5 U.S.C.
United States Code, 2010 Edition
Title 5 - GOVERNMENT ORGANIZATION AND EMPLOYEES
PART III - EMPLOYEES
Subpart D - Pay and Allowances
CHAPTER 51 - CLASSIFICATION
From the U.S. Government Printing Office, www.gpo.gov

CHAPTER 51—CLASSIFICATION

Sec.
5101.
Purpose.
5102.
Definitions; application.
5103.
Determination of applicability.
5104.
Basis for grading positions.
5105.
Standards for classification of positions.
5106.
Basis for classifying positions.
5107.
Classification of positions.
5108.
Classification of positions above GS–15.
5109.
Positions classified by statute.
5110.
Review of classification of positions.
5111.
Revocation and restoration of authority to classify positions.
5112.
General authority of the Office of Personnel Management.
5113.
Classification records.
[5114.
Repealed.]
5115.
Regulations.

        

Amendments

1992—Pub. L. 102–378, §2(22), Oct. 2, 1992, 106 Stat. 1348, substituted “above GS–15” for “at GS–16, 17, and 18” in item 5108.

1986—Pub. L. 99–386, title I, §110(b), Aug. 22, 1986, 100 Stat. 822, struck out item 5114 “Reports; positions in GS–16, 17, and 18”.

1978—Pub. L. 95–454, title IX, §906(a)(17), Oct. 13, 1978, 92 Stat. 1226, substituted “Office of Personnel Management” for “Civil Service Commission” in item 5112.

§5101. Purpose

It is the purpose of this chapter to provide a plan for classification of positions whereby—

(1) in determining the rate of basic pay which an employee will receive—

(A) the principle of equal pay for substantially equal work will be followed; and

(B) variations in rates of basic pay paid to different employees will be in proportion to substantial differences in the difficulty, responsibility, and qualification requirements of the work performed and to the contributions of employees to efficiency and economy in the service; and


(2) individual positions will, in accordance with their duties, responsibilities, and qualification requirements, be so grouped and identified by classes and grades, as defined by section 5102 of this title, and the various classes will be so described in published standards, as provided by section 5105 of this title, that the resulting position-classification system can be used in all phases of personnel administration.

(Pub. L. 89–554, Sept. 6, 1966, 80 Stat. 443.)

Historical and Revision Notes
DerivationU.S. CodeRevised Statutes and

Statutes at Large

5 U.S.C. 1071. Oct. 28, 1949, ch. 782, §101, 63 Stat. 954.

The words “and for rates of basic compensation” are omitted as inapplicable to this chapter since the provisions of former chapter 21 relating to rates of basic compensation are carried into subchapter III of chapter 53. The word “officer” is omitted as included in “employee” is defined in section 5102.

Standard changes are made to conform with the definitions applicable and the style of this title as outlined in the preface of the report.

References in Other Laws to Chapter 51 and Subchapter III of Chapter 53

References in laws to fix pay in accordance with this chapter and subchapter III of chapter 53 of this title considered to include authority under section 5376 of this title, if applicable, but not to include any authority under section 5304 of this title or section 529 [title III, §302] of Pub. L. 101–509, set out as a note under section 5304 of this title, see section 529 [title I, §101(c)(2)] of Pub. L. 101–509, set out in a References in Other Laws to GS–16, 17, or 18 Pay Rates; Regulations note under section 5376 of this title.

§5102. Definitions; application

(a) For the purpose of this chapter—

(1) “agency” means—

(A) an Executive agency;

(B) the Library of Congress;

(C) the Botanic Garden;

(D) the Government Printing Office;

(E) the Office of the Architect of the Capitol; and

(F) the government of the District of Columbia;


but does not include—

(i) a Government controlled corporation;

(ii) the Tennessee Valley Authority;

(iii) the Virgin Islands Corporation;

(iv) the Atomic Energy Commission;

(v) the Central Intelligence Agency;

(vi) the National Security Agency, Department of Defense;

(vii) the Government Accountability Office; or 1

(ix) 2 the Defense Intelligence Agency, Department of Defense; or

(x) the National Geospatial-Intelligence Agency, Department of Defense.3


(2) “employee” means an individual employed in or under an agency;

(3) “position” means the work, consisting of the duties and responsibilities, assignable to an employee;

(4) “class” or “class of positions” includes all positions which are sufficiently similar, as to—

(A) kind or subject-matter of work;

(B) level of difficulty and responsibility; and

(C) the qualification requirements of the work;


to warrant similar treatment in personnel and pay administration; and

(5) “grade” includes all classes of positions which, although different with respect to kind or subject-matter of work, are sufficiently equivalent as to—

(A) level of difficulty and responsibility; and

(B) level of qualification requirements of the work;


to warrant their inclusion within one range of rates of basic pay in the General Schedule.


(b) Except as provided by subsections (c) and (d) of this section, this chapter applies to all civilian positions and employees in or under an agency, including positions in local boards and appeal boards within the Selective Service System and employees occupying those positions.

(c) This chapter does not apply to—

[ (1) Repealed. Pub. L. 91–375, §6(c)(9), Aug. 12, 1970, 84 Stat. 776;]

(2) members of the Foreign Service whose pay is fixed under the Foreign Service Act of 1980; and positions in or under the Department of State which are—

(A) connected with the representation of the United States to international organizations; or

(B) specifically exempted by statute from this chapter or other classification or pay statute;


(3) physicians, dentists, nurses, and other employees in the Veterans Health Administration of the Department of Veterans Affairs whose pay is fixed under chapter 73 of title 38;

(4) teachers, school officials, and employees of the Board of Education of the District of Columbia whose pay is fixed under chapter 15 of title 31, District of Columbia Code; the chief judges and the associate judges of the Superior Court of the District of Columbia and the District of Columbia Court of Appeals; and nonjudicial employees of the District of Columbia court system whose pay is fixed under title 11 of the District of Columbia Code;

(5) members of the Metropolitan Police, the Fire Department of the District of Columbia, the United States Park Police, and the United States Secret Service Uniformed Division; members of the police force of the National Zoological Park whose pay is fixed under section 5375 of this title; and members of the police forces of the Bureau of Engraving and Printing and the United States Mint whose pay is fixed under section 5378 of this title;

(6) lighthouse keepers and civilian employees on lightships and vessels of the Coast Guard whose pay is fixed under section 432(f) and (g) of title 14;

(7) employees in recognized trades or crafts, or other skilled mechanical crafts, or in unskilled, semiskilled, or skilled manual-labor occupations, and other employees including foremen and supervisors in positions having trade, craft, or laboring experience and knowledge as the paramount requirement, and employees in the Bureau of Engraving and Printing whose duties are to perform or to direct manual or machine operations requiring special skill or experience, or to perform or direct the counting, examining, sorting, or other verification of the product of manual or machine operations;

(8) officers and members of crews of vessels;

(9) employees of the Government Printing Office whose pay is fixed under section 305 of title 44;

(10) civilian professors, instructors, and lecturers at a professional military education school (and, in the case of the George C. Marshall European Center for Security Studies, the Director and the Deputy Director) whose pay is fixed under section 1595, 4021, 7478, or 9021 of title 10; civilian professors, lecturers, and instructors at the Military Academy, the Naval Academy, and the Air Force Academy whose pay is fixed under sections 4338, 6952, and 9338, respectively, of title 10; senior professors, professors, associate and assistant professors, and instructors at the Naval Postgraduate School whose pay is fixed under section 7044 of title 10; the Provost and Academic Dean of the Naval Postgraduate School whose pay is fixed under section 7043 of title 10; civilian professors, instructors, and lecturers in the defense acquisition university structure (including the Defense Systems Management College) whose pay is fixed under section 1746(b) of title 10;

(11) aliens or noncitizens of the United States who occupy positions outside the United States;

[(12) Repealed. Pub. L. 104–201, div. C, title XXXV, §3548(a)(2)(B), Sept. 23, 1996, 110 Stat. 3868;]

(13) employees who serve without pay or at nominal rates of pay;

(14) employees whose pay is not wholly from appropriated funds of the United States (other than employees of the Federal Retirement Thrift Investment Management System appointed under section 8474(c)(2) of this title), except that with respect to the Veterans’ Canteen Service, Department of Veterans Affairs this paragraph applies only to employees necessary for the transaction of the business of the Service at canteens, warehouses, and storage depots whose employment is authorized by section 7802 of title 38;

(15) employees whose pay is fixed under a cooperative agreement between the United States and—

(A) a State or territory or possession of the United States, or political subdivision thereof; or

(B) an individual or organization outside the service of the Government of the United States;


(16) student nurses, medical or dental interns, residents-in-training, student dietitians, student physical therapists, student occupational therapists, and other student employees, assigned or attached to a hospital, clinic, or laboratory primarily for training purposes, whose pay is fixed under subchapter V of chapter 53 of this title or sections 7405 and 7406 of title 38;

(17) inmates, patients, or beneficiaries receiving care or treatment or living in Government agencies or institutions;

(18) experts or consultants, when employed temporarily or intermittently in accordance with section 3109 of this title;

(19) emergency or seasonal employees whose employment is of uncertain or purely temporary duration, or who are employed for brief periods at intervals;

(20) employees employed on a fee, contract, or piece work basis;

(21) employees who may lawfully perform their duties concurrently with their private profession, business, or other employment, and whose duties require only a portion of their time, when it is impracticable to ascertain or anticipate the proportion of time devoted to the service of the Government of the United States;

(22) “teachers” and “teaching positions” as defined by section 901 of title 20;

(23) administrative patent judges and designated administrative patent judges in the United States Patent and Trademark Office;

(24) temporary positions in the Bureau of the Census established under section 23 of title 13, and enumerator positions in the Bureau of the Census;

(25) positions for which rates of basic pay are individually fixed, or expressly authorized to be fixed, by other statute, at or in excess of the rate for level V of the Executive Schedule;

(26) civilian members of the faculty of the Coast Guard Academy whose pay is fixed under section 186 of title 14;

(27) members of the police of the Library of Congress whose pay is fixed under section 167 of title 2;

(28) civilian members of the faculty of the Air Force Institute of Technology whose pay is fixed under section 9314 of title 10;

(29) administrative law judges appointed under section 3105; or

(30) members of agency boards of contract appeals appointed under section 7105(a)(2), (c)(2), or (d)(2) of title 41.


(d) This chapter does not apply to an employee of the Office of the Architect of the Capitol whose pay is fixed by other statute. Subsection (c) of this section, except paragraph (7), does not apply to the Office of the Architect of the Capitol.

(e) Except as may be specifically provided, this chapter does not apply for pay purposes to any employee of the government of the District of Columbia during fiscal year 2006 or any succeeding fiscal year.

(Pub. L. 89–554, Sept. 6, 1966, 80 Stat. 444; Pub. L. 90–83, §1(11), Sept. 11, 1967, 81 Stat. 197; Pub. L. 90–610, §2, Oct. 21, 1968, 82 Stat. 1201; Pub. L. 91–34, §2(a), June 30, 1969, 83 Stat. 41; Pub. L. 91–358, title I, §172(f), July 29, 1970, 84 Stat. 591; Pub. L. 91–375, §6(c)(9), Aug. 12, 1970, 84 Stat. 776; Pub. L. 93–176, §1, Dec. 5, 1973, 87 Stat. 693; Pub. L. 94–183, §2(12), (13), Dec. 31, 1975, 89 Stat. 1057; Pub. L. 95–454, title VIII, §801(a)(3)(D), title IX, §906(a)(2), Oct. 13, 1978, 92 Stat. 1221, 1224; Pub. L. 96–54, §2(a)(22), Aug. 14, 1979, 93 Stat. 382; Pub. L. 96–70, title III, §3302(e)(1), (6), Sept. 27, 1979, 93 Stat. 498; Pub. L. 96–191, §8(b), Feb. 15, 1980, 94 Stat. 33; Pub. L. 96–465, title II, §2314(b), Oct. 17, 1980, 94 Stat. 2167; Pub. L. 97–468, title VI, §615(b)(1)(C), Jan. 14, 1983, 96 Stat. 2578; Pub. L. 98–618, title V, §502(a), Nov. 8, 1984, 98 Stat. 3302; Pub. L. 99–145, title V, §504(b), Nov. 8, 1985, 99 Stat. 622; Pub. L. 99–335, title II, §207(n), June 6, 1986, 100 Stat. 598; Pub. L. 100–135, §1(b)(2), Oct. 16, 1987, 101 Stat. 811; Pub. L. 101–189, div. A, title XI, §1124(e), Nov. 29, 1989, 103 Stat. 1560; Pub. L. 101–474, §5(h), Oct. 30, 1990, 104 Stat. 1100; Pub. L. 101–509, title V, §529 [title I, §§101(b)(9)(F), 104(d)(1), 109(a)(2)], Nov. 5, 1990, 104 Stat. 1427, 1441, 1447, 1451; Pub. L. 101–510, div. A, title XII, §1209(h)(2), Nov. 5, 1990, 104 Stat. 1667; Pub. L. 102–40, title IV, §403(c)(1), May 7, 1991, 105 Stat. 240; Pub. L. 102–54, §13(b)(1), (2), June 13, 1991, 105 Stat. 274; Pub. L. 103–160, div. A, title V, §533(c), title IX, §923(b), Nov. 30, 1993, 107 Stat. 1658, 1731; Pub. L. 103–359, title V, §501(g), Oct. 14, 1994, 108 Stat. 3429; Pub. L. 103–446, title XII, §1203(b), Nov. 2, 1994, 108 Stat. 4689; Pub. L. 104–201, div. A, title XI, §1122(a)(1), div. C, title XXXV, §3548(a)(2), Sept. 23, 1996, 110 Stat. 2687, 2868; Pub. L. 106–113, div. B, §1000(a)(9) [title IV, §4732(b)(3)], Nov. 29, 1999, 113 Stat. 1536, 1501A–583; Pub. L. 108–271, §8(b), July 7, 2004, 118 Stat. 814; Pub. L. 108–375, div. A, title V, §557(b)(5), Oct. 28, 2004, 118 Stat. 1916; Pub. L. 109–356, title III, §303(b), Oct. 16, 2006, 120 Stat. 2040; Pub. L. 110–417, [div. A], title IX, §931(a)(1), Oct. 14, 2008, 122 Stat. 4575; Pub. L. 111–282, §4(c)(1), Oct. 15, 2010, 124 Stat. 3043; Pub. L. 111–350, §5(a)(8), Jan. 4, 2011, 124 Stat. 3841.)

