42 U.S.C.
United States Code, 2010 Edition
Title 42 - THE PUBLIC HEALTH AND WELFARE
CHAPTER 143 - INTERCOUNTRY ADOPTIONS
From the U.S. Government Printing Office, www.gpo.gov

CHAPTER 143—INTERCOUNTRY ADOPTIONS

Sec.
14901.
Findings and purposes.
14902.
Definitions.

        

SUBCHAPTER I—UNITED STATES CENTRAL AUTHORITY

14911.
Designation of central authority.
14912.
Responsibilities of the Secretary of State.
14913.
Responsibilities of the Attorney General.
14914.
Annual report on intercountry adoptions.

        

SUBCHAPTER II—PROVISIONS RELATING TO ACCREDITATION AND APPROVAL

14921.
Accreditation or approval required in order to provide adoption services in cases subject to the Convention.
14922.
Process for accreditation and approval; role of accrediting entities.
14923.
Standards and procedures for providing accreditation or approval.
14924.
Secretarial oversight of accreditation and approval.

        

SUBCHAPTER III—RECOGNITION OF CONVENTION ADOPTIONS IN THE UNITED STATES

14931.
Adoptions of children immigrating to the United States.
14932.
Adoptions of children emigrating from the United States.

        

SUBCHAPTER IV—ADMINISTRATION AND ENFORCEMENT

14941.
Access to Convention records.
14942.
Documents of other Convention countries.
14943.
Authorization of appropriations; collection of fees.
14944.
Enforcement.

        

SUBCHAPTER V—GENERAL PROVISIONS

14951.
Recognition of Convention adoptions.
14952.
Special rules for certain cases.
14953.
Relationship to other laws.
14954.
No private right of action.

        

§14901. Findings and purposes

(a) Findings

Congress recognizes—

(1) the international character of the Convention on Protection of Children and Co-operation in Respect of Intercountry Adoption (done at The Hague on May 29, 1993); and

(2) the need for uniform interpretation and implementation of the Convention in the United States and abroad,


and therefore finds that enactment of a Federal law governing adoptions and prospective adoptions subject to the Convention involving United States residents is essential.

(b) Purposes

The purposes of this chapter are—

(1) to provide for implementation by the United States of the Convention;

(2) to protect the rights of, and prevent abuses against, children, birth families, and adoptive parents involved in adoptions (or prospective adoptions) subject to the Convention, and to ensure that such adoptions are in the children's best interests; and

(3) to improve the ability of the Federal Government to assist United States citizens seeking to adopt children from abroad and residents of other countries party to the Convention seeking to adopt children from the United States.

(Pub. L. 106–279, §2, Oct. 6, 2000, 114 Stat. 825.)

References in Text

This chapter, referred to in subsec. (b), was in the original “this Act”, meaning Pub. L. 106–279, Oct. 6, 2000, 114 Stat. 825, which is classified principally to this chapter. For complete classification of this Act to the Code, see Short Title note set out below and Tables.

Effective Dates; Transition Rule

Pub. L. 106–279, title V, §505, Oct. 6, 2000, 114 Stat. 844, provided that:

“(a) Effective Dates.—

“(1) Provisions effective upon enactment.—Sections 2, 3, 101 through 103, 202 through 205, 401(a), 403, 503, and 505(a) [enacting this section and sections 14902, 14911 to 14913, 14922 to 14924, 14941(a), 14943, and 14953 of this title and amending section 622 of this title] shall take effect on the date of the enactment of this Act [Oct. 6, 2000].

“(2) Provisions effective upon the entry into force of the convention.—Subject to subsection (b), the provisions of this Act not specified in paragraph (1) [enacting sections 14914, 14921, 14931, 14932, 14941(b), (c), 14942, 14944, 14951, 14952, and 14954 of this title, amending sections 1101 and 1154 of Title 8, Aliens and Nationality, and enacting provisions set out as notes under this section] shall take effect upon the entry into force of the Convention [Convention on Protection of Children and Co-operation in Respect of Intercountry Adoption] for the United States pursuant to Article 46(2)(a) of the Convention [The Convention entered into force for the United States on Apr. 1, 2008.].

“(b) Transition Rule.—The Convention and this Act [see Short Title note below] shall not apply—

“(1) in the case of a child immigrating to the United States, if the application for advance processing of an orphan petition or petition to classify an orphan as an immediate relative for the child is filed before the effective date described in subsection (a)(2); or

“(2) in the case of a child emigrating from the United States, if the prospective adoptive parents of the child initiated the adoption process in their country of residence with the filing of an appropriate application before the effective date described in subsection (a)(2).”

Short Title

Pub. L. 106–279, §1(a), Oct. 6, 2000, 114 Stat. 825, provided that: “This Act [enacting this chapter and amending section 622 of this title and sections 1101 and 1154 of Title 8, Aliens and Nationality] may be cited as the ‘Intercountry Adoption Act of 2000’.”

§14902. Definitions

As used in this chapter:

(1) Accredited agency

The term “accredited agency” means an agency accredited under subchapter II of this chapter to provide adoption services in the United States in cases subject to the Convention.

(2) Accrediting entity

The term “accrediting entity” means an entity designated under section 14922(a) of this title to accredit agencies and approve persons under subchapter II of this chapter.

(3) Adoption service

The term “adoption service” means—

(A) identifying a child for adoption and arranging an adoption;

(B) securing necessary consent to termination of parental rights and to adoption;

(C) performing a background study on a child or a home study on a prospective adoptive parent, and reporting on such a study;

(D) making determinations of the best interests of a child and the appropriateness of adoptive placement for the child;

(E) post-placement monitoring of a case until final adoption; and

(F) where made necessary by disruption before final adoption, assuming custody and providing child care or any other social service pending an alternative placement.


The term “providing”, with respect to an adoption service, includes facilitating the provision of the service.

(4) Agency

The term “agency” means any person other than an individual.

(5) Approved person

The term “approved person” means a person approved under subchapter II of this chapter to provide adoption services in the United States in cases subject to the Convention.

(6) Attorney General

Except as used in section 14944 of this title, the term “Attorney General” means the Attorney General, acting through the Commissioner of Immigration and Naturalization.

(7) Central authority

The term “central authority” means the entity designated as such by any Convention country under Article 6(1) of the Convention.

(8) Central authority function

The term “central authority function” means any duty required to be carried out by a central authority under the Convention.

(9) Convention

The term “Convention” means the Convention on Protection of Children and Co-operation in Respect of Intercountry Adoption, done at The Hague on May 29, 1993.

(10) Convention adoption

The term “Convention adoption” means an adoption of a child resident in a foreign country party to the Convention by a United States citizen, or an adoption of a child resident in the United States by an individual residing in another Convention country.

