28 U.S.C.
United States Code, 2010 Edition
Title 28 - JUDICIARY AND JUDICIAL PROCEDURE
PART V - PROCEDURE
CHAPTER 133 - REVIEW-MISCELLANEOUS PROVISIONS
From the U.S. Government Printing Office, www.gpo.gov

CHAPTER 133—REVIEW—MISCELLANEOUS PROVISIONS

Sec.
2101.
Supreme Court; time for appeal or certiorari; docketing; stay.
2102.
Priority of criminal case on appeal from State court.
[2103.
Repealed.]
2104.
Reviews of State court decisions.
2105.
Scope of review; abatement.
2106.
Determination.
2107.
Time for appeal to court of appeals.
2108.
Proof of amount in controversy.
2109.
Quorum of Supreme Court justices absent.
[2110.
Repealed.]
2111.
Harmless error.
2112.
Record on review and enforcement of agency orders.
2113.
Definition.

        

Historical and Revision Notes

1949 Act

This section inserts in the chapter analysis of chapter 133 of title 28, U.S.C., a new item “2111,” in view of the insertion in such title, by another section of this bill, of a new section 2111.

Amendments

1988—Pub. L. 100–352, §5(c), (d)(2), June 27, 1988, 102 Stat. 663, struck out item 2103 “Appeal from State court or from a United States court of appeals improvidently taken regarded as petition for writ of certiorari” and substituted “Reviews of State court decisions” for “Appeals from State courts” in item 2104.

1982—Pub. L. 97–164, title I, §136, Apr. 2, 1982, 96 Stat. 41, struck out item 2110 “Time for appeal to Court of Claims in tort claims cases”.

1970—Pub. L. 91–358, title I, §172(a)(2)(B), July 29, 1970, 84 Stat. 590, added item 2113.

1962—Pub. L. 87–669, §2, Sept. 19, 1962, 76 Stat. 556, substituted “or from a United States court of appeals improvidently taken regarded as petition for” for “improvidently taken regarded as” in item 2103.

1958—Pub. L. 85–791, §1, Aug. 28, 1958, 72 Stat. 941, added item 2112.

1949—Act May 24, 1949, ch. 139, §105, 63 Stat. 104, added item 2111.

§2101. Supreme Court; time for appeal or certiorari; docketing; stay

(a) A direct appeal to the Supreme Court from any decision under section 1253 of this title, holding unconstitutional in whole or in part, any Act of Congress, shall be taken within thirty days after the entry of the interlocutory or final order, judgment or decree. The record shall be made up and the case docketed within sixty days from the time such appeal is taken under rules prescribed by the Supreme Court.

(b) Any other direct appeal to the Supreme Court which is authorized by law, from a decision of a district court in any civil action, suit or proceeding, shall be taken within thirty days from the judgment, order or decree, appealed from, if interlocutory, and within sixty days if final.

(c) Any other appeal or any writ of certiorari intended to bring any judgment or decree in a civil action, suit or proceeding before the Supreme Court for review shall be taken or applied for within ninety days after the entry of such judgment or decree. A justice of the Supreme Court, for good cause shown, may extend the time for applying for a writ of certiorari for a period not exceeding sixty days.

(d) The time for appeal or application for a writ of certiorari to review the judgment of a State court in a criminal case shall be as prescribed by rules of the Supreme Court.

(e) An application to the Supreme Court for a writ of certiorari to review a case before judgment has been rendered in the court of appeals may be made at any time before judgment.

(f) In any case in which the final judgment or decree of any court is subject to review by the Supreme Court on writ of certiorari, the execution and enforcement of such judgment or decree may be stayed for a reasonable time to enable the party aggrieved to obtain a writ of certiorari from the Supreme Court. The stay may be granted by a judge of the court rendering the judgment or decree or by a justice of the Supreme Court, and may be conditioned on the giving of security, approved by such judge or justice, that if the aggrieved party fails to make application for such writ within the period allotted therefor, or fails to obtain an order granting his application, or fails to make his plea good in the Supreme Court, he shall answer for all damages and costs which the other party may sustain by reason of the stay.

(g) The time for application for a writ of certiorari to review a decision of the United States Court of Appeals for the Armed Forces shall be as prescribed by rules of the Supreme Court.

(June 25, 1948, ch. 646, 62 Stat. 961; May 24, 1949, ch. 139, §106, 63 Stat. 104; Pub. L. 98–209, §10(b), Dec. 6, 1983, 97 Stat. 1406; Pub. L. 100–352, §5(b), June 27, 1988, 102 Stat. 663; Pub. L. 103–337, div. A, title IX, §924(d)(1)(C), Oct. 5, 1994, 108 Stat. 2832.)