Historical and Revision Notes
1966 Act
DerivationU.S. CodeRevised Statutes and

Statutes at Large

(a)(1) 5 U.S.C. 1081(a). Oct. 28, 1949, ch. 782, §201(a), 63 Stat. 954.
  5 U.S.C. 1082(12)–(20), (32). Oct. 28, 1949, ch. 782, §202 (12)–(20), 63 Stat. 954.
  May 29, 1959, Pub. L. 86–36, §1, 73 Stat. 63.
  Sept. 23, 1959, Pub. L. 86–370, §6(a) (less (4)), 73 Stat. 652.
(a)(3)–(5) 5 U.S.C. 1091. Oct. 28, 1949, ch. 782, §301, 63 Stat. 957.
(b) 5 U.S.C. 1081(b). Oct. 28, 1949, ch. 782, §201(b), 63 Stat. 954.
(c) 5 U.S.C. 1082(1)–(6), (7) (less provisos), (8) (less last 31 words), (9)–(11), (21)–(31), (33)–(35). Oct. 28, 1949, ch. 782, §202 (1)–(6), (7) (less last 25 words), (8) (less last 31 words), (9)–(11), (21)–(31), 63 Stat. 954.

Sept. 1, 1954, ch. 1208, §105(a) “(7) (less provisos)”, 68 Stat. 1106.

  June 17, 1957, Pub. L. 85–56, §2201(20), 71 Stat. 159.
  July 25, 1958, Pub. L. 85–550, §16(a), (b)(1), 72 Stat. 411.
  Sept. 2, 1958, Pub. L. 85–857, §13(o), 72 Stat. 1266.
  July 17, 1959, Pub. L. 86–91, §3, 73 Stat. 213.
  Sept. 23, 1959, Pub. L. 86–370, §6(a)(4), 73 Stat. 652.
  Sept. 13, 1960, Pub. L. 86–769, §4, 74 Stat. 912.
(d) 5 U.S.C. 1084(b). Oct. 28, 1949, ch. 782, §204(b), 63 Stat. 957.

The section is reorganized and restated for clarity.

In subsection (a)(1)(i), the exception of “a Government controlled corporation” is added to preserve the application of this chapter to “corporations wholly owned by the United States”. This is necessary as the defined term “Executive agency” includes the defined term “Government corporation” and the latter includes both Government owned and controlled corporations. Thus the exclusion of Government controlled corporations, which are distinct from wholly owned corporations, operates to preserve the application of the chapter to wholly owned corporations.

In subsection (a)(1)(vii), the words “Panama Canal Company” are substituted for “Panama Railroad Company” on authority of the Act of Sept. 26, 1950, ch. 1049, §2(a)(2), 64 Stat. 1038.

The exception for the Inland Waterways Corporation in former section 1082(13) is omitted on authority of the Act of July 19, 1963, Pub. L. 88–67, 77 Stat. 81.

The exceptions for Production Credit Corporations and Federal Intermediate Credit Banks in former section 1082(18) and (19) are omitted as they are no longer “corporations wholly owned by the United States”. Under the Farm Credit Act of 1956, 70 Stat. 659, the Production Credit Corporations were merged in the Federal Intermediate Credit Banks, and pursuant to that Act the Federal Intermediate Credit Banks have ceased to be corporations wholly owned by the United States.

Subsection (a)(2) is added for clarity. The reference to “an individual employed in or under an agency” includes both officers and employees of an agency.

In subsection (a)(5), the words “in the General Schedule” are substituted for the reference in former section 1091(3) to “as specified in subchapter V of this chapter”.

In subsection (b), the reference to former section 1085 is omitted as unnecessary. Former section 1085 which exempted certain agencies from former sections 1151–1153 is carried into section 305.

In subsection (c)(1), the words “chapter 45 of title 39” are substituted for the reference in former section 1082(1) to “chapter 23 of title 39” on authority of the Act of July 10, 1955, ch. 137, §805, 69 Stat. 130, and the Act of Sept. 2, 1960, Pub. L. 86–682, §5, 74 Stat. 705.

In subsection (c)(2)(B), the words “this chapter” are substituted for the reference in former section 1082(2)(B) to “the Classification Act of 1923, as amended,” on authority of section 1106 of the Act of Oct. 28, 1949, 63 Stat. 972, and technical section 7(b).

In subsection (c)(4), the words “chapter 15 of title 31, District of Columbia Code” are substituted for the reference in former section 1082(4) to “the District of Columbia Teachers Salary Act of 1947, as supplemented by Public Law 151, Eighty-first Congress, approved June 30, 1949” on authority of the provisions contained therein. The words “District of Columbia Court of General Sessions” and “District of Columbia Court of Appeals” are substituted for “Municipal Court for the District of Columbia” and “Municipal Court of Appeals for the District of Columbia”, respectively, on authority of D.C. Code §§11–902 and 11–702. The exception for judges of the Juvenile Court of the District of Columbia is based on D.C. Code §11–1502.

In subsection (c)(5), the word “officers” is omitted as included in “member”.

In subsection (c)(10), the words “sections 6952 and 7478 of title 10”, “section 7044 of title 10”, and “section 7043 of title 10” are substituted for the references in former section 1082(10) to “section 1071 of title 34”, “sections 1076–1076f of title 34”, and “section 1074 of title 34”, respectively, on authority of the Act of Aug. 10, 1956, ch. 1041, §49(b), 70A Stat. 640.

In subsection (c)(11), the words “the United States” are substituted for “the several States and the District of Columbia”.

In subsection (c)(14), the words “employees necessary for the transaction of the business of the Service at canteens, warehouses, and storage depots whose employment is authorized by section 4202 of title 38” are substituted for the reference in former section 1082(23) to “positions which are exempt from this chapter, pursuant to section 4202 of title 38”.

In subsection (c)(16), the reference to “section 4114 of title 38” is substituted for the reference in former section 1082(25) to “section 4114(b) of title 38” to reflect the pay fixing authority contained in subsection (a)(1) of section 4114.

In subsection (c)(22), the words “as defined by section 901 of title 20” are substituted for “as defined in the Defense Department Overseas Teachers Pay and Personnel Practices Act” on authority of former section 2351, which is scheduled for transfer to section 901 of title 20.

In subsection (c)(25), the word “schedule” is omitted since section 603 of the Act of Oct. 11, 1962, Pub. L. 87–793, 76 Stat. 847, eliminated the necessity of referring to rates as scheduled or longevity. The words “for GS–18” are substituted for “of the highest grade established by this chapter”.

The second sentence of subsection (d) is based on former section 1084(c), which is carried into section 5103.

Standard changes are made to conform with the definitions applicable and the style of this title as outlined in the preface to the report.

1967 Act
Section of title 5Source (U.S. Code)Source (Statutes at Large)
5102(c)(26) 5 App.: 1082(36). June 9, 1966, Pub. L. 89–444, §4, 80 Stat. 198.

The amendment to 5 U.S.C. 5102(c)(15) is made to correct a typographical error.

The amendment to 5 U.S.C. 5102(c)(26) reflects Public Law 89–444, section 4.

References in Text

The Foreign Service Act of 1980, referred to in subsec. (c)(2), is Pub. L. 96–465, Oct. 17, 1980, 94 Stat. 2071, which is classified principally to chapter 52 (§3901 et seq.) of Title 22, Foreign Relations and Intercourse. For complete classification of this Act to the Code, see Short Title note set out under section 3901 of Title 22 and Tables.

Level V of the Executive Schedule, referred to in subsec. (c)(25), is set out in section 5316 of this title.

Amendments

2011—Subsec. (c)(30). Pub. L. 111–350 substituted “section 7105(a)(2), (c)(2), or (d)(2) of title 41” for “section 8 of the Contract Disputes Act of 1978”.

2010—Subsec. (c)(5). Pub. L. 111–282 substituted “the United States Secret Service Uniformed Division” for “the Executive Protective Service”.

2008—Subsec. (a)(1)(x). Pub. L. 110–417 substituted “National Geospatial-Intelligence Agency” for “National Imagery and Mapping Agency”.

2006—Subsec. (e). Pub. L. 109–356 added subsec. (e).

2004—Subsec. (a)(1)(vii). Pub. L. 108–271 substituted “Government Accountability Office” for “General Accounting Office”.

Subsec. (b). Pub. L. 108–375, §557(b)(5)(B), which directed amendment of subsec. (b) by substituting “Provost and Academic Dean” for “Academic Dean”, could not be executed because the words “Academic Dean” did not appear.

Subsec. (c)(10). Pub. L. 108–375, §557(b)(5)(A), substituted “Provost and Academic Dean of the Naval Postgraduate School” for “Academic Dean of the Postgraduate School of the Naval Academy”.

1999—Subsec. (c)(23). Pub. L. 106–113 amended par. (23) generally. Prior to amendment, par. (23) read as follows: “examiners-in-chief and designated examiners-in-chief in the Patent and Trademark Office, Department of Commerce;”.

1996—Subsec. (a)(1)(vi), (vii). Pub. L. 104–201, §3548(a)(2)(A), redesignated cls. (vii) and (viii) as (vi) and (vii), respectively, and struck out former cl. (vi) which read as follows: “the Panama Canal Commission;”.

Subsec. (a)(1)(viii). Pub. L. 104–201, §3548(a)(2)(A)(ii), which directed redesignation of cl. (ix) as (viii) could not be executed because subsec. (a)(1) did not contain a cl. (ix). See 1983 Amendment note below. Former cl. (viii) redesignated (vii).

Subsec. (a)(1)(ix), (x). Pub. L. 104–201, §3548(a)(2)(A)(ii), redesignated cls. (x) and (xi) as (ix) and (x), respectively.

Subsec. (a)(1)(xi). Pub. L. 104–201, §3548(a)(2)(A)(ii), redesignated cl. (xi) as (x).

Pub. L. 104–201, §1122(a)(1), substituted “National Imagery and Mapping Agency” for “Central Imagery Office”.

Subsec. (c)(12). Pub. L. 104–201, §3548(a)(2)(B), struck out par. (12) which read as follows: “any Executive agency to the extent of any election under section 1212(b)(2) (relating to the Panama Canal Employment System) of the Panama Canal Act of 1979;”.

1994—Subsec. (a)(1)(ix) to (xi). Pub. L. 103–359 directed the amendment of cl. (ix) by striking “or” at end which could not be executed because par. (1) does not contain a cl. (ix), directed the substitution of “; or” for period at end of cl. (x) which was executed by inserting “or” at end of cl. (x) to reflect the probable intent of Congress because a semicolon already exists at end of cl. (x), and added cl. (xi).

Subsec. (c)(3). Pub. L. 103–446 struck out comma after “Department of Veterans Affairs”.

1993—Subsec. (c)(10). Pub. L. 103–160, §923(b), inserted “(and, in the case of the George C. Marshall European Center for Security Studies, the Director and the Deputy Director)” after “professional military education school”.

