28 U.S.C.
United States Code, 2010 Edition
Title 28 - JUDICIARY AND JUDICIAL PROCEDURE
PART V - PROCEDURE
CHAPTER 121 - JURIES; TRIAL BY JURY
From the U.S. Government Printing Office, www.gpo.gov

CHAPTER 121—JURIES; TRIAL BY JURY

Sec.
1861.
Declaration of policy.
1862.
Discrimination prohibited.
1863.
Plan for random jury selection.
1864.
Drawing of names from the master jury wheel; completion of juror qualification form.
1865.
Qualifications for jury service.
1866.
Selection and summoning of jury panels.
1867.
Challenging compliance with selection procedures.
1868.
Maintenance and inspection of records.
1869.
Definitions.
1870.
Challenges.
1871.
Fees.
1872.
Issues of fact in Supreme Court.
1873.
Admiralty and maritime cases.
1874.
Actions on bonds and specialties.
1875.
Protection of jurors’ employment.
1876.
Trial by jury in the Court of International Trade.
1877.
Protection of jurors.
1878.
Optional use of a one-step summoning and qualification procedure.

        

Amendments

1992—Pub. L. 102–572, title IV, §403(b), Oct. 29, 1992, 106 Stat. 4512, substituted “Optional” for “Experimental” in item 1878.

1988—Pub. L. 100–702, title VIII, §805(b), Nov. 19, 1988, 102 Stat. 4659, added item 1878.

1983—Pub. L. 97–463, §3(2), Jan. 12, 1983, 96 Stat. 2532, added item 1877.

1980—Pub. L. 96–417, title III, §302(b), Oct. 10, 1980, 94 Stat. 1739, added item 1876.

1978—Pub. L. 95–572, §6(a)(2), Nov. 2, 1978, 92 Stat. 2456, added item 1875.

1968—Pub. L. 90–274, §101, Mar. 27, 1968, 82 Stat. 53, substituted “Declaration of policy” for “Qualifications” as item 1861, “Discrimination prohibited” for “Exemptions” as item 1862, “Plan for random jury selection” for “Exclusion or excuse from service” as item 1863, “Drawing of names from the master jury wheel; completion of juror qualification form” for “Manner of drawing; jury commissioners and their compensation” as item 1864, “Qualifications for jury service” for “Apportionment within district; additional jury commissioners” as item 1865, “Selection and summoning of jury panels” for “Special petit juries; talesmen from bystanders” as item 1866, “Challenging compliance with selection procedures” for “Summoning jurors” as item 1867, “Maintenance and inspection of records” for “Disqualification of marshal or deputy” as item 1868, “Definitions” for “Frequency of service” as item 1869, and reenacted items 1870–1874 without change.

§1861. Declaration of policy

It is the policy of the United States that all litigants in Federal courts entitled to trial by jury shall have the right to grand and petit juries selected at random from a fair cross section of the community in the district or division wherein the court convenes. It is further the policy of the United States that all citizens shall have the opportunity to be considered for service on grand and petit juries in the district courts of the United States, and shall have an obligation to serve as jurors when summoned for that purpose.

(June 25, 1948, ch. 646, 62 Stat. 951; Pub. L. 85–315, part V, §152, Sept. 9, 1957, 71 Stat. 638; Pub. L. 90–274, §101, Mar. 27, 1968, 82 Stat. 54.)

Historical and Revision Notes

Based on title 28, U.S.C., 1940 ed., §§411 and 415 (Mar. 3, 1911, ch. 231, §§275, 278, 38 Stat. 1164, 1165).

The revised section prescribes uniform standards of qualification for jurors in Federal Courts instead of making qualifications depend upon State laws. This is in accord with proposed legislation recommended by the Judicial Conference of the United States.

The last paragraph is added to exclude jurors incompetent to serve as jurors in State courts.

Amendments

1968—Pub. L. 90–274 substituted provisions declaring the policy of the United States with respect to trial by jury and the opportunity to serve on such juries for provisions setting out the required qualifications of Federal jurors, including age, citizenship, residence, freedom from conviction of certain crimes, ability to read, write, speak, and understand the English language, and capability of rendering efficient jury service.

1957—Pub. L. 85–315 substituted “Qualifications of Federal jurors” for “Qualifications” in section catchline.

Pub. L. 85–315 substituted “and who has resided for a period of one year within the judicial district” for “and resides within the judicial district”, and struck out provisions which prohibited service as a grand or petit juror if a person was incompetent to serve as a grand or petit juror by the law of the State in which the district court is held.

Effective Date of 1968 Amendment

Section 104 of Pub. L. 90–274 provided that: “This Act [amending this section and sections 1821, 1862 to 1869, and 1871 of this title, repealing section 867 of Title 48, Territories and Insular Possessions, and enacting provisions set out as notes under this section] shall become effective two hundred and seventy days after the date of enactment [Mar. 27, 1968]: Provided, That this Act shall not apply in any case in which an indictment has been returned or petit jury empaneled prior to such effective date.”

Short Title of 1978 Amendment

Pub. L. 95–572, §1, Nov. 2, 1978, 92 Stat. 2453, provided that: “This Act [enacting sections 1363 and 1875 of this title, amending sections 1863, 1865, 1866, 1869, and 1871 of this title, renumbering section 1363 (relating to construction of references to laws of the United States or Acts of Congress) as section 1364 of this title, and enacting provisions set out as a note under section 1363 of this title] may be cited as the ‘Jury System Improvements Act of 1978’.”

Short Title

Section 1 of Pub. L. 90–274 provided: “That this Act [amending this section and sections 1821, 1862 to 1869, and 1871 of this title, repealing section 867 of Title 48, Territories and Insular Possessions, and enacting provisions set out as notes under this section] may be cited as the ‘Jury Selection and Service Act of 1968’.”

§1862. Discrimination prohibited

No citizen shall be excluded from service as a grand or petit juror in the district courts of the United States or in the Court of International Trade on account of race, color, religion, sex, national origin, or economic status.

(June 25, 1948, ch. 646, 62 Stat. 952; Pub. L. 90–274, §101, Mar. 27, 1968, 82 Stat. 54; Pub. L. 96–417, title III, §302(c), Oct. 10, 1980, 94 Stat. 1739.)

Historical and Revision Notes

This section makes provision for specific exemption of classes of citizens usually excused from jury service in the interest of the public health, safety, or welfare. The inclusion in the jury list of persons so exempted usually serves only to waste the time of the court.

Amendments

1980—Pub. L. 96–417 prohibited discrimination against service as juror in the Court of International Trade.

1968—Pub. L. 90–274 substituted provisions prohibiting discrimination against citizens in their service as jurors because of race, color, religion, sex, national origin, or economic status for provisions identifying three groups as exempt from jury service, including members of the armed forces on active duty, members of fire or police departments, and public officers actively engaged in the performance of official duties.

Effective Date of 1980 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 96–417 effective Nov. 1, 1980, and applicable with respect to civil actions pending on or commenced on or after such date, see section 701(a) of Pub. L. 96–417, set out as a note under section 251 of this title.

Effective Date of 1968 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 90–274 effective 270 days after Mar. 27, 1968, except as to cases in which an indictment has been returned or a petit jury empaneled prior to such effective date, see section 104 of Pub. L. 90–274, set out as a note under section 1861 of this title.

§1863. Plan for random jury selection

(a) Each United States district court shall devise and place into operation a written plan for random selection of grand and petit jurors that shall be designed to achieve the objectives of sections 1861 and 1862 of this title, and that shall otherwise comply with the provisions of this title. The plan shall be placed into operation after approval by a reviewing panel consisting of the members of the judicial council of the circuit and either the chief judge of the district whose plan is being reviewed or such other active district judge of that district as the chief judge of the district may designate. The panel shall examine the plan to ascertain that it complies with the provisions of this title. If the reviewing panel finds that the plan does not comply, the panel shall state the particulars in which the plan fails to comply and direct the district court to present within a reasonable time an alternative plan remedying the defect or defects. Separate plans may be adopted for each division or combination of divisions within a judicial district. The district court may modify a plan at any time and it shall modify the plan when so directed by the reviewing panel. The district court shall promptly notify the panel, the Administrative Office of the United States Courts, and the Attorney General of the United States, of the initial adoption and future modifications of the plan by filing copies therewith. Modifications of the plan made at the instance of the district court shall become effective after approval by the panel. Each district court shall submit a report on the jury selection process within its jurisdiction to the Administrative Office of the United States Courts in such form and at such times as the Judicial Conference of the United States may specify. The Judicial Conference of the United States may, from time to time, adopt rules and regulations governing the provisions and the operation of the plans formulated under this title.

(b) Among other things, such plan shall—

(1) either establish a jury commission, or authorize the clerk of the court, to manage the jury selection process. If the plan establishes a jury commission, the district court shall appoint one citizen to serve with the clerk of the court as the jury commission: Provided, however, That the plan for the District of Columbia may establish a jury commission consisting of three citizens. The citizen jury commissioner shall not belong to the same political party as the clerk serving with him. The clerk or the jury commission, as the case may be, shall act under the supervision and control of the chief judge of the district court or such other judge of the district court as the plan may provide. Each jury commissioner shall, during his tenure in office, reside in the judicial district or division for which he is appointed. Each citizen jury commissioner shall receive compensation to be fixed by the district court plan at a rate not to exceed $50 per day for each day necessarily employed in the performance of his duties, plus reimbursement for travel, subsistence, and other necessary expenses incurred by him in the performance of such duties. The Judicial Conference of the United States may establish standards for allowance of travel, subsistence, and other necessary expenses incurred by jury commissioners.

