10 U.S.C.
United States Code, 2011 Edition
Title 10 - ARMED FORCES
Subtitle A - General Military Law
PART II - PERSONNEL
CHAPTER 60 - SEPARATION OF REGULAR OFFICERS FOR SUBSTANDARD PERFORMANCE OF DUTY OR FOR CERTAIN OTHER REASONS
From the U.S. Government Printing Office, www.gpo.gov

CHAPTER 60—SEPARATION OF REGULAR OFFICERS FOR SUBSTANDARD PERFORMANCE OF DUTY OR FOR CERTAIN OTHER REASONS

Sec.
1181.
Authority to establish procedures to consider the separation of officers for substandard performance of duty and for certain other reasons.
1182.
Boards of inquiry.
[1183.
Repealed.]
1184.
Removal of officer: action by Secretary upon recommendation of board of inquiry.
1185.
Rights and procedures.
1186.
Officer considered for removal: voluntary retirement or discharge.
1187.
Officers eligible to serve on boards.

        

Amendments

1998—Pub. L. 105–261, div. A, title V, §503(c)(2), Oct. 17, 1998, 112 Stat. 2004, struck out item 1183 “Boards of review” and substituted “inquiry” for “review” in item 1184.

1984—Pub. L. 98–525, title V, §524(b)(2), Oct. 19, 1984, 98 Stat. 2524, substituted “Authority to establish procedures to consider the separation of officers for substandard performance of duty and for certain other reasons” for “Authority to convene boards of officers to consider separation of officers for substandard performance of duty or for certain other reasons” in item 1181.

§1181. Authority to establish procedures to consider the separation of officers for substandard performance of duty and for certain other reasons

(a) Subject to such limitations as the Secretary of Defense may prescribe, the Secretary of the military department concerned shall prescribe, by regulation, procedures for the review at any time of the record of any commissioned officer (other than a commissioned warrant officer or a retired officer) of the Regular Army, Regular Navy, Regular Air Force, or Regular Marine Corps to determine whether such officer shall be required, because his performance of duty has fallen below standards prescribed by the Secretary of Defense, to show cause for his retention on active duty.

(b) Subject to such limitations as the Secretary of Defense may prescribe, the Secretary of the military department concerned shall prescribe, by regulation, procedures for the review at any time of the record of any commissioned officer (other than a commissioned warrant officer or a retired officer) of the Regular Army, Regular Navy, Regular Air Force, or Regular Marine Corps to determine whether such officer should be required, because of misconduct, because of moral or professional dereliction, or because his retention is not clearly consistent with the interests of national security, to show cause for his retention on active duty.

(Added Pub. L. 96–513, title I, §110, Dec. 12, 1980, 94 Stat. 2872; amended Pub. L. 98–525, title V, §524(b)(1), Oct. 19, 1984, 98 Stat. 2524.)

Amendments

1984—Pub. L. 98–525 substituted “Authority to establish procedures to consider the separation of officers for substandard performance of duty and for certain other reasons” for “Authority to convene boards of officers to consider separation of officers for substandard performance of duty or for certain other reasons” in section catchline.

Subsecs. (a), (b). Pub. L. 98–525 amended subsecs. (a) and (b) generally, substituting “Subject to such limitations as the Secretary of Defense may prescribe, the Secretary of the military department concerned shall prescribe, by regulation, procedures for the review at any time of the record” for “Under regulations prescribed by the Secretary of Defense, the Secretary of the military department concerned may at any time convene a board of officers to review the record”.

Effective Date of 1984 Amendment

Section 524(b)(3) of Pub. L. 98–525 provided that: “The amendments made by paragraphs (1) and (2) [amending this section and the analysis to this chapter] shall take effect on the first day of the first month that begins more than 60 days after the date of the enactment of this Act [Oct. 19, 1984], but shall not apply to any case in which, before that date, a board of officers has been ordered to convene under the provisions of section 1181 of title 10, United States Code, as in effect before that date.”

Effective Date

Chapter effective Sept. 15, 1981, but the authority to prescribe regulations under this chapter effective on Dec. 12, 1980, see section 701 of Pub. L. 96–513, set out as an Effective Date of 1980 Amendment note under section 101 of this title.

Transition Provisions Under Defense Officer Personnel Management Act

For provisions to prevent extinction or premature termination of rights, duties, penalties, or proceedings that existed or were begun prior to the effective date of Pub. L. 96–513 and otherwise to allow for an orderly transition to the system of officer personnel management put in place under Pub. L. 96–513, see section 601 et seq. of Pub. L. 96–513, set out as a note under section 611 of this title.

