42 U.S.C.
United States Code, 2010 Edition
Title 42 - THE PUBLIC HEALTH AND WELFARE
CHAPTER 61 - UNIFORM RELOCATION ASSISTANCE AND REAL PROPERTY ACQUISITION POLICIES FOR FEDERAL AND FEDERALLY ASSISTED PROGRAMS
From the U.S. Government Printing Office, www.gpo.gov

CHAPTER 61—UNIFORM RELOCATION ASSISTANCE AND REAL PROPERTY ACQUISITION POLICIES FOR FEDERAL AND FEDERALLY ASSISTED PROGRAMS

SUBCHAPTER I—GENERAL PROVISIONS

Sec.
4601.
Definitions.
4602.
Effect upon property acquisition.
4603.
Additional appropriations for moving costs, relocation benefits and other expenses incurred in acquisition of lands for National Park System; waiver of benefits.
4604.
Certification.
4605.
Displaced persons not eligible for assistance.

        

SUBCHAPTER II—UNIFORM RELOCATION ASSISTANCE

4621.
Declaration of findings and policy.
4622.
Moving and related expenses.
4623.
Replacement housing for homeowner; mortgage insurance.
4624.
Replacement housing for tenants and certain others.
4625.
Relocation planning, assistance coordination, and advisory services.
4626.
Housing replacement by Federal agency as last resort.
4627.
State required to furnish real property incident to Federal assistance (local cooperation).
4628.
State acting as agent for Federal program.
4629.
Public works programs and projects of District of Columbia government and Washington Metropolitan Area Transit Authority.
4630.
Requirements for relocation payments and assistance of federally assisted program; assurances of availability of housing.
4631.
Federal share of costs.
4632.
Administration; relocation assistance in programs receiving Federal financial assistance.
4633.
Duties of lead agency.
4634.
Repealed.
4635.
Planning and other preliminary expenses for additional housing.
4636.
Payments not to be considered as income for revenue purposes or for eligibility for assistance under Social Security Act or other Federal law.
4637.
Repealed.
4638.
Transfers of surplus property.

        

SUBCHAPTER III—UNIFORM REAL PROPERTY ACQUISITION POLICY

4651.
Uniform policy on real property acquisition practices.
4652.
Buildings, structures, and improvements.
4653.
Expenses incidental to transfer of title to United States.
4654.
Litigation expenses.
4655.
Requirements for uniform land acquisition policies; payments of expenses incidental to transfer of real property to State; payment of litigation expenses in certain cases.

        

SUBCHAPTER I—GENERAL PROVISIONS

§4601. Definitions

As used in this chapter—

(1) The term “Federal agency” means any department, agency, or instrumentality in the executive branch of the Government, any wholly owned Government corporation, the Architect of the Capitol, the Federal Reserve banks and branches thereof, and any person who has the authority to acquire property by eminent domain under Federal law.

(2) The term “State” means any of the several States of the United States, the District of Columbia, the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico, any territory or possession of the United States, the Trust Territory of the Pacific Islands, and any political subdivision thereof.

(3) The term “State agency” means any department, agency, or instrumentality of a State or of a political subdivision of a State, any department, agency, or instrumentality of 2 or more States or of 2 or more political subdivisions of a State or States, and any person who has the authority to acquire property by eminent domain under State law.

(4) The term “Federal financial assistance” means a grant, loan, or contribution provided by the United States, except any Federal guarantee or insurance, any interest reduction payment to an individual in connection with the purchase and occupancy of a residence by that individual, and any annual payment or capital loan to the District of Columbia.

(5) The term “person” means any individual, partnership, corporation, or association.

(6)(A) The term “displaced person” means, except as provided in subparagraph (B)—

(i) any person who moves from real property, or moves his personal property from real property—

(I) as a direct result of a written notice of intent to acquire or the acquisition of such real property in whole or in part for a program or project undertaken by a Federal agency or with Federal financial assistance; or

(II) on which such person is a residential tenant or conducts a small business, a farm operation, or a business defined in paragraph (7)(D), as a direct result of rehabilitation, demolition, or such other displacing activity as the lead agency may prescribe, under a program or project undertaken by a Federal agency or with Federal financial assistance in any case in which the head of the displacing agency determines that such displacement is permanent; and


(ii) solely for the purposes of sections 4622(a) and (b) and 4625 of this title, any person who moves from real property, or moves his personal property from real property—

(I) as a direct result of a written notice of intent to acquire or the acquisition of other real property, in whole or in part, on which such person conducts a business or farm operation, for a program or project undertaken by a Federal agency or with Federal financial assistance; or

(II) as a direct result of rehabilitation, demolition, or such other displacing activity as the lead agency may prescribe, of other real property on which such person conducts a business or a farm operation, under a program or project undertaken by a Federal agency or with Federal financial assistance where the head of the displacing agency determines that such displacement is permanent.


(B) The term “displaced person” does not include—

(i) a person who has been determined, according to criteria established by the head of the lead agency, to be either in unlawful occupancy of the displacement dwelling or to have occupied such dwelling for the purpose of obtaining assistance under this chapter;

(ii) in any case in which the displacing agency acquires property for a program or project, any person (other than a person who was an occupant of such property at the time it was acquired) who occupies such property on a rental basis for a short term or a period subject to termination when the property is needed for the program or project.


(7) The term “business” means any lawful activity, excepting a farm operation, conducted primarily—

(A) for the purchase, sale, lease and rental of personal and real property, and for the manufacture, processing, or marketing of products, commodities, or any other personal property;

(B) for the sale of services to the public;

(C) by a nonprofit organization; or

(D) solely for the purposes of section 4622 of this title, for assisting in the purchase, sale, resale, manufacture, processing, or marketing of products, commodities, personal property, or services by the erection and maintenance of an outdoor advertising display or displays, whether or not such display or displays are located on the premises on which any of the above activities are conducted.


(8) The term “farm operation” means any activity conducted solely or primarily for the production of one or more agricultural products or commodities, including timber, for sale or home use, and customarily producing such products or commodities in sufficient quantity to be capable of contributing materially to the operator's support.

(9) The term “mortgage” means such classes of liens as are commonly given to secure advances on, or the unpaid purchase price of, real property, under the laws of the State in which the real property is located, together with the credit instruments, if any, secured thereby.

(10) The term “comparable replacement dwelling” means any dwelling that is (A) decent, safe, and sanitary; (B) adequate in size to accommodate the occupants; (C) within the financial means of the displaced person; (D) functionally equivalent; (E) in an area not subject to unreasonable adverse environmental conditions; and (F) in a location generally not less desirable than the location of the displaced person's dwelling with respect to public utilities, facilities, services, and the displaced person's place of employment.

(11) The term “displacing agency” means any Federal agency carrying out a program or project, and any State, State agency, or person carrying out a program or project with Federal financial assistance, which causes a person to be a displaced person.

(12) The term “lead agency” means the Department of Transportation.

(13) The term “appraisal” means a written statement independently and impartially prepared by a qualified appraiser setting forth an opinion of defined value of an adequately described property as of a specific date, supported by the presentation and analysis of relevant market information.

(Pub. L. 91–646, title I, §101, Jan. 2, 1971, 84 Stat. 1894; Pub. L. 100–17, title IV, §402, Apr. 2, 1987, 101 Stat. 246.)

References in Text

This chapter, referred to in introductory provision and par. (6)(B)(i), was in the original “this Act”, meaning Pub. L. 91–646, Jan. 2, 1971, 84 Stat. 1894, known as the Uniform Relocation Assistance and Real Property Acquisition Policies Act of 1970, which is classified principally to this chapter. For complete classification of this Act to the Code, see Short Title note set out below and Tables.

Amendments

1987—Par. (1). Pub. L. 100–17, §402(a), amended par. (1) generally. Prior to amendment, par. (1) read as follows: “The term ‘Federal agency’ means any department, agency, or instrumentality in the executive branch of the Government (except the National Capital Housing Authority), any wholly owned Government corporation (except the District of Columbia Redevelopment Land Agency), and the Architect of the Capitol, the Federal Reserve banks and branches thereof.”

Par. (3). Pub. L. 100–17, §402(b), amended par. (3) generally. Prior to amendment, par. (3) read as follows: “The term ‘State agency’ means the National Capital Housing Authority, the District of Columbia Redevelopment Land Agency, and any department, agency, or instrumentality of a State or of a political subdivision of a State, or any department, agency, or instrumentality of two or more States or of two or more political subdivisions of a State or States.”

Par. (4). Pub. L. 100–17, §402(c), inserted “, any interest reduction payment to an individual in connection with the purchase and occupancy of a residence by that individual,” after “insurance”.

Par. (6). Pub. L. 100–17, §402(d), amended par. (6) generally. Prior to amendment, par. (6) read as follows: “The term ‘displaced person’ means any person who, on or after January 2, 1971, moves from real property, or moves his personal property from real property, as a result of the acquisition of such real property, in whole or in part, or as the result of the written order of the acquiring agency to vacate real property, for a program or project undertaken by a Federal agency, or with Federal financial assistance; and solely for the purposes of sections 4622(a) and (b) and 4625 of this title, as a result of the acquisition of or as the result of the written order of the acquiring agency to vacate other real property, on which such person conducts a business or farm operation, for such program or project.”

Par. (7)(D). Pub. L. 100–17, §402(f), substituted “section 4622” for “section 4622(a)”.

Pars. (10) to (13). Pub. L. 100–17, §402(e), added pars. (10) to (13).

Effective Date of 1987 Amendment

Section 418 of title IV of Pub. L. 100–17 provided that: “The amendment made by section 412 of this title [amending section 4633 of this title] (to the extent such amendment prescribes authority to develop, publish, and issue regulations) shall take effect on the date of the enactment of this title [Apr. 2, 1987]. This title and the amendments made by this title [enacting section 4604 of this title, amending this section and sections 4621 to 4626, 4630, 4631, 4633, 4636, 4638, 4651, and 4655 of this title, repealing sections 4634 and 4637 of this title, and enacting provisions set out as a note under this section] (other than the amendment made by section 412 to such extent) shall take effect on the effective date provided in such regulations but not later than 2 years after such date of enactment.”

