5 U.S.C.
United States Code, 2010 Edition
Title 5 - GOVERNMENT ORGANIZATION AND EMPLOYEES
PART III - EMPLOYEES
Subpart F - Labor-Management and Employee Relations
CHAPTER 73 - SUITABILITY, SECURITY, AND CONDUCT
From the U.S. Government Printing Office, www.gpo.gov

CHAPTER 73—SUITABILITY, SECURITY, AND CONDUCT

SUBCHAPTER I—REGULATION OF CONDUCT

Sec.
7301.
Presidential regulations.
7302.
Post-employment notification.

        

SUBCHAPTER II—EMPLOYMENT LIMITATIONS

7311.
Loyalty and striking.
7312.
Employment and clearance; individuals removed for national security.
7313.
Riots and civil disorders.

        

SUBCHAPTER III—POLITICAL ACTIVITIES

7321.
Political participation.
7322.
Definitions.
7323.
Political activity authorized; prohibitions.
7324.
Political activities on duty; prohibition.
7325.
Political activity permitted; employees residing in certain municipalities.
7326.
Penalties.

        

SUBCHAPTER IV—FOREIGN GIFTS AND DECORATIONS

[7341.
Repealed.]
7342.
Receipt and disposition of foreign gifts and decorations.

        

SUBCHAPTER V—MISCONDUCT

7351.
Gifts to superiors.
7352.
Excessive and habitual use of intoxicants.
7353.
Gifts to Federal employees.

        

SUBCHAPTER VI—DRUG ABUSE, ALCOHOL ABUSE, AND ALCOHOLISM

7361.
Drug abuse.
7362.
Alcohol abuse and alcoholism.
7363.
Reports to Congress.

        

SUBCHAPTER VII—MANDATORY REMOVAL FROM EMPLOYMENT OF CONVICTED LAW ENFORCEMENT OFFICERS

7371.
Mandatory removal from employment of law enforcement officers convicted of felonies.

        

Amendments

2003—Pub. L. 108–136, div. A, title XI, §1125(b)(3), Nov. 24, 2003, 117 Stat. 1640, added item 7302.

2000—Pub. L. 106–554, §1(a)(3) [title VI, §639(b)], Dec. 21, 2000, 114 Stat. 2763, 2763A–168, added subchapter VII heading and item 7371.

1993—Pub. L. 103–94, §2(b)(2), Oct. 6, 1993, 107 Stat. 1004, amended analysis for subchapter III generally, reenacting subchapter III heading without change, substituting “participation” for “contributions and services” in item 7321, “Definitions” for “Political use of authority or influence; prohibition” in item 7322, “activity authorized; prohibitions” for “contributions; prohibition” in item 7323, “Political activities on duty; prohibition” for “Influencing elections; taking part in political campaigns; prohibitions; exceptions” in item 7324, “Political activity permitted; employees residing in certain municipalities” for “Penalties” in item 7325, and “Penalties” for “Nonpartisan political activity permitted” in item 7326, and striking out item 7327 “Political activity permitted; employees residing in certain municipalities” and item 7328 “General Accounting Office employees”.

1989—Pub. L. 101–194, title III, §303(b), Nov. 30, 1989, 103 Stat. 1747, added item 7353.

1986—Pub. L. 99–570, title VI, §6002(a)(2), Oct. 27, 1986, 100 Stat. 3207–158, added subchapter VI heading and items 7361 to 7363.

1980—Pub. L. 96–191, §8(e)(2), Feb. 15, 1980, 94 Stat. 33, added item 7328.

1968—Pub. L. 90–351, title V, §1001(b), June 19, 1968, 82 Stat. 235, substituted “EMPLOYMENT LIMITATIONS” for “LOYALTY, SECURITY, AND STRIKING” in subchapter II heading and added item 7313.

1967—Pub. L. 90–83, §1(46), Sept. 11, 1967, 81 Stat. 209, inserted “GIFTS AND” before “DECORATIONS” in subchapter IV heading, struck out item 7341 “Receipt and display of foreign decorations”, and added item 7342.

SUBCHAPTER I—REGULATION OF CONDUCT

§7301. Presidential regulations

The President may prescribe regulations for the conduct of employees in the executive branch.

(Pub. L. 89–554, Sept. 6, 1966, 80 Stat. 524.)

Historical and Revision Notes
DerivationU.S. CodeRevised Statutes and

Statutes at Large

5 U.S.C. 631 (last 16 words). R.S. §1753 (last 16 words).

The words “employees in the executive branch” are substituted for “persons who may receive appointments in the civil service”.

Standard changes are made to conform with the definitions applicable and the style of this title as outlined in the preface to the report.

Short Title of 1993 Amendment

Pub. L. 103–94, §1, Oct. 6, 1993, 107 Stat. 1001, provided: “That this Act [enacting sections 5520a and 7321 to 7326 of this title and section 610 of Title 18, Crimes and Criminal Procedure, amending sections 1216, 2302, 3302 and 3303 of this title, sections 602 and 603 of Title 18, section 410 of Title 39, Postal Service, and sections 1973d and 9904 of Title 42, The Public Health and Welfare, omitting former sections 7321 to 7328 of this title, and enacting provisions set out as notes under section 7321 of this title and section 410 of Title 39] may be cited as the ‘Hatch Act Reform Amendments of 1993’.”

Short Title of 1986 Amendment

Pub. L. 99–570, title VI, §6001, Oct. 27, 1986, 100 Stat. 3207–157, provided that: “This title [enacting sections 7361 to 7363 and 7904 of this title, amending sections 290dd–1 and 290ee–1 of Title 42, The Public Health and Welfare, and enacting provisions set out as notes under section 7361 of this title and section 801 of Title 21, Food and Drugs] may be cited as the ‘Federal Employee Substance Abuse Education and Treatment Act of 1986’.”

Emergency Preparedness Functions

For assignment of certain emergency preparedness functions to the Director of the Office of Personnel Management, see Parts 1, 2, and 22 of Ex. Ord. No. 12656, Nov. 18, 1988, 53 F.R. 47491, set out as a note under section 5195 of Title 42, The Public Health and Welfare.

Continuation of Random Drug Testing Program for Certain Department of Defense Employees

Pub. L. 105–261, div. A, title XI, §1108, Oct. 17, 1998, 112 Stat. 2142, provided that:

“(a) Continuation of Existing Program.—The Secretary of Defense shall continue to actively carry out the drug testing program, originally required by section 3(a) of Executive Order No. 12564 (51 Fed. Reg. 32889; September 15, 1986) [set out below], involving civilian employees of the Department of Defense who are considered to be employees in sensitive positions. The Secretary shall comply with the drug testing procedures prescribed pursuant to section 4 of the Executive order.

“(b) Testing Upon Reasonable Suspicion of Illegal Drug Use.—The Secretary of Defense shall ensure that the drug testing program referred to in subsection (a) authorizes the testing of a civilian employee of the Department of Defense for illegal drug use when there is a reasonable suspicion that the employee uses illegal drugs.

“(c) Notification to Applicants.—The Secretary of Defense shall notify persons who apply for employment with the Department of Defense that, as a condition of employment by the Department, the person may be required to submit to drug testing under the drug testing program required by Executive Order No. 12564 (51 Fed. Reg. 32889; September 15, 1986) pursuant to the terms of the Executive order.

“(d) Definitions.—In this section, the terms ‘illegal drugs’ and ‘employee in a sensitive position’ have the meanings given such terms in section 7 of Executive Order No. 12564 (51 Fed. Reg. 32889; September 15, 1986).”

Annual Certification of Drug-Free Workplace Plan Administrators

Pub. L. 106–58, title VI, §624, Sept. 29, 1999, 113 Stat. 471, provided that: “Notwithstanding any provision of law, the President, or his designee, must certify to Congress, annually, that no person or persons with direct or indirect responsibility for administering the Executive Office of the President's Drug-Free Workplace Plan are themselves subject to a program of individual random drug testing.”

Similar provisions were contained in the following prior appropriations acts:

Pub. L. 105–277, div. A, §101(h) [title VI, §634], Oct. 21, 1998, 112 Stat. 2681–480, 2681–524.

Pub. L. 105–61, title VI, §621, Oct. 10, 1997, 111 Stat. 1313.

Pub. L. 104–208, div. A, title I, §101(f) [title VI, §623], Sept. 30, 1996, 110 Stat. 3009–314, 3009–358.

Pub. L. 104–52, title VI, §624, Nov. 19, 1995, 109 Stat. 502.

Pub. L. 103–329, title VI, §638, Sept. 30, 1994, 108 Stat. 2432.

Designation of Director of the Bureau of the Budget as Member of Federal Labor Relations Council

Presidential Order of December 8, 1969, provided that:

Pursuant to the provisions of section 4 of Executive Order 11491 [set out as a note under this section], I hereby designate the Director of the Bureau of the Budget [now the Office of Management and Budget] as a member of the Federal Labor Relations Council. This order of designation shall be published in the Federal Register.

Richard Nixon.      

Display in Federal Buildings of Code of Ethics for Government Service

Pub. L. 96–303, July 3, 1980, 94 Stat. 855, which provided that each agency, under regulations prescribed by Administrator of General Services Administration, display in appropriate areas of Federal buildings copies of the Code of Ethics for Government Service, authorized publication and distribution of such Code, and set forth text of the Code of Ethics for Government Service, was repealed by Pub. L. 104–179, §4(a), Aug. 6, 1996, 110 Stat. 1566.

Agency Acceptance of Donations for Federal Employees

Pub. L. 102–368, title XI, §901, Sept. 23, 1992, 106 Stat. 1156, effective through Sept. 30, 1993, authorized Federal agencies to accept gifts of property, money, or anything else of value from non-Federal sources for extraordinary and unanticipated expenses incurred by agency employees in their personal capacity within areas designated as disaster areas pursuant to President's declaration of a disaster resulting from Hurricane Andrew, Typhoon Omar, and Hurricane Iniki, directed agencies to establish written procedures to implement this program, and authorized agencies to accept gifts designated for individual employees.

Restriction on Availability of Funds To Administer or Implement Drug Testing

Pub. L. 100–71, title V, §503, July 11, 1987, 101 Stat. 468, as amended by Pub. L. 102–54, §13(b)(6), June 13, 1991, 105 Stat. 274, provided:

“(a)(1) Except as provided in subsection (b) or (c), none of the funds appropriated or made available by this Act, or any other Act, with respect to any fiscal year, shall be available to administer or implement any drug testing pursuant to Executive Order Numbered 12564 (dated September 15, 1986) [set out as a note below], or any subsequent order, unless and until—

“(A) the Secretary of Health and Human Services certifies in writing to the Committees on Appropriations of the House of Representatives and the Senate, and other appropriate committees of the Congress, that—

“(i) each agency has developed a plan for achieving a drug-free workplace in accordance with Executive Order Numbered 12564 and applicable provisions of law (including applicable provisions of this section);

“(ii) the Department of Health and Human Services, in addition to the scientific and technical guidelines dated February 13, 1987, and any subsequent amendments thereto, has, in accordance with paragraph (3), published mandatory guidelines which—

“(I) establish comprehensive standards for all aspects of laboratory drug testing and laboratory procedures to be applied in carrying out Executive Order Numbered 12564, including standards which require the use of the best available technology for ensuring the full reliability and accuracy of drug tests and strict procedures governing the chain of custody of specimens collected for drug testing;

“(II) specify the drugs for which Federal employees may be tested; and

“(III) establish appropriate standards and procedures for periodic review of laboratories and criteria for certification and revocation of certification of laboratories to perform drug testing in carrying out Executive Order Numbered 12564; and

“(iii) all agency drug-testing programs and plans established pursuant to Executive Order Numbered 12564 comply with applicable provisions of law, including applicable provisions of the Rehabilitation Act of 1973 (29 U.S.C. 701 et seq.), title 5 of the United States Code, and the mandatory guidelines under clause (ii);

“(B) the Secretary of Health and Human Services has submitted to the Congress, in writing, a detailed, agency-by-agency analysis relating to—

“(i) the criteria and procedures to be applied in designating employees or positions for drug testing, including the justification for such criteria and procedures;

“(ii) the position titles designated for random drug testing; and

“(iii) the nature, frequency, and type of drug testing proposed to be instituted; and

“(C) the Director of the Office of Management and Budget has submitted in writing to the Committees on Appropriations of the House of Representatives and the Senate a detailed, agency-by-agency analysis (as of the time of certification under subparagraph (A)) of the anticipated annual costs associated with carrying out Executive Order Numbered 12564 and all other requirements under this section during the 5-year period beginning on the date of the enactment of this Act [July 11, 1987].

“(2) Notwithstanding subsection (g), for purposes of this subsection, the term “agency” means—

“(A) the Executive Office of the President;

“(B) an Executive department under section 101 of title 5, United States Code;

“(C) the Environmental Protection Agency;

“(D) the General Services Administration;

“(E) the National Aeronautics and Space Administration;

“(F) the Office of Personnel Management;

“(G) the Small Business Administration;

“(H) the United States Information Agency; and

“(I) the Department of Veterans Affairs;

except that such term does not include the Department of Transportation or any other entity (or component thereof) covered by subsection (b).

“(3) Notwithstanding any provision of chapter 5 of title 5, United States Code, the mandatory guidelines to be published pursuant to subsection (a)(1)(A)(ii) shall be published and made effective exclusively according to the provisions of this paragraph. Notice of the mandatory guidelines proposed by the Secretary of Health and Human Services shall be published in the Federal Register, and interested persons shall be given not less than 60 days to submit written comments on the proposed mandatory guidelines. Following review and consideration of written comments, final mandatory guidelines shall be published in the Federal Register and shall become effective upon publication.

“(b)(1) Nothing in subsection (a) shall limit or otherwise affect the availability of funds for drug testing by—

“(A) the Department of Transportation;

“(B) Department of Energy, for employees specifically involved in the handling of nuclear weapons or nuclear materials;

“(C) any agency with an agency-wide drug-testing program in existence as of September 15, 1986; or

“(D) any component of an agency if such component had a drug-testing program in existence as of September 15, 1986.

“(2) The Departments of Transportation and Energy and any agency or component thereof with a drug-testing program in existence as of September 15, 1986—

“(A) shall be brought into full compliance with Executive Order Numbered 12564 [set out as a note below] no later than the end of the 6-month period beginning on the date of the enactment of this Act [July 11, 1987]; and

“(B) shall take such actions as may be necessary to ensure that their respective drug-testing programs or plans are brought into full compliance with the mandatory guidelines published under subsection (a)(1)(A)(ii) no later than 90 days after such mandatory guidelines take effect, except that any judicial challenge that affects such guidelines should not affect drug-testing programs or plans subject to this paragraph.

“(c) In the case of an agency (or component thereof) other than an agency as defined by subsection (a)(2) or an agency (or component thereof) covered by subsection (b), none of the funds appropriated or made available by this Act, or any other Act, with respect to any fiscal year, shall be available to administer or implement any drug testing pursuant to Executive Order Numbered 12564 [set out as a note below], or any subsequent order, unless and until—

“(1) the Secretary of Health and Human Services provides written certification with respect to that agency (or component) in accordance with clauses (i) and (iii) of subsection (a)(1)(A);

“(2) the Secretary of Health and Human Services has submitted a written, detailed analysis with respect to that agency (or component) in accordance with subsection (a)(1)(B); and

“(3) the Director of the Office of Management and Budget has submitted a written, detailed analysis with respect to that agency (or component) in accordance with subsection (a)(1)(C).

“(d) Any Federal employee who is the subject of a drug test under any program or plan shall, upon written request, have access to—

“(1) any records relating to such employee's drug test; and

“(2) any records relating to the results of any relevant certification, review, or revocation-of-certification proceedings, as referred to in subsection (a)(1)(A)(ii)(III).

“(e) The results of a drug test of a Federal employee may not be disclosed without the prior written consent of such employee, unless the disclosure would be—

“(1) to the employee's medical review official (as defined in the scientific and technical guidelines referred to in subsection (a)(1)(A)(ii));

“(2) to the administrator of any Employee Assistance Program in which the employee is receiving counseling or treatment or is otherwise participating;

“(3) to any supervisory or management official within the employee's agency having authority to take the adverse personnel action against such employee; or

“(4) pursuant to the order of a court of competent jurisdiction where required by the United States Government to defend against any challenge against any adverse personnel action.

“(f) [Terminated, effective May 15, 2000, see section 3003 of Pub. L. 104–66, as amended, set out as a note under section 1113 of Title 31, Money and Finance, and page 151 of House Document No. 103–7.]

“(g) For purposes of this section, the terms ‘agency’ and ‘Employee Assistance Program’ each has the meaning given such term under section 7(b) of Executive Order Numbered 12564 [set out as a note below], as in effect on September 15, 1986.”

[For abolition of United States Information Agency (other than Broadcasting Board of Governors and International Broadcasting Bureau), transfer of functions, and treatment of references thereto, see sections 6531, 6532, and 6551 of Title 22, Foreign Relations and Intercourse.]

Limitation on Gratuities at Naval Shipbuilding Ceremonies

Pub. L. 99–145, title XIV, §1461, Nov. 8, 1985, 99 Stat. 765, provided that:

“(a) General Rule.—A Federal officer, employee, or Member of Congress may not accept, directly or indirectly, any tangible thing of value as a gift or memento in connection with a ceremony to mark the completion of a naval shipbuilding milestone.

“(b) Exclusion.—Subsection (a) does not apply to a gift or memento that has a value of less than $100.

“(c) Definitions.—For purposes of this section, the terms ‘officer’, ‘employee’, and ‘Member of Congress’ have the meanings given those terms in sections 2104, 2105, and 2106, respectively, of title 5, United States Code.”

Executive Order No. 9845

Ex. Ord. No. 9845, Apr. 28, 1947, 12 F.R. 2799, which permitted Bureau of Reclamation employees to accept appointments as constables or deputy sheriffs under state or territorial laws, was revoked by Ex. Ord. No. 11408, Apr. 25, 1968, 33 F.R. 6459.

