10 U.S.C.
United States Code, 2011 Edition
Title 10 - ARMED FORCES
Subtitle A - General Military Law
PART II - PERSONNEL
CHAPTER 53 - MISCELLANEOUS RIGHTS AND BENEFITS
Sec. 1034 - Protected communications; prohibition of retaliatory personnel actions
From the U.S. Government Printing Office, www.gpo.gov

§1034. Protected communications; prohibition of retaliatory personnel actions

(a) Restricting Communications With Members of Congress and Inspector General Prohibited.—(1) No person may restrict a member of the armed forces in communicating with a Member of Congress or an Inspector General.

(2) Paragraph (1) does not apply to a communication that is unlawful.

(b) Prohibition of Retaliatory Personnel Actions.—(1) No person may take (or threaten to take) an unfavorable personnel action, or withhold (or threaten to withhold) a favorable personnel action, as a reprisal against a member of the armed forces for making or preparing—

(A) a communication to a Member of Congress or an Inspector General that (under subsection (a)) may not be restricted; or

(B) a communication that is described in subsection (c)(2) and that is made (or prepared to be made) to—

(i) a Member of Congress;

(ii) an Inspector General (as defined in subsection (i)) or any other Inspector General appointed under the Inspector General Act of 1978;

(iii) a member of a Department of Defense audit, inspection, investigation, or law enforcement organization;

(iv) any person or organization in the chain of command; or

(v) any other person or organization designated pursuant to regulations or other established administrative procedures for such communications.


(2) Any action prohibited by paragraph (1) (including the threat to take any unfavorable action and the withholding or threat to withhold any favorable action) shall be considered for the purposes of this section to be a personnel action prohibited by this subsection.

(c) Inspector General Investigation of Allegations of Prohibited Personnel Actions.—(1) If a member of the armed forces submits to an Inspector General an allegation that a personnel action prohibited by subsection (b) has been taken (or threatened) against the member with respect to a communication described in paragraph (2), the Inspector General shall take the action required under paragraph (3).

(2) A communication described in this paragraph is a communication in which a member of the armed forces complains of, or discloses information that the member reasonably believes constitutes evidence of, any of the following:

(A) A violation of law or regulation, including a law or regulation prohibiting sexual harassment or unlawful discrimination.

(B) Gross mismanagement, a gross waste of funds, an abuse of authority, or a substantial and specific danger to public health or safety.

(C) A threat by another member of the armed forces or employee of the Federal Government that indicates a determination or intent to kill or cause serious bodily injury to members of the armed forces or civilians or damage to military, Federal, or civilian property.


(3)(A) An Inspector General receiving an allegation as described in paragraph (1) shall expeditiously determine, in accordance with regulations prescribed under subsection (h), whether there is sufficient evidence to warrant an investigation of the allegation.

(B) If the Inspector General receiving such an allegation is an Inspector General within a military department, that Inspector General shall promptly notify the Inspector General of the Department of Defense of the allegation. Such notification shall be made in accordance with regulations prescribed under subsection (h).

(C) If an allegation under paragraph (1) is submitted to an Inspector General within a military department and if the determination of that Inspector General under subparagraph (A) is that there is not sufficient evidence to warrant an investigation of the allegation, that Inspector General shall forward the matter to the Inspector General of the Department of Defense for review.

(D) Upon determining that an investigation of an allegation under paragraph (1) is warranted, the Inspector General making the determination shall expeditiously investigate the allegation. In the case of a determination made by the Inspector General of the Department of Defense, that Inspector General may delegate responsibility for the investigation to an appropriate Inspector General within a military department.

(E) In the case of an investigation under subparagraph (D) within the Department of Defense, the results of the investigation shall be determined by, or approved by, the Inspector General of the Department of Defense (regardless of whether the investigation itself is conducted by the Inspector General of the Department of Defense or by an Inspector General within a military department).

