10 U.S.C.
United States Code, 2011 Edition
Title 10 - ARMED FORCES
Subtitle A - General Military Law
PART II - PERSONNEL
From the U.S. Government Printing Office, www.gpo.gov

PART II—PERSONNEL

Chap.
Sec.
31.
Enlistments
501
32.
Officer Strength and Distribution in Grade
521
33.
Original Appointments of Regular Officers in Grades Above Warrant Officer Grades
531
33A.
Appointment, Promotion, and Involuntary Separation and Retirement for Members on the Warrant Officer Active-Duty List
571
34.
Appointments as Reserve Officers
591
35.
Temporary Appointments in Officer Grades
601
36.
Promotion, Separation, and Involuntary Retirement of Officers on the Active-Duty List
611
37.
General Service Requirements
651
38.
Joint Officer Management
661
39.
Active Duty
671
40.
Leave
701
41.
Special Appointments, Assignments, Details, and Duties
711
43.
Rank and Command
741
45.
The Uniform
771
47.
Uniform Code of Military Justice
801
47A.
Military Commissions
948a
48.
Military Correctional Facilities
951
49.
Miscellaneous Prohibitions and Penalties
971
50.
Miscellaneous Command Responsibilities
991
51.
Reserve Components: Standards and Procedures for Retention and Promotion
1001
53.
Miscellaneous Rights and Benefits
1030
54.
Commissary and Exchange Benefits
1061
55.
Medical and Dental Care
1071
56.
Department of Defense Medicare-Eligible Retiree Health Care Fund
1111
57.
Decorations and Awards
1121
58.
Benefits and Services for Members Being Separated or Recently Separated
1141
59.
Separation
1161
60.
Separation of Regular Officers for Substandard Performance of Duty or for Certain Other Reasons
1181
61.
Retirement or Separation for Physical Disability
1201
63.
Retirement for Age
1251
65.
Retirement of Warrant Officers for Length of Service
1293
67.
Retired Pay for Non-Regular Service
1331
69.
Retired Grade
1370
71.
Computation of Retired Pay
1401
73.
Annuities Based on Retired or Retainer Pay
1431
74.
Department of Defense Military Retirement Fund
1461
75.
Deceased Personnel
1471
76.
Missing Persons
1501
77.
Posthumous Commissions and Warrants
1521
79.
Correction of Military Records
1551
80.
Miscellaneous Investigation Requirements and Other Duties
1561
81.
Civilian Employees
1580
83.
Civilian Defense Intelligence Employees
1601
[85.
Repealed.]
87.
Defense Acquisition Workforce
1701
88.
Military Family Programs and Military Child Care
1781
[89.
Repealed.]

        

Amendments

2011—Pub. L. 111–383, div. A, title X, §1075(b)(1), Jan. 7, 2011, 124 Stat. 4368, substituted “1030” for “1031” in item for chapter 53.

2009—Pub. L. 111–84, div. A, title X, §1073(a)(7), Oct. 28, 2009, 123 Stat. 2472, substituted “1580” for “1581” in item for chapter 81.

2006—Pub. L. 109–366, §3(a)(2), Oct. 17, 2006, 120 Stat. 2630, added item for chapter 47A.

2001—Pub. L. 107–107, div. A, title X, §1048(a)(1), Dec. 28, 2001, 115 Stat. 1222, struck out period after “1111” in item for chapter 56.

2000—Pub. L. 106–398, §1 [[div. A], title VII, §713(a)(2)], Oct. 30, 2000, 114 Stat. 1654, 1654A–184, added item for chapter 56.

1999—Pub. L. 106–65, div. A, title V, §586(c)(1), title VII, §721(c)(2), Oct. 5, 1999, 113 Stat. 638, 694, added item for chapter 50 and substituted “Deceased Personnel” for “Death Benefits” and “1471” for “1475” in item for chapter 75.

1997—Pub. L. 105–85, div. A, title V, §591(a)(2), Nov. 18, 1997, 111 Stat. 1762, added item for chapter 80.

1996—Pub. L. 104–201, div. A, title XVI, §1633(c)(3), Sept. 23, 1996, 110 Stat. 2751, substituted “Civilian Defense Intelligence Employees” for “Defense Intelligence Agency and Central Imagery Office Civilian Personnel” in item for chapter 83.

Pub. L. 104–106, div. A, title V, §§568(a)(2), 569(b)(2), title X, §1061(a)(2), Feb. 10, 1996, 110 Stat. 335, 351, 442, added items for chapters 76 and 88 and struck out item for chapter 89 “Volunteers Investing in Peace and Security”.

1994—Pub. L. 103–359, title V, §501(b)(2), Oct. 14, 1994, 108 Stat. 3429, substituted “Defense Intelligence Agency and Central Imagery Office Civilian Personnel” for “Defense Intelligence Agency Civilian Personnel” in item for chapter 83.

1992—Pub. L. 102–484, div. A, title XIII, §1322(a)(2), Oct. 23, 1992, 106 Stat. 2553, added item for chapter 89.

1991—Pub. L. 102–190, div. A, title X, §1061(a)(26)(C)(ii), Dec. 5, 1991, 105 Stat. 1474, effective Oct. 1, 1993, struck out item for chapter 85 “Procurement Management Personnel”.

Pub. L. 102–190, div. A, title XI, §1112(b)(2), Dec. 5, 1991, 105 Stat. 1501, substituted “Original Appointments of Regular Officers in Grades Above Warrant Officer Grades” for “Appointments in Regular Components” in item for chapter 33 and added item for chapter 33A.

Pub. L. 102–25, title VII, §701(e)(1), Apr. 6, 1991, 105 Stat. 114, added item for chapter 85.

1990—Pub. L. 101–510, div. A, title V, §502(a)(2), title XII, §1202(b), Nov. 5, 1990, 104 Stat. 1557, 1656, added items for chapters 58 and 87 and struck out item for chapter 85 “Procurement Management Personnel”.

1988—Pub. L. 100–370, §1(c)(3), July 19, 1988, 102 Stat. 841, added item for chapter 54.

1986—Pub. L. 99–433, title IV, §401(b), Oct. 1, 1986, 100 Stat. 1030, added item for chapter 38.

1985—Pub. L. 99–145, title IX, §924(a)(2), Nov. 8, 1985, 99 Stat. 698, added item for chapter 85.

1983—Pub. L. 98–94, title IX, §925(a)(2), title XII, §1268(15), Sept. 24, 1983, 97 Stat. 648, 707, added item for chapter 74, and substituted “or” for “and” in item for chapter 60.

1981—Pub. L. 97–89, title VII, §701(a)(2), Dec. 4, 1981, 95 Stat. 1160, added item for chapter 83.

1980—Pub. L. 96–513, title V, §§501(1), 511(29), (54)(B), Dec. 12, 1980, 94 Stat. 2907, 2922, 2925, added item for chapter 32, substituted “531” for “541” as section number in item for chapter 33, substituted “34” for “35” as chapter number of chapter relating to appointments as reserve officers, added items for chapters 35 and 36, substituted “Reserve Components: Standards and Procedures for Retention and Promotion” for “Retention of Reserves” in item for chapter 51, added item for chapter 60, substituted “1251” for “1255” as section number in item for chapter 63, substituted “Retirement of Warrant Officers” for “Retirement” in item for chapter 65, substituted “1370” for “1371” as section number in item for chapter 69, and amended item for chapter 73 to read: “Annuities Based on Retired or Retainer Pay”.

1972—Pub. L. 92–425, §2, Sept. 21, 1972, 86 Stat. 711, amended item for chapter 73 by inserting “; Survivor Benefit Plan” after “Pay” which could not be executed as directed in view of amendment by Pub. L. 87–381. See 1961 Amendment note below.

1968—Pub. L. 90–377, §2, July 5, 1968, 82 Stat. 288, added item for chapter 48.

1967—Pub. L. 90–83, §3(2), Sept. 11, 1967, 81 Stat. 220, struck out item for chapter 80 “Exemplary Rehabilitation Certificates”.

1966—Pub. L. 89–690, §2, Oct. 15, 1966, 80 Stat. 1017, added item for chapter 80.

1962—Pub. L. 87–649, §3(2), Sept. 7, 1962, 76 Stat. 493, added item for chapter 40.

1961—Pub. L. 87–381, §1(2), Oct. 4, 1961, 75 Stat. 810, substituted “Retired Servicemen's Family Protection Plan” for “Annuities Based on Retired or Retainer Pay” in item for chapter 73.

1958—Pub. L. 85–861, §§1(21), (26), (33), 33(a)(4)(B), Sept. 2, 1958, 72 Stat. 1443, 1450, 1455, 1564, substituted “General Service Requirements” for “Service Requirements for Reserves” in item for chapter 37, “971” for “[No present sections]” in item for chapter 49, “Medical and Dental Care” for “Voting by Members of Armed Forces” in item for chapter 55, and struck out “Care of the Dead” and substituted “1475” for “1481” in item for chapter 75.

CHAPTER 31—ENLISTMENTS

Sec.
501.
Definition.
502.
Enlistment oath: who may administer.
503.
Enlistments: recruiting campaigns; compilation of directory information.
504.
Persons not qualified.
505.
Regular components: qualifications, term, grade.
506.
Regular components: extension of enlistments during war.
507.
Extension of enlistment for members needing medical care or hospitalization.
508.
Reenlistment: qualifications.
509.
Voluntary extension of enlistments: periods and benefits.
510.
Enlistment incentives for pursuit of skills to facilitate national service.
511.
College First Program.
[512.
Renumbered.]
513.
Enlistments: Delayed Entry Program.
514.
Bounties prohibited; substitutes prohibited.
515.
Reenlistment after discharge as warrant officer.
516.
Effect upon enlisted status of acceptance of appointment as cadet or midshipman.
517.
Authorized daily average: members in pay grades E–8 and E–9.
518.
Temporary enlistments.
519.
Temporary enlistments: during war or emergency.
520.
Limitation on enlistment and induction of persons whose score on the Armed Forces Qualification Test is below a prescribed level.
[520a.
Repealed.]
520b.
Applicants for enlistment: authority to use funds for the issue of authorized articles.
520c.
Recruiting functions: provision of meals and refreshments.

        

Amendments

2004—Pub. L. 108–375, div. A, title V, §551(a)(2), Oct. 28, 2004, 118 Stat. 1911, added item 511.

2003—Pub. L. 108–136, div. A, title X, §1031(a)(8)(B), Nov. 24, 2003, 117 Stat. 1597, substituted “provision of meals and refreshments” for “use of funds” in item 520c.

2002—Pub. L. 107–314, div. A, title V, §531(a)(2), Dec. 2, 2002, 116 Stat. 2544, added item 510.

2000—Pub. L. 106–398, §1 [[div. A], title X, §1076(g)(2)], Oct. 30, 2000, 114 Stat. 1654, 1654A–282, struck out item 520a “Criminal history information for military recruiting purposes”.

1996—Pub. L. 104–201, div. A, title III, §361(b), Sept. 23, 1996, 110 Stat. 2491, added item 520c.

1994—Pub. L. 103–337, div. A, title XVI, §1671(b)(3), Oct. 5, 1994, 108 Stat. 3013, as amended by Pub. L. 104–106, div. A, title XV, §1501(a)(8)(A), Feb. 10, 1996, 110 Stat. 495, struck out items 510 “Reserve components: qualifications”, 511 “Reserve components: terms”, and 512 “Reserve components: transfers”.

1989—Pub. L. 101–189, div. A, title V, §501(a)(2), Nov. 29, 1989, 103 Stat. 1435, added item 513.

1985—Pub. L. 99–145, title XIII, §1303(a)(4)(B), Nov. 8, 1985, 99 Stat. 738, substituted “enlistment” for “enlistments” in item 520b.

1984—Pub. L. 98–525, title XIV, §1401(a)(2), Oct. 19, 1984, 98 Stat. 2614, added item 520b.

1982—Pub. L. 97–252, title XI, §1114(b)(3), (c)(2), Sept. 8, 1982, 96 Stat. 749, 750, inserted “; compilation of directory information” in item 503, and added item 520a.

1980—Pub. L. 96–342, title III, §302(b)(2), Sept. 8, 1980, 94 Stat. 1083, added item 520.

1968—Pub. L. 90–623, §2(2), Oct. 22, 1968, 82 Stat. 1314, struck out “or national emergency” after “extension of enlistments during war” in item 506.

Pub. L. 90–235, §2(a)(1)(C), Jan. 2, 1968, 81 Stat. 755, redesignated item 501 as 502, and added items 501, 503 to 509, 518 and 519.

1962—Pub. L. 87–649, §2(2), Sept. 7, 1962, 76 Stat. 492, added item 517.

1958—Pub. L. 85–861, §1(9)(B), (C), Sept. 2, 1958, 72 Stat. 1440, struck out item 513 “Reserve components: promotions” and added item 516.

§501. Definition

In this chapter “enlistment” means original enlistment or reenlistment.

(Added Pub. L. 90–235, §2(a)(1)(B), Jan. 2, 1968, 81 Stat. 753.)

Prior Provisions

A prior section 501 was renumbered 502 of this title.

§502. Enlistment oath: who may administer

(a) Enlistment Oath.—Each person enlisting in an armed force shall take the following oath:

“I, ____________________, do solemnly swear (or affirm) that I will support and defend the Constitution of the United States against all enemies, foreign and domestic; that I will bear true faith and allegiance to the same; and that I will obey the orders of the President of the United States and the orders of the officers appointed over me, according to regulations and the Uniform Code of Military Justice. So help me God.”


(b) Who May Administer.—The oath may be taken before the President, the Vice-President, the Secretary of Defense, any commissioned officer, or any other person designated under regulations prescribed by the Secretary of Defense.

(Aug. 10, 1956, ch. 1041, 70A Stat. 17, §501; Pub. L. 87–751, §1, Oct. 5, 1962, 76 Stat. 748; renumbered §502, Pub. L. 90–235, §2(a)(1)(A), Jan. 2, 1968, 81 Stat. 753; Pub. L. 101–189, div. A, title VI, §653(a)(1), Nov. 29, 1989, 103 Stat. 1462; Pub. L. 109–364, div. A, title V, §595(a), Oct. 17, 2006, 120 Stat. 2235.)

Historical and Revision Notes
Revised sectionSource (U.S. Code)Source (Statutes at Large)
501 50:737. May 5, 1950, ch. 169, §8, 64 Stat. 146.

The words “or affirmation” are omitted as covered by the definition of the word “oath” in section 1 of title 1. The words “of any armed force” are inserted in the last sentence, since they are necessarily implied by their use in the source statute.

References in Text

The Uniform Code of Military Justice, referred to in the oath, is classified to chapter 47 (§801 et seq.) of this title.

Amendments

2006—Pub. L. 109–364 designated existing provisions as subsec. (a), inserted heading, struck out concluding provisions which read as follows: “This oath may be taken before any commissioned officer of any armed force.”, and added subsec. (b).

1989—Pub. L. 101–189 struck out “or affirmation” after “This oath”.

1962—Pub. L. 87–751 substituted “support and defend the Constitution of the United States against all enemies, foreign and domestic; that I will bear true faith and allegiance to the same” for “bear true faith and allegiance to the United States of America; that I will serve them honestly and faithfully against all their enemies whomsoever” and inserted “So help me God” in the oath, and “or affirmation” in text.

Effective Date of 1962 Amendment

Section 3 of Pub. L. 87–751 provided that: “This Act [amending this section and section 304 of Title 32, National Guard] does not affect any oath taken before one year after its enactment [Oct. 5, 1962].”

§503. Enlistments: recruiting campaigns; compilation of directory information

(a) Recruiting Campaigns.—(1) The Secretary concerned shall conduct intensive recruiting campaigns to obtain enlistments in the Regular Army, Regular Navy, Regular Air Force, Regular Marine Corps, and Regular Coast Guard.

(2) The Secretary of Defense shall act on a continuing basis to enhance the effectiveness of recruitment programs of the Department of Defense (including programs conducted jointly and programs conducted by the separate armed forces) through an aggressive program of advertising and market research targeted at prospective recruits for the armed forces and those who may influence prospective recruits. Subchapter I of chapter 35 of title 44 shall not apply to actions taken as part of that program.

(b) Compilation of Directory Information.—(1) The Secretary of Defense may collect and compile directory information pertaining to each student who is 17 years of age or older or in the eleventh grade (or its equivalent) or higher and who is enrolled in a secondary school in the United States or its territories, possessions, or the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico.

(2) The Secretary may make directory information collected and compiled under this subsection available to the armed forces for military recruiting purposes. Such information may not be disclosed for any other purpose.

(3) Directory information pertaining to any person may not be maintained for more than 3 years after the date the information pertaining to such person is first collected and compiled under this subsection.

(4) Directory information collected and compiled under this subsection shall be confidential, and a person who has had access to such information may not disclose such information except for the purposes described in paragraph (2).

(5) The Secretary of Defense shall prescribe regulations to carry out this subsection. Regulations prescribed under this subsection shall be submitted to the Committee on Armed Services of the Senate and the Committee on Armed Services of the House of Representatives. Regulations prescribed by the Secretaries concerned to carry out this subsection shall be as uniform as practicable.

(6) Nothing in this subsection shall be construed as requiring, or authorizing the Secretary of Defense to require, that any educational institution furnish directory information to the Secretary.

(c) Access to Secondary Schools.—(1)(A) Each local educational agency receiving assistance under the Elementary and Secondary Education Act of 1965—

(i) shall provide to military recruiters the same access to secondary school students as is provided generally to postsecondary educational institutions or to prospective employers of those students; and

(ii) shall, upon a request made by military recruiters for military recruiting purposes, provide access to secondary school student names, addresses, and telephone listings, notwithstanding section 444(a)(5)(B) of the General Education Provisions Act (20 U.S.C. 1232g(a)(5)(B)).


(B) A local educational agency may not release a student's name, address, and telephone listing under subparagraph (A)(ii) without the prior written consent of a parent of the student if the student, or a parent of the student, has submitted a request to the local educational agency that the student's information not be released for a purpose covered by that subparagraph without prior written parental consent. Each local educational agency shall notify parents of the rights provided under the preceding sentence.

(2) If a local educational agency denies a request by the Department of Defense for recruiting access, the Secretary of Defense, in cooperation with the Secretary of the military department concerned, shall designate an officer in a grade not below the grade of colonel or, in the case of the Navy, captain, or a senior executive of that military department to meet with representatives of that local educational agency in person, at the offices of that agency, for the purpose of arranging for recruiting access. The designated officer or senior executive shall seek to have that meeting within 120 days of the date of the denial of the request for recruiting access.

(3) If, after a meeting under paragraph (2) with representatives of a local educational agency that has denied a request for recruiting access or (if the educational agency declines a request for the meeting) after the end of such 120-day period, the Secretary of Defense determines that the agency continues to deny recruiting access, the Secretary shall transmit to the chief executive of the State in which the agency is located a notification of the denial of recruiting access and a request for assistance in obtaining that access. The notification shall be transmitted within 60 days after the date of the determination. The Secretary shall provide to the Secretary of Education a copy of such notification and any other communication between the Secretary and that chief executive with respect to such access.

(4) If a local educational agency continues to deny recruiting access one year after the date of the transmittal of a notification regarding that agency under paragraph (3), the Secretary—

(A) shall determine whether the agency denies recruiting access to at least two of the armed forces (other than the Coast Guard when it is not operating as a service in the Navy); and

(B) upon making an affirmative determination under subparagraph (A), shall transmit a notification of the denial of recruiting access to—

(i) the specified congressional committees;

(ii) the Senators of the State in which the local educational agency is located; and

(iii) the member of the House of Representatives who represents the district in which the local educational agency is located.


(5) The requirements of this subsection do not apply to a private secondary school that maintains a religious objection to service in the armed forces and which objection is verifiable through the corporate or other organizational documents or materials of that school.

(6) In this subsection:

(A) The term “local educational agency” means—

(i) a local educational agency, within the meaning of that term in section 9101 of the Elementary and Secondary Education Act of 1965 (20 U.S.C. 7801); and

(ii) a private secondary school.


(B) The term “recruiting access” means access requested as described in paragraph (1).

(C) The term “senior executive” has the meaning given that term in section 3132(a)(3) of title 5.

(D) The term “State” includes the District of Columbia, the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico, the Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands, Guam, the Virgin Islands, American Samoa, the Federated States of Micronesia, the Republic of the Marshall Islands, and the Republic of Palau.

(E) The term “specified congressional committees” means the following:

(i) The Committee on Armed Services and the Committee on Health, Education, Labor, and Pensions of the Senate.

(ii) The Committee on Armed Services and the Committee on Education and the Workforce of the House of Representatives.


(F) The term “member of the House of Representatives” includes a Delegate or Resident Commissioner to Congress.


(d) Directory Information Defined.—In this section, the term “directory information” has the meaning given that term in subsection (a)(5)(A) of section 444 of the General Education Provisions Act (20 U.S.C. 1232g).

(Added Pub. L. 90–235, §2(a)(1)(B), Jan. 2, 1968, 81 Stat. 754; amended Pub. L. 97–252, title XI, §1114(b)(1), (2), Sept. 8, 1982, 96 Stat. 749; Pub. L. 104–106, div. A, title XV, §1502(a)(1), Feb. 10, 1996, 110 Stat. 502; Pub. L. 106–65, div. A, title V, §571, title X, §1067(1), Oct. 5, 1999, 113 Stat. 622, 774; Pub. L. 106–398, §1 [[div. A], title V, §§562, 563(a)–(c)], Oct. 30, 2000, 114 Stat. 1654, 1654A–131 to 1654A–133; Pub. L. 107–107, div. A, title V, §544(a), title X, §1048(a)(5)(A), Dec. 28, 2001, 115 Stat. 1112, 1222; Pub. L. 108–136, div. A, title V, §543, Nov. 24, 2003, 117 Stat. 1478; Pub. L. 108–375, div. A, title X, §1084(d)(5), Oct. 28, 2004, 118 Stat. 2061.)

References in Text

The Elementary and Secondary Education Act of 1965, referred to in subsec. (c)(1)(A), is Pub. L. 89–10, Apr. 11, 1965, 79 Stat. 27, as amended, which is classified generally to chapter 70 (§6301 et seq.) of Title 20, Education. For complete classification of this Act to the Code, see Short Title note set out under section 6301 of Title 20 and Tables.

Amendments

2004—Subsec. (c)(1)(B). Pub. L. 108–375 substituted “educational” for “education” after “Each local”.

2003—Subsec. (c)(5). Pub. L. 108–136, §543(a), substituted “apply to a private secondary school that” for “apply to—

“(A) a local educational agency with respect to access to secondary school students or access to directory information concerning such students for any period during which there is in effect a policy of that agency, established by majority vote of the governing body of the agency, to deny recruiting access to those students or to that directory information, respectively; or

“(B) a private secondary school which”.

Subsec. (c)(6)(A)(i). Pub. L. 108–136, §543(b), substituted “9101” and “7801” for “14101” and “8801”, respectively.

2001—Subsec. (c). Pub. L. 107–107, §544(a), reenacted heading without change and amended text of par. (1) generally. Prior to amendment, par. (1) read as follows: “Each local educational agency shall (except as provided under paragraph (5)) provide to the Department of Defense, upon a request made for military recruiting purposes, the same access to secondary school students, and to directory information concerning such students, as is provided generally to post-secondary educational institutions or to prospective employers of those students.”

Subsec. (c)(6)(A)(i). Pub. L. 107–107, §1048(a)(5)(A), substituted “14101” for “14101(18)” and “8801” for “8801(18)”.

2000—Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 106–398, §1 [[div. A], title V, §§562, 563(c)(1)], inserted heading, designated existing provisions as par. (1), and added par. (2).

Subsec. (b). Pub. L. 106–398, §1 [[div. A], title V, §563(c)(2)], inserted heading.

Subsec. (b)(7). Pub. L. 106–398, §1 [[div. A], title V, §563(b)(1)], struck out par. (7) which read as follows: “In this subsection, ‘directory information’ means, with respect to a student, the student's name, address, telephone listing, date and place of birth, level of education, degrees received, and the most recent previous educational agency or institution attended by the student.”

Subsec. (c). Pub. L. 106–398, §1 [[div. A], title V, §563(a)], amended subsec. (c) generally. Prior to amendment, subsec. (c) read as follows: “Each local educational agency is requested to provide to the Department of Defense, upon a request made for military recruiting purposes, the same access to secondary school students, and to directory information concerning such students, as is provided generally to post-secondary educational institutions or to prospective employers of those students.”

Subsec. (d). Pub. L. 106–398, §1 [[div. A], title V, §563(b)(2)], added subsec. (d).

1999—Subsec. (b)(5). Pub. L. 106–65, §1067(1), substituted “and the Committee on Armed Services” for “and the Committee on National Security”.

Subsec. (c). Pub. L. 106–65, §571, added subsec. (c).

1996—Subsec. (b)(5). Pub. L. 104–106 substituted “Committee on Armed Services of the Senate and the Committee on National Security of the House of Representatives” for “Committees on Armed Services of the Senate and House of Representatives”.

1982—Pub. L. 97–252, §1114(b)(2), inserted “; compilation of directory information” in section catchline.

Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 97–252, §1114(b)(1)(A), designated existing provisions as subsec. (a).

Subsec. (b). Pub. L. 97–252, §1114(b)(1)(B), added subsec. (b).

Effective Date of 2001 Amendment

Pub. L. 107–107, div. A, title V, §544(b), Dec. 28, 2001, 115 Stat. 1113, provided that: “The amendment made by subsection (a) [amending this section] shall take effect on July 1, 2002, immediately after the amendment to section 503(c) of title 10, United States Code, made, effective that date, by section 563(a) of the Floyd D. Spence National Defense Authorization Act for Fiscal Year 2001 (as enacted into law by Public Law 106–398; 114 Stat. 1654A–131).”

Pub. L. 107–107, div. A, title X, §1048(a)(5)(B), Dec. 28, 2001, 115 Stat. 1222, provided that: “The amendment made by subparagraph (A) [amending this section] shall take effect on July 1, 2002, immediately after the amendment to such section [this section] effective that date by section 563(a) of the Floyd D. Spence National Defense Authorization Act for Fiscal Year 2001 (as enacted into law by Public Law 106–398; 114 Stat. 1654A–131).”

Effective Date of 2000 Amendment

Pub. L. 106–398, §1 [[div. A], title V, §563(d)], Oct. 30, 2000, 114 Stat. 1654, 1654A–133, provided that: “The amendment made by subsection (a) [amending this section] shall take effect on July 1, 2002.”

Transfer of Functions

For transfer of authorities, functions, personnel, and assets of the Coast Guard, including the authorities and functions of the Secretary of Transportation relating thereto, to the Department of Homeland Security, and for treatment of related references, see sections 468(b), 551(d), 552(d), and 557 of Title 6, Domestic Security, and the Department of Homeland Security Reorganization Plan of November 25, 2002, as modified, set out as a note under section 542 of Title 6.

Policy on Military Recruitment and Enlistment of Graduates of Secondary Schools

Pub. L. 112–81, div. A, title V, §532, Dec. 31, 2011, 125 Stat. 1403, provided that:

“(a) Equal Treatment for Secondary School Graduates.—

“(1) Equal treatment.—For the purposes of recruitment and enlistment in the Armed Forces, the Secretary of a military department shall treat a graduate described in paragraph (2) in the same manner as a graduate of a secondary school (as defined in section 9101(38) of the Elementary and Secondary Education Act of 1965 (20 U.S.C. 7801(38))[)].

“(2) Covered graduates.—Paragraph (1) applies with respect to [a] person who—

“(A) receives a diploma from a secondary school that is legally operating; or

“(B) otherwise completes a program of secondary education in compliance with the education laws of the State in which the person resides.

“(b) Policy on Recruitment and Enlistment.—Not later than 180 days after the date of the enactment of this Act [Dec. 31, 2011], the Secretary of Defense shall prescribe a policy on recruitment and enlistment that incorporates the following:

“(1) Means for identifying persons described in subsection (a)(2) who are qualified for recruitment and enlistment in the Armed Forces, which may include the use of a non-cognitive aptitude test, adaptive personality assessment, or other operational attrition screening tool to predict performance, behaviors, and attitudes of potential recruits that influence attrition and the ability to adapt to a regimented life in the Armed Forces.

“(2) Means for assessing how qualified persons fulfill their enlistment obligation.

“(3) Means for maintaining data, by each diploma source, which can be used to analyze attrition rates among qualified persons.

“(c) Recruitment Plan.—As part of the policy required by subsection (b), the Secretary of each of the military departments shall develop a recruitment plan that includes a marketing strategy for targeting various segments of potential recruits with all types of secondary education credentials.

“(d) Communication Plan.—The Secretary of each of the military departments shall develop a communication plan to ensure that the policy and recruitment plan are understood by military recruiters.”

Recruitment and Enlistment of Home-Schooled Students in the Armed Forces

Pub. L. 109–163, div. A, title V, §591, Jan. 6, 2006, 119 Stat. 3280, provided that:

“(a) Policy on Recruitment and Enlistment.—

“(1) Policy required.—The Secretary of Defense shall prescribe a policy on the recruitment and enlistment of home-schooled students in the Armed Forces.

“(2) Uniformity across the armed forces.—The Secretary shall ensure that the policy prescribed under paragraph (1) applies, to the extent practicable, uniformly across the Armed Forces.

“(b) Elements.—The policy under subsection (a) shall include the following:

“(1) An identification of a graduate of home schooling for purposes of recruitment and enlistment in the Armed Forces that is in accordance with the requirements described in subsection (c).

“(2) A communication plan to ensure that the policy described in subsection (c) is understood by recruiting officials of all the Armed Forces, to include field recruiters at the lowest level of command.

“(3) An exemption of graduates of home schooling from the requirement for a secondary school diploma or an equivalent (GED) as a precondition for enlistment in the Armed Forces.

“(c) Home School Graduates.—In prescribing the policy under subsection (a), the Secretary of Defense shall prescribe a single set of criteria to be used by the Armed Forces in determining whether an individual is a graduate of home schooling. The Secretary concerned shall ensure compliance with education credential coding requirements.

“(d) Secretary Concerned Defined.—In this section, the term ‘Secretary concerned’ has the meaning given such term in section 101(a)(9) of title 10, United States Code.”

Temporary Army Authority To Provide Additional Recruitment Incentives

Pub. L. 109–163, div. A, title VI, §681, Jan. 6, 2006, 119 Stat. 3320, as amended by Pub. L. 111–84, div. A, title VI, §621, Oct. 28, 2009, 123 Stat. 2358, provided that:

“(a) Authority to Develop and Provide Recruitment Incentives.—The Secretary of the Army may develop and provide incentives not otherwise authorized by law to encourage individuals to accept commissions as officers or to enlist in the Army.

“(b) Relation to Other Personnel Authorities.—A recruitment incentive developed under subsection (a) may be provided—

“(1) without regard to the lack of specific authority for the incentive under title 10 or 37, United States Code; and

“(2) notwithstanding any provision of such titles, or any rule or regulation prescribed under such provision, relating to methods of—

“(A) determining requirements for, and the compensation of, members of the Army who are assigned duty as military recruiters; or

“(B) providing incentives to individuals to accept commissions or enlist in the Army, including the provision of group or individual bonuses, pay, or other incentives.

“(c) Waiver of Otherwise Applicable Laws.—A provision of title 10 or 37, United States Code, may not be waived with respect to, or otherwise determined to be inapplicable to, the provision of a recruitment incentive developed under subsection (a) without the approval of the Secretary of Defense.

“(d) Notice and Wait Requirement.—A recruitment incentive developed under subsection (a) may not be provided to individuals until—

“(1) the Secretary of the Army submits to Congress, the appropriate elements of the Department of Defense, and the Comptroller General a plan that includes—

“(A) a description of the incentive, including the purpose of the incentive and the potential recruits to be addressed by the incentive;

“(B) a description of the provisions of titles 10 and 37, United States Code, from which the incentive would require a waiver and the rationale to support the waiver;

“(C) a statement of the anticipated outcomes as a result of providing the incentive; and

“(D) the method to be used to evaluate the effectiveness of the incentive; and

“(2) a 45-day period beginning on the date on which the plan was received by Congress expires.

“(e) Limitation on Number of Incentives.—Not more than four recruitment incentives may be provided at the same time under the authority of this section.

“(f) Limitation on Number of Individuals Receiving Incentives.—The number of individuals who receive one or more of the recruitment incentives provided under subsection (a) during a fiscal year may not exceed the number of individuals equal to 20 percent of the accession mission of the Army for that fiscal year.

“(g) Duration of Developed Incentive.—A recruitment incentive developed under subsection (a) may be provided for not longer than a three-year period beginning on the date on which the incentive is first provided, except that the Secretary of the Army may extend the period if the Secretary determines that additional time is needed to fully evaluate the effectiveness of the incentive.

“(h) Reporting Requirements.—

“(1) Secretary of the army report.—The Secretary of the Army shall submit to Congress an annual report on the recruitment incentives provided under subsection (a) during the preceding year, including—

“(A) a description of the incentives provided under subsection (a) during that fiscal year; and

“(B) an assessment of the impact of the incentives on the recruitment of individuals as officers or enlisted members.

“(2) Comptroller general report.—As soon as practicable after receipt of each plan under subsection (d), the Comptroller General shall submit to Congress a report evaluating the expected outcomes of the recruitment incentive covered by the plan in terms of cost effectiveness and mission achievement.

“(i) Duration of Authority.—

“(1) In general.—The Secretary may not develop an incentive under this section, or first provide an incentive developed under this section to an individual, after December 31, 2012.

“(2) Continuation of incentives.—Nothing in paragraph (1) shall be construed to prohibit or limit the continuing provision to an individual after the date specified in that paragraph of an incentive first provided the individual under this section before that date.”

Enhanced Screening Methods and Process Improvements for Recruitment of Home Schooled and National Guard Challenge Program GED Recipients

Pub. L. 108–375, div. A, title V, §593, Oct. 28, 2004, 118 Stat. 1934, as amended by Pub. L. 109–364, div. A, title X, §1071(g)(4), Oct. 17, 2006, 120 Stat. 2402, provided that:

“(a) Enhanced Screening Methods and Process Improvements.—(1) The Secretary of the Army shall carry out an initiative—

“(A) to develop screening methods and process improvements for recruiting specified GED recipients so as to achieve attrition patterns, among the GED recipients so recruited, that match attrition patterns for Army recruits who are high school diploma graduates; and

“(B) subject to subsection (b), to implement such screening methods and process improvements on a test basis.

“(2) For purposes of this section, the term ‘specified GED recipients’ means persons who receive a General Educational Development (GED) certificate as a result of home schooling or the completion of a program under the National Guard Challenge program.

“(b) Secretary of Defense Review.—Before the screening methods and process improvements developed under subsection (a)(1) are put into effect under subsection (a)(2), the Secretary of Defense shall review the proposed screening methods and process improvements. Based on such review, the Secretary of Defense either shall approve the use of such screening methods and process improvements for testing (with such modifications as the Secretary may direct) or shall disapprove the use of such methods and process improvements on a test basis.

“(c) Secretary of Defense Decision.—If the Secretary of Defense determines under subsection (b) that the screening methods and process improvements developed under subsection (a)(1) should be implemented on a test basis, then upon completion of the test period, the Secretary of Defense shall, after reviewing the results of the test program, determine whether the new screening methods and process improvements developed by the Army should be extended throughout the Department for recruit candidates identified by the new procedures to be considered tier 1 recruits.

“(d) Reports.—(1) If the Secretary of Defense determines under subsection (b) that the screening methods and process improvements developed under subsection (a)(1) should not be implemented on a test basis, the Secretary of Defense shall, not later than 90 days thereafter, notify the Committee on Armed Services of the Senate and the Committee on Armed Services of the House of Representatives of such determination, together with the reasons of the Secretary for such determination.

“(2) If the Secretary of Defense determines under subsection (b) that the screening methods and process improvements developed under subsection (a)(1) should be implemented on a test basis, the Secretary of the Army shall submit to the committees specified in paragraph (1) a report on the results of the testing. The report shall be submitted not later than March 31, 2009, except that if the Secretary of Defense directs an earlier termination of the testing initiative, the Secretary of the Army shall submit the report under this paragraph not later than 180 days after such termination. Such report shall include the determination of the Secretary of Defense under subsection (c). If that determination is that the methods and processes tested should not be extended to the other services, the report shall include the Secretary's rationale for not recommending such extension.”

Department of Defense Joint Advertising, Market Research, and Studies Program

Pub. L. 108–136, div. A, title V, §548, Nov. 24, 2003, 117 Stat. 1481, provided that:

“(a) Program Authorized.—The Secretary of Defense may carry out a joint advertising, market research, and studies program to complement the recruiting advertising programs of the military departments and improve the ability of the military departments to attract and recruit qualified individuals to serve in the Armed Forces.

“(b) Funding.—Of the amount authorized to be appropriated by section 301(5) [117 Stat. 1426] for operation and maintenance for Defense-wide activities, $7,500,000 may be made available to carry out the joint advertising, market research, and studies program.”

Notification to Local Educational Agencies

Pub. L. 107–107, div. A, title V, §544(c), Dec. 28, 2001, 115 Stat. 1113, directed the Secretary of Education to provide to local educational agencies notice of the provisions of subsec. (c) of this section, as amended by Pub. L. 107–107, not later than 120 days after Dec. 28, 2001.

Army Recruiting Pilot Programs

Pub. L. 106–398, §1 [[div. A], title V, §561], Oct. 30, 2000, 114 Stat. 1654, 1654A–129, as amended by Pub. L. 107–107, div. A, title V, §543, Dec. 28, 2001, 115 Stat. 1112, provided that:

“(a) Requirement for Programs.—The Secretary of the Army shall carry out pilot programs to test various recruiting approaches under this section for the following purposes:

“(1) To assess the effectiveness of the recruiting approaches for creating enhanced opportunities for recruiters to make direct, personal contact with potential recruits.

“(2) To improve the overall effectiveness and efficiency of Army recruiting activities.

“(b) Outreach Through Motor Sports.—(1) One of the pilot programs shall be a pilot program of public outreach that associates the Army with motor sports competitions to achieve the objectives set forth in paragraph (2).

“(2) The events and activities undertaken under the pilot program shall be designed to provide opportunities for Army recruiters to make direct, personal contact with high school students to achieve the following objectives:

“(A) To increase enlistments by students graduating from high school.

“(B) To reduce attrition in the Delayed Entry Program of the Army by sustaining the personal commitment of students who have elected delayed entry into the Army under the program.

“(3) Under the pilot program, the Secretary of the Army shall provide for the following:

“(A) For Army recruiters or other Army personnel—

“(i) to organize Army sponsored career day events in association with national motor sports competitions; and

“(ii) to arrange for or encourage attendance at the competitions by high school students, teachers, guidance counselors, and administrators of high schools located near the competitions.

“(B) For Army recruiters and other soldiers to attend national motor sports competitions—

“(i) to display exhibits depicting the contemporary Army and career opportunities in the Army; and

“(ii) to discuss those opportunities with potential recruits.

“(C) For the Army to sponsor a motor sports racing team as part of an integrated program of recruitment and publicity for the Army.

“(D) For the Army to sponsor motor sports competitions for high school students at which recruiters meet with potential recruits.

“(E) For Army recruiters or other Army personnel to compile in an Internet accessible database the names, addresses, telephone numbers, and electronic mail addresses of persons who are identified as potential recruits through activities under the pilot program.

“(F) Any other activities associated with motor sports competition that the Secretary determines appropriate for Army recruitment purposes.

“(c) Outreach at Vocational Schools and Community Colleges.—(1) One of the pilot programs shall be a pilot program under which Army recruiters are assigned, as their primary responsibility, at postsecondary vocational institutions and community colleges for the purpose of recruiting students graduating from those institutions and colleges, recent graduates of those institutions and colleges, and students withdrawing from enrollments in those institutions and colleges.

“(2) The Secretary of the Army shall select the institutions and colleges to be invited to participate in the pilot program.

“(3) The conduct of the pilot program at an institution or college shall be subject to an agreement which the Secretary shall enter into with the governing body or authorized official of the institution or college, as the case may be.

“(4) Under the pilot program, the Secretary shall provide for the following:

“(A) For Army recruiters to be placed in postsecondary vocational institutions and community colleges to serve as a resource for guidance counselors and to recruit for the Army.

“(B) For Army recruiters to recruit from among students and graduates described in paragraph (1).

“(C) For the use of telemarketing, direct mail, interactive voice response systems, and Internet website capabilities to assist the recruiters in the postsecondary vocational institutions and community colleges.

“(D) For any other activities that the Secretary determines appropriate for recruitment activities in postsecondary vocational institutions and community colleges.

“(5) In this subsection, the term ‘postsecondary vocational institution’ has the meaning given the term in section 102(c) of the Higher Education Act of 1965 (20 U.S.C. 1002(c)).

“(d) Contract Recruiting Initiatives.—(1) One of the pilot programs shall be a program that expands in accordance with this subsection the scope of the Army's contract recruiting initiatives that are ongoing as of the date of the enactment of this Act [Oct. 30, 2000]. Under the pilot program, the Secretary of the Army shall select at least 10 recruiting companies to apply the initiatives in efforts to recruit personnel for the Army.

“(2) Under the pilot program, the Secretary shall provide for the following:

“(A) For replacement of the Regular Army and Army Reserve recruiters by contract recruiters in the 10 recruiting companies selected under paragraph (1).

“(B) For operation of the 10 companies under the same rules as the other Army recruiting companies.

“(C) For use of the offices, facilities, and equipment of the 10 companies by the contract recruiters.

“(D) For reversion to performance of the recruiting activities by Regular Army and Army Reserve soldiers in the 10 companies upon termination of the pilot program.

“(E) For any other uses of contractor personnel for Army recruiting activities that the Secretary determines appropriate.

“(e) Duration of Pilot Programs.—The pilot programs required by this section shall be carried out during the period beginning on October 1, 2000, and, subject to subsection (f), ending on September 30, 2007.

“(f) Authority To Expand or Extend Pilot Programs.—The Secretary may expand the scope of any of the pilot programs (under subsection (b)(3)(F), (c)(4)(D), (d)(2)(E), or otherwise) or extend the period for any of the pilot programs. Before doing so in the case of a pilot program, the Secretary of the Army shall submit to the Committee on Armed Services of the Senate and the Committee on Armed Services of the House of Representatives a written notification of the expansion of the pilot program (together with the scope of the expansion) or the continuation of the pilot program (together with the period of the extension), as the case may be.

“(g) Reports.—Not later than February 1, 2008, the Secretary of the Army shall submit to the Committees on Armed Services of the Senate and the House of Representatives a separate report on each of the pilot programs carried out under this section. The report on a pilot program shall include the following:

“(1) The Secretary's assessment of the value of the actions taken in the administration of the pilot program for increasing the effectiveness and efficiency of Army recruiting.

“(2) Any recommendations for legislation or other action that the Secretary considers appropriate to increase the effectiveness and efficiency of Army recruiting.”

Pilot Program To Enhance Military Recruiting by Improving Military Awareness of School Counselors and Educators

Pub. L. 106–398, §1 [[div. A], title V, §564], Oct. 30, 2000, 114 Stat. 1654, 1654A–133, as amended by Pub. L. 109–364, div. A, title X, §1046(d), Oct. 17, 2006, 120 Stat. 2394, directed the Secretary of Defense to conduct a three-year pilot program in a qualifying interactive Internet site beginning not later than 180 days after Oct. 30, 2000, to determine if cooperation with military recruiters by local educational agencies and by institutions of higher education could be enhanced by improving the understanding of school counselors and educators about military recruiting and military career opportunities.

Measures To Improve Recruit Quality and Reduce Recruit Attrition

Pub. L. 105–85, div. A, title V, subtitle D, Nov. 18, 1997, 111 Stat. 1738, provided that:

“SEC. 531. REFORM OF MILITARY RECRUITING SYSTEMS.

“(a) In General.—The Secretary of Defense shall carry out reforms in the recruiting systems of the Army, Navy, Air Force, and Marine Corps in order to improve the quality of new recruits and to reduce attrition among recruits.

“(b) Specific Reforms.—As part of the reforms in military recruiting systems to be undertaken under subsection (a), the Secretary shall take the following steps:

“(1) Improve the system of pre-enlistment waivers and separation codes used for recruits by (A) revising and updating those waivers and codes to allow more accurate and useful data collection about those separations, and (B) prescribing regulations to ensure that those waivers and codes are interpreted in a uniform manner by the military services.

“(2) Develop a reliable database for (A) analyzing (at both the Department of Defense and service-level) data on reasons for attrition of new recruits, and (B) undertaking Department of Defense or service-specific measures (or both) to control and manage such attrition.

“(3) Require that the Secretary of each military department (A) adopt or strengthen incentives for recruiters to thoroughly prescreen potential candidates for recruitment, and (B) link incentives for recruiters, in part, to the ability of a recruiter to screen out unqualified candidates before enlistment.

“(4) Require that the Secretary of each military department include as a measurement of recruiter performance the percentage of persons enlisted by a recruiter who complete initial combat training or basic training.

“(5) Assess trends in the number and use of waivers over the 1991–1997 period that were issued to permit applicants to enlist with medical or other conditions that would otherwise be disqualifying.

“(6) Require the Secretary of each military department to implement policies and procedures (A) to ensure the prompt separation of recruits who are unable to successfully complete basic training, and (B) to remove those recruits from the training environment while separation proceedings are pending.

“(c) Report.—Not later than March 31, 1998, the Secretary shall submit to Congress a report of the trends assessed under subsection (b)(5). The information on those trends provided in the report shall be shown by armed force and by category of waiver. The report shall include recommendations of the Secretary for changing, revising, or limiting the use of waivers referred to in that subsection.

“SEC. 532. IMPROVEMENTS IN MEDICAL PRESCREENING OF APPLICANTS FOR MILITARY SERVICE.

“(a) In General.—The Secretary of Defense shall improve the medical prescreening of applicants for entrance into the Army, Navy, Air Force, or Marine Corps.

“(b) Specific Steps.—As part of those improvements, the Secretary shall take the following steps:

“(1) Require that each applicant for service in the Army, Navy, Air Force, or Marine Corps (A) provide to the Secretary the name of the applicant's medical insurer and the names of past medical providers, and (B) sign a release allowing the Secretary to request and obtain medical records of the applicant.

“(2) Require that the forms and procedures for medical prescreening of applicants that are used by recruiters and by Military Entrance Processing Commands be revised so as to ensure that medical questions are specific, unambiguous, and tied directly to the types of medical separations most common for recruits during basic training and follow-on training.

“(3) Add medical screening tests to the examinations of recruits carried out by Military Entrance Processing Stations, provide more thorough medical examinations to selected groups of applicants, or both, to the extent that the Secretary determines that to do so could be cost effective in reducing attrition at basic training.

“(4) Provide for an annual quality control assessment of the effectiveness of the Military Entrance Processing Commands in identifying medical conditions in recruits that existed before enlistment in the Armed Forces, each such assessment to be performed by an agency or contractor other than the Military Entrance Processing Commands.

“SEC. 533. IMPROVEMENTS IN PHYSICAL FITNESS OF RECRUITS.

“(a) In General.—The Secretary of Defense shall take steps to improve the physical fitness of recruits before they enter basic training.

“(b) Specific Steps.—As part of those improvements, the Secretary shall take the following steps:

“(1) Direct the Secretary of each military department to implement programs under which new recruits who are in the Delayed Entry Program are encouraged to participate in physical fitness activities before reporting to basic training.

“(2) Develop a range of incentives for new recruits to participate in physical fitness programs, as well as for those recruits who improve their level of fitness while in the Delayed Entry Program, which may include access to Department of Defense military fitness facilities, and access to military medical facilities in the case of a recruit who is injured while participating in physical activities with recruiters or other military personnel.

“(3) Evaluate whether partnerships between recruiters and reserve components, or other innovative arrangements, could provide a pool of qualified personnel to assist in the conduct of physical training programs for new recruits in the Delayed Entry Program.”

Denial of Funds for Preventing ROTC Access to Campus or Federal Military Recruiting on Campus; Exceptions

Pub. L. 104–208, div. A, title I, §101(e) [title V, §514], Sept. 30, 1996, 110 Stat. 3009–233, 3009–270, which provided that none of the funds made available in any Departments of Labor, Health and Human Services, and Education, and Related Agencies Appropriations Act for any fiscal year could be provided by contract or by grant to a covered educational entity if the Secretary of Defense determined that the covered educational entity had a policy or practice that prohibited or prevented the maintaining, establishing, or operation of a unit of the Senior Reserve Officer Training Corps at the covered educational entity, or a student at the covered educational entity from enrolling in a unit of the Senior Reserve Officer Training Corps at another institution of higher education, or prohibited or prevented entry to campuses, or access to students on campuses, for purposes of Federal military recruiting or access by military recruiters for purposes of Federal military recruiting to student names, addresses, and telephone listings and, if known, student ages, levels of education, and majors, was repealed and restated in section 983 of this title by Pub. L. 106–65, div. A, title V, §549(a)(1), (b)(2), Oct. 5, 1999, 113 Stat. 609, 611.

Military Recruiting on Campus

Pub. L. 103–337, div. A, title V, §558, Oct. 5, 1994, 108 Stat. 2776, as amended by Pub. L. 104–324, title II, §206(a), Oct. 19, 1996, 110 Stat. 3908, which provided that no funds available to the Department of Defense or the Department of Transportation could be provided by grant or contract to any institution of higher education that had a policy of denying or preventing the Secretary of Defense or the Secretary of Transportation from obtaining for military recruiting purposes entry to campuses or access to students on campuses or access to directory information pertaining to students, was repealed and restated in section 983 of this title by Pub. L. 106–65, div. A, title V, §549(a)(1), (b)(1), Oct. 5, 1999, 113 Stat. 609, 611.

Military Recruiting Information

Section 1114(a) of Pub. L. 97–252 provided that: “The Congress finds that in order for Congress to carry out effectively its constitutional authority to raise and support armies, it is essential—

“(1) that the Secretary of Defense obtain and compile directory information pertaining to students enrolled in secondary schools throughout the United States; and

“(2) that such directory information be used only for military recruiting purposes and be retained in the case of each person with respect to whom such information is obtained and compiled for a limited period of time.”

Access of Armed Forces Recruiting Personnel to Secondary Educational Institutions; Release of Data

Pub. L. 96–342, title III, §302(d), Sept. 8, 1980, 94 Stat. 1083, provided that: “It is the sense of the Congress—

“(1) that secondary educational institutions in the United States, the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico, and the territories of the United States should cooperate with the Armed Forces by allowing recruiting personnel access to such institutions; and

“(2) that it is appropriate for such institutions to release to the Armed Forces information regarding students at such institutions (including such data as names, addresses, and education levels) which is relevant to recruiting individuals for service in the Armed Forces.”

§504. Persons not qualified

(a) Insanity, Desertion, Felons, Etc.—No person who is insane, intoxicated, or a deserter from an armed force, or who has been convicted of a felony, may be enlisted in any armed force. However, the Secretary concerned may authorize exceptions, in meritorious cases, for the enlistment of deserters and persons convicted of felonies.

(b) Citizenship or Residency.—(1) A person may be enlisted in any armed force only if the person is one of the following:

(A) A national of the United States, as defined in section 101(a)(22) of the Immigration and Nationality Act (8 U.S.C. 1101(a)(22)).

(B) An alien who is lawfully admitted for permanent residence, as defined in section 101(a)(20) of the Immigration and Nationality Act (8 U.S.C. 1101(a)(20)).

(C) A person described in section 341 of one of the following compacts:

(i) The Compact of Free Association between the Federated States of Micronesia and the United States (section 201(a) of Public Law 108–188 (117 Stat. 2784; 48 U.S.C. 1921 note)).

(ii) The Compact of Free Association between the Republic of the Marshall Islands and the United States (section 201(b) of Public Law 108–188 (117 Stat. 2823; 48 U.S.C. 1921 note)).

(iii) The Compact of Free Association between Palau and the United States (section 201 of Public Law 99–658 (100 Stat. 3678; 48 U.S.C. 1931 note)).


(2) Notwithstanding paragraph (1), the Secretary concerned may authorize the enlistment of a person not described in paragraph (1) if the Secretary determines that such enlistment is vital to the national interest.

(Added Pub. L. 90–235, §2(a)(1)(B), Jan. 2, 1968, 81 Stat. 754; amended Pub. L. 109–163, div. A, title V, §542(a), Jan. 6, 2006, 119 Stat. 3253.)

Amendments

2006—Pub. L. 109–163 designated existing provisions as subsec. (a), inserted heading, and added subsec. (b).

§505. Regular components: qualifications, term, grade

(a) The Secretary concerned may accept original enlistments in the Regular Army, Regular Navy, Regular Air Force, Regular Marine Corps, or Regular Coast Guard, as the case may be, of qualified, effective, and able-bodied persons who are not less than seventeen years of age nor more than forty-two years of age. However, no person under eighteen years of age may be originally enlisted without the written consent of his parent or guardian, if he has a parent or guardian entitled to his custody and control.

(b) A person is enlisted in the Regular Army, Regular Navy, Regular Air Force, Regular Marine Corps, or Regular Coast Guard in the grade or rating prescribed by the Secretary concerned.

(c) The Secretary concerned may accept original enlistments of persons for the duration of their minority or for a period of at least two but not more than eight years, in the Regular Army, Regular Navy, Regular Air Force, Regular Marine Corps, or Regular Coast Guard, as the case may be.

(d)(1) The Secretary concerned may accept a reenlistment in the Regular Army, Regular Navy, Regular Air Force, Regular Marine Corps, or Regular Coast Guard, as the case may be, for a period determined under this subsection.

(2) In the case of a member who has less than 10 years of service in the armed forces as of the day before the first day of the period for which reenlisted, the period for which the member reenlists shall be at least two years but not more than eight years.

(3) In the case of a member who has at least 10 years of service in the armed forces as of the day before the first day of the period for which reenlisted, the Secretary concerned may accept a reenlistment for either—

(A) a specified period of at least two years but not more than eight years; or

(B) an unspecified period.


(4) No enlisted member is entitled to be reenlisted for a period that would expire before the end of the member's current enlistment.

(Added Pub. L. 90–235, §2(a)(1)(B), Jan. 2, 1968, 81 Stat. 754; amended Pub. L. 93–290, May 24, 1974, 88 Stat. 173; Pub. L. 95–485, title VIII, §820(a), Oct. 20, 1978, 92 Stat. 1627; Pub. L. 98–94, title X, §1023, Sept. 24, 1983, 97 Stat. 671; Pub. L. 104–201, div. A, title V, §511, Sept. 23, 1996, 110 Stat. 2514; Pub. L. 109–163, div. A, title V, §§543, 544, Jan. 6, 2006, 119 Stat. 3253; Pub. L. 110–417, [div. A], title V, §531(a), Oct. 14, 2008, 122 Stat. 4449.)

Amendments

2008—Subsec. (d)(2), (3)(A). Pub. L. 110–417 substituted “eight years” for “six years”.

2006—Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 109–163, §543, in first sentence, substituted “forty-two years of age” for “thirty-five years of age”.

Subsec. (c). Pub. L. 109–163, §544, substituted “eight years” for “six years”.

1996—Subsec. (d). Pub. L. 104–201 amended subsec. (d) generally. Prior to amendment, subsec. (d) read as follows: “The Secretary concerned may accept reenlistments in the Regular Army, Regular Navy, Regular Air Force, Regular Marine Corps, or Regular Coast Guard, as the case may be, for period of at least two but not more than six years. No enlisted member is entitled to be reenlisted for a period that would expire before the end of his current enlistment.”

1983—Subsecs. (c), (d). Pub. L. 98–94 substituted “at least two but not more than six years” for “two, three, four, five, or six years”.

1978—Subsecs. (d), (e). Pub. L. 95–485 redesignated subsec. (e) as (d). Former subsec. (d), which provided that in the Regular Army female persons may be enlisted only in the Women's Army Corps, was struck out.

1974—Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 93–290, §1, struck out provisions which prohibited the Secretary from accepting original enlistments from female persons less than 18 years of age, and which required consent of the parent or guardian for an original enlistment of a female person under 21 years of age.

Subsec. (c). Pub. L. 93–290, §2, substituted provisions permitting the Secretary to accept original enlistments of persons for the duration of their minority or for a period of two, three, four, five, or six years, for provisions which limited the Secretary to accept original enlistments from male persons for the duration of their minority or for a period of two, three, four, five, or six years, and from female persons for a period of two, three, four, five, or six years.

Transfer of Functions

For transfer of authorities, functions, personnel, and assets of the Coast Guard, including the authorities and functions of the Secretary of Transportation relating thereto, to the Department of Homeland Security, and for treatment of related references, see sections 468(b), 551(d), 552(d), and 557 of Title 6, Domestic Security, and the Department of Homeland Security Reorganization Plan of November 25, 2002, as modified, set out as a note under section 542 of Title 6.

§506. Regular components: extension of enlistments during war

An enlistment in the Regular Army, Regular Navy, Regular Air Force, Regular Marine Corps, or Regular Coast Guard in effect at the beginning of a war, or entered into during a war, unless sooner terminated by the President, continues in effect until six months after the termination of that war.

(Added Pub. L. 90–235, §2(a)(1)(B), Jan. 2, 1968, 81 Stat. 754.)

Transfer of Functions

For transfer of authorities, functions, personnel, and assets of the Coast Guard, including the authorities and functions of the Secretary of Transportation relating thereto, to the Department of Homeland Security, and for treatment of related references, see sections 468(b), 551(d), 552(d), and 557 of Title 6, Domestic Security, and the Department of Homeland Security Reorganization Plan of November 25, 2002, as modified, set out as a note under section 542 of Title 6.

§507. Extension of enlistment for members needing medical care or hospitalization

(a) An enlisted member of an armed force on active duty whose term of enlistment expires while he is suffering from disease or injury incident to service and not due to his misconduct, and who needs medical care or hospitalization, may be retained on active duty, with his consent, until he recovers to the extent that he is able to meet the physical requirements for reenlistment, or it is determined that recovery to that extent is impossible.

(b) This section does not prevent the retention in service, without his consent, of an enlisted member of an armed force under section 972 of this title.

(Added Pub. L. 90–235, §2(a)(1)(B), Jan. 2, 1968, 81 Stat. 754.)

§508. Reenlistment: qualifications

(a) No person whose service during his last term of enlistment was not honest and faithful may be reenlisted in an armed force. However, the Secretary concerned may authorize the reenlistment in the armed force under his jurisdiction of such a person if his conduct after that service has been good.

(b) A person discharged from a Regular component may be reenlisted in the Regular Army, Regular Navy, Regular Air Force, Regular Marine Corps, or Regular Coast Guard, as the case may be, under such regulations as the Secretary concerned may prescribe.

(c) This section does not deprive a person of any right to be reenlisted in the Regular Army, Regular Navy, Regular Air Force, Regular Marine Corps, or Regular Coast Guard under any other provision of law.

(Added Pub. L. 90–235, §2(a)(1)(B), Jan. 2, 1968, 81 Stat. 755.)

Transfer of Functions

For transfer of authorities, functions, personnel, and assets of the Coast Guard, including the authorities and functions of the Secretary of Transportation relating thereto, to the Department of Homeland Security, and for treatment of related references, see sections 468(b), 551(d), 552(d), and 557 of Title 6, Domestic Security, and the Department of Homeland Security Reorganization Plan of November 25, 2002, as modified, set out as a note under section 542 of Title 6.

§509. Voluntary extension of enlistments: periods and benefits

(a) Under such regulations as the Secretary concerned may prescribe, the term of enlistment of a member of an armed force may be extended or reextended with his written consent for any period. However, the total of all such extensions of an enlistment may not exceed four years.

(b) When a member is discharged from an enlistment that has been extended under this section, he has the same rights, privileges, and benefits that he would have if discharged at the same time from an enlistment not so extended.

(Added Pub. L. 90–235, §2(a)(1)(B), Jan. 2, 1968, 81 Stat. 755.)

§510. Enlistment incentives for pursuit of skills to facilitate national service

(a) Enlistment Incentive Program.—The Secretary of Defense shall carry out an enlistment incentive program in accordance with this section under which a person who is a National Call to Service participant shall be entitled to one of the incentives specified in subsection (e). The program shall be carried out during the period ending on December 31, 2007, and may be carried out after that date.

(b) National Call to Service Participant.—In this section, the term “National Call to Service participant” means a person who has not previously served in the armed forces who enters into an original enlistment pursuant to a written agreement with the Secretary of a military department (in such form and manner as may be prescribed by that Secretary) under which the person agrees to perform a period of national service as specified in subsection (c).

(c) National Service.—The total period of national service to which a National Call to Service participant is obligated under the agreement under this section shall be specified in the agreement. Under the agreement, the participant shall—

(1) upon completion of initial entry training (as prescribed by the Secretary of Defense), serve on active duty in a military occupational specialty designated by the Secretary of Defense under subsection (d) for a period of 15 months;

(2) upon completion of the period of active duty specified in paragraph (1) and without a break in service, serve either (A) an additional period of active duty as determined by the Secretary of Defense, or (B) a period of 24 months in an active status in the Selected Reserve; and

(3) upon completion of the period of service specified in paragraph (2), and without a break in service, serve the remaining period of obligated service specified in the agreement—

(A) on active duty in the armed forces;

(B) in the Selected Reserve;

(C) in the Individual Ready Reserve;

(D) in Americorps or another domestic national service program jointly designated by the Secretary of Defense and the head of such program for purposes of this section; or

(E) in any combination of service referred to in subparagraphs (A) through (D) that is approved by the Secretary of the military department concerned pursuant to regulations prescribed by the Secretary of Defense and specified in the agreement.


(d) Designated Military Occupational Specialties.—The Secretary of Defense shall designate military occupational specialties for purposes of subsection (c)(1). Such military occupational specialties shall be military occupational specialties that, as determined by the Secretary, will facilitate pursuit of national service by National Call to Service participants and shall include military occupational specialties for enlistments for officer training and subsequent service as an officer, in cases in which the reason for the enlistment and entry into an agreement under subsection (b) is to enter an officer training program.

(e) Incentives.—The incentives specified in this subsection are as follows:

(1) Payment of a bonus in the amount of $5,000.

(2) Payment in an amount not to exceed $18,000 of outstanding principal and interest on qualifying student loans of the National Call to Service participant.

(3) Entitlement to an allowance for educational assistance at the monthly rate equal to the monthly rate payable for basic educational assistance allowances under section 3015(a)(1) of title 38 for a total of 12 months.

(4) Entitlement to an allowance for educational assistance at the monthly rate equal to 50 percent of the monthly rate payable for basic educational assistance allowances under section 3015(b)(1) of title 38 for a total of 36 months.


(f) Election of Incentive.—A National Call to Service participant shall elect in the agreement under subsection (b) which incentive under subsection (e) to receive. An election under this subsection is irrevocable.

(g) Payment of Bonus Amounts.—(1) Payment to a National Call to Service participant of the bonus elected by the National Call to Service participant under subsection (e)(1) shall be made in such time and manner as the Secretary of Defense shall prescribe.

(2)(A) Payment of outstanding principal and interest on the qualifying student loans of a National Call to Service participant, as elected under subsection (e)(2), shall be made in such time and manner as the Secretary of Defense shall prescribe.

(B) Payment under this paragraph of the outstanding principal and interest on the qualifying student loans of a National Call to Service participant shall be made to the holder of such student loans, as identified by the National Call to Service participant to the Secretary of the military department concerned for purposes of such payment.

(3) Payment of a bonus or incentive in accordance with this subsection shall be made by the Secretary of the military department concerned.

(h) Coordination With Montgomery GI Bill Benefits.—(1)(A) Subject to subparagraph (B), a National Call to Service participant who elects an incentive under paragraph (3) or (4) of subsection (e) is not entitled to additional educational assistance under chapter 1606 of this title or to basic educational assistance under subchapter II of chapter 30 of title 38.

(B) If a National Call to Service participant meets all eligibility requirements specified in chapter 1606 of this title or chapter 30 of title 38 for entitlement to allowances for educational assistance under either such chapter, the participant may become eligible for allowances for educational assistance benefits under either such chapter up to the maximum allowance provided less the total amount of allowance paid under paragraph (3) or (4) of subsection (e).

(2)(A) Educational assistance under paragraphs (3) or (4) of subsection (e) shall be provided through the Department of Veterans Affairs under an agreement to be entered into by the Secretary of Defense and the Secretary of Veterans Affairs. The agreements shall include administrative procedures to ensure the prompt and timely transfer of funds from the Secretary concerned to the Secretary of Veterans Affairs for the making of payments under this section.

(B) Except as otherwise provided in this section, the provisions of sections 503, 511, 3470, 3471, 3474, 3476, 3482(g), 3483, and 3485 of title 38 and the provisions of subchapters I and II of chapter 36 of such title (with the exception of sections 3686(a), 3687, and 3692) shall be applicable to the provision of educational assistance under this chapter. The term “eligible veteran” and the term “person”, as used in those provisions, shall be deemed for the purpose of the application of those provisions to this section to refer to a person eligible for educational assistance under paragraph (3) or (4) of subsection (e).

(3)(A) Except as provided in paragraph (1), nothing in this section shall prohibit a National Call to Service participant who satisfies through service under subsection (c) the eligibility requirements for educational assistance under chapter 1606 of this title or basic educational assistance under chapter 30 of title 38 from an entitlement to such educational assistance under chapter 1606 of this title or basic educational assistance under chapter 30 of title 38, as the case may be.

(B)(i) A participant who made an election not to receive educational assistance under either such chapter at the applicable time specified under law or who was denied the opportunity to make an election may revoke that election or make an initial election, as the case may be, at such time and in such manner as the Secretary concerned may specify. A revocation or initial election under the preceding sentence is irrevocable.

(ii) The participant making a revocation or initial election under clause (i) shall be eligible for educational assistance under either such chapter at such time as the participant satisfies through service the applicable eligibility requirements under either such chapter.

(i) Repayment.—If a National Call to Service participant who has entered into an agreement under subsection (b) and received or benefitted from an incentive under paragraph (1) or (2) of subsection (e) fails to complete the total period of service specified in the agreement, the National Call to Service participant shall be subject to the repayment provisions of section 303a(e) of title 37.

(j) Funding.—(1) Amounts for the payment of incentives under paragraphs (1) and (2) of subsection (e) shall be derived from amounts available to the Secretary of the military department concerned for the payment of pay, allowances and other expenses of the members of the armed force concerned.

(2) Amounts for the payment of incentives under paragraphs (3) and (4) of subsection (e) shall be derived from the Department of Defense Education Benefits Fund under section 2006 of this title.

(k) Regulations.—The Secretary of Defense and the Secretaries of the military departments shall prescribe regulations for purposes of the program under this section.

(l) Definitions.—In this section:

(1) The term “Americorps” means the Americorps program carried out under subtitle C of title I of the National and Community Service Act of 1990 (42 U.S.C. 12571 et seq.).

(2) The term “qualifying student loan” means a loan, the proceeds of which were used to pay any part or all of the cost of attendance (as defined in section 472 of the Higher Education Act of 1965 (20 U.S.C. 1087ll) at an institution of higher education (as defined in section 101 of the Higher Education Act of 1965 (20 U.S.C. 1001).

(3) The term “Secretary of a military department” includes, with respect to matters concerning the Coast Guard when it is not operating as a service in the Navy, the Secretary of the Department in which the Coast Guard is operating.

(Added Pub. L. 107–314, div. A, title V, §531(a)(1), Dec. 2, 2002, 116 Stat. 2541; amended Pub. L. 108–136, div. A, title V, §535(a), Nov. 24, 2003, 117 Stat. 1474; Pub. L. 109–163, div. A, title V, §545, title VI, §687(c)(1), Jan. 6, 2006, 119 Stat. 3254, 3333; Pub. L. 109–364, div. A, title X, §1071(e)(2), Oct. 17, 2006, 120 Stat. 2401.)

References in Text

The National and Community Service Act of 1990, referred to in subsec. (l)(1), is Pub. L. 101–610, Nov. 16, 1990, 104 Stat. 3127, as amended. Subtitle C of title I of the Act is classified generally to division C (§12571 et seq.) of subchapter I of chapter 129 of Title 42, The Public Health and Welfare. For complete classification of this Act to the Code, see Short Title note set out under section 12501 of Title 42 and Tables.

Prior Provisions

A prior section 510 was renumbered section 12102 of this title.

Amendments

2006—Subsec. (c)(3)(D). Pub. L. 109–163, §545(a), substituted “in Americorps or another domestic national service program” for “in the Peace Corps, Americorps, or another national service program”.

Subsec. (d). Pub. L. 109–163, §545(b), as amended by Pub. L. 109–364, inserted “and shall include military occupational specialties for enlistments for officer training and subsequent service as an officer, in cases in which the reason for the enlistment and entry into an agreement under subsection (b) is to enter an officer training program” before period at end.

Subsec. (h)(2). Pub. L. 109–163, §545(c), amended par. (2) generally. Prior to amendment, par. (2) read as follows:

“(2)(A) The Secretary of Defense shall, to the maximum extent practicable, administer the receipt by National Call to Service participants of incentives under paragraph (3) or (4) of subsection (e) as if such National Call to Service participants were, in receiving such incentives, receiving educational assistance for members of the Selected Reserve under chapter 1606 of this title.

“(B) The Secretary of Defense shall, in consultation with the Secretary of Veterans Affairs, prescribe regulations for purposes of subparagraph (A). Such regulations shall, to the maximum extent practicable, take into account the administrative provisions of chapters 30 and 36 of title 38 that are specified in section 16136 of this title.”

Subsec. (i). Pub. L. 109–163, §687(c)(1), amended heading and text of subsec. (i) generally. Prior to amendment, text consisted of pars. (1) to (4) which related to pro rata repayments by failed National Call to Service participants, the nature of the debt owed, waiver and discharge in bankruptcy.

2003—Subsec. (j). Pub. L. 108–136 reenacted heading without change and amended text generally. Prior to amendment, text read as follows: “Amounts for payment of incentives under subsection (e), including payment of allowances for educational assistance under that subsection, shall be derived from amounts available to the Secretary of the military department concerned for payment of pay, allowances, and other expenses of the members of the armed force concerned.”

Effective Date of 2006 Amendment

Pub. L. 109–364, div. A, title X, §1071(e), Oct. 17, 2006, 120 Stat. 2401, provided that the amendment made by section 1071(e)(2) is effective as of Jan. 6, 2006, and as if included in Pub. L. 109–163 as enacted.

Savings Provision

Pub. L. 109–163, div. A, title VI, §687(f), Jan. 6, 2006, 119 Stat. 3336, provided that: “In the case of any bonus, incentive pay, special pay, or similar payment, such as education assistance or a stipend, which the United States became obligated to pay before April 1, 2006, under a provision of law amended by subsection (b), (c), or (d) of this section [amending this section and sections 2005, 2007, 2105, 2123, 2130a, 2173, 2200a, 4348, 6959, 9348, 16135, 16203, 16303, and 16401 of this title, section 182 of Title 14, Coast Guard, and sections 301b, 301d, 301e, 302, 302a, 302b, 302d to 302h, 302j, 307a, 308, 308b, 308c, 308g to 308i, 309, 312, 312b, 314 to 319, and 321 to 327 of Title 37, Pay and Allowances of the Uniformed Services], such provision of law, as in effect on the day before the date of the enactment of this Act [Jan. 6, 2006], shall continue to apply to the payment, or any repayment, of the bonus, incentive pay, special pay, or similar payment under such provision of law.”

Transfer of Functions

For transfer of authorities, functions, personnel, and assets of the Coast Guard, including the authorities and functions of the Secretary of Transportation relating thereto, to the Department of Homeland Security, and for treatment of related references, see sections 468(b), 551(d), 552(d), and 557 of Title 6, Domestic Security, and the Department of Homeland Security Reorganization Plan of November 25, 2002, as modified, set out as a note under section 542 of Title 6.

Commencement of Program

Pub. L. 107–314, div. A, title V, §531(b), Dec. 2, 2002, 116 Stat. 2544, directed the Secretary of Defense to prescribe the date, not later than Oct. 1, 2003, on which the program provided for under this section was to commence.

Implementation Report

Pub. L. 107–314, div. A, title V, §531(d), Dec. 2, 2002, 116 Stat. 2544, directed the Secretary of Defense to submit to committees of Congress a report on the Secretary's plans for implementation of this section not later than Mar. 31, 2003.

Effectiveness Reports

Pub. L. 107–314, div. A, title V, §531(e), Dec. 2, 2002, 116 Stat. 2545, provided that: “Not later than March 31, 2005, and March 31, 2007, the Secretary of Defense shall submit to the committees specified in subsection (d) reports on the effectiveness of the program under section 510 of title 10, United States Code, as added by subsection (a), in attracting new recruits to national service.”

§511. College First Program

(a) Program Authority.—The Secretary of each military department may establish a program to increase the number of, and the level of the qualifications of, persons entering the armed forces as enlisted members by encouraging recruits to pursue higher education or vocational or technical training before entry into active service.

(b) Delayed Entry With Allowance for Higher Education.—The Secretary concerned may—

(1) exercise the authority under section 513 of this title—

(A) to accept the enlistment of a person as a Reserve for service in the Selected Reserve or Individual Ready Reserve of a reserve component, notwithstanding the scope of the authority under subsection (a) of that section, in the case of the Army National Guard of the United States or Air National Guard of the United States; and

(B) to authorize, notwithstanding the period limitation in subsection (b) of that section, a delay of the enlistment of any such person in a regular component under that subsection for the period during which the person is enrolled in, and pursuing a program of education at, an institution of higher education, or a program of vocational or technical training, on a full-time basis that is to be completed within the maximum period of delay determined for that person under subsection (c); and


(2) subject to paragraph (2) of subsection (d) and except as provided in paragraph (3) of that subsection, pay an allowance to a person accepted for enlistment under paragraph (1)(A) for each month of the period during which that person is enrolled in and pursuing a program described in paragraph (1)(B).


(c) Maximum Period of Delay.—The period of delay authorized a person under paragraph (1)(B) of subsection (b) may not exceed the 30-month period beginning on the date of the person's enlistment accepted under paragraph (1)(A) of such subsection.

(d) Allowance.—(1) The monthly allowance paid under subsection (b)(2) shall be equal to the amount of the subsistence allowance provided for certain members of the Senior Reserve Officers’ Training Corps with the corresponding number of years of participation under section 209(a) of title 37. The Secretary concerned may supplement that stipend by an amount not to exceed $225 per month.

(2) An allowance may not be paid to a person under this section for more than 24 months.

(3) A member of the Selected Reserve of a reserve component may be paid an allowance under this section only for months during which the member performs satisfactorily as a member of a unit of the reserve component that trains as prescribed in section 10147(a)(1) of this title or section 502(a) of title 32. Satisfactory performance shall be determined under regulations prescribed by the Secretary concerned.

(4) An allowance under this section is in addition to any other pay or allowance to which a member of a reserve component is entitled by reason of participation in the Ready Reserve of that component.

(e) Recoupment of Allowance.—(1) A person who, after receiving an allowance under this section, fails to complete the total period of service required of that person in connection with delayed entry authorized for the person under section 513 shall repay the United States the amount which bears the same ratio to the total amount of that allowance paid to the person as the unserved part of the total required period of service bears to the total period.

(2) An obligation to repay the United States imposed under paragraph (1) is for all purposes a debt owed to the United States.

(3) A discharge of a person in bankruptcy under title 11 that is entered less than five years after the date on which the person was, or was to be, enlisted in the regular Army pursuant to the delayed entry authority under section 513 does not discharge that person from a debt arising under paragraph (1).

(4) The Secretary concerned may waive, in whole or in part, a debt arising under paragraph (1) in any case for which the Secretary determines that recovery would be against equity and good conscience or would be contrary to the best interests of the United States.

(f) Special Pay and Bonuses.—Upon enlisting in the regular component of the member's armed force, a person who initially enlisted as a Reserve under this section may, at the discretion of the Secretary concerned, be eligible for all regular special pays, bonuses, education benefits, and loan repayment programs.

(Added Pub. L. 108–375, div. A, title V, §551(a)(1), Oct. 28, 2004, 118 Stat. 1909.)

Prior Provisions

A prior section 511 was renumbered section 12103 of this title.

Continuation for Army of Prior Army College First Program

Pub. L. 108–375, div. A, title V, §551(b), Oct. 28, 2004, 118 Stat. 1911, provided that: “The Secretary of the Army shall treat the program under section 511 of title 10, United States Code, as added by subsection (a), as a continuation of the program under section 573 of the National Defense Authorization Act for Fiscal Year 2000 [Pub. L. 106–65] ([formerly] 10 U.S.C. 513 note), and for such purpose the Secretary may treat such section 511 as having been enacted on October 1, 2004.”

[§512. Renumbered §12104]

§513. Enlistments: Delayed Entry Program

(a) A person with no prior military service who is qualified under section 505 of this title and applicable regulations for enlistment in a regular component of an armed force may (except as provided in subsection (c)) be enlisted as a Reserve for service in the Army Reserve, Navy Reserve, Air Force Reserve, Marine Corps Reserve, or Coast Guard Reserve for a term of not less than six years nor more than eight years.

(b)(1) Unless sooner ordered to active duty under chapter 39 of this title or another provision of law, a person enlisted under subsection (a) shall, within 365 days after such enlistment, be discharged from the reserve component in which enlisted and immediately be enlisted in the regular component of an armed force. The Secretary concerned may extend the 365-day period for any person for up to an additional 365 days if the Secretary determines that it is in the best interests of the armed force of which that person is a member to do so.

(2) During the period beginning on the date on which the person enlists under subsection (a) and ending on the date on which the person is enlisted in a regular component under paragraph (1), the person shall be in the Ready Reserve of the armed force concerned.

(c) A person who is under orders to report for induction into an armed force under the Military Selective Service Act (50 U.S.C. App. 451 et seq.), except as provided in clause (ii) or (iii) of section 6(c)(2)(A) of that Act, may not be enlisted under subsection (a).

(d) This section shall be carried out under regulations to be prescribed by the Secretary of Defense or the Secretary of Homeland Security with respect to the Coast Guard when it is not operating as a service in the Navy.

(Added Pub. L. 101–189, div. A, title V, §501(a)(1), Nov. 29, 1989, 103 Stat. 1435; amended Pub. L. 101–510, div. A, title XIV, §1484(k)(2), Nov. 5, 1990, 104 Stat. 1719; Pub. L. 104–201, div. A, title V, §512, Sept. 23, 1996, 110 Stat. 2514; Pub. L. 106–65, div. A, title V, §572(a), Oct. 5, 1999, 113 Stat. 623; Pub. L. 107–296, title XVII, §1704(b)(1), Nov. 25, 2002, 116 Stat. 2314; Pub. L. 109–163, div. A, title V, §515(b)(1)(A), Jan. 6, 2006, 119 Stat. 3233.)

References in Text

The Military Selective Service Act, referred to in subsec. (c), is act June 24, 1948, ch. 625, 62 Stat. 604, as amended, which is classified principally to section 451 et seq. of Title 50, Appendix, War and National Defense. Section 6 of the Act is classified to section 456 of Title 50, Appendix. For complete classification of this Act to the Code, see References in Text note set out under section 451 of Title 50, Appendix, and Tables.

Prior Provisions

A prior section 513, act Aug. 10, 1956, ch. 1041, 70A Stat. 18, related to promotion of enlisted members of Reserve components, prior to repeal by Pub. L. 85–861, §36B(1), Sept. 2, 1958, 72 Stat. 1570.

Amendments

2006—Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 109–163 substituted “Navy Reserve” for “Naval Reserve”.

2002—Subsec. (d). Pub. L. 107–296 substituted “of Homeland Security” for “of Transportation”.

1999—Subsec. (b)(1). Pub. L. 106–65 substituted “additional 365 days” for “additional 180 days” in second sentence.

