection as applied to such classes of persons in accordance with this section is not necessary for the protection of the public health.


(3) An officer or employee making an inspection under paragraph (1) for purposes of enforcing the requirements of section 350a of this title applicable to infant formulas shall be permitted, at all reasonable times, to have access to and to copy and verify any records—

(A) bearing on whether the infant formula manufactured or held in the facility inspected meets the requirements of section 350a of this title, or

(B) required to be maintained under section 350a of this title.

(b) Written report to owner; copy to Secretary

Upon completion of any such inspection of a factory, warehouse, consulting laboratory, or other establishment, and prior to leaving the premises, the officer or employee making the inspection shall give to the owner, operator, or agent in charge a report in writing setting forth any conditions or practices observed by him which, in his judgment, indicate that any food, drug, device, tobacco product, or cosmetic in such establishment (1) consists in whole or in part of any filthy, putrid, or decomposed substance, or (2) has been prepared, packed, or held under insanitary conditions whereby it may have become contaminated with filth, or whereby it may have been rendered injurious to health. A copy of such report shall be sent promptly to the Secretary.

(c) Receipt for samples taken

If the officer or employee making any such inspection of a factory, warehouse, or other establishment has obtained any sample in the course of the inspection, upon completion of the inspection and prior to leaving the premises he shall give to the owner, operator, or agent in charge a receipt describing the samples obtained.

(d) Analysis of samples furnished owner

Whenever in the course of any such inspection of a factory or other establishment where food is manufactured, processed, or packed, the officer or employee making the inspection obtains a sample of any such food, and an analysis is made of such sample for the purpose of ascertaining whether such food consists in whole or in part of any filthy, putrid, or decomposed substance, or is otherwise unfit for food, a copy of the results of such analysis shall be furnished promptly to the owner, operator, or agent in charge.

(e) Accessibility of records

Every person required under section 360i or 360j(g) of this title to maintain records and every person who is in charge or custody of such records shall, upon request of an officer or employee designated by the Secretary, permit such officer or employee at all reasonable times to have access to, and to copy and verify, such records.

(f) Recordkeeping

(1) An accredited person described in paragraph (3) shall maintain records documenting the training qualifications of the person and the employees of the person, the procedures used by the person for handling confidential information, the compensation arrangements made by the person, and the procedures used by the person to identify and avoid conflicts of interest. Upon the request of an officer or employee designated by the Secretary, the person shall permit the officer or employee, at all reasonable times, to have access to, to copy, and to verify, the records.

(2) Within 15 days after the receipt of a written request from the Secretary to an accredited person described in paragraph (3) for copies of records described in paragraph (1), the person shall produce the copies of the records at the place designated by the Secretary.

(3) For purposes of paragraphs (1) and (2), an accredited person described in this paragraph is a person who—

(A) is accredited under subsection (g) of this section; or

(B) is accredited under section 360m of this title.

(g) Inspections by accredited persons

(1) The Secretary shall, subject to the provisions of this subsection, accredit persons for the purpose of conducting inspections of establishments that manufacture, prepare, propagate, compound, or process class II or class III devices, which inspections are required under section 360(h) of this title or are inspections of such establishments required to register under section 360(i) of this title. The owner or operator of such an establishment that is eligible under paragraph (6) may, from the list published under paragraph (4), select an accredited person to conduct such inspections.

(2) The Secretary shall publish in the Federal Register criteria to accredit or deny accreditation to persons who request to perform the duties specified in paragraph (1). Thereafter, the Secretary shall inform those requesting accreditation, within 60 days after the receipt of such request, whether the request for accreditation is adequate for review, and the Secretary shall promptly act on the request for accreditation. Any resulting accreditation shall state that such person is accredited to conduct inspections at device establishments identified in paragraph (1). The accreditation of such person shall specify the particular activities under this subsection for which such person is accredited.

(3) An accredited person shall, at a minimum, meet the following requirements:

(A) Such person may not be an employee of the Federal Government.

(B) Such person shall be an independent organization which is not owned or controlled by a manufacturer, supplier, or vendor of articles regulated under this chapter and which has no organizational, material, or financial affiliation (including a consultative affiliation) with such a manufacturer, supplier, or vendor.

(C) Such person shall be a legally constituted entity permitted to conduct the activities for which it seeks accreditation.

(D) Such person shall not engage in the design, manufacture, promotion, or sale of articles regulated under this chapter.

(E) The operations of such person shall be in accordance with generally accepted professional and ethical business practices, and such person shall agree in writing that at a minimum the person will—

(i) certify that reported information accurately reflects data reviewed, inspection observations made, other matters that relate to or may influence compliance with this chapter, and recommendations made during an inspection or at an inspection's closing meeting;

(ii) limit work to that for which competence and capacity are available;

(iii) treat information received, records, reports, and recommendations as confidential commercial or financial information or trade secret information, except such information may be made available to the Secretary;

(iv) promptly respond and attempt to resolve complaints regarding its activities for which it is accredited; and

(v) protect against the use, in carrying out paragraph (1), of any officer or employee of the accredited person who has a financial conflict of interest regarding any product regulated under this chapter, and annually make available to the public disclosures of the extent to which the accredited person, and the officers and employees of the person, have maintained compliance with requirements under this clause relating to financial conflicts of interest.


(F) Such person shall notify the Secretary of any withdrawal, suspension, restriction, or expiration of certificate of conformance with the quality systems standard referred to in paragraph (7) for any device establishment that such person inspects under this subsection not later than 30 days after such withdrawal, suspension, restriction, or expiration.

(G) Such person may conduct audits to establish conformance with the quality systems standard referred to in paragraph (7).


(4) The Secretary shall publish on the Internet site of the Food and Drug Administration a list of persons who are accredited under paragraph (2). Such list shall be updated to ensure that the identity of each accredited person, and the particular activities for which the person is accredited, is known to the public. The updating of such list shall be no later than one month after the accreditation of a person under this subsection or the suspension or withdrawal of accreditation, or the modification of the particular activities for which the person is accredited.

(5)(A) To ensure that persons accredited under this subsection continue to meet the standards of accreditation, the Secretary shall (i) audit the performance of such persons on a periodic basis through the review of inspection reports and inspections by persons designated by the Secretary to evaluate the compliance status of a device establishment and the performance of accredited persons, and (ii) take such additional measures as the Secretary determines to be appropriate.

(B) The Secretary may withdraw accreditation of any person accredited under paragraph (2), after providing notice and an opportunity for an informal hearing, when such person is substantially not in compliance with the standards of accreditation, poses a threat to public health, fails to act in a manner that is consistent with the purposes of this subsection, or where the Secretary determines that there is a financial conflict of interest in the relationship between the accredited person and the owner or operator of a device establishment that the accredited person has inspected under this subsection. The Secretary may suspend the accreditation of such person during the pendency of the process under the preceding sentence.

(6)(A) Subject to subparagraphs (B) and (C), a device establishment is eligible for inspection by persons accredited under paragraph (2) if the following conditions are met:

(i) The Secretary classified the results of the most recent inspection of the establishment as “no action indicated” or “voluntary action indicated”.