Ex. Ord. No. 12564. Drug-Free Federal Workplace

Ex. Ord. No. 12564, Sept. 15, 1986, 51 F.R. 32889, provided:

I, RONALD REAGAN, President of the United States of America, find that:

Drug use is having serious adverse effects upon a significant proportion of the national work force and results in billions of dollars of lost productivity each year;

The Federal government, as an employer, is concerned with the well-being of its employees, the successful accomplishment of agency missions, and the need to maintain employee productivity;

The Federal government, as the largest employer in the Nation, can and should show the way towards achieving drug-free workplaces through a program designed to offer drug users a helping hand and, at the same time, demonstrating to drug users and potential drug users that drugs will not be tolerated in the Federal workplace;

The profits from illegal drugs provide the single greatest source of income for organized crime, fuel violent street crime, and otherwise contribute to the breakdown of our society;

The use of illegal drugs, on or off duty, by Federal employees is inconsistent not only with the law-abiding behavior expected of all citizens, but also with the special trust placed in such employees as servants of the public;

Federal employees who use illegal drugs, on or off duty, tend to be less productive, less reliable, and prone to greater absenteeism than their fellow employees who do not use illegal drugs;

The use of illegal drugs, on or off duty, by Federal employees impairs the efficiency of Federal departments and agencies, undermines public confidence in them, and makes it more difficult for other employees who do not use illegal drugs to perform their jobs effectively. The use of illegal drugs, on or off duty, by Federal employees also can pose a serious health and safety threat to members of the public and to other Federal employees;

The use of illegal drugs, on or off duty, by Federal employees in certain positions evidences less than the complete reliability, stability, and good judgment that is consistent with access to sensitive information and creates the possibility of coercion, influence, and irresponsible action under pressure that may pose a serious risk to national security, the public safety, and the effective enforcement of the law; and

Federal employees who use illegal drugs must themselves be primarily responsible for changing their behavior and, if necessary, begin the process of rehabilitating themselves.

By the authority vested in me as President by the Constitution and laws of the United States of America, including section 3301(2) of Title 5 of the United States Code, section 7301 of Title 5 of the United States Code, section 290ee–1 of Title 42 of the United States Code, deeming such action in the best interests of national security, public health and safety, law enforcement and the efficiency of the Federal service, and in order to establish standards and procedures to ensure fairness in achieving a drug-free Federal workplace and to protect the privacy of Federal employees, it is hereby ordered as follows:

Section 1. Drug-Free Workplace. (a) Federal employees are required to refrain from the use of illegal drugs.

(b) The use of illegal drugs by Federal employees, whether on duty or off duty, is contrary to the efficiency of the service.

(c) Persons who use illegal drugs are not suitable for Federal employment.

Sec. 2. Agency Responsibilities. (a) The head of each Executive agency shall develop a plan for achieving the objective of a drug-free workplace with due consideration of the rights of the government, the employee, and the general public.

(b) Each agency plan shall include:

(1) A statement of policy setting forth the agency's expectations regarding drug use and the action to be anticipated in response to identified drug use;

(2) Employee Assistance Programs emphasizing high level direction, education, counseling, referral to rehabilitation, and coordination with available community resources;

(3) Supervisory training to assist in identifying and addressing illegal drug use by agency employees;

(4) Provision for self-referrals as well as supervisory referrals to treatment with maximum respect for individual confidentiality consistent with safety and security issues; and

(5) Provision for identifying illegal drug users, including testing on a controlled and carefully monitored basis in accordance with this Order.

Sec. 3. Drug Testing Programs. (a) The head of each Executive agency shall establish a program to test for the use of illegal drugs by employees in sensitive positions. The extent to which such employees are tested and the criteria for such testing shall be determined by the head of each agency, based upon the nature of the agency's mission and its employees’ duties, the efficient use of agency resources, and the danger to the public health and safety or national security that could result from the failure of an employee adequately to discharge his or her position.

(b) The head of each Executive agency shall establish a program for voluntary employee drug testing.

(c) In addition to the testing authorized in subsections (a) and (b) of this section, the head of each Executive agency is authorized to test an employee for illegal drug use under the following circumstances:

(1) When there is a reasonable suspicion that any employee uses illegal drugs;

(2) In an examination authorized by the agency regarding an accident or unsafe practice; or

(3) As part of or as a follow-up to counseling or rehabilitation for illegal drug use through an Employee Assistance Program.

(d) The head of each Executive agency is authorized to test any applicant for illegal drug use.

Sec. 4. Drug Testing Procedures. (a) Sixty days prior to the implementation of a drug testing program pursuant to this Order, agencies shall notify employees that testing for use of illegal drugs is to be conducted and that they may seek counseling and rehabilitation and inform them of the procedures for obtaining such assistance through the agency's Employee Assistance Program. Agency drug testing programs already ongoing are exempted from the 60-day notice requirement. Agencies may take action under section 3(c) of this Order without reference to the 60-day notice period.

(b) Before conducting a drug test, the agency shall inform the employee to be tested of the opportunity to submit medical documentation that may support a legitimate use for a specific drug.

(c) Drug testing programs shall contain procedures for timely submission of requests for retention of records and specimens; procedures for retesting; and procedures, consistent with applicable law, to protect the confidentiality of test results and related medical and rehabilitation records. Procedures for providing urine specimens must allow individual privacy, unless the agency has reason to believe that a particular individual may alter or substitute the specimen to be provided.

(d) The Secretary of Health and Human Services is authorized to promulgate scientific and technical guidelines for drug testing programs, and agencies shall conduct their drug testing programs in accordance with these guidelines once promulgated.

Sec. 5. Personnel Actions. (a) Agencies shall, in addition to any appropriate personnel actions, refer any employee who is found to use illegal drugs to an Employee Assistance Program for assessment, counseling, and referral for treatment or rehabilitation as appropriate.

(b) Agencies shall initiate action to discipline any employee who is found to use illegal drugs, provided that such action is not required for an employee who:

(1) Voluntarily identifies himself as a user of illegal drugs or who volunteers for drug testing pursuant to section 3(b) of this Order, prior to being identified through other means;

(2) Obtains counseling or rehabilitation through an Employee Assistance Program; and

(3) Thereafter refrains from using illegal drugs.

(c) Agencies shall not allow any employee to remain on duty in a sensitive position who is found to use illegal drugs, prior to successful completion of rehabilitation through an Employee Assistance Program. However, as part of a rehabilitation or counseling program, the head of an Executive agency may, in his or her discretion, allow an employee to return to duty in a sensitive position if it is determined that this action would not pose a danger to public health or safety or the national security.

(d) Agencies shall initiate action to remove from the service any employee who is found to use illegal drugs and:

(1) Refuses to obtain counseling or rehabilitation through an Employee Assistance Program; or

(2) Does not thereafter refrain from using illegal drugs.

(e) The results of a drug test and information developed by the agency in the course of the drug testing of the employee may be considered in processing any adverse action against the employee or for other administrative purposes. Preliminary test results may not be used in an administrative proceeding unless they are confirmed by a second analysis of the same sample or unless the employee confirms the accuracy of the initial test by admitting the use of illegal drugs.

(f) The determination of an agency that an employee uses illegal drugs can be made on the basis of any appropriate evidence, including direct observation, a criminal conviction, administrative inquiry, or the results of an authorized testing program. Positive drug test results may be rebutted by other evidence that an employee has not used illegal drugs.

(g) Any action to discipline an employee who is using illegal drugs (including removal from the service, if appropriate) shall be taken in compliance with otherwise applicable procedures, including the Civil Service Reform Act [Pub. L. 95–454, see Tables for classification].

(h) Drug testing shall not be conducted pursuant to this Order for the purpose of gathering evidence for use in criminal proceedings. Agencies are not required to report to the Attorney General for investigation or prosecution any information, allegation, or evidence relating to violations of Title 21 of the United States Code received as a result of the operation of drug testing programs established pursuant to this Order.

Sec. 6. Coordination of Agency Programs. (a) The Director of the Office of Personnel Management shall:

(1) Issue government-wide guidance to agencies on the implementation of the terms of this Order;

(2) Ensure that appropriate coverage for drug abuse is maintained for employees and their families under the Federal Employees Health Benefits Program;

(3) Develop a model Employee Assistance Program for Federal agencies and assist the agencies in putting programs in place;

(4) In consultation with the Secretary of Health and Human Services, develop and improve training programs for Federal supervisors and managers on illegal drug use; and

(5) In cooperation with the Secretary of Health and Human Services and heads of Executive agencies, mount an intensive drug awareness campaign throughout the Federal work force.

(b) The Attorney General shall render legal advice regarding the implementation of this Order and shall be consulted with regard to all guidelines, regulations, and policies proposed to be adopted pursuant to this Order.

(c) Nothing in this Order shall be deemed to limit the authorities of the Director of Central Intelligence under the National Security Act of 1947, as amended [50 U.S.C. 401 et seq.], or the statutory authorities of the National Security Agency or the Defense Intelligence Agency. Implementation of this Order within the Intelligence Community, as defined in Executive Order No. 12333 [50 U.S.C. 401 note], shall be subject to the approval of the head of the affected agency.

Sec. 7. Definitions. (a) This Order applies to all agencies of the Executive Branch.

(b) For purposes of this Order, the term “agency” means an Executive agency, as defined in 5 U.S.C. 105; the Uniformed Services, as defined in 5 U.S.C. 2101(3) (but excluding the armed forces as defined by 5 U.S.C. 2101(2)); or any other employing unit or authority of the Federal government, except the United States Postal Service, the Postal Rate Commission, and employing units or authorities in the Judicial and Legislative Branches.

(c) For purposes of this Order, the term “illegal drugs” means a controlled substance included in Schedule I or II, as defined by section 802(6) of Title 21 of the United States Code, the possession of which is unlawful under chapter 13 of that Title. The term “illegal drugs” does not mean the use of a controlled substance pursuant to a valid prescription or other uses authorized by law.

(d) For purposes of this Order, the term “employee in a sensitive position” refers to:

(1) An employee in a position that an agency head designates Special Sensitive, Critical-Sensitive, or Noncritical-Sensitive under Chapter 731 of the Federal Personnel Manual or an employee in a position that an agency head designates as sensitive in accordance with Executive Order No. 10450, as amended [5 U.S.C. 7311 note];

(2) An employee who has been granted access to classified information or may be granted access to classified information pursuant to a determination of trustworthiness by an agency head under Section 4 of Executive Order No. 12356 [50 U.S.C. 435 note];

(3) Individuals serving under Presidential appointments;

(4) Law enforcement officers as defined in 5 U.S.C. 8331(20); and

(5) Other positions that the agency head determines involve law enforcement, national security, the protection of life and property, public health or safety, or other functions requiring a high degree of trust and confidence.

(e) For purposes of this Order, the term “employee” means all persons appointed in the Civil Service as described in 5 U.S.C. 2105 (but excluding persons appointed in the armed services as defined in 5 U.S.C. 2102(2)).

(f) For purposes of this Order, the term “Employee Assistance Program” means agency-based counseling programs that offer assessment, short-term counseling, and referral services to employees for a wide range of drug, alcohol, and mental health programs that affect employee job performance. Employee Assistance Programs are responsible for referring drug-using employees for rehabilitation and for monitoring employees’ progress while in treatment.

Sec. 8. Effective Date. This Order is effective immediately.

Ronald Reagan.      

[Reference to the Director of Central Intelligence or the Director of the Central Intelligence Agency in the Director's capacity as the head of the intelligence community deemed to be a reference to the Director of National Intelligence. Reference to the Director of Central Intelligence or the Director of the Central Intelligence Agency in the Director's capacity as the head of the Central Intelligence Agency deemed to be a reference to the Director of the Central Intelligence Agency. See section 1081(a), (b) of Pub. L. 108–458, set out as a note under section 401 of Title 50, War and National Defense.]

Ex. Ord. No. 12674. Principles of Ethical Conduct for Government Officers and Employees

Ex. Ord. No. 12674, Apr. 12, 1989, 54 F.R. 15159, as amended by Ex. Ord. No. 12731, Oct. 17, 1990, 55 F.R. 42547, provided:

By virtue of the authority vested in me as President by the Constitution and the laws of the United States of America, and in order to establish fair and exacting standards of ethical conduct for all executive branch employees, it is hereby ordered as follows:

Part I—Principles of Ethical Conduct

Section 101. Principles of Ethical Conduct. To ensure that every citizen can have complete confidence in the integrity of the Federal Government, each Federal employee shall respect and adhere to the fundamental principles of ethical service as implemented in regulations promulgated under sections 201 and 301 of this order:

(a) Public service is a public trust, requiring employees to place loyalty to the Constitution, the laws, and ethical principles above private gain.

(b) Employees shall not hold financial interests that conflict with the conscientious performance of duty.

(c) Employees shall not engage in financial transactions using nonpublic Government information or allow the improper use of such information to further any private interest.

(d) An employee shall not, except pursuant to such reasonable exceptions as are provided by regulation, solicit or accept any gift or other item of monetary value from any person or entity seeking official action from, doing business with, or conducting activities regulated by the employee's agency, or whose interests may be substantially affected by the performance or nonperformance of the employee's duties.

(e) Employees shall put forth honest effort in the performance of their duties.

(f) Employees shall make no unauthorized commitments or promises of any kind purporting to bind the Government.

(g) Employees shall not use public office for private gain.

(h) Employees shall act impartially and not give preferential treatment to any private organization or individual.

(i) Employees shall protect and conserve Federal property and shall not use it for other than authorized activities.

(j) Employees shall not engage in outside employment or activities, including seeking or negotiating for employment, that conflict with official Government duties and responsibilities.

(k) Employees shall disclose waste, fraud, abuse, and corruption to appropriate authorities.

(l) Employees shall satisfy in good faith their obligations as citizens, including all just financial obligations, especially those—such as Federal, State, or local taxes—that are imposed by law.

(m) Employees shall adhere to all laws and regulations that provide equal opportunity for all Americans regardless of race, color, religion, sex, national origin, age, or handicap.

(n) Employees shall endeavor to avoid any actions creating the appearance that they are violating the law or the ethical standards promulgated pursuant to this order.

Sec. 102. Limitations on Outside Earned Income.

(a) No employee who is appointed by the President to a full-time noncareer position in the executive branch (including full-time noncareer employees in the White House Office, the Office of Policy Development, and the Office of Cabinet Affairs), shall receive any earned income for any outside employment or activity performed during that Presidential appointment.

(b) The prohibition set forth in subsection (a) shall not apply to any full-time noncareer employees employed pursuant to 3 U.S.C. 105 and 3 U.S.C. 107(a) at salaries below the minimum rate of basic pay then paid for GS–9 of the General Schedule. Any outside employment must comply with relevant agency standards of conduct, including any requirements for approval of outside employment.

Part II—Office of Government Ethics Authority

Sec. 201. The Office of Government Ethics. The Office of Government Ethics shall be responsible for administering this order by:

(a) Promulgating, in consultation with the Attorney General and the Office of Personnel Management, regulations that establish a single, comprehensive, and clear set of executive-branch standards of conduct that shall be objective, reasonable, and enforceable.

(b) Developing, disseminating, and periodically updating an ethics manual for employees of the executive branch describing the applicable statutes, rules, decisions, and policies.

(c) Promulgating, with the concurrence of the Attorney General, regulations interpreting the provisions of the post-employment statute, section 207 of title 18, United States Code; the general conflict-of-interest statute, section 208 of title 18, United States Code; and the statute prohibiting supplementation of salaries, section 209 of title 18, United States Code.

(d) Promulgating, in consultation with the Attorney General and the Office of Personnel Management, regulations establishing a system of nonpublic (confidential) financial disclosure by executive branch employees to complement the system of public disclosure under the Ethics in Government Act of 1978 [Pub. L. 95–521, see Tables for classification]. Such regulations shall include criteria to guide agencies in determining which employees shall submit these reports.

(e) Ensuring that any implementing regulations issued by agencies under this order are consistent with and promulgated in accordance with this order.

Sec. 202. Executive Office of the President. In that the agencies within the Executive Office of the President (EOP) currently exercise functions that are not distinct and separate from each other within the meaning and for the purposes of section 207(e) of title 18, United States Code, those agencies shall be treated as one agency under section 207(c) of title 18, United States Code.

Part III—Agency Responsibilities

Sec. 301. Agency Responsibilities. Each agency head is directed to:

(a) Supplement, as necessary and appropriate, the comprehensive executive branch-wide regulations of the Office of Government Ethics, with regulations of special applicability to the particular functions and activities of that agency. Any supplementary agency regulations shall be prepared as addenda to the branch-wide regulations and promulgated jointly with the Office of Government Ethics, at the agency's expense, for inclusion in Title 5 of the Code of Federal Regulations.

(b) Ensure the review by all employees of this order and regulations promulgated pursuant to the order.

(c) Coordinate with the Office of Government Ethics in developing annual agency ethics training plans. Such training shall include mandatory annual briefings on ethics and standards of conduct for all employees appointed by the President, all employees in the Executive Office of the President, all officials required to file public or nonpublic financial disclosure reports, all employees who are contracting officers and procurement officials, and any other employees designated by the agency head.

(d) Where practicable, consult formally or informally with the Office of Government Ethics prior to granting any exemption under section 208 of title 18, United States Code, and provide the Director of the Office of Government Ethics a copy of any exemption granted.

(e) Ensure that the rank, responsibilities, authority, staffing, and resources of the Designated Agency Ethics Official are sufficient to ensure the effectiveness of the agency ethics program. Support should include the provision of a separate budget line item for ethics activities, where practicable.

Part IV—Delegations of Authority

Sec. 401. Delegations to Agency Heads. Except in the case of the head of an agency, the authority of the President under sections 203(d), 205(e), and 208(b) of title 18, United States Code, to grant exemptions or approvals to individuals, is delegated to the head of the agency in which an individual requiring an exemption or approval is employed or to which the individual (or the committee, commission, board, or similar group employing the individual) is attached for purposes of administration.

