10 U.S.C.
United States Code, 2011 Edition
Title 10 - ARMED FORCES
Subtitle A - General Military Law
PART II - PERSONNEL
CHAPTER 37 - GENERAL SERVICE REQUIREMENTS
From the U.S. Government Printing Office, www.gpo.gov

CHAPTER 37—GENERAL SERVICE REQUIREMENTS

Sec.
651.
Members: required service.
652.
Notice to Congress of proposed changes in units, assignments, etc. to which female members may be assigned.
653.
Minimum service requirement for certain flight crew positions.
[654.
Repealed.]
655.
Designation of persons having interest in status of a missing member.

        

Amendments

2010—Pub. L. 111–321, §2(f)(1)(B), Dec. 22, 2010, 124 Stat. 3516, struck out item 654 “Policy concerning homosexuality in the armed forces”.

2006—Pub. L. 109–163, div. A, title V, §541(a)(2), Jan. 6, 2006, 119 Stat. 3252, added item 652.

1996—Pub. L. 104–106, div. A, title V, §569(d)(2), Feb. 10, 1996, 110 Stat. 352, added item 655.

1994—Pub. L. 103–337, div. A, title XVI, §1671(b)(6), Oct. 5, 1994, 108 Stat. 3013, struck out item 652 “Ready Reserves: requirement of notification of change of status”.

1993—Pub. L. 103–160, div. A, title V, §571(a)(2), Nov. 30, 1993, 107 Stat. 1673, added item 654.

1989—Pub. L. 101–189, div. A, title VI, §634(a)(2), Nov. 29, 1989, 103 Stat. 1454, added item 653.

1978—Pub. L. 95–485, title IV, §405(d)(2), Oct. 20, 1978, 92 Stat. 1616, added item 652.

1958—Pub. L. 85–861, §33(a)(4)(A), Sept. 2, 1958, 72 Stat. 1564, substituted “GENERAL SERVICE REQUIREMENTS” for “SERVICE REQUIREMENTS FOR RESERVES” in chapter heading.

Prohibition Against Members of the Armed Forces Participating in Criminal Street Gangs

Pub. L. 110–181, div. A, title V, §544, Jan. 28, 2008, 122 Stat. 116, provided that: “The Secretary of Defense shall prescribe regulations to prohibit the active participation by members of the Armed Forces in a criminal street gang.”

§651. Members: required service

(a) Each person who becomes a member of an armed force, other than a person deferred under the next to the last sentence of section 6(d)(1) of the Military Selective Service Act (50 U.S.C. App. 456(d)(1)) shall serve in the armed forces for a total initial period of not less than six years nor more than eight years, as provided in regulations prescribed by the Secretary of Defense for the armed forces under his jurisdiction and by the Secretary of Homeland Security for the Coast Guard when it is not operating as service in the Navy, unless such person is sooner discharged under such regulations because of personal hardship. Any part of such service that is not active duty or that is active duty for training shall be performed in a reserve component.

(b) Each person covered by subsection (a) who is not a Reserve, and who is qualified, shall, upon his release from active duty, be transferred to a reserve component of his armed force to complete the service required by subsection (a).

(c)(1) For the armed forces under the jurisdiction of the Secretary of Defense, the Secretary may waive the initial period of required service otherwise established pursuant to subsection (a) in the case of the initial appointment of a commissioned officer in a critically short health professional specialty specified by the Secretary for purposes of this subsection.

(2) The minimum period of obligated service for an officer under a waiver under this subsection shall be the greater of—

(A) two years; or

(B) in the case of an officer who has accepted an accession bonus or executed a contract or agreement for the multiyear receipt of special pay for service in the armed forces, the period of obligated service specified in such contract or agreement.