Effective Date

Section 221 of Pub. L. 91–646 provided that:

“(a) Except as provided in subsections (b) and (c) of this section, this Act and the amendments made by this Act [see Short Title note below] shall take effect on the date of its enactment [Jan. 2, 1971].

“(b) Until July 1, 1972, sections 210 and 305 [sections 4630 and 4655 of this title] shall be applicable to a State only to the extent that such State is able under its laws to comply with such sections. After July 1, 1972, such sections [sections 4630 and 4655 of this title] shall be completely applicable to all States.

“(c) The repeals made by paragraphs (4) [repealing section 1606(b) of former Title 49, Transportation], (5) [repealing section 1465 of this title], (6) [repealing section 1415(7)(b)(iii) and (8) second sentence of this title], (8) [repealing section 3074 of this title], (9) [repealing section 3307(b), (c) of this title], (10) [repealing chapter 5 (sections 501–511) of Title 23, Highways], (11) [repealing provisions set out as notes under sections 501 and 510 of Title 23], and (12) of section 220(a) of this title and section 306 of title III [repealing sections 3071 to 3073 of this title, section 141 of Title 23, and section 596 of Title 33, Navigation and Navigable Waters] shall not apply to any State so long as sections 210 and 305 [sections 4630 and 4655 of this title] are not applicable in such State.”

Short Title of 1987 Amendment

Section 401 of title IV of Pub. L. 100–17 provided that: “This title [enacting section 4604 of this title, amending this section and sections 4621 to 4626, 4630, 4631, 4633, 4636, 4638, 4651, and 4655 of this title, repealing sections 4634 and 4637 of this title, and enacting provisions set out as a note under this section] may be cited as the ‘Uniform Relocation Act Amendments of 1987’.”

Short Title

Section 1 of Pub. L. 91–646 provided: “That this Act [enacting this chapter, amending sections 1415, 2473, and 3307 of this title and section 1606 of former Title 49, Transportation, repealing sections 1465 and 3071 to 3074 of this title, section 2680 of Title 10, Armed Forces, sections 141 and 501 to 512 of Title 23, Highways, section 596 of Title 33, Navigation and Navigable Waters, sections 1231 to 1234 of Title 43, Public Lands, and enacting provisions set out as notes under this section and sections 4621 and 4651 of this title, and repealing provisions set out as notes under sections 501 and 510 of Title 23] may be cited as the ‘Uniform Relocation Assistance and Real Property Acquisition Policies Act of 1970’.”

Termination of Trust Territory of the Pacific Islands

For termination of Trust Territory of the Pacific Islands, see note set out preceding section 1681 of Title 48, Territories and Insular Possessions.

Willing Sellers Considered Displaced Persons

Pub. L. 111–8, div. E, title I, Mar. 11, 2009, 123 Stat. 710, provided that: “For fiscal year 2009 and hereafter, a willing seller from whom the Service acquires title to real property may be considered a ‘displaced person’ for purposes of the Uniform Relocation Assistance and Real Property Acquisition Policy Act [probably means the Uniform Relocation Assistance and Real Property Acquisition Policies Act of 1970, 42 U.S.C. 4601 et seq.] and its implementing regulations, whether or not the Service has the authority to acquire such property by eminent domain.”

Treatment of Real Property Buyout Programs

Pub. L. 103–181, §4, Dec. 3, 1993, 107 Stat. 2055, provided that:

“(a) Inapplicability of URA.—The purchase of any real property under a qualified buyout program shall not constitute the making of Federal financial assistance available to pay all or part of the cost of a program or project resulting in the acquisition of real property or in any owner of real property being a displaced person (within the meaning of the Uniform Relocation Assistance and Real Property Acquisition Policies Act of 1970 [42 U.S.C. 4601 et seq.]).

“(b) Definition of ‘Qualified Buyout Program’.—For purposes of this section, the term ‘qualified buyout program’ means any program that—

“(1) provides for the purchase of only property damaged by the major, widespread flooding in the Midwest during 1993;

“(2) provides for such purchase solely as a result of such flooding;

“(3) provides for such acquisition without the use of the power of eminent domain and notification to the seller that acquisition is without the use of such power;

“(4) is carried out by or through a State or unit of general local government; and

“(5) is being assisted with amounts made available for—

“(A) disaster relief by the Federal Emergency Management Agency; or

“(B) other Federal financial assistance programs.”

[For transfer of all functions, personnel, assets, components, authorities, grant programs, and liabilities of the Federal Emergency Management Agency, including the functions of the Under Secretary for Federal Emergency Management relating thereto, to the Federal Emergency Management Agency, see section 315(a)(1) of Title 6, Domestic Security.]

[For transfer of functions, personnel, assets, and liabilities of the Federal Emergency Management Agency, including the functions of the Director of the Federal Emergency Management Agency relating thereto, to the Secretary of Homeland Security, and for treatment of related references, see former section 313(1) and sections 551(d), 552(d), and 557 of Title 6, Domestic Security, and the Department of Homeland Security Reorganization Plan of November 25, 2002, as modified, set out as a note under section 542 of Title 6.]

§4602. Effect upon property acquisition

(a) The provisions of section 4651 of this title create no rights or liabilities and shall not affect the validity of any property acquisitions by purchase or condemnation.

(b) Nothing in this chapter shall be construed as creating in any condemnation proceedings brought under the power of eminent domain, any element of value or of damage not in existence immediately prior to January 2, 1971.

(Pub. L. 91–646, title I, §102, Jan. 2, 1971, 84 Stat. 1895.)

References in Text

This chapter, referred to in subsec. (b), was in the original “this Act”, meaning Pub. L. 91–646, Jan. 2, 1971, 84 Stat. 1894, known as the Uniform Relocation Assistance and Real Property Acquisition Policies Act of 1970, which is classified principally to this chapter. For complete classification of this Act to the Code, see Short Title note set out under section 4601 of this title and Tables.

§4603. Additional appropriations for moving costs, relocation benefits and other expenses incurred in acquisition of lands for National Park System; waiver of benefits

(a) In all instances where authorizations of appropriations for the acquisition of lands for the National Park System enacted prior to January 9, 1971, do not include provisions therefor, there are authorized to be appropriated such additional sums as may be necessary to provide for moving costs, relocation benefits, and other expenses incurred pursuant to the applicable provisions of the Uniform Relocation Assistance and Real Property Acquisition Policies Act of 1970 (Public Law 91–646; 84 Stat. 1894). There are also authorized to be appropriated not to exceed $8,400,000 in addition to those authorized in Public Law 92–272 (86 Stat. 120) to provide for such moving costs, relocation benefits, and other related expenses in connection with the acquisition of lands authorized by Public Law 92–272.

(b) Whenever an owner of property elects to retain a right of use and occupancy pursuant to any statute authorizing the acquisition of property for purposes of a unit of the National Park System, such owner shall be deemed to have waived any benefits under sections 4623, 4624, 4625, and 4626 of this title, and for the purposes of those sections such owner shall not be considered a displaced person as defined in section 4601(6) of this title.

(Pub. L. 93–477, title IV, §405, Oct. 26, 1974, 88 Stat. 1448.)

References in Text

The Uniform Relocation Assistance and Real Property Acquisition Policies Act of 1970, referred to in subsec. (a), is Pub. L. 91–646, Jan. 2, 1971, 84 Stat. 1894, which is classified principally to this chapter. For complete classification of this Act to the Code, see Short Title note set out under section 4601 of this title and Tables.

Public Law 92–272, referred to in subsec. (a), is Pub. L. 92–272, Apr. 11, 1972, 86 Stat. 120, which to the extent classified to the Code, amended sections 284b, 428m, 459f–10, 460m–1, 460m–7 and 460t–4 of Title 16, Conservation, and amended a provision set out as a note under section 450ll of Title 16. For complete classification of this Act to the Code, see Tables.

Codification

Section was not enacted as part of the Uniform Relocation Assistance and Real Property Acquisition Policies Act of 1970 which comprises this chapter.

§4604. Certification

(a) Acceptance of State agency certification

Notwithstanding sections 4630 and 4655 of this title, the head of a Federal agency may discharge any of his responsibilities under this chapter by accepting a certification by a State agency that it will carry out such responsibility, if the head of the lead agency determines that such responsibility will be carried out in accordance with State laws which will accomplish the purpose and effect of this chapter.

(b) Promulgation of regulations; notice and comment; consultation with local governments

(1) The head of the lead agency shall issue regulations to carry out this section.

(2) Repealed. Pub. L. 104–66, title I, §1121(f), Dec. 21, 1995, 109 Stat. 724.

(3) Before making a determination regarding any State law under subsection (a) of this section, the head of the lead agency shall provide interested parties with an opportunity for public review and comment. In particular, the head of the lead agency shall consult with interested local general purpose governments within the State on the effects of such State law on the ability of local governments to carry out their responsibilities under this chapter.

(c) Effect of noncompliance with certification or with applicable law

(1) The head of a Federal agency may withhold his approval of any Federal financial assistance to or contract or cooperative agreement with any displacing agency found by the Federal agency to have failed to comply with the laws described in subsection (a) of this section.

(2) After consultation with the head of the lead agency, the head of a Federal agency may rescind his acceptance of any certification under this section, in whole or in part, if the State agency fails to comply with such certification or with State law.

(Pub. L. 91–646, title I, §103, as added Pub. L. 100–17, title IV, §403, Apr. 2, 1987, 101 Stat. 248; amended Pub. L. 104–66, title I, §1121(f), Dec. 21, 1995, 109 Stat. 724.)

References in Text

This chapter, referred to in subsecs. (a) and (b)(3), was in the original “this Act”, meaning Pub. L. 91–646, Jan. 2, 1971, 84 Stat. 1894, known as the Uniform Relocation Assistance and Real Property Acquisition Policies Act of 1970, which is classified principally to this chapter. For complete classification of this Act to the Code, see Short Title note set out under section 4601 of this title and Tables.