(ii) With respect to inspections of the establishment to be conducted by an accredited person, the owner or operator of the establishment submits to the Secretary a notice that—

(I) provides the date of the last inspection of the establishment by the Secretary and the classification of that inspection;

(II) states the intention of the owner or operator to use an accredited person to conduct inspections of the establishment;

(III) identifies the particular accredited person the owner or operator intends to select to conduct such inspections; and

(IV) includes a certification that, with respect to the devices that are manufactured, prepared, propagated, compounded, or processed in the establishment—

(aa) at least 1 of such devices is marketed in the United States; and

(bb) at least 1 of such devices is marketed, or is intended to be marketed, in 1 or more foreign countries, 1 of which countries certifies, accredits, or otherwise recognizes the person accredited under paragraph (2) and identified under subclause (III) as a person authorized to conduct inspections of device establishments.


(B)(i) Except with respect to the requirement of subparagraph (A)(i), a device establishment is deemed to have clearance to participate in the program and to use the accredited person identified in the notice under subparagraph (A)(ii) for inspections of the establishment unless the Secretary, not later than 30 days after receiving such notice, issues a response that—

(I) denies clearance to participate as provided under subparagraph (C); or

(II) makes a request under clause (ii).


(ii) The Secretary may request from the owner or operator of a device establishment in response to the notice under subparagraph (A)(ii) with respect to the establishment, or from the particular accredited person identified in such notice—

(I) compliance data for the establishment in accordance with clause (iii)(I); or

(II) information concerning the relationship between the owner or operator of the establishment and the accredited person identified in such notice in accordance with clause (iii)(II).


The owner or operator of the establishment, or such accredited person, as the case may be, shall respond to such a request not later than 60 days after receiving such request.

(iii)(I) The compliance data to be submitted by the owner or operator of a device establishment in response to a request under clause (ii)(I) are data describing whether the quality controls of the establishment have been sufficient for ensuring consistent compliance with current good manufacturing practice within the meaning of section 351(h) of this title and with other applicable provisions of this chapter. Such data shall include complete reports of inspectional findings regarding good manufacturing practice or other quality control audits that, during the preceding 2-year period, were conducted at the establishment by persons other than the owner or operator of the establishment, together with all other compliance data the Secretary deems necessary. Data under the preceding sentence shall demonstrate to the Secretary whether the establishment has facilitated consistent compliance by promptly correcting any compliance problems identified in such inspections.

(II) A request to an accredited person under clause (ii)(II) may not seek any information that is not required to be maintained by such person in records under subsection (f)(1).

(iv) A device establishment is deemed to have clearance to participate in the program and to use the accredited person identified in the notice under subparagraph (A)(ii) for inspections of the establishment unless the Secretary, not later than 60 days after receiving the information requested under clause (ii), issues a response that denies clearance to participate as provided under subparagraph (C).

(C)(i) The Secretary may deny clearance to a device establishment if the Secretary has evidence that the certification under subparagraph (A)(ii)(IV) is untrue and the Secretary provides to the owner or operator of the establishment a statement summarizing such evidence.

(ii) The Secretary may deny clearance to a device establishment if the Secretary determines that the establishment has failed to demonstrate consistent compliance for purposes of subparagraph (B)(iii)(I) and the Secretary provides to the owner or operator of the establishment a statement of the reasons for such determination.

(iii)(I) The Secretary may reject the selection of the accredited person identified in the notice under subparagraph (A)(ii) if the Secretary provides to the owner or operator of the establishment a statement of the reasons for such rejection. Reasons for the rejection may include that the establishment or the accredited person, as the case may be, has failed to fully respond to the request, or that the Secretary has concerns regarding the relationship between the establishment and such accredited person.

(II) If the Secretary rejects the selection of an accredited person by the owner or operator of a device establishment, the owner or operator may make an additional selection of an accredited person by submitting to the Secretary a notice that identifies the additional selection. Clauses (i) and (ii) of subparagraph (B), and subclause (I) of this clause, apply to the selection of an accredited person through a notice under the preceding sentence in the same manner and to the same extent as such provisions apply to a selection of an accredited person through a notice under subparagraph (A)(ii).

(iv) In the case of a device establishment that is denied clearance under clause (i) or (ii) or with respect to which the selection of the accredited person is rejected under clause (iii), the Secretary shall designate a person to review the statement of reasons, or statement summarizing such evidence, as the case may be, of the Secretary under such clause if, during the 30-day period beginning on the date on which the owner or operator of the establishment receives such statement, the owner or operator requests the review. The review shall commence not later than 30 days after the owner or operator requests the review, unless the Secretary and the owner or operator otherwise agree.

(7)(A) Persons accredited under paragraph (2) to conduct inspections shall record in writing their inspection observations and shall present the observations to the device establishment's designated representative and describe each observation. Additionally, such accredited person shall prepare an inspection report in a form and manner designated by the Secretary to conduct inspections, taking into consideration the goals of international harmonization of quality systems standards. Any official classification of the inspection shall be determined by the Secretary.

(B) At a minimum, an inspection report under subparagraph (A) shall identify the persons responsible for good manufacturing practice compliance at the inspected device establishment, the dates of the inspection, the scope of the inspection, and shall describe in detail each observation identified by the accredited person, identify other matters that relate to or may influence compliance with this chapter, and describe any recommendations during the inspection or at the inspection's closing meeting.

(C) An inspection report under subparagraph (A) shall be sent to the Secretary and to the designated representative of the inspected device establishment at the same time, but under no circumstances later than three weeks after the last day of the inspection. The report to the Secretary shall be accompanied by all written inspection observations previously provided to the designated representative of the establishment.

(D) Any statement or representation made by an employee or agent of a device establishment to a person accredited under paragraph (2) to conduct inspections shall be subject to section 1001 of title 18.

(E) If at any time during an inspection by an accredited person the accredited person discovers a condition that could cause or contribute to an unreasonable risk to the public health, the accredited person shall immediately notify the Secretary of the identification of the device establishment subject to inspection and such condition.

(F) For the purpose of setting risk-based inspectional priorities, the Secretary shall accept voluntary submissions of reports of audits assessing conformance with appropriate quality systems standards set by the International Organization for Standardization (ISO) and identified by the Secretary in public notice. If the owner or operator of an establishment elects to submit audit reports under this subparagraph, the owner or operator shall submit all such audit reports with respect to the establishment during the preceding 2-year periods.

(8) Compensation for an accredited person shall be determined by agreement between the accredited person and the person who engages the services of the accredited person, and shall be paid by the person who engages such services.

(9) Nothing in this subsection affects the authority of the Secretary to inspect any device establishment pursuant to this chapter.

(10)(A) For fiscal year 2005 and each subsequent fiscal year, no device establishment may be inspected during the fiscal year involved by a person accredited under paragraph (2) if—

(i) of the amounts appropriated for salaries and expenses of the Food and Drug Administration for the preceding fiscal year (referred to in this subparagraph as the “first prior fiscal year”), the amount obligated by the Secretary for inspections of device establishments by the Secretary was less than the adjusted base amount applicable to such first prior fiscal year; and

(ii) of the amounts appropriated for salaries and expenses of the Food and Drug Administration for the fiscal year preceding the first prior fiscal year (referred to in this subparagraph as the “second prior fiscal year”), the amount obligated by the Secretary for inspections of device establishments by the Secretary was less than the adjusted base amount applicable to such second prior fiscal year.