Pub. L. 103–160, §533(c), substituted “at the Military Academy, the Naval Academy, and the Air Force Academy whose pay is fixed under sections 4338, 6952, and 9338, respectively, of title 10” for “at the Naval Academy whose pay is fixed under section 6952 of title 10”.

1991—Subsec. (c)(3). Pub. L. 102–54, §13(b)(2), substituted “Veterans Health Administration of the Department of Veterans Affairs” for “Department of Medicine and Surgery, Veterans’ Administration”.

Subsec. (c)(14). Pub. L. 102–54, §13(b)(1), substituted “Department of Veterans Affairs” for “Veterans’ Administration”.

Pub. L. 102–40, §403(c)(1)(A), substituted “section 7802 of title 38” for “section 4202 of title 38”.

Subsec. (c)(16). Pub. L. 102–40, §403(c)(1)(B), substituted “sections 7405 and 7406” for “section 4114”.

1990—Subsec. (a)(1). Pub. L. 101–474 redesignated subpars. (C) to (G) as (B) to (F), respectively, and struck out former subpar. (B) which included Administrative Office of United States Courts within definition of “agency”.

Subsec. (c)(5). Pub. L. 101–509, §529 [title I, §109(a)(2)], substituted “members” for “and members” after “Protective Service;” and inserted at end “and members of the police forces of the Bureau of Engraving and Printing and the United States Mint whose pay is fixed under section 5378 of this title;”.

Subsec. (c)(10). Pub. L. 101–510 struck out “and” before “the Academic Dean” and inserted at end “civilian professors, instructors, and lecturers in the defense acquisition university structure (including the Defense Systems Management College) whose pay is fixed under section 1746(b) of title 10;”.

Subsec. (c)(25). Pub. L. 101–509, §529 [title I, §101(b)(9)(F)], substituted “rate for level V of the Executive Schedule” for “maximum rate for GS–18”.

Subsec. (c)(29), (30). Pub. L. 101–509, §529 [title I, §104(d)(1)], added pars. (29) and (30).

1989—Subsec. (c)(10). Pub. L. 101–189 inserted “civilian professors, instructors, and lecturers at a professional military education school whose pay is fixed under section 1595, 4021, 7478, or 9021 of title 10;”, struck out “the Naval War College and” after “instructors at”, and substituted “section 6952” for “sections 6952 and 7478”.

1987—Subsec. (c)(27). Pub. L. 100–135 substituted “police” for “special police force”.

1986—Subsec. (c)(14). Pub. L. 99–335 inserted “(other than employees of the Federal Retirement Thrift Investment System appointed under section 8474(c)(2) of this title)”.

1985—Subsec. (c)(28). Pub. L. 99–145 added par. (28).

1984—Subsec. (a)(1)(viii) to (x). Pub. L. 98–618 struck out “or” at end of cl. (viii), inserted “or” at end of cl. (ix), and added cl. (x).

1983—Subsec. (a)(1)(iii) to (ix). Pub. L. 97–468, eff. Jan. 5, 1985, struck out cl. (iii) which excluded the Alaska Railroad and redesignated cls. (iv) to (ix) as (iii) to (viii), respectively. See Effective Date of 1983 Amendment note below.

1980—Subsec. (a)(1)(ix). Pub. L. 96–191 added cl. (ix).

Subsec. (c)(2). Pub. L. 96–465 substituted “members of the Foreign Service whose pay is fixed under the Foreign Service Act of 1980” for “employees in the Foreign Service of the United States whose pay is fixed under chapter 14 of title 22”.

1979—Subsec. (a)(1)(vii). Pub. L. 96–70, §3302(e)(1), substituted “Commission” for “Company”.

Subsec. (c)(12). Pub. L. 96–70, §3302(e)(6), substituted provisions relating to any Executive agency to the extent of any election under section 1212(b)(2) of the Panama Canal Act of 1979 for provisions relating to employees of an agency who are stationed in the Canal Zone or in the Republic of Panama.

Subsec. (c)(23). Pub. L. 96–54 inserted “and Trademark” after “Patent”.

1978—Subsec. (c)(5). Pub. L. 95–454, §801(a)(3)(D), substituted “5375” for “5365”.

Subsec. (c)(12)(B). Pub. L. 95–454, §906(a)(2), substituted “Office of Personnel Management” for “Civil Service Commission”.

1975—Subsec. (c)(5). Pub. L. 94–183, §2(12), substituted “Executive Protective Service” for “White House Police”.

Subsec. (c)(9). Pub. L. 94–183, §2(13), substituted “305” for “40”.

1973—Subsec. (b). Pub. L. 93–176 extended this chapter to include positions in local boards and appeal boards within the Selective Service System and employees occupying those positions.

1970—Subsec. (c)(1). Pub. L. 91–375 repealed provision declaring this chapter inapplicable to employees in the postal field service whose pay is fixed under chapter 45 of title 39.

Subsec. (c)(4). Pub. L. 91–358 expanded reference to include chief judges, substituted reference to the Superior Court of the District of Columbia for references to the District of Columbia Court of General Sessions and the Juvenile Court of the District of Columbia, and provided that chapter not apply to nonjudicial employees of the District of Columbia court system whose pay is fixed under title 11 of the District of Columbia Code.

1969—Subsec. (c)(5). Pub. L. 91–34 extended provisions to include members of the National Zoological Park police force whose pay is fixed under section 5365 of this title.

1968—Subsec. (c). Pub. L. 90–610 inserted par. (27).

Effective Date of 2010 Amendment

Pub. L. 111–282, §5, Oct. 15, 2010, 124 Stat. 3044, provided that: “This Act [enacting chapter 102 of this title, amending this section and sections 5541, 6304, and 6324 of this title, enacting provisions set out as notes under section 10201 of this title, and amending provisions set out as notes under section 3056A of Title 18, Crimes and Criminal Procedure] and the amendments made by this Act shall take effect on the first day of the first pay period which begins after the date of the enactment of this Act [Oct. 15, 2010].”

Effective Date of 1999 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 106–113 effective 4 months after Nov. 29, 1999, see section 1000(a)(9) [title IV, §4731] of Pub. L. 106–113, set out as a note under section 1 of Title 35, Patents.

Effective Date of 1996 Amendment

Amendment by section 1122(a)(1) of Pub. L. 104–201 effective Oct. 1, 1996, see section 1124 of Pub. L. 104–201, set out as a note under section 193 of Title 10, Armed Forces.

Effective Date of 1990 Amendment

Amendment by section 529 [title I, §§101(b)(9)(F), 104(d)(1)] of Pub. L. 101–509 effective on such date as the President shall determine, but not earlier than 90 days, and not later than 180 days, after Nov. 5, 1990, see section 529 [title III, §305] of Pub. L. 101–509, set out as a note under section 5301 of this title.

Amendment by section 529 [title I, §109(a)(2)] of Pub. L. 101–509 effective on first day of first applicable pay period beginning on or after the 30th day following Nov. 5, 1990, see section 529 [title I, §109(c)] of Pub. L. 101–509, set out as an Effective Date note under section 5378 of this title.

Effective Date of 1987 Amendment

Pub. L. 100–135, §3, Oct. 16, 1987, 101 Stat. 812, provided that: “The amendments made by section 1 [amending this section and sections 167 and 167h of Title 2, The Congress] shall apply with respect to pay periods beginning after September 30, 1987, except that any pay increase for employees of the Library of Congress, pursuant to the amendments made by such section, shall be subject to appropriation and shall be implemented in four approximately equal annual increments, so that pay parity with the Capitol Police occurs beginning with the first pay period beginning after September 30, 1990.”

Effective Date of 1986 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 99–335 effective Jan. 1, 1987, see section 702(a) of Pub. L. 99–335, set out as an Effective Date note under section 8401 of this title.

Effective Date of 1983 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 97–468 effective on date of transfer of Alaska Railroad to the State [Jan. 5, 1985], pursuant to section 1203 of Title 45, Railroads, see section 615(b) of Pub. L. 97–468.

Effective Date of 1980 Amendments

Amendment by Pub. L. 96–465 effective Feb. 15, 1981, except as otherwise provided, see section 2403 of Pub. L. 96–465, set out as an Effective Date note under section 3901 of Title 22, Foreign Relations and Intercourse.

Amendment by Pub. L. 96–191 effective Oct. 1, 1980, see section 10(a) of Pub. L. 96–191.

Effective Date of 1979 Amendments

Amendment by Pub. L. 96–70 effective Oct. 1, 1979, see section 3304 of Pub. L. 96–70, set out as an Effective Date note under section 3601 of Title 22, Foreign Relations and Intercourse.

Amendment by Pub. L. 96–54 effective July 12, 1979, see section 2(b) of Pub. L. 96–54, set out as a note under section 305 of this title.

Effective Date of 1978 Amendment

Amendment by section 801(a)(3)(D) of Pub. L. 95–454 effective on first day of first applicable pay period beginning on or after 90th day after Oct. 13, 1978, see section 801(a)(4) of Pub. L. 95–454, set out as an Effective Date note under section 5361 of this title.

Amendment by section 906(2)(2) of Pub. L. 95–454 effective 90 days after Oct. 13, 1978, see section 907 of Pub. L. 95–454, set out as a note under section 1101 of this title.

Effective Date of 1973 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 93–176 effective not later than beginning of first pay period which begins on or after 90th day following Dec. 5, 1973, see section 4 of Pub. L. 93–176, set out as a note under section 460 of the Appendix to Title 50, War and National Defense.

Effective Date of 1970 Amendments

Amendment by Pub. L. 91–375 effective within 1 year after Aug. 12, 1970, on date established therefor by Board of Governors of United States Postal Service and published by it in Federal Register, see section 15(a) of Pub. L. 91–375, set out as an Effective Date note preceding section 101 of Title 39, Postal Service.

Amendment by Pub. L. 91–358 effective first day of seventh calendar month which begins after July 29, 1970, see section 199(a) of Pub. L. 91–358, set out as a note under section 1257 of Title 28, Judiciary and Judicial Procedure.

Effective Date of 1969 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 91–34 effective at beginning of first pay period which commences on or after June 30, 1969, see section 3(a) of Pub. L. 91–34, set out as an Effective Date note under section 5375 of this title.

Effective Date of 1968 Amendment

Pub. L. 90–610, §3, Oct. 21, 1968, 82 Stat. 1201, provided that: “The amendments made by this Act [amending this section and section 167 of Title 2, The Congress] shall take effect on the first day of the first pay period which begins on or after the date of enactment of this Act [Oct. 21, 1968]. Notwithstanding any provisions of this Act, no rate of basic pay shall be reduced by reason of the enactment of this Act.”

Effective Date of 1967 Amendment

Section 9(h) of Pub. L. 90–83 provided that: “Section 1(3) [amending section 1305 of this title], (10) [amending section 3324 of this title], (11) [amending this section], (12) [amending section 5108 of this title], (22) [enacting section 5534a of this title], (23) [amending the analysis for chapter 55 of this title], (83)(a) and (d) [amending section 8344 of this title], (89) [amending section 8521 of this title], (98) [amending section 902 of this title], (99) [amending section 903 of this title], and (100) [amending section 8113 of this title] of this Act is effective as of September 6, 1966, for all purposes.”

Repeals

General repealer of provisions inconsistent with Pub. L. 92–392 as not repealing or affecting subsec. (d) of this section, see section 13 of Pub. L. 92–392, Aug. 19, 1972, 86 Stat. 575, set out as a note under section 5341 of this title.

Transfer of Functions

For transfer of authorities, functions, personnel, and assets of the Coast Guard, including the authorities and functions of the Secretary of Transportation relating thereto, to the Department of Homeland Security, and for treatment of related references, see sections 468(b), 551(d), 552(d), and 557 of Title 6, Domestic Security, and the Department of Homeland Security Reorganization Plan of November 25, 2002, as modified, set out as a note under section 542 of Title 6.

For transfer of the functions, personnel, assets, and obligations of the United States Secret Service, including the functions of the Secretary of the Treasury relating thereto, to the Secretary of Homeland Security, and for treatment of related references, see sections 381, 551(d), 552(d), and 557 of Title 6, Domestic Security, and the Department of Homeland Security Reorganization Plan of November 25, 2002, as modified, set out as a note under section 542 of Title 6.

Abolition of Atomic Energy Commission

Atomic Energy Commission abolished and functions transferred by sections 5814 and 5841 of Title 42, The Public Health and Welfare. See, also, Transfer of Functions notes set out under those sections.

Dissolution of Virgin Islands Corporation

Virgin Islands Corporation established to have succession until June 30, 1969, unless sooner dissolved by Act of Congress, by act June 30, 1949, ch. 285, 63 Stat. 350, as amended (48 U.S.C. 1407 et seq.). Corporation terminated its program June 30, 1965, and dissolved July 1, 1966. Act June 30, 1949, was repealed by Pub. L. 97–357, title III, §308(e), Oct. 19, 1982, 96 Stat. 1710.