Sec. 402. Delegations to the Counsel to the President.

(a) Except as provided in section 401, the authority of the President under sections 203(d), 205(e), and 208(b) of title 18, United States Code, to grant exemptions or approvals for Presidential appointees to committees, commissions, boards, or similar groups established by the President is delegated to the Counsel to the President.

(b) The authority of the President under sections 203(d), 205(e), and 208(b) of title 18, United States Code, to grant exemptions or approvals for individuals appointed pursuant to 3 U.S.C. 105 and 3 U.S.C. 107(a), is delegated to the Counsel to the President.

Sec. 403. Delegation Regarding Civil Service. The Office of Personnel Management and the Office of Government Ethics, as appropriate, are delegated the authority vested in the President by 5 U.S.C. 7301 to establish general regulations for the implementation of this Executive order.

Part V—General Provisions

Sec. 501. Revocations. The following Executive orders are hereby revoked:

(a) Executive Order No. 11222 of May 8, 1965.

(b) Executive Order No. 12565 of September 25, 1986.

Sec. 502. Savings Provision.

(a) All actions already taken by the President or by his delegates concerning matters affected by this order and in force when this order is issued, including any regulations issued under Executive Order 11222, Executive Order 12565, or statutory authority, shall, except as they are irreconcilable with the provisions of this order or terminate by operation of law or by Presidential action, remain in effect until properly amended, modified, or revoked pursuant to the authority conferred by this order or any regulations promulgated under this order. Notwithstanding anything in section 102 of this order, employees may carry out preexisting contractual obligations entered into before April 12, 1989.

(b) Financial reports filed in confidence (pursuant to the authority of Executive Order No. 11222, 5 C.F.R. Part 735, and individual agency regulations) shall continue to be held in confidence.

Sec. 503. Definitions. For purposes of this order, the term:

(a) “Contracting officers and procurement officials” means all such officers and officials as defined in the Office of Federal Procurement Policy Act Amendments of 1988 [see 41 U.S.C. 2101].

(b) “Employee” means any officer or employee of an agency, including a special Government employee.

(c) “Agency” means any executive agency as defined in 5 U.S.C. 105, including any executive department as defined in 5 U.S.C. 101, Government corporation as defined in 5 U.S.C. 103, or an independent establishment in the executive branch as defined in 5 U.S.C. 104 (other than the General Accounting Office [now Government Accountability Office]), and the United States Postal Service and Postal Rate Commission.

(d) “Head of an agency” means, in the case of an agency headed by more than one person, the chair or comparable member of such agency.

(e) “Special Government employee” means a special Government employee as defined in 18 U.S.C. 202(a).

Sec. 504. Judicial Review. This order is intended only to improve the internal management of the executive branch and is not intended to create any right or benefit, substantive or procedural, enforceable at law by a party against the United States, its agencies, its officers, or any person.

Executive Order No. 12820

Ex. Ord. No. 12820, Nov. 5, 1992, 57 F.R. 53429, which facilitated Federal employees’ participation in community service activities, was revoked by Ex. Ord. No. 13401, §3(b), Apr. 27, 2006, 71 F.R. 25738.

Executive Order No. 12834

Ex. Ord. No. 12834, Jan. 20, 1993, 58 F.R. 5911, which provided for ethics commitments by executive branch appointees, was revoked by Ex. Ord. No. 13184, Dec. 28, 2000, 66 F.R. 697, eff. noon Jan. 20, 2001.

Ex. Ord. No. 13058. Protecting Federal Employees and the Public From Exposure to Tobacco Smoke in the Federal Workplace

Ex. Ord. No. 13058, Aug. 9, 1997, 62 F.R. 43451, provided:

By the authority vested in me as President by the Constitution and the laws of the United States of America and in order to protect Federal Government employees and members of the public from exposure to tobacco smoke in the Federal workplace, it is hereby ordered as follows:

Section 1. Policy. It is the policy of the executive branch to establish a smoke-free environment for Federal employees and members of the public visiting or using Federal facilities. The smoking of tobacco products is thus prohibited in all interior space owned, rented, or leased by the executive branch of the Federal Government, and in any outdoor areas under executive branch control in front of air intake ducts.

Sec. 2. Exceptions. The general policy established by this order is subject to the following exceptions: (a) The order does not apply in designated smoking areas that are enclosed and exhausted directly to the outside and away from air intake ducts, and are maintained under negative pressure (with respect to surrounding spaces) sufficient to contain tobacco smoke within the designated area. Agency officials shall not require workers to enter such areas during business hours while smoking is ongoing.

(b) The order does not extend to any residential accommodation for persons voluntarily or involuntarily residing, on a temporary or long-term basis, in a building owned, leased, or rented by the Federal Government.

(c) The order does not extend to those portions of federally owned buildings leased, rented, or otherwise provided in their entirety to nonfederal parties.

(d) The order does not extend to places of employment in the private sector or in other nonfederal governmental units that serve as the permanent or intermittent duty station of one or more Federal employees.

(e) The head of any agency may establish limited and narrow exceptions that are necessary to accomplish agency missions. Such exception shall be in writing, approved by the agency head, and to the fullest extent possible provide protection of nonsmokers from exposure to environmental tobacco smoke. Authority to establish such exceptions may not be delegated.

Sec. 3. Other Locations. The heads of agencies shall evaluate the need to restrict smoking at doorways and in courtyards under executive branch control in order to protect workers and visitors from environmental tobacco smoke, and may restrict smoking in these areas in light of this evaluation.

Sec. 4. Smoking Cessation Programs. The heads of agencies are encouraged to use existing authority to establish programs designed to help employees stop smoking.

Sec. 5. Responsibility for Implementation. The heads of agencies are responsible for implementing and ensuring compliance with the provisions of this order. “Agency” as used in this order means an Executive agency, as defined in 5 U.S.C. 105, and includes any employing unit or authority of the Federal Government, other than those of the legislative and judicial branches. Independent agencies are encouraged to comply with the provisions of this order.

Sec. 6. Phase-In of Implementation. Implementation of the policy set forth in this order shall be achieved no later than 1 year after the date of this order. This 1 year phase-in period is designed to establish a fixed but reasonable time for implementing this policy. Agency heads are directed during this period to inform all employees and visitors to executive branch facilities about the requirements of this order, inform their employees of the health risks of exposure to environmental tobacco smoke, and undertake related activities as necessary.

Sec. 7. Consistency with Other Laws. The provisions of this order shall be implemented consistent with applicable law, including the Federal Service Labor-Management Relations Act (5 U.S.C. 7101 et seq.) and the National Labor Relations Act (29 U.S.C. 151 et seq.)[.] Provisions of existing collective bargaining agreements shall be honored and agencies shall consult with employee labor representatives about the implementation of this order. Nothing herein shall be construed to impair or alter the powers and duties of Federal agencies established under law. Nothing herein shall be construed to replace any agency policy currently in effect, if such policy is legally established, in writing, and consistent with the terms of this order. Agencies shall review their current policy to confirm that agency policy comports with this order, and policy found not in compliance shall be revised to comply with the terms of this order.

Sec. 8. Cause of Action. This order does not create any right to administrative or judicial review, or any other right or benefit, substantive or procedural, enforceable by a party against the United States, its agencies or instrumentalities, its officers or employees, or any other person or affect in any way the liability of the executive branch under the Federal Tort Claims Act [see Short Title note set out under section 2671 of Title 28, Judiciary and Judicial Procedure].

Sec. 9. Construction. Nothing in this order shall limit an agency head from establishing more protective policies on smoking in the Federal workplace for employees and members of the public visiting or using Federal facilities.

William J. Clinton.      

Ex. Ord. No. 13401. Responsibilities of Federal Departments and Agencies With Respect to Volunteer Community Service

Ex. Ord. No. 13401, Apr. 27, 2006, 71 F.R. 25737, provided:

By the authority vested in me as President by the Constitution and the laws of the United States of America and in order to help ensure that the Federal Government supports and encourages volunteer community service, it is hereby ordered as follows:

Section 1. Designation of a Liaison for Volunteer Community Service. (a) The head of each agency shall, within 20 days after the date of this order, designate an officer or employee of such agency compensated at a level at or above the minimum level of pay of a member of the Senior Executive Service to serve under the authority of the head of the agency as the agency liaison for volunteer community service (Liaison).

(b) The Liaison in each agency shall promote and support community service on a voluntary basis among Federal employees, including those approaching retirement; promote the use of skilled volunteers; and facilitate public recognition for volunteer community service.

(c) The head of each agency shall prescribe arrangements within the agency for support and supervision of the Liaison that ensure high priority and substantial visibility for the function of the Liaison within the agency under this order.

(d) Each executive agency shall provide its Liaison with appropriate administrative support and other resources to meet the responsibilities of the Liaison under this order.

Sec. 2. Goals and Responsibilities of the Liaison. The Liaison shall foster within the Liaison's agency a culture of taking responsibility, service to others, and good citizenship. Toward that end, the Liaison shall:

(a) identify, catalog, and review all activities of the agency that relate to volunteer community service, including, but not limited to rules, orders, grant programs, external relations, and other policies and practices, and make such recommendations to the head of the agency for adjustments as may be appropriate;

(b) actively work with USA Freedom Corps to promote volunteer community service among agency employees by providing information about community service opportunities;

(c) coordinate within the agency actions to facilitate public recognition for volunteer community service;

(d) promote, expand, and enhance skilled volunteer community service opportunities;

(e) work with the USA Freedom Corps and the Director of the Office of Personnel Management (OPM) to consider any appropriate changes in agency policies or practices that are not currently consistent with OPM guidance;

(f) coordinate the awarding of the President's Volunteer Service Award to recognize outstanding volunteer service by employees within the agency; and

(g) act as a liaison with the USA Freedom Corps.

Sec. 3. Administrative Provisions. (a) The USA Freedom Corps shall provide such information with respect to volunteer community service programs and activities and such advice and assistance as may be required by agencies in performing their functions under this order.

(b) Executive Order 12820 of November 5, 1992, is revoked.

(c) This order shall be implemented consistent with applicable law and subject to the availability of appropriations.

(d) As used in this order:

(i) “agency” has the meaning of “executive agency” as defined in section 105 of title 5, United States Code; and

(ii) “USA Freedom Corps” means the Director of the USA Freedom Corps Office established by section 4 of Executive Order 13254 of January 29, 2002.

Sec. 4. Reporting Provisions. (a) Not later than 180 days from the date of this order and annually thereafter, each agency Liaison shall prepare and submit a report to the USA Freedom Corps that includes a description of the agency's activities in performing its functions under this order.

(b) A Liaison's first report under subsection (a) shall include annual performance indicators and measurable objectives for agency action approved by the head of the agency. Each report filed thereafter under subsection (a) shall measure the agency's performance against the indicators and objectives approved by the head of the agency.

Sec. 5. Judicial Review. This order is not intended to, and does not, create any right or benefit, substantive or procedural, enforceable by any party at law or in equity against the United States, its departments, agencies, entities, officers, employees, or agents, or any other person.

George W. Bush.      

Ex. Ord. No. 13488. Granting Reciprocity on Excepted Service and Federal Contractor Employee Fitness and Reinvestigating Individuals in Positions of Public Trust

Ex. Ord. No. 13488, Jan. 16, 2009, 74 F.R. 4111, provided:

By the authority vested in me as President by the Constitution and the laws of the United States of America, including sections 1104(a)(1), 3301, and 7301 of title 5, United States Code, and in order to simplify and streamline the system of Federal Government personnel investigative and adjudicative processes to make them more efficient and effective, it is hereby ordered as follows:

Section 1. Policy. (a) When agencies determine the fitness of individuals to perform work as employees in the excepted service or as contractor employees, prior favorable fitness or suitability determinations should be granted reciprocal recognition, to the extent practicable.

(b) It is necessary to reinvestigate individuals in positions of public trust in order to ensure that they remain suitable for continued employment.

Sec. 2. Definitions. For the purposes of this order:

(a) “Agency” means an executive agency as defined in section 105 of title 5, United States Code, but does not include the Government Accountability Office.

(b) “Contractor employee” means an individual who performs work for or on behalf of any agency under a contract and who, in order to perform the work specified under the contract, will require access to space, information, information technology systems, staff, or other assets of the Federal Government. Such contracts, include, but are not limited to:

(i) personal services contracts;

(ii) contracts between any non-Federal entity and any agency; and

(iii) sub-contracts between any non-Federal entity and another non-Federal entity to perform work related to the primary contract with the agency.

(c) “Excepted service” has the meaning provided in section 2103 of title 5, United States Code, but does not include those positions in any element of the intelligence community as defined in the National Security Act of 1947, as amended, to the extent they are not otherwise subject to Office of Personnel Management appointing authorities.

(d) “Fitness” is the level of character and conduct determined necessary for an individual to perform work for or on behalf of a Federal agency as an employee in the excepted service (other than a position subject to suitability) or as a contractor employee.

(e) “Fitness determination” means a decision by an agency that an individual has or does not have the required level of character and conduct necessary to perform work for or on behalf of a Federal agency as an employee in the excepted service (other than a position subject to suitability) or as a contractor employee. A favorable fitness determination is not a decision to appoint or contract with an individual.

(f) “Position of Public Trust” has the meaning provided in 5 CFR Part 731.

(g) “Suitability” has the meaning and coverage provided in CFR Part 731.

Sec. 3. Agency Authority to Set Fitness Criteria and Determine Equivalency. The authority to establish criteria for making fitness determinations remains within the discretion of the agency head. Agency heads also have the discretion to determine whether their criteria are equivalent to suitability standards established by the Office of Personnel Management. Agency heads shall take into account Office of Personnel Management guidance when exercising this discretion.

Sec. 4. Reciprocal Recognition of Fitness and Suitability Determinations. (a) Except as provided by subsection (b) of this section, agencies making fitness determinations shall grant reciprocal recognition to a prior favorable fitness or suitability determination when:

(i) the gaining agency uses criteria for making fitness determinations equivalent to suitability standards established by the Office of Personnel Management;

(ii) the prior favorable fitness or suitability determination was based on criteria equivalent to suitability standards established by the Office of Personnel Management; and

(iii) the individual has had no break in employment since the favorable determination was made.

(b) Exceptions to Reciprocal Recognition. A gaining agency is not required to grant reciprocal recognition to a prior favorable fitness or suitability determination when:

(i) the new position requires a higher level of investigation than previously conducted for that individual;

(ii) an agency obtains new information that calls into question the individual's fitness based on character or conduct; or

(iii) the individual's investigative record shows conduct that is incompatible with the core duties of the new position.

Sec. 5. Reinvestigation of Individuals in Positions of Public Trust. Individuals in positions of public trust shall be subject to reinvestigation under standards (including but not limited to the frequency of such reinvestigation) as determined by the Director of the Office of Personnel Management, to ensure their suitability for continued employment.

Sec. 6. Responsibilities. (a) An agency shall report to the Office of Personnel Management the nature and results of the background investigation and fitness determination (or later changes to that determination) made on an individual, to the extent consistent with law.

(b) The Director of the Office of Personnel Management is delegated authority to implement this order, including the authority to issue regulations and guidance governing suitability, or guidance related to fitness, as the Director determines appropriate.

Sec. 7. General Provisions. (a) Nothing in this order shall be construed to impair or otherwise affect:

(i) authority granted by law to a department or agency, or the head thereof; or

(ii) functions of the Director of the Office of Management and Budget relating to budget, administrative, or legislative proposals.

(b) This order shall be implemented consistent with applicable law and subject to the availability of appropriations.

(c) This order shall not suspend, impede, or otherwise affect Executive Order 10450 of April 27, 1953, as amended, or Executive Order 13467 of June 30, 2008;

(d) This order is intended only to improve the internal management of the executive branch and is not intended to, and does not, create any right or benefit, substantive or procedural, enforceable at law or in equity by any party against the United States, its agencies, instrumentalities, or entities, its officers, employees or agents, or any other person.

Sec. 8. Effective Date and Applicability. This order is effective upon issuance and is applicable to individuals newly appointed to excepted service positions or hired as contractor employees beginning 90 days from the effective date of this order.

George W. Bush.      

Ex. Ord. No. 13490. Ethics Commitments by Executive Branch Personnel

Ex. Ord. No. 13490, Jan. 21, 2009, 74 F.R. 4673, provided:

By the authority vested in me as President by the Constitution and the laws of the United States of America, including section 301 of title 3, United States Code, and sections 3301 and 7301 of title 5, United States Code, it is hereby ordered as follows:

Section 1. Ethics Pledge. Every appointee in every executive agency appointed on or after January 20, 2009, shall sign, and upon signing shall be contractually committed to, the following pledge upon becoming an appointee:

“As a condition, and in consideration, of my employment in the United States Government in a position invested with the public trust, I commit myself to the following obligations, which I understand are binding on me and are enforceable under law:

“1. Lobbyist Gift Ban. I will not accept gifts from registered lobbyists or lobbying organizations for the duration of my service as an appointee.

“2. Revolving Door Ban—All Appointees Entering Government. I will not for a period of 2 years from the date of my appointment participate in any particular matter involving specific parties that is directly and substantially related to my former employer or former clients, including regulations and contracts.

“3. Revolving Door Ban—Lobbyists Entering Government. If I was a registered lobbyist within the 2 years before the date of my appointment, in addition to abiding by the limitations of paragraph 2, I will not for a period of 2 years after the date of my appointment:

(a) participate in any particular matter on which I lobbied within the 2 years before the date of my appointment;

(b) participate in the specific issue area in which that particular matter falls; or

(c) seek or accept employment with any executive agency that I lobbied within the 2 years before the date of my appointment.

“4. Revolving Door Ban—Appointees Leaving Government. If, upon my departure from the Government, I am covered by the post-employment restrictions on communicating with employees of my former executive agency set forth in section 207(c) of title 18, United States Code, I agree that I will abide by those restrictions for a period of 2 years following the end of my appointment.