(B)(i) Subject to clause (ii), the Comptroller General of the United States shall determine the amount that was obligated by the Secretary for fiscal year 2002 for compliance activities of the Food and Drug Administration with respect to devices (referred to in this subparagraph as the “compliance budget”), and of such amount, the amount that was obligated for inspections by the Secretary of device establishments (referred to in this subparagraph as the “inspection budget”).

(ii) For purposes of determinations under clause (i), the Comptroller General shall not include in the compliance budget or the inspection budget any amounts obligated for inspections of device establishments conducted as part of the process of reviewing applications under section 360e of this title.

(iii) Not later than March 31, 2003, the Comptroller General shall complete the determinations required in this subparagraph and submit to the Secretary and the Congress a report describing the findings made through such determinations.

(C) For purposes of this paragraph:

(i) The term “base amount” means the inspection budget determined under subparagraph (B) for fiscal year 2002.

(ii) The term “adjusted base amount”, in the case of applicability to fiscal year 2003, means an amount equal to the base amount increased by 5 percent.

(iii) The term “adjusted base amount”, with respect to applicability to fiscal year 2004 or any subsequent fiscal year, means the adjusted base amount applicable to the preceding year increased by 5 percent.


(11) The authority provided by this subsection terminates on October 1, 2012.

(12) No later than four years after October 26, 2002, the Comptroller General shall report to the Committee on Energy and Commerce of the House of Representatives and the Committee on Health, Education, Labor and Pensions of the Senate—

(A) the number of inspections conducted by accredited persons pursuant to this subsection and the number of inspections conducted by Federal employees pursuant to section 360(h) of this title and of device establishments required to register under section 360(i) of this title;

(B) the number of persons who sought accreditation under this subsection, as well as the number of persons who were accredited under this subsection;

(C) the reasons why persons who sought accreditation, but were denied accreditation, were denied;

(D) the number of audits conducted by the Secretary of accredited persons, the quality of inspections conducted by accredited persons, whether accredited persons are meeting their obligations under this chapter, and whether the number of audits conducted is sufficient to permit these assessments;

(E) whether this subsection is achieving the goal of ensuring more information about device establishment compliance is being presented to the Secretary, and whether that information is of a quality consistent with information obtained by the Secretary pursuant to inspections conducted by Federal employees;

(F) whether this subsection is advancing efforts to allow device establishments to rely upon third-party inspections for purposes of compliance with the laws of foreign governments; and

(G) whether the Congress should continue, modify, or terminate the program under this subsection.


(13) The Secretary shall include in the annual report required under section 393(g) of this title the names of all accredited persons and the particular activities under this subsection for which each such person is accredited and the name of each accredited person whose accreditation has been withdrawn during the year.

(14) Notwithstanding any provision of this subsection, this subsection does not have any legal effect on any agreement described in section 383(b) of this title between the Secretary and a foreign country.

(June 25, 1938, ch. 675, §704, 52 Stat. 1057; Aug. 7, 1953, ch. 350, §1, 67 Stat. 476; Pub. L. 87–781, title II, §201(a), (b), Oct. 10, 1962, 76 Stat. 792, 793; Pub. L. 94–295, §6, May 28, 1976, 90 Stat. 581; Pub. L. 96–359, §4, Sept. 26, 1980, 94 Stat. 1193; Pub. L. 103–80, §3(aa), Aug. 13, 1993, 107 Stat. 778; Pub. L. 105–115, title I, §125(b)(2)(L), title II, §210(b), title IV, §412(b), Nov. 21, 1997, 111 Stat. 2326, 2344, 2375; Pub. L. 107–188, title III, §306(b), June 12, 2002, 116 Stat. 670; Pub. L. 107–250, title II, §201(a), (b), Oct. 26, 2002, 116 Stat. 1602, 1609; Pub. L. 108–214, §2(b)(1), Apr. 1, 2004, 118 Stat. 573; Pub. L. 110–85, title II, §228, Sept. 27, 2007, 121 Stat. 855; Pub. L. 111–31, div. A, title I, §103(i), June 22, 2009, 123 Stat. 1837; Pub. L. 111–353, title I, §101(b), Jan. 4, 2011, 124 Stat. 3887.)

Amendments

2011—Subsec. (a)(1). Pub. L. 111–353, which directed the amendment of subsec. (a)(1)(B) by substituting “section 350c of this title, when the standard for records inspection under paragraph (1) or (2) of section 350c(a) of this title applies, subject to” for “section 350c of this title when” and all that follows through “subject to”, was executed by making the substitution for “section 350c of this title when the Secretary has a reasonable belief that an article of food is adulterated and presents a threat of serious adverse health consequences or death to humans or animals, subject to” in the sentence following subpar. (B) of subsec. (a)(1), to reflect the probable inent of Congress.

2009—Subsec. (a)(1). Pub. L. 111–31, §103(i)(1)(C), substituted “devices, and tobacco products and subject to reporting and inspection under regulations lawfully issued pursuant to section 355(i) or (k) of this title, section 360i of this title, section 360j(g) of this title, or subchapter IX and data relating to other drugs, devices, or tobacco products” for “and devices and subject to reporting and inspection under regulations lawfully issued pursuant to section 355(i) or (k) section 360i, or 360j(g) of this title, and data relating to other drugs or devices”.

Pub. L. 111–31, §103(i)(1)(B), substituted “restricted devices, or tobacco products” for “or restricted devices” in two places.

Subsec. (a)(1)(A). Pub. L. 111–31, §103(i)(1)(A), substituted “devices, tobacco products, or cosmetics” for “devices, or cosmetics” in two places.

Subsec. (b). Pub. L. 111–31, §103(i)(2), inserted “tobacco product,” after “device,”.

Subsec. (g)(13). Pub. L. 111–31, §103(i)(3), made technical amendment to reference in original act which appears in text as reference to section 393(g) of this title.

2007—Subsec. (g)(1). Pub. L. 110–85, §228(1), substituted “The Secretary” for “Not later than one year after October 26, 2002, the Secretary”.

Subsec. (g)(2). Pub. L. 110–85, §228(2), substituted “The Secretary” for “Not later than 180 days after October 26, 2002, the Secretary” and struck out at end “In the first year following the publication in the Federal Register of criteria to accredit or deny accreditation to persons who request to perform the duties specified in paragraph (1), the Secretary shall accredit no more than 15 persons who request to perform duties specified in paragraph (1).”

Subsec. (g)(3)(F), (G). Pub. L. 110–85, §228(3), added subpars. (F) and (G).

Subsec. (g)(6). Pub. L. 110–85, §228(4), amended par. (6) generally, revising and restating provisions of former subpars. (A) to (C).

Subsec. (g)(7)(A). Pub. L. 110–85, §228(5)(A), added subpar. (A) and struck out former subpar. (A) which read as follows: “Persons accredited under paragraph (2) to conduct inspections shall record in writing their inspection observations and shall present the observations to the device establishment's designated representative and describe each observation. Additionally, such accredited person shall prepare an inspection report (including for inspections classified as ‘no action indicated’) in a form and manner consistent with such reports prepared by employees and officials designated by the Secretary to conduct inspections.”

Subsec. (g)(7)(F). Pub. L. 110–85, §228(5)(B), added subpar. (F).