(2) specify whether the names of prospective jurors shall be selected from the voter registration lists or the lists of actual voters of the political subdivisions within the district or division. The plan shall prescribe some other source or sources of names in addition to voter lists where necessary to foster the policy and protect the rights secured by sections 1861 and 1862 of this title. The plan for the District of Columbia may require the names of prospective jurors to be selected from the city directory rather than from voter lists. The plans for the districts of Puerto Rico and the Canal Zone may prescribe some other source or sources of names of prospective jurors in lieu of voter lists, the use of which shall be consistent with the policies declared and rights secured by sections 1861 and 1862 of this title. The plan for the district of Massachusetts may require the names of prospective jurors to be selected from the resident list provided for in chapter 234A, Massachusetts General Laws, or comparable authority, rather than from voter lists.

(3) specify detailed procedures to be followed by the jury commission or clerk in selecting names from the sources specified in paragraph (2) of this subsection. These procedures shall be designed to ensure the random selection of a fair cross section of the persons residing in the community in the district or division wherein the court convenes. They shall ensure that names of persons residing in each of the counties, parishes, or similar political subdivisions within the judicial district or division are placed in a master jury wheel; and shall ensure that each county, parish, or similar political subdivision within the district or division is substantially proportionally represented in the master jury wheel for that judicial district, division, or combination of divisions. For the purposes of determining proportional representation in the master jury wheel, either the number of actual voters at the last general election in each county, parish, or similar political subdivision, or the number of registered voters if registration of voters is uniformly required throughout the district or division, may be used.

(4) provide for a master jury wheel (or a device similar in purpose and function) into which the names of those randomly selected shall be placed. The plan shall fix a minimum number of names to be placed initially in the master jury wheel, which shall be at least one-half of 1 per centum of the total number of persons on the lists used as a source of names for the district or division; but if this number of names is believed to be cumbersome and unnecessary, the plan may fix a smaller number of names to be placed in the master wheel, but in no event less than one thousand. The chief judge of the district court, or such other district court judge as the plan may provide, may order additional names to be placed in the master jury wheel from time to time as necessary. The plan shall provide for periodic emptying and refilling of the master jury wheel at specified times, the interval for which shall not exceed four years.

(5)(A) except as provided in subparagraph (B), specify those groups of persons or occupational classes whose members shall, on individual request therefor, be excused from jury service. Such groups or classes shall be excused only if the district court finds, and the plan states, that jury service by such class or group would entail undue hardship or extreme inconvenience to the members thereof, and excuse of members thereof would not be inconsistent with sections 1861 and 1862 of this title.

(B) specify that volunteer safety personnel, upon individual request, shall be excused from jury service. For purposes of this subparagraph, the term “volunteer safety personnel” means individuals serving a public agency (as defined in section 1203(6) of title I of the Omnibus Crime Control and Safe Streets Act of 1968 1) in an official capacity, without compensation, as firefighters or members of a rescue squad or ambulance crew.

(6) specify that the following persons are barred from jury service on the ground that they are exempt: (A) members in active service in the Armed Forces of the United States; (B) members of the fire or police departments of any State, the District of Columbia, any territory or possession of the United States, or any subdivision of a State, the District of Columbia, or such territory or possession; (C) public officers in the executive, legislative, or judicial branches of the Government of the United States, or of any State, the District of Columbia, any territory or possession of the United States, or any subdivision of a State, the District of Columbia, or such territory or possession, who are actively engaged in the performance of official duties.

(7) fix the time when the names drawn from the qualified jury wheel shall be disclosed to parties and to the public. If the plan permits these names to be made public, it may nevertheless permit the chief judge of the district court, or such other district court judge as the plan may provide, to keep these names confidential in any case where the interests of justice so require.

(8) specify the procedures to be followed by the clerk or jury commission in assigning persons whose names have been drawn from the qualified jury wheel to grand and petit jury panels.


(c) The initial plan shall be devised by each district court and transmitted to the reviewing panel specified in subsection (a) of this section within one hundred and twenty days of the date of enactment of the Jury Selection and Service Act of 1968. The panel shall approve or direct the modification of each plan so submitted within sixty days thereafter. Each plan or modification made at the direction of the panel shall become effective after approval at such time thereafter as the panel directs, in no event to exceed ninety days from the date of approval. Modifications made at the instance of the district court under subsection (a) of this section shall be effective at such time thereafter as the panel directs, in no event to exceed ninety days from the date of modification.

(d) State, local, and Federal officials having custody, possession, or control of voter registration lists, lists of actual voters, or other appropriate records shall make such lists and records available to the jury commission or clerks for inspection, reproduction, and copying at all reasonable times as the commission or clerk may deem necessary and proper for the performance of duties under this title. The district courts shall have jurisdiction upon application by the Attorney General of the United States to compel compliance with this subsection by appropriate process.

(June 25, 1948, ch. 646, 62 Stat. 952; Pub. L. 90–274, §101, Mar. 27, 1968, 82 Stat. 54; Pub. L. 92–269, §2, Apr. 6, 1972, 86 Stat. 117; Pub. L. 95–572, §2(a), Nov. 2, 1978, 92 Stat. 2453; Pub. L. 100–702, title VIII, §802(b), (c), Nov. 19, 1988, 102 Stat. 4657, 4658; Pub. L. 102–572, title IV, §401, Oct. 29, 1992, 106 Stat. 4511.)

Historical and Revision Notes

Based on title 28, U.S.C., 1940, ed., §415 (Mar. 3, 1911, ch. 231, §278, 36 Stat. 1165).

Subsections (a) and (b) are new and merely declaratory of existing practice.

The phrase “or previous condition of servitude” was omitted as obsolete.

Changes were made in phraseology.

References in Text

Section 1203(6) of title I of the Omnibus Crime Control and Safe Streets Act of 1968, referred to in subsec. (b)(5)(B), was successively renumbered and redesignated as section 1204(8) of the Act which is classified to section 3796b(8) of Title 42, The Public Health and Welfare.

The date of enactment of the Jury Selection and Service Act of 1968, referred to in subsec. (c), is the date of enactment of Pub. L. 90–274, which was approved Mar. 27, 1968.

Amendments

1992—Subsec. (b)(2). Pub. L. 102–572 inserted at end “The plan for the district of Massachusetts may require the names of prospective jurors to be selected from the resident list provided for in chapter 234A, Massachusetts General Laws, or comparable authority, rather than from voter lists.”

1988—Subsec. (b)(5). Pub. L. 100–702, §802(b), designated existing provisions as subpar. (A), inserted “except as provided in subparagraph (B),”, and added subpar. (B).

Subsec. (b)(6). Pub. L. 100–702, §802(b), amended par. (6) generally. Prior to amendment, par. (6) read as follows: “specify those groups of persons or occupational classes whose members shall be barred from jury service on the ground that they are exempt. Such groups or classes shall be exempt only if the district court finds, and the plan states, that their exemption is in the public interest and would not be inconsistent with sections 1861 and 1862 of this title. The plan shall provide for exemption of the following persons: (i) members in active service in the Armed Forces of the United States; (ii) members of the fire or police departments of any State, district, territory, possession, or subdivision thereof; (iii) public officers in the executive, legislative, or judicial branches of the Government of the United States, or any State, district, territory, or possession or subdivision thereof, who are actively engaged in the performance of official duties.”

1978—Subsec. (b)(7) to (9). Pub. L. 95–572 struck out par. (7) relating to random jury selection plan provision for fixing the distance, in miles or in travel time, from each place of holding court beyond which prospective jurors residing should, on individual request, be excused from jury service on the ground of undue hardship in traveling to the place where court was held, now incorporated in definition of “undue hardship or extreme inconvenience” in section 1869(j) of this title, and redesignated pars. (8) and (9) as (7) and (8), respectively.

1972—Subsec. (b)(4). Pub. L. 92–269 inserted provisions requiring the master jury wheel to be emptied and refilled in not greater than four years intervals.

1968—Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 90–274 substituted provisions requiring a written plan covering the random selection of jurors by each United States District Court and the adoption, review, and modification of the plan for provisions authorizing district judges to exclude or excuse for good cause persons called as jurors.

Subsec. (b). Pub. L. 90–274 substituted provisions setting out the nine required features of a plan for random jury selection, including management by commission or clerk, selection from voter registration lists, detailed procedures for selecting names, a master jury wheel, excused or exempted groups, maximum distances of travel, disclosure of names, and procedures for assigning jurors drawn from the jury wheel to particular grand and petit jury panels, for provisions authorizing the district court to excuse, for the public interests, classes or groups upon a finding that such jury service would entail undue hardship, extreme inconvenience, or serious obstruction or delay in the fair and impartial administration of justice.

Subsec. (c). Pub. L. 90–274 substituted provisions covering the transmittal of the plan to a reviewing panel and the modification thereof for provisions prohibiting the exclusion of any citizen from juror service on account of race or color.

Subsec. (d). Pub. L. 90–274 added subsec. (d).

Effective Date of 1992 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 102–572 effective Jan. 1, 1993, see section 1101(a) of Pub. L. 102–572, set out as a note under section 905 of Title 2, The Congress.

Effective Date of 1978 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 95–572 applicable with respect to any grand or petit juror summoned for service or actually serving on or after Nov. 2, 1978, see section 7(a) of Pub. L. 95–572, set out as an Effective Date note under section 1363 of this title.

Effective Date of 1968 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 90–274 effective 270 days after Mar. 27, 1968, except as to cases in which an indictment has been returned or a petit jury empaneled prior to such effective date, see section 104 of Pub. L. 90–274, set out as a note under section 1861 of this title.