“5. Revolving Door Ban—Appointees Leaving Government to Lobby. In addition to abiding by the limitations of paragraph 4, I also agree, upon leaving Government service, not to lobby any covered executive branch official or non-career Senior Executive Service appointee for the remainder of the Administration.

“6. Employment Qualification Commitment. I agree that any hiring or other employment decisions I make will be based on the candidate's qualifications, competence, and experience.

“7. Assent to Enforcement. I acknowledge that the Executive Order entitled ‘Ethics Commitments by Executive Branch Personnel,’ issued by the President on January 21, 2009, which I have read before signing this document, defines certain of the terms applicable to the foregoing obligations and sets forth the methods for enforcing them. I expressly accept the provisions of that Executive Order as a part of this agreement and as binding on me. I understand that the terms of this pledge are in addition to any statutory or other legal restrictions applicable to me by virtue of Federal Government service.”

Sec. 2. Definitions. As used herein and in the pledge set forth in section 1 of this order:

(a) “Executive agency” shall include each “executive agency” as defined by section 105 of title 5, United States Code, and shall include the Executive Office of the President; provided, however, that for purposes of this order “executive agency” shall include the United States Postal Service and Postal Regulatory Commission, but shall exclude the Government Accountability Office.

(b) “Appointee” shall include every full-time, non-career Presidential or Vice-Presidential appointee, non-career appointee in the Senior Executive Service (or other SES-type system), and appointee to a position that has been excepted from the competitive service by reason of being of a confidential or policymaking character (Schedule C and other positions excepted under comparable criteria) in an executive agency. It does not include any person appointed as a member of the Senior Foreign Service or solely as a uniformed service commissioned officer.

(c) “Gift”

(1) shall have the definition set forth in section 2635.203(b) of title 5, Code of Federal Regulations;

(2) shall include gifts that are solicited or accepted indirectly as defined at section 2635.203(f) of title 5, Code of Federal Regulations; and

(3) shall exclude those items excluded by sections 2635.204(b), (c), (e)(1) & (3) and (j)–(l) of title 5, Code of Federal Regulations.

(d) “Covered executive branch official” and “lobbyist” shall have the definitions set forth in section 1602 of title 2, United States Code.

(e) “Registered lobbyist or lobbying organization” shall mean a lobbyist or an organization filing a registration pursuant to section 1603(a) of title 2, United States Code, and in the case of an organization filing such a registration, “registered lobbyist” shall include each of the lobbyists identified therein.

(f) “Lobby” and “lobbied” shall mean to act or have acted as a registered lobbyist.

(g) “Particular matter” shall have the same meaning as set forth in section 207 of title 18, United States Code, and section 2635.402(b)(3) of title 5, Code of Federal Regulations.

(h) “Particular matter involving specific parties” shall have the same meaning as set forth in section 2641.201(h) of title 5, Code of Federal Regulations, except that it shall also include any meeting or other communication relating to the performance of one's official duties with a former employer or former client, unless the communication applies to a particular matter of general applicability and participation in the meeting or other event is open to all interested parties.

(i) “Former employer” is any person for whom the appointee has within the 2 years prior to the date of his or her appointment served as an employee, officer, director, trustee, or general partner, except that “former employer” does not include any executive agency or other entity of the Federal Government, State or local government, the District of Columbia, Native American tribe, or any United States territory or possession.

(j) “Former client” is any person for whom the appointee served personally as agent, attorney, or consultant within the 2 years prior to the date of his or her appointment, but excluding instances where the service provided was limited to a speech or similar appearance. It does not include clients of the appointee's former employer to whom the appointee did not personally provide services.

(k) “Directly and substantially related to my former employer or former clients” shall mean matters in which the appointee's former employer or a former client is a party or represents a party.

(l) “Participate” means to participate personally and substantially.

(m) “Post-employment restrictions” shall include the provisions and exceptions in section 207(c) of title 18, United States Code, and the implementing regulations.

(n) “Government official” means any employee of the executive branch.

(o) “Administration” means all terms of office of the incumbent President serving at the time of the appointment of an appointee covered by this order.

(p) “Pledge” means the ethics pledge set forth in section 1 of this order.

(q) All references to provisions of law and regulations shall refer to such provisions as in effect on January 20, 2009.

Sec. 3. Waiver. (a) The Director of the Office of Management and Budget, or his or her designee, in consultation with the Counsel to the President or his or her designee, may grant to any current or former appointee a written waiver of any restrictions contained in the pledge signed by such appointee if, and to the extent that, the Director of the Office of Management and Budget, or his or her designee, certifies in writing (i) that the literal application of the restriction is inconsistent with the purposes of the restriction, or (ii) that it is in the public interest to grant the waiver. A waiver shall take effect when the certification is signed by the Director of the Office of Management and Budget or his or her designee.

(b) The public interest shall include, but not be limited to, exigent circumstances relating to national security or to the economy. De minimis contact with an executive agency shall be cause for a waiver of the restrictions contained in paragraph 3 of the pledge.

Sec. 4. Administration. (a) The head of every executive agency shall, in consultation with the Director of the Office of Government Ethics, establish such rules or procedures (conforming as nearly as practicable to the agency's general ethics rules and procedures, including those relating to designated agency ethics officers) as are necessary or appropriate to ensure that every appointee in the agency signs the pledge upon assuming the appointed office or otherwise becoming an appointee; to ensure that compliance with paragraph 3 of the pledge is addressed in a written ethics agreement with each appointee to whom it applies, which agreement shall also be approved by the Counsel to the President or his or her designee prior to the appointee commencing work; to ensure that spousal employment issues and other conflicts not expressly addressed by the pledge are addressed in ethics agreements with appointees or, where no such agreements are required, through ethics counseling; and generally to ensure compliance with this order within the agency.

(b) With respect to the Executive Office of the President, the duties set forth in section 4(a) shall be the responsibility of the Counsel to the President or his or her designee.

(c) The Director of the Office of Government Ethics shall:

(1) ensure that the pledge and a copy of this order are made available for use by agencies in fulfilling their duties under section 4(a) above;

(2) in consultation with the Attorney General or the Counsel to the President or their designees, when appropriate, assist designated agency ethics officers in providing advice to current or former appointees regarding the application of the pledge; and

(3) in consultation with the Attorney General and the Counsel to the President or their designees, adopt such rules or procedures as are necessary or appropriate:

(i) to carry out the foregoing responsibilities;

(ii) to apply the lobbyist gift ban set forth in paragraph 1 of the pledge to all executive branch employees;

(iii) to authorize limited exceptions to the lobbyist gift ban for circumstances that do not implicate the purposes of the ban;

(iv) to make clear that no person shall have violated the lobbyist gift ban if the person properly disposes of a gift as provided by section 2635.205 of title 5, Code of Federal Regulations;

(v) to ensure that existing rules and procedures for Government employees engaged in negotiations for future employment with private businesses that are affected by their official actions do not affect the integrity of the Government's programs and operations;

(vi) to ensure, in consultation with the Director of the Office of Personnel Management, that the requirement set forth in paragraph 6 of the pledge is honored by every employee of the executive branch;

(4) in consultation with the Director of the Office of Management and Budget, report to the President on whether full compliance is being achieved with existing laws and regulations governing executive branch procurement lobbying disclosure and on steps the executive branch can take to expand to the fullest extent practicable disclosure of such executive branch procurement lobbying and of lobbying for presidential pardons, and to include in the report both immediate action the executive branch can take and, if necessary, recommendations for legislation; and

(5) provide an annual public report on the administration of the pledge and this order.

(d) The Director of the Office of Government Ethics shall, in consultation with the Attorney General, the Counsel to the President, and the Director of the Office of Personnel Management, or their designees, report to the President on steps the executive branch can take to expand to the fullest extent practicable the revolving door ban set forth in paragraph 5 of the pledge to all executive branch employees who are involved in the procurement process such that they may not for 2 years after leaving Government service lobby any Government official regarding a Government contract that was under their official responsibility in the last 2 years of their Government service; and to include in the report both immediate action the executive branch can take and, if necessary, recommendations for legislation.

(e) All pledges signed by appointees, and all waiver certifications with respect thereto, shall be filed with the head of the appointee's agency for permanent retention in the appointee's official personnel folder or equivalent folder.

Sec. 5. Enforcement. (a) The contractual, fiduciary, and ethical commitments in the pledge provided for herein are solely enforceable by the United States pursuant to this section by any legally available means, including debarment proceedings within any affected executive agency or judicial civil proceedings for declaratory, injunctive, or monetary relief.

(b) Any former appointee who is determined, after notice and hearing, by the duly designated authority within any agency, to have violated his or her pledge may be barred from lobbying any officer or employee of that agency for up to 5 years in addition to the time period covered by the pledge. The head of every executive agency shall, in consultation with the Director of the Office of Government Ethics, establish procedures to implement this subsection, which procedures shall include (but not be limited to) providing for factfinding and investigation of possible violations of this order and for referrals to the Attorney General for his or her consideration pursuant to subsection (c).

(c) The Attorney General or his or her designee is authorized:

(1) upon receiving information regarding the possible breach of any commitment in a signed pledge, to request any appropriate Federal investigative authority to conduct such investigations as may be appropriate; and

(2) upon determining that there is a reasonable basis to believe that a breach of a commitment has occurred or will occur or continue, if not enjoined, to commence a civil action against the former employee in any United States District Court with jurisdiction to consider the matter.

(d) In any such civil action, the Attorney General or his or her designee is authorized to request any and all relief authorized by law, including but not limited to:

(1) such temporary restraining orders and preliminary and permanent injunctions as may be appropriate to restrain future, recurring, or continuing conduct by the former employee in breach of the commitments in the pledge he or she signed; and

(2) establishment of a constructive trust for the benefit of the United States, requiring an accounting and payment to the United States Treasury of all money and other things of value received by, or payable to, the former employee arising out of any breach or attempted breach of the pledge signed by the former employee.

Sec. 6. General Provisions. (a) No prior Executive Orders are repealed by this order. To the extent that this order is inconsistent with any provision of any prior Executive Order, this order shall control.

(b) If any provision of this order or the application of such provision is held to be invalid, the remainder of this order and other dissimilar applications of such provision shall not be affected.

(c) Nothing in this order shall be construed to impair or otherwise affect:

(1) authority granted by law to a department, agency, or the head thereof; or

(2) functions of the Director of the Office of Management and Budget relating to budget, administrative, or legislative proposals.

(d) This order shall be implemented consistent with applicable law and subject to the availability of appropriations.

(e) This order is not intended to, and does not, create any right or benefit, substantive or procedural, enforceable at law or in equity by any party against the United States, its departments, agencies, or entities, its officers, employees, or agents, or any other person.

(f) The definitions set forth in this order are solely applicable to the terms of this order, and are not otherwise intended to impair or affect existing law.

Barack Obama.      

Delegation of Certain Functions and Authorities Relating to Workplace Accommodations for Nursing Mothers

Memorandum of President of the United States, Dec. 20, 2010, 75 F.R. 80673, provided:

Memorandum for the Director of the Office of Personnel Management

By the authority vested in me as President by the Constitution and the laws of the United States, including section 301 of title 3, United States Code, I hereby delegate to you the functions and authority conferred upon the President by section 7301 of title 5, United States Code, with respect to providing appropriate workplace accommodations for executive branch civilian employees who are nursing mothers.

You are authorized and directed to publish this memorandum in the Federal Register.

Barack Obama.      

§7302. Post-employment notification

(a) Not later than the effective date of the amendments made by section 1106 of the National Defense Authorization Act for Fiscal Year 2004,1 or 180 days after the date of the enactment of that Act, whichever is later, the Office of Personnel Management shall, in consultation with the Attorney General and the Office of Government Ethics, promulgate regulations requiring that each Executive branch agency notify any employee of that agency who is subject to the provisions of section 207(c)(1) of title 18, as a result of the amendment to section 207(c)(2)(A)(ii) of that title by that Act.

(b) The regulations shall require that notice be given before, or as part of, the action that affects the employee's coverage under section 207(c)(1) of title 18, by virtue of the provisions of section 207(c)(2)(A)(ii) of that title, and again when employment or service in the covered position is terminated.

(Added Pub. L. 108–136, div. A, title XI, §1125(b)(2), Nov. 24, 2003, 117 Stat. 1639.)

References in Text

The effective date of the amendments made by section 1106 of the National Defense Authorization Act for Fiscal Year 2004, referred to in subsec. (a), probably means the effective date of the amendments made by section 1125 of the National Defense Authorization Act for Fiscal Year 2004, Pub. L. 108–136, which enacted this section. Pub. L. 108–136 does not contain a section 1106, and the provisions appearing in section 1106 of H.R. 1588, the National Defense Authorization Act for Fiscal Year 2004, as passed by the House of Representatives on May 22, 2003, were contained in section 1125 of Pub. L. 108–136. For effective date of amendments made by section 1125 of Pub. L. 108–136, see section 1125(c) of Pub. L. 108–136, set out as an Effective Date of 2003 Amendment note under section 5304 of this title.

The date of the enactment of that Act, referred to in subsec. (a), is the date of enactment of the National Defense Authorization Act for Fiscal Year 2004, Pub. L. 108–136, which was approved Nov. 24, 2003.

Effective Date

Section effective on first day of first pay period beginning on or after Jan. 1, 2004, see section 1125(c)(1) of Pub. L. 108–136, set out as an Effective Date of 2003 Amendment note under section 5304 of this title.

SUBCHAPTER II—EMPLOYMENT LIMITATIONS

Amendments

1968—Pub. L. 90–351, title V, §1001(c), June 19, 1968, 82 Stat. 235, substituted “EMPLOYMENT LIMITATIONS” for “LOYALTY, SECURITY, AND STRIKING” in subchapter heading.

1 See References in Text note below.

§7311. Loyalty and striking

An individual may not accept or hold a position in the Government of the United States or the government of the District of Columbia if he—

(1) advocates the overthrow of our constitutional form of government;

(2) is a member of an organization that he knows advocates the overthrow of our constitutional form of government;

(3) participates in a strike, or asserts the right to strike, against the Government of the United States or the government of the District of Columbia; or

(4) is a member of an organization of employees of the Government of the United States or of individuals employed by the government of the District of Columbia that he knows asserts the right to strike against the Government of the United States or the government of the District of Columbia.

(Pub. L. 89–554, Sept. 6, 1966, 80 Stat. 524.)

Historical and Revision Notes
DerivationU.S. CodeRevised Statutes and

Statutes at Large

5 U.S.C. 118p. Aug. 9, 1955, ch. 690, §1, 69 Stat. 624.
[Uncodified]. June 29, 1956, ch. 479, §3, (as applicable to the Act of Aug. 9, 1955, ch. 690, §1, 69 Stat. 624), 70 Stat. 453.

The word “position” is coextensive with and is substituted for “office or employment”.

In paragraphs (1) and (2), the words “in the United States” in former section 118p(1), (2) are omitted as unnecessary in view of the reference to “our constitutional form of government”.

In paragraphs (3) and (4), the reference to the “government of the District of Columbia” is added on authority of the Act of June 29, 1956, in order to make these paragraphs meaningful with respect to individuals employed by the government of the District of Columbia. The words “From and after July 1, 1956”, appearing in the Act of June 29, 1956, are omitted as executed.

Standard changes are made to conform with the definitions applicable and the style of this title as outlined in the preface to the report.

Ex. Ord. No. 10450. Security Requirements for Government Employees

Ex. Ord. No. 10450, Apr. 27, 1953, 18 F.R. 2489, as amended by Ex. Ord. No. 10491, Oct. 15, 1953, 18 F.R. 6583; Ex. Ord. No. 10531, May 27, 1954, 19 F.R. 3069; Ex. Ord. No. 10548, Aug. 3, 1954, 19 F.R. 4871; Ex. Ord. No. 10550, Aug. 6, 1954, 19 F.R. 4981; Ex. Ord. No. 11605, July 2, 1971, 36 F.R. 12831; Ex. Ord. No. 11785, June 4, 1974, 39 F.R. 20053; Ex. Ord. No. 12107, Dec. 28, 1978, 44 F.R. 1055, provided:

WHEREAS the interests of the national security require that all persons privileged to be employed in the departments and agencies of the Government shall be reliable, trustworthy, of good conduct and character, and of complete and unswerving loyalty to the United States; and

WHEREAS the American tradition that all persons should receive fair, impartial, and equitable treatment at the hands of the Government requires that all persons seeking the privilege of employment or privileged to be employed in the departments and agencies of the Government be adjudged by mutually consistent and no less than minimum standards and procedures among the departments and agencies governing the employment and retention in employment of persons in the Federal service:

NOW, THEREFORE, by virtue of the authority vested in me by the Constitution and statutes of the United States, including section 1753 of the Revised Statutes of the United States (5 U.S.C. 631) [sections 3301 and 7301 of this title]; the Civil Service Act of 1883 (22 Stat. 403; 5 U.S.C. 632, et seq.) [section 1101 et seq. of this title]; section 9A of the act of August 2, 1939, 53 Stat. 1148 (5 U.S.C. 118j) [sections 3333 and 7311 of this title]; and the act of August 26, 1950, 64 Stat. 476 (5 U.S.C. 22–1, et seq.) [section 7501 et seq. of this title], and as President of the United States, and deeming such action necessary in the best interests of the national security it is hereby ordered as follows:

Section 1. In addition to the departments and agencies specified in the said act of August 26, 1950, and Executive Order No. 10237 of April 26, 1951 the provisions of that act shall apply to all other departments and agencies of the Government.

Sec. 2. The head of each department and agency of the Government shall be responsible for establishing and maintaining within his department or agency an effective program to insure that the employment and retention in employment of any civilian officer or employee within the department or agency is clearly consistent with the interests of the national security.