(Aug. 10, 1956, ch. 1041, 70A Stat. 27; Pub. L. 85–861, §§1(12), 36B(3), Sept. 2, 1958, 72 Stat. 1440, 1570; Pub. L. 89–718, §5, Nov. 2, 1966, 80 Stat. 1115; Pub. L. 95–79, title VIII, §803(a), July 30, 1977, 91 Stat. 333; Pub. L. 96–107, title VIII, §805(b), Nov. 9, 1979, 93 Stat. 813; Pub. L. 96–513, title V, §511(18), Dec. 12, 1980, 94 Stat. 2921; Pub. L. 98–94, title X, §1022(b)(1), Sept. 24, 1983, 97 Stat. 670; Pub. L. 107–296, title XVII, §1704(b)(1), Nov. 25, 2002, 116 Stat. 2314; Pub. L. 110–181, div. A, title V, §505, Jan. 28, 2008, 122 Stat. 96.)

Historical and Revision Notes
1956 Act
Revised sectionSource (U.S. Code)Source (Statutes at Large)
651(a)

 

 

 

 

651(b)

 

 

 

 

651(c)

50 App.:454(d)(3) (1st sentence, and less applicability to members of National Security Training Corps).

50 App.:454(d)(3) (2d sentence, and less applicability to members of National Security Training Corps).

50 App.:454(d)(3) (3d and last sentences).

June 24, 1948, ch. 625, §4(d)(3) (less 4th sentence, and less applicability to members of National Security Training Corps); added June 19, 1951, ch. 144, §1(g) (last par., less 4th sentence, and less applicability to members of National Security Training Corps), 65 Stat. 79; July 9, 1952, ch. 608, §813, 66 Stat. 509.

In subsection (a), the word “male” is inserted, since the source statute (Universal Military Training and Service Act (50 U.S.C. App. 451 et seq.)) applies only to male persons. The words “subsequent to the date of enactment of this paragraph [June 19, 1951]” are omitted as executed. The words “becomes a member” are substituted for the words “is inducted, enlisted, or appointed * * * in”. The words “in the armed forces” are substituted for the words “on active training and service in the Armed Forces * * * and in a reserve component”. The last sentence is substituted for the words “or in training in the National Security Training Corps”. The words “under any provision of law” and “including the reserve components thereof” are omitted as surplusage.

In subsection (b), the words “who is not a Reserve” are inserted, since the eight year obligation for Reserves is covered by subsection (a). The words “active duty” are substituted for the words “active training and service”. The last eight words are substituted for the words “and shall serve therein for the remainder of the period which he is required to serve under this paragraph”. The words “physically and mentally” and 50 App.:454(d)(3) (last 15 words of 2d sentence) are omitted as surplusage.

In [former] subsection (c), the words “who is released from active duty” are inserted for clarity. The words “shall become a member” are substituted for the words “it shall be the duty of such person to enlist, enroll, or accept appointment in, or accept assignment to”. The words “there is a vacancy” are substituted for the words “enlistment, enrollment, or appointment in, or assignment to”. 50 App.:454(d)(3) (last sentence) is omitted as surplusage.

1958 Act
Revised sectionSource (U.S. Code)Source (Statutes at Large)
651(a) 50 App.:454(d)(3) (2d sentence). Aug. 9, 1955, ch. 665, §3(a) (last sentence), 69 Stat. 603.

In subsection (a), the word “male” is inserted, since the source statute applies only to male persons. The words “subsequent to the date of enactment of the Reserve Forces Act of 1955” are omitted as executed. The words “becomes a member” are substituted for the words “is inducted, enlisted, or appointed . . . in”. The last sentence is substituted for the words “on active training and service . . . and in a reserve component”. The requirement of transfer to and service in a reserve component, after active training and service is covered by subsection (b) of this section. The words “under any provision of law” and “including the reserve components thereof” are omitted as surplusage.

Amendments

2008—Subsec. (c). Pub. L. 110–181 added subsec. (c).

2002—Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 107–296 substituted “of Homeland Security” for “of Transportation”.

1983—Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 98–94 amended subsec. (a) generally, substituting a reference to service in the armed forces for a total initial period of not less than six years nor more than eight years under prescribed regulations for the prior reference to service in the armed forces for a total of six years.