1996—Subsec. (b). Pub. L. 104–201 inserted “The Secretary concerned may extend the 365-day period for any person for up to an additional 180 days if the Secretary determines that it is in the best interests of the armed force of which that person is a member to do so.” after first sentence, “(1)” before “Unless”, and “(2)” before “During” and substituted “paragraph (1)” for “the preceding sentence”.

1990—Subsecs. (b), (c). Pub. L. 101–510 substituted “subsection (a)” for “paragraph (1)”.

Effective Date of 2002 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 107–296 effective on the date of transfer of the Coast Guard to the Department of Homeland Security, see section 1704(g) of Pub. L. 107–296, set out as a note under section 101 of this title.

Effective Date of 1999 Amendment

Pub. L. 106–65, div. A, title V, §572(b), Oct. 5, 1999, 113 Stat. 623, provided that: “The amendment made by subsection (a) [amending this section] shall take effect on October 1, 1999, and shall apply with respect to enlistments entered into, on or after that date.”

Army College First Pilot Program

Pub. L. 106–65, div. A, title V, §573, Oct. 5, 1999, 113 Stat. 623, as amended by Pub. L. 107–107, div. A, title V, §542(a)–(c), Dec. 28, 2001, 115 Stat. 1110, 1111; Pub. L. 107–314, div. A, title V, §535, title X, §1062(j)(1), Dec. 2, 2002, 116 Stat. 2548, 2651, directed the Secretary of the Army to establish a pilot program, known as the “Army College First” program, to be in effect from Oct. 1, 1999, to Sept. 30, 2004, to assess whether the Army could increase the number and qualifications of persons entering the Army as enlisted members by encouraging recruits to pursue higher education or vocational or technical training before entry into active service, and to submit to committees of Congress a report on the program not later than Feb. 1, 2004. See section 511 of this title and section 551(b) of Pub. L. 108–375, set out as a note under section 511 of this title.

§514. Bounties prohibited; substitutes prohibited

(a) No bounty may be paid to induce any person to enlist in an armed force. A clothing allowance or enlistment bonus authorized by law is not a bounty for the purposes of this subsection.

(b) No person liable for active duty in an armed force under this subtitle may furnish a substitute for that active duty. No person may be enlisted or appointed in an armed force as a substitute for another person.

(Aug. 10, 1956, ch. 1041, 70A Stat. 19.)

Historical and Revision Notes
Revised sectionSource (U.S. Code)Source (Statutes at Large)
514(a)

 

 

514(b)

50 App.:458 (1st sentence, less applicability to induction).

50 App.:458 (last sentence, less applicability to induction).

June 24, 1948, ch. 625, §8 (less applicability to induction), 62 Stat. 614.

In subsection (b), the words “active duty” are substituted for the words “training and service”. The word “may” is substituted for the words “shall be permitted or allowed”. The last sentence is substituted for 50 App.:458 (words between 1st and last semicolons). 50 App.:458 (words after last semicolon) is omitted as applicable only to induction.

§515. Reenlistment after discharge as warrant officer

A person who has been discharged from a regular component of an armed force under section 1165 or 1166 of this title may, upon his request and in the discretion of the Secretary concerned, be enlisted in that armed force in the grade prescribed by the Secretary. However, a person discharged under section 1165 of this title may not be enlisted in a grade lower than the grade that he held immediately before appointment as a warrant officer.

(Aug. 10, 1956, ch. 1041, 70A Stat. 19.)

Historical and Revision Notes
Revised sectionSource (U.S. Code)Source (Statutes at Large)
515 10:600d (last 36 words of last sentence).

34:135d (last 36 words of last sentence).

10:600m (last 21 words of 3d sentence).

34:430a (last 21 words of 3d sentence).

May 29, 1954, ch. 249, §§6 (last 36 words of last sentence), 15 (last 21 words of 3d sentence), 68 Stat. 159, 164.

The first 20 words are inserted for clarity. The word “request” is substituted for the word “application”.

§516. Effect upon enlisted status of acceptance of appointment as cadet or midshipman

(a) The enlistment or period of obligated service of an enlisted member of the armed forces who accepts an appointment as a cadet at the United States Military Academy, the United States Air Force Academy, or the United States Coast Guard Academy, or as a midshipman at the United States Naval Academy or in the Navy Reserve, may not be terminated because of the acceptance of that appointment. However, while serving as a cadet or midshipman at an Academy, he is entitled only to the pay, allowances, compensation, pensions, and other benefits provided by law for such a cadet or midshipman or, if he is a midshipman in the Navy Reserve, to the compensation and emoluments of a midshipman in the Navy Reserve.

(b) If a person covered by subsection (a) is separated from service as a cadet or midshipman, or from service as a midshipman in the Navy Reserve, for any reason other than his appointment as a commissioned officer of a regular or reserve component of an armed force or because of a physical disability, he resumes his enlisted status and shall complete the period of service for which he was enlisted or for which he has an obligation, unless he is sooner discharged. In computing the unexpired part of an enlistment or period of obligated service for the purposes of this subsection, all service as a cadet or midshipman is counted as service under that enlistment or period of obligated service.

(Added Pub. L. 85–861, §1(9)(A), Sept. 2, 1958, 72 Stat. 1439; amended Pub. L. 109–163, div. A, title V, §515(b)(1)(B), Jan. 6, 2006, 119 Stat. 3233.)

Historical and Revision Notes
Revised sectionSource (U.S. Code)Source (Statutes at Large)
516(a)

516(b)

50:1411.

50:1412.

June 25, 1956, ch. 439, §§1, 2, 70 Stat. 333.

In subsection (a), the words “on or after June 25, 1956” are omitted as executed. The words “Regular, Reserve” and “during the continuation of the cadet or midshipman status of such member” are omitted as surplusage. The words “if he is a midshipman in the Naval Reserve * * * of a midshipman in the Naval Reserve” are substituted for the words “accruing to such reserve midshipman by virtue of his status in the Naval Reserve”.

In subsection (b), the words “a person covered by subsection (a)” are substituted for 50:1412 (1st 84 words of 1st sentence). The words “his appointment as a commissioned officer of” are substituted for the words “the acceptance of a commission in”. The words “and shall complete the period of service for which he was enlisted or for which he has an obligation, unless he is sooner discharged” are substituted for 50:1412 (2d sentence). The words “promoted or” are omitted as unnecessary, since the only kind of promotion involved is that to officer, in which case the member is discharged from his enlisted status. The words “as service under that enlistment” are substituted for the words “as time serviced under such contract”.

Amendments

2006—Pub. L. 109–163 substituted “Navy Reserve” for “Naval Reserve” wherever appearing.

Transfer of Functions

For transfer of authorities, functions, personnel, and assets of the Coast Guard, including the authorities and functions of the Secretary of Transportation relating thereto, to the Department of Homeland Security, and for treatment of related references, see sections 468(b), 551(d), 552(d), and 557 of Title 6, Domestic Security, and the Department of Homeland Security Reorganization Plan of November 25, 2002, as modified, set out as a note under section 542 of Title 6.

§517. Authorized daily average: members in pay grades E–8 and E–9

(a) The authorized daily average number of enlisted members on active duty (other than for training) in an armed force in pay grades E–8 and E–9 in a fiscal year may not be more than 2.5 percent and 1.25 percent, respectively, of the number of enlisted members of that armed force who are on active duty (other than for training) on the first day of that fiscal year. In computing the limitations prescribed in the preceding sentence, there shall be excluded enlisted members of an armed force on active duty as authorized under section 115(a)(1)(B) or 115(b) of this title, or excluded from counting for active duty end strengths under section 115(i) of this title.

(b) Whenever the number of members serving in pay grade E–9 is less than the number authorized for that grade under subsection (a), the difference between the two numbers may be applied to increase the number authorized under such subsection for pay grade E–8.

(c) Whenever under section 527 of this title the President may suspend the operation of any provision of section 523, 525, or 526 of this title, the Secretary of Defense may suspend the operation of any provision of this section. Any such suspension shall, if not sooner ended, end in the manner specified in section 527 for a suspension under that section.

(Added Pub. L. 87–649, §2(1), Sept. 7, 1962, 76 Stat. 492; amended Pub. L. 96–584, §4, Dec. 23, 1980, 94 Stat. 3377; Pub. L. 97–86, title V, §503(1), (2), Dec. 1, 1981, 95 Stat. 1107, 1108; Pub. L. 97–252, title V, §503(a), Sept. 8, 1982, 96 Stat. 727; Pub. L. 98–94, title V, §503(a), Sept. 24, 1983, 97 Stat. 631; Pub. L. 98–525, title IV, §§413(a), 414(a)(2), Oct. 19, 1984, 98 Stat. 2517, 2518; Pub. L. 99–145, title IV, §413(a), Nov. 8, 1985, 99 Stat. 619; Pub. L. 100–180, div. A, title IV, §413(a), Dec. 4, 1987, 101 Stat. 1083; Pub. L. 101–189, div. A, title IV, §413(a), Nov. 29, 1989, 103 Stat. 1433; Pub. L. 102–190, div. A, title IV, §413(a), Dec. 5, 1991, 105 Stat. 1352; Pub. L. 103–160, div. A, title IV, §413(a), Nov. 30, 1993, 107 Stat. 1642; Pub. L. 103–337, div. A, title V, §552(a), title XVI, §1662(a)(4), Oct. 5, 1994, 108 Stat. 2772, 2988; Pub. L. 105–261, div. A, title IV, §407(a), title X, §1069(a)(2), Oct. 17, 1998, 112 Stat. 1996, 2135; Pub. L. 106–398, §1 [[div. A], title IV, §421(a)], Oct. 30, 2000, 114 Stat. 1654, 1654A–95; Pub. L. 107–107, div. A, title IV, §403, Dec. 28, 2001, 115 Stat. 1069; Pub. L. 108–375, div. A, title IV, §416(f), Oct. 28, 2004, 118 Stat. 1868; Pub. L. 110–181, div. A, title IV, §406, Jan. 28, 2008, 122 Stat. 89.)

Historical and Revision Notes
Revised sectionSource (U.S. Code)Source (Statutes at Large)
517 37:232(c) (last sentence). Oct. 12, 1949, ch. 681, §201(c) (last sentence); added May 20, 1958, Pub. L. 85–422, §1(3) (last sentence), 72 Stat. 124.

Amendments

2008—Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 110–181 substituted “1.25 percent” for “1 percent”.

2004—Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 108–375 substituted “as authorized under section 115(a)(1)(B) or 115(b) of this title, or excluded from counting for active duty end strengths under section 115(i) of this title.” for “(other than for training) in connection with organizing, administering, recruiting, instructing, or training the reserve component of an armed force.”

2001—Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 107–107 substituted “2.5 percent” for “2 percent (or, in the case of the Army, 2.5 percent)”.

2000—Subsec. (c). Pub. L. 106–398 added subsec. (c).

1998—Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 105–261, §1069(a)(2), substituted “The authorized” for “Except as provided in section 307 of title 37, the authorized”.

Pub. L. 105–261, §407(a), substituted “a fiscal year” for “a calendar year” and “the first day of that fiscal year” for “January 1 of that year”.

1994—Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 103–337, §552(a), inserted “(or, in the case of the Army, 2.5 percent)” after “may not be more than 2 percent”.

Subsec. (b). Pub. L. 103–337, §1661(a)(4)(B), redesignated subsec. (c) as (b) and struck out “or whenever the number of members serving in pay grade E–9 for duty described in subsection (b) is less than the number authorized for that grade under subsection (b),” after “under subsection (a),”.

Pub. L. 103–337, §1662(a)(4)(A), struck out subsec. (b) which limited the number of enlisted members in pay grades E–8 and E–9 who could be on active duty (other than for training) or on full-time National Guard duty under the authority of section 502(f) of title 32 (other than for training) as of the end of any fiscal year in connection with organizing, administering, recruiting, instructing, or training the reserve components or the National Guard.

Subsec. (c). Pub. L. 103–337, §1662(a)(4)(B), redesignated subsec. (c) as (b).

1993—Subsec. (b). Pub. L. 103–160, in table, increased fiscal year limitation on number of enlisted men in pay grades E–8 and E–9 on active duty affecting reserve components of the Air Force to 328 and 840 from 279 and 800, respectively.

1991—Subsec. (b). Pub. L. 102–190, in table, increased fiscal year limitation on number of enlisted men in pay grade E–8 on active duty affecting reserve components of the Air Force from 670 to 800, and increased limitation on number of enlisted men in pay grade E–9 on active duty affecting reserve components of the Army from 557 to 569, the Air Force from 231 to 279, and the Marine Corps from 13 to 14.

1989—Subsec. (b). Pub. L. 101–189, §413(a)(2), in table, increased fiscal year limitation on number of enlisted men in pay grades E–8 and E–9 on active duty affecting reserve components of the armed forces: Army, to 557 and 2,585 from 542 and 2,504, respectively; Navy, to 202 and 429 from 200 and 425, respectively; Air Force, to 231 and 670 from 224 and 637, respectively. Marine Corps figures remained unchanged.

Pub. L. 101–189, §413(a)(1), in table, increased fiscal year limitation on number of enlisted men in pay grades E–8 and E–9 on active duty affecting reserve components of the armed forces: Army, to 542 and 2,504 from 529 and 2,350, respectively; Navy, to 200 and 425 from 180 and 400, respectively; Air Force, to 224 and 637 from 150 and 425, respectively. Marine Corps figures remained unchanged.

1987—Subsec. (b). Pub. L. 100–180, §413(a)(2), in table, increased fiscal year limitation on number of enlisted men in pay grades E–8 and E–9 on active duty affecting reserve components of the armed forces: Army, to 529 and 2,350 from 517 and 2,295, respectively; Navy, to 180 and 400 from 175 and 390, respectively; Air Force, to 150 and 425 from 125 and 425, respectively. Marine Corps figures remained unchanged.

Pub. L. 100–180, §413(a)(1), in table, increased fiscal year limitation on number of enlisted men in pay grades E–8 and E–9 on active duty affecting reserve components of the armed forces: Navy, to 175 and 390 from 165 and 381, respectively; Air Force, to 125 and 425 from 80 and 358, respectively; Marine Corps, to 13 and 74 from 9 and 74, respectively. Army figures remained unchanged.

1985—Subsec. (b). Pub. L. 99–145 in table, changed fiscal year limitation on number of enlisted men in pay grades E–8 and E–9 on active duty affecting reserve components of the armed forces: Navy, to 165 and 381 from 156 and 381, respectively; Air Force, to 80 and 358 from 87 and 455, respectively. Army and Marine Corps figures remained unchanged.

1984—Subsec. (b). Pub. L. 98–525, §414(a)(2), inserted “(other than for training) or on full-time National Guard duty under the authority of section 502(f) of title 32 (other than for training)” and substituted “or the National Guard” for “of the armed forces” and “for that grade and armed force” for “prescribed for the grade and the armed force”.

Pub. L. 98–525, §413(a), in table, increased fiscal year limitation on number of enlisted men in pay grades E–8 and E–9 on active duty affecting reserve components of the armed forces: Army, to 2,295 and 517 from 1,494 and 314; Air Force, to 455 and 87 from 617 and 143; Marine Corps, to 74 and 9 from 56 and 6. Navy figures remained unchanged.

1983—Subsec. (b). Pub. L. 98–94 increased fiscal year limitation on number of enlisted men in pay grades E–8 and E–9 on active duty affecting reserve components of the armed forces: Army, to 1,494 and 314 from 1,244 and 265; Navy, to 381 and 156 from 329 and 156; Air Force, to 617 and 143 from 441 and 132; Marine Corps figures remained unchanged.

1982—Subsec. (b). Pub. L. 97–252 increased the numbers in columns from 222, 146, 76, and 4 in the line for E–9 to 265, 156, 132, and 6, respectively, and from 908, 319, 307, and 12 in line for E–8 to 1,244, 329, 441, and 56, respectively.

1981—Subsec. (b). Pub. L. 97–86, §503(1), inserted column for “Marine Corps” in table and increased numbers in existing columns headed “Army”, “Navy”, and “Air Force” from 209, 140, and 71 in line for E–9 to 222, 146, and 76, respectively, and from 823, 302, and 302 in line for E–8 to 908, 319, and 307, respectively.

Subsec. (c). Pub. L. 97–86, §503(2), added subsec. (c).

1980—Pub. L. 96–584 designated existing provisions as subsec. (a), inserted provisions respecting computation of limitations, and added subsec. (b).

Effective Date of 1998 Amendment

Pub. L. 105–261, div. A, title IV, §407(b), Oct. 17, 1998, 112 Stat. 1996, provided that: “The amendments made by subsection (a) [amending this section] shall take effect on October 1, 1999.”

Effective Date of 1994 Amendment

Section 552(c) of Pub. L. 103–337 provided that: “The amendment made by subsection (a) [amending this section] shall not apply with respect to the number of enlisted members of the Army on active duty in pay grade E–8 during 1994.”

Amendment by section 1662(a)(4) of Pub. L. 103–337 effective Dec. 1, 1994, except as otherwise provided, see section 1691 of Pub. L. 103–337, set out as an Effective Date note under section 10001 of this title.

Effective Date of 1989 Amendment

Section 413(a)(2) of Pub. L. 101–189 provided that the amendment made by that section is effective Oct. 1, 1990.

Effective Date of 1987 Amendment

Section 413(a)(2) of Pub. L. 100–180 provided that the amendment made by that section is effective Oct. 1, 1988.

Effective Date of 1985 Amendment

Section 413(c) of Pub. L. 99–145 provided that: “The amendments made by subsections (a) and (b) [amending this section and section 524 [now 12011] of this title] shall take effect on October 1, 1985.”

Effective Date of 1984 Amendment

Section 413(c) of Pub. L. 98–525 provided that: “The amendments made by subsections (a) and (b) [amending this section and section 524 [now 12011] of this title] shall take effect on October 1, 1984.”

Effective Date of 1983 Amendment

Section 503(c) of Pub. L. 98–94 provided that: “The amendments made by subsections (a) and (b) [amending this section and section 524 [now 12011] of this title] shall take effect on October 1, 1983.”

Effective Date

Section effective Nov. 1, 1962, see section 15 of Pub. L. 87–649, set out as a note preceding section 101 of Title 37, Pay and Allowances of the Uniformed Services.

Authorized Active Duty Strengths for Army Enlisted Members in Pay Grade E–8; Special Rule for 1995

Pub. L. 103–337, div. A, title V, §552(b), Oct. 5, 1994, 108 Stat. 2772, provided that the percentage applicable to enlisted members of the Army in pay grade E–8 under subsec. (a) of this section during 1995 would be 2.3 percent, rather than the percentage provided by the amendment made by Pub. L. 103–337, §552(a).

Authority To Waive Grade Strength Laws for Fiscal Year 1991; Certification; Relationship to Other Suspension Authority

Pub. L. 102–25, title II, §§201(b), 202, 205(b), Apr. 6, 1991, 105 Stat. 79, 80, authorized Secretary of a military department to suspend, for fiscal year 1991, the operation of any provision of this section and section 523, 524 (now 12011), 525, or 526 of this title with respect to that military department, that such Secretary may exercise such authority only after submission to the congressional defense committees of a certification in writing that such authority is necessary because of personnel actions associated with Operation Desert Storm, and that such authority is in addition to the authority provided in section 527 of this title.

§518. Temporary enlistments

Temporary enlistments may be made only in the Army, Navy, Air Force, Marine Corps, or Coast Guard, as the case may be, without specification of component.

(Added Pub. L. 90–235, §2(a)(1)(B), Jan. 2, 1968, 81 Stat. 755.)

Transfer of Functions

For transfer of authorities, functions, personnel, and assets of the Coast Guard, including the authorities and functions of the Secretary of Transportation relating thereto, to the Department of Homeland Security, and for treatment of related references, see sections 468(b), 551(d), 552(d), and 557 of Title 6, Domestic Security, and the Department of Homeland Security Reorganization Plan of November 25, 2002, as modified, set out as a note under section 542 of Title 6.

§519. Temporary enlistments: during war or emergency

Except as provided in section 505 of this title and except for enlistments as Reserves of an armed force—

(1) temporary enlistments in an armed force entered into in time of war or of emergency declared by Congress shall be for the duration of the war or emergency plus six months; and

(2) only persons at least eighteen years of age and otherwise qualified under regulations to be prescribed by the Secretary concerned are eligible for such enlistments.

(Added Pub. L. 90–235, §2(a)(1)(B), Jan. 2, 1968, 81 Stat. 755.)

§520. Limitation on enlistment and induction of persons whose score on the Armed Forces Qualification Test is below a prescribed level

(a) The number of persons originally enlisted or inducted to serve on active duty (other than active duty for training) in any armed force during any fiscal year whose score on the Armed Forces Qualification Test is at or above the tenth percentile and below the thirty-first percentile may not exceed 20 percent of the total number of persons originally enlisted or inducted to serve on active duty (other than active duty for training) in such armed force during such fiscal year.

(b) A person who is not a high school graduate may not be accepted for enlistment in the armed forces unless the score of that person on the Armed Forces Qualification Test is at or above the thirty-first percentile; however, a person may not be denied enlistment in the armed forces solely because of his not having a high school diploma if his enlistment is needed to meet established strength requirements.

(Added Pub. L. 96–342, title III, §302(b)(1), Sept. 8, 1980, 94 Stat. 1082; amended Pub. L. 96–579, §9, Dec. 23, 1980, 94 Stat. 3368; Pub. L. 97–86, title IV, §402(b)(1), Dec. 1, 1981, 95 Stat. 1104; Pub. L. 98–94, title XII, §1268(3), Sept. 24, 1983, 97 Stat. 705; Pub. L. 100–370, §1(a)(1), July 19, 1988, 102 Stat. 840.)

Historical and Revision Notes

1988 Act

Amendment of subsection (b) is based on Pub. L. 93–307, title IV, §401, June 8, 1974, 88 Stat. 234, as amended by Pub. L. 93–365, title VII, §705, Aug. 5, 1974, 88 Stat. 406.

Amendments

1988—Subsec. (b). Pub. L. 100–370 inserted before period at end “; however, a person may not be denied enlistment in the armed forces solely because of his not having a high school diploma if his enlistment is needed to meet established strength requirements”.

1983—Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 98–94 struck out provisions under which, for fiscal years beginning on October 1, 1980, and October 1, 1981, the total number of persons originally enlisted or inducted to serve on active duty (other than active duty for training) in the armed forces during such fiscal years whose score on the Armed Forces Qualification Test was at or above the tenth percentile and below the thirty-first percentile could not exceed 25 percent of the number of such persons enlisted or inducted into the armed forces during such fiscal years, and, in the provisions remaining applicable to fiscal years beginning after Sept. 30, 1982, substituted “20 percent of the total number of persons originally enlisted or inducted to serve on active duty (other than active duty for training) in such armed force” for “20 percent of the number of such persons enlisted or inducted into such armed force”.

1981—Pub. L. 97–86 designated existing provisions as subsec. (a) and added subsec. (b).

1980—Pub. L. 96–579 struck out subsec. (a) designation and subsec. (b) authorizing the Secretary of Defense for national security reasons to waive the enlistment and induction limitation based on percentile limits conditioned upon notification of the Congress and a concurrent resolution of approval.

Effective Date of 1981 Amendment

Section 402(b)(2) of Pub. L. 97–86 provided that: “The amendments made by paragraph (1) [amending this section] shall take effect at the end of the 30-day period beginning on the date of the enactment of this Act [Dec. 1, 1981].”

Pilot Program for Treating GED and Home School Diploma Recipients as High School Graduates for Determinations of Eligibility for Enlistment in Armed Forces

Pub. L. 105–261, div. A, title V, §571, Oct. 17, 1998, 112 Stat. 2033, as amended by Pub. L. 106–65, div. A, title X, §1067(3), Oct. 5, 1999, 113 Stat. 774, directed the Secretary of Defense to establish a pilot program during the period Oct. 1, 1998, to Sept. 30, 2003, to assess whether the Armed Forces could better meet recruiting requirements by treating GED recipients and home school diploma recipients as having graduated from high school with a high school diploma for the purpose of determining eligibility of those persons to enlist in the Armed Forces, and to submit to committees of Congress a report on the program not later than Feb. 1, 2004.

Maximum Number of Army Enlistees and Inductees Who Are Not High School Graduates

Pub. L. 96–342, title III, §302(a), Sept. 8, 1980, 94 Stat. 1082, as amended by Pub. L. 97–86, title IV, §402(a), Dec. 1, 1981, 95 Stat. 1104; Pub. L. 97–252, title IV, §403, Sept. 8, 1982, 96 Stat. 725; Pub. L. 98–94, title IV, §402, Sept. 24, 1983, 97 Stat. 629; Pub. L. 98–525, title IV, §402, Oct. 19, 1984, 98 Stat. 2516; Pub. L. 99–145, title IV, §402, Nov. 8, 1985, 99 Stat. 618, provided that the number of male individuals enlisted or inducted into the Army during the fiscal year beginning on Oct. 1, 1985, who were not high school graduates could not exceed, as of Sept. 30, 1986, 35 percent of all male individuals enlisted or inducted into the Army during such fiscal year.

Denial of Enlistment for Lack of High School Diploma Prohibited

Pub. L. 93–307, title IV, §401, June 8, 1974, 88 Stat. 234, as amended by Pub. L. 93–365, title VII, §705, Aug. 5, 1974, 88 Stat. 406, which provided that no volunteer for enlistment into the Armed Forces shall be denied enlistment solely because of his not having a high school diploma when his enlistment is needed to meet established strength requirements, was repealed and restated in sections 520(b) and 3262 of this title by Pub. L. 100–370, §1(a), July 19, 1988, 102 Stat. 840.

[§520a. Repealed. Pub. L. 106–398, §1 [[div. A], title X, §1076(g)(1)], Oct. 30, 2000, 114 Stat. 1654, 1654A–282]

Section, added Pub. L. 97–252, title XI, §1114(c)(1), Sept. 8, 1982, 96 Stat. 749; amended Pub. L. 104–106, div. A, title XV, §1502(a)(1), Feb. 10, 1996, 110 Stat. 502; Pub. L. 106–65, div. A, title X, §1067(1), Oct. 5, 1999, 113 Stat. 774, related to criminal history information for military recruiting purposes.

§520b. Applicants for enlistment: authority to use funds for the issue of authorized articles

Funds appropriated to the Department of Defense may be used for the issue of authorized articles to applicants for enlistment.

(Added Pub. L. 98–525, title XIV, §1401(a)(1), Oct. 19, 1984, 98 Stat. 2614; amended Pub. L. 99–145, title XIII, §1303(a)(4)(A), Nov. 8, 1985, 99 Stat. 738.)

Prior Provisions

Provisions similar to those in this section were contained in the following appropriation acts:

Oct. 12, 1984, Pub. L. 98–473, title I, §101(h) [title VIII, §8006], 98 Stat. 1904, 1923.

Dec. 8, 1983, Pub. L. 98–212, title VII, §709, 97 Stat. 1439.

Dec. 21, 1982, Pub. L. 97–377, title I, §101(c) [title VII, §709], 96 Stat. 1833, 1851.

Dec. 29, 1981, Pub. L. 97–114, title VII, §709, 95 Stat. 1579.

Dec. 15, 1980, Pub. L. 96–527, title VII, §709, 94 Stat. 3081.

Dec. 21, 1979, Pub. L. 96–154, title VII, §709, 93 Stat. 1153.

Oct. 13, 1978, Pub. L. 95–457, title VIII, §809, 92 Stat. 1244.

Sept. 21, 1977, Pub. L. 95–111, title VIII, §808, 91 Stat. 900.

Sept. 22, 1976, Pub. L. 94–419, title VII, §708, 90 Stat. 1292.

Feb. 9, 1976, Pub. L. 94–212, title VII, §708, 90 Stat. 169.

Oct. 8, 1974, Pub. L. 93–437, title VIII, §808, 88 Stat. 1225.

Jan. 2, 1974, Pub. L. 93–238, title VII, §708, 87 Stat. 1039.

Oct. 26, 1972, Pub. L. 92–570, title VII, §708, 86 Stat. 1197.

Dec. 18, 1971, Pub. L. 92–204, title VII, §708, 85 Stat. 728.

Jan. 11, 1971, Pub. L. 91–668, title VIII, §808, 84 Stat. 2031.

Dec. 29, 1969, Pub. L. 91–171, title VI, §608, 83 Stat. 480.

Oct. 17, 1968, Pub. L. 90–580, title V, §507, 82 Stat. 1130.

Sept. 29, 1967, Pub. L. 90–96, title VI, §607, 81 Stat. 242.

Oct. 15, 1966, Pub. L. 89–687, title VI, §607, 80 Stat. 991.

Sept. 29, 1965, Pub. L. 89–213, title VI, §607, 79 Stat. 874.

Aug. 19, 1964, Pub. L. 88–446, title V, §507, 78 Stat. 475.

Oct. 17, 1963, Pub. L. 88–149, title V, §507, 77 Stat. 264.

Aug. 9, 1962, Pub. L. 87–577, title V, §507, 76 Stat. 328.

Aug. 17, 1961, Pub. L. 87–144, title II, §201, 75 Stat. 367, 369.

July 7, 1960, Pub. L. 86–601, title II, §201, 74 Stat. 340, 342.

Aug. 18, 1959, Pub. L. 86–166, title II, §201, 73 Stat. 368, 370.

Aug. 22, 1958, Pub. L. 85–724, title III, §301, title V, §501, 72 Stat. 714, 721.

Aug. 2, 1957, Pub. L. 85–117, title III, §301, title V, §501, 71 Stat. 314, 321.

July 2, 1956, ch. 488, title III, §301, title V, §501, 70 Stat. 457, 464.

July 13, 1955, ch. 358, title III, §301, title V, §501, 69 Stat. 304, 312.

June 30, 1954, ch. 432, title IV, §401, title VI, §601, 68 Stat. 339, 347.

Aug. 1, 1953, ch. 305, title III, §301, title V, §501, 67 Stat. 339, 348.

July 10, 1952, ch. 630, title III, §301, title V, §501, 66 Stat. 520, 530.

Oct. 18, 1951, ch. 512, title III, §301, title V, §501, 65 Stat. 429, 443.

Sept. 6, 1950, ch. 896, Ch. X, title III, §301, title V, §501, 64 Stat. 735, 750.

Oct. 29, 1949, ch. 787, title III, §301, title V, §501, 63 Stat. 992, 1015.

June 24, 1948, ch. 632, 62 Stat. 655.

July 30, 1947, ch. 357, title I, §1, 61 Stat. 557.

July 16, 1946, ch. 583, §1, 60 Stat. 547, 548.

July 3, 1945, ch. 265, §1, 59 Stat. 390.

June 28, 1944, ch. 303, §1, 58 Stat. 580.

July 1, 1943, ch. 185, §1, 57 Stat. 354.

July 2, 1942, ch. 477, §1, 56 Stat. 617.

June 30, 1941, ch. 262, §1, 55 Stat. 373.

June 13, 1940, ch. 343, §1, 54 Stat. 358, 359.

Apr. 26, 1939, ch. 88, §1, 53 Stat. 600.

June 11, 1938, ch. 37, §1, 52 Stat. 649.

July 1, 1937, ch. 423, §1, 50 Stat. 450.

May 15, 1936, ch. 404, §1, title I, 49 Stat. 1286.

Apr. 9, 1935, ch. 54, §1, title I, 49 Stat. 128.

Apr. 26, 1934, ch. 165, title I, 48 Stat. 621.

Mar. 4, 1933, ch. 281, title I, 47 Stat. 1577.

July 14, 1932, ch. 482, title I, 47 Stat. 670, 671.

Feb. 23, 1931, ch. 279, title I, 46 Stat. 1283, 1284.

May 28, 1930, ch. 348, title I, 46 Stat. 438.

Feb. 28, 1929, ch. 366, title I, 45 Stat. 1356.

Mar. 23, 1928, ch. 232, title I, 45 Stat. 332.

Feb. 23, 1927, ch. 167, title I, 44 Stat. 1113.

Apr. 15, 1926, ch. 146, title I, 44 Stat. 262.

Feb. 12, 1925, ch. 225, title I, 43 Stat. 900.

Amendments

1985—Pub. L. 99–145 substituted “enlistment” for “enlistments”.

Effective Date

Section 1404 of Pub. L. 98–525 provided that: “The amendments made by sections 1401 [enacting this section and sections 956, 979 to 981, 1047 to 1050, 1074b [now 1074c], 1093, 1589, 2007 to 2009, 2484, 2638, and 2639 of this title, amending sections 1074, 1077, 1079, 2104, and 7204 of this title, and repealing section 7208 of this title], 1402 [enacting section 306a of Title 37, Pay and Allowances of the Uniformed Services, and amending sections 206 and 404 of Title 37], and 1403 [amending provisions set out as a note under section 138 of this title and repealing provisions set out as notes under sections 138 and 2102 of this title] take effect on October 1, 1985.”

§520c. Recruiting functions: provision of meals and refreshments

Under regulations prescribed by the Secretary concerned, funds appropriated to the Department of Defense for recruitment of military personnel may be expended for small meals and refreshments during recruiting functions for the following persons:

(1) Persons who have enlisted under the Delayed Entry Program authorized by section 513 of this title.

(2) Persons who are objects of armed forces recruiting efforts.

(3) Persons whose assistance in recruiting efforts of the military departments is determined to be influential by the Secretary concerned.

(4) Members of the armed forces and Federal employees when attending recruiting functions in accordance with a requirement to do so.

(5) Other persons whose presence at recruiting functions will contribute to recruiting efforts.

(Added Pub. L. 104–201, div. A, title III, §361(a), Sept. 23, 1996, 110 Stat. 2491; amended Pub. L. 107–107, div. A, title V, §545, Dec. 28, 2001, 115 Stat. 1113; Pub. L. 108–136, div. A, title X, §1031(a)(8)(A), Nov. 24, 2003, 117 Stat. 1596.)

Amendments

2003—Pub. L. 108–136 substituted “provision of meals and refreshments” for “use of funds” in section catchline, struck out “(a) Provision of Meals and Refreshments.—” before “Under regulations”, and struck out heading and text of subsec. (b). Text read as follows: “Not later than February 1 of each of the years 1998 through 2002, the Secretary of Defense shall submit to Congress a report on the extent to which the authority under subsection (a) was exercised during the fiscal year ending in the preceding year.”

2001—Subsec. (a)(4). Pub. L. 107–107, §545(b)(1), substituted “recruiting functions” for “recruiting events”.

Subsec. (a)(5). Pub. L. 107–107, §545(b)(2), substituted “presence at recruiting functions” for “presence at recruiting efforts”.

Subsec. (c). Pub. L. 107–107, §545(a), struck out heading and text of subsec. (c). Text read as follows: “The authority in subsection (a) may not be exercised after September 30, 2001.”

CHAPTER 32—OFFICER STRENGTH AND DISTRIBUTION IN GRADE

Sec.
521.
Authority to prescribe total strengths of officers on active duty and officer strengths in various categories.
[522.
Repealed.]
523.
Authorized strengths: commissioned officers on active duty in grades of major, lieutenant colonel, and colonel and Navy grades of lieutenant commander, commander, and captain.
[524.
Renumbered.]
525.
Distribution of commissioned officers on active duty in general officer and flag officer grades.
526.
Authorized strength: general and flag officers on active duty.
527.
Authority to suspend sections 523, 525, and 526.
528.
Officers serving in certain intelligence positions: military status; application of distribution and strength limitations; pay and allowances.

        

Amendments

2011—Pub. L. 112–81, div. A, title V, §502(d)(2)(B), 125 Stat. 1388, added item 528 and struck out former item 528 “Officers serving in certain intelligence positions: military status; exclusion from distribution and strength limitations; pay and allowances.”

2006—Pub. L. 109–364, div. A, title V, §501(b)(2), Oct. 17, 2006, 120 Stat. 2176, substituted “Officers serving in certain intelligence positions: military status; exclusion from distribution and strength limitations; pay and allowances” for “Exclusion: officers serving in certain intelligence positions” in item 528.

Pub. L. 109–163, div. A, title V, §507(b), Jan. 6, 2006, 119 Stat. 3228, substituted “Exclusion: officers serving in certain intelligence positions” for “Exclusion: Associate Director of Central Intelligence for Military Support” in item 528.

2004—Pub. L. 108–375, div. A, title V, §501(b)(2), Oct. 28, 2004, 118 Stat. 1873, struck out item 522 “Authorized total strengths: regular commissioned officers on active duty”.

2003—Pub. L. 108–136, div. A, title V, §507(b), Nov. 24, 2003, 117 Stat. 1458, added item 528.

2001—Pub. L. 107–107, div. A, title V, §501(b), Dec. 28, 2001, 115 Stat. 1079, struck out item 528 “Limitation on number of officers on active duty in grades of general and admiral”.

1994—Pub. L. 103–337, div. A, title IV, §405(b)(2), title XVI, §1671(b)(4), Oct. 5, 1994, 108 Stat. 2745, 3013, struck out item 524 “Authorized strengths: reserve officers on active duty or on full-time National Guard duty for administration of the reserves or the National Guard in grades of major, lieutenant colonel, and colonel and Navy grades of lieutenant commander, commander, and captain”, struck out “524,” after “523,” in item 527, and added item 528.

1988—Pub. L. 100–370, §1(b)(3), July 19, 1988, 102 Stat. 840, struck out former item 526 “Authority to suspend sections 523, 524, and 525”, and added items 526 and 527.

1984—Pub. L. 98–525, title IV, §414(a)(4)(B)(ii), inserted references to the National Guard and to full-time National Guard duty in item 524.

§521. Authority to prescribe total strengths of officers on active duty and officer strengths in various categories

(a) Whenever the needs of the services require, but at least once each fiscal year, the Secretary of Defense shall prescribe the total authorized active-duty strength as of the end of the fiscal year for officers in grades above chief warrant officer, W–5, for each of the armed forces under the jurisdiction of the Secretary of a military department.

(b) Under regulations prescribed by the Secretary of Defense, the Secretary of each military department may, for an armed force under his jurisdiction, prescribe the strength of any category of officers that may serve on active duty.

(Added Pub. L. 96–513, title I, §103, Dec. 12, 1980, 94 Stat. 2841; amended Pub. L. 102–190, div. A, title XI, §1131(1)(A), Dec. 5, 1991, 105 Stat. 1505.)

Amendments

1991—Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 102–190 substituted “chief warrant officer, W–5,” for “warrant officer (W–4)”.

Effective Date of 1991 Amendment

Section 1132 of title XI of Pub. L. 102–190 provided that: “This title [enacting sections 571 to 583 and 742 of this title, amending this section, sections 522, 597 [now 12241], 598 [now 12242], 603, 628, 644, 741, 1166, 1174, 1305, 1406, 5414, 5457, 5458, 5501 to 5503, 5596, 5600, 5665, 6389, and 6391 of this title, sections 286a and 334 of Title 14, Coast Guard, and sections 201, 301, 301c, 305a, and 406 of Title 37, Pay and Allowances of the Uniformed Services, repealing sections 555 to 565, 602, and 745 of this title, and enacting provisions set out as notes under sections 555 and 571 of this title and section 1009 of Title 37] and the amendments made by this title shall take effect on February 1, 1992.”

Effective Date

Chapter effective Sept. 15, 1981, but the authority to prescribe regulations under this chapter effective Dec. 12, 1980, see section 701 of Pub. L. 96–513, set out as an Effective Date of 1980 Amendment note under section 101 of this title.

Transition Provisions Under Defense Officer Personnel Management Act

For provisions to prevent extinction or premature termination of rights, duties, penalties, or proceedings that existed or were begun prior to the effective date of Pub. L. 96–513 and otherwise to allow for an orderly transition to the system of officer personnel management put in place under Pub. L. 96–513, see section 601 et seq. of Pub. L. 96–513, set out as a note under section 611 of this title.

Evaluation of Effects of Officer Strength Reductions on Officer Personnel Management Systems

Pub. L. 102–484, div. A, title V, §502, Oct. 23, 1992, 106 Stat. 2402, directed the Secretary of Defense to provide for an independent, federally funded research and development center to review the officer personnel management system of each of the military departments and to determine and evaluate the effects of post-Cold War officer strength reductions on that officer personnel management system, required the center to submit to the Secretary of Defense a report on the results of the review and evaluation not later than Dec. 31, 1993, and directed the Secretary to transmit the report to committees of Congress within 60 days after receipt.

Strength of Active Duty Officer Corps

Pub. L. 100–456, div. A, title IV, §402(c), Sept. 29, 1988, 102 Stat. 1963, provided that:

“(1) The number of officers serving on active duty (excluding officers in categories specified in paragraph (2)) as of September 30, 1990, may not exceed—

“(A) in the case of the Army, 106,427; and

“(B) in the case of the Air Force, 102,438.

“(2) Officers in the categories described in section 403(b) of the National Defense Authorization Act for Fiscal Year 1987 [Pub. L. 99–661, set out below] shall be excluded in counting officers under this subsection.”

Pub. L. 100–180, div. A, title IV, §402, Dec. 4, 1987, 101 Stat. 1081, as amended by Pub. L. 100–456, div. A, title IV, §402(b), Sept. 29, 1988, 102 Stat. 1963, provided that:

“(a) Authority To Increase for Fiscal Year 1988.—Subject to subsection (b), the Secretary of Defense may increase by not more than 1 percentage point (to not more than 98 percent) the percentage limitation prescribed in section 403(a) of the National Defense Authorization Act for Fiscal Year 1987 (Public Law 99–661; 100 Stat. 3859) [set out below] applicable to the total number of commissioned officers of the Army, Navy, Air Force, and Marine Corps that may be serving on active duty as of September 30, 1988.

“(b) Certification and Report.—The Secretary may exercise the authority under subsection (a) only if—

“(1) the Secretary makes a determination that such increase is necessary in order to avoid severe personnel management problems in the Army, Navy, Air Force, and Marine Corps during fiscal year 1988 and certifies such determination to the Committees on Armed Services of the Senate and the House of Representatives; and

“(2) the Secretary submits to those Committees with such certification a report providing legislative recommendations for temporary changes in chapter 36 of title 10, United States Code, and other provisions of law enacted by the Defense Officer Personnel Management Act (Public Law 96–513) [see Tables for classification] that the Secretary considers necessary in order to implement the required officer reductions under such section 403 [set out below] with the least possible adverse effect on the Armed Forces.”

Pub. L. 99–661, div. A, title IV, §403, Nov. 14, 1986, 100 Stat. 3859, as amended by Pub. L. 100–456, div. A, title IV, §402(a), Sept. 29, 1988, 102 Stat. 1963; Pub. L. 101–189, div. A, title VI, §653(e)(2), Nov. 29, 1989, 103 Stat. 1463; Pub. L. 103–337, div. A, title XVI, §1677(e), Oct. 5, 1994, 108 Stat. 3020, provided that:

“(a) Reduction in Size of Officer Corps.—On and after each of the dates set forth in column 1 of the following table, the total number of commissioned officers serving on active duty in the Army, Navy, Air Force, and Marine Corps (excluding officers in categories specified in subsection (b)) may not exceed the percentage, set forth in column 2 opposite such date, of the total number of commissioned officers serving on active duty as of September 30, 1986 (excluding officers in categories specified in subsection (b)):

 
Column 1Column 2
On and after:Percentage of total commissioned officers serving on

active duty as of

September 30, 1986:

September 30, 1987 99
September 30, 1988 97

“(b) Exclusions.—In computing the authorized strength of commissioned officers under subsection (a), officers in the following categories shall be excluded:

“(1) Reserve officers—

“(A) on active duty for training;

“(B) on active duty under section 10148(a), 10211, 10302 through 10305, 12301(a), or 12402 of title 10, United States Code, or under section 708 of title 32, United States Code;

“(C) on active duty under section 12301(d) of title 10, United States Code, in connection with organizing, administering, recruiting, instructing, or training the reserve components or the National Guard;

“(D) on active duty to pursue special work;

“(E) ordered to active duty under section 12304 of title 10, United States Code; or

“(F) on full-time National Guard duty.

“(2) Retired officers on active duty under a call or order to active duty for 180 days or less.

“(3) Reserve or retired officers on active duty under section 10(b)(2) of the Military Selective Service Act (50 U.S.C. App. 460(b)(2)) for the administration of the Selective Service System.

“(c) Apportionment of Reductions by Secretary of Defense.—The Secretary of Defense shall apportion the reductions in the number of commissioned officers serving on active duty required by subsection (a) among the Army, Navy, Air Force, and Marine Corps. Not later than February 1 of each fiscal year in which reductions are required under subsection (a), the Secretary shall submit to the Committees on Armed Services of the Senate and House of Representatives a report on the manner in which the reductions have been or are to be apportioned for that fiscal year and for the next fiscal year for which such reductions are required.”

[§522. Repealed. Pub. L. 108–375, div. A, title V, §501(b)(1), Oct. 28, 2004, 118 Stat. 1873]

Section, added Pub. L. 96–513, title I, §103, Dec. 12, 1980, 94 Stat. 2841; amended Pub. L. 98–525, title V, §522, Oct. 19, 1984, 98 Stat. 2523; Pub. L. 102–190, div. A, title XI, §1131(1)(B), Dec. 5, 1991, 105 Stat. 1505, related to authorized total strengths of regular commissioned officers on active duty.

Effective Date of Repeal

Repeal effective on the first day of the first month beginning more than 180 days after Oct. 28, 2004, see section 501(g) of Pub. L. 108–375, set out as an Effective Date of 2004 Amendment note under section 531 of this title.

§523. Authorized strengths: commissioned officers on active duty in grades of major, lieutenant colonel, and colonel and Navy grades of lieutenant commander, commander, and captain

(a)(1) Except as provided in subsection (c), of the total number of commissioned officers serving on active duty in the Army, Air Force, or Marine Corps at the end of any fiscal year (excluding officers in categories specified in subsection (b)), the number of officers who may be serving on active duty in each of the grades of major, lieutenant colonel, and colonel may not, as of the end of such fiscal year, exceed a number determined in accordance with the following table:

 
Total number of commissioned officers (excluding officers in categories specified in subsection (b)) on active duty:Number of officers who may be serving on active duty in grade of:
MajorLieutenant ColonelColonel
Army:
20,000 7,768 5,253 1,613
25,000 8,689 5,642 1,796
30,000 9,611 6,030 1,980
35,000 10,532 6,419 2,163
40,000 11,454 6,807 2,347
45,000 12,375 7,196 2,530
50,000 13,297 7,584 2,713
55,000 14,218 7,973 2,897
60,000 15,140 8,361 3,080
65,000 16,061 8,750 3,264
70,000 16,983 9,138 3,447
75,000 17,903 9,527 3,631
80,000 18,825 9,915 3,814
85,000 19,746 10,304 3,997
90,000 20,668 10,692 4,181
95,000 21,589 11,081 4,364
100,000 22,511 11,469 4,548
110,000 24,354 12,246 4,915
120,000 26,197 13,023 5,281
130,000 28,040 13,800 5,648
170,000 35,412 16,908 7,116
Air Force:
35,000 9,216 7,090 2,125
40,000 10,025 7,478 2,306
45,000 10,835 7,866 2,487
50,000 11,645 8,253 2,668
55,000 12,454 8,641 2,849
60,000 13,264 9,029 3,030
65,000 14,073 9,417 3,211
70,000 14,883 9,805 3,392
75,000 15,693 10,193 3,573
80,000 16,502 10,582 3,754
85,000 17,312 10,971 3,935
90,000 18,121 11,360 4,115
95,000 18,931 11,749 4,296
100,000 19,741 12,138 4,477
105,000 20,550 12,527 4,658
110,000 21,360 12,915 4,838
115,000 22,169 13,304 5,019
120,000 22,979 13,692 5,200
125,000 23,789 14,081 5,381
Marine Corps:
10,000 2,802 1,615 633
12,500 3,247 1,768 658
15,000 3,691 1,922 684
17,500 4,135 2,076 710
20,000 4,579 2,230 736
22,500 5,024 2,383 762
25,000 5,468 2,537 787.

(2) Except as provided in subsection (c), of the total number of commissioned officers serving on active duty in the Navy at the end of any fiscal year (excluding officers in categories specified in subsection (b)), the number of officers who may be serving on active duty in each of the grades of lieutenant commander, commander, and captain may not, as of the end of such fiscal year, exceed a number determined in accordance with the following table:

 
Total number of commissioned officers (excluding officers in categories specified in subsection (b)) on active duty:Number of officers who may be serving on active duty in grade of:
Lieutenant CommanderCommanderCaptain
Navy:
30,000 7,698 5,269 2,222
33,000 8,189 5,501 2,334
36,000 8,680 5,733 2,447
39,000 9,172 5,965 2,559
42,000 9,663 6,197 2,671
45,000 10,155 6,429 2,784
48,000 10,646 6,660 2,896
51,000 11,136 6,889 3,007
54,000 11,628 7,121 3,120
57,000 12,118 7,352 3,232
60,000 12,609 7,583 3,344
63,000 13,100 7,813 3,457
66,000 13,591 8,044 3,568
70,000 14,245 8,352 3,718
90,000 17,517 9,890 4,467.

(3) If the total number of commissioned officers serving on active duty in an armed force (excluding officers in categories specified in subsection (b)) is between any two consecutive figures listed in the first column of the appropriate table in paragraph (1) or (2), the corresponding authorized strengths for each of the grades shown in that table for that armed force are determined by mathematical interpolation between the respective numbers of the two strengths. If the total number of commissioned officers serving on active duty in an armed force (excluding officers in categories specified in subsection (b)) is greater or less than the figures listed in the first column of the appropriate table in paragraph (1) or (2), the Secretary concerned shall fix the corresponding strengths for the grades shown in that table in the same proportion as reflected in the nearest limit shown in the table.

(b) Officers in the following categories shall be excluded in computing and determining authorized strengths under this section:

(1) Reserve officers—

(A) on active duty as authorized under section 115(a)(1)(B) or 115(b)(1) of this title, or excluded from counting for active duty end strengths under section 115(i) of this title;

(B) on active duty under section 10211, 10302 through 10305, or 12402 of this title or under section 708 of title 32; or

(C) on full-time National Guard duty.


(2) General and flag officers.

(3) Medical officers.

(4) Dental officers.

(5) Warrant officers.

(6) Retired officers on active duty under a call or order to active duty for 180 days or less.

(7) Retired officers on active duty under section 10(b)(2) of the Military Selective Service Act (50 U.S.C. App. 460(b)(2)) for the administration of the Selective Service System.

(8) Permanent professors of the United States Military Academy and the United States Air Force Academy and professors of the United States Naval Academy who are career military professors (as defined in regulations prescribed by the Secretary of the Navy), but not to exceed 50 from any such academy.


(c) Whenever the number of officers serving in any grade is less than the number authorized for that grade under this section, the difference between the two numbers may be applied to increase the number authorized under this section for any lower grade.

(d) An officer may not be reduced in grade, or have his pay or allowances reduced, because of a reduction in the number of commissioned officers authorized for his grade under this section.

(Added Pub. L. 96–513, title I, §103, Dec. 12, 1980, 94 Stat. 2842; amended Pub. L. 98–525, title IV, §414(a)(3), Oct. 19, 1984, 98 Stat. 2518; Pub. L. 99–145, title V, §511(a), Nov. 8, 1985, 99 Stat. 623; Pub. L. 99–433, title V, §531(a)(1), Oct. 1, 1986, 100 Stat. 1063; Pub. L. 102–190, div. A, title IV, §431, Dec. 5, 1991, 105 Stat. 1354; Pub. L. 103–337, div. A, title XVI, §1673(c)(3), Oct. 5, 1994, 108 Stat. 3014; Pub. L. 104–201, div. A, title IV, §403(a), (b), Sept. 23, 1996, 110 Stat. 2504, 2505; Pub. L. 107–314, div. A, title IV, §406, Dec. 2, 2002, 116 Stat. 2526; Pub. L. 108–375, div. A, title IV, §§404, 416(g), Oct. 28, 2004, 118 Stat. 1864, 1868; Pub. L. 109–364, div. A, title X, §1071(g)(1)(B), Oct. 17, 2006, 120 Stat. 2402; Pub. L. 110–181, div. A, title IV, §§404, 405, Jan. 28, 2008, 122 Stat. 88; Pub. L. 112–81, div. A, title V, §501, Dec. 31, 2011, 125 Stat. 1386.)

Amendments

2011—Subsec. (a)(1). Pub. L. 112–81, in table, increased number of officers authorized to serve on active duty in the Marine Corps in each grade covered as follows: Major to 2,802, 3,247, 3,691, 4,135, 4,579, 5,024, and 5,468 from 2,525, 2,900, 3,275, 3,650, 4,025, 4,400, and 4,775, respectively; Lieutenant Colonel to 1,615, 1,768, 1,922, 2,076, 2,230, 2,383, and 2,537 from 1,480, 1,600, 1,720, 1,840, 1,960, 2,080, and 2,200, respectively; and Colonel to 633, 658, 684, 710, 736, 762, and 787 from 571, 632, 653, 673, 694, 715, and 735, respectively.

2008—Subsec. (a)(1). Pub. L. 110–181, §404, in table, increased number of officers authorized to serve on active duty in the Army in the grade of Major to 7,768, 8,689, 9,611, 10,532, 11,454, 12,375, 13,297, 14,218, 15,140, 16,061, 16,983, 17,903, 18,825, 19,746, 20,668, 21,589, 22,511, 24,354, 26,197, 28,040, and 35,412 from 6,948, 7,539, 8,231, 8,922, 9,614, 10,305, 10,997, 11,688, 12,380, 13,071, 13,763, 14,454, 15,146, 15,837, 16,529, 17,220, 17,912, 19,295, 20,678, 22,061, and 27,593, respectively.

Subsec. (a)(2). Pub. L. 110–181, §405, amended table generally, extensively revising the numbers in each grade covered.

2006—Subsec. (b)(1). Pub. L. 109–364 made technical correction to directory language of Pub. L. 108–375, §416(g)(1). See 2004 Amendment note below.

2004—Subsec. (b)(1). Pub. L. 108–375, §416(g)(1), as amended by Pub. L. 109–364, amended par. (1) generally. Prior to amendment, par. (1) read as follows:

“(1) Reserve officers—

“(A) on active duty for training;

“(B) on active duty under section 10211, 10302 through 10305, or 12402 of this title or under section 708 of title 32;

“(C) on active duty under section 12301(d) of this title in connection with organizing, administering, recruiting, instructing, or training the reserve components;

“(D) on active duty to pursue special work;

“(E) ordered to active duty under section 12304 of this title; or

“(F) on full-time National Guard duty.”

Subsec. (b)(7). Pub. L. 108–375, §416(g)(2), substituted “Retired officers” for “Reserve or retired officers”.

Subsec. (b)(8). Pub. L. 108–375, §404, added par. (8).

2002—Subsec. (a)(1). Pub. L. 107–314, in table, increased number of officers authorized to serve on active duty in the Marine Corps in the grade of Colonel to 571, 632, 653, 673, 694, 715, and 735 from 571, 592, 613, 633, 654, 675, and 695, respectively.

1996—Subsec. (a)(1). Pub. L. 104–201, §403(a), amended table generally, expanding the range of numbers of commissioned officers covered and extensively revising the numbers in each grade covered.

Subsec. (a)(2). Pub. L. 104–201, §403(b), amended table generally, expanding the range of numbers of commissioned officers covered and extensively revising the numbers in each grade covered.

1994—Subsec. (b)(1)(B). Pub. L. 103–337, §1671(c)(3)(A), substituted “10211, 10302 through 10305, or 12402” for “265, 3021, 3496, 5251, 5252, 8021, or 8496”.

Subsec. (b)(1)(C). Pub. L. 103–337, §1671(c)(3)(B), substituted “12301(d)” for “672(d)”.

Subsec. (b)(1)(E). Pub. L. 103–337, §1671(c)(3)(C), substituted “12304” for “673b”.

1991—Subsec. (a)(1). Pub. L. 102–190, in table, decreased numbers of officers authorized to serve on active duty in the Air Force in the grade of Colonel to 3,392, 3,573, 3,754, 3,935, 4,115, 4,296, 4,477, 4,658, 4,838, 5,019, 5,200, and 5,381 from 3,642, 3,823, 4,004, 4,185, 4,365, 4,546, 4,727, 4,908, 5,088, 5,269, 5,450, and 5,631, respectively.

1986—Subsec. (b)(1)(B). Pub. L. 99–433 substituted “3021” and “8021” for “3033” and “8033”, respectively.

1985—Subsec. (a)(1). Pub. L. 99–145 increased fiscal year limitation on authorized number of Marine Corps majors to 2,766, 3,085, 3,404, 3,723, and 4,042 from 2,717, 2,936, 3,154, 3,373, and 3,591, respectively.

1984—Subsec. (b)(1)(C). Pub. L. 98–525, §414(a)(3)(A), struck out “or section 502 or 503 of title 32” after “section 672(d) of this title”.

Subsec. (b)(1)(F). Pub. L. 98–525, §414(a)(3)(B)–(D), added subpar. (F).

Effective Date of 2006 Amendment

Pub. L. 109–364, div. A, title X, §1071(g), Oct. 17, 2006, 120 Stat. 2402, provided that the amendment made by section 1071(g)(1)(B) is effective as of Oct. 28, 2004, and as if included in Pub. L. 108–375 as enacted.

Effective Date of 1996 Amendment

Section 403(d) of Pub. L. 104–201 provided that: “The amendments made by subsections (a), (b), and (c) [amending this section and repealing provisions set out as notes below] shall take effect on September 1, 1997.”

Effective Date of 1994 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 103–337 effective Dec. 1, 1994, except as otherwise provided, see section 1691 of Pub. L. 103–337, set out as an Effective Date note under section 10001 of this title.

Effective Date of 1985 Amendment

Section 511(b) of Pub. L. 99–145 provided that: “The amendments made by subsection (a) [amending this section] shall take effect on October 1, 1985.”

Temporary Variation in DOPMA Authorized End Strength Limitations for Active Duty Air Force and Navy Officers in Certain Grades

Pub. L. 104–106, div. A, title IV, §402, Feb. 10, 1996, 110 Stat. 286, provided that the numbers of officers of the Air Force authorized under subsec. (a)(1) of this section to be serving on active duty in the grades of major, lieutenant colonel, and colonel for fiscal years 1996 and 1997 and the numbers of officers in the Navy authorized under subsec. (a)(2) of this section to be serving on active duty in the grades of lieutenant commander, commander, and captain for fiscal years 1996 and 1997 were limited to numbers in tables, prior to repeal by Pub. L. 104–201, div. A, title IV, §403(c)(3), Sept. 23, 1996, 110 Stat. 2506.

Temporary Variation of End Strength Limitations for Army Majors and Lieutenant Colonels

Section 402 of Pub. L. 103–337 provided that number of officers of the Army authorized under subsec. (a)(1) of this section to be serving on active duty in grades of major and lieutenant colonel for fiscal years 1995 through 1997 was limited to numbers set forth in table prior to repeal by Pub. L. 104–201, div. A, title IV, §403(c)(2), Sept. 23, 1996, 110 Stat. 2506.

Temporary Variation of End Strength Limitations for Marine Corps Majors and Lieutenant Colonels

Pub. L. 103–160, div. A, title IV, §402, Nov. 30, 1993, 107 Stat. 1639, as amended by Pub. L. 103–337, div. A, title IV, §403, Oct. 5, 1994, 108 Stat. 2743, provided that number of officers of the Marine Corps authorized under subsec. (a)(1) of this section to be serving on active duty in grades of major and lieutenant colonel for fiscal years 1994 through 1997 was limited to numbers set forth in table prior to repeal by Pub. L. 104–201, div. A, title IV, §403(c)(1), Sept. 23, 1996, 110 Stat. 2505.

Temporary Increase in Officer Grade Limitations

Pub. L. 101–189, div. A, title IV, §403, Nov. 29, 1989, 103 Stat. 1431, authorized the Secretary of Defense, until Sept. 30, 1991, to increase the strength-in-grade limitations specified in subsec. (a) of this section by a total of 250 positions, to be distributed among grades and services as the Secretary considers appropriate and directed the Secretary to submit to Congress a comprehensive report on the adequacy of the strength-in-grade limitations prescribed in subsec. (a) of this section.

Temporary Reduction in Number of Air Force Colonels

Pub. L. 101–189, div. A, title IV, §402, Nov. 29, 1989, 103 Stat. 1431, as amended by Pub. L. 101–510, div. A, title IV, §404, Nov. 5, 1990, 104 Stat. 1545, provided that the number of officers authorized under subsec. (a) of this section to be serving on active duty in the Air Force in the grade of colonel during fiscal year 1992 was reduced by 250.

Pub. L. 100–456, div. A, title IV, §403, Sept. 29, 1988, 102 Stat. 1963, provided that the number of officers authorized under this section to be serving on active duty in the Air Force in the grade of colonel during fiscal year 1989 was reduced by 125, and the number of such officers authorized to be serving on active duty during fiscal year 1990 was reduced by 250.

Ceilings on Commissioned Officers on Active Duty

Pub. L. 95–79, title VIII, §811(a), July 30, 1977, 91 Stat. 335, as amended by Pub. L. 96–107, title VIII, §817, Nov. 9, 1979, 93 Stat. 818; Pub. L. 96–342, title X, §1003, Sept. 8, 1980, 94 Stat. 1120; Pub. L. 97–86, title VI, §602, Dec. 1, 1981, 95 Stat. 1110, which provided that after Oct. 1, 1981, the total number of commissioned officers on active duty in the Army, Air Force, and Marine Corps above the grade of colonel, and on active duty in the Navy above the grade of captain, could not exceed 1,073, and that in time of war, or of national emergency declared by Congress, the President could suspend the operation of this provision, was repealed and restated in section 526 of this title by Pub. L. 100–370, §1(b)(1)(B), (4).

Transition Provisions Under Defense Officer Personnel Management Act

For provisions increasing for the fiscal year ending on Sept. 30, 1981, the maximum number of officers authorized by this section to be serving on active duty, see section 627 of Pub. L. 96–513, set out as a note under section 611 of this title.

[§524. Renumbered §12011]

§525. Distribution of commissioned officers on active duty in general officer and flag officer grades

(a) For purposes of the applicable limitation in section 526(a) of this title on general and flag officers on active duty, no appointment of an officer on the active duty list may be made as follows:

(1) in the Army, if that appointment would result in more than—

(A) 7 officers in the grade of general;

(B) 45 officers in a grade above the grade of major general; or

(C) 90 officers in the grade of major general;


(2) in the Air Force, if that appointment would result in more than—

(A) 9 officers in the grade of general;

(B) 43 officers in a grade above the grade of major general; or

(C) 73 officers in the grade of major general;


(3) in the Navy, if that appointment would result in more than—

(A) 6 officers in the grade of admiral;

(B) 32 officers in a grade above the grade of rear admiral; or

(C) 50 officers in the grade of rear admiral;


(4) in the Marine Corps, if that appointment would result in more than—

(A) 2 officers in the grade of general;

(B) 15 officers in a grade above the grade of major general; or

(C) 22 officers in the grade of major general.


(b) The limitations of subsection (a) do not include the following:

(1) An officer released from a joint duty assignment, but only during the 60-day period beginning on the date the officer departs the joint duty assignment, except that the Secretary of Defense may authorize the Secretary of a military department to extend the 60-day period by an additional 120 days, but no more than three officers from each armed forces may be on active duty who are excluded under this paragraph.

(2) The number of officers required to serve in joint duty assignments as authorized by the Secretary of Defense under section 526(b) for each military service.


(c)(1) Subject to paragraph (3), the President—

(A) may make appointments in the Army, Air Force, and Marine Corps in the grades of lieutenant general and general in excess of the applicable numbers determined under this section if each such appointment is made in conjunction with an offsetting reduction under paragraph (2); and

(B) may make appointments in the Navy in the grades of vice admiral and admiral in excess of the applicable numbers determined under this section if each such appointment is made in conjunction with an offsetting reduction under paragraph (2).


(2) For each appointment made under the authority of paragraph (1) in the Army, Air Force, or Marine Corps in the grade of lieutenant general or general or in the Navy in the grade of vice admiral or admiral, the number of appointments that may be made in the equivalent grade in one of the other armed forces (other than the Coast Guard) shall be reduced by one. When such an appointment is made, the President shall specify the armed force in which the reduction required by this paragraph is to be made.

(3)(A) The number of officers that may be serving on active duty in the grades of lieutenant general and vice admiral by reason of appointments made under the authority of paragraph (1) may not exceed 15.

(B) The number of officers that may be serving on active duty in the grades of general and admiral by reason of appointments made under the authority of paragraph (1) may not exceed 5.

(4) Upon the termination of the appointment of an officer in the grade of lieutenant general or vice admiral or general or admiral that was made in connection with an increase under paragraph (1) in the number of officers that may be serving on active duty in that armed force in that grade, the reduction made under paragraph (2) in the number of appointments permitted in such grade in another armed force by reason of that increase shall no longer be in effect.

(d) An officer continuing to hold the grade of general or admiral under section 601(b)(5) of this title after relief from the position of Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff, Chief of Staff of the Army, Chief of Naval Operations, Chief of Staff of the Air Force, or Commandant of the Marine Corps shall not be counted for purposes of this section.

(e) The following officers shall not be counted for purposes of this section:

(1) An officer of that armed force in the grade of brigadier general or above or, in the case of the Navy, in the grade of rear admiral (lower half) or above, who is on leave pending the retirement, separation, or release of that officer from active duty, but only during the 60-day period beginning on the date of the commencement of such leave of such officer.

(2) At the discretion of the Secretary of Defense, an officer of that armed force who has been relieved from a position designated under section 601(a) of this title or by law to carry one of the grades specified in such section, but only during the 60-day period beginning on the date on which the assignment of the officer to the first position is terminated or until the officer is assigned to a second such position, whichever occurs first.


(f) An officer while serving as Attending Physician to the Congress is in addition to the number that would otherwise be permitted for that officer's armed force for officers serving on active duty in grades above brigadier general or rear admiral (lower half) under subsection (a).

(g)(1) The limitations of this section do not apply to a reserve component general or flag officer who is on active duty for a period in excess of 365 days, but not to exceed three years, except that the number of officers from each reserve component who are covered by this subsection and are not serving in a position that is a joint duty assignment for purposes of chapter 38 of this title may not exceed 5 per component, unless authorized by the Secretary of Defense.

(2) Not later than 30 days after authorizing a number of reserve component general or flag officers in excess of the number specified in paragraph (1), the Secretary of Defense shall notify the Committees on Armed Services of the Senate and the House of Representatives of such authorization, and shall include with such notice a statement of the reason for such authorization.

(Added Pub. L. 96–513, title I, §103, Dec. 12, 1980, 94 Stat. 2844; amended Pub. L. 97–86, title IV, §405(b)(1), Dec. 1, 1981, 95 Stat. 1105; Pub. L. 99–145, title V, §514(b)(1), Nov. 8, 1985, 99 Stat. 628; Pub. L. 99–433, title II, §202(a), Oct. 1, 1986, 100 Stat. 1010; Pub. L. 100–180, div. A, title V, §511(a), Dec. 4, 1987, 101 Stat. 1088; Pub. L. 101–510, div. A, title IV, §405, Nov. 5, 1990, 104 Stat. 1546; Pub. L. 103–337, div. A, title IV, §405(a), Oct. 5, 1994, 108 Stat. 2744; Pub. L. 104–106, div. A, title IV, §403(a), Feb. 10, 1996, 110 Stat. 286; Pub. L. 104–201, div. A, title IV, §404(b), Sept. 23, 1996, 110 Stat. 2506; Pub. L. 105–261, div. A, title IV, §§404, 406, Oct. 17, 1998, 112 Stat. 1996; Pub. L. 106–65, div. A, title V, §§509(b), (c), 532(b), Oct. 5, 1999, 113 Stat. 592, 604; Pub. L. 106–398, §1 [[div. A], title V, §507(g)], Oct. 30, 2000, 114 Stat. 1654, 1654A–105; Pub. L. 107–314, div. A, title IV, §§404(a), (b), 405(b), Dec. 2, 2002, 116 Stat. 2525, 2526; Pub. L. 108–136, div. A, title V, §504(b), Nov. 24, 2003, 117 Stat. 1456; Pub. L. 109–163, div. A, title V, §503(a), Jan. 6, 2006, 119 Stat. 3226; Pub. L. 109–364, div. A, title V, §507(b), Oct. 17, 2006, 120 Stat. 2180; Pub. L. 110–181, div. A, title V, §§501(b), 543(d), Jan. 28, 2008, 122 Stat. 94, 115; Pub. L. 110–417, [div. A], title V, §§503(d), 504(b), Oct. 14, 2008, 122 Stat. 4433, 4434; Pub. L. 111–84, div. A, title V, §502(b)–(d), Oct. 28, 2009, 123 Stat. 2273–2275; Pub. L. 111–383, div. A, title X, §1075(b)(12), (d)(2), Jan. 7, 2011, 124 Stat. 4369, 4372; Pub. L. 112–81, div. A, title V, §§502(a)(1), (b)(2), 511(a)(3), Dec. 31, 2011, 125 Stat. 1386, 1387, 1391.)

Amendment of Subsection (a)

Pub. L. 112–81, div. A, title V, §502(b)(2), (3), Dec. 31, 2011, 125 Stat. 1387, provided that, effective Oct. 1, 2013, subsection (a) of this section is amended:

(1) in paragraph (1)(B), by striking “45” and inserting “46”;

(2) in paragraph (2)(B), by striking “43” and inserting “44”;

(3) in paragraph (3)(B), by striking “32” and inserting “33”; and

(4) in paragraph (4)(C), by striking “22” and inserting “23”.

See 2011 Amendment note below.

Amendments

2011—Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 112–81, §502(b)(2), substituted “46” for “45” in par. (1)(B), “44” for “43” in par. (2)(B), “33” for “32” in par. (3)(B), and “23” for “22” in par. (4)(C).

Subsec. (b). Pub. L. 112–81, §502(a)(1), amended subsec. (b) generally. Prior to amendment, subsec. (b) related to exclusions from limitations on appointment of general officers on active duty in the Army, Air Force, and Marine Corps and flag officers on active duty in the Navy.

Subsec. (b)(1)(D). Pub. L. 112–81, §511(a)(3)(A), struck out subpar. (D) which read as follows: “An officer while serving as Chief of the National Guard Bureau.”

Subsec. (c)(3)(B). Pub. L. 111–383, §1075(d)(2), made technical amendment to directory language of Pub. L. 111–84, §502(c)(3). See 2009 Amendment note below.

Subsec. (d). Pub. L. 111–383, §1075(b)(12)(A), substituted “section 601(b)(5)” for “section 601(b)(4)”.

Subsec. (g)(1). Pub. L. 111–383, §1075(b)(12)(B), substituted “and are not” for “and is not” and inserted period at end.

Subsec. (g)(2), (3). Pub. L. 112–81, §511(a)(3)(B), redesignated par. (3) as (2) and struck out former par. (2) which read as follows: “The exception in paragraph (1) does apply to the position of Chief of the National Guard Bureau.”

2009—Subsecs. (a), (b). Pub. L. 111–84, §502(b), added subsecs. (a) and (b) and struck out former subsecs. (a) and (b) which related to limitations on appointments in a grade above brigadier general in the Army, Air Force, or Marine Corps or in a grade above rear admiral (lower half) in the Navy and limitations on appointments in a grade above major general in the Army, Air Force, or Marine Corps or in a grade above rear admiral in the Navy, respectively.

Subsec. (c)(1)(A). Pub. L. 111–84, §502(c)(1)(A), amended subpar. (A) generally. Prior to amendment, subpar. (A) read as follows: “may make appointments in the Army, Air Force, and Marine Corps in the grade of lieutenant general and in the Army and Air Force in the grade of general in excess of the applicable numbers determined under subsection (b)(1), and may make appointments in the Marine Corps in the grade of general in addition to the Commandant and Assistant Commandant, if each such appointment is made in conjunction with an offsetting reduction under paragraph (2); and”.

Subsec. (c)(1)(B). Pub. L. 111–84, §502(c)(1)(B), substituted “this section” for “subsection (b)(2)”.

Subsec. (c)(3)(A). Pub. L. 111–84, §502(c)(2), substituted “15” for “the number equal to 10 percent of the total number of officers that may be serving on active duty in those grades in the Army, Navy, Air Force, and Marine Corps under subsection (b)”.

Subsec. (c)(3)(B). Pub. L. 111–84, §502(c)(3), as amended by Pub. L. 111–383, §1075(d)(2), substituted “5” for “the number equal to 15 percent of the total number of general officers and flag officers that may be serving on active duty in those grades in the Army, Navy, Air Force, and Marine Corps”.

Subsec. (e). Pub. L. 111–84, §502(d)(1), in introductory provisions, substituted “The following officers shall not be counted for purposes of this section:” for “In determining the total number of general officers or flag officers of an armed force on active duty for purposes of this section, the following officers shall not be counted:”.

Subsec. (g). Pub. L. 111–84, §502(d)(2), added subsec. (g).

2008—Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 110–417, §504(b), designated existing provisions as par. (1) and added par. (2).

Pub. L. 110–417, §503(d)(1), substituted “the Army or Air Force, or more than 51 percent of the general officers of the Marine Corps,” for “that armed force”.

Subsec. (b)(1), (2)(A). Pub. L. 110–417, §503(d)(2)(A), substituted “16.4 percent” for “16.3 percent” wherever appearing.

Pub. L. 110–181, §543(d), substituted “16.3 percent” for “15.7 percent” wherever appearing.

Subsec. (b)(2)(B). Pub. L. 110–417, §503(d)(2)(B), substituted “19 percent” for “17.5 percent”.

Subsec. (e)(2). Pub. L. 110–181, §501(b), added par. (2) and struck out former par. (2) which read as follows: “An officer of that armed force who has been relieved from a position designated under section 601(a) of this title and is under orders to assume another such position, but only during the 60-day period beginning on the date on which those orders are published.”

2006—Subsec. (e). Pub. L. 109–163 added subsec. (e).

Subsec. (f). Pub. L. 109–364 added subsec. (f).

2003—Subsec. (b)(5)(C). Pub. L. 108–136 struck out subpar. (C) which read as follows: “This paragraph shall cease to be effective at the end of December 31, 2004.”

2002—Subsec. (b)(2)(B). Pub. L. 107–314, §404(b), substituted “17.5 percent” for “16.2 percent”.

Subsec. (b)(5)(C). Pub. L. 107–314, §405(b), substituted “December 31, 2004” for “September 30, 2003”.

Subsec. (b)(8). Pub. L. 107–314, §404(a), added par. (8).

2000—Subsec. (b)(1). Pub. L. 106–398, §1 [[div. A], title V, §507(g)(1)], in first sentence, substituted “Army or Air Force” for “Army, Air Force, or Marine Corps” and “15.7 percent” for “15 percent” and, in second sentence, substituted “Of” for “In the case of the Army and Air Force, of” and “15.7 percent” for “15 percent” and inserted “of the Army or Air Force” after “general officers”.

Subsec. (b)(2). Pub. L. 106–398, §1 [[div. A], title V, §507(g)(2)], designated existing provisions as subpar. (A), substituted “15.7 percent” for “15 percent” in two places, and added subpar. (B).

1999—Subsec. (b)(5)(A). Pub. L. 106–65, §509(c), inserted at end “Any increase by reason of the preceding sentence in the number of officers of an armed force serving on active duty in grades above major general or rear admiral may only be realized by an increase in the number of lieutenant generals or vice admirals, as the case may be, serving on active duty, and any such increase may not be construed as authorizing an increase in the limitation on the total number of general or flag officers for that armed force under section 526(a) of this title or in the number of general and flag officers that may be designated under section 526(b) of this title.”

Subsec. (b)(5)(C). Pub. L. 106–65, §509(b), substituted “September 30, 2003” for “September 30, 2000”.

Subsec. (b)(7). Pub. L. 106–65, §532(b), added par. (7).

1998—Subsec. (b)(4)(B). Pub. L. 105–261, §404, substituted “seven” for “six”.

Subsec. (b)(6). Pub. L. 105–261, §406, added par. (6).

1996—Subsec. (b)(5)(C). Pub. L. 104–201 substituted “September 30, 2000” for “September 30, 1997”.

Subsec. (d). Pub. L. 104–106 added subsec. (d).

1994—Subsec. (b)(5). Pub. L. 103–337 added par. (5).

1990—Subsec. (b)(3). Pub. L. 101–510, §405(b), substituted “that would otherwise be permitted for” for “authorized”.

Subsec. (b)(4). Pub. L. 101–510, §405(a), added par. (4).

1987—Pub. L. 100–180 added subsec. (c).

1986—Subsec. (b)(3). Pub. L. 99–433 inserted “or Vice Chairman”.

1985—Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 99–145 substituted “rear admiral (lower half)” for “commodore” in two places.

1981—Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 97–86 substituted “commodore” for “commodore admiral” in two places.

Effective Date of 2011 Amendment

Pub. L. 112–81, div. A, title V, §502(a)(2), Dec. 31, 2011, 125 Stat. 1387, provided that: “The amendment made by paragraph (1) [amending this section] shall take effect on January 1, 2012.”

Pub. L. 112–81, div. A, title V, §502(b)(3), Dec. 31, 2011, 125 Stat. 1387, provided that: “The amendments made by this subsection [amending this section and section 526 of this title] shall take effect on October 1, 2013.”

Pub. L. 111–383, div. A, title X, §1075(d), Jan. 7, 2011, 124 Stat. 4372, provided that the amendment by section 1075(d)(2) is effective as of Oct. 28, 2009, and as if included in Pub. L. 111–84 as enacted.

Effective Date of 2002 Amendment

Pub. L. 107–314, div. A, title IV, §404(d), Dec. 2, 2002, 116 Stat. 2526, provided that: “The amendment made by subsection (a) [amending this section] shall take effect on the date of the receipt by Congress of the report required by subsection (c) [set out below].”

Effective Date of 1981 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 97–86 effective Sept. 15, 1981, see section 405(f) of Pub. L. 97–86, set out as a note under section 101 of this title.

Implementation of 2000 Amendments

Pub. L. 106–398, §1 [[div. A], title V, §507(i)], Oct. 30, 2000, 114 Stat. 1654, 1654A–106, provided that:

“(1) An appointment or reappointment, in the case of the incumbent in a reserve component chief position, shall be made to each of the reserve component chief positions not later than 12 months after the date of the enactment of this Act [Oct. 30, 2000], in accordance with the amendments made by subsections (a) through (e) [amending sections 3038, 5143, 5144, 8038, and 10506 of this title].

“(2) An officer serving in a reserve component chief position on the date of the enactment of this Act [Oct. 30, 2000] may be reappointed to that position under the amendments made by subsection (a) through (e), if eligible and otherwise qualified in accordance with those amendments. If such an officer is so reappointed, the appointment may be made for the remainder of the officer's original term or for a full new term, as specified at the time of the appointment.

“(3) An officer serving on the date of the enactment of this Act [Oct. 30, 2000] in a reserve component chief position may continue to serve in that position in accordance with the provisions of law in effect immediately before the amendments made by this section [amending this section and sections 3038, 5143, 5144, 8038, and 10506 of this title and repealing section 12505 of this title] until a successor is appointed under paragraph (1) (or that officer is reappointed under paragraph (1)).

“(4) The amendments made by subsection (g) [amending this section] shall be implemented so that each increase authorized by those amendments in the number of officers in the grades of lieutenant general and vice admiral is implemented on a case-by-case basis with an initial appointment made after the date of the enactment of this Act [Oct. 30, 2000], as specified in paragraph (1), to a reserve component chief position.

“(5) For purposes of this subsection, the term ‘reserve component chief position’ means a position specified in section 3038, 5143, 5144, or 8038 of title 10, United States Code, or the position of Director, Army National Guard or Director, Air National Guard under section 10506(a)(1) of such title.”

