10 U.S.C.
United States Code, 2011 Edition
Title 10 - ARMED FORCES
Subtitle A - General Military Law
PART II - PERSONNEL
CHAPTER 59 - SEPARATION
From the U.S. Government Printing Office, www.gpo.gov

CHAPTER 59—SEPARATION

Sec.
1161.
Commissioned officers: limitations on dismissal.
[1162, 1163. Repealed.]
1164.
Warrant officers: separation for age.
1165.
Regular warrant officers: separation during three-year probationary period.
1166.
Regular warrant officers: elimination for unfitness or unsatisfactory performance.
1167.
Members under confinement by sentence of court-martial: separation after six months confinement.
1168.
Discharge or release from active duty: limitations.
1169.
Regular enlisted members: limitations on discharge.
1170.
Regular enlisted members: minority discharge.
1171.
Regular enlisted members: early discharge.
1172.
Enlisted members: during war or emergency; discharge.
1173.
Enlisted members: discharge for hardship.
1174.
Separation pay upon involuntary discharge or release from active duty.
1174a.
Special separation benefits programs.
1175.
Voluntary separation incentive.
1175a.
Voluntary separation pay and benefits.
1176.
Enlisted members: retention after completion of 18 or more, but less than 20, years of service.
1177.
Members diagnosed with or reasonably asserting post-traumatic stress disorder or traumatic brain injury: medical examination required before administrative separation.
1178.
System and procedures for tracking separations resulting from refusal to participate in anthrax vaccine immunization program.

        

Amendments

2009—Pub. L. 111–84, div. A, title V, §512(a)(2), Oct. 28, 2009, 123 Stat. 2281, added item 1177.

2006—Pub. L. 109–163, div. A, title VI, §643(a)(2), Jan. 6, 2006, 119 Stat. 3309, added item 1175a.

2000—Pub. L. 106–398, §1 [[div. A], title VII, §751(a)(2)], Oct. 30, 2000, 114 Stat. 1654, 1654A–193, added item 1178.

1996—Pub. L. 104–134, title II, §2707(a)(2), Apr. 26, 1996, 110 Stat. 1321–330, struck out item 1177 “Members infected with HIV–1 virus: mandatory discharge or retirement”.

Pub. L. 104–106, div. A, title V, §§563(a)(1)(B), 567(a)(2), Feb. 10, 1996, 110 Stat. 325, 329, added item 1167 and substituted “Members infected with HIV–1 virus: mandatory discharge or retirement” for “Members who are permanently nonworldwide assignable: mandatory discharge or retirement; counseling” in item 1177.

1994—Pub. L. 103–337, div. A, title V, §560(a)(2), title XVI, §1671(b)(10), Oct. 5, 1994, 108 Stat. 2778, 3013, struck out items 1162 “Reserves: discharge” and 1163 “Reserve components: members; limitations on separation” and added item 1177.

1992—Pub. L. 102–484, div. A, title V, §541(b), Oct. 23, 1992, 106 Stat. 2413, added item 1176.

1991—Pub. L. 102–190, div. A, title VI, §§661(a)(2), 662(a)(2), Dec. 5, 1991, 105 Stat. 1395, 1398, added items 1174a and 1175.

1980—Pub. L. 96–513, title V, §501(15), Dec. 12, 1980, 94 Stat. 2908, struck out item 1167 “Regular warrant officers: severance pay” and added item 1174.

1973—Pub. L. 93–64, title I, §102, July 9, 1973, 87 Stat. 147, added item 1173.

1968—Pub. L. 90–235, §3(a)(1)(B), Jan. 2, 1968, 81 Stat. 757, added items 1169 to 1172.

1962—Pub. L. 87–651, title I, §106(c), Sept. 7, 1962, 76 Stat. 508, added item 1168.

§1161.  Commissioned  officers:  limitations  on dismissal

(a) No commissioned officer may be dismissed from any armed force except—

(1) by sentence of a general court-martial;

(2) in commutation of a sentence of a general court-martial; or

(3) in time of war, by order of the President.


(b) The President may drop from the rolls of any armed force any commissioned officer (1) who has been absent without authority for at least three months, (2) who may be separated under section 1167 of this title by reason of a sentence to confinement adjudged by a court-martial, or (3) who is sentenced to confinement in a Federal or State penitentiary or correctional institution after having been found guilty of an offense by a court other than a court-martial or other military court, and whose sentence has become final.

(Aug. 10, 1956, ch. 1041, 70A Stat. 89; Pub. L. 104–106, div. A, title V, §563(b)(1), Feb. 10, 1996, 110 Stat. 325; Pub. L. 104–201, div. A, title X, §1074(a)(5), Sept. 23, 1996, 110 Stat. 2658.)

Historical and Revision Notes
Revised sectionSource (U.S. Code)Source (Statutes at Large)
1161(a) 50:739 (words before semicolon, less applicability to Navy and Marine Corps warrant officers). May 5, 1950, ch. 169, §10 (less applicability to Navy and Marine Corps warrant officers), 64 Stat. 146.
1161(b) 50:739 (less words before semicolon, less applicability to Navy and Marine Corps warrant officers).

In subsections (a) and (b), the word “commissioned” is inserted since, for the Army and the Air Force, the term “officer” is intended to have the same meaning in 50:739 as it has in the Uniform Code of Military Justice (article 4). For Navy warrant officers see section 6408 of this title.

In subsection (b), the words “from his place of duty” are omitted as surplusage. The words “at least” are substituted for the words “or more”. The words “by a court other than a court-martial or other military court” are substituted for the words “by the civil authorities”.

Amendments

1996—Subsec. (b). Pub. L. 104–201 substituted “section 1167” for “section 1178” in par. (2).

Pub. L. 104–106 struck out “or” after “three months,”, added par. (2), and redesignated former par. (2) as (3).

Restoration of Retired Pay to Officers Dropped From Rolls After December 31, 1954 and Before August 25, 1958

Pub. L. 85–754, Aug. 25, 1958, 72 Stat. 847, provided: “That notwithstanding any other provisions of law, a former retired officer dropped from the rolls under section 10 of the Act of May 5, 1950, ch. 169 (64 Stat. 146), or section 1161 of title 10, United States Code, after December 31, 1954, and before the date of enactment of this Act [Aug. 25, 1958] shall, for the purposes of entitlement to retired or retirement pay after the date of enactment of this Act, be treated as if he had not been dropped from the rolls. Such an officer is also entitled to retroactive retired or retirement pay for the period beginning on the date he was dropped from the rolls and ending on the date of enactment of this Act, as if he had not been dropped from the rolls.

Sec. 2. A former retired officer covered by this Act is subject to the penal, prohibitory, and restrictive provisions of law applicable to the pay and civil employment of retired officers of the Armed Forces and is not entitled to any other benefit provided by law or regulation for retired officers of the Armed Forces. After the date of enactment of this Act [Aug. 25, 1958], such a former retired officer may, in the discretion of the President, have his entitlement to retired or retirement pay under this Act terminated for any reason for which any retired officer may be dismissed from, or dropped from the rolls of, any Armed Force.

Sec. 3. Appropriations available for the payment of retired pay to members of the Armed Forces are available for payments under this Act.”

[§§1162, 1163. Repealed. Pub. L. 103–337, div. A, title XVI, §1662(i)(2), Oct. 5, 1994, 108 Stat. 2998]

Section 1162, acts Aug. 10, 1956, ch. 1041, 70A Stat. 89; Sept. 2, 1958, Pub. L. 85–861, §1(27), 72 Stat. 1450, related to discharge of Reserves. See sections 12681 and 12682 of this title.

Section 1163, acts Aug. 10, 1956, ch. 1041, 70A Stat. 89; Sept. 7, 1962, Pub. L. 87–651, title I, §106(a), 76 Stat. 508; Dec. 30, 1987, Pub. L. 100–224, §4, 101 Stat. 1538, related to limitations on separation of Reserve members from their reserve components. See sections 12683 to 12686 of this title.

Effective Date of Repeal

Repeal effective Dec. 1, 1994, except as otherwise provided, see section 1691 of Pub. L. 103–337, set out as an Effective Date note under section 10001 of this title.

§1164. Warrant officers: separation for age

(a) Unless retired or separated on or before the expiration of that period, each warrant officer shall be retired or separated from his armed force not later than 60 days after the date when he becomes 62 years of age, except as provided by section 8301 of title 5.

(b) The Secretary concerned may defer, for not more than four months, the separation under subsection (a) of any warrant officer if, because of unavoidable circumstances, evaluation of his physical condition and determination of his entitlement to retirement or separation for physical disability require hospitalization or medical observation that cannot be completed before the date when he would otherwise be required to be retired or separated under this section.

(Aug. 10, 1956, ch. 1041, 70A Stat. 90; Pub. L. 89–718, §3, Nov. 2, 1966, 80 Stat. 1115; Pub. L. 90–130, §1(5), Nov. 8, 1967, 81 Stat. 374; Pub. L. 96–513, title V, §511(41), Dec. 12, 1980, 94 Stat. 2923; Pub. L. 97–295, §1(16), Oct. 12, 1982, 96 Stat. 1290.)

Historical and Revision Notes
Revised sectionSource (U.S. Code)Source (Statutes at Large)
1164(a) 10:600l(c) (as applicable to men).

10:600r(c) (as applicable to 10:600

l(c)).

34:430(c) (as applicable to men).

May 29, 1954, ch. 249, §§14(c), (e) (as applicable to (c)), 21(c) (as applicable to §14(c)), 68 Stat. 163, 168.
  34:430c (as applicable to 34:430(c)).
1164(b) 10:600l(c) (less applicability to men).
  34:430(c) (less applicability to men).
1164(c) 10:600l(e) (as applicable to 10:600l(c)).

34:430(e) (as applicable to 34:430(c)).

In subsections (a) and (b), the words “Except as provided in clause (3) of subsection (b) of this section and in subsection (g) of this section” are omitted as covered by section 46 of the bill and section 14(g) of the source statute. The words “Unless retired or separated on or before the expiration of that period” are inserted for clarity. The words “becomes 62[55] years of age” are substituted for the words “attains the age of sixty-two * * * or the age of fifty-five”.

In subsection (c), the words “The Secretary concerned may defer” are substituted for the words “may, in the discretion of the Secretary, be deferred”. The words “not more than” are substituted for the words “a period not to exceed”. The words “determination of his” are inserted for clarity. The words “he would otherwise be required to be separated under this section” are substituted for the words “separation would otherwise be required”. The words “proper”, “which is required”, “possible”, and “a period of” are omitted as surplusage.

Amendments

1982—Pub. L. 97–295, §1(16), substituted a colon for a semicolon after “officers” in section catchline.

1980—Subsec. (b). Pub. L. 96–513 redesignated former subsec. (c) as (b).

Subsec. (c). Pub. L. 96–513 redesignated former subsec. (c) as (b).

1967—Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 90–130 struck out “male” before “warrant officer”.

Subsec. (b). Pub. L. 90–130 struck out subsec. (b) which made special provisions for female warrant officers.

Subsec. (c). Pub. L. 90–130 struck out reference to subsec. (b) of this section.

1966—Pub. L. 89–718 substituted “8301” for “47a” wherever appearing.

Effective Date of 1980 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 96–513 effective Dec. 12, 1980, see section 701(b)(3) of Pub. L. 96–513, set out as a note under section 101 of this title.

Deferment of Separation With Completion of 20 Years of Service or at Age 60

Section 46 of act Aug. 10, 1956, provided that:

“(a) The separation of any person who, on November 1, 1954, was a male permanent warrant officer of a regular component of an armed force, and who upon attaining the age of 62 has completed less than 20 years of active service that could be credited to him under section 511 of the Career Compensation Act of 1949 (37 U.S.C. 311) [act Oct. 12, 1949, ch. 681, title V, §511, 63 Stat. 829, formerly set out as a note under section 580 of this title] may be deferred by the Secretary concerned until he completes 20 years of that service, but not later than that date which is 60 days after the date on which he attains the age of 64.