1980—Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 96–513, substituted “Secretary of Transportation” for “Secretary of the Treasury”, and “section 6(d)(1) of the Military Selective Service Act (50 U.S.C. App. 456(d)(1))” for “section 456(d)(1) of title 50, appendix”.

1979—Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 96–107 struck out “before his twenty-sixth birthday” after “force”.

1977—Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 95–79 struck out “male” after “Each” and “after August 9, 1955,” after “who”.

1966—Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 89–718 struck out reference to persons who enlisted under section 1013 of title 50 in the description of persons not required to serve in the armed forces for a total of six years.

1958—Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 85–861, §1(12), restricted section to male persons who became members of the armed forces after Aug. 9, 1955, excluded persons enlisted under section 1013 of Title 50 or deferred under the next to last sentence of section 456(d)(1) of Title 50, Appendix, reduced from eight to six years the required period of service, required any part of such service that is not active duty or is active duty for training to be performed in a reserve component, and struck out provisions which permitted members of the armed forces to count service in the National Security Training Corps as if it were service in the armed forces for the purposes of this subsection.

Subsec. (c). Pub. L. 85–861, §36B(3), repealed subsec. (c) which required members released from active duty to become members of an organized unit of a reserve component of an officers’ training program.

Effective Date of 2002 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 107–296 effective on the date of transfer of the Coast Guard to the Department of Homeland Security, see section 1704(g) of Pub. L. 107–296, set out as a note under section 101 of this title.

Effective Date of 1983 Amendment

Section 1022(b)(2) of Pub. L. 98–94 provided that: “The amendment made by paragraph (1) [amending this section] shall apply only with respect to persons who enter the Armed Forces 60 or more days after the date of the enactment of this Act [Sept. 24, 1983].”

Effective Date of 1980 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 96–513 effective Dec. 12, 1980, see section 701(b)(3) of Pub. L. 96–513, set out as a note under section 101 of this title.

Effective Date of 1979 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 96–107 applicable to individuals who become members of an Armed Force after Nov. 9, 1979, see section 805(c) of Pub. L. 96–107, set out as a note under section 511 of this title.

Effective Date of 1977 Amendment

Section 803(b) of Pub. L. 95–79 provided that: “The amendments made by subsection (a) [amending this section] shall take effect on the first day of the seventh calendar month beginning after the month in which this Act is enacted [July 1977] and shall apply to any female person who becomes a member of an Armed Force on or after such day.”

§652. Notice to Congress of proposed changes in units, assignments, etc. to which female members may be assigned

(a) Rule for Ground Combat Personnel Policy.—(1) If the Secretary of Defense proposes to make any change described in paragraph (2)(A) or (2)(B) to the ground combat exclusion policy or proposes to make a change described in paragraph (2)(C), the Secretary shall, before any such change is implemented, submit to Congress a report providing notice of the proposed change. Such a change may then be implemented only after the end of a period of 30 days of continuous session of Congress (excluding any day on which either House of Congress is not in session) following the date on which the report is received.

(2) A change referred to in paragraph (1) is a change that—

(A) closes to female members of the armed forces any category of unit or position that at that time is open to service by such members;

(B) opens to service by female members of the armed forces any category of unit or position that at that time is closed to service by such members; or

(C) opens or closes to the assignment of female members of the armed forces any military career designator as described in paragraph (6).


(3) The Secretary shall include in any report under paragraph (1)—

(A) a detailed description of, and justification for, the proposed change; and

(B) a detailed analysis of legal implication of the proposed change with respect to the constitutionality of the application of the Military Selective Service Act (50 App. U.S.C. 451 et seq.) to males only.


(4) In this subsection, the term “ground combat exclusion policy” means the military personnel policies of the Department of Defense and the military departments, as in effect on October 1, 1994, by which female members of the armed forces are restricted from assignment to units and positions below brigade level whose primary mission is to engage in direct combat on the ground.

(5) For purposes of this subsection, the continuity of a session of Congress is broken only by an adjournment of the Congress sine die.