Savings Provision

Section 511(b) of Pub. L. 100–180 provided that: “An officer of the Armed Forces on active duty holding an appointment in the grade of lieutenant general or vice admiral or general or admiral on September 30, 1987, shall not have that appointment terminated by reason of the numerical limitations determined under section 525(b) of title 10, United States Code. In the case of an officer of the Marine Corps serving in the grade of general by reason of an appointment authorized by section 511(3) of the National Defense Authorization Act for Fiscal Year 1987 (Public Law 99–661; 100 Stat. 3869) [see below], that appointment shall not be terminated except as provided in section 601 of title 10, United States Code.”

Transfer of Functions

For transfer of authorities, functions, personnel, and assets of the Coast Guard, including the authorities and functions of the Secretary of Transportation relating thereto, to the Department of Homeland Security, and for treatment of related references, see sections 468(b), 551(d), 552(d), and 557 of Title 6, Domestic Security, and the Department of Homeland Security Reorganization Plan of November 25, 2002, as modified, set out as a note under section 542 of Title 6.

Delayed Authority To Alter Distribution Requirements for Commissioned Officers on Active Duty in General Officer and Flag Officer Grades and Limitations on Authorized Strengths of General and Flag Officers on Active Duty

Pub. L. 110–417, [div. A], title V, §506, Oct. 14, 2008, 122 Stat. 4434, related to distribution requirements for commissioned officers on active duty in general officer and flag officer grades and limitations on authorized strengths of general and flag officers on active duty, prior to repeal by Pub. L. 111–84, div. A, title V, §502(j), Oct. 28, 2009, 123 Stat. 2277.

Review of Active Duty and Reserve General and Flag Officer Authorizations

Pub. L. 107–314, div. A, title IV, §404(c), Dec. 2, 2002, 116 Stat. 2525, provided that:

“(1) The Secretary of Defense shall submit to Congress a report containing any recommendations of the Secretary (together with the rationale of the Secretary for the recommendations) concerning the following:

“(A) Revision of the limitations on general and flag officer grade authorizations and distribution in grade prescribed by sections 525, 526, and 12004 of title 10, United States Code.

“(B) Statutory designation of the positions and grades of any additional general and flag officers in the commands specified in chapter 1006 of title 10, United States Code, and the reserve component offices specified in sections 3038, 5143, 5144, and 8038 of such title.

“(2) The provisions of subsection (b) through (e) of section 1213 of the National Defense Authorization Act for Fiscal Year 1997 (Public Law 104–201; 110 Stat. 2694) shall apply to the report under paragraph (1) in the same manner as they applied to the report required by subsection (a) of that section.”

Report on Management of Senior General and Flag Officer Positions

Pub. L. 103–337, div. A, title IV, §405(d), Oct. 5, 1994, 108 Stat. 2745, directed the Secretary of Defense to submit to Congress a report on the implementation of the amendments made by Pub. L. 103–337, §405, enacting sections 528 and 604 of this title and amending this section, not later than Mar. 1, 1996.

Temporary Exclusion of Superintendent of Naval Academy From Counting Toward Number of Senior Admirals Authorized To Be on Active Duty

Section 406 of Pub. L. 103–337 provided that: “The officer serving as Superintendent of the United States Naval Academy on the date of the enactment of this Act [Oct. 5, 1994], while so serving, shall not be counted for purposes of the limitations contained in [former] section 525(b)(2) of title 10, United States Code.”

Temporary Increase in Number of General and Flag Officers Authorized To Be on Active Duty

Temporary increases in the number of officers authorized in particular grades under this section were contained in the following authorization acts:

Pub. L. 99–661, div. A, title V, §511, Nov. 14, 1986, 100 Stat. 3869.

Pub. L. 99–570, title III, §3058, Oct. 27, 1986, 100 Stat. 3207–79.

Pub. L. 99–145, title V, §515, Nov. 8, 1985, 99 Stat. 630.

Pub. L. 98–525, title V, §511, Oct. 19, 1984, 98 Stat. 2521.

Pub. L. 98–94, title X, §1001, Sept. 24, 1983, 97 Stat. 654.

Pub. L. 97–252, title XI, §1116, Sept. 8, 1982, 96 Stat. 750.

§526. Authorized strength: general and flag officers on active duty

(a) Limitations.—The number of general officers on active duty in the Army, Air Force, and Marine Corps, and the number of flag officers on active duty in the Navy, may not exceed the number specified for the armed force concerned as follows:

(1) For the Army, 230.

(2) For the Navy, 160.

(3) For the Air Force, 208.

(4) For the Marine Corps, 60.


(b) Limited Exclusion for Joint Duty Requirements.—(1) The Secretary of Defense may designate up to 310 general officer and flag officer positions that are joint duty assignments for purposes of chapter 38 of this title for exclusion from the limitations in subsection (a). The Secretary of Defense shall allocate those exclusions to the armed forces based on the number of general or flag officers required from each armed force for assignment to these designated positions.

(2) Unless the Secretary of Defense determines that a lower number is in the best interest of the Department, the minimum number of officers serving in positions designated under paragraph (1) for each armed force shall be as follows:

(A) For the Army, 85.

(B) For the Navy, 61.

(C) For the Air Force, 76.

(D) For the Marine Corps, 21.


(3) The number excluded under paragraph (1) and serving in positions designated under that paragraph—

(A) in the grade of general or admiral may not exceed 20;

(B) in a grade above the grade of major general or rear admiral may not exceed 68; and

(C) in the grade of major general or rear admiral may not exceed 144.


(4) Not later than 30 days after determining to raise or lower a number specified in paragraph (2), the Secretary of Defense shall notify the Committees on Armed Services of the Senate and the House of Representatives of such determination.

(5)(A) The Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff may designate up to 15 general and flag officer positions in the unified and specified combatant commands, and up to three general and flag officer positions on the Joint Staff, as positions to be held only by reserve component officers who are in a general or flag officer grade below lieutenant general or vice admiral. Each position so designated shall be considered to be a joint duty assignment position for purposes of chapter 38 of this title.

(B) A reserve component officer serving in a position designated under subparagraph (A) while on active duty under a call or order to active duty that does not specify a period of 180 days or less shall not be counted for the purposes of the limitations under subsection (a) and under section 525 of this title if the officer was selected for service in that position in accordance with the procedures specified in subparagraph (C).

(C) Whenever a vacancy occurs, or is anticipated to occur, in a position designated under subparagraph (A)—

(i) the Secretary of Defense shall require the Secretary of the Army to submit the name of at least one Army reserve component officer, the Secretary of the Navy to submit the name of at least one Navy Reserve officer and the name of at least one Marine Corps Reserve officer, and the Secretary of the Air Force to submit the name of at least one Air Force reserve component officer for consideration by the Secretary for assignment to that position; and

(ii) the Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff may submit to the Secretary of Defense the name of one or more officers (in addition to the officers whose names are submitted pursuant to clause (i)) for consideration by the Secretary for assignment to that position.


(D) Whenever the Secretaries of the military departments are required to submit the names of officers under subparagraph (C)(i), the Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff shall submit to the Secretary of Defense the Chairman's evaluation of the performance of each officer whose name is submitted under that subparagraph (and of any officer whose name the Chairman submits to the Secretary under subparagraph (C)(ii) for consideration for the same vacancy).

(E) Subparagraph (B) does not apply in the case of an officer serving in a position designated under subparagraph (A) if the Secretary of Defense, when considering officers for assignment to fill the vacancy in that position which was filled by that officer, did not have a recommendation for that assignment from each Secretary of a military department who (pursuant to subparagraph (C)) was required to make such a recommendation.

[(c) Repealed. Pub. L. 107–314, div. A, title X, §1041(a)(3), Dec. 2, 2002, 116 Stat. 2645.]

(d) Exclusion of Certain Reserve Officers.—(1) The limitations of this section do not apply to a reserve component general or flag officer who is on active duty for training or who is on active duty under a call or order specifying a period of less than 180 days.

(2) The limitations of this section also do not apply to a number, as specified by the Secretary of the military department concerned, of reserve component general or flag officers authorized to serve on active duty for a period of not more than 365 days. The number so specified for an armed force may not exceed the number equal to 10 percent of the authorized number of general or flag officers, as the case may be, of that armed force under section 12004 of this title. In determining such number, any fraction shall be rounded down to the next whole number, except that such number shall be at least one.

(3) The limitations of this section do not apply to a reserve component general or flag officer who is on active duty for a period in excess of 365 days but not to exceed three years, except that the number of such officers from each reserve component who are covered by this paragraph and not serving in a position that is a joint duty assignment for purposes of chapter 38 of this title may not exceed 5 per component, unless authorized by the Secretary of Defense.

(e) Exclusion of Certain Officers Pending Separation or Retirement or Between Senior Positions.—The limitations of this section do not apply to a general or flag officer who is covered by an exclusion under section 525(e) of this title.

(f) Exclusion of Attending Physician to the Congress.—The limitations of this section do not apply to the general or flag officer who is serving as Attending Physician to the Congress.

(g) Temporary Exclusion for Assignment to Certain Temporary Billets.—(1) The limitations in subsection (a) and in section 525(a) of this title do not apply to a general or flag officer assigned to a temporary joint duty assignment designated by the Secretary of Defense.

(2) A general or flag officer assigned to a temporary joint duty assignment as described in paragraph (1) may not be excluded under this subsection from the limitations in subsection (a) for a period of longer than one year.

(h) Exclusion of Officers Departing From Joint Duty Assignments.—The limitations in subsection (a) do not apply to an officer released from a joint duty assignment, but only during the 60-day period beginning on the date the officer departs the joint duty assignment. The Secretary of Defense may authorize the Secretary of a military department to extend the 60-day period by an additional 120 days, except that not more than three officers on active duty from each armed force may be covered by an extension under this sentence at the same time.

(Added Pub. L. 100–370, §1(b)(1)(B), July 19, 1988, 102 Stat. 840; amended Pub. L. 101–510, div. A, title IV, §403(a), Nov. 5, 1990, 104 Stat. 1545; Pub. L. 102–484, div. A, title IV, §403, Oct. 23, 1992, 106 Stat. 2398; Pub. L. 103–337, div. A, title IV, §404, title V, §512, Oct. 5, 1994, 108 Stat. 2744, 2752; Pub. L. 104–106, div. A, title XV, §§1502(a)(1), 1503(a)(3), Feb. 10, 1996, 110 Stat. 502, 510; Pub. L. 104–201, div. A, title IV, §405, Sept. 23, 1996, 110 Stat. 2506; Pub. L. 105–261, div. A, title IV, §405, Oct. 17, 1998, 112 Stat. 1996; Pub. L. 106–65, div. A, title V, §553, title X, §1067(1), Oct. 5, 1999, 113 Stat. 615, 774; Pub. L. 107–314, div. A, title IV, §405(c), title X, §1041(a)(3), Dec. 2, 2002, 116 Stat. 2526, 2645; Pub. L. 108–136, div. A, title V, §504(c), Nov. 24, 2003, 117 Stat. 1457; Pub. L. 109–163, div. A, title V, §§503(b), 510, 515(b)(1)(C), Jan. 6, 2006, 119 Stat. 3226, 3231, 3233; Pub. L. 109–364, div. A, title V, §507(c), Oct. 17, 2006, 120 Stat. 2180; Pub. L. 110–181, div. A, title V, §502, title XVIII, §1824(c), Jan. 28, 2008, 122 Stat. 95, 501; Pub. L. 110–417, [div. A], title V, §§503(a)–(c), 525, Oct. 14, 2008, 122 Stat. 4433, 4448; Pub. L. 111–84, div. A, title V, §502(e)–(g), Oct. 28, 2009, 123 Stat. 2275, 2276; Pub. L. 112–81, div. A, title V, §502(b)(1), (c)(1), Dec. 31, 2011, 125 Stat. 1387.)

Amendment of Subsections (a) and (b)(2)(C)

Pub. L. 112–81, div. A, title V, §502(b)(1), (3), Dec. 31, 2011, 125 Stat. 1387, provided that effective Oct. 1, 2013, this section is amended:

(1) in subsection (a)—

(A) in paragraph (1), by striking “230” and inserting “231”;

(B) in paragraph (2), by striking “160” and inserting “161”;

(C) in paragraph (3), by striking “208” and inserting “198”;

(D) in paragraph (4), by striking “60” and inserting “61”; and

(2) in subsection (b)(2)(C), by striking “76” and inserting “73”.

See 2011 Amendment notes below.

Historical and Revision Notes

Section is based on Pub. L. 95–79, title VIII, §811(a), July 30, 1977, 91 Stat. 335, as amended by Pub. L. 96–107, title VIII, §817, Nov. 9, 1979, 93 Stat. 818; Pub. L. 96–342, title X, §1003, Sept. 8, 1980, 94 Stat. 1120; Pub. L. 97–86, title VI, §602, Dec. 1, 1981, 95 Stat. 1110.

Present law (section 811(a) of Public Law 95–79, as amended) provides that the authority to suspend the limitation on the number of general and flag officers who may be serving on active duty applies during war or national emergency. In codifying the limitation (in section 526 of title 10 as proposed to be added by section 1(b) of the bill), the committee determined that the same war and emergency waiver authority as applies to other limitations on the number of officers on active duty under the existing 10 U.S.C. 526 (redesignated as 10 U.S.C. 527 by the bill) should apply with respect to this limitation and accordingly amended the suspension authority in present law to include the codified general and flag officer limitation. This authority is slightly different from the waiver authority in the source law in that the suspension would expire 2 years after it takes effect or 1 year after the end of the war or national emergency, whichever occurs first, rather than upon termination of the war or emergency.

Prior Provisions

A prior section 526 was renumbered section 527 of this title.

Amendments

2011—Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 112–81, §502(b)(1)(A), substituted “231” for “230” in par. (1), “161” for “160” in par. (2), “198” for “208” in par. (3), and “61” for “60” in par. (4).

Subsec. (b)(1). Pub. L. 112–81, §502(c)(1), substituted “310” for “324”.

Subsec. (b)(2)(C). Pub. L. 112–81, §502(b)(1)(B), substituted “73” for “76”.

2009—Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 111–84, §502(e), substituted “230” for “307” in par. (1), “160” for “216” in par. (2), “208” for “279” in par. (3), and “60” for “81” in par. (4).

Subsec. (b)(1). Pub. L. 111–84, §502(f)(1), substituted “Secretary of Defense” for “Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff”, “324” for “65”, and “The Secretary of Defense shall allocate those exclusions to the armed forces based on the number of general or flag officers required from each armed force for assignment to these designated positions.” for “Officers in positions so designated shall not be counted for the purposes of those limitations.”

Subsec. (b)(2) to (5). Pub. L. 111–84, §502(f)(2), (3), added pars. (2) to (4) and redesignated former par. (2) as (5).

Subsec. (d)(3). Pub. L. 111–84, §502(g)(1), added par. (3).

Subsecs. (g), (h). Pub. L. 111–84, §502(g)(2), added subsecs. (g) and (h).

2008—Subsec. (a)(1). Pub. L. 110–417, §503(a), substituted “307” for “302”.

Subsec. (a)(4). Pub. L. 110–417, §503(b), substituted “81” for “80”.

Subsec. (b)(1). Pub. L. 110–417, §503(c), substituted “65” for “12”.

Subsec. (b)(2)(A). Pub. L. 110–417, §525, substituted “up to three general and flag officer positions” for “a general and flag officer position”.

Pub. L. 110–181, §1824(c), substituted “15 general and flag officer positions in” for “10 general and flag officer positions on the staffs of the commanders of”.

Subsec. (d). Pub. L. 110–181, §502, designated existing provisions as par. (1) and added par. (2).

2006—Subsec. (b)(2)(A). Pub. L. 109–163, §510, inserted “, and a general and flag officer position on the Joint Staff,” after “combatant commands”.

Subsec. (b)(2)(C)(i). Pub. L. 109–163, §515(b)(1)(C), substituted “Navy Reserve” for “Naval Reserve”.

Subsec. (d). Pub. L. 109–163, §503(b)(2), substituted “Certain Reserve Officers” for “Certain Officers” in heading.

Subsec. (e). Pub. L. 109–163, §503(b)(1), added subsec. (e).

Subsec. (f). Pub. L. 109–364 added subsec. (f).

2003—Subsec. (b)(3). Pub. L. 108–136 struck out par. (3) which read as follows: “This subsection shall cease to be effective on December 31, 2004.”

2002—Subsec. (b)(3). Pub. L. 107–314, §405(c), substituted “December 31, 2004” for “October 1, 2002”.

Subsec. (c). Pub. L. 107–314, §1041(a)(3), struck out heading and text of subsec. (c). Text read as follows:

“(1) Not later than 60 days before an action specified in paragraph (2) may become effective, the Secretary of Defense shall submit to the Committee on Armed Services of the Senate and the Committee on Armed Services of the House of Representatives a report providing notice of the intended action and an analytically based justification for the intended action.

“(2) Paragraph (1) applies in the case of the following actions:

“(A) A change in the grade authorized as of July 1, 1994, for a general officer position in the National Guard Bureau, a general or flag officer position in the Office of a Chief of a reserve component, or a general or flag officer position in the headquarters of a reserve component command.

“(B) Assignment of a reserve component officer to a general officer position in the National Guard Bureau, to a general or flag officer position in the Office of a Chief of a reserve component, or to a general or flag officer position in the headquarters of a reserve component command in a grade other than the grade authorized for that position as of July 1, 1994.

“(C) Assignment of an officer other than a general or flag officer as the military executive to the Reserve Forces Policy Board.”

1999—Subsec. (b)(2), (3). Pub. L. 106–65, §553, added par. (2) and redesignated former par. (2) as (3).

Subsec. (c)(1). Pub. L. 106–65, §1067(1), substituted “and the Committee on Armed Services” for “and the Committee on National Security”.

1998—Subsec. (b)(2). Pub. L. 105–261 substituted “October 1, 2002” for “October 1, 1998”.

1996—Subsec. (a)(1) to (3). Pub. L. 104–106, §1503(a)(3)(A), added pars. (1) to (3) and struck out former pars. (1) to (3) which read as follows:

“(1) For the Army, 386 before October 1, 1995, and 302 on and after that date.

“(2) For the Navy, 250 before October 1, 1995, and 216 on and after that date.

“(3) For the Air Force, 326 before October 1, 1995, and 279 on and after that date.”

Subsec. (a)(4). Pub. L. 104–201 substituted “80” for “68”.

Subsec. (b). Pub. L. 104–106, §1503(a)(3)(B)–(D), redesignated subsec. (c) as (b), struck out “that are applicable on and after October 1, 1995” after “limitations in subsection (a)”, and struck out former subsec. (b) which read as follows: “Transfers Between Services.—During the period before October 1, 1995, the Secretary of Defense may increase the number of general officers on active duty in the Army, Air Force, or Marine Corps, or the number of flag officers on active duty in the Navy, above the applicable number specified in subsection (a) by a total of not more than five. Whenever any such increase is made, the Secretary shall make a corresponding reduction in the number of such officers that may serve on active duty in general or flag officer grades in one of the other armed forces.”

Subsec. (c). Pub. L. 104–106, §1503(a)(3)(C), (E), redesignated subsec. (d) as (c) and, in par. (2)(B), struck out “the” after “general officer position in the” and inserted “to” after “reserve component, or” and “than” after “in a grade other”. Former subsec. (c) redesignated (b).

Subsec. (d). Pub. L. 104–106, §1503(a)(3)(C), redesignated subsec. (e) as (d). Former subsec. (d) redesignated (c).

Subsec. (d)(1). Pub. L. 104–106, §1502(a)(1), substituted “Committee on Armed Services of the Senate and the Committee on National Security of the House of Representatives” for “Committees on Armed Services of the Senate and House of Representatives”.

Subsec. (e). Pub. L. 104–106, §1503(a)(3)(C), redesignated subsec. (e) as (d).

1994—Subsec. (a)(4). Pub. L. 103–337, §404, struck out “before October 1, 1995, and 61 on and after that date” after “Corps, 68”.

Subsecs. (d), (e). Pub. L. 103–337, §512, added subsecs. (d) and (e).

1992—Subsec. (b). Pub. L. 102–484, §403(b), inserted heading.

Subsec. (c). Pub. L. 102–484, §403(a), added subsec. (c).

1990—Pub. L. 101–510 amended section generally. Prior to amendment, text read as follows: “The total number of general officers on active duty in the Army, Air Force, and Marine Corps and flag officers on active duty in the Navy may not exceed 1,073.”

Effective Date of 2011 Amendment

Amendment by section 502(b)(1) of Pub. L. 112–81 effective Oct. 1, 2013, see section 502(b)(3) of Pub. L. 112–81, set out as a note under section 525 of this title.

Pub. L. 112–81, div. A, title V, §502(c)(2), Dec. 31, 2011, 125 Stat. 1387, provided that: “The amendment made by paragraph (1) [amending this section] shall take effect on January 1, 2012.”

Effective Date of 1990 Amendment

Section 403(a) of Pub. L. 101–510 provided that the amendment made by that section is effective Sept. 30, 1991.

Acquisition and Contracting Billets

Pub. L. 110–417, [div. A], title V, §503(e), Oct. 14, 2008, 122 Stat. 4434, provided that:

“(1) Reservation of army increase.—The increase in the number of general officers on active duty in the Army, as authorized by the amendment made by subsection (a) [amending this section] is reserved for general officers in the Army who serve in an acquisition position.

“(2) Reservation of portion of increase in joint duty assignments excluded from limitation.—Of the increase in the number of general officer and flag officer joint duty assignments that may be designated for exclusion from the limitations on the number of general officers and flag officers on active duty, as authorized by the amendment made by subsection (c) [amending this section], five of the designated assignments are reserved for general officers or flag officers who serve in an acquisition position, including one assignment in the Defense Contract Management Agency.”

§527. Authority to suspend sections 523, 525, and 526

In time of war, or of national emergency declared by Congress or the President after November 30, 1980, the President may suspend the operation of any provision of section 523, 525, or 526 of this title. So long as such war or national emergency continues, any such suspension may be extended by the President. Any such suspension shall, if not sooner ended, end on the last day of the two-year period beginning on the date on which the suspension (or the last extension thereof) takes effect or on the last day of the one-year period beginning on the date of the termination of the war or national emergency, whichever occurs first. With respect to the end of any such suspension, the preceding sentence supersedes the provisions of title II of the National Emergencies Act (50 U.S.C. 1621–1622) which provide that powers or authorities exercised by reason of a national emergency shall cease to be exercised after the date of the termination of the emergency.

(Added Pub. L. 96–513, title I, §103, Dec. 12, 1980, 94 Stat. 2845, §526; renumbered §527 and amended Pub. L. 100–370, §1(b)(1)(A), (2), July 19, 1988, 102 Stat. 840; Pub. L. 103–337, div. A, title XVI, §1671(c)(4), Oct. 5, 1994, 108 Stat. 3014.)

References in Text

The National Emergencies Act, referred to in text, is Pub. L. 94–412, Sept. 14, 1976, 90 Stat. 1255, as amended. Title II of the National Emergencies Act is classified generally to subchapter II (§1621 et seq.) of chapter 34 of Title 50, War and National Defense. For complete classification of this Act to the Code, see Short Title note set out under section 1601 of Title 50 and Tables.

Amendments

1994—Pub. L. 103–337 struck out “524,” after “523,” in section catchline and in text.

1988—Pub. L. 100–370 renumbered section 526 of this title as this section, substituted “524, 525, and 526” for “524, and 525” in section catchline, and “524, 525, or 526” for “524, or 525” in text.

Effective Date of 1994 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 103–337 effective Dec. 1, 1994, except as otherwise provided, see section 1691 of Pub. L. 103–337, set out as an Effective Date note under section 10001 of this title.

Delegation of Functions

Functions of President under this section to suspend operation of sections 523, 524 [now 12011], and 525 of this title, relating to authorized strength of commissioned officers, delegated to Secretary of Defense to perform during a time of war or national emergency, without approval, ratification, or other action by President, and with authority for Secretary to redelegate, provided that, during a national emergency declared by President, the exercise of any such authority be specifically directed by President in accordance with section 1631 of Title 50, War and National Defense, and that Secretary ensure that actions taken pursuant to any authority so delegated be accounted for as required by section 1641 of Title 50, see Ex. Ord. No. 12396, §§2, 3, Dec. 9, 1982, 47 F.R. 55897, 55898, set out as a note under section 301 of Title 3, The President.

Delegation of Authority

Authority of President under this section as invoked by sections 2 and 3 of Ex. Ord. No. 13223, Sept. 14, 2001, 66 F.R. 48201, as amended, delegated to Secretary of Defense by section 4 of Ex. Ord. No. 13223, set out as a note under section 12302 of this title.

Authority To Waive Grade Strength Laws For Fiscal Year 1991; Certification; Relationship to Other Suspension Authority

Pub. L. 102–25, title II, §§201(b), 202, 205(b), Apr. 6, 1991, 105 Stat. 79, 80, authorized Secretary of a military department to suspend, for fiscal year 1991, the operation of any provision of section 517, 523, 524, 525, or 526 of this title with respect to that military department, that such Secretary may exercise such authority only after submission to the congressional defense committees of a certification in writing that such authority is necessary because of personnel actions associated with Operation Desert Storm, and that such authority is in addition to the authority provided in this section.

§528. Officers serving in certain intelligence positions: military status; application of distribution and strength limitations; pay and allowances

(a) Military Status.—An officer of the armed forces, while serving in a position covered by this section—

(1) shall not be subject to supervision or control by the Secretary of Defense or any other officer or employee of the Department of Defense, except as directed by the Secretary of Defense concerning reassignment from such position; and

(2) may not exercise, by reason of the officer's status as an officer, any supervision or control with respect to any of the military or civilian personnel of the Department of Defense except as otherwise authorized by law.


(b) Director and Deputy Director of CIA.—When the position of Director or Deputy Director of the Central Intelligence Agency is held by an officer of the armed forces, the position, so long as the officer serves in the position, shall be designated, pursuant to subsection (b) of section 526 of this title, as one of the general officer and flag officer positions to be excluded from the limitations in subsection (a) of such section.

(c) Associate Director of Military Affairs, CIA.—When the position of Associate Director of Military Affairs, Central Intelligence Agency, or any successor position, is held by an officer of the armed forces, the position, so long as the officer serves in the position, shall be designated, pursuant to subsection (b) of section 526 of this title, as one of the general officer and flag officer positions to be excluded from the limitations in subsection (a) of such section.

(d) Officers Serving in Office of DNI.—When a position in the Office of the Director of National Intelligence designated by agreement between the Secretary of Defense and the Director of National Intelligence is held by a general officer or flag officer of the armed forces, the position, so long as the officer serves in the position, shall be designated, pursuant to subsection (b) of section 526 of this title, as one of the general officer and flag officer positions to be excluded from the limitations in subsection (a) of such section. However, not more than five of such positions may be included among the excluded positions at any time.

(e) Effect of Appointment.—Except as provided in subsection (a), the appointment or assignment of an officer of the armed forces to a position covered by this section shall not affect—

(1) the status, position, rank, or grade of such officer in the armed forces; or

(2) any emolument, perquisite, right, privilege, or benefit incident to or arising out of such status, position, rank, or grade.


(f) Military Pay and Allowances.—(1) An officer of the armed forces on active duty who is appointed or assigned to a position covered by this section shall, while serving in such position and while remaining on active duty, continue to receive military pay and allowances and shall not receive the pay prescribed for such position.

(2) Funds from which pay and allowances under paragraph (1) are paid to an officer while so serving shall be reimbursed as follows:

(A) For an officer serving in a position within the Central Intelligence Agency, such reimbursement shall be made from funds available to the Director of the Central Intelligence Agency.

(B) For an officer serving in a position within the Office of the Director of National Intelligence, such reimbursement shall be made from funds available to the Director of National Intelligence.


(g) Covered Positions.—The positions covered by this section are the positions specified in subsections (b) and (c) and the positions designated under subsection (d).

(Added Pub. L. 108–136, div. A, title V, §507(a), Nov. 24, 2003, 117 Stat. 1458; amended Pub. L. 109–163, div. A, title V, §507(a), Jan. 6, 2006, 119 Stat. 3228; Pub. L. 109–364, div. A, title V, §501(a), (b)(1), Oct. 17, 2006, 120 Stat. 2175, 2176; Pub. L. 110–417, [div. A], title IX, §933, Oct. 14, 2008, 122 Stat. 4576; Pub. L. 111–259, title VIII, §803, Oct. 7, 2010, 124 Stat. 2746; Pub. L. 112–81, div. A, title V, §502(d)(1), (2)(A), Dec. 31, 2011, 125 Stat. 1387, 1388.)

Prior Provisions

A prior section 528, added Pub. L. 103–337, div. A, title IV, §405(b)(1), Oct. 5, 1994, 108 Stat. 2744; amended Pub. L. 104–106, div. A, title IV, §403(b), title XV, §1503(a)(4), Feb. 10, 1996, 110 Stat. 287, 511; Pub. L. 104–201, div. A, title X, §1074(a)(3), Sept. 23, 1996, 110 Stat. 2658, which related to limitation on number of officers on active duty in grades of general and admiral, was repealed by Pub. L. 107–107, div. A, title V, §501(a), Dec. 28, 2001, 115 Stat. 1079.

Amendments

2011—Pub. L. 112–81, §502(d)(2)(A), substituted “Officers serving in certain intelligence positions: military status; application of distribution and strength limitations; pay and allowances” for “Officers serving in certain intelligence positions: military status; exclusion from distribution and strength limitations; pay and allowances” in section catchline.

Subsecs. (b) to (d). Pub. L. 112–81, §502(d)(1), added subsecs. (b) to (d) and struck out former subsecs. (b) to (d) which related to Director and Deputy Director of CIA, Associate Director of Military Affairs of CIA, and Officers Serving in the Office of DNI, respectively.

2010—Subsec. (c). Pub. L. 111–259 substituted “Associate Director of Military Affairs, CIA” for “Associate Director of CIA for Military Affairs” in heading and “Associate Director of Military Affairs, Central Intelligence Agency, or any successor position” for “Associate Director of the Central Intelligence Agency for Military Affairs” in text.

2008—Subsec. (c). Pub. L. 110–417 substituted “Military Affairs” for “Military Support” in heading and text.

2006—Pub. L. 109–364, §501(b)(1), amended section catchline generally, substituting “Officers serving in certain intelligence positions: military status; exclusion from distribution and strength limitations; pay and allowances” for “Exclusion: officers serving in certain intelligence positions”.

Pub. L. 109–163 amended section catchline and text generally. Prior to amendment, text read as follows:

“(a) When none of the individuals serving in a position specified in subsection (b) is an officer of the armed forces, an officer of the armed forces assigned to the position of Associate Director of Central Intelligence for Military Support, while serving in that position, shall not be counted against the numbers and percentages of officers of the grade of that officer authorized for that officer's armed force.

“(b) The positions referred to in subsection (a) are the following:

“(1) Director of Central Intelligence.

“(2) Deputy Director of Central Intelligence.

“(3) Deputy Director of Central Intelligence for Community Management.”

Subsecs. (a), (b). Pub. L. 109–364, §501(a)(1), added subsecs. (a) and (b) and struck out former subsecs. (a) and (b) which read as follows:

“(a) Exclusion of Officer Serving in Certain CIA Positions.—When either of the individuals serving in a position specified in subsection (b) is an officer of the armed forces, one of those officers, while serving in that position, shall be excluded from the limitations in sections 525 and 526 of this title.

“(b) Covered Positions.—The positions referred to in this subsection are the following:

“(1) Director of the Central Intelligence Agency.

“(2) Deputy Director of the Central Intelligence Agency.”

Subsecs. (e) to (g). Pub. L. 109–364, §501(a)(2), added subsecs. (e) to (g).

CHAPTER 33—ORIGINAL APPOINTMENTS OF REGULAR OFFICERS IN GRADES ABOVE WARRANT OFFICER GRADES

Sec.
531.
Original appointments of commissioned officers.
532.
Qualifications for original appointment as a commissioned officer.
533.
Service credit upon original appointment as a commissioned officer.
541.
Graduates of the United States Military, Naval, and Air Force Academies.
[555 to 565. Repealed.]

        

Amendments

1991—Pub. L. 102–190, div. A, title XI, §1112(b)(1), Dec. 5, 1991, 105 Stat. 1501, substituted “ORIGINAL APPOINTMENTS OF REGULAR OFFICERS IN GRADES ABOVE WARRANT OFFICER GRADES” for “APPOINTMENTS IN REGULAR COMPONENTS” as chapter heading, struck out analysis of subchapters listing subchapter I “Original Appointments of Regular Officers in Grades above Warrant Officer Grades” and subchapter II “Appointments of Regular Warrant Officers”, and struck out subchapter I heading.

1980—Pub. L. 96–513, title I, §104(a), Dec. 12, 1980, 94 Stat. 2845, inserted an analysis of subchapters immediately following chapter heading, added subchapter I heading, and, in analysis of sections following subchapter I heading, added items 531, 532, and 533 preceding item 541, re-enacted item 541 without change, and struck out, following item 541, items 555 to 565. The items 555 to 565 formerly set out in the analysis of sections immediately following chapter heading were transferred to a position following a new heading for subchapter II preceding section 555.

§531. Original appointments of commissioned officers

(a)(1) Original appointments in the grades of second lieutenant, first lieutenant, and captain in the Regular Army, Regular Air Force, and Regular Marine Corps and in the grades of ensign, lieutenant (junior grade), and lieutenant in the Regular Navy shall be made by the President alone.

(2) Original appointments in the grades of major, lieutenant colonel, and colonel in the Regular Army, Regular Air Force, and Regular Marine Corps and in the grades of lieutenant commander, commander, and captain in the Regular Navy shall be made by the President, by and with the advice and consent of the Senate.

(b) The grade of a person receiving an appointment under this section who at the time of appointment (1) is credited with service under section 533 of this title, and (2) is not a commissioned officer of a reserve component shall be determined under regulations prescribed by the Secretary of Defense based upon the amount of service credited. The grade of a person receiving an appointment under this section who at the time of the appointment is a commissioned officer of a reserve component is determined under section 533(f) of this title.

(c) Subject to the authority, direction, and control of the President, an original appointment as a commissioned officer in the Regular Army, Regular Air Force, Regular Navy, or Regular Marine Corps may be made by the Secretary concerned in the case of a reserve commissioned officer upon the transfer of such officer from the reserve active-status list of a reserve component of the armed forces to the active-duty list of an armed force, notwithstanding the requirements of subsection (a).

(Added Pub. L. 96–513, title I, §104(a), Dec. 12, 1980, 94 Stat. 2845; amended Pub. L. 97–22, §3(a), July 10, 1981, 95 Stat. 124; Pub. L. 108–375, div. A, title V, §501(a)(4), (c)(5), Oct. 28, 2004, 118 Stat. 1873, 1874.)

Amendments

2004—Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 108–375, §501(a)(4), amended subsec. (a) generally. Prior to amendment, subsec. (a) read as follows: “Original appointments in the grades of second lieutenant through colonel in the Regular Army, Regular Air Force, and Regular Marine Corps and in the grades of ensign through captain in the Regular Navy shall be made by the President, by and with the advice and consent of the Senate.”

Subsec. (c). Pub. L. 108–375, §501(c)(5), added subsec. (c).

1981—Pub. L. 97–22 designated existing provisions as subsec. (a) and added subsec. (b).

Effective Date of 2004 Amendment

Pub. L. 108–375, div. A, title V, §501(g), Oct. 28, 2004, 118 Stat. 1875, provided that:

“(1) Except as provided in paragraph (2), the amendments made by this section [enacting section 647 of this title, amending this section and sections 532, 619, 641, 1174, 2114, 12201, 12203, and 12731 of this title, and repealing section 522 of this title] shall take effect on the first day of the first month beginning more than 180 days after the date of the enactment of this Act [Oct. 28, 2004].

“(2) The amendment made by subsection (a)(1) [amending section 532 of this title] shall take effect on May 1, 2005.”

Effective Date

Chapter effective Sept. 15, 1981, but the authority to prescribe regulations under this chapter effective on Dec. 12, 1980, see section 701 of Pub. L. 96–513, set out as an Effective Date of 1980 Amendment note under section 101 of this title.

Transition Provisions Under Defense Officer Personnel Management Act

For provisions to prevent extinction or premature termination of rights, duties, penalties, or proceedings that existed or were begun prior to the effective date of Pub. L. 96–513 and otherwise to allow for an orderly transition to the system of officer personnel management put in place under Pub. L. 96–513, see section 601 et seq. of Pub. L. 96–513, set out as a note under section 611 of this title.

Program To Increase Use of Certain Nurses by Military Departments

Pub. L. 101–189, div. A, title VII, §708, Nov. 29, 1989, 103 Stat. 1475, provided that:

“(a) Program Required.—(1) Not later than September 30, 1991, the Secretary of each military department shall implement a program to appoint persons who have an associate degree or diploma in nursing (but have not received a baccalaureate degree in nursing) as officers and to assign such officers to duty as nurses.

“(2) An officer appointed pursuant to the program required by subsection (a) shall be appointed in a warrant officer grade or in a commissioned grade not higher than O–3. Such officer may not be promoted above the grade of O–3 unless the officer receives a baccalaureate degree in nursing.

“(b) Report on Implementation.—Not later than April 1, 1990, the Secretary of Defense shall submit to the Committees on Armed Services of the Senate and House of Representatives a report on the actions taken by the Secretaries of the military departments to implement the program required by this section.”

Ex. Ord. No. 13384. Assignment of Functions Relating to Original Appointments as Commissioned Officers and Chief Warrant Officer Appointments in the Armed Forces

Ex. Ord. No. 13384, July 27, 2005, 70 F.R. 43739, provided:

By the authority vested in me as President by the Constitution and the laws of the United States of America, including section 301 of title 3, United States Code, it is hereby ordered as follows:

Section 1. Assignment of Functions to the Secretary of Defense. The Secretary of Defense shall perform the functions of the President under the following provisions of title 10, United States Code:

(a) subsection 531(a)(1); and

(b) the second sentence of subsection 571(b).

Sec. 2. Reassignment of Functions Assigned. The Secretary of Defense may not reassign the functions assigned to him by this order.

Sec. 3. General Provisions. (a) Nothing in this order shall be construed to limit or otherwise affect the authority of the President as Commander in Chief of the Armed Forces of the United States, or under the Constitution and laws of the United States to nominate or to make or terminate appointments.

(b) This order is not intended to, and does not, create any right or benefit, substantive or procedural, enforceable at law or in equity by any party against the United States, its departments, agencies, entities, officers, employees or agents, or any other person.

George W. Bush.      

§532. Qualifications for original appointment as a commissioned officer

(a) Under regulations prescribed by the Secretary of Defense, an original appointment as a commissioned officer (other than as a commissioned warrant officer) in the Regular Army, Regular Navy, Regular Air Force, or Regular Marine Corps may be given only to a person who—

(1) is a citizen of the United States;

(2) is able to complete 20 years of active commissioned service before his sixty-second birthday;

(3) is of good moral character;

(4) is physically qualified for active service; and

(5) has such other special qualifications as the Secretary of the military department concerned may prescribe by regulation.


(b)(1) Original appointments in the Regular Army in the Medical Corps or Dental Corps, and original appointments in the Regular Air Force with a view to designation of an officer as a medical or dental officer, may be made in the grades of first lieutenant through colonel. Original appointments in the Regular Navy in the Medical Corps or Dental Corps may be made in the grades of lieutenant (junior grade) through captain. Such appointments may be made only from persons who are qualified doctors of medicine, osteopathy, or dentistry.

(2) To be eligible for an original appointment as a medical officer, a doctor of osteopathy must—

(A) be a graduate of a college of osteopathy whose graduates are eligible to be licensed to practice medicine or surgery in a majority of the States;

(B) be licensed to practice medicine, surgery, or osteopathy in a State or in the District of Columbia;

(C) under regulations prescribed by the Secretary of Defense, have completed a number of years of osteopathic and preosteopathic education equal to the number of years of medical and premedical education prescribed for persons entering recognized schools of medicine who become doctors of medicine and who would be qualified for an original appointment in the grade for which that person is being considered for appointment; and

(D) have such other qualifications as the Secretary of the military department concerned prescribes after considering the recommendations, if any, of the Surgeon General of the armed force concerned.


(c) Original appointments in the Regular Navy or Regular Marine Corps of officers designated for limited duty shall be made under section 5589 or 5596 of this title.

(d)(1) A person receiving an original appointment as a medical or dental officer, as a chaplain, or as an officer designated for limited duty in the Regular Navy or Regular Marine Corps is not subject to clause (2) of subsection (a).

(2) A commissioned officer appointed in a medical skill other than as a medical officer or dental officer (as defined in regulations prescribed by the Secretary of Defense) is not subject to clause (2) of subsection (a).

[(e) Repealed. Pub. L. 108–375, div. A, title V, §501(a)(1), Oct. 28, 2004, 118 Stat. 1872.]

(f) The Secretary of Defense may waive the requirement of paragraph (1) of subsection (a) with respect to a person who has been lawfully admitted to the United States for permanent residence, or for a United States national otherwise eligible for appointment as a cadet or midshipman under section 2107(a) of this title or as a cadet under section 2107a of this title, when the Secretary determines that the national security so requires, but only for an original appointment in a grade below the grade of major or lieutenant commander.

(Added Pub. L. 96–513, title I, §104(a), Dec. 12, 1980, 94 Stat. 2845; amended Pub. L. 97–22, §3(b), July 10, 1981, 95 Stat. 124; Pub. L. 97–295, §1(7), Oct. 12, 1982, 96 Stat. 1289; Pub. L. 102–190, div. A, title V, §501, Dec. 5, 1991, 105 Stat. 1354; Pub. L. 103–160, div. A, title V, §510, Nov. 30, 1993, 107 Stat. 1648; Pub. L. 108–375, div. A, title V, §501(a)(1)–(3)(A), Oct. 28, 2004, 118 Stat. 1872; Pub. L. 109–163, div. A, title V, §534(c), Jan. 6, 2006, 119 Stat. 3248; Pub. L. 111–383, div. A, title V, §501(a), Jan. 7, 2011, 124 Stat. 4206.)

Amendments

2011—Subsec. (d)(2). Pub. L. 111–383 struck out “reserve” before “commissioned officer”.

2006—Subsec. (f). Pub. L. 109–163 inserted “, or for a United States national otherwise eligible for appointment as a cadet or midshipman under section 2107(a) of this title or as a cadet under section 2107a of this title,” after “for permanent residence”.

2004—Subsec. (a)(2). Pub. L. 108–375, §501(a)(2), substituted “sixty-second birthday” for “fifty-fifth birthday”.

Subsec. (e). Pub. L. 108–375, §501(a)(1), struck out subsec. (e) which read as follows: “After September 30, 1996, no person may receive an original appointment as a commissioned officer in the Regular Army, Regular Navy, Regular Air Force, or Regular Marine Corps until that person has completed one year of service on active duty as a commissioned officer (other than a warrant officer) of a reserve component.”

Subsec. (f). Pub. L. 108–375, §501(a)(3)(A), added subsec. (f).

1993—Subsec. (d). Pub. L. 103–160 designated existing provisions as par. (1) and added par. (2).

1991—Subsec. (e). Pub. L. 102–190 added subsec. (e).

1982—Pub. L. 97–295 inserted “a” after “original appointment as” in section catchline.

1981—Subsec. (d). Pub. L. 97–22 substituted “medical or dental officer, as a chaplain, or as an officer designated for limited duty in the Regular Navy or Regular Marine Corps” for “medical officer or dental officer or as a chaplain”.

Effective Date of 2004 Amendment

Amendment by section 501(a)(1) of Pub. L. 108–375 effective on May 1, 2005, and amendment by section 501(a)(2), (3)(A) of Pub. L. 108–375 effective on the first day of the first month beginning more than 180 days after Oct. 28, 2004, see section 501(g) of Pub. L. 108–375, set out as a note under section 531 of this title.

Appointment of Citizens of Northern Mariana Islands as Commissioned Officers

Pub. L. 98–94, title X, §1006, Sept. 24, 1983, 97 Stat. 661, provided that a citizen of the Northern Mariana Islands who indicates in writing to a commissioned officer of the Armed Forces of the United States an intent to become a citizen, and not a national, of the United States, and who is otherwise qualified for military service under applicable laws and regulations, may be appointed as an officer in the Armed Forces of the United States, may be appointed or enrolled in the Senior Reserve Officers’ Training Corps program of any of the Armed Forces under chapter 103 of title 10, United States Code, and may be selected to be a participant in the Armed Forces Health Professions Scholarship program under chapter 105 of such title, and that this section shall expire upon the establishment of the Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands. The Commonwealth was established as of 12:01 a.m., Nov. 4, 1986, see section 2(a), (b) of Proc. No. 5564, set out as a note under section 1801 of Title 48, Territories and Insular Possessions.

§533. Service credit upon original appointment as a commissioned officer

(a)(1) For the purpose of determining the grade and rank within grade of a person receiving an original appointment in a commissioned grade (other than a warrant officer grade) in the Regular Army, Regular Navy, Regular Air Force, or Regular Marine Corps, such person shall be credited at the time of such appointment with any active commissioned service (other than service as a commissioned warrant officer) that he performed in any armed force, the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, or the Public Health Service before such appointment.

(2) The Secretary of Defense shall prescribe regulations, which shall apply uniformly among the Army, Navy, Air Force, and Marine Corps, to authorize the Secretary of the military department concerned to limit the amount of prior active commissioned service with which a person receiving an original appointment may be credited under paragraph (1), or to deny any such credit, in the case of a person who at the time of such appointment is credited with constructive service under subsection (b).

(b)(1) Under regulations prescribed by the Secretary of Defense, the Secretary of the military department concerned shall credit a person who is receiving an original appointment in a commissioned grade (other than a commissioned warrant officer grade) in the Regular Army, Regular Navy, Regular Air Force, or Regular Marine Corps and who has advanced education or training or special experience with constructive service for such education, training, or experience as follows:

(A) One year for each year of advanced education beyond the baccalaureate degree level, for persons appointed, designated, or assigned in officer categories requiring such advanced education or an advanced degree as a prerequisite for such appointment, designation, or assignment. In determining the number of years of constructive service to be credited under this clause to officers in any professional field, the Secretary concerned shall credit an officer with, but with not more than, the number of years of advanced education required by a majority of institutions that award degrees in that professional field for completion of the advanced education or award of the advanced degree.

(B)(i) Credit for any period of advanced education in a health profession (other than medicine and dentistry) beyond the baccalaureate degree level which exceeds the basic education criteria for appointment, designation, or assignment, if such advanced education will be directly used by the armed force concerned.

(ii) Credit for experience in a health profession (other than medicine or dentistry), if such experience will be directly used by the armed force concerned.

(C) Additional credit of (i) not more than one year for internship or equivalent graduate medical, dental, or other formal professional training required by the armed forces, and (ii) not more than one year for each additional year of such graduate-level training or experience creditable toward certification in a specialty required by the armed forces.

(D) Additional credit, in unusual cases, based on special experience in a particular field.

(E) Additional credit for experience as a physician or dentist, if appointed as a medical or dental officer in the Army or Navy or, in the case of the Air Force, with a view to designation as a medical or dental officer.


(2) Except as authorized by the Secretary concerned in individual cases and under regulations prescribed by the Secretary of Defense in the case of a medical or dental officer, the amount of constructive service credited an officer under this subsection may not exceed the amount required in order for the officer to be eligible for an original appointment in the grade of major in the Army, Air Force, or Marine Corps or lieutenant commander in the Navy.

(3) Constructive service credited an officer under this subsection is in addition to any service credited that officer under subsection (a) and shall be credited at the time of the original appointment of the officer.

(c) Constructive service credited an officer under subsection (b) shall be used only for determining the officer's—

(1) initial grade as a regular officer;

(2) rank in grade; and

(3) service in grade for promotion eligibility.


(d)(1) Constructive service may not be credited under subsection (b) for education, training, or experience obtained while serving as a commissioned officer (other than a warrant officer) on active duty or in an active status. However, in the case of an officer who completes advanced education or receives an advanced degree while on active duty or in an active status and in less than the number of years normally required to complete such advanced education or receive such advanced degree, constructive service may, subject to regulations prescribed under subsection (a)(2), be credited to the officer under subsection (b)(1)(A) to the extent that the number of years normally required to complete such advanced education or receive such advanced degree exceeds the actual number of years in which such advanced education or degree is obtained by the officer.

(2) A graduate of the United States Military Academy, the United States Naval Academy, or the United States Air Force Academy is not entitled to service credit under this section for service performed, or education, training, or experience obtained, before graduation from such Academy.

(e) If the Secretary of Defense determines that the number of qualified judge advocates serving on active duty in the Army, Navy, Air Force, or Marine Corps in grades below major or lieutenant commander is critically below the number needed by such armed force in such grades, he may authorize the Secretary of the military department concerned to credit any person receiving an original appointment in the Judge Advocate General's Corps of the Army or Navy, or any person receiving an original appointment in the Air Force or Marine Corps with a view to designation as a judge advocate, with a period of constructive service in such an amount (in addition to any period of service credited such person under subsection (b)(1)) as will result in the grade of such person being that of captain or, in the case of an officer of the Navy, lieutenant and the date of rank of such person being junior to that of all other officers of the same grade serving on active duty.

(f) A reserve officer (other than a warrant officer) who receives an original appointment as an officer (other than as a warrant officer) in the Regular Army, Regular Navy, Regular Air Force, or Regular Marine Corps shall—

(1) in the case of an officer on the active-duty list immediately before that appointment as a regular officer, be appointed in the same grade and with the same date of rank as the grade and date of rank held by the officer on the active-duty list immediately before the appointment; and

(2) in the case of an officer not on the active-duty list immediately before that appointment as a regular officer, be appointed in the same grade and with the same date of rank as the grade and date of rank which the officer would have held had the officer been serving on the active-duty list on the date of the appointment as a regular officer.

(Added Pub. L. 96–513, title I, §104(a), Dec. 12, 1980, 94 Stat. 2846; amended Pub. L. 97–22, §3(c), July 10, 1981, 95 Stat. 125; Pub. L. 98–94, title X, §1007(c)(1), Sept. 24, 1983, 97 Stat. 662; Pub. L. 100–180, div. A, title VII, §714(a), Dec. 4, 1987, 101 Stat. 1112; Pub. L. 103–160, div. A, title V, §509(a), Nov. 30, 1993, 107 Stat. 1647.)

Amendments

1993—Subsec. (b)(1)(A). Pub. L. 103–160, §509(a)(1), in second sentence, substituted “In determining” for “Except as provided in clause (E), in determining” and “advanced education required” for “postsecondary education in excess of four that are required”.

Subsec. (b)(1)(E), (F). Pub. L. 103–160, §509(a)(2), (3), redesignated subpar. (F) as (E) and struck out former subpar. (E) which read as follows: “Additional credit of one year for advanced education in a health profession if the number of years of baccalaureate education completed by 75 percent or more of the students entering advanced training in that health profession exceeds, by one or more, the minimum number of years of preprofessional education required by a majority of institutions which award degrees in that health profession. The percentage of such persons shall be computed on an annual basis for each health profession from the data for the year in which the person being appointed, designated, or assigned was admitted to a professional school. However, a person may not receive additional credit under this clause if the amount of his baccalaureate education does not exceed, by one or more, the minimum number of years of preprofessional education required by a majority of institutions which award degrees for that health profession, determined on the basis prescribed in the preceding sentence.”

1987—Subsec. (b)(1)(B). Pub. L. 100–180 designated existing provisions as cl. (i) and added cl. (ii).

1983—Subsec. (a)(1). Pub. L. 98–94 inserted “, the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, or the Public Health Service”.

1981—Subsec. (b)(1)(A). Pub. L. 97–22, §3(c)(1), inserted “, designated, or assigned” in first sentence after “persons appointed” and substituted “Except as provided in clause (E), in determining the number of years of constructive service to be credited under this clause to officers in any professional field, the Secretary concerned shall credit an officer with, but with not more than, the number of years of postsecondary education in excess of four that are required by a majority of institutions that award degrees in that professional field for completion of the advanced education or award of the advanced degree” for “(Except as provided in clause (E), in determining the years of constructive service under this clause, the Secretary concerned shall grant credit for only the number of years normally required to complete the advanced education or receive the advanced degree”.

Subsec. (b)(1)(B). Pub. L. 97–22, §3(c)(2), substituted “appointment, designation, or assignment, if such advanced education” for “appointment as an officer, if such advanced education”.

Subsec. (b)(1)(E). Pub. L. 97–22, §3(c)(3), substituted “person being appointed, designated, or assigned was admitted” for “person being appointed was admitted”.

Subsec. (d)(1). Pub. L. 97–22, §3(c)(4), inserted provision that, in the case of an officer who completes advanced education or receives an advanced degree while on active duty or in an active status and in less than the number of years normally required to complete such advanced education or receive such advanced degree, constructive service may, subject to regulations prescribed under subsection (a)(2), be credited to the officer under subsection (b)(1)(A) to the extent that the number of years normally required to complete such advanced education or receive such advanced degree exceeds the actual number of years in which such advanced education or degree is obtained by the officer.

Subsec. (f). Pub. L. 97–22, §3(c)(5), substituted “A reserve officer (other than a warrant officer) who receives an original appointment as an officer (other than as a warrant officer) in the Regular Army, Regular Navy, Regular Air Force, or Regular Marine Corps shall (1) in the case of an officer on the active-duty list immediately before that appointment as a regular officer, be appointed in the same grade and with the same date of rank as the grade and date of rank held by the officer on the active-duty list immediately before the appointment; and (2) in the case of an officer not on the active-duty list immediately before that appointment as a regular officer, be appointed in the same grade and with the same date of rank as the grade and date of rank which the officer would have held had the officer been serving on the active-duty list on the date of the appointment as a regular officer” for “An officer of a reserve component who receives an original appointment as an officer (other than a warrant officer) in the Regular Army, Regular Navy, Regular Air Force, or Regular Marine Corps shall be appointed in the grade and with the date of rank to which he would have been entitled had he been serving on active duty as an officer of a reserve component on the date of such original appointment as a regular officer”.

Ratification of Service Credit Awarded Prior to November 30, 1993

Pub. L. 103–160, div. A, title V, §509(e), Nov. 30, 1993, 107 Stat. 1648, provided that: “To the extent that service credit awarded before the date of the enactment of this Act [Nov. 30, 1993] under section 533, 3353, 5600, or 8353 of title 10, United States Code, based on advanced education in medicine or dentistry was awarded consistent with that section as amended by this section (whether or not properly awarded under that section as in effect before such amendment), the awarding of that service credit is hereby ratified.”

Transition Provision Under Defense Officer Personnel Management Act

For savings provision relating to constructive service previously granted, see section 625 of Pub. L. 96–513, set out as a note under section 611 of this title.

§541. Graduates of the United States Military, Naval, and Air Force Academies

(a) Notwithstanding any other provision of law, each cadet at the United States Military Academy or the United States Air Force Academy, and each midshipman at the United States Naval Academy, is entitled, before graduating from that Academy, to state his preference for appointment, upon graduation, as a commissioned officer in either the Army, Navy, Air Force, or Marine Corps.

(b) With the consent of the Secretary of the military department administering the Academy from which the cadet or midshipman is to be graduated, and of the Secretary of the military department having jurisdiction over the armed force for which that graduate stated his preference, the graduate is entitled to be accepted for appointment in that armed force. However, not more than 12½ percent of any graduating class at an Academy may be appointed in armed forces not under the jurisdiction of the military department administering that Academy.

(c) The Secretary of Defense shall, by regulation, provide for the equitable distribution of appointments in cases where more than 12½ percent of the graduating class of any Academy request appointment in armed forces not under the jurisdiction of the military department administering that Academy.

(Aug. 10, 1956, ch. 1041, 70A Stat. 19.)

Historical and Revision Notes
Revised sectionSource (U.S. Code)Source (Statutes at Large)
541(a) 10:1092c–1(a) (1st 59 words of 1st sentence). Apr. 1, 1954, ch. 127, §8, 68 Stat. 48.
  10:1856(a) (1st 59 words of 1st sentence).
  34:1057–1(a) (1st 59 words of 1st sentence).
541(b) 10:1092c–1(a) (1st sentence, less 1st 59 words).
  10:1856(a) (1st sentence, less 1st 59 words).
  34:1057–1(a) (1st sentence, less 1st 59 words).
541(c) 10:1092c–1 (less (a)).
  10:1856 (less (a)).
  34:1057–1 (less (a)).

In subsection (a), the words “is entitled * * * to” are substituted for the words “shall * * * be afforded an opportunity to”.

In subsection (b), the words “is entitled” are substituted for the word “shall”.

In subsection (c), the words “and fair” are omitted as surplusage. 10:1092c–1(c), 10:1856(c), and 34:1057–1(c) are omitted as covered by section 51(a) of the bill.

Effective Date

Section 52(a) of act Aug. 10, 1956, provided that: “Section 541 of title 10, United States Code, enacted by section 1 of this Act, takes effect (1) in the year in which the initial class graduates from the United States Air Force Academy, or (2) upon the rescission of the agreement under which graduates of the United States Military Academy and the United States Naval Academy may volunteer for appointment in the Air Force, whichever is earlier.”

Appointment of United States Military Academy Graduates in Air Force

Act Aug. 10, 1956, ch. 1041, §44, 70A Stat. 637, provided that a cadet who had graduated from the United States Military Academy could, upon graduation and before the effective date of section 541 of this title, be appointed a second lieutenant in the Regular Air Force, and set forth provisions relating to date of appointment, service credit, rank among graduates, and increase in authorized strength.

[§§555 to 565. Repealed. Pub. L. 102–190, div. A, title XI, §1112(a), Dec. 5, 1991, 105 Stat. 1492]

Section 555, acts Aug. 10, 1956, ch. 1041, 70A Stat. 20; Sept. 7, 1962, Pub. L. 87–649, §§6(f)(2), 14c(2), 76 Stat. 494, 501; July 30, 1977, Pub. L. 95–79, title III, §302(a)(4), 91 Stat. 326; Nov. 8, 1985, Pub. L. 99–145, title V, §531(a), title XIII, §1303(a)(5), 99 Stat. 633, 739, related to warrant officer grades. See section 571(a) and (b) of this title.

Section 556, act Aug. 10, 1956, ch. 1041, 70A Stat. 20, related to credit for service of persons originally appointed in regular warrant officer grades under section 555 of this title. See section 572 of this title.

Section 557, act Aug. 10, 1956, ch. 1041, 70A Stat. 20, related to qualifications for promotion of regular warrant officers.

Section 558, act Aug. 10, 1956, ch. 1041, 70A Stat. 20, related to appointment of selection boards to consider promotions of regular warrant officers. See section 573(a), (b), (e), and (f) of this title.

Section 559, act Aug. 10, 1956, ch. 1041, 70A Stat. 21, related to eligibility of regular warrant officers for promotion.

Section 560, acts Aug. 10, 1956, ch. 1041, 70A Stat. 21; Sept. 2, 1958, Pub. L. 85–861, §33(a)(3), 72 Stat. 1564, related to selection procedure for promotion of warrant officers. See section 576(a) to (e) of this title.

Section 561, act Aug. 10, 1956, ch. 1041, 70A Stat. 22, related to effect of failure of selection of regular warrant officers for promotion. See section 577 of this title.

Section 562, act Aug. 10, 1956, ch. 1041, 70A Stat. 22, related to disapproval of promotion of regular warrant officers by Secretary concerned, President, or Senate. See section 579 of this title.

Section 563, act Aug. 10, 1956, ch. 1041, 70A Stat. 22, related to effective date of promotion of regular warrant officer.

Section 564, acts Aug. 10, 1956, ch. 1041, 70A Stat. 22; Sept. 7, 1962, Pub. L. 87–649, §6(f)(3), 76 Stat. 494; Nov. 2, 1966, Pub. L. 89–718, §3, 80 Stat. 1115; Dec. 12, 1980, Pub. L. 96–513, title V, §501(6), 94 Stat. 2907, related to effect of second failure of promotion for regular warrant officers. See section 580(a) to (d) of this title.

Section 565, act Aug. 10, 1956, ch. 1041, 70A Stat. 24, related to suspension of laws for promotion or mandatory retirement or separation of regular warrant officers during war or emergency.

Effective Date of Repeal

Repeal effective Feb. 1, 1992, see section 1132 of Pub. L. 102–190, set out as an Effective Date of 1991 Amendment note under section 521 of this title.

Preservation of Existing Law for Coast Guard

Pub. L. 102–190, div. A, title XI, §1125(a), Dec. 5, 1991, 105 Stat. 1505, provided that sections 555 to 565 of this title, as in effect on the day before Feb. 1, 1992, would continue to apply to the Coast Guard on and after that date, prior to repeal by Pub. L. 103–337, div. A, title V, §541(f)(1), Oct. 5, 1994, 108 Stat. 2766.

CHAPTER 33A—APPOINTMENT, PROMOTION, AND INVOLUNTARY SEPARATION AND RETIREMENT FOR MEMBERS ON THE WARRANT OFFICER ACTIVE-DUTY LIST

Sec.
571.
Warrant officers: grades.
572.
Warrant officers: original appointment; service credit.
573.
Convening of selection boards.
574.
Warrant officer active-duty lists; competitive categories; number to be recommended for promotion; promotion zones.
575.
Recommendations for promotion by selection boards.
576.
Information to be furnished to selection boards; selection procedures.
577.
Promotions: effect of failure of selection for.
578.
Promotions: how made; effective date.
579.
Removal from a promotion list.
580.
Regular warrant officers twice failing of selection for promotion: involuntary retirement or separation.
580a.
Enhanced authority for selective early discharges.
581.
Selective retirement.
582.
Warrant officer active-duty list: exclusions.
583.
Definitions.

        

Amendments

1993—Pub. L. 103–160, div. A, title V, §504(b), Nov. 30, 1993, 107 Stat. 1645, added item 580a.

1992—Pub. L. 102–484, div. A, title X, §1052(6), Oct. 23, 1992, 106 Stat. 2499, inserted “to be” after “Information” in item 576 and substituted “Promotions:” for “Promotions;” in item 578.

§571. Warrant officers: grades

(a) The regular warrant officer grades in the armed forces corresponding to the pay grades prescribed for warrant officers by section 201(b) of title 37 are as follows:


Warrant officer grade:

Chief warrant officer, W–5.

Chief warrant officer, W–4.

Chief warrant officer, W–3.

Chief warrant officer, W–2.

Warrant officer, W–1.


(b) Appointments in the grade of regular warrant officer, W–1, shall be made by warrant, except that with respect to an armed force under the jurisdiction of the Secretary of a military department, the Secretary concerned may provide by regulation that appointments in that grade in that armed force shall be made by commission. Appointments in regular chief warrant officer grades shall be made by commission by the President, and appointments (whether by warrant or commission) in the grade of regular warrant officer, W–1, shall be made by the President, except that appointments in that grade in the Coast Guard shall be made by the Secretary concerned.

(c) An appointment may not be made in any of the armed forces in the regular warrant officer grade of chief warrant officer, W–5, if the appointment would result in more than 5 percent of the warrant officers of that armed force on active duty being in the grade of chief warrant officer, W–5. In computing the limitation prescribed in the preceding sentence, there shall be excluded warrant officers described in section 582 of this title.

(Added Pub. L. 102–190, div. A, title XI, §1112(a), Dec. 5, 1991, 105 Stat. 1493; amended Pub. L. 102–484, div. A, title X, §1052(2), Oct. 23, 1992, 106 Stat. 2499; Pub. L. 103–337, div. A, title V, §541(a)(2), Oct. 5, 1994, 108 Stat. 2764; Pub. L. 111–383, div. A, title V, §502(a), Jan. 7, 2011, 124 Stat. 4207.)

Prior Provisions

Provisions similar to those in this section were contained in section 555 of this title prior to repeal by Pub. L. 102–190, §1112(a).

Amendments

2011—Subsec. (b). Pub. L. 111–383 substituted “, except that with respect to an armed force under the jurisdiction of the Secretary of a military department, the Secretary concerned may provide by regulation that appointments in that grade in that armed force shall be made by commission” for “by the Secretary concerned” and inserted “, and appointments (whether by warrant or commission) in the grade of regular warrant officer, W–1, shall be made by the President, except that appointments in that grade in the Coast Guard shall be made by the Secretary concerned” after “commission by the President”.

1994—Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 103–337 substituted “armed forces” for “Army, Navy, Air Force, and Marine Corps”.

1992—Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 102–484 inserted a period at end of each item in table.

Effective Date of 1994 Amendment

Section 541(h) of Pub. L. 103–337 provided that: “This section [enacting section 215 of Title 14, Coast Guard, amending this section, sections 573 to 576, 580, 580a, 581, and 583 of this title, and sections 41, 214, 286a, and 334 of Title 14, repealing sections 212 and 213 of Title 14, enacting provisions set out as notes under this section, and repealing a provision set out as a note under former section 555 of this title] and the amendments made by this section shall take effect on the first day of the fourth month beginning after the date of the enactment of this Act [Oct. 5, 1994].”

Effective Date

Chapter effective Feb. 1, 1992, see section 1132 of Pub. L. 102–190, set out as an Effective Date of 1991 Amendment note under section 521 of this title.

Short Title

Section 1101 of title XI of Pub. L. 102–190 provided that: “This title [enacting this chapter and section 742 of this title, amending sections 521, 522, 597, 598 [now 12242], 603, 628, 644, 741, 1166, 1174, 1305, 1406, 5414, 5457, 5458, 5501 to 5503, 5596, 5600, 5665, 6389, and 6391 of this title, sections 286a and 334 of Title 14, Coast Guard, and sections 201, 301, 301c, 305a, and 406 of Title 37, Pay and Allowances of the Uniformed Services, repealing sections 555 to 565, 602, and 745 of this title, and enacting provisions set out as notes under this section, sections 521 and 555 of this title, and section 1009 of Title 37] may be cited as the ‘Warrant Officer Management Act’.”

Transition and Savings Provisions

Section 541(c), (d) of Pub. L. 103–337, as amended by Pub. L. 104–106, div. A, title XV, §1504(a)(3), Feb. 10, 1996, 110 Stat. 513, provided that:

“(c) Transition for Certain Regular Warrant Officers Serving in a Higher Temporary Grade Below Chief Warrant Officer, W–5.—(1) A regular warrant officer of the Coast Guard who on the effective date of this section [see Effective Date of 1994 Amendment note above] is on active duty and—

“(A) is serving in a temporary grade below chief warrant officer, W–5, that is higher than that warrant officer's permanent grade;

“(B) is on a list of officers recommended for promotion to a temporary grade below chief warrant officer, W–5; or

“(C) is on a list of officers recommended for promotion to a permanent grade higher than the grade in which that warrant officer is serving;

shall be considered to have been recommended by a board convened under section 573 of title 10, United States Code, as amended by subsection (b), for promotion to the permanent grade equivalent to the grade in which that warrant officer is serving or for which that warrant officer has been recommended for promotion, as the case may be.

“(2) An officer referred to in subparagraph (A) of paragraph (1) who is not promoted to the grade to which that warrant officer is considered under such subsection to have been recommended for promotion because that officer's name is removed from a list of officers who are considered under such paragraph to have been recommended for promotion shall be considered by a board convened under section 573 of title 10, United States Code, as amended by subsection (b), for promotion to the permanent grade equivalent to the temporary grade in which that warrant officer was serving on the effective date of this section as if that warrant officer were serving in the permanent grade.

“(3) The date of rank of an officer referred to in paragraph (1)(A) who is promoted to the grade in which that warrant officer is serving on the effective date of this section is the date of that officer's temporary appointment in that grade.

“(d) Transition for Certain Reserve Warrant Officers Serving in a Higher Temporary Grade Below Chief Warrant Officer, W–5.—(1)(A) Except as provided in paragraph (2), a reserve warrant officer of the Coast Guard who on the effective date of this section [see Effective Date of 1994 Amendment note above] is subject to placement on the warrant officer active-duty list and who—

“(i) is serving in a temporary grade below chief warrant officer, W–5, that is higher than that warrant officer's permanent grade; or

“(ii) is on a list of warrant officers recommended for promotion to a temporary grade below chief warrant officer, W–5, that is the same as or higher than that warrant officer's permanent grade;

shall be considered to have been recommended by a board convened under section 598 [now 12242] of title 10, United States Code, for promotion to the permanent grade equivalent to the grade in which the warrant officer is serving or for which that warrant officer has been recommended for promotion, as the case may be.

“(B) The date of rank of a warrant officer referred to in subparagraph (A)(i) who is promoted to the grade in which that warrant officer is considered under such subparagraph to have been recommended for promotion is the date of the temporary appointment of that warrant officer in that grade.

“(2) A reserve warrant officer of the Coast Guard who on the effective date of this section—

“(A) is subject to placement on the warrant officer active-duty list;

“(B) is serving on active duty in a temporary grade; and

“(C) holds a permanent grade higher than the temporary grade in which that warrant officer is serving;

shall while continuing on active duty retain such temporary grade and shall be considered for promotion to a grade equal to or lower than the permanent grade as if such temporary grade is a permanent grade. If such warrant officer is recommended for promotion, the appointment of that warrant officer to such grade shall be a temporary appointment.”

Part B (§§1121–1124) of title XI of Pub. L. 102–190 provided that:

“SEC. 1121. TRANSITION FOR CERTAIN REGULAR WARRANT OFFICERS SERVING IN A HIGHER TEMPORARY GRADE BELOW CHIEF WARRANT OFFICER, W–5.

“(a) Certain Officers To Be Considered as Recommended for Promotion.—A regular warrant officer of the Armed Forces (other than the Coast Guard) who on the effective date of this title [Feb. 1, 1992] is on active duty and—

“(1) is serving in a temporary grade below chief warrant officer, W–5, that is higher than his permanent grade;

“(2) is on a list of officers recommended for promotion to a temporary grade below chief warrant officer, W–5; or

“(3) is on a list of officers recommended for promotion to a permanent grade higher than the grade in which he is serving;

shall be considered to have been recommended by a board convened under section 573 of title 10, United States Code, as added by this title, for promotion to the permanent grade equivalent to the grade in which he is serving or for which he has been recommended for promotion, as the case may be.

“(b) Board Consideration for Officers Removed From Promotion List.—An officer referred to in paragraph (1) of subsection (a) who is not promoted to the grade to which he is considered under such subsection to have been recommended for promotion because his name is removed from a list of officers who are considered under such paragraph to have been recommended for promotion shall be considered by a board convened under section 573 of title 10, United States Code, as amended by this title, for promotion to the permanent grade equivalent to the temporary grade in which he was serving on the effective date of this title as if he were serving in his permanent grade.

“(c) Date of Rank.—The date of rank of an officer referred to in subsection (a)(1) who is promoted to the grade in which he is serving on the effective date of this title is the date of his temporary appointment in that grade.

“SEC. 1122. TRANSITION FOR CERTAIN RESERVE WARRANT OFFICERS SERVING IN A HIGHER TEMPORARY GRADE BELOW CHIEF WARRANT OFFICER, W–5.

“(a) Certain Officers To Be Considered as Recommended for Promotion.—(1) Except as provided in subsection (b), a reserve warrant officer of the Armed Forces (other than the Coast Guard) who on the effective date of this title [Feb. 1, 1992] is subject to placement on the warrant officer active-duty list and who—

“(A) is serving in a temporary grade below chief warrant officer, W–5, that is higher than his permanent grade; or

“(B) is on a list of warrant officers recommended for promotion to a temporary grade below chief warrant officer, W–5, that is the same as or higher than his permanent grade;

shall be considered to have been recommended by a board convened under section 598 [now 12242] of title 10, United States Code, for promotion to the permanent grade equivalent to the grade in which he is serving or for which he has been recommended for promotion, as the case may be.

“(2) The date of rank of a warrant officer referred to in paragraph (1)(A) who is promoted to the grade in which he is considered under such paragraph to have been recommended for promotion is the date of his temporary appointment in that grade.

“(b) Reserves on Active Duty.—A reserve warrant officer who on the effective date of this title—

“(1) is subject to placement on the warrant officer active-duty list;

“(2) is serving on active duty in a temporary grade; and

“(3) holds a permanent grade higher than the temporary grade in which he is serving,

shall while continuing on active duty retain such temporary grade and shall be considered for promotion to a grade equal to or lower than his permanent grade as if such temporary grade is a permanent grade. If such warrant officer is recommended for promotion, his appointment to such grade shall be a temporary appointment.

“SEC. 1123. CONTINUATION OF CERTAIN TEMPORARY APPOINTMENTS OF NAVY AND MARINE CORPS WARRANT OFFICERS.

“A warrant officer of the Navy or Marine Corps who, on the effective date of this title [Feb. 1, 1992], is subject to placement on the warrant officer active-duty list and who—

“(1) was appointed as a temporary warrant officer under section 5596 of title 10, United States Code, and

“(2) has retained a permanent enlisted status,

shall, while continuing on active duty, retain such temporary status and grade. Such an officer shall be considered for promotion to a higher warrant officer grade under this title [see Short Title note above] as if that temporary grade is a permanent grade. If the officer is recommended for promotion, the officer's appointment to that grade shall be a temporary appointment.

“SEC. 1124. SAVINGS PROVISION FOR CERTAIN REGULAR ARMY WARRANT OFFICERS FACING MANDATORY RETIREMENT FOR LENGTH OF SERVICE.

“(a) Savings Provision.—Subject to subsection (b), a regular warrant officer of the Army who on the effective date of this title [Feb. 1, 1992]—

“(1) is a permanent regular chief warrant officer; or

“(2) is on a list of officers recommended for promotion to a regular chief warrant officer grade,

may be retained on active duty until he completes 30 years of active service or 24 years of active warrant officer service, whichever is later, that could be credited to him under section 511 of the Career Compensation Act of 1949 (70 Stat. 114) [act Oct. 12, 1949, formerly set out as a note under section 580 of this title] (as in effect on the day before the effective date of this part [Feb. 1, 1992]), and then be retired under the appropriate provision of title 10, United States Code, on the first day of the month after the month in which he completes that service.

“(b) Exceptions.—Subsection (a) does not apply to a regular warrant officer who—

“(1) is sooner retired or separated under another provision of law;

“(2) is promoted to the regular grade of chief warrant officer, W–5; or

“(3) is continued on active duty under section 580(e) of title 10, United States Code, as added by this title.”

Delegation of Functions

Functions of President under second sentence of subsec. (b) of this section delegated to Secretary of Defense by section 1(b) of Ex. Ord. No. 13384, July 27, 2005, 70 F.R. 43739, set out as a note under section 531 of this title.

Establishment of Permanent Grade of Chief Warrant Officer, W–5

Section 541(a)(1) of Pub. L. 103–337 provided that: “The grade of chief warrant officer, W–5, is hereby established in the Coast Guard.”

[For transfer of authorities, functions, personnel, and assets of the Coast Guard, including the authorities and functions of the Secretary of Transportation relating thereto, to the Department of Homeland Security, and for treatment of related references, see sections 468(b), 551(d), 552(d), and 557 of Title 6, Domestic Security, and the Department of Homeland Security Reorganization Plan of November 25, 2002, as modified, set out as a note under section 542 of Title 6.]

Section 1111(a) of Pub. L. 102–190 provided that: “The grade of chief warrant officer, W–5, is hereby established in the Army, Navy, Air Force, and Marine Corps.”

§572. Warrant officers: original appointment; service credit

For the purposes of promotion, persons originally appointed in regular or reserve warrant officer grades shall be credited with such service as the Secretary concerned may prescribe. However, such a person may not be credited with a period of service greater than the period of active service performed in the grade, or pay grade corresponding to the grade, in which so appointed, or in any higher grade or pay grade.

(Added Pub. L. 102–190, div. A, title XI, §1112(a), Dec. 5, 1991, 105 Stat. 1493.)

Prior Provisions

Provisions similar to those in this section were contained in section 556 of this title prior to repeal by Pub. L. 102–190, §1112(a).

§573. Convening of selection boards

(a)(1) Whenever the Secretary concerned determines that the needs of the service so require, he shall convene a selection board to recommend for promotion to the next higher warrant officer grade warrant officers on the warrant officer active-duty list who are in the grade of chief warrant officer, W–2, chief warrant officer, W–3, or chief warrant officer, W–4.

(2) Warrant officers serving on the warrant officer active-duty list in the grade of warrant officer, W–1, shall be promoted to the grade of chief warrant officer, W–2, in accordance with regulations prescribed by the Secretary concerned. Such regulations shall require that an officer have served not less than 18 months on active duty in the grade of warrant officer, W–1, before promotion to the grade of warrant officer, W–2.

(b) A selection board shall consist of five or more officers who are on the active-duty list of the same armed force as the warrant officers under consideration by the board. At least five members of a selection board must be serving in a permanent grade above major or lieutenant commander. The Secretary concerned may appoint warrant officers, senior in grade to those under consideration, as additional members of the selection board. If warrant officers are appointed members of the selection board and if competitive categories have been established by the Secretary under section 574(b) of this title, at least one must be appointed from each warrant officer competitive category under consideration by the board, unless there is an insufficient number of warrant officers in the competitive category concerned who are senior in grade to those under consideration and qualified, as determined by the Secretary concerned, to be appointed as additional members of the board.

(c) The Secretary concerned may convene selection boards to recommend regular warrant officers for continuation on active duty under section 580 of this title and for retirement under section 581 of this title.

(d) When reserve warrant officers of one of the armed forces are to be considered by a selection board convened under subsection (a), the membership of the board shall, if practicable, include at least one reserve officer of that armed force, with the exact number of reserve officers to be determined by the Secretary concerned.

(e) No officer may serve on two consecutive boards under this section, if the second board considers any warrant officer who was considered by the first board.

(f) The Secretary concerned shall prescribe all other matters relating to the functions and duties of the boards, including the number of members constituting a quorum, and instructions concerning notice of convening of boards and communications with boards.

(Added Pub. L. 102–190, div. A, title XI, §1112(a), Dec. 5, 1991, 105 Stat. 1493; amended Pub. L. 103–337, div. A, title V, §541(b)(1), Oct. 5, 1994, 108 Stat. 2764; Pub. L. 104–106, div. A, title XV, §1503(a)(5), Feb. 10, 1996, 110 Stat. 511.)

Prior Provisions

Provisions similar to those in this section were contained in section 558 of this title prior to repeal by Pub. L. 102–190, §1112(a).

Amendments

1996—Subsec. (a)(2). Pub. L. 104–106 substituted “active-duty list” for “active duty list”.

1994—Subsec. (a)(1). Pub. L. 103–337, §541(b)(1)(A), substituted “Secretary concerned” for “Secretary of a military department”.

Subsec. (a)(2). Pub. L. 103–337, §541(b)(1)(B), struck out “of the military department” after “Secretary”.

Effective Date of 1994 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 103–337 effective on the first day of the fourth month beginning after Oct. 5, 1994, see section 541(h) of Pub. L. 103–337, set out as a note under section 571 of this title.

§574. Warrant officer active-duty lists; competitive categories; number to be recommended for promotion; promotion zones

(a) The Secretary concerned shall maintain for each armed force under the jurisdiction of that Secretary a single list of all warrant officers (other than warrant officers described in section 582 of this title) who are on active duty.

(b) The Secretary concerned may establish competitive categories for promotion. Warrant officers in the same competitive category shall compete among themselves for promotion.

(c) Before convening a selection board under section 573 of this title, the Secretary concerned shall determine for each grade (or grade and competitive category) to be considered by the board the following:

(1) The maximum number of warrant officers to be recommended for promotion.

(2) A promotion zone for warrant officers on the warrant officer active-duty list.


(d) The position of a warrant officer on the warrant officer active-duty list shall be determined as follows:

(1) Warrant officers shall be carried in the order of seniority of the grade in which they are serving on active duty.

(2) Warrant officers serving in the same grade shall be carried in the order of their rank in that grade.

(3) A warrant officer on the warrant officer active-duty list who receives a temporary appointment or a temporary assignment in a grade other than a warrant officer grade or chief warrant officer grade shall retain his position on the warrant officer active-duty list while so serving.


(e) A chief warrant officer may not be considered for promotion to the next higher grade under this chapter until the officer has completed two years of service on active duty in the grade in which the officer is serving.

