(a) The Department of Defense is an executive department of the United States.
(b) The Department is composed of the following:
(1) The Office of the Secretary of Defense.
(2) The Joint Chiefs of Staff.
(3) The Joint Staff.
(4) The Defense Agencies.
(5) Department of Defense Field Activities.
(6) The Department of the Army.
(7) The Department of the Navy.
(8) The Department of the Air Force.
(9) The unified and specified combatant commands.
(10) Such other offices, agencies, activities, and commands as may be established or designated by law or by the President.
(11) All offices, agencies, activities, and commands under the control or supervision of any element named in paragraphs (1) through (10).
(c) If the President establishes or designates an office, agency, activity, or command in the Department of Defense of a kind other than those described in paragraphs (1) through (9) of subsection (b), the President shall notify Congress not later than 60 days thereafter.
(Added Pub. L. 87–651, title II, §202, Sept. 7, 1962, 76 Stat. 517, §131; renumbered §111 and amended Pub. L. 99–433, title I, §101(a)(2), (b), Oct. 1, 1986, 100 Stat. 994, 995.)
|Revised section||Source (U.S. Code)||Source (Statutes at Large)|
|131||5:171(a) (less last 10 words), (b).||July 26, 1947, ch. 343, §201(a) (less last 10 words), (b); restated Aug. 10, 1949, ch. 412, §4 (1st (less last 10 words) and 2d pars.), 63 Stat. 579.|
The words “There is established”, in 5 U.S.C. 171(a), are omitted as executed. 5 U.S.C. 171(b) (1st 26 words) is omitted as covered by the definitions of “department” and “military departments” in section 101(5) and (7), respectively, of this title. 5 U.S.C. 171(b) (27th through 49th words) is omitted as executed. 5 U.S.C. 171(b) (last 18 words) is omitted as surplusage.
1986—Pub. L. 99–433 renumbered section 131 of this title as this section, designated existing provisions as subsec. (a), and added subsecs. (b) and (c).
Pub. L. 104–106, div. A, title IX, §908, Feb. 10, 1996, 110 Stat. 406, provided that:
Section 1(a) of Pub. L. 99–433 provided that: “This Act [see Tables for classification] may be cited as the ‘Goldwater-Nichols Department of Defense Reorganization Act of 1986’.”
For transfer of functions, personnel, assets, and liabilities of the Department of Defense, including the functions of the Secretary of Defense relating thereto, to the Secretary of Homeland Security, and for treatment of related references, see sections 121(g)(2), 183(2), 551(d), 552(d), and 557 of Title 6, Domestic Security, and the Department of Homeland Security Reorganization Plan of November 25, 2002, as modified, set out as a note under section 542 of Title 6.
Missions and functions of elements of Department of Defense as specified in classified annex to Pub. L. 104–201, and related personnel, assets, and balances of appropriations and authorizations of appropriations, transferred to National Imagery and Mapping Agency, see sections 1111 and 1113 of Pub. L. 104–201, set out as notes under section 441 of this title.
Pub. L. 112–81, div. A, title IX, §954, Dec. 31, 2011, 125 Stat. 1551, provided that: “Congress affirms that the Department of Defense has the capability, and upon direction by the President may conduct offensive operations in cyberspace to defend our Nation, Allies and interests, subject to—
“(1) the policy principles and legal regimes that the Department follows for kinetic capabilities, including the law of armed conflict; and
“(2) the War Powers Resolution (50 U.S.C. 1541 et seq.).”
Pub. L. 110–181, div. A, title IX, §952, Jan. 28, 2008, 122 Stat. 291, provided that:
“(1) Assigning either the Under Secretary of Defense for Policy or another official to be the lead policy official for improving and reforming the interagency coordination process on national security issues for the Department of Defense, with an explanation of any decision to name an official other than the Under Secretary and the relative advantages and disadvantages of such decision.