(11) Convention record

The term “Convention record” means any item, collection, or grouping of information contained in an electronic or physical document, an electronic collection of data, a photograph, an audio or video tape, or any other information storage medium of any type whatever that contains information about a specific past, current, or prospective Convention adoption (regardless of whether the adoption was made final) that has been preserved in accordance with section 14941(a) of this title by the Secretary of State or the Attorney General.

(12) Convention country

The term “Convention country” means a country party to the Convention.

(13) Other Convention country

The term “other Convention country” means a Convention country other than the United States.

(14) Person

The term “person” shall have the meaning provided in section 1 of title 1 and shall not include any agency of government or tribal government entity.

(15) Person with an ownership or control interest

The term “person with an ownership or control interest” has the meaning given such term in section 1320a–3(a)(3) of this title.

(16) Secretary

The term “Secretary” means the Secretary of State.

(17) State

The term “State” means the 50 States, the District of Columbia, the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico, the Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands, Guam, and the Virgin Islands.

(Pub. L. 106–279, §3, Oct. 6, 2000, 114 Stat. 826.)

References in Text

This chapter, referred to in introductory provisions, was in the original “this Act”, meaning Pub. L. 106–279, Oct. 6, 2000, 114 Stat. 825, known as the Intercountry Adoption Act of 2000, which is classified principally to this chapter. For complete classification of this Act to the Code, see Short Title note set out under section 14901 of this title and Tables.

Subchapter II of this chapter, referred to in pars. (1), (2), and (5), was in the original “title II”, meaning title II of Pub. L. 106–279, Oct. 6, 2000, 114 Stat. 830, which enacted subchapter II of this chapter and amended section 622 of this title. For complete classification of title II to the Code, see Tables.

Effective Date

Section effective Oct. 6, 2000, with transition rule, see section 505(a)(1), (b) of Pub. L. 106–279, set out as an Effective Dates; Transition Rule note under section 14901 of this title.

Abolition of Immigration and Naturalization Service and Transfer of Functions

For abolition of Immigration and Naturalization Service, transfer of functions, and treatment of related references, see note set out under section 1551 of Title 8, Aliens and Nationality.

SUBCHAPTER I—UNITED STATES CENTRAL AUTHORITY

§14911. Designation of central authority

(a) In general

For purposes of the Convention and this chapter—

(1) the Department of State shall serve as the central authority of the United States; and

(2) the Secretary shall serve as the head of the central authority of the United States.

(b) Performance of central authority functions

(1) Except as otherwise provided in this chapter, the Secretary shall be responsible for the performance of all central authority functions for the United States under the Convention and this chapter.

(2) All personnel of the Department of State performing core central authority functions in a professional capacity in the Office of Children's Issues shall have a strong background in consular affairs, personal experience in international adoptions, or professional experience in international adoptions or child services.

(c) Authority to issue regulations

Except as otherwise provided in this chapter, the Secretary may prescribe such regulations as may be necessary to carry out central authority functions on behalf of the United States.

(Pub. L. 106–279, title I, §101, Oct. 6, 2000, 114 Stat. 827.)

References in Text

This chapter, referred to in subsecs. (a), (b)(1), and (c), was in the original “this Act”, meaning Pub. L. 106–279, Oct. 6, 2000, 114 Stat. 825, which is classified principally to this chapter. For complete classification of this Act to the Code, see Short Title note set out under section 14901 of this title and Tables.

Effective Date

Section effective Oct. 6, 2000, with transition rule, see section 505(a)(1), (b) of Pub. L. 106–279, set out as an Effective Dates; Transition Rule note under section 14901 of this title.

§14912. Responsibilities of the Secretary of State

(a) Liaison responsibilities

The Secretary shall have responsibility for—

(1) liaison with the central authorities of other Convention countries; and

(2) the coordination of activities under the Convention by persons subject to the jurisdiction of the United States.

(b) Information exchange

The Secretary shall be responsible for—

(1) providing the central authorities of other Convention countries with information concerning—

(A) accredited agencies and approved persons, agencies and persons whose accreditation or approval has been suspended or canceled, and agencies and persons who have been temporarily or permanently debarred from accreditation or approval;

(B) Federal and State laws relevant to implementing the Convention; and

(C) any other matters necessary and appropriate for implementation of the Convention;


(2) not later than the date of the entry into force of the Convention for the United States (pursuant to Article 46(2)(a) of the Convention) and at least once during each subsequent calendar year, providing to the central authority of all other Convention countries a notice requesting the central authority of each such country to specify any requirements of such country regarding adoption, including restrictions on the eligibility of persons to adopt, with respect to which information on the prospective adoptive parent or parents in the United States would be relevant;

(3) making responses to notices under paragraph (2) available to—

(A) accredited agencies and approved persons; and

(B) other persons or entities performing home studies under section 14921(b)(1) of this title;


(4) ensuring the provision of a background report (home study) on prospective adoptive parent or parents (pursuant to the requirements of section 14923(b)(1)(A)(ii) of this title), through the central authority of each child's country of origin, to the court having jurisdiction over the adoption (or, in the case of a child emigrating to the United States for the purpose of adoption, to the competent authority in the child's country of origin with responsibility for approving the child's emigration) in adequate time to be considered prior to the granting of such adoption or approval;

(5) providing Federal agencies, State courts, and accredited agencies and approved persons with an identification of Convention countries and persons authorized to perform functions under the Convention in each such country; and

(6) facilitating the transmittal of other appropriate information to, and among, central authorities, Federal and State agencies (including State courts), and accredited agencies and approved persons.

(c) Accreditation and approval responsibilities

The Secretary shall carry out the functions prescribed by the Convention with respect to the accreditation of agencies and the approval of persons to provide adoption services in the United States in cases subject to the Convention as provided in subchapter II of this chapter. Such functions may not be delegated to any other Federal agency.

(d) Additional responsibilities

The Secretary—

(1) shall monitor individual Convention adoption cases involving United States citizens; and

(2) may facilitate interactions between such citizens and officials of other Convention countries on matters relating to the Convention in any case in which an accredited agency or approved person is unwilling or unable to provide such facilitation.

(e) Establishment of registry

The Secretary and the Attorney General shall jointly establish a case registry of all adoptions involving immigration of children into the United States and emigration of children from the United States, regardless of whether the adoption occurs under the Convention. Such registry shall permit tracking of pending cases and retrieval of information on both pending and closed cases.

(f) Methods of performing responsibilities

The Secretary may—

(1) authorize public or private entities to perform appropriate central authority functions for which the Secretary is responsible, pursuant to regulations or under agreements published in the Federal Register; and

(2) carry out central authority functions through grants to, or contracts with, any individual or public or private entity, except as may be otherwise specifically provided in this chapter.

(Pub. L. 106–279, title I, §102, Oct. 6, 2000, 114 Stat. 828.)