(Added Pub. L. 102–190, div. A, title XI, §1112(a), Dec. 5, 1991, 105 Stat. 1494; amended Pub. L. 102–484, div. A, title X, §1052(3), Oct. 23, 1992, 106 Stat. 2499; Pub. L. 103–337, div. A, title V, §541(b)(2), Oct. 5, 1994, 108 Stat. 2764; Pub. L. 104–201, div. A, title V, §506(a), Sept. 23, 1996, 110 Stat. 2512.)

Amendments

1996—Subsec. (e). Pub. L. 104–201 substituted “two years of service” for “three years of service”.

1994—Subsecs. (a), (b). Pub. L. 103–337 substituted “Secretary concerned” for “Secretary of each military department”.

1992—Subsec. (d)(3). Pub. L. 102–484 substituted “active-duty list” for “active duty list” before “while”.

Effective Date of 1994 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 103–337 effective on the first day of the fourth month beginning after Oct. 5, 1994, see section 541(h) of Pub. L. 103–337, set out as a note under section 571 of this title.

§575. Recommendations for promotion by selection boards

(a) A selection board convened under section 573(a) of this title shall recommend for promotion to the next higher grade those warrant officers considered by the board whom the board, giving due consideration to the needs of the armed force concerned for warrant officers with particular skills, considers best qualified for promotion within each grade (or grade and competitive category) considered by the board.

(b)(1) In the case of a selection board to consider warrant officers for selection for promotion to the grade of chief warrant officer, W–3, chief warrant officer, W–4, or chief warrant officer, W–5, the Secretary concerned shall establish the number of warrant officers that the selection board may recommend from among warrant officers being considered from below the promotion zone within each grade (or grade and competitive category). The number of warrant officers recommended for promotion from below the promotion zone does not increase the maximum number of warrant officers which the board is authorized under section 574 of this title to recommend for promotion.

(2) The number of officers recommended for promotion from below the promotion zone may not exceed 10 percent of the total number recommended, except that the Secretary of Defense and the Secretary of Homeland Security, when the Coast Guard is not operating as a service in the Navy, may authorize such percentage to be increased to not more than 15 percent. If the number determined under this subsection with respect to a promotion zone within a grade (or grade and competitive category) is less than one, the board may recommend one such officer for promotion from below the zone within that grade (or grade and competitive category).

(c) A selection board convened under section 573(a) of this title may not recommend a warrant officer for promotion unless—

(1) the officer receives the recommendation of a majority of the members of the board; and

(2) a majority of the members of the board find that the officer is fully qualified for promotion.


(d) Each time a selection board is convened under section 573(a) of this title to consider warrant officers in a competitive category for promotion to the next higher grade, each warrant officer in the promotion zone, and each warrant officer above the promotion zone, for the grade and competitive category under consideration (except for a warrant officer precluded from consideration under regulations prescribed by the Secretary concerned under section 577 of this title) shall be considered for promotion.

(Added Pub. L. 102–190, div. A, title XI, §1112(a), Dec. 5, 1991, 105 Stat. 1495; amended Pub. L. 103–337, div. A, title V, §§501(a), 541(b)(3), Oct. 5, 1994, 108 Stat. 2748, 2764; Pub. L. 104–201, div. A, title V, §506(b), Sept. 23, 1996, 110 Stat. 2512; Pub. L. 106–65, div. A, title V, §505, Oct. 5, 1999, 113 Stat. 591; Pub. L. 107–296, title XVII, §1704(b)(1), Nov. 25, 2002, 116 Stat. 2314.)

Amendments

2002—Subsec. (b)(2). Pub. L. 107–296 substituted “of Homeland Security” for “of Transportation”.

1999—Subsec. (b)(2). Pub. L. 106–65 inserted at end “If the number determined under this subsection with respect to a promotion zone within a grade (or grade and competitive category) is less than one, the board may recommend one such officer for promotion from below the zone within that grade (or grade and competitive category).”

1996—Subsec. (b)(1). Pub. L. 104–201 inserted “chief warrant officer, W–3,” after “promotion to the grade of” in first sentence.

1994—Subsec. (b)(2). Pub. L. 103–337, §541(b)(3), inserted “and the Secretary of Transportation, when the Coast Guard is not operating as a service in the Navy,” after “Secretary of Defense”.

Subsec. (d). Pub. L. 103–337, §501(a), inserted “(except for a warrant officer precluded from consideration under regulations prescribed by the Secretary concerned under section 577 of this title)” after “under consideration”.

Effective Date of 2002 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 107–296 effective on the date of transfer of the Coast Guard to the Department of Homeland Security, see section 1704(g) of Pub. L. 107–296, set out as a note under section 101 of this title.

Effective Date of 1994 Amendment

Amendment by section 541(b)(3) of Pub. L. 103–337 effective on the first day of the fourth month beginning after Oct. 5, 1994, see section 541(h) of Pub. L. 103–337, set out as a note under section 571 of this title.

§576. Information to be furnished to selection boards; selection procedures

(a) The Secretary concerned shall furnish to each selection board convened under section 573 of this title the following:

(1) The maximum number of warrant officers that may be recommended for promotion from those serving in any grade (or grade and competitive category) to be considered, as determined in accordance with section 574 of this title.

(2) The names and pertinent records of all officers in each grade (or grade and competitive category) to be considered.

(3) Such information or guidelines relating to the needs of the armed force concerned for warrant officers having particular skills, including guidelines or information relating to the need for either a minimum number or a maximum number of officers with particular skills within a grade or competitive category, as the Secretary concerned determines to be relevant in relation to the requirements of that armed force.


(b) From each promotion zone for a grade (or grade and competitive category), the selection board shall recommend for promotion to the next higher warrant officer grade those warrant officers whom it considers best qualified for promotion, but no more than the number specified by the Secretary concerned.

(c) The names of warrant officers selected for promotion under this section shall be arranged in the board's report in order of the seniority on the warrant officer active-duty list.

(d) Under such regulations as the Secretary concerned may prescribe, the selection board shall report the names of those warrant officers considered by it whose records establish, in its opinion, their unfitness or unsatisfactory performance. A regular warrant officer whose name is so reported shall be considered, under regulations provided by the Secretary concerned, for retirement or separation under section 1166 of this title.

(e) The report of the selection board shall be submitted to the Secretary concerned. The Secretary may approve or disapprove all or part of the report.

(f)(1) Upon receipt of the report of a selection board submitted to him under subsection (e), the Secretary concerned shall review the report to determine whether the board has acted contrary to law or regulation or to guidelines furnished the board under this section.

(2) If, on the basis of a review of the report under paragraph (1), the Secretary concerned determines that the board acted contrary to law or regulation or to guidelines furnished the board under this section, the Secretary shall return the report, together with a written explanation of the basis for such determination, to the board for further proceedings. Upon receipt of a report returned by the Secretary concerned under this paragraph, the selection board (or a subsequent selection board convened under section 573 of this title for the same grade and competitive category) shall conduct such proceedings as may be necessary in order to revise the report to be consistent with law, regulation, and such guidelines and shall resubmit the report, as revised, to the Secretary in accordance with subsection (e).

(Added Pub. L. 102–190, div. A, title XI, §1112(a), Dec. 5, 1991, 105 Stat. 1496; amended Pub. L. 103–337, div. A, title V, §§501(b), 541(b)(4), Oct. 5, 1994, 108 Stat. 2748, 2764.)

Prior Provisions

Provisions similar to those in this section were contained in section 560 of this title prior to repeal by Pub. L. 102–190, §1112(a).

Amendments

1994—Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 103–337, §541(b)(4)(A), struck out “of the military department” after “The Secretary” in introductory provisions.

Subsec. (e). Pub. L. 103–337, §541(b)(4)(B), struck out “of the military department” after “submitted to the Secretary”.

Subsec. (f)(1). Pub. L. 103–337, §501(b), struck out after first sentence “Following such review, unless the Secretary concerned makes a determination as described in paragraph (2), the Secretary shall submit the report as required by subsection (e).”

Subsec. (f)(2). Pub. L. 103–337, §541(b)(4)(C), struck out “of the military department” after “paragraph (1), the Secretary”.

Effective Date of 1994 Amendment

Amendment by section 541(b)(4) of Pub. L. 103–337 effective on the first day of the fourth month beginning after Oct. 5, 1994, see section 541(h) of Pub. L. 103–337, set out as a note under section 571 of this title.

§577. Promotions: effect of failure of selection for

A warrant officer who has been considered for promotion by a selection board convened under section 573 of this title, but not selected, shall be considered for promotion by each subsequent selection board that considers officers in his grade (or grade and competitive category) until he is retired or separated or he is selected for promotion. However, the Secretary concerned may, by regulation, preclude from consideration by a selection board by which he would otherwise be eligible to be considered, a warrant officer who has an established separation date that is within 90 days after the date on which the board is convened.

(Added Pub. L. 102–190, div. A, title XI, §1112(a), Dec. 5, 1991, 105 Stat. 1497.)

Prior Provisions

Provisions similar to those in this section were contained in section 561 of this title prior to repeal by Pub. L. 102–190, §1112(a).

§578. Promotions: how made; effective date

(a) When the report of a selection board convened under this chapter is approved by the Secretary concerned, the Secretary shall place the names of the warrant officers approved for promotion on a single promotion list for each grade (or grade and competitive category), in the order of the seniority of such officers on the warrant officer active-duty list.

(b) Promotions of warrant officers on the warrant officer promotion list shall be made when, in accordance with regulations issued by the Secretary concerned, additional warrant officers in that grade (or grade and competitive category), are needed.

(c) A regular warrant officer who is promoted is appointed in the regular grade to which promoted, and a reserve warrant officer who is promoted is appointed in the reserve grade to which promoted. The date of appointment in that grade and date of rank shall be prescribed by the Secretary concerned. A warrant officer is entitled to the pay and allowances for the grade to which appointed from the date specified in the appointment order.

(d) Promotions shall be made in the order in which the names of warrant officers appear on the promotion list and after warrant officers previously selected for promotion in the applicable grade (or grade and competitive category) have been promoted.

(e) A warrant officer who is appointed to a higher grade under this section is considered to have accepted such appointment on the date on which the appointment is made unless the officer expressly declines the appointment.

(f) A warrant officer who has served continuously as an officer since subscribing to the oath of office prescribed in section 3331 of title 5 is not required to take a new oath upon appointment to a higher grade under this section.

(Added Pub. L. 102–190, div. A, title XI, §1112(a), Dec. 5, 1991, 105 Stat. 1497; amended Pub. L. 102–484, div. A, title X, §1052(4), Oct. 23, 1992, 106 Stat. 2499; Pub. L. 103–337, div. A, title V, §501(c), Oct. 5, 1994, 108 Stat. 2748.)

Amendments

1994—Subsecs. (e), (f). Pub. L. 103–337 added subsecs. (e) and (f).

1992—Pub. L. 102–484 substituted “Promotions:” for “Promotions;” in section catchline.

§579. Removal from a promotion list

(a) The name of a warrant officer recommended for promotion by a selection board convened under this chapter may be removed from the report of the selection board by the President.

(b) The Secretary concerned may remove the name of a warrant officer who is on a promotion list as a result of being recommended for promotion by a selection board convened under this chapter at any time before the promotion is effective.

(c) An officer whose name is removed from the list of officers recommended for promotion by a selection board continues to be eligible for consideration for promotion.

(d) If the next selection board that considers the warrant officer for promotion under this chapter selects the warrant officer for promotion and the warrant officer is promoted, the Secretary concerned may, upon his promotion, grant him the same effective date for pay and allowances and the same date of rank, and the same position on the warrant officer active-duty list as the warrant officer would have had if his name had not been so removed.

(e) If the next selection board does not select the warrant officer for promotion, or if his name is again removed under subsection (a) from the list of officers recommended for promotion by the selection board or under subsection (b) from the warrant officer promotion list, he shall be treated for all purposes as if he has twice failed of selection for promotion.

(Added Pub. L. 102–190, div. A, title XI, §1112(a), Dec. 5, 1991, 105 Stat. 1497.)

Prior Provisions

Provisions similar to those in this section were contained in section 562 of this title prior to repeal by Pub. L. 102–190, §1112(a).

§580. Regular warrant officers twice failing of selection for promotion: involuntary retirement or separation

(a)(1) Unless retired or separated sooner under some other provision of law, a regular chief warrant officer who has twice failed of selection for promotion to the next higher regular warrant officer grade shall be retired under paragraph (2) or (3) or separated from active duty under paragraph (4).

(2) If a warrant officer described in paragraph (1) has more than 20 years of creditable active service on (A) the date on which the Secretary concerned approves the report of the board under section 576(e) of this title, or (B) the date on which his name was removed from the recommended list under section 579 of this title, whichever applies, the warrant officer shall be retired. The date of such retirement shall be not later than the first day of the seventh calendar month beginning after the applicable date under the preceding sentence, except as provided by section 8301 of title 5. A warrant officer retired under this paragraph shall receive retired pay computed under section 1401 of this title.

(3) If a warrant officer described in paragraph (1) has at least 18 but not more than 20 years of creditable active service on (A) the date on which the Secretary concerned approves the report of the board under section 576(e) of this title, or (B) the date on which his name was removed from the recommended list under section 579 of this title, whichever applies, the warrant officer shall be retired not later than the date determined under the next sentence unless he is selected for promotion to the next higher regular warrant officer grade before that date. The date of the retirement of a warrant officer under the preceding sentence shall be on a date specified by the Secretary concerned, but not later than the first day of the seventh calendar month beginning after the date upon which he completes 20 years of active service, except as provided by section 8301 of title 5. A warrant officer retired under this paragraph shall receive retired pay computed under section 1401 of this title.

(4)(A) If a warrant officer described in paragraph (1) has less than 18 years of creditable active service on (i) the date on which the Secretary concerned approves the report of the board under section 576(e) of this title, or (ii) the date on which his name was removed from the recommended list under section 579 of this title, whichever applies, the warrant officer shall be separated (except as provided in subparagraph (C)). The date of such separation shall be not later than the first day of the seventh calendar month beginning after the applicable date under the preceding sentence.

(B) A warrant officer separated under this paragraph shall receive separation pay computed under section 1174 of this title, or severance pay computed under section 286a of title 14, as appropriate, except in a case in which—

(i) upon his request and in the discretion of the Secretary concerned, he is enlisted in the grade prescribed by the Secretary; or

(ii) he is serving on active duty in a grade above chief warrant officer, W–5, and he elects, with the consent of the Secretary concerned, to remain on active duty in that status.


(C) If on the date on which a warrant officer is to be separated under subparagraph (A) the warrant officer has at least 18 years of creditable active service, the warrant officer shall be retained on active duty until retired under paragraph (3) in the same manner as if the warrant officer had had at least 18 years of service on the applicable date under subparagraph (A) or (B) of that paragraph.

(5) A warrant officer who is subject to retirement or discharge under this subsection is not eligible for further consideration for promotion.

(6) In this subsection, the term “creditable active service” means active service that could be credited to a warrant officer under section 511 of the Career Compensation Act of 1949, as amended (70 Stat. 114).

(b) The Secretary concerned may defer, for not more than four months, the retirement or separation under this section of a warrant officer if, because of unavoidable circumstances, evaluation of his physical condition and determination of his entitlement to retirement or separation for physical disability require hospitalization or medical observation that cannot be completed before the date on which he would otherwise be required to retire or be separated under this section.

(c) The Secretary concerned may defer, until such date as he prescribes, the retirement under subsection (a) of a warrant officer who is serving on active duty in a grade above chief warrant officer, W–5, and who elects to continue to so serve.

(d) If a warrant officer who also holds a grade above chief warrant officer, W–5, is retired or separated under subsection (a), his commission in the higher grade shall be terminated on the date on which he is so retired or separated.

(e)(1) A regular warrant officer subject to discharge or retirement under this section may, subject to the needs of the service, be continued on active duty if—

(A) in the case of a warrant officer in the grade of chief warrant officer, W–2, or chief warrant officer, W–3, the warrant officer is selected for continuation on active duty by a selection board convened under section 573(c) of this title; and

(B) in the case of a warrant officer in the grade of chief warrant officer, W–4, the warrant officer is selected for continuation on active duty by the Secretary concerned under such procedures as the Secretary may prescribe.


(2)(A) A warrant officer who is selected for continuation on active duty under this subsection but declines to continue on active duty shall be discharged, retired, or retained on active duty, as appropriate, in accordance with this section.

(B) A warrant officer in the grade of chief warrant officer, W–4, who is retained on active duty pursuant to procedures prescribed under paragraph (1)(B) is eligible for further consideration for promotion while remaining on active duty.

(3) Each warrant officer who is continued on active duty under this subsection, not subsequently promoted or continued on active duty, and not on a list of warrant officers recommended for continuation or for promotion to the next higher regular grade shall, unless sooner retired or discharged under another provision of law—

(A) be discharged upon the expiration of his period of continued service; or

(B) if he is eligible for retirement under any provision of law, be retired under that law on the first day of the first month following the month in which he completes his period of continued service.


Notwithstanding subparagraph (A), a warrant officer who would otherwise be discharged under such subparagraph and who is within two years of qualifying for retirement under section 1293 of this title shall, unless he is sooner retired or discharged under some other provision of law, be retained on active duty until he is qualified for retirement under that section and then be retired.

(4) The retirement or discharge of a warrant officer pursuant to this subsection shall be considered to be an involuntary retirement or discharge for purposes of any other provision of law.

(5) Continuation of a warrant officer on active duty under this subsection pursuant to the action of a selection board convened under section 573(c) of this title is subject to the approval of the Secretary concerned.

(6) The Secretary of Defense and the Secretary of Homeland Security, when the Coast Guard is not operating as a service in the Navy, shall prescribe regulations for the administration of this subsection.

(f) A warrant officer subject to discharge or retirement under this section, but against whom any action has been commenced with a view to trying the officer by court-martial, may be continued on active duty, without prejudice to such action, until the completion of such action.

(Added Pub. L. 102–190, div. A, title XI, §1112(a), Dec. 5, 1991, 105 Stat. 1498; amended Pub. L. 103–160, div. A, title V, §505(a), Nov. 30, 1993, 107 Stat. 1645; Pub. L. 103–337, div. A, title V, §541(b)(5), Oct. 5, 1994, 108 Stat. 2765; Pub. L. 107–296, title XVII, §1704(b)(1), Nov. 25, 2002, 116 Stat. 2314; Pub. L. 109–364, div. A, title V, §505(a), (b), Oct. 17, 2006, 120 Stat. 2179; Pub. L. 111–383, div. A, title V, §541, Jan. 7, 2011, 124 Stat. 4218.)

References in Text

Section 511 of the Career Compensation Act of 1949, referred to in subsec. (a)(6), is section 511 of act Oct. 12, 1949, ch. 681, which was formerly set out as a note below.

Prior Provisions

Provisions similar to those in this section were contained in section 564 of this title prior to repeal by Pub. L. 102–190, §1112(a).

Amendments

2011—Subsec. (f). Pub. L. 111–383 added subsec. (f).

2006—Subsec. (e)(1). Pub. L. 109–364, §505(a), substituted “continued on active duty if—” and subpars. (A) and (B) for “continued on active duty if he is selected for continuation on active duty by a selection board convened under section 573(c) of this title.”

Subsec. (e)(2). Pub. L. 109–364, §505(b), designated existing provisions as subpar. (A) and added subpar. (B).

2002—Subsec. (e)(6). Pub. L. 107–296 substituted “of Homeland Security” for “of Transportation”.

1994—Subsec. (a)(4)(B). Pub. L. 103–337, §541(b)(5)(A), inserted “, or severance pay computed under section 286a of title 14, as appropriate,” after “section 1174 of this title”.

Subsec. (e)(6). Pub. L. 103–337, §541(b)(5)(B), inserted “and the Secretary of Transportation, when the Coast Guard is not operating as a service in the Navy,” after “Secretary of Defense”.

1993—Subsec. (a)(4)(A). Pub. L. 103–160, §505(a)(1), inserted “(except as provided in subparagraph (C))” after “shall be separated”.

Subsec. (a)(4)(C). Pub. L. 103–160, §505(a)(2), added subpar. (C).

Effective Date of 2002 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 107–296 effective on the date of transfer of the Coast Guard to the Department of Homeland Security, see section 1704(g) of Pub. L. 107–296, set out as a note under section 101 of this title.

Effective Date of 1994 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 103–337 effective on the first day of the fourth month beginning after Oct. 5, 1994, see section 541(h) of Pub. L. 103–337, set out as a note under section 571 of this title.

Effective Date of 1993 Amendment

Section 505(b) of Pub. L. 103–160 provided that: “The amendments made by subsection (a) [amending this section] shall apply to warrant officers who have not been separated pursuant to section 580(a)(4) of title 10, United States Code, before the date of enactment of this Act [Nov. 30, 1993].”

Retired and Retainer Pay of Members on Retired Lists or Receiving Retainer Pay

Act Oct. 12, 1949, ch. 681, title V, §511, 63 Stat. 829, as amended May 19, 1952, ch. 310, §4, 66 Stat. 80; Apr. 23, 1956, ch. 208, §1, 70 Stat. 114, set forth methods of computing retired pay, retirement pay, retainer pay, or equivalent pay on and after Oct. 1, 1949, for members of the uniformed services who had retired for reasons other than for physical disability before Oct. 1, 1949, members who had transferred to the Fleet Reserve or the Fleet Marine Corps Reserve before such date, and certain members of the Army Nurse Corps or the Navy Nurse Corps who had retired before such date, and provided that the amount of such pay would not exceed 75 percentum of the monthly basic pay upon which the computation had been based.

§580a. Enhanced authority for selective early discharges

(a) The Secretary of Defense may authorize the Secretary of a military department, during the period beginning on November 30, 1993, and ending on October 1, 1999, to take the action set forth in subsection (b) with respect to regular warrant officers of an armed force under the jurisdiction of that Secretary.

(b) The Secretary of a military department may, with respect to regular warrant officers of an armed force, when authorized to do so under subsection (a), convene selection boards under section 573(c) of this title to consider for discharge regular warrant officers on the warrant officer active-duty list—

(1) who have served at least one year of active duty in the grade currently held;

(2) whose names are not on a list of warrant officers recommended for promotion; and

(3) who are not eligible to be retired under any provision of law and are not within two years of becoming so eligible.


(c)(1) In the case of an action under subsection (b), the Secretary of the military department concerned may submit to a selection board convened pursuant to that subsection—

(A) the names of all regular warrant officers described in that subsection in a particular grade and competitive category; or

(B) the names of all regular warrant officers described in that subsection in a particular grade and competitive category who also are in particular year groups or specialties, or both, within that competitive category.


(2) The Secretary concerned shall specify the total number of warrant officers to be recommended for discharge by a selection board convened pursuant to subsection (b). That number may not be more than 30 percent of the number of officers considered—

(A) in each grade in each competitive category; or

(B) in each grade, year group, or specialty (or combination thereof) in each competitive category.


(3) The total number of regular warrant officers described in subsection (b) from any of the armed forces (or from any of the armed forces in a particular grade) who may be recommended during a fiscal year for discharge by a selection board convened pursuant to the authority of that subsection may not exceed 70 percent of the decrease, as compared to the preceding fiscal year, in the number of warrant officers of that armed force (or the number of warrant officers of that armed force in that grade) authorized to be serving on active duty as of the end of that fiscal year.

(4) A warrant officer who is recommended for discharge by a selection board convened pursuant to subsection (b) and whose discharge is approved by the Secretary concerned shall be discharged on a date specified by the Secretary concerned.

(5) Selection of warrant officers for discharge under this subsection shall be based on the needs of the service.

(d) The discharge of any warrant officer pursuant to this section shall be considered involuntary for purposes of any other provision of law.

(e) This section applies to the Secretary of Homeland Security in the same manner and to the same extent as it applies to the Secretary of Defense. The Commandant of the Coast Guard shall take the action set forth in subsection (b) with respect to regular warrant officers of the Coast Guard.

(Added Pub. L. 103–160, div. A, title V, §504(a), Nov. 30, 1993, 107 Stat. 1644; amended Pub. L. 103–337, div. A, title V, §541(g), title X, §1070(a)(3), Oct. 5, 1994, 108 Stat. 2767, 2855; Pub. L. 107–296, title XVII, §1704(b)(1), Nov. 25, 2002, 116 Stat. 2314.)

Amendments

2002—Subsec. (e). Pub. L. 107–296 substituted “of Homeland Security” for “of Transportation”.

1994—Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 103–337, §1070(a)(3), substituted “November 30, 1993,” for “the date of the enactment of this section”.

Subsec. (e). Pub. L. 103–337, §541(g), added subsec. (e).

Effective Date of 2002 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 107–296 effective on the date of transfer of the Coast Guard to the Department of Homeland Security, see section 1704(g) of Pub. L. 107–296, set out as a note under section 101 of this title.

Effective Date of 1994 Amendment

Amendment by section 541(g) of Pub. L. 103–337 effective on the first day of the fourth month beginning after Oct. 5, 1994, see section 541(h) of Pub. L. 103–337, set out as a note under section 571 of this title.

§581. Selective retirement

(a) A regular warrant officer who holds a warrant officer grade above warrant officer, W–1, and whose name is not on a list of warrant officers recommended for promotion and who is eligible to retire under any provision of law may be considered for retirement by a selection board convened under section 573(c) of this title. The Secretary concerned shall specify the maximum number of warrant officers that such a board may recommend for retirement.

(b) A warrant officer who is recommended for retirement under this section and whose retirement is approved by the Secretary concerned shall be retired, under any provision of law under which he is eligible to retire, on the date requested by him and approved by the Secretary concerned, which date shall be not later than the first day of the seventh calendar month beginning after the month in which the Secretary concerned approves the report of the board which recommended the officer for retirement.

(c) The retirement of a warrant officer pursuant to this section shall be considered to be an involuntary retirement for purposes of any other provision of law.

(d)(1) The Secretary concerned shall prescribe regulations for the administration of this section. Such regulations shall require that when the Secretary concerned submits a list of regular warrant officers to a selection board convened under section 573(c) of this title to consider regular warrant officers for selection for retirement under this section, the list shall include each warrant officer on the active-duty list in the same grade or same grade and competitive category whose position on the active-duty list is between that of the most junior regular warrant officer in that grade whose name is submitted to the board and that of the most senior regular warrant officer in that grade whose name is submitted to the board.

(2) Such regulations shall establish procedures to exclude from consideration by the board any warrant officer who has been approved for voluntary retirement, or who is to be mandatorily retired under any other provision of law, during the fiscal year in which the board is convened or during the following fiscal year. An officer not considered by a selection board convened under section 573(c) of this title under such regulations because the officer has been approved for voluntary retirement shall be retired on the date approved for the retirement of such officer as of the convening date of such selection board unless the Secretary concerned approves a modification of such date in order to prevent a personal hardship for the officer or for other humanitarian reasons.

(e) The Secretary concerned may defer for not more than 90 days the retirement of an officer otherwise approved for early retirement under this section in order to prevent a personal hardship to the officer or for other humanitarian reasons. Any such deferral shall be made on a case-by-case basis considering the circumstances of the case of the particular officer concerned. The authority of the Secretary to grant such a deferral may not be delegated.

(Added Pub. L. 102–190, div. A, title XI, §1112(a), Dec. 5, 1991, 105 Stat. 1500; amended Pub. L. 102–484, div. A, title X, §1052(5), Oct. 23, 1992, 106 Stat. 2499; Pub. L. 103–337, div. A, title V, §541(b)(6), Oct. 5, 1994, 108 Stat. 2765; Pub. L. 104–106, div. A, title V, §504(a), Feb. 10, 1996, 110 Stat. 295.)

Amendments

1996—Subsec. (e). Pub. L. 104–106 added subsec. (e).

1994—Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 103–337 struck out “in the Army, Navy, Air Force, or Marine Corps” after “A regular warrant officer”.

1992—Subsec. (d)(2). Pub. L. 102–484 substituted “board” for “Board” in two places in first sentence.

Effective Date of 1994 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 103–337 effective on the first day of the fourth month beginning after Oct. 5, 1994, see section 541(h) of Pub. L. 103–337, set out as a note under section 571 of this title.

§582. Warrant officer active-duty list: exclusions

Warrant officers in the following categories are not subject to this chapter:

(1) Reserve warrant officers—

(A) on active duty as authorized under section 115(a)(1)(B) or 115(b)(1) of this title, or excluded from counting for active duty end strengths under section 115(i) of this title; or

(B) on full-time National Guard duty.


(2) Retired warrant officers on active duty (other than retired warrant officers who were recalled to active duty before February 1, 1992, and have served continuously on active duty since that date).

(3) Students enrolled in the Army Physician's Assistant Program.

(Added Pub. L. 102–190, div. A, title XI, §1112(a), Dec. 5, 1991, 105 Stat. 1500; amended Pub. L. 103–337, div. A, title V, §501(d), Oct. 5, 1994, 108 Stat. 2748; Pub. L. 104–106, div. A, title XV, §1501(c)(5), Feb. 10, 1996, 110 Stat. 498; Pub. L. 108–375, div. A, title IV, §416(i), Oct. 28, 2004, 118 Stat. 1869.)

Amendments

2004—Par. (1). Pub. L. 108–375 amended par. (1) generally. Prior to amendment, par. (1) read as follows: “Reserve warrant officers—

“(A) on active duty for training;

“(B) on active duty under section 12301(d) of this title in connection with organizing, administering, recruiting, instructing, or training the reserve components;

“(C) on active duty to pursue special work;

“(D) ordered to active duty under section 12304 of this title; or

“(E) on full-time National Guard duty.”

1996—Par. (1)(B). Pub. L. 104–106 substituted “section 12301(d)” for “section 672(d)”.

Par. (1)(D). Pub. L. 104–106 substituted “section 12304” for “section 673b”.

1994—Par. (2). Pub. L. 103–337 inserted before period at end “(other than retired warrant officers who were recalled to active duty before February 1, 1992, and have served continuously on active duty since that date)”.

Effective Date of 1996 Amendment

Section 1501(c) of Pub. L. 104–106 provided that the amendment made by that section is effective as of Dec. 1, 1994, and as if included as an amendment made by the Reserve Officer Personnel Management Act, title XVI of Pub. L. 103–337, as originally enacted.

§583. Definitions

In this chapter:

(1) The term “promotion zone” means a promotion eligibility category consisting of officers on a warrant officer active-duty list in the same grade (or the same grade and competitive category) who—

(A) in the case of grades below chief warrant officer, W–5, have neither (i) failed of selection for promotion to the next higher grade, nor (ii) been removed from a list of warrant officers recommended for promotion to that grade (other than after having been placed on that list after a selection from below the promotion zone); and

(B) are senior to the warrant officer designated by the Secretary concerned to be the junior warrant officer in the promotion zone eligible for promotion to the next higher grade.


(2) The term “warrant officers above the promotion zone” means a group of officers on a warrant officer active-duty list in the same grade (or the same grade and competitive category) who—

(A) are eligible for consideration for promotion to the next higher grade;

(B) are in the same grade as warrant officers in the promotion zone; and

(C) are senior to the senior warrant officer in the promotion zone.


(3) The term “warrant officers below the promotion zone” means a group of officers on a warrant officer active-duty list in the same grade (or the same grade and competitive category) who—

(A) are eligible for consideration for promotion to the next higher grade;

(B) are in the same grade as warrant officers in the promotion zone; and

(C) are junior to the junior warrant officer in the promotion zone.


(4) The active-duty list referred to in section 573(b) of this title includes the active-duty promotion list established by section 41a of title 14.

(Added Pub. L. 102–190, div. A, title XI, §1112(a), Dec. 5, 1991, 105 Stat. 1501; amended Pub. L. 103–337, div. A, title V, §541(f)(7), Oct. 5, 1994, 108 Stat. 2767.)

Amendments

1994—Par. (4). Pub. L. 103–337 added par. (4).

Effective Date of 1994 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 103–337 effective on the first day of the fourth month beginning after Oct. 5, 1994, see section 541(h) of Pub. L. 103–337, set out as a note under section 571 of this title.

CHAPTER 34—APPOINTMENTS AS RESERVE OFFICERS

Sec.
591.
Reference to chapters 1205 and 1207.

        

Amendments

1994—Pub. L. 103–337, div. A, title XVI, §1662(d)(3), Oct. 5, 1994, 108 Stat. 2991, amended analysis generally, substituting item 591 for former items 591 to 600a.

1992—Pub. L. 102–484, div. A, title V, §515(b), Oct. 23, 1992, 106 Stat. 2407, added item 596.

1986—Pub. L. 99–661, div. A, title V, §508(d)(1)(B), Nov. 14, 1986, 100 Stat. 3867, added item 600a.

1980—Pub. L. 96–513, title I, §105, Dec. 12, 1980, 94 Stat. 2849, substituted “34” for “35” as chapter number.

1958—Pub. L. 85–861, §1(11), Sept. 2, 1958, 72 Stat. 1440, added item 592 and struck out item 596 “Officers: promotion”.

§591. Reference to chapters 1205 and 1207

Provisions of law relating to appointments of reserve officers other than warrant officers are set forth in chapter 1205 of this title (beginning with section 12201). Provisions of law relating to appointments and promotion of reserve warrant officers are set forth in chapter 1207 (beginning with section 12241).

(Added Pub. L. 103–337, div. A, title XVI, §1662(d)(3), Oct. 5, 1994, 108 Stat. 2991.)

Prior Provisions

Prior sections 591 to 594, 595, and 596 were renumbered sections 12201 to 12204, 12208, and 12205 of this title, respectively.

Another prior section 596, act Aug. 10, 1956, ch. 1041, 70A Stat. 25, related to promotion of officers in the Reserve components, prior to repeal by Pub. L. 85–861, §36B(2), Sept. 2, 1958, 72 Stat. 1570.

Prior sections 596a, 596b, 597 to 599, 600, and 600a were renumbered sections 12206, 12207, 12241 to 12243, 12209, and 12210 of this title, respectively.

Effective Date

Section effective Dec. 1, 1994, except as otherwise provided, see section 1691 of Pub. L. 103–337, set out as a note under section 10001 of this title.

CHAPTER 35—TEMPORARY APPOINTMENTS IN OFFICER GRADES

Sec.
601.
Positions of importance and responsibility: generals and lieutenant generals; admirals and vice admirals.
[602.
Repealed.]
603.
Appointments in time of war or national emergency.
604.
Senior joint officer positions: recommendations to the Secretary of Defense.

        

Amendments

1994—Pub. L. 103–337, div. A, title IV, §405(c)(2), Oct. 5, 1994, 108 Stat. 2745, added item 604.

1991—Pub. L. 102–190, div. A, title XI, §1113(d)(1)(B), Dec. 5, 1991, 105 Stat. 1502, struck out item 602 “Warrant officers: temporary promotions” and substituted “Appointments in time of war or national emergency” for “Commissioned officer grades: time of war or national emergency” in item 603.

§601. Positions of importance and responsibility: generals and lieutenant generals; admirals and vice admirals

(a) The President may designate positions of importance and responsibility to carry the grade of general or admiral or lieutenant general or vice admiral. The President may assign to any such position an officer of the Army, Navy, Air Force, or Marine Corps who is serving on active duty in any grade above colonel or, in the case of an officer of the Navy, any grade above captain. An officer assigned to any such position has the grade specified for that position if he is appointed to that grade by the President, by and with the advice and consent of the Senate. Except as provided in subsection (b), the appointment of an officer to a grade under this section for service in a position of importance and responsibility ends on the date of the termination of the assignment of the officer to that position.

(b) An officer who is appointed to the grade of general, admiral, lieutenant general, or vice admiral for service in a position designated under subsection (a) or by law to carry that grade shall continue to hold that grade—

(1) while serving in that position;

(2) while under orders transferring him to another position designated under subsection (a) or by law to carry one of those grades, beginning on the day his assignment to the first position is terminated and ending on the day before the day on which he assumes the second position;

(3) while hospitalized, beginning on the day of the hospitalization and ending on the day he is discharged from the hospital, but not for more than 180 days;

(4) at the discretion of the Secretary of Defense, while the officer is awaiting orders after being relieved from the position designated under subsection (a) or by law to carry one of those grades, but not for more than 60 days beginning on the day the officer is relieved from the position, unless, during such period, the officer is placed under orders to another position designated under subsection (a) or by law to carry one of those grades, in which case paragraph (2) will also apply to the officer; and

(5) while awaiting retirement, beginning on the day he is relieved from the position designated under subsection (a) or by law to carry one of those grades and ending on the day before his retirement, but not for more than 60 days.


(c)(1) An appointment of an officer under subsection (a) does not vacate the permanent grade held by the officer.

(2) An officer serving in a grade above major general or rear admiral who holds the permanent grade of brigadier general or rear admiral (lower half) shall be considered for promotion to the permanent grade of major general or rear admiral, as appropriate, as if he were serving in his permanent grade.

(d)(1) When an officer is recommended to the President for an initial appointment to the grade of lieutenant general or vice admiral, or for an initial appointment to the grade of general or admiral, the Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff shall submit to the Secretary of Defense the Chairman's evaluation of the performance of that officer as a member of the Joint Staff and in other joint duty assignments. The Secretary of Defense shall submit the Chairman's evaluation to the President at the same time the recommendation for the appointment is submitted to the President.

(2) Whenever a vacancy occurs in a position within the Department of Defense that the President has designated as a position of importance and responsibility to carry the grade of general or admiral or lieutenant general or vice admiral or in an office that is designated by law to carry such a grade, the Secretary of Defense shall inform the President of the qualifications needed by an officer serving in that position or office to carry out effectively the duties and responsibilities of that position or office.

(Added Pub. L. 96–513, title I, §105, Dec. 12, 1980, 94 Stat. 2849; amended Pub. L. 97–86, title IV, §405(b)(1), Dec. 1, 1981, 95 Stat. 1105; Pub. L. 98–525, title V, §523, Oct. 19, 1984, 98 Stat. 2523; Pub. L. 99–145, title V, §514(b)(1), Nov. 8, 1985, 99 Stat. 628; Pub. L. 99–433, title IV, §403, Oct. 1, 1986, 100 Stat. 1031; Pub. L. 102–190, div. A, title V, §502(a), Dec. 5, 1991, 105 Stat. 1354; Pub. L. 104–106, div. A, title IV, §403(c), Feb. 10, 1996, 110 Stat. 287; Pub. L. 110–181, div. A, title V, §501(a), Jan. 28, 2008, 122 Stat. 94.)

Amendments

2008—Subsec. (b)(4), (5). Pub. L. 110–181 added par. (4) and redesignated former par. (4) as (5).

1996—Subsec. (b). Pub. L. 104–106, §403(c)(1), in introductory provisions substituted “designated under subsection (a) or by law” for “of importance and responsibility designated”.

Subsec. (b)(1). Pub. L. 104–106, §403(c)(2), struck out “of importance and responsibility” after “position”.

Subsec. (b)(2). Pub. L. 104–106, §403(c)(3), substituted “designated under subsection (a) or by law” for “designating”.

Subsec. (b)(4). Pub. L. 104–106, §403(c)(4), inserted “under subsection (a) or by law” after “designated”.

1991—Subsec. (b)(4). Pub. L. 102–190 substituted “60 days” for “90 days”.

1986—Subsec. (d). Pub. L. 99–433 added subsec. (d).

1985—Subsec. (c)(2). Pub. L. 99–145 substituted “rear admiral (lower half)” for “commodore”.

1984—Subsec. (b). Pub. L. 98–525 amended subsec. (b) generally, which prior to amendment had provided that if the assignment of an officer who was serving in a position designated to carry the grade of general, admiral, lieutenant general, or vice admiral was terminated (1) by the assignment of such officer to another position designated to carry one of those grades, such officers would hold, during the period beginning on the day of that termination and ending on the day before the day on which he assumed the other position, the grade that he had held on the day before the termination; (2) by the hospitalization of such officer, such officer would hold, during the period beginning on the day of that termination and ending on the day he was discharged from the hospital, but not for more than 180 days, the grade that he had held on the day before the termination; or (3) by the retirement of such officer, such officer would hold, during the period beginning on the day of that termination and ending on the day before his retirement, but not for more than 90 days, the grade that he had held on the day before the termination.

1981—Subsec. (c)(2). Pub. L. 97–86 substituted “commodore” for “commodore admiral”.

Effective Date of 1991 Amendment

Section 502(b) of Pub. L. 102–190 provided that: “The amendment made by subsection (a) [amending this section] shall take effect on the first day of the first month that begins more than 90 days after the date of the enactment of this Act [Dec. 5, 1991].”

Effective Date of 1981 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 97–86 effective Sept. 15, 1981, see section 405(f) of Pub. L. 97–86, set out as a note under section 101 of this title.

Effective Date

Chapter effective Sept. 15, 1981, but the authority to prescribe regulations under this chapter effective on Dec. 12, 1980, see section 701 of Pub. L. 96–513, set out as an Effective Date of 1980 Amendment note under section 101 of this title.

Transition Provisions Under Defense Officer Personnel Management Act

For provisions relating to temporary appointments of officers serving in grades above major general or rear admiral, see section 623 of Pub. L. 96–513, set out as a note under section 611 of this title.

[§602. Repealed. Pub. L. 102–190, div. A, title XI, §1113(a), Dec. 5, 1991, 105 Stat. 1502]

Section, Pub. L. 96–513, title I, §105, Dec. 12, 1980, 94 Stat. 2849, related to temporary promotions of warrant officers.

Effective Date of Repeal

Repeal effective Feb. 1, 1992, see section 1132 of Pub. L. 102–190, set out as an Effective Date of 1991 Amendment note under section 521 of this title.

§603. Appointments in time of war or national emergency

(a) In time of war, or of national emergency declared by the Congress or the President after November 30, 1980, the President may appoint any qualified person (whether or not already a member of the armed forces) to any officer grade in the Army, Navy, Air Force, or Marine Corps, except that appointments under this section may not be made in grades above major general or rear admiral. Appointments under this section shall be made by the President alone, except that an appointment in the grade warrant officer, W–1, shall be made by warrant by the Secretary concerned.

(b) Any appointment under this section is a temporary appointment and may be vacated by the President at any time.

(c)(1) Any person receiving an original appointment under this section is entitled to service credit as authorized under section 533 of this title.

(2) An appointment under this section of a person who is not on active duty becomes effective when that person begins active duty under that appointment.

(d) An appointment under this section does not change the permanent status of a member of the armed forces so appointed. A member who is appointed under this section shall not incur any reduction in the pay and allowances to which the member was entitled, by virtue of his permanent status, at the time of his appointment under this section.

(e)(1) An officer who receives an appointment to a higher grade under this section is considered to have accepted such appointment on the date of the order announcing the appointment unless he expressly declines the appointment.

(2) An officer who has served continuously since he subscribed to the oath of office prescribed in section 3331 of title 5 is not required to take a new oath upon appointment to a higher grade under this section.

(f) Unless sooner terminated, an appointment under this section terminates on the earliest of the following:

(1) The second anniversary of the appointment.

(2) The end of the six-month period beginning on the last day of the war or national emergency during which the appointment was made.

(3) The date the person appointed is released from active duty.

(Added Pub. L. 96–513, title I, §105, Dec. 12, 1980, 94 Stat. 2850; amended Pub. L. 101–189, div. A, title VI, §653(a)(2), Nov. 29, 1989, 103 Stat. 1462; Pub. L. 102–190, div. A, title XI, §1113(b), (d)(1)(A), Dec. 5, 1991, 105 Stat. 1502.)

Amendments

1991—Pub. L. 102–190, §1113(d)(1)(A), substituted “Appointments in time of war or national emergency” for “Commissioned officer grades: time of war or national emergency” in section catchline.

Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 102–190, §1113(b), struck out “commissioned” before “officer grade in the Army” and “in warrant officer grades or” before “in grades above major general” and inserted before period at end “, except that an appointment in the grade warrant officer, W–1, shall be made by warrant by the Secretary concerned”.

1989—Subsec. (f). Pub. L. 101–189 substituted “terminates on the earliest of the following:” for “terminates—” in introductory provisions, and made numerous amendments to style and punctuation. Prior to amendment, subsec. (f) read as follows: “Unless sooner terminated, an appointment under this section terminates—

“(1) on the second anniversary of the appointment;

“(2) at the end of the six-month period beginning on the last day of the war or national emergency during which the appointment was made; or

“(3) on the date the person appointed is released from active duty;

whichever is earliest.”

Effective Date of 1991 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 102–190 effective Feb. 1, 1992, see section 1132 of Pub. L. 102–190, set out as a note under section 521 of this title.

Delegation of Functions

Functions of President under subsecs. (a) and (b) to make or vacate certain temporary commissioned appointments delegated to Secretary of Defense to perform during a time of war or national emergency, without approval, ratification, or other action by President, and with authority for Secretary to redelegate, provided that, during a national emergency declared by President, exercise of any such authority be specifically directed by President in accordance with section 1631 of Title 50, War and National Defense, and that Secretary ensure any authority so delegated be accounted for as required by section 1641 of Title 50, see Ex. Ord. No. 12396, §§2, 3, Dec. 9, 1982, 47 F.R. 55897, 55898, set out as a note under section 301 of Title 3, The President.

Ex. Ord. No. 13321. Appointments During National Emergency

Ex. Ord. No. 13321, Dec. 17, 2003, 68 F.R. 74465, provided:

By the authority vested in me as President by the Constitution and the laws of the United States of America, including the National Emergencies Act (50 U.S.C. 1601 et seq.), and section 301 of title 3, United States Code, and in order to further respond to the national emergency I declared in Proclamation 7463 of September 14, 2001 [50 U.S.C. 1621 note], I hereby order as follows:

Section 1. Emergency Appointments Authority. The emergency appointments authority at section 603 of title 10, United States Code, is invoked and made available to the Secretary of Defense in accordance with the terms of that statute and of Executive Order 12396 of December 9, 1982 [3 U.S.C. 301 note].

Sec. 2. Judicial Review. This order is not intended to, and does not, create any right or benefit, substantive or procedural, enforceable at law or in equity by a party against the United States, its departments, agencies, entities, officers, employees or agents, or any person.

Sec. 3. Administration. This order shall be transmitted to the Congress and published in the Federal Register.

George W. Bush.      

§604. Senior joint officer positions: recommendations to the Secretary of Defense

(a) Joint 4-Star Officer Positions.—(1) Whenever a vacancy occurs, or is anticipated to occur, in a position specified in subsection (b)—

(A) the Secretary of Defense shall require the Secretary of the Army to submit the name of at least one Army officer, the Secretary of the Navy to submit the name of at least one Navy officer and the name of at least one Marine Corps officer, and the Secretary of the Air Force to submit the name of at least one Air Force officer for consideration by the Secretary for recommendation to the President for appointment to that position; and

(B) the Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff may submit to the Secretary of Defense the name of one or more officers (in addition to the officers whose names are submitted pursuant to subparagraph (A)) for consideration by the Secretary for recommendation to the President for appointment to that position.


(2) Whenever the Secretaries of the military departments are required to submit the names of officers under paragraph (1)(A), the Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff shall submit to the Secretary of Defense the Chairman's evaluation of the performance of each officer whose name is submitted under that paragraph (and of any officer whose name the Chairman submits to the Secretary under paragraph (1)(B) for consideration for the same vacancy). The Chairman's evaluation shall primarily consider the performance of the officer as a member of the Joint Staff and in other joint duty assignments, but may include consideration of other aspects of the officer's performance as the Chairman considers appropriate.

(b) Covered Positions.—Subsection (a) applies to the following positions:

(1) Commander of a combatant command.

(2) Commander, United States Forces, Korea.

(3) Deputy commander, United States European Command, but only if the commander of that command is also the Supreme Allied Commander, Europe.

(Added Pub. L. 103–337, div. A, title IV, §405(c)(1), Oct. 5, 1994, 108 Stat. 2745; amended Pub. L. 104–201, div. A, title IV, §404(a), Sept. 23, 1996, 110 Stat. 2506; Pub. L. 106–65, div. A, title V, §509(a), Oct. 5, 1999, 113 Stat. 592; Pub. L. 107–314, div. A, title IV, §405(a), Dec. 2, 2002, 116 Stat. 2526; Pub. L. 108–136, div. A, title V, §504(a), Nov. 24, 2003, 117 Stat. 1456.)

Amendments

2003—Subsec. (c). Pub. L. 108–136 struck out heading and text of subsec. (c). Text read as follows: “This section shall cease to be effective at the end of December 31, 2004.”

2002—Subsec. (c). Pub. L. 107–314 substituted “December 31, 2004” for “September 30, 2003”.

1999—Subsec. (c). Pub. L. 106–65 substituted “September 30, 2003” for “September 30, 2000”.

1996—Subsec. (c). Pub. L. 104–201 substituted “September 30, 2000” for “September 30, 1997”.

CHAPTER 36—PROMOTION, SEPARATION, AND INVOLUNTARY RETIREMENT OF OFFICERS ON THE ACTIVE-DUTY LIST

Subchapter
Sec.
I.
Selection Boards
611
II.
Promotions
619
III.
Failure of Selection for Promotion and Retirement for Years of Service
627
IV.
Continuation on Active Duty and Selective Early Retirement
637
V.
Additional Provisions Relating to Promotion, Separation, and Retirement
641

        

SUBCHAPTER I—SELECTION BOARDS

Sec.
611.
Convening of selection boards.
612.
Composition of selection boards.
613.
Oath of members of selection boards.
613a.
Nondisclosure of board proceedings.
614.
Notice of convening of selection boards.
615.
Information furnished to selection boards.
616.
Recommendations for promotion by selection boards.
617.
Reports of selection boards.
618.
Action on reports of selection boards.

        

Amendments

2006—Pub. L. 109–364, div. A, title V, §547(d)(1), Oct. 17, 2006, 120 Stat. 2216, added item 613a.

1991—Pub. L. 102–190, div. A, title V, §504(a)(2)(B), Dec. 5, 1991, 105 Stat. 1357, struck out “; communications with boards” after “selection boards” in item 614.

§611. Convening of selection boards

(a) Whenever the needs of the service require, the Secretary of the military department concerned shall convene selection boards to recommend for promotion to the next higher permanent grade, under subchapter II of this chapter, officers on the active-duty list in each permanent grade from first lieutenant through brigadier general in the Army, Air Force, or Marine Corps and from lieutenant (junior grade) through rear admiral (lower half) in the Navy. The preceding sentence does not require the convening of a selection board in the case of officers in the permanent grade of first lieutenant or, in the case of the Navy, lieutenant (junior grade) when the Secretary concerned recommends for promotion to the next higher grade under section 624(a)(3) of this title all such officers whom the Secretary finds to be fully qualified for promotion.

(b) Whenever the needs of the service require, the Secretary of the military department concerned may convene selection boards to recommend officers for continuation on active duty under section 637 of this title or for early retirement under section 638 of this title.

(c) The convening of selection boards under subsections (a) and (b) shall be under regulations prescribed by the Secretary of Defense.

(Added Pub. L. 96–513, title I, §105, Dec. 12, 1980, 94 Stat. 2851; amended Pub. L. 97–86, title IV, §405(b)(1), Dec. 1, 1981, 95 Stat. 1105; Pub. L. 99–145, title V, §514(b)(1), Nov. 8, 1985, 99 Stat. 628; Pub. L. 107–107, div. A, title V, §505(a)(3), Dec. 28, 2001, 115 Stat. 1086.)

Amendments

2001—Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 107–107, §505(a)(3)(A), substituted “Whenever the needs of the service require, the Secretary of the military department concerned” for “Under regulations prescribed by the Secretary of Defense, the Secretary of the military department concerned, whenever the needs of the service require,” and inserted at end “The preceding sentence does not require the convening of a selection board in the case of officers in the permanent grade of first lieutenant or, in the case of the Navy, lieutenant (junior grade) when the Secretary concerned recommends for promotion to the next higher grade under section 624(a)(3) of this title all such officers whom the Secretary finds to be fully qualified for promotion.”

Subsec. (b). Pub. L. 107–107, §505(a)(3)(B), substituted “Whenever the needs of the service require, the Secretary of the military department concerned” for “Under regulations prescribed by the Secretary of Defense, the Secretary of the military department concerned, whenever the needs of the service require,”.

Subsec. (c). Pub. L. 107–107, §505(a)(3)(C), added subsec. (c).

1985—Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 99–145 substituted “rear admiral (lower half)” for “commodore”.

1981—Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 97–86 substituted “commodore” for “commodore admiral”.

Effective Date of 1981 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 97–86 effective Sept. 15, 1981, see section 405(f) of Pub. L. 97–86, set out as a note under section 101 of this title.

Effective Date

Subchapter effective Sept. 15, 1981, but the authority to prescribe regulations under this subchapter effective on Dec. 12, 1980, see section 701 of Pub. L. 96–513, set out as an Effective Date of 1980 Amendment note under section 101 of this title.

Transition From Grade of Commodore to Grade of Rear Admiral (Lower Half)

Section 514(e) of Pub. L. 99–145 provided that:

“(1) An officer who on the day before the date of the enactment of this Act [Nov. 8, 1985] is serving in or has the grade of commodore shall as of the date of the enactment of this Act be serving in or have the grade of rear admiral (lower half).

“(2) An officer who on the day before the date of the enactment of this Act is on a list of officers selected for promotion to the grade of commodore shall as of the date of the enactment of this Act be considered to be on a list of officers selected for promotion to the grade of rear admiral (lower half).”

Transition Provisions Covering 1980 Amendments by Defense Officer Personnel Management Act [Pub. L. 96–513]

Parts A to C of title VI of Pub. L. 96–513, Dec. 12, 1980, 94 Stat. 2940, as amended by Pub. L. 97–22, §8(a)–(n), July 10, 1981, 95 Stat. 132–135; Pub. L. 97–86, title IV, §405(d)(1), (2)(A), (e), (f), Dec. 1, 1981, 95 Stat. 1106, eff. Sept. 15, 1981; Pub. L. 98–525, title V, §§530–532, Oct. 19, 1984, 98 Stat. 2527; Pub. L. 100–456, div. A, title V, §503, Sept. 29, 1988, 102 Stat. 1967, provided that:

“Part A—Transition Provisions Relating Only to the Army and Air Force

“regular officers serving in a higher temporary grade below lieutenant general or recommended for promotion to a higher grade

“Sec. 601. (a) Except as provided in sections 603 and 604, any regular officer of the Army or Air Force who on the effective date of this Act [Sept. 15, 1981, except as otherwise provided in section 701 of Pub. L. 96–513, set out as an Effective Date of 1980 Amendment note under section 101 of this title] is on active duty and—

“(1) is serving in a temporary grade below lieutenant general that is higher than his regular grade;

“(2) is on a list of officers recommended for promotion to a temporary grade below lieutenant general; or

“(3) is on a list of officers recommended for promotion to a regular grade higher than the grade in which he is serving;

shall be considered to have been recommended by a board convened under section 611(a) of title 10, United States Code, as added by this Act, for promotion to the regular grade equivalent to the grade in which he is serving or for which he has been recommended for promotion, as the case may be.

“(b) An officer referred to in clause (1) of subsection (a) who is not promoted to the grade to which he is considered under such subsection to have been recommended for promotion because his name is removed from a list of officers who are considered under such subsection to have been recommended for promotion shall be considered under chapter 36 of title 10, United States Code, as added by this Act, for promotion to the regular grade equivalent to the temporary grade in which he was serving on the effective date of this Act [Sept. 15, 1981] as if he were serving in his regular grade.

“(c) Notwithstanding section 741(d) of title 10, United States Code, as added by this Act, the date of rank of an officer referred to in subsection (a)(1) who is promoted to the temporary grade in which he is serving on the effective date of this Act [Sept. 15, 1981] is the date of his temporary appointment in that grade.

“(d)(1) Any delay of a promotion of an officer referred to in clause (2) or (3) of subsection (a) that was in effect on September 14, 1981, under the laws and regulations in effect on such date shall continue in effect on and after September 15, 1981, as if such promotion had been delayed under section 624(d) of title 10, United States Code, as added by this Act.

“(2) Any action to remove from a promotion list the name of an officer referred to in clause (2) or (3) of subsection (a) that was initiated before September 15, 1981, under the laws and regulations in effect before such date shall continue on and after such date as if such removal action had been initiated under section 629 of title 10, United States Code, as added by this Act.

“reserve officers serving in a higher temporary grade below lieutenant general or recommended for promotion to a higher grade

“Sec. 602. (a)(1) Except as provided in subsection (b) and sections 605 and 606, any reserve officer of the Army or Air Force who on the effective date of this Act [Sept. 15, 1981] is subject to placement on the active-duty list of his armed force and—

“(A) is serving in a temporary grade below lieutenant general that is higher than his reserve grade; or

“(B) is on a list of officers recommended for promotion to a temporary grade below lieutenant general that is the same as or higher than his reserve grade;

shall be considered to have been recommended by a board convened under section 611(a) of title 10, United States Code, as added by this Act, for promotion to the reserve grade equivalent to the grade in which he is serving or for which he has been recommended for promotion, as the case may be.

“(2) Notwithstanding section 741(d) of title 10, United States Code, as added by this Act, the date of rank of an officer referred to in paragraph (1)(A) who is promoted to the grade to which he is considered under such paragraph to have been recommended for promotion is the date of his temporary appointment in that grade.

“(b) A reserve officer of the Army or Air Force who on the effective date of this Act [Sept. 15, 1981]—

“(1) is subject to placement on the active-duty list of his armed force;

“(2) is serving on active duty in a temporary grade; and

“(3) either holds a reserve grade higher than the temporary grade in which he is serving or is on a list of officers recommended for promotion to a reserve grade higher than the temporary grade in which he is serving,

shall while continuing on active duty retain such temporary grade and shall be considered for promotion under chapter 36 of title 10, United States Code, as added by this Act, to a grade equal to or lower than his reserve grade as if such temporary grade is a permanent grade. If such officer is recommended for promotion under such chapter to such a grade, his appointment to such grade shall be a temporary appointment.

“(c)(1) Any delay of a promotion of an officer referred to in clause (B) of subsection (a)(1) that was in effect on September 14, 1981, under the laws and regulations in effect on such date shall continue in effect on and after September 15, 1981, as if such promotion has been delayed under section 624(d) of title 10, United States Code, as added by this Act.

“(2) Any action to remove from a promotion list the name of an officer referred to in clause (B) of subsection (a)(1) that was initiated before September 15, 1981, under the laws and regulations in effect before such date shall continue on and after such date as if such removal action had been initiated under section 629 of title 10, United States Code, as added by this Act.

“regular officers once failed of selection for promotion

“Sec. 603. (a) An officer of the Army or Air Force who on the effective date of this Act [Sept. 15, 1981]—

“(1) holds the regular grade of first lieutenant, captain, or major; and

“(2) has been considered once but not recommended for promotion to the next higher regular grade by a selection board convened under the laws in effect on the day before the effective date of this Act,

shall, within one year after the effective date of this Act, be considered for promotion to the next higher regular grade by a selection board convened by the Secretary concerned under the laws in effect on the day before the effective date of this Act.

“(b)(1)(A) An officer described in subsection (a) who is recommended for promotion by the selection board which considers him pursuant to such subsection shall be considered to have been recommended for promotion to the next higher regular grade or the grade in which he is serving, whichever grade is higher, by a board convened under section 611(a) of title 10, United States Code, as added by this Act. Notwithstanding section 741(d) of title 10, United States Code, as added by this Act, the date of rank of an officer referred to in the preceding sentence who was serving in the temporary grade equivalent to the grade to which he is considered to have been recommended for promotion and who is promoted to that grade is the date of his temporary appointment in that grade.

“(2) An officer described in subsection (a) who is not recommended for promotion by such board shall, unless continued on active duty under section 637 of such title, as added by this Act, be retired, if eligible to retire, be discharged, or be continued on active duty until eligible to retire and then be retired, under the laws applicable on the day before the effective date of this Act [Sept. 15, 1981].

“regular officers twice failed of selection for promotion

“Sec. 604. An officer of the Army or Air Force who on the day before the effective date of this Act [Sept. 15, 1981]—

“(1) holds the regular grade of first lieutenant, captain, or major; and

“(2) has twice failed of selection for promotion to the next higher regular grade,

shall, unless continued on active duty under section 637 of title 10, United States Code, as added by this Act, be retired, if eligible to retire, be discharged, or be continued on active duty until eligible to retire and then be retired, under the laws in effect on the day before the effective date of this Act.

“reserve officers once failed of selection for promotion

“Sec. 605. (a) A reserve officer of the Army or Air Force who on the effective date of this Act [Sept. 15, 1981]—

“(1) is on active duty and subject to placement on the active-duty list of his armed force;

“(2) holds the reserve grade of first lieutenant, captain, or major; and

“(3) has been considered once but not selected for promotion to the next higher reserve grade under section 3366, 3367, 8366, or 8367 [see section 14301 et seq. of this title], as appropriate, of title 10, United States Code,

shall, unless sooner promoted, be considered again for promotion to that grade by a selection board convened under section 3366, 3367, 8366, or 8367, as appropriate, of such title.

“(b)(1) An officer described in subsection (a) who is serving on active duty in a temporary grade higher than his reserve grade on the effective date of this Act [Sept. 15, 1981] and who is recommended by the selection board which considers him pursuant to such subsection for promotion to the reserve grade equivalent to the temporary grade in which he is serving on such date shall be considered as having been recommended for promotion to that reserve grade in the report of a selection board convened under section 611(a) of title 10, United States Code, as added by this Act. Notwithstanding section 741(d) of title 10, United States Code, as added by this Act, the date of rank of an officer referred to in the preceding sentence who is promoted to the reserve grade equivalent to the temporary grade in which he is serving on such date is the date of his temporary appointment in that grade.

“(2) An officer described in subsection (a) who is serving on active duty in a temporary grade equivalent to or lower than his reserve grade on the effective date of this Act [Sept. 15, 1981] and who is recommended by the selection board which considers him pursuant to such subsection for promotion to a reserve grade higher than the temporary grade in which he was serving on such date shall be considered as having been recommended for promotion to that reserve grade in the report of a selection board convened under section 3366, 3367, 8366, or 8367 [see section 14301 et seq. of this title], as appropriate, of such title. If such an officer is not ordered to active duty in his reserve grade, he shall while continuing on active duty retain such temporary grade and shall be considered for promotion under chapter 36 of title 10, United States Code, as added by this Act, to a grade equal to or lower than his reserve grade as if such temporary grade is a permanent grade. If such officer is recommended for promotion under such chapter to such a grade, his appointment to such grade shall be a temporary appointment to such grade.

“(3) An officer described in subsection (a) who is not recommended for promotion by the selection board which considers him pursuant to such subsection shall be governed by section 3846 or 8846, as appropriate, of title 10, United States Code, as a deferred officer.

“reserve officers twice failed of selection for promotion

“Sec. 606. An officer of the Army or Air Force who on the day before the effective date of this Act [Sept. 15, 1981]—

“(1) was on active duty and subject to placement on the active-duty list of his armed force; and

“(2) held the reserve grade of first lieutenant, captain, or major; and

“(3) was considered to have twice failed of selection for promotion to the next higher reserve grade,

shall be governed by [former] section 3846 or 8846, as appropriate, of title 10, United States Code, as a deferred officer.

“entitlement to severance pay or separation pay of officers separated or discharged pursuant to this part

“Sec. 607. (a) An officer who is discharged in accordance with section 603(b)(2) or 604 is entitled, at his election, to—

“(1) the severance pay to which he would have been entitled under the laws in effect before the effective date of this Act [Sept. 15, 1981]; or

“(2) separation pay, if eligible therefor, under section 1174(a) of title 10, United States Code, as added by this Act.

“(b) An officer who is separated in accordance with section 605(b)(3) or 606 is entitled, at his election, to—

“(1) readjustment pay under section 687 of title 10, United States Code, as in effect on the day before the effective date of this Act [Sept. 15, 1981]; or

“(2) separation pay, if eligible therefor, under section 1174(c) of title 10, United States Code, as added by this Act.

“special tenure provisions for officers serving in temporary grades of brigadier general and major general

“Sec. 608. (a) Notwithstanding section 635 or 636 of title 10, United States Code, as added by this Act, but subject to subsection (b), a regular officer of the Army or Air Force—

“(1) who on the effective date of this Act [Sept. 15, 1981] is serving in or is on a list of officers recommended for promotion to the temporary grade of brigadier general or major general;

“(2) whose regular grade on such date is below such temporary grade; and

“(3) who is promoted pursuant to section 601(a) to the regular grade equivalent to such temporary grade,

shall be subject to mandatory retirement for years of service in accordance with the laws applicable on the day before the effective date of this Act to officers in the permanent grade he held on such date. However, such an officer shall not be subject to a mandatory retirement date which is earlier than the first day of the month following the month of the thirtieth day after he completes 30 years of service as computed under section 3927(a) or 8927(a), as appropriate, of title 10, United States Code, as in effect on the day before the effective date of this Act.

“(b)(1) The Secretary of the Army or the Secretary of the Air Force, as appropriate, may convene selection boards under this section for the purpose of recommending from among officers described in subsection (a) officers to be selected to be subject to mandatory retirement for years of service in accordance with the laws applicable on the day before the effective date of this Act [Sept. 15, 1981] to officers in the permanent grade to which such officers were promoted pursuant to section 601(a) or to officers in a lower permanent grade higher than the permanent grade held by such officers on the day before the effective date of this Act.

“(2) Upon the recommendation of a selection board convened under this section, the Secretary concerned may select officers described in subsection (a) to be subject to mandatory retirement in accordance with the provisions of section 3922, 3923, 8922, or 8923, as appropriate, of title 10, United States Code, as in effect on the day before the effective date of this Act [Sept. 15, 1981], rather than in the manner described in subsection (a).

“(3) Any selection board convened under this section shall be convened in accordance with the provisions of section 3297 or 8297, as appropriate, of title 10, United States Code, as in effect on the day before the effective date of this Act [Sept. 15, 1981].

“(c) This section does not apply to an officer who—

“(1) is sooner retired or separated under another provision of law;

“(2) is promoted to the permanent grade of brigadier general pursuant to section 601(a) and is subsequently promoted to the permanent grade of major general under chapter 36 of title 10, United States Code, as added by this Act; or

“(3) is continued on active duty under section 637 of title 10, United States Code, as added by this Act.

“right of majors and colonels to complete years of service allowed under prior law

“Sec. 609. (a)(1) Subject to paragraph (2), an officer of the Army or Air Force who on the effective date of this Act [Sept. 15, 1981]—

“(A) holds the regular grade of major; or

“(B) is on a list of officers recommended for promotion to the regular grade of major,

shall be retained on active duty until he completes twenty-one years of service as computed under section 3927(a) or 8927(a), as appropriate, of title 10, United States Code (as in effect on the day before the effective date of this Act), and then be retired under the provisions of section 3913 or 8913 of such title (as in effect on the day before the effective date of this Act) on the first day of the month after the month in which he completes that service.

“(2) Paragraph (1) does not apply to an officer who—

“(A) is sooner retired or separated under another provision of law;

“(B) is promoted to the regular grade of lieutenant colonel; or

“(C) is continued on active duty under section 637 of title 10, United States Code, as added by this Act.

“(b)(1) Subject to paragraph (2), an officer of the Army or Air Force who on the effective date of this Act [Sept. 15, 1981]—

“(A) holds the regular grade of colonel; or

“(B) is on a list of officers recommended for promotion to the regular grade of colonel,

shall be retired under section 3921 or 8921, as appropriate, of such title (as in effect on the day before the effective date of this Act).

“(2) Paragraph (1) does not apply to an officer who—

“(A) is sooner retired or separated under another provision of law;

“(B) is promoted to the regular grade of brigadier general; or

“(C) is continued on active duty under section 637 of title 10, United States Code, as added by this Act.

“regular officers whose retirement has been deferred

“Sec. 610. A regular officer of the Army or Air Force serving on active duty on the effective date of this Act [Sept. 15, 1981] whose retirement under chapter 367 or 867 of title 10, United States Code, has been deferred before that date—

“(1) under a provision of such chapter; or

“(2) by virtue of a suspension, under any provision of law, of provisions of such chapter which would otherwise require such retirement,

may continue to serve on active duty to complete the period for which his retirement was deferred or until such suspension is removed.

“Part B—Transition Provisions Relating Only to the Navy and Marine Corps

“officers serving in a temporary grade below vice admiral or lieutenant general or recommended for promotion

“Sec. 611. (a) Subject to subsection (b), any regular officer of the Navy or Marine Corps, and any reserve officer of the Navy and Marine Corps who on the effective date of this Act [Sept. 15, 1981] is subject to placement on the active-duty list, who on the effective date of this Act—

“(1) is serving on active duty in a temporary grade below vice admiral or lieutenant general that is higher than his permanent grade; or

“(2) is on a promotion list,

shall be considered to have been recommended for promotion to the permanent grade equivalent to the grade in which he is serving or for which he has been recommended for promotion, as the case may be, by a board convened under section 611(a) of title 10, United States Code, as added by this Act.

“(b) This section does not apply to an officer—

“(1) serving in a temporary grade which, by its own terms, is limited in duration;

“(2) designated for limited duty in a grade to which he was appointed under section 5596 of title 10, United States Code, before the effective date of this Act [Sept. 15, 1981]; or

“(3) recommended for promotion or promoted to a grade under section 5787 of such title, as in effect before the effective date of this Act.

“(c)(1) Any delay of a promotion of an officer referred to in clause (2) of subsection (a) that was in effect on September 14, 1981, under the laws and regulations in effect on such date, shall continue in effect on and after September 15, 1981, as if such promotion had been delayed under section 624(d) of title 10, United States Code, as added by this Act.

“(2) Any action to remove from a promotion list the name of an officer referred to in clause (2) of subsection (a) which was initiated before September 15, 1981, under the laws and regulations in effect before such date shall continue on and after such date as if such removal action had been initiated under section 629 of title 10, United States Code, as added by this Act.

“officers failed of selection for promotion

“Sec. 612. (a) Except as provided in subsection (b), an officer of the Navy or Marine Corps who on the effective date of this Act [Sept. 15, 1981] is considered to have failed of selection for promotion one or more times to a grade below the grade of captain, in the case of an officer of the Navy, or below the grade of colonel, in the case of an officer of the Marine Corps, is subject to chapter 36 of title 10, United States Code, as added by this Act, as if such failure or failures had occurred under the provisions of such chapter.

“(b) An officer who during fiscal year 1981—

“(1) failed twice of selection for promotion to the grade of either lieutenant or lieutenant commander, in the case of an officer in the Navy, or to either captain or major, in the case of an officer in the Marine Corps; and

“(2) had not previously failed of selection for promotion to that grade,

may not, because of such failures of selection, be involuntarily separated, involuntarily discharged, or retired under chapter 36 of title 10, United States Code, as added by this Act, before June 30, 1982, unless the officer so requests.

“right of certain officers to retire under prior law

“Sec. 613. (a)(1) Subject to paragraph (2), an officer who on September 15, 1981—

“(A) holds the grade of lieutenant commander, commander, or captain in the Regular Navy or the grade of major, lieutenant colonel, or colonel in the Regular Marine Corps; or

“(B) is on a promotion list to any such grade,

shall be retired on the date provided under the laws in effect on September 14, 1981, except that an officer for whom no means can be established under the laws in effect on September 14, 1981, for computing creditable service in determining whether the officer is subject to involuntary retirement shall be retired under chapter 573 of title 10, United States Code, as in effect on September 14, 1981, on the basis of the years of service of such officer as determined under regulations prescribed under section 624(b).

“(2) This subsection does not apply to an officer—

“(A) removed from active duty under section 1184 of title 10, United States Code, as added by this Act;

“(B) promoted to a higher grade in the Regular Navy or Regular Marine Corps;

“(C) continued on active duty under section 637 of title 10, United States Code, as added by this Act; or

“(D) selected for early retirement under section 638 of title 10, United States Code.

“(b)(1) An officer of the Navy who on September 14, 1981—

“(A) has the grade of rear admiral in the Regular Navy; or

“(B) was on a promotion list to such grade,

shall be continued on active duty or retired in accordance with the laws in effect on September 14, 1981.

“(2) An officer of the Marine Corps who on September 14, 1981—

“(A) has the grade of brigadier general in the Regular Marine Corps; or

“(B) was on a promotion list to such grade,

shall be retired in accordance with the laws in effect on September 14, 1981.

“transition provisions to new commodore grade

“Sec. 614. (a)(1) An officer of the Navy who on the day before the effective date of this Act [Sept. 15, 1981]—

“(A) was serving on active duty in the grade of rear admiral and was receiving the basic pay of a rear admiral of the upper half; or

“(B) was serving on active duty in the grade of admiral or vice admiral and would have been entitled to receive the basic pay of a rear admiral of the upper half had he not been serving in such grade on such date,

shall after such date hold the permanent grade of rear admiral.

“(2) An officer of the Navy who on the day before the effective date of this Act [Sept. 15, 1981]—

“(A) was serving on active duty in the grade of rear admiral and was receiving the basic pay of a rear admiral of the lower half; or

“(B) was serving on active duty in the grade of admiral or vice admiral and would have been entitled to receive the basic pay of a rear admiral of the lower half had he not been serving in such grade on such date,

shall after such date hold the permanent grade of commodore, but shall retain the title of rear admiral.

“(3) An officer who on the day before the effective date of this Act [Sept. 15, 1981] was on a list of officers recommended for promotion to the grade of rear admiral shall, upon promotion, hold the grade of commodore with the title of rear admiral.

“(b) An officer who on the day before the effective date of this Act [Sept. 15, 1981]—

“(1) was serving on active duty in the grade of rear admiral and was entitled to the basic pay of a rear admiral of the lower half; or

“(2) was on a list of officers recommended for promotion to the grade of rear admiral,

shall, on and after the effective date of this Act, or in the case of an officer on such a list, upon promotion to the grade of commodore, be entitled to wear the uniform and insignia of a rear admiral.

“(c) Except as otherwise provided by law, an officer of the Navy who on the day before the effective date of this Act [Sept. 15, 1981] held the grade of rear admiral on the retired list or the temporary disability retired list retains the grade of rear admiral and is entitled after such date to wear the uniform and insignia of a rear admiral. Such an officer, when ordered to active duty—

“(1) holds the grade and has the right to wear the uniform and insignia of a rear admiral; and

“(2) ranks among commissioned officers of the armed forces as and is entitled to the basic pay of—

“(A) a commodore, if his retired pay was based on the basic pay of a rear admiral of the lower half on the day before the effective date of this Act; or

“(B) a rear admiral, if his retired pay was based on the basic pay of a rear admiral of the upper half on the day before the effective date of this Act.

“(d)(1) An officer of the Navy who—

“(A) on the effective date of this Act [Sept. 15, 1981]—

“(i) was serving on active duty in the grade of rear admiral and was entitled to the basic pay of a rear admiral of the lower half or was serving on active duty in the grade of admiral or vice admiral and would have been entitled to receive the basic pay of a rear admiral of the lower half had he not been serving in such grade on such date; or

“(ii) was on a list of officers recommended for promotion to the grade of rear admiral; and

“(B) after such date holds the permanent grade of commodore pursuant to subsection (a),

shall not be subject to the provisions of chapter 36 of title 10, United States Code, as added by this Act, relating to selection for promotion and promotion to the next higher grade.

“(2) Officers to whom this subsection applies become entitled to hold the permanent grade of rear admiral under the circumstances prescribed for entitlement to the basic pay of a rear admiral of the upper half under the provisions of subsections (a) through (d) of section 202 of title 37, United States Code, as in effect on the day before the effective date of this Act [Sept. 15, 1981]. For the purposes of this subsection, officers serving in the permanent grade of rear admiral or commodore in accordance with subsection (a) shall be considered as serving in the grade of rear admiral, as such grade was in effect on the day before the effective date of this Act.

“(e) Unless entitled to a higher grade under another provision of law, an officer of the Navy who on the day before the effective date of this Act [Sept. 15, 1981]—

“(1) was serving on active duty; and

“(2) held the grade of rear admiral;

and who retires on or after the effective date of this Act, retires in the grade of rear admiral and is entitled to wear the uniform and insignia of a rear admiral. If such an officer is ordered to active duty after his retirement, he is considered, for the purposes of determining his pay, uniform and insignia, and rank among other commissioned officers, as having held the grade of rear admiral on the retired list on the day before the effective date of this Act.

“(f) A reserve officer of the Navy who on the day before the effective date of this Act [Sept. 15, 1981] was in an active status and was serving in the grade of rear admiral or was on a list of reserve officers recommended for promotion to the grade of rear admiral is not subject to [former] subsection (f) of section 6389 of title 10, United States Code, as added by this Act.

“female officers

“Sec. 615. (a) Except as provided under subsection (c), each regular officer who on the effective date of this Act [Sept. 15, 1981] is serving on the active list in the line of the Navy or on the active list of the Marine Corps under an appointment made under section 5590 of title 10, United States Code, shall be reappointed in the line of the Navy or in the Marine Corps, as appropriate, in the grade and with the date of rank held by such officer immediately before such reappointment. Each such reappointment shall be made in accordance with the provisions of such title as amended by this Act but notwithstanding any limitation otherwise applicable with regard to age, grade, or physical standards.

“(b) Each officer of the Navy who on the effective date of this Act [Sept. 15, 1981] is serving in a staff corps under an appointment made under section 5590 of title 10, United States Code, shall be reappointed in that corps in the grade and with the date of rank held by such officer immediately before such reappointment. Each such reappointment shall be made in accordance with the provisions of such title as amended by this Act but notwithstanding any limitation otherwise applicable with regard to age, grade, or physical standards.

“(c) Any officer who on the effective date of this Act [Sept. 15, 1981] is serving on the active list in the line of the Navy under an appointment made under section 5590 of title 10, United States Code, and who meets the qualifications for appointment in a staff corps of the Navy may, request appointment in a staff corps and, with the approval of the Secretary of the Navy, be appointed in that staff corps. Any appointment under this subsection shall be in lieu of the reappointment of the officer under subsection (a).

“(d) Each officer reappointed in a staff corps pursuant to subsection (b) or appointed in a staff corps under subsection (c) shall be considered for all purposes as having been originally appointed in such staff corps in accordance with the provisions of title 10, United States Code, as amended by this Act.

“(e) Except as otherwise specifically provided by law, all provisions of law relating to appointment, promotion, separation, and retirement which are applicable to male officers of the Regular Navy or Regular Marine Corps, as appropriate, apply to officers reappointed pursuant to subsection (a) or (b) or appointed under subsection (c).

“(f)(1) As soon as practicable after completion of the appointments and reappointments provided for in subsections (a), (b), and (c), the name of each officer so appointed or reappointed shall be entered on the appropriate active-duty list of the Navy or the Marine Corps in a position among officers of her grade determined in accordance with regulations prescribed by the Secretary of the Navy. Such officers shall be placed on the appropriate active-duty list without change in their relative positions held on the lineal list or any list for promotion established for them while they were serving under an appointment under any provision of title 10, United States Code, repealed by this Act.

“(2) Any female officer—

“(A) who, by virtue of her date of rank and other considerations, would be placed on a list of officers eligible for consideration for promotion in a position senior to an officer who has failed of selection for promotion one or more times; and

“(B) who is considered to have failed of selection for promotion once or is considered to have never failed of selection for promotion,

shall, for purposes of determining her eligibility for consideration for promotion to the next higher grade, be considered with those officers who are considered to have failed of selection for promotion once, or who are considered never to have failed of selection for promotion, as the case may be.

“(3) A female officer who is considered to have failed of selection for promotion one or more times and whose position on the active-duty list is junior to the position of any male officer who is considered to have failed of selection for promotion a fewer number of times or not at all may not derive any advantage in the selection process by virtue of such position on the active-duty list.

“(g) Except as provided in section 638 of title 10, United States Code, as added by this Act, a regular officer of the Navy or Marine Corps appointed under section 5590 of such title who—

“(1) before the effective date of this Act [Sept. 15, 1981] had not twice failed of selection for promotion to the next higher grade; and

“(2) is not selected for promotion to a higher regular grade on or after such effective date,

may not be retired earlier than such officer would have been retired had this Act not been enacted.