“(b) The separation of any person who, on November 1, 1954, was a female permanent warrant officer of a regular component of an armed force, and who upon attaining the age of 55 has completed less than 20 years of active service that could be credited to her under section 511 of the Career Compensation Act of 1949 (37 U.S.C. 311) [act Oct. 12, 1949, ch. 681, title V, §511, 63 Stat. 829, formerly set out as a note under section 580 of this title] may be deferred by the Secretary concerned until she completes 20 years of that service, but not later than that date which is 60 days after the date on which she attains the age of 60.”

§1165. Regular warrant officers: separation during three-year probationary period

The Secretary concerned may terminate the regular appointment of any permanent regular warrant officer at any time within three years after the date when the officer accepted his original permanent appointment as a warrant officer in that component. A warrant officer who is separated under this section is entitled, if eligible therefor, to separation pay under section 1174 or he may be enlisted under section 515 of this title. If such a warrant officer is enlisted under section 515 of this title, he is not entitled to separation pay.

(Aug. 10, 1956, ch. 1041, 70A Stat. 90; Pub. L. 96–513, title I, §109(b)(1), Dec. 12, 1980, 94 Stat. 2870.)

Historical and Revision Notes
Revised sectionSource (U.S. Code)Source (Statutes at Large)
1165 10:600d (less last 36 words of last sentence).

34:135d (less last 36 words of last sentence).

May 29, 1954, ch. 249, §6 (less last 36 words of last sentence), 68 Stat. 159.

The words “in his discretion” are omitted as surplusage. The last 10 words of the last sentence are inserted for clarity.

Amendments

1980—Pub. L. 96–513 authorized entitlement, if the regular warrant officer is eligible therefor, to separation pay under section 1174.

Effective Date of 1980 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 96–513 effective Sept. 15, 1981, but the authority to prescribe regulations under the amendment by Pub. L. 96–513 effective on Dec. 12, 1980, see section 701 of Pub. L. 96–513, set out as a note under section 101 of this title.

§1166. Regular warrant officers: elimination for unfitness or unsatisfactory performance

(a) Under such regulations as the Secretary concerned may prescribe, and subject to the recommendations of a board of officers or a selection board under section 576 of this title, a permanent regular warrant officer who is eligible for retirement under any provision of law shall be retired under that law if his records and reports establish his unfitness or unsatisfactory performance of duty. If he is not eligible for retirement under any provision of law, but since the date when he accepted his original permanent appointment as a regular warrant officer he has at least three years of active service that could be credited to him under section 511 of the Career Compensation Act of 1949, as amended (70 Stat. 114), he shall, if eligible therefor, be separated with separation pay under section 1174 of this title or severance pay under section 286a of title 14, as appropriate. However, instead of being paid separation pay or severance pay he may be enlisted under section 515 of this title. If he does not have three years of such service, he shall be separated under section 1165 of this title.

(b) The Secretary concerned may defer, for not more than four months, the retirement or separation under subsection (a) of any warrant officer if, because of unavoidable circumstances, evaluation of his physical condition and determination of his entitlement to retirement or separation for physical disability require hospitalization or medical observation that cannot be completed before the date when he would otherwise be required to be retired or separated under this section.

(Aug. 10, 1956, ch. 1041, 70A Stat. 90; Pub. L. 87–649, §6(f)(3), Sept. 7, 1962, 76 Stat. 494; Pub. L. 96–513, title I, §109(b)(2), Dec. 12, 1980, 94 Stat. 2870; Pub. L. 102–190, div. A, title XI, §1131(5), Dec. 5, 1991, 105 Stat. 1506.)

Historical and Revision Notes
Revised sectionSource (U.S. Code)Source (Statutes at Large)
1166(a) 10:600m (less last 21 words of 3d sentence).

10:600(d) (as applicable to 10:600m).

34:430a (less last 21 words of 3d sentence).

34:135(d) (as applicable to 34:430a).

May 29, 1954, ch. 249, §§2(d) (as applicable to §15), 14(e) (as applicable to §15), 15 (less last 21 words of 3d sentence), 68 Stat. 157, 163, 164.
1166(b) 10:600l(e) (as applicable to 10:600m).

34:430(e) (as applicable to 34:430a).

In subsection (a), the words “he shall be separated” are substituted for the words “his appointment as a permanent warrant officer of the Regular service and any other appointment which he may hold in any warrant officer or commissioned officer grade shall be terminated” and “his appointment shall be terminated”. The words “at least three” are substituted for the words “more than three” for clarity.

In subsection (b), the words “The Secretary concerned may defer” are substituted for the words “may, in the discretion of the Secretary, be deferred”. The words “not more than” are substituted for the words “a period not to exceed”. The words “he would otherwise be required to be retired or separated under this section” are substituted for the words “retirement * * * would otherwise be required”. The words “determination of his” are inserted for clarity. The words “which is required”, “possible”, “proper”, and “a period of” are omitted as surplusage.

References in Text

Section 511 of the Career Compensation Act of 1949, referred to in subsec. (a), is section 511 of act Oct. 12, 1949, ch. 681, which was formerly set out as a note under section 580 of this title.

Amendments

1991—Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 102–190 substituted “section 576” for “section 560”.

1980—Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 96–513 provided that officers discharged under this section are entitled, if eligible therefor, to separation pay under section 1174 or severance pay under section 286a of title 14.

1962—Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 87–649 substituted “section 511 of the Career Compensation Act of 1949, as amended (70 Stat. 114)” for “section 311 of title 37.”

Effective Date of 1991 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 102–190 effective Feb. 1, 1992, see section 1132 of Pub. L. 102–190, set out as a note under section 521 of this title.

Effective Date of 1980 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 96–513 effective Sept. 15, 1981, but the authority to prescribe regulations under the amendment by Pub. L. 96–513 effective on Dec. 12, 1980, see section 701 of Pub. L. 96–513, set out as a note under section 101 of this title.

Effective Date of 1962 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 87–649 effective Nov. 1, 1962, see section 15 of Pub. L. 87–649, set out as a note preceding section 101 of Title 37, Pay and Allowances of the Uniformed Services.

§1167. Members under confinement by sentence of court-martial: separation after six months confinement

Except as otherwise provided in regulations prescribed by the Secretary of Defense, a member sentenced by a court-martial to a period of confinement for more than six months may be separated from the member's armed force at any time after the sentence to confinement has become final under chapter 47 of this title and the member has served in confinement for a period of six months.

(Added Pub. L. 104–106, div. A, title V, §563(a)(1)(A), Feb. 10, 1996, 110 Stat. 325; amended Pub. L. 104–201, div. A, title X, §1074(a)(6), Sept. 23, 1996, 110 Stat. 2659.)

Prior Provisions

A prior section 1167, acts Aug. 10, 1956, ch. 1041, 70A Stat. 91; June 28, 1962, Pub. L. 87–509, §4(a), 76 Stat. 121; Sept. 7, 1962, Pub. L. 87–649, §6(f)(3), 76 Stat. 494, related to severance pay of regular warrant officers, prior to repeal by Pub. L. 96–513, title I, §109(b)(3), title VII, §701, Dec. 12, 1980, 94 Stat. 2870, 2955, effective Sept. 15, 1981.

Amendments

1996—Pub. L. 104–201 substituted “member has served” for “person has served”.

§1168. Discharge or release from active duty: limitations

(a) A member of an armed force may not be discharged or released from active duty until his discharge certificate or certificate of release from active duty, respectively, and his final pay or a substantial part of that pay, are ready for delivery to him or his next of kin or legal representative.

(b) This section does not prevent the immediate transfer of a member to a facility of the Department of Veterans Affairs for necessary hospital care.

(Added Pub. L. 87–651, title I, §106(b), Sept. 7, 1962, 76 Stat. 508; amended Pub. L. 101–189, div. A, title XVI, §1621(a)(4), Nov. 29, 1989, 103 Stat. 1603.)

Historical and Revision Notes

The new section 1168 of title 10 is transferred from section 1218(a) and (c) of title 10 as being more appropriate in the chapter on separation.

Amendments

1989—Subsec. (b). Pub. L. 101–189 substituted “facility of the Department of Veterans Affairs” for “Veterans’ Administration facility”.

Modification of Certificate of Release or Discharge From Active Duty (DD Form 214)

Pub. L. 110–181, div. A, title V, §596, Jan. 28, 2008, 122 Stat. 139, provided that: “The Secretary of Defense, in consultation with the Secretary of Veterans Affairs, shall modify the Certificate of Release or Discharge from Active Duty (DD Form 214) in order to permit a member of the Armed Forces, upon discharge or release from active duty in the Armed Forces, to elect that the DD–214 issued with regard to the member be forwarded to the following:

“(1) The Central Office of the Department of Veterans Affairs in the District of Columbia.

“(2) The appropriate office of the Department of Veterans Affairs for the State or other locality in which the member will first reside after such discharge or release.”

§1169. Regular enlisted members: limitations on discharge

No regular enlisted member of an armed force may be discharged before his term of service expires, except—

(1) as prescribed by the Secretary concerned;

(2) by sentence of a general or special court martial; or

(3) as otherwise provided by law.

(Added Pub. L. 90–235, §3(a)(1)(A), Jan. 2, 1968, 81 Stat. 757.)

§1170. Regular enlisted members: minority discharge

Upon application by the parents or guardian of a regular enlisted member of an armed force to the Secretary concerned within 90 days after the member's enlistment, the member shall be discharged for his own convenience, with the pay and form of discharge certificate to which his service entitles him, if—

(1) there is evidence satisfactory to the Secretary concerned that the member is under eighteen years of age; and

(2) the member enlisted without the written consent of his parent or guardian.

(Added Pub. L. 90–235, §3(a)(1)(A), Jan. 2, 1968, 81 Stat. 757.)

§1171. Regular enlisted members: early discharge

Under regulations prescribed by the Secretary concerned and approved by the President, any regular enlisted member of an armed force may be discharged within one year before the expiration of the term of his enlistment or extended enlistment. A discharge under this section does not affect any right, privilege, or benefit that a member would have had if he completed his enlistment or extended enlistment, except that the member is not entitled to pay and allowances for the period not served.

(Added Pub. L. 90–235, §3(a)(1)(A), Jan. 2, 1968, 81 Stat. 757; amended Pub. L. 112–81, div. A, title V, §525, Dec. 31, 2011, 125 Stat. 1401.)

Amendments

2011—Pub. L. 112–81 substituted “within one year” for “within three months”.

Ex. Ord. No. 11498. Delegation of Authority to Secretary of Defense

Ex. Ord. No. 11498, Dec. 1, 1969, 34 F.R. 19125, provided:

By virtue of the authority vested in me by section 301 of title 3 of the United States Code, and as President of the United States, it is ordered that the Secretary of Defense is hereby designated and empowered to approve regulations issued by the Secretaries concerned under section 1171 of title 10, United States Code, effective January 2, 1968, which relate to the early discharge of regular enlisted members of the armed forces.

Richard Nixon.      

§1172. Enlisted members: during war or emergency; discharge

A person enlisted under section 518 of this title may be discharged at any time by the President, or otherwise according to law.

(Added Pub. L. 90–235, §3(a)(1)(A), Jan. 2, 1968, 81 Stat. 757.)

§1173. Enlisted members: discharge for hardship

Under regulations prescribed by the Secretary concerned, a regular enlisted member of an armed force who has dependents may be discharged for hardship.

(Added Pub. L. 93–64, title I, §102, July 9, 1973, 87 Stat. 147.)