References in Text

Subchapter II of this chapter, referred to in subsec. (c), was in the original “title II”, meaning title II of Pub. L. 106–279, Oct. 6, 2000, 114 Stat. 830, which enacted subchapter II of this chapter and amended section 622 of this title. For complete classification of title II to the Code, see Tables.

This chapter, referred to in subsec. (f)(2), was in the original “this Act”, meaning Pub. L. 106–279, Oct. 6, 2000, 114 Stat. 825, known as the Intercountry Adoption Act of 2000, which is classified principally to this chapter. For complete classification of this Act to the Code, see Short Title note set out under section 14901 of this title and Tables.

Effective Date

Section effective Oct. 6, 2000, with transition rule, see section 505(a)(1), (b) of Pub. L. 106–279, set out as an Effective Dates; Transition Rule note under section 14901 of this title.

§14913. Responsibilities of the Attorney General

In addition to such other responsibilities as are specifically conferred upon the Attorney General by this chapter, the central authority functions specified in Article 14 of the Convention (relating to the filing of applications by prospective adoptive parents to the central authority of their country of residence) shall be performed by the Attorney General.

(Pub. L. 106–279, title I, §103, Oct. 6, 2000, 114 Stat. 829.)

References in Text

This chapter, referred to in text, was in the original “this Act”, meaning Pub. L. 106–279, Oct. 6, 2000, 114 Stat. 825, known as the Intercountry Adoption Act of 2000, which is classified principally to this chapter. For complete classification of this Act to the Code, see Short Title note set out under section 14901 of this title and Tables.

Effective Date

Section effective Oct. 6, 2000, with transition rule, see section 505(a)(1), (b) of Pub. L. 106–279, set out as an Effective Dates; Transition Rule note under section 14901 of this title.

§14914. Annual report on intercountry adoptions

(a) Reports required

Beginning 1 year after the date of the entry into force of the Convention for the United States and each year thereafter, the Secretary, in consultation with the Attorney General and other appropriate agencies, shall submit a report describing the activities of the central authority of the United States under this chapter during the preceding year to the Committee on International Relations, the Committee on Ways and Means, and the Committee on the Judiciary of the House of Representatives and the Committee on Foreign Relations, the Committee on Finance, and the Committee on the Judiciary of the Senate.

(b) Report elements

Each report under subsection (a) of this section shall set forth with respect to the year concerned, the following:

(1) The number of intercountry adoptions involving immigration to the United States, regardless of whether the adoption occurred under the Convention, including the country from which each child emigrated, the State to which each child immigrated, and the country in which the adoption was finalized.

(2) The number of intercountry adoptions involving emigration from the United States, regardless of whether the adoption occurred under the Convention, including the country to which each child immigrated and the State from which each child emigrated.

(3) The number of Convention placements for adoption in the United States that were disrupted, including the country from which the child emigrated, the age of the child, the date of the placement for adoption, the reasons for the disruption, the resolution of the disruption, the agencies that handled the placement for adoption, and the plans for the child, and in addition, any information regarding disruption or dissolution of adoptions of children from other countries received pursuant to section 622(b)(12) of this title.

(4) The average time required for completion of a Convention adoption, set forth by country from which the child emigrated.

(5) The current list of agencies accredited and persons approved under this chapter to provide adoption services.

(6) The names of the agencies and persons temporarily or permanently debarred under this chapter, and the reasons for the debarment.

(7) The range of adoption fees charged in connection with Convention adoptions involving immigration to the United States and the median of such fees set forth by the country of origin.

(8) The range of fees charged for accreditation of agencies and the approval of persons in the United States engaged in providing adoption services under the Convention.

(Pub. L. 106–279, title I, §104, Oct. 6, 2000, 114 Stat. 829; Pub. L. 109–288, §6(f)(9), Sept. 28, 2006, 120 Stat. 1248.)

References in Text

This chapter, referred to in subsecs. (a) and (b)(5), (6), was in the original “this Act”, meaning Pub. L. 106–279, Oct. 6, 2000, 114 Stat. 825, known as the Intercountry Adoption Act of 2000, which is classified principally to this chapter. For complete classification of this Act to the Code, see Short Title note set out under section 14901 of this title and Tables.

Amendments

2006—Subsec. (b)(3). Pub. L. 109–288 substituted “622(b)(12)” for “622(b)(14)”.

Change of Name

Committee on International Relations of House of Representatives changed to Committee on Foreign Affairs of House of Representatives by House Resolution No. 6, One Hundred Tenth Congress, Jan. 5, 2007.

Effective Date of 2006 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 109–288 effective Oct. 1, 2006, and applicable to payments under parts B and E of subchapter IV of chapter 7 of this title for calendar quarters beginning on or after such date, without regard to whether implementing regulations have been promulgated, and with delay permitted if State legislation is required to meet additional requirements, see section 12(a), (b) of Pub. L. 109–288, set out as a note under section 621 of this title.

Effective Date

Section effective upon entry into force for the United States of the Convention on Protection of Children and Co-operation in Respect of Intercountry Adoption, pursuant to Article 46(2)(a) of the Convention, with transition rule, see section 505(a)(2), (b) of Pub. L. 106–279, set out as an Effective Dates; Transition Rule note under section 14901 of this title.

SUBCHAPTER II—PROVISIONS RELATING TO ACCREDITATION AND APPROVAL

§14921. Accreditation or approval required in order to provide adoption services in cases subject to the Convention

(a) In general

Except as otherwise provided in this subchapter, no person may offer or provide adoption services in connection with a Convention adoption in the United States unless that person—

(1) is accredited or approved in accordance with this subchapter; or

(2) is providing such services through or under the supervision and responsibility of an accredited agency or approved person.

(b) Exceptions

Subsection (a) of this section shall not apply to the following:

(1) Background studies and home studies

The performance of a background study on a child or a home study on a prospective adoptive parent, or any report on any such study by a social work professional or organization who is not providing any other adoption service in the case, if the background or home study is approved by an accredited agency.

(2) Child welfare services

The provision of a child welfare service by a person who is not providing any other adoption service in the case.

(3) Legal services

The provision of legal services by a person who is not providing any adoption service in the case.

(4) Prospective adoptive parents acting on own behalf

The conduct of a prospective adoptive parent on his or her own behalf in the case, to the extent not prohibited by the law of the State in which the prospective adoptive parent resides.

(Pub. L. 106–279, title II, §201, Oct. 6, 2000, 114 Stat. 830.)

References in Text

This subchapter, referred to in subsec. (a), was in the original “this title”, meaning title II of Pub. L. 106–279, Oct. 6, 2000, 114 Stat. 830, which is classified principally to this subchapter. For complete classification of title II to the Code, see Tables.