(4) Neither an initial determination under paragraph (3)(A) nor an investigation under paragraph (3)(D) is required in the case of an allegation made more than 60 days after the date on which the member becomes aware of the personnel action that is the subject of the allegation.

(5) The Inspector General of the Department of Defense, or the Inspector General of the Department of Homeland Security (in the case of a member of the Coast Guard when the Coast Guard is not operating as a service in the Navy), shall ensure that the Inspector General conducting the investigation of an allegation under this subsection is outside the immediate chain of command of both the member submitting the allegation and the individual or individuals alleged to have taken the retaliatory action.

(d) Inspector General Investigation of Underlying Allegations.—Upon receiving an allegation under subsection (c), the Inspector General receiving the allegation shall conduct a separate investigation of the information that the member making the allegation believes constitutes evidence of wrongdoing (as described in subparagraph (A) or (B) of subsection (c)(2)) if there previously has not been such an investigation or if the Inspector General determines that the original investigation was biased or otherwise inadequate. In the case of an allegation received by the Inspector General of the Department of Defense, the Inspector General may delegate that responsibility to the Inspector General of the armed force concerned.

(e) Reports on Investigations.—(1) After completion of an investigation under subsection (c) or (d) or, in the case of an investigation under subsection (c) by an Inspector General within a military department, after approval of the report of that investigation under subsection (c)(3)(E), the Inspector General conducting the investigation shall submit a report on the results of the investigation to the Secretary of Defense (or to the Secretary of Homeland Security in the case of a member of the Coast Guard when the Coast Guard is not operating as a service in the Navy) and shall transmit a copy of the report on the results of the investigation to the member of the armed forces who made the allegation investigated. The report shall be transmitted to the Secretary, and the copy of the report shall be transmitted to the member, not later than 30 days after the completion of the investigation or, in the case of an investigation under subsection (c) by an Inspector General within a military department, after approval of the report of that investigation under subsection (c)(3)(E).

(2) In the copy of the report transmitted to the member, the Inspector General shall ensure the maximum disclosure of information possible, with the exception of information that is not required to be disclosed under section 552 of title 5. However, the copy need not include summaries of interviews conducted, nor any document acquired, during the course of the investigation. Such items shall be transmitted to the member, if the member requests the items, with the copy of the report or after the transmittal to the member of the copy of the report, regardless of whether the request for those items is made before or after the copy of the report is transmitted to the member.

(3) If, in the course of an investigation of an allegation under this section, the Inspector General determines that it is not possible to submit the report required by paragraph (1) within 180 days after the date of receipt of the allegation being investigated, the Inspector General shall provide to the Secretary of Defense (or to the Secretary of Homeland Security in the case of a member of the Coast Guard when the Coast Guard is not operating as a service in the Navy) and to the member making the allegation a notice—

(A) of that determination (including the reasons why the report may not be submitted within that time); and

(B) of the time when the report will be submitted.


(4) The report on the results of the investigation shall contain a thorough review of the facts and circumstances relevant to the allegation and the complaint or disclosure and shall include documents acquired during the course of the investigation, including summaries of interviews conducted. The report may include a recommendation as to the disposition of the complaint.

(f) Correction of Records When Prohibited Action Taken.—(1) A board for the correction of military records acting under section 1552 of this title, in resolving an application for the correction of records made by a member or former member of the armed forces who has alleged a personnel action prohibited by subsection (b), on the request of the member or former member or otherwise, may review the matter.

(2) In resolving an application described in paragraph (1), a correction board—

(A) shall review the report of the Inspector General submitted under subsection (e)(1);

(B) may request the Inspector General to gather further evidence; and

(C) may receive oral argument, examine and cross-examine witnesses, take depositions, and, if appropriate, conduct an evidentiary hearing.