Effective Date

Section effective July 1, 1973, see section 206 of Pub. L. 93–64, set out as a note under section 401 of Title 37, Pay and Allowances of the Uniformed Services.

§1174. Separation pay upon involuntary discharge or release from active duty

(a) Regular Officers.—(1) A regular officer who is discharged under chapter 36 of this title (except under section 630(1)(A) or 643 of such chapter) or under section 580 or 6383 of this title and who has completed six or more, but less than twenty, years of active service immediately before that discharge is entitled to separation pay computed under subsection (d)(1).

(2) A regular commissioned officer of the Army, Navy, Air Force, or Marine Corps who is discharged under section 630(1)(A), 643, or 1186 of this title, and a regular warrant officer of the Army, Navy, Air Force, or Marine Corps who is separated under section 1165 or 1166 of this title, who has completed six or more, but less than twenty, years of active service immediately before that discharge or separation is entitled to separation pay computed under subsection (d)(1) or (d)(2), as determined by the Secretary of the military department concerned, unless the Secretary concerned determines that the conditions under which the officer is discharged or separated do not warrant payment of such pay.

(3) Notwithstanding paragraphs (1) and (2), an officer discharged under any provision of chapter 36 of this title for twice failing of selection for promotion to the next higher grade is not entitled to separation pay under this section if either (or both) of those failures of selection for promotion was by the action of a selection board to which the officer submitted a request in writing not to be selected for promotion or who otherwise directly caused his nonselection through written communication to the Board under section 614(b) of this title.

(4) Notwithstanding paragraphs (1) and (2), an officer who is subject to discharge under any provision of chapter 36 of this title or under section 580 or 6383 of this title by reason of having twice failed of selection for promotion to the next higher grade is not entitled to separation pay under this section if that officer, after such second failure of selection for promotion, is selected for, and declines, continuation on active duty for a period that is equal to or more than the amount of service required to qualify the officer for retirement.

(b) Regular Enlisted Members.—(1) A regular enlisted member of an armed force who is discharged involuntarily or as the result of the denial of the reenlistment of the member and who has completed six or more, but less than 20, years of active service immediately before that discharge is entitled to separation pay computed under subsection (d) unless the Secretary concerned determines that the conditions under which the member is discharged do not warrant payment of such pay.

(2) Separation pay of an enlisted member shall be computed under paragraph (1) of subsection (d), except that such pay shall be computed under paragraph (2) of such subsection in the case of a member who is discharged under criteria prescribed by the Secretary of Defense.

(c) Other Members.—(1) Except as provided in paragraphs (2) and (3), a member of an armed force other than a regular member who is discharged or released from active duty and who has completed six or more, but fewer than 20, years of active service immediately before that discharge or release is entitled to separation pay computed under subsection (d)(1) or (d)(2), as determined by the Secretary concerned, if—

(A) the member's discharge or release from active duty is involuntary; or

(B) the member was not accepted for an additional tour of active duty for which he volunteered.


(2) If the Secretary concerned determines that the conditions under which a member described in paragraph (1) is discharged or separated do not warrant separation pay under this section, that member is not entitled to that pay.

(3) A member described in paragraph (1) who was not on the active-duty list when discharged or separated is not entitled to separation pay under this section unless such member had completed at least six years of continuous active duty immediately before such discharge or release. For purposes of this paragraph, a period of active duty is continuous if it is not interrupted by a break in service of more than 30 days.

(4) In the case of an officer who is subject to discharge or release from active duty under a law or regulation requiring that an officer who has failed of selection for promotion to the next higher grade for the second time be discharged or released from active duty and who, after such second failure of selection for promotion, is selected for, and declines, continuation on active duty—

(A) if the period of time for which the officer was selected for continuation on active duty is less than the amount of service that would be required to qualify the officer for retirement, the officer's discharge or release from active duty shall be considered to be involuntary for purposes of paragraph (1)(A); and

(B) if the period of time for which the officer was selected for continuation on active duty is equal to or more than the amount of service that would be required to qualify the officer for retirement, the officer's discharge or release from active duty shall not be considered to be involuntary for the purposes of paragraph (1)(A).


(d) Amount of Separation Pay.—The amount of separation pay which may be paid to a member under this section is—

(1) 10 percent of the product of (A) his years of active service, and (B) 12 times the monthly basic pay to which he was entitled at the time of his discharge or release from active duty; or

(2) one-half of the amount computed under clause (1).


(e) Requirement for Service in Ready Reserve; Exceptions To Eligibility.—(1)(A) As a condition of receiving separation pay under this section, a person otherwise eligible for that pay shall be required to enter into a written agreement with the Secretary concerned to serve in the Ready Reserve of a reserve component for a period of not less than three years following the person's discharge or release from active duty. If the person has a service obligation under section 651 of this title or under any other provision of law that is not completed at the time the person is discharged or released from active duty, the three-year obligation under this subsection shall begin on the day after the date on which the person completes the person's obligation under such section or other provision of law.

(B) Each person who enters into an agreement referred to in subparagraph (A) who is not already a Reserve of an armed force and who is qualified shall, upon such person's discharge or release from active duty, be enlisted or appointed, as appropriate, as a Reserve and be transferred to a reserve component.

(2) A member who is discharged or released from active duty is not eligible for separation pay under this section if the member—

(A) is discharged or released from active duty at his request;

(B) is discharged or released from active duty during an initial term of enlistment or an initial period of obligated service, unless the member is an officer discharged or released under the authority of section 647 of this title;

(C) is released from active duty for training; or

(D) upon discharge or release from active duty, is immediately eligible for retired or retainer pay based on his military service.


(f) Counting Fractional Years of Service.—In determining a member's years of active service for the purpose of computing separation pay under this section, each full month of service that is in addition to the number of full years of service creditable to the member is counted as one-twelfth of a year and any remaining fractional part of a month is disregarded.

(g) Coordination With Other Separation or Severance Pay Benefits.—A period for which a member has previously received separation pay under this section or severance pay or readjustment pay under any other provision of law based on service in the armed forces may not be included in determining the years of service that may be counted in computing the separation pay of the member under this section.

(h) Coordination With Retired or Retainer Pay and Disability Compensation.—(1) A member who has received separation pay under this section, or separation pay, severance pay, or readjustment pay under any other provision of law, based on service in the armed forces, and who later qualifies for retired or retainer pay under this title or title 14 shall have deducted from each payment of such retired or retainer pay an amount, in such schedule of monthly installments as the Secretary of Defense shall specify, taking into account the financial ability of the member to pay and avoiding the imposition of undue financial hardship on the member and member's dependents, until the total amount deducted is equal to the total amount of separation pay, severance pay, and readjustment pay so paid.

(2) A member who has received separation pay under this section, or severance pay or readjustment pay under any other provision of law, based on service in the armed forces shall not be deprived, by reason of his receipt of such separation pay, severance pay, or readjustment pay, of any disability compensation to which he is entitled under the laws administered by the Department of Veterans Affairs, but there shall be deducted from that disability compensation an amount equal to the total amount of separation pay, severance pay, and readjustment pay received, less the amount of Federal income tax withheld from such pay (such withholding being at the flat withholding rate for Federal income tax withholding, as in effect pursuant to regulations prescribed under chapter 24 of the Internal Revenue Code of 1986). Notwithstanding the preceding sentence, no deduction may be made from disability compensation for the amount of any separation pay, severance pay, or readjustment pay received because of an earlier discharge or release from a period of active duty if the disability which is the basis for that disability compensation was incurred or aggravated during a later period of active duty.

(i) Special Rule for Members Receiving Sole Survivorship Discharge.—(1) A member of the armed forces who receives a sole survivorship discharge shall be entitled to separation pay under this section even though the member has completed less than six years of active service immediately before that discharge. Subsection (e) shall not apply to a member who receives a sole survivorship discharge.

(2) The amount of the separation pay to be paid to a member pursuant to this subsection shall be based on the years of active service actually completed by the member before the member's sole survivorship discharge.

(3) In this subsection, the term “sole survivorship discharge” means the separation of a member from the armed forces, at the request of the member, pursuant to the Department of Defense policy permitting the early separation of a member who is the only surviving child in a family in which—

(A) the father or mother or one or more siblings—

(i) served in the armed forces; and

(ii) was killed, died as a result of wounds, accident, or disease, is in a captured or missing in action status, or is permanently 100 percent disabled or hospitalized on a continuing basis (and is not employed gainfully because of the disability or hospitalization); and


(B) the death, status, or disability did not result from the intentional misconduct or willful neglect of the parent or sibling and was not incurred during a period of unauthorized absence.


(j) Regulations; Crediting of Other Commissioned Service.—(1) The Secretary of Defense shall prescribe regulations, which shall be uniform for the Army, Navy, Air Force, and Marine Corps, for the administration of this section.

(2) Active commissioned service in the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration or the Public Health Service shall be credited as active service in the armed forces for the purposes of this section.

(Added Pub. L. 96–513, title I, §109(c), Dec. 12, 1980, 94 Stat. 2870; amended Pub. L. 97–22, §10(b)(10)(A), July 10, 1981, 95 Stat. 137; Pub. L. 98–94, title IX, §§911(a), (b), 923(b), title X, §1007(c)(2), Sept. 24, 1983, 97 Stat. 639, 640, 643, 662; Pub. L. 98–498, title III, §320(a)(2), Oct. 19, 1984, 98 Stat. 2308; Pub. L. 101–189, div. A, title XVI, §1621(a)(1), Nov. 29, 1989, 103 Stat. 1602; Pub. L. 101–510, div. A, title V, §501(a)–(d), (g), (h), Nov. 5, 1990, 104 Stat. 1549–1551; Pub. L. 102–190, div. A, title XI, §1131(6), Dec. 5, 1991, 105 Stat. 1506; Pub. L. 103–160, div. A, title V, §501(a), Nov. 30, 1993, 107 Stat. 1644; Pub. L. 103–337, div. A, title V, §560(c), Oct. 5, 1994, 108 Stat. 2778; Pub. L. 104–201, div. A, title VI, §653(a), Sept. 23, 1996, 110 Stat. 2583; Pub. L. 105–85, div. A, title X, §1073(a)(22), Nov. 18, 1997, 111 Stat. 1901; Pub. L. 105–261, div. A, title V, §502(a), Oct. 17, 1998, 112 Stat. 2003; Pub. L. 106–398, §1 [[div. A], title V, §508(a), (b)], Oct. 30, 2000, 114 Stat. 1654, 1654A–107; Pub. L. 108–375, div. A, title V, §501(c)(2), Oct. 28, 2004, 118 Stat. 1874; Pub. L. 110–317, §3, Aug. 29, 2008, 122 Stat. 3527; Pub. L. 111–32, title III, §318(a), June 24, 2009, 123 Stat. 1873; Pub. L. 111–383, div. A, title X, §1075(b)(17), Jan. 7, 2011, 124 Stat. 4370.)

References in Text

Chapter 24 of the Internal Revenue Code of 1986, referred to in subsec. (h)(2), is classified generally to chapter 24 (§3401 et seq.) of Title 26, Internal Revenue Code.

Amendments

2011—Subsec. (i). Pub. L. 111–383 substituted “armed forces” for “Armed Forces” wherever appearing.

2009—Subsec. (h)(1). Pub. L. 111–32 amended par. (1) generally. Prior to amendment, par. (1) read as follows: “A member who has received separation pay under this section, or separation pay, severance pay, or readjustment pay under any other provision of law, based on service in the armed forces, and who later qualifies for retired or retainer pay under this title or title 14 shall have deducted from each payment of such retired or retainer pay so much of such pay as is based on the service for which he received separation pay under this section or separation pay, severance pay, or readjustment pay under any other provision of law until the total amount deducted is equal to the total amount of separation pay, severance pay, and readjustment pay received.”

2008—Subsecs. (i), (j). Pub. L. 110–317 added subsec. (i) and redesignated former subsec. (i) as (j).