Amendments

1995—Subsec. (b)(2). Pub. L. 104–66 struck out par. (2) which read as follows: “The head of the lead agency shall, in coordination with other Federal agencies, monitor from time to time, and report biennially to the Congress on, State agency implementation of this section. A State agency shall make available any information required for such purpose.”

Effective Date

Section effective on effective date provided in regulations promulgated under section 4633 of this title (as amended by section 412 of Pub. L. 100–17), but not later than 2 years after Apr. 2, 1987, see section 418 of Pub. L. 100–17, set out as an Effective Date of 1987 Amendment note under section 4601 of this title.

§4605. Displaced persons not eligible for assistance

(a) In general

Except as provided in subsection (c) of this section, a displaced person shall not be eligible to receive relocation payments or any other assistance under this chapter if the displaced person is an alien not lawfully present in the United States.

(b) Determinations of eligibility

(1) Promulgation of regulations

Not later than 1 year after November 21, 1997, after providing notice and an opportunity for public comment, the head of the lead agency shall promulgate regulations to carry out subsection (a) of this section.

(2) Contents of regulations

Regulations promulgated under paragraph (1) shall—

(A) prescribe the processes, procedures, and information that a displacing agency must use in determining whether a displaced person is an alien not lawfully present in the United States;

(B) prohibit a displacing agency from discriminating against any displaced person;

(C) ensure that each eligibility determination is fair and based on reliable information; and

(D) prescribe standards for a displacing agency to apply in making determinations relating to exceptional and extremely unusual hardship under subsection (c) of this section.

(c) Exceptional and extremely unusual hardship

If a displacing agency determines by clear and convincing evidence that a determination of the ineligibility of a displaced person under subsection (a) of this section would result in exceptional and extremely unusual hardship to an individual who is the displaced person's spouse, parent, or child and who is a citizen of the United States or an alien lawfully admitted for permanent residence in the United States, the displacing agency shall provide relocation payments and other assistance to the displaced person under this chapter if the displaced person would be eligible for the assistance but for subsection (a) of this section.

(d) Limitation on statutory construction

Nothing in this section affects any right available to a displaced person under any other provision of Federal or State law.

(Pub. L. 91–646, title I, §104, as added Pub. L. 105–117, §1, Nov. 21, 1997, 111 Stat. 2384.)

References in Text

This chapter, referred to in subsecs. (a) and (c), was in the original “this Act”, meaning Pub. L. 91–646, Jan. 2, 1971, 84 Stat. 1894, known as the Uniform Relocation Assistance and Real Property Acquisition Policies Act of 1970, which is classified principally to this chapter. For complete classification of this Act to the Code, see Short Title note set out under section 4601 of this title and Tables.

SUBCHAPTER II—UNIFORM RELOCATION ASSISTANCE

§4621. Declaration of findings and policy

(a) Findings

The Congress finds and declares that—

(1) displacement as a direct result of programs or projects undertaken by a Federal agency or with Federal financial assistance is caused by a number of activities, including rehabilitation, demolition, code enforcement, and acquisition;

(2) relocation assistance policies must provide for fair, uniform, and equitable treatment of all affected persons;

(3) the displacement of businesses often results in their closure;

(4) minimizing the adverse impact of displacement is essential to maintaining the economic and social well-being of communities; and

(5) implementation of this chapter has resulted in burdensome, inefficient, and inconsistent compliance requirements and procedures which will be improved by establishing a lead agency and allowing for State certification and implementation.

(b) Policy

This subchapter establishes a uniform policy for the fair and equitable treatment of persons displaced as a direct result of programs or projects undertaken by a Federal agency or with Federal financial assistance. The primary purpose of this subchapter is to ensure that such persons shall not suffer disproportionate injuries as a result of programs and projects designed for the benefit of the public as a whole and to minimize the hardship of displacement on such persons.

(c) Congressional intent

It is the intent of Congress that—

(1) Federal agencies shall carry out this subchapter in a manner which minimizes waste, fraud, and mismanagement and reduces unnecessary administrative costs borne by States and State agencies in providing relocation assistance;

(2) uniform procedures for the administration of relocation assistance shall, to the maximum extent feasible, assure that the unique circumstances of any displaced person are taken into account and that persons in essentially similar circumstances are accorded equal treatment under this chapter;

(3) the improvement of housing conditions of economically disadvantaged persons under this subchapter shall be undertaken, to the maximum extent feasible, in coordination with existing Federal, State, and local governmental programs for accomplishing such goals; and

(4) the policies and procedures of this chapter will be administered in a manner which is consistent with fair housing requirements and which assures all persons their rights under title VIII of the Act of April 11, 1968 (Public Law 90–284), commonly known as the Civil Rights Act of 1968 [42 U.S.C. 3601 et seq.], and title VI of the Civil Rights Act of 1964 [42 U.S.C. 2000d et seq.].

(Pub. L. 91–646, title II, §201, Jan. 2, 1971, 84 Stat. 1895; Pub. L. 100–17, title IV, §404, Apr. 2, 1987, 101 Stat. 248.)

References in Text

This chapter, referred to in subsecs. (a)(5) and (c)(2), (4), was in the original “this Act”, meaning Pub. L. 91–646, Jan. 2, 1971, 84 Stat. 1894, known as the Uniform Relocation Assistance and Real Property Acquisition Policies Act of 1970, which is classified principally to this chapter. For complete classification of this Act to the Code, see Short Title note set out under section 4601 of this title and Tables.

This subchapter, referred to in subsecs. (b) and (c)(1), (3), was in the original “this title”, meaning title II of Pub. L. 91–646, Jan. 2, 1971, 84 Stat. 1895, which is classified principally to this subchapter. For complete classification of title II to the Code, see Tables.

Title VIII of the Act of April 11, 1968 (Public Law 90–284), commonly known as the Civil Rights Act of 1968, referred to in subsec. (c)(4), is title VIII of Pub. L. 90–284, Apr. 11, 1968, 82 Stat. 81, known as the Fair Housing Act, which is classified principally to subchapter I (§3601 et seq.) of chapter 45 of this title. For complete classification of this Act to the Code, see Short Title note set out under section 3601 of this title and Tables.

The Civil Rights Act of 1964, referred to in subsec. (c)(4), is Pub. L. 88–352, July 2, 1964, 78 Stat. 241. Title VI of the Civil Rights Act of 1964 is classified generally to subchapter V (§2000d et seq.) of chapter 21 of this title. For complete classification of this Act to the Code, see Short Title note set out under section 2000a of this title and Tables.

Amendments

1987—Pub. L. 100–17 substituted “Declaration of findings and policy” for “Declaration of policy” in section catchline and amended text generally. Prior to amendment, text read as follows: “The purpose of this subchapter is to establish a uniform policy for the fair and equitable treatment of persons displaced as a result of Federal and federally assisted programs in order that such persons shall not suffer disproportionate injuries as a result of programs designed for the benefit of the public as a whole.”

Effective Date of 1987 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 100–17 effective on effective date provided in regulations promulgated under section 4633 of this title (as amended by section 412 of Pub. L. 100–17), but not later than 2 years after Apr. 2, 1987, see section 418 of Pub. L. 100–17, set out as a note under section 4601 of this title.

Savings Provision

Section 220(b) of Pub. L. 91–646 provided that: “Any rights or liabilities now existing under prior Acts or portions thereof shall not be affected by the repeal of such prior Acts or portions thereof under subsection (a) of this section [repealing sections 1415(7)(b)(iii), (8) second sentence, 1465, 2473(b)(14), 3074, and 3307(b), (c) of this title, section 2680 of Title 10, Armed Forces, sections 501 to 512 of Title 23, Highways, sections 1231 to 1234 of Title 43, Public Lands, and section 1606(b) of former Title 49, Transportation, and provisions set out as notes under sections 501 and 511 of Title 23].”

§4622. Moving and related expenses

(a) General provision

Whenever a program or project to be undertaken by a displacing agency will result in the displacement of any person, the head of the displacing agency shall provide for the payment to the displaced person of—

(1) actual reasonable expenses in moving himself, his family, business, farm operation, or other personal property;

(2) actual direct losses of tangible personal property as a result of moving or discontinuing a business or farm operation, but not to exceed an amount equal to the reasonable expenses that would have been required to relocate such property, as determined by the head of the agency;

(3) actual reasonable expenses in searching for a replacement business or farm; and

(4) actual reasonable expenses necessary to reestablish a displaced farm, nonprofit organization, or small business at its new site, but not to exceed $10,000.

(b) Displacement from dwelling; election of payments: expense and dislocation allowance

Any displaced person eligible for payments under subsection (a) of this section who is displaced from a dwelling and who elects to accept the payments authorized by this subsection in lieu of the payments authorized by subsection (a) of this section may receive an expense and dislocation allowance, which shall be determined according to a schedule established by the head of the lead agency.

(c) Displacement from business or farm operation; election of payments; minimum and maximum amounts; eligibility

Any displaced person eligible for payments under subsection (a) of this section who is displaced from the person's place of business or farm operation and who is eligible under criteria established by the head of the lead agency may elect to accept the payment authorized by this subsection in lieu of the payment authorized by subsection (a) of this section. Such payment shall consist of a fixed payment in an amount to be determined according to criteria established by the head of the lead agency, except that such payment shall not be less than $1,000 nor more than $20,000. A person whose sole business at the displacement dwelling is the rental of such property to others shall not qualify for a payment under this subsection.

(d) Certain utility relocation expenses

(1) Except as otherwise provided by Federal law—

(A) if a program or project (i) which is undertaken by a displacing agency, and (ii) the purpose of which is not to relocate or reconstruct any utility facility, results in the relocation of a utility facility;

(B) if the owner of the utility facility which is being relocated under such program or project has entered into, with the State or local government on whose property, easement, or right-of-way such facility is located, a franchise or similar agreement with respect to the use of such property, easement, or right-of-way; and

(C) if the relocation of such facility results in such owner incurring an extraordinary cost in connection with such relocation;


the displacing agency may, in accordance with such regulations as the head of the lead agency may issue, provide to such owner a relocation payment which may not exceed the amount of such extraordinary cost (less any increase in the value of the new utility facility above the value of the old utility facility and less any salvage value derived from the old utility facility).