Subsec. (g)(10)(C)(iii). Pub. L. 110–85, §228(6), substituted “base amount applicable” for “based amount applicable”.

2004—Subsec. (g)(1). Pub. L. 108–214, §2(b)(1)(A), in first sentence, substituted “conducting inspections of establishments that manufacture, prepare, propagate, compound, or process class II or class III devices, which inspections are required under section 360(h) of this title or are inspections of such establishments required to register under section 360(i) of this title.” for “conducting inspections of establishments that manufacture, prepare, propagate, compound, or process class II or class III devices that are required in section 360(h) of this title, or inspections of such establishments required to register pursuant to section 360(i) of this title.”

Subsec. (g)(5)(B). Pub. L. 108–214, §2(b)(1)(B), in first sentence, substituted “poses a threat to public health, fails to act in a manner that is consistent with the purposes of this subsection, or where the Secretary determines that there is a financial conflict of interest in the relationship between the accredited person and the owner or operator of a device establishment that the accredited person has inspected under this subsection.” for “or poses a threat to public health or fails to act in a manner that is consistent with the purposes of this subsection.”

Subsec. (g)(6)(A)(i). Pub. L. 108–214, §2(b)(1)(C)(i), substituted “described in paragraph (1)” for “of the establishment pursuant to subsection (h) or (i) of section 360 of this title”.

Subsec. (g)(6)(A)(ii). Pub. L. 108–214, §2(b)(1)(C)(ii)(I), substituted “inspections” for “each inspection” and inserted “during a 2-year period” after “person” in introductory provisions.

Subsec. (g)(6)(A)(ii)(I). Pub. L. 108–214, §2(b)(1)(C)(ii)(II), substituted “an accredited person” for “such a person”.

Subsec. (g)(6)(A)(iii). Pub. L. 108–214, §2(b)(1)(C)(iii)(I), substituted “and 1 or both of the following additional conditions are met:” for “and the following additional conditions are met:” in introductory provisions.

Subsec. (g)(6)(A)(iii)(I). Pub. L. 108–214, §2(b)(1)(C)(iii)(II), substituted “(accredited under paragraph (2) and identified under clause (ii)(II)) as a person authorized to conduct such inspections of device establishments.” for “accredited under paragraph (2) and identified under subclause (II) of this clause.”

Subsec. (g)(6)(A)(iii)(II). Pub. L. 108–214, §2(b)(1)(C)(iii)(III), inserted “or by a person accredited under paragraph (2)” after “by the Secretary”.

Subsec. (g)(6)(A)(iv)(I). Pub. L. 108–214, §2(b)(1)(C)(iv), in first sentence, inserted “section” after “pursuant to” and substituted “inspections of the establishment during the previous 4 years” for “the two immediately preceding inspections of the establishment”, in third sentence, struck out “the petition states a commercial reason for the waiver;” after “granted only if” and inserted “not” after “the Secretary has not determined that the public health would”, and, in last sentence, substituted “granted or deemed to be granted until” for “granted until”.

Subsec. (g)(6)(A)(iv)(II). Pub. L. 108–214, §2(b)(1)(C)(v), inserted “of a device establishment required to register” after “to be conducted” and “section” after “pursuant to”.

Subsec. (g)(6)(B)(iii). Pub. L. 108–214, §2(b)(1)(D), in first sentence, substituted “and with other” for “, and data otherwise describing whether the establishment has consistently been in compliance with sections 351 and 352 of this title and other” and, in second sentence, substituted “inspectional findings” for “inspections” and inserted “relevant” after “together with all other”.

Subsec. (g)(6)(B)(iv). Pub. L. 108–214, §2(b)(1)(E), designated existing provisions as subcl. (I) and added subcl. (II).

Subsec. (g)(6)(C)(ii). Pub. L. 108–214, §2(b)(1)(F), struck out “in accordance with section 360(h) of this title, or has not during such period been inspected pursuant to section 360(i) of this title, as applicable” after “inspected by the Secretary”.

Subsec. (g)(10)(B)(iii). Pub. L. 108–214, §2(b)(1)(G), substituted “a report” for “a reporting”.

Subsec. (g)(12)(A). Pub. L. 108–214, §2(b)(1)(H)(i), added subpar. (A) and struck out former subpar. (A) which read as follows: “the number of inspections pursuant to subsections (h) and (i) of section 360 of this title conducted by accredited persons and the number of inspections pursuant to such subsections conducted by Federal employees;”.

Subsec. (g)(12)(E). Pub. L. 108–214, §2(b)(1)(H)(ii), substituted “obtained by the Secretary pursuant to inspections conducted by Federal employees;” for “obtained by the Secretary pursuant to subsection (h) or (i) of section 360 of this title;”.

2002—Subsec. (a)(1). Pub. L. 107–188, §306(b)(1), inserted after first sentence “In the case of any person (excluding farms and restaurants) who manufactures, processes, packs, transports, distributes, holds, or imports foods, the inspection shall extend to all records and other information described in section 350c of this title when the Secretary has a reasonable belief that an article of food is adulterated and presents a threat of serious adverse health consequences or death to humans or animals, subject to the limitations established in section 350c(d) of this title.”

Subsec. (a)(2). Pub. L. 107–188, §306(b)(2), substituted “third sentence” for “second sentence” in introductory provisions.

Subsec. (f)(1). Pub. L. 107–250, §201(b)(1), in first sentence, substituted “An accredited person described in paragraph (3) shall maintain records” for “A person accredited under section 360m of this title to review reports made under section 360(k) of this title and make recommendations of initial classifications of devices to the Secretary shall maintain records”.

Subsec. (f)(2). Pub. L. 107–250, §201(b)(2), substituted “an accredited person described in paragraph (3)” for “a person accredited under section 360m of this title”.

Subsec. (f)(3). Pub. L. 107–250, §201(b)(3), added par. (3).

Subsec. (g). Pub. L. 107–250, §201(a), added subsec. (g).

1997—Subsec. (a)(1). Pub. L. 105–115, §412(b), substituted “prescription drugs, nonprescription drugs intended for human use,” for “prescription drugs” in two places.

Pub. L. 105–115, §125(b)(2)(L), struck out “, section 357(d) or (g),” before “section 360i”.

Subsec. (f). Pub. L. 105–115, §210(b), added subsec. (f).

1993—Subsec. (a)(1). Pub. L. 103–80 substituted a comma for semicolon after “finished and unfinished materials” and “section 355(i) or (k)” for “section 355(i) or (j)”.

1980—Subsec. (a)(1). Pub. L. 96–359, §4(1), (2), restructured first five sentences of former subsec. (a) as par. (1) and, as so restructured, inserted reference to paragraph (3) and substituted “(A)” and “(B)” for “(1)” and “(2)”, respectively.

Subsec. (a)(2). Pub. L. 96–359, §4(3), redesignated sixth sentence of former subsec. (a) as par. (2) and, as so redesignated, substituted reference to second sentence of paragraph (1) for reference to former second sentence of this subsection, and “(A)”, “(B)”, “(C)”, and “(D)”, for “(1)”, “(2)”, “(3)”, and “(4)”, respectively.

Subsec. (a)(3). Pub. L. 96–359, §4(4), added par. (3).