“(2) Giving the official assigned under paragraph (1) the following responsibilities:
“(A) To be the lead person at the Department of Defense for the development of policy affecting the national security interagency process.
“(B) To serve, or designate a person to serve, as the representative of the Department of Defense in Federal Government forums established to address interagency policy, planning, or reforms.
“(C) To advocate, on behalf of the Secretary, for greater interagency coordination and contributions in the execution of the National Security Strategy and particularly specific operational objectives undertaken pursuant to that strategy.
“(D) To make recommendations to the Secretary of Defense on changes to existing Department of Defense regulations or laws to improve the interagency process.
“(E) To serve as the coordinator for all planning and training assistance that is—
“(i) designed to improve the interagency process or the capabilities of other agencies to work with the Department of Defense; and
“(ii) provided by the Department of Defense at the request of other agencies.
“(F) To serve as the lead official in Department of Defense for the development of deployable joint interagency task forces.
“(1) How the official assigned under subsection (b)(1) shall provide input to the Secretary of Defense on an ongoing basis on how to incorporate the need to coordinate with other agencies into the establishment and reform of combatant commands.
“(2) How such official shall develop and make recommendations to the Secretary of Defense on a regular or an ongoing basis on changes to military and civilian personnel to improve interagency coordination.
“(3) How such official shall work with the combatant command that has the mission for joint warfighting experimentation and other interested agencies to develop exercises to test and validate interagency planning and capabilities.
“(4) How such official shall lead, coordinate, or participate in after-action reviews of operations, tests, and exercises to capture lessons learned regarding the functioning of the interagency process and how those lessons learned will be disseminated.
“(5) The role of such official in ensuring that future defense planning guidance takes into account the capabilities and needs of other agencies.
Pub. L. 108–132, §128, Nov. 22, 2003, 117 Stat. 1382, as amended by Pub. L. 108–271, §8(b), July 7, 2004, 118 Stat. 814; Pub. L. 108–324, div. A, §127, Oct. 13, 2004, 118 Stat. 1229, established the Commission on the Review of the Overseas Military Facility Structure of the United States to conduct a thorough study of matters relating to the military facility structure of the United States overseas, directed the Commission to submit a report to the President and Congress not later than Aug. 15, 2005, and provided that the Commission would terminate 45 days after such date.
Pub. L. 106–65, div. A, title XVI, subtitle C, Oct. 5, 1999, 113 Stat. 813, as amended by Pub. L. 106–398, §1 [[div. A], title X, §1091], Oct. 30, 2000, 114 Stat. 1654, 1654A–300, established Commission To Assess United States National Security Space Management and Organization for purpose of assessing (1) manner in which military space assets may be exploited to provide support for United States military operations, (2) current interagency coordination process regarding operation of national security space assets, (3) relationship between intelligence and nonintelligence aspects of national security space, and potential costs and benefits of partial or complete merger of programs, projects, (4) manner in which military space issues are addressed by professional military education institutions, (5) potential costs and benefits of establishing changes to existing organizational structure of Department of Defense for national security space management and organization, and (6) advisability of certain actions relating to assignment of specified officers in United States Space Command; and further provided for report to Congress and Secretary of Defense on its findings and conclusions not later than six months after first meeting, submission to Congress by Secretary of Defense of assessment of Commission's report not later than 90 days after submission of Commission's report, and for termination of Commission 60 days after submission of its report to Congress.
Pub. L. 106–65, div. B, title XXIX, Oct. 5, 1999, 113 Stat. 881, as amended by Pub. L. 107–107, div. A, title X, §1048(g)(9), Dec. 28, 2001, 115 Stat. 1228, established the Commission on the National Military Museum to conduct a study regarding construction of a national military museum in the National Capital Area, directed that appointments to the Commission be made not later than 90 days after Oct. 5, 1999, directed the Commission to convene its first meeting not later than 60 days after all appointments, directed the Commission to submit a report to Congress not later than 12 months after its first meeting, and provided for the termination of the Commission 60 days after submission of its report.