2004—Subsec. (e)(2)(B). Pub. L. 108–375 inserted “, unless the member is an officer discharged or released under the authority of section 647 of this title” after “obligated service”.

2000—Subsec. (a)(4). Pub. L. 106–398, §1 [[div. A], title V, §508(a)], added par. (4).

Subsec. (c)(4). Pub. L. 106–398, §1 [[div. A], title V, §508(b)], added par. (4).

1998—Subsec. (a)(3). Pub. L. 105–261 added par. (3).

1997—Subsec. (a)(1). Pub. L. 105–85 struck out “, 1177,” before “or 6383 of this title”.

1996—Subsec. (h)(2). Pub. L. 104–201 inserted “, less the amount of Federal income tax withheld from such pay (such withholding being at the flat withholding rate for Federal income tax withholding, as in effect pursuant to regulations prescribed under chapter 24 of the Internal Revenue Code of 1986)” before period at end of first sentence.

1994—Subsec. (a)(1). Pub. L. 103–337 inserted “, 1177,” after “section 580”.

1993—Subsec. (a)(1). Pub. L. 103–160 substituted “six” for “five”.

1991—Subsec. (a)(1). Pub. L. 102–190 substituted “section 580” for “section 564”.

1990—Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 101–510, §501(a)(1), inserted heading.

Subsec. (a)(1). Pub. L. 101–510, §501(g)(1), substituted “or under section 564 or 6383 of this title” for “, under section 564 or 6383 of this title, or under section 603 or 604 of the Defense Officer Personnel Management Act” and struck out “or release” after “that discharge”.

Subsec. (a)(2). Pub. L. 101–510, §501(b)(1), substituted “six or more” for “five or more”.

Pub. L. 101–510, §501(a)(2), redesignated subsec. (b) as subsec. (a)(2).

Subsec. (b). Pub. L. 101–510, §501(a)(3), added subsec. (b). Former subsec. (b) redesignated (a)(2).

Subsec. (c). Pub. L. 101–510, §501(h)(1), inserted heading.

Subsec. (c)(1). Pub. L. 101–510, §501(g)(2), struck out “after September 14, 1981,” after “member who” in introductory provisions.

Pub. L. 101–510, §501(b)(1), substituted “six or more” for “five or more” in introductory provisions.

Subsec. (c)(3). Pub. L. 101–510, §501(b)(2), substituted “at least six years” for “at least five years”.

Subsec. (d). Pub. L. 101–510, §501(h)(2), inserted heading.

Subsec. (d)(1). Pub. L. 101–510, §501(c)(1)(A), struck out “or $30,000, whichever is less” after “active duty”.

Subsec. (d)(2). Pub. L. 101–510, §501(c)(1)(B), struck out “, but in no event more than $15,000” after “under clause (1)”.

Subsec. (e). Pub. L. 101–510, §501(d), amended subsec. (e) generally. Prior to amendment, subsec. (e) read as follows: “A member who—

“(1) is discharged or released from active duty at his request;

“(2) is released from active duty for training; or

“(3) upon discharge or release from active duty, is immediately eligible for retired or retainer pay based on his military service;

is not eligible for separation pay under this section.”

Subsec. (f). Pub. L. 101–510, §501(h)(3), inserted heading.

Subsec. (g). Pub. L. 101–510, §501(h)(4), inserted heading.

Pub. L. 101–510, §501(c)(2), struck out “(1)” after “(g)” and struck out par. (2) which read as follows: “The total amount that a member may receive in separation pay under this section and severance pay and readjustment pay under any other provision of law, other than section 1212 of this title, based on service in the armed forces may not exceed $30,000.”

Subsec. (h). Pub. L. 101–510, §501(h)(5), inserted heading.

Subsec. (i). Pub. L. 101–510, §501(h)(6), inserted heading.

1989—Subsec. (h)(2). Pub. L. 101–189 substituted “Department of Veterans Affairs” for “Veterans’ Administration”.

1984—Subsec. (h)(1). Pub. L. 98–498 substituted “separation pay, severance pay,” for “severance pay” before “or readjustment pay” in two places.

1983—Subsec. (c). Pub. L. 98–94, §911(a), amended subsec. (c) generally, designating existing provisions as par. (1) and existing pars. (1) and (2) as subpars. (A) and (B), respectively, and in provisions preceding subpar. (A) substituted “Except as provided in paragraphs (2) and (3), a member” for “A member” and “fewer than 20, years of active service immediately before that discharge or release is entitled to separation pay” for “less than twenty, years of active service immediately before that discharge or release is entitled, unless the Secretary concerned determines that the conditions under which the member is discharged or separated do not warrant such pay, to separation pay”, and added pars. (2) and (3).

Subsec. (f). Pub. L. 98–94, §923(b), amended subsec. (f) generally, substituting “each full month of service that is in addition to the number of full years of service creditable to the member is counted as one-twelfth of a year and any remaining fractional part of a month is disregarded” for “a part of a year that is six months or more is counted as a whole year and a part of a year that is less than six months is disregarded”.

Subsec. (g)(2). Pub. L. 98–94, §911(b), inserted “, other than section 1212 of this title,” after “any other provision of law”.

Subsec. (i). Pub. L. 98–94, §1007(c)(2), designated existing provisions as par. (1) and added par. (2).

1981—Subsec. (c). Pub. L. 97–22 substituted “after September 14, 1981,” for “on or after the effective date of the Defense Officer Personnel Management Act”.

Effective Date of 2009 Amendment

Pub. L. 111–32, title III, §318(c), June 24, 2009, 123 Stat. 1874, provided that: “The amendments made by this section [amending this section and section 1175 of this title] shall apply to any repayments of separation pay, severance pay, readjustment pay, special separation benefit, or voluntary separation incentive, that occur on or after the date of enactment [June 24, 2009], including any ongoing repayment actions that were initiated prior to this amendment.”

Effective Date of 2008 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 110–317 applicable with respect to any sole survivorship discharge granted after Sept. 11, 2001, see section 10 of Pub. L. 110–317, set out as a note under section 2108 of Title 5, Government Organization and Employees.

Effective Date of 2004 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 108–375 effective on the first day of the first month beginning more than 180 days after Oct. 28, 2004, see section 501(g) of Pub. L. 108–375, set out as a note under section 531 of this title.

Effective Date of 2000 Amendment

Pub. L. 106–398, §1 [[div. A], title V, §508(c)], Oct. 30, 2000, 114 Stat. 1654, 1654A–107, provided that: “Paragraph (4) of section 1174(a) of title 10, United States Code, as added by subsection (a), and paragraph (4) of section 1174(c) of such title, as added by subsection (b), shall apply with respect to any offer of selective continuation on active duty that is declined on or after the date of the enactment of this Act [Oct. 30, 2000].”

Effective Date of 1998 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 105–261 applicable with respect to selection boards convened under section 611(a) of this title on or after Oct. 17, 1998, see section 502(c) of Pub. L. 105–261, set out as a note under section 617 of this title.

Effective Date of 1996 Amendment

Pub. L. 105–178, title VIII, §8208, June 9, 1998, 112 Stat. 495, provided that: “The amendment made by section 653 of the National Defense Authorization Act for Fiscal Year 1997 (Public Law 104–201; 110 Stat. 2583) to subsection (h)(2) of section 1174 of title 10, United States Code, shall apply to any payment of separation pay under the special separation benefits program under section 1174a of that title that was made during the period beginning on December 5, 1991, and ending on September 30, 1996.”

Section 653(b) of Pub. L. 104–201 provided that: “The amendments made by this section [amending this section] shall take effect on October 1, 1996, and shall apply to payments of separation pay, severance pay, or readjustment pay that are made after September 30, 1996.”

Effective Date of 1993 Amendment

Section 501(b) of Pub. L. 103–160 provided that:

“(1) Except as provided in paragraph (2), the amendment made by subsection (a) [amending this section] shall apply with respect to any regular officer who is discharged after the date of the enactment of this Act [Nov. 30, 1993].

“(2) The amendment made by subsection (a) shall not apply with respect to an officer who on the date of the enactment of this Act has five or more, but less than six, years of active service in the Armed Forces.”

Effective Date of 1991 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 102–190 effective Feb. 1, 1992, see section 1132 of Pub. L. 102–190, set out as a note under section 521 of this title.

Effective Date of 1990 Amendment

Section 501(e) of Pub. L. 101–510 provided that:

“(1) Except as provided in paragraph (2), subsection (b) of section 1174 of title 10, United States Code, as added by subsection (a), and the amendments made by subsections (b), (c), and (d) [amending this section] shall apply with respect to a member of the Armed Forces who is discharged, or released from active duty, after the date of the enactment of this Act [Nov. 5, 1990].

“(2) The amendments made by subsection (b) [amending this section] shall not apply in the case of a member (other than a regular enlisted member) of the Armed Forces who (A) is serving on active duty on the date of the enactment of this Act, (B) is discharged, or released from active duty, after that date; and (C) on that date has five or more, but less than six, years of active service in the Armed Forces.”

Effective Date of 1983 Amendment

Section 911(c) of Pub. L. 98–94 provided that: “The amendments made by this section [amending this section] shall take effect on October 1, 1983.”

Section 923(g) of Pub. L. 98–94 provided that: “The amendments made by this section [amending this section and sections 1401, 1402, 1402a, 3991, 3992, 6151, 6328, 6330, 6404, 8991, and 8992 of this title, section 423 of Title 14, Coast Guard, section 853o of Title 33, Navigation and Navigable Waters, and section 212 of Title 42, The Public Health and Welfare] shall apply with respect to (1) the computation of retired or retainer pay of any individual who becomes entitled to that pay after September 30, 1983, and (2) the recomputation of retired pay under section 1402, 1402a, 3992, or 8992 of title 10, United States Code, of any individual who after September 30, 1983, becomes entitled to recompute retired pay under any such section.”

Effective Date of 1981 Amendment

Section 10(b) of Pub. L. 97–22 provided that the amendment made by that section is effective Sept. 15, 1981.

Effective Date

Section effective Sept. 15, 1981, but the authority to prescribe regulations under this section effective on Dec. 12, 1980, see section 701 of Pub. L. 96–513, set out as an Effective Date of 1980 Amendment note under section 101 of this title.

Transition Provisions Under Defense Officer Personnel Management Act

For provisions to prevent extinction or premature termination of rights, duties, penalties, or proceedings that existed or were begun prior to the effective date of Pub. L. 96–513 and otherwise to allow for an orderly transition to the system of officer personnel management put in place under Pub. L. 96–513, see section 601 et seq. of Pub. L. 96–513, set out as a note under section 611 of this title.

§1174a. Special separation benefits programs

(a) Requirement for Programs.—The Secretary concerned shall carry out a special separation benefits program under this section. An eligible member of the armed forces may request separation under the program. The request shall be subject to the approval of the Secretary.

(b) Benefits.—Upon the approval of the request of an eligible member, the member shall—

(1) be released from active duty or full-time National Guard duty or discharged, as the case may be; and

(2) be entitled to—

(A) separation pay equal to 15 percent of the product of (i) the member's years of active service, and (ii) 12 times the monthly basic pay to which the member is entitled at the time of his discharge or release from active duty; and

(B) the same benefits and services as are provided under chapter 58 of this title, sections 474 and 476 of title 37, and section 503(c) of the National Defense Authorization Act for Fiscal Year 1991 (104 Stat. 1558; 37 U.S.C. 476 note) for members of the armed forces who are involuntarily separated within the meaning of section 1141 of this title.