1976—Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 94–295, §6(a)–(c), expanded existing provisions to encompass medical devices by inserting references to factories, warehouses, establishments, and consulting laboratories in which restricted devices are manufactured, processed, packed, or held, inspections relating to devices, reporting and inspection regulations issued pursuant to sections 360i and 360j(g) of this title, and the manufacture and processing of devices.

Subsec. (e). Pub. L. 94–295, §6(d), added subsec. (e).

1962—Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 87–781, §201(a), extended the inspection, where prescription drugs are manufactured, processed, packed, or held, to all things bearing on whether adulterated or misbranded drugs, or any which may not be manufactured, introduced in interstate commerce, or sold or offered for sale under any provision of this chapter, have been or are being manufactured, processed, packed, transported or held in any such place, or otherwise bearing on violation of this chapter, but excluded from such inspection, data concerning finance, sales other than shipment, pricing, personnel other than qualifications of technical and professional personnel, research other than relating to new drugs subject to reporting, provided that provisions of second sentence of this subsection shall be inapplicable to pharmacies, practitioners and other persons enumerated in pars. (1) to (4), and struck out “are held” before “after such introduction”.

Subsec. (b). Pub. L. 87–781, §201(b), inserted “consulting laboratory” after “warehouse”.

1953—Act Aug. 7, 1953, designated existing provisions as subsec. (a) and amended them by substituting provisions permitting entry and inspection upon presentation of appropriate credentials and a written notice to the owner, operator, or agent in charge for provisions which authorized entry and inspection only after making a request and obtaining permission from the owner, operator, or custodian, and inserting provisions requiring a separate written notice for each inspection but not for each entry made during the period covered by the inspection, and directing that the inspection shall be conducted within reasonable limits, in a reasonable manner and completed with reasonable promptness, and added subsecs. (b) to (d).

Effective Date of 1997 Amendment

Amendment by sections 210(b) and 412(b) of Pub. L. 105–115 effective 90 days after Nov. 21, 1997, except as otherwise provided, see section 501 of Pub. L. 105–115, set out as a note under section 321 of this title.

Effective Date of 1962 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 87–781 effective Oct. 10, 1962, see section 203 of Pub. L. 87–781, set out as a note under section 332 of this title.

Construction of 2011 Amendment

Nothing in amendment by Pub. L. 111–353 to be construed to apply to certain alcohol-related facilities, to alter jurisdiction and authorities established under certain other Acts, or in a manner inconsistent with international agreements to which the United States is a party, see sections 2206, 2251, and 2252 of this title.

Transfer of Functions

For transfer of functions of Federal Security Administrator to Secretary of Health, Education, and Welfare [now Health and Human Services], and of Food and Drug Administration in the Department of Agriculture to Federal Security Agency, see notes set out under section 321 of this title.

Authority of Secretary Prior to October 10, 1962

Section 201(d) of Pub. L. 87–781 provided that: “Nothing in the amendments made by subsections (a) and (b) of this section [amending this section] shall be construed to negate or derogate from any authority of the Secretary existing prior to the enactment of this Act [Oct. 10, 1962].”

§374a. Inspections relating to food allergens

The Secretary of Health and Human Services shall conduct inspections consistent with the authority under section 374 of this title of facilities in which foods are manufactured, processed, packed, or held—

(1) to ensure that the entities operating the facilities comply with practices to reduce or eliminate cross-contact of a food with residues of major food allergens that are not intentional ingredients of the food; and

(2) to ensure that major food allergens are properly labeled on foods.

(Pub. L. 108–282, title II, §205, Aug. 2, 2004, 118 Stat. 909.)

Codification

Section was enacted as a part of the Food Allergen Labeling and Consumer Protection Act of 2004, and not as part of the Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act which comprises this chapter.

§375. Publicity

(a) Reports

The Secretary shall cause to be published from time to time reports summarizing all judgments, decrees, and court orders which have been rendered under this chapter, including the nature of the charge and the disposition thereof.

(b) Information regarding certain goods

The Secretary may also cause to be disseminated information regarding food, drugs, devices, tobacco products, or cosmetics in situations involving, in the opinion of the Secretary, imminent danger to health or gross deception of the consumer. Nothing in this section shall be construed to prohibit the Secretary from collecting, reporting, and illustrating the results of the investigations of the Department.

(June 25, 1938, ch. 675, §705, 52 Stat. 1057; Pub. L. 111–31, div. A, title I, §103(j), June 22, 2009, 123 Stat. 1837.)

Amendments

2009—Subsec. (b). Pub. L. 111–31 inserted “tobacco products,” after “devices,”.

Transfer of Functions

For transfer of functions of Federal Security Administrator to Secretary of Health, Education, and Welfare [now Health and Human Services], and of Food and Drug Administration in the Department of Agriculture to Federal Security Agency, see notes set out under section 321 of this title.

§376. Examination of sea food on request of packer; marking food with results; fees; penalties

The Secretary, upon application of any packer of any sea food for shipment or sale within the jurisdiction of this chapter, may, at his discretion, designate inspectors to examine and inspect such food and the production, packing, and labeling thereof. If on such examination and inspection compliance is found with the provisions of this chapter and regulations promulgated thereunder, the applicant shall be authorized or required to mark the food as provided by regulation to show such compliance. Services under this section shall be rendered only upon payment by the applicant of fees fixed by regulation in such amounts as may be necessary to provide, equip, and maintain an adequate and efficient inspection service. Receipts from such fees shall be covered into the Treasury and shall be available to the Secretary for expenditures incurred in carrying out the purposes of this section, including expenditures for salaries of additional inspectors when necessary to supplement the number of inspectors for whose salaries Congress has appropriated. The Secretary is authorized to promulgate regulations governing the sanitary and other conditions under which the service herein provided shall be granted and maintained, and for otherwise carrying out the purposes of this section. Any person who forges, counterfeits, simulates, or falsely represents, or without proper authority uses any mark, stamp, tag, label, or other identification devices authorized or required by the provisions of this section or regulations thereunder, shall be guilty of a misdemeanor, and shall on conviction thereof be subject to imprisonment for not more than one year or a fine of not less than $1,000 nor more than $5,000, or both such imprisonment and fine.

(June 25, 1938, ch. 675, §706, formerly §702A, formerly June 30, 1906, ch. 3915, §10A, as added June 22, 1934, ch. 712, 48 Stat. 1204; amended Aug. 27, 1935, ch. 739, 49 Stat. 871; June 25, 1938, ch. 675, §1002(a), formerly §902(a), 52 Stat. 1059, renumbered §1002(a), Pub. L. 111–31, div. A, title I, §101(b)(2), June 22, 2009, 123 Stat. 1784; renumbered §702A of act June 25, 1938, July 12, 1943, ch. 221, title II, 57 Stat. 500; Pub. L. 102–300, §6(b)(2), June 16, 1992, 106 Stat. 240; renumbered §706, Pub. L. 102–571, title I, §106(3), Oct. 29, 1992, 106 Stat. 4498; Pub. L. 103–80, §3(dd)(2), Aug. 13, 1993, 107 Stat. 779.)

Codification

Section was formerly classified to section 372a of this title prior to renumbering by Pub. L. 102–571.