Effective Date

Section effective upon entry into force for the United States of the Convention on Protection of Children and Co-operation in Respect of Intercountry Adoption, pursuant to Article 46(2)(a) of the Convention, with transition rule, see section 505(a)(2), (b) of Pub. L. 106–279, set out as an Effective Dates; Transition Rule note under section 14901 of this title.

§14922. Process for accreditation and approval; role of accrediting entities

(a) Designation of accrediting entities

(1) In general

The Secretary shall enter into agreements with one or more qualified entities under which such entities will perform the duties described in subsection (b) of this section in accordance with the Convention, this subchapter, and the regulations prescribed under section 14923 of this title, and upon entering into each such agreement shall designate the qualified entity as an accrediting entity.

(2) Qualified entities

In paragraph (1), the term “qualified entity” means—

(A) a nonprofit private entity that has expertise in developing and administering standards for entities providing child welfare services and that meets such other criteria as the Secretary may by regulation establish; or

(B) a public entity (other than a Federal entity), including an agency or instrumentality of State government having responsibility for licensing adoption agencies, that—

(i) has expertise in developing and administering standards for entities providing child welfare services;

(ii) accredits only agencies located in the State in which the public entity is located; and

(iii) meets such other criteria as the Secretary may by regulation establish.

(b) Duties of accrediting entities

The duties described in this subsection are the following:

(1) Accreditation and approval

Accreditation of agencies, and approval of persons, to provide adoption services in the United States in cases subject to the Convention.

(2) Oversight

Ongoing monitoring of the compliance of accredited agencies and approved persons with applicable requirements, including review of complaints against such agencies and persons in accordance with procedures established by the accrediting entity and approved by the Secretary.

(3) Enforcement

Taking of adverse actions (including requiring corrective action, imposing sanctions, and refusing to renew, suspending, or canceling accreditation or approval) for noncompliance with applicable requirements, and notifying the agency or person against whom adverse actions are taken of the deficiencies necessitating the adverse action.

(4) Data, records, and reports

Collection of data, maintenance of records, and reporting to the Secretary, the United States central authority, State courts, and other entities (including on persons and agencies granted or denied approval or accreditation), to the extent and in the manner that the Secretary requires.

(c) Remedies for adverse action by accrediting entity

(1) Correction of deficiency

An agency or person who is the subject of an adverse action by an accrediting entity may re-apply for accreditation or approval (or petition for termination of the adverse action) on demonstrating to the satisfaction of the accrediting entity that the deficiencies necessitating the adverse action have been corrected.

(2) No other administrative review

An adverse action by an accrediting entity shall not be subject to administrative review.

(3) Judicial review

An agency or person who is the subject of an adverse action by an accrediting entity may petition the United States district court in the judicial district in which the agency is located or the person resides to set aside the adverse action. The court shall review the adverse action in accordance with section 706 of title 5, and for purposes of such review the accrediting entity shall be considered an agency within the meaning of section 701 of such title.

(d) Fees

The amount of fees assessed by accrediting entities for the costs of accreditation shall be subject to approval by the Secretary. Such fees may not exceed the costs of accreditation. In reviewing the level of such fees, the Secretary shall consider the relative size of, the geographic location of, and the number of Convention adoption cases managed by the agencies or persons subject to accreditation or approval by the accrediting entity.

(Pub. L. 106–279, title II, §202, Oct. 6, 2000, 114 Stat. 831.)

References in Text

This subchapter, referred to in subsec. (a)(1), was in the original “this title”, meaning title II of Pub. L. 106–279, Oct. 6, 2000, 114 Stat. 830, which is classified principally to this subchapter. For complete classification of title II to the Code, see Tables.

Effective Date

Section effective Oct. 6, 2000, with transition rule, see section 505(a)(1), (b) of Pub. L. 106–279, set out as an Effective Dates; Transition Rule note under section 14901 of this title.

§14923. Standards and procedures for providing accreditation or approval

(a) In general

(1) Promulgation of regulations

The Secretary, shall, by regulation, prescribe the standards and procedures to be used by accrediting entities for the accreditation of agencies and the approval of persons to provide adoption services in the United States in cases subject to the Convention.

(2) Consideration of views

In developing such regulations, the Secretary shall consider any standards or procedures developed or proposed by, and the views of, individuals and entities with interest and expertise in international adoptions and family social services, including public and private entities with experience in licensing and accrediting adoption agencies.

(3) Applicability of notice and comment rules

Subsections (b), (c), and (d) of section 553 of title 5 shall apply in the development and issuance of regulations under this section.

(b) Minimum requirements

(1) Accreditation

The standards prescribed under subsection (a) of this section shall include the requirement that accreditation of an agency may not be provided or continued under this subchapter unless the agency meets the following requirements:

(A) Specific requirements

(i) The agency provides prospective adoptive parents of a child in a prospective Convention adoption a copy of the medical records of the child (which, to the fullest extent practicable, shall include an English-language translation of such records) on a date which is not later than the earlier of the date that is 2 weeks before: (I) the adoption; or (II) the date on which the prospective parents travel to a foreign country to complete all procedures in such country relating to the adoption.

(ii) The agency ensures that a thorough background report (home study) on the prospective adoptive parent or parents has been completed in accordance with the Convention and with applicable Federal and State requirements and transmitted to the Attorney General with respect to each Convention adoption. Each such report shall include a criminal background check and a full and complete statement of all facts relevant to the eligibility of the prospective adopting parent or parents to adopt a child under any requirements specified by the central authority of the child's country of origin under section 14912(b)(3) of this title, including, in the case of a child emigrating to the United States for the purpose of adoption, the requirements of the child's country of origin applicable to adoptions taking place in such country. For purposes of this clause, the term “background report (home study)” includes any supplemental statement submitted by the agency to the Attorney General for the purpose of providing information relevant to any requirements specified by the child's country of origin.

(iii) The agency provides prospective adoptive parents with a training program that includes counseling and guidance for the purpose of promoting a successful intercountry adoption before such parents travel to adopt the child or the child is placed with such parents for adoption.

(iv) The agency employs personnel providing intercountry adoption services on a fee for service basis rather than on a contingent fee basis.

(v) The agency discloses fully its policies and practices, the disruption rates of its placements for intercountry adoption, and all fees charged by such agency for intercountry adoption.

(B) Capacity to provide adoption services

The agency has, directly or through arrangements with other persons, a sufficient number of appropriately trained and qualified personnel, sufficient financial resources, appropriate organizational structure, and appropriate procedures to enable the agency to provide, in accordance with this chapter, all adoption services in cases subject to the Convention.

(C) Use of social service professionals

The agency has established procedures designed to ensure that social service functions requiring the application of clinical skills and judgment are performed only by professionals with appropriate qualifications and credentials.