Historical and Revision Notes

1948 Act

Based on title 28, U.S.C., 1940 ed., §§47, 47a, 349a, 350, 380, 380a, section 29 of title 15, U.S.C., 1940 ed., Commerce and Trade, and section 45 of title 49, U.S.C., 1940 ed., Transportation (Feb. 11, 1903, ch. 544, §2, 32 Stat. 1167; Mar. 3, 1911, ch. 231, §§210, 266, 291, 36 Stat. 1150, 1162, 1167; Mar. 4, 1913, ch. 160, 37 Stat. 1013; Oct. 22, 1913, ch. 32, 38 Stat. 220; Sept. 6, 1916, ch. 448, §6, 39 Stat. 727; Feb. 13, 1925, ch. 229, §§1, 8 (a, b, d), 43 Stat. 938, 940; Jan. 31, 1928, ch. 14, §1, 45 Stat. 54; June 7, 1934, ch. 426, 48 Stat. 936; Aug. 24, 1937, ch. 754, §§2, 3, 50 Stat. 752; June 9, 1944, ch. 239, 58 Stat. 272).

Section consolidates section 350 of title 28, U.S.C., 1940 ed., with those portions of sections 47, 47a, 349a, 380, and 380a, of said title 28, section 29, of title 15, U.S.C., 1940 ed., and section 45 of title 49, U.S.C., 1940 ed., respective time for taking direct appeal. (For disposition of other provisions of said sections, see Distribution Table.)

Subsection (a) of the revised section is derived from sections 349a and 380a of title 28, U.S.C., 1940 ed. The phrase “under rules prescribed by the Supreme Court” was substituted for the phrase “under such rules as may be prescribed by the proper courts” which appeared in both such sections. The Supreme Court by its revised rules 10–13 has made adequate provision for filing record and docketing case. (See Revised Rules of the Supreme Court following section 354 of title 28, U.S.C., 1940 ed.)

Subsection (b) is in accord with sections 47 and 47a of title 28, U.S.C., 1940 ed., and section 29 of title 15, U.S.C., 1940 ed., Commerce and Trade, and section 45 of title 49, U.S.C., 1940 ed., Transportation.

Subsection (c), with respect to the time for taking other appeals or petitioning for a writ of certiorari, substitutes, as more specific, the words “ninety days” for the words “three months” contained in section 350 of title 28, U.S.C., 1940 ed. The provision in said section 350 for allowance of additional time was retained, notwithstanding the language of the Supreme Court in Comm'r v. Bedford's Estate, 1945, 65 S.Ct. 1157, 1159, 325 U.S. 283, 89 L.Ed. 1611, to the effect that the 3 months’ period is “more than ample * * * to determine whether to seek further review”.

In subsection (c), words “in a civil action, suit, or proceeding” were added because section 350 of title 28, U.S.C., 1940 ed., was superseded as to criminal cases by Federal Rules of Criminal Procedure, Rule 39(a)(2), (b)(2).

Words “or the United States Court of Appeals for the District of Columbia” in section 350 of title 28, U.S.C., 1940 ed., were omitted as covered by “court of appeals” in subsection (d) of this revised section.

Words in section 350 of title 28, U.S.C., 1940 ed., “excepting that writs of certiorari to the Supreme Court of the Philippine Islands may be granted where application therefor is made within six months”, were omitted as obsolete, in view of the independence of the Philippines recognized by section 1240 of title 48, U.S.C., 1940 ed., Territories and Insular Possessions.

Subsection (e) relates only to supersedeas or stay of execution of judgments sought to be reviewed in the Supreme Court on writ of certiorari. Supersedeas or stay of proceedings taken to the Supreme Court by appeal from courts of appeals, or direct appeals from a district court or three-judge courts, is governed by Rule 62 of the Federal Rules of Civil Procedure.

Changes were made in phraseology.

1949 Act

This section clarifies the meaning of subsection (c) of section 2101 of title 28, U.S.C. At present, such subsection, after the words, “ninety days after entry of such judgment or decree”, reads, “unless, upon application for writ of certiorari, for good cause, the Supreme Court or a justice thereof allows an additional time not exceeding sixty days.”

The new subsection (d) of section 2101 supplies an omission in revised title 28, U.S.C., and confirms the authority of the Supreme Court to regulate the time for seeking review of State criminal cases.

The other amendment merely renumbers subsections (d) and (e) of such section 2101 as subsections (e) and (f), respectively.

Amendments

1994—Subsec. (g). Pub. L. 103–337 substituted “Court of Appeals for the Armed Forces” for “Court of Military Appeals”.

1988—Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 100–352 substituted “section 1253” for “sections 1252, 1253, and 2282”.

1983—Subsec. (g). Pub. L. 98–209 added subsec. (g).

1949—Subsec. (c). Act May 24, 1949, §106(a), clarified the allowance of an additional 60 days in which to apply for a writ of certiorari.