(3) If the board elects to hold an administrative hearing, the member or former member who filed the application described in paragraph (1)—

(A) may be provided with representation by a judge advocate if—

(i) the Inspector General, in the report under subsection (e)(1), finds that there is probable cause to believe that a personnel action prohibited by subsection (b) has been taken (or threatened) against the member with respect to a communication described in subsection (c)(2);

(ii) the Judge Advocate General concerned determines that the case is unusually complex or otherwise requires judge advocate assistance to ensure proper presentation of the legal issues in the case; and

(iii) the member is not represented by outside counsel chosen by the member; and


(B) may examine witnesses through deposition, serve interrogatories, and request the production of evidence, including evidence contained in the investigatory record of the Inspector General but not included in the report submitted under subsection (e)(1).


(4) The Secretary concerned shall issue a final decision with respect to an application described in paragraph (1) within 180 days after the application is filed. If the Secretary fails to issue such a final decision within that time, the member or former member shall be deemed to have exhausted the member's or former member's administrative remedies under section 1552 of this title.

(5) The Secretary concerned shall order such action, consistent with the limitations contained in sections 1552 and 1553 of this title, as is necessary to correct the record of a personnel action prohibited by subsection (b).

(6) If the Board determines that a personnel action prohibited by subsection (b) has occurred, the Board may recommend to the Secretary concerned that the Secretary take appropriate disciplinary action against the individual who committed such personnel action.

(g) Review by Secretary of Defense.—Upon the completion of all administrative review under subsection (f), the member or former member of the armed forces (except for a member or former member of the Coast Guard when the Coast Guard is not operating as a service in the Navy) who made the allegation referred to in subsection (c)(1), if not satisfied with the disposition of the matter, may submit the matter to the Secretary of Defense. The Secretary shall make a decision to reverse or uphold the decision of the Secretary of the military department concerned in the matter within 90 days after receipt of such a submittal.

(h) Regulations.—The Secretary of Defense, and the Secretary of Homeland Security with respect to the Coast Guard when it is not operating as a service in the Navy, shall prescribe regulations to carry out this section.

(i) Definitions.—In this section:

(1) The term “Member of Congress” includes any Delegate or Resident Commissioner to Congress.

(2) The term “Inspector General” means any of the following:

(A) The Inspector General of the Department of Defense.

(B) The Inspector General of the Department of Homeland Security, in the case of a member of the Coast Guard when the Coast Guard is not operating as a service in the Navy.

(C) Any officer of the armed forces or employee of the Department of Defense who is assigned or detailed to serve as an Inspector General at any level in the Department of Defense.


(3) The term “unlawful discrimination” means discrimination on the basis of race, color, religion, sex, or national origin.

(Aug. 10, 1956, ch. 1041, 70A Stat. 80; Pub. L. 98–525, title XIV, §1405(19)(A), (B)(i), Oct. 19, 1984, 98 Stat. 2622; Pub. L. 100–456, div. A, title VIII, §846(a)(1), Sept. 29, 1988, 102 Stat. 2027; Pub. L. 101–225, title II, §202, Dec. 12, 1989, 103 Stat. 1910; Pub. L. 103–337, div. A, title V, §531(a)–(g)(1), Oct. 5, 1994, 108 Stat. 2756–2758; Pub. L. 105–261, div. A, title IX, §933, Oct. 17, 1998, 112 Stat. 2107; Pub. L. 106–398, §1 [[div. A], title IX, §903], Oct. 30, 2000, 114 Stat. 1654, 1654A–224; Pub. L. 107–296, title XVII, §1704(b)(1), Nov. 25, 2002, 116 Stat. 2314; Pub. L. 108–375, div. A, title V, §591(a), Oct. 28, 2004, 118 Stat. 1933; Pub. L. 110–181, div. A, title X, §1063(a)(8), Jan. 28, 2008, 122 Stat. 322; Pub. L. 112–81, div. A, title V, §523, Dec. 31, 2011, 125 Stat. 1401.)

Historical and Revision Notes
Revised sectionSource (U.S. Code)Source (Statutes at Large)
1034 50 App.:454(a) (last par.) June 24, 1948, ch. 625, §4(a) (last par.); restated June 19, 1951, ch. 144, §1(d) (last par.), 65 Stat. 78.