Civilian Members of Faculty of Air Force Institute of Technology on November 8, 1985

Section 504(c) of Pub. L. 99–145 provided that: “Section 9314(b)(2) of title 10, United States Code (as added by subsection (a)(1)(B)), and section 5102(c)(28) of title 5, United States Code (as added by subsection (b)), shall not apply to any person who on the date of the enactment of this Act [Nov. 8, 1985]—

“(1) is a civilian member of the faculty of the United States Air Force Institute of Technology;

“(2) is paid a rate of basic pay under the General Schedule; and

“(3) elects, under procedures prescribed by the Secretary of the Air Force, to continue to be paid under the General Schedule.”

Prohibition of Decrease in Basic Pay Rate of Subsec. (c)(7), (8), or (14) Employees

Amendments by Pub. L. 92–392 not to decrease basic pay rate of subsec. (c)(7), (8), or (14) employees in service before effective date of the amendments as to such employees, see section 9(a)(2) of Pub. L. 92–392, Aug. 19, 1972, 86 Stat. 574, set out as a note under section 5343 of this title.

Reduction of Basic Pay Rate

Rate of basic pay not to be reduced by reason of the enactment of Pub. L. 91–34, which amended this section, see section 3(b) of Pub. L. 91–34, set out as a note under section 5365 of this title.

1 So in original. The word “or” probably should not appear.

2 So in original. Subsec. (a)(1) does not contain a cl. (viii).

3 So in original. The period probably should be a semicolon.

§5103. Determination of applicability

The Office of Personnel Management shall determine finally the applicability of section 5102 of this title to specific positions and employees, except for positions and employees in the Office of the Architect of the Capitol.

(Pub. L. 89–554, Sept. 6, 1966, 80 Stat. 446; Pub. L. 95–454, title IX, §906(a)(2), Oct. 13, 1978, 92 Stat. 1224.)

Historical and Revision Notes
DerivationU.S. CodeRevised Statutes and

Statutes at Large

5 U.S.C. 1083. Oct. 28, 1949, ch. 782, §203, 63 Stat. 956.
5 U.S.C. 1084(c). Oct. 28, 1949, ch. 782, §204(c), 63 Stat. 957.

Sept. 1, 1954, ch. 1208, §105(b), 68 Stat. 1106.

Former sections 1083 and 1084(c) are combined and restated for clarity. The words “hereinafter referred to as the Commission” in former section 1083 are omitted as unnecessary. The exception from “section 1082 (except paragraph (7) thereof)” in former section 1084(c) is carried into section 5102(d).

Standard changes are made to conform with the definitions applicable and the style of this title as outlined in the preface to the report.

Amendments

1978—Pub. L. 95–454 substituted “Office of Personnel Management” for “Civil Service Commission”.

Effective Date of 1978 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 95–454 effective 90 days after Oct. 13, 1978, see section 907 of Pub. L. 95–454, set out as a note under section 1101 of this title.

§5104. Basis for grading positions

The General Schedule, the symbol for which is “GS”, is the basic pay schedule for positions to which this chapter applies. The General Schedule is divided into grades of difficulty and responsibility of work, as follows:

(1) Grade GS–1 includes those classes of positions the duties of which are to perform, under immediate supervision, with little or no latitude for the exercise of independent judgment—

(A) the simplest routine work in office, business, or fiscal operations; or

(B) elementary work of a subordinate technical character in a professional, scientific, or technical field.


(2) Grade GS–2 includes those classes of positions the duties of which are—

(A) to perform, under immediate supervision, with limited latitude for the exercise of independent judgment, routine work in office, business, or fiscal operations, or comparable subordinate technical work of limited scope in a professional, scientific, or technical field, requiring some training or experience; or

(B) to perform other work of equal importance, difficulty, and responsibility, and requiring comparable qualifications.


(3) Grade GS–3 includes those classes of positions the duties of which are—

(A) to perform, under immediate or general supervision, somewhat difficult and responsible work in office, business, or fiscal operations, or comparable subordinate technical work of limited scope in a professional, scientific, or technical field, requiring in either case—

(i) some training or experience;

(ii) working knowledge of a special subject matter; or

(iii) to some extent the exercise of independent judgment in accordance with well-established policies, procedures, and techniques; or


(B) to perform other work of equal importance, difficulty, and responsibility, and requiring comparable qualifications.


(4) Grade GS–4 includes those classes of positions the duties of which are—

(A) to perform, under immediate or general supervision, moderately difficult and responsible work in office, business, or fiscal operations, or comparable subordinate technical work in a professional, scientific, or technical field, requiring in either case—

(i) a moderate amount of training and minor supervisory or other experience;

(ii) good working knowledge of a special subject matter or a limited field of office, laboratory, engineering, scientific, or other procedure and practice; and

(iii) the exercise of independent judgment in accordance with well-established policies, procedures, and techniques; or


(B) to perform other work of equal importance, difficulty, and responsibility, and requiring comparable qualifications.


(5) Grade GS–5 includes those classes of positions the duties of which are—

(A) to perform, under general supervision, difficult and responsible work in office, business, or fiscal administration, or comparable subordinate technical work in a professional, scientific, or technical field, requiring in either case—

(i) considerable training and supervisory or other experience;

(ii) broad working knowledge of a special subject matter or of office, laboratory, engineering, scientific, or other procedure and practice; and

(iii) the exercise of independent judgment in a limited field;


(B) to perform, under immediate supervision, and with little opportunity for the exercise of independent judgment, simple and elementary work requiring professional, scientific, or technical training; or

(C) to perform other work of equal importance, difficulty, and responsibility, and requiring comparable qualifications.


(6) Grade GS–6 includes those classes of positions the duties of which are—

(A) to perform, under general supervision, difficult and responsible work in office, business, or fiscal administration, or comparable subordinate technical work in a professional, scientific, or technical field, requiring in either case—

(i) considerable training and supervisory or other experience;

(ii) broad working knowledge of a special and complex subject matter, procedure, or practice, or of the principles of the profession, art, or science involved; and

(iii) to a considerable extent the exercise of independent judgment; or


(B) to perform other work of equal importance, difficulty, and responsibility, and requiring comparable qualifications.


(7) Grade GS–7 includes those classes of positions the duties of which are—

(A) to perform, under general supervision, work of considerable difficulty and responsibility along special technical or supervisory lines in office, business, or fiscal administration, or comparable subordinate technical work in a professional, scientific, or technical field, requiring in either case—

(i) considerable specialized or supervisory training and experience;

(ii) comprehensive working knowledge of a special and complex subject matter; procedure, or practice, or of the principles of the profession, art, or science involved; and

(iii) to a considerable extent the exercise of independent judgment;


(B) under immediate or general supervision, to perform somewhat difficult work requiring—

(i) professional, scientific, or technical training; and

(ii) to a limited extent, the exercise of independent technical judgment; or


(C) to perform other work of equal importance, difficulty, and responsibility, and requiring comparable qualifications.


(8) Grade GS–8 includes those classes of positions the duties of which are—

(A) to perform, under general supervision, very difficult and responsible work along special technical or supervisory lines in office, business, or fiscal administration, requiring—

(i) considerable specialized or supervisory training and experience;

(ii) comprehensive and thorough working knowledge of a specialized and complex subject matter, procedure, or practice, or of the principles of the profession, art, or science involved; and

(iii) to a considerable extent the exercise of independent judgment; or


(B) to perform other work of equal importance, difficulty, and responsibility, and requiring comparable qualifications.


(9) Grade GS–9 includes those classes of positions the duties of which are—

(A) to perform, under general supervision, very difficult and responsible work along special technical, supervisory, or administrative lines in office, business, or fiscal administration, requiring—

(i) somewhat extended specialized training and considerable specialized, supervisory, or administrative experience which has demonstrated capacity for sound independent work;

(ii) thorough and fundamental knowledge of a special and complex subject matter, or of the profession, art, or science involved; and

(iii) considerable latitude for the exercise of independent judgment;


(B) with considerable latitude for the exercise of independent judgment, to perform moderately difficult and responsible work, requiring—

(i) professional, scientific, or technical training equivalent to that represented by graduation from a college or university of recognized standing; and

(ii) considerable additional professional, scientific, or technical training or experience which has demonstrated capacity for sound independent work; or


(C) to perform other work of equal importance, difficulty, and responsibility, and requiring comparable qualifications.


(10) Grade GS–10 includes those classes of positions the duties of which are—

(A) to perform, under general supervision, highly difficult and responsible work along special technical, supervisory, or administrative lines in office, business, or fiscal administration, requiring—

(i) somewhat extended specialized, supervisory, or administrative training and experience which has demonstrated capacity for sound independent work;

(ii) thorough and fundamental knowledge of a specialized and complex subject matter, or of the profession, art, or science involved; and

(iii) considerable latitude for the exercise of independent judgment; or


(B) to perform other work of equal importance, difficulty, and responsibility, and requiring comparable qualifications.


(11) Grade GS–11 includes those classes of positions the duties of which are—

(A) to perform, under general administrative supervision and with wide latitude for the exercise of independent judgment, work of marked difficulty and responsibility along special technical, supervisory, or administrative lines in office, business, or fiscal administration, requiring—

(i) extended specialized, supervisory, or administrative training and experience which has demonstrated important attainments and marked capacity for sound independent action or decision; and

(ii) intimate grasp of a specialized and complex subject matter, or of the profession, art, or science involved, or of administrative work of marked difficulty;


(B) with wide latitude for the exercise of independent judgment, to perform responsible work of considerable difficulty requiring somewhat extended professional, scientific, or technical training and experience which has demonstrated important attainments and marked capacity for independent work; or

(C) to perform other work of equal importance, difficulty, and responsibility, and requiring comparable qualifications.


(12) Grade GS–12 includes those classes of positions the duties of which are—

(A) to perform, under general administrative supervision, with wide latitude for the exercise of independent judgment, work of a very high order of difficulty and responsibility along special technical, supervisory, or administrative lines in office, business, or fiscal administration, requiring—

(i) extended specialized, supervisory, or administrative training and experience which has demonstrated leadership and attainments of a high order in specialized or administrative work; and

(ii) intimate grasp of a specialized and complex subject matter or of the profession, art, or science involved;


(B) under general administrative supervision, and with wide latitude for the exercise of independent judgment, to perform professional, scientific, or technical work of marked difficulty and responsibility requiring extended professional, scientific, or technical training and experience which has demonstrated leadership and attainments of a high order in professional, scientific, or technical research, practice, or administration; or

(C) to perform other work of equal importance, difficulty, and responsibility, and requiring comparable qualifications.


(13) Grade GS–13 includes those classes of positions the duties of which are—

(A) to perform, under administrative direction, with wide latitude for the exercise of independent judgment, work of unusual difficulty and responsibility along special technical, supervisory, or administrative lines, requiring extended specialized, supervisory, or administrative training and experience which has demonstrated leadership and marked attainments;

(B) to serve as assistant head of a major organization involving work of comparable level within a bureau;

(C) to perform, under administrative direction, with wide latitude for the exercise of independent judgment, work of unusual difficulty and responsibility requiring extended professional, scientific, or technical training and experience which has demonstrated leadership and marked attainments in professional, scientific, or technical research, practice, or administration; or

(D) to perform other work of equal importance, difficulty, and responsibility, and requiring comparable qualifications.


(14) Grade GS–14 includes those classes of positions the duties of which are—

(A) to perform, under general administrative direction, with wide latitude for the exercise of independent judgment, work of exceptional difficulty and responsibility along special technical, supervisory, or administrative lines which has demonstrated leadership and unusual attainments;

(B) to serve as head of a major organization within a bureau involving work of comparable level;

(C) to plan and direct or to plan and execute major professional, scientific, technical, administrative, fiscal, or other specialized programs, requiring extended training and experience which has demonstrated leadership and unusual attainments in professional, scientific, or technical research, practice, or administration, or in administrative, fiscal, or other specialized activities; or

(D) to perform consulting or other professional, scientific, technical, administrative, fiscal, or other specialized work of equal importance, difficulty, and responsibility, and requiring comparable qualifications.


