5 U.S.C.
United States Code, 2010 Edition
Title 5 - GOVERNMENT ORGANIZATION AND EMPLOYEES
PART I - THE AGENCIES GENERALLY
CHAPTER 5 - ADMINISTRATIVE PROCEDURE
SUBCHAPTER V - ADMINISTRATIVE CONFERENCE OF THE UNITED STATES
From the U.S. Government Printing Office, www.gpo.gov

SUBCHAPTER V—ADMINISTRATIVE CONFERENCE OF THE UNITED STATES

Amendments

1992—Pub. L. 102–354, §2(1), Aug. 26, 1992, 106 Stat. 944, redesignated subchapter III of this chapter as this subchapter.

Termination of Administrative Conference of United States

Pub. L. 104–52, title IV, Nov. 19, 1995, 109 Stat. 480, provided: “For necessary expenses of the Administrative Conference of the United States, established under subchapter V of chapter 5 of title 5, United States Code, $600,000: Provided, That these funds shall only be available for the purposes of the prompt and orderly termination of the Administrative Conference of the United States by February 1, 1996.”

§591. Purposes

The purposes of this subchapter are—

(1) to provide suitable arrangements through which Federal agencies, assisted by outside experts, may cooperatively study mutual problems, exchange information, and develop recommendations for action by proper authorities to the end that private rights may be fully protected and regulatory activities and other Federal responsibilities may be carried out expeditiously in the public interest;

(2) to promote more effective public participation and efficiency in the rulemaking process;

(3) to reduce unnecessary litigation in the regulatory process;

(4) to improve the use of science in the regulatory process; and

(5) to improve the effectiveness of laws applicable to the regulatory process.

(Pub. L. 89–554, Sept. 6, 1966, 80 Stat. 388, §571; renumbered §591, Pub. L. 102–354, §2(2), Aug. 26, 1992, 106 Stat. 944; Pub. L. 108–401, §2(a), Oct. 30, 2004, 118 Stat. 2255.)

Historical and Revision Notes
DerivationU.S. CodeRevised Statutes and

Statutes at Large

5 U.S.C. 1045(e). Aug. 30, 1964, Pub. L. 88–499, §2(e), 78 Stat. 615.

The words “this subchapter” are substituted for “this Act” to reflect the codification of the Administrative Conference Act in this subchapter.

Standard changes are made to conform with the definitions applicable and the style of this title as outlined in the preface to the report.

Prior Provisions

A prior section 591 was renumbered section 581 of this title.

Amendments

2004—Pub. L. 108–401 amended section catchline and text generally. Prior to amendment, text read as follows: “It is the purpose of this subchapter to provide suitable arrangements through which Federal agencies, assisted by outside experts, may cooperatively study mutual problems, exchange information, and develop recommendations for action by proper authorities to the end that private rights may be fully protected and regulatory activities and other Federal responsibilities may be carried out expeditiously in the public interest.”

1992—Pub. L. 102–354 renumbered section 571 of this title as this section.

§592. Definitions

For the purpose of this subchapter—

(1) “administrative program” includes a Federal function which involves protection of the public interest and the determination of rights, privileges, and obligations of private persons through rule making, adjudication, licensing, or investigation, as those terms are used in subchapter II of this chapter, except that it does not include a military or foreign affairs function of the United States;

(2) “administrative agency” means an authority as defined by section 551(1) of this title; and

(3) “administrative procedure” means procedure used in carrying out an administrative program and is to be broadly construed to include any aspect of agency organization, procedure, or management which may affect the equitable consideration of public and private interests, the fairness of agency decisions, the speed of agency action, and the relationship of operating methods to later judicial review, but does not include the scope of agency responsibility as established by law or matters of substantive policy committed by law to agency discretion.

(Pub. L. 89–554, Sept. 6, 1966, 80 Stat. 388, §572; renumbered §592, Pub. L. 102–354, §2(2), Aug. 26, 1992, 106 Stat. 944.)

Historical and Revision Notes
DerivationU.S. CodeRevised Statutes and

Statutes at Large

5 U.S.C. 1045a. Aug. 30, 1964, Pub. L. 88–499, §3, 78 Stat. 615.

In paragraph (1), the words “subchapter II of this chapter” are substituted for “the Administrative Procedure Act (5 U.S.C. 1001–1011)” to reflect the codification of the Act in this title. The word “naval” is omitted as included in “military”.