(c) Eligibility.—Subject to subsections (d) and (e), a member of an armed force is eligible for voluntary separation under a program established for that armed force pursuant to this section if the member—

(1) has not been approved for payment of a voluntary separation incentive under section 1175 of this title;

(2) has served on active duty or full-time National Guard duty or any combination of active duty and full-time National Guard duty for more than 6 years;

(3) has served on active duty or full-time National Guard duty or any combination of active duty and full-time National Guard duty for not more than 20 years;

(4) has served at least 5 years of continuous active duty or full-time National Guard duty or any combination of active duty and full-time National Guard duty immediately preceding the date of the member's separation from active duty; and

(5) meets such other requirements as the Secretary may prescribe, which may include requirements relating to—

(A) years of service;

(B) skill or rating;

(C) grade or rank; and

(D) remaining period of obligated service.


(d) Program Applicability.—The Secretary concerned may provide for the program under this section to apply to any of the following members:

(1) A regular officer or warrant officer of an armed force.

(2) A regular enlisted member of an armed force.

(3) A member of an armed force other than a regular member.


(e) Applicability Subject to Needs of the Service.—(1) Subject to paragraphs (2) and (3), the Secretary concerned may limit the applicability of a program under this section to any category of personnel defined by the Secretary in order to meet a need of the armed force under the Secretary's jurisdiction to reduce the number of members in certain grades, the number of members who have completed a certain number of years of active service, or the number of members who possess certain military skills or are serving in designated competitive categories.

(2) Any category prescribed by the Secretary concerned for regular officers, regular enlisted members, or other members pursuant to paragraph (1) shall be consistent with the categories applicable to regular officers, regular enlisted members, or other members, respectively, under the voluntary separation incentive program under section 1175 of this title or any other program established by law or by that Secretary for the involuntary separation of such members in the administration of a reduction in force.

(3) A member of the armed forces offered a voluntary separation incentive under section 1175 of this title shall also be offered the opportunity to request separation under a program established pursuant to this section. If the Secretary concerned approves a request for separation under either such section, the member shall be separated under the authority of the section selected by such member.

(f) Application Requirements.—(1) In order to be separated under a program established pursuant to this section—

(A) a regular enlisted member eligible for separation under that program shall—

(i) submit a request for separation under the program before the expiration of the member's term of enlistment; or

(ii) upon discharge at the end of such term, enter into a written agreement (pursuant to regulations prescribed by the Secretary concerned) not to request reenlistment in a regular component; and


(B) a member referred to in subsection (d)(3) eligible for separation under that program shall submit a request for separation to the Secretary concerned before the expiration of the member's established term of active service.


(2) For purposes of this section, the entry of a member into an agreement referred to in paragraph (1)(A)(ii) under a program established pursuant to this section shall be considered a request for separation under the program.

(g) Other Conditions, Requirements, and Administrative Provisions.—Subsections (e) through (h), other than subsection (e)(2)(A), of section 1174 of this title shall apply in the administration of programs established under this section.

(h) Termination of Program.—(1) Except as provided in paragraph (2), the Secretary concerned may not conduct a program pursuant to this section after December 31, 2001.

(2) No member of the armed forces may be separated under a program established pursuant to this section after the date of the termination of that program.

(Added Pub. L. 102–190, div. A, title VI, §661(a)(1), Dec. 5, 1991, 105 Stat. 1394; amended Pub. L. 102–484, div. A, title X, §1052(15), div. D, title XLIV, §§4405(a), 4422(a), Oct. 23, 1992, 106 Stat. 2499, 2706, 2718; Pub. L. 103–35, title II, §202(a)(17), May 31, 1993, 107 Stat. 102; Pub. L. 103–160, div. A, title V, §§502, 561(g), Nov. 30, 1993, 107 Stat. 1644, 1668; Pub. L. 103–337, div. A, title V, §542(b), Oct. 5, 1994, 108 Stat. 2768; Pub. L. 105–261, div. A, title V, §561(b), Oct. 17, 1998, 112 Stat. 2025; Pub. L. 106–398, §1 [[div. A], title V, §571(b)], Oct. 30, 2000, 114 Stat. 1654, 1654A–134; Pub. L. 112–81, div. A, title VI, §631(f)(4)(A), Dec. 31, 2011, 125 Stat. 1465.)

Codification

Section 631(f)(4)(A) of Pub. L. 112–81, which directed that this title be amended by conforming any references to sections of title 37, United States Code, which were transferred and redesignated by “subsection (c)” of section 631, was executed by conforming the references to those sections as transferred and redesignated by subsection (d) of section 631, to reflect the probable intent of Congress.

Amendments

2011—Subsec. (b)(2)(B). Pub. L. 112–81 substituted “474” for “404” and substituted “476” for “406” in two places. See Codification note above.

2000—Subsec. (h)(1). Pub. L. 106–398 substituted “December 31, 2001” for “September 30, 2001”.

1998—Subsec. (h)(1). Pub. L. 105–261 substituted “September 30, 2001” for “September 30, 1999”.

1994—Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 103–337, §542(b)(1), substituted “concerned” for “of each military department”.

Subsec. (d). Pub. L. 103–337, §542(b)(2), substituted “concerned” for “of a military department”.

Subsec. (e)(3). Pub. L. 103–337, §542(b)(3), struck out “of the military department” after “Secretary”.

Subsec. (h). Pub. L. 103–337, §542(b)(4), substituted “concerned” for “of a military department”.

1993—Subsec. (c)(2). Pub. L. 103–160, §502, struck out “before December 5, 1991” after “6 years”.

Subsec. (c)(3). Pub. L. 103–35, §202(a)(17)(A), made technical amendment to directory language of Pub. L. 102–484, §4422(a)(3). See 1992 Amendment note below.

Subsec. (c)(4). Pub. L. 103–35, §202(a)(17)(B), made technical amendment to directory language of Pub. L. 102–484, §4422(a)(4). See 1992 Amendment note below.

Subsec. (h)(1). Pub. L. 103–160, §561(g), substituted “September 30, 1999” for “September 30, 1995”.

1992—Subsec. (b)(1). Pub. L. 102–484, §4422(a)(1), inserted “or full-time National Guard duty” after “active duty”.

Subsec. (b)(2)(B). Pub. L. 102–484, §4405(a), inserted “, sections 404 and 406 of title 37, and section 503(c) of the National Defense Authorization Act for Fiscal Year 1991 (104 Stat. 1558; 37 U.S.C. 406 note)” after “chapter 58 of this title”.

Subsec. (c)(2). Pub. L. 102–484, §§1052(15), 4422(a)(2), substituted “December 5, 1991” for “the date of the enactment of this section” and inserted “or full-time National Guard duty or any combination of active duty and full-time National Guard duty” after “active duty”.

Subsec. (c)(3). Pub. L. 102–484, §4422(a)(3), as amended by Pub. L. 103–35, §202(a)(17)(A), inserted “or full-time National Guard duty or any combination of active duty and full-time National Guard duty” after “active duty”.

Subsec. (c)(4). Pub. L. 102–484, §4422(a)(4), as amended by Pub. L. 103–35, §202(a)(17)(B), inserted “and” after semicolon at end and “or full-time National Guard duty or any combination of active duty and full-time National Guard duty” after “active duty” the first place it appeared.

Subsec. (c)(5), (6). Pub. L. 102–484, §4424(a)(5), redesignated par. (6) as (5) and struck out former par. (5) which read as follows: “if a Reserve, is on an active duty list; and”.

Effective Date of 1994 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 103–337 applicable only to members of the Coast Guard who are separated after Sept. 30, 1994, see section 542(e) of Pub. L. 103–337, set out as a note under section 1141 of this title.

Effective Date of 1993 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 103–35 applicable as if included in the enactment of Pub. L. 102–484, see section 202(b) of Pub. L. 103–35, set out as a note under section 155 of this title.

Effective Date of 1992 Amendment

Section 4405(c) of Pub. L. 102–484 provided that: “The amendments made by subsections (a) and (b) [amending this section and section 1175 of this title] shall apply as if included in sections 1174a and 1175 of title 10, United States Code, as enacted on December 5, 1991, but any benefits or services payable by reason of the applicability of the provisions of those amendments during the period beginning on December 5, 1991, and ending on the date of the enactment of this Act [Oct. 23, 1992] shall be subject to the availability of appropriations.”

Remedy for Ineffective Counseling of Officers Discharged Following Selection by Early Discharge Boards

Pub. L. 103–160, div. A, title V, §507, Nov. 30, 1993, 107 Stat. 1646, as amended by Pub. L. 103–337, div. A, title X, §1070(b)(1), Oct. 5, 1994, 108 Stat. 2856, provided that:

“(a) Procedure for Review.—(1) The Secretary of each military department shall establish a procedure for the review of the individual circumstances of an officer described in paragraph (2) who is discharged, or who the Secretary concerned approves for discharge, following the report of a selection board convened by the Secretary to select officers for separation. The procedure established by the Secretary of a military department under this section shall provide that each review under that procedure be carried out by the Board for the Correction of Military Records of that military department.

“(2) This section applies in the case of any officer (including a warrant officer) who, having been offered the opportunity to be discharged or otherwise separated from active duty through the programs provided under section 1174a and 1175 of title 10, United States Code—

“(A) elected not to accept such discharge or separation; and

“(B) submits an application under subsection (b) during the two-year period beginning on the later of the date of the enactment of this Act [Nov. 30, 1993] and the date of such discharge or separation.

“(b) Application.—A review under this section shall be conducted in any case submitted to the Secretary concerned by application from the officer or former officer under regulations prescribed by the Secretary.

“(c) Purpose of Review.—(1) The review under this section shall be designed to evaluate the effectiveness of the counseling of the officer before the convening of the board to ensure that the officer was properly informed that selection for discharge or other separation from active duty was a potential result of being within the group of officers to be considered by the board and that the officer was not improperly informed that such selection in that officer's personal case was unlikely.

“(2) The Board for the Correction of Military Records of a military department shall render a decision in each case under this section not later than 60 days after receipt by the Secretary concerned of an application under subsection (b).

“(d) Remedy.—Upon a finding of ineffective counseling under subsection (c), the Secretary shall provide the officer the opportunity to participate, at the officer's option, in any one of the following programs for which the officer meets all eligibility criteria:

“(1) The Special Separation Benefits program under section 1174a of title 10, United States Code.

“(2) The Voluntary Separation Incentive program under section 1175 of such title.

“(3) Retirement under the authority provided by section 4403 of the National Defense Authorization Act for Fiscal Year 1993 (Public Law 102–484; 106 Stat. 2702; 10 U.S.C. 1293 note).

“(e) Effective Date.—This section shall apply with respect to officers separated after September 30, 1990.”

Separation Payments; Reductions and Prohibitions

Pub. L. 103–335, title VIII, §8106A, Sept. 30, 1994, 108 Stat. 2645, as amended by Pub. L. 104–6, title I, §105(a), Apr. 10, 1995, 109 Stat. 79, which provided that members who separated after Sept. 30, 1994, from active duty or full-time National Guard duty in a military department pursuant to a Special Separation Benefits program under section 1174a of this title or a Voluntary Separation Incentive program under section 1175 of this title would have their separation payments reduced by the amount of certain bonus payments and eliminated if they are rehired within 180 days by the Department of Defense in a civilian position and that civilian Department of Defense employees would not receive voluntary separation payments if rehired by a Federal agency within 180 days of separating from the Department of Defense, was from the Department of Defense Appropriations Act, 1995, and was not repeated in subsequent appropriation acts. Similar provisions were contained in the following prior appropriation act:

Pub. L. 103–139, title VIII, §8127, Nov. 11, 1993, 107 Stat. 1469.

Commencement of Program

Section 661(b) of Pub. L. 102–190 provided that: “The Secretary of each military department shall commence the program required by section 1174a of title 10, United States Code (as added by subsection (a)), not later than 60 days after the date of the enactment of this Act [Dec. 5, 1991].”