The words “prevented”, “directly or indirectly”, “concerning any subject”, “or Members”, and “and safety” are omitted as surplusage. The word “unlawful” is substituted for the words “in violation of law”.

References in Text

The Inspector General Act of 1978, referred to in subsec. (b)(1)(B)(ii), is Pub. L. 95–452, Oct. 12, 1978, 92 Stat. 1101, as amended, which is set out in the Appendix to Title 5, Government Organization and Employees.

Amendments

2011—Subsec. (c)(2)(C). Pub. L. 112–81 added subpar. (C).

2008—Subsec. (b)(2). Pub. L. 110–181 inserted “unfavorable” before “action and the withholding”.

2004—Subsec. (b)(1)(B)(iv), (v). Pub. L. 108–375 added cls. (iv) and (v) and struck out former cl. (iv) which read as follows: “any other person or organization (including any person or organization in the chain of command) designated pursuant to regulations or other established administrative procedures for such communications.”

2002—Subsecs. (c)(5), (e)(1), (3), (h), (i)(2)(B). Pub. L. 107–296 substituted “of Homeland Security” for “of Transportation”.

2000—Subsec. (c)(3)(A). Pub. L. 106–398, §1 [[div. A], title IX, §903(a)], inserted “, in accordance with regulations prescribed under subsection (h),” after “shall expeditiously determine”.

Subsec. (i)(2). Pub. L. 106–398, §1 [[div. A], title IX, §903(b)(1)], inserted “any of” after “means” in introductory provisions.

Subsec. (i)(2)(C) to (G). Pub. L. 106–398, §1 [[div. A], title IX, §903(b)(2), (3)], added subpar. (C) and struck out former subpars. (C) to (G) which read as follows:

“(C) The Inspector General of the Army, in the case of a member of the Army.

“(D) The Naval Inspector General, in the case of a member of the Navy.

“(E) The Inspector General of the Air Force, in the case of a member of the Air Force.

“(F) The Deputy Naval Inspector General for Marine Corps Matters, in the case of a member of the Marine Corps.

“(G) An officer of the armed forces assigned or detailed under regulations of the Secretary concerned to serve as an Inspector General at any command level in one of the armed forces.”

1998—Subsec. (b)(1)(B)(ii). Pub. L. 105–261, §933(f)(2), substituted “subsection (i)) or any other Inspector General appointed under the Inspector General Act of 1978” for “subsection (j))”.

Subsec. (c)(1). Pub. L. 105–261, §933(a)(1)(A), added par. (1) and struck out former par. (1) which read as follows: “If a member of the armed forces submits to the Inspector General of the Department of Defense (or the Inspector General of the Department of Transportation, in the case of a member of the Coast Guard when the Coast Guard is not operating as a service in the Navy) an allegation that a personnel action prohibited by subsection (b) has been taken (or threatened) against the member with respect to a communication described in paragraph (2), the Inspector General shall expeditiously investigate the allegation. If, in the case of an allegation submitted to the Inspector General of the Department of Defense, the Inspector General delegates the conduct of the investigation of the allegation to the inspector general of one of the armed forces, the Inspector General of the Department of Defense shall ensure that the inspector general conducting the investigation is outside the immediate chain of command of both the member submitting the allegation and the individual or individuals alleged to have taken the retaliatory action.”

Subsec. (c)(2)(B). Pub. L. 105–261, §933(b), substituted “Gross mismanagement” for “Mismanagement”.

Subsec. (c)(3) to (5). Pub. L. 105–261, §933(a)(1)(B), added pars. (3) to (5) and struck out former par. (3) which read as follows: “The Inspector General is not required to make an investigation under paragraph (1) in the case of an allegation made more than 60 days after the date on which the member becomes aware of the personnel action that is the subject of the allegation.”