Refilling of Master Jury Wheel Not Later Than September 1, 1973; Refilling of Qualified Jury Wheel Not Later Than October 1, 1973; Retroactive Effect

Sections 3 and 4 of Pub. L. 92–269 provided that:

Sec. 3. (a) Each judicial district and each division or combination of divisions within a judicial district, for which a separate plan for random selection of jurors has been adopted pursuant to section 1863 of title 28, United States Code, other than the District of Columbia and the districts of Puerto Rico and the Canal Zone, shall not later than September 1, 1973, refill its master jury wheel with names obtained from the voter registration lists for, or the lists of actual voters in, the 1972 general election.

“(b) The District of Columbia and the judicial districts of Puerto Rico and the Canal Zone shall not later than September 1, 1973, refill their master jury wheels from sources which include the names of persons eighteen years of age or older.

“(c) The qualified jury wheel in each judicial district, and in each division or combination of divisions in a judicial district for which a separate plan for random selection of jurors has been adopted, shall be refilled from the master jury wheel not later than October 1, 1973.

Sec. 4. (a) Nothing in this Act amending this section and section 1865 of this title shall affect the composition of any master jury wheel or qualified jury wheel prior to the date on which it is first refilled in compliance with the terms of section 3.

“(b) Nothing in this Act shall affect the composition or preclude the service of any jury empaneled on or before the date on which the qualified jury wheel from which the jurors’ names were drawn is refilled in compliance with the provisions of section 3.”

1 See References in Text note below.

§1864. Drawing of names from the master jury wheel; completion of juror qualification form

(a) From time to time as directed by the district court, the clerk or a district judge shall draw at random from the master jury wheel the names of as many persons as may be required for jury service. The clerk or jury commission shall post a general notice for public review in the clerk's office and on the court's website explaining the process by which names are periodically and randomly drawn. The clerk or jury commission may, upon order of the court, prepare an alphabetical list of the names drawn from the master jury wheel. Any list so prepared shall not be disclosed to any person except pursuant to the district court plan or pursuant to section 1867 or 1868 of this title. The clerk or jury commission shall mail to every person whose name is drawn from the master wheel a juror qualification form accompanied by instructions to fill out and return the form, duly signed and sworn, to the clerk or jury commission by mail within ten days. If the person is unable to fill out the form, another shall do it for him, and shall indicate that he has done so and the reason therefor. In any case in which it appears that there is an omission, ambiguity, or error in a form, the clerk or jury commission shall return the form with instructions to the person to make such additions or corrections as may be necessary and to return the form to the clerk or jury commission within ten days. Any person who fails to return a completed juror qualification form as instructed may be summoned by the clerk or jury commission forthwith to appear before the clerk or jury commission to fill out a juror qualification form. A person summoned to appear because of failure to return a juror qualification form as instructed who personally appears and executes a juror qualification form before the clerk or jury commission may, at the discretion of the district court, except where his prior failure to execute and mail such form was willful, be entitled to receive for such appearance the same fees and travel allowances paid to jurors under section 1871 of this title. At the time of his appearance for jury service, any person may be required to fill out another juror qualification form in the presence of the jury commission or the clerk or the court, at which time, in such cases as it appears warranted, the person may be questioned, but only with regard to his responses to questions contained on the form. Any information thus acquired by the clerk or jury commission may be noted on the juror qualification form and transmitted to the chief judge or such district court judge as the plan may provide.

(b) Any person summoned pursuant to subsection (a) of this section who fails to appear as directed shall be ordered by the district court forthwith to appear and show cause for his failure to comply with the summons. Any person who fails to appear pursuant to such order or who fails to show good cause for noncompliance with the summons may be fined not more than $1,000, imprisoned not more than three days, ordered to perform community service, or any combination thereof. Any person who willfully misrepresents a material fact on a juror qualification form for the purpose of avoiding or securing service as a juror may be fined not more than $1,000, imprisoned not more than three days, ordered to perform community service, or any combination thereof.

(June 25, 1948, ch. 646, 62 Stat. 952; Pub. L. 90–274, §101, Mar. 27, 1968, 82 Stat. 57; Pub. L. 100–702, title VIII, §803(a), Nov. 19, 1988, 102 Stat. 4658; Pub. L. 110–406, §§5(a), 17(a), Oct. 13, 2008, 122 Stat. 4292, 4295.)

Historical and Revision Notes

Based on title 28, U.S.C., 1940 ed., §§412, 412a (Mar. 3, 1911, ch. 231, §276, 36 Stat. 1164; Feb. 3, 1917, ch. 27, 39 Stat. 873; May 21, 1945, ch. 129, title IV, 59 Stat. 198; July 5, 1946, ch. 541, title IV, 60 Stat. 478).

The words “The district court” were substituted for the phrase “the judge thereof, or by the judge senior in commission in districts having more than one judge” to conform to other sections authorizing appointment of court officers. See section 751 of this title relating to appointment of district court clerk.

The limitation in section 412a of title 28, U.S.C., 1940 ed., that jury commissioners shall serve no more than three days in any one term of court was omitted as unnecessary. This is a matter that may safely be left to the discretion of the court.

The last paragraph was added in conformity with section 11–1401 of the District of Columbia Code, 1940 ed., providing for three jury commissioners.

Changes were made in phraseology.

Senate Revision Amendment

As finally enacted, act July 9, 1947, ch. 211, title IV, 61 Stat. 304, which was classified to Title 28, U.S.C., 1946 ed., §412a, was also a source of this section. Accordingly such act was included by Senate amendment in the schedule of repeals. See 80th Congress Senate Report No. 1559.

Amendments

2008—Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 110–406, §5(a), struck out “publicly” after “judge shall” in first sentence and inserted “The clerk or jury commission shall post a general notice for public review in the clerk's office and on the court's website explaining the process by which names are periodically and randomly drawn.” after first sentence.

Subsec. (b). Pub. L. 110–406, §17(a), substituted “$1,000, imprisoned not more than three days, ordered to perform community service, or any combination thereof.” for “$100 or imprisoned not more than three days, or both.” in two places.

1988—Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 100–702 amended second sentence generally. Prior to amendment, second sentence read as follows: “The clerk or jury commission shall prepare an alphabetical list of the names drawn, which list shall not be disclosed to any person except pursuant to the district court plan and to sections 1867 and 1868 of this title.”

1968—Pub. L. 90–274 substituted provisions for the public drawing of names from the master jury wheel, the completion of the jury qualification form, and the penalties for failure to appear and for misrepresentation of material facts for provisions requiring the drawing of names from a jury box, the refilling of the box by the clerk and a jury commissioner, the requirements and compensation of the commissioner, and the alternate placement of names by the clerk and the commissioner.

Effective Date of 1968 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 90–274 effective 270 days after Mar. 27, 1968, except as to cases in which an indictment has been returned or a petit jury empaneled prior to such effective date, see section 104 of Pub. L. 90–274, set out as a note under section 1861 of this title.

§1865. Qualifications for jury service

(a) The chief judge of the district court, or such other district court judge as the plan may provide, on his initiative or upon recommendation of the clerk or jury commission, or the clerk under supervision of the court if the court's jury selection plan so authorizes, shall determine solely on the basis of information provided on the juror qualification form and other competent evidence whether a person is unqualified for, or exempt, or to be excused from jury service. The clerk shall enter such determination in the space provided on the juror qualification form and in any alphabetical list of names drawn from the master jury wheel. If a person did not appear in response to a summons, such fact shall be noted on said list.

(b) In making such determination the chief judge of the district court, or such other district court judge as the plan may provide, or the clerk if the court's jury selection plan so provides, shall deem any person qualified to serve on grand and petit juries in the district court unless he—

(1) is not a citizen of the United States eighteen years old who has resided for a period of one year within the judicial district;

(2) is unable to read, write, and understand the English language with a degree of proficiency sufficient to fill out satisfactorily the juror qualification form;

(3) is unable to speak the English language;

(4) is incapable, by reason of mental or physical infirmity, to render satisfactory jury service; or

(5) has a charge pending against him for the commission of, or has been convicted in a State or Federal court of record of, a crime punishable by imprisonment for more than one year and his civil rights have not been restored.

(June 25, 1948, ch. 646, 62 Stat. 952; Pub. L. 90–274, §101, Mar. 27, 1968, 82 Stat. 58; Pub. L. 92–269, §1, Apr. 6, 1972, 86 Stat. 117; Pub. L. 95–572, §3(a), Nov. 2, 1978, 92 Stat. 2453; Pub. L. 100–702, title VIII, §803(b), Nov. 19, 1988, 102 Stat. 4658; Pub. L. 106–518, title III, §305, Nov. 13, 2000, 114 Stat. 2418.)

Historical and Revision Notes

Based on title 28, U.S.C., 1940 ed., §§181, 413 (Mar. 3, 1911, ch. 231, §§100, 277, 36 Stat. 1121, 1164).

Section consolidates a part of section 181 with section 413 of title 28, U.S.C., 1940 ed. Other provisions of said section 181 are incorporated in section 115 of this title.

Word “jurors” was changed to “grand and petit jurors” upon authority of Agnew v. United States, 1897, 17 S.Ct. 235, 165 U.S. 36, 41 L.Ed. 624, construing such term to include both types of jurors.

The last sentence of subsection (a) was added to conform with existing practice in many districts. Subsection (b) extends to all districts a provision of section 181 of title 28, U.S.C., 1940 ed., which was designed for the convenience of the districts in Ohio and permitted jurors drawn for service at Cleveland, Toledo, and Columbus to serve at Youngstown, Lima, and Steubenville, respectively.

Changes were made in phraseology.

Amendments

2000—Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 106–518, §305(1), inserted “or the clerk under supervision of the court if the court's jury selection plan so authorizes,” after “jury commission,”.

Subsec. (b). Pub. L. 106–518, §305(2), inserted “or the clerk if the court's jury selection plan so provides,” after “may provide,” in introductory provisions.

1988—Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 100–702 substituted “in any alphabetical” for “the alphabetical”.