Report on Programs

Section 663 of Pub. L. 102–190 directed Secretary, not later than 180 days after Dec. 5, 1991, to submit to Congress a report containing the Secretary's assessment of effectiveness of programs established under sections 1174a and 1175 of this title.

§1175. Voluntary separation incentive

(a)(1) Consistent with this section and the availability of appropriations for this purpose, the Secretary of Defense and the Secretary of Homeland Security may provide a financial incentive to members of the armed forces described in subsection (b) for voluntary appointment, enlistment, or transfer to a reserve component, requested and approved under subsection (c).

(2)(A) Except as provided in subparagraph (B), a financial incentive provided a member under this section shall be paid for the period equal to twice the number of years of service of the member, computed as provided in subsection (e)(5).

(B) If, before the expiration of the period otherwise applicable under subparagraph (A) to a member receiving a financial incentive under this section, the member is separated from a reserve component or is transferred to the Retired Reserve, the period for payment of a financial incentive to the member under this section shall terminate on the date of the separation or transfer unless—

(i) the separation or transfer is required by reason of the age or number of years of service of the member;

(ii) the separation or transfer is required by reason of the failure of selection for promotion or the medical disqualification of the member, except in a case in which the Secretary of Defense or the Secretary of Homeland Security determines that the basis for the separation or transfer is a result of a deliberate action taken by the member with the intent to avoid retention in the Ready Reserve or Standby Reserve; or

(iii) in the case of a separation, the member is separated from the reserve component for appointment or enlistment in or transfer to another reserve component of an armed force for service in the Ready Reserve or Standby Reserve of that armed force.


(b) The Secretary of Defense and the Secretary of Homeland Security may provide the incentive to a member of the armed forces if the member—

(1) has served on active duty or full-time National Guard duty or any combination of active duty and full-time National Guard duty for more than 6 but less than 20 years;

(2) has served at least 5 years of continuous active duty or full-time National Guard duty or any combination of active duty and full-time National Guard duty immediately preceding the date of separation;

(3) meets such other requirements as the Secretary may prescribe from time to time, which may include requirements relating to—

(A) years of service;

(B) skill or rating;

(C) grade or rank; and

(D) remaining period of obligated service.


(c) A member of the armed forces offered a voluntary separation incentive under this section shall be offered the opportunity to request separation under a program established pursuant to section 1174a of this title. If the Secretary concerned approves a request for separation under either such section, the member shall be separated under the authority of the section selected by such member.

(d)(1) A member of the armed forces described in subsection (b) may request voluntary appointment, enlistment, or transfer to a reserve component accompanied by this incentive, provided the member has completed 6 years of active service.

(2) The Secretary, in his discretion, may approve or disapprove a request according to the needs of the armed forces.

(3) After December 31, 2001, the Secretary may not approve a request.

(e)(1) The annual payment of the incentive shall equal 2.5 percent of the monthly basic pay the member receives on the date appointed, enlisted, or transferred to the reserve component, multiplied by twelve and multiplied again by the member's years of service.

(2) A member entitled to voluntary separation incentive payments who is also entitled to basic pay for active or reserve service, or compensation for inactive duty training, may elect to have a reduction in the voluntary separation incentive payable for the same period in an amount not to exceed the amount of the basic pay or compensation received for that period.

(3)(A) A member who has received the voluntary separation incentive and who later qualifies for retired or retainer pay under this title shall have deducted from each payment of such retired or retainer pay an amount, in such schedule of monthly installments as the Secretary of Defense shall specify, taking into account the financial ability of the member to pay and avoiding the imposition of undue financial hardship on the member and member's dependents, until the total amount deducted is equal to the total amount of voluntary separation incentive so paid. If the member elected to have a reduction in voluntary separation incentive for any period pursuant to paragraph (2), the deduction required under the preceding sentence shall be reduced as the Secretary of Defense shall specify.

(B) If a member is receiving simultaneous voluntary separation incentive payments and retired or retainer pay, the member may elect to terminate the receipt of voluntary separation incentive payments. Any such election is permanent and irrevocable. The rate of monthly recoupment from retired or retainer pay of voluntary separation incentive payments received after such an election shall be reduced by a percentage that is equal to a fraction with a denominator equal to the number of months that the voluntary separation incentive payments were scheduled to be paid and a numerator equal to the number of months that would not be paid as a result of the member's decision to terminate the voluntary separation incentive.

(4) A member who is receiving voluntary separation incentive payments shall not be deprived of this incentive by reason of entitlement to disability compensation under the laws administered by the Department of Veterans Affairs, but there shall be deducted from voluntary separation incentive payments an amount equal to the amount of any such disability compensation concurrently received. Notwithstanding the preceding sentence, no deduction may be made from voluntary separation incentive payments for any disability compensation received because of an earlier period of active duty if the voluntary separation incentive is received because of discharge or release from a later period of active duty.

(5) The years of service of a member for purposes of this section shall be computed in accordance with section 1405 of this title.

(f) The member's right to incentive payments shall not be transferable, except that the member may designate beneficiaries to receive the payments in the event of the member's death.

(g) Subject to subsection (h), payments under this provision shall be paid from appropriations available to the Department of Defense and the Department of Homeland Security for the Coast Guard.

(h)(1) There is established on the books of the Treasury a fund to be known as the “Voluntary Separation Incentive Fund” (hereinafter in this subsection referred to as the “Fund”). The Fund shall be administered by the Secretary of the Treasury. The Fund shall be used for the accumulation of funds in order to finance on an actuarially sound basis the liabilities of the Department of Defense under this section.

(2) There shall be deposited in the Fund the following, which shall constitute the assets of the Fund:

(A) Amounts paid into the Fund under paragraphs (5), (6), and (7).

(B) Any amount appropriated to the Fund.

(C) Any return on investment of the assets of the Fund.


(3) All voluntary separation incentive payments made by the Secretary of Defense after December 31, 1992, under this section shall be paid out of the Fund. To the extent provided in appropriation Acts, the assets of the Fund shall be available to the Secretary to pay voluntary separation incentives under this section.

(4) The Department of Defense Board of Actuaries (hereinafter in this subsection referred to as the “Board”) shall perform the same functions regarding the Fund, as provided in this subsection, as such Board performs regarding the Department of Defense Military Retirement Fund.

(5) Not later than January 1, 1993, the Board shall determine the amount that is the present value, as of that date, of the future benefits payable under this section in the case of persons who are separated pursuant to this section before that date. The amount so determined is the original unfunded liability of the Fund. The Board shall determine an appropriate amortization period and schedule for liquidation of the original unfunded liability. The Secretary shall make deposits to the Fund in accordance with that amortization schedule.

(6) For persons separated under this section on or after January 1, 1993, the Secretary shall deposit in the Fund during the period beginning on that date and ending on September 30, 1999—

(A) such sums as are necessary to pay the current liabilities under this section during such period; and

(B) the amount equal to the present value, as of September 30, 1999, of the future benefits payable under this section, as determined by the Board.


(7)(A) For each fiscal year after fiscal year 1999, the Board shall—

(i) carry out an actuarial valuation of the Fund and determine any unfunded liability of the Fund which deposits under paragraphs (5) and (6) do not liquidate, taking into consideration any cumulative actuarial gain or loss to the Fund;

(ii) determine the period over which that unfunded liability should be liquidated; and

(iii) determine for the following fiscal year, the total amount, and the monthly amount, of the Department of Defense contributions that must be made to the Fund during that fiscal year in order to fund the unfunded liabilities of the Fund over the applicable amortization periods.


(B) The Board shall carry out its responsibilities for each fiscal year in sufficient time for the amounts referred to in subparagraph (A)(iii) to be included in budget requests for that fiscal year.

(C) The Secretary of Defense shall pay into the Fund at the end of each month as the Department of Defense contribution to the Fund the amount necessary to liquidate unfunded liabilities of the Fund in accordance with the amortization schedules determined by the Board.

(8) Amounts paid into the Fund under this subsection shall be paid from funds available for the pay of members of the armed forces under the jurisdiction of the Secretary of each military department.

(9) The investment provisions of section 1467 of this title shall apply to the Voluntary Separation Incentive Fund.

(i) The Secretary of Defense and the Secretary of Homeland Security may issue such regulations as may be necessary to carry out this section.

(j) A member of the armed forces who is provided a voluntary separation incentive under this section shall be eligible for the same benefits and services as are provided under chapter 58 of this title, sections 474 and 476 of title 37, and section 503(c) of the National Defense Authorization Act for Fiscal Year 1991 (104 Stat. 1558; 37 U.S.C. 476 note) for members of the armed forces who are involuntarily separated within the meaning of section 1141 of this title.

(Added Pub. L. 102–190, div. A, title VI, §662(a)(1), Dec. 5, 1991, 105 Stat. 1396; amended Pub. L. 102–484, div. A, title X, §1052(16), div. D, title XLIV, §§4405(b), 4406(a), (b), 4422(b), Oct. 23, 1992, 106 Stat. 2499, 2706, 2707, 2719; Pub. L. 103–160, div. A, title V, §§502, 561(h), Nov. 30, 1993, 107 Stat. 1644, 1668; Pub. L. 103–337, div. A, title V, §542(c), Oct. 5, 1994, 108 Stat. 2769; Pub. L. 105–261, div. A, title V, §§561(b), 563(a), (b), Oct. 17, 1998, 112 Stat. 2025, 2028; Pub. L. 106–398, §1 [[div. A], title V, §§571(b), 572(a)], Oct. 30, 2000, 114 Stat. 1654, 1654A–134, 1654A–135; Pub. L. 107–296, title XVII, §1704(b)(1), Nov. 25, 2002, 116 Stat. 2314; Pub. L. 110–181, div. A, title IX, §906(c)(1), Jan. 28, 2008, 122 Stat. 277; Pub. L. 111–32, title III, §318(b), June 24, 2009, 123 Stat. 1874; Pub. L. 112–81, div. A, title VI, §631(f)(4)(A), Dec. 31, 2011, 125 Stat. 1465.)

Codification

Section 631(f)(4)(A) of Pub. L. 112–81, which directed that this title be amended by conforming any references to sections of title 37, United States Code, which were transferred and redesignated by “subsection (c)” of section 631, was executed by conforming the references to those sections as transferred and redesignated by subsection (d) of section 631, to reflect the probable intent of Congress.

Amendments

2011—Subsec. (j). Pub. L. 112–81 substituted “474” for “404” and substituted “476” for “406” in two places. See Codification note above.

2009—Subsec. (e)(3)(A). Pub. L. 111–32 amended subpar. (A) generally. Prior to amendment, subpar. (A) read as follows: “A member who has received the voluntary separation incentive and who qualifies for retired or retainer pay under this title shall have deducted from each payment of such retired or retainer pay so much of such pay as is based on the service for which he received the voluntary separation incentive until the total amount deducted equals the total amount of voluntary separation incentive received. If the member elected to have a reduction in voluntary separation incentive for any period pursuant to paragraph (2), the deduction required under the preceding sentence shall be reduced accordingly.”

2008—Subsec. (h)(4). Pub. L. 110–181 struck out “Retirement” before “Board of Actuaries”.

2002—Subsecs. (a)(1), (2)(B)(ii), (b), (g), (i). Pub. L. 107–296 substituted “of Homeland Security” for “of Transportation”.

2000—Subsec. (d)(3). Pub. L. 106–398, §1 [[div. A], title V, §571(b)], substituted “December 31, 2001” for “September 30, 2001”.

Subsec. (e)(3). Pub. L. 106–398, §1 [[div. A], title V, §572(a)], designated existing provisions as subpar. (A) and added subpar. (B).

1998—Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 105–261, §563(a), designated existing provisions as par. (1), struck out “, for the period of time the member serves in a reserve component” after “under subsection (c)”, and added par. (2).

Subsec. (d)(3). Pub. L. 105–261, §561(b), substituted “September 30, 2001” for “September 30, 1999”.