(D) Records, reports, and information matters

The agency is capable of—

(i) maintaining such records and making such reports as may be required by the Secretary, the United States central authority, and the accrediting entity that accredits the agency;

(ii) cooperating with reviews, inspections, and audits;

(iii) safeguarding sensitive individual information; and

(iv) complying with other requirements concerning information management necessary to ensure compliance with the Convention, this chapter, and any other applicable law.

(E) Liability insurance

The agency agrees to have in force adequate liability insurance for professional negligence and any other insurance that the Secretary considers appropriate.

(F) Compliance with applicable rules

The agency has established adequate measures to comply (and to ensure compliance of their agents and clients) with the Convention, this chapter, and any other applicable law.

(G) Nonprofit organization with state license to provide adoption services

The agency is a private nonprofit organization licensed to provide adoption services in at least one State.

(2) Approval

The standards prescribed under subsection (a) of this section shall include the requirement that a person shall not be approved under this subchapter unless the person is a private for-profit entity that meets the requirements of subparagraphs (A) through (F) of paragraph (1) of this subsection.

(3) Renewal of accreditation or approval

The standards prescribed under subsection (a) of this section shall provide that the accreditation of an agency or approval of a person under this subchapter shall be for a period of not less than 3 years and not more than 5 years, and may be renewed on a showing that the agency or person meets the requirements applicable to original accreditation or approval under this subchapter.

(c) Temporary registration of community based agencies

(1) One-year registration period for medium community based agencies

For a 1-year period after the entry into force of the Convention and notwithstanding subsection (b) of this section, the Secretary may provide, in regulations issued pursuant to subsection (a) of this section, that an agency may register with the Secretary and be accredited to provide adoption services in the United States in cases subject to the Convention during such period if the agency has provided adoption services in fewer than 100 intercountry adoptions in the preceding calendar year and meets the criteria described in paragraph (3).

(2) Two-year registration period for small community-based agencies

For a 2-year period after the entry into force of the Convention and notwithstanding subsection (b) of this section, the Secretary may provide, in regulations issued pursuant to subsection (a) of this section, that an agency may register with the Secretary and be accredited to provide adoption services in the United States in cases subject to the Convention during such period if the agency has provided adoption services in fewer than 50 intercountry adoptions in the preceding calendar year and meets the criteria described in paragraph (3).

(3) Criteria for registration

Agencies registered under this subsection shall meet the following criteria:

(A) The agency is licensed in the State in which it is located and is a nonprofit agency.

(B) The agency has been providing adoption services in connection with intercountry adoptions for at least 3 years.

(C) The agency has demonstrated that it will be able to provide the United States Government with all information related to the elements described in section 14914(b) of this title and provides such information.

(D) The agency has initiated the process of becoming accredited under the provisions of this chapter and is actively taking steps to become an accredited agency.

(E) The agency has not been found to be involved in any improper conduct relating to intercountry adoptions.

(Pub. L. 106–279, title II, §203, Oct. 6, 2000, 114 Stat. 832.)

References in Text

This subchapter, referred to in subsec. (b), was in the original “this title”, meaning title II of Pub. L. 106–279, Oct. 6, 2000, 114 Stat. 830, which is classified principally to this subchapter. For complete classification of title II to the Code, see Tables.

This chapter, referred to in subsecs. (b)(1)(B), (D)(iv), (F) and (c)(3)(D) was in the original “this Act”, meaning Pub. L. 106–279, Oct. 6, 2000, 114 Stat. 825, known as the Intercountry Adoption Act of 2000, which is classified principally to this chapter. For complete classification of this Act to the Code, see Short Title note set out under section 14901 of this title and Tables.

Effective Date

Section effective Oct. 6, 2000, with transition rule, see section 505(a)(1), (b) of Pub. L. 106–279, set out as an Effective Dates; Transition Rule note under section 14901 of this title.

§14924. Secretarial oversight of accreditation and approval

(a) Oversight of accrediting entities

The Secretary shall—

(1) monitor the performance by each accrediting entity of its duties under section 14922 of this title and its compliance with the requirements of the Convention, this chapter, other applicable laws, and implementing regulations under this chapter; and

(2) suspend or cancel the designation of an accrediting entity found to be substantially out of compliance with the Convention, this chapter, other applicable laws, or implementing regulations under this chapter.

(b) Suspension or cancellation of accreditation or approval

(1) Secretary's authority

The Secretary shall suspend or cancel the accreditation or approval granted by an accrediting entity to an agency or person pursuant to section 14922 of this title when the Secretary finds that—

(A) the agency or person is substantially out of compliance with applicable requirements; and

(B) the accrediting entity has failed or refused, after consultation with the Secretary, to take appropriate enforcement action.

(2) Correction of deficiency

At any time when the Secretary is satisfied that the deficiencies on the basis of which an adverse action is taken under paragraph (1) have been corrected, the Secretary shall—

(A) notify the accrediting entity that the deficiencies have been corrected; and

(B)(i) in the case of a suspension, terminate the suspension; or

(ii) in the case of a cancellation, notify the agency or person that the agency or person may re-apply to the accrediting entity for accreditation or approval.

(c) Debarment

(1) Secretary's authority

On the initiative of the Secretary, or on request of an accrediting entity, the Secretary may temporarily or permanently debar an agency from accreditation or a person from approval under this subchapter, but only if—

(A) there is substantial evidence that the agency or person is out of compliance with applicable requirements; and

(B) there has been a pattern of serious, willful, or grossly negligent failures to comply or other aggravating circumstances indicating that continued accreditation or approval would not be in the best interests of the children and families concerned.

(2) Period of debarment

The Secretary's debarment order shall state whether the debarment is temporary or permanent. If the debarment is temporary, the Secretary shall specify a date, not earlier than 3 years after the date of the order, on or after which the agency or person may apply to the Secretary for withdrawal of the debarment.

(3) Effect of debarment

An accrediting entity may take into account the circumstances of the debarment of an agency or person that has been debarred pursuant to this subsection in considering any subsequent application of the agency or person, or of any other entity in which the agency or person has an ownership or control interest, for accreditation or approval under this subchapter.

(d) Judicial review

A person (other than a prospective adoptive parent), an agency, or an accrediting entity who is the subject of a final action of suspension, cancellation, or debarment by the Secretary under this subchapter may petition the United States District Court for the District of Columbia or the United States district court in the judicial district in which the person resides or the agency or accrediting entity is located to set aside the action. The court shall review the action in accordance with section 706 of title 5.

(e) Failure to ensure a full and complete home study

(1) In general

Willful, grossly negligent, or repeated failure to ensure the completion and transmission of a background report (home study) that fully complies with the requirements of section 14923(b)(1)(A)(ii) of this title shall constitute substantial noncompliance with applicable requirements.