In paragraph (2), the words “section 551(1) of this title” are substituted for “section 2(a) of the Administrative Procedure Act (5 U.S.C. 1001(a))”.

Standard changes are made to conform with the definitions applicable and the style of this title as outlined in the preface to the report.

Prior Provisions

A prior section 592 was renumbered section 582 of this title and was subsequently repealed.

Amendments

1992—Pub. L. 102–354 renumbered section 572 of this title as this section.

§593. Administrative Conference of the United States

(a) The Administrative Conference of the United States consists of not more than 101 nor less than 75 members appointed as set forth in subsection (b) of this section.

(b) The Conference is composed of—

(1) a full-time Chairman appointed for a 5-year term by the President, by and with the advice and consent of the Senate. The Chairman is entitled to pay at the highest rate established by statute for the chairman of an independent regulatory board or commission, and may continue to serve until his successor is appointed and has qualified;

(2) the chairman of each independent regulatory board or commission or an individual designated by the board or commission;

(3) the head of each Executive department or other administrative agency which is designated by the President, or an individual designated by the head of the department or agency;

(4) when authorized by the Council referred to in section 595(b) of this title, one or more appointees from a board, commission, department, or agency referred to in this subsection, designated by the head thereof with, in the case of a board or commission, the approval of the board or commission;

(5) individuals appointed by the President to membership on the Council who are not otherwise members of the Conference; and

(6) not more than 40 other members appointed by the Chairman, with the approval of the Council, for terms of 2 years, except that the number of members appointed by the Chairman may at no time be less than one-third nor more than two-fifths of the total number of members. The Chairman shall select the members in a manner which will provide broad representation of the views of private citizens and utilize diverse experience. The members shall be members of the practicing bar, scholars in the field of administrative law or government, or others specially informed by knowledge and experience with respect to Federal administrative procedure.


(c) Members of the Conference, except the Chairman, are not entitled to pay for service. Members appointed from outside the Federal Government are entitled to travel expenses, including per diem instead of subsistence, as authorized by section 5703 of this title for individuals serving without pay.

(Pub. L. 89–554, Sept. 6, 1966, 80 Stat. 389, §573; Pub. L. 99–470, §1, Oct. 14, 1986, 100 Stat. 1198; renumbered §593 and amended Pub. L. 102–354, §2(2), (3), Aug. 26, 1992, 106 Stat. 944.)

Historical and Revision Notes
DerivationU.S. CodeRevised Statutes and

Statutes at Large

5 U.S.C. 1045b. Aug. 30, 1964, Pub. L. 88–499, §4, 78 Stat. 616.

In subsection (a), the words “There is hereby established” are omitted as executed. The words “hereinafter referred to as the ‘Conference’ ” are omitted as unnecessary as the title “Administrative Conference of the United States” is fully set out the first time it is used in each section of this chapter.

In subsection (b)(4), the words “referred to in section 575(b) of this title” are inserted for clarity.

In subsection (c), the words “by section 5703 of this title” are substituted for “by law (5 U.S.C. 73b–2)” to reflect the codification of that section in title 5.

Standard changes are made to conform with the definitions applicable and the style of this title as outlined in the preface to the report.

Prior Provisions

A prior section 593 was renumbered section 583 of this title.

Amendments

1992—Pub. L. 102–354, §2(2), renumbered section 573 of this title as this section.

Subsec. (b)(4). Pub. L. 102–354, §2(3), substituted “section 595(b)” for “section 575(b)”.

1986—Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 99–470, §1(a)(1), substituted “101” for “91”.

Subsec. (b)(6). Pub. L. 99–470, §1(a)(2), substituted “40” for “36”.

Termination of Administrative Conference of United States

For termination of Administrative Conference of United States, see note set out preceding section 591 of this title.

Development of Administrative Conference

The Administrative Conference of the United States, established as a permanent body by the Administrative Conference Act, Pub. L. 88–499, Aug. 30, 1964, 78 Stat. 615, was preceded by two temporary Conferences. The first was called by President Eisenhower in 1953 and adopted a final report which was transmitted to the President who acknowledged receipt of it on March 3, 1955. The second was established by President Kennedy by Executive Order No. 10934, Apr. 14, 1961, 26 F.R. 3233, which, by its terms, called for a final report to the President by December 31, 1962. The final report recommended a continuing Conference consisting of both government personnel and outside experts.