(6) For purposes of this subsection, a military career designator is one that is related to military operations on the ground as of May 18, 2005, and applies—

(A) for enlisted members and warrant officers, to military occupational specialties, specialty codes, enlisted designators, enlisted classification codes, additional skill identifiers, and special qualification identifiers; and

(B) for officers (other than warrant officers), to officer areas of concentration, occupational specialties, specialty codes, designators, additional skill identifiers, and special qualification identifiers.


(b) Other Personnel Policy Changes.—(1) Except in a case covered by section 6035 of this title or by subsection (a), whenever the Secretary of Defense proposes to make a change to military personnel policies described in paragraph (2), the Secretary shall, not less than 30 days before such change is implemented, submit to the Committee on Armed Services of the Senate and the Committee on Armed Services of the House of Representatives notice, in writing, of the proposed change.

(2) Paragraph (1) applies to a proposed military personnel policy change, other than a policy change covered by subsection (a), that would make available to female members of the armed forces assignment to any of the following that, as of the date of the proposed change, is closed to such assignment:

(A) Any type of unit not covered by subsection (a).

(B) Any class of combat vessel.

(C) Any type of combat platform.

(Added Pub. L. 109–163, div. A, title V, §541(a)(1), Jan. 6, 2006, 119 Stat. 3251.)

References in Text

The Military Selective Service Act, referred to in subsec. (a)(3)(B), is act June 24, 1948, ch. 625, 62 Stat. 604, as amended, which is classified principally to section 451 et seq. of Title 50, Appendix, War and National Defense. For complete classification of this Act to the Code, see References in Text note set out under section 451 of Title 50, Appendix, and Tables.

Prior Provisions

A prior section 652, added Pub. L. 95–485, title IV, §405(d)(1), Oct. 20, 1978, 92 Stat. 1616, related to Ready Reserve requirement of notification of change of status, prior to repeal by Pub. L. 103–337, div. A, title XVI, §§1661(a)(3)(A), 1691, Oct. 5, 1994, 108 Stat. 2980, 3026, effective Dec. 1, 1994. See section 10205 of this title.

Provisions similar to those in this section were contained in Pub. L. 103–160, div. A, title V, §542, Nov. 30, 1993, 107 Stat. 1659, which was set out as a note under section 113 of this title, prior to repeal by Pub. L. 109–163, §541(c).

§653. Minimum service requirement for certain flight crew positions

(a) Pilots.—The minimum service obligation of any member who successfully completes training in the armed forces as a pilot shall be 8 years, if the member is trained to fly fixed-wing jet aircraft, or 6 years, if the member is trained to fly any other type of aircraft.

(b) Navigators and Naval Flight Officers.—The minimum service obligation of any member who successfully completes training in the armed forces as a navigator or naval flight officer shall be 6 years.

(c) Definition.—In this section, the term “service obligation” means the period of active duty or, in the case of a member of a reserve component who completed flight training in an active duty for training status as a member of a reserve component, the period of service in an active status in the Selected Reserve required to be served after—

(1) completion of undergraduate pilot training, in the case of training as a pilot;

(2) completion of undergraduate navigator training, in the case of training as a navigator; or

(3) completion of undergraduate training as a naval flight officer, in the case of training as a naval flight officer.

(Added Pub. L. 101–189, div. A, title VI, §634(a)(1), Nov. 29, 1989, 103 Stat. 1454; amended Pub. L. 101–510, div. A, title XIV, §1484(k)(3), Nov. 5, 1990, 104 Stat. 1719; Pub. L. 102–484, div. A, title V, §506(a), Oct. 23, 1992, 106 Stat. 2404.)

Amendments

1992—Subsecs. (a), (b). Pub. L. 102–484, §506(a)(1), substituted “service obligation” for “active duty obligation”.

Subsec. (c). Pub. L. 102–484, §506(a)(2), substituted “the term ‘service obligation’ means the period of active duty or, in the case of a member of a reserve component who completed flight training in an active duty for training status as a member of a reserve component, the period of service in an active status in the Selected Reserve” for “the term ‘active duty obligation’ means the period of active duty”.