Subsec. (e)(1). Pub. L. 105–261, §563(b), struck out at end “The annual payment will be made for a period equal to the number of years that is equal to twice the number of years of service of the member.”

1994—Subsecs. (a), (b). Pub. L. 103–337, §542(c)(1), inserted “and the Secretary of Transportation” after “Secretary of Defense”.

Subsec. (c). Pub. L. 103–337, §542(c)(2), struck out “of the military department” after “Secretary”.

Subsec. (g). Pub. L. 103–337, §542(c)(3), inserted “and the Department of Transportation for the Coast Guard” before period at end.

Subsec. (h)(3). Pub. L. 103–337, §542(c)(4), inserted “by the Secretary of Defense” after “incentive payments made” and “to the Secretary” after “shall be available”.

Subsec. (i). Pub. L. 103–337, §542(c)(5), inserted “and the Secretary of Transportation” after “Secretary of Defense”.

1993—Subsec. (d)(1). Pub. L. 103–160, §502, struck out “before December 5, 1991” after “active service”.

Subsecs. (d)(3), (h)(6). Pub. L. 103–160, §561(h)(1), substituted “September 30, 1999” for “September 30, 1995” wherever appearing.

Subsec. (h)(7)(A). Pub. L. 103–160, §561(h)(2), substituted “fiscal year 1999” for “fiscal year 1996”.

1992—Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 102–484, §1052(16)(A), substituted “reserve component” for “Reserve component” after “transfer to a”.

Subsec. (b)(1), (2). Pub. L. 102–484, §4422(b)(1), (2), inserted “or full-time National Guard duty or any combination of active duty and full-time National Guard duty” after “active duty”.

Subsec. (b)(3), (4). Pub. L. 102–484, §4424(b)(3), redesignated par. (4) as (3) and struck out former par. (3) which read as follows: “if a Reserve, is on the active duty list; and”.

Subsec. (d)(1). Pub. L. 102–484, §1052(16)(B), substituted “before December 5, 1991” for “prior to the time this provision is enacted”.

Subsec. (e)(2). Pub. L. 102–484, §4406(a)(1), substituted “may elect to have a reduction in the voluntary separation incentive payable for the same period in an amount not to exceed the amount of the basic pay or compensation received for that period.” for “shall forfeit an amount of voluntary separation incentive payable for the same period that is equal to the total amount of basic pay, or compensation, received.”

Subsec. (e)(3). Pub. L. 102–484, §4406(a)(2), inserted at end “If the member elected to have a reduction in voluntary separation incentive for any period pursuant to paragraph (2), the deduction required under the preceding sentence shall be reduced accordingly.”

Subsec. (e)(6). Pub. L. 102–484, §4406(b), struck out par. (6) which read as follows: “Years of service that form the basis of the payment under paragraph (5) may not be counted in computing eligibility for, or the amount of, annuities under title 5 or any other law providing annuities to Federal civilian employees.”

Subsec. (j). Pub. L. 102–484, §4405(b), added subsec. (j).

Effective Date of 2009 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 111–32 applicable to any repayments of separation pay, severance pay, readjustment pay, special separation benefit, or voluntary separation incentive, that occur on or after June 24, 2009, including any ongoing repayment actions that were initiated prior to such amendment, see section 318(c) of Pub. L. 111–32, set out as a note under section 1174 of this title.

Effective Date of 2002 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 107–296 effective on the date of transfer of the Coast Guard to the Department of Homeland Security, see section 1704(g) of Pub. L. 107–296, set out as a note under section 101 of this title.

Effective Date of 2000 Amendment

Pub. L. 106–398, §1 [[div. A], title V, §572(b)], Oct. 30, 2000, 114 Stat. 1654, 1654A–136, provided that: “Subparagraph (B) of section 1175(e)(3) of title 10, United States Code, as added by subsection (a), shall apply with respect to decisions by members to terminate voluntary separation incentive payments under section 1175 of title 10, United States Code, to be effective after September 30, 2000.”

Effective Date of 1998 Amendment

Pub. L. 105–261, div. A, title V, §563(c), Oct. 17, 1998, 112 Stat. 2028, provided that: “The amendments made by this section [amending this section] apply with respect to any person provided a voluntary separation incentive under section 1175 of title 10, United States Code (whether before, on, or after the date of the enactment of this Act) [Oct. 17, 1998].”

Effective Date of 1994 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 103–337 applicable only to members of the Coast Guard who are separated after Sept. 30, 1994, see section 542(e) of Pub. L. 103–337, set out as a note under section 1141 of this title.

Effective Date of 1992 Amendment

Amendment by section 4405(b) of Pub. L. 102–484 applicable as if included in this section as enacted Dec. 5, 1991, with any benefits or services payable by reason of applicability of that amendment during the period beginning Dec. 5, 1991, and ending Oct. 23, 1992, to be subject to availability of appropriations, see section 4405(c) of Pub. L. 102–484, set out as a note under section 1174a of this title.

Section 4406(c) of Pub. L. 102–484 provided that: “The amendments to section 1175 of title 10, United States Code, made by subsections (a) and (b) shall apply as if included in section 1175 of title 10, United States Code, as enacted on December 5, 1991.”

Payment of Incentives From Voluntary Separation Incentive Fund

Pub. L. 104–208, div. A, title I, §101(b) [title VIII, §8044], Sept. 30, 1996, 110 Stat. 3009–71, 3009–98, provided that: “During the current fiscal year and hereafter, voluntary separation incentives payable under 10 U.S.C. 1175 may be paid in such amounts as are necessary from the assets of the Voluntary Separation Incentive Fund established by section 1175(h)(1).”

Similar provisions were contained in the following prior appropriation acts:

Pub. L. 104–61, title VIII, §8054, Dec. 1, 1995, 109 Stat. 662.

Pub. L. 103–335, title VIII, §8062, Sept. 30, 1994, 108 Stat. 2633.

Pub. L. 103–139, title VIII, §8073, Nov. 11, 1993, 107 Stat. 1457.

Pub. L. 102–396, title IX, §9106, Oct. 6, 1992, 106 Stat. 1927.

Separation Payments; Reductions and Prohibitions

For provisions reducing, with certain exceptions, amounts received under this section by amounts received as bonus payments under chapter 5 of title 37 in case of members who separate from active duty or full-time National Guard duty in a military department and prohibiting such members from receiving Voluntary Separation Incentive program payments if rehired in DOD civilian position within 180 days of separation, see note set out under section 1174a of this title.

Tax Treatment of Incentive Payment

Section 662(b) of Pub. L. 102–190 provided that: “Notwithstanding the Internal Revenue Code of 1986 [26 U.S.C. 1 et seq.] and any other provision of law, any voluntary separation incentive paid to a member of the Armed Forces under section 1175 of title 10, United States Code (as added by subsection (a)), shall be includable in gross income for federal tax purposes only for the taxable year in which such incentive is paid to the participant or beneficiary of the member.”

§1175a. Voluntary separation pay and benefits

(a) In General.—Under regulations approved by the Secretary of Defense, the Secretary concerned may provide voluntary separation pay and benefits in accordance with this section to eligible members of the armed forces who are voluntarily separated from active duty in the armed forces.

(b) Eligible Members.—(1) Except as provided in paragraph (2), a member of the armed forces is eligible for voluntary separation pay and benefits under this section if the member—

(A) has served on active duty for more than 6 years but not more than 20 years;

(B) has served at least 5 years of continuous active duty immediately preceding the date of the member's separation from active duty;

(C) has not been approved for payment of a voluntary separation incentive under section 1175 of this title;

(D) meets such other requirements as the Secretary concerned may prescribe, which may include requirements relating to—

(i) years of service, skill, rating, military specialty, or competitive category;

(ii) grade or rank;

(iii) remaining period of obligated service; or

(iv) any combination of these factors; and


(E) requests separation from active duty.


(2) The following members are not eligible for voluntary separation pay and benefits under this section:

(A) Members discharged with disability severance pay under section 1212 of this title.

(B) Members transferred to the temporary disability retired list under section 1202 or 1205 of this title.

(C) Members being evaluated for disability retirement under chapter 61 of this title.

(D) Members who have been previously discharged with voluntary separation pay.

(E) Members who are subject to pending disciplinary action or who are subject to administrative separation or mandatory discharge under any other provision of law or regulations.


(3) The Secretary concerned shall determine each year the number of members to be separated, and provided separation pay and benefits, under this section during the fiscal year beginning in such year.

(c) Separation.—Each eligible member of the armed forces whose request for separation from active duty under subsection (b)(1)(E) is approved shall be separated from active duty.

(d) Additional Service in Ready Reserve.—Of the number of members of the armed forces to be separated from active duty in a fiscal year, as determined under subsection (b)(3), the Secretary concerned shall determine a number of such members, in such skill and grade combinations as the Secretary concerned shall designate, who shall serve in the Ready Reserve, after separation from active duty, for a period of not less than three years, as a condition of the receipt of voluntary separation pay and benefits under this section.

(e) Separation Pay and Benefits.—(1) A member of the armed forces who is separated from active duty under subsection (c) shall be paid voluntary separation pay in accordance with subsection (g) in an amount determined by the Secretary concerned pursuant to subsection (f).

(2) A member who is not entitled to retired or retainer pay upon separation shall be entitled to the benefits and services provided under—

(A) chapter 58 of this title during the 180-day period beginning on the date the member is separated (notwithstanding any termination date for such benefits and services otherwise applicable under the provisions of such chapter); and

(B) sections 474 and 476 of title 37.


(f) Computation of Voluntary Separation Pay.—The Secretary concerned shall specify the amount of voluntary separation pay that an individual or defined group of members of the armed forces may be paid under subsection (e)(1). No member may receive as voluntary separation pay an amount greater than four times the full amount of separation pay for a member of the same pay grade and years of service who is involuntarily separated under section 1174 of this title.

(g) Payment of Voluntary Separation Pay.—(1) Voluntary separation pay under this section may be paid in a single lump sum.

(2) In the case of a member of the armed forces who, at the time of separation under subsection (c), has completed at least 15 years, but less than 20 years, of active service, voluntary separation pay may be paid, at the election of the Secretary concerned, in—

(A) a single lump sum;

(B) installments over a period not to exceed 10 years; or

(C) a combination of lump sum and such installments.


(h) Coordination With Retired or Retainer Pay and Disability Compensation.—(1) A member who is paid voluntary separation pay under this section and who later qualifies for retired or retainer pay under this title or title 14 shall have deducted from each payment of such retired or retainer pay an amount, in such schedule of monthly installments as the Secretary concerned shall specify, until the total amount deducted from such retired or retainer pay is equal to the total amount of voluntary separation pay so paid.

(2)(A) Except as provided in subparagraphs (B) and (C), a member who is paid voluntary separation pay under this section shall not be deprived, by reason of the member's receipt of such pay, of any disability compensation to which the member is entitled under the laws administered by the Secretary of Veterans Affairs, but there shall be deducted from such disability compensation an amount, in such schedule of monthly installments as the Secretary concerned shall specify, until the total amount deducted from such disability compensation is equal to the total amount of voluntary separation pay so paid, less the amount of Federal income tax withheld from such pay (such withholding being at the flat withholding rate for Federal income tax withholding, as in effect pursuant to regulations prescribed under chapter 24 of the Internal Revenue Code of 1986).

(B) No deduction shall be made from the disability compensation paid to an eligible disabled uniformed services retiree under section 1413, or to an eligible combat-related disabled uniformed services retiree under section 1413a of this title, who is paid voluntary separation pay under this section.

(C) No deduction may be made from the disability compensation paid to a member for the amount of voluntary separation pay received by the member because of an earlier discharge or release from a period of active duty if the disability which is the basis for that disability compensation was incurred or aggravated during a later period of active duty.