Subsec. (d). Pub. L. 105–261, §933(a)(2), inserted “receiving the allegation” after “, the Inspector General” and “In the case of an allegation received by the Inspector General of the Department of Defense, the Inspector General may delegate that responsibility to the Inspector General of the armed force concerned.” at end.

Subsec. (e)(1). Pub. L. 105–261, §933(c)(1), substituted “After completion of an investigation under subsection (c) or (d) or, in the case of an investigation under subsection (c) by an Inspector General within a military department, after approval of the report of that investigation under subsection (c)(3)(E), the Inspector General conducting the investigation shall submit a report on” for “Not later than 30 days after completion of an investigation under subsection (c) or (d), the Inspector General shall submit a report on” and inserted “shall transmit a copy of the report on the results of the investigation to” before “the member of the armed forces” and “The report shall be transmitted to the Secretary, and the copy of the report shall be transmitted to the member, not later than 30 days after the completion of the investigation or, in the case of an investigation under subsection (c) by an Inspector General within a military department, after approval of the report of that investigation under subsection (c)(3)(E).” at end.

Subsec. (e)(2). Pub. L. 105–261, §933(c)(2), substituted “transmitted” for “submitted” and inserted at end “However, the copy need not include summaries of interviews conducted, nor any document acquired, during the course of the investigation. Such items shall be transmitted to the member, if the member requests the items, with the copy of the report or after the transmittal to the member of the copy of the report, regardless of whether the request for those items is made before or after the copy of the report is transmitted to the member.”

Subsec. (e)(3). Pub. L. 105–261, §933(c)(3), substituted “180 days” for “90 days”.

Subsec. (h). Pub. L. 105–261, §933(f)(1), redesignated subsec. (i) as (h).

Pub. L. 105–261, §933(d), struck out heading and text of subsec. (h). Text read as follows: “After disposition of any case under this section, the Inspector General shall, whenever possible, conduct an interview with the person making the allegation to determine the views of that person on the disposition of the matter.”

Subsec. (i). Pub. L. 105–261, §933(f)(1), redesignated subsec. (j) as (i). Former subsec. (i) redesignated (h).

Subsec. (j). Pub. L. 105–261, §933(f)(1), redesignated subsec. (j) as (i).

Subsec. (j)(2). Pub. L. 105–261, §933(e), substituted “means the following:” for “means—” in introductory provisions, added subpars. (A) to (F), redesignated former subpar. (B) as (G) and substituted “An officer” for “an officer” in that subpar., and struck out former subpar. (A) which read as follows: “an Inspector General appointed under the Inspector General Act of 1978; and”.

1994—Pub. L. 103–337, §531(g)(1), substituted “Protected communications” for “Communicating with a Member of Congress or Inspector General” in section catchline.

Subsec. (b). Pub. L. 103–337, §531(a), inserted “(1)” before “No person may take”, substituted “or preparing—” for “or preparing a communication to a Member of Congress or an Inspector General that (under subsection (a)) may not be restricted.”, added subpars. (A) and (B), inserted “(2)” before “Any action prohibited”, and substituted “paragraph (1)” for “the preceding sentence”.

Subsec. (c). Pub. L. 103–337, §531(b)(3), substituted “Allegations of Prohibited Personnel Actions” for “Certain Allegations” in heading.

Subsec. (c)(1). Pub. L. 103–337, §531(b)(1), inserted at end “If, in the case of an allegation submitted to the Inspector General of the Department of Defense, the Inspector General delegates the conduct of the investigation of the allegation to the inspector general of one of the armed forces, the Inspector General of the Department of Defense shall ensure that the inspector general conducting the investigation is outside the immediate chain of command of both the member submitting the allegation and the individual or individuals alleged to have taken the retaliatory action.”

Subsec. (c)(2). Pub. L. 103–337, §531(b)(2), added par. (2) and struck out former par. (2) which read as follows: “A communication described in this paragraph is a communication to a Member of Congress or an Inspector General that (under subsection (a)) may not be restricted in which the member of the armed forces makes a complaint or discloses information that the member reasonably believes constitutes evidence of—

“(A) a violation of a law or regulation; or

“(B) mismanagement, a gross waste of funds, an abuse of authority, or a substantial and specific danger to public health or safety.”