Sec. 3. (a) The appointment of each civilian officer or employee in any department or agency of the Government shall be made subject to investigation. The scope of the investigation shall be determined in the first instance according to the degree of adverse effect the occupant of the position sought to be filled could bring about, by virtue of the nature of the position, on the national security, but in no event shall the investigation include less than a national agency check (including a check of the fingerprint files of the Federal Bureau of Investigation), and written inquiries to appropriate local law enforcement agencies, former employers and supervisors, references, and schools attended by the person under investigation: Provided, that upon request of the head of the department or agency concerned, the Office of Personnel Management may, in its discretion, authorize such less investigation as may meet the requirements of the national security with respect to per-diem, intermittent, temporary, or seasonal employees, or aliens employed outside the United States. Should there develop at any stage of investigation information indicating that the employment of any such person may not be clearly consistent with the interests of the national security, there shall be conducted with respect to such person a full field investigation, or such less investigation as shall be sufficient to enable the head of the department or agency concerned to determine whether retention of such person is clearly consistent with the interests of the national security.

(b) The head of any department or agency shall designate, or cause to be designated, any position within his department or agency the occupant of which could bring about, by virtue of the nature of the position, a material adverse effect on the national security as a sensitive position. Any position so designated shall be filled or occupied only by a person with respect to whom a full field investigation has been conducted: Provided, that a person occupying a sensitive position at the time it is designated as such may continue to occupy such position pending the completion of a full field investigation, subject to the other provisions of this order: And provided further, that in case of emergency a sensitive position may be filled for a limited period by a person with respect to whom a full field pre-appointment investigation has not been completed if the head of the department or agency concerned finds that such action is necessary in the national interest, which finding shall be made a part of the records of such department or agency.

Sec. 4. The head of each department and agency shall review, or cause to be reviewed, the cases of all civilian officers and employees with respect to whom there has been conducted a full field investigation under Executive Order No. 9835 of March 21, 1947, and, after such further investigation as may be appropriate, shall re-adjudicate, or cause to be re-adjudicated, in accordance with the said act of August 26, 1950, such of those cases as have not been adjudicated under a security standard commensurate with that established under this order.

Sec. 5. Whenever there is developed or received by any department or agency information indicating that the retention in employment of any officer or employee of the Government may not be clearly consistent with the interests of the national security, such information shall be forwarded to the head of the employing department or agency or his representative, who, after such investigation as may be appropriate, shall review, or cause to be reviewed, and, where necessary, re-adjudicate, or cause to be re-adjudicated, in accordance with the said act of August 26, 1950, the case of such officer or employee.

Sec. 6. Should there develop at any stage of investigation information indicating that the employment of any officer or employees of the Government may not be clearly consistent with the interests of the national security, the head of the department or agency concerned or his representative shall immediately suspend the employment of the person involved if he deems such suspension necessary in the interests of the national security and, following such investigation and review as he deems necessary the head of the department or agency concerned shall terminate the employment of such suspended officer in the interests of the national security, or employee whenever he shall determine such termination necessary or advisable in accordance with the said act of August 26, 1950.

Sec. 7. Any person whose employment is suspended or terminated under the authority granted to heads of departments and agencies by or in accordance with the said act of August 26, 1950, or pursuant to the said Executive Order No. 9835 or any other security or loyalty program relating to officers or employees of the Government, shall not be reinstated or restored to duty or reemployed in the same department or agency and shall not be reemployed in any other department or agency, unless the head of the department or agency concerned finds that such reinstatement, restoration, or reemployment is clearly consistent with the interests of the national security, which finding shall be made a part of the records of such department or agency: Provided, that no person whose employment has been terminated under such authority thereafter may be employed by any other department or agency except after a determination by the Office of Personnel Management that such person is eligible for such employment.

Sec. 8. (a) The investigations conducted pursuant to this order shall be designed to develop information as to whether the employment or retention in employment in the Federal service of the person being investigated is clearly consistent with the interests of the national security. Such information shall relate, but shall not be limited, to the following:

(1) Depending on the relation of the Government employment to the national security:

(i) Any behavior, activities, or associations which tend to show that the individual is not reliable or trustworthy.

(ii) Any deliberate misrepresentations, falsifications or omissions of material facts.

(iii) Any criminal, infamous, dishonest, immoral, or notoriously disgraceful conduct, habitual use of intoxicants to excess, drug addiction or sexual perversion.

(iv) Any illness, including any mental condition, of a nature which in the opinion of competent medical authority may cause significant defect in the judgment or reliability of the employee, with due regard to the transient or continuing effect of the illness and the medical findings in such case.

(v) Any facts which furnish reason to believe that the individual may be subjected to coercion, influence, or pressure which may cause him to act contrary to the best interests of the national security.

(2) Commission of any act of sabotage, espionage, treason, or sedition, or attempts thereat or preparation therefor, or conspiring with, or aiding or abetting another to commit or attempt to commit any act of sabotage, espionage, treason, or sedition.

(3) Establishing or continuing a sympathetic association with a saboteur, spy, traitor, seditionist, anarchist, or revolutionist, or with any espionage or other secret agent or representative of a foreign nation, or any representative of a foreign nation whose interests may be inimical to the interests of the United States, or with any person who advocates the use of force or violence to overthrow the government of the United States or the alteration of the form of government of the United States by unconstitutional means.

(4) Advocacy of use of force or violence to overthrow the government of the United States, or of the alteration of the form of government of the United States by unconstitutional means.

(5) Knowing membership with the specific intent of furthering the aims of, or adherence to and active participation in, any foreign or domestic organization, association, movement, group, or combination of persons (hereinafter referred to as organizations) which unlawfully advocates or practices the commission of acts of force or violence to prevent others from exercising their rights under the Constitution or laws of the United States or of any State, or which seeks to overthrow the Government of the United States or any State or subdivision thereof by unlawful means.

(6) Intentional unauthorized disclosure to any person of security information, or of other information disclosure of which is prohibited by law, or willful violation or disregard of security regulations.

(7) Performing or attempting to perform his duties, or otherwise acting, so as to serve the interests of another government in preference to the interests of the United States.

(8) Refusal by the individual, upon the ground of constitutional privilege against self-incrimination, to testify before a congressional committee regarding charges of his alleged disloyalty or other misconduct.

(b) The investigation of persons entering or employed in the competitive service shall primarily be the responsibility of the Office of Personnel Management, except in cases in which the head of a department or agency assumes that responsibility pursuant to law or by agreement with the Office. The Office shall furnish a full investigative report to the department or agency concerned.

(c) The investigation of persons (including consultants, however employed), entering employment of, or employed by, the Government other than in the competitive service shall primarily be the responsibility of the employing department or agency. Departments and agencies without investigative facilities may use the investigative facilities of the Office of Personnel Management, and other departments and agencies may use such facilities under agreement with the Office.

(d) There shall be referred promptly to the Federal Bureau of Investigation all investigations being conducted by any other agencies which develop information indicating that an individual may have been subjected to coercion, influence, or pressure to act contrary to the interests of the national security, or information relating to any of the matters described in subdivisions (2) through (8) of subsection (a) of this section. In cases so referred to it, the Federal Bureau of Investigation shall make a full field investigation.

Sec. 9. (a) There shall be established and maintained in the Office of Personnel Management a security-investigations index covering all persons as to whom security investigations have been conducted by any department or agency of the Government under this order. The central index established and maintained by the Office under Executive Order No. 9835 of March 21, 1947, shall be made a part of the security-investigations index. The security-investigations index shall contain the name of each person investigated, adequate identifying information concerning each such person, and a reference to each department and agency which has conducted an investigation concerning the person involved or has suspended or terminated the employment of such person under the authority granted to heads of departments and agencies by or in accordance with the said act of August 26, 1950.

(b) The heads of all departments and agencies shall furnish promptly to the Office of Personnel Management information appropriate for the establishment and maintenance of the security-investigations index.

(c) The reports and other investigative material and information developed by investigations conducted pursuant to any statute, order, or program described in section 7 of this order shall remain the property of the investigative agencies conducting the investigations, but may, subject to considerations of the national security, be retained by the department or agency concerned. Such reports and other investigative material and information shall be maintained in confidence, and no access shall be given thereto except with the consent of the investigative agency concerned, to other departments and agencies conducting security programs under the authority granted by or in accordance with the said act of August 26, 1950, as may be required for the efficient conduct of Government business.

Sec. 10. Nothing in this order shall be construed as eliminating or modifying in any way the requirement for any investigation or any determination as to security which may be required by law.

Sec. 11. On and after the effective date of this order the Loyalty Review Board established by Executive Order No. 9835 of March 21, 1947, shall not accept agency findings for review, upon appeal or otherwise. Appeals pending before the Loyalty Review Board on such date shall be heard to final determination in accordance with the provisions of the said Executive Order No. 9835, as amended. Agency determinations favorable to the officer or employee concerned pending before the Loyalty Review Board on such date shall be acted upon by such Board, and whenever the Board is not in agreement with such favorable determination the case shall be remanded to the department or agency concerned for determination in accordance with the standards and procedures established pursuant to this order. Cases pending before the regional loyalty boards of the Office of Personnel Management on which hearings have not been initiated on such date shall be referred to the department or agency concerned. Cases being heard by regional loyalty boards on such date shall be heard to conclusion, and the determination of the board shall be forwarded to the head of the department or agency concerned: Provided, that if no specific department or agency is involved, the case shall be dismissed without prejudice to the applicant. Investigations pending in the Federal Bureau of Investigation or the Office of Personnel Management on such date shall be completed, and the reports thereon shall be made to the appropriate department or agency.

Sec. 12. Executive Order No. 9835 of March 21, 1947, as amended, is hereby revoked.

Sec. 13. The Attorney General is requested to render to the heads of departments and agencies such advice as may be requisite to enable them to establish and maintain an appropriate employee-security program.

Sec. 14. (a) The Office of Personnel Management, with the continuing advice and collaboration of representatives of such departments and agencies as the National Security Council may designate, shall make a continuing study of the manner in which this order is being implemented by the departments and agencies of the Government for the purpose of determining:

(1) Deficiencies in the department and agency security programs established under this order which are inconsistent with the interests of or directly or indirectly weaken, the national security.

(2) Tendencies in such programs to deny to individual employees fair, impartial and equitable treatment at the hands of the Government, or rights under the Constitution and laws of the United States or this order.

Information affecting any department or agency developed or received during the course of such continuing study shall be furnished immediately to the head of the department or agency concerned. The Office of Personnel Management shall report to the National Security Council, at least semiannually, on the results of such study, shall recommend means to correct any such deficiencies or tendencies, and shall inform the National Security Council immediately of any deficiency which is deemed to be of major importance.

(b) All departments and agencies of the Government are directed to cooperate with the Office of Personnel Management to facilitate the accomplishment of the responsibilities assigned to it by subsection (a) of this section.

(c) To assist the Office of Personnel Management in discharging its responsibilities under this order, the head of each department and agency shall, as soon as possible and in no event later than ninety days after receipt of the final investigative report on a civilian officer or employee subject to a full field investigation under the provisions of this order, advise the Office as to the action taken with respect to such officer or employee. The information furnished by the heads of departments and agencies pursuant to this section shall be included in the reports which the Office of Personnel Management is required to submit to the National Security Council in accordance with subsection (a) of this section. Such reports shall set forth any deficiencies on the part of the heads of departments and agencies in taking timely action under this order, and shall mention specifically any instances of noncompliance with this subsection.

Sec. 15. This order shall become effective thirty days after the date hereof.

Executive Order No. 11605

Ex. Ord. No. 11605. July 2, 1971, 36 F.R. 12831, which amended Ex. Ord. No. 10450, Apr. 27, 1953, 18 F.R. 2489, which related to security requirements for government employees, was revoked by Ex. Ord. No. 11785, June 4, 1974, 39 F.R. 20053, set out below.

Ex. Ord. No. 11785. Security Requirements for Governmental Employees

Ex. Ord. No. 11785, June 4, 1974, 39 F.R. 20053, provided:

By virtue of the authority vested in me by the Constitution and statutes of the United States, including 5 U.S.C. 1101 et seq., 3301, 3571, 7301, 7313, 7501(c), 7512, 7532, and 7533; and as President of the United States, and finding such action necessary in the best interests of national security, it is hereby ordered as follows:

Section 1. Section 12 of Executive Order No. 10450 of April 27, 1953, as amended [set out as a note under this section], is revised to read in its entirety as follows:

Sec. 12. Executive Order No. 9835 of March 21, 1947, as amended, is hereby revoked.”

Sec. 2. Neither the Attorney General, nor the Subversive Activities Control Board, nor any other agency shall designate organizations pursuant to section 12 of Executive Order No. 10450, as amended, nor circulate nor publish a list of organizations previously so designated. The list of organizations previously designated is hereby abolished and shall not be used for any purpose.

Sec. 3. Subparagraph (5) of paragraph (a) of section 8 of Executive Order No. 10450, as amended, is revised to read as follows:

“Knowing membership with the specific intent of furthering the aims of, or adherence to and active participation in, any foreign or domestic organization, association, movement, group, or combination of persons (hereinafter referred to as organizations) which unlawfully advocates or practices the commission of acts of force or violence to prevent others from exercising their rights under the Constitution or laws of the United States or of any State, or which seeks to overthrow the Government of the United States or any State or subdivision thereof by unlawful means.”

Sec. 4. Executive Order No. 11605 of July 2, 1971, is revoked.

Richard Nixon.      

§7312. Employment and clearance; individuals removed for national security

Removal under section 7532 of this title does not affect the right of an individual so removed to seek or accept employment in an agency of the United States other than the agency from which removed. However, the appointment of an individual so removed may be made only after the head of the agency concerned has consulted with the Office of Personnel Management. The Office, on written request of the head of the agency or the individual so removed, may determine whether the individual is eligible for employment in an agency other than the agency from which removed.

(Pub. L. 89–554, Sept. 6, 1966, 80 Stat. 524; Pub. L. 95–454, title IX, §906(a)(2), (3), Oct. 13, 1978, 92 Stat. 1224.)

Historical and Revision Notes
DerivationU.S. CodeRevised Statutes and

Statutes at Large

5 U.S.C. 22–1 (4th and 5th provisos). Aug. 26, 1950, ch. 803, §1 (4th and 5th provisos), 64 Stat. 477.

The words “Removal under section 7532 of this title” and “so removed” are coextensive with and substituted for “termination of employment herein provided” and “whose employment has been terminated under the provisions of said sections”, respectively.

Standard changes are made to conform with the definitions applicable and the style of this title as outlined in the preface to the report.

Amendments

1978—Pub. L. 95–454 substituted “Office of Personnel Management” and “Office” for “Civil Service Commission” and “Commission”, respectively.

Effective Date of 1978 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 95–454 effective 90 days after Oct. 13, 1978, see section 907 of Pub. L. 95–454, set out as a note under section 1101 of this title.

§7313. Riots and civil disorders

(a) An individual convicted by any Federal, State, or local court of competent jurisdiction of—

(1) inciting a riot or civil disorder;

(2) organizing, promoting, encouraging, or participating in a riot or civil disorder;

(3) aiding or abetting any person in committing any offense specified in clause (1) or (2); or

(4) any offense determined by the head of the employing agency to have been committed in furtherance of, or while participating in, a riot or civil disorder;


shall, if the offense for which he is convicted is a felony, be ineligible to accept or hold any position in the Government of the United States or in the government of the District of Columbia for the five years immediately following the date upon which his conviction becomes final. Any such individual holding a position in the Government of the United States or the government of the District of Columbia on the date his conviction becomes final shall be removed from such position.

(b) For the purposes of this section, “felony” means any offense for which imprisonment is authorized for a term exceeding one year.

(Added Pub. L. 90–351, title V, §1001(a), June 19, 1968, 82 Stat. 235.)

Effective Date

Section 1002 of Pub. L. 90–351 provided that: “The provisions of section 1001(a) of this title [enacting this section] shall apply only with respect to acts referred to in section 7313(a)(1)–(4) of title 5, United States Code, as added by section 1001 of this title, which are committed after the date of enactment of this title [June 19, 1968].”

Receipt of Benefits Under Laws Providing Relief for Disaster Victims

Section 1106(e) of Pub. L. 90–448, title XI, Aug. 1, 1968, 82 Stat. 567, provided that: “No person who has been convicted of committing a felony during and in connection with a riot or civil disorder shall be permitted, for a period of one year after the date of his conviction, to receive any benefit under any law of the United States providing relief for disaster victims.”

SUBCHAPTER III—POLITICAL ACTIVITIES

Amendments

1993—Pub. L. 103–94, §2(a), Oct. 6, 1993, 107 Stat. 1001, reenacted subchapter heading without change.

§7321. Political participation

It is the policy of the Congress that employees should be encouraged to exercise fully, freely, and without fear of penalty or reprisal, and to the extent not expressly prohibited by law, their right to participate or to refrain from participating in the political processes of the Nation.

(Added Pub. L. 103–94, §2(a), Oct. 6, 1993, 107 Stat. 1001.)

Prior Provisions

A prior section 7321, Pub. L. 89–554, Sept. 6, 1966, 80 Stat. 525, related to political contributions and services of employees in Executive agencies or competitive service, prior to the general revision of this subchapter by Pub. L. 103–94.

Effective Date; Savings Provision

Section 12 of Pub. L. 103–94 provided that:

“(a) The amendments made by this Act [enacting sections 5520a and 7321 to 7326 of this title and section 610 of Title 18, Crimes and Criminal Procedure, amending sections 1216, 2302, 3302 and 3303 of this title, sections 602 and 603 of Title 18, section 410 of Title 39, Postal Service, and sections 1973d and 9904 of Title 42, The Public Health and Welfare, and omitting former sections 7321 to 7328 of this title] shall take effect 120 days after the date of the enactment of this Act [Oct. 6, 1993], except that the authority to prescribe regulations granted under section 7325 of title 5, United States Code (as added by section 2 of this Act), shall take effect on the date of the enactment of this Act.