§1182. Boards of inquiry

(a) The Secretary of the military department concerned shall convene boards of inquiry at such times and places as the Secretary may prescribe to receive evidence and make findings and recommendations as to whether an officer who is required under section 1181 of this title to show cause for retention on active duty should be retained on active duty. Each board of inquiry shall be composed of not less than three officers having the qualifications prescribed by section 1187 of this title.

(b) A board of inquiry shall give a fair and impartial hearing to each officer required under section 1181 of this title to show cause for retention on active duty.

(c)(1) If a board of inquiry determines that the officer has failed to establish that he should be retained on active duty, it shall recommend to the Secretary concerned that the officer not be retained on active duty.

(2) Under regulations prescribed by the Secretary concerned, an officer as to whom a board of inquiry makes a recommendation under paragraph (1) that the officer not be retained on active duty may be required to take leave pending the completion of the officer's case under this chapter. The officer may be required to begin such leave at any time following the officer's receipt of the report of the board of inquiry, including the board's recommendation for removal from active duty, and the expiration of any period allowed for submission by the officer of a rebuttal to that report. The leave may be continued until the date on which action by the Secretary concerned on the officer's case is completed or may be terminated at any earlier time.

(d)(1) If a board of inquiry determines that the officer has established that he should be retained on active duty, the officer's case is closed.

(2) An officer who is required to show cause for retention on active duty under subsection (a) of section 1181 of this title and who is determined under paragraph (1) to have established that he should be retained on active duty may not again be required to show cause for retention on active duty under such subsection within the one-year period beginning on the date of that determination.

(3)(A) Subject to subparagraph (B), an officer who is required to show cause for retention on active duty under subsection (b) of section 1181 of this title and who is determined under paragraph (1) to have established that he should be retained on active duty may again be required to show cause for retention at any time.

(B) An officer who has been required to show cause for retention on active duty under subsection (b) of section 1181 of this title and who is thereafter retained on active duty may not again be required to show cause for retention on active duty under such subsection solely because of conduct which was the subject of the previous proceedings, unless the findings or recommendations of the board of inquiry that considered his case are determined to have been obtained by fraud or collusion.

(Added Pub. L. 96–513, title I, §110, Dec. 12, 1980, 94 Stat. 2872; amended Pub. L. 105–261, div. A, title V, §503(b)(1), Oct. 17, 1998, 112 Stat. 2003; Pub. L. 106–398, §1 [[div. A], title X, §1087(d)(2)], Oct. 30, 2000, 114 Stat. 1654, 1654A–292; Pub. L. 107–314, div. A, title V, §506(a), Dec. 2, 2002, 116 Stat. 2534.)

Amendments

2002—Subsec. (c). Pub. L. 107–314 designated existing provisions as par. (1) and added par. (2).

2000—Subsec. (c). Pub. L. 106–398 made technical correction to directory language of Pub. L. 105–261, §503(b)(1). See 1998 Amendment note below.

1998—Subsec. (c). Pub. L. 105–261, §503(b)(1), as amended by Pub. L. 106–398, substituted “recommend to the Secretary concerned that the officer not be retained on active duty” for “send the record of its proceedings to a board of review convened under section 1183 of this title”.

Effective Date of 2000 Amendment

Pub. L. 106–398, §1 [[div. A], title X, §1087(d)], Oct. 30, 2000, 114 Stat. 1654, 1654A–292, provided that the amendment made by section 1 [[div. A], title X, §1087(d)(2)] is effective Oct. 17, 1998, and as if included in the Strom Thurmond National Defense Authorization Act for Fiscal Year 1999, Pub. L. 105–261, as enacted.

[§1183. Repealed. Pub. L. 105–261, div. A, title V, §503(a), Oct. 17, 1998, 112 Stat. 2003]

Section, added Pub. L. 96–513, title I, §110, Dec. 12, 1980, 94 Stat. 2873, related to convening and determinations of boards of review.

§1184. Removal of officer: action by Secretary upon recommendation of board of inquiry

The Secretary of the military department concerned may remove an officer from active duty if the removal of such officer from active duty is recommended by a board of inquiry convened under section 1182 of this title.

(Added Pub. L. 96–513, title I, §110, Dec. 12, 1980, 94 Stat. 2874; amended Pub. L. 105–261, div. A, title V, §503(b)(2), (c)(1), Oct. 17, 1998, 112 Stat. 2003.)

Amendments

1998—Pub. L. 105–261 substituted “inquiry” for “review” in section catchline and “board of inquiry convened under section 1182 of this title” for “board of review convened under section 1183 of this title” in text.