“(h)(1) Any officer who—

“(A) on the effective date of this Act [Sept. 15, 1981] is a lieutenant in the Navy or a captain in the Marine Corps;

“(B) under section 6396(c) or 6401 of title 10, United States Code (as in effect on the day before the effective date of this Act), would have been discharged on June 30 of the fiscal year in which that officer (i) was not on a promotion list, and (ii) had completed 13 years of active commissioned service; and

“(C) because of the enactment of this Act, is subject to discharge under section 632 of such title because such officer has twice failed of selection for promotion,

shall, if such officer has not completed 13 years of active commissioned service at the time otherwise prescribed for the discharge of such officer under such section and such officer so requests, not be discharged until June 30 of the fiscal year in which the officer completes 13 years of active commissioned service.

“(2) Any officer who—

“(A) on the effective date of this Act [Sept. 15, 1981] is a lieutenant (junior grade) in the Navy or a first lieutenant in the Marine Corps;

“(B) under section 6396(d) or 6402 of title 10, United States Code (as in effect on the day before the effective date of this Act), would have been discharged on June 30 of the fiscal year in which that officer (i) was not on a promotion list, and (ii) had completed 7 years of active commissioned service; and

“(C) because of the enactment of this Act, is subject to discharge under section 631 of such title because such officer has twice failed of selection for promotion,

shall, if that officer has not completed 7 years of active commissioned service at the time otherwise prescribed for such discharge under such section and such officer so requests, not be discharged until June 30 of the fiscal year in which the officer completes 7 years of active commissioned service.

“limited-duty officers

“Sec. 616. (a) An officer of the Regular Navy or Regular Marine Corps who on the effective date of this Act [Sept. 15, 1981] is an officer who was designated for limited duty before that date under section 5589 of title 10, United States Code, is subject to section 6383 of such title (as in effect on the day before the effective date of this Act), unless promoted to a higher permanent grade under chapter 36 of title 10, United States Code, as added by this Act.

“(b) Any female member of the Navy who on April 2, 1981, was appointed under section 591 [now 12201] or 5590 of title 10, United States Code, in the grade of ensign as an officer designated for limited duty may after September 14, 1981, be reappointed as an officer designated for limited duty under section 5596 of title 10, United States Code, as amended by this Act. A member so reappointed shall have a date of rank as an ensign of April 2, 1981, and shall have the same permanent pay grade and status as that member held on April 1, 1981.

“(c) An officer of the Navy or Marine Corps who on September 15, 1981, was an officer designated for limited duty under section 5589 of title 10, United States Code, and who on the date of the enactment of this subsection [Oct. 19, 1984] is serving in a temporary grade above the grade of lieutenant, in the case of an officer of the Navy, or captain, in the case of an officer of the Marine Corps, may be reappointed under section 5589 of title 10, United States Code (as in effect on or after September 15, 1981), in the same permanent grade and with the same date of rank held by that officer on the active-duty list immediately before such reappointment if he is otherwise eligible for appointment under that section.

“certain navy lieutenants holding temporary appointments in the grade of lieutenant commander

“Sec. 617. Any officer who on the effective date of this Act [Sept. 15, 1981] holds a temporary appointment in the grade of lieutenant commander under section 5787d of title 10, United States Code, shall on and after such date be considered to be serving in such grade as if such appointment had been made under section 5721 of such title, as added by this Act.

“director of budget and reports of the navy

“Sec. 618. (a) An officer of the Navy who on the day before the effective date of this Act [Sept. 15, 1981] was serving on active duty and entitled to rank and privileges of retirement under section 5064 of title 10, United States Code, as in effect on the day before the effective date of this Act, shall have his rank and retirement privileges determined under the laws in effect on such date.

“contingency authority for navy promotions under prior law

“Sec. 619. If necessary because of unforeseen circumstances, the Secretary of the Navy, during fiscal year 1982, may convene boards to select officers for promotion under chapters 545 and 549 of title 10, United States Code, as in effect on September 14, 1981, and officers so selected may be promoted in accordance with such chapters. An officer promoted to a higher grade under the authority of this section shall be subject to sections 613 and 629 as if he held that grade on September 14, 1981, and shall have a date of rank to be determined under section 741 of title 10, United States Code, as amended by this Act.

“retention on active duty of certain reserve lieutenant commanders

Sec. 620. Notwithstanding section 6389 of title 10, United States Code, an officer who on September 14, 1981—

“(1) holds the grade of lieutenant commander in the Naval Reserve [now Navy Reserve];

“(2) is on active duty as the result of recall orders accepted subsequent to a break in active commissioned service;

“(3) is subject to placement on the active-duty list; and

“(4) is considered—

“(A) to have failed of selection for promotion to the grade of commander one or more times under chapter 545 of title 10, United States Code, as in effect on September 14, 1981; or

“(B) to have been later considered to have failed of selection for promotion to the grade of commander one or more times under chapter 36 of title 10, United States Code, as added by this Act,

may be retained on active duty by the Secretary of the Navy for such period as the Secretary considers appropriate.

“Part C—General Transition Provisions

“establishment of initial active-duty lists

“Sec. 621. (a)(1) Not later than 6 months after the effective date of this Act [Sept. 15, 1981], all officers of the Army, Navy, Air Force, and Marine Corps who are required to be placed on the active-duty list for their armed force under chapter 36 of title 10, United States Code, as added by this Act, shall be placed on such list with the same relative seniority which they held on the day before the effective date of this Act. An officer placed on an active-duty list under this section shall be considered to have been placed on such list as of the effective date of this Act.

“(2) Regulations prescribed under section 620 of title 10, United States Code, as added by this Act, shall be applicable to the placement of officers on the active-duty list under paragraph (1).

“(b) Under regulations prescribed by the Secretary of Defense, which shall apply uniformly among the Army, Navy, Air Force, and Marine Corps, the Secretary of the military department concerned, in order to maintain the relative seniority among officers of the Army, Navy, Air Force, and Marine Corps as it existed on September 14, 1981, may adjust the date of rank of officers—

“(1) below the grade of brigadier general or commodore during the one-year period beginning on September 15, 1981; and

“(2) above the grade of colonel or, in the case of the Navy, captain until there are no longer any officers to whom section 614(d) is applicable.

“officers serving in the same temporary grade and permanent grade; date of rank

“Sec. 622. (a) Any officer of the Army, Navy, Air Force, or Marine Corps who on the effective date of this Act [Sept. 15, 1981] is serving on active duty in a temporary grade which is the same as his permanent grade shall on such date be serving in such grade subject to this title and the amendments made by this Act. The date of rank of such officer in that grade is the date of his temporary appointment to that grade.

“officers serving in grades above major general or rear admiral

“Sec. 623. (a) Any officer who on the day before the effective date of this Act [Sept. 15, 1981] held a temporary appointment in the grade of lieutenant general or general under section 3066, 5232, or 8066 of title 10, United States Code, or a temporary appointment in the grade of vice admiral or admiral under section 5231 of such title, shall on and after such date be considered to be serving in such grade as if such appointment had been made under section 601 of such title, as added by this Act.

“(b)(1) Any designation of a position as a position of importance and responsibility made by the President under section 3066 or 8066 of title 10, United States Code, before the effective date of this Act [Sept. 15, 1981], shall remain in effect, unless changed by the President, as a designation of such position as a position of importance and responsibility under section 601 of such title, as added by this Act.

“(2) Any position held by an officer under section 5231 or 5232 of title 10, United States Code, on the effective date of this Act [Sept. 15, 1981] shall, unless changed by the President, be deemed to be a position of importance and responsibility designated by the President under section 601 of title 10, United States Code.

“(c) Any officer who before the effective date of this Act [Sept. 15, 1981] served in the grade of lieutenant general, general, vice admiral, or admiral but was not serving in such grade on the day before the effective date of this Act shall for the purposes of section 1370(c) of title 10, United States Code, as added by this Act, be deemed to have held such position under an appointment made under section 601 of such title, as added by this Act.

“years of service for involuntary retirement or discharge

“Sec. 624. (a) In determining whether any officer of the Army, Navy, Air Force, or Marine Corps who was on active duty on the day before the effective date of this Act [Sept. 15, 1981] is subject to involuntary retirement or discharge under chapter 36 of title 10, United States Code, as added by this Act, the years of service of the officer for such purpose shall be computed by adding—

“(1) the amount of service creditable to such officer on the day before the effective date of this Act for the purpose of determining whether the officer is subject to involuntary retirement or discharge; and

“(2) all subsequent active commissioned service of such officer.

“(b) In the case of an officer subject to placement on the active-duty list on September 15, 1981, for whom no means of computing service creditable in determining whether the officer is subject to involuntary retirement or discharge existed under the law in effect on the day before the effective date of this Act [Sept. 15, 1981], the amount of creditable service of such officer for such purpose for the period before the effective date of this Act shall be determined under regulations prescribed by the Secretary of the military department concerned, except that such an officer may not be credited with an amount of service less than the amount of his active commissioned service.

“savings provision for constructive service previously granted

“Sec. 625. (a) The amendments made by this Act do not affect the crediting of years of service to any person who on the day before the effective date of this Act [Sept. 15, 1981]—

“(1) had been credited with years of service upon an original appointment as an officer or after such an appointment; or

“(2) was participating in a program leading to an appointment as an officer in the Army, Navy, Air Force, or Marine Corps and the crediting of years of service.

“(b)(1) Any officer who on the effective date of this Act [Sept. 15, 1981] is an officer of the Army or Navy in the Medical or Dental Corps of his armed force, an officer of the Air Force designated as a medical or dental officer, or an officer of the Public Health Service commissioned as a medical or dental officer is entitled to include in the years of service creditable to him for the computation of basic pay and retired pay the years of service creditable to him for such purposes under clauses (7) and (8) of section 205(a) of title 37, United States Code, as in effect on the day before the effective date of this Act.

“(2) Any person who on the day before the effective date of this Act [Sept. 15, 1981] was enrolled in the Uniformed Services University of the Health Sciences under chapter 104 of this title or the Armed Forces Health Professions Scholarship Program under chapter 105 of this title and who on or after the effective date of this Act graduates from such university or completes such program, as the case may be, and is appointed in one of the categories specified in paragraph (1) is entitled to include in the years of service creditable to him for the computation of basic pay and retired pay the years of service that would have been credited to him under clauses (7) and (8) of section 205(a) of title 37, United States Code, as in effect on the day before the effective date of this Act, had such clauses not been repealed by this Act.

“miscellaneous provisions relating to years of service

“Sec. 626. (a) For the purpose of computing the years of service for pay and allowances of an officer of the Army, Navy, Air Force, or Marine Corps, including retired pay, severance pay, readjustment pay, separation pay, and basic pay, the total years of service of such officer shall be computed by adding to that service so creditable on the day before the effective date of this Act [Sept. 15, 1981] all subsequent service as computed under title 10, United States Code, as amended by this Act.

“(b) An officer of the Army, Navy, Air Force, or Marine Corps who was on active duty on the effective date of this Act [Sept. 15, 1981] and who is retired under section 1251 of title 10, United States Code, as added by this Act, shall be entitled to retired pay in an amount equal to not less than 50 percent of the basic pay upon which his retired pay is based.

“(c) The service that an officer of the Army, Navy, Air Force, or Marine Corps has in a particular grade is the sum of—

“(A) the years, months, and days of service in that grade accrued under the laws in effect before the effective date of this Act [Sept. 15, 1981]; and

“(B) the years, months, and days of service in that grade accrued under the laws in effect on and after the effective date of this Act.

“transition to officer grade-strength tables during fiscal year 1981

“Sec. 627. For the fiscal year ending on September 30, 1981, the maximum number of officers authorized to be serving on active duty as of the end of such fiscal year in each of the grades of major, lieutenant colonel, and colonel for the Army, Air Force, and Marine Corps, and in each of the grades of lieutenant commander, commander, and captain for the Navy, under section 523 of title 10, United States Code, as added by this Act, is increased by the number equal to one-half the difference between (1) the actual number of officers of that armed force serving on active duty in that grade on September 30, 1980 (excluding officers in categories specified in subsection (b) of such section), and (2) the number specified in the table contained in such section for such armed force and grade based upon the total number of commissioned officers of such armed force on active duty on September 30, 1981 (excluding officers in categories specified in subsection (b) of such section).

“right of commissioned officers with permanent enlisted or warrant officer status to retire in highest enlisted or warrant officer grade held

“Sec. 628. (a) A member of the Army, Navy, Air Force, or Marine Corps who—

“(1) on the day before the effective date of this Act [Sept. 15, 1981] had a permanent status as an enlisted member or as a warrant officer (or had a statutory right to be enlisted or to be appointed as a warrant officer) and was serving as an officer under a temporary appointment; and

“(2) on or after the effective date of this Act and before completing 10 years of commissioned service for purposes of retirement eligibility under section 3911, 6323, or 8911 of title 10, United States Code, completes 20 years of total service, as determined under section 1405 of such title,

is entitled to retire or transfer to the Fleet Reserve or Fleet Marine Corps Reserve in the highest grade he held as an enlisted member or a warrant officer.

“savings provision for retired grade for officers not subsequently promoted

“Sec. 629. In applying section 1370(a)(2) of title 10, United States Code, as added by this Act, to an officer of the Army, Navy, Air Force, or Marine Corps who was on active duty on the day before the effective date of this Act [Sept. 15, 1981] and who on or after the effective date of this Act is not promoted to a grade higher than the grade he held on the day before the effective date of this Act or, in the case of an officer who was on a list of officers recommended for promotion on such date, is not promoted to a grade higher than the grade to which he was recommended for promotion, ‘two years’ shall be substituted for ‘three years’. The Secretary of the military department concerned may waive the requirements of this section and of section 1370(a)(2) of title 10, United States Code, as added by this Act, with respect to any officer described in the preceding sentence.

“exemption of certain officers from selective early retirement provisions

“Sec. 630. An officer of the Army, Navy, Air Force, or Marine Corps who was recommended for continuation on the active list under the Act entitled ‘An Act to provide improved opportunity for promotion for certain officers in the naval service, and for other purposes’, approved August 11, 1959 (Public Law 86–155; 10 U.S.C. 5701 note), or under section 10 of the Act entitled ‘An Act relating to the promotion and separation of certain officers of the regular components of the armed forces’, approved July 12, 1960 (Public Law 86–616; 10 U.S.C. 3297 note), is not subject to section 638 of title 10, United States Code, as added by this Act, relating to selective early retirement.

“savings provision for entitlement to readjustment pay or severance pay under prior provisions of law

“Sec. 631. (a) A member of the Army, Navy, Air Force, or Marine Corps who—

“(1) was on active duty (other than for training) on Sept. 14, 1981; and

“(2) after such date is involuntarily discharged or released from active duty under any provision of title 10, United States Code, as in effect after such date,

is entitled to receive any readjustment payment or severance pay to which he would have been entitled under laws in effect on Sept. 14, 1981, unless (in the case of a member discharged or released on or after the date of the enactment of the Department of Defense Authorization Act, 1985 [Oct. 19, 1984]) the Secretary concerned determines that the conditions under which the member is discharged or separated do not warrant such pay.

“(b) If a member who is entitled to receive a readjustment payment or severance pay under subsection (a) is also eligible to receive separation pay under section 1174 of title 10, United States Code, as added by this Act, the member may not receive both the readjustment payment and severance pay under laws in effect on Sept. 14, 1981, and separation pay under such section, but shall elect which he will receive. If the number fails to make an election in a timely manner, he shall be paid the amount which is more favorable to him.

“officers on active duty in grade above general

“Sec. 632. Section 1251 of title 10, United States Code, as added by this Act, relating to mandatory retirement for age, shall not apply to any officer who on the effective date of this Act [Sept. 15, 1981] was on active duty in a grade above general.

“definitions

“Sec. 633. For the purposes of this title:

“(1) The term ‘officer’ does not include warrant officers.

“(2) The term ‘active-duty list’ means the active-duty list established by the Secretary of the military department concerned pursuant to section 620 of title 10, United States Code, as added by this Act.

“savings provision for retired grade of certain reserve officers

Sec. 634. Unless entitled to a higher grade under any other provision of law, a member of the Army or Air Force who is a reserve officer and who—

“(1) is on active duty on September 14, 1981; and

“(2) after such date retires under section 3911 or 8911 of title 10, United States Code,

is entitled to retire in the reserve grade which he held or to which he had been selected for promotion on September 14, 1981.

“savings provision for original appointment in certain grades under existing regulations

“Sec. 635. Any person who before September 15, 1981—

“(1) was selected for participation in a postbaccalaureate educational program leading to an appointment as a commissioned officer or had completed a postbaccalaureate program and was selected for appointment as a commissioned officer of the Army, Navy, Air Force, or Marine Corps;

“(2) under regulations of the Secretary of the military department concerned in effect on December 12, 1980, would have been appointed and ordered to active duty in a grade specified or determined in accordance with such regulations; and

“(3) had not been so appointed and ordered to active duty,

may be appointed and ordered to active duty in such grade with a date of rank and position on the active-duty list junior to that of all other officers of the same grade and competitive category serving on active duty.

“retention in grade of certain reserve officers

“Sec. 636. A reserve officer of the Army, Navy, Air Force, or Marine Corps who on September 14, 1981—

“(1) is serving on active duty (A) under section 10(b)(2) of the Military Selective Service Act (50 U.S.C. App. 460(b)(2)) for the administration of the Selective Service System, or (B) under section 708 of title 32; and

“(2) is serving in a temporary grade or is selected for promotion to a temporary grade,

may continue to serve in or may be promoted to and serve in such grade until promoted to a higher grade, separated, or retired.

“savings provision regarding discharge of regular officers

“Sec. 637. An officer of the Regular Army, Regular Navy, Regular Air Force, or Regular Marine Corps who on September 14, 1981, was serving on active duty may not be discharged under section 630(1)(A) of title 10, United States Code, as added by this Act, on or after the day on which that officer completes three years of continuous service as a regular commissioned officer.

“repayment of readjustment and severance pay

“Sec. 638. Notwithstanding section 1174(h) of title 10, United States Code, as added by this Act, a person who received readjustment or severance pay before September 15, 1981, and who, on or after September 15, 1981, becomes entitled to retired or retainer pay under any provision of title 10 or title 14, United States Code, shall be required to repay that readjustment pay or severance pay in accordance with the laws in effect on September 14, 1981.

“savings provision for promotion consideration of certain retired officers

“Sec. 639. Notwithstanding sections 619, 620, and 641(4) of title 10, United States Code, a retired officer serving on active duty on the date of the enactment of this section [Oct. 19, 1984] who on September 14, 1981, was on active duty as a retired officer recalled to active duty and who—

“(1) was eligible for consideration for promotion on that date; and

“(2) has served continuously on active duty since that date,

may be considered for promotion (under regulations prescribed by the Secretary of the military department concerned) by a selection board that convenes after the date of the enactment of this section as if he had been placed on the active-duty list pursuant to section 621 of this Act.”

§612. Composition of selection boards

(a)(1) Members of selection boards shall be appointed by the Secretary of the military department concerned in accordance with this section. A selection board shall consist of five or more officers of the same armed force as the officers under consideration by the board. Each member of a selection board (except as provided in paragraphs (2), (3), and (4)) shall be an officer on the active-duty list. Each member of a selection board must be serving in a grade higher than the grade of the officers under consideration by the board, except that no member of a board may be serving in a grade below major or lieutenant commander.

(2)(A) Except as provided in subparagraph (B), a selection board shall include at least one officer from each competitive category of officers to be considered by the board.

(B) A selection board need not include an officer from a competitive category to be considered by the board when there are no officers of that competitive category on the active-duty list in a grade higher than the grade of the officers to be considered by the board and eligible to serve on the board. However, in such a case the Secretary of the military department concerned, in his discretion, may appoint as a member of the board an officer of that competitive category who is not on the active-duty list from among officers of the same armed force as the officers under consideration by the board who hold a higher grade than the grade of the officers under consideration and who are retired officers, reserve officers serving on active duty but not on the active-duty list, or members of the Ready Reserve.

(3) When reserve officers of an armed force are to be considered by a selection board, the membership of the board shall include at least one reserve officer of that armed force on active duty (whether or not on the active-duty list). The actual number of reserve officers shall be determined by the Secretary of the military department concerned, in the Secretary's discretion. Notwithstanding the first sentence of this paragraph, in the case of a board which is considering officers in the grade of colonel or brigadier general or, in the case of officers of the Navy, captain or rear admiral (lower half), no reserve officer need be included if there are no reserve officers of that armed force on active duty in the next higher grade who are eligible to serve on the board.

(4) Except as provided in paragraphs (2) and (3), if qualified officers on the active-duty list are not available in sufficient number to comprise a selection board, the Secretary of the military department concerned shall complete the membership of the board by appointing as members of the board officers who are members of the same armed force and hold a grade higher than the grade of the officers under consideration by the board and who are retired officers, reserve officers serving on active duty but not on the active-duty list, or members of the Ready Reserve.

(5) A retired general or flag officer who is on active duty for the purpose of serving on a selection board shall not, while so serving, be counted against any limitation on the number of general and flag officers who may be on active duty.

(b) No officer may be a member of two successive selection boards convened under section 611(a) of this title for the consideration of officers of the same competitive category and grade.

(c)(1) Each selection board convened under section 611(a) of this title that will consider an officer described in paragraph (2) shall include at least one officer designated by the Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff who is a joint qualified officer.

(2) Paragraph (1) applies with respect to an officer who—

(A) is serving on, or has served on, the Joint Staff; or

(B) is a joint qualified officer.


(3) The Secretary of Defense may waive the requirement in paragraph (1) in the case of—

(A) any selection board of the Marine Corps; or

(B) any selection board that is considering officers in specialties identified in paragraph (2) or (3) of section 619a(b) of this title.

(Added Pub. L. 96–513, title I, §105, Dec. 12, 1980, 94 Stat. 2851; amended Pub. L. 97–22, §4(a), July 10, 1981, 95 Stat. 125; Pub. L. 97–86, title IV, §405(b)(1), Dec. 1, 1981, 95 Stat. 1105; Pub. L. 99–145, title V, §514(b)(1), Nov. 8, 1985, 99 Stat. 628; Pub. L. 99–433, title IV, §402(a), Oct. 1, 1986, 100 Stat. 1030; Pub. L. 106–398, §1 [[div. A], title V, §504(a)], Oct. 30, 2000, 114 Stat. 1654, 1654A–101; Pub. L. 111–383, div. A, title V, §522(a), Jan. 7, 2011, 124 Stat. 4214.)

Amendments

2011—Subsec. (c). Pub. L. 111–383 amended subsec. (c) generally. Prior to amendment, subsec. (c) read as follows: “Each selection board convened under section 611(a) of this title that will consider officers who are serving in, or have served in, joint duty assignments shall include at least one officer designated by the Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff who is currently serving in a joint duty assignment. The Secretary of Defense may waive the preceding sentence in the case of any selection board of the Marine Corps.”

2000—Subsec. (a)(1). Pub. L. 106–398, §1 [[div. A], title V, §504(a)(1)], struck out “who are on the active-duty list” after “five or more officers” in second sentence and inserted after second sentence “Each member of a selection board (except as provided in paragraphs (2), (3), and (4)) shall be an officer on the active-duty list.”

Subsec. (a)(3). Pub. L. 106–398, §1 [[div. A], title V, §504(a)(2)], substituted “of that armed force on active duty (whether or not on the active-duty list). The actual number of reserve officers shall be” for “of that armed force, with the exact number of reserve officers to be” and “the Secretary's discretion. Notwithstanding the first sentence of this paragraph,” for “his discretion, except that”.

1986—Subsec. (c). Pub. L. 99–433 added subsec. (c).

1985—Subsec. (a)(3). Pub. L. 99–145 substituted “rear admiral (lower half)” for “commodore”.

1981—Subsec. (a)(2). Pub. L. 97–22, §4(a)(1), designated existing provisions as subpar. (A), substituted “Except as provided in subparagraph (B), a selection board” for “A selection board”, and added subpar. (B).

Subsec. (a)(3). Pub. L. 97–86 substituted “commodore” for “commodore admiral”.

Pub. L. 97–22, §4(a)(2), inserted “, with the exact number of reserve officers to be determined by the Secretary of the military department concerned in his discretion” after “at least one reserve officer of that armed force” and inserted “who are eligible to serve on the board” after “the next higher grade”.

Subsec. (a)(4). Pub. L. 97–22, §4(a)(3), substituted “Except as provided in paragraphs (2) and (3)” for “Except as provided in paragraph (3)” and “officers who are members of the same armed force and hold a grade higher than the grade of the officers under consideration by the board and who are retired officers, reserve officers serving on active duty but not on the active-duty list, or members of the Ready Reserve” for “retired officers of the same armed force who hold a retired grade higher than the grade of the officers under consideration by the board” and designated as par. (5) provisions that retired general or flag officers on active duty for the purpose of serving on a selection board not be counted against any limitation on the number of general and flag officers who may be on active duty.

Subsec. (a)(5). Pub. L. 97–22, §4(a)(3), added par. (5) consisting of provisions, formerly contained in par. (4).

Subsec. (b). Pub. L. 97–22, §4(a)(4), inserted “convened under section 611(a) of this title” after “selection boards”.

Effective Date of 2000 Amendment

Pub. L. 106–398, §1 [[div. A], title V, §504(b)], Oct. 30, 2000, 114 Stat. 1654, 1654A–102, provided that: “The amendments made by subsection (a) [amending this section] shall apply to any selection board convened under section 611(a) of title 10, United States Code, on or after August 1, 1981.”

Effective Date of 1986 Amendment

Section 406(f) of Pub. L. 99–433 provided that: “The amendments made by section 402 [amending this section and sections 615 and 618 of this title] shall take effect with respect to selection boards convened under section 611(a) of title 10, United States Code, after the end of the 120-day period beginning on the date of the enactment of this Act [Oct. 1, 1986].”

Effective Date of 1981 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 97–86 effective Sept. 15, 1981, see section 405(f) of Pub. L. 97–86, set out as a note under section 101 of this title.

§613. Oath of members of selection boards

Each member of a selection board shall swear that he will perform his duties as a member of the board without prejudice or partiality and having in view both the special fitness of officers and the efficiency of his armed force.

(Added Pub. L. 96–513, title I, §105, Dec. 12, 1980, 94 Stat. 2851.)

§613a. Nondisclosure of board proceedings

(a) Prohibition on Disclosure.—The proceedings of a selection board convened under section 573, 611, or 628 of this title may not be disclosed to any person not a member of the board, except as authorized or required to process the report of the board. This prohibition is a statutory exemption from disclosure, as described in section 552(b)(3) of title 5.

(b) Prohibited Uses of Board Discussions, Deliberations, Notes, and Records.—The discussions and deliberations of a selection board described in subsection (a) and any written or documentary record of such discussions and deliberations—

(1) are immune from legal process;

(2) may not be admitted as evidence; and

(3) may not be used for any purpose in any action, suit, or judicial or administrative proceeding without the consent of the Secretary of the military department concerned.


(c) Applicability.—This section applies to all selection boards convened under section 573, 611, or 628 of this title, regardless of the date on which the board was convened.

(Added Pub. L. 109–364, div. A, title V, §547(a)(1), Oct. 17, 2006, 120 Stat. 2215; amended Pub. L. 111–383, div. A, title V, §503(a), Jan. 7, 2011, 124 Stat. 4207.)

Amendments

2011—Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 111–383, §503(a)(1), added subsec. (a) and struck out former subsec. (a). Prior to amendment, text read as follows: “The proceedings of a selection board convened under section 611 this title may not be disclosed to any person not a member of the board.”

Subsec. (b). Pub. L. 111–383, §503(a)(2), substituted “Notes, and Records” for “and Records” in heading.

Subsec. (c). Pub. L. 111–383, §503(a)(3), added subsec. (c).

Effective Date

Pub. L. 109–364, div. A, title V, §547(c), Oct. 17, 2006, 120 Stat. 2216, provided that: “Section 613a of title 10, United States Code, as added by subsection (a), shall apply with respect to the proceedings of all selection boards convened under section 611 of that title, including selection boards convened before the date of the enactment of this Act [Oct. 17, 2006]. Section 14104 of such title, as amended by subsection (b), shall apply with respect to the proceedings of all selection boards convened under section 14101 of that title, including selection boards convened before the date of the enactment of this Act.”

§614. Notice of convening of selection boards

(a) At least 30 days before a selection board is convened under section 611(a) of this title to recommend officers in a grade for promotion to the next higher grade, the Secretary concerned (1) shall notify in writing the officers eligible for consideration for promotion of the date on which the board is to convene and the name and date of rank of the junior officer, and of the senior officer, in the promotion zone as of the date of the notification, or (2) shall issue a general written notice to the armed force concerned regarding the convening of the board which shall include the convening date of the board and the name and date of rank of the junior officer, and of the senior officer, in the promotion zone as of the date of the notification.

(b) An officer eligible for consideration by a selection board convened under section 611(a) of this title may send a written communication to the board, to arrive not later than the day before the date the board convenes, calling attention to any matter concerning himself that the officer considers important to his case. The selection board shall give consideration to any timely communication under this subsection.

(Added Pub. L. 96–513, title I, §105, Dec. 12, 1980, 94 Stat. 2852; amended Pub. L. 97–22, §4(b), July 10, 1981, 95 Stat. 126; Pub. L. 102–190, div. A, title V, §504(a)(2)(A), Dec. 5, 1991, 105 Stat. 1357; Pub. L. 109–163, div. A, title V, §505(a), Jan. 6, 2006, 119 Stat. 3227.)

Amendments

2006—Subsec. (b). Pub. L. 109–163 inserted “the day before” after “not later than” in first sentence.

1991—Pub. L. 102–190 struck out “; communications with boards” after “selection boards” in section catchline.

1981—Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 97–22 substituted “which shall include the convening date of the board” for “, the names of the officers eligible for consideration by the board as of the date of the notification, the convening date of the board,”.

Effective Date of 2006 Amendment

Pub. L. 109–163, div. A, title V, §505(c), Jan. 6, 2006, 119 Stat. 3227, provided that: “The amendments made by this section [amending this section and section 14106 of this title] shall take effect on March 1, 2006, and shall apply with respect to selection boards convened on or after that date.”

Effective Date of 1991 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 102–190 applicable to selection boards convened under section 611(a) of this title after end of 60-day period beginning Dec. 5, 1991, see section 504(e) of Pub. L. 102–190, set out as a note under section 615 of this title.

§615. Information furnished to selection boards

(a)(1) The Secretary of Defense shall prescribe regulations governing information furnished to selection boards convened under section 611(a) of this title. Those regulations shall apply uniformly among the military departments. Any regulations prescribed by the Secretary of a military department to supplement those regulations may not take effect without the approval of the Secretary of Defense in writing.

(2) No information concerning a particular eligible officer may be furnished to a selection board except for the following:

(A) Information that is in the officer's official military personnel file and that is provided to the selection board in accordance with the regulations prescribed by the Secretary of Defense pursuant to paragraph (1).

(B) Other information that is determined by the Secretary of the military department concerned, after review by that Secretary in accordance with standards and procedures set out in the regulations prescribed by the Secretary of Defense pursuant to paragraph (1), to be substantiated, relevant information that could reasonably and materially affect the deliberations of the selection board.

(C) Subject to such limitations as may be prescribed in those regulations, information communicated to the board by the officer in accordance with this section, section 614(b) of this title (including any comment on information referred to in subparagraph (A) regarding that officer), or other applicable law.

(D) A factual summary of the information described in subparagraphs (A), (B), and (C) that, in accordance with the regulations prescribed pursuant to paragraph (1), is prepared by administrative personnel for the purpose of facilitating the work of the selection board.


(3) In the case of an eligible officer considered for promotion to a grade above colonel or, in the case of the Navy, captain, any credible information of an adverse nature, including any substantiated adverse finding or conclusion from an officially documented investigation or inquiry, shall be furnished to the selection board in accordance with standards and procedures set out in the regulations prescribed by the Secretary of Defense pursuant to paragraph (1).

(4) Information provided to a selection board in accordance with paragraphs (2) and (3) shall be made available to all members of the board and shall be made a part of the record of the board. Communication of such information shall be in a written form or in the form of an audio or video recording. If a communication is in the form of an audio or video recording, a written transcription of the recording shall also be made a part of the record of the selection board.

(5) Paragraphs (2), (3), and (4) do not apply to the furnishing of appropriate administrative processing information to the selection board by administrative staff designated to assist the board, but only to the extent that oral communications are necessary to facilitate the work of the board.

(6) Information furnished to a selection board that is described in subparagraph (B), (C), or (D) of paragraph (2), or in paragraph (3), may not be furnished to a later selection board unless—

(A) the information has been properly placed in the official military personnel file of the officer concerned; or

(B) the information is provided to the later selection board in accordance with paragraph (2) or (3), as applicable.


(7)(A) Before information described in paragraph (2)(B) or (3) regarding an eligible officer is furnished to a selection board, the Secretary of the military department concerned shall ensure—

(i) that such information is made available to such officer; and

(ii) that the officer is afforded a reasonable opportunity to submit comments on that information to the selection board.


(B) If an officer cannot be given access to the information referred to in subparagraph (A) because of its classification status, the officer shall, to the maximum extent practicable, be furnished with an appropriate summary of the information.

(b) The Secretary of the military department concerned shall furnish each selection board convened under section 611(a) of this title with—

(1) the maximum number, as determined in accordance with section 622 of this title, of officers in each competitive category under consideration that the board may recommend for promotion to the next higher grade;

(2) the names of all officers in each competitive category to be considered by the board for promotion;

(3) the pertinent records (as determined by the Secretary) of each officer whose name is furnished to the board;

(4) information or guidelines relating to the needs of the armed force concerned for officers having particular skills, including guidelines or information relating to the need for either a minimum number or a maximum number of officers with particular skills within a competitive category;

(5) guidelines, based upon guidelines received by the Secretary from the Secretary of Defense under subsection (c), for the purpose of ensuring that the board gives appropriate consideration to the performance of officers who are serving on, or have served on, the Joint Staff or are joint qualified officers; and

(6) such other information and guidelines as may be necessary to enable the board to properly perform its functions.


(c) The Secretary of Defense, with the advice and assistance of the Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff, shall furnish to the Secretaries of the military departments guidelines for the purpose of ensuring that each selection board convened under section 611(a) of this title gives appropriate consideration to the performance of officers who are serving on, or have served on, the Joint Staff or are joint qualified officers.

(d) Information or guidelines furnished to a selection board under subsection (b) may not be modified, withdrawn, or supplemented after the board submits the report to the Secretary of the military department concerned pursuant to section 617(a) of this title, except that, in the case of a report returned to a board pursuant to section 618(a)(2) of this title for further proceedings because of a determination by the Secretary of the military department concerned that the board acted contrary to law, regulation, or guidelines, the Secretary may modify, withdraw, or supplement such information or guidelines as part of a written explanation to the board as provided in that section.

(e) The Secretary of each military department, under uniform regulations prescribed by the Secretary of Defense, shall include in guidelines furnished to a selection board convened under section 611(a) of this title that is considering officers in a health-professions competitive category for promotion to a grade below colonel or, in the case of the Navy, captain, a direction that the board give consideration to an officer's clinical proficiency and skill as a health professional to at least as great an extent as the board gives to the officer's administrative and management skills.

(Added Pub. L. 96–513, title I, §105, Dec. 12, 1980, 94 Stat. 2852; amended Pub. L. 99–433, title IV, §402(b), Oct. 1, 1986, 100 Stat. 1030; Pub. L. 100–456, div. A, title V, §501(a), Sept. 29, 1988, 102 Stat. 1965; Pub. L. 101–189, div. A, title V, §519, Nov. 29, 1989, 103 Stat. 1444; Pub. L. 102–190, div. A, title V, §504(a)(1), Dec. 5, 1991, 105 Stat. 1355; Pub. L. 102–484, div. A, title X, §1052(7), Oct. 23, 1992, 106 Stat. 2499; Pub. L. 109–163, div. A, title V, §506(a), Jan. 6, 2006, 119 Stat. 3227; Pub. L. 111–383, div. A, title V, §522(b), Jan. 7, 2011, 124 Stat. 4215.)

Amendments

2011—Subsecs. (b)(5), (c). Pub. L. 111–383 substituted “of officers who are serving on, or have served on, the Joint Staff or are joint qualified officers” for “in joint duty assignments of officers who are serving, or have served, in such assignments”.

2006—Subsec. (a)(3). Pub. L. 109–163, §506(a)(1)(B), added par. (3). Former par. (3) redesignated (4).

Subsec. (a)(4). Pub. L. 109–163, §506(a)(2)(A), substituted “paragraphs (2) and (3)” for “paragraph (2)”.

Pub. L. 109–163, §506(a)(1)(A), redesignated par. (3) as (4). Former par. (4) redesignated (5).

Subsec. (a)(5). Pub. L. 109–163, §506(a)(2)(B), substituted “, (3), and (4)” for “and (3)”.

Pub. L. 109–163, §506(a)(1)(A), redesignated par. (4) as (5). Former par. (5) redesignated (6).

Subsec. (a)(6). Pub. L. 109–163, §506(a)(2)(C)(i), inserted “, or in paragraph (3),” after “paragraph (2)” in introductory provisions.

Pub. L. 109–163, §506(a)(1)(A), redesignated par. (5) as (6). Former par. (6) redesignated (7).

Subsec. (a)(6)(B). Pub. L. 109–163, §506(a)(2)(C)(ii), inserted “or (3), as applicable” before period at end.

Subsec. (a)(7). Pub. L. 109–163, §506(a)(1)(A), redesignated par. (6) as (7).

Subsec. (a)(7)(A). Pub. L. 109–163, §506(a)(2)(D), inserted “or (3)” after “paragraph (2)(B)” in introductory provisions.

1992—Subsec. (b)(5). Pub. L. 102–484, §1052(7)(A), substituted “subsection (c)” for “subsection (b)”.

Subsec. (d). Pub. L. 102–484, §1052(7)(B), substituted “subsection (b)” for “subsection (a)”.

1991—Pub. L. 102–190 added subsec. (a) and redesignated former subsecs. (a) to (d) as (b) to (e), respectively.

1989—Subsec. (d). Pub. L. 101–189 added subsec. (d).

1988—Subsec. (a)(4). Pub. L. 100–456, §501(a)(1), added cl. (4) and struck out former cl. (4) which read as follows: “information relating to the needs of the armed force concerned for officers having particular skills;”.

Subsec. (c). Pub. L. 100–456, §501(a)(2), added subsec. (c).

1986—Pub. L. 99–433 designated existing provisions as subsec. (a), added par. (5), redesignated former par. (5) as (6), and added subsec. (b).

Effective Date of 2006 Amendment

Pub. L. 109–163, div. A, title V, §506(c), Jan. 6, 2006, 119 Stat. 3228, provided that: “The amendments made by this section [amending this section and section 14107 of this title] shall take effect on October 1, 2006, and shall apply with respect to promotion selection boards convened on or after that date.”

Effective Date of 1991 Amendment

Section 504(e) of Pub. L. 102–190 provided that: “The amendments made by this section [amending this section and sections 614, 616, 618, and 619 of this title] shall apply to selection boards convened under section 611(a) of title 10, United States Code, after the end of the 60-day period beginning on the date of the enactment of this Act [Dec. 5, 1991].”

Effective Date of 1988 Amendment

Section 501(e) of Pub. L. 100–456 provided that: “The amendments made by this section [amending this section and sections 616 to 618 of this title] shall take effect 60 days after the date of the enactment of this Act [Sept. 29, 1988] and shall apply with respect to selection boards convened under section 611(a) of title 10, United States Code, on or after that effective date.”

Effective Date of 1986 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 99–433 effective with respect to selection boards convened under section 611(a) of this title after end of 120-day period beginning on Oct. 1, 1986, see section 406(f) of Pub. L. 99–433, set out as a note under section 612 of this title.

§616. Recommendations for promotion by selection boards

(a) A selection board convened under section 611(a) of this title shall recommend for promotion to the next higher grade those officers considered by the board whom the board, giving due consideration to the needs of the armed force concerned for officers with particular skills (as noted in the guidelines or information furnished the board under section 615(b) of this title), considers best qualified for promotion within each competitive category considered by the board.

(b) The Secretary of the military department concerned shall establish the number of officers such a selection board may recommend for promotion from among officers being considered from below the promotion zone in any competitive category. Such number may not exceed the number equal to 10 percent of the maximum number of officers that the board is authorized to recommend for promotion in such competitive category, except that the Secretary of Defense may authorize a greater number, not to exceed 15 percent of the total number of officers that the board is authorized to recommend for promotion, if the Secretary of Defense determines that the needs of the service so require. If the number determined under this subsection is less than one, the board may recommend one such officer. The number of officers recommended for promotion from below the promotion zone does not increase the maximum number of officers which the board is authorized under section 615 of this title to recommend for promotion.

(c) A selection board convened under section 611(a) of this title may not recommend an officer for promotion unless—

(1) the officer receives the recommendation of a majority of the members of the board;

(2) a majority of the members of the board finds that the officer is fully qualified for promotion; and

(3) a majority of the members of the board, after consideration by all members of the board of any adverse information about the officer that is provided to the board under section 615 of this title, finds that the officer is among the officers best qualified for promotion to meet the needs of the armed force concerned consistent with the requirement of exemplary conduct set forth in section 3583, 5947, or 8583 of this title, as applicable.


(d) Except as otherwise provided by law, an officer on the active-duty list may not be promoted to a higher grade under this chapter unless he is considered and recommended for promotion to that grade by a selection board convened under this chapter.

(e) The recommendations of a selection board may be disclosed only in accordance with regulations prescribed by the Secretary of Defense. Those recommendations may not be disclosed to a person not a member of the board (or a member of the administrative staff designated by the Secretary concerned to assist the board) until the written report of the recommendations of the board, required by section 617 of this title, is signed by each member of the board.

(f) The Secretary convening a selection board under section 611(a) of this title, and an officer or other official exercising authority over any member of a selection board, may not—

(1) censure, reprimand, or admonish the selection board or any member of the board with respect to the recommendations of the board or the exercise of any lawful function within the authorized discretion of the board; or

(2) attempt to coerce or, by any unauthorized means, influence any action of a selection board or any member of a selection board in the formulation of the board's recommendations.

(Added Pub. L. 96–513, title I, §105, Dec. 12, 1980, 94 Stat. 2852; amended Pub. L. 100–456, div. A, title V, §501(b), Sept. 29, 1988, 102 Stat. 1966; Pub. L. 102–190, div. A, title V, §504(b), Dec. 5, 1991, 105 Stat. 1357; Pub. L. 102–484, div. A, title X, §1052(8), Oct. 23, 1992, 106 Stat. 2499; Pub. L. 109–364, div. A, title V, §512(a), Oct. 17, 2006, 120 Stat. 2184.)

Amendments

2006—Subsec. (c)(3). Pub. L. 109–364 added par. (3).

1992—Pub. L. 102–484 substituted “section 615(b)” for “section 615(a)”.

1991—Subsecs. (e), (f). Pub. L. 102–190 added subsecs. (e) and (f).

1988—Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 100–456 inserted “(as noted in the guidelines or information furnished the board under section 615(a) of this title)” after “particular skills”.

Effective Date of 2006 Amendment

Pub. L. 109–364, div. A, title V, §512(c), Oct. 17, 2006, 120 Stat. 2184, provided that: “The amendments made by this section [amending this section and section 14108 of this title] shall take effect on the date of the enactment of this Act [Oct. 17, 2006] and shall apply with respect to selection boards convened on or after that date.”

Effective Date of 1991 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 102–190 applicable to selection boards convened under section 611(a) of this title after end of 60-day period beginning Dec. 5, 1991, see section 504(e) of Pub. L. 102–190, set out as a note under section 615 of this title.

Effective Date of 1988 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 100–456 effective 60 days after Sept. 29, 1988, and applicable with respect to selection boards convened under section 611(a) of this title on or after that effective date, see section 501(e) of Pub. L. 100–456, set out as a note under section 615 of this title.

§617. Reports of selection boards

(a) Each selection board convened under section 611(a) of this title shall submit to the Secretary of the military department concerned a written report, signed by each member of the board, containing a list of the names of the officers it recommends for promotion and certifying (1) that the board has carefully considered the record of each officer whose name was furnished to it under section 615 of this title, and (2) that, in the opinion of a majority of the members of the board, the officers recommended for promotion by the board are best qualified for promotion to meet the needs of the armed force concerned (as noted in the guidelines or information furnished the board under section 615(b) of this title) among those officers whose names were furnished to the selection board.

(b) A selection board convened under section 611(a) of this title shall include in its report to the Secretary concerned the name of any regular or reserve officer before it for consideration for promotion whose record, in the opinion of a majority of the members of the board, indicates that the officer should be required under chapter 60 or 1411 of this title to show cause for his retention on active duty.

(c) A selection board convened under section 611(a) of this title shall include in its report to the Secretary concerned the name of any officer considered and not recommended for promotion by the board who submitted to the board a request not to be selected for promotion or who otherwise directly caused his nonselection through written communication to the Board under section 614(b) of this title.

(Added Pub. L. 96–513, title I, §105, Dec. 12, 1980, 94 Stat. 2853; amended Pub. L. 100–456, div. A, title V, §501(c), Sept. 29, 1988, 102 Stat. 1966; Pub. L. 102–484, div. A, title X, §1052(8), Oct. 23, 1992, 106 Stat. 2499; Pub. L. 103–337, div. A, title XVI, §1623, Oct. 5, 1994, 108 Stat. 2961; Pub. L. 105–261, div. A, title V, §502(b), Oct. 17, 1998, 112 Stat. 2003; Pub. L. 106–65, div. A, title V, §503(a), Oct. 5, 1999, 113 Stat. 590.)

Amendments

1999—Subsec. (c). Pub. L. 106–65 struck out “regular” before “officer”.

1998—Subsec. (c). Pub. L. 105–261 added subsec. (c).

1994—Subsec. (b). Pub. L. 103–337 inserted “or reserve” after “any regular” and “or 1411” after “chapter 60”.

1992—Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 102–484 substituted “section 615(b)” for “section 615(a)”.

1988—Subsec. (a)(2). Pub. L. 100–456 inserted “(as noted in the guidelines or information furnished the board under section 615(a) of this title)” after “concerned”.

Effective Date of 1999 Amendment

Pub. L. 106–65, div. A, title V, §503(b), Oct. 5, 1999, 113 Stat. 590, provided that: “The amendment made by subsection (a) [amending this section] shall apply with respect to boards convened under section 611(a) of title 10, United States Code, on or after the date of the enactment of this Act [Oct. 5, 1999].”

Effective Date of 1998 Amendment

Pub. L. 105–261, div. A, title V, §502(c), Oct. 17, 1998, 112 Stat. 2003, provided that: “The amendments made by this section [amending this section and section 1174 of this title] shall apply with respect to selection boards convened under section 611(a) of title 10, United States Code, on or after the date of the enactment of this Act [Oct. 17, 1998].”

Effective Date of 1994 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 103–337 effective Oct. 1, 1996, see section 1691(b)(1) of Pub. L. 103–337, set out as a note under section 10001 of this title.

Effective Date of 1988 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 100–456 effective 60 days after Sept. 29, 1988, and applicable with respect to selection boards convened under section 611(a) of this title on or after that effective date, see section 501(e) of Pub. L. 100–456, set out as a note under section 615 of this title.

§618. Action on reports of selection boards

(a)(1) Upon receipt of the report of a selection board submitted to him under section 617(a) of this title, the Secretary of the military department concerned shall review the report to determine whether the board has acted contrary to law or regulation or to guidelines furnished the board under section 615(b) of this title. Following such review, unless the Secretary concerned makes a determination as described in paragraph (2), the Secretary shall submit the report as required by subsection (b) or (c), as appropriate.

(2) If, on the basis of a review of the report under paragraph (1), the Secretary of the military department concerned determines that the board acted contrary to law or regulation or to guidelines furnished the board under section 615(b) of this title, the Secretary shall return the report, together with a written explanation of the basis for such determination, to the board for further proceedings. Upon receipt of a report returned by the Secretary concerned under this paragraph, the selection board (or a subsequent selection board convened under section 611(a) of this title for the same grade and competitive category) shall conduct such proceedings as may be necessary in order to revise the report to be consistent with law, regulation, and such guidelines and shall resubmit the report, as revised, to the Secretary in accordance with section 617 of this title.

(b)(1) After completing the requirements of subsection (a), the Secretary concerned, in the case of the report of a selection board that considered officers who are serving on, or have served on, the Joint Staff or are joint qualified officers, shall submit the report to the Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff.

(2) The Chairman, in accordance with guidelines furnished to the Chairman by the Secretary of Defense, shall review the report for the purpose of determining if—

(A) the selection board acted consistent with the guidelines of the Secretary of Defense under section 615(c) of this title to ensure that selection boards give appropriate consideration to the performance of officers who are serving on, or have served on, the Joint Staff or are joint qualified officers; and

(B) the selection board otherwise gave appropriate consideration to the performance of officers who are serving on, or have served on, the Joint Staff or are joint qualified officers.


(3) After reviewing the report, the Chairman shall return the report, with his determinations and comments, to the Secretary concerned.

(4) If the Chairman determines that the board acted contrary to the guidelines of the Secretary of Defense under section 615(c) of this title or otherwise failed to give appropriate consideration to the performance of officers who are serving on, or have served on, the Joint Staff or are joint qualified officers, the Secretary concerned may—

(A) return the report, together with the Chairman's determinations and comments, to the selection board (or a subsequent selection board convened under section 611(a) of this title for the same grade and competitive category) for further proceedings in accordance with subsection (a);

(B) convene a special selection board in the manner provided for under section 628 of this title; or

(C) take other appropriate action to satisfy the concerns of the Chairman.


(5) If, after completion of all actions taken under paragraph (4), the Secretary concerned and the Chairman remain in disagreement with respect to the report of a selection board, the Secretary concerned shall indicate such disagreement, and the reasons for such disagreement, as part of his transmittal of the report of the selection board to the Secretary of Defense under subsection (c). Such transmittal shall include any comments submitted by the Chairman.

(c)(1) After his final review of the report of a selection board, the Secretary concerned shall submit the report, with his recommendations thereon, to the Secretary of Defense for transmittal to the President for his approval or disapproval. The Secretary of Defense shall, before transmitting the report of a selection board to the President, take appropriate action to resolve any disagreement between the Secretary concerned and the Chairman transmitted to him under subsection (b)(5). If the authority of the President under this paragraph to approve or disapprove the report of a selection board is delegated to the Secretary of Defense, it may not be redelegated except to an official in the Office of the Secretary of Defense.

(2) If the report of a selection board names an officer as having a record which indicates that the officer should be required to show cause for his retention on active duty, the Secretary concerned may provide for the review of the record of that officer as provided for under regulations prescribed under section 1181 of this title.

(d)(1) Except as provided in paragraph (2), the name of an officer recommended for promotion by a selection board may be removed from the report of the selection board only by the President.

(2) In the case of an officer recommended by a selection board for promotion to a grade below brigadier general or rear admiral (lower half), the name of the officer may also be removed from the report of the selection board by the Secretary of Defense or the Deputy Secretary of Defense.

(e)(1) The names of the officers recommended for promotion in the report of a selection board shall be disseminated to the armed force concerned as follows:

(A) In the case of officers recommended for promotion to a grade below brigadier general or rear admiral (lower half), such names may be disseminated upon, or at any time after, the transmittal of the report to the President.

(B) In the case of officers recommended for promotion to a grade above colonel or, in the case of the Navy, captain, such names may be disseminated upon, or at any time after, the approval of the report by the President.

(C) In the case of officers whose names have not been sooner disseminated, such names shall be promptly disseminated upon confirmation by the Senate.


(2) A list of names of officers disseminated under paragraph (1) may not include—

(A) any name removed by the President from the report of the selection board containing that name, if dissemination is under the authority of subparagraph (B) of such paragraph; or

(B) the name of any officer whose promotion the Senate failed to confirm, if dissemination is under the authority of subparagraph (C) of such paragraph.


[(f) Repealed. Pub. L. 109–364, div. A, title V, §547(a)(2), Oct. 17, 2006, 120 Stat. 2216.]

(g) If the Secretary of a military department or the Secretary of Defense makes a recommendation under this section that the name of an officer be removed from a report of a selection board and the recommendation is accompanied by information that was not presented to that selection board, that information shall be made available to that officer. The officer shall then be afforded a reasonable opportunity to submit comments on that information to the officials making the recommendation and the officials reviewing the recommendation. If an eligible officer cannot be given access to such information because of its classification status, the officer shall, to the maximum extent practicable, be provided with an appropriate summary of the information.

(Added Pub. L. 96–513, title I, §105, Dec. 12, 1980, 94 Stat. 2853; amended Pub. L. 98–525, title V, §524(a), Oct. 19, 1984, 98 Stat. 2524; Pub. L. 99–433, title IV, §402(c), Oct. 1, 1986, 100 Stat. 1030; Pub. L. 100–456, div. A, title V, §501(d), Sept. 29, 1988, 102 Stat. 1966; Pub. L. 102–190, div. A, title V, §504(c), Dec. 5, 1991, 105 Stat. 1357; Pub. L. 102–484, div. A, title X, §1052(8), (9), Oct. 23, 1992, 106 Stat. 2499; Pub. L. 106–398, §1 [[div. A], title V, §503(a)], Oct. 30, 2000, 114 Stat. 1654, 1654A–100; Pub. L. 109–364, div. A, title V, §§513(a), 547(a)(2), Oct. 17, 2006, 120 Stat. 2184, 2216; Pub. L. 111–383, div. A, title V, §522(c), Jan. 7, 2011, 124 Stat. 4215.)

Amendments

2011—Subsec. (b)(1). Pub. L. 111–383, §522(c)(1), substituted “are serving on, or have served on, the Joint Staff or are joint qualified officers” for “are serving, or have served, in joint duty assignments”.

Subsec. (b)(2). Pub. L. 111–383, §522(c)(2), substituted “of officers who are serving on, or have served on, the Joint Staff or are joint qualified officers” for “in joint duty assignments of officers who are serving, or have served, in such assignments” in subpars. (A) and (B).

Subsec. (b)(4). Pub. L. 111–383, §522(c)(3), substituted “who are serving on, or have served on, the Joint Staff or are joint qualified officers” for “in joint duty assignments” in introductory provisions.

2006—Subsec. (d). Pub. L. 109–364, §513(a), designated existing provisions as par. (1), substituted “Except as provided in paragraph (2), the name” for “The name”, and added par. (2).

Subsec. (f). Pub. L. 109–364, §547(a)(2), struck out subsec. (f) which read as follows: “Except as authorized or required by this section, proceedings of a selection board convened under section 611(a) of this title may not be disclosed to any person not a member of the board.”

2000—Subsec. (e). Pub. L. 106–398 amended subsec. (e) generally. Prior to amendment, subsec. (e) read as follows: “Upon approval by the President of the report of a selection board, the names of the officers recommended for promotion by the selection board (other than any name removed by the President) may be disseminated to the armed force concerned. If such names have not been sooner disseminated, such names (other than the name of any officer whose promotion the Senate failed to confirm) shall be promptly disseminated to the armed force concerned upon confirmation by the Senate.”

1992—Subsec. (a)(1), (2). Pub. L. 102–484, §1052(8), substituted “section 615(b)” for “section 615(a)”.

Subsec. (b)(2)(A), (4). Pub. L. 102–484, §1052(9), substituted “section 615(c)” for “section 615(b)”.

1991—Subsec. (g). Pub. L. 102–190 added subsec. (g).

1988—Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 100–456, §501(d)(1), amended subsec. (a) generally. Prior to amendment, subsec. (a) read as follows: “If, after reviewing the report of a selection board submitted to him under section 617(a) of this title, the Secretary of the military department concerned determines that the board has acted contrary to law or regulation, the Secretary shall return the report to the board for further proceedings. Upon receipt of a report returned by the Secretary concerned under this subsection, the selection board (or a subsequent selection board convened under section 611(a) of this title for the same grade and competitive category) shall conduct such proceedings as may be necessary in order to revise the report and shall resubmit the report, as revised, to the Secretary in accordance with section 617 of this title.”

Subsec. (c)(1). Pub. L. 100–456, §501(d)(2), struck out “, modification,” after “for his approval” and inserted at end “If the authority of the President under this paragraph to approve or disapprove the report of a selection board is delegated to the Secretary of Defense, it may not be redelegated except to an official in the Office of the Secretary of Defense.”

1986—Subsec. (b). Pub. L. 99–433, §402(c)(1), (2), added subsec. (b). Former subsec. (b) redesignated (c).

Subsec. (c). Pub. L. 99–433, §402(c)(1), (3), redesignated subsec. (b) as (c) and in par. (1) inserted provisions directing the Secretary of Defense, before transmitting the report, to take appropriate action to resolve any disagreement between the Secretary concerned and the Chairman. Former subsec. (c) redesignated (d).

Subsecs. (d) to (f). Pub. L. 99–433, §402(c)(1), redesignated subsecs. (c) to (e) as (d) to (f), respectively.

1984—Subsec. (b)(2). Pub. L. 98–525 substituted “If the report of a selection board names an officer as having a record which indicates that the officer should be required to show cause for his retention on active duty, the Secretary concerned may provide for the review of the record of that officer as provided for under regulations prescribed under section 1181 of this title” for “The Secretary concerned may submit to a board of officers convened under section 1181 of this title the name of any officer who is named in the report of a selection board as having a record which indicates that the officer should be required to show cause for his retention on active duty”.

Effective Date of 2006 Amendment

Pub. L. 109–364, div. A, title V, §513(c), Oct. 17, 2006, 120 Stat. 2185, provided that: “The amendments made by this section [amending this section and section 14111 of this title] shall apply with respect to selection boards convened on or after the date of the enactment of this Act [Oct. 17, 2006].”

Effective Date of 1991 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 102–190 applicable to selection boards convened under section 611(a) of this title after end of 60-day period beginning Dec. 5, 1991, see section 504(e) of Pub. L. 102–190, set out as a note under section 615 of this title.

Effective Date of 1988 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 100–456 effective 60 days after Sept. 29, 1988, and applicable with respect to selection boards convened under section 611(a) of this title on or after that effective date, see section 501(e) of Pub. L. 100–456, set out as a note under section 615 of this title.

Effective Date of 1986 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 99–433 effective with respect to selection boards convened under section 611(a) of this title after end of 120-day period beginning on Oct. 1, 1986, see section 406(f) of Pub. L. 99–433, set out as a note under section 612 of this title.

Delegation of Functions

Functions of President under subsec. (b)(1) to approve, modify, or disapprove report of a selection board delegated to Secretary of Defense to perform, without approval, ratification, or other action by President, and with authority for Secretary to redelegate, see Ex. Ord. No. 12396, §§1(a), 3, Dec. 9, 1982, 47 F.R. 55897, 55898, set out as a note under section 301 of Title 3, The President.

Nothing in section 1 of Ex. Ord. No. 12396 deemed to delegate authority vested in President by subsec. (c) of this section to remove a name from a selection board report, see section 1(g) of Ex. Ord. No. 12396.

SUBCHAPTER II—PROMOTIONS

Sec.
619.
Eligibility for consideration for promotion: time-in-grade and other requirements.
619a.
Eligibility for consideration for promotion: designation as joint qualified officer required before promotion to general or flag grade; exceptions.
620.
Active-duty lists.
621.
Competitive categories for promotion.
622.
Numbers to be recommended for promotion.
623.
Establishment of promotion zones.
624.
Promotions: how made.
625.
Authority to vacate promotions to grades of brigadier general and rear admiral (lower half).
626.
Acceptance of promotions; oath of office.

        

Amendments

2008—Pub. L. 110–417, [div. A], title V, §521(b)(2), Oct. 14, 2008, 122 Stat. 4444, added item 619a and struck out former item 619a “Eligibility for consideration for promotion: joint duty assignment required before promotion to general or flag grade; exceptions”.

1993—Pub. L. 103–160, div. A, title IX, §931(c)(2), Nov. 30, 1993, 107 Stat. 1734, added items 619 and 619a and struck out former item 619 “Eligibility for consideration for promotion”.

1985—Pub. L. 99–145, title V, §514(b)(4)(B), Nov. 8, 1985, 99 Stat. 628, substituted “rear admiral (lower half)” for “commodore” in item 625.

1981—Pub. L. 97–86, title IV, §405(b)(4)(B), Dec. 1, 1981, 95 Stat. 1106, substituted “commodore” for “commodore admiral” in item 625.

§619. Eligibility for consideration for promotion: time-in-grade and other requirements

(a) Time-in-Grade Requirements.—(1) An officer who is on the active-duty list of the Army, Air Force, or Marine Corps and holds a permanent appointment in the grade of second lieutenant or first lieutenant or is on the active-duty list of the Navy and holds a permanent appointment in the grade of ensign or lieutenant (junior grade) may not be promoted to the next higher permanent grade until he has completed the following period of service in the grade in which he holds a permanent appointment:

(A) Eighteen months, in the case of an officer holding a permanent appointment in the grade of second lieutenant or ensign.

(B) Two years, in the case of an officer holding a permanent appointment in the grade of first lieutenant or lieutenant (junior grade), except that the minimum period of service in effect under this subparagraph before October 1, 2008, shall be eighteen months.


(2) Subject to paragraph (4), an officer who is on the active-duty list of the Army, Air Force, or Marine Corps and holds a permanent appointment in a grade above first lieutenant or is on the active-duty list of the Navy and holds a permanent appointment in a grade above lieutenant (junior grade) may not be considered for selection for promotion to the next higher permanent grade until he has completed the following period of service in the grade in which he holds a permanent appointment:

(A) Three years, in the case of an officer of the Army, Air Force, or Marine Corps holding a permanent appointment in the grade of captain, major, or lieutenant colonel or of an officer of the Navy holding a permanent appointment in the grade of lieutenant, lieutenant commander, or commander.

(B) One year, in the case of an officer of the Army, Air Force, or Marine Corps holding a permanent appointment in the grade of colonel or brigadier general or of an officer of the Navy holding a permanent appointment in the grade of captain or rear admiral (lower half).


(3) When the needs of the service require, the Secretary of the military department concerned may prescribe a longer period of service in grade for eligibility for promotion, in the case of officers to whom paragraph (1) applies, or for eligibility for consideration for promotion, in the case of officers to whom paragraph (2) applies.

(4) The Secretary of the military department concerned may waive paragraph (2) to the extent necessary to assure that officers described in subparagraph (A) of such paragraph have at least two opportunities for consideration for promotion to the next higher grade as officers below the promotion zone.

(5) In computing service in grade for purposes of this section, service in a grade held as a result of assignment to a position is counted as service in the grade in which the officer would have served except for such assignment or appointment.

(b) Continued Eligibility for Consideration for Promotion of Officers Who Have Previously Failed of Selection.—(1) Except as provided in paragraph (2), an officer who has failed of selection for promotion to the next higher grade remains eligible for consideration for promotion to that grade as long as he continues on active duty in other than a retired status and is not promoted.

(2) Paragraph (1) does not apply to a regular officer who is ineligible for consideration for promotion under section 631(c) of this title or to a reserve officer who has failed of selection for promotion to the grade of captain or, in the case of an officer of the Navy, lieutenant for the second time.

(c) Officers To Be Considered by Promotion Boards.—(1) Each time a selection board is convened under section 611(a) of this title for consideration of officers in a competitive category for promotion to the next higher grade, each officer in the promotion zone (except as provided under paragraph (2)), and each officer above the promotion zone, for the grade and competitive category under consideration shall be considered for promotion.

(2) The Secretary of the military department concerned—

(A) may, in accordance with standards and procedures prescribed by the Secretary of Defense in regulations which shall apply uniformly among the military departments, limit the officers to be considered by a selection board from below the promotion zone to those officers who are determined to be exceptionally well qualified for promotion;

(B) may, by regulation, prescribe a period of time, not to exceed one year, from the time an officer is placed on the active-duty list during which the officer shall be ineligible for consideration for promotion; and

(C) may, by regulation, preclude from consideration by a selection board by which he would otherwise be eligible to be considered, an officer who has an established separation date that is within 90 days after the date the board is convened.


(3)(A) The Secretary of Defense may authorize the Secretaries of the military departments to preclude from consideration by selection boards for promotion to the grade of brigadier general or rear admiral (lower half) officers in the grade of colonel or, in the case of the Navy, captain who—

(i) have been considered and not selected for promotion to the grade of brigadier general or rear admiral (lower half) by at least two selection boards; and

(ii) are determined, in accordance with standards and procedures prescribed pursuant to subparagraph (B), as not being exceptionally well qualified for promotion.


(B) If the Secretary of Defense authorizes the Secretaries of the military departments to have the authority described in subparagraph (A), the Secretary shall prescribe by regulation the standards and procedures for the exercise of such authority. Those regulations shall apply uniformly among the military departments and shall include the following provisions:

(i) A requirement that the Secretary of a military department may exercise such authority in the case of a particular selection board only if the Secretary of Defense approves the exercise of that authority for that board.

(ii) A requirement that an officer may be precluded from consideration by a selection board under this paragraph only upon the recommendation of a preselection board of officers convened by the Secretary of the military department concerned and composed of at least three officers all of whom are serving in a grade higher than the grade of such officer.

(iii) A requirement that such a preselection board may not recommend that an officer be precluded from such consideration unless the Secretary concerned has given the officer advance written notice of the convening of such board and of the military records that will be considered by the board and has given the officer a reasonable period before the convening of the board in which to submit comments to the board.

(iv) A requirement that the Secretary convening such a preselection board shall provide general guidance to the board in accordance with standards and procedures prescribed by the Secretary of Defense in those regulations.

(v) A requirement that the preselection board may recommend that an officer be precluded from consideration by a selection board only on the basis of the general guidance provided by the Secretary of the military department concerned, information in the officer's official military personnel records that has been described in the notice provided the officer as required pursuant to clause (iii), and any communication to the board received from that officer before the board convenes.


(d) Certain Officers Not To Be Considered.—A selection board convened under section 611(a) of this title may not consider for promotion to the next higher grade any of the following officers:

(1) An officer whose name is on a promotion list for that grade as a result of his selection for promotion to that grade by an earlier selection board convened under that section.

(2) An officer who is recommended for promotion to that grade in the report of an earlier selection board convened under that section, in the case of such a report that has not yet been approved by the President.

(3) An officer of the Marine Corps who is an officer designated for limited duty and who holds a grade above major.

(4) An officer in the grade of first lieutenant or, in the case of the Navy, lieutenant (junior grade) who is on an approved all-fully-qualified-officers list under section 624(a)(3) of this title.

(5) An officer in the grade of captain or, in the case of the Navy, lieutenant who is not a citizen of the United States.

(Added Pub. L. 96–513, title I, §105, Dec. 12, 1980, 94 Stat. 2854; amended Pub. L. 97–22, §4(c), July 10, 1981, 95 Stat. 126; Pub. L. 97–86, title IV, §405(b)(1), Dec. 1, 1981, 95 Stat. 1105; Pub. L. 98–525, title V, §§525(a), (b), 529(a), Oct. 19, 1984, 98 Stat. 2524, 2525, 2526; Pub. L. 99–145, title V, §514(b)(1), Nov. 8, 1985, 99 Stat. 628; Pub. L. 99–433, title IV, §404, Oct. 1, 1986, 100 Stat. 1032; Pub. L. 100–180, div. A, title XIII, §§1305(a), 1314(b)(4), Dec. 4, 1987, 101 Stat. 1173, 1175; Pub. L. 100–456, div. A, title V, §515(a)(1), (b), Sept. 29, 1988, 102 Stat. 1970; Pub. L. 102–190, div. A, title V, §504(d), Dec. 5, 1991, 105 Stat. 1357; Pub. L. 103–160, div. A, title IX, §931(b), (c)(1), Nov. 30, 1993, 107 Stat. 1734; Pub. L. 103–337, div. A, title X, §1070(b)(7), Oct. 5, 1994, 108 Stat. 2857; Pub. L. 105–85, div. A, title V, §503(a), Nov. 18, 1997, 111 Stat. 1724; Pub. L. 107–107, div. A, title V, §§504, 505(c)(1)(A), Dec. 28, 2001, 115 Stat. 1085, 1087; Pub. L. 108–375, div. A, title V, §501(a)(3)(B), Oct. 28, 2004, 118 Stat. 1873; Pub. L. 109–364, div. A, title V, §506, Oct. 17, 2006, 120 Stat. 2179.)

Amendments

2006—Subsec. (a)(1)(B). Pub. L. 109–364 substituted “October 1, 2008” for “October 1, 2005”.

2004—Subsec. (d)(5). Pub. L. 108–375 added par. (5).

2001—Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 107–107, §504(b)(1), inserted heading.

Subsec. (a)(1)(B). Pub. L. 107–107, §504(a), inserted “, except that the minimum period of service in effect under this subparagraph before October 1, 2005, shall be eighteen months” before period at end.

Subsec. (a)(4). Pub. L. 107–107, §504(c), substituted “subparagraph (A)” for “clause (A)”.

Subsec. (b). Pub. L. 107–107, §504(b)(2), inserted heading.

Subsec. (c). Pub. L. 107–107, §504(b)(3), inserted heading.

Subsec. (d). Pub. L. 107–107, §504(b)(4), inserted heading.

Subsec. (d)(4). Pub. L. 107–107, §505(c)(1)(A), added par. (4).

1997—Subsec. (d). Pub. L. 105–85, §503(a)(1), substituted “grade any of the following officers:” for “grade—” in introductory provisions.

Subsec. (d)(1). Pub. L. 105–85, §503(a)(2), substituted “An officer” for “an officer” and a period for “; or”.

Subsec. (d)(2). Pub. L. 105–85, §503(a)(4), added par. (2). Former par. (2) redesignated (3).

Subsec. (d)(3). Pub. L. 105–85, §503(a)(3), redesignated par. (2) as (3) and substituted “An officer” for “an officer”.

1994—Pub. L. 103–337 made technical correction to directory language of Pub. L. 103–160, §931(c)(1). See 1993 Amendment note below.

1993—Pub. L. 103–160, §931(c)(1), as amended by Pub. L. 103–337, inserted “: time-in-grade and other requirements” in section catchline.

Subsec. (e). Pub. L. 103–160, §931(b), struck out subsec. (e) which specified certain requirements for appointment to grade of brigadier general or rear admiral (lower half). See section 619a of this title.

1991—Subsec. (c)(2). Pub. L. 102–190, §504(d)(1), added subpar. (A), redesignated subpars. (C) and (D) as (B) and (C) respectively, and struck out former subpars. (A) and (B) which read as follows:

“(A) may, by regulation, prescribe procedures to limit the officers to be considered by a selection board—

“(i) from below the promotion zone; or

“(ii) in the case of a selection board to recommend officers for promotion to the grade of brigadier general or rear admiral (lower half),

to those officers who are determined to be exceptionally well qualified for promotion;

“(B) may, by regulation, prescribe criteria for determining which officers below the promotion zone or in the grades of colonel and, in the case of officers of the Navy, captain are exceptionally well qualified for promotion for the purposes of clause (A);”.

Subsec. (c)(3). Pub. L. 102–190, §504(d)(2), added par. (3).

1988—Subsec. (e)(1). Pub. L. 100–456, §515(a)(1)(A), substituted “January 1, 1994” for “January 1, 1992” in second sentence.

Subsec. (e)(2)(D), (E). Pub. L. 100–456, §515(b)(1), added subpars. (D) and (E) and struck out former subpar. (D) which read as follows: “until January 1, 1992, in the case of an officer who served before October 1, 1986, in an assignment (other than a joint duty assignment) that involved significant experience in joint matters (as determined by the Secretary).”

Subsec. (e)(3)(C). Pub. L. 100–456, §515(b)(2), substituted “paragraph (2) (other than under subparagraph (A) of that paragraph)” for “paragraph (2)(B), (2)(C), or (2)(D)”.

Subsec. (e)(5). Pub. L. 100–456, §515(a)(1)(B), added par. (5).

1987—Subsec. (e)(1). Pub. L. 100–180, §1305(a), amended par. (1) generally. Prior to amendment, par. (1) read as follows: “An officer may not be selected for promotion to the grade of brigadier general or rear admiral (lower half) unless the officer has served in a joint duty assignment.”

Subsec. (e)(2)(D). Pub. L. 100–180, §1314(b)(4), substituted “October 1, 1986,” for “the date of the enactment of this subsection”.

1986—Subsec. (e). Pub. L. 99–433 added subsec. (e).

1985—Subsecs. (a)(2)(B), (c)(2)(A)(ii). Pub. L. 99–145 substituted “rear admiral (lower half)” for “commodore”.

1984—Subsec. (b). Pub. L. 98–525, §525(a), designated existing provisions as par. (1), substituted “Except as provided in paragraph (2), an officer” for “An officer”, and added par. (2).

Subsec. (c)(2)(D). Pub. L. 98–525, §525(b), added subpar. (D).

Subsec. (d)(2). Pub. L. 98–525, §529(a), struck out “Navy or” before “Marine Corps” and struck out “lieutenant commander or” before “major”.

1981—Subsec. (a)(2)(B). Pub. L. 97–86 substituted “commodore” for “commodore admiral”.

Subsec. (c)(2)(A). Pub. L. 97–22, §4(c)(1), struck out “and” after “promotion;”.

Subsec. (c)(2)(A)(ii). Pub. L. 97–86 substituted “commodore” for “commodore admiral”.

Subsec. (c)(2)(B). Pub. L. 97–22, §4(c)(2), substituted “for the purposes of clause (A); and” for the period at end of cl. (B).

Subsec. (c)(2)(C). Pub. L. 97–22, §4(c)(3), added cl. (C).

Effective Date of 2004 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 108–375 effective on the first day of the first month beginning more than 180 days after Oct. 28, 2004, see section 501(g) of Pub. L. 108–375, set out as a note under section 531 of this title.

Effective Date of 1997 Amendment

Section 503(d) of Pub. L. 105–85 provided that: “The amendments made by this section [amending this section and section 14301 of this title] shall take effect on the date of the enactment of this Act [Nov. 18, 1997] and shall apply with respect to selection boards that are convened under section 611(a), 14101(a), or 14502 of title 10, United States Code, on or after that date.”

Effective Date of 1994 Amendment

Section 1070(b) of Pub. L. 103–337 provided that the amendment made by that section is effective as of Nov. 30, 1993, and as if included in the National Defense Authorization Act for Fiscal Year 1994, Pub. L. 103–160, as enacted.

Effective Date of 1991 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 102–190 applicable to selection boards convened under section 611(a) of this title after end of 60-day period beginning Dec. 5, 1991, see section 504(e) of Pub. L. 102–190, set out as a note under section 615 of this title.

Effective Date of 1981 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 97–86 effective Sept. 15, 1981, see section 405(f) of Pub. L. 97–86, set out as a note under section 101 of this title.

Effective Date

Subchapter effective Sept. 15, 1981, but the authority to prescribe regulations under this subchapter effective on Dec. 12, 1980, see section 701 of Pub. L. 96–513, set out as an Effective Date of 1980 Amendment note under section 101 of this title.

Transition Provisions Under Defense Officer Personnel Management Act

For provisions to prevent extinction or premature termination of rights, duties, penalties, or proceedings that existed or were begun prior to the effective date of Pub. L. 96–513 and otherwise to allow for an orderly transition to the system of officer personnel management put in place under Pub. L. 96–513, see section 601 et seq. of Pub. L. 96–513, set out as a note under section 611 of this title.

§619a. Eligibility for consideration for promotion: designation as joint qualified officer required before promotion to general or flag grade; exceptions

(a) General Rule.—An officer on the active-duty list of the Army, Navy, Air Force, or Marine Corps may not be appointed to the grade of brigadier general or rear admiral (lower half) unless the officer has been designated as a joint qualified officer in accordance with section 661 of this title.

(b) Exceptions.—Subject to subsection (c), the Secretary of Defense may waive subsection (a) in the following circumstances:

(1) When necessary for the good of the service.

(2) In the case of an officer whose proposed selection for promotion is based primarily upon scientific and technical qualifications for which joint requirements do not exist.

(3) In the case of—

(A) a medical officer, dental officer, veterinary officer, medical service officer, nurse, or biomedical science officer;

(B) a chaplain; or

(C) a judge advocate.


(4) In the case of an officer selected by a promotion board for appointment to the grade of brigadier general or rear admiral (lower half) while serving in a joint duty assignment if the officer's total consecutive service in joint duty assignments is not less than two years and the officer has successfully completed a program of education described in subsections (b) and (c) of section 2155 of this title.

(5) In the case of an officer who served in a joint duty assignment that began before January 1, 1987, if the officer served in that assignment for a period of sufficient duration (which may not be less than 12 months) for the officer's service to have been considered a full tour of duty under the policies and regulations in effect on September 30, 1986.


(c) Waiver To Be Individual.—A waiver may be granted under subsection (b) only on a case-by-case basis in the case of an individual officer.

(d) Special Rule for Good-of-the-Service Waiver.—In the case of a waiver under subsection (b)(1), the Secretary shall provide that the first duty assignment as a general or flag officer of the officer for whom the waiver is granted shall be in a joint duty assignment.

(e) Limitation on Delegation of Waiver Authority.—The authority of the Secretary of Defense to grant a waiver under subsection (b) (other than under paragraph (1) of that subsection) may be delegated only to the Deputy Secretary of Defense, an Under Secretary of Defense, or an Assistant Secretary of Defense.

(f) Regulations.—The Secretary of Defense shall prescribe regulations to carry out this section. The regulations shall specifically identify for purposes of subsection (b)(2) those categories of officers for which selection for promotion to brigadier general or, in the case of the Navy, rear admiral (lower half) is based primarily upon scientific and technical qualifications for which joint requirements do not exist.

(g) Limitation for General and Flag Officers Previously Receiving Joint Duty Assignment Waiver.—A general officer or flag officer who before January 1, 1999, received a waiver of subsection (a) under the authority of this subsection (as in effect before that date) may not be appointed to the grade of lieutenant general or vice admiral until the officer completes a full tour of duty in a joint duty assignment.

(Added Pub. L. 103–160, div. A, title IX, §931(a), Nov. 30, 1993, 107 Stat. 1732; amended Pub. L. 104–106, div. A, title XV, §1502(a)(1), Feb. 10, 1996, 110 Stat. 502; Pub. L. 106–65, div. A, title V, §508, Oct. 5, 1999, 113 Stat. 591; Pub. L. 107–107, div. A, title V, §525(a), (b), Dec. 28, 2001, 115 Stat. 1099; Pub. L. 108–375, div. A, title V, §533, Oct. 28, 2004, 118 Stat. 1901; Pub. L. 110–417, [div. A], title V, §521(a), (b)(1), Oct. 14, 2008, 122 Stat. 4444.)

Amendments

2008—Pub. L. 110–417, §521(b)(1), substituted “Eligibility for consideration for promotion: designation as joint qualified officer required before promotion to general or flag grade; exceptions” for “Eligibility for consideration for promotion: joint duty assignment required before promotion to general or flag grade; exceptions” in section catchline.

Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 110–417, §521(a)(1), substituted “unless the officer has been designated as a joint qualified officer” for “unless—

“(1) the officer has completed a full tour of duty in a joint duty assignment (as described in section 664(f) of this title); and

“(2) for appointments after September 30, 2008, the officer has been selected for the joint specialty”.

Subsec. (b). Pub. L. 110–417, §521(a)(2)(A), substituted “subsection (a)” for “paragraph (1) or paragraph (2) of subsection (a), or both paragraphs (1) and (2) of subsection (a),” in introductory provisions.

Subsec. (b)(4). Pub. L. 110–417, §521(a)(2)(B), substituted “is not less than two years and the officer has successfully completed a program of education described in subsections (b) and (c) of section 2155 of this title” for “within that immediate organization is not less than two years”.