Subsecs. (d) to (f). Act May 24, 1949, §106(b), added subsec. (d) and redesignated former subsecs. (d) and (e) as (e) and (f), respectively.

Effective Date of 1988 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 100–352 effective ninety days after June 27, 1988, except that such amendment not to apply to cases pending in Supreme Court on such effective date or affect right to review or manner of reviewing judgment or decree of court which was entered before such effective date, see section 7 of Pub. L. 100–352, set out as a note under section 1254 of this title.

Effective Date of 1983 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 98–209 effective on first day of eighth calendar month beginning after Dec. 6, 1983, see section 12(a)(1) of Pub. L. 98–209, set out as a note under section 801 of Title 10, Armed Forces.

§2102. Priority of criminal case on appeal from State court

Criminal cases on review from State courts shall have priority, on the docket of the Supreme Court, over all cases except cases to which the United States is a party and such other cases as the court may decide to be of public importance.

(June 25, 1948, ch. 646, 62 Stat. 962.)

Historical and Revision Notes

Based on title 28, U.S.C., 1940 ed., §351 (Mar. 3, 1911, ch. 231, §253, 36 Stat. 1160; Jan. 31, 1928, ch. 14, §1, 45 Stat. 54).

Changes were made in phraseology.

[§2103. Repealed. Pub. L. 100–352, §5(c), June 27, 1988, 102 Stat. 663]

Section, acts June 25, 1948, ch. 646, 62 Stat. 962; Sept. 19, 1962, Pub. L. 87–669, §1, 76 Stat. 556, provided that appeal from State court or from a United States court of appeals improvidently taken be regarded as petition for writ of certiorari.

Effective Date of Repeal

Repeal effective ninety days after June 27, 1988, except that such repeal not to apply to cases pending in Supreme Court on such effective date or affect right to review or manner of reviewing judgment or decree of court which was entered into before such effective date, see section 7 of Pub. L. 100–352, set out as a note under section 1254 of this title.

§2104. Reviews of State court decisions

A review by the Supreme Court of a judgment or decree of a State court shall be conducted in the same manner and under the same regulations, and shall have the same effect, as if the judgment or decree reviewed had been rendered in a court of the United States.

(June 25, 1948, ch. 646, 62 Stat. 962; Pub. L. 100–352, §5(d)(1), June 27, 1988, 102 Stat. 663.)

Historical and Revision Notes

Based on title 28, U.S.C., 1940 ed., §871 (R.S., §1003).

Words “An appeal to” were substituted for “writs of error from”, in view of the abolition of the writ of error.

Changes were made in phraseology.

Amendments

1988—Pub. L. 100–352 substituted “Reviews of State court decisions” for “Appeals from State courts” in section catchline and amended text generally. Prior to amendment, text read as follows: “An appeal to the Supreme Court from a State court shall be taken in the same manner and under the same regulations, and shall have the same effect, as if the judgment or decree appealed from had been rendered in a court of the United States.”

Effective Date of 1988 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 100–352 effective ninety days after June 27, 1988, except that such amendment not to apply to cases pending in Supreme Court on such effective date or affect right to review or manner of reviewing judgment or decree of court which was entered before such effective date, see section 7 of Pub. L. 100–352, set out as a note under section 1254 of this title.

§2105. Scope of review; abatement

There shall be no reversal in the Supreme Court or a court of appeals for error in ruling upon matters in abatement which do not involve jurisdiction.

(June 25, 1948, ch. 646, 62 Stat. 963.)

Historical and Revision Notes

Based on title 28, U.S.C., 1940 ed., §879 (R.S. §1011; Feb. 18, 1875, ch. 80, §1, 18 Stat. 318).

The revised language is substituted for the provisions of section 879 of title 28, U.S.C., 1940 ed., to avoid any construction that matters of fact are not reviewable in nonjury cases. Such section 879 related to review upon a writ of error which applied only to actions at law. (See Rule 52(a) of the Federal Rules of Civil Procedure limiting the review of questions of fact which renders unnecessary any statutory limitation.)

Rule 7(c) of the Federal Rules of Civil Procedure abolished all pleas, and the rules adopted the motion as a substitute therefor.

Words “matters in abatement” were, therefore, substituted for the abolished “plea in abatement” and “plea to the jurisdiction.”

Changes were made in phraseology.

§2106. Determination

The Supreme Court or any other court of appellate jurisdiction may affirm, modify, vacate, set aside or reverse any judgment, decree, or order of a court lawfully brought before it for review, and may remand the cause and direct the entry of such appropriate judgment, decree, or order, or require such further proceedings to be had as may be just under the circumstances.

(June 25, 1948, ch. 646, 62 Stat. 963.)

