12 U.S.C.
United States Code, 2011 Edition
Title 12 - BANKS AND BANKING
CHAPTER 2 - NATIONAL BANKS
From the U.S. Government Printing Office, www.gpo.gov

CHAPTER 2—NATIONAL BANKS

SUBCHAPTER I—ORGANIZATION AND GENERAL PROVISIONS

Sec.
21.
Formation of national banking associations; incorporators; articles of association.
21a.
Amendment of articles of association.
22.
Organization certificate.
23.
Acknowledgment and filing of certificate.
24.
Corporate powers of associations.
24a.
Financial subsidiaries of national banks.
25.
Omitted.
25a.
Participation by national banks in lotteries and related activities.
25b.
State law preemption standards for national banks and subsidiaries clarified.
26.
Comptroller to determine if association can commence business.
27.
Certificate of authority to commence banking.
28.
Repealed.
29.
Power to hold real property.
30.
Change of name or location.
31.
Rights and liabilities as affected by change of name.
32.
Liabilities and suits as affected by change of name or location.
33 to 34c.
Transferred.
35.
Organization of State banks as national banking associations.
36.
Branch banks.
37.
Associations governed by chapter.
38.
The National Bank Act.
39.
Reservation of rights of associations organized under Act of 1863.
40.
Virgin Islands; extension of National Bank Act.
41.
Guam; extension of National Bank Act.
42.
Territorial application.
43.
Interpretations concerning preemption of certain State laws.

        

SUBCHAPTER II—CAPITAL, STOCK, AND STOCKHOLDERS

51.
Repealed.
51a.
Preferred stock; issuance authorized.
51b.
Dividends, voting, and retirement of preferred stock; individual liability.
51b–1.
Consideration of preferred stock in determining impairment of capital; dividends; retirement.
51c.
“Common stock”, “capital”, and “capital stock” defined.
51d to 51f. Repealed.
52.
Par value and incidents of stock; transfer of shares.
53.
When capital stock paid in.
54.
Repealed.
55.
Enforcing payment of deficiency in capital stock; assessments; liquidation; receivership.
56.
Prohibition on withdrawal of capital; unearned dividends.
57.
Increase of capital by provision in articles of association.
58.
Repealed.
59.
Reduction of capital.
60.
National bank dividends.
61.
Shareholders’ voting rights; cumulative and distributive voting; preferred stock; trust shares; proxies, liability restrictions; percentage requirement exclusion of trust shares.
62.
List of shareholders.
63, 64.
Repealed.
64a.
Individual liability of shareholders; limitation on liability.
65.
Repealed.
66.
Personal liability of representatives of stockholders.
67.
Individual liability of shareholders; compromises; authority of receiver.

        

SUBCHAPTER III—DIRECTORS

71.
Election.
71a.
Number of directors; penalties.
72.
Qualifications.
73.
Oath.
74.
Vacancies.
75.
Legal holiday, annual meeting on; proceedings where no election held on proper day.
76.
President of bank as member of board; chairman of board.
77, 78.
Repealed.

        

SUBCHAPTER IV—REGULATION OF THE BANKING BUSINESS; POWERS AND DUTIES OF NATIONAL BANKS

81.
Place of business.
82.
Repealed.
83.
Loans by bank on its own stock.
84.
Lending limits.
85.
Rate of interest on loans, discounts and purchases.
86.
Usurious interest; penalty for taking; limitations.
86a to 89.
Omitted or Repealed.
90.
Depositaries of public moneys and financial agents of Government.
91.
Transfers by bank and other acts in contemplation of insolvency.
92.
Acting as insurance agent or broker.
92a.
Trust powers.
93.
Violation of provisions of chapter.
93a.
Authority to prescribe rules and regulations.
94.
Venue of suits.
94a.
Repealed.
95.
Emergency limitations and restrictions on business of members of Federal reserve system; designation of legal holiday for national banking associations; exceptions; “State” defined.
95a.
Regulation of transactions in foreign exchange of gold and silver; property transfers; vested interests, enforcement and penalties.
95b.
Ratification of acts of President and Secretary of the Treasury under section 95a.

        

SUBCHAPTER V—OBTAINING AND ISSUING CIRCULATING NOTES

101 to 110. Repealed.

        

SUBCHAPTER VI—REDEMPTION AND REPLACEMENT OF CIRCULATING NOTES

121.
Repealed.
121a.
Redemption of notes unidentifiable as to bank of issue.
122 to 127. Repealed.

        

SUBCHAPTER VII—PROCEEDINGS ON FAILURE OF BANK TO REDEEM CIRCULATING NOTES

131 to 138. Repealed.

        

SUBCHAPTER VIII—RESERVE CITIES; LAWFUL RESERVES

141.
Omitted.
142.
Banks in reserve cities; reserves.
143.
Banks in Alaska and insular possessions; lawful money reserves.
144.
Certain balances counted toward reserves in dependencies and insular possessions.
145, 146.
Repealed.

        

SUBCHAPTER IX—FORMATION OF ASSOCIATIONS TO ISSUE GOLD NOTES

151 to 153. Repealed.

        

SUBCHAPTER X—BANK EXAMINATIONS; REPORTS

161.
Reports to Comptroller of the Currency.
162, 163.
Repealed.
164.
Penalty for failure to make reports.
165.
Omitted.

        

SUBCHAPTER XI—MISCELLANEOUS PROVISIONS REGARDING UNITED STATES BONDS IN RELATION TO NATIONAL BANKS

168 to 177. Repealed.
177a.
Funds available for cost of transporting and redeeming national and Federal Reserve bank notes.
178.
Repealed.

        

SUBCHAPTER XII—VOLUNTARY DISSOLUTION

181.
Voluntary dissolution; appointment and removal of liquidating agent or committee; examination.
182.
Notice of intent to dissolve.
183 to 186. Repealed.

        

SUBCHAPTER XIII—RECEIVERSHIP

191.
Appointment of receiver for a national bank.
192.
Default in payment of circulating notes.
193.
Notice to present claims.
194.
Dividends on adjusted claims; distribution of assets.
195.
Repealed.
196.
Expenses.
197.
Shareholders’ meeting; continuance of receivership; appointment of agent; winding up business; distribution of assets.
197a.
Resumption of business by closed bank on consent of depositors.
198.
Purchase by receiver of property of bank; request to Comptroller.
199.
Approval of request.
200.
Payment.

        

SUBCHAPTER XIV—BANK CONSERVATION ACT

201.
Short title.
202.
Definitions.
203.
Appointment of conservator.
204.
Examinations.
205.
Termination of conservatorship.
206.
Conservator; powers and duties.
207, 208.
Repealed.
209.
Liability protection.
210.
Governmental powers unimpaired.
211.
Rules and regulations.
212.
Right to amend; separability.
213.
Transferred.

        

SUBCHAPTER XV—CONVERSION OF NATIONAL BANKS INTO STATE BANKS

214.
Definitions.
214a.
Procedure for conversion, merger, or consolidation; vote of stockholders.
214b.
Continuation of business and corporate entity.
214c.
Conversions in contravention of State law.
214d.
Prohibition on conversion.

        

SUBCHAPTER XVI—CONSOLIDATION AND MERGER

215.
Consolidation of banks within same State.
215a.
Merger of national banks or State banks into national banks.
215a–1.
Interstate consolidations and mergers.
215a–2.
Expedited procedures for certain reorganizations.
215a–3.
Mergers and consolidations with subsidiaries and nonbank affiliates.
215b.
Definitions.
215c.
Mergers, consolidations, and other acquisitions authorized.

        

SUBCHAPTER XVII—DISPOSITION OF UNCLAIMED PROPERTY RECOVERED FROM CLOSED NATIONAL BANKS

216.
Purpose.
216a.
Definitions.
216b.
Disposition of unclaimed property.
216c.
Rules and regulations.
216d.
Severability.

        

SUBCHAPTER I—ORGANIZATION AND GENERAL PROVISIONS

§21. Formation of national banking associations; incorporators; articles of association

Associations for carrying on the business of banking under title 62 of the Revised Statutes may be formed by any number of natural persons, not less in any case than five. They shall enter into articles of association, which shall specify in general terms the object for which the association is formed, and may contain any other provisions, not inconsistent with law, which the association may see fit to adopt for the regulation of its business and the conduct of its affairs. These articles shall be signed by the persons uniting to form the association, and a copy of them shall be forwarded to the Comptroller of the Currency, to be filed and preserved in his office.

(R.S. §5133.)

References in Text

Title 62 of the Revised Statutes, referred to in text, was in the original “this Title” meaning title LXII of the Revised Statutes, consisting of R.S. §§5133 to 5244, which are classified to this section and sections 16, 22 to 24a, 25a, 25b, 26, 27, 29, 35 to 37, 39, 43, 52, 53, 55 to 57, 59 to 62, 66, 71, 72 to 76, 81, 83 to 86, 90, 91, 93, 93a, 94, 141 to 144, 161, 164, 181, 182, 192 to 194, 196, 215c, 481 to 485, 501, 541, 548, and 582 of this title. See, also, sections 8, 333, 334, 475, 656, 709, 1004, and 1005 of Title 18, Crimes and Criminal Procedure. For complete classification of R.S. §§5133 to 5244 to the Code, see Tables.

Codification

R.S. §5133 derived from act June 3, 1864, ch. 106, §5, 13 Stat. 100, which was the National Bank Act. See section 38 of this title.

Exception as to Transfer of Functions

Functions vested by any provision of law in Comptroller of the Currency, referred to in this section, not included in transfer of functions to Secretary of the Treasury, see note set out under section 1 of this title.

§21a. Amendment of articles of association

Except as otherwise specifically provided by law, or by the articles of association of the particular national banking association, the articles of association of a national banking association may be amended with respect to any lawful matter, and any action requiring the approval of the stockholders of such association may be had by the approving vote of the holders of a majority of the voting shares of the stock of the association obtained at a meeting of the stockholders called and held pursuant to notice given by mail at least ten days prior to the meeting or pursuant to a waiver of such notice given by all stockholders entitled to receive notice of such meeting. A certified copy of every amendment to the articles of association adopted by the shareholders of a national banking association shall be forwarded to the Comptroller of the Currency, to be filed and preserved in his office.

(Pub. L. 86–230, §13, Sept. 8, 1959, 73 Stat. 458.)

§22. Organization certificate

The persons uniting to form such an association shall, under their hands, make an organization certificate, which shall specifically state:

First. The name assumed by such association; which name shall include the word “national”.