§594. Powers and duties of the Conference

To carry out the purposes of this subchapter, the Administrative Conference of the United States may—

(1) study the efficiency, adequacy, and fairness of the administrative procedure used by administrative agencies in carrying out administrative programs, and make recommendations to administrative agencies, collectively or individually, and to the President, Congress, or the Judicial Conference of the United States, in connection therewith, as it considers appropriate;

(2) arrange for interchange among administrative agencies of information potentially useful in improving administrative procedure;

(3) collect information and statistics from administrative agencies and publish such reports as it considers useful for evaluating and improving administrative procedure;

(4) enter into arrangements with any administrative agency or major organizational unit within an administrative agency pursuant to which the Conference performs any of the functions described in this section; and

(5) provide assistance in response to requests relating to the improvement of administrative procedure in foreign countries, subject to the concurrence of the Secretary of State, the Administrator of the Agency for International Development, or the Director of the United States Information Agency, as appropriate, except that—

(A) such assistance shall be limited to the analysis of issues relating to administrative procedure, the provision of training of foreign officials in administrative procedure, and the design or improvement of administrative procedure, where the expertise of members of the Conference is indicated; and

(B) such assistance may only be undertaken on a fully reimbursable basis, including all direct and indirect administrative costs.


Payment for services provided by the Conference pursuant to paragraph (4) shall be credited to the operating account for the Conference and shall remain available until expended.

(Pub. L. 89–554, Sept. 6, 1966, 80 Stat. 390, §574; Pub. L. 101–422, §2, Oct. 12, 1990, 104 Stat. 910; renumbered §594, Pub. L. 102–354, §2(2), Aug. 26, 1992, 106 Stat. 944; Pub. L. 102–403, Oct. 9, 1992, 106 Stat. 1968; Pub. L. 108–401, §2(b)(1), Oct. 30, 2004, 118 Stat. 2255.)

Historical and Revision Notes
DerivationU.S. CodeRevised Statutes and

Statutes at Large

5 U.S.C. 1045c. Aug. 30, 1964, Pub. L. 88–499, §5, 78 Stat. 616.

Standard changes are made to conform with the definitions applicable and the style of this title as outlined in the preface to the report.

Amendments

2004—Pub. L. 108–401 substituted “purposes” for “purpose” in introductory provisions.

1992—Pub. L. 102–354 renumbered section 574 of this title as this section.

Par. (4). Pub. L. 102–403 amended par. (4) generally. Prior to amendment, par. (4) read as follows: “enter into arrangements with any administrative agency or major organizational unit within an administrative agency pursuant to which the Conference performs any of the functions described in paragraphs (1), (2), and (3).”

Par. (5). Pub. L. 102–403 which directed addition of par. (5) at end of section, was executed by adding par. (5) after par. (4) and before concluding provisions, to reflect the probable intent of Congress.

1990—Pub. L. 101–422 added par. (4) and concluding provisions.

Termination of Administrative Conference of United States

For termination of Administrative Conference of United States, see note set out preceding section 591 of this title.

Transfer of Functions

United States Information Agency (other than Broadcasting Board of Governors and International Broadcasting Bureau) abolished and functions transferred to Secretary of State, see sections 6531 and 6532 of Title 22, Foreign Relations and Intercourse.

§595. Organization of the Conference

(a) The membership of the Administrative Conference of the United States meeting in plenary session constitutes the Assembly of the Conference. The Assembly has ultimate authority over all activities of the Conference. Specifically, it has the power to—

(1) adopt such recommendations as it considers appropriate for improving administrative procedure. A member who disagrees with a recommendation adopted by the Assembly is entitled to enter a dissenting opinion and an alternate proposal in the record of the Conference proceedings, and the opinion and proposal so entered shall accompany the Conference recommendation in a publication or distribution thereof; and

(2) adopt bylaws and regulations not inconsistent with this subchapter for carrying out the functions of the Conference, including the creation of such committees as it considers necessary for the conduct of studies and the development of recommendations for consideration by the Assembly.