Historical and Revision Notes

Based on title 28, U.S.C., 1940 ed., §§344, 876, 877 (R.S. §701; Mar. 3, 1891, ch. 517, §§10, 11, 26 Stat. 829; Mar. 3, 1911, ch. 231, §§231, 236, 237, 291, 36 Stat. 1156, 1167; Dec. 23, 1914, ch. 2, 38 Stat. 790; Sept. 16, 1916, ch. 448, §2, 39 Stat. 726; Feb. 17, 1922, ch. 54, 42 Stat. 366; Feb. 13, 1925, ch. 229, §1, 43 Stat. 937; Jan. 31, 1928, ch. 14, §1, 45 Stat. 54).

Section consolidates part of section 344 of title 28, U.S.C., 1940 ed., with sections 876 and 877 of said title. Other provisions of said section 344 are incorporated in sections 1257 and 2103 of this title.

Words “or a court of appeals” were inserted after “Supreme Court” upon authority of United States v. Illinois Surety Co., C.C.A. 1915, 226 F. 653, affirmed 37 S.Ct. 614, 244 U.S. 376, 61 L.Ed. 1206, wherein it was held that this section also applied to the courts of appeals in view of section 11 of the Circuit Court of Appeals Act of Mar. 3, 1891, ch. 517, 28 Stat. 829.

The revised section will cover instances where the Supreme Court remands a case to the highest court of a State and to the United States Tax Court. It will also cover a remand of a case to the Court of Claims or the Court of Customs and Patent Appeals. For authority to remand a case to The Tax Court, see Equitable Life Assurance Society of U.S. v. Commissioner of Internal Revenue, 1944, 64 S.Ct. 722, 321 U.S. 560, 88 L.Ed. 927.

Revised section will also permit a remand by the Supreme Court to a court of appeals inasmuch as such latter court then would be a lower court. The revised section is in conformity with numerous holdings of the Supreme Court to the effect that such a remand may be made. See especially, Maryland Casualty Co. v. United States, 1929, 49 S.Ct. 484, 279 U.S. 792, 73 L.Ed. 960; Krauss Bros. Co. v. Mellon, 1928, 48 S.Ct. 358, 276 U.S. 386, 72 L.Ed. 620 and Buzyuski v. Luckenbach S. S. Co., 1928, 48 S.Ct. 440, 277 U.S. 226, 72 L.Ed. 860.

The last sentence of section 876 of title 28, U.S.C., 1940 ed., providing that the Supreme Court should not issue execution but should send a special mandate to the inferior court to award execution, was omitted. See rule 34 of the revised rules of the Supreme Court relating to Mandates, and section 1651 of this title authorizing the Supreme Court to issue all writs necessary in aid of its jurisdiction.

Changes were made in phraseology.

§2107. Time for appeal to court of appeals

(a) Except as otherwise provided in this section, no appeal shall bring any judgment, order or decree in an action, suit or proceeding of a civil nature before a court of appeals for review unless notice of appeal is filed, within thirty days after the entry of such judgment, order or decree.

(b) In any such action, suit or proceeding in which the United States or an officer or agency thereof is a party, the time as to all parties shall be sixty days from such entry.

(c) The district court may, upon motion filed not later than 30 days after the expiration of the time otherwise set for bringing appeal, extend the time for appeal upon a showing of excusable neglect or good cause. In addition, if the district court finds—

(1) that a party entitled to notice of the entry of a judgment or order did not receive such notice from the clerk or any party within 21 days of its entry, and

(2) that no party would be prejudiced,


the district court may, upon motion filed within 180 days after entry of the judgment or order or within 14 days after receipt of such notice, whichever is earlier, reopen the time for appeal for a period of 14 days from the date of entry of the order reopening the time for appeal.

(d) This section shall not apply to bankruptcy matters or other proceedings under Title 11.

(June 25, 1948, ch. 646, 62 Stat. 963; May 24, 1949, ch. 139, §§107, 108, 63 Stat. 104; Pub. L. 95–598, title II, §248, Nov. 6, 1978, 92 Stat. 2672; Pub. L. 102–198, §12, Dec. 9, 1991, 105 Stat. 1627; Pub. L. 111–16, §6(3), May 7, 2009, 123 Stat. 1608.)

Historical and Revision Notes

1948 Act

Based on title 28, U.S.C., 1940 ed., §§227a, 230, and section 1142 of title 26, U.S.C., 1940 ed., Internal Revenue Code (Mar. 3, 1891, ch. 517, §11, 26 Stat. 829; Mar. 3, 1911, ch. 231, §129, 36 Stat. 1134; Feb. 13, 1925, ch. 229, §8(c), 43 Stat. 940; Feb. 28, 1927, ch. 228, 44 Stat. 1261; Jan. 31, 1928, ch. 14, §1, 45 Stat. 54; Feb. 10, 1939, ch. 2, §1142, 53 Stat. 165; Oct. 21, 1942, ch. 619, title V, §504(a), (c), 56 Stat. 957).