(2) For purposes of this subsection, the term—

(A) “extraordinary cost in connection with a relocation” means any cost incurred by the owner of a utility facility in connection with relocation of such facility which is determined by the head of the displacing agency, under such regulations as the head of the lead agency shall issue—

(i) to be a non-routine relocation expense;

(ii) to be a cost such owner ordinarily does not include in its annual budget as an expense of operation; and

(iii) to meet such other requirements as the lead agency may prescribe in such regulations; and


(B) “utility facility” means—

(i) any electric, gas, water, steam power, or materials transmission or distribution system;

(ii) any transportation system;

(iii) any communications system (including cable television); and

(iv) any fixtures, equipment, or other property associated with the operation, maintenance, or repair of any such system;


located on property which is owned by a State or local government or over which a State or local government has an easement or right-of-way. A utility facility may be publicly, privately, or cooperatively owned.

(Pub. L. 91–646, title II, §202, Jan. 2, 1971, 84 Stat. 1895; Pub. L. 100–17, title IV, §405, Apr. 2, 1987, 101 Stat. 249.)

Amendments

1987—Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 100–17, §405(a)(1), inserted introductory provisions and struck out former introductory provisions which read as follows: “Whenever the acquisition of real property for a program or project undertaken by a Federal agency in any State will result in the displacement of any person on or after January 2, 1971, the head of such agency shall make a payment to any displaced person, upon proper application as approved by such agency head, for—”.

Subsec. (a)(4). Pub. L. 100–17, §405(a)(2)–(4), added par. (4).

Subsec. (b). Pub. L. 100–17, §405(b), substituted “an expense and dislocation allowance, which shall be determined according to a schedule established by the head of the lead agency” for “a moving expense allowance, determined according to a schedule established by the head of the Federal agency, not to exceed $300; and a dislocation allowance of $200”.

Subsec. (c). Pub. L. 100–17, §405(c), amended subsec. (c) generally. Prior to amendment, subsec. (c) read as follows: “Any displaced person eligible for payments under subsection (a) of this section who is displaced from his place of business or from his farm operation and who elects to accept the payment authorized by this subsection in lieu of the payment authorized by subsection (a) of this section, may receive a fixed payment in an amount equal to the average annual net earnings of the business or farm operation, except that such payment shall be not less than $2,500 nor more than $10,000. In the case of a business no payment shall be made under this subsection unless the head of the Federal agency is satisfied that the business (1) cannot be relocated without a substantial loss of its existing patronage, and (2) is not a part of a commercial enterprise having at least one other establishment not being acquired by the United States, which is engaged in the same or similar business. For purposes of this subsection, the term ‘average annual net earnings’ means one-half of any net earnings of the business or farm operation, before Federal, State, and local income taxes, during the two taxable years immediately preceding the taxable year in which such business or farm operation moves from the real property acquired for such project, or during such other period as the head of such agency determines to be more equitable for establishing such earnings, and includes any compensation paid by the business or farm operation to the owner, his spouse, or his dependents during such period.”

Subsec. (d). Pub. L. 100–17, §405(d), added subsec. (d).

Effective Date of 1987 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 100–17 effective on effective date provided in regulations promulgated under section 4633 of this title (as amended by section 412 of Pub. L. 100–17), but not later than 2 years after Apr. 2, 1987, see section 418 of Pub. L. 100–17, set out as a note under section 4601 of this title.

§4623. Replacement housing for homeowner; mortgage insurance

(a)(1) In addition to payments otherwise authorized by this subchapter, the head of the displacing agency shall make an additional payment not in excess of $22,500 to any displaced person who is displaced from a dwelling actually owned and occupied by such displaced person for not less than one hundred and eighty days prior to the initiation of negotiations for the acquisition of the property. Such additional payment shall include the following elements:

(A) The amount, if any, which when added to the acquisition cost of the dwelling acquired by the displacing agency, equals the reasonable cost of a comparable replacement dwelling.

(B) The amount, if any, which will compensate such displaced person for any increased interest costs and other debt service costs which such person is required to pay for financing the acquisition of any such comparable replacement dwelling. Such amount shall be paid only if the dwelling acquired by the displacing agency was encumbered by a bona fide mortgage which was a valid lien on such dwelling for not less than 180 days immediately prior to the initiation of negotiations for the acquisition of such dwelling.

(C) Reasonable expenses incurred by such displaced person for evidence of title, recording fees, and other closing costs incident to the purchase of the replacement dwelling, but not including prepaid expenses.

(2) The additional payment authorized by this section shall be made only to a displaced person who purchases and occupies a decent, safe, and sanitary replacement dwelling within 1 year after the date on which such person receives final payment from the displacing agency for the acquired dwelling or the date on which the displacing agency's obligation under section 4625(c)(3) of this title is met, whichever is later, except that the displacing agency may extend such period for good cause. If such period is extended, the payment under this section shall be based on the costs of relocating the person to a comparable replacement dwelling within 1 year of such date.

(b) The head of any Federal agency may, upon application by a mortgagee, insure any mortgage (including advances during construction) on a comparable replacement dwelling executed by a displaced person assisted under this section, which mortgage is eligible for insurance under any Federal law administered by such agency notwithstanding any requirements under such law relating to age, physical condition, or other personal characteristics of eligible mortgagors, and may make commitments for the insurance of such mortgage prior to the date of execution of the mortgage.

(Pub. L. 91–646, title II, §203, Jan. 2, 1971, 84 Stat. 1896; Pub. L. 100–17, title IV, §406, Apr. 2, 1987, 101 Stat. 251.)

Amendments

1987—Subsec. (a)(1). Pub. L. 100–17, §406(1)–(3), substituted “displacing agency” for “Federal agency” and “$22,500” for “$15,000” in introductory provisions, and in subpar. (A) “acquired by the displacing agency, equals the reasonable cost of a comparable replacement dwelling” for “acquired by the Federal agency, equals the reasonable cost of a comparable replacement dwelling which is a decent, safe, and sanitary dwelling adequate to accommodate such displaced person, reasonably accessible to public services and places of employment and available on the private market. All determinations required to carry out this subparagraph shall be made in accordance with standards established by the head of the Federal agency making the additional payment”.

Subsec. (a)(1)(B). Pub. L. 100–17, §406(4), added subpar. (B) and struck out former subpar. (B) which read as follows: “The amount, if any, which will compensate such displaced person for any increased interest costs which such person is required to pay for financing the acquisition of any such comparable replacement dwelling. Such amount shall be paid only if the dwelling acquired by the Federal agency was encumbered by a bona fide mortgage which was a valid lien on such dwelling for not less than one hundred and eighty days prior to the initiation of negotiations for the acquisition of such dwelling. Such amount shall be equal to the excess in the aggregate interest and other debt service costs of that amount of the principal of the mortgage on the replacement dwelling which is equal to the unpaid balance of the mortgage on the acquired dwelling, over the remainder term of the mortgage on the acquired dwelling, reduced to discounted present value. The discount rate shall be the prevailing interest rate paid on savings deposits by commercial banks in the general area in which the replacement dwelling is located.”

Subsec. (a)(2). Pub. L. 100–17, §406(5), added par. (2) and struck out former par. (2) which read as follows: “The additional payment authorized by this subsection shall be made only to such a displaced person who purchases and occupies a replacement dwelling which is decent, safe, and sanitary not later than the end of the one year period beginning on the date on which he receives from the Federal agency final payment of all costs of the acquired dwelling, or on the date on which he moves from the acquired dwelling, whichever is the later date.”

Effective Date of 1987 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 100–17 effective on effective date provided in regulations promulgated under section 4633 of this title (as amended by section 412 of Pub. L. 100–17), but not later than 2 years after Apr. 2, 1987, see section 418 of Pub. L. 100–17, set out as a note under section 4601 of this title.

§4624. Replacement housing for tenants and certain others

(a) In addition to amounts otherwise authorized by this subchapter, the head of a displacing agency shall make a payment to or for any displaced person displaced from any dwelling not eligible to receive a payment under section 4623 of this title which dwelling was actually and lawfully occupied by such displaced person for not less than 90 days immediately prior to (1) the initiation of negotiations for acquisition of such dwelling, or (2) in any case in which displacement is not a direct result of acquisition, such other event as the head of the lead agency shall prescribe. Such payment shall consist of the amount necessary to enable such person to lease or rent for a period not to exceed 42 months, a comparable replacement dwelling, but not to exceed $5,250. At the discretion of the head of the displacing agency, a payment under this subsection may be made in periodic installments. Computation of a payment under this subsection to a low-income displaced person for a comparable replacement dwelling shall take into account such person's income.

(b) Any person eligible for a payment under subsection (a) of this section may elect to apply such payment to a down payment on, and other incidental expenses pursuant to, the purchase of a decent, safe, and sanitary replacement dwelling. Any such person may, at the discretion of the head of the displacing agency, be eligible under this subsection for the maximum payment allowed under subsection (a) of this section, except that, in the case of a displaced homeowner who has owned and occupied the displacement dwelling for at least 90 days but not more than 180 days immediately prior to the initiation of negotiations for the acquisition of such dwelling, such payment shall not exceed the payment such person would otherwise have received under section 4623(a) of this title had the person owned and occupied the displacement dwelling 180 days immediately prior to the initiation of such negotiations.

(Pub. L. 91–646, title II, §204, Jan. 2, 1971, 84 Stat. 1897; Pub. L. 100–17, title IV, §407, Apr. 2, 1987, 101 Stat. 251.)

Amendments

1987—Pub. L. 100–17 amended section generally, revising and restating as subsecs. (a) and (b) provisions formerly contained in introductory provisions and in pars. (1) and (2).

Effective Date of 1987 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 100–17 effective on effective date provided in regulations promulgated under section 4633 of this title (as amended by section 412 of Pub. L. 100–17), but not later than 2 years after Apr. 2, 1987, see section 418 of Pub. L. 100–17, set out as a note under section 4601 of this title.