(2) Regulations

Regulations promulgated under section 14923 of this title shall provide for—

(A) frequent and careful monitoring of compliance by agencies and approved persons with the requirements of section 14923(b)(A)(ii) 1 of this title; and

(B) consultation between the Secretary and the accrediting entity where an agency or person has engaged in substantial noncompliance with the requirements of section 14923(b)(A)(ii) 1 of this title, unless the accrediting entity has taken appropriate corrective action and the noncompliance has not recurred.

(3) Repeated failures to comply

Repeated serious, willful, or grossly negligent failures to comply with the requirements of section 14923(b)(1)(A)(ii) of this title by an agency or person after consultation between Secretary and the accrediting entity with respect to previous noncompliance by such agency or person shall constitute a pattern of serious, willful, or grossly negligent failures to comply under subsection (c)(1)(B) of this section.

(4) Failure to comply with certain requirements

A failure to comply with the requirements of section 14923(b)(1)(A)(ii) of this title shall constitute a serious failure to comply under subsection (c)(1)(B) of this section unless it is shown by clear and convincing evidence that such noncompliance had neither the purpose nor the effect of determining the outcome of a decision or proceeding by a court or other competent authority in the United States or the child's country of origin.

(Pub. L. 106–279, title II, §204, Oct. 6, 2000, 114 Stat. 835.)

References in Text

This chapter, referred to in subsec. (a), was in the original “this Act”, meaning Pub. L. 106–279, Oct. 6, 2000, 114 Stat. 825, known as the Intercountry Adoption Act of 2000, which is classified principally to this chapter. For complete classification of this Act to the Code, see Short Title note set out under section 14901 of this title and Tables.

This subchapter, referred to in subsecs. (c)(1), (3) and (d), was in the original “this title”, meaning title II of Pub. L. 106–279, Oct. 6, 2000, 114 Stat. 830, which is classified principally to this subchapter. For complete classification of title II to the Code, see Tables.

Effective Date

Section effective Oct. 6, 2000, with transition rule, see section 505(a)(1), (b) of Pub. L. 106–279, set out as an Effective Dates; Transition Rule note under section 14901 of this title.

1 So in original. Probably should be section “14923(b)(1)(A)(ii)”.

SUBCHAPTER III—RECOGNITION OF CONVENTION ADOPTIONS IN THE UNITED STATES

§14931. Adoptions of children immigrating to the United States

(a) Legal effect of certificates issued by the Secretary of State

(1) Issuance of certificates by the Secretary of State

The Secretary of State shall, with respect to each Convention adoption, issue a certificate to the adoptive citizen parent domiciled in the United States that the adoption has been granted or, in the case of a prospective adoptive citizen parent, that legal custody of the child has been granted to the citizen parent for purposes of emigration and adoption, pursuant to the Convention and this chapter, if the Secretary of State—

(A) receives appropriate notification from the central authority of such child's country of origin; and

(B) has verified that the requirements of the Convention and this chapter have been met with respect to the adoption.

(2) Legal effect of certificates

If appended to an original adoption decree, the certificate described in paragraph (1) shall be treated by Federal and State agencies, courts, and other public and private persons and entities as conclusive evidence of the facts certified therein and shall constitute the certification required by section 1154(d)(2) of title 8.

(b) Legal effect of Convention adoption finalized in another Convention country

A final adoption in another Convention country, certified by the Secretary of State pursuant to subsection (a) of this section or section 14932(c) of this title, shall be recognized as a final valid adoption for purposes of all Federal, State, and local laws of the United States.

(c) Condition on finalization of Convention adoption by State court

In the case of a child who has entered the United States from another Convention country for the purpose of adoption, an order declaring the adoption final shall not be entered unless the Secretary of State has issued the certificate provided for in subsection (a) of this section with respect to the adoption.

(Pub. L. 106–279, title III, §301, Oct. 6, 2000, 114 Stat. 837.)

References in Text

This chapter, referred to in subsec. (a)(1), was in the original “this Act”, meaning Pub. L. 106–279, Oct. 6, 2000, 114 Stat. 825, which is classified principally to this chapter. For complete classification of this Act to the Code, see Short Title note set out under section 14901 of this title and Tables.

Effective Date

Section effective upon entry into force for the United States of the Convention on Protection of Children and Co-operation in Respect of Intercountry Adoption, pursuant to Article 46(2)(a) of the Convention, with transition rule, see section 505(a)(2), (b) of Pub. L. 106–279, set out as an Effective Dates; Transition Rule note under section 14901 of this title.

§14932. Adoptions of children emigrating from the United States

(a) Duties of accredited agency or approved person

In the case of a Convention adoption involving the emigration of a child residing in the United States to a foreign country, the accredited agency or approved person providing adoption services, or the prospective adoptive parent or parents acting on their own behalf (if permitted by the laws of such other Convention country in which they reside and the laws of the State in which the child resides), shall do the following:

(1) Ensure that, in accordance with the Convention—

(A) a background study on the child is completed;

(B) the accredited agency or approved person—

(i) has made reasonable efforts to actively recruit and make a diligent search for prospective adoptive parents to adopt the child in the United States; and

(ii) despite such efforts, has not been able to place the child for adoption in the United States in a timely manner; and


(C) a determination is made that placement with the prospective adoptive parent or parents is in the best interests of the child.


(2) Furnish to the State court with jurisdiction over the case—

(A) documentation of the matters described in paragraph (1);

(B) a background report (home study) on the prospective adoptive parent or parents (including a criminal background check) prepared in accordance with the laws of the receiving country; and

(C) a declaration by the central authority (or other competent authority) of such other Convention country—

(i) that the child will be permitted to enter and reside permanently, or on the same basis as the adopting parent, in the receiving country; and

(ii) that the central authority (or other competent authority) of such other Convention country consents to the adoption, if such consent is necessary under the laws of such country for the adoption to become final.


(3) Furnish to the United States central authority—

(A) official copies of State court orders certifying the final adoption or grant of custody for the purpose of adoption;

(B) the information and documents described in paragraph (2), to the extent required by the United States central authority; and

(C) any other information concerning the case required by the United States central authority to perform the functions specified in subsection (c) of this section or otherwise to carry out the duties of the United States central authority under the Convention.

(b) Conditions on State court orders

An order declaring an adoption to be final or granting custody for the purpose of adoption in a case described in subsection (a) of this section shall not be entered unless the court—

(1) has received and verified to the extent the court may find necessary—

(A) the material described in subsection (a)(2) of this section; and

(B) satisfactory evidence that the requirements of Articles 4 and 15 through 21 of the Convention have been met; and


(2) has determined that the adoptive placement is in the best interests of the child.

(c) Duties of the Secretary of State

In a case described in subsection (a) of this section, the Secretary, on receipt and verification as necessary of the material and information described in subsection (a)(3) of this section, shall issue, as applicable, an official certification that the child has been adopted or a declaration that custody for purposes of adoption has been granted, in accordance with the Convention and this chapter.