Second. The place where its operations of discount and deposit are to be carried on, designating the State, Territory, or District, and the particular county and city, town, or village.

Third. The amount of capital stock and the number of shares into which the same is to be divided.

Fourth. The names and places of residence of the shareholders and the number of shares held by each of them.

Fifth. The fact that the certificate is made to enable such persons to avail themselves of the advantages of title 62 of the Revised Statutes.

(R.S. §5134; Pub. L. 86–230, §25, Sept. 8, 1959, 73 Stat. 466; Pub. L. 97–320, title IV, §405(b), Oct. 15, 1982, 96 Stat. 1512.)

References in Text

Title 62 of the Revised Statutes, referred to in par. Fifth, was in the original “this Title” meaning title LXII of the Revised Statutes, consisting of R.S. §§5133 to 5244, which are classified to this section and sections 16, 21, 23 to 24a, 25a, 25b, 26, 27, 29, 35 to 37, 39, 43, 52, 53, 55 to 57, 59 to 62, 66, 71, 72 to 76, 81, 83 to 86, 90, 91, 93, 93a, 94, 141 to 144, 161, 164, 181, 182, 192 to 194, 196, 215c, 481 to 485, 501, 541, 548, and 582 of this title. See, also, sections 8, 333, 334, 475, 656, 709, 1004, and 1005 of Title 18, Crimes and Criminal Procedure. For complete classification of R.S. §§5133 to 5244 to the Code, see Tables.

Codification

R.S. §5134 derived from act June 3, 1864, ch. 106, §6, 13 Stat. 101, which was the National Bank Act. See section 38 of this title.

Amendments

1982—Par. First. Pub. L. 97–320 struck out “and be subject to the approval of the Comptroller of the Currency” after “national”.

1959—Par. First. Pub. L. 86–230 substituted “which named shall include the word ‘national’ and be” for “which name shall be”.

§23. Acknowledgment and filing of certificate

The organization certificate shall be acknowledged before a judge of some court of record, or notary public; and shall be, together with the acknowledgment thereof, authenticated by the seal of such court, or notary, transmitted to the Comptroller of the Currency, who shall record and carefully preserve the same in his office.

(R.S. §5135.)

Codification

R.S. §5135 derived from act June 3, 1864, ch. 106, §6, 13 Stat. 101, which was the National Bank Act. See section 38 of this title.

Exception as to Transfer of Functions

Functions vested by any provision of law in Comptroller of the Currency, referred to in this section, not included in transfer of functions to Secretary of the Treasury, see note set out under section 1 of this title.

§24. Corporate powers of associations

Upon duly making and filing articles of association and an organization certificate a national banking association shall become, as from the date of the execution of its organization certificate, a body corporate, and as such, and in the name designated in the organization certificate, it shall have power—

First. To adopt and use a corporate seal.

Second. To have succession from February 25, 1927, or from the date of its organization if organized after February 25, 1927, until such time as it be dissolved by the act of its shareholders owning two-thirds of its stock, or until its franchise becomes forfeited by reason of violation of law, or until terminated by either a general or a special Act of Congress or until its affairs be placed in the hands of a receiver and finally wound up by him.

Third. To make contracts.

Fourth. To sue and be sued, complain and defend, in any court of law and equity, as fully as natural persons.

Fifth. To elect or appoint directors, and by its board of directors to appoint a president, vice president, cashier, and other officers, define their duties, require bonds of them and fix the penalty thereof, dismiss such officers or any of them at pleasure, and appoint others to fill their places.

Sixth. To prescribe, by its board of directors, bylaws not inconsistent with law, regulating the manner in which its stock shall be transferred, its directors elected or appointed, its officers appointed, its property transferred, its general business conducted, and the privileges granted to it by law exercised and enjoyed.

Seventh. To exercise by its board of directors or duly authorized officers or agents, subject to law, all such incidental powers as shall be necessary to carry on the business of banking; by discounting and negotiating promissory notes, drafts, bills of exchange, and other evidences of debt; by receiving deposits; by buying and selling exchange, coin, and bullion; by loaning money on personal security; and by obtaining, issuing, and circulating notes according to the provisions of title 62 of the Revised Statutes. The business of dealing in securities and stock by the association shall be limited to purchasing and selling such securities and stock without recourse, solely upon the order, and for the account of, customers, and in no case for its own account, and the association shall not underwrite any issue of securities or stock; Provided, That the association may purchase for its own account investment securities under such limitations and restrictions as the Comptroller of the Currency may by regulation prescribe. In no event shall the total amount of the investment securities of any one obligor or maker, held by the association for its own account, exceed at any time 10 per centum of its capital stock actually paid in and unimpaired and 10 per centum of its unimpaired surplus fund, except that this limitation shall not require any association to dispose of any securities lawfully held by it on August 23, 1935. As used in this section the term “investment securities” shall mean marketable obligations, evidencing indebtedness of any person, copartnership, association, or corporation in the form of bonds, notes and/or debentures commonly known as investment securities under such further definition of the term “investment securities” as may by regulation be prescribed by the Comptroller of the Currency. Except as hereinafter provided or otherwise permitted by law, nothing herein contained shall authorize the purchase by the association for its own account of any shares of stock of any corporation. The limitations and restrictions herein contained as to dealing in, underwriting and purchasing for its own account, investment securities shall not apply to obligations of the United States, or general obligations of any State or of any political subdivision thereof, or obligations of the Washington Metropolitan Area Transit Authority which are guaranteed by the Secretary of Transportation under section 9 of the National Capital Transportation Act of 1969, or obligations issued under authority of the Federal Farm Loan Act, as amended, or issued by the thirteen banks for cooperatives or any of them or the Federal Home Loan Banks, or obligations which are insured by the Secretary of Housing and Urban Development under title XI of the National Housing Act [12 U.S.C. 1749aaa et seq.] or obligations which are insured by the Secretary of Housing and Urban Development (hereinafter in this sentence referred to as the “Secretary”) pursuant to section 207 of the National Housing Act [12 U.S.C. 1713], if the debentures to be issued in payment of such insured obligations are guaranteed as to principal and interest by the United States, or obligations, participations, or other instruments of or issued by the Federal National Mortgage Association, or the Government National Mortgage Association, or mortgages, obligations or other securities which are or ever have been sold by the Federal Home Loan Mortgage Corporation pursuant to section 305 or section 306 of the Federal Home Loan Mortgage Corporation Act [12 U.S.C. 1454 or 1455], or obligations of the Federal Financing Bank or obligations of the Environmental Financing Authority, or obligations or other instruments or securities of the Student Loan Marketing Association, or such obligations of any local public agency (as defined in section 110(h) of the Housing Act of 1949 [42 U.S.C. 1460(h)]) as are secured by an agreement between the local public agency and the Secretary in which the local public agency agrees to borrow from said Secretary, and said Secretary agrees to lend to said local public agency, monies in an aggregate amount which (together with any other monies irrevocably committed to the payment of interest on such obligations) will suffice to pay, when due, the interest on and all installments (including the final installment) of the principal of such obligations, which monies under the terms of said agreement are required to be used for such payments, or such obligations of a public housing agency (as defined in the United States Housing Act of 1937, as amended [42 U.S.C. 1437 et seq.]) as are secured (1) by an agreement between the public housing agency and the Secretary in which the public housing agency agrees to borrow from the Secretary, and the Secretary agrees to lend to the public housing agency, prior to the maturity of such obligations, monies in an amount which (together with any other monies irrevocably committed to the payment of interest on such obligations) will suffice to pay the principal of such obligations with interest to maturity thereon, which monies under the terms of said agreement are required to be used for the purpose of paying the principal of and the interest on such obligations at their maturity, (2) by a pledge of annual contributions under an annual contributions contract between such public housing agency and the Secretary if such contract shall contain the covenant by the Secretary which is authorized by subsection (g) of section 6 of the United States Housing Act of 1937, as amended [42 U.S.C. 1437d(g)], and if the maximum sum and the maximum period specified in such contract pursuant to said subsection 6(g) [42 U.S.C. 1437d(g)] shall not be less than the annual amount and the period for payment which are requisite to provide for the payment when due of all installments of principal and interest on such obligations, or (3) by a pledge of both annual contributions under an annual contributions contract containing the covenant by the Secretary which is authorized by section 6(g) of the United States Housing Act of 1937 [42 U.S.C. 1437d(g)], and a loan under an agreement between the local public housing agency and the Secretary in which the public housing agency agrees to borrow from the Secretary, and the Secretary agrees to lend to the public housing agency, prior to the maturity of the obligations involved, moneys in an amount which (together with any other moneys irrevocably committed under the annual contributions contract to the payment of principal and interest on such obligations) will suffice to provide for the payment when due of all installments of principal and interest on such obligations, which moneys under the terms of the agreement are required to be used for the purpose of paying the principal and interest on such obligations at their maturity: Provided, That in carrying on the business commonly known as the safe-deposit business the association shall not invest in the capital stock of a corporation organized under the law of any State to conduct a safe-deposit business in an amount in excess of 15 per centum of the capital stock of the association actually paid in and unimpaired and 15 per centum of its unimpaired surplus. The limitations and restrictions herein contained as to dealing in and underwriting investment securities shall not apply to obligations issued by the International Bank for Reconstruction and Development, the European Bank for Reconstruction and Development, the Inter-American Development Bank 1 Bank for Economic Cooperation and Development in the Middle East and North Africa,,2 the North American Development Bank, the Asian Development Bank, the African Development Bank, the Inter-American Investment Corporation, or the International Finance Corporation,,2 or obligations issued by any State or political subdivision or any agency of a State or political subdivision for housing, university, or dormitory purposes, which are at the time eligible for purchase by a national bank for its own account, nor to bonds, notes and other obligations issued by the Tennessee Valley Authority or by the United States Postal Service: Provided, That no association shall hold obligations issued by any of said organizations as a result of underwriting, dealing, or purchasing for its own account (and for this purpose obligations as to which it is under commitment shall be deemed to be held by it) in a total amount exceeding at any one time 10 per centum of its capital stock actually paid in and unimpaired and 10 per centum of its unimpaired surplus fund. Notwithstanding any other provision in this paragraph, the association may purchase for its own account shares of stock issued by a corporation authorized to be created pursuant to title IX of the Housing and Urban Development Act of 1968 [42 U.S.C. 3931 et seq.], and may make investments in a partnership, limited partnership, or joint venture formed pursuant to section 907(a) or 907(c) of that Act [42 U.S.C. 3937(a) or 3937(c)]. Notwithstanding any other provision of this paragraph, the association may purchase for its own account shares of stock issued by any State housing corporation incorporated in the State in which the association is located and may make investments in loans and commitments for loans to any such corporation: Provided, That in no event shall the total amount of such stock held for its own account and such investments in loans and commitments made by the association exceed at any time 5 per centum of its capital stock actually paid in and unimpaired plus 5 per centum of its unimpaired surplus fund. Notwithstanding any other provision in this paragraph, the association may purchase for its own account shares of stock issued by a corporation organized solely for the purpose of making loans to farmers and ranchers for agricultural purposes, including the breeding, raising, fattening, or marketing of livestock. However, unless the association owns at least 80 per centum of the stock of such agricultural credit corporation the amount invested by the association at any one time in the stock of such corporation shall not exceed 20 per centum of the unimpaired capital and surplus of the association: Provided further, That notwithstanding any other provision of this paragraph, the association may purchase for its own account shares of stock of a bank insured by the Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation or a holding company which owns or controls such an insured bank if the stock of such bank or company is owned exclusively (except to the extent directors’ qualifying shares are required by law) by depository institutions or depository institution holding companies (as defined in section 1813 of this title) and such bank or company and all subsidiaries thereof are engaged exclusively in providing services to or for other depository institutions, their holding companies, and the officers, directors, and employees of such institutions and companies, and in providing correspondent banking services at the request of other depository institutions or their holding companies (also referred to as a “banker's bank”), but in no event shall the total amount of such stock held by the association in any bank or holding company exceed at any time 10 per centum of the association's capital stock and paid in and unimpaired surplus and in no event shall the purchase of such stock result in an association's acquiring more than 5 per centum of any class of voting securities of such bank or company. The limitations and restrictions contained in this paragraph as to an association purchasing for its own account investment securities shall not apply to securities that (A) are offered and sold pursuant to section 4(5) of the Securities Act of 1933 (15 U.S.C. 77d(5)); (B) are small business related securities (as defined in section 3(a)(53) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 [15 U.S.C. 78c(a)(53)]); or (C) are mortgage related securities (as that term is defined in section 3(a)(41) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 (15 U.S.C. 78c(a)(41)).3 The exception provided for the securities described in subparagraphs (A), (B), and (C) shall be subject to such regulations as the Comptroller of the Currency may prescribe, including regulations prescribing minimum size of the issue (at the time of initial distribution) or minimum aggregate sales prices, or both.