§4625. Relocation planning, assistance coordination, and advisory services

(a) Planning of programs or projects undertaken by Federal agencies or with Federal financial assistance

Programs or projects undertaken by a Federal agency or with Federal financial assistance shall be planned in a manner that (1) recognizes, at an early stage in the planning of such programs or projects and before the commencement of any actions which will cause displacements, the problems associated with the displacement of individuals, families, businesses, and farm operations, and (2) provides for the resolution of such problems in order to minimize adverse impacts on displaced persons and to expedite program or project advancement and completion.

(b) Availability of advisory services

The head of any displacing agency shall ensure that the relocation assistance advisory services described in subsection (c) of this section are made available to all persons displaced by such agency. If such agency head determines that any person occupying property immediately adjacent to the property where the displacing activity occurs is caused substantial economic injury as a result thereof, the agency head may make available to such person such advisory services.

(c) Measures, facilities, or services; description

Each relocation assistance advisory program required by subsection (b) of this section shall include such measures, facilities, or services as may be necessary or appropriate in order to—

(1) determine, and make timely recommendations on, the needs and preferences, if any, of displaced persons for relocation assistance;

(2) provide current and continuing information on the availability, sales prices, and rental charges of comparable replacement dwellings for displaced homeowners and tenants and suitable locations for businesses and farm operations;

(3) assure that a person shall not be required to move from a dwelling unless the person has had a reasonable opportunity to relocate to a comparable replacement dwelling, except in the case of—

(A) a major disaster as defined in section 5122(2) of this title;

(B) a national emergency declared by the President; or

(C) any other emergency which requires the person to move immediately from the dwelling because continued occupancy of such dwelling by such person constitutes a substantial danger to the health or safety of such person;


(4) assist a person displaced from a business or farm operation in obtaining and becoming established in a suitable replacement location;

(5) supply (A) information concerning other Federal and State programs which may be of assistance to displaced persons, and (B) technical assistance to such persons in applying for assistance under such programs; and

(6) provide other advisory services to displaced persons in order to minimize hardships to such persons in adjusting to relocation.

(d) Coordination of relocation activities with other Federal, State, or local governmental actions

The head of a displacing agency shall coordinate the relocation activities performed by such agency with other Federal, State, or local governmental actions in the community which could affect the efficient and effective delivery of relocation assistance and related services.

(e) Selection of implementation procedures

Whenever two or more Federal agencies provide financial assistance to a displacing agency other than a Federal agency, to implement functionally or geographically related activities which will result in the displacement of a person, the heads of such Federal agencies may agree that the procedures of one of such agencies shall be utilized to implement this subchapter with respect to such activities. If such agreement cannot be reached, then the head of the lead agency shall designate one of such agencies as the agency whose procedures shall be utilized to implement this subchapter with respect to such activities. Such related activities shall constitute a single program or project for purposes of this chapter.

(f) Tenants occupying property acquired for programs or projects; eligibility for advisory services

Notwithstanding section 4601(1) of this title, in any case in which a displacing agency acquires property for a program or project, any person who occupies such property on a rental basis for a short term or a period subject to termination when the property is needed for the program or project shall be eligible for advisory services to the extent determined by the displacing agency.

(Pub. L. 91–646, title II, §205, Jan. 2, 1971, 84 Stat. 1897; Pub. L. 100–17, title IV, §408, Apr. 2, 1987, 101 Stat. 252.)

References in Text

This chapter, referred to in subsec. (e), was in the original “this Act”, meaning Pub. L. 91–646, Jan. 2, 1971, 84 Stat. 1894, known as the Uniform Relocation Assistance and Real Property Acquisition Policies Act of 1970, which is classified principally to this chapter. For complete classification of this Act to the Code, see Short Title note set out under section 4601 of this title and Tables.

Amendments

1987—Pub. L. 100–17, substituted “Relocation planning, assistance coordination, and advisory services” for “Relocation assistance advisory services” in catchline and amended text generally, revising and restating as subsecs. (a) to (f) provisions formerly contained in subsecs. (a) to (d).

Effective Date of 1987 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 100–17 effective on effective date provided in regulations promulgated under section 4633 of this title (as amended by section 412 of Pub. L. 100–17), but not later than 2 years after Apr. 2, 1987, see section 418 of Pub. L. 100–17, set out as a note under section 4601 of this title.

§4626. Housing replacement by Federal agency as last resort

(a) If a program or project undertaken by a Federal agency or with Federal financial assistance cannot proceed on a timely basis because comparable replacement dwellings are not available, and the head of the displacing agency determines that such dwellings cannot otherwise be made available, the head of the displacing agency may take such action as is necessary or appropriate to provide such dwellings by use of funds authorized for such project. The head of the displacing agency may use this section to exceed the maximum amounts which may be paid under sections 4623 and 4624 of this title on a case-by-case basis for good cause as determined in accordance with such regulations as the head of the lead agency shall issue.

(b) No person shall be required to move from his dwelling on account of any program or project undertaken by a Federal agency or with Federal financial assistance, unless the head of the displacing agency is satisfied that comparable replacement housing is available to such person.

(Pub. L. 91–646, title II, §206, Jan. 2, 1971, 84 Stat. 1898; Pub. L. 100–17, title IV, §409, Apr. 2, 1987, 101 Stat. 253.)

Amendments

1987—Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 100–17 amended subsec. (a) generally. Prior to amendment, subsec. (a) read as follows: “If a Federal project cannot proceed to actual construction because comparable replacement sale or rental housing is not available, and the head of the Federal agency determines that such housing cannot otherwise be made available he may take such action as is necessary or appropriate to provide such housing by use of funds authorized for such project.”

Subsec. (b). Pub. L. 100–17 amended subsec. (b) generally. Prior to amendment, subsec. (b) read as follows: “No person shall be required to move from his dwelling on or after January 2, 1971, on account of any Federal project, unless the Federal agency head is satisfied that replacement housing, in accordance with section 4625(c)(3) of this title, is available to such person.”

Effective Date of 1987 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 100–17 effective on effective date provided in regulations promulgated under section 4633 of this title (as amended by section 412 of Pub. L. 100–17), but not later than 2 years after Apr. 2, 1987, see section 418 of Pub. L. 100–17, set out as a note under section 4601 of this title.

§4627. State required to furnish real property incident to Federal assistance (local cooperation)

Whenever real property is acquired by a State agency and furnished as a required contribution incident to a Federal program or project, the Federal agency having authority over the program or project may not accept such property unless such State agency has made all payments and provided all assistance and assurances, as are required of a State agency by sections 4630 and 4655 of this title. Such State agency shall pay the cost of such requirements in the same manner and to the same extent as the real property acquired for such project, except that in the case of any real property acquisition or displacement occurring prior to July 1, 1972, such Federal agency shall pay 100 per centum of the first $25,000 of the cost of providing such payments and assistance.

(Pub. L. 91–646, title II, §207, Jan. 2, 1971, 84 Stat. 1898.)

§4628. State acting as agent for Federal program

Whenever real property is acquired by a State agency at the request of a Federal agency for a Federal program or project, such acquisition shall, for the purposes of this chapter, be deemed an acquisition by the Federal agency having authority over such program or project.

(Pub. L. 91–646, title II, §208, Jan. 2, 1971, 84 Stat. 1899.)

References in Text

This chapter, referred to in text, was in the original “this Act”, meaning Pub. L. 91–646, Jan. 2, 1971, 84 Stat. 1894, known as the Uniform Relocation Assistance and Real Property Acquisition Policies Act of 1970, which is classified principally to this chapter. For complete classification of this Act to the Code, see Short Title note set out under section 4601 of this title and Tables.

§4629. Public works programs and projects of District of Columbia government and Washington Metropolitan Area Transit Authority

Whenever real property is acquired by the government of the District of Columbia or the Washington Metropolitan Area Transit Authority for a program or project which is not subject to sections 4630 and 4631 of this title, and such acquisition will result in the displacement of any person on or after January 2, 1971, the Mayor of the District of Columbia or the Washington Metropolitan Area Transit Authority, as the case may be, shall make all relocation payments and provide all assistance required of a Federal agency by this chapter. Whenever real property is acquired for such a program or project on or after such effective date, such Mayor or Authority, as the case may be, shall make all payments and meet all requirements prescribed for a Federal agency by subchapter III of this chapter.

(Pub. L. 91–646, title II, §209, Jan. 2, 1971, 84 Stat. 1899; Pub. L. 93–198, title IV, §421, Dec. 24, 1973, 87 Stat. 789.)

References in Text

This chapter, referred to in text, was in the original “this Act”, meaning Pub. L. 91–646, Jan. 2, 1971, 84 Stat. 1894, known as the Uniform Relocation Assistance and Real Property Acquisition Policies Act of 1970, which is classified principally to this chapter. For complete classification of this Act to the Code, see Short Title note set out under section 4601 of this title and Tables.

Subchapter III of this chapter, referred to in text, was in the original “title III of this Act”, meaning title III of Pub. L. 91–646, Jan. 2, 1971, 84 Stat. 1904, which enacted subchapter III of this chapter, repealed sections 3071 to 3073 of this title, section 141 of Title 23, Highways, and section 596 of Title 33, Navigation and Navigable Waters, and enacted provisions set out as a note under section 4651 of this title. For complete classification of title III to the Code, see Tables.

Transfer of Functions

“Mayor” substituted for “Commissioner” pursuant to section 421 of Pub. L. 93–198. Office of Commissioner of District of Columbia, as established by Reorg. Plan No. 3 of 1967, abolished as of noon Jan. 2, 1975, by Pub. L. 93–198, title VII, §711, Dec. 24, 1973, 87 Stat. 818, and replaced by Office of Mayor of District of Columbia by section 421 of Pub. L. 93–198.