Subsec. (c)(4). Pub. L. 103–337, §531(c)(2), struck out par. (4) which read as follows: “If the Inspector General has not already done so, the Inspector General shall commence a separate investigation of the information that the member believes evidences wrongdoing as described in subparagraph (A) or (B) of paragraph (2). The Inspector General is not required to make such an investigation if the information that the member believes evidences wrongdoing relates to actions which took place during combat.”

Subsec. (c)(5). Pub. L. 103–337, §531(d)(1), redesignated subsec. (c)(5) as subsec. (e)(1).

Subsec. (c)(6), (7). Pub. L. 103–337, §531(d)(4), redesignated subsec. (c)(6) and (7) as subsec. (e)(3) and (4), respectively.

Subsec. (d). Pub. L. 103–337, §531(c)(2), added subsec. (d). Former subsec. (d) redesignated (f).

Subsec. (e). Pub. L. 103–337, §531(d)(1), redesignated subsec. (c)(5) as subsec. (e) and inserted subsec. heading and par. (1) designation before “Not later than 30 days”. Former subsec. (e) redesignated (g).

Subsec. (e)(1). Pub. L. 103–337, §531(d)(2), substituted “subsection (c) or (d)” for “this subsection” and “the member of the armed forces who made the allegation investigated” for “the member of the armed forces concerned” and struck out at end “In the copy of the report submitted to the member, the Inspector General may exclude any information that would not otherwise be available to the member under section 552 of title 5.”

Subsec. (e)(2). Pub. L. 103–337, §531(d)(3), added par. (2).

Subsec. (e)(3). Pub. L. 103–337, §531(d)(4), (5), redesignated subsec. (c)(6) as subsec. (e)(3) and substituted “paragraph (1)” for “paragraph (5)”.

Subsec. (e)(4). Pub. L. 103–337, §531(d)(4), redesignated subsec. (c)(7) as subsec. (e)(4).

Subsec. (f). Pub. L. 103–337, §531(c)(1), (f)(1), redesignated subsec. (d) as (f) and substituted “subsection (e)(1)” for “subsection (c)(5)” in pars. (2)(A), (3)(A)(i) and (B). Former subsec. (f) redesignated (h).

Subsec. (g). Pub. L. 103–337, §531(c)(1), (f)(2), redesignated subsec. (e) as (g) and substituted “subsection (f)” for “subsection (d)”. Former subsec. (g) redesignated (i).

Subsecs. (h), (i). Pub. L. 103–337, §531(c)(1), redesignated subsecs. (f) and (g) as (h) and (i), respectively. Former subsec. (h) redesignated (j).

Subsec. (j). Pub. L. 103–337, §531(c)(1), (e), redesignated subsec. (h) as (j) and added par. (3).

1989—Subsec. (c)(1). Pub. L. 101–225, §202(1), inserted “when the Coast Guard is not operating as a service in the Navy” after “Coast Guard”.

Subsec. (c)(5). Pub. L. 101–225, §202(2), inserted “(or to the Secretary of Transportation in the case of a member of the Coast Guard when the Coast Guard is not operating as a service in the Navy)” after “Secretary of Defense”.

Subsec. (c)(6). Pub. L. 101–225, §202(3), inserted “(or to the Secretary of Transportation in the case of a member of the Coast Guard when the Coast Guard is not operating as a service in the Navy)” after “Secretary of Defense”.

Subsec. (e). Pub. L. 101–225, §202(4), inserted “(except for a member or former member of the Coast Guard when the Coast Guard is not operating as a service in the Navy)” after “armed forces”.

1988—Pub. L. 100–456 substituted “Communicating with a Member of Congress or Inspector General; prohibition of retaliatory personnel actions” for “Communicating with a Member of Congress” in section catchline, and amended text generally. Prior to amendment, text read as follows: “No person may restrict any member of an armed force in communicating with a Member of Congress, unless the communication is unlawful or violates a regulation necessary to the security of the United States.”