A national banking association may deal in, underwrite, and purchase for such association's own account qualified Canadian government obligations to the same extent that such association may deal in, underwrite, and purchase for such association's own account obligations of the United States or general obligations of any State or of any political subdivision thereof. For purposes of this paragraph—

(1) the term “qualified Canadian government obligations” means any debt obligation which is backed by Canada, any Province of Canada, or any political subdivision of any such Province to a degree which is comparable to the liability of the United States, any State, or any political subdivision thereof for any obligation which is backed by the full faith and credit of the United States, such State, or such political subdivision, and such term includes any debt obligation of any agent of Canada or any such Province or any political subdivision of such Province if—

(A) the obligation of the agent is assumed in such agent's capacity as agent for Canada or such Province or such political subdivision; and

(B) Canada, such Province, or such political subdivision on whose behalf such agent is acting with respect to such obligation is ultimately and unconditionally liable for such obligation; and


(2) the term “Province of Canada” means a Province of Canada and includes the Yukon Territory and the Northwest Territories and their successors.


In addition to the provisions in this paragraph for dealing in, underwriting, or purchasing securities, the limitations and restrictions contained in this paragraph as to dealing in, underwriting, and purchasing investment securities for the national bank's own account shall not apply to obligations (including limited obligation bonds, revenue bonds, and obligations that satisfy the requirements of section 142(b)(1) of title 26) issued by or on behalf of any State or political subdivision of a State, including any municipal corporate instrumentality of 1 or more States, or any public agency or authority of any State or political subdivision of a State, if the national bank is well capitalized (as defined in section 1831o of this title).

Eighth. To contribute to community funds, or to charitable, philanthropic, or benevolent instrumentalities conducive to public welfare, such sums as its board of directors may deem expedient and in the interests of the association, if it is located in a State the laws of which do not expressly prohibit State banking institutions from contributing to such funds or instrumentalities.

Ninth. To issue and sell securities which are guaranteed pursuant to section 1721(g) of this title.

Tenth. To invest in tangible personal property, including, without limitation, vehicles, manufactured homes, machinery, equipment, or furniture, for lease financing transactions on a net lease basis, but such investment may not exceed 10 percent of the assets of the association.

Eleventh. To make investments directly or indirectly, each of which is designed primarily to promote the public welfare, including the welfare of low- and moderate-income communities or families (such as by providing housing, services, or jobs). An association shall not make any such investment if the investment would expose the association to unlimited liability. The Comptroller of the Currency shall limit an association's investments in any 1 project and an association's aggregate investments under this paragraph. An association's aggregate investments under this paragraph shall not exceed an amount equal to the sum of 5 percent of the association's capital stock actually paid in and unimpaired and 5 percent of the association's unimpaired surplus fund, unless the Comptroller determines by order that the higher amount will pose no significant risk to the affected deposit insurance fund, and the association is adequately capitalized. In no case shall an association's aggregate investments under this paragraph exceed an amount equal to the sum of 15 percent of the association's capital stock actually paid in and unimpaired and 15 percent of the association's unimpaired surplus fund. The foregoing standards and limitations apply to investments under this paragraph made by a national bank directly and by its subsidiaries.

(R.S. §5136; July 1, 1922, ch. 257, §1, 42 Stat. 767; Feb. 25, 1927, ch. 191, §2, 44 Stat. 1226; June 16, 1933, ch. 89, §16, 48 Stat. 184; Aug. 23, 1935, ch. 614, title III, §308, 49 Stat. 709; Feb. 3, 1938, ch. 13, §13, 52 Stat. 26; June 11, 1940, ch. 301, 54 Stat. 261; June 29, 1949, ch. 276, §1, 63 Stat. 298; July 15, 1949, ch. 338, title VI, §602(a), 63 Stat. 439; Apr. 9, 1952, ch. 169, 66 Stat. 49; Aug. 2, 1954, ch. 649, title II, §203, 68 Stat. 622; Aug. 23, 1954, ch. 834, §2, 68 Stat. 771; July 26, 1956, ch. 741, title II, §201(c), 70 Stat. 667; Pub. L. 86–137, §2, Aug. 6, 1959, 73 Stat. 285; Pub. L. 86–147, §10, Aug. 7, 1959, 73 Stat. 301; Pub. L. 86–230, §1(a), Sept. 8, 1959, 73 Stat. 457; Pub. L. 86–278, Sept. 16, 1959, 73 Stat. 563; Pub. L. 86–372, title IV, §420, Sept. 23, 1959, 73 Stat. 679; Pub. L. 88–560, title VII, §701(c), Sept. 2, 1964, 78 Stat. 800; Pub. L. 89–369, §10, Mar. 16, 1966, 80 Stat. 72; Pub. L. 89–754, title V, §504(a)(1), Nov. 3, 1966, 80 Stat. 1277; Pub. L. 90–19, §27(a), May 25, 1967, 81 Stat. 28; Pub. L. 90–448, title VIII, §§804(c), 807(j), title IX, §911, title XVII, §1705(h), Aug. 1, 1968, 82 Stat. 543, 545, 550, 605; Pub. L. 91–375, §6(d), Aug. 12, 1970, 84 Stat. 776; Pub. L. 92–318, title I, §133(c)(1), June 23, 1972, 86 Stat. 269; Pub. L. 91–143, §12(b), Dec. 9, 1969, as added Pub. L. 92–349, title I, §101, July 13, 1972, 86 Stat. 466; Pub. L. 92–500, §12(n), Oct. 18, 1972, 86 Stat. 902; Pub. L. 93–100, §5(c), Aug. 16, 1973, 87 Stat. 344; Pub. L. 93–224, §14, Dec. 29, 1973, 87 Stat. 941; Pub. L. 93–234, title II, §207, Dec. 31, 1973, 87 Stat. 984; Pub. L. 93–383, title II, §206, title VIII, §805(c)(1), Aug. 22, 1974, 88 Stat. 668, 726; Pub. L. 96–221, title VII, §711, Mar. 31, 1980, 94 Stat. 189; Pub. L. 97–35, title XIII, §1342(a), Aug. 13, 1981, 95 Stat. 743; Pub. L. 97–320, title IV, §404(b), Oct. 15, 1982, 96 Stat. 1511; Pub. L. 97–457, §18, Jan. 12, 1983, 96 Stat. 2509; Pub. L. 98–440, title I, §105(c), Oct. 3, 1984, 98 Stat. 1691; Pub. L. 98–473, title I, §101(1) [title I, §101], Oct. 12, 1984, 98 Stat. 1884, 1885; Pub. L. 100–86, title I, §108, Aug. 10, 1987, 101 Stat. 579; Pub. L. 100–449, title III, §308, Sept. 28, 1988, 102 Stat. 1877; Pub. L. 101–513, title V, §562(c)(10)(B), (e)(1)(B), Nov. 5, 1990, 104 Stat. 2036, 2037; Pub. L. 102–485, §6(a), Oct. 23, 1992, 106 Stat. 2774; Pub. L. 103–182, title V, §541(h)(1), Dec. 8, 1993, 107 Stat. 2167; Pub. L. 103–325, title II, §206(c), title III, §§322(a)(1), 347(b), Sept. 23, 1994, 108 Stat. 2199, 2226, 2241; Pub. L. 104–208, div. A, title I, §101(c) [title VII, §710(b)], title II, §2704(d)(7), Sept. 30, 1996, 110 Stat. 3009–121, 3009–181, 3009–489; Pub. L. 106–102, title I, §151, Nov. 12, 1999, 113 Stat. 1384; Pub. L. 109–171, title II, §2102(b), Feb. 8, 2006, 120 Stat. 9; Pub. L. 109–173, §9(a), Feb. 15, 2006, 119 Stat. 3616; Pub. L. 109–351, title III, §305(a), Oct. 13, 2006, 120 Stat. 1970; Pub. L. 110–289, div. B, title V, §2503(a), July 30, 2008, 122 Stat. 2857.)