Pub. L. 105–261, div. A, title XII, §1232, Oct. 17, 1998, 112 Stat. 2155, provided that:
“(1) specifically refers to this section; and
“(2) specifically states that such provision of law modifies or supersedes the provisions of this section.
Pub. L. 105–85, div. A, title X, §1081, Nov. 18, 1997, 111 Stat. 1916, provided that:
“(2) An individual who is a member of a commission or panel specified in subsection (b) and is a member or former member of a uniformed service is not subject to the provisions of subsections (b) and (c) of section 5532 of such title with respect to membership on the commission or panel.
“(1) effective as of September 23, 1996, to members of the National Defense Panel established by section 924 of the National Defense Authorization Act for Fiscal Year 1997 (Public Law 104–201; 110 Stat. 2626) [formerly set out below]; and
“(2) effective as of October 9, 1996, to members of the Commission on Servicemembers and Veterans Transition Assistance established by section 701 of the Veterans’ Benefits Improvements Act of 1996 (Public Law 104–275; 110 Stat. 3346; 38 U.S.C. 545 note).”
Pub. L. 104–201, div. A, title IX, §912, Sept. 23, 1996, 110 Stat. 2623, as amended by Pub. L. 109–163, div. A, title IX, §906, Jan. 6, 2006, 119 Stat. 3402, provided that:
Pub. L. 104–201, div. A, title IX, subtitle B, Sept. 23, 1996, 110 Stat. 2623, directed Secretary of Defense, in consultation with Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff, to complete in 1997 a review of defense program of United States, which was to include comprehensive examination of defense strategy, force structure, force modernization plans, infrastructure, budget plan, and other elements of defense program and policies with view toward determining and expressing defense strategy of United States and establishing revised defense program through year 2005, further established National Defense Panel to complete review and report to Secretary not later than Dec. 1, 1997, further directed Secretary to submit final report to Congress not later than Dec. 15, 1997, and provided for termination of Panel 30 days after submission of report to Secretary.
Pub. L. 103–160, div. A, title IX, subtitle E, Nov. 30, 1993, 107 Stat. 1738, as amended by Pub. L. 103–337, div. A, title IX, §923(a)(1), (2), (b)–(d), Oct. 5, 1994, 108 Stat. 2830, 2831, established the Commission on Roles and Missions of the Armed Forces to review the efficacy and appropriateness of post-Cold War era allocations of roles, missions, and functions among the Armed Forces and to evaluate and report on alternatives and make recommendations for changes, directed that appointments to the Commission be made within 45 days after Nov. 30, 1993, and that the Commission convene its first meeting within 30 days of all appointments, and thereafter submit a report not later than one year after the date of its first meeting, directed the Secretary of Defense to submit comments on the report not later than 90 days following receipt, and provided for the termination of the Commission on the last day of the sixteenth month after its first meeting or no earlier than 30 days after submission of comments by the Secretary of Defense.
Pub. L. 103–160, div. A, title XI, §1151, Nov. 30, 1993, 107 Stat. 1758, provided that:
“(2) Paragraph (1) applies to a requirement imposed by law to submit to Congress (or specified committees of Congress) a report on a recurring basis, or upon the occurrence of specified events, if the Secretary determines that the continued requirement to submit that report is unnecessary or incompatible with the efficient management of the Department of Defense.
“(3) The Secretary shall submit with the list an explanation, for each report specified in the list, of the reasons why the Secretary considers the continued requirement to submit the report to be unnecessary or incompatible with the efficient management of the Department of Defense.
Pub. L. 101–510, div. A, title XIII, §1321, Nov. 5, 1990, 104 Stat. 1670, provided that section 1322 of Pub. L. 101–510, with respect to Goldwater-Nichols terminations, repeals certain provisions of law containing terminated report requirements and section 1323 of Pub. L. 101–510, with respect to such terminations, restores effectiveness of selected other provisions of law containing such requirements and described Goldwater-Nichols terminations for purposes of such repeals or restorations.