Section consolidates sections 227a and 230 of title 28, U.S.C., 1940 ed., with section 1142 of title 26, U.S.C., 1940 ed., Internal Revenue Code. Other provisions of such section 227a are incorporated in section 1292 of this title.

Section 227a of title 28, U.S.C., 1940 ed., provided a time limit of 30 days for appeals from patent-infringement decisions, and section 230 of title 28, U.S.C., 1940 ed., permitted 3 months for appeals generally. The revised section adopts the 30-day limit in conformity with recommendations of members of the Judicial Conference of the United States and proposed amendment to Rule 73 of the Federal Rules of Civil Procedure.

Section 1142 of title 26, U.S.C., 1940 ed., provided for 3 months within which to petition for appeal from a decision of The Tax Court. The second paragraph of the revised section reduces this to 60 days for reasons explained above. Other provisions of said section 1142 making a distinction between decisions before and after June 6, 1932, were omitted as executed.

Words “in an action, suit, or proceeding of a civil nature” were added in view of Rule 37 of the Federal Rules of Criminal Procedure prescribing a different limitation for criminal appeals.

Words “notice of appeal is filed” were substituted for provisions of sections 230 of title 28, U.S.C., 1940 ed., and 1142 of title 26, U.S.C., 1940 ed., for petition and allowance of appeal in order to eliminate the useless paper work involved in a pro forma application for appeal and perfunctory allowance of the same. The effect of the section is to require appeals to the courts of appeals in all cases to be taken by filing notice of appeal. See Rule 73(b) of Federal Rules of Civil Procedure.

The case of Mosier v. Federal Reserve Bank of New York, C.C.A. 1942, 132 F.2d 710, holds that the Federal Rules of Civil Procedure changing the method of “taking” an appeal, do not affect the time limitation prescribed by section 230 of title 28, U.S.C., 1940 ed.

Word “order” was added, in two places, after “judgment” so as to make the section cover all appeals of which the courts of appeals have jurisdiction, as set forth in section 1291 et seq. of this title.

The last paragraph was added in conformity with section 48 of title 11, U.S.C., 1940 ed., Bankruptcy, and other sections of that title regulating appellate procedure in bankruptcy matters.

The third paragraph was inserted to conform to the existing practice in Admiralty upon the recommendation of the Committee on the Federal Courts of the New York County Lawyers Association.

The time for appeal to the Court of Customs and Patent Appeals in patent and trade-mark cases is governed by section 89 of title 15, U.S.C., 1940 ed., Commerce and Trade, and section 60 of title 35, U.S.C., 1940 ed., Patents, and Rule 25 of the Rules of such court, and, in customs cases, by section 2601 of this title.

Changes were made in phraseology.

Senate Revision Amendment

By Senate amendment, all provisions relating to the Tax Court were eliminated. Therefore, section 1142 of title 26, U.S.C., Internal Revenue Code, was not one of the sources of this section as finally enacted. However, no change in the text of this section was necessary. See 80th Congress Senate Report No. 1559.

1949 Act

This amendment to section 2107 of title 28, U.S.C., restores the former 15-day limitation of time within which to appeal from an interlocutory order in admiralty.

This amendment eliminates as surplusage the words “in any such action, suit or proceeding,” from the fourth paragraph of section 2107 of title 28, U.S.C., and corrects a typographical error in the same paragraph.

Amendments

2009—Subsec. (c). Pub. L. 111–16 substituted “within 14 days” for “within 7 days” in concluding provisions.

1991—Pub. L. 102–198 designated first and second pars. as subsecs. (a) and (b), respectively, added subsec. (c), designated fifth par. as subsec. (d), and struck out third and fourth pars. which read as follows:

“In any action, suit or proceeding in admiralty, the notice of appeal shall be filed within ninety days after the entry of the order, judgment or decree appealed from, if it is a final decision, and within fifteen days after its entry if it is an interlocutory decree.

“The district court may extend the time for appeal not exceeding thirty days from the expiration of the original time herein prescribed, upon a showing of excusable neglect based on failure of a party to learn of the entry of the judgment, order or decree.”

1978—Pub. L. 95–598 directed the amendment of section by inserting “or the bankruptcy court” after “district court” and by striking out the final par., which amendment did not become effective pursuant to section 402(b) of Pub. L. 95–598, as amended, set out as an Effective Date note preceding section 101 of Title 11, Bankruptcy.

1949—Act May 24, 1949, restored, in third par., the 15-day limitation of time within which to appeal from an interlocutory order in admiralty, and in fourth par., substituted “The district court may” for “The district court, in any such action, suit, or proceeding, may” and corrected spelling of “excusable”.

Effective Date of 2009 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 111–16 effective Dec. 1, 2009, see section 7 of Pub. L. 111–16, set out as a note under section 109 of Title 11, Bankruptcy.