(d) Filing with registry regarding non-Convention adoptions

Accredited agencies, approved persons, and other persons, including governmental authorities, providing adoption services in an intercountry adoption not subject to the Convention that involves the emigration of a child from the United States shall file information required by regulations jointly issued by the Attorney General and the Secretary of State for purposes of implementing section 14912(e) of this title.

(Pub. L. 106–279, title III, §303, Oct. 6, 2000, 114 Stat. 839.)

References in Text

This chapter, referred to in subsec. (c), was in the original “this Act”, meaning Pub. L. 106–279, Oct. 6, 2000, 114 Stat. 825, known as the Intercountry Adoption Act of 2000, which is classified principally to this chapter. For complete classification of this Act to the Code, see Short Title note set out under section 14901 of this title and Tables.

Effective Date

Section effective upon entry into force for the United States of the Convention on Protection of Children and Co-operation in Respect of Intercountry Adoption, pursuant to Article 46(2)(a) of the Convention, with transition rule, see section 505(a)(2), (b) of Pub. L. 106–279, set out as an Effective Dates; Transition Rule note under section 14901 of this title.

SUBCHAPTER IV—ADMINISTRATION AND ENFORCEMENT

§14941. Access to Convention records

(a) Preservation of Convention records

(1) In general

Not later than 180 days after October 6, 2000, the Secretary, in consultation with the Attorney General, shall issue regulations that establish procedures and requirements in accordance with the Convention and this section for the preservation of Convention records.

(2) Applicability of notice and comment rules

Subsections (b), (c), and (d) of section 553 of title 5 shall apply in the development and issuance of regulations under this section.

(b) Access to Convention records

(1) Prohibition

Except as provided in paragraph (2), the Secretary or the Attorney General may disclose a Convention record, and access to such a record may be provided in whole or in part, only if such record is maintained under the authority of the Immigration and Nationality Act [8 U.S.C. 1101 et seq.] and disclosure of, or access to, such record is permitted or required by applicable Federal law.

(2) Exception for administration of the Convention

A Convention record may be disclosed, and access to such a record may be provided, in whole or in part, among the Secretary, the Attorney General, central authorities, accredited agencies, and approved persons, only to the extent necessary to administer the Convention or this chapter.

(3) Penalties for unlawful disclosure

Unlawful disclosure of all or part of a Convention record shall be punishable in accordance with applicable Federal law.

(c) Access to non-Convention records

Disclosure of, access to, and penalties for unlawful disclosure of, adoption records that are not Convention records, including records of adoption proceedings conducted in the United States, shall be governed by applicable State law.

(Pub. L. 106–279, title IV, §401, Oct. 6, 2000, 114 Stat. 841.)

References in Text

The Immigration and Nationality Act, referred to in subsec. (b)(1), is act June 27, 1952, ch. 477, 66 Stat. 163, as amended, which is classified principally to chapter 12 (§1101 et seq.) of Title 8, Aliens and Nationality. For complete classification of this Act to the Code, see Short Title note set out under section 1101 of Title 8 and Tables.

This chapter, referred to in subsec. (b)(2), was in the original “this Act”, meaning Pub. L. 106–279, Oct. 6, 2000, 114 Stat. 825, which is classified principally to this chapter. For complete classification of this Act to the Code, see Short Title note set out under section 14901 of this title and Tables.

Effective Date

Subsec. (a) of this section effective Oct. 6, 2000, and subsecs. (b) and (c) of this section effective upon entry into force for the United States of the Convention on Protection of Children and Co-operation in Respect of Intercountry Adoption, pursuant to Article 46(2)(a) of the Convention, with transition rule, see section 505 of Pub. L. 106–279, set out as an Effective Dates; Transition Rule note under section 14901 of this title.

§14942. Documents of other Convention countries

Documents originating in any other Convention country and related to a Convention adoption case shall require no authentication in order to be admissible in any Federal, State, or local court in the United States, unless a specific and supported claim is made that the documents are false, have been altered, or are otherwise unreliable.

(Pub. L. 106–279, title IV, §402, Oct. 6, 2000, 114 Stat. 841.)

Effective Date

Section effective upon entry into force for the United States of the Convention on Protection of Children and Co-operation in Respect of Intercountry Adoption, pursuant to Article 46(2)(a) of the Convention, with transition rule, see section 505(a)(2), (b) of Pub. L. 106–279, set out as an Effective Dates; Transition Rule note under section 14901 of this title.

§14943. Authorization of appropriations; collection of fees

(a) Authorization of appropriations

(1) In general

There are authorized to be appropriated such sums as may be necessary to agencies of the Federal Government implementing the Convention and the provisions of this chapter.

(2) Availability of funds

Amounts appropriated pursuant to paragraph (1) are authorized to remain available until expended.

(b) Assessment of fees

(1) The Secretary may charge a fee for new or enhanced services that will be undertaken by the Department of State to meet the requirements of this chapter with respect to intercountry adoptions under the Convention and comparable services with respect to other intercountry adoptions. Such fee shall be prescribed by regulation and shall not exceed the cost of such services.

(2) Fees collected under paragraph (1) shall be retained and deposited as an offsetting collection to any Department of State appropriation to recover the costs of providing such services. Such fees shall remain available for obligation until expended.

(c) Restriction

No funds collected under the authority of this section may be made available to an accrediting entity to carry out the purposes of this chapter.

(Pub. L. 106–279, title IV, §403, Oct. 6, 2000, 114 Stat. 841; Pub. L. 107–228, div. A, title II, §211(a), Sept. 30, 2002, 116 Stat. 1365.)

References in Text

This chapter, referred to in text, was in the original “this Act”, meaning Pub. L. 106–279, Oct. 6, 2000, 114 Stat. 825, known as the Intercountry Adoption Act of 2000, which is classified principally to this chapter. For complete classification of this Act to the Code, see Short Title note set out under section 14901 of this title and Tables.

Amendments

2002—Subsec. (b)(2). Pub. L. 107–228, §211(a)(1), inserted “Such fees shall remain available for obligation until expended.” at end.

Subsec. (b)(3). Pub. L. 107–228, §211(a)(2), struck out par. (3) which read as follows: “Fees authorized under this section shall be available for obligation only to the extent and in the amount provided in advance in appropriations Acts.”

Effective Date

Section effective Oct. 6, 2000, with transition rule, see section 505(a)(1), (b) of Pub. L. 106–279, set out as an Effective Dates; Transition Rule note under section 14901 of this title.