1978—Subsec. (b)(5). Pub. L. 95–572 struck out “by pardon or amnesty” after “civil rights have not been restored”.

1972—Subsec. (b)(1). Pub. L. 92–269 substituted “eighteen years old” for “twenty-one years old”.

1968—Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 90–274 substituted provisions for the excusing of persons from jury service by the chief judge of the district court or by other district court judge for provisions requiring the selection of jurors so as to be most favorable to an impartial trial and so as to minimize the expense and burden of jury service.

Subsec. (b). Pub. L. 90–274 substituted provisions setting out the conditions of ineligibility for jury service for provisions authorizing the service of jurors in a place within the district other than the place for which the jurors were summoned.

Effective Date of 1978 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 95–572 applicable with respect to any grand or petit juror summoned for service or actually serving on or after Nov. 2, 1978, see section 7(a) of Pub. L. 95–572, set out as an Effective Date note under section 1363 of this title.

Effective Date of 1968 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 90–274 effective 270 days after Mar. 27, 1968, except as to cases in which an indictment has been returned or a petit jury empaneled prior to such effective date, see section 104 of Pub. L. 90–274, set out as a note under section 1861 of this title.

§1866. Selection and summoning of jury panels

(a) The jury commission, or in the absence thereof the clerk, shall maintain a qualified jury wheel and shall place in such wheel names of all persons drawn from the master jury wheel who are determined to be qualified as jurors and not exempt or excused pursuant to the district court plan. From time to time, the jury commission or the clerk shall draw at random from the qualified jury wheel such number of names of persons as may be required for assignment to grand and petit jury panels. The clerk or jury commission shall post a general notice for public review in the clerk's office and on the court's website explaining the process by which names are periodically and randomly drawn. The jury commission or the clerk shall prepare a separate list of names of persons assigned to each grand and petit jury panel.

(b) When the court orders a grand or petit jury to be drawn, the clerk or jury commission or their duly designated deputies shall issue summonses for the required number of jurors.

Each person drawn for jury service may be served personally, or by registered, certified, or first-class mail addressed to such person at his usual residence or business address.

If such service is made personally, the summons shall be delivered by the clerk or the jury commission or their duly designated deputies to the marshal who shall make such service.

If such service is made by mail, the summons may be served by the marshal or by the clerk, the jury commission or their duly designated deputies, who shall make affidavit of service and shall attach thereto any receipt from the addressee for a registered or certified summons.

(c) Except as provided in section 1865 of this title or in any jury selection plan provision adopted pursuant to paragraph (5) or (6) of section 1863(b) of this title, no person or class of persons shall be disqualified, excluded, excused, or exempt from service as jurors: Provided, That any person summoned for jury service may be (1) excused by the court, or by the clerk under supervision of the court if the court's jury selection plan so authorizes, upon a showing of undue hardship or extreme inconvenience, for such period as the court deems necessary, at the conclusion of which such person either shall be summoned again for jury service under subsections (b) and (c) of this section or, if the court's jury selection plan so provides, the name of such person shall be reinserted into the qualified jury wheel for selection pursuant to subsection (a) of this section, or (2) excluded by the court on the ground that such person may be unable to render impartial jury service or that his service as a juror would be likely to disrupt the proceedings, or (3) excluded upon peremptory challenge as provided by law, or (4) excluded pursuant to the procedure specified by law upon a challenge by any party for good cause shown, or (5) excluded upon determination by the court that his service as a juror would be likely to threaten the secrecy of the proceedings, or otherwise adversely affect the integrity of jury deliberations. No person shall be excluded under clause (5) of this subsection unless the judge, in open court, determines that such is warranted and that exclusion of the person will not be inconsistent with sections 1861 and 1862 of this title. The number of persons excluded under clause (5) of this subsection shall not exceed one per centum of the number of persons who return executed jury qualification forms during the period, specified in the plan, between two consecutive fillings of the master jury wheel. The names of persons excluded under clause (5) of this subsection, together with detailed explanations for the exclusions, shall be forwarded immediately to the judicial council of the circuit, which shall have the power to make any appropriate order, prospective or retroactive, to redress any misapplication of clause (5) of this subsection, but otherwise exclusions effectuated under such clause shall not be subject to challenge under the provisions of this title. Any person excluded from a particular jury under clause (2), (3), or (4) of this subsection shall be eligible to sit on another jury if the basis for his initial exclusion would not be relevant to his ability to serve on such other jury.

(d) Whenever a person is disqualified, excused, exempt, or excluded from jury service, the jury commission or clerk shall note in the space provided on his juror qualification form or on the juror's card drawn from the qualified jury wheel the specific reason therefor.

(e) In any two-year period, no person shall be required to (1) serve or attend court for prospective service as a petit juror for a total of more than thirty days, except when necessary to complete service in a particular case, or (2) serve on more than one grand jury, or (3) serve as both a grand and petit juror.

(f) When there is an unanticipated shortage of available petit jurors drawn from the qualified jury wheel, the court may require the marshal to summon a sufficient number of petit jurors selected at random from the voter registration lists, lists of actual voters, or other lists specified in the plan, in a manner ordered by the court consistent with sections 1861 and 1862 of this title.

(g) Any person summoned for jury service who fails to appear as directed may be ordered by the district court to appear forthwith and show cause for failure to comply with the summons. Any person who fails to show good cause for noncompliance with a summons may be fined not more than $1,000, imprisoned not more than three days, ordered to perform community service, or any combination thereof.

(June 25, 1948, ch. 646, 62 Stat. 952; May 24, 1949, ch. 179, §96, 63 Stat. 103; Pub. L. 90–274, §101, Mar. 27, 1968, 82 Stat. 58; Pub. L. 91–543, Dec. 11, 1970, 84 Stat. 1408; Pub. L. 95–572, §2(b), Nov. 2, 1978, 92 Stat. 2453; Pub. L. 97–463, §2, Jan. 12, 1983, 96 Stat. 2531; Pub. L. 100–702, title VIII, §801, Nov. 19, 1988, 102 Stat. 4657; Pub. L. 110–406, §§4, 5(b), 17(b), Oct. 13, 2008, 122 Stat. 4292, 4295.)

Historical and Revision Notes

1948 Act

Based on title 28, U.S.C., 1940 ed., §§417, 418 (Mar. 3, 1911, ch. 231, §§280, 281, 36 Stat. 1165).

Section consolidates parts of sections 417, 418 of title 28, U.S.C., 1940 ed., with necessary changes in phraseology.

The requirement of section 418 of title 28, U.S.C., 1940 ed., for the summoning of a special jury in accordance with the law of the state was omitted as unnecessary and incongruous in view of other sections of this chapter making adequate provision for summoning jurors.

1949 Act

This section amends section 1866 of title 28, U.S.C., by restoring provision of original law that special juries be impaneled in accordance with laws of the respective States.

Amendments

2008—Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 110–406, §5(b), struck out “publicly” after “clerk shall” in second sentence and inserted “The clerk or jury commission shall post a general notice for public review in the clerk's office and on the court's website explaining the process by which names are periodically and randomly drawn.” after second sentence.

Subsec. (g). Pub. L. 110–406, §17(b), substituted “$1,000, imprisoned not more than three days, ordered to perform community service, or any combination thereof.” for “$100 or imprisoned not more than three days, or both.”

Pub. L. 110–406, §4, substituted “may be ordered” for “shall be ordered” and struck out “his” before “failure to comply”.

1988—Subsec. (c)(1). Pub. L. 100–702 amended cl. (1) generally. Prior to amendment, cl. (1) read as follows: “excused by the court, upon a showing of undue hardship or extreme inconvenience, for such period as the court deems necessary, at the conclusion of which such person shall be summoned again for jury service under subsections (b) and (c) of this section, or”.

1983—Subsec. (b). Pub. L. 97–463, §2, inserted provision in second par. authorizing service by first-class mail of persons drawn for jury service, substituted in fourth par. “If such service is made by mail, the summons may be served by the marshal or by the clerk, the jury commission or their duly designated deputies, who shall make affidavit of service and shall attach thereto any receipt from the addressee for a registered or certified summons” for “If such service is made by registered or certified mail, the summons may be served by the clerk or jury commission or their duly designated deputies who shall make affidavit of service and shall file with such affidavit the addressee's receipt for the registered or certified summons” and struck out provision requiring the marshal, if service was made by the marshal, to attach to his return the addressee's receipt for the registered or certified mail.

1978—Subsec. (c). Pub. L. 95–572 struck out introductory text reference to par. (7) of section 1863(b) of this title.

1970—Subsec. (b). Pub. L. 91–543 inserted provisions authorizing duly designated deputies of the clerk or the jury commission to issue summonses, and deliver them to the marshal for service when personal service is to be made, and provisions authorizing, if service is made by registered or certified mail, the clerk or the jury commission or their duly designated deputies to make service of the summons.

1968—Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 90–274 substituted provisions authorizing the commission or clerk to maintain a jury wheel of qualified jurors and to draw particular panels therefrom for provisions authorizing the marshal to summon talesmen from the bystanders when there is an insufficient number of petit jurors.

Subsec. (b). Pub. L. 90–274 substituted provisions directing the clerk or jury commission to deliver summonses to the marshal for service when the court orders a grand or petit jury to be drawn and setting out the details of service for provisions requiring that, when a special jury was ordered by a district court, it had to be returned by the marshal in the same manner and form as was required in such case by the law of the State in which the district court sat.

Subsecs. (c) to (g). Pub. L. 90–274 added subsecs. (c) to (g).

1949—Act May 24, 1949, divided section into subsections and restored provisions that special juries be impaneled in accordance with State law.