(15) Grade GS–15 includes those classes of positions the duties of which are—

(A) to perform, under general administrative direction, with very wide latitude for the exercise of independent judgment, work of outstanding difficulty and responsibility along special technical, supervisory, or administrative lines which has demonstrated leadership and exceptional attainments;

(B) to serve as head of a major organization within a bureau involving work of comparable level;

(C) to plan and direct or to plan and execute specialized programs of marked difficulty, responsibility, and national significance, along professional, scientific, technical, administrative, fiscal, or other lines, requiring extended training and experience which has demonstrated leadership and unusual attainments in professional, scientific, or technical research, practice, or administration, or in administrative, fiscal, or other specialized activities; or

(D) to perform consulting or other professional, scientific, technical, administrative, fiscal, or other specialized work of equal importance, difficulty, and responsibility, and requiring comparable qualifications.

(Pub. L. 89–554, Sept. 6, 1966, 80 Stat. 446; Pub. L. 101–509, title V, §529 [title I, §102(b)(1)], Nov. 5, 1990, 104 Stat. 1427, 1443.)

Historical and Revision Notes
DerivationU.S. CodeRevised Statutes and

Statutes at Large

5 U.S.C. 1111. Oct. 28, 1949, ch. 782, §601, 63 Stat. 959.

Sept. 1, 1954, ch. 1208, §107, 68 Stat. 1108.

5 U.S.C. 1112. Oct. 28, 1949, ch. 782, §602, 63 Stat. 959.
  Sept. 1, 1954, ch. 1208, §108, 68 Stat. 1108.
  June 20, 1958, Pub. L. 85–462, §13(a), 72 Stat. 214.

Former sections 1111 and 1112 are combined and restated.

Standard changes are made to conform with the definitions applicable and the style of this title as outlined in the preface to the report.

References in Text

The General Schedule, referred to in text, is set out under section 5332 of this title.

Amendments

1990—Pub. L. 101–509 struck out “18” before “grades” in introductory provisions and struck out pars. (16) to (18) which described grades GS–16 to GS–18.

Effective Date of 1990 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 101–509 effective on such date as the President shall determine, but not earlier than 90 days, and not later than 180 days, after Nov. 5, 1990, see section 529 [title III, §305] of Pub. L. 101–509, set out as a note under section 5301 of this title.

Job Evaluation Policy Act of 1970

Pub. L. 91–216, May 17, 1970, 84 Stat. 72, provided: “That this Act may be cited as the ‘Job Evaluation Policy Act of 1970’.

“Title I—Congressional Findings With Respect to Job Evaluation and Ranking in the Executive Branch

Sec. 101. The Congress hereby finds that—

“(1) the tremendous growth required in the activities of the Federal Government in order to meet the country's needs during the past several decades has led to the need for employees in an ever-increasing and changing variety of occupations and professions, many of which did not exist when the basic principles of job evaluation and ranking were established by the Classification Act of 1923 [Act Mar. 4, 1923, ch. 265, 42 Stat. 1488]. The diverse and constantly changing nature of these occupations and professions requires that the Federal Government reassess its approach to job evaluation and ranking better to fulfill its role as an employer and assure efficient economical administration;

“(2) the large number and variety of job evaluation and ranking systems in the executive branch have resulted in significant inequities in selection, promotion, and pay of employees in comparable positions among these systems;

“(3) little effort has been made by Congress or the executive branch to consolidate or coordinate the various job evaluation and ranking systems, and there has been no progress toward the establishment of a coordinated system in which job evaluation and ranking, regardless of the methods used, is related to a unified set of principles providing coherence and equity throughout the executive branch;

“(4) within the executive branch, there has been no significant study of, or experimentation with the several recognized methods of job evaluation and ranking to determine which of those methods are most appropriate for use and application to meet the present and future needs of the Federal Government; and

“(5) notwithstanding the recommendations resulting from the various studies conducted during the last twenty years, the Federal Government has not taken the initiative to implement those recommendations with respect to the job evaluation and ranking systems within the executive branch, with the result that such systems have not, in many cases, been adapted or administered to meet the rapidly changing needs of the Federal Government.

“Title II—Statement of Policy

Sec. 201. It is the sense of Congress that—

“(1) the executive branch shall, in the interest of equity, efficiency, and good administration, operate under a coordinated job evaluation and ranking system for all civilian positions, to the greatest extent practicable;

“(2) the system shall be designed so as to utilize such methods of job evaluation and ranking as are appropriate for use in the executive branch, taking into account the various occupational categories of positions therein; and

“(3) the United States Civil Service Commission shall be authorized to exercise general supervision and control over such a system.

Title III—Preparation of a Job Evaluation and Ranking Plan By the Civil Service Commission and Reports and Recommendations to Congress

Sec. 301. The Civil Service Commission, through such organizational unit which it shall establish within the Commission and which shall report directly to the Commission, shall prepare a comprehensive plan for the establishment of a coordinated system of job evaluation and ranking for civilian positions, in the executive branch. The plan shall include, among other things—

“(1) provision for the establishment of a method or methods for evaluating jobs and alining them by level;

“(2) a time schedule for the conversion of existing job evaluation and ranking systems into the coordinated system;

“(3) provision that the Civil Service Commission shall have general supervision of and control over the coordinated job evaluation and ranking system, including, if the Commission deems it appropriate, the authority to approve or disapprove the adoption, use and administration in the executive branch of the method or methods established under that system;

“(4) provision for the establishment of procedures for the periodic review by the Civil Service Commission of the effectiveness of the method or methods adopted for use under the system; and

“(5) provision for maintenance of the system to meet the changing needs of the executive branch in the future.

Sec. 302. In carrying out its functions under section 301 of this Act, the Commission shall consider all recognized methods of job evaluation and ranking.

Sec. 303. The Civil Service Commission is authorized to secure directly from any executive agency, as defined by section 105 of title 5, United States Code, or any bureau, office, or part thereof, information, suggestions, estimates, statistics, and technical assistance for the purposes of this Act; and each such executive agency or bureau, office, or part thereof is authorized and directed to furnish such information, suggestions, estimates, statistics, and technical assistance directly to the Civil Service Commission upon request by the Commission.

Sec. 304. (a) Within one year after the date of enactment of this Act, the Commission shall submit to the President and the Congress an interim progress report on the current status and results of its activities under this Act, together with its current findings.

“(b) Within two years after the date of enactment of this Act [Mar. 17, 1970]—

“(1) the Civil Service Commission shall complete its functions under this Act and shall transmit to the President a comprehensive report of the result of its activities, together with its recommendations (including its draft of proposed legislation to carry out such recommendations), and

“(2) the President shall transmit that report (including the recommendations and draft of proposed legislation of the Commission) to the Congress, together with such recommendations as the President deems appropriate.

“(c) The Commission shall submit to the Committees on Post Office and Civil Service of the Senate and House of Representatives once each calendar month, or at such other intervals as may be directed by those committees, or either of them, an interim progress report on the then current status and results of the activities of the Commission under this Act, together with the then current findings of the Commission.

“(d) The Commission shall periodically consult with, and solicit the views of, appropriate employee and professional organizations.

“(e) The organizational unit established under section 301 of this Act shall cease to exist upon the submission of the report to the Congress under subsection (b) of this section.”

§5105. Standards for classification of positions

(a) The Office of Personnel Management, after consulting the agencies, shall prepare standards for placing positions in their proper classes and grades. The Office may make such inquiries or investigations of the duties, responsibilities, and qualification requirements of positions as it considers necessary for this purpose. The agencies, on request of the Office, shall furnish information for and cooperate in the preparation of the standards. In the standards, which shall be published in such form as the Office may determine, the Office shall—

(1) define the various classes of positions in terms of duties, responsibilities, and qualification requirements;

(2) establish the official class titles; and

(3) set forth the grades in which the classes have been placed by the Office.


(b) The Office, after consulting the agencies to the extent considered necessary, shall revise, supplement, or abolish existing standards, or prepare new standards, so that, as nearly as may be practicable, positions existing at any given time will be covered by current published standards.

(c) The official class titles established under subsection (a)(2) of this section shall be used for personnel, budget, and fiscal purposes. However, this requirement does not prevent the use of organizational or other titles for internal administration, public convenience, law enforcement, or similar purposes.

(Pub. L. 89–554, Sept. 6, 1966, 80 Stat. 452; Pub. L. 95–454, title IX, §906(a)(2), (3), Oct. 13, 1978, 92 Stat. 1224.)

Historical and Revision Notes
DerivationU.S. CodeRevised Statutes and

Statutes at Large

5 U.S.C. 1094. Oct. 28, 1949, ch. 782, §401, 63 Stat. 957.

The section is restated for clarity.

In subsection (b), the requirement that the Commission keep the standards up to date is omitted as included in the requirement that the Commission revise, supplement, or abolish existing standards, or prepare new standards so as to keep them current as nearly as practicable.

Standard changes are made to conform with the definitions applicable and the style of this title as outlined in the preface to the report.

Amendments

1978—Subsecs. (a), (b). Pub. L. 95–454 substituted “Office of Personnel Management” and “Office” for “Civil Service Commission” and “Commission”, respectively, wherever appearing.

Effective Date of 1978 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 95–454 effective 90 days after Oct. 13, 1978, see section 907 of Pub. L. 95–454, set out as a note under section 1101 of this title.

Performance Management Skills and Competencies

Pub. L. 111–352, §12, Jan. 4, 2011, 124 Stat. 3882, provided that:

“(a) Performance Management Skills and Competencies.—Not later than 1 year after the date of enactment of this Act [Jan. 4, 2011], the Director of the Office of Personnel Management, in consultation with the Performance Improvement Council, shall identify the key skills and competencies needed by Federal Government personnel for developing goals, evaluating programs, and analyzing and using performance information for the purpose of improving Government efficiency and effectiveness.

“(b) Position Classifications.—Not later than 2 years after the date of enactment of this Act, based on the identifications under subsection (a), the Director of the Office of Personnel Management shall incorporate, as appropriate, such key skills and competencies into relevant position classifications.

“(c) Incorporation Into Existing Agency Training.—Not later than 2 years after the enactment of this Act, the Director of the Office of Personnel Management shall work with each agency, as defined under section 306(f) of title 5, United States Code, to incorporate the key skills identified under subsection (a) into training for relevant employees at each agency.”

§5106. Basis for classifying positions

(a) Each position shall be placed in its appropriate class. The basis for determining the appropriate class is the duties and responsibilities of the position and the qualifications required by the duties and responsibilities.

(b) Each class shall be placed in its appropriate grade. The basis for determining the appropriate grade is the level of difficulty, responsibility, and qualification requirements of the work of the class.

(c) Appropriated funds may not be used to pay an employee who places a supervisory position in a class and grade solely on the basis of the size of the organization unit or the number of subordinates supervised. These factors may be given effect only to the extent warranted by the work load of the organization unit and then only in combination with other factors, such as the kind, difficulty, and complexity of work supervised, the degree and scope of responsibility delegated to the supervisor, and the kind, degree, and character of the supervision exercised.

(Pub. L. 89–554, Sept. 6, 1966, 80 Stat. 453.)

Historical and Revision Notes
DerivationU.S. CodeRevised Statutes and

Statutes at Large

(a), (b) 5 U.S.C. 1092. Oct. 28, 1949, ch. 782, §302, 63 Stat. 957.
(c) 5 U.S.C. 1093. Oct. 28, 1949, ch. 782, §303, 63 Stat. 957.

In subsection (c), the prohibition is restated in positive form. The words “to pay” are substituted for the words “to pay the compensation of”. The words “the group, section, bureau” are omitted as included in the words “the organization unit”. The word “actually” in the phrase “of the supervision exercised” is omitted as unnecessary.

Standard changes are made to conform with the definitions applicable and the style of this title as outlined in the preface to the report.

§5107. Classification of positions

Except as otherwise provided by this chapter, each agency shall place each position under its jurisdiction in its appropriate class and grade in conformance with standards published by the Office of Personnel Management or, if no published standards apply directly, consistently with published standards. When facts warrant, an agency may change a position which it has placed in a class or grade under this section from that class or grade to another class or grade. Subject to subchapter VI of chapter 53 of this title, these actions of an agency are the basis for pay and personnel transactions until changed by certificate of the Office.

(Pub. L. 89–554, Sept. 6, 1966, 80 Stat. 453; Pub. L. 95–454, title VIII, §801(a)(3)(E), title IX, §906(a)(2), (3), Oct. 13, 1978, 92 Stat. 1222, 1224.)

Historical and Revision Notes
DerivationU.S. CodeRevised Statutes and

Statutes at Large

5 U.S.C. 1102(a). Oct. 28, 1949, ch. 782, §502(a), 63 Stat. 958.

The words “to which this chapter applies” are omitted as unnecessary in view of section 5102. The words “Subject to section 5337 of this title” are added to reflect the qualification imposed by that section.

Standard changes are made to conform with the definitions applicable and the style of this title as outlined in the preface to the report.

Amendments

1978—Pub. L. 95–454 substituted “Office of Personnel Management” for “Civil Service Commission”, “Office” for “Commission”, and “subchapter VI of chapter 53” for “section 5337”.