§14944. Enforcement

(a) Civil penalties

Any person who—

(1) violates section 14921 of this title;

(2) makes a false or fraudulent statement, or misrepresentation, with respect to a material fact, or offers, gives, solicits, or accepts inducement by way of compensation, intended to influence or affect in the United States or a foreign country—

(A) a decision by an accrediting entity with respect to the accreditation of an agency or approval of a person under subchapter II of this chapter;

(B) the relinquishment of parental rights or the giving of parental consent relating to the adoption of a child in a case subject to the Convention; or

(C) a decision or action of any entity performing a central authority function; or


(3) engages another person as an agent, whether in the United States or in a foreign country, who in the course of that agency takes any of the actions described in paragraph (1) or (2),


shall be subject, in addition to any other penalty that may be prescribed by law, to a civil money penalty of not more than $50,000 for a first violation, and not more than $100,000 for each succeeding violation.

(b) Civil enforcement

(1) Authority of Attorney General

The Attorney General may bring a civil action to enforce subsection (a) of this section against any person in any United States district court.

(2) Factors to be considered in imposing penalties

In imposing penalties the court shall consider the gravity of the violation, the degree of culpability of the defendant, and any history of prior violations by the defendant.

(c) Criminal penalties

Whoever knowingly and willfully violates paragraph (1) or (2) of subsection (a) of this section shall be subject to a fine of not more than $250,000, imprisonment for not more than 5 years, or both.

(Pub. L. 106–279, title IV, §404, Oct. 6, 2000, 114 Stat. 842.)

References in Text

Subchapter II of this chapter, referred to in subsec. (a)(2)(A), was in the original “title II”, meaning title II of Pub. L. 106–279, Oct. 6, 2000, 114 Stat. 830, which enacted subchapter II of this chapter and amended section 622 of this title. For complete classification of title II to the Code, see Tables.

Effective Date

Section effective upon entry into force for the United States of the Convention on Protection of Children and Co-operation in Respect of Intercountry Adoption, pursuant to Article 46(2)(a) of the Convention, with transition rule, see section 505(a)(2), (b) of Pub. L. 106–279, set out as an Effective Dates; Transition Rule note under section 14901 of this title.

SUBCHAPTER V—GENERAL PROVISIONS

§14951. Recognition of Convention adoptions

Subject to Article 24 of the Convention, adoptions concluded between two other Convention countries that meet the requirements of Article 23 of the Convention and that became final before the date of entry into force of the Convention for the United States shall be recognized thereafter in the United States and given full effect. Such recognition shall include the specific effects described in Article 26 of the Convention.

(Pub. L. 106–279, title V, §501, Oct. 6, 2000, 114 Stat. 843.)

Effective Date

Section effective upon entry into force for the United States of the Convention on Protection of Children and Co-operation in Respect of Intercountry Adoption, pursuant to Article 46(2)(a) of the Convention, with transition rule, see section 505(a)(2), (b) of Pub. L. 106–279, set out as an Effective Dates; Transition Rule note under section 14901 of this title.

§14952. Special rules for certain cases

(a) Authority to establish alternative procedures for adoption of children by relatives

To the extent consistent with the Convention, the Secretary may establish by regulation alternative procedures for the adoption of children by individuals related to them by blood, marriage, or adoption, in cases subject to the Convention.

(b) Waiver authority

(1) In general

Notwithstanding any other provision of this chapter, to the extent consistent with the Convention, the Secretary may, on a case-by-case basis, waive applicable requirements of this chapter or regulations issued under this chapter, in the interests of justice or to prevent grave physical harm to the child.

(2) Nondelegation

The authority provided by paragraph (1) may not be delegated.

(Pub. L. 106–279, title V, §502, Oct. 6, 2000, 114 Stat. 843.)

References in Text

This chapter, referred to in subsec. (b)(1), was in the original “this Act”, meaning Pub. L. 106–279, Oct. 6, 2000, 114 Stat. 825, which is classified principally to this chapter. For complete classification of this Act to the Code, see Short Title note set out under section 14901 of this title and Tables.

Effective Date

Section effective upon entry into force for the United States of the Convention on Protection of Children and Co-operation in Respect of Intercountry Adoption, pursuant to Article 46(2)(a) of the Convention, with transition rule, see section 505(a)(2), (b) of Pub. L. 106–279, set out as an Effective Dates; Transition Rule note under section 14901 of this title.

§14953. Relationship to other laws

(a) Preemption of inconsistent State law

The Convention and this chapter shall not be construed to preempt any provision of the law of any State or political subdivision thereof, or prevent a State or political subdivision thereof from enacting any provision of law with respect to the subject matter of the Convention or this chapter, except to the extent that such provision of State law is inconsistent with the Convention or this chapter, and then only to the extent of the inconsistency.

(b) Applicability of the Indian Child Welfare Act

The Convention and this chapter shall not be construed to affect the application of the Indian Child Welfare Act of 1978 (25 U.S.C. 1901 et seq.).

(c) Relationship to other laws

Sections 3506(c), 3507, and 3512 of title 44 shall not apply to information collection for purposes of sections 14914, 14922(b)(4), and 14932(d) of this title or for use as a Convention record as defined in this chapter.

(Pub. L. 106–279, title V, §503, Oct. 6, 2000, 114 Stat. 843.)

References in Text

This chapter, referred to in text, was in the original “this Act”, meaning Pub. L. 106–279, Oct. 6, 2000, 114 Stat. 825, known as the Intercountry Adoption Act of 2000, which is classified principally to this chapter. For complete classification of this Act to the Code, see Short Title note set out under section 14901 of this title and Tables.

The Indian Child Welfare Act of 1978, referred to in subsec. (b), is Pub. L. 95–608, Nov. 8, 1978, 92 Stat. 3069, which is classified principally to chapter 21 (§1901 et seq.) of Title 25, Indians. For complete classification of this Act to the Code, see Short Title note set out under section 1901 of Title 25 and Tables.

Effective Date

Section effective Oct. 6, 2000, with transition rule, see section 505(a)(1), (b) of Pub. L. 106–279, set out as an Effective Dates; Transition Rule note under section 14901 of this title.

§14954. No private right of action

The Convention and this chapter shall not be construed to create a private right of action to seek administrative or judicial relief, except to the extent expressly provided in this chapter.

(Pub. L. 106–279, title V, §504, Oct. 6, 2000, 114 Stat. 843.)

References in Text

This chapter, referred to in text, was in the original “this Act”, meaning Pub. L. 106–279, Oct. 6, 2000, 114 Stat. 825, known as the Intercountry Adoption Act of 2000, which is classified principally to this chapter. For complete classification of this Act to the Code, see Short Title note set out under section 14901 of this title and Tables.

Effective Date

Section effective upon entry into force for the United States of the Convention on Protection of Children and Co-operation in Respect of Intercountry Adoption, pursuant to Article 46(2)(a) of the Convention, with transition rule, see section 505(a)(2), (b) of Pub. L. 106–279, set out as an Effective Dates; Transition Rule note under section 14901 of this title.