Pub. L. 101–510, div. A, title XIII, §1323, Nov. 5, 1990, 104 Stat. 1672, restored effectiveness of following report and notification provisions previously terminated by section 602(c) of the Goldwater-Nichols Department of Defense Reorganization Act of 1986, Pub. L. 99–433, formerly set out below: (1) the quarterly report required by section 127(c) of this title relating to emergency and extraordinary expenses, (2) the notifications required by section 2672a(b) of this title relating to urgent acquisitions of interests in land, (3) the notifications required by section 7308(c) of this title relating to the transfer or gift of obsolete, condemned, or captured vessels, and (4) the notifications required by section 7309(b) of this title relating to construction or repair of vessels in foreign shipyards.
Section 3 of Pub. L. 99–433 provided that: “In enacting this Act [see Short Title of 1986 Amendment note above], it is the intent of Congress, consistent with the congressional declaration of policy in section 2 of the National Security Act of 1947 (50 U.S.C. 401)—
“(1) to reorganize the Department of Defense and strengthen civilian authority in the Department;
“(2) to improve the military advice provided to the President, the National Security Council, and the Secretary of Defense;
“(3) to place clear responsibility on the commanders of the unified and specified combatant commands for the accomplishment of missions assigned to those commands;
“(4) to ensure that the authority of the commanders of the unified and specified combatant commands is fully commensurate with the responsibility of those commanders for the accomplishment of missions assigned to their commands;
“(5) to increase attention to the formulation of strategy and to contingency planning;
“(6) to provide for more efficient use of defense resources;
“(7) to improve joint officer management policies; and
“(8) otherwise to enhance the effectiveness of military operations and improve the management and administration of the Department of Defense.”
Section 602 of Pub. L. 99–433, as amended by Pub. L. 100–180, div. A, title XIII, §1314(a)(4), Dec. 4, 1987, 101 Stat. 1175; Pub. L. 101–189, div. A, title II, §243, Nov. 29, 1989, 103 Stat. 1402; Pub. L. 101–510, div. A, title XIII, §1324, Nov. 5, 1990, 104 Stat. 1673; Pub. L. 102–83, §5(c)(2), Aug. 6, 1991, 105 Stat. 406, directed Secretary of Defense to compile a list of all provisions of law in effect on or after Oct. 1, 1986, and before Feb. 1, 1987, which require President or any official or employee of Department of Defense to submit a report, notification, or study to Congress or any committee of Congress and to submit this list not later than six months after Oct. 1, 1986, with any recommendation or draft of legislation to implement any changes in law recommended by the Secretary.
Section 604 of Pub. L. 99–433 directed Secretary of Defense, not later than six months after Oct. 1, 1986, to submit to Committees on Armed Services of Senate and House of Representatives a draft of legislation to make any technical and conforming changes to title 10, United States Code, and other provisions of law that are required or should be made by reason of the amendments made by Pub. L. 99–433.
Pub. L. 96–107, title VIII, §808, Nov. 9, 1979, 93 Stat. 814, which directed Secretary of Defense to report annually to Congress on readiness of military forces of NATO, was repealed and restated as section 133a (renumbered §117 and repealed) of this title by Pub. L. 97–295, §§1(2)(A), 6(b), Oct. 12, 1982, 96 Stat. 1287, 1314.
Pub. L. 93–155, title VII, §§701–708, Nov. 16, 1973, 87 Stat. 609–611, established the Commission; provided for its composition, duties, powers, compensation, staff, appropriations, and use of General Services Administration; and directed that interim reports to President and Congress be submitted and that Commission terminate 60 days after its final report which was to be submitted not more than 24 months after appointment of Commission.