Effective Date of 1978 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 95–572 applicable with respect to any grand or petit juror summoned for service or actually serving on or after Nov. 2, 1978, see section 7(a) of Pub. L. 95–572, set out as an Effective Date note under section 1363 of this title.

Effective Date of 1968 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 90–274 effective 270 days after Mar. 27, 1968, except as to cases in which an indictment has been returned or a petit jury empaneled prior to such effective date, see section 104 of Pub. L. 90–274, set out as a note under section 1861 of this title.

§1867. Challenging compliance with selection procedures

(a) In criminal cases, before the voir dire examination begins, or within seven days after the defendant discovered or could have discovered, by the exercise of diligence, the grounds therefor, whichever is earlier, the defendant may move to dismiss the indictment or stay the proceedings against him on the ground of substantial failure to comply with the provisions of this title in selecting the grand or petit jury.

(b) In criminal cases, before the voir dire examination begins, or within seven days after the Attorney General of the United States discovered or could have discovered, by the exercise of diligence, the grounds therefor, whichever is earlier, the Attorney General may move to dismiss the indictment or stay the proceedings on the ground of substantial failure to comply with the provisions of this title in selecting the grand or petit jury.

(c) In civil cases, before the voir dire examination begins, or within seven days after the party discovered or could have discovered, by the exercise of diligence, the grounds therefor, whichever is earlier, any party may move to stay the proceedings on the ground of substantial failure to comply with the provisions of this title in selecting the petit jury.

(d) Upon motion filed under subsection (a), (b), or (c) of this section, containing a sworn statement of facts which, if true, would constitute a substantial failure to comply with the provisions of this title, the moving party shall be entitled to present in support of such motion the testimony of the jury commission or clerk, if available, any relevant records and papers not public or otherwise available used by the jury commissioner or clerk, and any other relevant evidence. If the court determines that there has been a substantial failure to comply with the provisions of this title in selecting the grand jury, the court shall stay the proceedings pending the selection of a grand jury in conformity with this title or dismiss the indictment, whichever is appropriate. If the court determines that there has been a substantial failure to comply with the provisions of this title in selecting the petit jury, the court shall stay the proceedings pending the selection of a petit jury in conformity with this title.

(e) The procedures prescribed by this section shall be the exclusive means by which a person accused of a Federal crime, the Attorney General of the United States or a party in a civil case may challenge any jury on the ground that such jury was not selected in conformity with the provisions of this title. Nothing in this section shall preclude any person or the United States from pursuing any other remedy, civil or criminal, which may be available for the vindication or enforcement of any law prohibiting discrimination on account of race, color, religion, sex, national origin or economic status in the selection of persons for service on grand or petit juries.

(f) The contents of records or papers used by the jury commission or clerk in connection with the jury selection process shall not be disclosed, except pursuant to the district court plan or as may be necessary in the preparation or presentation of a motion under subsection (a), (b), or (c) of this section, until after the master jury wheel has been emptied and refilled pursuant to section 1863(b)(4) of this title and all persons selected to serve as jurors before the master wheel was emptied have completed such service. The parties in a case shall be allowed to inspect, reproduce, and copy such records or papers at all reasonable times during the preparation and pendency of such a motion. Any person who discloses the contents of any record or paper in violation of this subsection may be fined not more than $1,000 or imprisoned not more than one year, or both.

(June 25, 1948, ch. 646, 62 Stat. 953; Pub. L. 85–259, Sept. 2, 1957, 71 Stat. 583; Pub. L. 90–274, §101, Mar. 27, 1968, 82 Stat. 59.)

Historical and Revision Notes

Based on title 28, U.S.C., 1940 ed., §416 (Mar. 3, 1911, ch. 231, §279, 36 Stat. 1165; Jan. 31, 1929, ch. 126, 45 Stat. 1145).

Provisions for service by a disinterested person when marshal or his deputy is disqualified is incorporated in section 1868 of this title.

Provision for payment and reimbursement of postage and registry fee were omitted as covered by section 560 of this title.

Word “summons” was substituted for “writ of venire facias” in harmony with the Federal Rules of Civil Procedure which abolished unnecessary forms. See Rule 81(b) thereof, and Rule 12 of the Federal Rules of Criminal Procedure.

Provision of section 416 of title 28, U.S.C., 1940 ed., that the receipt of the person so addressed by registered mail should be regarded as personal service, was omitted. Such omission is consistent with Rule 5(b) of the Federal Rules of Civil Procedure providing that service by mail is complete upon mailing.

Provision for attachment to the return of the addressee's receipt for the summons, was inserted to cover its disposition.

Provision that no mileage shall be allowed for service by mail was omitted as unnecessary.

Changes were made in phraseology.

Amendments

1968—Pub. L. 90–274 substituted provisions by which a defendant may assert noncompliance with the selection procedures of the jury for provisions covering the issuance of summonses for jurors and service thereof upon jurors.

1957—Pub. L. 85–259 inserted “or certified” in second and third sentences.

Effective Date of 1968 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 90–274 effective 270 days after Mar. 27, 1968, except as to cases in which an indictment has been returned or a petit jury empaneled prior to such effective date, see section 104 of Pub. L. 90–274, set out as a note under section 1861 of this title.

§1868. Maintenance and inspection of records

After the master jury wheel is emptied and refilled pursuant to section 1863(b)(4) of this title, and after all persons selected to serve as jurors before the master wheel was emptied have completed such service, all records and papers compiled and maintained by the jury commission or clerk before the master wheel was emptied shall be preserved in the custody of the clerk for four years or for such longer period as may be ordered by a court, and shall be available for public inspection for the purpose of determining the validity of the selection of any jury.

(June 25, 1948, ch. 646, 62 Stat. 953; Pub. L. 90–274, §101, Mar. 27, 1968, 82 Stat. 60.)

Historical and Revision Notes

Based on title 28, U.S.C., 1940 ed., §§416, 417 (Mar. 3, 1911, ch. 231, §§279, 280, 36 Stat. 1165, Jan. 31, 1929, ch. 126, 45 Stat. 1145).

Section consolidates parts of sections 416, 417 of title 28, U.S.C., 1940 ed., with necessary changes in phraseology.

The remaining portion of section 416 of title 28, U.S.C., 1940 ed., constitutes section 1867 of this title.

The remainder of section 417 of title 28, U.S.C., 1940 ed., is incorporated in section 1866 of this title.

Words, “in the opinion of the court, disqualified” were substituted for “not an indifferent person, or is interested in the event of the cause”.

Amendments

1968—Pub. L. 90–274 substituted provisions for the maintenance and inspection of records in the hands of the commission or clerk before the master wheel was emptied for provisions covering the disqualification of the United States marshal or his deputy and the appointment of a disinterested person by the court.

Effective Date of 1968 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 90–274 effective 270 days after Mar. 27, 1968, except as to cases in which an indictment has been returned or a petit jury empaneled prior to such effective date, see section 104 of Pub. L. 90–274, set out as a note under section 1861 of this title.

§1869. Definitions

For purposes of this chapter—

(a) “clerk” and “clerk of the court” shall mean the clerk of the district court of the United States, any authorized deputy clerk, and any other person authorized by the court to assist the clerk in the performance of functions under this chapter;

(b) “chief judge” shall mean the chief judge of any district court of the United States;

(c) “voter registration lists” shall mean the official records maintained by State or local election officials of persons registered to vote in either the most recent State or the most recent Federal general election, or, in the case of a State or political subdivision thereof that does not require registration as a prerequisite to voting, other official lists of persons qualified to vote in such election. The term shall also include the list of eligible voters maintained by any Federal examiner pursuant to the Voting Rights Act of 1965 where the names on such list have not been included on the official registration lists or other official lists maintained by the appropriate State or local officials. With respect to the districts of Guam and the Virgin Islands, “voter registration lists” shall mean the official records maintained by territorial election officials of persons registered to vote in the most recent territorial general election;

(d) “lists of actual voters” shall mean the official lists of persons actually voting in either the most recent State or the most recent Federal general election;

(e) “division” shall mean: (1) one or more statutory divisions of a judicial district; or (2) in statutory divisions that contain more than one place of holding court, or in judicial districts where there are no statutory divisions, such counties, parishes, or similar political subdivisions surrounding the places where court is held as the district court plan shall determine: Provided, That each county, parish, or similar political subdivision shall be included in some such division;

(f) “district court of the United States”, “district court”, and “court” shall mean any district court established by chapter 5 of this title, and any court which is created by Act of Congress in a territory and is invested with any jurisdiction of a district court established by chapter 5 of this title;

(g) “jury wheel” shall include any device or system similar in purpose or function, such as a properly programed electronic data processing system or device;

(h) “juror qualification form” shall mean a form prescribed by the Administrative Office of the United States Courts and approved by the Judicial Conference of the United States, which shall elicit the name, address, age, race, occupation, education, length of residence within the judicial district, distance from residence to place of holding court, prior jury service, and citizenship of a potential juror, and whether he should be excused or exempted from jury service, has any physical or mental infirmity impairing his capacity to serve as juror, is able to read, write, speak, and understand the English language, has pending against him any charge for the commission of a State or Federal criminal offense punishable by imprisonment for more than one year, or has been convicted in any State or Federal court of record of a crime punishable by imprisonment for more than one year and has not had his civil rights restored. The form shall request, but not require, any other information not inconsistent with the provisions of this title and required by the district court plan in the interests of the sound administration of justice. The form shall also elicit the sworn statement that his responses are true to the best of his knowledge. Notarization shall not be required. The form shall contain words clearly informing the person that the furnishing of any information with respect to his religion, national origin, or economic status is not a prerequisite to his qualification for jury service, that such information need not be furnished if the person finds it objectionable to do so, and that information concerning race is required solely to enforce nondiscrimination in jury selection and has no bearing on an individual's qualification for jury service.