References in Text

Title 62 of the Revised Statutes, referred to in par. Seventh, was in the original “this Title” meaning title LXII of the Revised Statutes, consisting of R.S. §§5133 to 5244, which are classified to this section and sections 16, 21, 22, 23, 24a, 25a, 25b, 26, 27, 29, 35 to 37, 39, 43, 52, 53, 55 to 57, 59 to 62, 66, 71, 72 to 76, 81, 83 to 86, 90, 91, 93, 93a, 94, 141 to 144, 161, 164, 181, 182, 192 to 194, 196, 215c, 481 to 485, 501, 541, 548, and 582 of this title. See, also, sections 8, 333, 334, 475, 656, 709, 1004, and 1005 of Title 18, Crimes and Criminal Procedure. For complete classification of R.S. §§5133 to 5244 to the Code, see Tables.

Section 9 of the National Capital Transportation Act of 1969, referred to in par. Seventh, is section 9 of Pub. L. 91–143, as added by section 101 of title I of Pub. L. 92–349, July 13, 1972, 86 Stat. 464, which is not classified to the Code.

The Federal Farm Loan Act, referred to in par. Seventh, is act July 17, 1916, ch. 245, 39 Stat. 360, which was classified to section 641 et seq. of this title prior to its repeal by Pub. L. 92–181, §5.26(a), Dec. 10, 1971, 85 Stat. 624. See chapter 23 (§2001 et seq.) of this title.

The National Housing Act, referred to in par. Seventh, is act June 27, 1934, ch. 847, 48 Stat. 1246, as amended. Title XI of the National Housing Act is title XI of act June 27, 1934, ch. 847, as added by act Nov. 3, 1966, Pub. L. 89–754, title V, §502(a), 80 Stat. 1274, which is classified generally to subchapter IX–B (§1749aaa et seq.) of chapter 13 of this title. For complete classification of this Act to the Code, see section 1701 of this title and Tables.

Section 110 of the Housing Act of 1949 [42 U.S.C. 1460], referred to in par. Seventh, was omitted from the Code pursuant to section 5316 of Title 42, The Public Health and Welfare, which terminated authority to make grants or loans under title I of that Act [42 U.S.C. 1450 et seq.] after Jan. 1, 1975.

The United States Housing Act of 1937, referred to in par. Seventh, is act Sept. 1, 1937, ch. 896, as revised generally by Pub. L. 93–383, title II, Aug. 22, 1974, 88 Stat. 653, and is classified to chapter 8 (§1437 et seq.) of Title 42. For complete classification of this Act to the Code, see Short Title note set out under section 1437 of Title 42 and Tables.

The Housing and Urban Development Act of 1968, referred to in par. Seventh, is Pub. L. 90–448, Aug. 1, 1968, 82 Stat. 476, as amended. Title IX of the Housing and Urban Development Act is classified principally to chapter 49 (§3931 et seq.) of Title 42. For complete classification of this Act to the Code, see Short Title of 1968 Amendment note set out under section 1701 of this title and Tables.

Codification

Amendment by Pub. L. 98–473 is based on section 211(a) of title II of S. 2416, as introduced in the Senate on Mar. 13, 1984, which was enacted into permanent law by section 101(1) of Pub. L. 98–473.

R.S. §5136 derived from act June 3, 1864, ch. 106, §8, 13 Stat. 101, which was the National Bank Act. See section 38 of this title.

Amendments

2008—Par. Eleventh. Pub. L. 110–289, which directed substitution of “is designed primarily to promote the public welfare, including the welfare of” for “promotes the public welfare by benefitting primarily” in first sentence, was executed by making the substitution for “promotes the public welfare by benefiting primarily” to reflect the probable intent of Congress.

2006—Par. Eleventh. Pub. L. 109–351 amended par. generally. Prior to amendment, par. read as follows: “Eleventh. To make investments designed primarily to promote the public welfare, including the welfare of low- and moderate-income communities or families (such as by providing housing, services, or jobs). A national banking association may make such investments directly or by purchasing interests in an entity primarily engaged in making such investments. An association shall not make any such investment if the investment would expose the association to unlimited liability. The Comptroller of the Currency shall limit an association's investments in any 1 project and an association's aggregate investments under this paragraph. An association's aggregate investments under this paragraph shall not exceed an amount equal to the sum of 5 percent of the association's capital stock actually paid in and unimpaired and 5 percent of the association's unimpaired surplus fund, unless the Comptroller determines by order that the higher amount will pose no significant risk to the Deposit Insurance Fund, and the association is adequately capitalized. In no case shall an association's aggregate investments under this paragraph exceed an amount equal to the sum of 10 percent of the association's capital stock actually paid in and unimpaired and 10 percent of the association's unimpaired surplus fund.”

Pub. L. 109–173, in fifth sentence, substituted “Deposit Insurance Fund” for “affected deposit insurance fund”.

Pub. L. 109–171 repealed Pub. L. 104–208, §2704(d)(7). See 1996 Amendment note below.

1999—Par. Seventh. Pub. L. 106–102 inserted at end “In addition to the provisions in this paragraph for dealing in, underwriting, or purchasing securities, the limitations and restrictions contained in this paragraph as to dealing in, underwriting, and purchasing investment securities for the national bank's own account shall not apply to obligations (including limited obligation bonds, revenue bonds, and obligations that satisfy the requirements of section 142(b)(1) of title 26) issued by or on behalf of any State or political subdivision of a State, including any municipal corporate instrumentality of 1 or more States, or any public agency or authority of any State or political subdivision of a State, if the national bank is well capitalized (as defined in section 1831o of this title).”

1996—Par. Seventh. Pub. L. 104–208, §101(c) [§710(b)], in seventh sentence, inserted “Bank for Economic Cooperation and Development in the Middle East and North Africa,” after “the Inter-American Development Bank”.

Par. Eleventh. Pub. L. 104—208, §2704(d)(7), which directed the amendment of the fifth sentence by substituting “Deposit Insurance Fund” for “affected deposit insurance fund”, was repealed by Pub. L. 109–171. See Effective Date of 1996 Amendment note below and 2006 Amendment note above.

1994—Par. Seventh. Pub. L. 103–325, §347(b), in last sentence of first par., substituted “(15 U.S.C. 78c(a)(41)). The exception provided for the securities described in subparagraphs (A), (B), and (C) shall be subject to such regulations” for “(15 U.S.C. 78c(a)(41))), subject to such regulations”.

Pub. L. 103–325, §322(a)(1)(A), in fifth proviso inserted “or depository institution holding companies (as defined in section 1813 of this title)” after “(except to the extent directors’ qualifying shares are required by law) by depository institutions”.

Pub. L. 103–325, §322(a)(1)(B), which directed substitution in fifth proviso of “services to or for other depository institutions, their holding companies, and the officers, directors, and employees of such institutions and companies, and in providing correspondent banking services at the request of other depository institutions or their holding companies (also referred to as a ‘banker's bank’)” for “services for other depository institutions and their officers, directors and employees”, was executed by making the substitution for “services for other depository institutions and their officers, directors, and employees” to reflect the probable intent of Congress.

Pub. L. 103–325, §206(c), substituted “(B) are small business related securities (as defined in section 3(a)(53) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934); or (C) are mortgage related securities” for “or (B) are mortgage related securities”.

1993—Par. Seventh. Pub. L. 103–182 inserted “the North American Development Bank,” after “Inter-American Development Bank,”.

1992—Par. Eleventh. Pub. L. 102–485 added par. Eleventh.

1990—Par. Seventh. Pub. L. 101–513 inserted “the European Bank for Reconstruction and Development,” before “the Inter-American Development Bank,” and substituted “the African Development Bank, the Inter-American Investment Corporation, or the International Finance Corporation,” for “the African Development Bank or the Inter-American Investment Corporation,”.

1988—Par. Seventh. Pub. L. 100–449 inserted provisions authorizing national banking associations to deal in, underwrite, and purchase Canadian government obligations for the association's own account.

1987—Par. Tenth. Pub. L. 100–86 added par. Tenth.

1984—Par. Seventh. Pub. L. 98–473 inserted reference to the Inter-American Investment Corporation.

Pub. L. 98–440 inserted provision that the limitations and restrictions contained in this paragraph as to an association purchasing investment securities for its own account shall not apply to securities offered and sold pursuant to section 15 U.S.C. 77d(5), or that are mortgage related securities (as defined in 15 U.S.C. 78c(a)(41)), subject to such regulations as the Comptroller of the Currency may prescribe.

1983—Par. Seventh. Pub. L. 97–457 substituted “10 per centum of the association's” for “10 per centum of its” after “exceed at any time”.

1982—Par. Seventh. Pub. L. 97–320 substituted “Provided further, That notwithstanding any other provision of this paragraph, the association may purchase for its own account shares of stock of a bank insured by the Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation or a holding company which owns or controls such an insured bank if the stock of such bank or company is owned exclusively (except to the extent directors’ qualifying shares are required by law) by depository institutions and such bank or company and all subsidiaries thereof are engaged exclusively in providing services for other depository institutions and their officers, directors, and employees, but in no event shall the total amount of such stock held by the association in any bank or holding company exceed at any time 10 per centum of its capital stock and paid in and unimpaired surplus and in no event shall the purchase of such stock result in an association's acquiring more than 5 per centum of any class of voting securities of such bank or company” for “Provided further, That, notwithstanding any other provision of this paragraph, the association may purchase for its own account shares of stock of a bank insured by the Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation if the stock of such bank is owned exclusively by other banks (except to the extent State law requires directors qualifying shares) and if such bank is engaged exclusively in providing banking services for other banks and their officers, directors, or employees, but in no event shall the total amount of such stock held by the association exceed at any time 10 per centum of its capital stock and paid in and unimpaired surplus, and in no event shall the purchase of such stock result in the association's acquiring more than 5 per centum of any class of voting securities of such bank”.

1981—Par. Seventh. Pub. L. 97–35 inserted reference to the African Development Bank.

1980—Par. Seventh. Pub. L. 96–221 inserted proviso relating to purchase of stock in bankers’ banks.

1974—Par. Seventh. Pub. L. 93–383 substituted “section 6(g) of the United States Housing Act of 1937” for references to section 1421a(b) of title 42 wherever appearing, struck out “either” before “(1)”, “(which obligations shall have a maturity of not more than eighteen months)” in cl. (1) and “or” before “(2)”, added cl. (3), and inserted reference to mortgages, obligations, or other securities sold by the Federal Home Loan Mortgage Corporation pursuant to section 1454 or 1455 of this title.