Subsec. (h). Pub. L. 110–417, §521(a)(3), struck out heading and text of subsec. (h). Text read as follows: “An officer of the Navy designated as a qualified nuclear propulsion officer who before January 1, 1997, is appointed to the grade of rear admiral (lower half) without regard to subsection (a) may not be appointed to the grade of rear admiral until the officer completes a full tour of duty in a joint duty assignment.”

2004—Subsec. (a)(2). Pub. L. 108–375, §533(a), substituted “September 30, 2008” for “September 30, 2007”.

Subsec. (b)(4). Pub. L. 108–375, §533(b), substituted “if the officer's” for “if—

“(A) at least 180 days of that joint duty assignment have been completed on the date of the convening of that selection board; and

“(B) the officer's”.

2001—Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 107–107, §525(a), substituted “unless—” and pars. (1) and (2) for “unless the officer has completed a full tour of duty in a joint duty assignment (as described in section 664(f) of this title).”

Subsec. (b). Pub. L. 107–107, §525(b), in introductory provisions, substituted “may waive paragraph (1) or paragraph (2) of subsection (a), or both paragraphs (1) and (2) of subsection (a), in the following circumstances:” for “may waive subsection (a) in the following circumstances:”.

1999—Subsec. (g). Pub. L. 106–65, §508(a), amended heading and text of subsec. (g) generally. Prior to amendment, subsec. (g) authorized the Secretary until Jan. 1, 1999, to waive subsecs. (a) and (d) for certain officers and contained restrictions on appointments of those officers.

Subsec. (h). Pub. L. 106–65, §508(b), substituted “An officer of the Navy” for “(1) Until January 1, 1997, an officer of the Navy” and “who before January 1, 1997, is” for “may be” and struck out “. An officer so appointed” before “may not be appointed” and par. (2) which read as follows: “Not later than March 1 of each year from 1994 through 1997, the Secretary of Defense shall submit to the Committee on Armed Services of the Senate and the Committee on National Security of the House of Representatives a report on the implementation during the preceding calendar year of the transition plan developed by the Secretary pursuant to section 1305(b) of Public Law 100–180 (10 U.S.C. 619a note) with respect to service by qualified nuclear propulsion officers in joint duty assignments.”

1996—Subsec. (h)(2). Pub. L. 104–106 substituted “Committee on Armed Services of the Senate and the Committee on National Security of the House of Representatives” for “Committees on Armed Services of the Senate and House of Representatives”.

Proposed Legislative Changes

Pub. L. 107–107, div. A, title V, §525(c), Dec. 28, 2001, 115 Stat. 1099, directed the Secretary of Defense to submit to Congress, not later than Dec. 1, 2002, a draft proposal for such legislative changes to this section as the Secretary considered were needed to implement the amendment made to this section by section 525(a), (b) of Pub. L. 107–107.

Report on Plans for Compliance

Pub. L. 103–160, div. A, title IX, §931(d), Nov. 30, 1993, 107 Stat. 1734, directed the Secretary of Defense to certify to Congress, not later than Feb. 1, 1994, that the Army, Navy, Air Force, and Marine Corps had each developed and implemented a plan for officer personnel assignment and promotion policies so as to ensure compliance with the requirements of this section, and provided that each such plan should ensure that by Jan. 1, 1999, the service covered by the plan would have enough officers who had completed a full tour of duty in a joint duty assignment so as to permit the orderly promotion of officers to brigadier general or, in the case of the Navy, rear admiral (lower half).

Plan for Service by Qualified Nuclear Propulsion Officers in Joint Duty Assignments by January 1, 1997; Implementation; Report

Pub. L. 103–160, div. A, title IX, §931(f)(2), Nov. 30, 1993, 107 Stat. 1734, as amended by Pub. L. 103–337, div. A, title X, §1070(b)(8)(A), Oct. 5, 1994, 108 Stat. 2857, directed the Secretary of Defense to revise the transition plan developed pursuant to Pub. L. 100–180, §1305(b), formerly set out below, and to report on the revisions.

Pub. L. 100–456, div. A, title V, §515(a)(3), Sept. 29, 1988, 102 Stat. 1970, directed the Secretary of Defense to revise the transition plan developed pursuant to Pub. L. 100–180, §1305(b), formerly set out below, and to report on the revisions.

Pub. L. 100–180, div. A, title XIII, §1305(b)–(d), Dec. 4, 1987, 101 Stat. 1173, 1174, as amended by Pub. L. 100–456, div. A, title V, §515(a)(2), Sept. 29, 1988, 102 Stat. 1970; Pub. L. 103–160, div. A, title IX, §931(f)(1), (3), Nov. 30, 1993, 107 Stat. 1734; Pub. L. 103–337, div. A, title X, §1070(b)(8), Oct. 5, 1994, 108 Stat. 2857, directed the Secretary of Defense to develop and carry out a transition plan, to be implemented no later than six months after Dec. 4, 1987, for ensuring that during the period before Jan. 1, 1997, the maximum practicable number of officers of the Navy who were qualified nuclear propulsion officers had served in joint duty assignments and that by Jan. 1, 1997, the maximum practicable number of qualified nuclear propulsion officers in the grade of captain had qualified for appointment to the grade of rear admiral (lower half) by completing a full tour of duty in a joint duty assignment, and directed the Secretary to submit to committees of Congress on the date on which the plan was implemented a copy of the plan and a report explaining how the plan had fulfilled objectives.

§620. Active-duty lists

(a) The Secretary of the military department concerned shall maintain a single list of all officers (other than officers described in section 641 of this title) who are on active duty for each armed force under his jurisdiction (other than the Coast Guard when it is operating as a service in the Navy).

(b) Officers shall be carried on the active-duty list of the armed force of which they are members in the order of seniority of the grade in which they are serving on active duty. Officers serving in the same grade shall be carried in the order of their rank in that grade.

(c) An officer whose position on the active-duty list results from service under a temporary appointment or in a grade held by reason of assignment to a position has, when that appointment or assignment ends, the grade and position on the active-duty list that he would have held if he had not received that appointment or assignment.

(d) Under regulations prescribed by the Secretary of the military department concerned, a reserve officer who is ordered to active duty (whether voluntarily or involuntarily) during a war or national emergency and who would otherwise be placed on the active-duty list may be excluded from that list as determined by the Secretary concerned. Exclusion of an officer from the active-duty list as the result of action by the Secretary concerned under the preceding sentence shall expire not later than 24 months after the date on which the officer enters active duty under an order to active duty covered by that sentence.

(Added Pub. L. 96–513, title I, §105, Dec. 12, 1980, 94 Stat. 2855; amended Pub. L. 103–337, div. A, title XVI, §1624, Oct. 5, 1994, 108 Stat. 2961; Pub. L. 104–106, div. A, title XV, §1501(a)(1), Feb. 10, 1996, 110 Stat. 495.)

Amendments

1996—Subsec. (d). Pub. L. 104–106 made technical amendment to Pub. L. 103–337, §1624. See 1994 Amendment note below.

1994—Subsec. (d). Pub. L. 103–337, §1624, as amended by Pub. L. 104–106, added subsec. (d).

Effective Date of 1996 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 104–106 effective as if included in the Reserve Officer Personnel Management Act, title XVI of Pub. L. 103–337, as enacted on Oct. 5, 1994, see section 1501(f)(3) of Pub. L. 104–106, set out as a note under section 113 of this title.

Effective Date of 1994 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 103–337 effective Oct. 1, 1996, see section 1691(b)(1) of Pub. L. 103–337, set out as a note under section 10001 of this title.

Transfer of Functions

For transfer of authorities, functions, personnel, and assets of the Coast Guard, including the authorities and functions of the Secretary of Transportation relating thereto, to the Department of Homeland Security, and for treatment of related references, see sections 468(b), 551(d), 552(d), and 557 of Title 6, Domestic Security, and the Department of Homeland Security Reorganization Plan of November 25, 2002, as modified, set out as a note under section 542 of Title 6.

Transition Provisions Under Defense Officer Personnel Management Act

Regulations prescribed under this section applicable to establishment of initial active-duty lists, see section 621(a) of Pub. L. 96–513, set out as a note under section 611 of this title.

§621. Competitive categories for promotion

Under regulations prescribed by the Secretary of Defense, the Secretary of each military department shall establish competitive categories for promotion. Each officer whose name appears on an active-duty list shall be carried in a competitive category of officers. Officers in the same competitive category shall compete among themselves for promotion.

(Added Pub. L. 96–513, title I, §105, Dec. 12, 1980, 94 Stat. 2856.)

§622. Numbers to be recommended for promotion

Before convening a selection board under section 611(a) of this title for any grade and competitive category, the Secretary of the military department concerned, under regulations prescribed by the Secretary of Defense, shall determine (1) the number of positions needed to accomplish mission objectives which require officers of such competitive category in the grade to which the board will recommend officers for promotion, (2) the estimated number of officers needed to fill vacancies in such positions during the period in which it is anticipated that officers selected for promotion will be promoted, and (3) the number of officers authorized by the Secretary of the military department concerned to serve on active duty in the grade and competitive category under consideration. Based on such determinations, the Secretary of the military department concerned shall determine the maximum number of officers in such competitive category which the selection board may recommend for promotion.

(Added Pub. L. 96–513, title I, §105, Dec. 12, 1980, 94 Stat. 2856.)

§623. Establishment of promotion zones

(a) Before convening a selection board under section 611(a) of this title to consider officers for promotion to any grade above first lieutenant or lieutenant (junior grade), the Secretary of the military department concerned shall establish a promotion zone for officers serving in each grade and competitive category to be considered by the board.

(b) The Secretary concerned shall determine the number of officers in the promotion zone for officers serving in any grade and competitive category from among officers who are eligible for promotion in that grade and competitive category. Such determination shall be made on the basis of an estimate of—

(1) the number of officers needed in that competitive category in the next higher grade in each of the next five years;

(2) the number of officers to be serving in that competitive category in the next higher grade in each of the next five years;

(3) in the case of a promotion zone for officers to be promoted to a grade to which section 523 of this title is applicable, the number of officers authorized for such grade under such section to be on active duty on the last day of each of the next five fiscal years; and

(4) the number of officers that should be placed in that promotion zone in each of the next five years to provide to officers in those years relatively similar opportunity for promotion.

(Added Pub. L. 96–513, title I, §105, Dec. 12, 1980, 94 Stat. 2856.)

§624. Promotions: how made

(a)(1) When the report of a selection board convened under section 611(a) of this title is approved by the President, the Secretary of the military department concerned shall place the names of all officers approved for promotion within a competitive category on a single list for that competitive category, to be known as a promotion list, in the order of the seniority of such officers on the active-duty list. A promotion list is considered to be established under this section as of the date of the approval of the report of the selection board under the preceding sentence.

(2) Except as provided in subsection (d), officers on a promotion list for a competitive category shall be promoted to the next higher grade when additional officers in that grade and competitive category are needed. Promotions shall be made in the order in which the names of officers appear on the promotion list and after officers previously selected for promotion in that competitive category have been promoted. Officers to be promoted to the grade of first lieutenant or lieutenant (junior grade) shall be promoted in accordance with regulations prescribed by the Secretary concerned.

(3)(A) Except as provided in subsection (d), officers on the active-duty list in the grade of first lieutenant or, in the case of the Navy, lieutenant (junior grade) who are on an approved all-fully-qualified-officers list shall be promoted to the next higher grade in accordance with regulations prescribed by the Secretary concerned.

(B) An all-fully-qualified-officers list shall be considered to be approved for purposes of subparagraph (A) when the list is approved by the President. When so approved, such a list shall be treated in the same manner as a promotion list under this chapter.

(C) The Secretary of a military department may make a recommendation to the President for approval of an all-fully-qualified-officers list only when the Secretary determines that all officers on the list are needed in the next higher grade to accomplish mission objectives.

(D) For purposes of this paragraph, an all-fully-qualified-officers list is a list of all officers on the active-duty list in a grade who the Secretary of the military department concerned determines—

(i) are fully qualified for promotion to the next higher grade; and

(ii) would be eligible for consideration for promotion to the next higher grade by a selection board convened under section 611(a) of this title upon the convening of such a board.


(b)(1) A regular officer who is promoted under this section is appointed in the regular grade to which promoted and a reserve officer who is promoted under this section is appointed in the reserve grade to which promoted.

(2) The date of rank of an officer appointed to a higher grade under this section is determined under section 741(d) of this title.

(c) Appointments under this section shall be made by the President, by and with the advice and consent of the Senate, except that appointments under this section in the grade of first lieutenant or captain, in the case of officers of the Army, Air Force, or Marine Corps, or lieutenant (junior grade) or lieutenant, in the case of officers of the Navy, shall be made by the President alone.

(d)(1) Under regulations prescribed by the Secretary of Defense, the appointment of an officer under this section may be delayed if—

(A) sworn charges against the officer have been received by an officer exercising general court-martial jurisdiction over the officer and such charges have not been disposed of;

(B) an investigation is being conducted to determine whether disciplinary action of any kind should be brought against the officer;

(C) a board of officers has been convened under chapter 60 of this title to review the record of the officer;

(D) a criminal proceeding in a Federal or State court is pending against the officer; or

(E) substantiated adverse information about the officer that is material to the decision to appoint the officer is under review by the Secretary of Defense or the Secretary concerned.


If no disciplinary action is taken against the officer, if the charges against the officer are withdrawn or dismissed, if the officer is not ordered removed from active duty by the Secretary concerned under chapter 60 of this title, if the officer is acquitted of the charges brought against him, or if, after a review of substantiated adverse information about the officer regarding the requirement for exemplary conduct set forth in section 3583, 5947, or 8583 of this title, as applicable, the officer is determined to be among the officers best qualified for promotion, as the case may be, then unless action to delay an appointment has also been taken under paragraph (2) the officer shall be retained on the promotion list (including an approved all-fully-qualified-officers list, if applicable) and shall, upon promotion to the next higher grade, have the same date of rank, the same effective date for the pay and allowances of the grade to which promoted, and the same position on the active-duty list as he would have had if no delay had intervened, unless the Secretary concerned determines that the officer was unqualified for promotion for any part of the delay. If the Secretary makes such a determination, the Secretary may adjust such date of rank, effective date of pay and allowances, and position on the active-duty list as the Secretary considers appropriate under the circumstances.

(2) Under regulations prescribed by the Secretary of Defense, the appointment of an officer under this section may also be delayed in any case in which there is cause to believe that the officer has not met the requirement for exemplary conduct set forth in section 3583, 5947, or 8583 of this title, as applicable, or is mentally, physically, morally, or professionally unqualified to perform the duties of the grade for which he was selected for promotion. If it is later determined by a civilian official of the Department of Defense (not below the level of Secretary of a military department) that the officer is qualified for promotion to such grade and, after a review of adverse information regarding the requirement for exemplary conduct set forth in section 3583, 5947, or 8583 of this title, as applicable, the officer is determined to be among the officers best qualified for promotion to such grade, the officer shall be retained on the promotion list (including an approved all-fully-qualified-officers list, if applicable) and shall, upon such promotion, have the same date of rank, the same effective date for pay and allowances in the higher grade to which appointed, and the same position on the active-duty list as he would have had if no delay had intervened, unless the Secretary concerned determines that the officer was unqualified for promotion for any part of the delay. If the Secretary makes such a determination, the Secretary may adjust such date of rank, effective date of pay and allowances, and position on the active-duty list as the Secretary considers appropriate under the circumstances.

(3) The appointment of an officer may not be delayed under this subsection unless the officer has been given written notice of the grounds for the delay, unless it is impracticable to give such written notice before the effective date of the appointment, in which case such written notice shall be given as soon as practicable. An officer whose promotion has been delayed under this subsection shall be afforded an opportunity to make a written statement to the Secretary concerned in response to the action taken. Any such statement shall be given careful consideration by the Secretary.

(4) An appointment of an officer may not be delayed under this subsection for more than six months after the date on which the officer would otherwise have been appointed unless the Secretary concerned specifies a further period of delay. An officer's appointment may not be delayed more than 90 days after final action has been taken in any criminal case against such officer in a Federal or State court, more than 90 days after final action has been taken in any court-martial case against such officer, or more than 18 months after the date on which such officer would otherwise have been appointed, whichever is later.

(Added Pub. L. 96–513, title I, §105, Dec. 12, 1980, 94 Stat. 2857; amended Pub. L. 97–22, §4(d), July 10, 1981, 95 Stat. 126; Pub. L. 97–295, §1(8), Oct. 12, 1982, 96 Stat. 1289; Pub. L. 98–525, title V, §526, Oct. 19, 1984, 98 Stat. 2525; Pub. L. 107–107, div. A, title V, §505(a)(1), (c)(2)(A), (d)(1), Dec. 28, 2001, 115 Stat. 1085, 1087, 1088; Pub. L. 107–314, div. A, title X, §1062(a)(2), Dec. 2, 2002, 116 Stat. 2649; Pub. L. 109–364, div. A, title V, §511(a), (d)(1), Oct. 17, 2006, 120 Stat. 2181, 2183; Pub. L. 110–181, div. A, title X, §1063(c)(3), Jan. 28, 2008, 122 Stat. 322.)

Amendments

2008—Subsec. (d)(1). Pub. L. 110–181 amended directory language of Pub. L. 109–364, §511(a)(2)(D)(i). See 2006 Amendment note below.

2006—Subsec. (a)(1). Pub. L. 109–364, §511(d)(1), inserted at end “A promotion list is considered to be established under this section as of the date of the approval of the report of the selection board under the preceding sentence.”

Subsec. (d)(1). Pub. L. 109–364, §511(a)(2)(D)(ii), inserted “or if, after a review of substantiated adverse information about the officer regarding the requirement for exemplary conduct set forth in section 3583, 5947, or 8583 of this title, as applicable, the officer is determined to be among the officers best qualified for promotion,” after “brought against him,” in concluding provisions.

Pub. L. 109–364, §511(a)(2)(D)(i), as amended by Pub. L. 110–181, struck out “or” after “chapter 60 of this title,”.

Pub. L. 109–364, §511(a)(1), substituted “prescribed by the Secretary of Defense” for “prescribed by the Secretary concerned” in introductory provisions.

Subsec. (d)(1)(E). Pub. L. 109–364, §511(a)(2)(A)–(C), added subpar. (E).

Subsec. (d)(2). Pub. L. 109–364, §511(a)(3), in first sentence inserted “has not met the requirement for exemplary conduct set forth in section 3583, 5947, or 8583 of this title, as applicable, or” before “is mentally, physically,” and in second sentence substituted “If it is later determined by a civilian official of the Department of Defense (not below the level of Secretary of a military department) that the officer is qualified for promotion to such grade and, after a review of adverse information regarding the requirement for exemplary conduct set forth in section 3583, 5947, or 8583 of this title, as applicable, the officer is determined to be among the officers best qualified for promotion to such grade” for “If the Secretary concerned later determines that the officer is qualified for promotion to such grade”.

Pub. L. 109–364, §511(a)(1), substituted “prescribed by the Secretary of Defense” for “prescribed by the Secretary concerned”.

2002—Subsec. (d)(1). Pub. L. 107–314 substituted “paragraph (2)” for “subsection (d)(2)” in concluding provisions.

2001—Subsec. (a)(3). Pub. L. 107–107, §505(a)(1), added par. (3).

Subsec. (c). Pub. L. 107–107, §505(d)(1), inserted “, in the case of officers of the Army, Air Force, or Marine Corps,” after “captain” and “, in the case of officers of the Navy,” after “(junior grade) or lieutenant”.

Subsec. (d)(1). Pub. L. 107–107, §505(c)(2)(A)(i), inserted “(including an approved all-fully-qualified-officers list, if applicable)” after “retained on the promotion list” in concluding provisions.

Subsec. (d)(2). Pub. L. 107–107, §505(c)(2)(A)(ii), inserted “shall be retained on the promotion list (including an approved all-fully-qualified-officers list, if applicable) and” after “to such grade, the officer” in second sentence.

1984—Subsec. (d)(1), (2). Pub. L. 98–525 inserted provision for a determination by the Secretary concerned that the officer was unqualified for promotion for any part of the delay in the officer's promotion, with the inserted provision that if the Secretary made such a determination, the Secretary could adjust such date of rank, effective date of pay and allowances, and position on the active-duty list as the Secretary considered appropriate under the circumstances.

1982—Subsec. (d)(4). Pub. L. 97–295 substituted “this subsection” for “the subsection”.

1981—Subsec. (a)(1). Pub. L. 97–22, §4(d)(1)(A), struck out “or in the case of officers selected for promotion to the grade of first lieutenant or lieutenant (junior grade), when a list of officers selected for promotion is approved by the President,” after “by the President,”.

Subsec. (a)(2). Pub. L. 97–22, §4(d)(1)(B), inserted provision that officers to be promoted to grade of first lieutenant or lieutenant (junior grade) shall be promoted in accordance with regulations prescribed by the Secretary concerned.

Subsec. (c). Pub. L. 97–22, §4(d)(2), substituted “under this section in the grade of first lieutenant or captain or lieutenant (junior grade) or lieutenant” for “in the grade of first lieutenant or lieutenant (junior grade) under this section”.

Subsec. (d)(1). Pub. L. 97–22, §4(d)(3)(A), (B), substituted “Under regulations prescribed by the Secretary concerned, the appointment of an officer under this section may be delayed” for “The Secretary concerned may delay the appointment of an officer under this section” in provisions preceding subpar. (A) and, in provisions following subpar. (D), inserted “then unless action to delay an appointment has also been taken under subsection (d)(2)” after “as the case may be,”.

Subsec. (d)(2). Pub. L. 97–22, §4(d)(3)(C), substituted “Under regulations prescribed by the Secretary concerned, the appointment of an officer under this section may also be delayed in any case in which” for “The Secretary concerned may also delay the appointment of an officer to the next higher grade under this section in any case in which the Secretary finds that”.

Subsec. (d)(3). Pub. L. 97–22, §4(d)(3)(D), (E), inserted “, unless it is impracticable to give such written notice before the effective date of the appointment, in which case such written notice shall be given as soon as practicable” after “grounds for the delay” and struck out “by the Secretary” after “the action taken”.

Effective Date of 2008 Amendment

Pub. L. 110–181, div. A, title X, §1063(c), Jan. 28, 2008, 122 Stat. 322, provided that the amendment made by section 1063(c) is effective Oct. 17, 2006, and as if included in the John Warner National Defense Authorization Act for Fiscal Year 2007, Pub. L. 109–364, as enacted.

Effective Date of 2006 Amendment

Pub. L. 109–364, div. A, title V, §511(e), Oct. 17, 2006, 120 Stat. 2184, provided that: “The amendments made by this section [amending this section and sections 14308 and 14311 of this title] shall take effect on the date of the enactment of this Act [Oct. 17, 2006] and shall apply with respect to officers on promotion lists established on or after the date of the enactment of this Act.”

Delegation of Functions

Functions of President under subsec. (c) to appoint officers in grades of first lieutenant and captain in Army, Air Force, and Marine Corps or in grades of lieutenant (junior grade) and lieutenant in Navy delegated to Secretary of Defense to perform, without approval, ratification, or other action by President, and with authority for Secretary to redelegate, see Ex. Ord. No. 12396, §§1(c), 3, Dec. 9, 1982, 47 F.R. 55897, 55898, set out as a note under section 301 of Title 3, The President.

Deadline for Uniform Regulations on Delay of Promotions

Pub. L. 109–364, div. A, title V, §511(c), Oct. 17, 2006, 120 Stat. 2183, provided that:

“(1) Deadline.—The Secretary of Defense shall prescribe the regulations required by section 624(d) of title 10, United States Code (as amended by subsection (a)(1) of this section), and the regulations required by section 14311 of such title (as amended by subsection (b)(1) of this section) not later than March 1, 2008.

“(2) Savings clause for existing regulations.—Until the Secretary of Defense prescribes regulations pursuant to paragraph (1), regulations prescribed by the Secretaries of the military departments under the sections referred to in paragraph (1) shall remain in effect.”

§625. Authority to vacate promotions to grades of brigadier general and rear admiral (lower half)

(a) The President may vacate the promotion to the grade of brigadier general or rear admiral (lower half) of an officer who has served less than 18 months in that grade after promotion to that grade under this chapter.

(b) An officer of the Army, Air Force, or Marine Corps whose promotion is vacated under this section holds the regular grade of colonel, if he is a regular officer, or the reserve grade of colonel, if he is a reserve officer. An officer of the Navy whose promotion is vacated under this section holds the regular grade of captain, if he is a regular officer, or the reserve grade of captain, if he is a reserve officer.

(c) The position on the active-duty list of an officer whose promotion is vacated under this section is the position he would have held had he not been promoted to the grade of brigadier general or rear admiral (lower half).

(Added Pub. L. 96–513, title I, §105, Dec. 12, 1980, 94 Stat. 2858; amended Pub. L. 97–86, title IV, §405(b)(1), (4)(A), Dec. 1, 1981, 95 Stat. 1105; Pub. L. 99–145, title V, §514(b)(1), (4)(A), Nov. 8, 1985, 99 Stat. 628.)

Amendments

1985—Pub. L. 99–145 substituted “rear admiral (lower half)” for “commodore” in section catchline and subsecs. (a) and (c).

1981—Pub. L. 97–86 substituted “commodore” for “commodore admiral” in section catchline and subsecs. (a) and (c).

Effective Date of 1981 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 97–86 effective Sept. 15, 1981, see section 405(f) of Pub. L. 97–86, set out as a note under section 101 of this title.

§626. Acceptance of promotions; oath of office

(a) An officer who is appointed to a higher grade under section 624 of this title is considered to have accepted such appointment on the date on which the appointment is made unless he expressly declines the appointment.

(b) An officer who has served continuously since he subscribed to the oath of office prescribed in section 3331 of title 5 is not required to take a new oath upon appointment to a higher grade under section 624 of this title.

(Added Pub. L. 96–513, title I, §105, Dec. 12, 1980, 94 Stat. 2858.)

SUBCHAPTER III—FAILURE OF SELECTION FOR PROMOTION AND RETIREMENT FOR YEARS OF SERVICE

Sec.
627.
Failure of selection for promotion.
628.
Special selection boards.
629.
Removal from a list of officers recommended for promotion.
630.
Discharge of commissioned officers with less than six years of active commissioned service or found not qualified for promotion for first lieutenant or lieutenant (junior grade).
631.
Effect of failure of selection for promotion: first lieutenants and lieutenants (junior grade).
632.
Effect of failure of selection for promotion: captains and majors of the Army, Air Force, and Marine Corps and lieutenants and lieutenant commanders of the Navy.
633.
Retirement for years of service: regular lieutenant colonels and commanders.
634.
Retirement for years of service: regular colonels and Navy captains.
635.
Retirement for years of service: regular brigadier generals and rear admirals (lower half).
636.
Retirement for years of service: regular officers in grades above brigadier general and rear admiral (lower half).

        

Amendments

2008—Pub. L. 110–181, div. A, title V, §503(a)(3), Jan. 28, 2008, 122 Stat. 95, substituted “six years” for “five years” in item 630.

2001—Pub. L. 107–107, div. A, title V, §505(d)(4), Dec. 28, 2001, 115 Stat. 1088, struck out “regular” before “commissioned officers” in item 630, struck out “regular” before “first lieutenants” in item 631, and struck out “regular” before “captains and majors” and before “lieutenants and lieutenant commanders” in item 632.

1997—Pub. L. 105–85, div. A, title V, §506(c), Nov. 18, 1997, 111 Stat. 1726, substituted “regular officers in grades above brigadier general and rear admiral (lower half)” for “regular major generals and rear admirals” in item 636.

1985—Pub. L. 99–145, title V, §514(b)(5)(B), Nov. 8, 1985, 99 Stat. 628, substituted “rear admirals (lower half)” for “commodores” in item 635.

1981—Pub. L. 97–86, title IV, §405(b)(5)(B), Dec. 1, 1981, 95 Stat. 1106, substituted “commodores” for “commodore admirals” in item 635.

§627. Failure of selection for promotion

An officer in a grade below the grade of colonel or, in the case of an officer of the Navy, captain who is in or above the promotion zone established for his grade and competitive category under section 623 of this title and is considered but not selected for promotion by a selection board convened under section 611(a) of this title shall be considered to have failed of selection for promotion.

(Added Pub. L. 96–513, title I, §105, Dec. 12, 1980, 94 Stat. 2859.)

Effective Date

Subchapter effective Sept. 15, 1981, but the authority to prescribe regulations under this subchapter effective on Dec. 12, 1980, see section 701 of Pub. L. 96–513, set out as an Effective Date of 1980 Amendment note under section 101 of this title.

Transition Provisions Under Defense Officer Personnel Management Act

For provisions to prevent extinction or premature termination of rights, duties, penalties, or proceedings that existed or were begun prior to the effective date of Pub. L. 96–513 and otherwise to allow for an orderly transition to the system of officer personnel management put in place under Pub. L. 96–513, see section 601 et seq. of Pub. L. 96–513, set out as a note under section 611 of this title.

§628. Special selection boards

(a) Persons Not Considered by Promotion Boards Due to Administrative Error.—(1) If the Secretary of the military department concerned determines that because of administrative error a person who should have been considered for selection for promotion from in or above the promotion zone by a promotion board was not so considered, or the name of a person that should have been placed on an all-fully-qualified-officers list under section 624(a)(3) of this title was not so placed, the Secretary shall convene a special selection board under this subsection to determine whether that person (whether or not then on active duty) should be recommended for promotion.

(2) A special selection board convened under paragraph (1) shall consider the record of the person whose name was referred to it for consideration as that record would have appeared to the board that should have considered him. That record shall be compared with a sampling of the records of those officers of the same competitive category who were recommended for promotion, and those officers who were not recommended for promotion, by the board that should have considered him.

(3) If a special selection board convened under paragraph (1) does not recommend for promotion a person whose name was referred to it for consideration for selection for appointment to a grade other than a general officer or flag officer grade, the person shall be considered to have failed of selection for promotion.

(b) Persons Considered by Promotion Boards in Unfair Manner.—(1) If the Secretary of the military department concerned determines, in the case of a person who was considered for selection for promotion by a promotion board but was not selected, that there was material unfairness with respect to that person, the Secretary may convene a special selection board under this subsection to determine whether that person (whether or not then on active duty) should be recommended for promotion. In order to determine that there was material unfairness, the Secretary must determine that—

(A) the action of the promotion board that considered the person was contrary to law in a matter material to the decision of the board or involved material error of fact or material administrative error; or

(B) the board did not have before it for its consideration material information.


(2) A special selection board convened under paragraph (1) shall consider the record of the person whose name was referred to it for consideration as that record, if corrected, would have appeared to the board that considered him. That record shall be compared with the records of a sampling of those officers of the same competitive category who were recommended for promotion, and those officers who were not recommended for promotion, by the board that considered him.

(3) If a special selection board convened under paragraph (1) does not recommend for promotion a person whose name was referred to it for consideration, the person incurs no additional failure of selection for promotion.

(c) Reports of Boards.—(1) Each special selection board convened under this section shall submit to the Secretary of the military department concerned a written report, signed by each member of the board, containing the name of each person it recommends for promotion and certifying that the board has carefully considered the record of each person whose name was referred to it.

(2) The provisions of sections 617(b) and 618 of this title apply to the report and proceedings of a special selection board convened under this section in the same manner as they apply to the report and proceedings of a selection board convened under section 611(a) of this title. However, in the case of a board convened under this section to consider a warrant officer or former warrant officer, the provisions of sections 576(d), 576(f), and 613a of this title (rather than the provisions of sections 617(b) and 618 of this title) apply to the report and proceedings of the board in the same manner as they apply to the report and proceedings of a selection board convened under section 573 of this title.

(d) Appointment of Persons Selected by Boards.—(1) If the report of a special selection board convened under this section, as approved by the President, recommends for promotion to the next higher grade a person whose name was referred to it for consideration, that person shall, as soon as practicable, be appointed to that grade in accordance with subsections (b), (c), and (d) of section 624 of this title. However, in the case of a board convened under this section to consider a warrant officer or former warrant officer, if the report of that board, as approved by the Secretary concerned, recommends that warrant officer or former warrant officer for promotion to the next higher grade, that person shall, as soon as practicable, be appointed to the next higher grade in accordance with provisions of section 578(c) of this title (rather than subsections (b), (c), and (d) of section 624 of this title).

(2) A person who is appointed to the next higher grade as the result of the recommendation of a special selection board convened under this section shall, upon that appointment, have the same date of rank, the same effective date for the pay and allowances of that grade, and the same position on the active-duty list as he would have had if he had been recommended for promotion to that grade by the board which should have considered, or which did consider, him. In the case of a person who is not on the active-duty list when appointed to the next higher grade, placement of that person on the active-duty list pursuant to the preceding sentence shall be only for purposes of determination of eligibility of that person for consideration for promotion by any subsequent special selection board under this section.

(e) Deceased Persons.—If a person whose name is being considered for referral to a special selection board under this section dies before the completion of proceedings under this section with respect to that person, this section shall be applied to that person posthumously.

(f) Convening of Boards.—A board convened under this section—

(1) shall be convened under regulations prescribed by the Secretary of Defense;

(2) shall be composed in accordance with section 612 of this title or, in the case of board to consider a warrant officer or former warrant officer, in accordance with section 573 of this title and regulations prescribed by the Secretary of the military department concerned; and

(3) shall be subject to the provisions of section 613 of this title.


(g) Judicial Review.—(1)(A) A court of the United States may review a determination by the Secretary of a military department under subsection (a)(1) or (b)(1) not to convene a special selection board in the case of any person. In any such case, the court may set aside the Secretary's determination only if the court finds the determination to be—

(i) arbitrary or capricious;

(ii) not based on substantial evidence;

(iii) a result of material error of fact or material administrative error; or

(iv) otherwise contrary to law.


(B) If a court sets aside a determination by the Secretary of a military department not to convene a special selection board under this section, it shall remand the case to the Secretary concerned, who shall provide for consideration by such a board.

(2) A court of the United States may review the action of a special selection board convened under this section or an action of the Secretary of the military department concerned on the report of such a board. In any such case, a court may set aside the action only if the court finds that the action was—

(A) arbitrary or capricious;

(B) not based on substantial evidence;

(C) a result of material error of fact or material administrative error; or

(D) otherwise contrary to law.


(3)(A) If, six months after receiving a complete application for consideration by a special selection board under this section in any case, the Secretary concerned has not convened such a board and has not denied consideration by such a board in that case, the Secretary shall be deemed for the purposes of this subsection to have denied the consideration of the case by such a board.

(B) If, six months after the convening of a special selection board under this section in any case, the Secretary concerned has not taken final action on the report of the board, the Secretary shall be deemed for the purposes of this subsection to have denied relief in such case.

(C) Under regulations prescribed under subsection (j), the Secretary of a military department may waive the applicability of subparagraph (A) or (B) in a case if the Secretary determines that a longer period for consideration of the case is warranted. Such a waiver may be for an additional period of not more than six months. The Secretary concerned may not delegate authority to make a determination under this subparagraph.

(h) Limitations of Other Jurisdiction.—No official or court of the United States may, with respect to a claim based to any extent on the failure of a person to be selected for promotion by a promotion board—

(1) consider the claim unless the person has first been referred by the Secretary concerned to a special selection board convened under this section and acted upon by that board and the report of the board has been approved by the President; or

(2) except as provided in subsection (g), grant any relief on the claim unless the person has been selected for promotion by a special selection board convened under this section to consider the person for recommendation for promotion and the report of the board has been approved by the President.


(i) Existing Jurisdiction.—Nothing in this section limits—

(1) the jurisdiction of any court of the United States under any provision of law to determine the validity of any law, regulation, or policy relating to selection boards; or

(2) the authority of the Secretary of a military department to correct a military record under section 1552 of this title.


(j) Regulations.—(1) The Secretary of each military department shall prescribe regulations to carry out this section. Regulations under this subsection may not apply to subsection (g), other than to paragraph (3)(C) of that subsection.

(2) The Secretary may prescribe in the regulations under paragraph (1) the circumstances under which consideration by a special selection board may be provided for under this section, including the following:

(A) The circumstances under which consideration of a person's case by a special selection board is contingent upon application by or for that person.

(B) Any time limits applicable to the filing of an application for such consideration.


(3) Regulations prescribed by the Secretary of a military department under this subsection may not take effect until approved by the Secretary of Defense.

(k) Promotion Board Defined.—In this section, the term “promotion board” means a selection board convened by the Secretary of a military department under section 573(a) or 611(a) of this title.

(Added Pub. L. 96–513, title I, §105, Dec. 12, 1980, 94 Stat. 2859; amended Pub. L. 98–525, title V, §527(a), Oct. 19, 1984, 98 Stat. 2525; Pub. L. 102–190, div. A, title XI, §1131(4), Dec. 5, 1991, 105 Stat. 1506; Pub. L. 102–484, div. A, title X, §1052(10), Oct. 23, 1992, 106 Stat. 2499; Pub. L. 105–261, div. A, title V, §501(a)–(e), Oct. 17, 1998, 112 Stat. 2000–2002; Pub. L. 106–398, §1 [[div. A], title X, §1087(a)(2)], Oct. 30, 2000, 114 Stat. 1654, 1654A–290; Pub. L. 107–107, div. A, title V, §§503(b), 505(c)(3)(A), Dec. 28, 2001, 115 Stat. 1083, 1088; Pub. L. 109–364, div. A, title V, §514(a), Oct. 17, 2006, 120 Stat. 2185; Pub. L. 111–383, div. A, title V, §503(b), Jan. 7, 2011, 124 Stat. 4208.)

Amendments

2011—Subsec. (c)(2). Pub. L. 111–383 substituted “sections 576(d), 576(f), and 613a” for “sections 576(d) and 576(f)”.

2006—Subsec. (a)(1). Pub. L. 109–364, §514(a)(1), inserted “from in or above the promotion zone” after “for selection for promotion”.

Subsec. (b)(1)(A). Pub. L. 109–364, §514(a)(2), inserted “in a matter material to the decision of the board” after “contrary to law”.

2001—Subsec. (a)(1). Pub. L. 107–107, §505(c)(3)(A), inserted “or the name of a person that should have been placed on an all-fully-qualified-officers list under section 624(a)(3) of this title was not so placed,” after “not so considered,”.

Subsecs. (g) to (k). Pub. L. 107–107, §503(b), added subsecs. (g) to (j) and redesignated former subsec. (g) as (k).

2000—Subsec. (c)(2). Pub. L. 106–398 substituted “sections” for “section” after “rather than the provisions of”.

1998—Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 105–261, §501(a)(1), inserted subsec. heading, added par. (1), and struck out former par. (1) which read as follows: “In the case of an officer who is eligible for promotion who the Secretary of the military department concerned determines was not considered for selection for promotion by a selection board because of administrative error, the Secretary concerned, under regulations prescribed by the Secretary of Defense, shall convene a special selection board under this subsection (composed in accordance with section 612 of this title or, in the case of a warrant officer, composed in accordance with section 573 of this title and regulations prescribed by the Secretary of the military department concerned) to determine whether such officer should be recommended for promotion.”

Subsec. (a)(2). Pub. L. 105–261, §501(a)(2), substituted “the person whose name was referred to it for consideration as that record” for “the officer as his record”.

Subsec. (a)(3). Pub. L. 105–261, §501(a)(3), substituted “a person whose name was referred to it for consideration for selection for appointment to a grade other than a general officer or flag officer grade, the person” for “an officer in a grade below the grade of colonel or, in the case of an officer of the Navy, captain whose name was referred to it for consideration, the officer”.

Subsec. (b). Pub. L. 105–261, §501(b)(1), inserted subsec. heading, added par. (1), and struck out former par. (1) which read as follows: “In the case of an officer who is eligible for promotion who was considered for selection for promotion by a selection board but was not selected, the Secretary of the military department concerned, under regulations prescribed by the Secretary of Defense, may convene a special selection board under this subsection (composed in accordance with section 612 of this title or, in the case of a warrant officer, composed in accordance with section 573 of this title and regulations prescribed by the Secretary of the military department concerned) to determine whether such officer should be recommended for promotion if the Secretary concerned determines that—

“(A) the action of the board which considered the officer was contrary to law or involved material error of fact or material administrative error; or

“(B) the board did not have before it for its consideration material information.”

Subsec. (b)(2). Pub. L. 105–261, §501(b)(2), substituted “the person whose name was referred to it for consideration as that record” for “the officer as his record”.

Subsec. (b)(3). Pub. L. 105–261, §501(b)(3)(A), substituted “a person” for “an officer” and “the person” for “the officer”.

Subsec. (c). Pub. L. 105–261, §501(c)(1)(A), inserted heading.

Subsec. (c)(1). Pub. L. 105–261, §501(c)(1)(B), substituted “person” for “officer” in two places.

Subsec. (c)(2). Pub. L. 105–261, §501(c)(1)(C), inserted at end “However, in the case of a board convened under this section to consider a warrant officer or former warrant officer, the provisions of sections 576(d) and 576(f) of this title (rather than the provisions of section 617(b) and 618 of this title) apply to the report and proceedings of the board in the same manner as they apply to the report and proceedings of a selection board convened under section 573 of this title.”

Subsec. (d). Pub. L. 105–261, §501(c)(2)(A), inserted heading.

Subsec. (d)(1). Pub. L. 105–261, §501(c)(2)(B)–(E), substituted “a person” for “an officer”, “that person” for “such officer”, and “that grade in” for “the next higher grade in” and inserted at end “However, in the case of a board convened under this section to consider a warrant officer or former warrant officer, if the report of that board, as approved by the Secretary concerned, recommends that warrant officer or former warrant officer for promotion to the next higher grade, that person shall, as soon as practicable, be appointed to the next higher grade in accordance with provisions of section 578(c) of this title (rather than subsections (b), (c), and (d) of section 624 of this title).”

Subsec. (d)(2). Pub. L. 105–261, §501(c)(3), substituted “A person who is appointed” for “An officer who is promoted” and “that appointment” for “such promotion” and inserted at end “In the case of a person who is not on the active-duty list when appointed to the next higher grade, placement of that person on the active-duty list pursuant to the preceding sentence shall be only for purposes of determination of eligibility of that person for consideration for promotion by any subsequent special selection board under this section.”

Subsec. (e). Pub. L. 105–261, §501(d), amended subsec. (e) generally. Prior to amendment, subsec. (e) read as follows: “The provisions of section 613 of this title apply to members of special selection boards convened under this section.”

Subsecs. (f), (g). Pub. L. 105–261, §501(e), added subsecs. (f) and (g).

1992—Subsec. (b)(1). Pub. L. 102–484 substituted “section 573” for “section 558”.

1991—Subsec. (a)(1). Pub. L. 102–190 substituted “section 573” for “section 558”.

1984—Subsecs. (a)(1), (b)(1). Pub. L. 98–525 substituted “(composed in accordance with section 612 of this title or, in the case of a warrant officer, composed in accordance with section 558 of this title and regulations prescribed by the Secretary of the military department concerned)” for “(composed in accordance with section 612 of this title)”.

Effective Date of 2006 Amendment

Pub. L. 109–364, div. A, title V, §514(c), Oct. 17, 2006, 120 Stat. 2185, provided that: “The amendments made by this section [amending this section and section 14502 of this title] shall take effect on March 1, 2007, and shall apply with respect to selection boards convened on or after that date.”

Effective Date of 2001 Amendment

Pub. L. 107–107, div. A, title V, §503(c), Dec. 28, 2001, 115 Stat. 1084, provided that:

“(1) Except as provided in paragraph (2), the amendments made by this section [enacting section 1558 of this title and amending this section] shall apply with respect to any proceeding pending on or after the date of the enactment of this Act [Dec. 28, 2001] without regard to whether a challenge to an action of a selection board of any of the Armed Forces being considered in the proceeding was initiated before, on, or after that date.

“(2) The amendments made by this section shall not apply with respect to any action commenced in a court of the United States before the date of the enactment of this Act.”

Effective Date of 1991 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 102–190 effective Feb. 1, 1992, see section 1132 of Pub. L. 102–190, set out as a note under section 521 of this title.

Delegation of Functions

Functions of President under subsec. (d)(1) to approve, modify, or disapprove report of a selection board delegated to Secretary of Defense to perform, without approval, ratification, or other action by President, and with authority for Secretary to redelegate, see Ex. Ord. No. 12396, §§1(a), 3, Dec. 9, 1982, 47 F.R. 55897, 55898, set out as a note under section 301 of Title 3, The President.

Ratification of Codified Practice

Pub. L. 105–261, div. A, title V, §501(f), Oct. 17, 1998, 112 Stat. 2002, provided that the consideration by a special selection board convened under this section before Oct. 17, 1998, of a person who, at the time of consideration, had been a retired officer or former officer of the Armed Forces (including a deceased retired or former officer) was ratified.

§629. Removal from a list of officers recommended for promotion

(a) Removal by President.—The President may remove the name of any officer from a list of officers recommended for promotion by a selection board convened under this chapter.

(b) Removal Due to Senate Not Giving Advice and Consent.—If, after consideration of a list of officers approved for promotion by the President to a grade for which appointment is required by section 624(c) of this title to be made by and with the advice and consent of the Senate, the Senate does not give its advice and consent to the appointment of an officer whose name is on the list, that officer's name shall be removed from the list.

(c) Removal After 18 Months.—(1) If an officer whose name is on a list of officers approved for promotion under section 624(a) of this title to a grade for which appointment is required by section 624(c) of this title to be made by and with the advice and consent of the Senate is not appointed to that grade under such section during the officer's promotion eligibility period, the officer's name shall be removed from the list unless as of the end of such period the Senate has given its advice and consent to the appointment.

(2) Before the end of the promotion eligibility period with respect to an officer under paragraph (1), the President may extend that period for purposes of paragraph (1) by an additional 12 months.

(3) In this subsection, the term “promotion eligibility period” means, with respect to an officer whose name is on a list of officers approved for promotion under section 624(a) of this title to a grade for which appointment is required by section 624(c) of this title to be made by and with the advice and consent of the Senate, the period beginning on the date on which the list is so approved and ending on the first day of the eighteenth month following the month during which the list is so approved.

(d) Administrative Removal.—Under regulations prescribed by the Secretary concerned, if an officer on the active-duty list is discharged or dropped from the rolls or transferred to a retired status after having been recommended for promotion to a higher grade under this chapter, but before being promoted, the officer's name shall be administratively removed from the list of officers recommended for promotion by a selection board.

(e) Continued Eligibility for Promotion.—(1) An officer whose name is removed from a list under subsection (a), (b), or (c) continues to be eligible for consideration for promotion. If he is recommended for promotion by the next selection board convened for his grade and competitive category and he is promoted, the Secretary of the military department concerned may, upon such promotion, grant him the same date of rank, the same effective date for the pay and allowances of the grade to which promoted, and the same position on the active-duty list as he would have had if his name had not been so removed.

(2) If such an officer who is in a grade below the grade of colonel or, in the case of the Navy, captain is not recommended for promotion by the next selection board convened for his grade and competitive category, or if his name is again removed from the list of officers recommended for promotion, or if the Senate again does not give its advice and consent to his promotion, he shall be considered for all purposes to have twice failed of selection for promotion.

(Added Pub. L. 96–513, title I, §105, Dec. 12, 1980, 94 Stat. 2860; amended Pub. L. 109–364, div. A, title V, §515(a), Oct. 17, 2006, 120 Stat. 2185; Pub. L. 110–181, div. A, title X, §1063(a)(2), Jan. 28, 2008, 122 Stat. 321; Pub. L. 111–383, div. A, title V, §504(a), Jan. 7, 2011, 124 Stat. 4208.)

Amendments

2011—Subsecs. (d), (e). Pub. L. 111–383 added subsec. (d) and redesignated former subsec. (d) as (e).

2008—Subsec. (d)(1). Pub. L. 110–181 inserted comma after “(a)”.

2006—Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 109–364, §515(a)(4)(A), inserted heading.

Subsec. (b). Pub. L. 109–364, §515(a)(1), inserted heading and inserted “to a grade for which appointment is required by section 624(c) of this title to be made by and with the advice and consent of the Senate” after “the President”.

Subsec. (c). Pub. L. 109–364, §515(a)(2)(B), added subsec. (c). Former subsec. (c) redesignated (d).

Subsec. (d). Pub. L. 109–364, §515(a)(2)(A), (4)(B), redesignated subsec. (c) as (d) and inserted heading.

Subsec. (d)(1). Pub. L. 109–364, §515(a)(3), substituted “(b), or (c)” for “or (b)”.

Effective Date of 2006 Amendment

Pub. L. 109–364, div. A, title V, §515(c), Oct. 17, 2006, 120 Stat. 2187, provided that: “The amendments made by this section [amending this section and section 14310 of this title] shall apply to any promotion list approved by the President after January 1, 2007.”

Delegation of Functions

Functions of President under subsec. (a) to remove name of any officer from a promotion list to any grade below commodore or brigadier general delegated to Secretary of Defense to perform, without approval, ratification, or other action by President, and with authority for Secretary to redelegate, see Ex. Ord. No. 12396, §§1(b), 3, Dec. 9, 1982, 47 F.R. 55897, 55898, set out as a note under section 301 of Title 3, The President.

§630. Discharge of commissioned officers with less then six years of active commissioned service or found not qualified for promotion for first lieutenant or lieutenant (junior grade)

The Secretary of the military department concerned, under regulations prescribed by the Secretary of Defense—

(1) may discharge any officer on the active-duty list who—

(A) has less than six years of active commissioned service; or

(B) is serving in the grade of second lieutenant or ensign and has been found not qualified for promotion to the grade of first lieutenant or lieutenant (junior grade); and


(2) shall, unless the officer has been promoted, discharge any officer described in paragraph (1)(B) at the end of the 18-month period beginning on the date on which the officer is first found not qualified for promotion.

(Added Pub. L. 96–513, title I, §105, Dec. 12, 1980, 94 Stat. 2861; amended Pub. L. 98–525, title XIV, §1405(11), Oct. 19, 1984, 98 Stat. 2622; Pub. L. 107–107, div. A, title V, §505(d)(2), (4)(A), Dec. 28, 2001, 115 Stat. 1088; Pub. L. 108–136, div. A, title V, §505(b), Nov. 24, 2003, 117 Stat. 1457; Pub. L. 110–181, div. A, title V, §503(a)(1), (2), Jan. 28, 2008, 122 Stat. 95.)

Amendments

2008—Pub. L. 110–181, §503(a)(2), substituted “six years” for “five years” in section catchline.

Par. (1)(A). Pub. L. 110–181, §503(a)(1), substituted “six years” for “five years”.

2003—Par. (2). Pub. L. 108–136 substituted “paragraph” for “clause”.

2001—Pub. L. 107–107, §505(d)(4)(A), struck out “regular” before “commissioned officers” in section catchline.

Par. (1). Pub. L. 107–107, §505(d)(2), struck out “regular” before “officer” in introductory provisions and before “grade of first lieutenant” in subpar. (B).

1984—Par. (2). Pub. L. 98–525 substituted “18-month” for “eighteen-month”.

§631. Effect of failure of selection for promotion: first lieutenants and lieutenants (junior grade)

(a) Except an officer of the Navy and Marine Corps who is an officer designated for limited duty (to whom section 5596(e) or 6383 of this title applies), each officer of the Army, Air Force, or Marine Corps on the active-duty list who holds the grade of first lieutenant and has failed of selection for promotion to the grade of captain for the second time, and each officer of the Navy on the active-duty list who holds the grade of lieutenant (junior grade) and has failed of selection for promotion to the grade of lieutenant for the second time, whose name is not on a list of officers recommended for promotion to the next higher grade shall—

(1) be discharged on the date requested by him and approved by the Secretary of the military department concerned, which date shall be not later than the first day of the seventh calendar month beginning after the month in which the President approves the report of the board which considered him for the second time;

(2) if he is eligible for retirement under any provision of law, be retired under that law on the date requested by him and approved by the Secretary concerned, which date shall be not later than the first day of the seventh calendar month beginning after the month in which the President approves the report of the board which considered him for the second time; or

(3) if on the date on which he is to be discharged under paragraph (1) he is within two years of qualifying for retirement under section 3911, 6323, or 8911 of this title, be retained on active duty until he is qualified for retirement and then be retired under that section, unless he is sooner retired or discharged under another provision of law.


(b) The retirement or discharge of an officer pursuant to this section shall be considered to be an involuntary retirement or discharge for purposes of any other provision of law.

(c) An officer who is subject to discharge under subsection (a)(1) is not eligible for further consideration for promotion.

(d) For the purposes of this chapter, an officer of the Army, Air Force, or Marine Corps who holds the grade of first lieutenant, and an officer of the Navy who holds the grade of lieutenant (junior grade), shall be treated as having failed of selection for promotion if the Secretary of the military department concerned determines that the officer would be eligible for consideration for promotion to the next higher grade by a selection board convened under section 611(a) of this title if such a board were convened but is not fully qualified for promotion when recommending for promotion under section 624(a)(3) of this title all fully qualified officers of the officer's armed force in such grade who would be eligible for such consideration.

(Added Pub. L. 96–513, title I, §105, Dec. 12, 1980, 94 Stat. 2861; amended Pub. L. 98–525, title V, §525(c), Oct. 19, 1984, 98 Stat. 2525; Pub. L. 107–107, div. A, title V, §505(a)(2), (d)(3), (4)(B), Dec. 28, 2001, 115 Stat. 1086, 1088; Pub. L. 108–136, div. A, title V, §505(b), Nov. 24, 2003, 117 Stat. 1457.)

Amendments

2003—Subsec. (a)(3). Pub. L. 108–136 substituted “paragraph” for “clause”.

2001—Pub. L. 107–107, §505(d)(4)(B), struck out “regular” before “first lieutenants” in section catchline.

Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 107–107, §505(d)(3), in introductory provisions, substituted “Army, Air Force, or Marine Corps on the active-duty list” for “Regular Army, Regular Air Force, or Regular Marine Corps” and “Navy on the active-duty list” for “Regular Navy” and struck out “regular” before “grade” wherever appearing.

Subsec. (d). Pub. L. 107–107, §505(a)(2), added subsec. (d).

1984—Subsec. (c). Pub. L. 98–525 added subsec. (c).

§632. Effect of failure of selection for promotion: captains and majors of the Army, Air Force, and Marine Corps and lieutenants and lieutenant commanders of the Navy

(a) Except an officer of the Navy and Marine Corps who is an officer designated for limited duty (to whom section 5596(e) or 6383 of this title applies) and except as provided under section 637(a) of this title, each officer of the Army, Air Force, or Marine Corps on the active-duty list who holds the grade of captain or major, and each officer of the Navy on the active-duty list who holds the grade of lieutenant or lieutenant commander, who has failed of selection for promotion to the next higher grade for the second time and whose name is not on a list of officers recommended for promotion to the next higher grade shall—

(1) except as provided in paragraph (3) and in subsection (c), be discharged on the date requested by him and approved by the Secretary concerned, which date shall be not later than the first day of the seventh calendar month beginning after the month in which the President approves the report of the board which considered him for the second time;

(2) if he is eligible for retirement under any provision of law, be retired under that law on the date requested by him and approved by the Secretary concerned, which date shall be not later than the first day of the seventh calendar month beginning after the month in which the President approves the report of the board which considered him for the second time; or

(3) if on the date on which he is to be discharged under paragraph (1) he is within two years of qualifying for retirement under section 3911, 6323, or 8911 of this title, be retained on active duty until he is qualified for retirement and then retired under that section, unless he is sooner retired or discharged under another provision of law.


(b) The retirement or discharge of an officer pursuant to this section shall be considered to be an involuntary retirement or discharge for purposes of any other provision of law.

(c)(1) If a health professions officer described in paragraph (3) is subject to discharge under subsection (a)(1) and, as of the date on which the officer is to be discharged under that subsection, the officer has not completed a period of active duty service obligation that the officer incurred under section 2005, 2114, 2123, or 2603 of this title, the officer shall be retained on active duty until completion of such active duty service obligation, and then be discharged under that subsection, unless sooner retired or discharged under another provision of law.

(2) The Secretary concerned may waive the applicability of paragraph (1) to any officer if the Secretary determines that completion of the active duty service obligation of that officer is not in the best interest of the service.

(3) This subsection applies to a medical officer or dental officer or an officer appointed in a medical skill other than as a medical officer or dental officer (as defined in regulations prescribed by the Secretary of Defense).

(Added Pub. L. 96–513, title I, §105, Dec. 12, 1980, 94 Stat. 2862; amended Pub. L. 107–107, div. A, title V, §505(d)(3), (4)(C), Dec. 28, 2001, 115 Stat. 1088; Pub. L. 108–136, div. A, title V, §505(a), (b), Nov. 24, 2003, 117 Stat. 1457; Pub. L. 108–375, div. A, title X, §1084(d)(6), Oct. 28, 2004, 118 Stat. 2061.)

Amendments

2004—Subsec. (c)(1). Pub. L. 108–375 substituted “paragraph (3)” for “paragraph (2)” and “under that subsection” for “under that paragraph” before “, the officer has not”.

2003—Subsec. (a)(1). Pub. L. 108–136, §505(a)(1), inserted “except as provided in paragraph (3) and in subsection (c),” before “be discharged”.

Subsec. (a)(3). Pub. L. 108–136, §505(b), substituted “paragraph” for “clause”.

Subsec. (c). Pub. L. 108–136, §505(a)(2), added subsec. (c).

2001—Pub. L. 107–107, §505(d)(4)(C), struck out “regular” before “captains and majors” and before “lieutenants and lieutenant commanders” in section catchline.

Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 107–107, §505(d)(3), in introductory provisions, substituted “Army, Air Force, or Marine Corps on the active-duty list” for “Regular Army, Regular Air Force, or Regular Marine Corps” and “Navy on the active-duty list” for “Regular Navy” and struck out “regular” before “grade” wherever appearing.

Effective Date of 2003 Amendment

Pub. L. 108–136, div. A, title V, §505(c), Nov. 24, 2003, 117 Stat. 1457, provided that: “The amendments made by subsection (a) [amending this section] shall not apply in the case of an officer who as of the date of the enactment of this Act [Nov. 24, 2003] is required to be discharged under section 632(a)(1) of title 10, United States Code, by reason of having failed of selection for promotion to the next higher regular grade a second time.”

§633. Retirement for years of service: regular lieutenant colonels and commanders

(a) 28 Years of Active Commissioned Service.—Except as provided in subsection (b) and as provided under section 637(b) of this title, each officer of the Regular Army, Regular Air Force, or Regular Marine Corps who holds the regular grade of lieutenant colonel, and each officer of the Regular Navy who holds the regular grade of commander, who is not on a list of officers recommended for promotion to the regular grade of colonel or captain, respectively, shall, if not earlier retired, be retired on the first day of the month after the month in which he completes 28 years of active commissioned service.

(b) Exceptions.—Subsection (a) does not apply to the following:

(1) An officer of the Navy or Marine Corps who is an officer designated for limited duty to whom section 5596(e) or 6383 of this title applies.

(2) An officer of the Navy or Marine Corps who is a permanent professor at the United States Naval Academy.

(Added Pub. L. 96–513, title I, §105, Dec. 12, 1980, 94 Stat. 2862; amended Pub. L. 98–525, title V, §529(b), title XIV, §1405(12), Oct. 19, 1984, 98 Stat. 2526, 2622; Pub. L. 102–484, div. A, title V, §504(a), Oct. 23, 1992, 106 Stat. 2403; Pub. L. 103–160, div. A, title V, §561(e), Nov. 30, 1993, 107 Stat. 1667; Pub. L. 105–261, div. A, title V, §504(a), Oct. 17, 1998, 112 Stat. 2004; Pub. L. 109–163, div. A, title V, §509(a)(1), Jan. 6, 2006, 119 Stat. 3229.)

Amendments

2006—Pub. L. 109–163 designated existing provisions as subsec. (a), inserted heading, substituted “Except as provided in subsection (b) and as provided” for “Except an officer of the Navy or Marine Corps who is an officer designated for limited duty to whom section 5596(e) or 6383 of this title applies and except as provided”, and added subsec. (b).

1998—Pub. L. 105–261 substituted “Except an officer of the Navy or Marine Corps who is an officer designated for limited duty to whom section 5596(e) or 6383 of this title applies” for “Except an officer of the Navy designated for limited duty to whom section 5596(e) of this title applies and an officer of the Marine Corps designated for limited duty to whom section 5596(e) or section 6383 of this title applies” and struck out at end “During the period beginning on July 1, 1993, and ending on October 1, 1999, the preceding sentence shall not apply to an officer of the Navy designated for limited duty to whom section 6383 of this title applies.”

1993—Pub. L. 103–160 substituted “October 1, 1999” for “October 1, 1995”.

1992—Pub. L. 102–484 inserted at end “During the period beginning on July 1, 1993, and ending on October 1, 1995, the preceding sentence shall not apply to an officer of the Navy designated for limited duty to whom section 6383 of this title applies.”

1984—Pub. L. 98–525, §1405(12), substituted “28” for “twenty-eight”.

Pub. L. 98–525, §529(b), substituted “Except an officer of the Navy designated for limited duty to whom section 5596(e) of this title applies and an officer of the Marine Corps designated for limited duty to whom section 5596(e) or section 6383 of this title applies” for “Except an officer of the Navy and Marine Corps who is an officer designated for limited duty (to whom section 5596(e) or 6383 of this title applies)”.

§634. Retirement for years of service: regular colonels and Navy captains

(a) 30 Years of Active Commissioned Service.—Except as provided in subsection (b) and as provided under section 637(b) of this title, each officer of the Regular Army, Regular Air Force, or Regular Marine Corps who holds the regular grade of colonel, and each officer of the Regular Navy who holds the regular grade of captain, who is not on a list of officers recommended for promotion to the regular grade of brigadier general or rear admiral (lower half), respectively, shall, if not earlier retired, be retired on the first day of the month after the month in which he completes 30 years of active commissioned service.

(b) Exceptions.—Subsection (a) does not apply to the following:

(1) An officer of the Navy who is designated for limited duty to whom section 6383(a)(4) of this title applies.

(2) An officer of the Navy or Marine Corps who is a permanent professor at the United States Naval Academy.

(Added Pub. L. 96–513, title I, §105, Dec. 12, 1980, 94 Stat. 2862; amended Pub. L. 97–86, title IV, §405(b)(1), Dec. 1, 1981, 95 Stat. 1105; Pub. L. 98–525, title XIV, §1405(13), Oct. 19, 1984, 98 Stat. 2622; Pub. L. 99–145, title V, §514(b)(1), Nov. 8, 1985, 99 Stat. 628; Pub. L. 102–484, div. A, title V, §504(b), Oct. 23, 1992, 106 Stat. 2403; Pub. L. 103–160, div. A, title V, §561(e), Nov. 30, 1993, 107 Stat. 1667; Pub. L. 105–261, div. A, title V, §504(b), Oct. 17, 1998, 112 Stat. 2004; Pub. L. 109–163, div. A, title V, §509(a)(2), Jan. 6, 2006, 119 Stat. 3229.)

Amendments

2006—Pub. L. 109–163 designated existing provisions as subsec. (a), inserted heading, substituted “Except as provided in subsection (b) and as provided” for “Except an officer of the Navy who is designated for limited duty to whom section 6383(a)(4) of this title applies and except as provided”, and added subsec. (b).

1998—Pub. L. 105–261 inserted “an officer of the Navy who is designated for limited duty to whom section 6383(a)(4) of this title applies and except” after “Except” and struck out at end “During the period beginning on July 1, 1993, and ending on October 1, 1999, the preceding sentence shall not apply to an officer of the Regular Navy designated for limited duty to whom section 6383(a)(4) of this title applies.”

1993—Pub. L. 103–160 substituted “October 1, 1999” for “October 1, 1995”.

1992—Pub. L. 102–484 inserted at end “During the period beginning on July 1, 1993, and ending on October 1, 1995, the preceding sentence shall not apply to an officer of the Regular Navy designated for limited duty to whom section 6383(a)(4) of this title applies.”

1985—Pub. L. 99–145 substituted “rear admiral (lower half)” for “commodore”.

1984—Pub. L. 98–525 substituted “30” for “thirty”.

1981—Pub. L. 97–86 substituted “commodore” for “commodore admiral”.

Effective Date of 1981 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 97–86 effective Sept. 15, 1981, see section 405(f) of Pub. L. 97–86, set out as a note under section 101 of this title.

§635. Retirement for years of service: regular brigadier generals and rear admirals (lower half)

Except as provided under section 637(b) of this title, each officer of the Regular Army, Regular Air Force, or Regular Marine Corps who holds the regular grade of brigadier general, and each officer of the Regular Navy who holds the regular grade of rear admiral (lower half), who is not on a list of officers recommended for promotion to the regular grade of major general or rear admiral, respectively, shall, if not earlier retired, be retired on the first day of the first month beginning after the date of the fifth anniversary of his appointment to that grade or on the first day of the month after the month in which he completes 30 years of active commissioned service, whichever is later.

(Added Pub. L. 96–513, title I. §105, Dec. 12, 1980, 94 Stat. 2863; amended Pub. L. 97–86, title IV, §405(b)(1), (5)(A), Dec. 1, 1981, 95 Stat. 1105, 1106; Pub. L. 98–525, title XIV, §1405(13), Oct. 19, 1984, 98 Stat. 2622; Pub. L. 99–145, title V, §514(b)(1), (5)(A), Nov. 8, 1985, 99 Stat. 628.)

Amendments

1985—Pub. L. 99–145 substituted “rear admirals (lower half)” for “commodores” in section catchline and “rear admiral (lower half)” for “commodore” in text.

1984—Pub. L. 98–525 substituted “30” for “thirty”.

1981—Pub. L. 97–86 substituted “commodores” for “commodore admirals” in section catchline and “commodore” for “commodore admiral” in text.

Effective Date of 1981 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 97–86 effective Sept. 15, 1981, see section 405(f) of Pub. L. 97–86, set out as a note under section 101 of this title.

§636. Retirement for years of service: regular officers in grades above brigadier general and rear admiral (lower half)

(a) Major Generals and Rear Admirals Serving in Grade.—Except as provided in subsection (b) or (c) and under section 637(b) of this title, each officer of the Regular Army, Regular Air Force, or Regular Marine Corps who holds the regular grade of major general, and each officer of the Regular Navy who holds the regular grade of rear admiral, shall, if not earlier retired, be retired on the first day of the first month beginning after the date of the fifth anniversary of his appointment to that grade or on the first day of the month after the month in which he completes 35 years of active commissioned service, whichever is later.

(b) Lieutenant Generals and Vice Admirals.—In the administration of subsection (a) in the case of an officer who is serving in the grade of lieutenant general or vice admiral, the number of years of active commissioned service applicable to the officer is 38 years.

(c) Generals and Admirals.—In the administration of subsection (a) in the case of an officer who is serving in the grade of general or admiral, the number of years of active commissioned service applicable to the officer is 40 years.

(Added Pub. L. 96–513, title I, §105, Dec. 12, 1980, 94 Stat. 2863; amended Pub. L. 98–525, title XIV, §1405(14), Oct. 19, 1984, 98 Stat. 2622; Pub. L. 105–85, div. A, title V, §506(a), (b), Nov. 18, 1997, 111 Stat. 1726.)

Amendments

1997—Pub. L. 105–85, §506(b), substituted “regular officers in grades above brigadier general and rear admiral (lower half)” for “regular major generals and rear admirals” in section catchline.

Pub. L. 105–85, §506(a), designated existing provisions as subsec. (a), inserted heading, substituted “Except as provided in subsection (b) or (c) and” for “Except as provided”, and added subsecs. (b) and (c).

1984—Pub. L. 98–525 substituted “35” for “thirty-five”.

SUBCHAPTER IV—CONTINUATION ON ACTIVE DUTY AND SELECTIVE EARLY RETIREMENT

Sec.
637.
Selection of regular officers for continuation on active duty.
638.
Selective early retirement.
638a.
Modification to rules for continuation on active duty; enhanced authority for selective early retirement and early discharges.
638b.
Voluntary retirement incentive.
639.
Continuation on active duty to complete disciplinary action.
640.
Deferment of retirement or separation for medical reasons.

        

Amendments

2011—Pub. L. 112–81, div. A, title V, §504(a)(2), 125 Stat. 1390, added item 638b.

1990—Pub. L. 101–510, div. A, title V, §521(a)(2), Nov. 5, 1990, 104 Stat. 1561, added item 638a.

§637. Selection of regular officers for continuation on active duty

(a)(1) An officer subject to discharge or retirement in accordance with section 632 of this title may, subject to the needs of the service, be continued on active duty if he is selected for continuation on active duty by a selection board convened under section 611(b) of this title.

(2) An officer who holds the regular grade of captain in the Army, Air Force, or Marine Corps, or the regular grade of lieutenant in the Navy, and who is subject to discharge or retirement in accordance with section 632 of this title may not be continued on active duty under this subsection for a period which extends beyond the last day of the month in which he completes 20 years of active commissioned service unless he is promoted to the regular grade of major or lieutenant commander, respectively.

(3) An officer who holds the regular grade of major or lieutenant commander who is subject to discharge or retirement in accordance with section 632 of this title may not be continued on active duty under this subsection for a period which extends beyond the last day of the month in which he completes 24 years of active commissioned service unless he is promoted to the regular grade of lieutenant colonel or commander, respectively.

(4) An officer who is selected for continuation on active duty under this subsection but declines to continue on active duty shall be discharged, retired, or retained on active duty, as appropriate, in accordance with section 632 of this title.

(5) Each officer who is continued on active duty under this subsection, is not subsequently promoted or continued on active duty, and is not on a list of officers recommended for continuation or for promotion to the next higher regular grade shall, unless sooner retired or discharged under another provision of law—

(A) be discharged upon the expiration of his period of continued service; or

(B) if he is eligible for retirement under any provision of law, be retired under that law on the first day of the first month following the month in which he completes his period of continued service.


Notwithstanding the provisions of clause (A), any officer who would otherwise be discharged under such clause and is within two years of qualifying for retirement under section 3911, 6323, or 8911 of this title, shall unless he is sooner retired or discharged under some other provision of law, be retained on active duty until he is qualified for retirement under that section and then be retired.

(6) The retirement or discharge of an officer pursuant to this subsection shall be considered to be an involuntary retirement or discharge for purposes of any other provision of law.

(b)(1) An officer subject to retirement under section 633 or 634 of this title may, subject to the needs of the service, have his retirement deferred and be continued on active duty if he is selected for continuation on active duty by a selection board convened under section 611(b) of this title.

(2) An officer subject to retirement under section 635 or 636 of this title who is serving in the grade of brigadier general, rear admiral (lower half), major general, or rear admiral may, subject to the needs of the service, have his retirement deferred and be continued on active duty by the Secretary concerned. An officer subject to retirement under section 635 or 636 of this title who is serving in a grade above major general or rear admiral may have his retirement deferred and be continued on active duty by the President.

(3) Any deferral of retirement and continuation on active duty under this subsection shall be for a period not to exceed five years, except as provided under section 1251 or 1253 of this title.

(c) Continuation of an officer on active duty under this section pursuant to the action of a selection board convened under section 611(b) of this title is subject to the approval of the Secretary of the military department concerned. The period of the continuation on active duty of an officer under this section may be reduced by the Secretary concerned in the case of any officer as provided in section 638a of this title.

(d) For purposes of this section, a period of continuation on active duty under this section expires or is completed on the earlier of (1) the date originally established for the termination of such period, or (2) the date established for the termination of such period by any shortening of such period under section 638a of this title.

(e) The Secretary of Defense shall prescribe regulations for the administration of this section.

(Added Pub. L. 96–513, title I, §105, Dec. 12, 1980, 94 Stat. 2863; amended Pub. L. 97–22, §4(e), July 10, 1981, 95 Stat. 127; Pub. L. 97–86, title IV, §405(b)(1), Dec. 1, 1981, 95 Stat. 1105; Pub. L. 98–525, title XIV, §1405(15), Oct. 19, 1984, 98 Stat. 2622; Pub. L. 99–145, title V, §514(b)(1), Nov. 8, 1985, 99 Stat. 628; Pub. L. 101–510, div. A, title V, §521(b)(1), Nov. 5, 1990, 104 Stat. 1561; Pub. L. 110–181, div. A, title V, §504, Jan. 28, 2008, 122 Stat. 95.)

Amendments

2008—Subsec. (b)(3). Pub. L. 110–181 substituted “except as provided under section 1251 or 1253 of this title” for “but such period may not (except as provided under section 1251(b) of this title) extend beyond the date of the officer's sixty-second birthday”.

1990—Subsec. (c). Pub. L. 101–510, §521(b)(1)(A), inserted at end “The period of the continuation on active duty of an officer under this section may be reduced by the Secretary concerned in the case of any officer as provided in section 638a of this title.”

Subsecs. (d), (e). Pub. L. 101–510, §521(b)(1)(B), (C), added subsec. (d) and redesignated former subsec. (d) as (e).

1985—Subsec. (b)(2). Pub. L. 99–145 substituted “rear admiral (lower half)” for “commodore”.

1984—Subsec. (a)(2). Pub. L. 98–525, §1405(15)(A), substituted “20” for “twenty”.

Subsec. (a)(3). Pub. L. 98–525, §1405(15)(B), substituted “24” for “twenty-four”.

1981—Subsec. (b)(1). Pub. L. 97–22, §4(e)(1), substituted “section 633 or 634” for “section 633, 634, 635, or 636”.

Subsec. (b)(2). Pub. L. 97–86 substituted “commodore” for “commodore admiral”.

Pub. L. 97–22, §4(e)(2), inserted provision that an officer subject to retirement under section 635 or 636 of this title who is serving in the grade of brigadier general, commodore admiral, major general, or rear admiral may, subject to the needs of the service, have his retirement deferred and be continued on active duty by the Secretary concerned and struck out requirement that the deferral of the retirement of an officer subject to retirement under section 635 or 636 of this title serving in a grade above major general or rear admiral was subject to the needs of the service.

Effective Date of 1981 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 97–86 effective Sept. 15, 1981, see section 405(f) of Pub. L. 97–86, set out as a note under section 101 of this title.

Effective Date

Subchapter effective Sept. 15, 1981, but the authority to prescribe regulations under this subchapter effective on Dec. 12, 1980, see section 701 of Pub. L. 96–513, set out as an Effective Date of 1980 Amendment note under section 101 of this title.

Transition Provisions Under Defense Officer Personnel Management Act

For provisions to prevent extinction or premature termination of rights, duties, penalties, or proceedings that existed or were begun prior to the effective date of Pub. L. 96–513 and otherwise to allow for an orderly transition to the system of officer personnel management put in place under Pub. L. 96–513, see section 601 et seq. of Pub. L. 96–513, set out as a note under section 611 of this title.

§638. Selective early retirement

(a)(1) A regular officer on the active-duty list of the Army, Navy, Air Force, or Marine Corps may be considered for selective early retirement by a selection board convened under section 611(b) of this title if the officer is described in any of subparagraphs (A) through (D) as follows:

(A) An officer holding the regular grade of lieutenant colonel or commander who has failed of selection for promotion to the grade of colonel or, in the case of an officer of the Navy, captain two or more times and whose name is not on a list of officers recommended for promotion.

(B) An officer holding the regular grade of colonel or, in the case of an officer of the Navy, captain who has served at least four years of active duty in that grade and whose name is not on a list of officers recommended for promotion.

(C) An officer holding the regular grade of brigadier general or rear admiral (lower half) who has served at least three and one-half years of active duty in that grade and whose name is not on a list of officers recommended for promotion.

(D) An officer holding the regular grade of major general or rear admiral who has served at least three and one-half years of active duty in that grade.


(2) The Secretary of the military department concerned shall specify the number of officers described in paragraphs (1)(A) and (1)(B) which a selection board convened under section 611(b) of this title may recommend for early retirement. Such number may not be more than 30 percent of the number of officers considered in each grade in each competitive category.

(3) A regular officer on the active-duty list of the Army, Navy, Air Force, or Marine Corps may also be considered for early retirement under the circumstances prescribed in section 638a of this title.

(b)(1) An officer in a grade below brigadier general or rear admiral (lower half) who is recommended for early retirement under this section or section 638a of this title and whose early retirement is approved by the Secretary concerned shall—

(A) be retired, under any provision of law under which he is eligible to retire, on the date requested by him and approved by the Secretary concerned, which date shall be not later than the first day of the seventh calendar month beginning after the month in which the Secretary concerned approves the report of the board which recommended the officer for early retirement; or

(B) if the officer is not eligible for retirement under any provision of law, be retained on active duty until he is qualified for retirement under section 3911, 6323, or 8911 of this title, and then be retired under that section, unless he is sooner retired or discharged under some other provision of law.


(2) An officer who holds the regular grade of brigadier general, major general, rear admiral (lower half), or rear admiral who is recommended for early retirement under this section and whose early retirement is approved by the Secretary concerned shall be retired, under any provision of law under which he is eligible to retire, on the date requested by him and approved by the Secretary concerned, which date shall be not later than the first day of the tenth calendar month beginning after the month in which the Secretary concerned approved the report of the board which recommended the officer for early retirement.

(3) The Secretary concerned may defer for not more than 90 days the retirement of an officer otherwise approved for early retirement under this section or section 638a of this title in order to prevent a personal hardship to the officer or for other humanitarian reasons. Any such deferral shall be made on a case-by-case basis considering the circumstances of the case of the particular officer concerned. The authority of the Secretary to grant such a deferral may not be delegated.

(c) So long as an officer in a grade below brigadier general or rear admiral (lower half) holds the same grade, he may not be considered for early retirement under this section more than once in any five-year period.

(d) The retirement of an officer pursuant to this section shall be considered to be an involuntary retirement for purposes of any other provision of law.

(e)(1) The Secretary of Defense shall prescribe regulations for the administration of this section.

(2)(A) Such regulations shall require that when the Secretary of the military department concerned submits a list of officers to a selection board convened under section 611(b) of this title to consider officers for selection for early retirement under this section, such list (except as provided in subparagraph (B)) shall include each officer on the active-duty list in the same grade and competitive category whose position on the active-duty list is between that of the most junior officer in that grade and competitive category whose name is submitted to the board and that of the most senior officer in that grade and competitive category whose name is submitted to the board.

(B) A list under subparagraph (A) may not include an officer in that grade and competitive category (i) who has been approved for voluntary retirement under section 3911, 6323, or 8911 of this title, or (ii) who is to be involuntarily retired under any provision of law during the fiscal year in which the selection board is convened or during the following fiscal year.

(C) An officer not considered by a selection board convened under section 611(b) of this title by reason of subparagraph (B) shall be retired on the date approved for the retirement of that officer as of the convening date of such selection board unless the Secretary concerned approves a modification of such date in order to prevent a personal hardship for the officer or for other humanitarian reasons.

(Added Pub. L. 96–513, title I, §105, Dec. 12, 1980, 94 Stat. 2864; amended Pub. L. 97–22, §4(f), July 10, 1981, 95 Stat. 127; Pub. L. 97–86, title IV, §405(b)(1), Dec. 1, 1981, 95 Stat. 1105; Pub. L. 99–145, title V, §514(b)(1), Nov. 8, 1985, 99 Stat. 628; Pub. L. 100–456, div. A, title V, §504, Sept. 29, 1988, 102 Stat. 1967; Pub. L. 101–510, div. A, title V, §521(b)(2), Nov. 5, 1990, 104 Stat. 1561; Pub. L. 102–190, div. A, title V, §503(a), Dec. 5, 1991, 105 Stat. 1355; Pub. L. 103–160, div. A, title V, §506, Nov. 30, 1993, 107 Stat. 1646; Pub. L. 104–106, div. A, title V, §504(b), Feb. 10, 1996, 110 Stat. 295.)

Amendments

1996—Subsec. (b)(3). Pub. L. 104–106 added par. (3).

1993—Subsec. (e)(2)(B). Pub. L. 103–160 inserted “(i)” after “grade and competitive category”, inserted “(ii)” after “of this title, or”, and struck out comma after “any provision of law”.