(i) “public officer” shall mean a person who is either elected to public office or who is directly appointed by a person elected to public office;

(j) “undue hardship or extreme inconvenience”, as a basis for excuse from immediate jury service under section 1866(c)(1) of this chapter, shall mean great distance, either in miles or traveltime, from the place of holding court, grave illness in the family or any other emergency which outweighs in immediacy and urgency the obligation to serve as a juror when summoned, or any other factor which the court determines to constitute an undue hardship or to create an extreme inconvenience to the juror; and in addition, in situations where it is anticipated that a trial or grand jury proceeding may require more than thirty days of service, the court may consider, as a further basis for temporary excuse, severe economic hardship to an employer which would result from the absence of a key employee during the period of such service; and

(k) “jury summons” shall mean a summons issued by a clerk of court, jury commission, or their duly designated deputies, containing either a preprinted or stamped seal of court, and containing the name of the issuing clerk imprinted in preprinted, type, or facsimile manner on the summons or the envelopes transmitting the summons.

(June 25, 1948, ch. 646, 62 Stat. 953; Pub. L. 88–139, §2, Oct. 16, 1963, 77 Stat. 248; Pub. L. 90–274, §101, Mar. 27, 1968, 82 Stat. 61; Pub. L. 91–358, title I, §172(b), July 29, 1970, 84 Stat. 590; Pub. L. 92–437, §1, Sept. 29, 1972, 86 Stat. 740; Pub. L. 95–572, §§3(b), 4, Nov. 2, 1978, 92 Stat. 2453; Pub. L. 95–598, title II, §243, Nov. 6, 1978, 92 Stat. 2671; Pub. L. 99–650, §3, Nov. 14, 1986, 100 Stat. 3641; Pub. L. 100–702, title VIII, §§802(a), 804, Nov. 19, 1988, 102 Stat. 4657, 4658; Pub. L. 110–406, §5(c), Oct. 13, 2008, 122 Stat. 4292.)

Historical and Revision Notes

Based on title 28, U.S.C., 1940 ed., §423 (Mar. 3, 1911, ch. 231, §286, 36 Stat. 1166). Changes were made in phraseology.

References in Text

The Voting Rights Act of 1965, referred to in subsec. (c), is Pub. L. 89–110, Aug. 6, 1965, 79 Stat. 437, as amended, which is classified generally to subchapters I–A (§1973 et seq.), I–B (§1973aa et seq.), and I–C (§1973bb et seq.) of chapter 20 of Title 42, The Public Health and Welfare. For complete classification of this Act to the Code, see Short Title note set out under section 1971 of Title 42 and Tables.

Amendments

2008—Subsecs. (j) to (l). Pub. L. 110–406 inserted “and” at end of subsec. (j), redesignated subsec. (l) as (k), and struck out former subsec. (k) which defined “publicly draw”.

1988—Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 100–702, §802(a), amended subsec. (a) generally, substituting “, any authorized deputy clerk, and any other person authorized by the court to assist the clerk in the performance of functions under this chapter” for “or any authorized deputy clerk”.

Subsec. (f). Pub. L. 100–702, §804, amended subsec. (f) generally. Prior to amendment, subsec. (f) read as follows: “ ‘district court of the United States’, ‘district court’, and ‘court’ shall mean courts constituted under chapter 5 of title 28, United States Code, section 22 of the Organic Act of Guam, as amended (64 Stat. 389; 48 U.S.C. 1424), section 21 of the Revised Organic Act of the Virgin Islands (68 Stat. 506; 48 U.S.C. 1611), and section 1 of title 3, Canal Zone Code;;”.

1986—Subsec. (f). Pub. L. 99–650 struck out “except that for purposes of sections 1861, 1862, 1866(c), 1866(d), and 1867 of this chapter such terms shall include the Superior Court of the District of Columbia” after “Canal Zone Code;”.

1978—Subsec. (f). Pub. L. 95–598 directed the amendment of subsec. (f) by inserting “chapter 6 of title 28, United States Code,” after “chapter 5 of title 28, United States Code,”, which amendment did not become effective pursuant to section 402(b) of Pub. L. 95–598, as amended, set out as an Effective Date note preceding section 101 of Title 11, Bankruptcy.

Subsec. (h). Pub. L. 95–572, §3(b), struck out “by pardon or amnesty” after “civil rights restored”.

Subsecs. (j) to (l). Pub. L. 95–572, §4, added subsecs. (j) to (l).

1972—Subsec. (h). Pub. L. 92–437 added race and occupation to the particulars to be elicited on the juror qualification form, in provisions distinguishing between information to be requested and information to be required, struck out “race and occupation of a potential juror”, and in information to be contained in the form, struck out “race, color” and “occupation” from the particulars, and required additional material to be contained in the form that information concerning race is required solely to enforce nondiscrimination in jury selection and that it has no bearing on an individual's qualification for jury service.

1970—Subsec. (f). Pub. L. 91–358 substituted reference to the Superior Court of the District of Columbia for references to the District of Columbia Court of General Sessions and the Juvenile Court of the District of Columbia.

1968—Pub. L. 90–274 substituted provisions defining “clerk”, “clerk of the court”, “chief judge”, “voter registration lists”, “list of actual voters”, “division”, “district court”, “jury wheel”, “juror qualification form”, and “public officer” for provisions allowing the challenge of a petit juror who had been summoned and attended court as a petit juror at any session held within one year prior to the challenge.

1963—Pub. L. 88–139 substituted “session” for “term”.

Effective Date of 1986 Amendment

Section 4(a) of Pub. L. 99–650 provided in part that: “The provisions of this Act [amending this section] shall take effect 180 days after the date of enactment of this Act [Nov. 14, 1986]”.

Effective Date of 1978 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 95–572 applicable with respect to any grand or petit juror summoned for service or actually serving on or after Nov. 2, 1978, see section 7(a) of Pub. L. 95–572, set out as an Effective Date note under section 1363 of this title.

Effective Date of 1972 Amendment

Section 2 of Pub. L. 92–437 provided that: “This Act [amending this section] shall take effect on the sixtieth day after the date of its enactment [Sept. 29, 1972].”

Effective Date of 1970 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 91–358 effective first day of seventh calendar month which begins after July 29, 1970, see section 199(a) of Pub. L. 91–358, set out as a note under section 1257 of this title.

Effective Date of 1968 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 90–274 effective 270 days after Mar. 27, 1968, except as to cases in which an indictment has been returned or a petit jury empaneled prior to such effective date, see section 104 of Pub. L. 90–274, set out as a note under section 1861 of this title.

Termination of United States District Court for the District of the Canal Zone

For termination of the United States District Court for the District of the Canal Zone at end of the “transition period”, being the 30-month period beginning Oct. 1, 1979, and ending midnight Mar. 31, 1982, see Paragraph 5 of Article XI of the Panama Canal Treaty of 1977 and sections 2101 and 2201 to 2203 of Pub. L. 96–70, title II, Sept. 27, 1979, 93 Stat. 493, formerly classified to sections 3831 and 3841 to 3843, respectively, of Title 22, Foreign Relations and Intercourse.

§1870. Challenges

In civil cases, each party shall be entitled to three peremptory challenges. Several defendants or several plaintiffs may be considered as a single party for the purposes of making challenges, or the court may allow additional peremptory challenges and permit them to be exercised separately or jointly.

All challenges for cause or favor, whether to the array or panel or to individual jurors, shall be determined by the court.

(June 25, 1948, ch. 646, 62 Stat. 953; Pub. L. 86–282, Sept. 16, 1959, 73 Stat. 565.)

Historical and Revision Notes

Based on title 28, U.S.C., 1940 ed., §424 (Mar. 3, 1911, ch. 231, §287, 36 Stat. 1166).

Provisions of section 424 of title 28, U.S.C., 1940 ed., relating to the number of peremptory challenges in criminal cases were deleted as superseded by Rule 24 of the Federal Rules of Criminal Procedure.

The last sentence of the first paragraph was added to permit the same flexibility in the matter of challenges in civil cases as is permitted in criminal cases by said Rule 24.

Words “without aid of triers” at end of section 424 of title 28, U.S.C., 1940 ed., were omitted as surplusage.

Changes were made in phraseology.

Amendments

1959—Pub. L. 86–282 substituted “may” for “shall” after “several plaintiffs”, and “, or the court may allow” for “. If there is more than one defendant the court may allow the defendants”.

§1871. Fees

(a) Grand and petit jurors in district courts appearing pursuant to this chapter shall be paid the fees and allowances provided by this section. The requisite fees and allowances shall be disbursed on the certificate of the clerk of court in accordance with the procedure established by the Director of the Administrative Office of the United States Courts. Attendance fees for extended service under subsection (b) of this section shall be certified by the clerk only upon the order of a district judge.

(b)(1) A juror shall be paid an attendance fee of $40 per day for actual attendance at the place of trial or hearing. A juror shall also be paid the attendance fee for the time necessarily occupied in going to and returning from such place at the beginning and end of such service or at any time during such service.

(2) A petit juror required to attend more than ten days in hearing one case may be paid, in the discretion of the trial judge, an additional fee, not exceeding $10 more than the attendance fee, for each day in excess of ten days on which he is required to hear such case.

(3) A grand juror required to attend more than forty-five days of actual service may be paid, in the discretion of the district judge in charge of the particular grand jury, an additional fee, not exceeding $10 more than the attendance fee, for each day in excess of forty-five days of actual service.

(4) A grand or petit juror required to attend more than ten days of actual service may be paid, in the discretion of the judge, the appropriate fees at the end of the first ten days and at the end of every ten days of service thereafter.

(5) Certification of additional attendance fees may be ordered by the judge to be made effective commencing on the first day of extended service, without reference to the date of such certification.