§1185. Rights and procedures

(a) Under regulations prescribed by the Secretary of Defense, each officer required under section 1181 of this title to show cause for retention on active duty—

(1) shall be notified in writing, at least 30 days before the hearing of his case by a board of inquiry, of the reasons for which he is being required to show cause for retention on active duty;

(2) shall be allowed a reasonable time, as determined by the board of inquiry, to prepare his showing of cause for his retention on active duty;

(3) shall be allowed to appear in person and to be represented by counsel at proceedings before the board of inquiry; and

(4) shall be allowed full access to, and shall be furnished copies of, records relevant to his case, except that the board of inquiry shall withhold any record that the Secretary concerned determines should be withheld in the interest of national security.


(b) When a record is withheld under subsection (a)(4), the officer whose case is under consideration shall, to the extent that the interest of national security permits, be furnished a summary of the record so withheld.

(Added Pub. L. 96–513, title I, §110, Dec. 12, 1980, 94 Stat. 2874.)

§1186. Officer considered for removal: voluntary retirement or discharge

(a) At any time during proceedings under this chapter with respect to the removal of an officer from active duty, the Secretary of the military department concerned may grant a request by the officer—

(1) for voluntary retirement, if the officer is qualified for retirement; or

(2) for discharge in accordance with subsection (b)(2).


(b) An officer removed from active duty under section 1184 of this title shall—

(1) if eligible for voluntary retirement under any provision of law on the date of such removal, be retired in the grade and with the retired pay for which he would be eligible if retired under such provision; and

(2) if ineligible for voluntary retirement under any provision of law on the date of such removal—

(A) be honorably discharged in the grade then held, in the case of an officer whose case was brought under subsection (a) of section 1181 of this title; or

(B) be discharged in the grade then held, in the case of an officer whose case was brought under subsection (b) of section 1181 of this title.


(c) An officer who is discharged under subsection (b)(2) is entitled, if eligible therefor, to separation pay under section 1174(a)(2) of this title.

(Added Pub. L. 96–513, title I, §110, Dec. 12, 1980, 94 Stat. 2874; amended Pub. L. 101–510, div. A, title V, §501(f)(1), Nov. 5, 1990, 104 Stat. 1550.)

Amendments

1990—Subsec. (c). Pub. L. 101–510 substituted “section 1174(a)(2)” for “section 1174(b)”.

§1187. Officers eligible to serve on boards

(a) In General.—Except as provided in subsection (b), each board convened under this chapter shall consist of officers appointed as follows:

(1) Each member of the board shall be an officer of the same armed force as the officer being required to show cause for retention on active duty.

(2) Each member of the board shall be in a grade above major or lieutenant commander, except that at least one member of the board shall be in a grade above lieutenant colonel or commander.

(3) Each member of the board shall be senior in grade to any officer to be considered by the board.


(b) Retired Officers.—If qualified officers are not available in sufficient numbers to comprise a board convened under this chapter, the Secretary of the military department concerned shall complete the membership of the board by appointing to the board retired officers of the same armed force. A retired officer may be appointed to such a board only if the retired grade of that officer—

(1) is above major or lieutenant commander or, in the case of an officer to be the senior officer of the board, above lieutenant colonel or commander; and

(2) is senior to the grade of any officer to be considered by the board.


(c) Ineligibility by Reason of Previous Consideration of Same Officer.—No person may be a member of more than one board convened under this chapter to consider the same officer.

(d) Exclusion From Strength Limitation.—A retired general or flag officer who is on active duty for the purpose of serving on a board convened under this chapter shall not, while so serving, be counted against any limitation on the number of general and flag officers who may be on active duty.

(Added Pub. L. 96–513, title I, §110, Dec. 12, 1980, 94 Stat. 2875; amended Pub. L. 106–65, div. A, title V, §504(a), Oct. 5, 1999, 113 Stat. 590; Pub. L. 110–417, [div. A], title V, §505, Oct. 14, 2008, 122 Stat. 4434.)

Amendments

2008—Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 110–417, §505(a)(1), (b), substituted “In General” for “Active Duty Officers” in heading, redesignated pars. (3) and (4) as (2) and (3), respectively, and struck out former par. (2) which read as follows: “Each member of the board shall be on the active-duty list.”

Subsec. (b). Pub. L. 110–417, §505(a)(2), struck out “on active duty” after “qualified officers” in introductory provisions.

1999—Pub. L. 106–65 amended text generally. Prior to amendment, text consisted of subsecs. (a) and (b) relating to officers eligible to serve on boards.