“(b) Any repeal or amendment made by this Act of any provision of law shall not release or extinguish any penalty, forfeiture, or liability incurred under that provision, and that provision shall be treated as remaining in force for the purpose of sustaining any proper proceeding or action for the enforcement of that penalty, forfeiture, or liability.

“(c) No provision of this Act shall affect any proceedings with respect to which the charges were filed on or before the effective date of the amendments made by this Act. Orders shall be issued in such proceedings and appeals shall be taken therefrom as if this Act had not been enacted.”

Delegation of Authority

Memorandum of President of the United States, Oct. 27, 1994, 59 F.R. 54515, provided:

Memorandum for the Secretary of Defense

Pursuant to authority vested in me as the Chief Executive Officer of the United States, and consistent with the provisions of the Hatch Act Reform Amendment regulations, 5 CFR 734.104, and section 301 of title 3, United States Code, I delegate to you the authority to limit the political activities of political appointees of the Department of Defense, including Presidential appointees, Presidential appointees with Senate confirmation, noncareer SES appointees, and Schedule C appointees.

You are authorized and directed to publish this memorandum in the Federal Register.

William J. Clinton.      

Memorandum of President of the United States, Oct. 24, 1994, 59 F.R. 54121, provided:

Memorandum for the Secretary of State

Pursuant to authority vested in me as the Chief Executive Officer of the United States, and consistent with the provisions of the Hatch Act Reform Amendment regulations, 5 CFR 734.104, and section 301 of title 3, United States Code, I delegate to you the authority to limit the political activities of political appointees of the Department of State, including Presidential appointees, Presidential appointees with Senate confirmation, noncareer SES appointees, and Schedule C appointees.

You are authorized and directed to publish this memorandum in the Federal Register.

William J. Clinton.      

Memorandum of President of the United States, Sept. 30, 1994, 59 F.R. 50809, provided:

Memorandum for the Attorney General

Pursuant to authority vested in me as the Chief Executive Officer of the United States, and consistent with the provisions of the Hatch Act Reform Amendment regulations, 5 CFR 734.104, and section 301 of title 3, United States Code, I delegate to you the authority to limit the political activities of political appointees of the Department of Justice, including Presidential appointees, Presidential appointees with Senate confirmation, noncareer SES appointees, and Schedule C appointees.

You are authorized and directed to publish this memorandum in the Federal Register.

William J. Clinton.      

§7322. Definitions

For the purpose of this subchapter—

(1) “employee” means any individual, other than the President and the Vice President, employed or holding office in—

(A) an Executive agency other than the Government Accountability Office;

(B) a position within the competitive service which is not in an Executive agency; or

(C) the government of the District of Columbia, other than the Mayor or a member of the City Council or the Recorder of Deeds;


but does not include a member of the uniformed services;

(2) “partisan political office” means any office for which any candidate is nominated or elected as representing a party any of whose candidates for Presidential elector received votes in the last preceding election at which Presidential electors were selected, but shall exclude any office or position within a political party or affiliated organization; and

(3) “political contribution”—

(A) means any gift, subscription, loan, advance, or deposit of money or anything of value, made for any political purpose;

(B) includes any contract, promise, or agreement, express or implied, whether or not legally enforceable, to make a contribution for any political purpose;

(C) includes any payment by any person, other than a candidate or a political party or affiliated organization, of compensation for the personal services of another person which are rendered to any candidate or political party or affiliated organization without charge for any political purpose; and

(D) includes the provision of personal services for any political purpose.

(Added Pub. L. 103–94, §2(a), Oct. 6, 1993, 107 Stat. 1001; amended Pub. L. 108–271, §8(b), July 7, 2004, 118 Stat. 814.)

Prior Provisions

A prior section 7322, Pub. L. 89–554, Sept. 6, 1966, 80 Stat. 525, prohibited employees in Executive agencies or competitive service from using official authority or influence to coerce political actions of persons or bodies, prior to the general revision of this subchapter by Pub. L. 103–94.

Amendments

2004—Par. (1)(A). Pub. L. 108–271 substituted “Government Accountability Office” for “General Accounting Office”.

§7323. Political activity authorized; prohibitions

(a) Subject to the provisions of subsection (b), an employee may take an active part in political management or in political campaigns, except an employee may not—

(1) use his official authority or influence for the purpose of interfering with or affecting the result of an election;

(2) knowingly solicit, accept, or receive a political contribution from any person, unless such person is—

(A) a member of the same Federal labor organization as defined under section 7103(4) of this title or a Federal employee organization which as of the date of enactment of the Hatch Act Reform Amendments of 1993 had a multicandidate political committee (as defined under section 315(a)(4) of the Federal Election Campaign Act of 1971 (2 U.S.C. 441a(a)(4)));

(B) not a subordinate employee; and

(C) the solicitation is for a contribution to the multicandidate political committee (as defined under section 315(a)(4) of the Federal Election Campaign Act of 1971 (2 U.S.C. 441a(a)(4))) of such Federal labor organization as defined under section 7103(4) of this title or a Federal employee organization which as of the date of the enactment of the Hatch Act Reform Amendments of 1993 had a multicandidate political committee (as defined under section 315(a)(4) of the Federal Election Campaign Act of 1971 (2 U.S.C. 441a(a)(4))); or


(3) run for the nomination or as a candidate for election to a partisan political office; or

(4) knowingly solicit or discourage the participation in any political activity of any person who—

(A) has an application for any compensation, grant, contract, ruling, license, permit, or certificate pending before the employing office of such employee; or

(B) is the subject of or a participant in an ongoing audit, investigation, or enforcement action being carried out by the employing office of such employee.


(b)(1) An employee of the Federal Election Commission (except one appointed by the President, by and with the advice and consent of the Senate), may not request or receive from, or give to, an employee, a Member of Congress, or an officer of a uniformed service a political contribution.

(2)(A) No employee described under subparagraph (B) (except one appointed by the President, by and with the advice and consent of the Senate), may take an active part in political management or political campaigns.

(B) The provisions of subparagraph (A) shall apply to—

(i) an employee of—

(I) the Federal Election Commission or the Election Assistance Commission;

(II) the Federal Bureau of Investigation;

(III) the Secret Service;

(IV) the Central Intelligence Agency;

(V) the National Security Council;

(VI) the National Security Agency;

(VII) the Defense Intelligence Agency;

(VIII) the Merit Systems Protection Board;

(IX) the Office of Special Counsel;

(X) the Office of Criminal Investigation of the Internal Revenue Service;

(XI) the Office of Investigative Programs of the United States Customs Service;

(XII) the Office of Law Enforcement of the Bureau of Alcohol, Tobacco, and Firearms;

(XIII) the National Geospatial-Intelligence Agency; or

(XIV) the Office of the Director of National Intelligence; or


(ii) a person employed in a position described under section 3132(a)(4), 5372, 5372a, or 5372b of title 5, United States Code.


(3) No employee of the Criminal Division or National Security Division of the Department of Justice (except one appointed by the President, by and with the advice and consent of the Senate), may take an active part in political management or political campaigns.

(4) For purposes of this subsection, the term “active part in political management or in a political campaign” means those acts of political management or political campaigning which were prohibited for employees of the competitive service before July 19, 1940, by determinations of the Civil Service Commission under the rules prescribed by the President.

(c) An employee retains the right to vote as he chooses and to express his opinion on political subjects and candidates.

(Added Pub. L. 103–94, §2(a), Oct. 6, 1993, 107 Stat. 1002; amended Pub. L. 103–359, title V, §501(k), Oct. 14, 1994, 108 Stat. 3430; Pub. L. 104–201, div. A, title XI, §1122(a)(1), Sept. 23, 1996, 110 Stat. 2687; Pub. L. 106–554, §1(a)(3) [title VI, §645(a)(2)], Dec. 21, 2000, 114 Stat. 2763, 2763A–170; Pub. L. 107–252, title VIII, §811(a), Oct. 29, 2002, 116 Stat. 1727; Pub. L. 108–458, title I, §1079(a), Dec. 17, 2004, 118 Stat. 3695; Pub. L. 109–177, title V, §506(b)(2), Mar. 9, 2006, 120 Stat. 249; Pub. L. 110–417, [div. A], title IX, §931(a)(1), Oct. 14, 2008, 122 Stat. 4575.)

References in Text

The date of enactment of the Hatch Act Reform Amendments of 1993, referred to in subsec. (a)(2)(A), (C), is the date of enactment of Pub. L. 103–94, which was approved Oct. 6, 1993.

Prior Provisions

A prior section 7323, Pub. L. 89–554, Sept. 6, 1966, 80 Stat. 525, prohibited employee in Executive agency from requesting, receiving from, or giving to, an employee, a Member of Congress, or an officer of a uniformed service, a thing of value for political purposes and provided for removal from service of employee for violation, prior to the general revision of this subchapter by Pub. L. 103–94.

Amendments

2008—Subsec. (b)(2)(B)(i)(XIII). Pub. L. 110–417 substituted “National Geospatial-Intelligence Agency” for “National Imagery and Mapping Agency”.

2006—Subsec. (b)(3). Pub. L. 109–177 inserted “or National Security Division” after “Criminal Division”.

2004—Subsec. (b)(2)(B)(i)(XIV). Pub. L. 108–458 added subcl. (XIV).

2002—Subsec. (b)(2)(B)(i)(I). Pub. L. 107–252 inserted “or the Election Assistance Commission” after “Commission”.

2000—Subsec. (b)(2)(B)(ii). Pub. L. 106–554 substituted “5372a, or 5372b” for “or 5372a”.

1996—Subsec. (b)(2)(B)(i)(XIII). Pub. L. 104–201 substituted “National Imagery and Mapping Agency” for “Central Imagery Office”.

1994—Subsec. (b)(2)(B)(i)(XIII). Pub. L. 103–359 added subcl. (XIII).

Effective Date of 2004 Amendment

For Determination by President that amendment by Pub. L. 108–458 take effect on Apr. 21, 2005, see Memorandum of President of the United States, Apr. 21, 2005, 70 F.R. 23925, set out as a note under section 401 of Title 50, War and National Defense.

Amendment by Pub. L. 108–458 effective not later than six months after Dec. 17, 2004, except as otherwise expressly provided, see section 1097(a) of Pub. L. 108–458, set out as an Effective Date of 2004 Amendment; Transition Provisions note under section 401 of Title 50, War and National Defense.

Effective Date of 2002 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 107–252 effective upon appointment of all members of the Election Assistance Commission under section 15323 of Title 42, The Public Health and Welfare, see section 15534(a) of Title 42.

Effective Date of 1996 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 104–201 effective Oct. 1, 1996, see section 1124 of Pub. L. 104–201, set out as a note under section 193 of Title 10, Armed Forces.

Transfer of Functions

For transfer of the functions, personnel, assets, and obligations of the United States Secret Service, including the functions of the Secretary of the Treasury relating thereto, to the Secretary of Homeland Security, and for treatment of related references, see sections 381, 551(d), 552(d), and 557 of Title 6, Domestic Security, and the Department of Homeland Security Reorganization Plan of November 25, 2002, as modified, set out as a note under section 542 of Title 6.

For transfer of functions, personnel, assets, and liabilities of the United States Customs Service of the Department of the Treasury, including functions of the Secretary of the Treasury relating thereto, to the Secretary of Homeland Security, and for treatment of related references, see sections 203(1), 551(d), 552(d), and 557 of Title 6, Domestic Security, and the Department of Homeland Security Reorganization Plan of November 25, 2002, as modified, set out as a note under section 542 of Title 6.

For transfer of authorities, functions, personnel, and assets of the Bureau of Alcohol, Tobacco and Firearms, including the related functions of the Secretary of the Treasury, to the Department of Justice, see section 531(c) of Title 6, Domestic Security and section 599A(c)(1) of Title 28, Judiciary and Judicial Procedure.

§7324. Political activities on duty; prohibition

(a) An employee may not engage in political activity—

(1) while the employee is on duty;

(2) in any room or building occupied in the discharge of official duties by an individual employed or holding office in the Government of the United States or any agency or instrumentality thereof;

(3) while wearing a uniform or official insignia identifying the office or position of the employee; or

(4) using any vehicle owned or leased by the Government of the United States or any agency or instrumentality thereof.


(b)(1) An employee described in paragraph (2) of this subsection may engage in political activity otherwise prohibited by subsection (a) if the costs associated with that political activity are not paid for by money derived from the Treasury of the United States.

(2) Paragraph (1) applies to an employee—

(A) the duties and responsibilities of whose position continue outside normal duty hours and while away from the normal duty post; and

(B) who is—

(i) an employee paid from an appropriation for the Executive Office of the President; or

(ii) an employee appointed by the President, by and with the advice and consent of the Senate, whose position is located within the United States, who determines policies to be pursued by the United States in relations with foreign powers or in the nationwide administration of Federal laws.

(Added Pub. L. 103–94, §2(a), Oct. 6, 1993, 107 Stat. 1003.)

Prior Provisions

A prior section 7324, Pub. L. 89–554, Sept. 6, 1966, 80 Stat. 525; Pub. L. 93–268, §4(a), Apr. 17, 1974, 88 Stat. 87, prohibited Executive agency employees and employees of the District of Columbia from influencing elections or taking part in political campaigns, prior to the general revision of this subchapter by Pub. L. 103–94.

§7325. Political activity permitted; employees residing in certain municipalities

The Office of Personnel Management may prescribe regulations permitting employees, without regard to the prohibitions in paragraphs (2) and (3) of section 7323(a) and paragraph (2) of section 7323(b) of this title, to take an active part in political management and political campaigns involving the municipality or other political subdivision in which they reside, to the extent the Office considers it to be in their domestic interest, when—

(1) the municipality or political subdivision is in Maryland or Virginia and in the immediate vicinity of the District of Columbia, or is a municipality in which the majority of voters are employed by the Government of the United States; and

(2) the Office determines that because of special or unusual circumstances which exist in the municipality or political subdivision it is in the domestic interest of the employees and individuals to permit that political participation.

(Added Pub. L. 103–94, §2(a), Oct. 6, 1993, 107 Stat. 1004; amended Pub. L. 104–93, title III, §308, Jan. 6, 1996, 109 Stat. 966.)

Prior Provisions

A prior section 7325, Pub. L. 89–554, Sept. 6, 1966, 80 Stat. 526; Pub. L. 96–54, §2(a)(44), Aug. 14, 1979, 93 Stat. 384, related to penalties, prior to the general revision of this subchapter by Pub. L. 103–94.

Amendments

1996—Pub. L. 104–93 inserted “and paragraph (2) of section 7323(b)” after “section 7323(a)”.

§7326. Penalties

An employee or individual who violates section 7323 or 7324 of this title shall be removed from his position, and funds appropriated for the position from which removed thereafter may not be used to pay the employee or individual. However, if the Merit System Protection Board finds by unanimous vote that the violation does not warrant removal, a penalty of not less than 30 days’ suspension without pay shall be imposed by direction of the Board.

(Added Pub. L. 103–94, §2(a), Oct. 6, 1993, 107 Stat. 1004.)

Prior Provisions

A prior section 7326, Pub. L. 89–554, Sept. 6, 1966, 80 Stat. 526, authorized nonpartisan political activities, prior to the general revision of this subchapter by Pub. L. 103–94.

A prior section 7327, Pub. L. 89–554, Sept. 6, 1966, 80 Stat. 526; Pub. L. 96–54, §2(a)(14), (15), Aug. 14, 1979, 93 Stat. 382; Pub. L. 97–468, title VI, §615(b)(1)(E), Jan. 14, 1983, 96 Stat. 2578, related to permitted political activity in certain municipalities where employees reside, prior to the general revision of this subchapter by Pub. L. 103–94.

A prior section 7328, added Pub. L. 96–191, §8(e)(1), Feb. 15, 1980, 94 Stat. 33, exempted employees of the General Accounting Office from provisions of this subchapter, prior to the general revision of this subchapter by Pub. L. 103–94.

SUBCHAPTER IV—FOREIGN GIFTS AND DECORATIONS

Amendments

1967—Pub. L. 90–83, §1(45)(A), Sept. 11, 1967, 81 Stat. 208, substituted “FOREIGN GIFTS AND DECORATIONS” for “FOREIGN DECORATIONS” in subchapter heading.

[§7341. Repealed. Pub. L. 90–83, §1(45)(B), Sept. 11, 1967, 81 Stat. 208]

Section, Pub. L. 89–554, Sept. 6, 1966, 80 Stat. 526, related to receipt and display of foreign decorations. See section 7342 of this title.

§7342. Receipt and disposition of foreign gifts and decorations

(a) For the purpose of this section—

(1) “employee” means—

(A) an employee as defined by section 2105 of this title and an officer or employee of the United States Postal Service or of the Postal Regulatory Commission;

(B) an expert or consultant who is under contract under section 3109 of this title with the United States or any agency, department, or establishment thereof, including, in the case of an organization performing services under such section, any individual involved in the performance of such services;

(C) an individual employed by, or occupying an office or position in, the government of a territory or possession of the United States or the government of the District of Columbia;

(D) a member of a uniformed service;

(E) the President and the Vice President;

(F) a Member of Congress as defined by section 2106 of this title (except the Vice President) and any Delegate to the Congress; and

(G) the spouse of an individual described in subparagraphs (A) through (F) (unless such individual and his or her spouse are separated) or a dependent (within the meaning of section 152 of the Internal Revenue Code of 1986) of such an individual, other than a spouse or dependent who is an employee under subparagraphs (A) through (F);


(2) “foreign government” means—

(A) any unit of foreign governmental authority, including any foreign national, State, local, and municipal government;

(B) any international or multinational organization whose membership is composed of any unit of foreign government described in subparagraph (A); and

(C) any agent or representative of any such unit or such organization, while acting as such;


(3) “gift” means a tangible or intangible present (other than a decoration) tendered by, or received from, a foreign government;

(4) “decoration” means an order, device, medal, badge, insignia, emblem, or award tendered by, or received from, a foreign government;

(5) “minimal value” means a retail value in the United States at the time of acceptance of $100 or less, except that—

(A) on January 1, 1981, and at 3 year intervals thereafter, “minimal value” shall be redefined in regulations prescribed by the Administrator of General Services, in consultation with the Secretary of State, to reflect changes in the consumer price index for the immediately preceding 3-year period; and

(B) regulations of an employing agency may define “minimal value” for its employees to be less than the value established under this paragraph; and


(6) “employing agency” means—

(A) the Committee on Standards of Official Conduct of the House of Representatives, for Members and employees of the House of Representatives, except that those responsibilities specified in subsections (c)(2)(A), (e)(1), and (g)(2)(B) shall be carried out by the Clerk of the House;

(B) the Select Committee on Ethics of the Senate, for Senators and employees of the Senate, except that those responsibilities (other than responsibilities involving approval of the employing agency) specified in subsections (c)(2), (d), and (g)(2)(B) shall be carried out by the Secretary of the Senate;

(C) the Administrative Office of the United States Courts, for judges and judicial branch employees; and

(D) the department, agency, office, or other entity in which an employee is employed, for other legislative branch employees and for all executive branch employees.