1973—Par. Seventh. Pub. L. 93–234 authorized investments by national banks in agricultural credit corporations.

Pub. L. 93–224 inserted “or obligations of the Federal Financing Bank” after “or obligations, participations, or other instruments of or issued by the Federal National Mortgage Association or the Government National Mortgage Association”.

Pub. L. 93–100 inserted provision that the association may purchase shares of stock issued by state housing corporations incorporated in the state in which the association is located and make investments in loans and commitments for loans to such corporations with certain limitations.

1972—Par. Seventh. Pub. L. 92–500 inserted “or obligations of the Environmental Financing Authority” after “Government National Mortgage Association”.

Pub. L. 92–349 inserted provisions that limitations and restrictions contained in this section as to dealing in and underwriting investment securities shall not apply to obligations of the Washington Metropolitan Area Transit Authority which are guaranteed by the Secretary of Transportation under section 9 of the National Capital Transportation Act of 1969.

Pub. L. 92–318 included obligations or other instruments or securities of the Student Loan Marketing Association.

1970—Par. Seventh. Pub. L. 91–375 made limitations and restrictions contained in this section as to dealing in and underwriting investment securities inapplicable to bonds, notes and other obligations issued by the United States Postal Service.

1968—Par. Seventh. Pub. L. 90–448, §807(j), inserted “or the Government National Mortgage Association” after “Federal National Mortgage Association”.

Pub. L. 90–448, §911, authorized the association to purchase for its own account shares of stock issued by a corporation authorized to be created pursuant to sections 3931–3940 of title 42, and to make investments in a partnership, limited partnership, or joint venture formed pursuant to section 3937(a) or 3937(c) of title 42.

Pub. L. 90–448, §1705(h), included obligations issued by any State or political subdivision or any agency of a State or political subdivision for housing, university, or dormitory purposes.

Par. Ninth. Pub. L. 90–448, §804(c), added par. Ninth.

1967—Par. Seventh. Pub. L. 90–19 substituted “Secretary of Housing and Urban Development (hereafter in this sentence referred to as the ‘Secretary’)” for “Federal Housing Administrator”; and “Secretary” for “Housing and Home Finance Administrator” after “local public agency and the”, for “Administrator” in two instances just before “agrees to lend”, and for “Public Housing Administration” wherever appearing in cls. (1) and (2), respectively.

1966—Par. Seventh. Pub. L. 89–754 made limitations and restrictions for dealing, underwriting, and purchasing for its own account of investment securities inapplicable to obligations which are insured by Secretary of Housing and Urban Development under provisions relating to mortgage insurance for group practice facilities.

Pub. L. 89–369 inserted provisions that limitations and restrictions contained in this section as to dealing in and underwriting investment securities shall not apply to obligations issued by the Asian Development Bank.

1964—Par. Seventh. Pub. L. 88–560 substituted “or obligations, participations, or other instruments of or issued by the Federal National Mortgage Association” for “or obligations of the Federal National Mortgage Association”.

1959—Par. Seventh. Pub. L. 86–372 substituted “monies in an aggregate amount which (together with any other monies irrevocably committed to the payment of interest on such obligations) will suffice to pay, when due, the interest on and all installments (including the final installment) of the principal of such obligations, which monies under the terms of said agreement are required to be used for such payments” for “prior to the maturity of such obligations (which obligations shall have a maturity of not more than eighteen months), monies in an amount which (together with any other monies irrevocably committed to the payment of interest on such obligations) will suffice to pay the principal of such obligations with interest to maturity thereon, which monies under the terms of said agreement are required to be used for the purpose of paying the principal of and the interest on such obligations at their maturity” after “local public agency,”.

Pub. L. 86–278 substituted “any” for “either” before “of said organizations” in last sentence.

Pub. L. 86–230 struck out “or the Home Owners’ Loan Corporation” after “Federal Home Loan Banks”.

Pub. L. 86–147 inserted provisions that limitations and restrictions contained in this section as to dealing in and underwriting investment securities shall not apply to obligations issued by the Inter-American Development Bank.

Pub. L. 86–137 inserted provisions that limitations and restrictions contained in this section as to dealing in and underwriting investment securities shall not apply to bonds, notes and other obligations issued by the Tennessee Valley Authority.

1959—Par. Seventh. Pub. L. 86–372 substituted “monies in an aggregate amount which (together with any other monies irrevocably committed to the payment of interest on such obligations) will suffice to pay, when due, the interest on and all installments (including the final installment) of the principal of such obligations, which monies under the terms of said agreement are required to be used for such payments” for “prior to the maturity of such obligations (which obligations shall have a maturity of not more than eighteen months), monies in an amount which (together with any other monies irrevocably committed to the payment of interest on such obligations) will suffice to pay the principal of such obligations with interest to maturity thereon, which monies under the terms of said agreement are required to be used for the purpose of paying the principal of and the interest on such obligations at their maturity” following “local public agency,”.

Pub. L. 86–278 substituted “any” for “either” before “of said organizations” in last sentence.

Pub. L. 86–230 struck out “or the Home Owners’ Loan Corporation” after “Federal Home Loan Banks”.

Pub. L. 86–147 inserted provisions that limitations and restrictions contained in this section as to dealing in and underwriting investment securities shall not apply to obligations issued by the Inter-American Development Bank.

Pub. L. 86–137 inserted provisions that limitations and restrictions contained in this section as to dealing in and underwriting investment securities shall not apply to bonds, notes and other obligations issued by the Tennessee Valley Authority.

1956—Par. Seventh. Act July 26, 1956, removed restriction which prohibited a national bank from investing in obligations of the thirteen banks for cooperatives an amount exceeding 10 percent of its capital stock actually paid in and unimpaired and 10 percent of its unimpaired surplus.

1954—Par. Seventh. Act Aug. 23, 1954, substituted “thirteen banks for cooperatives organized under the Farm Credit Act of 1933, or any of them” for “Central Bank for Cooperatives” in last sentence.

Act Aug. 2, 1954, substituted “or obligations of the Federal National Mortgage Association” for “or obligations of national mortgage associations” in sixth sentence.

1952—Par. Seventh. Act Apr. 9, 1952, enabled national banks and State member banks of the Federal Reserve System to receive compensation in the distribution of debentures issued by the Central Bank for Cooperation.

1949—Par. Seventh. Act July 15, 1949, inserted, in next to last sentence, “or such obligations of any local public agency (as defined in section 110(h) of the Housing Act of 1949) as are secured by an agreement between the local public agency and the Housing and Home Finance Administrator in which the local public agency agrees to borrow from said Administrator, and said Administrator agrees to lend to said local public agency, prior to the maturity of such obligations (which obligations shall have a maturity of not more than eighteen months), monies in an amount which (together with any other monies irrevocably committed to the payment of interest on such obligations) will suffice to pay the principal of such obligations with interest to maturity thereon, which monies under the terms of said agreement are required to be used for the purpose of paying the principal of and the interest on such obligations at their maturity, or such obligations of a public housing agency (as defined in the United States Housing Act of 1937, as amended) as are secured either (1) by an agreement between the public housing agency and the Public Housing Administration in which the public housing agency agrees to borrow from the Public Housing Administration, and the Public Housing Administration agrees to lend to the public housing agency, prior to the maturity of such obligations (which obligations shall have a maturity of not more than eighteen months), monies in an amount which (together with any other monies irrevocably committed to the payment of interest on such obligations) will suffice to pay the principal of such obligations with interest to maturity thereon, which monies under the terms of said agreement are required to be used for the purpose of paying the principal of and the interest on such obligations at their maturity, or (2) by a pledge of annual contributions under an annual contributions contract between such public housing agency and the Public Housing Administration if such contract shall contain the covenant by the Public Housing Administration which is authorized by subsection (b) of section 22 of the United States Housing Act of 1937, as amended, and if the maximum sum and the maximum period specified in such contract pursuant to said subsection 22(b) shall not be less than the annual amount and the period for payment, which are requisite to provide for the payment when due of all installments of principal and interest on such obligations”.

Act June 29, 1949, inserted last sentence to permit national banks and State member banks of the Federal Reserve System to deal in and underwrite obligations issued by the International Bank subject to certain limitations.

1940—Par. Eighth. Act June 11, 1940, added par. Eighth.

1938—Par. Seventh. Act Feb. 3, 1938, inserted “or obligations of national mortgage associations” in last sentence.

1935—Par. Seventh. Act Aug. 23, 1935, amended second, fourth, and last sentences.

1933—Act June 16, 1933, among other changes, struck out closing paragraph prohibiting transaction of any business by association prior to authorization by Comptroller, except that necessarily preliminary to organization.

1927—Act Feb. 25, 1927, struck out definite period of succession in par. Second, and inserted provisos in par. Seventh.

Effective Date of 2006 Amendment

Pub. L. 109–173, §9(j), Feb. 15, 2006, 119 Stat. 3618, provided that: “This section [amending this section and sections 338a, 347b, 1431, 1441, 1441a, 1441b, 1464, 1467a, 1723i, 1735f–14, 1828a, 1833a, 1841, 1842, and 3341 of this title] and the amendments made by this section shall take effect on the day of the merger of the Bank Insurance Fund and the Savings Association Insurance Fund [Mar. 31, 2006, see 71 F.R. 20524] pursuant to the Federal Deposit Insurance Reform Act of 2005 [subtitle B (§§2101–2109) of title II of Pub. L. 109–171, see Short Title of 2006 Amendment note set out under section 1811 of this title].”

Amendment by Pub. L. 109–171 effective no later than the first day of the first calendar quarter that begins after the end of the 90-day period beginning Feb. 8, 2006, see section 2102(c) of Pub. L. 109–171, set out as a Merger of BIF and SAIF note under section 1821 of this title.

Effective Date of 1999 Amendment

Pub. L. 106–102, title I, §161, Nov. 12, 1999, 113 Stat. 1384, provided that: “This title [enacting sections 24a, 1820a, 1828a, 1828b, 1831v, 1831w, and 1848a of this title and section 6701 of Title 15, Commerce and Trade, amending this section, sections 25a, 335, 371c, 1821, 1835a, 1841 to 1844, 1849, 1850, 1864, 1971, 2903, 3101, 3106, and 3107 of this title, and section 18a of Title 15, repealing sections 78 and 377 of this title, and enacting provisions set out as notes under sections 252, 1843, and 4801 of this title and section 41 of Title 15] (other than section 104 [enacting section 6701 of Title 15]) and the amendments made by this title shall take effect 120 days after the date of the enactment of this Act [Nov. 12, 1999].”