Effective Date of 1978 Amendment

Amendment by section 803(a)(3)(E) of Pub. L. 95–454, substituting reference to subchapter VI of chapter 53 for reference to section 5337, effective on first day of first applicable pay period beginning on or after 90th day after Oct. 13, 1978, see section 801(a)(4) of Pub. L. 95–454, set out as an Effective Date note under section 5361 of this title.

Amendment by section 906(a)(2), (3) of Pub. L. 95–454, substituting reference to Office of Personnel Management for reference to Civil Service Commission, effective 90 days after Oct. 13, 1978, see section 907 of Pub. L. 95–454, set out as a note under section 1101 of this title.

§5108. Classification of positions above GS–15

(a) The Office of Personnel Management may, for any Executive agency—

(1) establish, and from time to time revise, the maximum number of positions which may at any one time be classified above GS–15; and

(2) establish standards and procedures published by the Director of the Office of Personnel Management in such form as the Director may determine (including requiring agencies, where necessary in the judgment of the Office, to obtain the prior approval of the Office) in accordance with which positions may be classified above GS–15.


(b) The President, rather than the Office, shall exercise the authority under subsection (a) in the case of positions proposed to be placed in the Federal Bureau of Investigation and Drug Enforcement Administration Senior Executive Service.

(c) The Librarian of Congress may classify positions in the Library of Congress above GS–15 pursuant to standards established by the Office in subsection (a)(2).

(Pub. L. 89–554, Sept. 6, 1966, 80 Stat. 453; Pub. L. 89–632, §1(a)–(d), Oct. 8, 1966, 80 Stat. 878; Pub. L. 90–83, §1(12), Sept. 11, 1967, 81 Stat. 197; Pub. L. 91–187, §1, Dec. 30, 1969, 83 Stat. 850; Pub. L. 91–206, §5(a), Mar. 10, 1970, 84 Stat. 51; Pub. L. 91–596, §30, Dec. 29, 1970, 84 Stat. 1619; Pub. L. 91–644, title I, §11, Jan. 2, 1971, 84 Stat. 1889; Pub. L. 91–656, §9, Jan. 8, 1971, 84 Stat. 1955; Pub. L. 92–261, §12, Mar. 24, 1972, 86 Stat. 112; Pub. L. 90–351, title I, §506(c), as added Pub. L. 93–83, §2, Aug. 6, 1973, 87 Stat. 211; Pub. L. 93–282, title III, §301, May 14, 1974, 88 Stat. 137; Pub. L. 93–406, title I, §507(b), title II, §1051(b)(2), title IV, §4002(c), Sept. 2, 1974, 88 Stat. 894, 951, 1005; Pub. L. 93–415, title II, §201(g), Sept. 7, 1974, 88 Stat. 1113; Pub. L. 93–463, title IV, §410, Oct. 23, 1974, 88 Stat. 1414; Pub. L. 93–516, title II, §208(b), Dec. 7, 1974, 88 Stat. 1629; Pub. L. 93–651, title II, §208(b), Nov. 21, 1974, 89 Stat. 2–14; Pub. L. 94–183, §2(14), (15), Dec. 31, 1975, 89 Stat. 1057; Pub. L. 94–233, §13, Mar. 15, 1976, 90 Stat. 233; Pub. L. 94–503, title II, §202(a), Oct. 15, 1976, 90 Stat. 2426; Pub. L. 95–91, title VII, §710(b), Aug. 4, 1977, 91 Stat. 609; Pub. L. 95–190, §11(a), Nov. 16, 1977, 91 Stat. 1398; Pub. L. 95–219, §3(c), Dec. 28, 1977, 91 Stat. 1614; Pub. L. 95–251, §1, Mar. 27, 1978, 92 Stat. 183; Pub. L. 95–454, title IV, §414(a)(1)(A), (C), (D), Oct. 13, 1978, 92 Stat. 1177; Pub. L. 95–486, §10, Oct. 20, 1978, 92 Stat. 1634; Pub. L. 95–563, §14(g), Nov. 1, 1978, 92 Stat. 2390; Pub. L. 95–612, §3(b), Nov. 8, 1978, 92 Stat. 3091; Pub. L. 95–624, §22, Nov. 9, 1978, 92 Stat. 3466; Pub. L. 95–630, title V, §502(c), Nov. 10, 1978, 92 Stat. 3681; Pub. L. 96–54, §2(a)(23), Aug. 14, 1979, 93 Stat. 382; Pub. L. 96–191, §8(c), Feb. 15, 1980, 94 Stat. 33; Pub. L. 100–325, §2(g), May 30, 1988, 102 Stat. 581; Pub. L. 100–702, title I, §104(c)(2), Nov. 19, 1988, 102 Stat. 4645; Pub. L. 101–474, §5(i), Oct. 30, 1990, 104 Stat. 1100; Pub. L. 101–509, title V, §529 [title I, §102(b)(2)], Nov. 5, 1990, 104 Stat. 1427, 1443; Pub. L. 102–378, §2(23), Oct. 2, 1992, 106 Stat. 1348; Pub. L. 110–372, §2(c)(4), Oct. 8, 2008, 122 Stat. 4044; Pub. L. 111–68, div. A, title I, §1403, Oct. 1, 2009, 123 Stat. 2038.)

Historical and Revision Notes
1966 Act
DerivationU.S. CodeRevised Statutes and

Statutes at Large

(a), (b), (c) (1)–(7), (d). 5 U.S.C. 1105(a)–(h), (j)–(l). Oct. 28, 1949, ch. 782, §505, 63 Stat. 959.

Sept. 1, 1954, ch. 1208, §101(a), 68 Stat. 1105.

  June 28, 1955, ch. 189, §12(a), 69 Stat. 179.
  July 31, 1956, ch. 804, §502, 70 Stat. 762.
  Aug. 14, 1957, Pub. L. 85–136, 71 Stat. 352.
  June 20, 1958, Pub. L. 85–462, §§10 (less “(i)”), 11, 72 Stat. 213, 213A.
  Sept. 23, 1959, Pub. L. 86–370, §2(a), (b), 73 Stat. 650.
  Sept. 23, 1959, Pub. L. 86–377, §1(a), 73 Stat. 700.
  July 1, 1960, Pub. L. 86–568, §203, 74 Stat. 305.
  Sept. 26, 1961, Pub. L. 87–322, §1, 75 Stat. 685.
  Oct. 4, 1961, Pub. L. 87–367, §§102(a), (b), 103(1), 75 Stat. 786, 787.
  Oct. 11, 1962, Pub. L. 87–793, §606, 76 Stat. 848.
  Aug. 14, 1964, Pub. L. 88–426, §103(b), 78 Stat. 402.
(c)(8) 5 U.S.C. 298a. July 7, 1955, ch. 279, §201 (2d proviso on p. 273), 69 Stat. 273.
  Oct. 11, 1962, Pub. L. 87–793, §607(b), 76 Stat. 850.
(c)(9) 45 U.S.C. 228j(b)(4) (4th sentence). Sept. 6, 1958, Pub. L. 85–927, §3, 72 Stat. 1781.

The section is reorganized for clarity.

In subsection (a)(2), the date “October 4, 1961” is substituted for “the date of enactment of this subparagraph”.

Subsection (c)(6) is added on authority of section 302 of the Act of July 29, 1958, Pub. L. 85–568, 72 Stat. 433, 42 U.S.C. 2453, and Transfer Plan, effective March 15, 1960, 25 F.R. 2151, section 2(c) of which in effect transferred from the Department of Defense to the National Aeronautics and Space Administration 5 of the 372 positions authorized to be placed in GS–16, 17, and 18 pursuant to section 1(a) of the Act of Sept. 23, 1959, Pub. L. 86–377, 73 Stat. 700.

In subsection (c)(8), the words “on and after July 7, 1955” are omitted as obsolete.

In subsection (d), the words “subsequent to February 1, 1958” are omitted as obsolete and the words “of the Government” are omitted as unnecessary.

Standard changes are made to conform with the definitions applicable and the style of this title as outlined in the preface to the report.

1967 Act

The amendment to 5 U.S.C. 5108(c)(5) corrects a typographical error and conforms to the source law (act of October 11, 1962, Public Law 87–793, section 606(b), 76 Stat. 849; former 5 U.S.C. 1105(j)).

Amendments

2009—Subsec. (c). Pub. L. 111–68 added subsec. (c).

2008—Subsec. (a)(2). Pub. L. 110–372 inserted “published by the Director of the Office of Personnel Management in such form as the Director may determine” after “and procedures”.

1992—Subsec. (a)(2). Pub. L. 102–378 substituted a period for semicolon at end.

1990—Pub. L. 101–509 amended section generally, substituting provisions relating to classification of positions above GS–15, consisting of subsecs. (a) and (b), for provisions relating to classification of provisions at GS–16, 17, and 18, consisting of subsecs. (a) to (c).

Subsec. (c). Pub. L. 101–474 redesignated pars. (2) and (3) as (1) and (2), respectively, and struck out former par. (1), which read as follows: “the Director of the Administrative Office of the United States Courts, subject to the standards and procedures prescribed by this chapter, may place a total of 17 positions in GS–16, 17, and 18; and”.

1988—Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 100–325 added cl. (iii) and substituted “the Federal Bureau of Investigation and Drug Enforcement Administration Senior Executive Service” for “GS–16, 17, and 18 in the Federal Bureau of Investigation” in last sentence.

Subsec. (c)(1). Pub. L. 100–702 substituted “17 positions” for “15 positions”.

1980—Subsec. (c). Pub. L. 96–191 struck out par. (1) which authorized Comptroller General, subject to procedures prescribed by this section, to place a total of 90 positions in General Accounting Office in GS–16, 17, and 18, and redesignated pars. (2) to (4) as (1) to (3), respectively.

1979—Subsec. (c)(4), (17). Pub. L. 96–54 redesignated par. (17), relating to executive departments or agencies in which boards of contracts appeals are established, as par. (4).

1978—Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 95–630 substituted “3,310” for “3,301”.

Pub. L. 95–612 substituted “3362” for “3301”.

Pub. L. 95–454, §414(a)(1)(C), substituted provisions authorizing Director of Office of Personnel Management to establish the maximum number of positions, not to exceed 10,777, which may be placed in GS–16, 17, and 18, and the Senior Executive Service and to place positions in GS–16, 17, or 18, and requiring the President to carry out the Director's authority for proposed positions in the Federal Bureau of Investigation for provisions authorizing a majority of the Civil Service Commissioners to establish the maximum number of positions, not to exceed 3362 (in addition to certain specified positions), which may be placed in GS–16, 17, and 18, placing a percentage limitation on the number of positions placed in GS–17 and 18, and requiring the approval of a majority of the Commissioners to place positions in GS–16, 17, or 18.

Pub. L. 95–251 substituted “340 administrative law judge” for “240 hearing examiner”.

Subsec. (c)(2). Pub. L. 95–454, §414(a)(1)(A)(i), (D)(i), redesignated par. (3), relating to the Director of the Administrative Office of the United States, as (2) and repealed former par. (2) relating to the Federal Bureau of Investigation.

Subsec. (c)(3). Pub. L. 95–486 inserted provision subjecting the Director of the Administrative Office of the United States Courts to the standards and procedures prescribed by this chapter and substituted provision authorizing placement of 15 positions in GS–16, 17, and 18 for provision authorizing placement of 4 positions in GS–17.

Pub. L. 95–454, §414(a)(1)(D), redesignated par. (12), relating to the Chief Judge of the United States Tax Court, as par. (3). Former par. (3) redesignated (2).

Subsec. (c)(4) to (11). Pub. L. 95–454, §414(a)(1)(A)(i), repealed par. (4) relating to the Commissioner of Immigration and Naturalization, par. (5) relating to the Secretary of Defense, par. (6) relating to the Administrator of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration, pars. (7) and (8) relating to the Attorney General, par. (9) relating to the Railroad Retirement Board, par. (10) relating to the Secretary of Labor and the Occupational Safety and Health Review Commission, and par. (11) relating to the Law Enforcement Assistance Administration.

Subsec. (c)(8). Pub. L. 95–624 substituted “45” for “32”.

Subsec. (c)(12). Pub. L. 95–454, §414(a)(1)(D)(i), redesignated par. (12) relating to the Chief Judge of the United States Tax Court, as (3).

Subsec. (c)(13) to (16). Pub. L. 95–454, §414(a)(1)(A)(i), repealed par. (13) relating to the Commodity Futures Trading Commission, par. (14) relating to the Secretary of Health, Education, and Welfare, par. (15) relating to the Chairman of the Equal Employment Opportunity Commission, and par. (16) relating to the Secretary of Health, Education, and Welfare.