(b) An employee may not—

(1) request or otherwise encourage the tender of a gift or decoration; or

(2) accept a gift or decoration, other than in accordance with the provisions of subsections (c) and (d).


(c)(1) The Congress consents to—

(A) the accepting and retaining by an employee of a gift of minimal value tendered and received as a souvenir or mark of courtesy; and

(B) the accepting by an employee of a gift of more than minimal value when such gift is in the nature of an educational scholarship or medical treatment or when it appears that to refuse the gift would likely cause offense or embarrassment or otherwise adversely affect the foreign relations of the United States, except that—

(i) a tangible gift of more than minimal value is deemed to have been accepted on behalf of the United States and, upon acceptance, shall become the property of the United States; and

(ii) an employee may accept gifts of travel or expenses for travel taking place entirely outside the United States (such as transportation, food, and lodging) of more than minimal value if such acceptance is appropriate, consistent with the interests of the United States, and permitted by the employing agency and any regulations which may be prescribed by the employing agency.


(2) Within 60 days after accepting a tangible gift of more than minimal value (other than a gift described in paragraph (1)(B)(ii)), an employee shall—

(A) deposit the gift for disposal with his or her employing agency; or

(B) subject to the approval of the employing agency, deposit the gift with that agency for official use.


Within 30 days after terminating the official use of a gift under subparagraph (B), the employing agency shall forward the gift to the Administrator of General Services in accordance with subsection (e)(1) or provide for its disposal in accordance with subsection (e)(2).

(3) When an employee deposits a gift of more than minimal value for disposal or for official use pursuant to paragraph (2), or within 30 days after accepting travel or travel expenses as provided in paragraph (1)(B)(ii) unless such travel or travel expenses are accepted in accordance with specific instructions of his or her employing agency, the employee shall file a statement with his or her employing agency or its delegate containing the information prescribed in subsection (f) for that gift.

(d) The Congress consents to the accepting, retaining, and wearing by an employee of a decoration tendered in recognition of active field service in time of combat operations or awarded for other outstanding or unusually meritorious performance, subject to the approval of the employing agency of such employee. Without this approval, the decoration is deemed to have been accepted on behalf of the United States, shall become the property of the United States, and shall be deposited by the employee, within sixty days of acceptance, with the employing agency for official use, for forwarding to the Administrator of General Services for disposal in accordance with subsection (e)(1), or for disposal in accordance with subsection (e)(2).

(e)(1) Except as provided in paragraph (2), gifts and decorations that have been deposited with an employing agency for disposal shall be (A) returned to the donor, or (B) forwarded to the Administrator of General Services for transfer, donation, or other disposal in accordance with the provisions of subtitle I of title 40 and division C (except sections 3302, 3501(b), 3509, 3906, 4710, and 4711) of subtitle I of title 41. However, no gift or decoration that has been deposited for disposal may be sold without the approval of the Secretary of State, upon a determination that the sale will not adversely affect the foreign relations of the United States. Gifts and decorations may be sold by negotiated sale.

(2) Gifts and decorations received by a Senator or an employee of the Senate that are deposited with the Secretary of the Senate for disposal, or are deposited for an official use which has terminated, shall be disposed of by the Commission on Arts and Antiquities of the United States Senate. Any such gift or decoration may be returned by the Commission to the donor or may be transferred or donated by the Commission, subject to such terms and conditions as it may prescribe, (A) to an agency or instrumentality of (i) the United States, (ii) a State, territory, or possession of the United States, or a political subdivision of the foregoing, or (iii) the District of Columbia, or (B) to an organization described in section 501(c)(3) of the Internal Revenue Code of 1986 which is exempt from taxation under section 501(a) of such Code. Any such gift or decoration not disposed of as provided in the preceding sentence shall be forwarded to the Administrator of General Services for disposal in accordance with paragraph (1). If the Administrator does not dispose of such gift or decoration within one year, he shall, at the request of the Commission, return it to the Commission and the Commission may dispose of such gift or decoration in such manner as it considers proper, except that such gift or decoration may be sold only with the approval of the Secretary of State upon a determination that the sale will not adversely affect the foreign relations of the United States.

(f)(1) Not later than January 31 of each year, each employing agency or its delegate shall compile a listing of all statements filed during the preceding year by the employees of that agency pursuant to subsection (c)(3) and shall transmit such listing to the Secretary of State who shall publish a comprehensive listing of all such statements in the Federal Register.

(2) Such listings shall include for each tangible gift reported—

(A) the name and position of the employee;

(B) a brief description of the gift and the circumstances justifying acceptance;

(C) the identity, if known, of the foreign government and the name and position of the individual who presented the gift;

(D) the date of acceptance of the gift;

(E) the estimated value in the United States of the gift at the time of acceptance; and

(F) disposition or current location of the gift.


(3) Such listings shall include for each gift of travel or travel expenses—

(A) the name and position of the employee;

(B) a brief description of the gift and the circumstances justifying acceptance; and

(C) the identity, if known, of the foreign government and the name and position of the individual who presented the gift.


(4)(A) In transmitting such listings for an element of the intelligence community, the head of such element may delete the information described in subparagraph (A) or (C) of paragraph (2) or in subparagraph (A) or (C) of paragraph (3) if the head of such element certifies in writing to the Secretary of State that the publication of such information could adversely affect United States intelligence sources or methods.

(B) Any information not provided to the Secretary of State pursuant to the authority in subparagraph (A) shall be transmitted to the Director of National Intelligence who shall keep a record of such information.

(C) In this paragraph, the term “intelligence community” has the meaning given that term in section 3(4) of the National Security Act of 1947 (50 U.S.C. 401a(4)).

(g)(1) Each employing agency shall prescribe such regulations as may be necessary to carry out the purpose of this section. For all employing agencies in the executive branch, such regulations shall be prescribed pursuant to guidance provided by the Secretary of State. These regulations shall be implemented by each employing agency for its employees.

(2) Each employing agency shall—

(A) report to the Attorney General cases in which there is reason to believe that an employee has violated this section;

(B) establish a procedure for obtaining an appraisal, when necessary, of the value of gifts; and

(C) take any other actions necessary to carry out the purpose of this section.


(h) The Attorney General may bring a civil action in any district court of the United States against any employee who knowingly solicits or accepts a gift from a foreign government not consented to by this section or who fails to deposit or report such gift as required by this section. The court in which such action is brought may assess a penalty against such employee in any amount not to exceed the retail value of the gift improperly solicited or received plus $5,000.

(i) The President shall direct all Chiefs of a United States Diplomatic Mission to inform their host governments that it is a general policy of the United States Government to prohibit United States Government employees from receiving gifts or decorations of more than minimal value.

(j) Nothing in this section shall be construed to derogate any regulation prescribed by any employing agency which provides for more stringent limitations on the receipt of gifts and decorations by its employees.

(k) The provisions of this section do not apply to grants and other forms of assistance to which section 108A of the Mutual Educational and Cultural Exchange Act of 1961 applies.

(Added Pub. L. 90–83, §1(45)(C), Sept. 11, 1967, 81 Stat. 208; amended Pub. L. 95–105, title V, §515(a)(1), Aug. 17, 1977, 91 Stat. 862; Pub. L. 95–426, title VII, §712(a)–(c), Oct. 7, 1978, 92 Stat. 994; Pub. L. 99–514, §2, Oct. 22, 1986, 100 Stat. 2095; Pub. L. 107–217, §3(a)(1), Aug. 21, 2002, 116 Stat. 1295; Pub. L. 108–458, title I, §1079(b), Dec. 17, 2004, 118 Stat. 3696; Pub. L. 109–435, title VI, §604(b), Dec. 20, 2006, 120 Stat. 3241; Pub. L. 111–259, title III, §361, Oct. 7, 2010, 124 Stat. 2701; Pub. L. 111–350, §5(a)(10), Jan. 4, 2011, 124 Stat. 3841.)

Historical and Revision Notes
Section of title 5Source (U.S.Code)Source (Statutes at Large)
7342(a) 22:2621. Oct. 15, 1966, Pub. L. 89–673, §2, 80 Stat. 952.
7342(b) 22:2622. Oct. 15, 1966, Pub. L. 89–673, §3, 80 Stat. 952.
7342(c) 22:2623. Oct. 15, 1966, Pub. L. 89–673, §4, 80 Stat. 952.
7342(d) 22:2624. Oct. 15, 1966, Pub. L. 89–673, §5, 80 Stat. 952.
7342(e) 22:2626. Oct. 15, 1966, Pub. L. 89–673, §7, 80 Stat. 952.

The definitions of “employee” and “uniformed services” in 5 U.S.C. 2105 and 2101 are broad enough to cover the persons included in 22 U.S.C. 2621(1) with the exception of (1) individuals employed by, or occupying an office or position in, the government of a territory or possession of the United States or of the District of Columbia, (2) the President, and (3) Members of Congress, who, accordingly, are covered in paragraphs (B), (D), and (E). As the Canal Zone Government is an independent agency of the United States, see section 31 of title 2, Canal Zone Code, an employee thereof is an “employee” as defined in 5 U.S.C. 2105.

In subsection (b), the words “An employee may not” are substituted for “No person shall” to conform to the definition applicable and style of title 5, United States Code.

In subsection (c), the words “under regulations prescribed under this section” are substituted for “in accordance with the rules and regulations issued pursuant to this Act”.

In subsection (e), the words “The President may prescribe regulations to carry out the purpose of this section” are substituted for “Rules and regulations to carry out the purposes of this Act may be prescribed by or under the authority of the President”. Under 3 U.S.C. 301, the President may delegate the authority vested in him by this subsection.

References in Text

Section 152 of the Internal Revenue Code of 1986, referred to in subsec. (a)(1)(G), is classified to section 152 of Title 26, Internal Revenue Code.

Section 501 of the Internal Revenue Code of 1986, referred to in subsec. (e)(2), is classified to section 501 of Title 26, Internal Revenue Code.

Section 108A of the Mutual Educational and Cultural Exchange Act of 1961, referred to in subsec. (k), is classified to section 2458a of Title 22, Foreign Relations and Intercourse.

Amendments

2011—Subsec. (e)(1). Pub. L. 111–350 substituted “division C (except sections 3302, 3501(b), 3509, 3906, 4710, and 4711) of subtitle I of title 41” for “title III of the Federal Property and Administrative Services Act of 1949 (41 U.S.C. 251 et seq.)”.

2010—Subsec. (f)(4). Pub. L. 111–259 amended par. (4) generally. Prior to amendment, par. (4) read as follows:

“(A) In transmitting such listings for the Central Intelligence Agency, the Director of the Central Intelligence Agency may delete the information described in subparagraphs (A) and (C) of paragraphs (2) and (3) if the Director certifies in writing to the Secretary of State that the publication of such information could adversely affect United States intelligence sources.

“(B) In transmitting such listings for the Office of the Director of National Intelligence, the Director of National Intelligence may delete the information described in subparagraphs (A) and (C) of paragraphs (2) and (3) if the Director certifies in writing to the Secretary of State that the publication of such information could adversely affect United States intelligence sources.”

2006—Subsec. (a)(1)(A). Pub. L. 109–435 substituted “Postal Regulatory Commission” for “Postal Rate Commission”.

2004—Subsec. (f)(4). Pub. L. 108–458 designated existing provisions as subpar. (A), substituted “the Director of the Central Intelligence Agency” for “the Director of Central Intelligence”, and added subpar. (B).

2002—Subsec. (e)(1). Pub. L. 107–217 substituted “provisions of subtitle I of title 40 and title III of the Federal Property and Administrative Services Act of 1949 (41 U.S.C. 251 et seq.)” for “provisions of the Federal Property and Administrative Services Act of 1949”.

1986—Subsecs. (a)(1)(G), (e)(2). Pub. L. 99–514 substituted “Internal Revenue Code of 1986” for “Internal Revenue Code of 1954”.

1978—Subsec. (a)(6)(A). Pub. L. 95–426, §712(a)(1), substituted “(e)(1)” for “(e)”.

Subsec. (a)(6)(B). Pub. L. 95–426, §712(a)(2), inserted “, except that those responsibilities (other than responsibilities involving approval of the employing agency) specified in subsection (c)(2), (d), and (g)(2)(B) shall be carried out by the Secretary of the Senate”.

Subsec. (c)(2). Pub. L. 95–426, §712(b)(1), substituted “subsection (e)(1) or provide for its disposal in accordance with subsection (e)(2)” for “subsection (e)”.

Subsec. (d). Pub. L. 95–426, §712(b)(2), substituted “official use, for forwarding”, for “official use, or forwarding”, and “subsection (e)(1), or for disposal in accordance with subsection (e)(2)” for “subsection (e)”.

Subsec. (e). Pub. L. 95–426, §712(c), designated existing provisions as par. (1), substituted “Except as provided in paragraph (2), gifts” for “Gifts”, “(A)” and “(B)” for “(1)” and “(2)”, respectively, and added par. (2).

1977—Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 95–105 in par. (1) inserted provisions expanding definition of “employee” to include an officer or employee of the United States Postal Service or Postal Rate Commission, certain experts and consultants, the Vice President, and any Delegate to Congress, in par. (2) incorporated existing provisions into subpars. (A) and (C) and added subpar. (B), in par. (3) substituted reference to tangible or intangible present for reference to present, in par. (4) inserted reference to award, and added pars. (5) and (6).

Subsec. (b). Pub. L. 95–105 designated existing provisions as par. (1) and added par. (2).

Subsec. (c). Pub. L. 95–105 incorporated existing provisions of pars. (1) and (2) into par. (1), inserted provisions giving congressional consent to acceptance of a gift in the nature of an educational scholarship, medical treatment, or travel or travel expenses, and added pars. (2) and (3).

Subsec. (d). Pub. L. 95–105 struck out provisions requiring the Secretary of State to concur with the approval of the employing agency and substituted provisions requiring the employee to deposit property within 60 days of acceptance with the employing agency for official use or forwarding to the Administrator of General Services for disposal for provisions requiring the employee to deposit the decoration for use and disposal as the property of the United States under regulations prescribed under this section.

Subsec. (e). Pub. L. 95–105 substituted provisions relating to the disposal of decorations for provisions authorizing the President to prescribe regulations to carry out the purposes of this section.

Subsecs. (f) to (k). Pub. L. 95–105 added subsecs. (f) to (k).

Effective Date of 2004 Amendment

For Determination by President that amendment by Pub. L. 108–458 take effect on Apr. 21, 2005, see Memorandum of President of the United States, Apr. 21, 2005, 70 F.R. 23925, set out as a note under section 401 of Title 50, War and National Defense.

Amendment by Pub. L. 108–458 effective not later than six months after Dec. 17, 2004, except as otherwise expressly provided, see section 1097(a) of Pub. L. 108–458, set out as an Effective Date of 2004 Amendment; Transition Provisions note under section 401 of Title 50, War and National Defense.

Effective Date of 1977 Amendment

Section 515(a)(2) of Pub. L. 95–105 provided that: “The amendment made by paragraph (1) of this subsection [amending this section] shall take effect on January 1, 1978.”

Transfer of Functions

Certain functions of Clerk of House of Representatives transferred to Director of Non-legislative and Financial Services by section 7 of House Resolution No. 423, One Hundred Second Congress, Apr. 9, 1992. Director of Non-legislative and Financial Services replaced by Chief Administrative Officer of House of Representatives by House Resolution No. 6, One Hundred Fourth Congress, Jan. 4, 1995.

Leasing of Space and Facilities for Storing and Safeguarding Property

Section 712(d) of Pub. L. 95–426 provided that: “In the event that the space and facilities available to the Secretary of the Senate for carrying out his responsibilities in storing and safeguarding property in his custody under section 7342 of title 5, United States Code, are insufficient for such purpose, he may, with the approval of the Committee on Rules and Administration of the Senate, lease such space and facilities as may be necessary for such purpose. Rental payments under any such lease and expenses incurred in connection therewith shall be paid from the contingent fund of the Senate upon vouchers approved by the Secretary of the Senate.”

Wearing of Certain Decorations

Section 33A of act Aug. 10, 1956, ch. 1041, as added by Pub. L. 85–861, Sept. 2, 1958, §33(e), 72 Stat. 1567, provided: “A member or former member of an armed force of the United States holding any office of profit or trust under the United States may wear any decoration, order, medal, or emblem accepted (1) under the Act of July 20, 1942, chapter 508 (56 Stat. 662), or (2) before August 1, 1947, from the government of a cobelligerent or neutral nation or an American Republic.”

Executive Order No. 11320

Ex. Ord. No. 11320, Dec. 12, 1966, 31 F.R. 15789, which delegated to the Secretary of State the authority of the President under 22 U.S.C. 2626 to prescribe rules and regulations to carry out the Foreign Gifts and Decorations Act of 1966, was revoked by Ex. Ord. No. 12553, Feb. 25, 1986, 51 F.R. 7237.