(b) The Conference includes a Council composed of the Chairman of the Conference, who is Chairman of the Council, and 10 other members appointed by the President, of whom not more than one-half shall be employees of Federal regulatory agencies or Executive departments. The President may designate a member of the Council as Vice Chairman. During the absence or incapacity of the Chairman, or when that office is vacant, the Vice Chairman shall serve as Chairman. The term of each member, except the Chairman, is 3 years. When the term of a member ends, he may continue to serve until a successor is appointed. However, the service of any member ends when a change in his employment status would make him ineligible for Council membership under the conditions of his original appointment. The Council has the power to—

(1) determine the time and place of plenary sessions of the Conference and the agenda for the sessions. The Council shall call at least one plenary session each year;

(2) propose bylaws and regulations, including rules of procedure and committee organization, for adoption by the Assembly;

(3) make recommendations to the Conference or its committees on a subject germane to the purpose of the Conference;

(4) receive and consider reports and recommendations of committees of the Conference and send them to members of the Conference with the views and recommendations of the Council;

(5) designate a member of the Council to preside at meetings of the Council in the absence or incapacity of the Chairman and Vice Chairman;

(6) designate such additional officers of the Conference as it considers desirable;

(7) approve or revise the budgetary proposals of the Chairman; and

(8) exercise such other powers as may be delegated to it by the Assembly.


(c) The Chairman is the chief executive of the Conference. In that capacity he has the power to—

(1) make inquiries into matters he considers important for Conference consideration, including matters proposed by individuals inside or outside the Federal Government;

(2) be the official spokesman for the Conference in relations with the several branches and agencies of the Federal Government and with interested organizations and individuals outside the Government, including responsibility for encouraging Federal agencies to carry out the recommendations of the Conference;

(3) request agency heads to provide information needed by the Conference, which information shall be supplied to the extent permitted by law;

(4) recommend to the Council appropriate subjects for action by the Conference;

(5) appoint, with the approval of the Council, members of committees authorized by the bylaws and regulations of the Conference;

(6) prepare, for approval of the Council, estimates of the budgetary requirements of the Conference;

(7) appoint and fix the pay of employees, define their duties and responsibilities, and direct and supervise their activities;

(8) rent office space in the District of Columbia;

(9) provide necessary services for the Assembly, the Council, and the committees of the Conference;

(10) organize and direct studies ordered by the Assembly or the Council, to contract for the performance of such studies with any public or private persons, firm, association, corporation, or institution under title III of the Federal Property and Administrative Services Act of 1949, as amended (41 U.S.C. 251–260), and to use from time to time, as appropriate, experts and consultants who may be employed in accordance with section 3109 of this title at rates not in excess of the maximum rate of pay for grade GS–15 as provided in section 5332 of this title;

(11) utilize, with their consent, the services and facilities of Federal agencies and of State and private agencies and instrumentalities with or without reimbursement;

(12) accept, hold, administer, and utilize gifts, devises, and bequests of property, both real and personal, for the purpose of aiding and facilitating the work of the Conference. Gifts and bequests of money and proceeds from sales of other property received as gifts, devises, or bequests shall be deposited in the Treasury and shall be disbursed upon the order of the Chairman. Property accepted pursuant to this section, and the proceeds thereof, shall be used as nearly as possible in accordance with the terms of the gifts, devises, or bequests. For purposes of Federal income, estate, or gift taxes, property accepted under this section shall be considered as a gift, devise, or bequest to the United States;

(13) accept voluntary and uncompensated services, notwithstanding the provisions of section 1342 of title 31;

(14) on request of the head of an agency, furnish assistance and advice on matters of administrative procedure;

(15) exercise such additional authority as the Council or Assembly delegates to him; and

(16) request any administrative agency to notify the Chairman of its intent to enter into any contract with any person outside the agency to study the efficiency, adequacy, or fairness of an agency proceeding (as defined in section 551(12) of this title).


The Chairman shall preside at meetings of the Council and at each plenary session of the Conference, to which he shall make a full report concerning the affairs of the Conference since the last preceding plenary session. The Chairman, on behalf of the Conference, shall transmit to the President and Congress an annual report and such interim reports as he considers desirable.