§2108. Proof of amount in controversy

Where the power of any court of appeals to review a case depends upon the amount or value in controversy, such amount or value, if not otherwise satisfactorily disclosed upon the record, may be shown and ascertained by the oath of a party to the case or by other competent evidence.

(June 25, 1948, ch. 646, 62 Stat. 963.)

Historical and Revision Notes

Based on title 28, U.S.C., 1940 ed., §231 (Feb. 13, 1925, ch. 229, §9, 43 Stat. 941).

Words “or in the Supreme Court” were omitted. Section 7 of the 1925 act containing such words related to review by the Supreme Court of the United States of decisions of the Supreme Court of the Philippine Islands and designated a certain jurisdictional amount. Such section 7 has now become obsolete, in view of the recognition of the independence of the Philippines, title 48 U.S.C., 1940 ed., §1240, Territories and Insular Possessions, and there is no other case wherein the power of the Supreme Court to review depends on the amount or value in controversy.

§2109. Quorum of Supreme Court justices absent

If a case brought to the Supreme Court by direct appeal from a district court cannot be heard and determined because of the absence of a quorum of qualified justices, the Chief Justice of the United States may order it remitted to the court of appeals for the circuit including the district in which the case arose, to be heard and determined by that court either sitting in banc or specially constituted and composed of the three circuit judges senior in commission who are able to sit, as such order may direct. The decision of such court shall be final and conclusive. In the event of the disqualification or disability of one or more of such circuit judges, such court shall be filled as provided in chapter 15 of this title.

In any other case brought to the Supreme Court for review, which cannot be heard and determined because of the absence of a quorum of qualified justices, if a majority of the qualified justices shall be of opinion that the case cannot be heard and determined at the next ensuing term, the court shall enter its order affirming the judgment of the court from which the case was brought for review with the same effect as upon affirmance by an equally divided court.

(June 25, 1948, ch. 646, 62 Stat. 963.)

Historical and Revision Notes

Based on portions of section 29 of title 15, U.S.C., 1940 ed., Commerce and Trade, and section 45 of title 49, U.S.C., 1940 ed., Transportation (Feb. 11, 1903, ch. 544, §2, 32 Stat. 823; Mar. 3, 1911, ch. 231, §291, 36 Stat. 1167; June 9, 1944, ch. 239, 58 Stat. 272).

Section consolidates portions of section 29 of title 15, U.S.C., 1940 ed., and section 45 of title 49, U.S.C., 1940 ed., with changes of substance and phraseology.

The revised section includes the principal provisions of sections 29 and 45 of titles 15 and 49, U.S.C., 1940 ed., respectively, in case of the absence of a quorum of qualified Justices of the Supreme Court.

Sections 29 and 45 of titles 15 and 49, U.S.C., 1940 ed., respectively, were identical and were applicable only to decisions of three-judge courts in antitrust cases under section 107 of said title 15 and Interstate Commerce cases under sections 1, 8, and 12 of said title 49, “or any other acts having a like purpose that may hereinafter be enacted.” The revised section broadens and extends the application of such provisions to include “any case involving a direct appeal to the Supreme Court from the decision of a district court or a district court of three judges which cannot be heard and determined because of the absence of a quorum of qualified justices.” It includes direct appeals in criminal cases under section 3731 of title 18 (H.R. 1600, 80th Cong.).

Sections 29 and 45 of titles 15 and 49, U.S.C., 1940 ed., respectively provided that the Supreme Court certify the case to the Circuit Court of Appeals and that the Senior Circuit Judge, qualified to participate should designate himself and two other circuit judges next in order of seniority. Other provisions were made for designation of circuit judges from other circuits in case of insufficient circuit judges being available in the circuit.

The revised section permits the Chief Justice of the United States to designate the “court of appeals” to hear the case in banc or by means of a specially constituted court of appeals composed of the three circuit judges senior in commission who are able to sit. In case of disqualification or disability, the court shall be filled by designation and assignment as provided in chapter 15 of this title.

The provisions of section 29 of title 15, U.S.C., 1940 ed., and section 45 of title 49, U.S.C., 1940 ed., relating to time for appeal are incorporated in section 2101 of this title. The provisions of said sections for direct appeal to the Supreme Court are retained in said titles 15 and 49.

The second paragraph of the revised section is new. It recognizes the necessity of final disposition of litigation in which appellate review has been had and further review by the Supreme Court is impossible for lack of a quorum of qualified justices.

[§2110. Repealed. Pub. L. 97–164, title I, §136, Apr. 2, 1982, 96 Stat. 41]

Section, acts June 25, 1948, ch. 646, 62 Stat. 964; May 24, 1949, ch. 139, §109, 63 Stat. 105, provided that appeals to the Court of Claims in tort claims cases, as provided in section 1504 of this title, be taken within 90 days after the entry of the final judgment of the district court.