Ex Ord. No. 11446. Acceptance of Service Medals and Ribbons From Multilateral Organizations Other Than United Nations

Ex. Ord. No. 11446, Jan. 16, 1969, 34 F.R. 803, as amended by Ex. Ord. No. 13286, §62, Feb. 28, 2003, 68 F.R. 10629, provided:

By virtue of the authority vested in me as President of the United States and as Commander in Chief of the Armed Forces of the United States, I hereby authorize the Secretary of Defense, with respect to members of the Army, Navy, Air Force, and Marine Corps, and the Secretary of Homeland Security, with respect to members of the Coast Guard when it is not operating as a service in the Navy, to prescribe regulations for the acceptance of medals and ribbons which are offered by multilateral organizations, other than the United Nations, to members of the Armed Forces of the United States in recognition of service conducted under the auspices of those organizations. A determination that service for a multilateral organization in a particular geographical area or for a particular purpose constitutes a justifiable basis for authorizing acceptance of the medal or ribbon offered to eligible members of the Armed Forces of the United States shall be made with the concurrence of the Secretary of State.

SUBCHAPTER V—MISCONDUCT

§7351. Gifts to superiors

(a) An employee may not—

(1) solicit a contribution from another employee for a gift to an official superior;

(2) make a donation as a gift or give a gift to an official superior; or

(3) accept a gift from an employee receiving less pay than himself.


(b) An employee who violates this section shall be subject to appropriate disciplinary action by the employing agency or entity.

(c) Each supervising ethics office (as defined in section 7353(d)(1)) is authorized to issue regulations implementing this section, including regulations exempting voluntary gifts or contributions that are given or received for special occasions such as marriage or retirement or under other circumstances in which gifts are traditionally given or exchanged.

(Pub. L. 89–554, Sept. 6, 1966, 80 Stat. 527; Pub. L. 101–194, title III, §301, Nov. 30, 1989, 103 Stat. 1745; Pub. L. 101–280, §4(a), May 4, 1990, 104 Stat. 157.)

Historical and Revision Notes
DerivationU.S. CodeRevised Statutes and

Statutes at Large

5 U.S.C. 113. R.S. §1784.

The application of the section is confined to employees, since the President and Members of Congress, though officers, could not have been intended to be “summarily discharged”, and members of uniformed services are not covered by this statute. In the last sentence, the word “removed” is substituted for “summarily discharged” because of the provisions of the Lloyd-LaFollette Act, 37 Stat. 555, as amended, and the Veterans’ Preference Act of 1944, 58 Stat. 387, as amended, which are carried into this title.

Standard changes are made to conform with the definitions applicable and the style of this title as outlined in the preface to the report.

Amendments

1990—Subsec. (a)(2). Pub. L. 101–280, §4(a)(1), inserted “or give a gift” after “donation as a gift”.

Subsec. (c). Pub. L. 101–280, §4(a)(2), substituted “Each supervising ethics office (as defined in section 7353(d)(1))” for “The Office of Government Ethics” and “circumstances in which gifts are traditionally given or exchanged” for “similar circumstances”.

1989—Pub. L. 101–194 designated existing provisions as subsec. (a), struck out “An employee who violates this section shall be removed from the service.” at end, and added subsecs. (b) and (c).

Inapplicability to Transfers of Unused Accrued Annual Leave by Federal Employees; Exception

Pub. L. 100–284, Apr. 7, 1988, 102 Stat. 81, provided: “That, except as the Office of Personnel Management may by regulation prescribe, nothing in section 7351 of title 5, United States Code, shall apply with respect to a solicitation, donation, or acceptance of leave under any program under which, during the fiscal year ending on September 30, 1988, unused accrued annual leave of officers or employees of the Federal Government may be transferred for use by other officers or employees who need such leave due to a personal emergency.”

§7352. Excessive and habitual use of intoxicants

An individual who habitually uses intoxicating beverages to excess may not be employed in the competitive service.

(Pub. L. 89–554, Sept. 6, 1966, 80 Stat. 527.)

Historical and Revision Notes
DerivationU.S. CodeRevised Statutes and

Statutes at Large

5 U.S.C. 640. Jan. 16, 1883, ch. 27, §8, 22 Stat. 406.

The word “employed” is substituted for “appointed to, or retained in” because it includes both.

Standard changes are made to conform with the definitions applicable and the style of this title as outlined in the preface to the report.

§7353. Gifts to Federal employees

(a) Except as permitted by subsection (b), no Member of Congress or officer or employee of the executive, legislative, or judicial branch shall solicit or accept anything of value from a person—

(1) seeking official action from, doing business with, or (in the case of executive branch officers and employees) conducting activities regulated by, the individual's employing entity; or

(2) whose interests may be substantially affected by the performance or nonperformance of the individual's official duties.


(b)(1) Each supervising ethics office is authorized to issue rules or regulations implementing the provisions of this section and providing for such reasonable exceptions as may be appropriate.

(2)(A) Subject to subparagraph (B), a Member, officer, or employee may accept a gift pursuant to rules or regulations established by such individual's supervising ethics office pursuant to paragraph (1).

(B) No gift may be accepted pursuant to subparagraph (A) in return for being influenced in the performance of any official act.

(3) Nothing in this section precludes a Member, officer, or employee from accepting gifts on behalf of the United States Government or any of its agencies in accordance with statutory authority.

(4) Nothing in this section precludes an employee of a private sector organization, while assigned to an agency under chapter 37, from continuing to receive pay and benefits from such organization in accordance with such chapter.

(c) A Member of Congress or an officer or employee who violates this section shall be subject to appropriate disciplinary and other remedial action in accordance with any applicable laws, Executive orders, and rules or regulations.

(d) For purposes of this section—

(1) the term “supervising ethics office” means—

(A) the Committee on Standards of Official Conduct of the House of Representatives or the House of Representatives as a whole, for Members, officers, and employees of the House of Representatives;

(B) the Select Committee on Ethics of the Senate, or the Senate as a whole, for Senators, officers, and employees of the Senate;

(C) the Judicial Conference of the United States for judges and judicial branch officers and employees;

(D) the Office of Government Ethics for all executive branch officers and employees; and

(E) in the case of legislative branch officers and employees other than those specified in subparagraphs (A) and (B), the committee referred to in either such subparagraph to which reports filed by such officers and employees under title I of the Ethics in Government Act of 1978 are transmitted under such title, except that the authority of this section may be delegated by such committee with respect to such officers and employees; and


(2) the term “officer or employee” means an individual holding an appointive or elective position in the executive, legislative, or judicial branch of Government, other than a Member of Congress.

(Added Pub. L. 101–194, title III, §303(a), Nov. 30, 1989, 103 Stat. 1746; amended Pub. L. 101–280, §4(d), May 4, 1990, 104 Stat. 158; Pub. L. 107–347, title II, §209(g)(1)(C), Dec. 17, 2002, 116 Stat. 2932.)

References in Text

The Ethics in Government Act of 1978, referred to in subsec. (d)(1)(E), is Pub. L. 95–521, Oct. 26, 1978, 92 Stat. 1824, as amended. Title I of the Act, which was classified principally to chapter 18 (§701 et seq.) of Title 2, The Congress, was amended generally by Pub. L. 101–194, title II, §202, Nov. 30, 1989, 103 Stat. 1724, and as so amended, is set out in the Appendix to this title. For complete classification of this Act to the Code, see Short Title note set out under section 101 of Pub. L. 95–521 in the Appendix to this title and Tables.

Amendments

2002—Subsec. (b)(4). Pub. L. 107–347 added par. (4).

1990—Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 101–280, §4(d)(1)(A), substituted “branch” for “branches” in introductory provisions.

Subsec. (a)(1). Pub. L. 101–280, §4(d)(1)(B), substituted “by, the” for “by the” and “entity” for “agency”.

Subsec. (c). Pub. L. 101–280, §4(d)(2), substituted “A Member of Congress or an officer or employee” for “An employee”.

Subsec. (d)(1)(B). Pub. L. 101–280, §4(d)(3)(A)(i), substituted “officers,” for “officers”.

Subsec. (d)(1)(E). Pub. L. 101–280, §4(d)(3)(A)(ii), amended subpar. (E) generally. Prior to amendment, subpar. (E) read as follows: “the ethics committee with which the officer or employee is required to file financial disclosure forms, for all legislative branch officers and employees other than those specified in subparagraphs (A) and (B), except that such authority may be delegated; and”.

Subsec. (d)(2). Pub. L. 101–280, §4(d)(3)(B), substituted “Government,” for “Government”.

Effective Date of 2002 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 107–347 effective 120 days after Dec. 17, 2002, see section 402(a) of Pub. L. 107–347, set out as an Effective Date note under section 3601 of Title 44, Public Printing and Documents.

Limitation on Acceptance of Honorary Club Memberships

Pub. L. 110–402, §2, Oct. 13, 2008, 122 Stat. 4255, provided that:

“(a) Definitions.—In this section:

“(1) Gift.—The term ‘gift’ has the meaning given under section 109(5) of the Ethics in Government Act of 1978 (5 U.S.C. App.).

“(2) Judicial officer.—The term ‘judicial officer’ has the meaning given under section 109(10) of the Ethics in Government Act of 1978 (5 U.S.C. App.).

“(b) Prohibition on Acceptance of Honorary Club Memberships.—A judicial officer may not accept a gift of an honorary club membership with a value of more than $50 in any calendar year.”

SUBCHAPTER VI—DRUG ABUSE, ALCOHOL ABUSE, AND ALCOHOLISM

§7361. Drug abuse

(a) The Office of Personnel Management shall be responsible for developing, in cooperation with the President, with the Secretary of Health and Human Services (acting through the National Institute on Drug Abuse), and with other agencies, and in accordance with applicable provisions of this subchapter, appropriate prevention, treatment, and rehabilitation programs and services for drug abuse among employees. Such agencies are encouraged to extend, to the extent feasible, such programs and services to the families of employees and to employees who have family members who are drug abusers. Such programs and services shall make optimal use of existing governmental facilities, services, and skills.

(b) Section 527 1 of the Public Health Service Act (42 U.S.C. 290ee–3), relating to confidentiality of records, and any regulations prescribed thereunder, shall apply with respect to records maintained for the purpose of carrying out this section.

(c) Each agency shall, with respect to any programs or services provided by such agency, submit such written reports as the Office may require in connection with any report required under section 7363 of this title.

(d) For the purpose of this section, the term “agency” means an Executive agency.

(Added Pub. L. 99–570, title VI, §6002(a)(1), Oct. 27, 1986, 100 Stat. 3207–157.)

References in Text

Section 527 of the Public Health Service Act, referred to in subsec. (b) and formerly classified to section 290ee–3 of Title 42, The Public Health and Welfare, was renumbered section 548 of that Act by Pub. L. 100–77, title VI, §611(2), July 22, 1987, 101 Stat. 516 and then omitted in the general revision of Part D of Subchapter III–A of Chapter 6A of Title 42 by Pub. L. 102–321, title I, §131, July 10, 1992, 106 Stat. 366. Provisions relating to the confidentiality of patient records are now classified to section 290dd–2 of Title 42.

Educational Program for Federal Employees Relating to Drug and Alcohol Abuse

Section 6003 of Pub. L. 99–570 provided that:

“(a) Establishment.—The Director of the Office of Personnel Management shall, in consultation with the Secretary of Health and Human Services, establish a Government-wide education program, using seminars and such other methods as the Director considers appropriate, to carry out the purposes prescribed in subsection (b).

“(b) Purposes.—The program established under this section shall be designed to provide information to Federal Government employees with respect to—

“(1) the short-term and long-term health hazards associated with alcohol abuse and drug abuse;

“(2) the symptoms of alcohol abuse and drug abuse;

“(3) the availability of any prevention, treatment, or rehabilitation programs or services relating to alcohol abuse or drug abuse, whether provided by the Federal Government or otherwise;

“(4) confidentiality protections afforded in connection with any prevention, treatment, or rehabilitation programs or services;

“(5) any penalties provided under law or regulation, and any administrative action (permissive or mandatory), relating to the use of alcohol or drugs by a Federal Government employee or the failure to seek or receive appropriate treatment or rehabilitation services; and

“(6) any other matter which the Director considers appropriate.”

1 See References in Text note below.

§7362. Alcohol abuse and alcoholism

(a) The Office of Personnel Management shall be responsible for developing, in cooperation with the Secretary of Health and Human Services and with other agencies, and in accordance with applicable provisions of this subpart, appropriate prevention, treatment, and rehabilitation programs and services for alcohol abuse and alcoholism among employees. Such agencies are encouraged to extend, to the extent feasible, such programs and services to the families of alcoholic employees and to employees who have family members who are alcoholics. Such programs and services shall make optimal use of existing governmental facilities, services, and skills.

(b) Section 523 1 of the Public Health Service Act (42 U.S.C. 290dd–3), relating to confidentiality of records, and any regulations prescribed thereunder, shall apply with respect to records maintained for the purpose of carrying out this section.

(c) Each agency shall, with respect to any programs or services provided by such agency, submit such written reports as the Office may require in connection with any report required under section 7363 of this title.

(d) For the purpose of this section, the term “agency” means an Executive agency.

(Added Pub. L. 99–570, title VI, §6002(a)(1), Oct. 27, 1986, 100 Stat. 3207–157.)

References in Text

Section 523 of the Public Health Service Act, referred to in subsec. (b) and formerly classified to section 290dd–3 of Title 42, The Public Health and Welfare, was renumbered section 544 of that Act by Pub. L. 100–77, title VI, §611(2), July 22, 1987, 101 Stat. 516 and then omitted in the general revision of Part D of Subchapter III–A of Chapter 6A of Title 42 by Pub. L. 102–321, title I, §131, July 10, 1992, 106 Stat. 366. Provisions relating to the confidentiality of patient records are now classified to section 290dd–2 of Title 42.

1 See References in Text note below.

§7363. Reports to Congress

(a) The Office of Personnel Management shall, within 6 months after the date of the enactment of the Federal Employee Substance Abuse Education and Treatment Act of 1986 and annually thereafter, submit to each House of Congress a report containing the matters described in subsection (b).

(b) Each report under this section shall include—

(1) a description of any programs or services provided under section 7361 or 7362 of this title, including the costs associated with each such program or service and the source and adequacy of any funding 1 such program or service;

(2) a description of the levels of participation in each program and service provided under section 7361 or 7362 of this title, and the effectiveness of such programs and services;

(3) a description of the training and qualifications required of the personnel providing any program or service under section 7361 or 7362 of this title;

(4) a description of the training given to supervisory personnel in connection with recognizing the symptoms of drug or alcohol abuse and the procedures (including those relating to confidentiality) under which individuals are referred for treatment, rehabilitation, or other assistance;

(5) any recommendations for legislation considered appropriate by the Office and any proposed administrative actions; and

(6) information describing any other related activities under section 7904 of this title, and any other matter which the Office considers appropriate.

(Added Pub. L. 99–570, title VI, §6002(a)(1), Oct. 27, 1986, 100 Stat. 3207–158.)

References in Text

The date of the enactment of the Federal Employee Substance Abuse Education and Treatment Act of 1986, referred to in subsec. (a), is the date of enactment of title VI of Pub. L. 99–570 which was approved Oct. 27, 1986.

Termination of Reporting Requirements

For termination, effective May 15, 2000, of reporting provisions in this section, see section 3003 of Pub. L. 104–66, as amended, set out as a note under section 1113 of Title 31, Money and Finance, and page 187 of House Document No. 103–7.

SUBCHAPTER VII—MANDATORY REMOVAL FROM EMPLOYMENT OF CONVICTED LAW ENFORCEMENT OFFICERS

1 So in original. Probably should be followed by “of”.

§7371. Mandatory removal from employment of law enforcement officers convicted of felonies

(a) In this section, the term—

(1) “conviction notice date” means the date on which an agency that employs a law enforcement officer has notice that the officer has been convicted of a felony that is entered by a Federal or State court, regardless of whether that conviction is appealed or is subject to appeal; and

(2) “law enforcement officer” has the meaning given that term under section 8331(20) or 8401(17).


(b) Any law enforcement officer who is convicted of a felony shall be removed from employment as a law enforcement officer on the last day of the first applicable pay period following the conviction notice date.

(c)(1) This section does not prohibit the removal of an individual from employment as a law enforcement officer before a conviction notice date if the removal is properly effected other than under this section.

(2) This section does not prohibit the employment of any individual in any position other than that of a law enforcement officer.

(d) If the conviction is overturned on appeal, the removal shall be set aside retroactively to the date on which the removal occurred, with back pay under section 5596 for the period during which the removal was in effect, unless the removal was properly effected other than under this section.

(e)(1) If removal is required under this section, the agency shall deliver written notice to the employee as soon as practicable, and not later than 5 calendar days after the conviction notice date. The notice shall include a description of the specific reasons for the removal, the date of removal, and the procedures made applicable under paragraph (2).

(2) The procedures under section 7513(b)(2), (3), and (4), (c), (d), and (e) shall apply to any removal under this section. The employee may use the procedures to contest or appeal a removal, but only with respect to whether—

(A) the employee is a law enforcement officer;

(B) the employee was convicted of a felony; or

(C) the conviction was overturned on appeal.


(3) A removal required under this section shall occur on the date specified in subsection (b) regardless of whether the notice required under paragraph (1) of this subsection and the procedures made applicable under paragraph (2) of this subsection have been provided or completed by that date.

(Added Pub. L. 106–554, §1(a)(3) [title VI, §639(a)], Dec. 21, 2000, 114 Stat. 2763, 2763A–168.)

Effective Date

Pub. L. 106–554, §1(a)(3) [title VI, §639(c)], Dec. 21, 2000, 114 Stat. 2763, 2763A–168, provided that: “The amendments made by this section [enacting this subchapter] shall take effect 30 days after the date of enactment of this Act [Dec. 21, 2000] and shall apply to any conviction of a felony entered by a Federal or State court on or after that date.”