(c)(1) A travel allowance not to exceed the maximum rate per mile that the Director of the Administrative Office of the United States Courts has prescribed pursuant to section 604(a)(7) of this title for payment to supporting court personnel in travel status using privately owned automobiles shall be paid to each juror, regardless of the mode of transportation actually employed. The prescribed rate shall be paid for the distance necessarily traveled to and from a juror's residence by the shortest practical route in going to and returning from the place of service. Actual mileage in full at the prescribed rate is payable at the beginning and at the end of a juror's term of service.

(2) The Director shall promulgate rules regulating interim travel allowances to jurors. Distances traveled to and from court should coincide with the shortest practical route.

(3) Toll charges for toll roads, bridges, tunnels, and ferries shall be paid in full to the juror incurring such charges. In the discretion of the court, reasonable parking fees may be paid to the juror incurring such fees upon presentation of a valid parking receipt. Parking fees shall not be included in any tabulation of mileage cost allowances.

(4) Any juror who travels to district court pursuant to summons in an area outside of the contiguous forty-eight States of the United States shall be paid the travel expenses provided under this section, or actual reasonable transportation expenses subject to the discretion of the district judge or clerk of court as circumstances indicate, exercising due regard for the mode of transportation, the availability of alternative modes, and the shortest practical route between residence and court.

(5) A grand juror who travels to district court pursuant to a summons may be paid the travel expenses provided under this section or, under guidelines established by the Judicial Conference, the actual reasonable costs of travel by aircraft when travel by other means is not feasible and when certified by the chief judge of the district court in which the grand juror serves.

(d)(1) A subsistence allowance covering meals and lodging of jurors shall be established from time to time by the Director of the Administrative Office of the United States Courts pursuant to section 604(a)(7) of this title, except that such allowance shall not exceed the allowance for supporting court personnel in travel status in the same geographical area. Claims for such allowance shall not require itemization.

(2) A subsistence allowance shall be paid to a juror when an overnight stay is required at the place of holding court, and for the time necessarily spent in traveling to and from the place of attendance if an overnight stay is required.

(3) A subsistence allowance for jurors serving in district courts outside of the contiguous forty-eight States of the United States shall be allowed at a rate not to exceed that per diem allowance which is paid to supporting court personnel in travel status in those areas where the Director of the Administrative Office of the United States Courts has prescribed an increased per diem fee pursuant to section 604(a)(7) of this title.

(e) During any period in which a jury is ordered to be kept together and not to separate, the actual cost of subsistence shall be paid upon the order of the court in lieu of the subsistence allowances payable under subsection (d) of this section. Such allowance for the jurors ordered to be kept separate or sequestered shall include the cost of meals, lodging, and other expenditures ordered in the discretion of the court for their convenience and comfort.

(f) A juror who must necessarily use public transportation in traveling to and from court, the full cost of which is not met by the transportation expenses allowable under subsection (c) of this section on account of the short distance traveled in miles, may be paid, in the discretion of the court, the actual reasonable expense of such public transportation, pursuant to the methods of payment provided by this section. Jurors who are required to remain at the court beyond the normal business closing hour for deliberation or for any other reason may be transported to their homes, or to temporary lodgings where such lodgings are ordered by the court, in a manner directed by the clerk and paid from funds authorized under this section.

(g) The Director of the Administrative Office of the United States Courts shall promulgate such regulations as may be necessary to carry out his authority under this section.

(June 25, 1948, ch. 646, 62 Stat. 953; May 24, 1949, ch. 139, §97, 63 Stat. 103; July 14, 1949, ch. 333, 63 Stat. 411; Pub. L. 85–299, Sept. 7, 1957, 71 Stat. 618; Pub. L. 89–165, Sept. 2, 1965, 79 Stat. 645; Pub. L. 90–274, §102(a), Mar. 27, 1968, 82 Stat. 62; Pub. L. 95–572, §5, Nov. 2, 1978, 92 Stat. 2454; Pub. L. 101–650, title III, §314(b), Dec. 1, 1990, 104 Stat. 5115; Pub. L. 102–572, title IV, §402, Oct. 29, 1992, 106 Stat. 4511; Pub. L. 110–406, §3(a), Oct. 13, 2008, 122 Stat. 4292.)

Historical and Revision Notes

1948 Act

Based on title 28, U.S.C., 1940 ed., §§600, 600a, 600b, 608, and sections 11–1512 and 11–1513 of the D.C. Code, 1940 ed., (R.S. §§236, 323; Apr. 26, 1926, ch. 183, §§1, 2, 44 Stat. 323; May 17, 1932, ch. 190, 47 Stat. 158; Oct. 13, 1941, ch. 431, §2, 55 Stat. 736).

Section consolidates section 600 of title 28, U.S.C., 1940 ed., and sections 11–1512 and 11–1513 of the D.C. Code, 1940 ed., with part of section 608 of title 28, U.S.C., 1940 ed. The remainder of such section 608, relating to payment of witnesses’ compensation, is the basis of section 1825 of this title.

Words “place of service” were substituted for references to attendance at court, in view of the earlier reference to service before commissioners.

The Advisory Committee to the House Committee on Revision of the Laws in revision of this title, recommends a careful study of the compensation of witnesses and jurors. Furthermore, provision should be made for the subsistence of jurors and witnesses serving at such distance from their homes as precludes daily travel to and from the court.

Changes were made in phraseology.

1949 Act

This section incorporates in section 1871 of title 28, U.S.C., with changes in phraseology, the provisions of act of June 25, 1948 (ch. 652, 62 Stat. 1016), which became law subsequent to the enactment of the revision.

Amendments

2008—Subsec. (b)(2). Pub. L. 110–406 substituted “ten days” for “thirty days” in two places.

1992—Subsec. (c)(5). Pub. L. 102–572 added par. (5).

1990—Subsec. (b). Pub. L. 101–650 substituted “$40” for “$30” in par. (1) and “$10” for “$5” in pars. (2) and (3).

1978—Subsecs. (a) to (g). Pub. L. 95–572, in revising text, substituted subsecs. (a) to (g) for prior five unnumbered paragraphs, and among other changes, deleted reference to fees for service before United States commissioners, now provided for in chapter 43 (section 631 et seq.) of this title relating to United States magistrates; increased to $30 from $20 allowance for actual attendance; continued the discretionary additional fee for extended service, increasing to forty-five from thirty days the basic service requirement; generalized travel allowance provisions in place of 10 cents per mile travel allowance from residence to place of service when commencing and terminating service and any necessary daily or interim travel, not to exceed a subsistence allowance of $16 per day; and deleted provision for same fees for service in districts courts for districts of Guam and Canal Zone as provided for services in other Federal district courts as covered in definition of “district court of the United States” in section 1869(f) of this title.

1968—Pub. L. 90–274 increased from $10 to $20 the per diem allowance for grand and petit jurors, increased from $14 to $25 the fee for extra days in cases requiring attendance in excess of 30 days, increased from $10 to $16 the daily subsistence rate when travel appears impracticable, increased from $10 to $20 per day the limit after which payment of fees by the marshal must be on the certificate of the trial judge, provided for the allowance of amounts expended for tolls, for toll roads, for toll tunnels, and for toll bridges, and directed that grand and petit jurors in the district courts for the districts of Guam and the Canal Zone receive the same fees and allowances provided for grand and petit jurors in other district courts of the United States.

1965—Pub. L. 89–165 increased from $7 to $10 the per diem allowance for grand and petit jurors, increased from $10 to $14 the fee for extra days in cases requiring attendance in excess of 30 days, prohibited payment for interim or daily travel at the 10-cent-per-mile rate in excess of the subsistence allowance which would have been paid if he had remained at the place of holding court overnight or during temporary recess, increased from $7 to $10 the daily subsistence rate when travel daily appears impracticable, and increased from $7 to $10 per day the limit after which payment of fees by the marshal must be on the certificate of the trial judge.

1957—Pub. L. 85–299 increased from 7 to 10 cents per mile and $5 to $7 per day the mileage and subsistence allowances of grand and petit jurors.

1949—Act July 14, 1949, increased the per diem fee paid jurors from $5 to $7, provided for per diem fee payments not to exceed $10 for each day in excess of thirty days, increased the mileage payment from 5 cents per mile to 7 cents, and provided for the certification of the judge in cases where the jury fee is in excess of $7 per diem.

Act May 24, 1949, increased jury fees and mileage and subsistence allowances.

Effective Date of 2008 Amendment

Pub. L. 110–406, §3(b), Oct. 13, 2008, 122 Stat. 4292, provided that: “The amendments made by this section [amending this section] shall take effect on October 1, 2009.”

Effective Date of 1992 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 102–572 effective Jan. 1, 1993, see section 1101(a) of Pub. L. 102–572, set out as a note under section 905 of Title 2, The Congress.

Effective Date of 1978 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 95–572 applicable with respect to any grand or petit juror serving on or after the sixtieth day following Nov. 2, 1978, see section 7(b) of Pub. L. 95–572, set out as an Effective Date note under section 1363 of this title.

Effective Date of 1968 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 90–274 effective 270 days after Mar. 27, 1968, except as to cases in which an indictment has been returned or a petit jury empaneled prior to such effective date, see section 104 of Pub. L. 90–274, set out as a note under section 1861 of this title.

Refreshment of Jurors

Pub. L. 101–162, title IV, Nov. 21, 1989, 103 Stat. 1012, provided: “That for fiscal year 1990 and hereafter, funds appropriated under this heading [Courts of Appeals, District Courts and Other Judicial Services and fees of jurors and commissioners] shall be available for refreshment of jurors.”

§1872. Issues of fact in Supreme Court

In all original actions at law in the Supreme Court against citizens of the United States, issues of fact shall be tried by a jury.

(June 25, 1948, ch. 646, 62 Stat. 953.)