1990—Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 101–510, §1484(k)(3)(A), substituted “or” for “and” before “6 years”.

Subsec. (c). Pub. L. 101–510, §1484(k)(3)(B), inserted a comma after first reference to “training” in pars. (1) and (2) and after first reference to “naval flight officer” in par. (3).

Effective Date of 1992 Amendment

Section 506(b) of Pub. L. 102–484 provided that: “The amendments made by subsection (a) [amending this section] shall take effect as of November 29, 1989.”

Effective Date

Section 634(b) of Pub. L. 101–189 provided that:

“(1) Except as provided in paragraphs (2) and (3), section 653 of title 10, United States Code, as added by subsection (a)(1), shall apply to persons who begin undergraduate pilot training, undergraduate navigator training, or undergraduate naval flight officer training, as the case may be, after September 30, 1990.

“(2) Such section shall apply to persons who graduate from the United States Military Academy, the United States Naval Academy, the United States Air Force Academy, and the Coast Guard Academy after December 31, 1991, and to persons who satisfactorily complete the academic and military requirements of the Senior Reserve Officers’ Training Corps program (provided for in chapter 103 of title 10, United States Code) after December 31, 1991.

“(3) The minimum service requirements provided for such section shall not apply in the case of any person who entered into an agreement with the Secretary concerned before October 1, 1990, and who is obligated under the terms of such agreement to serve on active duty for a period less than the applicable period specified in section 653 of such title.

“(4) For purposes of this subsection, the term ‘Secretary concerned’ has the meaning given that term in section 101(8) of title 10, United States Code.”

[For transfer of authorities, functions, personnel, and assets of the Coast Guard, including the authorities and functions of the Secretary of Transportation relating thereto, to the Department of Homeland Security, and for treatment of related references, see sections 468(b), 551(d), 552(d), and 557 of Title 6, Domestic Security, and the Department of Homeland Security Reorganization Plan of November 25, 2002, as modified, set out as a note under section 542 of Title 6.]

[§654. Repealed. Pub. L. 111–321, §2(f)(1)(A), Dec. 22, 2010, 124 Stat. 3516]

Section, added Pub. L. 103–160, div. A, title V, §571(a)(1), Nov. 30, 1993, 107 Stat. 1670, related to policy concerning homosexuality in the armed forces.

Effective Date of Repeal

Repeal effective on the date established by section 2(b) of Pub. L. 111–321, set out below.

Don't Ask, Don't Tell Repeal

Pub. L. 111–321, Dec. 22, 2010, 124 Stat. 3515, provided that:

“SECTION 1. SHORT TITLE.

“This Act may be cited as the ‘Don't Ask, Don't Tell Repeal Act of 2010’.

“SEC. 2. DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE POLICY CONCERNING HOMOSEXUALITY IN THE ARMED FORCES.

“(a) Comprehensive Review on the Implementation of a Repeal of 10 U.S.C. 654.—

“(1) In general.—On March 2, 2010, the Secretary of Defense issued a memorandum directing the Comprehensive Review on the Implementation of a Repeal of 10 U.S.C. 654 (section 654 of title 10, United States Code).

“(2) Objectives and scope of review.—The Terms of Reference accompanying the Secretary's memorandum established the following objectives and scope of the ordered review:

“(A) Determine any impacts to military readiness, military effectiveness and unit cohesion, recruiting/retention, and family readiness that may result from repeal of the law and recommend any actions that should be taken in light of such impacts.

“(B) Determine leadership, guidance, and training on standards of conduct and new policies.

“(C) Determine appropriate changes to existing policies and regulations, including but not limited to issues regarding personnel management, leadership and training, facilities, investigations, and benefits.

“(D) Recommend appropriate changes (if any) to the Uniform Code of Military Justice [10 U.S.C. 801 et seq.].