Section, which formerly was not a part of the Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act, originally was classified to section 14a of this title. Section 1002(a) of act June 25, 1938, set out as an Effective Date note under section 301 of this title, provided that the section should remain in force and effect and be applicable to the provisions of this chapter. Act July 12, 1943, renumbered this section as 702A of the Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act.

Prior Provisions

A prior section 376, act June 25, 1938, ch. 675, §706, 52 Stat. 1058, as amended, which related to listing and certification of color additives for foods, drugs, devices, and cosmetics, was renumbered section 721 of act June 25, 1938, by Pub. L. 102–571, title I, §106(4), Oct. 29, 1992, 106 Stat. 4498, and transferred to section 379e of this title.

Amendments

1993—Pub. L. 103–80 struck out “of Agriculture” after “Secretary” in two places.

1992—Pub. L. 102–300, which directed the amendment of the section by striking out “of Health, Education, and Welfare” wherever appearing, could not be executed because such words did not appear in the original statutory text. See 1993 Amendment note above and Transfer of Functions note below.

Transfer of Functions

Secretary and Department of Health, Education, and Welfare redesignated Secretary and Department of Health and Human Services by Pub. L. 96–88, title V, §509(b), Oct. 17, 1979, 93 Stat. 695, which is classified to section 3508(b) of Title 20, Education.

For transfer of functions of Federal Security Administrator to Secretary of Health, Education, and Welfare [now Health and Human Services], and of Food and Drug Administration in the Department of Agriculture to Federal Security Agency, see notes set out under section 321 of this title.

§377. Revision of United States Pharmacopoeia; development of analysis and mechanical and physical tests

The Secretary, in carrying into effect the provisions of this chapter, is authorized on and after July 12, 1943, to cooperate with associations and scientific societies in the revision of the United States Pharmacopoeia and in the development of methods of analysis and mechanical and physical tests necessary to carry out the work of the Food and Drug Administration.

(July 12, 1943, ch. 221, title II, 57 Stat. 500; 1953 Reorg. Plan No. 1, §5, eff. Apr. 11, 1953, 18 F.R. 2053, 67 Stat. 631.)

Codification

Section was enacted as part of the Labor-Federal Security Appropriation Act, 1944, and not as part of the Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act which comprises this chapter.

Transfer of Functions

For transfer of functions of Federal Security Administrator to Secretary of Health, Education, and Welfare [now Health and Human Services], and of Food and Drug Administration in the Department of Agriculture to Federal Security Agency, see notes set out under section 321 of this title.

§378. Advertising of foods

(a) Determination of misbranding; notification of Federal Trade Commission by Secretary; contents

(1) Except as provided in subsection (c) of this section, before the Secretary may initiate any action under subchapter III of this chapter—

(A) with respect to any food which the Secretary determines is misbranded under section 343(a)(2) of this title because of its advertising, or

(B) with respect to a food's advertising which the Secretary determines causes the food to be so misbranded,


the Secretary shall, in accordance with paragraph (2), notify in writing the Federal Trade Commission of the action the Secretary proposes to take respecting such food or advertising.

(2) The notice required by paragraph (1) shall—

(A) contain (i) a description of the action the Secretary proposes to take and of the advertising which the Secretary has determined causes a food to be misbranded, (ii) a statement of the reasons for the Secretary's determination that such advertising has caused such food to be misbranded, and

(B) be accompanied by the records, documents, and other written materials which the Secretary determines supports his determination that such food is misbranded because of such advertising.

(b) Action by Federal Trade Commission precluding action by Secretary; exception

(1) If the Secretary notifies the Federal Trade Commission under subsection (a) of this section of action proposed to be taken under subchapter III of this chapter with respect to a food or food advertising and the Commission notifies the Secretary in writing, within the 30-day period beginning on the date of the receipt of such notice, that—

(A) it has initiated under the Federal Trade Commission Act [15 U.S.C. 41 et seq.] an investigation of such advertising to determine if it is prohibited by such Act or any order or rule under such Act,

(B) it has commenced (or intends to commence) a civil action under section 5, 13, or 19 [15 U.S.C. 45, 53, or 57b] with respect to such advertising or the Attorney General has commenced (or intends to commence) a civil action under section 5 [15 U.S.C. 45] with respect to such advertising,

(C) it has issued and served (or intends to issue and serve) a complaint under section 5(b) of such Act [15 U.S.C. 45(b)] respecting such advertising, or

(D) pursuant to section 16(b) of such Act [15 U.S.C. 56(b)] it has made a certification to the Attorney General respecting such advertising,


the Secretary may not, except as provided by paragraph (2), initiate the action described in the Secretary's notice to the Federal Trade Commission.

(2) If, before the expiration of the 60-day period beginning on the date the Secretary receives a notice described in paragraph (1) from the Federal Trade Commission in response to a notice of the Secretary under subsection (a) of this section—

(A) the Commission or the Attorney General does not commence a civil action described in subparagraph (B) of paragraph (1) of this subsection respecting the advertising described in the Secretary's notice,

(B) the Commission does not issue and serve a complaint described in subparagraph (C) of such paragraph respecting such advertising, or

(C) the Commission does not (as described in subparagraph (D) of such paragraph) make a certification to the Attorney General respecting such advertising, or, if the Commission does make such a certification to the Attorney General respecting such advertising, the Attorney General, before the expiration of such period, does not cause appropriate criminal proceedings to be brought against such advertising,


the Secretary may, after the expiration of such period, initiate the action described in the notice to the Commission pursuant to subsection (a) of this section. The Commission shall promptly notify the Secretary of the commencement by the Commission of such a civil action, the issuance and service by it of such a complaint, or the causing by the Attorney General of criminal proceedings to be brought against such advertising.

(c) Secretary's determination of imminent hazard to health as suspending applicability of provisions

The requirements of subsections (a) and (b) of this section do not apply with respect to action under subchapter III of this chapter with respect to any food or food advertising if the Secretary determines that such action is required to eliminate an imminent hazard to health.

(d) Coordination of action by Secretary with Federal Trade Commission

For the purpose of avoiding unnecessary duplication, the Secretary shall coordinate any action taken under subchapter III of this chapter because of advertising which the Secretary determines causes a food to be misbranded with any action of the Federal Trade Commission under the Federal Trade Commission Act [15 U.S.C. 41 et seq.] with respect to such advertising.

(June 25, 1938, ch. 675, §707, as added Pub. L. 94–278, title V, §502(b), Apr. 22, 1976, 90 Stat. 412.)

References in Text

The Federal Trade Commission Act, referred to in subsecs. (b) and (d), is act Sept. 26, 1914, ch. 311, 38 Stat. 717, as amended, which is classified generally to subchapter I (§41 et seq.) of chapter 2 of Title 15, Commerce and Trade. For complete classification of this Act to the Code, see section 58 of Title 15 and Tables.

§379. Confidential information

The Secretary may provide any information which is exempt from disclosure pursuant to subsection (a) of section 552 of title 5 by reason of subsection (b)(4) of such section to a person other than an officer or employee of the Department if the Secretary determines such other person requires the information in connection with an activity which is undertaken under contract with the Secretary, which relates to the administration of this chapter, and with respect to which the Secretary (or an officer or employee of the Department) is not prohibited from using such information. The Secretary shall require as a condition to the provision of information under this section that the person receiving it take such security precautions respecting the information as the Secretary may by regulation prescribe.