1984—Pub. L. 98–525 substituted “Member” for “member” in section catchline and text.

Effective Date of 2004 Amendment

Pub. L. 108–375, div. A, title V, §591(b), Oct. 28, 2004, 118 Stat. 1933, provided that: “The amendments made by this section [amending this section] apply with respect to any unfavorable personnel action taken or threatened, and any withholding of or threat to withhold a favorable personnel action, on or after the date of the enactment of this Act [Oct. 28, 2004].”

Effective Date of 2002 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 107–296 effective on the date of transfer of the Coast Guard to the Department of Homeland Security, see section 1704(g) of Pub. L. 107–296, set out as a note under section 101 of this title.

Effective Date of 1988 Amendment

Section 846(d) of Pub. L. 100–456 provided that: “The amendment to section 1034 of title 10, United States Code, made by subsection (a)(1), shall apply with respect to any personnel action taken (or threatened to be taken) on or after the date of the enactment of this Act [Sept. 29, 1988] as a reprisal prohibited by subsection (b) of that section.”

Regulations

Section 531(h), (i) of Pub. L. 103–337 provided that:

“(h) Deadline for Regulations.—The Secretary of Defense and the Secretary of Transportation shall prescribe regulations to implement the amendments made by this section [amending this section] not later than 120 days after the date of the enactment of this Act [Oct. 5, 1994].

“(i) Content of Regulations.—In prescribing regulations under section 1034 of title 10, United States Code, as amended by this section, the Secretary of Defense and the Secretary of Transportation shall provide for appropriate procedural protections for the subject of any investigation carried out under the provisions of that section, including a process for appeal and review of investigative findings.”

Section 846(b) of Pub. L. 100–456 provided that: “The Secretary of Defense and the Secretary of Transportation shall prescribe the regulations required by subsection (g) [now (h)] of section 1034 of title 10, United States Code, as amended by subsection (a), not later than 180 days after the date of the enactment of this Act [Sept. 29, 1988].”

Whistleblower Protections for Members of Armed Forces

Pub. L. 102–190, div. A, title VIII, §843, Dec. 5, 1991, 105 Stat. 1449, provided that:

“(a) Regulations Required.—The Secretary of Defense shall prescribe regulations prohibiting members of the Armed Forces from taking or threatening to take any unfavorable personnel action, or withholding or threatening to withhold a favorable personnel action, as a reprisal against any member of the Armed Forces for making or preparing a lawful communication to any employee of the Department of Defense or any member of the Armed Forces who is assigned to or belongs to an organization which has as its primary responsibility audit, inspection, investigation, or enforcement of any law or regulation.

“(b) Violations by Persons Subject to the UCMJ.—The Secretary shall provide in the regulations that a violation of the prohibition by a person subject to chapter 47 of title 10, United States Code (the Uniform Code of Military Justice), is punishable as a violation of section 892 of such title (article 92 of the Uniform Code of Military Justice).

“(c) Deadline.—The regulations required by this section shall be prescribed not later than 180 days after the date of the enactment of this Act [Dec. 5, 1991].”

Report on Activities of Inspector General

Section 846(c) of Pub. L. 100–456 directed Inspector General of Department of Defense (and Inspector General of Department of Transportation with respect to Coast Guard) to submit, not later than Feb. 1, 1990, a report to Congress on activities of Inspector General under this section, with that report to include, in the case of each case handled by Inspector General under this section, a description of (A) nature of allegation described in subsec. (c) of this section; (B) evaluation and recommendation of Inspector General with respect to allegation; (C) any action of appropriate board for correction of military records with respect to allegation; (D) if allegation was determined to be meritorious, any corrective action taken; and (E) views of member or former member of armed forces making allegation (determined on basis of interview under subsec. (f) of this section) on disposition of case.