1991—Subsec. (e). Pub. L. 102–190 designated existing provisions as pars. (1) and (2)(A), in par. (2)(A) inserted “(except as provided in subparagraph (B))” after “under this section, such list”, and added subpars. (B) and (C).

1990—Subsec. (a)(3). Pub. L. 101–510, §521(b)(2)(A), added par. (3).

Subsec. (b)(1). Pub. L. 101–510, §521(b)(2)(B), inserted “or section 638a of this title” after “under this section”.

1988—Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 100–456 amended subsec. (a) generally. Prior to amendment, subsec. (a) read as follows: “A regular officer on the active-duty list of the Army, Navy, Air Force, or Marine Corps—

“(1) who holds the regular grade of lieutenant colonel or commander and has failed of selection for promotion to the grade of colonel or, in the case of an officer of the Navy, captain two or more times and whose name is not on a list of officers recommended for promotion;

“(2) who holds the regular grade of colonel or, in the case of an officer of the Navy, captain and has served at least four years of active duty in that grade and whose name is not on a list of officers recommended for promotion;

“(3) who holds the regular grade of brigadier general or rear admiral (lower half) and has served at least three and one-half years of active duty in that grade and whose name is not on a list of officers recommended for promotion; or

“(4) who holds the regular grade of major general or rear admiral and has served at least three and one-half years of active duty in that grade,

may be considered for early retirement by a selection board convened under section 611(b) of this title. The Secretary of the military department concerned shall specify the number of officers described in clauses (1) and (2) which such a board may recommend for early retirement, but such number may not be more than 30 percent of the number of officers considered in each grade in each competitive category.”

1985—Subsecs. (a)(3), (b), (c). Pub. L. 99–145 substituted “rear admiral (lower half)” for “commodore” wherever appearing.

1981—Subsec. (a)(3). Pub. L. 97–86 substituted “commodore” for “commodore admiral”.

Subsec. (a)(3), (4). Pub. L. 97–22 substituted “three and one-half years of active duty” for “four years of active duty”.

Subsecs. (b), (c). Pub. L. 97–86 substituted “commodore” for “commodore admiral” wherever appearing.

Effective Date of 1981 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 97–86 effective Sept. 15, 1981, see section 405(f) of Pub. L. 97–86, set out as a note under section 101 of this title.

§638a. Modification to rules for continuation on active duty; enhanced authority for selective early retirement and early discharges

(a) The Secretary of Defense may authorize the Secretary of a military department, during the period beginning on October 1, 1990, and ending on December 31, 2001, and for the purpose of subsection (b)(4) during the period beginning on October 1, 2006, and ending on December 31, 2012, to take any of the actions set forth in subsection (b) with respect to officers of an armed force under the jurisdiction of that Secretary.

(b) Actions which the Secretary of a military department may take with respect to officers of an armed force when authorized to do so under subsection (a) are the following:

(1) Shortening the period of the continuation on active duty established under section 637 of this title for a regular officer who is serving on active duty pursuant to a selection under that section for continuation on active duty.

(2) Providing that regular officers on the active-duty list may be considered for early retirement by a selection board convened under section 611(b) of this title in the case of officers described in any of subparagraphs (A) through (C) as follows:

(A) Officers in the regular grade of lieutenant colonel or commander who would be subject to consideration for selection for early retirement under section 638(a)(1)(A) of this title except that they have failed of selection for promotion only one time (rather than two or more times).

(B) Officers in the regular grade of colonel or, in the case of the Navy, captain who would be subject to consideration for selection for early retirement under section 638(a)(1)(B) of this title except that they have served on active duty in that grade less than four years (but not less than two years).

(C) Officers, other than those described in subparagraphs (A) and (B), holding a regular grade below the grade of colonel, or in the case of the Navy, captain, who are eligible for retirement under section 3911, 6323, or 8911 of this title, or who after two additional years or less of active service would be eligible for retirement under one of those sections and whose names are not on a list of officers recommended for promotion.


(3) Suspending section 638(c) of this title.

(4) Convening selection boards under section 611(b) of this title to consider for discharge regular officers on the active-duty list in a grade below lieutenant colonel or commander—

(A) who have served at least one year of active duty in the grade currently held;

(B) whose names are not on a list of officers recommended for promotion; and

(C) who are not eligible to be retired under any provision of law (other than by reason of eligibility pursuant to section 4403 of the National Defense Authorization Act for Fiscal Year 1993) and are not within two years of becoming so eligible.


(c)(1) In the case of an action under subsection (b)(2), the Secretary of the military department concerned shall specify the number of officers described in that subsection which a selection board convened under section 611(b) of this title pursuant to the authority of that subsection may recommend for early retirement. Such number may not be more than 30 percent of the number of officers considered in each grade in each competitive category.

(2) In the case of an action authorized under subsection (b)(2), the Secretary of Defense may also authorize the Secretary of the military department concerned when convening a selection board under section 611(b) of this title to consider regular officers on the active-duty list for early retirement to include within the officers to be considered by the board reserve officers on the active-duty list on the same basis as regular officers.

(3) In the case of an action under subsection (b)(2), the Secretary of the military department concerned may submit to a selection board convened pursuant to that subsection—

(A) the names of all eligible officers described in that subsection in a particular grade and competitive category; or

(B) the names of all eligible officers described in that subsection in a particular grade and competitive category who are also in particular year groups, specialties, or retirement categories, or any combination thereof, within that competitive category.


(d)(1) In the case of an action under subsection (b)(4), the Secretary of the military department concerned may submit to a selection board convened pursuant to that subsection—

(A) the names of all officers described in that subsection in a particular grade and competitive category; or

(B) the names of all officers described in that subsection in a particular grade and competitive category who also are in particular year groups or specialties, or both, within that competitive category.


(2) The Secretary concerned shall specify the total number of officers to be recommended for discharge by a selection board convened pursuant to subsection (b)(4). That number may not be more than 30 percent of the number of officers considered—

(A) in each grade in each competitive category, except that during the period beginning on October 1, 2006, and ending on December 31, 2012, such number may be more than 30 percent of the officers considered in each competitive category, but may not be more than 30 percent of the number of officers considered in each grade; or

(B) in each grade, year group, or specialty (or combination thereof) in each competitive category, except that during the period beginning on October 1, 2006, and ending on December 31, 2012, such number may be more than 30 percent of the officers considered in each competitive category, but may not be more than 30 percent of the number of officers considered in each grade.


(3) The total number of officers described in subsection (b)(4) from any of the armed forces (or from any of the armed forces in a particular grade) who may be recommended during a fiscal year for discharge by a selection board convened pursuant to the authority of that subsection may not exceed 70 percent of the decrease, as compared to the preceding fiscal year, in the number of officers of that armed force (or the number of officers of that armed force in that grade) authorized to be serving on active duty as of the end of that fiscal year.

(4) An officer who is recommended for discharge by a selection board convened pursuant to the authority of subsection (b)(4) and whose discharge is approved by the Secretary concerned shall be discharged on a date specified by the Secretary concerned.

(5) Selection of officers for discharge under this subsection shall be based on the needs of the service.

(e) The discharge or retirement of an officer pursuant to this section shall be considered to be involuntary for purposes of any other provision of law.

(Added Pub. L. 101–510, div. A, title V, §521(a)(1), Nov. 5, 1990, 104 Stat. 1559; amended Pub. L. 102–190, div. A, title V, §503(b), Dec. 5, 1991, 105 Stat. 1355; Pub. L. 102–484, div. A, title V, §503, title LXIV, §4403(g)(2), Oct. 23, 1992, 106 Stat. 2402, 2703; Pub. L. 103–160, div. A, title V, §561(b), Nov. 30, 1993, 107 Stat. 1667; Pub. L. 105–261, div. A, title V, §561(c), Oct. 17, 1998, 112 Stat. 2025; Pub. L. 106–398, §1 [[div. A], title V, §571(c)], Oct. 30, 2000, 114 Stat. 1654, 1654A–134; Pub. L. 109–364, div. A, title VI, §623(b), Oct. 17, 2006, 120 Stat. 2256.)

References in Text

Section 4403 of the National Defense Authorization Act for Fiscal Year 1993, referred to in subsec. (b)(4)(C), is section 4403 of Pub. L. 102–484, which is set out as a note under section 1293 of this title.

Amendments

2006—Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 109–364, §623(b)(1), inserted “and for the purpose of subsection (b)(4) during the period beginning on October 1, 2006, and ending on December 31, 2012,” after “December 31, 2001,”.

Subsec. (d)(2)(A). Pub. L. 109–364, §623(b)(2)(A), inserted “, except that during the period beginning on October 1, 2006, and ending on December 31, 2012, such number may be more than 30 percent of the officers considered in each competitive category, but may not be more than 30 percent of the number of officers considered in each grade” before “; or” at end.

Subsec. (d)(2)(B). Pub. L. 109–364, §623(b)(2)(B), inserted “, except that during the period beginning on October 1, 2006, and ending on December 31, 2012, such number may be more than 30 percent of the officers considered in each competitive category, but may not be more than 30 percent of the number of officers considered in each grade” before period at end.

2000—Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 106–398 substituted “December 31, 2001” for “September 30, 2001”.

1998—Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 105–261 substituted “during the period beginning on October 1, 1990, and ending on September 30, 2001” for “during the nine-year period beginning on October 1, 1990”.

1993—Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 103–160 substituted “nine-year period” for “five-year period”.

1992—Subsec. (b)(4)(C). Pub. L. 102–484, §4403(g)(2), inserted “(other than by reason of eligibility pursuant to section 4403 of the National Defense Authorization Act for Fiscal Year 1993)” after “any provision of law”.

Subsec. (c)(3). Pub. L. 102–484, §503, added par. (3).

1991—Subsec. (b)(2)(C). Pub. L. 102–190, §503(b)(1), amended subpar. (C) generally. Prior to amendment, subpar. (C) read as follows: “Officers holding a regular grade below the grade of colonel or, in the case of the Navy, captain who are not eligible for retirement under section 3911, 6323, or 8911 of this title but who after two additional years of active service as a commissioned officer would be eligible for retirement under one of those sections and whose names are not on a list of officers recommended for promotion.”

Subsec. (c). Pub. L. 102–190, §503(b)(2), designated existing provisions as par. (1) and added par. (2).

§638b. Voluntary retirement incentive

(a) Incentive for Voluntary Retirement for Certain Officers.—The Secretary of Defense may authorize the Secretary of a military department to provide a voluntary retirement incentive payment in accordance with this section to an officer of the armed forces under that Secretary's jurisdiction who is specified in subsection (c) as being eligible for such a payment.

(b) Limitations.—(1) Any authority provided the Secretary of a military department under this section shall expire as specified by the Secretary of Defense, but not later than December 31, 2018.

(2) The total number of officers who may be provided a voluntary retirement incentive payment under this section may not exceed 675 officers.

(c) Eligible Officers.—(1) Except as provided in paragraph (2), an officer of the armed forces is eligible for a voluntary retirement incentive payment under this section if the officer—

(A) has served on active duty for more than 20 years, but not more than 29 years, on the approved date of retirement;

(B) meets the minimum length of commissioned service requirement for voluntary retirement as a commissioned officer in accordance with section 3911, 6323, or 8911 of this title, as applicable to that officer;

(C) on the approved date of retirement, has 12 months or more remaining on active-duty service before reaching the maximum retirement years of active service for the member's grade as specified in section 633 or 634 of this title;

(D) on the approved date of retirement, has 12 months or more remaining on active-duty service before reaching the maximum retirement age under any other provision of law; and

(E) meets any additional requirements for such eligibility as is specified by the Secretary concerned, including any requirement relating to years of service, skill rating, military specialty or competitive category, grade, any remaining period of obligated service, or any combination thereof.


(2) The following officers are not eligible for a voluntary retirement incentive payment under this section:

(A) An officer being evaluated for disability under chapter 61 of this title.

(B) An officer projected to be retired under section 1201 or 1204 of this title.

(C) An officer projected to be discharged with disability severance pay under section 1212 of this title.

(D) A member transferred to the temporary disability retired list under section 1202 or 1205 of this title.

(E) An officer subject to pending disciplinary action or subject to administrative separation or mandatory discharge under any other provision of law or regulation.


(d) Amount of Payment.—The amount of the voluntary retirement incentive payment paid an officer under this section shall be an amount determined by the Secretary concerned, but not to exceed an amount equal to 12 times the amount of the officer's monthly basic pay at the time of the officer's retirement. The amount may be paid in a lump sum at the time of retirement.

(e) Repayment for Members Who Return to Active Duty.—(1) Except as provided in paragraph (2), a member of the armed forces who, after having received all or part of a voluntary retirement incentive under this section, returns to active duty shall have deducted from each payment of basic pay, in such schedule of monthly installments as the Secretary concerned shall specify, until the total amount deducted from such basic pay equals the total amount of voluntary retirement incentive received.

(2) Members who are involuntarily recalled to active duty or full-time National Guard duty under any provision of law shall not be subject to this subsection.

(3) The Secretary of Defense may waive, in whole or in part, repayment required under paragraph (1) if the Secretary determines that recovery would be against equity and good conscience or would be contrary to the best interest of the United States. The authority in this paragraph may be delegated only to the Under Secretary of Defense for Personnel and Readiness and the Principal Deputy Under Secretary of Defense of Personnel and Readiness.

(Added Pub. L. 112–81, div. A, title V, §504(a)(1), Dec. 31, 2011, 125 Stat. 1389.)

§639. Continuation on active duty to complete disciplinary action

When any action has been commenced against an officer with a view to trying such officer by court-martial and such officer is to be separated or retired in accordance with this chapter, the Secretary of the military department concerned may delay the separation or retirement of the officer, without prejudice to such action, until the completion of the action.

(Added Pub. L. 96–513, title I, §105, Dec. 12, 1980, 94 Stat. 2866.)

§640. Deferment of retirement or separation for medical reasons

(a) If the Secretary of the military department concerned determines that the evaluation of the physical condition of an officer and determination of the officer's entitlement to retirement or separation for physical disability require hospitalization or medical observation and that such hospitalization or medical observation cannot be completed with confidence in a manner consistent with the member's well being before the date on which the officer would otherwise be required to retire or be separated under this title, the Secretary may defer the retirement or separation of the officer under this title.

(b) A deferral of retirement or separation under subsection (a) may not extend for more than 30 days after completion of the evaluation requiring hospitalization or medical observation.

(Added Pub. L. 96–513, title I, §105, Dec. 12, 1980, 94 Stat. 2866; amended Pub. L. 107–107, div. A, title V, §507, Dec. 28, 2001, 115 Stat. 1090.)

Amendments

2001—Pub. L. 107–107 amended text generally. Prior to amendment, text read as follows: “The Secretary of the military department concerned may defer the retirement or separation under this title of any officer if the evaluation of the physical condition of the officer and determination of the officer's entitlement to retirement or separation for physical disability require hospitalization or medical observation that cannot be completed before the date on which the officer would otherwise be required to retire or be separated under this title.”

SUBCHAPTER V—ADDITIONAL PROVISIONS RELATING TO PROMOTION, SEPARATION, AND RETIREMENT

Sec.
641.
Applicability of chapter.
642.
Entitlement of officers discharged or retired under this chapter to separation pay or retired pay.
643.
Chaplains: discharge or retirement upon loss of professional qualifications.
[644.
Repealed.]
645.
Definitions.
646.
Consideration of performance as a member of the Joint Staff.
647.
Force shaping authority.

        

Amendments

2004—Pub. L. 108–375, div. A, title V, §501(c)(1)(B), Oct. 28, 2004, 118 Stat. 1874, added item 647.

1994—Pub. L. 103–337, div. A, title XVI, §1671(b)(5), Oct. 5, 1994, 108 Stat. 3013, struck out item 644 “Authority to suspend officer personnel laws”.

1984—Pub. L. 98–525, title XIII, §1301(d)(2), Oct. 19, 1984, 98 Stat. 2612, added item 646.

§641. Applicability of chapter

Officers in the following categories are not subject to this chapter (other than section 640 and, in the case of warrant officers, section 628):

(1) Reserve officers—

(A) on active duty authorized under section 115(a)(1)(B) or 115(b)(1) of this title, or excluded from counting for active duty end strengths under section 115(i) of this title;

(B) on active duty under section 3038, 5143, 5144, 8038, 10211, 10301 through 10305, 10502, 10505, 10506(a), 10506(b), 10507, or 12402 of this title or section 708 of title 32; or

(C) on full-time National Guard duty.


(2) The director of admissions, dean, and permanent professors at the United States Military Academy, the registrar, dean, and permanent professors at the United States Air Force Academy, and permanent professors of the Navy (as defined in regulations prescribed by the Secretary of the Navy).

(3) Warrant officers.

(4) Retired officers on active duty.

(5) Students at the Uniformed Services University of the Health Sciences.

(6) Officers appointed pursuant to an agreement under section 329 of title 37.

(Added Pub. L. 96–513, title I, §105, Dec. 12, 1980, 94 Stat. 2866; amended Pub. L. 98–525, title IV, §414(a)(5), title V, §527(b), Oct. 19, 1984, 98 Stat. 2519, 2525; Pub. L. 99–433, title V, §531(a)(2), Oct. 1, 1986, 100 Stat. 1063; Pub. L. 103–337, div. A, title XVI, §1671(c)(5), Oct. 5, 1994, 108 Stat. 3014; Pub. L. 104–106, div. A, title XV, §1501(c)(6), Feb. 10, 1996, 110 Stat. 498; Pub. L. 104–201, div. A, title XII, §1212(e), Sept. 23, 1996, 110 Stat. 2694; Pub. L. 106–398, §1 [[div. A], title V, §521], Oct. 30, 2000, 114 Stat. 1654, 1654A–108; Pub. L. 107–107, div. A, title V, §511(a), Dec. 28, 2001, 115 Stat. 1092; Pub. L. 108–375, div. A, title IV, §416(j), title V, §501(d), Oct. 28, 2004, 118 Stat. 1869, 1874; Pub. L. 109–364, div. A, title VI, §621(c), Oct. 17, 2006, 120 Stat. 2255; Pub. L. 110–181, div. A, title V, §508(b), Jan. 28, 2008, 122 Stat. 97.)

Codification

Pub. L. 103–337, div. A, title XVI, §§1624, 1691(b)(1), Oct. 5, 1994, 108 Stat. 2961, 3026, which directed amendment of this section effective Oct. 1, 1996, by inserting “(a)” before “Officers in the following” and by adding at the end a new subsec. (b), was amended by Pub. L. 104–106, div. A, title XV, §1501(a)(1)(A), Feb. 10, 1996, 110 Stat. 495, and, as so amended, amends section 620 of this title instead of this section.

Amendments

2008—Par. (2). Pub. L. 110–181 substituted “, the registrar” for “and the registrar” and inserted “, and permanent professors of the Navy (as defined in regulations prescribed by the Secretary of the Navy)” before period at end.

2006—Par. (6). Pub. L. 109–364 added par. (6).

2004—Par. (1). Pub. L. 108–375, §416(j), amended par. (1) generally. Prior to amendment, par. (1) read as follows:

“(1) Reserve officers—

“(A) on active duty for training;

“(B) on active duty under section 3038, 5143, 5144, 8038, 10211, 10301 through 10305, 10502, 10505, 10506(a), 10506(b), 10507, or 12402 of this title or section 708 of title 32;

“(C) on active duty under section 12301(d) of this title in connection with organizing, administering, recruiting, instructing, or training the reserve components;

“(D) on active duty under section 12301(d) of this title, other than as provided under subparagraph (C), if the call or order to active duty, under regulations prescribed by the Secretary concerned, specifies a period of three years or less and continued placement on the reserve active-status list;

“(E) on active duty to pursue special work;

“(F) ordered to active duty under section 12304 of this title;

“(G) on active duty under section 10(b)(2) of the Military Selective Service Act (50 U.S.C. App. 460(b)(2)) for the administration of the Selective Service System; or

“(H) on full-time National Guard duty.”

Par. (1)(F). Pub. L. 108–375, §501(d), which directed substitution of “sections 12302 and 12304” for “section 12304” in subpar. (F), could not be executed because par. (1) did not contain a subpar. (F) subsequent to amendment by Pub. L. 108–375, §416(j). See above.

2001—Par. (1)(D). Pub. L. 107–107 amended subpar. (D) generally. Prior to amendment, subpar. (D) read as follows: “on the reserve active-status list who are on active duty under section 12301(d) of this title, other than as provided in subparagraph (C), under a call or order to active duty specifying a period of three years or less;”.

2000—Par. (1)(D) to (H). Pub. L. 106–398 added subpar. (D) and redesignated former subpars. (D) to (G) as (E) to (H), respectively.

1996—Par. (1)(B). Pub. L. 104–201 inserted “5143, 5144,” after “3038,”.

Pub. L. 104–106 substituted “10502, 10505, 10506(a), 10506(b), 10507” for “10501”.

1994—Par. (1)(B). Pub. L. 103–337, §1671(c)(5)(A), substituted “3038, 8038, 10211, 10301 through 10305, 10501, or 12402” for “175, 265, 3021, 3038, 3040, 3496, 5251, 5252, 8021, 8038, or 8496”.

Par. (1)(C). Pub. L. 103–337, §1671(c)(5)(B), substituted “12301(d)” for “672(d)”.

Par. (1)(E). Pub. L. 103–337, §1671(c)(5)(C), substituted “12304” for “673b”.

1986—Par. (1)(B). Pub. L. 99–433 substituted “3021, 3038, 3040, 3496, 5251, 5252, 8021, 8038” for “3015, 3019, 3033, 3496, 5251, 5252, 8019, 8033”.

1984—Pub. L. 98–525, §527(b), substituted “(other than section 640 and, in the case of warrant officers, section 628)” for “(other than section 640)” in provisions preceding par. (1).

Par. (1)(C). Pub. L. 98–525, §414(a)(5)(A), struck out “or under section 502 or 503 of title 32” after “section 672(d) of this title”.

Par. (1)(G). Pub. L. 98–525, §414(a)(5)(B)–(D), added subpar. (G).

Effective Date of 2004 Amendment

Amendment by section 501(d) of Pub. L. 108–375 effective on the first day of the first month beginning more than 180 days after Oct. 28, 2004, see section 501(g) of Pub. L. 108–375, set out as a note under section 531 of this title.

Effective Date of 1996 Amendment

Section 1501(c) of Pub. L. 104–106 provided that the amendment made by that section is effective as of Dec. 1, 1994, and as if included as an amendment made by the Reserve Officer Personnel Management Act, title XVI of Pub. L. 103–337, as originally enacted.

Effective Date of 1994 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 103–337 effective Dec. 1, 1994, except as otherwise provided, see section 1691 of Pub. L. 103–337, set out as a note under section 10001 of this title.

Effective Date

Subchapter effective Sept. 15, 1981, but the authority to prescribe regulations under this subchapter effective on Dec. 12, 1980, see section 701 of Pub. L. 96–513, set out as an Effective Date of 1980 Amendment note under section 101 of this title.

Retroactive Application

Pub. L. 107–107, div. A, title V, §511(b), Dec. 28, 2001, 115 Stat. 1092, provided that:

“(1) The Secretary of the military department concerned may provide that an officer who was excluded from the active-duty list under section 641(1)(D) of title 10, United States Code, as amended by section 521 of the Floyd D. Spence National Defense Authorization Act for Fiscal Year 2001 (as enacted into law by Public Law 106–398; 114 Stat. 1654A–108), shall be considered to have been on the active-duty list during the period beginning on the date on which the officer was so excluded and ending on the date of the enactment of this Act [Dec. 28, 2001].

“(2) The Secretary of the military department concerned may provide that a Reserve officer who was placed on the active-duty list on or after October 30, 1997, shall be placed on the reserve active-status list if the officer otherwise meets the conditions specified in section 641(1)(D) of title 10, United States Code, as amended by subsection (a).”

Transition Provisions Under Defense Officer Personnel Management Act

For provisions to prevent extinction or premature termination of rights, duties, penalties, or proceedings that existed or were begun prior to the effective date of Pub. L. 96–513 and otherwise to allow for an orderly transition to the system of officer personnel management put in place under Pub. L. 96–513, see section 601 et seq. of Pub. L. 96–513, set out as a note under section 611 of this title.

§642. Entitlement of officers discharged or retired under this chapter to separation pay or retired pay

(a) An officer who is discharged under this chapter is entitled, if eligible therefor, to separation pay under section 1174 of this title.

(b) An officer who is retired under this chapter is entitled to retired pay computed under chapter 71 of this title.

(Added Pub. L. 96–513, title I, §105, Dec. 12, 1980, 94 Stat. 2867.)

§643. Chaplains: discharge or retirement upon loss of professional qualifications

Under regulations prescribed by the Secretary of Defense, a commissioned officer on the active-duty list of the Army, Navy, or Air Force who is appointed or designated as a chaplain may, if he fails to maintain the qualifications needed to perform his professional function, be discharged or, if eligible for retirement, may be retired.

(Added Pub. L. 96–513, title I, §105, Dec. 12, 1980, 94 Stat. 2867.)

[§644. Repealed. Pub. L. 103–337, div. A, title XVI, §1622(b), Oct. 5, 1994, 108 Stat. 2961]

Section, added Pub. L. 96–513, title I, §105, Dec. 12, 1980, 94 Stat. 2867; amended Pub. L. 102–190, div. A, title XI, §1115, Dec. 5, 1991, 105 Stat. 1503, related to authority to suspend officer personnel laws. See section 123 of this title.

Effective Date of Repeal

Repeal effective Oct. 1, 1996, see section 1691(b)(1) of Pub. L. 103–337, set out as an Effective Date note under section 10001 of this title.

§645. Definitions

In this chapter:

(1) The term “promotion zone” means a promotion eligibility category consisting of the officers on an active-duty list in the same grade and competitive category—

(A) who—

(i) in the case of officers in grades below colonel, for officers of the Army, Air Force, and Marine Corps, or captain, for officers of the Navy, have neither (I) failed of selection for promotion to the next higher grade, nor (II) been removed from a list of officers recommended for promotion to that grade (other than after having been placed on that list after a selection from below the promotion zone); or

(ii) in the case of officers in the grade of colonel or brigadier general, for officers of the Army, Air Force, and Marine Corps, or captain or rear admiral (lower half), for officers of the Navy, have neither (I) not been recommended for promotion to the next higher grade when considered in the promotion zone, nor (II) been removed from a list of officers recommended for promotion to that grade (other than after having been placed on that list after a selection from below the promotion zone); and


(B) are senior to the officer designated by the Secretary of the military department concerned to be the junior officer in the promotion zone eligible for consideration for promotion to the next higher grade.


(2) The term “officers above the promotion zone” means a group of officers on an active-duty list in the same grade and competitive category who—

(A) are eligible for consideration for promotion to the next higher grade;

(B) are in the same grade as those officers in the promotion zone for that competitive category; and

(C) are senior to the senior officer in the promotion zone for that competitive category.


(3) The term “officers below the promotion zone” means a group of officers on the active-duty list in the same grade and competitive category who—

(A) are eligible for consideration for promotion to the next higher grade;

(B) are in the same grade as the officers in the promotion zone for that competitive category; and

(C) are junior to the junior officer in the promotion zone for that competitive category.

(Added Pub. L. 96–513, title I, §105, Dec. 12, 1980, 94 Stat. 2867; amended Pub. L. 97–86, title IV, §405(b)(1), Dec. 1, 1981, 95 Stat. 1105; Pub. L. 98–525, title V, §533(a), Oct. 19, 1984, 98 Stat. 2528; Pub. L. 99–145, title V, §514(b)(1), Nov. 8, 1985, 99 Stat. 628; Pub. L. 102–25, title VII, §701(i)(1), Apr. 6, 1991, 105 Stat. 115.)

Amendments

1991—Pars. (1) to (3). Pub. L. 102–25 inserted “The term” after par. designations and lowercased initial letter of quoted phrases.

1985—Par. (1)(A)(ii). Pub. L. 99–145 substituted “rear admiral (lower half)” for “commodore”.

1984—Par. (1)(A)(i)(II), (ii)(II). Pub. L. 98–525, §533(a)(1), inserted “(other than after having been placed on that list after a selection from below the promotion zone)”.

Par. (1)(B). Pub. L. 98–525, §533(a)(2), inserted “in the promotion zone” after “the junior officer” and struck out “in the promotion zone” after “higher grade”.

1981—Par. (1)(A)(ii). Pub. L. 97–86 substituted “commodore” for “commodore admiral”.

Effective Date of 1981 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 97–86 effective Sept. 15, 1981, see section 405(f) of Pub. L. 97–86, set out as a note under section 101 of this title.

§646. Consideration of performance as a member of the Joint Staff

The Secretary of Defense, in consultation with the Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff, shall ensure that officer personnel policies of the Army, Navy, Air Force, and Marine Corps concerning promotion, retention, and assignment give appropriate consideration to the performance of an officer as a member of the Joint Staff.

(Added Pub. L. 98–525, title XIII, §1301(d)(1), Oct. 19, 1984, 98 Stat. 2612.)

§647. Force shaping authority

(a) Authority.—The Secretary concerned may, solely for the purpose of restructuring an armed force under the jurisdiction of that Secretary—

(1) discharge an officer described in subsection (b); or

(2) transfer such an officer from the active-duty list of that armed force to the reserve active-status list of a reserve component of that armed force.


(b) Covered Officers.—(1) The authority under this section may be exercised in the case of an officer who—

(A) has completed not more than six years of service as a commissioned officer in the armed forces; or

(B) has completed more than six years of service as a commissioned officer in the armed forces, but has not completed a minimum service obligation applicable to that member.


(2) In this subsection, the term “minimum service obligation” means the initial period of required active duty service together with any additional period of required active duty service incurred during the initial period of required active duty service.

(c) Appointment of Transferred Officers.—An officer of the Regular Army, Regular Air Force, Regular Navy, or Regular Marine Corps who is transferred to a reserve active-status list under this section shall be discharged from the regular component concerned and appointed as a reserve commissioned officer under section 12203 of this title.

(d) Regulations.—The Secretary concerned shall prescribe regulations for the exercise of the Secretary's authority under this section.

(Added Pub. L. 108–375, div. A, title V, §501(c)(1)(A), Oct. 28, 2004, 118 Stat. 1873; amended Pub. L. 110–181, div. A, title V, §503(b), Jan. 28, 2008, 122 Stat. 95.)

Amendments

2008—Subsec. (b)(1)(A), (B). Pub. L. 110–181 substituted “six years” for “5 years”.

Effective Date

Section effective on the first day of the first month beginning more than 180 days after Oct. 28, 2004, see section 501(g) of Pub. L. 108–375, set out as an Effective Date of 2004 Amendment note under section 531 of this title.

CHAPTER 37—GENERAL SERVICE REQUIREMENTS

Sec.
651.
Members: required service.
652.
Notice to Congress of proposed changes in units, assignments, etc. to which female members may be assigned.
653.
Minimum service requirement for certain flight crew positions.
[654.
Repealed.]
655.
Designation of persons having interest in status of a missing member.

        

Amendments

2010—Pub. L. 111–321, §2(f)(1)(B), Dec. 22, 2010, 124 Stat. 3516, struck out item 654 “Policy concerning homosexuality in the armed forces”.

2006—Pub. L. 109–163, div. A, title V, §541(a)(2), Jan. 6, 2006, 119 Stat. 3252, added item 652.

1996—Pub. L. 104–106, div. A, title V, §569(d)(2), Feb. 10, 1996, 110 Stat. 352, added item 655.

1994—Pub. L. 103–337, div. A, title XVI, §1671(b)(6), Oct. 5, 1994, 108 Stat. 3013, struck out item 652 “Ready Reserves: requirement of notification of change of status”.

1993—Pub. L. 103–160, div. A, title V, §571(a)(2), Nov. 30, 1993, 107 Stat. 1673, added item 654.

1989—Pub. L. 101–189, div. A, title VI, §634(a)(2), Nov. 29, 1989, 103 Stat. 1454, added item 653.

1978—Pub. L. 95–485, title IV, §405(d)(2), Oct. 20, 1978, 92 Stat. 1616, added item 652.

1958—Pub. L. 85–861, §33(a)(4)(A), Sept. 2, 1958, 72 Stat. 1564, substituted “GENERAL SERVICE REQUIREMENTS” for “SERVICE REQUIREMENTS FOR RESERVES” in chapter heading.

Prohibition Against Members of the Armed Forces Participating in Criminal Street Gangs

Pub. L. 110–181, div. A, title V, §544, Jan. 28, 2008, 122 Stat. 116, provided that: “The Secretary of Defense shall prescribe regulations to prohibit the active participation by members of the Armed Forces in a criminal street gang.”

§651. Members: required service

(a) Each person who becomes a member of an armed force, other than a person deferred under the next to the last sentence of section 6(d)(1) of the Military Selective Service Act (50 U.S.C. App. 456(d)(1)) shall serve in the armed forces for a total initial period of not less than six years nor more than eight years, as provided in regulations prescribed by the Secretary of Defense for the armed forces under his jurisdiction and by the Secretary of Homeland Security for the Coast Guard when it is not operating as service in the Navy, unless such person is sooner discharged under such regulations because of personal hardship. Any part of such service that is not active duty or that is active duty for training shall be performed in a reserve component.

(b) Each person covered by subsection (a) who is not a Reserve, and who is qualified, shall, upon his release from active duty, be transferred to a reserve component of his armed force to complete the service required by subsection (a).

(c)(1) For the armed forces under the jurisdiction of the Secretary of Defense, the Secretary may waive the initial period of required service otherwise established pursuant to subsection (a) in the case of the initial appointment of a commissioned officer in a critically short health professional specialty specified by the Secretary for purposes of this subsection.

(2) The minimum period of obligated service for an officer under a waiver under this subsection shall be the greater of—

(A) two years; or

(B) in the case of an officer who has accepted an accession bonus or executed a contract or agreement for the multiyear receipt of special pay for service in the armed forces, the period of obligated service specified in such contract or agreement.

(Aug. 10, 1956, ch. 1041, 70A Stat. 27; Pub. L. 85–861, §§1(12), 36B(3), Sept. 2, 1958, 72 Stat. 1440, 1570; Pub. L. 89–718, §5, Nov. 2, 1966, 80 Stat. 1115; Pub. L. 95–79, title VIII, §803(a), July 30, 1977, 91 Stat. 333; Pub. L. 96–107, title VIII, §805(b), Nov. 9, 1979, 93 Stat. 813; Pub. L. 96–513, title V, §511(18), Dec. 12, 1980, 94 Stat. 2921; Pub. L. 98–94, title X, §1022(b)(1), Sept. 24, 1983, 97 Stat. 670; Pub. L. 107–296, title XVII, §1704(b)(1), Nov. 25, 2002, 116 Stat. 2314; Pub. L. 110–181, div. A, title V, §505, Jan. 28, 2008, 122 Stat. 96.)

Historical and Revision Notes
1956 Act
Revised sectionSource (U.S. Code)Source (Statutes at Large)
651(a)

 

 

 

 

651(b)

 

 

 

 

651(c)

50 App.:454(d)(3) (1st sentence, and less applicability to members of National Security Training Corps).

50 App.:454(d)(3) (2d sentence, and less applicability to members of National Security Training Corps).

50 App.:454(d)(3) (3d and last sentences).

June 24, 1948, ch. 625, §4(d)(3) (less 4th sentence, and less applicability to members of National Security Training Corps); added June 19, 1951, ch. 144, §1(g) (last par., less 4th sentence, and less applicability to members of National Security Training Corps), 65 Stat. 79; July 9, 1952, ch. 608, §813, 66 Stat. 509.

In subsection (a), the word “male” is inserted, since the source statute (Universal Military Training and Service Act (50 U.S.C. App. 451 et seq.)) applies only to male persons. The words “subsequent to the date of enactment of this paragraph [June 19, 1951]” are omitted as executed. The words “becomes a member” are substituted for the words “is inducted, enlisted, or appointed * * * in”. The words “in the armed forces” are substituted for the words “on active training and service in the Armed Forces * * * and in a reserve component”. The last sentence is substituted for the words “or in training in the National Security Training Corps”. The words “under any provision of law” and “including the reserve components thereof” are omitted as surplusage.

In subsection (b), the words “who is not a Reserve” are inserted, since the eight year obligation for Reserves is covered by subsection (a). The words “active duty” are substituted for the words “active training and service”. The last eight words are substituted for the words “and shall serve therein for the remainder of the period which he is required to serve under this paragraph”. The words “physically and mentally” and 50 App.:454(d)(3) (last 15 words of 2d sentence) are omitted as surplusage.

In [former] subsection (c), the words “who is released from active duty” are inserted for clarity. The words “shall become a member” are substituted for the words “it shall be the duty of such person to enlist, enroll, or accept appointment in, or accept assignment to”. The words “there is a vacancy” are substituted for the words “enlistment, enrollment, or appointment in, or assignment to”. 50 App.:454(d)(3) (last sentence) is omitted as surplusage.

1958 Act
Revised sectionSource (U.S. Code)Source (Statutes at Large)
651(a) 50 App.:454(d)(3) (2d sentence). Aug. 9, 1955, ch. 665, §3(a) (last sentence), 69 Stat. 603.

In subsection (a), the word “male” is inserted, since the source statute applies only to male persons. The words “subsequent to the date of enactment of the Reserve Forces Act of 1955” are omitted as executed. The words “becomes a member” are substituted for the words “is inducted, enlisted, or appointed . . . in”. The last sentence is substituted for the words “on active training and service . . . and in a reserve component”. The requirement of transfer to and service in a reserve component, after active training and service is covered by subsection (b) of this section. The words “under any provision of law” and “including the reserve components thereof” are omitted as surplusage.

Amendments

2008—Subsec. (c). Pub. L. 110–181 added subsec. (c).

2002—Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 107–296 substituted “of Homeland Security” for “of Transportation”.

1983—Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 98–94 amended subsec. (a) generally, substituting a reference to service in the armed forces for a total initial period of not less than six years nor more than eight years under prescribed regulations for the prior reference to service in the armed forces for a total of six years.

1980—Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 96–513, substituted “Secretary of Transportation” for “Secretary of the Treasury”, and “section 6(d)(1) of the Military Selective Service Act (50 U.S.C. App. 456(d)(1))” for “section 456(d)(1) of title 50, appendix”.

1979—Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 96–107 struck out “before his twenty-sixth birthday” after “force”.

1977—Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 95–79 struck out “male” after “Each” and “after August 9, 1955,” after “who”.

1966—Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 89–718 struck out reference to persons who enlisted under section 1013 of title 50 in the description of persons not required to serve in the armed forces for a total of six years.

1958—Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 85–861, §1(12), restricted section to male persons who became members of the armed forces after Aug. 9, 1955, excluded persons enlisted under section 1013 of Title 50 or deferred under the next to last sentence of section 456(d)(1) of Title 50, Appendix, reduced from eight to six years the required period of service, required any part of such service that is not active duty or is active duty for training to be performed in a reserve component, and struck out provisions which permitted members of the armed forces to count service in the National Security Training Corps as if it were service in the armed forces for the purposes of this subsection.

Subsec. (c). Pub. L. 85–861, §36B(3), repealed subsec. (c) which required members released from active duty to become members of an organized unit of a reserve component of an officers’ training program.

Effective Date of 2002 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 107–296 effective on the date of transfer of the Coast Guard to the Department of Homeland Security, see section 1704(g) of Pub. L. 107–296, set out as a note under section 101 of this title.

Effective Date of 1983 Amendment

Section 1022(b)(2) of Pub. L. 98–94 provided that: “The amendment made by paragraph (1) [amending this section] shall apply only with respect to persons who enter the Armed Forces 60 or more days after the date of the enactment of this Act [Sept. 24, 1983].”

Effective Date of 1980 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 96–513 effective Dec. 12, 1980, see section 701(b)(3) of Pub. L. 96–513, set out as a note under section 101 of this title.

Effective Date of 1979 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 96–107 applicable to individuals who become members of an Armed Force after Nov. 9, 1979, see section 805(c) of Pub. L. 96–107, set out as a note under section 511 of this title.

Effective Date of 1977 Amendment

Section 803(b) of Pub. L. 95–79 provided that: “The amendments made by subsection (a) [amending this section] shall take effect on the first day of the seventh calendar month beginning after the month in which this Act is enacted [July 1977] and shall apply to any female person who becomes a member of an Armed Force on or after such day.”

§652. Notice to Congress of proposed changes in units, assignments, etc. to which female members may be assigned

(a) Rule for Ground Combat Personnel Policy.—(1) If the Secretary of Defense proposes to make any change described in paragraph (2)(A) or (2)(B) to the ground combat exclusion policy or proposes to make a change described in paragraph (2)(C), the Secretary shall, before any such change is implemented, submit to Congress a report providing notice of the proposed change. Such a change may then be implemented only after the end of a period of 30 days of continuous session of Congress (excluding any day on which either House of Congress is not in session) following the date on which the report is received.

(2) A change referred to in paragraph (1) is a change that—

(A) closes to female members of the armed forces any category of unit or position that at that time is open to service by such members;

(B) opens to service by female members of the armed forces any category of unit or position that at that time is closed to service by such members; or

(C) opens or closes to the assignment of female members of the armed forces any military career designator as described in paragraph (6).


(3) The Secretary shall include in any report under paragraph (1)—

(A) a detailed description of, and justification for, the proposed change; and

(B) a detailed analysis of legal implication of the proposed change with respect to the constitutionality of the application of the Military Selective Service Act (50 App. U.S.C. 451 et seq.) to males only.


(4) In this subsection, the term “ground combat exclusion policy” means the military personnel policies of the Department of Defense and the military departments, as in effect on October 1, 1994, by which female members of the armed forces are restricted from assignment to units and positions below brigade level whose primary mission is to engage in direct combat on the ground.

(5) For purposes of this subsection, the continuity of a session of Congress is broken only by an adjournment of the Congress sine die.

(6) For purposes of this subsection, a military career designator is one that is related to military operations on the ground as of May 18, 2005, and applies—

(A) for enlisted members and warrant officers, to military occupational specialties, specialty codes, enlisted designators, enlisted classification codes, additional skill identifiers, and special qualification identifiers; and

(B) for officers (other than warrant officers), to officer areas of concentration, occupational specialties, specialty codes, designators, additional skill identifiers, and special qualification identifiers.


(b) Other Personnel Policy Changes.—(1) Except in a case covered by section 6035 of this title or by subsection (a), whenever the Secretary of Defense proposes to make a change to military personnel policies described in paragraph (2), the Secretary shall, not less than 30 days before such change is implemented, submit to the Committee on Armed Services of the Senate and the Committee on Armed Services of the House of Representatives notice, in writing, of the proposed change.

(2) Paragraph (1) applies to a proposed military personnel policy change, other than a policy change covered by subsection (a), that would make available to female members of the armed forces assignment to any of the following that, as of the date of the proposed change, is closed to such assignment:

(A) Any type of unit not covered by subsection (a).

(B) Any class of combat vessel.

(C) Any type of combat platform.

(Added Pub. L. 109–163, div. A, title V, §541(a)(1), Jan. 6, 2006, 119 Stat. 3251.)

References in Text

The Military Selective Service Act, referred to in subsec. (a)(3)(B), is act June 24, 1948, ch. 625, 62 Stat. 604, as amended, which is classified principally to section 451 et seq. of Title 50, Appendix, War and National Defense. For complete classification of this Act to the Code, see References in Text note set out under section 451 of Title 50, Appendix, and Tables.

Prior Provisions

A prior section 652, added Pub. L. 95–485, title IV, §405(d)(1), Oct. 20, 1978, 92 Stat. 1616, related to Ready Reserve requirement of notification of change of status, prior to repeal by Pub. L. 103–337, div. A, title XVI, §§1661(a)(3)(A), 1691, Oct. 5, 1994, 108 Stat. 2980, 3026, effective Dec. 1, 1994. See section 10205 of this title.

Provisions similar to those in this section were contained in Pub. L. 103–160, div. A, title V, §542, Nov. 30, 1993, 107 Stat. 1659, which was set out as a note under section 113 of this title, prior to repeal by Pub. L. 109–163, §541(c).

§653. Minimum service requirement for certain flight crew positions

(a) Pilots.—The minimum service obligation of any member who successfully completes training in the armed forces as a pilot shall be 8 years, if the member is trained to fly fixed-wing jet aircraft, or 6 years, if the member is trained to fly any other type of aircraft.

(b) Navigators and Naval Flight Officers.—The minimum service obligation of any member who successfully completes training in the armed forces as a navigator or naval flight officer shall be 6 years.

(c) Definition.—In this section, the term “service obligation” means the period of active duty or, in the case of a member of a reserve component who completed flight training in an active duty for training status as a member of a reserve component, the period of service in an active status in the Selected Reserve required to be served after—

(1) completion of undergraduate pilot training, in the case of training as a pilot;

(2) completion of undergraduate navigator training, in the case of training as a navigator; or

(3) completion of undergraduate training as a naval flight officer, in the case of training as a naval flight officer.

(Added Pub. L. 101–189, div. A, title VI, §634(a)(1), Nov. 29, 1989, 103 Stat. 1454; amended Pub. L. 101–510, div. A, title XIV, §1484(k)(3), Nov. 5, 1990, 104 Stat. 1719; Pub. L. 102–484, div. A, title V, §506(a), Oct. 23, 1992, 106 Stat. 2404.)

Amendments

1992—Subsecs. (a), (b). Pub. L. 102–484, §506(a)(1), substituted “service obligation” for “active duty obligation”.

Subsec. (c). Pub. L. 102–484, §506(a)(2), substituted “the term ‘service obligation’ means the period of active duty or, in the case of a member of a reserve component who completed flight training in an active duty for training status as a member of a reserve component, the period of service in an active status in the Selected Reserve” for “the term ‘active duty obligation’ means the period of active duty”.

1990—Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 101–510, §1484(k)(3)(A), substituted “or” for “and” before “6 years”.

Subsec. (c). Pub. L. 101–510, §1484(k)(3)(B), inserted a comma after first reference to “training” in pars. (1) and (2) and after first reference to “naval flight officer” in par. (3).

Effective Date of 1992 Amendment

Section 506(b) of Pub. L. 102–484 provided that: “The amendments made by subsection (a) [amending this section] shall take effect as of November 29, 1989.”

Effective Date

Section 634(b) of Pub. L. 101–189 provided that:

“(1) Except as provided in paragraphs (2) and (3), section 653 of title 10, United States Code, as added by subsection (a)(1), shall apply to persons who begin undergraduate pilot training, undergraduate navigator training, or undergraduate naval flight officer training, as the case may be, after September 30, 1990.

“(2) Such section shall apply to persons who graduate from the United States Military Academy, the United States Naval Academy, the United States Air Force Academy, and the Coast Guard Academy after December 31, 1991, and to persons who satisfactorily complete the academic and military requirements of the Senior Reserve Officers’ Training Corps program (provided for in chapter 103 of title 10, United States Code) after December 31, 1991.

“(3) The minimum service requirements provided for such section shall not apply in the case of any person who entered into an agreement with the Secretary concerned before October 1, 1990, and who is obligated under the terms of such agreement to serve on active duty for a period less than the applicable period specified in section 653 of such title.

“(4) For purposes of this subsection, the term ‘Secretary concerned’ has the meaning given that term in section 101(8) of title 10, United States Code.”

[For transfer of authorities, functions, personnel, and assets of the Coast Guard, including the authorities and functions of the Secretary of Transportation relating thereto, to the Department of Homeland Security, and for treatment of related references, see sections 468(b), 551(d), 552(d), and 557 of Title 6, Domestic Security, and the Department of Homeland Security Reorganization Plan of November 25, 2002, as modified, set out as a note under section 542 of Title 6.]

[§654. Repealed. Pub. L. 111–321, §2(f)(1)(A), Dec. 22, 2010, 124 Stat. 3516]

Section, added Pub. L. 103–160, div. A, title V, §571(a)(1), Nov. 30, 1993, 107 Stat. 1670, related to policy concerning homosexuality in the armed forces.

Effective Date of Repeal

Repeal effective on the date established by section 2(b) of Pub. L. 111–321, set out below.

Don't Ask, Don't Tell Repeal

Pub. L. 111–321, Dec. 22, 2010, 124 Stat. 3515, provided that:

“SECTION 1. SHORT TITLE.

“This Act may be cited as the ‘Don't Ask, Don't Tell Repeal Act of 2010’.

“SEC. 2. DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE POLICY CONCERNING HOMOSEXUALITY IN THE ARMED FORCES.

“(a) Comprehensive Review on the Implementation of a Repeal of 10 U.S.C. 654.—

“(1) In general.—On March 2, 2010, the Secretary of Defense issued a memorandum directing the Comprehensive Review on the Implementation of a Repeal of 10 U.S.C. 654 (section 654 of title 10, United States Code).

“(2) Objectives and scope of review.—The Terms of Reference accompanying the Secretary's memorandum established the following objectives and scope of the ordered review:

“(A) Determine any impacts to military readiness, military effectiveness and unit cohesion, recruiting/retention, and family readiness that may result from repeal of the law and recommend any actions that should be taken in light of such impacts.

“(B) Determine leadership, guidance, and training on standards of conduct and new policies.

“(C) Determine appropriate changes to existing policies and regulations, including but not limited to issues regarding personnel management, leadership and training, facilities, investigations, and benefits.

“(D) Recommend appropriate changes (if any) to the Uniform Code of Military Justice [10 U.S.C. 801 et seq.].

“(E) Monitor and evaluate existing legislative proposals to repeal 10 U.S.C. 654 and proposals that may be introduced in the Congress during the period of the review.

“(F) Assure appropriate ways to monitor the workforce climate and military effectiveness that support successful follow-through on implementation.

“(G) Evaluate the issues raised in ongoing litigation involving 10 U.S.C. 654.

“(b) Effective Date.—The amendments made by subsection (f) shall take effect 60 days after the date on which the last of the following occurs:

“(1) The Secretary of Defense has received the report required by the memorandum of the Secretary referred to in subsection (a).

“(2) The President transmits to the congressional defense committees a written certification, signed by the President, the Secretary of Defense, and the Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff, stating each of the following:

“(A) That the President, the Secretary of Defense, and the Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff have considered the recommendations contained in the report and the report's proposed plan of action.

“(B) That the Department of Defense has prepared the necessary policies and regulations to exercise the discretion provided by the amendments made by subsection (f).

“(C) That the implementation of necessary policies and regulations pursuant to the discretion provided by the amendments made by subsection (f) is consistent with the standards of military readiness, military effectiveness, unit cohesion, and recruiting and retention of the Armed Forces.

“(c) No Immediate Effect on Current Policy.—Section 654 of title 10, United States Code, shall remain in effect until such time that all of the requirements and certifications required by subsection (b) are met. If these requirements and certifications are not met, section 654 of title 10, United States Code, shall remain in effect.

“(d) Benefits.—Nothing in this section, or the amendments made by this section, shall be construed to require the furnishing of benefits in violation of section 7 of title 1, United States Code (relating to the definitions of ‘marriage’ and ‘spouse’ and referred to as the ‘Defense of Marriage Act’).

“(e) No Private Cause of Action.—Nothing in this section, or the amendments made by this section, shall be construed to create a private cause of action.

“(f) Treatment of 1993 Policy.—

“(1) Title 10.—Upon the effective date established by subsection (b), chapter 37 of title 10, United States Code, is amended—

“(A) by striking section 654; and

“(B) in the table of sections at the beginning of such chapter, by striking the item relating to section 654.

“(2) Conforming amendment.—Upon the effective date established by subsection (b), section 571 of the National Defense Authorization Act for Fiscal Year 1994 [Pub. L. 103–160] (10 U.S.C. 654 note) is amended by striking subsections (b), (c), and (d).”

[The report referred to in section 2(b)(1) of Pub. L. 111–321, set out above, was released Nov. 30, 2010. The certification referred to in section 2(b)(2) of Pub. L. 111–321 was transmitted July 22, 2011.]

Implementation of Section; Regulations; Savings Provision; Sense of Congress

Pub. L. 103–160, div. A, title V, §571(b)–(d), Nov. 30, 1993, 107 Stat. 1671, 1672, which required the Secretary of Defense to issue regulations to implement this section, provided a savings provision for actions and proceedings commenced prior to the effective date of such regulations, and provided the sense of Congress regarding the policy set forth in this section, was repealed by Pub. L. 111–321, §2(f)(2), Dec. 22, 2010, 124 Stat. 3516, effective on the date established by section 2(b) of Pub. L. 111–321, set out above.

§655. Designation of persons having interest in status of a missing member

(a) The Secretary concerned shall, upon the enlistment or appointment of a person in the armed forces, require that the person specify in writing the person or persons, if any, other than that person's primary next of kin or immediate family, to whom information on the whereabouts and status of the member shall be provided if such whereabouts and status are investigated under chapter 76 of this title. The Secretary shall periodically, and whenever the member is deployed as part of a contingency operation or in other circumstances specified by the Secretary, require that such designation be reconfirmed, or modified, by the member.

(b) The Secretary concerned shall, upon the request of a member, permit the member to revise the person or persons specified by the member under subsection (a) at any time. Any such revision shall be in writing.

(Added Pub. L. 104–106, div. A, title V, §569(d)(1), Feb. 10, 1996, 110 Stat. 352.)

CHAPTER 38—JOINT OFFICER MANAGEMENT

Sec.
661.
Management policies for joint qualified officers.
662.
Promotion policy objectives for joint officers.
663.
Joint duty assignments after completion of joint professional military education.
664.
Length of joint duty assignments.
665.
Procedures for monitoring careers of joint qualified officers.
666.
Reserve officers not on the active-duty list.
667.
Annual report to Congress.
668.
Definitions.

        

Amendments

2008—Pub. L. 110–417, [div. A], title V, §522(a)(3), (c)(3), Oct. 14, 2008, 122 Stat. 4445, added items 661 and 665 and struck out former items 661 “Management policies for officers who are joint qualified” and 665 “Procedures for monitoring careers of joint officers”.

2006—Pub. L. 109–364, div. A, title V, §516(e)(2), Oct. 17, 2006, 120 Stat. 2189, substituted “officers who are joint qualified” for “joint specialty officers” in item 661.

2004—Pub. L. 108–375, div. A, title V, §532(c)(2)(B), Oct. 28, 2004, 118 Stat. 1900, substituted “Joint duty assignments after completion of joint professional military education” for “Education” in item 663.

§661. Management policies for joint qualified officers

(a) Establishment.—The Secretary of Defense shall establish policies, procedures, and practices for the effective management of officers of the Army, Navy, Air Force, and Marine Corps on the active-duty list who are particularly trained in, and oriented toward, joint matters (as defined in section 668 of this title). Such officers shall be identified or designated (in addition to their principal military occupational specialty) as a joint qualified officer or in such other manner as the Secretary of Defense directs.

(b) Levels, Designation, and Numbers.—(1)(A) The Secretary of Defense shall establish different levels of joint qualification, as well as the criteria for qualification at each level. Such levels of joint qualification shall be established by the Secretary with the advice of the Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff. Each level shall, as a minimum, have both joint education criteria and joint experience criteria. The purpose of establishing such qualification levels is to ensure a systematic, progressive, career-long development of officers in joint matters and to ensure that officers serving as general and flag officers have the requisite experience and education to be highly proficient in joint matters.

(B) The number of officers who are joint qualified shall be determined by the Secretary of Defense, with the advice of the Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff. Such number shall be large enough to meet the requirements of subsection (d).

(2) Certain officers shall be designated as joint qualified by the Secretary of Defense with the advice of the Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff.

(3) An officer may be designated as joint qualified under paragraph (2) only if the officer—

(A) meets the education and experience criteria of subsection (c);

(B) meets such additional criteria as prescribed by the Secretary of Defense; and

(C) holds the grade of captain or, in the case of the Navy, lieutenant or a higher grade.


(4) The authority of the Secretary of Defense under paragraph (2) to designate officers as joint qualified may be delegated only to the Deputy Secretary of Defense or an Under Secretary of Defense.

(c) Education and Experience Requirements.—(1) An officer may not be designated as joint qualified until the officer—

(A) successfully completes an appropriate program of joint professional military education, as described in subsections (b) and (c) of section 2155 of this title, at a joint professional military education school; and

(B) successfully completes—

(i) a full tour of duty in a joint assignment, as described in section 664(f) of this title; or

(ii) such other assignments and experiences in a manner that demonstrate the officer's mastery of knowledge, skills, and abilities in joint matters, as determined under such regulations and policy as the Secretary of Defense may prescribe.


(2) Subject to paragraphs (3) through (6), the Secretary of Defense may waive the requirement under paragraph (1)(A) that an officer has successfully completed a program of education, as described in subsections (b) and (c) of section 2155 of this title.

(3) In the case of an officer in a grade below brigadier general or rear admiral (lower half), a waiver under paragraph (2) may be granted only if—

(A) the officer has completed two full tours of duty in a joint duty assignment, as described in section 664(f) of this title, in such a manner as to demonstrate the officer's mastery of knowledge, skills, and abilities on joint matters; and

(B) the Secretary of Defense determines that the types of joint duty experiences completed by the officer have been of sufficient breadth to prepare the officer adequately for service as a general or flag officer in a joint duty assignment position.


(4) In the case of a general or flag officer, a waiver under paragraph (2) may be granted only—

(A) under unusual circumstances justifying the variation from the education requirement under paragraph (1)(A); and

(B) under circumstances in which the waiver is necessary to meet a critical need of the armed forces, as determined by the Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff.


(5) In the case of officers in grades below brigadier general or rear admiral (lower half), the total number of waivers granted under paragraph (2) for officers in the same pay grade during a fiscal year may not exceed 10 percent of the total number of officers in that pay grade designated as joint qualified during that fiscal year.

(6) There may not be more than 32 general and flag officers on active duty at the same time who, while holding a general or flag officer position, were designated joint qualified (or were selected for the joint specialty before October 1, 2007) and for whom a waiver was granted under paragraph (2).

(d) Number of Joint Duty Assignments.—(1) The Secretary of Defense shall ensure that approximately one-half of the joint duty assignment positions in grades above major or, in the case of the Navy, lieutenant commander are filled at any time by officers who have the appropriate level of joint qualification.

(2) The Secretary of Defense, with the advice of the Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff, shall designate an appropriate number of joint duty assignment positions as critical joint duty assignment positions. A position may be designated as a critical joint duty assignment position only if the duties and responsibilities of the position make it important that the occupant be particularly trained in, and oriented toward, joint matters.

(3)(A) Subject to subparagraph (B), a position designated under paragraph (2) may be held only by an officer who—

(i) was designated as joint qualified in accordance with this chapter; or

(ii) was selected for the joint specialty before October 1, 2007.


(B) The Secretary of Defense may waive the requirement in subparagraph (A) with respect to the assignment of an officer to a position designated under paragraph (2). Any such waiver shall be granted on a case-by-case basis. The authority of the Secretary to grant such a waiver may be delegated only to the Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff.

(4) The Secretary of Defense shall ensure that, of those joint duty assignment positions that are filled by general or flag officers, a substantial portion are among those positions that are designated under paragraph (2) as critical joint duty assignment positions.

(e) Career Guidelines.—The Secretary, with the advice of the Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff, shall establish career guidelines for officers to achieve joint qualification and for officers who have been designated as joint qualified. Such guidelines shall include guidelines for—

(1) selection;

(2) military education;

(3) training;

(4) types of duty assignments; and

(5) such other matters as the Secretary considers appropriate.


(f) Treatment of Certain Service.—Any service by an officer in the grade of captain or, in the case of the Navy, lieutenant in a joint duty assignment shall be considered to be service in a joint duty assignment for purposes of all laws (including section 619a of this title) establishing a requirement or condition with respect to an officer's service in a joint duty assignment.

(Added Pub. L. 99–433, title IV, §401(a), Oct. 1, 1986, 100 Stat. 1025; amended Pub. L. 100–180, div. A, title XIII, §1301–1302(b), Dec. 4, 1987, 101 Stat. 1168, 1169; Pub. L. 100–456, div. A, title V, §§511, 512(a), 517(a), 518, Sept. 29, 1988, 102 Stat. 1968, 1971; Pub. L. 101–189, div. A, title XI, §§1113, 1122, Nov. 29, 1989, 103 Stat. 1554, 1556; Pub. L. 104–106, div. A, title V, §501(a), (d), title XV, §1503(a)(6), Feb. 10, 1996, 110 Stat. 290, 292, 511; Pub. L. 107–107, div. A, title V, §521(a), Dec. 28, 2001, 115 Stat. 1097; Pub. L. 107–314, div. A, title V, §502(c), title X, §1062(a)(3), Dec. 2, 2002, 116 Stat. 2530, 2649; Pub. L. 109–364, div. A, title V, §516(a)–(e)(1), Oct. 17, 2006, 120 Stat. 2187–2189; Pub. L. 110–417, [div. A], title V, §522(a)(1), (2), Oct. 14, 2008, 122 Stat. 4444, 4445.)

Amendments

2008—Pub. L. 110–417 amended section catchline generally, substituting “Management policies for joint qualified officers” for “Management policies for officers who are joint qualified”, and in subsec. (a), substituted “as a joint qualified officer or in such other manner as the Secretary of Defense directs” for “in such manner as the Secretary of Defense directs”.

2006—Pub. L. 109–364, §516(e)(1), substituted “officers who are joint qualified” for “joint specialty officers” in section catchline.

Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 109–364, §516(a), struck out at end “For purposes of this chapter, officers to be managed by such policies, procedures, and practices are referred to as having, or having been nominated for, the ‘joint specialty’.”

Subsecs. (b) to (d). Pub. L. 109–364, §516(b), amended subsecs. (b) to (d) generally. Prior to amendment, subsecs. (b) to (d) related to numbers and selection of officers with the joint specialty, education and experience requirements, and number of joint duty assignments.

Subsec. (e). Pub. L. 109–364, §516(c), substituted “officers to achieve joint qualification and for officers who have been designated as joint qualified” for “officers with the joint specialty” in introductory provisions.

Subsec. (f). Pub. L. 109–364, §516(d), substituted “619a” for “619(e)(1)”.

2002—Subsec. (b)(2). Pub. L. 107–314, §1062(a)(3), substituted “December 28, 2001,” for “the date of the enactment of the National Defense Authorization Act for Fiscal Year 2002”.

Subsec. (c)(3)(E). Pub. L. 107–314, §502(c), substituted “paragraph” for “subparagraph”.

2001—Subsec. (b)(2). Pub. L. 107–107, in introductory provisions, substituted “Each officer on the active-duty list on the date of the enactment of the National Defense Authorization Act for Fiscal Year 2002 who has not before that date been nominated for the joint specialty by the Secretary of a military department, and each officer who is placed on the active-duty list after such date, who meets the requirements of subsection (c) shall automatically be considered to have been nominated for the joint specialty. From among those officers considered to be nominated for the joint specialty, the Secretary may select for the joint specialty only officers—” for “The Secretaries of the military departments shall nominate officers for selection for the joint specialty. Nominations shall be made from among officers—”.

1996—Subsec. (c)(3)(D). Pub. L. 104–106, §501(d)(1), in third sentence, substituted “In the case of officers in grades below brigadier general and rear admiral (lower half), the total number” for “The total number”.

Subsec. (c)(3)(E). Pub. L. 104–106, §501(d)(2), added subpar. (E).

Subsec. (d)(2)(A). Pub. L. 104–106, §501(a), substituted “800” for “1,000”.

Subsec. (d)(2)(B). Pub. L. 104–106, §1503(a)(6)(A), substituted “Each position designated by the Secretary under subparagraph (A)” for “Until January 1, 1994, at least 80 percent of the positions designated by the Secretary under subparagraph (A) shall be held at all times by officers who have the joint specialty. On and after January 1, 1994, each position so designated”.

Subsec. (d)(2)(C). Pub. L. 104–106, §1503(a)(6)(B), struck out “the second sentence of” after “the requirement in”.

Subsec. (d)(2)(D). Pub. L. 104–106, §1503(a)(6)(C), struck out subpar. (D) which read as follows: “During the period beginning on October 1, 1992, and ending on January 1, 1993, the Secretary of Defense shall submit to Congress a report on the operation, to the date of the report, of the first sentence of subparagraph (B) and on the Secretary's projection for the use of the waiver authority provided under subparagraph (C), including the Secretary's estimate of the average annual number of waivers to be provided under subparagraph (C).”

1989—Subsec. (c)(1)(B), (3)(A). Pub. L. 101–189, §1113, substituted “(as described in section 664(f) of this title (other than in paragraph (2) thereof))” for “(as described in section 664(f)(1) or (f)(3) of this title)”.

Subsec. (c)(4). Pub. L. 101–189, §1122, added par. (4).

1988—Subsec. (c)(3)(D). Pub. L. 100–456, §511, inserted “for officers in the same pay grade” after “under this paragraph”, substituted “10 percent” for “5 percent”, and inserted “in that pay grade” after “numbers of officers”.

Subsec. (d)(2). Pub. L. 100–456, §512(a), designated existing provisions as subpar. (A), struck out sentence at end which directed that each position so designated by the Secretary could be held only by an officer who had the joint specialty, and added subpars. (B) to (D).

Subsec. (d)(4). Pub. L. 100–456, §517(a), substituted “25 percent” for “one-third”.

Subsec. (f). Pub. L. 100–456, §518, added subsec. (f).

1987—Subsec. (b)(3). Pub. L. 100–180, §1301(a)(1), added par. (3).

Subsec. (c)(1)(B). Pub. L. 100–180, §1301(b)(1), inserted “(as described in section 664(f)(1) or (f)(3) of this title)” after “joint duty assignment”.

Subsec. (c)(2)(A). Pub. L. 100–180, §1301(b)(2)(A)–(C), designated existing provisions as subpar. (A), substituted “An officer (other than a general or flag officer) who has a military occupational specialty that is” for “An officer who has” and “full tour of duty in a joint duty assignment (as described in section 664(f)(2) of this title)” for “joint duty assignment of not less than two years”, and struck out provisions that an officer selected for the joint specialty complete generally applicable requirements for selection under par. (1)(B) as soon as practicable after such officer's selection.

Subsec. (c)(2)(B). Pub. L. 100–180, §1301(b)(2)(D), added subpar. (B).

Subsec. (c)(3). Pub. L. 100–180, §1301(b)(3), added par. (3).

Subsec. (d)(1). Pub. L. 100–180, §1302(a)(1), added subpars. (A) and (B) and substituted “by officers who—” for “by officers who have (or have been nominated for) the joint specialty.” in introductory provisions.

Subsec. (d)(2) to (4). Pub. L. 100–180, §1302(b), added pars. (2) to (4) and struck out former par. (2) which read as follows: “The Secretary of Defense shall designate not fewer than 1,000 joint duty assignment positions as critical joint duty assignment positions. Each such position shall be held only by an officer with the joint specialty.”

Effective Date of 2006 Amendment

Pub. L. 109–364, div. A, title V, §516(f), Oct. 17, 2006, 120 Stat. 2189, provided that: “The amendments made by this section [amending this section] shall take effect on October 1, 2007.”

Treatment of Current Joint Specialty Officers

Pub. L. 109–364, div. A, title V, §516(g), Oct. 17, 2006, 120 Stat. 2189, provided that: “For the purposes of chapter 38 of title 10, United States Code, and sections 154, 164, and 619a of such title, an officer who, as of September 30, 2007, has been selected for or has the joint specialty under section 661 of such title, as in effect on that date, shall be considered after that date to be an officer designated as joint qualified by the Secretary of Defense under section 661(b)(2) of such title, as amended by this section.”

Implementation Plan

Pub. L. 109–364, div. A, title V, §516(h), Oct. 17, 2006, 120 Stat. 2189, provided that:

“(1) Plan required.—Not later than March 31, 2007, the Secretary of Defense shall submit to the Committee on Armed Services of the Senate and the Committee on Armed Services of the House of Representatives a plan for the implementation of the joint officer management system, which will take effect on October 1, 2007, as provided in subsection (f) [set out above], as a result of the amendments made by this section [amending this section] and other provisions of this Act [see Tables for classification] to provisions of chapter 38 of title 10, United States Code.

“(2) Elements of plan.—In developing the plan required by this subsection, the Secretary shall pay particular attention to matters related to the transition of officers from the joint specialty system in effect before October 1, 2007, to the joint officer management system in effect after that date. At a minimum, the plan shall include the following:

“(A) The policies and criteria to be used for designating officers as joint qualified on the basis of service performed by such officers before that date, had the amendments made by this section and other provisions of this Act to provisions of chapter 38 of title 10, United States Code, taken effect before the date of the enactment of this Act [Oct. 17, 2006].

“(B) The policies and criteria prescribed by the Secretary of Defense to be used in making determinations under section 661(c)(1)(B)(ii) of such title, as amended by this section.

“(C) The recommendations of the Secretary for any legislative changes that may be necessary to effectuate the joint officer management system.”

Exclusion of Certain Officers From Limitation on Authority To Grant a Waiver of Required Completion or Sequencing for Joint Professional Military Education

Pub. L. 107–314, div. A, title V, §502(a), (b), Dec. 2, 2002, 116 Stat. 2530, provided for exclusion from the limitation set forth in former subsec. (c)(3)(D) of this section of any officer selected for the joint specialty who, on Dec. 28, 2001, had met the requirements for nomination for the joint specialty, but had not been nominated before that date, and who had been automatically nominated before Dec. 2, 2002, and provided that such exclusion would terminate on Oct. 1, 2006.

Independent Study of Joint Officer Management and Joint Professional Military Education Reforms

Pub. L. 107–107, div. A, title V, §526, Dec. 28, 2001, 115 Stat. 1099, directed the Secretary of Defense to provide for an independent study of the joint officer management system and the joint professional military education system and to require the entity conducting the study to submit a report to Congress on the study not later than one year after Dec. 28, 2001.

Study of Distribution of General and Flag Officer Positions in Joint Duty Assignments

Pub. L. 102–484, div. A, title IV, §404, Oct. 23, 1992, 106 Stat. 2398, directed Secretary of Defense to conduct a study of whether joint organizations of Department of Defense are fully staffed with appropriate number of general and flag officers and, not later than one year after Oct. 23, 1992, submit a report to Congress.

Transition to Joint Officer Personnel Policy

Section 406(a)–(c) of Pub. L. 99–433, as amended by Pub. L. 100–456, div. A, title V, §516, Sept. 29, 1988, 102 Stat. 1971, provided that:

“(a) Joint Duty Assignments.—(1) Section 661(d) of title 10, United States Code, shall be implemented as rapidly as possible and (except as provided under paragraph (2)) not later than October 1, 1989.

“(2) The first sentence of section 661(d)(2)(B) of such title shall apply with respect to positions designated under the first sentence of section 661(d)(2)(A) of that title as critical joint duty assignment positions which become vacant after January 1, 1989.

“(b) Joint Specialty.—

“(1) Initial selections.—(A) In making the initial selections of officers for the joint specialty under section 661 of title 10, United States Code (as added by section 401 of this Act), the Secretary of Defense may waive the requirement of either subparagraph (A) or (B) (but not both) of subsection (c)(1) of such section in the case of any officer in a grade above captain or, in the case of the Navy, lieutenant.

“(B) In applying such subparagraph (B) to the initial selections of officers for the joint specialty, the Secretary may in the case of any officer—

“(i) waive the requirement that a joint duty assignment be served after the officer has completed an appropriate program at a joint professional military education school;

“(ii) waive the requirement for the length of a joint duty assignment in the case of a joint duty assignment begun by an officer before January 1, 1987, if the officer served in that assignment for a period of sufficient duration (which may not be less than 12 months) to have been considered a full tour of duty under the policies and regulations in effect on September 30, 1986; or

“(iii) consider as a joint duty assignment any tour of duty begun by an officer before October 1, 1986, that involved significant experience in joint matters (as determined by the Secretary) if the officer served in that assignment for a period of sufficient duration (which may not be less than 12 months) for his service to have been considered a full tour of duty under the policies and regulations in effect on September 30, 1986.

“(C) A waiver under subparagraph (A) of this paragraph or under any provision of subparagraph (B) of this paragraph may only be made on a case-by-case basis.

“(D) The authority of the Secretary of Defense to grant a waiver under subparagraph (A) or (B) of this paragraph may be delegated only to the Deputy Secretary of Defense.

“(2) Requirement for high standards.—In exercising the authority provided by paragraph (1), the Secretary of Defense shall ensure that the highest standards of performance, education, and experience are established and maintained for officers selected for the joint specialty.

“(3) Sunset.—The authority provided by paragraph (1) shall expire on October 1, 1989.

“(c) Career Guidelines.—The career guidelines required to be established by section 661(e) of such title, the procedures required to be established by section 665(a) of such title, and the personnel policies required to be established by section 666 of such title (as added by section 401) shall be established not later than the end of the eight-month period beginning on the date of the enactment of this Act [Oct. 1, 1986]. The provisions of section 665(b) of such title shall be implemented not later than the end of such period.”

§662. Promotion policy objectives for joint officers

(a) Qualifications.—The Secretary of Defense shall ensure that the qualifications of officers assigned to joint duty assignments are such that—

(1) officers who are serving on, or have served on, the Joint Staff are expected, as a group, to be promoted to the next higher grade at a rate not less than the rate for officers of the same armed force in the same grade and competitive category who are serving on, or have served on, the headquarters staff of their armed force; and

(2) officers in the grade of major (or in the case of the Navy, lieutenant commander) or above who have been designated as a joint qualified officer are expected, as a group, to be promoted to the next higher grade at a rate not less than the rate for all officers of the same armed force in the same grade and competitive category.


(b) Annual Report.—Not later than January 1 of each year, the Secretary of Defense shall submit to Congress a report on the promotion rates during the preceding fiscal year of officers who are serving in, or have served in, joint duty assignments or on the Joint Staff, and officers who have been designated as a joint qualified officer in the grades of major (or in the case of the Navy, lieutenant commander) through colonel (or in the case of the Navy, captain), especially with respect to the record of officer selection boards in meeting the objectives of paragraphs (1) and (2) of subsection (a). If such promotion rates fail to meet such objectives for any fiscal year, the Secretary shall include in the report for that fiscal year information on such failure and on what action the Secretary has taken or plans to take to prevent further failures.

(Added Pub. L. 99–433, title IV, §401(a), Oct. 1, 1986, 100 Stat. 1026; amended Pub. L. 100–456, div. A, title V, §513, Sept. 29, 1988, 102 Stat. 1969; Pub. L. 101–510, div. A, title XIII, §1311(3), Nov. 5, 1990, 104 Stat. 1669; Pub. L. 104–201, div. A, title V, §510, Sept. 23, 1996, 110 Stat. 2514; Pub. L. 107–107, div. A, title V, §521(b), Dec. 28, 2001, 115 Stat. 1097; Pub. L. 107–314, div. A, title X, §1062(a)(4), Dec. 2, 2002, 116 Stat. 2650; Pub. L. 108–375, div. A, title V, §535, Oct. 28, 2004, 118 Stat. 1901; Pub. L. 109–364, div. A, title V, §517, Oct. 17, 2006, 120 Stat. 2190; Pub. L. 110–181, div. A, title X, §1063(a)(3), Jan. 28, 2008, 122 Stat. 321; Pub. L. 110–417, [div. A], title V, §523, Oct. 14, 2008, 122 Stat. 4446; Pub. L. 111–84, div. A, title X, §1073(c)(2), Oct. 28, 2009, 123 Stat. 2474.)

Amendments

2009—Subsec. (a)(2). Pub. L. 111–84 made technical amendment to directory language of Pub. L. 110–417, §523(1). See 2008 Amendment note below.

2008—Subsec. (a)(2). Pub. L. 110–417, §523(1), as amended by Pub. L. 111–84, substituted “officers in the grade of major (or in the case of the Navy, lieutenant commander) or above who have been designated as a joint qualified officer” for “officers who are serving in or have served in joint duty assignments”.

Subsec. (b). Pub. L. 110–417, §523(2), inserted “or on the Joint Staff, and officers who have been designated as a joint qualified officer in the grades of major (or in the case of the Navy, lieutenant commander) through colonel (or in the case of the Navy, captain)” after “joint duty assignments”.

Pub. L. 110–181 substituted “paragraphs (1) and (2) of subsection (a)” for “paragraphs (1), (2), and (3) of subsection (a)”.

2006—Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 109–364 inserted “and” at end of par. (1), added par. (2), and struck out former pars. (2) and (3) which read as follows:

“(2) officers who have the joint specialty are expected, as a group, to be promoted—

“(A) during the period beginning on December 28, 2001, and ending on December 27, 2006, at a rate not less than the rate for officers of the same armed force in the same grade and competitive category; and

“(B) after December 27, 2006, at a rate not less than the rate for officers of the same armed force in the same grade and competitive category who are serving on, or have served on, the headquarters staff of their armed force; and

“(3) officers who are serving in, or have served in, joint duty assignments (other than officers covered in paragraphs (1) and (2)) are expected, as a group, to be promoted to the next higher grade at a rate not less than the rate for all officers of the same armed force in the same grade and competitive category.”

2004—Subsec. (a)(2). Pub. L. 108–375 substituted “December 27, 2006” for “December 27, 2004” in two places.

2002—Subsec. (a)(2)(A). Pub. L. 107–314, §1062(a)(4)(A), substituted “during the period beginning on December 28, 2001, and ending on December 27, 2004,” for “during the three-year period beginning on the date of the enactment of the National Defense Authorization Act for Fiscal Year 2002,”.

Subsec. (a)(2)(B). Pub. L. 107–314, §1062(a)(4)(B), substituted “after December 27, 2004” for “after the end of the period specified in subparagraph (A)”.

2001—Subsec. (a)(2). Pub. L. 107–107 substituted “promoted—” for “promoted at a rate”, added subpar. (A), designated “not less than the rate for officers of the same armed force in the same grade and competitive category who are serving on, or have served on, the headquarters staff of their armed force; and” as subpar. (B), and inserted “after the end of the period specified in subparagraph (A), at a rate” after subpar. (B) designation.

1996—Subsec. (b). Pub. L. 104–201, §510(b), in first sentence, substituted “paragraphs” for “clauses” and, in second sentence, inserted “for any fiscal year” after “such objectives” and substituted “report for that fiscal year” for “periodic report required by this subsection”.

Pub. L. 104–201, §510(a), substituted “Annual Report” for “Report” in heading and “Not later than January 1 of each year, the Secretary of Defense shall submit to Congress a report on the promotion rates during the preceding fiscal year” for “The Secretary of Defense shall periodically (and not less often than every six months) report to Congress on the promotion rates” in text.

1990—Subsec. (b). Pub. L. 101–510 substituted “the Secretary shall include in the periodic report required by this subsection information on such failure and on” for “the Secretary shall immediately notify Congress of such failure and of”.

1988—Subsec. (a)(1), (3). Pub. L. 100–456 inserted “to the next higher grade” after “promoted”.

Effective Date of 2009 Amendment

Pub. L. 111–84, div. A, title X, §1073(c), Oct. 28, 2009, 123 Stat. 2474, provided that the amendment made by section 1073(c)(2) is effective as of Oct. 14, 2008, and as if included in Pub. L. 110–417 as enacted.

§663. Joint duty assignments after completion of joint professional military education

(a) Joint Qualified Officers.—The Secretary of Defense shall ensure that each officer designated as a joint qualified officer who graduates from a school within the National Defense University specified in subsection (c) shall be assigned to a joint duty assignment for that officer's next duty assignment after such graduation (unless the officer receives a waiver of that requirement by the Secretary in an individual case).

(b) Other Officers.—(1) The Secretary of Defense shall ensure that a high proportion (which shall be greater than 50 percent) of the officers graduating from a school within the National Defense University specified in subsection (c) who are not designated as a joint qualified officer shall receive assignments to a joint duty assignment (or, as authorized by the Secretary in an individual case, to a joint assignment other than a joint duty assignment) as their next duty assignment after such graduation or, to the extent authorized in paragraph (2), as their second duty assignment after such graduation.

(2) The Secretary may, if the Secretary determines that it is necessary to do so for the efficient management of officer personnel, establish procedures to allow up to one-half of the officers subject to the assignment requirement in paragraph (1) to be assigned to such an assignment as their second (rather than first) assignment after such graduation from a school referred to in paragraph (1).