Subsec. (c)(17). Pub. L. 95–563 added par. (17).

Subsec. (d). Pub. L. 95–454, §414(a)(1)(A)(ii), repealed subsec. (d) which provided the order for reducing the positions authorized to be placed in grades GS–16, 17, and 18 under this section when a general authorization statute authorized additional positions in these grades.

Subsec. (e). Pub. L. 95–454, §414(a)(1)(A)(ii), repealed subsec. (e) which authorized Commissioner of Internal Revenue to place 20 additional positions in grades GS–16 and 17.

Subsec. (f). Pub. L. 95–454, §414(a)(1)(A)(ii), repealed subsec. (f) which authorized Secretary of Labor to place additional positions in grades GS–16, 17, and 18.

Subsec. (g). Pub. L. 95–454, §414(a)(1)(A)(ii), repealed subsec. (g) which authorized Pension Benefit Guaranty Corporation to place additional positions in grades GS–16, 17, and 18.

1977—Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 95–219 substituted “3301” for “3293”.

Pub. L. 95–190 substituted “3293” for “3243”.

Pub. L. 95–91 substituted “3243” for “2754”.

1976—Subsec. (c)(7). Pub. L. 94–233 restructured provisions and, as restructured, deleted authority relating to 8 positions of Member of the Board of Parole in GS–17.

Subsec. (c)(8). Pub. L. 94–503 substituted provision that the Attorney General, without regard to any other provision of this section, may place a total of 32 positions in GS–16, 17, and 18 for provision that the Attorney General, without regard to this chapter (except section 5114), may place 1 position in GS–16.

1975—Subsec. (c)(11). Pub. L. 94–183, §2(14), increased to twenty-five the number of positions which the Law Enforcement Assistance Administration may place in GS–16, 17, and 18. The increase required no change in text in view of the 1974 amendment by Pub. L. 93–415, which called for an identical increase.

Subsec. (c)(13) to (16). Pub. L. 94–183, §2(15), redesignated par. (12) relating to the Commodity Futures Trading Commission, par. (12) relating to the Secretary of Health, Education, and Welfare and the Office for the Blind and Visually Handicapped of the Rehabilitation Services Administration, par. (13) relating to the Chairman of the Equal Employment Opportunity Commission, and par. (14) relating to the Secretary of Health, Education, and Welfare and the National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism, as pars. (13) to (16), respectively.

1974—Subsec. (c)(11). Pub. L. 93–415 increased from twenty-two to twenty-five the number of positions which the Law Enforcement Assistance Administration may place in GS–16, 17, and 18. Amendment has been executed to subsec. (c)(11) as the probable intent of Congress notwithstanding direction in section 210 (g) of Pub. L. 93–415 that the amendment be executed to subsec. (c) (10).

Subsec. (c)(11) to (14). Pub. L. 93–282 redesignated par. (10) relating to Law Enforcement Assistance Administration, par. (10) relating to Chief Judge of the United States Tax Court, par. (11) relating to Chairman of the Equal Employment Opportunity Commission, as pars. (11) to (13), respectively, and added par. (14) relating to GS–16, 17, and 18 positions in the National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism.

Subsec. (c)(12). Pub. L. 93–651 and Pub. L. 93–516 amended section identically, adding par. (12) relating to Secretary of Health, Education, and Welfare and the Office for the Blind and Visually Handicapped of the Rehabilitation Services Administration.

Subsec. (c)(12). Pub. L. 93–463 added par. (12) relating to Commodity Futures Trading Commission.

Subsec. (e). Pub. L. 93–406, §1051(b)(2), added subsec. (e).

Subsec. (f). Pub. L. 93–406, §507(b), added subsec. (f).

Subsec. (g). Pub. L. 93–406, §4002(c), added subsec. (g).

1973—Subsec. (c)(10). Pub. L. 93–83 substituted in par. (10) as added by Pub. L. 91–644 “twenty-two” for “twenty”.

1972—Subsec. (c). Pub. L. 92–261 added par. (11).

1971—Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 91–656, §9(b), substituted “2,754” for “2,734”.

Subsec. (c)(10). Pub. L. 91–656, §9(a), added par. (10) relating to Chief Judge of the United States Tax Court.

Pub. L. 91–644 added par. (10) relating to Law Enforcement Assistance Administration.

1970—Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 91–206 substituted “2,734” for “2,727”.

Subsec. (c)(10). Pub. L. 91–596 added par. (10) relating to positions in the Department of Labor.

1969—Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 91–187, §1(a), substituted “2,727” for “2,577”.

Subsec. (b)(2). Pub. L. 91–187, §1(b), increased number of positions in Library of Congress from 28 to 44.

Subsec. (c)(1). Pub. L. 91–187, §1(c), increased number of positions in GAO from 64 to 90.

Subsec. (c)(2). Pub. L. 91–187, §1(d), increased number of positions in FBI from 110 to 140.

1966—Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 89–632, §1(a), increased number of positions authorized to be established from 2,400 to 2,577, struck out cl. (1) designation preceding the provision limiting number of positions to be placed in GS–17 and GS–18, and struck out cls. (2) to (5), which made positions available only for allocation as follows: 50, with Presidential approval, for an agency or function created after Oct. 4, 1961, 14 to the United States Arms Control and Disarmament Agency, 6 to the Immigration and Naturalization Service, and 4 to the Federal Home Loan Bank Board, respectively.

Subsec. (b). Pub. L. 89–632, §1(b), designated existing provisions as par. (1) and added par. (2).

Subsec. (c)(1). Public L. 89–632, §1(c), increased number of positions in GAO from 39 to 64.

Subsec. (c)(2). Pub. L. 89–632, §1(d), increased number of positions in FBI from 75 to 110.

Effective Date of 2008 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 110–372 effective on the first day of the first pay period beginning on or after the 180th day following Oct. 8, 2008, see section 2(d) of Pub. L. 110–372, set out as a note under section 5376 of this title.

Effective Date of 1990 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 101–509 effective on such date as the President shall determine, but not earlier than 90 days, and not later than 180 days, after Nov. 5, 1990, see section 529 [title III, §305] of Pub. L. 101–509, set out as a note under section 5301 of this title.

Effective Date of 1988 Amendment

Pub. L. 100–702, title I, §109, Nov. 19, 1988, 102 Stat. 4645, provided that: “This title [amending this section] shall become effective on January 1, 1989.”

Effective Date of 1980 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 96–191 effective Oct. 1, 1980, see section 10(a) of Pub. L. 96–191.

Effective Date of 1979 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 96–54 effective July 12, 1979, see section 2(b) of Pub. L. 96–54, set out as a note under section 305 of this title.

Effective Date of 1978 Amendments

Amendment by Pub. L. 95–630 effective on expiration of 120 days after Nov. 10, 1978, see section 509 of Pub. L. 95–630, set out as a note under section 1752 of Title 12, Banks and Banking.

Amendment by Pub. L. 95–612 effective Oct. 1, 1978, or some later date related to availability of funds under appropriation acts authorized by appropriations authorization, see section 7 of Pub. L. 95–612, set out as a note under section 276c–2 of Title 22, Foreign Relations and Intercourse.

Amendment by Pub. L. 95–563 effective with respect to contracts entered into 120 days after Nov. 1, 1978 and, at the election of the contractor, with respect to any claim pending at such time before the contracting officer or initiated thereafter, see section 16 of Pub. L. 95–563, Nov. 1, 1978, 92 Stat. 2391.

Amendment by Pub. L. 95–454 effective 180 days after Oct. 13, 1978, see section 415(a)(3) of Pub. L. 95–454, set out as an Effective Date note under section 3131 of this title.

Effective Date of 1976 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 94–233 effective on sixtieth day following Mar. 15, 1976, see section 16(b) of Pub. L. 94–233, set out as an Effective Date note under section 4201 of Title 18, Crimes and Criminal Procedure.

Effective Date of 1974 Amendments

Amendment by Pub. L. 93–463 effective Oct. 23, 1974, see section 418 of Pub. L. 93–463, set out as a note under section 2 of Title 7, Agriculture.

Amendment by Pub. L. 93–415 effective Sept. 7, 1974, see section 263(a) of Pub. L. 93–415, set out as an Effective Date note under section 5601 of Title 42, The Public Health and Welfare.

Amendment by Pub. L. 93–406, §1051(b)(2), effective on 90th day after Sept. 2, 1974, see section 1051(d) of Pub. L. 93–406, set out as a note under section 7802 of Title 26, Internal Revenue Code.

Amendment by Pub. L. 93–406, §4002(c), effective Sept. 2, 1974, see section 4082(a) of Pub. L. 93–406, which is classified to section 1461(a) of Title 29, Labor.

Effective Date of 1973 Amendment

Offices and salaries modified under amendment by Pub. L. 93–83, prospectively only, effective on and after Aug. 6, 1973, see section 3 of Pub. L. 93–83.

Effective Date of 1967 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 90–83 effective as of Sept. 6, 1966, for all purposes, see section 9(h) of Pub. L. 90–83, set out as a note under section 5102 of this title.

Repeals

Pub. L. 95–612, §3(b), Nov. 8, 1978, 92 Stat. 3091, cited as a credit to this section, was repealed by Pub. L. 97–258, §5(b), Sept. 13, 1982, 96 Stat. 1068.

Additional GS–16, GS–17, and GS–18 Positions; Source for Appointments; Eligibility of Appointees; Termination of Authority on Leaving Positions; Determination of Aggregate Number of Positions Authorized for Placement in Such Grades

Pub. L. 95–612, §3(a), (c), Nov. 8, 1978, 92 Stat. 3091, 3092, relating to the appointment of GS–16, GS–17, and GS–18 positions, was repealed by Pub. L. 97–258, §5(b), Sept. 13, 1982, 96 Stat. 1068.

Termination of Authority To Place Positions in GS–16, 17, or 18 of the General Schedule

Section 414(a)(1)(B) of Pub. L. 95–454 provided that: “Notwithstanding any other provision of law (other than section 5108 of such title 5), the authority granted to an agency (as defined in section 5102(a)(1) of such title 5 under any such provision to place one or more positions in GS–16, 17, or 18 of the General Schedule, is hereby terminated.”

Limitations on Executive Positions Not To Apply to Individuals Occupying Those Positions on October 12, 1978

Section 414(a)(3) of Pub. L. 95–454 provided that:

“(A) The provisions of paragraphs (1) and (2) of this subsection [amending sections 3104 and 5108 of this title] shall not apply with respect to any position so long as the individual occupying such position on the day before the date of the enactment of this Act [Oct. 13, 1978] continues to occupy such position.

“(B) The Director—

“(i) in establishing under section 5108 of title 5, United States Code, the maximum number of positions which may be placed in GS–16, 17, and 18 of the General Schedule, and

“(ii) in establishing under section 3104 of such title 5 the maximum number of scientific or professional positions which may be established,

shall take into account positions to which subparagraph (A) of this paragraph applies.”

[References in laws to rates of pay for GS–16, 17, or 18, or to maximum rates of pay under General Schedule, to be considered references to rates payable under specified sections of this title, see section 529 [title I, §101(c)(1)] of Pub. L. 101–509, set out in a note under section 5376 of this title.]

Additional Positions in Office of Management and Budget

Pub. L. 95–26, title I, May 4, 1977, 91 Stat. 94, authorizing the Director of the Office of Management and Budget to place a total of five positions on GS–16, 17, and 18 in addition to the positions authorized by section 5108 of this title, was repealed by Pub. L. 97–258, §5(b), Sept. 13, 1982, 96 Stat. 1068.

Preference to Blind in Selection of Personnel

Preference to be given to blind individuals in selection of additional personnel under subsec. (c)(12) of this section, see section 208(c) of Pub. L. 93–516, set out as a note under section 702 of Title 29, Labor.

§5109. Positions classified by statute

(a) The position held by an employee of the Department of Agriculture while he, under section 450d of title 7, is designated and vested with a delegated regulatory function or part thereof shall be classified in accordance with this chapter, but not lower than GS–14.

(b)(1) The position held by a fully experienced and qualified railroad safety inspector of the Department of Transportation shall be classified in accordance with this chapter, but not lower than GS–12.

(2) The position held by a railroad safety specialist of the Department shall be classified in accordance with this chapter, but not lower than GS–13.

(Pub. L. 89–554, Sept. 6, 1966, 80 Stat. 455; Pub. L. 91–34, §2(b), June 30, 1969, 83 Stat. 41; Pub. L. 93–406, title II, §1051(b)(1), Sept. 2, 1974, 88 Stat. 951; Pub. L. 95–454, title IX, §906(b), Oct. 13, 1978, 92 Stat. 1226; Pub. L. 99–514, §2, Oct. 22, 1986, 100 Stat. 2095; Pub. L. 101–509, title V, §529 [title I, §101(b)(9)(G)], Nov. 5, 1990, 104 Stat. 1427, 1441; Pub. L. 103–272, §4(b)(1), July 5, 1994, 108 Stat. 1361; Pub. L. 105–206, title I, §1102(e)(2), July 22, 1998, 112 Stat. 704.)