§4630. Requirements for relocation payments and assistance of federally assisted program; assurances of availability of housing

Notwithstanding any other law, the head of a Federal agency shall not approve any grant to, or contract or agreement with, a displacing agency (other than a Federal agency), under which Federal financial assistance will be available to pay all or part of the cost of any program or project which will result in the displacement of any person on or after January 2, 1971, unless he receives satisfactory assurances from such displacing agency that—

(1) fair and reasonable relocation payments and assistance shall be provided to or for displaced persons, as are required to be provided by a Federal agency under sections 4622, 4623, and 4624 of this title;

(2) relocation assistance programs offering the services described in section 4625 of this title shall be provided to such displaced persons;

(3) within a reasonable period of time prior to displacement, comparable replacement dwellings will be available to displaced persons in accordance with section 4625(c)(3) of this title.

(Pub. L. 91–646, title II, §210, Jan. 2, 1971, 84 Stat. 1899; Pub. L. 100–17, title IV, §410, Apr. 2, 1987, 101 Stat. 254.)

Amendments

1987—Pub. L. 100–17 in introductory provisions substituted “displacing agency (other than a Federal agency)” for “State agency” and “assurances from such displacing agency” for “assurances from such State agency”, and in par. (3) substituted “comparable replacement dwellings” for “decent, safe, and sanitary replacement dwellings”.

Effective Date of 1987 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 100–17 effective on effective date provided in regulations promulgated under section 4633 of this title (as amended by section 412 of Pub. L. 100–17), but not later than 2 years after Apr. 2, 1987, see section 418 of Pub. L. 100–17, set out as a note under section 4601 of this title.

Effective Date

Section as completely applicable to all States after July 1, 1972, but until such date applicable to a State to extent the State is able under its laws to comply with this section, see section 221(b) of Pub. L. 91–646, set out as a note under section 4601 of this title.

§4631. Federal share of costs

(a) Cost to displacing agency; eligibility

The cost to a displacing agency of providing payments and assistance under this subchapter and subchapter III of this chapter shall be included as part of the cost of a program or project undertaken by a Federal agency or with Federal financial assistance. A displacing agency, other than a Federal agency, shall be eligible for Federal financial assistance with respect to such payments and assistance in the same manner and to the same extent as other program or project costs.

(b) Comparable payments under other laws

No payment or assistance under this subchapter or subchapter III of this chapter shall be required to be made to any person or included as a program or project cost under this section, if such person receives a payment required by Federal, State, or local law which is determined by the head of the Federal agency to have substantially the same purpose and effect as such payment under this section.

(c) Agreements prior to January 2, 1971; advancements

Any grant to, or contract or agreement with, a State agency executed before January 2, 1971, under which Federal financial assistance is available to pay all or part of the cost of any program or project which will result in the displacement of any person on or after January 2, 1971, shall be amended to include the cost of providing payments and services under sections 4630 and 4655 of this title. If the head of a Federal agency determines that it is necessary for the expeditious completion of a program or project he may advance to the State agency the Federal share of the cost of any payments or assistance by such State agency pursuant to sections 4626, 4630, 4635, and 4655 of this title.

(Pub. L. 91–646, title II, §211, Jan. 2, 1971, 84 Stat. 1900; Pub. L. 100–17, title IV, §411, Apr. 2, 1987, 101 Stat. 254.)

References in Text

Subchapter III of this chapter, referred to in subsecs. (a) and (b), was in the original “title III of this Act”, meaning title III of Pub. L. 91–646, Jan. 2, 1971, 84 Stat. 1904, which is classified principally to subchapter III of this chapter. For complete classification of title III to the Code, see Tables.

Amendments

1987—Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 100–17, §411(a), amended subsec. (a) generally. Prior to amendment, subsec. (a) read as follows: “The cost to a State agency of providing payments and assistance pursuant to sections 4626, 4630, 4635, and 4655 of this title, shall be included as part of the cost of a program or project for which Federal financial assistance is available to such State agency, and such State agency shall be eligible for Federal financial assistance with respect to such payments and assistance in the same manner and to the same extent as other program or project costs, except that, notwithstanding any other law in the case where the Federal financial assistance is by grant or contribution the Federal agency shall pay the full amount of the first $25,000 of the cost to a State agency of providing payments and assistance for a displaced person under sections 4626, 4630, 4635, and 4655 of this title, on account of any acquisition or displacement occurring prior to July 1, 1972, and in any case where such Federal financial assistance is by loan, the Federal agency shall loan such State agency the full amount of the first $25,000 of such cost.”

Subsec. (b). Pub. L. 100–17, §411(b), amended subsec. (b) generally. Prior to amendment, subsec. (b) read as follows: “No payment or assistance under section 4630 or 4655 of this title shall be required or included as a program or project cost under this section, if the displaced person receives a payment required by the State law of eminent domain which is determined by such Federal agency head to have substantially the same purpose and effect as such payment under this section, and to be part of the cost of the program or project for which Federal financial assistance is available.”

Effective Date of 1987 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 100–17 effective on effective date provided in regulations promulgated under section 4633 of this title (as amended by section 412 of Pub. L. 100–17), but not later than 2 years after Apr. 2, 1987, see section 418 of Pub. L. 100–17, set out as a note under section 4601 of this title.

§4632. Administration; relocation assistance in programs receiving Federal financial assistance

In order to prevent unnecessary expenses and duplications of functions, and to promote uniform and effective administration of relocation assistance programs for displaced persons under sections 4626, 4630, and 4635 of this title, a State agency may enter into contracts with any individual, firm, association, or corporation for services in connection with such programs, or may carry out its functions under this subchapter through any Federal or State governmental agency or instrumentality having an established organization for conducting relocation assistance programs. Such State agency shall, in carrying out the relocation assistance activities described in section 4626 of this title, whenever practicable, utilize the services of State or local housing agencies, or other agencies having experience in the administration or conduct of similar housing assistance activities.

(Pub. L. 91–646, title II, §212, Jan. 2, 1971, 84 Stat. 1900.)

§4633. Duties of lead agency

(a) General provisions

The head of the lead agency shall—

(1) develop, publish, and issue, with the active participation of the Secretary of Housing and Urban Development and the heads of other Federal agencies responsible for funding relocation and acquisition actions, and in coordination with State and local governments, such regulations as may be necessary to carry out this chapter;

(2) provide, in consultation with the Attorney General (acting through the Commissioner of the Immigration and Naturalization Service), through training and technical assistance activities for displacing agencies, information developed with the Attorney General (acting through the Commissioner) on proper implementation of section 4605 of this title;

(3) ensure that displacing agencies implement section 4605 of this title fairly and without discrimination in accordance with section 4605(b)(2)(B) of this title;

(4) ensure that relocation assistance activities under this chapter are coordinated with low-income housing assistance programs or projects by a Federal agency or a State or State agency with Federal financial assistance;

(5) monitor, in coordination with other Federal agencies, the implementation and enforcement of this chapter and report to the Congress, as appropriate, on any major issues or problems with respect to any policy or other provision of this chapter; and

(6) perform such other duties as may be necessary to carry out this chapter.

(b) Regulations and procedures

The head of the lead agency is authorized to issue such regulations and establish such procedures as he may determine to be necessary to assure—

(1) that the payments and assistance authorized by this chapter shall be administered in a manner which is fair and reasonable and as uniform as practicable;

(2) that a displaced person who makes proper application for a payment authorized for such person by this subchapter shall be paid promptly after a move or, in hardship cases, be paid in advance; and

(3) that any aggrieved person may have his application reviewed by the head of the Federal agency having authority over the applicable program or project or, in the case of a program or project receiving Federal financial assistance, by the State agency having authority over such program or project or the Federal agency having authority over such program or project if there is no such State agency.

(c) Applicability to Tennessee Valley Authority and Rural Electrification Administration

The regulations and procedures issued pursuant to this section shall apply to the Tennessee Valley Authority and the Rural Electrification Administration only with respect to relocation assistance under this subchapter and subchapter I of this chapter.

(Pub. L. 91–646, title II, §213, Jan. 2, 1971, 84 Stat. 1900; Pub. L. 100–17, title IV, §412, Apr. 2, 1987, 101 Stat. 254; Pub. L. 102–240, title I, §1055, Dec. 18, 1991, 105 Stat. 2002; Pub. L. 105–117, §2, Nov. 21, 1997, 111 Stat. 2385.)

References in Text

This chapter, referred to in subsecs. (a)(1), (4) to (6) and (b)(1), was in the original “this Act”, meaning Pub. L. 91–646, Jan. 2, 1971, 84 Stat. 1894, known as the Uniform Relocation Assistance and Real Property Acquisition Policies Act of 1970, which is classified principally to this chapter. For complete classification of this Act to the Code, see Short Title note set out under section 4601 of this title and Tables.

Amendments

1997—Subsec. (a)(2) to (6). Pub. L. 105–117 added pars. (2) and (3) and redesignated former pars. (2) to (4) as (4) to (6), respectively.

1991—Subsec. (c). Pub. L. 102–240 inserted “and the Rural Electrification Administration” after “Tennessee Valley Authority”.

1987—Pub. L. 100–17 in amending section generally, substituted “Duties of lead agency” for “Regulations and procedures” in section catchline.

Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 100–17 amended subsec. (a) generally. Prior to amendment, subsec. (a) read as follows: “In order to promote uniform and effective administration of relocation assistance and land acquisition of State or local housing agencies, or other agencies having programs or projects by Federal agencies or programs or projects by State agencies receiving Federal financial assistance, the heads of Federal agencies shall consult together on the establishment of regulations and procedures for the implementation of such programs.”

Subsec. (b). Pub. L. 100–17 amended subsec. (b) generally. Prior to amendment, subsec. (b) read as follows: “The head of each Federal agency is authorized to establish such regulations and procedures as he may determine to be necessary to assure—

“(1) that the payments and assistance authorized by this chapter shall be administered in a manner which is fair and reasonable, and as uniform as practicable;

“(2) that a displaced person who makes proper application for a payment authorized for such person by this subchapter shall be paid promptly after a move or, in hardship cases, be paid in advance; and

“(3) that any person aggrieved by a determination as to eligibility for a payment authorized by this chapter, or the amount of a payment, may have his application reviewed by the head of the Federal agency having authority over the applicable program or project, or in the case of a program or project receiving Federal financial assistance, by the head of the State agency.”