Effective Date of Repeal

Repeal effective Oct. 1, 1982, see section 402 of Pub. L. 97–164, set out as an Effective Date of 1982 Amendment note under section 171 of this title.

§2111. Harmless error

On the hearing of any appeal or writ of certiorari in any case, the court shall give judgment after an examination of the record without regard to errors or defects which do not affect the substantial rights of the parties.

(Added May 24, 1949, ch. 139, §110, 63 Stat. 105.)

Historical and Revision Notes

1949 Act

Incorporates in title 28, U.S.C., as section 2111 thereof, the harmless error provisions of section 269 of the Judicial Code (now repealed), which applied to all courts of the United States and to all cases therein and therefore was superseded only in part by the Federal Procedural Rules, which apply only to the United States district courts.

§2112. Record on review and enforcement of agency orders

(a) The rules prescribed under the authority of section 2072 of this title may provide for the time and manner of filing and the contents of the record in all proceedings instituted in the courts of appeals to enjoin, set aside, suspend, modify, or otherwise review or enforce orders of administrative agencies, boards, commissions, and officers. Such rules may authorize the agency, board, commission, or officer to file in the court a certified list of the materials comprising the record and retain and hold for the court all such materials and transmit the same or any part thereof to the court, when and as required by it, at any time prior to the final determination of the proceeding, and such filing of such certified list of the materials comprising the record and such subsequent transmittal of any such materials when and as required shall be deemed full compliance with any provision of law requiring the filing of the record in the court. The record in such proceedings shall be certified and filed in or held for and transmitted to the court of appeals by the agency, board, commission, or officer concerned within the time and in the manner prescribed by such rules. If proceedings are instituted in two or more courts of appeals with respect to the same order, the following shall apply:

(1) If within ten days after issuance of the order the agency, board, commission, or officer concerned receives, from the persons instituting the proceedings, the petition for review with respect to proceedings in at least two courts of appeals, the agency, board, commission, or officer shall proceed in accordance with paragraph (3) of this subsection. If within ten days after the issuance of the order the agency, board, commission, or officer concerned receives, from the persons instituting the proceedings, the petition for review with respect to proceedings in only one court of appeals, the agency, board, commission, or officer shall file the record in that court notwithstanding the institution in any other court of appeals of proceedings for review of that order. In all other cases in which proceedings have been instituted in two or more courts of appeals with respect to the same order, the agency, board, commission, or officer concerned shall file the record in the court in which proceedings with respect to the order were first instituted.

(2) For purposes of paragraph (1) of this subsection, a copy of the petition or other pleading which institutes proceedings in a court of appeals and which is stamped by the court with the date of filing shall constitute the petition for review. Each agency, board, commission, or officer, as the case may be, shall designate by rule the office and the officer who must receive petitions for review under paragraph (1).

(3) If an agency, board, commission, or officer receives two or more petitions for review of an order in accordance with the first sentence of paragraph (1) of this subsection, the agency, board, commission, or officer shall, promptly after the expiration of the ten-day period specified in that sentence, so notify the judicial panel on multidistrict litigation authorized by section 1407 of this title, in such form as that panel shall prescribe. The judicial panel on multidistrict litigation shall, by means of random selection, designate one court of appeals, from among the courts of appeals in which petitions for review have been filed and received within the ten-day period specified in the first sentence of paragraph (1), in which the record is to be filed, and shall issue an order consolidating the petitions for review in that court of appeals. The judicial panel on multidistrict litigation shall, after providing notice to the public and an opportunity for the submission of comments, prescribe rules with respect to the consolidation of proceedings under this paragraph. The agency, board, commission, or officer concerned shall file the record in the court of appeals designated pursuant to this paragraph.

(4) Any court of appeals in which proceedings with respect to an order of an agency, board, commission, or officer have been instituted may, to the extent authorized by law, stay the effective date of the order. Any such stay may thereafter be modified, revoked, or extended by a court of appeals designated pursuant to paragraph (3) with respect to that order or by any other court of appeals to which the proceedings are transferred.

(5) All courts in which proceedings are instituted with respect to the same order, other than the court in which the record is filed pursuant to this subsection, shall transfer those proceedings to the court in which the record is so filed. For the convenience of the parties in the interest of justice, the court in which the record is filed may thereafter transfer all the proceedings with respect to that order to any other court of appeals.