Effective Date of 1996 Amendment

Amendment by section 2704(d)(7) of Pub. L. 104–208 effective Jan. 1, 1999, if no insured depository institution is a savings association on that date, see section 2704(c) of Pub. L. 104–208, formerly set out as a note under section 1821 of this title.

Effective Date of 1994 Amendment

Section 347(d) of Pub. L. 103–325 provided that: “The amendments made by this section [amending this section and section 78c of Title 15, Commerce and Trade] shall become effective upon the date of promulgation of final regulations under subsection (c) [set out below].”

Effective and Termination Dates of 1988 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 100–449 effective on date United States-Canada Free-Trade Agreement enters into force (Jan. 1, 1989), and to cease to have effect on date Agreement ceases to be in force, see section 501(a), (c) of Pub. L. 100–449, set out in a note under section 2112 of Title 19, Customs Duties.

Effective Date of 1981 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 97–35 effective Aug. 13, 1981, see section 1372 of Pub. L. 97–35, set out as an Effective Date note under section 290i of Title 22, Foreign Relations and Intercourse.

Effective Date of 1973 Amendments

Amendment by Pub. L. 93–224 effective Dec. 29, 1973, see section 20 of Pub. L. 93–224, set out as an Effective Date note under section 2281 of this title.

Amendment by Pub. L. 93–100 effective Aug. 16, 1973, see section 8 of Pub. L. 93–100, set out as an Effective Date note under section 1469 of this title.

Effective Date of 1970 Amendment

For effective date of amendment by Pub. L. 91–375, see section 15(a) of Pub. L. 91–375, set out as an Effective Date note preceding section 101 of Title 39, Postal Service.

Effective Date of 1968 Amendment

For effective date of amendment by title VIII of Pub. L. 90–448, see section 808 of Pub. L. 90–448, set out as an Effective Date note under section 1716b of this title.

Effective Date of 1956 Amendment

Amendment by act July 26, 1956, effective Jan. 1, 1957, see section 202(a) of act July 26, 1956.

Effective Date of 1933 Amendment

Section 16 of act June 16, 1933, provided that restrictions of this section as to dealing in investment securities shall take effect one year after June 16, 1933.

Regulations

Section 347(c) of Pub. L. 103–325 provided that: “Not later than 1 year after the date of enactment of this Act [Sept. 23, 1994], the Comptroller of the Currency shall promulgate final regulations, in accordance with the thirteenth sentence of Paragraph Seventh of section 5136 of the Revised Statutes [this section] (as amended by subsection (b)), to carry out the amendments made by this section [amending this section and section 78c of Title 15, Commerce and Trade].” [Final regulations implementing these amendments were published in the Federal Register on Dec. 2, 1996 [61 F.R. 63972], effective Dec. 31, 1996.]

Exception as to Transfer of Functions

Functions vested by any provision of law in Comptroller of the Currency, referred to in this section, not included in transfer of functions to Secretary of the Treasury, see note set out under section 1 of this title.

Abolition of Home Owners’ Loan Corporation

For dissolution and abolishment of Home Owners’ Loan Corporation, by act June 30, 1953, ch. 170, §21, 67 Stat. 126, see note set out under section 1463 of this title.

1 So in original. Probably should be followed by a comma.

2 So in original.

3 So in original. The period probably should be preceded by an additional closing parenthesis.

§24a. Financial subsidiaries of national banks

(a) Authorization to conduct in subsidiaries certain activities that are financial in nature

(1) In general

Subject to paragraph (2), a national bank may control a financial subsidiary, or hold an interest in a financial subsidiary.

(2) Conditions and requirements

A national bank may control a financial subsidiary, or hold an interest in a financial subsidiary, only if—

(A) the financial subsidiary engages only in—

(i) activities that are financial in nature or incidental to a financial activity pursuant to subsection (b) of this section; and

(ii) activities that are permitted for national banks to engage in directly (subject to the same terms and conditions that govern the conduct of the activities by a national bank);


(B) the activities engaged in by the financial subsidiary as a principal do not include—

(i) insuring, guaranteeing, or indemnifying against loss, harm, damage, illness, disability, or death (except to the extent permitted under section 302 or 303(c) of the Gramm-Leach-Bliley Act [15 U.S.C. 6712 or 6713(c)]) or providing or issuing annuities the income of which is subject to tax treatment under section 72 of title 26;

(ii) real estate development or real estate investment activities, unless otherwise expressly authorized by law; or

(iii) any activity permitted in subparagraph (H) or (I) of section 1843(k)(4) of this title, except activities described in section 1843(k)(4)(H) of this title that may be permitted in accordance with section 122 of the Gramm-Leach-Bliley Act;


(C) the national bank and each depository institution affiliate of the national bank are well capitalized and well managed;

(D) the aggregate consolidated total assets of all financial subsidiaries of the national bank do not exceed the lesser of—

(i) 45 percent of the consolidated total assets of the parent bank; or

(ii) $50,000,000,000;


(E) except as provided in paragraph (4), the national bank meets any applicable rating or other requirement set forth in paragraph (3); and

(F) the national bank has received the approval of the Comptroller of the Currency for the financial subsidiary to engage in such activities, which approval shall be based solely upon the factors set forth in this section.

(3) Rating or comparable requirement

(A) In general

A national bank meets the requirements of this paragraph if—

(i) the bank is 1 of the 50 largest insured banks and has not fewer than 1 issue of outstanding eligible debt that is currently rated within the 3 highest investment grade rating categories by a nationally recognized statistical rating organization; or

(ii) the bank is 1 of the second 50 largest insured banks and meets the criteria set forth in clause (i) or such other criteria as the Secretary of the Treasury and the Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System may jointly establish by regulation and determine to be comparable to and consistent with the purposes of the rating required in clause (i).

(B) Consolidated total assets

For purposes of this paragraph, the size of an insured bank shall be determined on the basis of the consolidated total assets of the bank as of the end of each calendar year.

(4) Financial agency subsidiary

The requirement in paragraph (2)(E) shall not apply with respect to the ownership or control of a financial subsidiary that engages in activities described in subsection (b)(1) of this section solely as agent and not directly or indirectly as principal.

(5) Regulations required

Before the end of the 270-day period beginning on November 12, 1999, the Comptroller of the Currency shall, by regulation, prescribe procedures to implement this section.

(6) Indexed asset limit

The dollar amount contained in paragraph (2)(D) shall be adjusted according to an indexing mechanism jointly established by regulation by the Secretary of the Treasury and the Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System.

(7) Coordination with section 1843(l)(2) of this title

Section 1843(l)(2) of this title applies to a national bank that controls a financial subsidiary in the manner provided in that section.

(b) Activities that are financial in nature

(1) Financial activities

(A) In general

An activity shall be financial in nature or incidental to such financial activity only if—

(i) such activity has been defined to be financial in nature or incidental to a financial activity for bank holding companies pursuant to section 1843(k)(4) of this title; or

(ii) the Secretary of the Treasury determines the activity is financial in nature or incidental to a financial activity in accordance with subparagraph (B).

(B) Coordination between the Board and the Secretary of the Treasury

(i) Proposals raised before the Secretary of the Treasury

(I) Consultation

The Secretary of the Treasury shall notify the Board of, and consult with the Board concerning, any request, proposal, or application under this section for a determination of whether an activity is financial in nature or incidental to a financial activity.

(II) Board view

The Secretary of the Treasury shall not determine that any activity is financial in nature or incidental to a financial activity under this section if the Board notifies the Secretary in writing, not later than 30 days after the date of receipt of the notice described in subclause (I) (or such longer period as the Secretary determines to be appropriate under the circumstances) that the Board believes that the activity is not financial in nature or incidental to a financial activity or is not otherwise permissible under this section.

(ii) Proposals raised by the Board

(I) Board recommendation

The Board may, at any time, recommend in writing that the Secretary of the Treasury find an activity to be financial in nature or incidental to a financial activity for purposes of this section.

(II) Time period for secretarial action

Not later than 30 days after the date of receipt of a written recommendation from the Board under subclause (I) (or such longer period as the Secretary of the Treasury and the Board determine to be appropriate under the circumstances), the Secretary shall determine whether to initiate a public rulemaking proposing that the subject recommended activity be found to be financial in nature or incidental to a financial activity under this section, and shall notify the Board in writing of the determination of the Secretary and, in the event that the Secretary determines not to seek public comment on the proposal, the reasons for that determination.

(2) Factors to be considered

In determining whether an activity is financial in nature or incidental to a financial activity, the Secretary shall take into account—

(A) the purposes of this Act 1 and the Gramm-Leach-Bliley Act;

(B) changes or reasonably expected changes in the marketplace in which banks compete;

(C) changes or reasonably expected changes in the technology for delivering financial services; and

(D) whether such activity is necessary or appropriate to allow a bank and the subsidiaries of a bank to—

(i) compete effectively with any company seeking to provide financial services in the United States;

(ii) efficiently deliver information and services that are financial in nature through the use of technological means, including any application necessary to protect the security or efficacy of systems for the transmission of data or financial transactions; and

(iii) offer customers any available or emerging technological means for using financial services or for the document imaging of data.

(3) Authorization of new financial activities

The Secretary of the Treasury shall, by regulation or order and in accordance with paragraph (1)(B), define, consistent with the purposes of this Act 1 and the Gramm-Leach-Bliley Act, the following activities as, and the extent to which such activities are, financial in nature or incidental to a financial activity:

(A) Lending, exchanging, transferring, investing for others, or safeguarding financial assets other than money or securities.

(B) Providing any device or other instrumentality for transferring money or other financial assets.

(C) Arranging, effecting, or facilitating financial transactions for the account of third parties.

(c) Capital deduction

(1) Capital deduction required

In determining compliance with applicable capital standards—

(A) the aggregate amount of the outstanding equity investment, including retained earnings, of a national bank in all financial subsidiaries shall be deducted from the assets and tangible equity of the national bank; and

(B) the assets and liabilities of the financial subsidiaries shall not be consolidated with those of the national bank.

(2) Financial statement disclosure of capital deduction

Any published financial statement of a national bank that controls a financial subsidiary shall, in addition to providing information prepared in accordance with generally accepted accounting principles, separately present financial information for the bank in the manner provided in paragraph (1).