Historical and Revision Notes

Based on title 28, U.S.C., 1940 ed., §343 (Mar. 3, 1911, ch. 231, §235, 36 Stat. 1156).

Changes were made in phraseology.

§1873. Admiralty and maritime cases

In any case of admiralty and maritime jurisdiction relating to any matter of contract or tort arising upon or concerning any vessel of twenty tons or upward, enrolled and licensed for the coasting trade, and employed in the business of commerce and navigation between places in different states upon the lakes and navigable waters connecting said lakes, the trial of all issues of fact shall be by jury if either party demands it.

(June 25, 1948, ch. 646, 62 Stat. 953.)

Historical and Revision Notes

Based on title 28, U.S.C., 1940 ed., §770 (R.S. §§566, 648; Mar. 3, 1911, ch. 231, §291, 36 Stat. 1167).

Words “and Territories” following words “in different States” were omitted as obsolete. The act of February 26, 1845, ch. 20, 5 Stat. 726, from which this language was derived was intended primarily to cover the Great Lakes regions.

The first sentence of section 770 of title 28, U.S.C., 1940 ed., providing generally for the right of jury trials in district courts, was omitted as covered by Rule 38 of the Federal Rules of Civil Procedure.

Changes were made in phraseology.

§1874. Actions on bonds and specialties

In all actions to recover the forfeiture annexed to any articles of agreement, covenant, bond, or other specialty, wherein the forfeiture, breach, or nonperformance appears by default or confession of the defendant, the court shall render judgment for the plaintiff for such amount as is due. If the sum is uncertain, it shall, upon request of either party, be assessed by a jury.

(June 25, 1948, ch. 646, 62 Stat. 953.)

Historical and Revision Notes

Based on title 28, U.S.C., 1940 ed., §785 (R.S. §961).

Word “actions” was substituted for “all suits brought,” in view of Rule 2 of the Federal Rules of Civil Procedure. For the same reason, words “according to equity,” after “to recover so much as is due,” were omitted.

Words “or upon demurrer,” after “default or confession of the defendant,” were omitted in view of Federal Rules of Civil Procedure, Rule 7(c), abolishing demurrers.

Changes were made in phraseology.

§1875. Protection of jurors’ employment

(a) No employer shall discharge, threaten to discharge, intimidate, or coerce any permanent employee by reason of such employee's jury service, or the attendance or scheduled attendance in connection with such service, in any court of the United States.

(b) Any employer who violates the provisions of this section—

(1) shall be liable for damages for any loss of wages or other benefits suffered by an employee by reason of such violation;

(2) may be enjoined from further violations of this section and ordered to provide other appropriate relief, including but not limited to the reinstatement of any employee discharged by reason of his jury service; and

(3) shall be subject to a civil penalty of not more than $5,000 for each violation as to each employee, and may be ordered to perform community service.


(c) Any individual who is reinstated to a position of employment in accordance with the provisions of this section shall be considered as having been on furlough or leave of absence during his period of jury service, shall be reinstated to his position of employment without loss of seniority, and shall be entitled to participate in insurance or other benefits offered by the employer pursuant to established rules and practices relating to employees on furlough or leave of absence in effect with the employer at the time such individual entered upon jury service.

(d)(1) An individual claiming that his employer has violated the provisions of this section may make application to the district court for the district in which such employer maintains a place of business and the court shall, upon finding probable merit in such claim, appoint counsel to represent such individual in any action in the district court necessary to the resolution of such claim. Such counsel shall be compensated and necessary expenses repaid to the extent provided by section 3006A of title 18, United States Code.

(2) In any action or proceeding under this section, the court may award a prevailing employee who brings such action by retained counsel a reasonable attorney's fee as part of the costs. The court may tax a defendant employer, as costs payable to the court, the attorney fees and expenses incurred on behalf of a prevailing employee, where such costs were expended by the court pursuant to paragraph (1) of this subsection. The court may award a prevailing employer a reasonable attorney's fee as part of the costs only if the court finds that the action is frivolous, vexatious, or brought in bad faith.

(Added Pub. L. 95–572, §6(a)(1), Nov. 2, 1978, 92 Stat. 2456; amended Pub. L. 97–463, §1, Jan. 12, 1983, 96 Stat. 2531; Pub. L. 110–406, §19, Oct. 13, 2008, 122 Stat. 4295.)

Amendments

2008—Subsec. (b)(3). Pub. L. 110–406 substituted “$5,000 for each violation as to each employee, and may be ordered to perform community service.” for “$1,000 for each violation as to each employee.”

1983—Subsec. (d)(1). Pub. L. 97–463, §1(1), substituted designation “(d)(1)” for “(d)” before “An individual claiming”.

Subsec. (d)(2). Pub. L. 97–463, §1(2), inserted provision empowering the court to tax a defendant employer, as costs payable to the court, the attorney fees and expenses incurred on behalf of a prevailing employee, where such costs were expended by the court pursuant to par. (1) of this subsection and, in existing provisions, substituted “only if the court finds that the action is frivolous” for “if the court determines that the action is frivolous”.

Effective Date

Section applicable with respect to any grand or petit juror summoned for service or actually serving on or after Nov. 2, 1978, see section 7(a) of Pub. L. 95–572, set out as a note under section 1363 of this title.

§1876. Trial by jury in the Court of International Trade

(a) In any civil action in the Court of International Trade which is to be tried before a jury, the jury shall be selected in accordance with the provisions of this chapter and under the procedures set forth in the jury selection plan of the district court for the judicial district in which the case is to be tried.

(b) Whenever the Court of International Trade conducts a jury trial—

(1) the clerk of the district court for the judicial district in which the Court of International Trade is sitting, or an authorized deputy clerk, shall act as clerk of the Court of International Trade for the purposes of selecting and summoning the jury;

(2) the qualifications for jurors shall be the same as those established by section 1865(b) of this title for jurors in the district courts of the United States;

(3) each party shall be entitled to challenge jurors in accordance with section 1870 of this title; and

(4) jurors shall be compensated in accordance with section 1871 of this title.

(Added Pub. L. 96–417, title III, §302(a), Oct. 10, 1980, 94 Stat. 1739.)

Effective Date

Section applicable with respect to civil actions commenced on or after Nov. 1, 1980, see section 701(b)(1)(C) of Pub. L. 96–417, set out as an Effective Date of 1980 Amendment note under section 251 of this title.

§1877. Protection of jurors

(a) Subject to the provisions of this section and title 5 of the United States Code, subchapter 1 of chapter 81, title 5, United States Code, applies to a Federal grand or petit juror, except that entitlement to disability compensation payments does not commence until the day after the date of termination of service as a juror.

(b) In administering this section with respect to a juror covered by this section—

(1) a juror is deemed to receive monthly pay at the minimum rate for grade GS–2 of the General Schedule unless his actual pay as a Government employee while serving on court leave is higher, in which case monthly pay is determined in accordance with section 8114 of title 5, United States Code, and

(2) performance of duty as a juror includes that time when a juror is (A) in attendance at court pursuant to a summons, (B) in deliberation, (C) sequestered by order of a judge, or (D) at a site, by order of the court, for the taking of a view.

(Added Pub. L. 97–463, §3(1), Jan. 12, 1983, 96 Stat. 2531.)

§1878. Optional use of a one-step summoning and qualification procedure

(a) At the option of each district court, jurors may be summoned and qualified in a single procedure, if the court's jury selection plan so authorizes, in lieu of the two separate procedures otherwise provided for by this chapter. Courts shall ensure that a one-step summoning and qualification procedure conducted under this section does not violate the policies and objectives set forth in sections 1861 and 1862 of this title.

(b) Jury selection conducted under this section shall be subject to challenge under section 1867 of this title for substantial failure to comply with the provisions of this title in selecting the jury. However, no challenge under section 1867 of this title shall lie solely on the basis that a jury was selected in accordance with a one-step summoning and qualification procedure authorized by this section.

(Added Pub. L. 100–702, title VIII, §805(a), Nov. 19, 1988, 102 Stat. 4658; amended Pub. L. 102–572, title IV, §403(a), Oct. 29, 1992, 106 Stat. 4512.)

Amendments

1992—Pub. L. 102–572 substituted “Optional” for “Experimental” in section catchline and amended text generally. Prior to amendment, text read as follows:

“(a) The Judicial Conference of the United States is hereby authorized to develop and conduct an experiment in which jurors serving in a limited number of United States district courts shall be qualified and summoned in a single procedure, in lieu of the two separate procedures otherwise provided for by this chapter. The Judicial Conference shall designate the district courts to participate in this experiment, but in no event shall the number of courts participating exceed ten. An experiment may be conducted pursuant to this section for a period not to exceed 2 years. The Judicial Conference shall ensure that an experiment conducted pursuant to this section does not violate the policies and objectives set forth in sections 1861 and 1862 of this title, and shall terminate the experiment immediately if it determines that these policies and objectives are being violated or whenever in its judgment good cause for such termination exists.

“(b) Jury selection conducted pursuant to this section shall be subject to challenge under section 1867 of this title for substantial failure to comply with the provisions of this title in selecting the jury. However, no challenge under section 1867 of this title shall lie solely on the basis that a jury was selected in accordance with an experiment conducted pursuant to this section.”

Effective Date of 1992 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 102–572 effective Jan. 1, 1993, see section 1101(a) of Pub. L. 102–572, set out as a note under section 905 of Title 2, The Congress.

Savings Provision

Section 403(c) of Pub. L. 102–572 provided that: “For courts participating in the experiment authorized under section 1878 of title 28, United States Code (as in effect before the effective date of this section [Jan. 1, 1993]), the amendment made by subsection (a) of this section [amending this section] shall be effective on and after January 1, 1992.”