(3) The requirement under this subsection to repay voluntary separation pay following retirement from the armed forces does not apply to a member who was eligible to retire at the time the member applied and was accepted for voluntary separation pay and benefits under this section.

(4) The Secretary concerned may waive the requirement to repay voluntary separation pay under paragraphs (1) and (2) if the Secretary determines that recovery would be against equity and good conscience or would be contrary to the best interests of the United States.

(i) Retirement Defined.—In this section, the term “retirement” includes a transfer to the Fleet Reserve or Fleet Marine Corps Reserve.

(j) Repayment for Members Who Return to Active Duty.—(1) Except as provided in paragraphs (2) and (3), a member of the armed forces who, after having received all or part of voluntary separation pay under this section, returns to active duty shall have deducted from each payment of basic pay, in such schedule of monthly installments as the Secretary concerned shall specify, until the total amount deducted from such basic pay equals the total amount of voluntary separation pay received.

(2) Members who are involuntarily recalled to active duty or full-time National Guard duty in accordance with section 12301(a), 12301(b), 12301(g), 12302, 12303, or 12304 of this title or section 502(f)(1) of title 32 shall not be subject to this subsection.

(3) Members who are recalled or perform active duty or full-time National Guard duty in accordance with section 101(d)(1), 101(d)(2), 101(d)(5), 12301(d) (insofar as the period served is less than 180 consecutive days with the consent of the member), 12319, or 12503 of this title, or section 114, 115, or 502(f)(2) of title 32 (insofar as the period served is less than 180 consecutive days with consent of the member), shall not be subject to this subsection.

(4) The Secretary of Defense may waive, in whole or in part, repayment required under paragraph (1) if the Secretary determines that recovery would be against equity and good conscience or would be contrary to the best interests of the United States. The authority in this paragraph may be delegated only to the Undersecretary of Defense for Personnel and Readiness and the Principal Deputy Undersecretary of Defense for Personnel and Readiness.

(k) Termination of Authority.—(1) The authority to separate a member of the armed forces from active duty under subsection (c) shall terminate on December 31, 2018.

(2) A member who separates by the date specified in paragraph (1) may continue to be provided voluntary separation pay and benefits under this section until the member has received the entire amount of pay and benefits to which the member is entitled under this section.

(Added Pub. L. 109–163, div. A, title VI, §643(a)(1), Jan. 6, 2006, 119 Stat. 3306; amended Pub. L. 109–364, div. A, title VI, §623(a)(1), (2), Oct. 17, 2006, 120 Stat. 2256; Pub. L. 111–84, div. A, title X, §1073(a)(14), Oct. 28, 2009, 123 Stat. 2473; Pub. L. 111–383, div. A, title X, §1075(b)(18), Jan. 7, 2011, 124 Stat. 4370; Pub. L. 112–81, div. A, title V, §526, title VI, §631(f)(4)(A), Dec. 31, 2011, 125 Stat. 1401, 1465.)

References in Text

Chapter 24 of the Internal Revenue Code of 1986, referred to in subsec. (h)(2)(A), is classified generally to chapter 24 (§3401 et seq.) of Title 26, Internal Revenue Code.

Codification

Section 631(f)(4)(A) of Pub. L. 112–81, which directed that this title be amended by conforming any references to sections of title 37, United States Code, which were transferred and redesignated by “subsection (c)” of section 631, was executed by conforming the references to those sections as transferred and redesignated by subsection (d) of section 631, to reflect the probable intent of Congress.

Amendments

2011—Subsec. (e)(2)(B). Pub. L. 112–81, §631(f)(4)(A), substituted “474” for “404” and “476” for “406”. See Codification note above.

Subsec. (j)(3). Pub. L. 111–383 substituted “this title” for “title 10”.

Subsec. (k)(1). Pub. L. 112–81, §526, substituted “December 31, 2018” for “December 31, 2012”.

2009—Subsec. (h)(1). Pub. L. 111–84 substituted “qualifies” for “qualities”.

2006—Subsec. (f). Pub. L. 109–364, §623(a)(1), substituted “four” for “two”.

Subsec. (k)(1). Pub. L. 109–364, §623(a)(2), substituted “2012” for “2008”.

Limitation on Applicability

Pub. L. 109–163, div. A, title VI, §643(b), Jan. 6, 2006, 119 Stat. 3310, which provided that, during the period beginning on Jan. 6, 2006, and ending on Dec. 31, 2008, members eligible for separation and for voluntary separation pay and benefits under this section would be limited to officers who had met the eligibility requirements of this section, but had not completed more than 12 years of active service as of the date of separation, was repealed by Pub. L. 109–364, div. A, title VI, §623(a)(3), Oct. 17, 2006, 120 Stat. 2256.

§1176. Enlisted members: retention after completion of 18 or more, but less than 20, years of service

(a) Regular Members.—A regular enlisted member who is selected to be involuntarily separated, or whose term of enlistment expires and who is denied reenlistment, and who on the date on which the member is to be discharged is within two years of qualifying for retirement under section 3914 or 8914 of this title, or of qualifying for transfer to the Fleet Reserve or Fleet Marine Corps Reserve under section 6330 of this title, shall be retained on active duty until the member is qualified for retirement or transfer to the Fleet Reserve or Fleet Marine Corps Reserve, as the case may be, unless the member is sooner retired or discharged under any other provision of law.

(b) Reserve Members in Active Status.—A reserve enlisted member serving in an active status who is selected to be involuntarily separated (other than for physical disability or for cause), or whose term of enlistment expires and who is denied reenlistment (other than for physical disability or for cause), and who on the date on which the member is to be discharged or transferred from an active status is entitled to be credited with at least 18 but less than 20 years of service computed under section 12732 of this title, may not be discharged, denied reenlistment, or transferred from an active status without the member's consent before the earlier of the following:

(1) If as of the date on which the member is to be discharged or transferred from an active status the member has at least 18, but less than 19, years of service computed under section 12732 of this title—

(A) the date on which the member is entitled to be credited with 20 years of service computed under section 12732 of this title; or

(B) the third anniversary of the date on which the member would otherwise be discharged or transferred from an active status.


(2) If as of the date on which the member is to be discharged or transferred from an active status the member has at least 19, but less than 20, years of service computed under section 12732 of this title—

(A) the date on which the member is entitled to be credited with 20 years of service computed under section 12732 of this title; or

(B) the second anniversary of the date on which the member would otherwise be discharged or transferred from an active status.

(Added Pub. L. 102–484, div. A, title V, §541(a), Oct. 23, 1992, 106 Stat. 2412; amended Pub. L. 103–160, div. A, title V, §562(a), Nov. 30, 1993, 107 Stat. 1669; Pub. L. 104–106, div. A, title XV, §1501(c)(12), Feb. 10, 1996, 110 Stat. 499.)

Amendments

1996—Subsec. (b). Pub. L. 104–106 substituted “section 12732” for “section 1332” wherever appearing.

1993—Subsec. (b). Pub. L. 103–160 added subsec. (b) and struck out heading and text of former subsec. (b) which provided that a reserve enlisted member serving on active duty who was selected to be involuntarily separated, or whose term of enlistment expired and who was denied reenlistment, and who on the date on which the member was to be discharged or released from active duty was entitled to be credited with at least 18 but less than 20 years of service computed under section 1332 of this title, could not be discharged or released from active duty without the member's consent before the earlier of certain dates.

Effective Date of 1996 Amendment

Section 1501(c) of Pub. L. 104–106 provided that the amendment made by that section is effective as of Dec. 1, 1994, and as if included as an amendment made by the Reserve Officer Personnel Management Act, title XVI of Pub. L. 103–337, as originally enacted.

Effective Date of 1993 Amendment

Section 562(b) of Pub. L. 103–160 provided that: “Subsection (b) of section 1176 of title 10, United States Code, as added by subsection (a), shall take effect as of October 23, 1992.”

§1177. Members diagnosed with or reasonably asserting post-traumatic stress disorder or traumatic brain injury: medical examination required before administrative separation

(a) Medical Examination Required.—(1) Under regulations prescribed by the Secretary of Defense, the Secretary of a military department shall ensure that a member of the armed forces under the jurisdiction of the Secretary who has been deployed overseas in support of a contingency operation during the previous 24 months, and who is diagnosed by a physician, clinical psychologist, or psychiatrist as experiencing post-traumatic stress disorder or traumatic brain injury or who otherwise reasonably alleges, based on the service of the member while deployed, the influence of such a condition, receives a medical examination to evaluate a diagnosis of post-traumatic stress disorder or traumatic brain injury.

(2) A member covered by paragraph (1) shall not be administratively separated under conditions other than honorable until the results of the medical examination have been reviewed by appropriate authorities responsible for evaluating, reviewing, and approving the separation case, as determined by the Secretary concerned.

(3) In a case involving post-traumatic stress disorder, the medical examination shall be performed by a clinical psychologist or psychiatrist. In cases involving traumatic brain injury, the medical examination may be performed by a physician, clinical psychologist, psychiatrist, or other health care professional, as appropriate.

(b) Purpose of Medical Examination.—The medical examination required by subsection (a) shall assess whether the effects of post-traumatic stress disorder or traumatic brain injury constitute matters in extenuation that relate to the basis for administrative separation under conditions other than honorable or the overall characterization of service of the member as other than honorable.

(c) Inapplicability to Proceedings Under Uniform Code of Military Justice.—The medical examination and procedures required by this section do not apply to courts-martial or other proceedings conducted pursuant to the Uniform Code of Military Justice.

(Added Pub. L. 111–84, div. A, title V, §512(a)(1), Oct. 28, 2009, 123 Stat. 2280.)

References in Text

The Uniform Code of Military Justice, referred to in subsec. (c), is classified to chapter 47 (§801 et seq.) of this title.

Prior Provisions

A prior section 1177, added Pub. L. 103–337, div. A, title V, §560(a)(1), Oct. 5, 1994, 108 Stat. 2777; amended Pub. L. 104–106, div. A, title V, §567(a)(1), title XV, §1503(a)(12), Feb. 10, 1996, 110 Stat. 328, 511, related to mandatory discharge or retirement of members infected with HIV–1 virus, prior to repeal by Pub. L. 104–134, title II, §2707(a)(1), Apr. 26, 1996, 110 Stat. 1321–330.

§1178. System and procedures for tracking separations resulting from refusal to participate in anthrax vaccine immunization program

The Secretary of each military department shall establish a system for tracking, recording, and reporting separations of members of the armed forces under the Secretary's jurisdiction that result from procedures initiated as a result of a refusal to participate in the anthrax vaccine immunization program.

(Added Pub. L. 106–398, §1 [[div. A], title VII, §751(a)(1)], Oct. 30, 2000, 114 Stat. 1654, 1654A–193; amended Pub. L. 111–383, div. A, title VII, §721, Jan. 7, 2011, 124 Stat. 4251.)

Amendments

2011—Pub. L. 111–383 struck out subsec. (a) designation and heading before “The Secretary” and struck out subsec. (b). Text of subsec. (b) read as follows: “The Secretary of Defense shall consolidate the information recorded under the system described in subsection (a) and shall submit to the Committees on Armed Services of the Senate and the House of Representatives not later than April 1 of each year a report on such information. Each such report shall include a description of—

“(1) the number of members separated, categorized by military department, grade, and active-duty or reserve status; and

“(2) any other information determined appropriate by the Secretary.”

Comptroller General Report

Pub. L. 106–398, §1 [[div. A], title VII, §751(d)], Oct. 30, 2000, 114 Stat. 1654, 1654A–194, directed the Comptroller General, not later than Apr. 1, 2002, to submit to committees of Congress a report on the effect of the Department of Defense anthrax vaccine immunization program on the recruitment and retention of active duty and reserve military personnel and civilian personnel of the Department of Defense.