(c) Covered Schools Within the National Defense University.—For purposes of this section, a school within the National Defense University specified in this subsection is one of the following:

(1) The National War College.

(2) The Dwight D. Eisenhower School for National Security and Resource Strategy.

(3) The Joint Forces Staff College.


(d) Exception for Officers Graduating From Other-than-in-residence Programs.—(1) Subsection (a) does not apply to an officer graduating from a school within the National Defense University specified in subsection (c) following pursuit of a program on an other-than-in-residence basis.

(2) Subsection (b) does not apply with respect to any group of officers graduating from a school within the National Defense University specified in subsection (c) following pursuit of a program on an other-than-in-residence basis.

(Added Pub. L. 99–433, title IV, §401(a), Oct. 1, 1986, 100 Stat. 1027; amended Pub. L. 101–189, div. A, title XI, §1123(c)(1), Nov. 29, 1989, 103 Stat. 1557; Pub. L. 102–190, div. A, title IX, §912(a), Dec. 5, 1991, 105 Stat. 1452; Pub. L. 103–160, div. A, title IX, §933(a), Nov. 30, 1993, 107 Stat. 1735; Pub. L. 107–107, div. A, title X, §1048(a)(6), Dec. 28, 2001, 115 Stat. 1223; Pub. L. 107–314, div. A, title X, §1062(a)(5), Dec. 2, 2002, 116 Stat. 2650; Pub. L. 108–375, div. A, title V, §532(b)–(c)(2)(A), Oct. 28, 2004, 118 Stat. 1900; Pub. L. 109–364, div. A, title V, §518, Oct. 17, 2006, 120 Stat. 2190; Pub. L. 110–417, [div. A], title V, §522(b), Oct. 14, 2008, 122 Stat. 4445; Pub. L. 112–81, div. A, title V, §503, div. B, title XXVIII, §2861(c), Dec. 31, 2011, 125 Stat. 1388, 1701.)

Amendments

2011—Subsec. (b)(1). Pub. L. 112–81, §503(a)(1), inserted “(or, as authorized by the Secretary in an individual case, to a joint assignment other than a joint duty assignment)” after “to a joint duty assignment”.

Subsec. (b)(2). Pub. L. 112–81, §503(a)(2), substituted “the assignment” for “the joint duty assignment” and “such an assignment” for “a joint duty assignment”.

Subsec. (c)(2). Pub. L. 112–81, §2861(c), substituted “Dwight D. Eisenhower School for National Security and Resource Strategy” for “Industrial College of the Armed Forces”.

Subsec. (d). Pub. L. 112–81, §503(b), added subsec. (d).

2008—Subsecs. (a), (b)(1). Pub. L. 110–417, in subsec. (a), substituted “Qualified” for “Specialty” in heading and “designated as a joint qualified officer” for “with the joint specialty” in text, and, in subsec. (b)(1), substituted “are not designated as a joint qualified officer” for “do not have the joint specialty”.

2006—Subsecs. (a), (b)(1). Pub. L. 109–364, §518(a)(1), (2)(A), substituted “a school within the National Defense University specified in subsection (c)” for “a joint professional military education school”.

Subsec. (b)(2). Pub. L. 109–364, §518(a)(2)(B), substituted “a school referred to in paragraph (1)” for “a joint professional military education school”.

Subsec. (c). Pub. L. 109–364, §518(b), added subsec. (c).

2004—Pub. L. 108–375, §532(c)(2)(A), substituted “Joint duty assignments after completion of joint professional military education” for “Education” in section catchline.

Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 108–375, §532(c)(1)(A), (B), redesignated subsec. (d)(1) as (a), inserted heading, and struck out heading and text of former subsec. (a) which related to capstone course for new general and flag officers. See section 2153 of this title.

Subsec. (b). Pub. L. 108–375, §532(c)(1)(C)–(F), redesignated subsec. (d)(2)(A) as (b)(1) and substituted “in paragraph (2)” for “in subparagraph (B)”, redesignated subsec. (d)(2)(B) as (b)(2) and substituted “in paragraph (1)” for “in subparagraph (A)”, and inserted subsec. heading.

Pub. L. 108–375, §532(b), transferred subsec. (b), relating to joint military education schools, to section 2152(b) of this title.

Subsec. (c). Pub. L. 108–375, §532(b), transferred subsec. (c), relating to other professional military education schools, to section 2152(c) of this title.

Subsec. (d). Pub. L. 108–375, §532(c)(1)(B), (C), (E), redesignated par. (1) as subsec. (a), redesignated subpars. (A) and (B) of par. (2) as pars. (1) and (2), respectively, of subsec. (b), and struck out heading “Post-Education Joint Duty Assignments”.

Subsec. (e). Pub. L. 108–375, §532(c)(1)(A), struck out heading and text of subsec. (e) which related to the duration of the principal course of instruction offered at the Joint Forces Staff College. See section 2156 of this title.

2002—Subsec. (e)(2). Pub. L. 107–314 substituted “Joint Forces Staff College” for “Armed Forces Staff College”.

2001—Subsec. (e). Pub. L. 107–107 substituted “Joint Forces Staff College” for “Armed Forces Staff College” in subsec. heading and in text of par. (1).

1993—Subsec. (d). Pub. L. 103–160 amended subsec. (d) generally. Prior to amendment, subsec. (d) read as follows: “Post-Education Duty Assignments.—The Secretary of Defense shall ensure that—

“(1) unless waived by the Secretary in an individual case, each officer with the joint specialty who graduates from a joint professional military education school shall be assigned to a joint duty assignment for that officer's next duty assignment; and

“(2) a high proportion (which shall be greater than 50 percent) of the other officers graduating from a joint professional military education school also receive assignments to a joint duty assignment as their next duty assignment.”

1991—Subsec. (e). Pub. L. 102–190 designated existing provisions as par. (1) and added par. (2).

1989—Subsec. (e). Pub. L. 101–189 added subsec. (e).

Effective Date of 1993 Amendment

Section 933(b) of Pub. L. 103–160 provided that: “The amendments made by subsection (a) [amending this section] shall apply with respect to officers graduating from joint professional military education schools after the date of the enactment of this Act [Nov. 30, 1993].”

Effective Date of 1991 Amendment

Pub. L. 102–190, div. A, title IX, §912(b), Dec. 5, 1991, 105 Stat. 1452, as amended by Pub. L. 102–484, div. A, title IX, §921, Oct. 23, 1992, 106 Stat. 2473, provided that the amendment made by section 912(a)(2) of Pub. L. 102–190 to this section was not to apply with respect to the Armed Forces Staff College until Jan. 1, 1994.

Implementation of Subsection (e)

Section 1123(c)(2) of Pub. L. 101–189 provided that: “Subsection (e) of such section, as added by paragraph (1), shall be implemented by the Secretary of Defense not later than two years after the date of the enactment of this Act [Nov. 29, 1989].”

Education Requirements; Joint Officer Management Program

Pub. L. 99–433, title IV, §406(d), Oct. 1, 1986, 100 Stat. 1033, provided that:

“(1) Capstone course.—Subsection (a) of section 663 of such title [10 U.S.C. 663(a)] (as added by section 401) shall apply with respect to officers selected in reports of officer selection boards submitted to the Secretary concerned after the end of the 120-day period beginning on the date of the enactment of this Act [Oct. 1, 1986].

“(2) Review of military education schools.—(A) The first review under subsections (b) and (c) of such section shall be completed not later than 120 days after the date of the enactment of this Act. The Secretary of Defense shall submit to Congress a report on the results of the review at each Department of Defense school not later than 60 days thereafter.

“(B) Such subsections shall be implemented so that the revised curricula take effect with respect to courses beginning after July 1987.

“(3) Post-education duty assignments.—Subsection (d) of such section shall take effect with respect to classes graduating from joint professional military education schools after January 1987.”

§664. Length of joint duty assignments

(a) General Rule.—The length of a joint duty assignment—

(1) for general and flag officers shall be not less than two years; and

(2) for other officers shall be not less than three years.


(b) Waiver Authority.—The Secretary of Defense may waive subsection (a) in the case of any officer.

(c) Initial Assignment of Officers With Critical Occupational Specialties.—The Secretary may for purposes of section 661(c)(1)(B) of this title authorize a joint duty assignment of less than the period prescribed by subsection (a), but not less than two years, without the requirement for a waiver under subsection (b) in the case of an officer—

(1) who has a military occupational specialty designated under section 668(d) of this title as a critical occupational specialty; and

(2) for whom such joint duty assignment is the initial joint duty assignment.


(d) Exclusions From Tour Length.—The Secretary of Defense may exclude the following service from the standards prescribed in subsection (a):

(1) Service in a joint duty assignment in which the full tour of duty in the assignment is not completed by the officer because of—

(A) retirement;

(B) release from active duty;

(C) suspension from duty under section 155(f)(2) or 164(g) of this title; or

(D) a qualifying reassignment from a joint duty assignment—

(i) for unusual personal reasons, including extreme hardship and medical conditions, beyond the control of the officer or the armed forces; or

(ii) to another joint duty assignment immediately after—

(I) the officer was promoted to a higher grade, if the reassignment was made because no joint duty assignment was available within the same organization that was commensurate with the officer's new grade; or

(II) the officer's position was eliminated in a reorganization.


(2) Service in a joint duty assignment outside the United States or in Alaska or Hawaii which is less than the applicable standard prescribed in subsection (a).

(3) Service in a joint duty assignment in a case in which the officer's tour of duty in that assignment brings the officer's accrued service for purposes of subsection (f)(3) to the applicable standard prescribed in subsection (a).


(e) Average Tour Lengths.—(1) The Secretary shall ensure that the average length of joint duty assignments during any fiscal year, measured by the lengths of the joint duty assignments ending during that fiscal year, meets the standards prescribed in subsection (a).

(2) In computing the average length of joint duty assignments for purposes of paragraph (1), the Secretary may exclude the following service:

(A) Service described in subsection (c).

(B) Service described in subsection (d).

(C) Service described in subsection (f)(6).


(f) Full Tour of Duty.—An officer shall be considered to have completed a full tour of duty in a joint duty assignment upon completion of any of the following:

(1) A joint duty assignment that meets the standards prescribed in subsection (a).

(2) A joint duty assignment under the circumstances described in subsection (c).

(3) Accrued joint experience in joint duty assignments as described in subsection (g).

(4) A joint duty assignment outside the United States or in Alaska or Hawaii for which the normal accompanied-by-dependents tour of duty is prescribed by regulation to be at least two years in length, if the officer serves in the assignment for a period equivalent to the accompanied-by-dependents tour length.

(5) A joint duty assignment with respect to which the Secretary of Defense has granted a waiver under subsection (b), but only in a case in which the Secretary determines that the service completed by that officer in that duty assignment shall be considered to be a full tour of duty in a joint duty assignment.

(6) A second and subsequent joint duty assignment that is less than the period required under subsection (a), but not less than two years.


(g) Accrued Joint Experience.—For the purposes of subsection (f)(3), the Secretary of Defense may prescribe, by regulation, certain joint experience, such as temporary duty in joint assignments, joint individual training, and participation in joint exercises, that may be aggregated to equal a full tour of duty. The Secretary shall prescribe the regulations with the advice of the Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff.

(h) Constructive Credit.—(1) The Secretary of Defense may accord constructive credit in the case of an officer (other than a general or flag officer) who, for reasons of military necessity, is reassigned from a joint duty assignment within 60 days of meeting the tour length criteria prescribed in paragraphs (1), (2), and (4) of subsection (f). The amount of constructive service that may be credited to such officer shall be the amount sufficient for the completion of the applicable tour of duty requirement, but in no case more than 60 days.

(2) For the purpose of computing under subsection (e) the average length of joint duty assignments during a fiscal year, the amount of any constructive service credited under this subsection with respect to a joint duty assignment to be counted in that computation shall be excluded.

(Added Pub. L. 99–433, title IV, §401(a), Oct. 1, 1986, 100 Stat. 1028; amended Pub. L. 100–180, div. A, title XIII, §1303(a), Dec. 4, 1987, 101 Stat. 1170; Pub. L. 100–456, div. A, title V, §§514, 517(b), Sept. 29, 1988, 102 Stat. 1969, 1971; Pub. L. 104–106, div. A, title V, §501(b), (e), (f), Feb. 10, 1996, 110 Stat. 290, 292; Pub. L. 106–65, div. A, title X, §1066(a)(5), Oct. 5, 1999, 113 Stat. 770; Pub. L. 107–107, div. A, title V, §522, Dec. 28, 2001, 115 Stat. 1097; Pub. L. 109–364, div. A, title V, §519(d)(1), Oct. 17, 2006, 120 Stat. 2191; Pub. L. 110–417, [div. A], title V, §524, Oct. 14, 2008, 122 Stat. 4446.)

Amendments

2008—Subsec. (d)(1)(D). Pub. L. 110–417, §524(a)(1), added subpar. (D) and struck out former subpar. (D) which read as follows: “a qualifying reassignment (as described in subsection (g)(4)).”

Subsec. (d)(3). Pub. L. 110–417, §524(a)(2), added par. (3) and struck out former par. (3) which read as follows: “Service in a joint duty assignment in a case in which—

“(A) the officer's tour of duty in that assignment brings the officer's cumulative service for purposes of subsection (f)(3) to the applicable standard prescribed in subsection (a); and

“(B) the length of time served in that assignment (in any case other than an assignment which is described in subsection (g)(4)(B)) was not less than two years.”

Subsec. (e)(2). Pub. L. 110–417, §524(b), added par. (2) and struck out former par. (2) which read as follows: “In computing the average length of joint duty assignments for purposes of paragraph (1), the Secretary may exclude the following service:

“(A) Service described in subsection (c), except that not more than 12½ percent of all joint duty assignments shown on the list published pursuant to section 668(b)(2)(A) of this title may be so excluded in any year.

“(B) Service described in subsection (d).

“(C) Service described in subsection (f)(6), except that no more than 10 percent of all joint duty assignments shown on the list published pursuant to section 668(b)(2)(A) of this title may be so excluded in any year.”

Subsec. (f). Pub. L. 110–417, §524(c), in par. (3) substituted “Accrued joint experience” for “Cumulative service”, in par. (4) struck out “(except that not more than 6 percent of all joint duty assignments may be considered to be under this paragraph at any time)” before period at end, added par. (6), and struck out former par. (6) which read as follows “A second joint duty assignment that is less than the period required under subsection (a), but not less than two years, without regard to whether a waiver was granted for such assignment under subsection (b).”.

Subsec. (g). Pub. L. 110–417, §524(d), amended subsec. (g) generally. Prior to amendment, subsec. (g) related to cumulative service of an officer in joint duty assignments.

Subsec. (h). Pub. L. 110–417, §524(e), substituted “paragraphs (1), (2), and (4) of subsection (f)” for “subsection (f)(1), (f)(2), (f)(4), or (g)(2)” in par. (1) and struck out par. (3) which read as follows: “This subsection shall not apply in the case of an officer who serves less than 10 months in the joint duty assignment.”

Subsec. (i). Pub. L. 110–417, §524(f), struck out subsec. (i) which related to joint duty credit for certain joint task force assignments.

2006—Subsec. (c). Pub. L. 109–364, in introductory provisions, substituted “661(c)(1)(B)” for “661(c)(2)”, redesignated pars. (2) and (3) as (1) and (2), respectively, in par. (1), substituted “668(d)” for “661(c)(2)”, and struck out former par. (1) which read as follows: “who is nominated for the joint specialty;”.

2001—Subsec. (i)(4)(E). Pub. L. 107–107, §522(1), substituted “Except as provided in subparagraph (F), the joint task force” for “The joint task force”.

Subsec. (i)(4)(F). Pub. L. 107–107, §522(2), added subpar. (F).

1999—Subsec. (i)(2)(A). Pub. L. 106–65 substituted “February 10, 1996” for “the date of the enactment of this subsection” in introductory provisions.

1996—Subsec. (e)(1). Pub. L. 104–106, §501(f), struck out “(after fiscal year 1990)” after “any fiscal year”.

Subsec. (e)(2)(C). Pub. L. 104–106, §501(e)(1), added subpar. (E).

Subsec. (f). Pub. L. 104–106, §501(e)(2)(A), substituted “completion of any of the following:” for “completion of—” in introductory provisions.

Subsec. (f)(1). Pub. L. 104–106, §501(e)(2)(B), (D), substituted “A joint duty” for “a joint duty” and “subsection (a).” for “subsection (a);”.

Subsec. (f)(2). Pub. L. 104–106, §501(e)(2)(B), (D), substituted “A joint duty” for “a joint duty” and “subsection (c).” for “subsection (c);”.

Subsec. (f)(3). Pub. L. 104–106, §501(e)(2)(C), (D), substituted “Cumulative” for “cumulative” and “subsection (g).” for “subsection (g);”.

Subsec. (f)(4). Pub. L. 104–106, §501(e)(2)(B), (D), substituted “A joint duty” for “a joint duty” and “any time).” for “any time); or”.

Subsec. (f)(5). Pub. L. 104–106, §501(e)(2)(B), substituted “A joint duty” for “a joint duty”.

Subsec. (f)(6). Pub. L. 104–106, §501(e)(2)(E), added par. (6).

Subsec. (i). Pub. L. 104–106, §501(b), added subsec. (i).

1988—Subsec. (a)(1). Pub. L. 100–456, §514(1)(A), substituted “two years” for “three years”.

Subsec. (a)(2). Pub. L. 100–456, §514(1)(B), substituted “three years” for “three and one-half years”.

Subsec. (c)(1). Pub. L. 100–456, §514(2), substituted “is” for “has been” and struck out “before such assignment begins” after “specialty”.

Subsec. (d)(2). Pub. L. 100–456, §514(3), inserted “which is less than the applicable standard prescribed in subsection (a)” after “Hawaii”.

Subsec. (e)(2)(A). Pub. L. 100–456, §517(b), substituted “12½ percent” for “10 percent”.

Subsec. (f)(4), (5). Pub. L. 100–456, §514(4), added pars. (4) and (5).

Subsec. (g)(3). Pub. L. 100–456, §514(5), substituted “shall be excluded if the officer served less than 10 months in that assignment” for “shall be excluded—

“(A) if the officer served less than 10 months in that assignment; and

“(B) to the extent that the assignment was served more than eight years before the date of computation of the cumulative service.”

Subsec. (h). Pub. L. 100–456, §514(6), added subsec. (h).

1987—Subsec. (b). Pub. L. 100–180 added subsec. (b) and struck out former subsec. (b) which read as follows: “The Secretary of Defense may waive subsection (a) in the case of any officer, but the Secretary shall ensure that the average length of joint duty assignments meets the standards prescribed in that subsection.”

Subsec. (c). Pub. L. 100–180 added subsec. (c) and struck out former subsec. (c), “Certain officers with critical combat operations skills”, which read as follows: “Joint duty assignments of less than the period prescribed by subsection (a), but not less than two years, may be authorized for the purposes of section 661(c)(2) of this title. Such an assignment may not be counted for the purposes of determining the average length of joint duty assignments under subsection (b).”

Subsec. (d). Pub. L. 100–180 added subsec. (d) and struck out former subsec. (d), “Exception”, which read as follows:

“(1) Subsection (a) does not apply in the case of an officer who fails to complete a joint duty assignment as the result of—

“(A) retirement;

“(B) separation from active duty; or

“(C) suspension from duty under section 155(f)(2) or 164(g) of this title.

“(2) In computing the average length of joint duty assignments for purposes of this section, the Secretary of Defense shall exclude joint duty assignments not completed because of a reason specified in paragraph (1).”

Subsecs. (e) to (g). Pub. L. 100–180 added subsecs. (e) to (g).

Effective Date of 2006 Amendment

Pub. L. 109–364, div. A, title V, §519(e), Oct. 17, 2006, 120 Stat. 2191, provided that: “The amendments made by this section [amending this section and sections 667 and 668 of this title] shall take effect on October 1, 2007.”

Retroactive Joint Service Credit for Duty in Certain Joint Task Forces

Pub. L. 107–107, div. A, title V, §523, Dec. 28, 2001, 115 Stat. 1097, provided that, in accordance with subsec. (i) of this section, the Secretary of Defense was authorized to award joint service credit to any officer who served on the staff of a United States joint task force headquarters in certain operations and during certain periods, and the Secretary was required to submit to Congress a report of the numbers, by service, grade, and operation, of the officers given joint service credit not later than one year after Dec. 28, 2001.

Joint Duty Credit for Certain Duty Performed During Operations Desert Shield and Desert Storm

Pub. L. 103–160, div. A, title IX, §932, Nov. 30, 1993, 107 Stat. 1735, provided extension of authority until the end of the 90-day period beginning on Nov. 30, 1993, to give certain officers joint duty credit pursuant to Pub. L. 102–484, §933, formerly set out below.

Pub. L. 102–484, div. A, title IX, §933, Oct. 23, 1992, 106 Stat. 2476, as amended by Pub. L. 103–35, title II, §202(a)(9), May 31, 1993, 107 Stat. 101; Pub. L. 103–160, div. A, title IX, §932(c)(1), Nov. 30, 1993, 107 Stat. 1735, temporarily authorized the Secretary of Defense to give an officer who had completed service during the period beginning on Aug. 2, 1990, and ending on Feb. 28, 1991, in an assignment in the Persian Gulf combat zone, credit, on a case-by-case basis, for having completed a full tour of duty in a joint duty assignment, or credit countable for determining cumulative service in joint duty assignments, for the purposes of any provision of this title, notwithstanding the length of such service or whether that service had been within the definition of “joint duty assignment” in section 668 of this title, and provided that such authority would expire at the end of the six-month period beginning on Oct. 23, 1992.

Length of Joint Duty Assignments

Section 406(e) of Pub. L. 99–433 provided that: “Subsection (a) of section 664 of title 10, United States Code (as added by section 401), shall apply to officers assigned to joint duty assignments after the end of the 90-day period beginning on the date of the enactment of this Act [Oct. 1, 1986]. In computing an average under subsection (b) of such section, only joint duty assignments to which such subsection applies shall be considered.”

Waiver of Qualifications for Appointment as Service Chief

For waiver of the requirements of this section for the length of a joint duty assignment, see section 532(c) of Pub. L. 99–433, formerly set out as a note under section 3033 of this title.

§665. Procedures for monitoring careers of joint qualified officers

(a) Procedures.—(1) The Secretary of Defense, with the advice of the Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff, shall establish procedures for overseeing the careers of—

(A) officers designated as a joint qualified officer; and

(B) other officers who serve in joint duty assignments.


(2) Such oversight shall include monitoring of the implementation of the career guidelines established under section 661(e) of this title.

(b) Function of Joint Staff.—The Secretary shall take such action as necessary to enhance the capabilities of the Joint Staff so that it can—

(1) monitor the promotions and career assignments of officers designated as a joint qualified officer and of other officers who have served in joint duty assignments; and

(2) otherwise advise the Chairman on joint personnel matters.

(Added Pub. L. 99–433, title IV, §401(a), Oct. 1, 1986, 100 Stat. 1028; amended Pub. L. 110–417, [div. A], title V, §522(c)(1), (2), Oct. 14, 2008, 122 Stat. 4445.)

Amendments

2008—Pub. L. 110–417 in section catchline substituted “joint qualified officers” for “joint officers” and in subsecs. (a)(1)(A) and (b)(1) substituted “designated as a joint qualified officer” for “with the joint specialty”.

Transition to Joint Officer Personnel Policy

Procedures under subsec. (a) of this section to be established not later than the end of the eight-month period beginning Oct. 1, 1986, and provisions of subsec. (b) of this section to be implemented not later than the end of such period, see section 406(c) of Pub. L. 99–433, set out as a note under section 661 of this title.

§666. Reserve officers not on the active-duty list

The Secretary of Defense shall establish personnel policies emphasizing education and experience in joint matters for reserve officers not on the active-duty list. Such policies shall, to the extent practicable for the reserve components, be similar to the policies provided by this chapter.

(Added Pub. L. 99–433, title IV, §401(a), Oct. 1, 1986, 100 Stat. 1028.)

Transition to Joint Officer Personnel Policy

Personnel policies under this section to be established not later than the end of the eight-month period beginning Oct. 1, 1986, see section 406(c) of Pub. L. 99–433, set out as a note under section 661 of this title.

§667. Annual report to Congress

The Secretary of Defense shall include in the annual report of the Secretary to Congress under section 113(c) of this title, for the period covered by the report, the following information (which shall be shown for the Department of Defense as a whole and separately for the Army, Navy, Air Force, and Marine Corps):

(1)(A) The number of officers designated as a joint qualified officer.

(B) The number of officers who meet the criteria for designation as a joint qualified officer, but were not selected, together with the reasons why.

(C) A comparison of the number of officers who were designated as a joint qualified officer who had served in a Joint Duty Assignment List billet and completed Joint Professional Military Education Phase II, with the number designated as a joint qualified officer based on their aggregated joint experiences and completion of Joint Professional Military Education Phase II.

(2) The number of officers designated as a joint qualified officer, shown by grade and branch or specialty and by education.

(3) The promotion rate for officers designated as a joint qualified officer, compared with the promotion rate for other officers considered for promotion from within the promotion zone in the same pay grade and the same competitive category. A similar comparison will be made for officers both below the promotion zone and above the promotion zone.

(4) The average length of tours of duty in joint duty assignments—

(A) for general and flag officers, shown separately for assignments to the Joint Staff and other joint duty assignments; and

(B) for other officers, shown separately for assignments to the Joint Staff and other joint duty assignments.


(5) The number of times, in the case of each category of exclusion, that service in a joint duty assignment was excluded in computing the average length of joint duty assignments.

(6)(A) An analysis of the extent to which the Secretary of each military department is providing officers to fill that department's share (as determined by law or by the Secretary of Defense) of Joint Staff and other joint duty assignments, including the reason for any significant failure by a military department to fill its share of such positions and a discussion of the actions being taken to correct the shortfall.

(B) An assessment of the extent to which the Secretary of each military department is assigning personnel to joint duty assignments in accordance with this chapter and the policies, procedures, and practices established by the Secretary of Defense under section 661(a) of this title.

(7) The number of times a waiver authority was exercised under this chapter (or under any other provision of law which permits the waiver of any requirement relating to joint duty assignments) and in the case of each such authority—

(A) whether the authority was exercised for a general or flag officer;

(B) an analysis of the reasons for exercising the authority; and

(C) the number of times in which action was taken without exercise of the waiver authority compared with the number of times waiver authority was exercised (in the case of each waiver authority under this chapter or under any other provision of law which permits the waiver of any requirement relating to joint duty assignments).


(8) The number of officers in the grade of captain (or in the case of the Navy, lieutenant) and above certified at each level of joint qualification as established in regulation and policy by the Secretary of Defense with the advice of the Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff. Such numbers shall be reported by service and grade of the officer.

(9) With regard to the principal courses of instruction for Joint Professional Military Education Level II, the number of officers graduating from each of the following:

(A) The Joint Forces Staff College.

(B) The National Defense University.

(C) Senior Service Schools.


(10) Such other information and comparative data as the Secretary of Defense considers appropriate to demonstrate the performance of the Department of Defense and the performance of each military department in carrying out this chapter.

(Added Pub. L. 99–433, title IV, §401(a), Oct. 1, 1986, 100 Stat. 1029; amended Pub. L. 100–180, div. A, title XIII, §1304(a), Dec. 4, 1987, 101 Stat. 1172; Pub. L. 100–456, div. A, title V, §512(b), Sept. 29, 1988, 102 Stat. 1968; Pub. L. 101–189, div. A, title XI, §1123(d), Nov. 29, 1989, 103 Stat. 1557; Pub. L. 104–106, div. A, title V, §501(c), Feb. 10, 1996, 110 Stat. 292; Pub. L. 107–107, div. A, title V, §524, title X, §1048(a)(7), Dec. 28, 2001, 115 Stat. 1098, 1223; Pub. L. 109–364, div. A, title V, §519(d)(2), Oct. 17, 2006, 120 Stat. 2191; Pub. L. 110–417, [div. A], title V, §522(d), Oct. 14, 2008, 122 Stat. 4445; Pub. L. 111–84, div. A, title V, §503, Oct. 28, 2009, 123 Stat. 2277.)

Amendments

2009—Par. (1). Pub. L. 111–84, §503(1), struck out “and their education and experience” after “qualified officer” in subpar. (A) and added subpar. (C).

Pars. (3) to (13). Pub. L. 111–84, §503(2)–(6), added par. (9), redesignated pars. (5), (7) to (11), and (13) as (3), (4) to (8), and (10), respectively, and struck out former pars. (3), (4), (6), and (12), which related to the number of officers on the active-duty list with a military occupational speciality designated as a critical occupational speciality, the number of officers designated as joint qualified officer, analysis of their assignments after the designation, and the officers selected to attend the Joint Forces Staff College principal course of instruction.

2008—Par. (1). Pub. L. 110–417, §522(d)(1), substituted “designated as a joint qualified officer” for “selected for the joint specialty” in subpar. (A) and “designation as a joint qualified officer,” for “selection for the joint specialty” in subpar. (B).

Par. (2). Pub. L. 110–417, §522(d)(2), substituted “designated as a joint qualified officer” for “with the joint specialty”.

Par. (3)(A), (B), (E). Pub. L. 110–417, §522(d)(3), substituted “designated as a joint qualified officer” for “selected for the joint specialty”.

Par. (4). Pub. L. 110–417, §522(d)(4), substituted “designated as a joint qualified officer” for “selected for the joint specialty” in subpar. (A), added subpar. (B), and struck out former subpar. (B) which read as follows: “a comparison of the number of officers who have the joint specialty who qualified for the joint specialty under section 661(c)(1) of this title with the number of officers who have the joint specialty who were selected for the joint specialty under section 661(c)(2) of this title.”

Pars. (5) to (18). Pub. L. 110–417, §522(d)(5)–(7), added pars. (5), (6), and (11), redesignated former pars. (11), (12), (14), (15), (17), and (18) as (7) to (10), (12), and (13), respectively, and struck out former pars. (5) to (10), (13), and (16), which related to promotion rates for officers within the promotion zone who are serving on the Joint Staff, officers with the joint specialty, other officers serving in joint duty assignments, officers considered for promotion from below the promotion zone, officers considered for promotion from above the promotion zone, analysis of assignments after selection for the joint specialty, imbalances between officers serving in joint duty assignments or having the joint specialty and other officers, and the number of officers granted credit for service in joint duty assignments under section 664(i)(4)(E), (F) of this title.

2006—Par. (3). Pub. L. 109–364 substituted “668(d)” for “661(c)(2)” in introductory provisions.

2001—Par. (1). Pub. L. 107–107, §524(1), designated existing provisions as subpar. (A) and added subpar. (B).

Par. (2). Pub. L. 107–107, §524(2), amended par. (2) generally. Prior to amendment, par. (2) read as follows: “The military occupational specialties within each of the armed forces that have been designated as critical occupational specialties under section 661(c)(2) of this title, separately identifying those specialties for which there is a severe shortage of trained officers, together with an explanation of how those specialties meet the criteria for that designation in section 661(c)(2)(B) of this title.”

Par. (3)(A), (B). Pub. L. 107–107, §524(3)(A), substituted “selected” for “nominated”.

Par. (3)(D). Pub. L. 107–107, §524(3)(B), inserted “and” after semicolon at end.

Par. (3)(E), (F). Pub. L. 107–107, §524(3)(C), (D), redesignated subpar. (F) as (E) and struck out former subpar. (E) which read as follows: “have been selected for the joint specialty; and”.

Par. (4)(A). Pub. L. 107–107, §524(4), substituted “selected” for “nominated”.

Par. (14). Pub. L. 107–107, §524(5), designated existing provisions as subpar. (A) and added subpar. (B).

Par. (16). Pub. L. 107–107, §524(6), substituted “subparagraphs (E) and (F) of section 664(i)(4)” for “section 664(i)” in introductory provisions and in subpar. (B).

Par. (17). Pub. L. 107–107, §1048(a)(7), substituted “Joint Forces Staff College” for “Armed Forces Staff College” in introductory provisions and in subpar. (B).

1996—Par. (16). Pub. L. 104–106 added par. (16) and struck out former par. (16) which read as follows: “During the period of the applicability of the first sentence of subparagraph (B) of section 661(d)(2) of this title, information on critical positions not filled by officers with the joint specialty, including—

“(A) a listing by organization of the joint duty assignment positions which were not filled by officers with the joint specialty;

“(B) an explanation of the reasons such positions were not filled by officers with the joint specialty, described by the categories of such reasons; and

“(C) the percentage of critical joint duty assignment positions held by officers who have the joint specialty.”

1989—Pars. (17), (18). Pub. L. 101–189 added par. (17) and redesignated former par. (17) as (18).

1988—Pars. (16), (17). Pub. L. 100–456 added par. (16) and redesignated former par. (16) as (17).

1987—Par. (2). Pub. L. 100–180, §1304(a)(1), (2), added par. (2) and redesignated former par. (2) as (5).

Par. (3). Pub. L. 100–180, §1304(a)(1), (2), added par. (3) and redesignated former par. (3) as (6).

Par. (4). Pub. L. 100–180, §1304(a)(1), (2), added par. (4) and redesignated former par. (4) as (7).

Par. (5). Pub. L. 100–180, §1304(a)(1), redesignated former par. (2) as (5) and former par. (5) as (8).

Par. (6). Pub. L. 100–180, §1304(a)(1), (3), redesignated former par. (3) as (6) and substituted “paragraph (5)” for “paragraph (2)”. Former par. (6) redesignated (10).

Par. (7). Pub. L. 100–180, §1304(a)(1), (3), redesignated former par. (4) as (7) and substituted “paragraph (5)” for “paragraph (2)”. Former par. (7) redesignated (11).

Par. (8). Pub. L. 100–180, §1304(a)(1), (3), redesignated former par. (5) as (8) and substituted “paragraph (5)” for “paragraph (2)”. Former par. (8) redesignated (13).

Par. (9). Pub. L. 100–180, §1304(a)(1), (4), added par. (9) and redesignated former par. (9) as (14).

Par. (10). Pub. L. 100–180, §1304(a)(1), redesignated former par. (6) as (10). Former par. (10) redesignated (16).

Par. (11). Pub. L. 100–180, §1304(a)(1), redesignated former par. (7) as (11).

Par. (12). Pub. L. 100–180, §1304(a)(5), added par. (12).

Par. (13). Pub. L. 100–180, §1304(a)(1), (6), redesignated former par. (8) as (13) and substituted “paragraphs (5) through (9)” for “paragraphs (2) through (5)”.

Par. (14). Pub. L. 100–180, §1304(a)(1), redesignated former par. (9) as (14).

Par. (15). Pub. L. 100–180, §1304(a)(7), added par. (15).

Par. (16). Pub. L. 100–180, §1304(a)(1), redesignated former par. (10) as (16).

Effective Date of 2006 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 109–364 effective Oct. 1, 2007, see section 519(e) of Pub. L. 109–364, set out as a note under section 664 of this title.

Effective Date of 1987 Amendment

Section 1304(b) of Pub. L. 100–180 provided that: “Paragraphs (3) and (4) of section 667 of title 10, United States Code, as added by subsection (a), shall apply with respect to fiscal years after fiscal year 1987.”

Additional Information To Be Included in Five Annual Joint Officer Policy Reports After November 30, 1993

Pub. L. 103–160, div. A, title IX, §931(e), Nov. 30, 1993, 107 Stat. 1734, directed the Secretary of Defense to include as part of the information submitted to Congress pursuant to this section for each of the next five years after Nov. 30, 1993, the degree of progress made toward meeting the requirements of section 619a of this title and the compliance achieved with each of the plans developed pursuant to Pub. L. 103–160, §931(d), formerly set out as a note under section 619a of this title.

§668. Definitions

(a) Joint Matters.—(1) In this chapter, the term “joint matters” means matters related to the achievement of unified action by integrated military forces in operations conducted across domains such as land, sea, or air, in space, or in the information environment, including matters relating to—

(A) national military strategy;

(B) strategic planning and contingency planning;

(C) command and control of operations under unified command;

(D) national security planning with other departments and agencies of the United States; or

(E) combined operations with military forces of allied nations.


(2) In the context of joint matters, the term “integrated military forces” refers to military forces that are involved in the planning or execution (or both) of operations involving participants from—

(A) more than one military department; or

(B) a military department and one or more of the following:

(i) Other departments and agencies of the United States.

(ii) The military forces or agencies of other countries.

(iii) Non-governmental persons or entities.


(b) Joint Duty Assignment.—(1) The Secretary of Defense shall by regulation define the term “joint duty assignment” for the purposes of this chapter. That definition—

(A) shall be limited to assignments in which the officer gains significant experience in joint matters; and

(B) shall exclude assignments for joint training and education, except an assignment as an instructor responsible for preparing and presenting courses in areas of the curricula designated in section 2155(c) of this title as part of a program designated by the Secretary of Defense as joint professional military education Phase II.


(2) The Secretary shall publish a joint duty assignment list showing—

(A) the positions that are joint duty assignment positions under such regulation and the number of such positions and, of those positions, those that are positions held by general or flag officers and the number of such positions; and

(B) of the positions listed under subparagraph (A), those that are critical joint duty assignment positions and the number of such positions and, of those positions, those that are positions held by general or flag officers and the number of such positions.


(c) Clarification of “Tour of Duty”.—For purposes of this chapter, a tour of duty in which an officer serves in more than one joint duty assignment without a break between such assignments shall be considered to be a single tour of duty in a joint duty assignment.

(d) Critical Occupational Specialty.—(1) In this chapter, the term “critical occupational specialty” means a military occupational specialty involving combat operations within the combat arms, in the case of the Army, or the equivalent arms, in the case of the Navy, Air Force, and Marine Corps, that the Secretary of Defense designates as critical.

(2) At a minimum, the Secretary of Defense shall designate as a critical occupational specialty under paragraph (1) any military occupational specialty within a combat arms (or the equivalent) that is experiencing a severe shortage of trained officers in that specialty, as determined by the Secretary.

(Added Pub. L. 99–433, title IV, §401(a), Oct. 1, 1986, 100 Stat. 1029; amended Pub. L. 100–180, div. A, title XIII, §§1302(c)(1), 1303(b), Dec. 4, 1987, 101 Stat. 1170, 1172; Pub. L. 100–456, div. A, title V, §519(b), Sept. 29, 1988, 102 Stat. 1972; Pub. L. 108–375, div. A, title V, §534(a), (b), Oct. 28, 2004, 118 Stat. 1901; Pub. L. 109–364, div. A, title V, §519(a)–(c), Oct. 17, 2006, 120 Stat. 2190, 2191; Pub. L. 111–383, div. A, title V, §521, Jan. 7, 2011, 124 Stat. 4214.)

Amendments

2011—Subsec. (a)(1). Pub. L. 111–383, §521(1)(A), substituted “integrated” for “multiple” in introductory provisions.

Subsec. (a)(1)(D). Pub. L. 111–383, §521(1)(B), substituted “or” for “and”.

Subsec. (a)(2). Pub. L. 111–383, §521(2), added par. (2) and struck out former par. (2), which read as follows: “In the context of joint matters, the term ‘multiple military forces’ refers to forces that involve participants from the armed forces and one or more of the following:

“(A) Other departments and agencies of the United States.

“(B) The military forces or agencies of other countries.

“(C) Non-governmental persons or entities.”

2006—Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 109–364, §519(a), amended heading and text of subsec. (a) generally. Prior to amendment, text read as follows: “In this chapter, the term ‘joint matters’ means matters relating to the integrated employment of land, sea, and air forces, including matters relating to—

“(1) national military strategy;

“(2) strategic planning and contingency planning; and

“(3) command and control of combat operations under unified command.”

Subsec. (b)(1). Pub. L. 109–364, §519(b), substituted provisions limiting the definition of “joint duty assignment” to assignments in which the officer gains significant experience in joint matters and excluding assignments for joint training and education, except an assignment as an instructor responsible for courses as part of a program designated as joint professional military education Phase II, for provisions limiting the definition of “joint duty assignment” to assignments in which the officer gains significant experience in joint matters and excluding assignments for joint training or joint education and assignments within an officer's own military department.

Subsec. (d). Pub. L. 109–364, §519(c), added subsec. (d).

2004—Subsec. (b)(2). Pub. L. 108–375, §534(a), substituted “a joint duty assignment list” for “a list” in introductory provisions.

Subsec. (c). Pub. L. 108–375, §534(b), struck out “within the same organization” before “without a break”.

1988—Subsecs. (c), (f). Pub. L. 100–456 redesignated subsec. (f) as (c).

1987—Subsec. (b)(2). Pub. L. 100–180, §1302(c)(1), inserted “and, of those positions, those that are positions held by general or flag officers and the number of such positions” in subpars. (A) and (B).

Subsec. (f). Pub. L. 100–180, §1303(b), added subsec. (f).

Effective Date of 2006 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 109–364 effective Oct. 1, 2007, see section 519(e) of Pub. L. 109–364, set out as a note under section 664 of this title.

Effective Date of 2004 Amendment

Pub. L. 108–375, div. A, title V, §534(c), Oct. 28, 2004, 118 Stat. 1901, provided that: “The amendment made by subsection (b) [amending this section] shall not apply in the case of a joint duty assignment completed by an officer before the date of the enactment of this Act [Oct. 28, 2004], except in the case of an officer who has continued in joint duty assignments, without a break in service in such assignments, between the end of such assignment and the date of the enactment of this Act.”

Publication of Revised Joint Duty Assignment List

Pub. L. 100–180, div. A, title XIII, §1302(c)(2), Dec. 4, 1987, 101 Stat. 1170, directed the Secretary of Defense to publish a revised list under subsec. (b)(2) of this section not later than six months after Dec. 4, 1987, which would take into account the amendments to this section and section 661 of this title made by Pub. L. 100–180, §1302.

Transition to Joint Officer Personnel Policy

The list of positions required to be published by subsec. (b)(2) of this section to be published not later than six months after Oct. 1, 1986, see section 406(a)(2) of Pub. L. 99–433, set out as a note under section 661 of this title.

CHAPTER 39—ACTIVE DUTY

Sec.
671.
Members not to be assigned outside United States before completing training.
671a.
Members: service extension during war.
671b.
Members: service extension when Congress is not in session.
672.
Reference to chapter 1209.
673.
Consideration of application for permanent change of station or unit transfer for members on active duty who are the victim of a sexual assault or related offense.
[674 to 687. Renumbered.]
688.
Retired members: authority to order to active duty; duties.
688a.
Retired members: temporary authority to order to active duty in high-demand, low-density assignments.
689.
Retired members: grade in which ordered to active duty and upon release from active duty.
690.
Retired members ordered to active duty: limitation on number.
691.
Permanent end strength levels to support two major regional contingencies.

        

Amendments

2011—Pub. L. 112–81, div. A, title V, §582(b), Dec. 31, 2011, 125 Stat. 1432, added item 673.

2006—Pub. L. 109–364, div. A, title VI, §621(d)(2)(B), Oct. 17, 2006, 120 Stat. 2255, substituted “Retired members: temporary authority to order to active duty in high-demand, low-density assignments” for “Retired aviators: temporary authority to order to active duty” in item 688a.

2002—Pub. L. 107–314, div. A, title V, §503(a)(2), Dec. 2, 2002, 116 Stat. 2530, added item 688a.

1996—Pub. L. 104–201, div. A, title V, §521(c), Sept. 23, 1996, 110 Stat. 2517, added items 688, 689, and 690 and struck out former item 688 “Retired members”.

Pub. L. 104–106, div. A, title IV, §401(b)(2), title XV, §1501(c)(7), Feb. 10, 1996, 110 Stat. 286, 499, struck out items 687 “Ready Reserve: muster duty” and 690 “Limitation on duty with Reserve Officer Training Corps units” and added item 691.

1994—Pub. L. 103–337, div. A, title XVI, §1671(b)(7), Oct. 5, 1994, 108 Stat. 3013, substituted “Reference to chapter 1209” for “Reserve components generally” in item 672 and struck out former items 673 to 686 and 689.

1991—Pub. L. 102–190, div. A, title X, §1061(a)(4)(B), Dec. 5, 1991, 105 Stat. 1472, substituted “Corps” for “Corp” in item 690.

Pub. L. 102–25, title VII, §701(e)(3), Apr. 6, 1991, 105 Stat. 114, transferred item 687 “Limitation on duty with Reserve Officer Training Corp units” to appear after item 689 and redesignated that item as 690.

1990—Pub. L. 101–510, div. A, title V, §559(a)(2), Nov. 5, 1990, 104 Stat. 1571, added item 687 “Limitation on duty with Reserve Officer Training Corp units”.

1989—Pub. L. 101–189, div. A, title V, §502(a)(2), Nov. 29, 1989, 103 Stat. 1436, added item 687.

1987—Pub. L. 100–180, div. A, title XII, §1231(4), Dec. 4, 1987, 101 Stat. 1160, amended analysis by transferring item 686 from the end to a position immediately below item 685.

1986—Pub. L. 99–661, div. A, title IV, §412(b)(2), Nov. 14, 1986, 100 Stat. 3862, added item 686 at end of analysis.

1983—Pub. L. 98–94, title X, §§1017(b)(4), 1021(b), Sept. 24, 1983, 97 Stat. 669, 670, substituted “Retired members” for “Regular components: retired members” in item 688, and added item 673c.

1980—Pub. L. 96–513, title V, §501(8), Dec 12, 1980, 94 Stat. 2907, struck out item 687 “Non-Regulars: readjustment payment upon involuntary release from active duty” and added items 688 and 689.

1979—Pub. L. 96–107, title III, §303(a)(2), Nov. 9, 1979, 93 Stat. 806, struck out item 686 “Reports to Congress”.

1976—Pub. L. 94–286, §1, May 14, 1976, 90 Stat. 517, added item 673b.

1968—Pub. L. 90–235, §1(a)(1)(B), Jan. 2, 1968, 81 Stat. 753, added items 671a and 671b.

1967—Pub. L. 90–40, §6(2), June 30, 1967, 81 Stat. 106, added item 673a.

1962—Pub. L. 87–651, title I, §102(b), Sept. 7, 1962, 76 Stat. 508, added item 687.

1958—Pub. L. 85–861, §1(16), Sept. 2, 1958, 72 Stat. 1441, added items 684 and 685.

§671. Members not to be assigned outside United States before completing training

(a) A member of the armed forces may not be assigned to active duty on land outside the United States and its territories and possessions until the member has completed the basic training requirements of the armed force of which he is a member.

(b) In time of war or a national emergency declared by Congress or the President, the period of required basic training (or its equivalent) may not (except as provided in subsection (c)) be less than 12 weeks.

(c)(1) A period of basic training (or equivalent training) shorter than 12 weeks may be established by the Secretary concerned for members of the armed forces who have been credentialed in a medical profession or occupation and are serving in a health-care occupational specialty, as determined under regulations prescribed under paragraph (2). Any such period shall be established under regulations prescribed under paragraph (2) and may be established notwithstanding section 4(a) of the Military Selective Service Act (50 U.S.C. App. 454(a)).

(2) The Secretary of Defense, and the Secretary of Homeland Security with respect to the Coast Guard when it is not operating as a service in the Navy, shall prescribe regulations for the purposes of paragraph (1). The regulations prescribed by the Secretary of Defense shall apply uniformly to the military departments.

(Aug. 10, 1956, ch. 1041, 70A Stat. 27; Pub. L. 94–106, title VIII, §802(b), Oct. 7, 1975, 89 Stat. 537; Pub. L. 99–661, div. A, title V, §501, Nov. 14, 1986, 100 Stat. 3863; Pub. L. 103–160, div. A, title V, §511, Nov. 30, 1993, 107 Stat. 1648; Pub. L. 107–296, title XVII, §1704(b)(1), Nov. 25, 2002, 116 Stat. 2314.)

Historical and Revision Notes
Revised sectionSource (U.S. Code)Source (Statutes at Large)
671 50 App.:454(a) (words between semicolon and proviso of 6th par.). June 24, 1948, ch. 625, §4(a) (words between semicolon and proviso of 6th par.); restated June 19, 1951, ch. 144, §1(d) (words between semicolon and proviso of 6th par.), 65 Stat. 78.

The words “four months of basic training or its equivalent” are substituted for the words “the equivalent of at least four months of basic training”. The words “who is enlisted, inducted, appointed, or ordered to active duty after the date of enactment of the 1951 Amendments to the Universal Military Training and Service Act [June 19, 1951]” and “at any installation located” are omitted as surplusage.

Amendments

2002—Subsec. (c)(2). Pub. L. 107–296 substituted “of Homeland Security” for “of Transportation”.

1993—Subsec. (b). Pub. L. 103–160, §511(1), inserted “(except as provided in subsection (c))” after “may not”.

Subsec. (c). Pub. L. 103–160, §511(2), added subsec. (c).

1986—Pub. L. 99–661 amended section generally. Prior to amendment, section read as follows: “No member of an armed force may be assigned to active duty on land outside the United States and its Territories and possessions, until he has had twelve weeks of basic training or its equivalent.”

1975—Pub. L. 94–106 reduced minimum period of basic training from four months to twelve weeks.

Effective Date of 2002 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 107–296 effective on the date of transfer of the Coast Guard to the Department of Homeland Security, see section 1704(g) of Pub. L. 107–296, set out as a note under section 101 of this title.

§671a. Members: service extension during war

Unless terminated at an earlier date by the Secretary concerned, the period of active service of any member of an armed force is extended for the duration of any war in which the United States may be engaged and for six months thereafter.

(Added Pub. L. 90–235, §1(a)(1)(A), Jan. 2, 1968, 81 Stat. 753.)

§671b. Members: service extension when Congress is not in session

(a) Notwithstanding any other provision of law, when the President determines that the national interest so requires, he may, if Congress is not in session, having adjourned sine die, authorize the Secretary of Defense to extend for not more than six months enlistments, appointments, periods of active duty, periods of active duty for training, periods of obligated service, or other military status, in any component of the armed forces, that expire before the thirtieth day after Congress next convenes or reconvenes.

(b) An extension under this section continues until the sixtieth day after Congress next convenes or reconvenes or until the expiration of the period of extension specified by the Secretary of Defense, whichever occurs earlier, unless sooner terminated by law or Executive order.

(Added Pub. L. 90–235, §1(a)(1)(A), Jan. 2, 1968, 81 Stat. 753; amended Pub. L. 101–189, div. A, title VI, §653(a)(3), Nov. 29, 1989, 103 Stat. 1462.)

Amendments

1989—Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 101–189 substituted “armed forces” for “Armed Forces of the United States”.

§672. Reference to chapter 1209

Provisions of law relating to service of members of reserve components on active duty are set forth in chapter 1209 of this title (beginning with section 12301).

(Added Pub. L. 103–337, div. A, title XVI, §1662(e)(4), Oct. 5, 1994, 108 Stat. 2992.)

Prior Provisions

A prior section 672 was renumbered section 12301 of this title.

Effective Date

Section effective Dec. 1, 1994, except as otherwise provided, see section 1691 of Pub. L. 103–337, set out as a note under section 10001 of this title.

§673. Consideration of application for permanent change of station or unit transfer for members on active duty who are the victim of a sexual assault or related offense

(a) Timely Consideration and Action.—The Secretary concerned shall provide for timely determination and action on an application for consideration of a change of station or unit transfer submitted by a member of the armed forces serving on active duty who was a victim of a sexual assault or other offense covered by section 920, 920a, or 920c of this title (article 120, 120a, or 120c) so as to reduce the possibility of retaliation against the member for reporting the sexual assault or other offense.

(b) Regulations.—The Secretaries of the military departments shall issue regulations to carry out this section, within guidelines provided by the Secretary of Defense. These guidelines shall provide that the application submitted by a member described in subsection (a) for a change of station or unit transfer must be approved or disapproved by the member's commanding officer within 72 hours of the submission of the application. Additionally, if the application is disapproved by the commanding officer, the member shall be given the opportunity to request review by the first general officer or flag officer in the chain of command of the member, and that decision must be made within 72 hours of submission of the request for review.

(Added Pub. L. 112–81, div. A, title V, §582(a), Dec. 31, 2011, 125 Stat. 1432.)

Prior Provisions

A prior section 673 was renumbered section 12302 of this title.

[§673a. Renumbered §12303]

[§673b. Renumbered §12304]

[§673c. Renumbered §12305]

[§674. Renumbered §12306]

[§675. Renumbered §12307]

[§676. Renumbered §12308]

[§677. Renumbered §12309]

[§678. Renumbered §12310]

[§679. Renumbered §12311]

[§680. Renumbered §12312]

[§681. Renumbered §12313]

[§682. Renumbered §12314]

[§683. Renumbered §12315]

[§684. Renumbered §12316]

[§685. Renumbered §12317]

[§686. Renumbered §12318]

Prior Provisions

A prior section 686, acts Aug. 10, 1956, ch. 1041, 70A Stat. 32; Apr. 21, 1976, Pub. L. 94–273, §11(2), 90 Stat. 378, provided for an annual officer grade distribution report, prior to repeal by Pub. L. 96–107, title III, §303(a)(1), Nov. 9, 1979, 93 Stat. 806.

[§687. Renumbered §12319]

Codification

Another section 687 was renumbered section 12321 of this title.

Prior Provisions

A prior section 687, added Pub. L. 87–651, title I, §102(a), Sept. 7, 1962, 76 Stat. 506; amended Pub. L. 89–718, §6, Nov. 2, 1966, 80 Stat. 1115, related to readjustment payment upon involuntary release of non-regulars from active duty, prior to repeal by Pub. L. 96–513, title I, §109(a), Dec. 12, 1980, 94 Stat. 2870, effective Sept. 15, 1981.

§688. Retired members: authority to order to active duty; duties

(a) Authority.—Under regulations prescribed by the Secretary of Defense, a member described in subsection (b) may be ordered to active duty by the Secretary of the military department concerned at any time.

(b) Covered Members.—Except as provided in subsection (d), subsection (a) applies to the following members of the armed forces:

(1) A retired member of the Regular Army, Regular Navy, Regular Air Force, or Regular Marine Corps.

(2) A member of the Retired Reserve who was retired under section 1293, 3911, 3914, 6323, 8911, or 8914 of this title.

(3) A member of the Fleet Reserve or Fleet Marine Corps Reserve.


(c) Duties of Member Ordered to Active Duty.—The Secretary concerned may, to the extent consistent with other provisions of law, assign a member ordered to active duty under this section to such duties as the Secretary considers necessary in the interests of national defense.

(d) Exclusion of Officers Retired on Selective Early Retirement Basis.—The following officers may not be ordered to active duty under this section:

(1) An officer who retired under section 638 of this title.

(2) An officer who—

(A) after having been notified that the officer was to be considered for early retirement under section 638 of this title by a board convened under section 611(b) of this title and before being considered by that board, requested retirement under section 3911, 6323, or 8911 of this title; and

(B) was retired pursuant to that request.


(e) Limitation of Period of Recall Service.—(1) A member ordered to active duty under subsection (a) may not serve on active duty pursuant to orders under that subsection for more than 12 months within the 24 months following the first day of the active duty to which ordered under that subsection.

(2) Paragraph (1) does not apply to the following officers:

(A) A chaplain who is assigned to duty as a chaplain for the period of active duty to which ordered.

(B) A health care professional (as characterized by the Secretary concerned) who is assigned to duty as a health care professional for the period of active duty to which ordered.

(C) An officer assigned to duty with the American Battle Monuments Commission for the period of active duty to which ordered.

(D) An officer who is assigned to duty as a defense attache�AE1 or service attache�AE1 for the period of active duty to which ordered.


(f) Waiver for Periods of War or National Emergency.—Subsections (d) and (e) do not apply in time of war or of national emergency declared by Congress or the President.

(Added Pub. L. 104–201, div. A, title V, §521(a), Sept. 23, 1996, 110 Stat. 2515; amended Pub. L. 105–85, div. A, title V, §502, Nov. 18, 1997, 111 Stat. 1724; Pub. L. 107–107, div. A, title V, §509(a), Dec. 28, 2001, 115 Stat. 1091.)

Prior Provisions

A prior section 688, added Pub. L. 96–513, title I, §106, Dec. 12, 1980, 94 Stat. 2868; amended Pub. L. 98–94, title X, §1017(b)(1)–(3), Sept. 24, 1983, 97 Stat. 669; Pub. L. 99–145, title V, §516, Nov. 8, 1985, 99 Stat. 630; Pub. L. 102–190, div. A, title V, §506(a), Dec. 5, 1991, 105 Stat. 1359; Pub. L. 103–160, div. A, title V, §563, Nov. 30, 1993, 107 Stat. 1669, provided that certain retired members of the armed forces could be ordered to active duty, prior to repeal by Pub. L. 104–201, div. A, title V, §521(a), (b), Sept. 23, 1996, 110 Stat. 2515, 2517, effective Sept. 30, 1997. See sections 688 to 690 of this title.

Amendments

2001—Subsec. (e)(2)(D). Pub. L. 107–107 added subpar. (D).

1997—Subsec. (e). Pub. L. 105–85 designated existing provisions as par. (1) and added par. (2).

Effective Date of 2001 Amendment

Pub. L. 107–107, div. A, title V, §509(c), Dec. 28, 2001, 115 Stat. 1091, provided that: “The amendments made by subsections (a) and (b) [amending this section and section 690 of this title] shall apply with respect to officers serving on active duty as a defense attache�AE1 or service attache�AE1 on or after the date of the enactment of this Act [Dec. 28, 2001].”

Effective Date

Section 521(b) of Pub. L. 104–201 provided that: “The amendments made by this section [enacting this section and sections 689 and 690 of this title, amending section 6151 of this title, and repealing former section 688 of this title] shall take effect on September 30, 1997.”

§688a. Retired members: temporary authority to order to active duty in high-demand, low-density assignments

(a) Authority.—The Secretary of a military department may order to active duty a retired member who agrees to serve on active duty in an assignment intended to alleviate a high-demand, low-density military capability or in any other specialty designated by the Secretary as critical to meet wartime or peacetime requirements. Any such order may be made only with the consent of the member ordered to active duty and in accordance with an agreement between the Secretary and the member.

(b) Duration.—The period of active duty of a member under an order to active duty under subsection (a) shall be specified in the agreement entered into under that subsection.

(c) Limitation.—No more than a total of 1,000 members may be on active duty at any time under subsection (a).

(d) Relationship to Other Authority.—The authority to order a retired member to active duty under this section is in addition to the authority under section 688 of this title or any other provision of law authorizing the Secretary concerned to order a retired member to active duty.

(e) Inapplicability of Certain Provisions.—Retired members ordered to active duty under subsection (a) shall not be counted for purposes of section 688 or 690 of this title.

(f) Expiration of Authority.—A retired member may not be ordered to active duty under this section after December 31, 2011.

(g) High-Demand, Low-Density Military Capability Defined.—In this section, the term “high-demand, low-density military capability” means a combat, combat support or service support capability, unit, system, or occupational specialty that the Secretary of Defense determines has funding, equipment, or personnel levels that are substantially below the levels required to fully meet or sustain actual or expected operational requirements set by regional commanders.

(Added Pub. L. 107–314, div. A, title V, §503(a)(1), Dec. 2, 2002, 116 Stat. 2530; amended Pub. L. 109–364, div. A, title VI, §621(b), (d)(2)(A), Oct. 17, 2006, 120 Stat. 2254, 2255; Pub. L. 111–383, div. A, title V, §531(a), Jan. 7, 2011, 124 Stat. 4215.)

Amendments

2011—Subsec. (f). Pub. L. 111–383 substituted “December 31, 2011” for “December 31, 2010”.

2006—Pub. L. 109–364, §621(d)(2)(A), substituted “Retired members: temporary authority to order to active duty in high-demand, low-density assignments” for “Retired aviators: temporary authority to order to active duty” in section catchline.

Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 109–364, §621(b)(1), in first sentence, substituted “The Secretary of a military department may order to active duty a retired member who agrees to serve on active duty in an assignment intended to alleviate a high-demand, low-density military capability or in any other specialty designated by the Secretary as critical to meet wartime or peacetime requirements” for “The Secretary of a military department may order to active duty a retired officer having expertise as an aviator to fill staff positions normally filled by aviators on active duty” and, in second sentence, substituted “member” for “officer” in two places.

Subsec. (b). Pub. L. 109–364, §621(b)(2), substituted “a member” for “an officer”.

Subsec. (c). Pub. L. 109–364, §621(b)(3), substituted “1,000 members” for “500 officers”.

Subsec. (d). Pub. L. 109–364, §621(b)(4), substituted “member to active duty under” for “officer to active duty under”.

Subsec. (e). Pub. L. 109–364, §621(b)(5), substituted “Retired members” for “Officers”.

Subsec. (f). Pub. L. 109–364, §621(b)(6), substituted “A retired member” for “An officer” and “December 31, 2010” for “September 30, 2008”.

Subsec. (g). Pub. L. 109–364, §621(b)(7), added subsec. (g).

Transition Provision

Pub. L. 107–314, div. A, title V, §503(c), Dec. 2, 2002, 116 Stat. 2531, provided that: “Any officer ordered to active duty under section 501 of the National Defense Authorization Act for Fiscal Year 2000 (Public Law 106–65; 113 Stat. 589) who continues on active duty under such order to active duty after the date of the enactment of this Act [Dec. 2, 2002] shall be counted for purposes of the limitation under subsection (c) of section 688a of title 10, United States Code, as added by subsection (a).”

§689. Retired members: grade in which ordered to active duty and upon release from active duty

(a) General Rule for Grade in Which Ordered to Active Duty.—Except as provided in subsections (b) and (c), a retired member ordered to active duty under section 688 or 688a of this title shall be ordered to active duty in the member's retired grade.

(b) Members Retired in O–9 and O–10 Grades.—A retired member ordered to active duty under section 688 or 688a of this title whose retired grade is above the grade of major general or rear admiral shall be ordered to active duty in the highest permanent grade held by such member while serving on active duty.

(c) Members Who Previously Served in Grade Higher Than Retired Grade.—(1) A retired member ordered to active duty under section 688 or 688a of this title who has previously served on active duty satisfactorily, as determined by the Secretary of the military department concerned, in a grade higher than that member's retired grade may be ordered to active duty in the highest grade in which the member had so served satisfactorily, except that such a member may not be so ordered to active duty in a grade above major general or rear admiral.

(2) A retired member ordered to active duty in a grade that is higher than the member's retired grade pursuant to subsection (a) shall be treated for purposes of section 690 of this title as if the member was promoted to that higher grade while on that tour of active duty.

(3) If, upon being released from that tour of active duty, such a retired member has served on active duty satisfactorily, as determined by the Secretary concerned, for not less than a total of 36 months in a grade that is a higher grade than the member's retired grade, the member is entitled to placement on the retired list in that grade.

(d) Grade Upon Release From Active Duty.—A member ordered to active duty under section 688 or 688a of this title who, while on active duty, is promoted to a grade that is higher than that member's retired grade is entitled, upon that member's release from that tour of active duty, to placement on the retired list in the highest grade in which the member served on active duty satisfactorily, as determined by the Secretary of the military department concerned, for not less than six months.

(Added Pub. L. 104–201, div. A, title V, §521(a), Sept. 23, 1996, 110 Stat. 2516; amended Pub. L. 107–314, div. A, title V, §503(b)(1), Dec. 2, 2002, 116 Stat. 2531.)

Prior Provisions

A prior section 689 was renumbered section 12320 of this title.

Provisions similar to those in this section were contained in section 688(b) and (d) of this title prior to repeal by Pub. L. 104–201, §521(a).

Amendments

2002—Subsecs. (a), (b), (c)(1), (d). Pub. L. 107–314 inserted “or 688a” after “section 688”.

Effective Date

Section effective Sept. 30, 1997, see section 521(b) of Pub. L. 104–201, set out as a note under section 688 of this title.

Applicability

Pub. L. 107–314, div. A, title V, §503(b)(2), Dec. 2, 2002, 116 Stat. 2531, provided that: “The provisions of section 689(d) of title 10, United States Code, shall apply with respect to an officer ordered to active duty under section 501 of the National Defense Authorization Act for Fiscal Year 2000 (Public Law 106–65; 113 Stat. 589) before the date of the enactment of this Act [Dec. 2, 2002] in the same manner as such provisions apply to an officer ordered to active duty under section 688 of such title.”

§690. Retired members ordered to active duty: limitation on number

(a) General and Flag Officers.—Not more than 15 retired general officers of the Army, Air Force, or Marine Corps, and not more than 15 retired flag officers of the Navy, may be on active duty at any one time. For the purposes of this subsection a retired officer ordered to active duty for a period of 60 days or less is not counted.

(b) Limitation by Service.—(1) Not more than 25 officers of any one armed force may be serving on active duty concurrently pursuant to orders to active duty issued under section 688 of this title.

(2) In the administration of paragraph (1), the following officers shall not be counted:

(A) A chaplain who is assigned to duty as a chaplain for the period of active duty to which ordered.

(B) A health care professional (as characterized by the Secretary concerned) who is assigned to duty as a health care professional for the period of the active duty to which ordered.

(C) Any officer assigned to duty with the American Battle Monuments Commission for the period of active duty to which ordered.

(D) Any member of the Retiree Council of the Army, Navy, or Air Force for the period on active duty to attend the annual meeting of the Retiree Council.

(E) An officer who is assigned to duty as a defense attache�AE1 or service attache�AE1 for the period of active duty to which ordered.


(c) Waiver for Periods of War or National Emergency.—Subsection (a) does not apply in time of war or of national emergency declared by Congress or the President after November 30, 1980. Subsection (b) does not apply in time of war or of national emergency declared by Congress or the President.

(Added Pub. L. 104–201, div. A, title V, §521(a), Sept. 23, 1996, 110 Stat. 2516; amended Pub. L. 106–65, div. A, title V, §507, Oct. 5, 1999, 113 Stat. 591; Pub. L. 107–107, div. A, title V, §509(b), Dec. 28, 2001, 115 Stat. 1091.)

Prior Provisions

A prior section 690 was renumbered section 12321 of this title.

Provisions similar to those in subsecs. (a) and (c) of this section were contained in section 688(c) of this title prior to repeal by Pub. L. 104–201, §521(a).

Amendments

2001—Subsec. (b)(2)(E). Pub. L. 107–107 added subpar. (E).

1999—Subsec. (b)(2)(D). Pub. L. 106–65 added subpar. (D).

Effective Date of 2001 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 107–107 applicable with respect to officers serving on active duty as a defense attache�AE1 or service attache�AE1 on or after Dec. 28, 2001, see section 509(c) of Pub. L. 107–107, set out as a note under section 688 of this title.

Effective Date

Section effective Sept. 30, 1997, see section 521(b) of Pub. L. 104–201, set out as a note under section 688 of this title.

§691. Permanent end strength levels to support two major regional contingencies

(a) The end strengths specified in subsection (b) are the minimum strengths necessary to enable the armed forces to fulfill a national defense strategy calling for the United States to be able to successfully conduct two nearly simultaneous major regional contingencies.

(b) Unless otherwise provided by law, the number of members of the armed forces (other than the Coast Guard) on active duty at the end of any fiscal year shall be not less than the following:

(1) For the Army, 547,400.

(2) For the Navy, 325,700.

(3) For the Marine Corps, 202,100.

(4) For the Air Force, 332,800.


(c) The budget for the Department of Defense for any fiscal year as submitted to Congress shall include amounts for funding for each of the armed forces (other than the Coast Guard) at least in the amounts necessary to maintain the active duty end strengths prescribed in subsection (b), as in effect at the time that such budget is submitted.

(d) No funds appropriated to the Department of Defense may be used to implement a reduction of the active duty end strength for any of the armed forces (other than the Coast Guard) for any fiscal year below the level specified in subsection (b) unless the reduction in end strength for that armed force for that fiscal year is specifically authorized by law.

[(e) Repealed. Pub. L. 107–314, div. A, title IV, §402(b), Dec. 2, 2002, 116 Stat. 2525.]

(f) The number of members of the armed forces on active duty shall be counted for purposes of this section in the same manner as applies under section 115(a)(1) of this title.

(Added Pub. L. 104–106, div. A, title IV, §401(b)(1), Feb. 10, 1996, 110 Stat. 285; amended Pub. L. 104–201, div. A, title IV, §402, Sept. 23, 1996, 110 Stat. 2503; Pub. L. 105–85, div. A, title IV, §402, Nov. 18, 1997, 111 Stat. 1719; Pub. L. 105–261, div. A, title IV, §402(a), (b), Oct. 17, 1998, 112 Stat. 1995, 1996; Pub. L. 106–65, div. A, title IV, §402(a), title X, §1066(b)(1), Oct. 5, 1999, 113 Stat. 585, 772; Pub. L. 106–398, §1 [[div. A], title IV, §§402(a), 403], Oct. 30, 2000, 114 Stat. 1654, 1654A–92; Pub. L. 107–107, div. A, title IV, §402, Dec. 28, 2001, 115 Stat. 1069; Pub. L. 107–314, div. A, title IV, §402, Dec. 2, 2002, 116 Stat. 2524; Pub. L. 108–136, div. A, title IV, §402, Nov. 24, 2003, 117 Stat. 1450; Pub. L. 108–375, div. A, title IV, §402, Oct. 28, 2004, 118 Stat. 1862; Pub. L. 109–163, div. A, title IV, §402, Jan. 6, 2006, 119 Stat. 3219; Pub. L. 109–364, div. A, title IV, §402, Oct. 17, 2006, 120 Stat. 2169; Pub. L. 110–181, div. A, title IV, §402, Jan. 28, 2008, 122 Stat. 86; Pub. L. 110–417, [div. A], title IV, §402, Oct. 14, 2008, 122 Stat. 4428; Pub. L. 111–84, div. A, title IV, §402, Oct. 28, 2009, 123 Stat. 2265; Pub. L. 111–383, div. A, title IV, §402, Jan. 7, 2011, 124 Stat. 4202; Pub. L. 112–81, div. A, title IV, §402, Dec. 31, 2011, 125 Stat. 1382.)

Amendments

2011—Subsec. (b). Pub. L. 112–81 substituted “325,700” for “324,300” in par. (2) and “332,800” for “332,200” in par. (4).

Pub. L. 111–383 substituted “324,300” for “328,800” in par. (2) and “332,200” for “331,700” in par. (4).

2009—Subsec. (b). Pub. L. 111–84 substituted “547,400” for “532,400” in par. (1), “328,800” for “325,300” in par. (2), “202,100” for “194,000” in par. (3), and “331,700” for “317,050” in par. (4).

2008—Subsec. (b). Pub. L. 110–417 substituted “532,400” for “525,400” in par. (1), “325,300” for “328,400” in par. (2), “194,000” for “189,000” in par. (3), and “317,050” for “328,600” in par. (4).

Pub. L. 110–181 substituted “525,400” for “502,400” in par. (1), “328,400” for “340,700” in par. (2), “189,000” for “180,000” in par. (3), and “328,600” for “334,200” in par. (4).

2006—Subsec. (b)(2) to (4). Pub. L. 109–364 substituted “340,700” for “352,700” in par. (2), “180,000” for “179,000” in par. (3), and “334,200” for “357,400” in par. (4).

Pub. L. 109–163 substituted “352,700” for “365,900” in par. (2), “179,000” for “178,000” in par. (3), and “357,400” for “359,700” in par. (4).

2004—Subsec. (b). Pub. L. 108–375 substituted “502,400” for “482,400” in par. (1), “365,900” for “373,800” in par. (2), “178,000” for “175,000” in par. (3), and “359,700” for “359,300” in par. (4).

2003—Subsec. (b)(1). Pub. L. 108–136, §402(1), substituted “482,400” for “480,000”.

Subsec. (b)(2). Pub. L. 108–136, §402(2), substituted “373,800” for “375,700”.

Subsec. (b)(4). Pub. L. 108–136, §402(3), substituted “359,300” for “359,000”.

2002—Subsec. (b)(2) to (4). Pub. L. 107–314, §402(a), substituted “375,700” for “376,000” in par. (2), “175,000” for “172,600” in par. (3), and “359,000” for “358,800” in par. (4).

Subsec. (e). Pub. L. 107–314, §402(b), struck out subsec. (e) which read as follows: “For a fiscal year for which the active duty end strength authorized by law pursuant to section 115(a)(1)(A) of this title for any of the armed forces is identical to or greater than the number applicable to that armed force under subsection (b), the Secretary of Defense may reduce that number by not more than 0.5 percent.”

2001—Subsec. (b)(2). Pub. L. 107–107, §402(1), substituted “376,000” for “372,000”.

Subsec. (b)(4). Pub. L. 107–107, §402(2), substituted “358,800” for “357,000”.

2000—Subsec. (b)(2) to (4). Pub. L. 106–398, §1 [[div. A], title IV, §402(a)], substituted “372,000” for “371,781” in par. (2), “172,600” for “172,148” in par. (3), and “357,000” for “360,877” in par. (4).

Subsec. (e). Pub. L. 106–398, §1 [[div. A], title IV, §403], inserted “or greater than” after “identical to”.

1999—Subsec. (b)(2) to (4). Pub. L. 106–65, §402(a), substituted “371,781” for “372,696” in par. (2), “172,148” for “172,200” in par. (3), and “360,877” for “370,802” in par. (4).

Subsec. (e). Pub. L. 106–65, §1066(b)(1), made technical amendment to directory language of Pub. L. 105–261, §402(b). See 1998 Amendment note below.

1998—Subsec. (b). Pub. L. 105–261, §402(a), substituted “480,000” for “495,000” in par. (1), “372,696” for “390,802” in par. (2), “172,200” for “174,000” in par. (3), and “370,802” for “371,577” in par. (4).

Subsec. (e). Pub. L. 105–261, §402(b), as amended by Pub. L. 106–65, §1066(b)(1), substituted “0.5 percent.” for “1 percent or, in the case of the Army, by not more than 1.5 percent.”

1997—Subsec. (b)(2). Pub. L. 105–85, §402(a)(1), substituted “390,802” for “395,000”.

Subsec. (b)(4). Pub. L. 105–85, §402(a)(2), substituted “371,577” for “381,000”.

Subsec. (e). Pub. L. 105–85, §402(b), inserted “or, in the case of the Army, by not more than 1.5 percent” before period at end.

1996—Subsec. (c). Pub. L. 104–201, §402(a)(2), added subsec. (c) and struck out former subsec. (c) which read as follows: “No funds appropriated to the Department of Defense may be used to implement a reduction of the active duty end strength for any of the armed forces for any fiscal year below the level specified in subsection (b) unless the Secretary of Defense submits to Congress notice of the proposed lower end strength levels and a justification for those levels. No action may then be taken to implement such a reduction for that fiscal year until the end of the six-month period beginning on the date of the receipt of such notice by Congress.”

Subsec. (d). Pub. L. 104–201, §402(a)(2), added subsec. (d). Former subsec. (d) redesignated (e).

Subsec. (e). Pub. L. 104–201, §402(a)(1), (b), redesignated subsec. (d) as (e) and substituted “not more than 1 percent” for “not more than 0.5 percent”. Former subsec. (e) redesignated (f).

Subsec. (f). Pub. L. 104–201, §402(a)(1), redesignated subsec. (e) as (f).

Effective Date of 2000 Amendment

Pub. L. 106–398, §1 [[div. A], title IV, §402(b)], Oct. 30, 2000, 114 Stat. 1654, 1654A–92, provided that: “The amendments made by subsection (a) [amending this section] shall take effect on October 1, 2000.”

Effective Date of 1999 Amendment

Pub. L. 106–65, div. A, title IV, §402(b), Oct. 5, 1999, 113 Stat. 585, provided that: “The amendments made by subsection (a) [amending this section] shall take effect on October 1, 1999.”

Pub. L. 106–65, div. A, title X, §1066(b), Oct. 5, 1999, 113 Stat. 772, provided that the amendment made by section 1066(b) is effective Oct. 17, 1998, and as if included in the Strom Thurmond National Defense Authorization Act for Fiscal Year 1999, Pub. L. 105–261, as enacted.

Effective Date of 1998 Amendment

Pub. L. 105–261, div. A, title IV, §402(c), Oct. 17, 1998, 112 Stat. 1996, provided that: “The amendments made by this section [amending this section] shall take effect on October 1, 1998.”

Transfer of Functions

For transfer of authorities, functions, personnel, and assets of the Coast Guard, including the authorities and functions of the Secretary of Transportation relating thereto, to the Department of Homeland Security, and for treatment of related references, see sections 468(b), 551(d), 552(d), and 557 of Title 6, Domestic Security, and the Department of Homeland Security Reorganization Plan of November 25, 2002, as modified, set out as a note under section 542 of Title 6.

CHAPTER 40—LEAVE

Sec.
701.
Entitlement and accumulation.
702.
Cadets and midshipmen.
703.
Reenlistment leave.
704.
Use of leave; regulations.
705.
Rest and recuperation absence: qualified members extending duty at designated locations overseas.
705a.
Rest and recuperation absence: certain members undergoing extended deployment to a combat zone.
706.
Administration of leave required to be taken.
707.
Payment upon disapproval of certain court-martial sentences for excess leave required to be taken.
707a.
Payment upon disapproval of certain board of inquiry recommendations for excess leave required to be taken.
708.
Educational leave of absence.
709.
Emergency leave of absence.

        

Amendments

2011—Pub. L. 111–383, div. A, title V, §532(b), Jan. 7, 2011, 124 Stat. 4216, added item 705a.

2003—Pub. L. 108–136, div. A, title VI, §621(b)(2), Nov. 24, 2003, 117 Stat. 1505, struck out “enlisted” before “members” in item 705.

2002—Pub. L. 107–314, div. A, title V, §§506(d), 572(b), 574(b)(2)(B), Dec. 2, 2002, 116 Stat. 2536, 2558, substituted “Rest and recuperation absence: qualified enlisted members extending duty at designated locations overseas” for “Rest and recuperative absence for qualified enlisted members extending duty at designated locations overseas” in item 705, added items 706, 707a, and 709, and struck out former item 706 “Administration of leave required to be taken pending review of certain court-martial convictions”.

1984—Pub. L. 98–525, title VII, §707(a)(2), Oct. 19, 1984, 98 Stat. 2572, added item 708.

1981—Pub. L. 97–81, §2(b)(2), Nov. 20, 1981, 95 Stat. 1087, added items 706 and 707.

1980—Pub. L. 96–579, §5(b)(2), Dec. 23, 1980, 94 Stat. 3367, added item 705.

Pilot Programs on Career Flexibility To Enhance Retention of Members of the Armed Forces

Pub. L. 110–417, [div. A], title V, §533, Oct. 14, 2008, 122 Stat. 4449, as amended by Pub. L. 112–81, div. A, title V, §531, title VI, §631(f)(4)(B), Dec. 31, 2011, 125 Stat. 1403, 1465, provided that:

“(a) Pilot Programs Authorized.—

“(1) In general.—Each Secretary of a military department may carry out pilot programs under which officers and enlisted members of the regular components of the Armed Forces under the jurisdiction of such Secretary may be inactivated from active duty in order to meet personal or professional needs and returned to active duty at the end of such period of inactivation from active duty.

“(2) Purpose.—The purpose of the pilot programs under this section shall be to evaluate whether permitting inactivation from active duty and greater flexibility in career paths for members of the Armed Forces will provide an effective means to enhance retention of members of the Armed Forces and the capacity of the Department of Defense to respond to the personal and professional needs of individual members of the Armed Forces.

“(b) Limitation on Eligible Members.—A member of the Armed Forces is not eligible to participate in a pilot program under this section during any period of service required of the member—

“(1) under an agreement upon entry of the member on active duty; or

“(2) due to receipt by the member of a retention bonus as a member qualified in a critical military skill or assigned to a high priority unit under section 355 of title 37, United States Code.

“(c) Limitation on Number of Participants.—Not more than 20 officers and 20 enlisted members of each Armed Force may be selected during a calendar year to participate in the pilot programs under this section.

“(d) Period of Inactivation From Active Duty; Effect of Inactivation.—