(June 25, 1938, ch. 675, §708, as added Pub. L. 94–295, §8, May 28, 1976, 90 Stat. 582.)

§379a. Presumption of existence of jurisdiction

In any action to enforce the requirements of this chapter respecting a device, tobacco product, food, drug, or cosmetic the connection with interstate commerce required for jurisdiction in such action shall be presumed to exist.

(June 25, 1938, ch. 675, §709, as added Pub. L. 94–295, §8, May 28, 1976, 90 Stat. 583; amended Pub. L. 105–115, title IV, §419, Nov. 21, 1997, 111 Stat. 2379; Pub. L. 111–31, div. A, title I, §103(k), June 22, 2009, 123 Stat. 1837.)

Amendments

2009—Pub. L. 111–31 inserted “tobacco product,” after “device,”.

1997—Pub. L. 105–115 substituted “a device, food, drug, or cosmetic” for “a device”.

Effective Date of 1997 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 105–115 effective 90 days after Nov. 21, 1997, except as otherwise provided, see section 501 of Pub. L. 105–115, set out as a note under section 321 of this title.

§379b. Consolidated administrative and laboratory facility

(a) Authority

The Secretary, in consultation with the Administrator of the General Services Administration, shall enter into contracts for the design, construction, and operation of a consolidated Food and Drug Administration administrative and laboratory facility.

(b) Awarding of contract

The Secretary shall solicit contract proposals under subsection (a) of this section from interested parties. In awarding contracts under such subsection, the Secretary shall review such proposals and give priority to those alternatives that are the most cost effective for the Federal Government and that allow for the use of donated land, federally owned property, or lease-purchase arrangements. A contract under this subsection shall not be entered into unless such contract results in a net cost savings to the Federal Government over the duration of the contract, as compared to the Government purchase price including borrowing by the Secretary of the Treasury.

(c) Donations

In carrying out this section, the Secretary shall have the power, in connection with real property, buildings, and facilities, to accept on behalf of the Food and Drug Administration gifts or donations of services or property, real or personal, as the Secretary determines to be necessary.

(d) Authorization of appropriations

There are authorized to be appropriated to carry out this section $100,000,000 for fiscal year 1991, and such sums as may be necessary for each of the subsequent fiscal years, to remain available until expended.

(June 25, 1938, ch. 675, §710, as added Pub. L. 101–635, title I, §101, Nov. 28, 1990, 104 Stat. 4583.)

§379c. Transferred

Codification

Section, act June 25, 1938, ch. 675, §711, as added Nov. 28, 1990, Pub. L. 101–635, title II, §201, 104 Stat. 4584, which related to recovery and retention of fees for freedom of information requests, was renumbered section 731 of act June 25, 1938, by Pub. L. 102–571, title I, §106(6), Oct. 29, 1992, 106 Stat. 4499, and transferred to section 379f of this title.

§379d. Automation of Food and Drug Administration

(a) In general

The Secretary, acting through the Commissioner of Food and Drugs, shall automate appropriate activities of the Food and Drug Administration to ensure timely review of activities regulated under this chapter.

(b) Authorization of appropriations

There are authorized to be appropriated each fiscal year such sums as are necessary to carry out this section.

(June 25, 1938, ch. 675, §711, formerly §712, as added Pub. L. 101–635, title IV, §401, Nov. 28, 1990, 104 Stat. 4585; renumbered §711, Pub. L. 102–571, title I, §106(3), Oct. 29, 1992, 106 Stat. 4498.)

Prior Provisions

A prior section 711 of act June 25, 1938, was renumbered section 731 by Pub. L. 102–571 and is classified to section 379f of this title.

§379d–1. Conflicts of interest

(a) Definitions

For purposes of this section:

(1) Advisory committee

The term “advisory committee” means an advisory committee under the Federal Advisory Committee Act that provides advice or recommendations to the Secretary regarding activities of the Food and Drug Administration.

(2) Financial interest

The term “financial interest” means a financial interest under section 208(a) of title 18.

(b) Appointments to advisory committees

(1) Recruitment

(A) In general

The Secretary shall—

(i) develop and implement strategies on effective outreach to potential members of advisory committees at universities, colleges, other academic research centers, professional and medical societies, and patient and consumer groups;

(ii) seek input from professional medical and scientific societies to determine the most effective informational and recruitment activities; and

(iii) take into account the advisory committees with the greatest number of vacancies.

(B) Recruitment activities

The recruitment activities under subparagraph (A) may include—

(i) advertising the process for becoming an advisory committee member at medical and scientific society conferences;

(ii) making widely available, including by using existing electronic communications channels, the contact information for the Food and Drug Administration point of contact regarding advisory committee nominations; and

(iii) developing a method through which an entity receiving funding from the National Institutes of Health, the Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, or the Veterans Health Administration can identify a person who the Food and Drug Administration can contact regarding the nomination of individuals to serve on advisory committees.

(2) Evaluation and criteria

When considering a term appointment to an advisory committee, the Secretary shall review the expertise of the individual and the financial disclosure report filed by the individual pursuant to the Ethics in Government Act of 1978 for each individual under consideration for the appointment, so as to reduce the likelihood that an appointed individual will later require a written determination as referred to in section 208(b)(1) of title 18, a written certification as referred to in section 208(b)(3) of title 18, or a waiver as referred to in subsection (c)(2) of this section for service on the committee at a meeting of the committee.

(c) Disclosures; prohibitions on participation; waivers

(1) Disclosure of financial interest

Prior to a meeting of an advisory committee regarding a “particular matter” (as that term is used in section 208 of title 18), each member of the committee who is a full-time Government employee or special Government employee shall disclose to the Secretary financial interests in accordance with subsection (b) of such section 208.

(2) Prohibitions and waivers on participation

(A) In general

Except as provided under subparagraph (B), a member of an advisory committee may not participate with respect to a particular matter considered in an advisory committee meeting if such member (or an immediate family member of such member) has a financial interest that could be affected by the advice given to the Secretary with respect to such matter, excluding interests exempted in regulations issued by the Director of the Office of Government Ethics as too remote or inconsequential to affect the integrity of the services of the Government officers or employees to which such regulations apply.

(B) Waiver

If the Secretary determines it necessary to afford the advisory committee essential expertise, the Secretary may grant a waiver of the prohibition in subparagraph (A) to permit a member described in such subparagraph to—

(i) participate as a non-voting member with respect to a particular matter considered in a committee meeting; or

(ii) participate as a voting member with respect to a particular matter considered in a committee meeting.

(C) Limitation on waivers and other exceptions

(i) Definition

For purposes of this subparagraph, the term “exception” means each of the following with respect to members of advisory committees:

(I) A waiver under section 355(n)(4) of this title (as in effect on the day before September 27, 2007).

(II) A written determination under section 208(b) of title 18.

(III) A written certification under section 208(b)(3) of such title.