(Pub. L. 89–554, Sept. 6, 1966, 80 Stat. 390, §575; Pub. L. 92–526, §1, Oct. 21, 1972, 86 Stat. 1048; Pub. L. 97–258, §3(a)(1), Sept. 13, 1982, 96 Stat. 1062; Pub. L. 101–422, §3, Oct. 12, 1990, 104 Stat. 910; renumbered §595, Pub. L. 102–354, §2(2), Aug. 26, 1992, 106 Stat. 944.)

Historical and Revision Notes
DerivationU.S. CodeRevised Statutes and

Statutes at Large

5 U.S.C. 1045d. Aug. 30, 1964, Pub. L. 88–499, §6, 78 Stat. 617.

In subsection (b), the words “except that the Council members initially appointed shall serve for one, two, or three years, as designated by the President” are omitted as executed, existing rights being preserved by technical section 8.

In subsection (b)(1), the words “the sessions” are substituted for “such meetings” for clarity as elsewhere the word “sessions” refers to sessions of the Conference and “meetings” refers to meetings of the Council.

In subsection (c)(7), the words “subject to the civil service and classification laws” are omitted as unnecessary inasmuch as appointments in the executive branch are made subject to the civil service laws and pay is fixed under classification laws unless specifically excepted. The words “and fix the pay of” are added for clarity.

Standard changes are made to conform with the definitions applicable and the style of this title as outlined in the preface to the report.

References in Text

The Federal Property and Administrative Services Act of 1949, referred to in subsec. (c)(10), is act June 30, 1949, ch. 288, 63 Stat. 377. Title III of the Act was classified generally to subchapter IV (§251 et seq.) of chapter 4 of former Title 41, Public Contracts, and was substantially repealed and restated in division C (§3101 et seq.) of subtitle I of Title 41, Public Contracts, by Pub. L. 111–350, §§3, 7(b), Jan. 4, 2011, 124 Stat. 3677, 3855. For complete classification of this Act to the Code, see Short Title of 1949 Act note set out under section 101 of Title 41 and Tables. For disposition of sections of former Title 41, see Disposition Table preceding section 101 of Title 41.

Amendments

1992—Pub. L. 102–354 renumbered section 575 of this title as this section.

1990—Subsec. (c)(16). Pub. L. 101–422 added par. (16).

1982—Subsec. (c)(13). Pub. L. 97–258 substituted “section 1342 of title 31” for “section 3679(b) of the Revised Statutes (31 U.S.C. 665(b))”.

1972—Subsec. (c)(10). Pub. L. 92–526, §1(a), inserted provisions authorizing contracts for the performance of such studies with any public or private persons, etc., under title III of the Federal Property and Administrative Services Act of 1949, as amended, and substituted provisions authorizing the payment of experts and consultants in accordance with rates not in excess of the maximum rate of pay for grade GS–15 as provided in section 5332 of this title, for provisions authorizing the payment of such individuals at rates not in excess of $100 a day.

Subsec. (c)(11) to (15). Pub. L. 92–526, §1(b), added pars. (11) to (13) and redesignated former pars. (11) and (12) as (14) and (15), respectively.

Termination of Administrative Conference of United States

For termination of Administrative Conference of United States, see note set out preceding section 591 of this title.

§596. Authorization of appropriations

There are authorized to be appropriated to carry out this subchapter not more than $3,200,000 for fiscal year 2009, $3,200,000 for fiscal year 2010, and $3,200,000 for fiscal year 2011. Of any amounts appropriated under this section, not more than $2,500 may be made available in each fiscal year for official representation and entertainment expenses for foreign dignitaries.

(Pub. L. 89–554, Sept. 6, 1966, 80 Stat. 391, §576; Pub. L. 91–164, Dec. 24, 1969, 83 Stat. 446; Pub. L. 92–526, §2, Oct. 21, 1972, 86 Stat. 1048; Pub. L. 95–293, §1(a), June 13, 1978, 92 Stat. 317; Pub. L. 97–330, Oct. 15, 1982, 96 Stat. 1618; Pub. L. 99–470, §2(a), Oct. 14, 1986, 100 Stat. 1198; Pub. L. 101–422, §1, Oct. 12, 1990, 104 Stat. 910; renumbered §596, Pub. L. 102–354, §2(2), Aug. 26, 1992, 106 Stat. 944; Pub. L. 108–401, §3, Oct. 30, 2004, 118 Stat. 2255; Pub. L. 110–290, §2, July 30, 2008, 122 Stat. 2914.)