(d) Safeguards for the bank

A national bank that establishes or maintains a financial subsidiary shall assure that—

(1) the procedures of the national bank for identifying and managing financial and operational risks within the national bank and the financial subsidiary adequately protect the national bank from such risks;

(2) the national bank has, for the protection of the bank, reasonable policies and procedures to preserve the separate corporate identity and limited liability of the national bank and the financial subsidiaries of the national bank; and

(3) the national bank is in compliance with this section.

(e) Provisions applicable to national banks that fail to continue to meet certain requirements

(1) In general

If a national bank or insured depository institution affiliate does not continue to meet the requirements of subsection (a)(2)(C) of this section or subsection (d) of this section, the Comptroller of the Currency shall promptly give notice to the national bank to that effect describing the conditions giving rise to the notice.

(2) Agreement to correct conditions

Not later than 45 days after the date of receipt by a national bank of a notice given under paragraph (1) (or such additional period as the Comptroller of the Currency may permit), the national bank shall execute an agreement with the Comptroller of the Currency and any relevant insured depository institution affiliate shall execute an agreement with its appropriate Federal banking agency to comply with the requirements of subsection (a)(2)(C) of this section and subsection (d) of this section.

(3) Imposition of conditions

Until the conditions described in a notice under paragraph (1) are corrected—

(A) the Comptroller of the Currency may impose such limitations on the conduct or activities of the national bank or any subsidiary of the national bank as the Comptroller of the Currency determines to be appropriate under the circumstances and consistent with the purposes of this section; and

(B) the appropriate Federal banking agency may impose such limitations on the conduct or activities of any relevant insured depository institution affiliate or any subsidiary of the institution as such agency determines to be appropriate under the circumstances and consistent with the purposes of this section.

(4) Failure to correct

If the conditions described in a notice to a national bank under paragraph (1) are not corrected within 180 days after the date of receipt by the national bank of the notice, the Comptroller of the Currency may require the national bank, under such terms and conditions as may be imposed by the Comptroller and subject to such extension of time as may be granted in the discretion of the Comptroller, to divest control of any financial subsidiary.

(5) Consultation

In taking any action under this subsection, the Comptroller shall consult with all relevant Federal and State regulatory agencies and authorities.

(f) Failure to maintain public rating or meet applicable criteria

(1) In general

A national bank that does not continue to meet any applicable rating or other requirement of subsection (a)(2)(E) of this section after acquiring or establishing a financial subsidiary shall not, directly or through a subsidiary, purchase or acquire any additional equity capital of any financial subsidiary until the bank meets such requirements.

(2) Equity capital

For purposes of this subsection, the term “equity capital” includes, in addition to any equity instrument, any debt instrument issued by a financial subsidiary, if the instrument qualifies as capital of the subsidiary under any Federal or State law, regulation, or interpretation applicable to the subsidiary.

(g) Definitions

For purposes of this section, the following definitions shall apply:

(1) Affiliate, company, control, and subsidiary

The terms “affiliate”, “company”, “control”, and “subsidiary” have the meanings given those terms in section 1841 of this title.

(2) Appropriate Federal banking agency, depository institution, insured bank, and insured depository institution

The terms “appropriate Federal banking agency”, “depository institution”, “insured bank”, and “insured depository institution” have the meanings given those terms in section 1813 of this title.

(3) Financial subsidiary

The term “financial subsidiary” means any company that is controlled by 1 or more insured depository institutions other than a subsidiary that—

(A) engages solely in activities that national banks are permitted to engage in directly and are conducted subject to the same terms and conditions that govern the conduct of such activities by national banks; or

(B) a national bank is specifically authorized by the express terms of a Federal statute (other than this section), and not by implication or interpretation, to control, such as by section 25 or 25A of the Federal Reserve Act [12 U.S.C. 601 et seq., 611 et seq.] or the Bank Service Company Act [12 U.S.C. 1861 et seq.].

(4) Eligible debt

The term “eligible debt” means unsecured long-term debt that—

(A) is not supported by any form of credit enhancement, including a guarantee or standby letter of credit; and

(B) is not held in whole or in any significant part by any affiliate, officer, director, principal shareholder, or employee of the bank or any other person acting on behalf of or with funds from the bank or an affiliate of the bank.

(5) Well capitalized

The term “well capitalized” has the meaning given the term in section 1831o of this title.

(6) Well managed

The term “well managed” means—

(A) in the case of a depository institution that has been examined, unless otherwise determined in writing by the appropriate Federal banking agency—

(i) the achievement of a composite rating of 1 or 2 under the Uniform Financial Institutions Rating System (or an equivalent rating under an equivalent rating system) in connection with the most recent examination or subsequent review of the depository institution; and

(ii) at least a rating of 2 for management, if such rating is given; or


(B) in the case of any depository institution that has not been examined, the existence and use of managerial resources that the appropriate Federal banking agency determines are satisfactory.

(R.S. §5136A, as added Pub. L. 106–102, title I, §121(a)(2), Nov. 12, 1999, 113 Stat. 1373; amended Pub. L. 111–203, title IX, §939(d), July 21, 2010, 124 Stat. 1886.)

Amendment of Section

Pub. L. 111–203, title IX, §939(d), (g), July 21, 2010, 124 Stat. 1886, 1887, provided that, effective 2 years after July 21, 2010, this section is amended:

(1) in subsection (a)(2)(E), by substituting “standards of credit-worthiness established by the Comptroller of the Currency” for “any applicable rating”;

(2) in the heading for subsection (a)(3), by substituting “Requirement” for “Rating or Comparable Requirement”;

(3) by amending subsection (a)(3)(A) to read as follows:

“(A) In general

“A national bank meets the requirements of this paragraph if the bank is one of the 100 largest insured banks and has not fewer than 1 issue of outstanding debt that meets standards of credit-worthiness or other criteria as the Secretary of the Treasury and the Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System may jointly establish.”;


(4) in the heading for subsection (f), by substituting “meet standards of credit-worthiness” for “maintain public rating or”; and

(5) in subsection (f)(1), by substituting “standards of credit-worthiness established by the Comptroller of the Currency” for “any applicable rating”.

References in Text

The Gramm-Leach-Bliley Act, referred to in subsecs. (a)(2)(B)(iii), (b)(2)(A), (3), is Pub. L. 106–102, Nov. 12, 1999, 113 Stat. 1338. Section 122 of the Act is set out as a note under section 1843 of this title. For complete classification of this Act to the Code, see Short Title of 1999 Amendment note set out under section 1811 of this title and Tables.

Section 25 of the Federal Reserve Act, referred to in subsec. (g)(3)(B), is classified to subchapter I (§601 et seq.) of chapter 6 of this title. Section 25A of the Federal Reserve Act is classified to subchapter II (§611 et seq.) of chapter 6 of this title.

The Bank Service Company Act, referred to in subsec. (g)(3)(B), is Pub. L. 87–856, Oct. 23, 1962, 76 Stat. 1132, as amended, which is classified generally to chapter 18 (§1861 et seq.) of this title. For complete classification of this Act to the Code, see section 1861 of this title and Tables.

Prior Provisions

A prior section 5136A of the Revised Statutes was renumbered section 5136B by Pub. L. 106–102 and is classified to section 25a of this title.

Effective Date of 2010 Amendment

Pub. L. 111–203, title IX, §939(g), July 21, 2010, 124 Stat. 1887, provided that: “The amendments made by this section [amending this section, sections 1817, 1831e, and 4519 of this title, sections 78c and 80a–6 of Title 15, Commerce and Trade, and section 286hh of Title 22, Foreign Relations and Intercourse] shall take effect 2 years after the date of enactment of this Act [July 21, 2010].”

Effective Date

Section effective 120 days after Nov. 12, 1999, see section 161 of Pub. L. 106–102, set out as an Effective Date of 1999 Amendment note under section 24 of this title.

1 So in original.

§25. Omitted

Codification

Section, act July 1, 1922, ch. 257, §2, 42 Stat. 767, repealed all acts extending the period of succession of national banking associations for 20 years, and made paragraph Second of section 24 applicable in that respect.

§25a. Participation by national banks in lotteries and related activities

(a) Prohibited activities

A national bank may not—

(1) deal in lottery tickets;

(2) deal in bets used as a means or substitute for participation in a lottery;

(3) announce, advertise, or publicize the existence of any lottery; 1

(4) announce, advertise, or publicize the existence or identity of any participant or winner, as such, in a lottery.

(b) Use of banking premises prohibited

A national bank may not permit—

(1) the use of any part of any of its banking offices by any person for any purpose forbidden to the bank under subsection (a) of this section, or

(2) direct access by the public from any of its banking offices to any premises used by any person for any purpose forbidden to the bank under subsection (a) of this section.

(c) Definitions

As used in this section—

(1) The term “deal in” includes making, taking, buying, selling, redeeming, or collecting.

(2) The term “lottery” includes any arrangement whereby three or more persons (the “participants”) advance money or credit to another in exchange for the possibility or expectation that one or more but not all of the participants (the “winners”) will receive by reason of their advances more than the amounts they have advanced, the identity of the winners being determined by any means which includes—

(A) a random selection;

(B) a game, race, or contest; or

(C) any record or tabulation of the result of one or more events in which any participant has no interest except for its bearing upon the possibility that he may become a winner.


(3) The term “lottery ticket” includes any right, privilege, or possibility (and any ticket, receipt, record, or other evidence of any such right, privilege, or possibility) of becoming a winner in a lottery.

(d) Lawful banking services connected with operation of lotteries

Nothing contained in this section prohibits a national bank from accepting deposits or cashing or otherwise handling checks or other negotiable instruments, or performing other lawful banking services for a State operating a lottery, or for an officer or employee of that State who is charged with the administration of the lottery.

(e) Regulations; enforcement

The Comptroller of the Currency shall issue such regulations as may be necessary to the strict enforcement of this section and the prevention of evasions thereof.

(R.S. §5136B, formerly §5136A, as added Pub. L. 90–203, §1(a), Dec. 15, 1967, 81 Stat. 608; renumbered R.S. §5136B, Pub. L. 106–102, title I, §121(a)(1), Nov. 12, 1999, 113 Stat. 1373.)

Effective Date

Section 6 of Pub. L. 90–203 provided that: “The amendments made by this Act [adding this section, sections 339, 1730c, and 1829a of this title, and section 1306 of Title 18, Crimes and Criminal Procedure] shall take effect on April 1, 1968.”

1 So in original. The word “or” probably should appear.

§25b. State law preemption standards for national banks and subsidiaries clarified

(a) Definitions

For purposes of this section, the following definitions shall apply:

(1) National bank

The term “national bank” includes—

(A) any bank organized under the laws of the United States; and

(B) any Federal branch established in accordance with the International Banking Act of 1978 [12 U.S.C. 3101 et seq.].