Subsec. (c). Pub. L. 100–17 amended subsec. (c) generally. Prior to amendment, subsec. (c) read as follows: “The head of each Federal agency may prescribe such other regulations and procedures, consistent with the provisions of this chapter, as he deems necessary or appropriate to carry out this chapter.”

Effective Date of 1991 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 102–240 effective Dec. 18, 1991, and applicable to funds authorized to be appropriated or made available after Sept. 30, 1991, and, with certain exceptions, not applicable to funds appropriated or made available on or before Sept. 30, 1991, see section 1100 of Pub. L. 102–240, set out as a note under section 104 of Title 23, Highways.

Effective Date of 1987 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 100–17 effective Apr. 2, 1987, to the extent such amendment prescribes authority to develop, publish, and issue regulations, and otherwise to take effect on effective date provided in such regulations but not later than 2 years after Apr. 2, 1987, see section 418 of Pub. L. 100–17, set out as a note under section 4601 of this title.

Abolition of Immigration and Naturalization Service and Transfer of Functions

For abolition of Immigration and Naturalization Service, transfer of functions, and treatment of related references, see note set out under section 1551 of Title 8, Aliens and Nationality.

Improvement of Administration and Implementation of This Chapter

Memorandum of the President dated February 27, 1985, 50 F.R. 8953, provided:


The purpose of this Memorandum is to improve administration and implementation of the Uniform Relocation Assistance and Real Property Acquisition Policies Act of 1970 [42 U.S.C. 4601 et seq.].


Specifically, I hereby direct the following actions:


1. The Presidential Memorandum of September 6, 1973 on this subject is superseded.

2. As with other Administration management improvement initiatives, a lead agency, the Department of Transportation (DOT), is designated to coordinate and monitor implementation of the Act, and consult periodically with State and local governments and other organizations and interest groups affected by administration of the Act.

3. DOT, jointly with the Department of Housing and Urban Development, shall interact with the principal executive departments and agencies affected by the Act in developing Administration policy.

4. Within 90 days of the date of this Memorandum, all affected executive departments and agencies shall propose common regulations under the Act. Within one year of the date of this Memorandum, such departments and agencies shall issue common regulations under the Act. Such regulations shall be consistent with the model policy promulgated by DOT, in consultation and coordination with other affected agencies, and published in final form in the Federal Register simultaneously with this Memorandum.

5. DOT shall report annually to the President's Council on Management Improvement, through the Office of Management and Budget, on implementation of the Act.

§4634. Repealed. Pub. L. 100–17, title IV, §415, Apr. 2, 1987, 100 Stat. 255

Section, Pub. L. 91–646, title II, §214, Jan. 2, 1971, 84 Stat. 1901, required head of each Federal agency to submit an annual report to the President respecting programs and policies established or authorized by this chapter, and the President to submit such reports to Congress.

Effective Date of Repeal

Repeal effective on effective date provided in regulations promulgated under section 4633 of this title (as amended by section 412 of Pub. L. 100–17), but not later than 2 years after Apr. 2, 1987, see section 418 of Pub. L. 100–17, set out as an Effective Date of 1987 Amendment note under section 4601 of this title.

§4635. Planning and other preliminary expenses for additional housing

In order to encourage and facilitate the construction or rehabilitation of housing to meet the needs of displaced persons who are displaced from dwellings because of any Federal or Federal financially assisted project, the head of the Federal agency administering such project is authorized to make loans as a part of the cost of any such project, or to approve loans as a part of the cost of any such project receiving Federal financial assistance, to nonprofit, limited dividend, or cooperative organizations or to public bodies, for necessary and reasonable expenses, prior to construction, for planning and obtaining federally insured mortgage financing for the rehabilitation or construction of housing for such displaced persons. Notwithstanding the preceding sentence, or any other law, such loans shall be available for not to exceed 80 per centum of the reasonable costs expected to be incurred in planning, and in obtaining financing for, such housing, prior to the availability of such financing, including, but not limited to, preliminary surveys and analyses of market needs, preliminary site engineering, preliminary architectural fees, site acquisition, application and mortgage commitment fees, and construction loan fees and discounts. Loans to an organization established for profit shall bear interest at a market rate established by the head of such Federal agency. All other loans shall be without interest. Such Federal agency head shall require repayment of loans made under this section, under such terms and conditions as he may require, upon completion of the project or sooner, and except in the case of a loan to an organization established for profit, may cancel any part or all of a loan if he determines that a permanent loan to finance the rehabilitation or the construction of such housing cannot be obtained in an amount adequate for repayment of such loan. Upon repayment of any such loan, the Federal share of the sum repaid shall be credited to the account from which such loan was made, unless the Secretary of the Treasury determines that such account is no longer in existence, in which case such sum shall be returned to the Treasury and credited to miscellaneous receipts.

(Pub. L. 91–646, title II, §215, Jan. 2, 1971, 84 Stat. 1901.)

§4636. Payments not to be considered as income for revenue purposes or for eligibility for assistance under Social Security Act or other Federal law

No payment received under this subchapter shall be considered as income for the purposes of title 26; or for the purposes of determining the eligibility or the extent of eligibility of any person for assistance under the Social Security Act [42 U.S.C. 301 et seq.] or any other Federal law (except for any Federal law providing low-income housing assistance).

(Pub. L. 91–646, title II, §216, Jan. 2, 1971, 84 Stat. 1902; Pub. L. 99–514, §2, Oct. 22, 1986, 100 Stat. 2095; Pub. L. 100–17, title IV, §413, Apr. 2, 1987, 101 Stat. 255.)

References in Text

The Social Security Act, referred to in text, is act Aug. 14, 1935, ch. 531, 49 Stat. 620, as amended, which is classified generally to chapter 7 (§301 et seq.) of this title. For complete classification of this Act to the Code, see section 1305 of this title and Tables.

Amendments

1987—Pub. L. 100–17 inserted “(except for any Federal law providing low-income housing assistance)” before period at end.

1986—Pub. L. 99–514 substituted “Internal Revenue Code of 1986” for “Internal Revenue Code of 1954”, which for purposes of codification was translated as “title 26” thus requiring no change in text.

Effective Date of 1987 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 100–17 effective on effective date provided in regulations promulgated under section 4633 of this title (as amended by section 412 of Pub. L. 100–17), but not later than 2 years after Apr. 2, 1987, see section 418 of Pub. L. 100–17, set out as a note under section 4601 of this title.

§4637. Repealed. Pub. L. 100–17, title IV, §415, Apr. 2, 1987, 101 Stat. 255

Section, Pub. L. 91–646, title II, §217, Jan. 2, 1971, 84 Stat. 1902, related to displacement by code enforcement, rehabilitation, and demolition programs receiving Federal assistance.

Effective Date of Repeal

Repeal effective on effective date provided in regulations promulgated under section 4633 of this title (as amended by section 412 of Pub. L. 100–17), but not later than 2 years after Apr. 2, 1987, see section 418 of Pub. L. 100–17, set out as an Effective Date of 1987 Amendment note under section 4601 of this title.

§4638. Transfers of surplus property

The Administrator of General Services is authorized to transfer to a State agency for the purpose of providing replacement housing required by this subchapter, any real property surplus to the needs of the United States within the meaning of chapters 1 to 11 of title 40 and division C (except sections 3302, 3307(e), 3501(b), 3509, 3906, 4710, and 4711) of subtitle I of title 41. Such transfer shall be subject to such terms and conditions as the Administrator determines necessary to protect the interests of the United States and may be made without monetary consideration, except that such State agency shall pay to the United States all net amounts received by such agency from any sale, lease, or other disposition of such property for such housing.

(Pub. L. 91–646, title II, §218, Jan. 2, 1971, 84 Stat. 1902; Pub. L. 100–17, title IV, §414, Apr. 2, 1987, 101 Stat. 255.)

Codification

In text, “chapters 1 to 11 of title 40 and division C (except sections 3302, 3307(e), 3501(b), 3509, 3906, 4710, and 4711) of subtitle I of title 41” substituted for “the Federal Property and Administrative Services Act of 1949, as amended” on authority of Pub. L. 107–217, §5(c), Aug. 21, 2002, 116 Stat. 1303, which Act enacted Title 40, Public Buildings, Property, and Works, and Pub. L. 111–350, §6(c), Jan. 4, 2011, 124 Stat. 3854, which Act enacted Title 41, Public Contracts.

Amendments

1987—Pub. L. 100–17 inserted “net” after “all”.

Effective Date of 1987 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 100–17 effective on effective date provided in regulations promulgated under section 4633 of this title (as amended by section 412 of Pub. L. 100–17), but not later than 2 years after Apr. 2, 1987, see section 418 of Pub. L. 100–17, set out as a note under section 4601 of this title.

SUBCHAPTER III—UNIFORM REAL PROPERTY ACQUISITION POLICY

§4651. Uniform policy on real property acquisition practices

In order to encourage and expedite the acquisition of real property by agreements with owners, to avoid litigation and relieve congestion in the courts, to assure consistent treatment for owners in the many Federal programs, and to promote public confidence in Federal land acquisition practices, heads of Federal agencies shall, to the greatest extent practicable, be guided by the following policies:

(1) The head of a Federal agency shall make every reasonable effort to acquire expeditiously real property by negotiation.

(2) Real property shall be appraised before the initiation of negotiations, and the owner or his designated representative shall be given an opportunity to accompany the appraiser during his inspection of the property, except that the head of the lead agency may prescribe a procedure to waive the appraisal in cases involving the acquisition by sale or donation of property with a low fair market value.

(3) Before the initiation of negotiations for real property, the head of the Federal agency concerned shall establish an amount which he believes to be just compensation therefor and shall make a prompt offer to acquire the property for the full amount so established. In no event shall such amount be less than the agency's approved appraisal of the fair market value of such property. Any decrease or increase in the fair market value of real property prior to the date of valuation caused by the public improvement for which such property is acquired, or by the likelihood that the property would be acquired for such improvement, other than that due to physical deterioration within the reasonable control of the owner, will be disregarded in determining the compensation for the property. The head of the Federal agency concerned shall provide the owner of real property to be acquired with a written statement of, and summary of the basis for, the amount he established as just compensation. Where appropriate the just compensation for the real property acquired and for damages to remaining real property shall be separately stated.