(ii) Determination of total number of members slots and member exceptions during fiscal year 2007

The Secretary shall determine—

(I)(aa) for each meeting held by any advisory committee during fiscal year 2007, the number of members who participated in the meeting; and

(bb) the sum of the respective numbers determined under item (aa) (referred to in this subparagraph as the “total number of 2007 meeting slots”); and

(II)(aa) for each meeting held by any advisory committee during fiscal year 2007, the number of members who received an exception for the meeting; and

(bb) the sum of the respective numbers determined under item (aa) (referred to in this subparagraph as the “total number of 2007 meeting exceptions”).

(iii) Determination of percentage regarding exceptions during fiscal year 2007

The Secretary shall determine the percentage constituted by—

(I) the total number of 2007 meeting exceptions; divided by

(II) the total number of 2007 meeting slots.

(iv) Limitation for fiscal years 2008 through 2012

The number of exceptions at the Food and Drug Administration for members of advisory committees for a fiscal year may not exceed the following:

(I) For fiscal year 2008, 95 percent of the percentage determined under clause (iii) (referred to in this clause as the “base percentage”).

(II) For fiscal year 2009, 90 percent of the base percentage.

(III) For fiscal year 2010, 85 percent of the base percentage.

(IV) For fiscal year 2011, 80 percent of the base percentage.

(V) For fiscal year 2012, 75 percent of the base percentage.

(v) Allocation of exceptions

The exceptions authorized under clause (iv) for a fiscal year may be allocated within the centers or other organizational units of the Food and Drug Administration as determined appropriate by the Secretary.

(3) Disclosure of waiver

Notwithstanding section 107(a)(2) of the Ethics in Government Act (5 U.S.C. App.), the following shall apply:

(A) 15 or more days in advance

As soon as practicable, but (except as provided in subparagraph (B)) not later than 15 days prior to a meeting of an advisory committee to which a written determination as referred to in section 208(b)(1) of title 18, a written certification as referred to in section 208(b)(3) of title 18, or a waiver as referred to in paragraph (2)(B) applies, the Secretary shall disclose (other than information exempted from disclosure under section 552 of title 5 and section 552a of title 5 (popularly known as the Freedom of Information Act and the Privacy Act of 1974, respectively)) on the Internet Web site of the Food and Drug Administration—

(i) the type, nature, and magnitude of the financial interests of the advisory committee member to which such determination, certification, or waiver applies; and

(ii) the reasons of the Secretary for such determination, certification, or waiver.

(B) Less than 30 days in advance

In the case of a financial interest that becomes known to the Secretary less than 30 days prior to a meeting of an advisory committee to which a written determination as referred to in section 208(b)(1) of title 18, a written certification as referred to in section 208(b)(3) of title 18, or a waiver as referred to in paragraph (2)(B) applies, the Secretary shall disclose (other than information exempted from disclosure under section 552 of title 5 and section 552a of title 5) on the Internet Web site of the Food and Drug Administration, the information described in clauses (i) and (ii) of subparagraph (A) as soon as practicable after the Secretary makes such determination, certification, or waiver, but in no case later than the date of such meeting.

(d) Public record

The Secretary shall ensure that the public record and transcript of each meeting of an advisory committee includes the disclosure required under subsection (c)(3) (other than information exempted from disclosure under section 552 of title 5 and section 552a of title 5).

(e) Annual report

Not later than February 1 of each year, the Secretary shall submit to the Committee on Appropriations and the Committee on Health, Education, Labor, and Pensions of the Senate, and the Committee on Appropriations and the Committee on Energy and Commerce of the House of Representatives a report that describes—

(1) with respect to the fiscal year that ended on September 30 of the previous year, the number of vacancies on each advisory committee, the number of nominees received for each committee, and the number of such nominees willing to serve;

(2) with respect to such year, the aggregate number of disclosures required under subsection (c)(3) for each meeting of each advisory committee and the percentage of individuals to whom such disclosures did not apply who served on such committee for each such meeting;

(3) with respect to such year, the number of times the disclosures required under subsection (c)(3) occurred under subparagraph (B) of such subsection; and

(4) how the Secretary plans to reduce the number of vacancies reported under paragraph (1) during the fiscal year following such year, and mechanisms to encourage the nomination of individuals for service on an advisory committee, including those who are classified by the Food and Drug Administration as academicians or practitioners.

(f) Periodic review of guidance

Not less than once every 5 years, the Secretary shall review guidance of the Food and Drug Administration regarding conflict of interest waiver determinations with respect to advisory committees and update such guidance as necessary.

(June 25, 1938, ch. 675, §712, as added Pub. L. 110–85, title VII, §701(a), Sept. 27, 2007, 121 Stat. 900.)

References in Text

The Federal Advisory Committee Act, referred to in subsec. (a)(1), is Pub. L. 92–463, Oct. 6, 1972, 86 Stat. 770, which is set out in the Appendix to Title 5, Government Organization and Employees.

The Ethics in Government Act of 1978, referred to in subsecs. (b)(2) and (c)(3), is Pub. L. 95–521, Oct. 26, 1978, 92 Stat. 1824. For complete classification of this Act to the Code, see Short Title note set out under section 101 of Pub. L. 95–521 in the Appendix to Title 5, Government Organization and Employees, and Tables.

The Privacy Act of 1974, referred to in subsec. (c)(3)(A), is Pub. L. 93–579, Dec. 31, 1974, 88 Stat. 1896, which enacted section 552a of Title 5, Government Organization and Employees, and provisions set out as notes under section 552a of Title 5. For complete classification of this Act to the Code, see Short Title of 1974 Amendment note set out under section 552a of Title 5 and Tables.

Prior Provisions

A prior section 712 of act June 25, 1938, was renumbered section 711 by Pub. L. 102–571 and is classified to section 379d of this title.

Effective Date

Section effective Oct. 1, 2007, see section 701(c) of Pub. L. 110–85, set out as an Effective Date of 2007 Amendment note under section 355 of this title.

§379d–2. Policy on the review and clearance of scientific articles published by FDA employees

(a) Definition

In this section, the term “article” means a paper, poster, abstract, book, book chapter, or other published writing.

(b) Policies

The Secretary, through the Commissioner of Food and Drugs, shall establish and make publicly available clear written policies to implement this section and govern the timely submission, review, clearance, and disclaimer requirements for articles.

(c) Timing of submission for review

If an officer or employee, including a Staff Fellow and a contractor who performs staff work, of the Food and Drug Administration is directed by the policies established under subsection (b) to submit an article to the supervisor of such officer or employee, or to some other official of the Food and Drug Administration, for review and clearance before such officer or employee may seek to publish or present such an article at a conference, such officer or employee shall submit such article for such review and clearance not less than 30 days before submitting the article for publication or presentation.

(d) Timing for review and clearance

The supervisor or other reviewing official shall review such article and provide written clearance, or written clearance on the condition of specified changes being made, to such officer or employee not later than 30 days after such officer or employee submitted such article for review.

(e) Non-timely review

If, 31 days after such submission under subsection (c), the supervisor or other reviewing official has not cleared or has not reviewed such article and provided written clearance, such officer or employee may consider such article not to have been cleared and may submit the article for publication or presentation with an appropriate disclaimer as specified in the policies established under subsection (b).

(f) Effect

Nothing in this section shall be construed as affecting any restrictions on such publication or presentation provided by other provisions of law.

(June 25, 1938, ch. 675, §713, as added Pub. L. 110–85, title XI, §1101, Sept. 27, 2007, 121 Stat. 971.)