(b) The record to be filed in the court of appeals in such a proceeding shall consist of the order sought to be reviewed or enforced, the findings or report upon which it is based, and the pleadings, evidence, and proceedings before the agency, board, commission, or officer concerned, or such portions thereof (1) as the rules prescribed under the authority of section 2072 of this title may require to be included therein, or (2) as the agency, board, commission, or officer concerned, the petitioner for review or respondent in enforcement, as the case may be, and any intervenor in the court proceeding by written stipulation filed with the agency, board, commission, or officer concerned or in the court in any such proceeding may consistently with the rules prescribed under the authority of section 2072 of this title designate to be included therein, or (3) as the court upon motion of a party or, after a prehearing conference, upon its own motion may by order in any such proceeding designate to be included therein. Such a stipulation or order may provide in an appropriate case that no record need be filed in the court of appeals. If, however, the correctness of a finding of fact by the agency, board, commission, or officer is in question all of the evidence before the agency, board, commission, or officer shall be included in the record except such as the agency, board, commission, or officer concerned, the petitioner for review or respondent in enforcement, as the case may be, and any intervenor in the court proceeding by written stipulation filed with the agency, board, commission, or officer concerned or in the court agree to omit as wholly immaterial to the questioned finding. If there is omitted from the record any portion of the proceedings before the agency, board, commission, or officer which the court subsequently determines to be proper for it to consider to enable it to review or enforce the order in question the court may direct that such additional portion of the proceedings be filed as a supplement to the record. The agency, board, commission, or officer concerned may, at its option and without regard to the foregoing provisions of this subsection, and if so requested by the petitioner for review or respondent in enforcement shall, file in the court the entire record of the proceedings before it without abbreviation.

(c) The agency, board, commission, or officer concerned may transmit to the court of appeals the original papers comprising the whole or any part of the record or any supplemental record, otherwise true copies of such papers certified by an authorized officer or deputy of the agency, board, commission, or officer concerned shall be transmitted. Any original papers thus transmitted to the court of appeals shall be returned to the agency, board, commission, or officer concerned upon the final determination of the review or enforcement proceeding. Pending such final determination any such papers may be returned by the court temporarily to the custody of the agency, board, commission, or officer concerned if needed for the transaction of the public business. Certified copies of any papers included in the record or any supplemental record may also be returned to the agency, board, commission, or officer concerned upon the final determination of review or enforcement proceedings.

(d) The provisions of this section are not applicable to proceedings to review decisions of the Tax Court of the United States or to proceedings to review or enforce those orders of administrative agencies, boards, commissions, or officers which are by law reviewable or enforceable by the district courts.

(Added Pub. L. 85–791, §2, Aug. 28, 1958, 72 Stat. 941; amended Pub. L. 89–773, §5(a), (b), Nov. 6, 1966, 80 Stat. 1323; Pub. L. 100–236, §1, Jan. 8, 1988, 101 Stat. 1731.)

Amendments

1988—Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 100–236 substituted “If proceedings are instituted in two or more courts of appeals with respect to the same order, the following shall apply:” and pars. (1) to (5) for “If proceedings have been instituted in two or more courts of appeals with respect to the same order the agency, board, commission, or officer concerned shall file the record in that one of such courts in which a proceeding with respect to such order was first instituted. The other courts in which such proceedings are pending shall thereupon transfer them to the court of appeals in which the record has been filed. For the convenience of the parties in the interest of justice such court may thereafter transfer all the proceedings with respect to such order to any other court of appeals.”

1966—Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 89–773, §5(a), substituted “The rules prescribed under the authority of section 2072 of this title may provide for the time and manner of filing” for “The several courts of appeal shall have power to adopt, with the approval of the Judicial Conference of the United States, rules, which so far as practicable shall be uniform in all such courts prescribing the time and manner of filing.” See section 2072 of this title.

Subsec. (b). Pub. L. 89–773, §5(b), substituted “the rules prescribed under the authority of section 2072 of this title” for “the said rules of the court of appeals” and for “the rules of such court”.

Effective Date of 1988 Amendment

Section 3 of Pub. L. 100–236 provided that: “The amendments made by this Act [amending this section and section 1369 of Title 33, Navigation and Navigable Waters] take effect 180 days after the date of the enactment of this Act [Jan 8, 1988], except that the judicial panel on multidistrict litigation may issue rules pursuant to subsection (a)(3) of section 2112 of title 28, United States Code (as added by section 1), on or after such date of enactment.”

Savings Provision

Section 5(c) of Pub. L. 89–773 provided that: “The amendments of section 2112 of title 28 of the United States Code made by this Act shall not operate to invalidate or repeal rules adopted under the authority of that section prior to the enactment of this Act [Nov. 6, 1966], which rules shall remain in effect until superseded by rules prescribed under the authority of section 2072 of title 28 of the United States Code as amended by this Act.”

§2113. Definition

For purposes of this chapter, the terms “State court”, “State courts”, and “highest court of a State” include the District of Columbia Court of Appeals.

(Added Pub. L. 91–358, title I, §172(a)(2)(A), July 29, 1970, 84 Stat. 590.)

Effective Date

Section effective the first day of the seventh calendar month which begins after July 29, 1970, see section 199(a) of Pub. L. 91–358, set out as an Effective Date of 1970 Amendment note under section 1257 of this title.