(4) No owner shall be required to surrender possession of real property before the head of the Federal agency concerned pays the agreed purchase price, or deposits with the court in accordance with section 3114(a) to (d) of title 40, for the benefit of the owner, an amount not less than the agency's approved appraisal of the fair market value of such property, or the amount of the award of compensation in the condemnation proceeding for such property.

(5) The construction or development of a public improvement shall be so scheduled that, to the greatest extent practicable, no person lawfully occupying real property shall be required to move from a dwelling (assuming a replacement dwelling as required by subchapter II of this chapter will be available), or to move his business or farm operation, without at least ninety days’ written notice from the head of the Federal agency concerned, of the date by which such move is required.

(6) If the head of a Federal agency permits an owner or tenant to occupy the real property acquired on a rental basis for a short term or for a period subject to termination by the Government on short notice, the amount of rent required shall not exceed the fair rental value of the property to a short-term occupier.

(7) In no event shall the head of a Federal agency either advance the time of condemnation, or defer negotiations or condemnation and the deposit of funds in court for the use of the owner, or take any other action coercive in nature, in order to compel an agreement on the price to be paid for the property.

(8) If any interest in real property is to be acquired by exercise of the power of eminent domain, the head of the Federal agency concerned shall institute formal condemnation proceedings. No Federal agency head shall intentionally make it necessary for an owner to institute legal proceedings to prove the fact of the taking of his real property.

(9) If the acquisition of only a portion of a property would leave the owner with an uneconomic remnant, the head of the Federal agency concerned shall offer to acquire that remnant. For the purposes of this chapter, an uneconomic remnant is a parcel of real property in which the owner is left with an interest after the partial acquisition of the owner's property and which the head of the Federal agency concerned has determined has little or no value or utility to the owner.

(10) A person whose real property is being acquired in accordance with this subchapter may, after the person has been fully informed of his right to receive just compensation for such property, donate such property, and part thereof, any interest therein, or any compensation paid therefor to a Federal agency, as such person shall determine.

(Pub. L. 91–646, title III, §301, Jan. 2, 1971, 84 Stat. 1904; Pub. L. 100–17, title IV, §416, Apr. 2, 1987, 101 Stat. 255.)

References in Text

Subchapter II of this chapter, referred to in par. (5), was in the original “title II of this Act”, meaning title II of Pub. L. 91–646, Jan. 2, 1971, 84 Stat. 1895, which is classified principally to subchapter II of this chapter. For complete classification of title II to the Code, see Short Title note set out under section 4601 of this title and Tables.

This chapter, referred to in par. (9), was in the original “this Act”, meaning Pub. L. 91–646, Jan. 2, 1971, 84 Stat. 1894, known as the Uniform Relocation Assistance and Real Property Acquisition Policies Act of 1970, which is classified principally to this chapter. For complete classification of this Act to the Code, see Short Title note set out under section 4601 of this title and Tables.

This subchapter, referred to in par. (10), was in the original “this title”, meaning title III of Pub. L. 91–646, Jan. 2, 1971, 84 Stat. 1904, which is classified principally to this subchapter. For complete classification of title III to the Code, see Tables.

Codification

In par. (4), “section 3114(a) to (d) of title 40” substituted for “section 1 of the Act of February 26, 1931 (46 Stat. 1421; 40 U.S.C. 258a)” on authority of Pub. L. 107–217, §5(c), Aug. 21, 2002, 116 Stat. 1303, the first section of which enacted Title 40, Public Buildings, Property, and Works.

Amendments

1987—Par. (2). Pub. L. 100–17, §416(a), inserted provision respecting the waiver of appraisal in cases involving the acquisition of property with a low fair market value.

Par. (9). Pub. L. 100–17, §416(b), amended par. (9) generally. Prior to amendment, par. (9) read as follows: “If the acquisition of only part of a property would leave its owner with an uneconomic remnant, the head of the Federal agency concerned shall offer to acquire the entire property.”

Par. (10). Pub. L. 100–17, §416(c), added par. (10).

Effective Date of 1987 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 100–17 effective on effective date provided in regulations promulgated under section 4633 of this title (as amended by section 412 of Pub. L. 100–17), but not later than 2 years after Apr. 2, 1987, see section 418 of Pub. L. 100–17, set out as a note under section 4601 of this title.

Savings Provision

Section 306 of Pub. L. 91–646 provided in part that: “Any rights or liabilities now existing under prior Acts or portions thereof shall not be affected by the repeal of such prior Act or portions thereof under this section [repealing sections 3071 to 3073 of this title, section 141 of Title 23, Highways, and section 596 of Title 33, Navigation and Navigable Waters].”

§4652. Buildings, structures, and improvements

(a) Notwithstanding any other provision of law, if the head of a Federal agency acquires any interest in real property in any State, he shall acquire at least an equal interest in all buildings, structures, or other improvements located upon the real property so acquired and which he requires to be removed from such real property or which he determines will be adversely affected by the use to which such real property will be put.

(b)(1) For the purpose of determining the just compensation to be paid for any building, structure, or other improvement required to be acquired by subsection (a) of this section, such building, structure, or other improvement shall be deemed to be a part of the real property to be acquired notwithstanding the right or obligation of a tenant, as against the owner of any other interest in the real property, to remove such building, structure, or improvement at the expiration of his term, and the fair market value which such building, structure, or improvement contributes to the fair market value of the real property to be acquired, or the fair market value of such building, structure, or improvement for removal from the real property, whichever is the greater, shall be paid to the tenant therefor.

(2) Payment under this subsection shall not result in duplication of any payments otherwise authorized by law. No such payment shall be made unless the owner of the land involved disclaims all interest in the improvements of the tenant. In consideration for any such payment, the tenant shall assign, transfer, and release to the United States all his right, title, and interest in and to such improvements. Nothing in this subsection shall be construed to deprive the tenant of any rights to reject payment under this subsection and to obtain payment for such property interests in accordance with applicable law, other than this subsection.

(Pub. L. 91–646, title III, §302, Jan. 2, 1971, 84 Stat. 1905.)

§4653. Expenses incidental to transfer of title to United States

The head of a Federal agency, as soon as practicable after the date of payment of the purchase price or the date of deposit in court of funds to satisfy the award of compensation in a condemnation proceeding to acquire real property, whichever is the earlier, shall reimburse the owner, to the extent the head of such agency deems fair and reasonable, for expenses he necessarily incurred for—

(1) recording fees, transfer taxes, and similar expenses incidental to conveying such real property to the United States;

(2) penalty costs for prepayment of any preexisting recorded mortgage entered into in good faith encumbering such real property; and

(3) the pro rata portion of real property taxes paid which are allocable to a period subsequent to the date of vesting title in the United States, or the effective date of possession of such real property by the United States, whichever is the earlier.

(Pub. L. 91–646, title III, §303, Jan. 2, 1971, 84 Stat. 1906.)

§4654. Litigation expenses

(a) Judgment for owner or abandonment of proceedings

The Federal court having jurisdiction of a proceeding instituted by a Federal agency to acquire real property by condemnation shall award the owner of any right, or title to, or interest in, such real property such sum as will in the opinion of the court reimburse such owner for his reasonable costs, disbursements, and expenses, including reasonable attorney, appraisal, and engineering fees, actually incurred because of the condemnation proceedings, if—

(1) the final judgment is that the Federal agency cannot acquire the real property by condemnation; or

(2) the proceeding is abandoned by the United States.

(b) Payment

Any award made pursuant to subsection (a) of this section shall be paid by the head of the Federal agency for whose benefit the condemnation proceedings was instituted.

(c) Claims against United States

The court rendering a judgment for the plaintiff in a proceeding brought under section 1346(a)(2) or 1491 of title 28, awarding compensation for the taking of property by a Federal agency, or the Attorney General effecting a settlement of any such proceeding, shall determine and award or allow to such plaintiff, as a part of such judgment or settlement, such sum as will in the opinion of the court or the Attorney General reimburse such plaintiff for his reasonable costs, disbursements, and expenses, including reasonable attorney, appraisal, and engineering fees, actually incurred because of such proceeding.

(Pub. L. 91–646, title III, §304, Jan. 2, 1971, 84 Stat. 1906.)

§4655. Requirements for uniform land acquisition policies; payments of expenses incidental to transfer of real property to State; payment of litigation expenses in certain cases

(a) Notwithstanding any other law, the head of a Federal agency shall not approve any program or project or any grant to, or contract or agreement with, an acquiring agency under which Federal financial assistance will be available to pay all or part of the cost of any program or project which will result in the acquisition of real property on and after January 2, 1971, unless he receives satisfactory assurances from such acquiring agency that—

(1) in acquiring real property it will be guided, to the greatest extent practicable under State law, by the land acquisition policies in section 4651 of this title and the provisions of section 4652 of this title, and

(2) property owners will be paid or reimbursed for necessary expenses as specified in sections 4653 and 4654 of this title.


(b) For purposes of this section, the term “acquiring agency” means—

(1) a State agency (as defined in section 4601(3) of this title) which has the authority to acquire property by eminent domain under State law, and

(2) a State agency or person which does not have such authority, to the extent provided by the head of the lead agency by regulation.

(Pub. L. 91–646, title III, §305, Jan. 2, 1971, 84 Stat. 1906; Pub. L. 100–17, title IV, §417, Apr. 2, 1987, 101 Stat. 256.)

Amendments

1987—Pub. L. 100–17 designated existing provisions as subsec. (a), substituted “an acquiring agency” for “a State agency” and “such acquiring agency” for “such State agency”, and added subsec. (b).

Effective Date of 1987 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 100–17 effective on effective date provided in regulations promulgated under section 4633 of this title (as amended by section 412 of Pub. L. 100–17), but not later than 2 years after Apr. 2, 1987, see section 418 of Pub. L. 100–17, set out as a note under section 4601 of this title.