“(E) Monitor and evaluate existing legislative proposals to repeal 10 U.S.C. 654 and proposals that may be introduced in the Congress during the period of the review.

“(F) Assure appropriate ways to monitor the workforce climate and military effectiveness that support successful follow-through on implementation.

“(G) Evaluate the issues raised in ongoing litigation involving 10 U.S.C. 654.

“(b) Effective Date.—The amendments made by subsection (f) shall take effect 60 days after the date on which the last of the following occurs:

“(1) The Secretary of Defense has received the report required by the memorandum of the Secretary referred to in subsection (a).

“(2) The President transmits to the congressional defense committees a written certification, signed by the President, the Secretary of Defense, and the Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff, stating each of the following:

“(A) That the President, the Secretary of Defense, and the Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff have considered the recommendations contained in the report and the report's proposed plan of action.

“(B) That the Department of Defense has prepared the necessary policies and regulations to exercise the discretion provided by the amendments made by subsection (f).

“(C) That the implementation of necessary policies and regulations pursuant to the discretion provided by the amendments made by subsection (f) is consistent with the standards of military readiness, military effectiveness, unit cohesion, and recruiting and retention of the Armed Forces.

“(c) No Immediate Effect on Current Policy.—Section 654 of title 10, United States Code, shall remain in effect until such time that all of the requirements and certifications required by subsection (b) are met. If these requirements and certifications are not met, section 654 of title 10, United States Code, shall remain in effect.

“(d) Benefits.—Nothing in this section, or the amendments made by this section, shall be construed to require the furnishing of benefits in violation of section 7 of title 1, United States Code (relating to the definitions of ‘marriage’ and ‘spouse’ and referred to as the ‘Defense of Marriage Act’).

“(e) No Private Cause of Action.—Nothing in this section, or the amendments made by this section, shall be construed to create a private cause of action.

“(f) Treatment of 1993 Policy.—

“(1) Title 10.—Upon the effective date established by subsection (b), chapter 37 of title 10, United States Code, is amended—

“(A) by striking section 654; and

“(B) in the table of sections at the beginning of such chapter, by striking the item relating to section 654.

“(2) Conforming amendment.—Upon the effective date established by subsection (b), section 571 of the National Defense Authorization Act for Fiscal Year 1994 [Pub. L. 103–160] (10 U.S.C. 654 note) is amended by striking subsections (b), (c), and (d).”

[The report referred to in section 2(b)(1) of Pub. L. 111–321, set out above, was released Nov. 30, 2010. The certification referred to in section 2(b)(2) of Pub. L. 111–321 was transmitted July 22, 2011.]

Implementation of Section; Regulations; Savings Provision; Sense of Congress

Pub. L. 103–160, div. A, title V, §571(b)–(d), Nov. 30, 1993, 107 Stat. 1671, 1672, which required the Secretary of Defense to issue regulations to implement this section, provided a savings provision for actions and proceedings commenced prior to the effective date of such regulations, and provided the sense of Congress regarding the policy set forth in this section, was repealed by Pub. L. 111–321, §2(f)(2), Dec. 22, 2010, 124 Stat. 3516, effective on the date established by section 2(b) of Pub. L. 111–321, set out above.

§655. Designation of persons having interest in status of a missing member

(a) The Secretary concerned shall, upon the enlistment or appointment of a person in the armed forces, require that the person specify in writing the person or persons, if any, other than that person's primary next of kin or immediate family, to whom information on the whereabouts and status of the member shall be provided if such whereabouts and status are investigated under chapter 76 of this title. The Secretary shall periodically, and whenever the member is deployed as part of a contingency operation or in other circumstances specified by the Secretary, require that such designation be reconfirmed, or modified, by the member.

(b) The Secretary concerned shall, upon the request of a member, permit the member to revise the person or persons specified by the member under subsection (a) at any time. Any such revision shall be in writing.

(Added Pub. L. 104–106, div. A, title V, §569(d)(1), Feb. 10, 1996, 110 Stat. 352.)