Historical and Revision Notes
DerivationU.S. CodeRevised Statutes and

Statutes at Large

(a) 5 U.S.C. 516b (3d sentence). Apr. 4, 1940, ch. 75, §2 (3d sentence), 54 Stat. 81.
(b) 5 U.S.C. 3013(a) (10th through 24th words of 1st sentence, and 2d sentence). Sept. 28, 1959, Pub. L. 86–382, §14(a) (10th through 24th words of 1st sentence, and 2d sentence), 73 Stat. 716.
(c) 40 U.S.C. 193w. Sept. 23, 1959, Pub. L. 86–379, §1, 73 Stat. 702.

In subsection (a), the words “section 450d of title 7” are substituted for “this section” to reflect the scheduled transfer of former section 516b to title 7.

In subsection (c), the words “Notwithstanding any other law” were omitted as unnecessary.

Standard changes are made to conform with the definitions applicable and the style of this title as outlined in the preface to the report.

Amendments

1998—Subsecs. (b), (c). Pub. L. 105–206 redesignated subsec. (c) as (b) and struck out former subsec. (b) which read as follows: “The position held by the employee appointed under section 7802(b) of the Internal Revenue Code of 1986 shall be considered a position classified above GS–15 pursuant to section 5108.”

1994—Subsec. (c). Pub. L. 103–272 added subsec. (c).

1990—Subsec. (b). Pub. L. 101–509 substituted “shall be considered a position classified above GS–15 pursuant to section 5108” for “is classified at GS–18, and is in addition to the number of positions authorized by section 5108(a) of this title”.

1986—Subsec. (b). Pub. L. 99–514 substituted “Internal Revenue Code of 1986” for “Internal Revenue Code of 1954”.

1978—Subsecs. (b), (c). Pub. L. 95–454, §906(b), redesignated subsec. (c) as (b). Former subsec. (b), which related to classification of position held by an employee appointed under section 1104(a)(2) of this title, was struck out.

1974—Subsec. (c). Pub. L. 93–406 added subsec. (c). A prior subsec. (c) was repealed by Pub. L. 91–34.

1969—Subsec. (c). Pub. L. 91–34 repealed subsec. (c) provisions classifying positions on National Zoological Park police force authorized pursuant to section 193n of title 40.

Effective Date of 1990 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 101–509 effective on such date as the President shall determine, but not earlier than 90 days, and not later than 180 days, after Nov. 5, 1990, see section 529 [title III, §305] of Pub. L. 101–509, set out as a note under section 5301 of this title.

Effective Date of 1978 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 95–454 effective 90 days after Oct. 13, 1978, see section 907 of Pub. L. 95–454, set out as a note under section 1101 of this title.

Effective Date of 1974 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 93–406 effective on 90th day after Sept. 2, 1974, see section 1051(d) of Pub. L. 93–406, set out as a note under section 7802 of Title 26, Internal Revenue Code.

Effective Date of 1969 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 91–34 effective at beginning of first pay period which commences on or after June 30, 1969, see section 3(a) of Pub. L. 91–34, set out as an Effective Date note under section 5375 of this title.

Reduction of Basic Pay Rate

Rate of basic pay not to be reduced by reason of enactment of Pub. L. 91–34, which amended this section, see section 3(b) of Pub. L. 91–34, set out as a note under section 5365 of this title.

§5110. Review of classification of positions

(a) The Office of Personnel Management, from time to time, shall review such number of positions in each agency as will enable the Office to determine whether the agency is placing positions in classes and grades in conformance with or consistently with published standards.

(b) When the Office finds under subsection (a) of this section that a position is not placed in its proper class and grade in conformance with published standards or that a position for which there is no published standard is not placed in the class and grade consistently with published standards, it shall, after consultation with appropriate officials of the agency concerned, place the position in its appropriate class and grade and shall certify this action to the agency. The agency shall act in accordance with the certificate, and the certificate is binding on all administrative, certifying, payroll, disbursing, and accounting officials.

(Pub. L. 89–554, Sept. 6, 1966, 80 Stat. 455; Pub. L. 95–454, title IX, §906(a)(2), (3), Oct. 13, 1978, 92 Stat. 1224.)

Historical and Revision Notes
DerivationU.S. CodeRevised Statutes and

Statutes at Large

(a) 5 U.S.C. 1102(b). Oct. 28, 1949, ch. 782, §502(b), 63 Stat. 958.
(b) 5 U.S.C. 1103. Oct. 28, 1949, ch. 782, §503, 63 Stat. 958.

In subsection (b), the words “to which this chapter applies” are omitted as unnecessary in view of section 5102. The words “appropriate officials” and “administrative, certifying, payroll, disbursing, and accounting officials” are substituted for “appropriate officers and employees” and “administrative, certifying, payroll, disbursing, and accounting officers”, respectively, to preserve the application to members of the uniformed services who are excluded from the definition of “officer” and “employee”.

Standard changes are made to conform with the definitions applicable and the style of this title as outlined in the preface to the report.

Amendments

1978—Subsecs. (a), (b). Pub. L. 95–454 substituted “Office of Personnel Management” and “Office” for “Civil Service Commission” and “Commission”, respectively.

Effective Date of 1978 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 95–454 effective 90 days after Oct. 13, 1978, see section 907 of Pub. L. 95–454, set out as a note under section 1101 of this title.

§5111. Revocation and restoration of authority to classify positions

(a) When the Office of Personnel Management finds that an agency is not placing positions in classes and grades in conformance with or consistently with published standards, it may revoke or suspend the authority granted to the agency by section 5107 of this title and require that prior approval of the Office be secured before an action placing a position in a class and grade becomes effective for payroll and other personnel purposes. The Office may limit the revocation or suspension to—

(1) the departmental or field service, or any part thereof;

(2) a geographic area;

(3) an organization unit or group of organization units;

(4) certain types of classification actions;

(5) classes in particular occupational groups or grades; or

(6) classes for which standards have not been published.


(b) After revocation or suspension, the Office may restore the authority to the extent that it is satisfied that later actions placing positions in classes and grades will be in conformance with or consistent with published standards.

(Pub. L. 89–554, Sept. 6, 1966, 80 Stat. 455; Pub. L. 95–454, title IX, §906(a)(2), (3), Oct. 13, 1978, 92 Stat. 1224.)

Historical and Revision Notes
DerivationU.S. CodeRevised Statutes and

Statutes at Large

5 U.S.C. 1104. Oct. 28, 1949, ch. 782, §504, 63 Stat. 959.

In subsection (a), the words “in whole or in part” are omitted as unnecessary in view of the specific authority to limit the revocation or suspension. The words “The Commission may limit the revocation or suspension to” are substituted for “Such revocations or suspensions may be limited, in the discretion of the Commission, to” to eliminate redundancy.

In subsection (b), the words “After revocation or suspension” are substituted for “After all or part of the authority of the department has been revoked or suspended”. The words “may restore” are substituted for “may at any time restore” to eliminate redundancy.

Standard changes are made to conform with the definitions applicable and the style of this title as outlined in the preface to the report.

Amendments

1978—Subsecs. (a), (b). Pub. L. 95–454 substituted “Office of Personnel Management” and “Office” for “Civil Service Commission” and “Commission”, respectively, wherever appearing.

Effective Date of 1978 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 95–454 effective 90 days after Oct. 13, 1978, see section 907 of Pub. L. 95–454, set out as a note under section 1101 of this title.

§5112. General authority of the Office of Personnel Management

(a) Notwithstanding section 5107 of this title, the Office of Personnel Management may—

(1) ascertain currently the facts as to the duties, responsibilities, and qualification requirements of a position;

(2) place in an appropriate class and grade a newly created position or a position coming initially under this chapter;

(3) decide whether a position is in its appropriate class and grade; and

(4) change a position from one class or grade to another class or grade when the facts warrant.


The Office shall certify to the agency concerned its action under paragraph (2) or (4) of this subsection. The agency shall act in accordance with the certificate, and the certificate is binding on all administrative, certifying, payroll, disbursing, and accounting officials.

(b) An employee affected or an agency may request at any time that the Office exercise the authority granted to it by subsection (a) of this section and the Office shall act on the request.

(Pub. L. 89–554, Sept. 6, 1966, 80 Stat. 456; Pub. L. 95–454, title IX, §906(a)(2), (3), (17), Oct. 13, 1978, 92 Stat. 1224, 1226.)

Historical and Revision Notes
DerivationU.S. CodeRevised Statutes and

Statutes at Large

5 U.S.C. 1101. Oct. 28, 1949, ch. 782, §501, 63 Stat. 958.

In subsection (a), the words “which may be exercised at any time in its discretion” are omitted as redundant. The words “is binding on all administrative, certifying, payroll, disbursing, and accounting officials” are substituted for “shall be binding on all administrative, certifying, payroll, disbursing, and accounting officers of the Government” to preserve the application to members of the uniformed services.

Standard changes are made to conform with the definitions applicable and the style of this title as outlined in the preface to the report.

Amendments

1978—Pub. L. 95–454, §906(a)(17), substituted “Office of Personnel Management” for “Civil Service Commission” in section catchline.

Subsecs. (a), (b). Pub. L. 95–454, §906(a)(2), (3), substituted “Office of Personnel Management” and “Office” for “Civil Service Commission” and “Commission”, respectively, wherever appearing.

Effective Date of 1978 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 95–454 effective 90 days after Oct. 13, 1978, see section 907 of Pub. L. 95–454, set out as a note under section 1101 of this title.

§5113. Classification records

The Office of Personnel Management may—

(1) prescribe the form in which each agency shall record the duties and responsibilities of positions and the places where these records shall be maintained;

(2) examine these or other pertinent records of the agency; and

(3) interview employees of the agency who have knowledge of the duties and responsibilities of positions and information as to the reasons for placing a position in a class or grade.

(Pub. L. 89–554, Sept. 6, 1966, 80 Stat. 456; Pub. L. 95–454, title IX, §906(a)(2), Oct. 13, 1978, 92 Stat. 1224.)

Historical and Revision Notes
DerivationU.S. CodeRevised Statutes and

Statutes at Large

5 U.S.C. 1106. Oct. 28, 1949, ch. 782, §506, 63 Stat. 959.

In paragraph (1), the words “to which this chapter applies” are omitted as unnecessary in view of section 5102.

Standard changes are made to conform with the definitions applicable and the style of this title as outlined in the preface to the report.

Amendments

1978—Pub. L. 95–454 substituted “Office of Personnel Management” for “Civil Service Commission”.

Effective Date of 1978 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 95–454 effective 90 days after Oct. 13, 1978, see section 907 of Pub. L. 95–454, set out as a note under section 1101 of this title.

[§5114. Repealed. Pub. L. 99–386, title I, §110(a), Aug. 22, 1986, 100 Stat. 822]

Section, Pub. L. 89–554, Sept. 6, 1966, 80 Stat. 456; Pub. L. 95–454, title IX, §906(a)(2), (3), Oct. 13, 1978, 92 Stat. 1224, related to reports to Congress on positions in GS–16, 17, and 18.

§5115. Regulations

The Office of Personnel Management may prescribe regulations necessary for the administration of this chapter, except sections 5109 and 5114.1

(Pub. L. 89–554, Sept. 6, 1966, 80 Stat. 457; Pub. L. 95–454, title IX, §906(a)(2), Oct. 13, 1978, 92 Stat. 1224.)

Historical and Revision Notes
DerivationU.S. CodeRevised Statutes and

Statutes at Large

5 U.S.C. 1072. Oct. 28, 1949, ch. 782, §1101, 63 Stat. 971.
5 U.S.C. 1072a. Sept. 1, 1954, ch. 1208, §113, 68 Stat. 1108.

Former sections 1072 and 1072a are combined and restated for clarity. The remainder of the authority is carried into sections 3324, 5338, and 7154.

Standard changes are made to conform with the definitions applicable and the style of this title as outlined in the preface to the report.

References in Text

Section 5114, referred to in text, was repealed by Pub. L. 99–386, title I, §110(a), Aug. 22, 1986, 100 Stat. 822.

Amendments

1978—Pub. L. 95–454 substituted “Office of Personnel Management” for “Civil Service Commission”.

Effective Date of 1978 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 95–454 effective 90 days after Oct. 13, 1978, see section 907 of Pub. L. 95–454, set out as a note under section 1101 of this title.