Pub. L. 93–155, title VIII, §810, Nov. 16, 1973, 87 Stat. 618, directed the Secretary of Defense to study the relative status of the Air Force Reserve and the Air National Guard of the United States; to measure the effects on costs and combat capability as well as other advantages and disadvantages of (1) merging the Reserve into the Guard, (2) merging the Guard into the Reserve, and (3) retaining the status quo; and to consider the modernization needs and manpower problems of both; and also directed that a report of such study be submitted to the President and to the Congress no later than Jan. 31, 1975.
Eff. June 30, 1953, 18 F.R. 3743, 67 Stat. 638, as amended Aug. 6, 1958, Pub. L. 85–559, §10(b), 72 Stat. 521; Sept. 7, 1962, Pub. L. 87–651, title III, §307C, 76 Stat. 526
Prepared by the President and transmitted to the Senate and the House of Representatives in Congress assembled, April 30, 1953, pursuant to the provisions of the Reorganization Act of 1949, approved June 20, 1949, as amended [see 5 U.S.C. 901 et seq.].
(a) All functions of the Munitions Board, the Research and Development Board, the Defense Supply Management Agency, and the Director of Installations are hereby transferred to the Secretary of Defense.
(b) The selection of the Director of the Joint Staff by the Joint Chiefs of Staff, and his tenure, shall be subject to the approval of the Secretary of Defense.
(c) The selection of the members of the Joint Staff by the Joint Chiefs of Staff, and their tenure, shall be subject to the approval of the Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff.
(d) The functions of the Joint Chiefs of Staff with respect to managing the Joint Staff and the Director thereof are hereby transferred to the Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff.
(a) There are hereby abolished the Munitions Board, the Research and Development Board, and the Defense Supply Management Agency.
(b) The offices of Chairman of the Munitions Board, Chairman of the Research and Development Board, Director of the Defense Supply Management Agency, Deputy Director of the Defense Supply Management Agency, and Director of Installations are hereby abolished.
(c) The Secretary of Defense shall provide for winding up any outstanding affairs of the said abolished agency, boards, and offices, not otherwise provided for in this reorganization plan.
(d) The function of guidance to the Munitions Board in connection with strategic and logistic plans as required by section 213(c) of the National Security Act of 1947, as amended [section 171h(c) of former Title 5], is hereby abolished.
[Repealed. Pub. L. 85–599, §10(b), Aug. 6, 1958, 72 Stat. 521, eff. six months after Aug. 6, 1958. Section authorized appointment of six additional Assistant Secretaries and prescribed their duties and compensation.]
[Repealed. Pub. L. 87–651, title III, §307C, Sept. 7, 1962, 76 Stat. 526. Section authorized appointment of a General Counsel for the Department of Defense. See section 140 of this title.]
[Repealed. Pub. L. 87–651, title III, §307C, Sept. 7, 1962, 76 Stat. 526. Section authorized the Secretary of Defense from time to time to make such provisions as he deemed appropriate authorizing the performance by any other officer, or by any agency or employee, of the Department of any function of the Secretary. See section 113 of this title.]
(a) The Secretary of Defense may from time to time effect such transfers within the Department of Defense of any of the records, property, and personnel affected by this reorganization plan, and such transfers of unexpended balances (available or to be made available for use in connection with any affected function or agency) of appropriations, allocations, and other funds of such Department, as he deems necessary to carry out the provisions of this reorganization plan.
(b) Nothing herein shall affect the compensation of the Chairman of the Military Liaison Committee (63 Stat. 762).
Ex. Ord. No. 12049, Mar. 27, 1978, 43 F.R. 13363, as amended by Ex. Ord. No. 12107, Dec. 28, 1978, 44 F.R. 1055; Ex. Ord. No. 12608, Sept. 9, 1987, 52 F.R. 34617, which provided for establishment of Defense Economic Adjustment Program and continued the Economic Adjustment Committee, was superseded by Ex. Ord. No. 12788, Jan. 15, 1992, 57 F.R. 2213, set out as a note under section 2391 of this title.