Historical and Revision Notes
DerivationU.S. CodeRevised Statutes and

Statutes at Large

5 U.S.C. 1045e. Aug. 30, 1964, Pub. L. 88–499, §7, 78 Stat. 618.

The word “hereby” is omitted as unnecessary.

Standard changes are made to conform with the definitions applicable and the style of this title as outlined in the preface to the report.

Amendments

2008—Pub. L. 110–290 amended section generally. Prior to amendment, text read as follows: “There are authorized to be appropriated to carry out this subchapter not more than $3,000,000 for fiscal year 2005, $3,100,000 for fiscal year 2006, and $3,200,000 for fiscal year 2007. Of any amounts appropriated under this section, not more than $2,500 may be made available in each fiscal year for official representation and entertainment expenses for foreign dignitaries.”

2004—Pub. L. 108–401 reenacted section catchline without change and amended text generally. Prior to amendment, text read as follows: “There are authorized to be appropriated to carry out the purposes of this subchapter not more than $2,000,000 for fiscal year 1990, $2,100,000 for fiscal year 1991, $2,200,000 for fiscal year 1992, $2,300,000 for fiscal year 1993, and $2,400,000 for fiscal year 1994. Of any amounts appropriated under this section, not more than $1,500 may be made available in each fiscal year for official representation and entertainment expenses for foreign dignitaries.”

1992—Pub. L. 102–354 renumbered section 576 of this title as this section.

1990—Pub. L. 101–422 amended section generally. Prior to amendment, section read as follows: “There are authorized to be appropriated to carry out the purposes of this subchapter not more than $1,600,000 for fiscal year 1986 and not more than $2,000,000 for each fiscal year thereafter up to and including fiscal year 1990. Of any amounts appropriated under this section, not more than $1,000 may be made available in each fiscal year for official reception and entertainment expenses for foreign dignitaries.”

1986—Pub. L. 99–470 substituted “Authorization of appropriations” for “Appropriations” in section catchline and amended text generally. Prior to amendment, text read as follows: “There are authorized to be appropriated to carry out the purposes of this subchapter sums not to exceed $2,300,000 for the fiscal year ending September 30, 1982, and not to exceed $2,300,000 for each fiscal year thereafter up to and including the fiscal year ending September 30, 1986.”

1982—Pub. L. 97–330 substituted provisions authorizing appropriations of not to exceed $2,300,000 for fiscal year ending Sept. 30, 1982, and not to exceed $2,300,000 for each fiscal year thereafter up to and including fiscal year ending Sept. 30, 1986, for provisions that had authorized appropriations of not to exceed $1,700,000 for fiscal year ending Sept. 30, 1979, $2,000,000 for fiscal year ending Sept. 30, 1980, $2,300,000 for fiscal year ending Sept. 30, 1981, and $2,300,000 for fiscal year ending Sept. 30, 1982.

1978—Pub. L. 95–293 substituted provisions authorizing appropriations for fiscal years ending Sept. 30, 1979, Sept. 30, 1980, Sept. 30, 1981, and Sept. 30, 1982, of $1,700,000, $2,000,000, $2,300,000, and $2,300,000, respectively, for provisions authorizing appropriations for fiscal years ending June 30, 1974, June 30, 1975, June 30, 1976, June 30, 1977, and June 30, 1978, of $760,000, $805,000, $850,000, $900,000, and $950,000, respectively, and provisions authorizing for each fiscal year thereafter such sums as may be necessary.

1972—Pub. L. 92–526 substituted provisions authorizing to be appropriated necessary sums not in excess of $760,000 for fiscal year ending June 30, 1974, $805,000 for fiscal year ending June 30, 1975, $850,000 for fiscal year ending June 30, 1976, $900,000 for fiscal year ending June 30, 1977, and $950,000 for fiscal year ending June 30, 1978, and each fiscal year thereafter, for provisions authorizing to be appropriated necessary sums, not in excess of $450,000 per annum.

1969—Pub. L. 91–164 substituted “$450,000 per annum” for “$250,000”.

Effective Date of 1978 Amendment

Section 1(b) of Pub. L. 95–293 provided that: “The amendment made by subsection (a) [amending this section] shall take effect October 1, 1977.”