(2) State consumer financial laws

The term “State consumer financial law” means a State law that does not directly or indirectly discriminate against national banks and that directly and specifically regulates the manner, content, or terms and conditions of any financial transaction (as may be authorized for national banks to engage in), or any account related thereto, with respect to a consumer.

(3) Other definitions

The terms “affiliate”, “subsidiary”, “includes”, and “including” have the same meanings as in section 1813 of this title.

(b) Preemption standard

(1) In general

State consumer financial laws are preempted, only if—

(A) application of a State consumer financial law would have a discriminatory effect on national banks, in comparison with the effect of the law on a bank chartered by that State;

(B) in accordance with the legal standard for preemption in the decision of the Supreme Court of the United States in Barnett Bank of Marion County, N. A. v. Nelson, Florida Insurance Commissioner, et al., 517 U.S. 25 (1996), the State consumer financial law prevents or significantly interferes with the exercise by the national bank of its powers; and any preemption determination under this subparagraph may be made by a court, or by regulation or order of the Comptroller of the Currency on a case-by-case basis, in accordance with applicable law; or

(C) the State consumer financial law is preempted by a provision of Federal law other than title 62 of the Revised Statutes.

(2) Savings clause

Title 62 of the Revised Statutes and section 371 of this title do not preempt, annul, or affect the applicability of any State law to any subsidiary or affiliate of a national bank (other than a subsidiary or affiliate that is chartered as a national bank).

(3) Case-by-case basis

(A) Definition

As used in this section the term “case-by-case basis” refers to a determination pursuant to this section made by the Comptroller concerning the impact of a particular State consumer financial law on any national bank that is subject to that law, or the law of any other State with substantively equivalent terms.

(B) Consultation

When making a determination on a case-by-case basis that a State consumer financial law of another State has substantively equivalent terms as one that the Comptroller is preempting, the Comptroller shall first consult with the Bureau of Consumer Financial Protection and shall take the views of the Bureau into account when making the determination.

(4) Rule of construction

Title 62 of the Revised Statutes does not occupy the field in any area of State law.

(5) Standards of review

(A) Preemption

A court reviewing any determinations made by the Comptroller regarding preemption of a State law by title 62 of the Revised Statutes or section 371 of this title shall assess the validity of such determinations, depending upon the thoroughness evident in the consideration of the agency, the validity of the reasoning of the agency, the consistency with other valid determinations made by the agency, and other factors which the court finds persuasive and relevant to its decision.

(B) Savings clause

Except as provided in subparagraph (A), nothing in this section shall affect the deference that a court may afford to the Comptroller in making determinations regarding the meaning or interpretation of title LXII of the Revised Statutes of the United States or other Federal laws.

(6) Comptroller determination not delegable

Any regulation, order, or determination made by the Comptroller of the Currency under paragraph (1)(B) shall be made by the Comptroller, and shall not be delegable to another officer or employee of the Comptroller of the Currency.

(c) Substantial evidence

No regulation or order of the Comptroller of the Currency prescribed under subsection (b)(1)(B), shall be interpreted or applied so as to invalidate, or otherwise declare inapplicable to a national bank, the provision of the State consumer financial law, unless substantial evidence, made on the record of the proceeding, supports the specific finding regarding the preemption of such provision in accordance with the legal standard of the decision of the Supreme Court of the United States in Barnett Bank of Marion County, N.A. v. Nelson, Florida Insurance Commissioner, et al., 517 U.S. 25 (1996).

(d) Periodic review of preemption determinations

(1) In general

The Comptroller of the Currency shall periodically conduct a review, through notice and public comment, of each determination that a provision of Federal law preempts a State consumer financial law. The agency shall conduct such review within the 5-year period after prescribing or otherwise issuing such determination, and at least once during each 5-year period thereafter. After conducting the review of, and inspecting the comments made on, the determination, the agency shall publish a notice in the Federal Register announcing the decision to continue or rescind the determination or a proposal to amend the determination. Any such notice of a proposal to amend a determination and the subsequent resolution of such proposal shall comply with the procedures set forth in subsections (a) and (b) of section 43 of this title.

(2) Reports to Congress

At the time of issuing a review conducted under paragraph (1), the Comptroller of the Currency shall submit a report regarding such review to the Committee on Financial Services of the House of Representatives and the Committee on Banking, Housing, and Urban Affairs of the Senate. The report submitted to the respective committees shall address whether the agency intends to continue, rescind, or propose to amend any determination that a provision of Federal law preempts a State consumer financial law, and the reasons therefor.

(e) Application of State consumer financial law to subsidiaries and affiliates

Notwithstanding any provision of title 62 of the Revised Statutes or section 371 of this title, a State consumer financial law shall apply to a subsidiary or affiliate of a national bank (other than a subsidiary or affiliate that is chartered as a national bank) to the same extent that the State consumer financial law applies to any person, corporation, or other entity subject to such State law.

(f) Preservation of powers related to charging interest

No provision of title 62 of the Revised Statutes shall be construed as altering or otherwise affecting the authority conferred by section 85 of this title for the charging of interest by a national bank at the rate allowed by the laws of the State, territory, or district where the bank is located, including with respect to the meaning of “interest” under such provision.

(g) Transparency of OCC preemption determinations

The Comptroller of the Currency shall publish and update no less frequently than quarterly, a list of preemption determinations by the Comptroller of the Currency then in effect that identifies the activities and practices covered by each determination and the requirements and constraints determined to be preempted.

(h) Clarification of law applicable to nondepository institution subsidiaries and affiliates of national banks

(1) Definitions

For purposes of this subsection, the terms “depository institution”, “subsidiary”, and “affiliate” have the same meanings as in section 1813 of this title.

(2) Rule of construction

No provision of title 62 of the Revised Statutes or section 371 of this title shall be construed as preempting, annulling, or affecting the applicability of State law to any subsidiary, affiliate, or agent of a national bank (other than a subsidiary, affiliate, or agent that is chartered as a national bank).

(i) Visitorial powers

(1) 1 In general

In accordance with the decision of the Supreme Court of the United States in Cuomo v. Clearing House Assn., L. L. C. (129 S. Ct. 2710 (2009)), no provision of title 62 of the Revised Statutes which relates to visitorial powers or otherwise limits or restricts the visitorial authority to which any national bank is subject shall be construed as limiting or restricting the authority of any attorney general (or other chief law enforcement officer) of any State to bring an action against a national bank in a court of appropriate jurisdiction to enforce an applicable law and to seek relief as authorized by such law.

(j) Enforcement actions

The ability of the Comptroller of the Currency to bring an enforcement action under title 62 of the Revised Statutes or section 45 of title 15 does not preclude any private party from enforcing rights granted under Federal or State law in the courts.

(R.S. §5136C, as added and amended Pub. L. 111–203, title X, §§1044(a), 1045, 1047(a), July 21, 2010, 124 Stat. 2014, 2017, 2018.)

References in Text

The International Banking Act of 1978, referred to in subsec. (a)(1)(B), is Pub. L. 95–369, Sept. 17, 1978, 92 Stat. 607, which enacted chapter 32 (§3101 et seq.) and sections 347d and 611a of this title, amended sections 72, 378, 614, 615, 618, 619, 1813, 1815, 1817, 1818, 1820, 1821, 1822, 1823, 1828, 1829b, 1831b, and 1841 of this title, and enacted provisions set out as notes under sections 247, 611a, and 3101 of this title and formerly set out as notes under sections 36, 247, and 601 of this title. For complete classification of this Act to the Code, see Short Title note set out under section 3101 of this title and Tables.

Title 62 of the Revised Statutes, referred to in subsecs. (b)(1)(C), (2), (4), (5)(A), (e), (f), (h)(2), (i)(1), and (j), was in the original a reference to “this title” or “This title” meaning title LXII of the Revised Statutes, consisting of R.S. §§5133 to 5244, which are classified to this section and sections 16, 21, 22 to 24a, 25a, 26, 27, 29, 35 to 37, 39, 43, 52, 53, 55 to 57, 59 to 62, 66, 71, 72 to 76, 81, 83 to 86, 90, 91, 93, 93a, 94, 141 to 144, 161, 164, 181, 182, 192 to 194, 196, 215c, 481 to 485, 501, 541, 548, and 582 of this title. See, also, sections 8, 333, 334, 475, 656, 709, 1004, and 1005 of Title 18, Crimes and Criminal Procedure. For complete classification of R.S. §§5133 to 5244 to the Code, see Tables.

For classification of title LXII of the Revised Statutes of the United States, referred to in subsec. (b)(5)(B), see note above.

Amendments

2010—Subsec. (h). Pub. L. 111–203, §1045, added subsec. (h).

Subsecs. (i), (j). Pub. L. 111–203, §1047(a), added subsecs. (i) and (j).

Effective Date

Enactment and amendment of section by Pub. L. 111–203 effective on the designated transfer date, see section 1048 of Pub. L. 111–203, set out as a note under section 5551 of this title.

1 So in original. No par. (2) has been enacted.

§26. Comptroller to determine if association can commence business

Whenever a certificate is transmitted to the Comptroller of the Currency, as provided in title 62 of the Revised Statutes, and the association transmitting the same notifies the Comptroller that all of its capital stock has been duly paid in, and that such association has complied with all the provisions of title 62 of the Revised Statutes required to be complied with before an association shall be authorized to commence the business of banking, the Comptroller shall examine into the condition of such association, ascertain especially the amount of money paid in on account of its capital, the name and place of residence of each of its directors, and the amount of the capital stock of which each is the owner in good faith, and generally whether such association has complied with all the provisions of title 62 of the Revised Statutes required to entitle it to engage in the business of banking; and shall cause to be made and attested by the oaths of a majority of the directors, and by the president or cashier of the association, a statement of all the facts necessary to enable the Comptroller to determine whether the association is lawfully entitled to commence the business of banking.

(R.S. §5168; Pub. L. 86–230, §2, Sept. 8, 1959, 73 Stat. 457.)

References in Text

Title 62 of the Revised Statutes, referred to in text, was in the original “this Title” meaning title LXII of the Revised Statutes, consisting of R.S. §§5133 to 5244, which are classified this section and to sections 16, 21, 22 to 24a, 25a, 25b, 27, 29, 35 to 37, 39, 43, 52, 53, 55 to 57, 59 to 62, 66, 71, 72 to 76, 81, 83 to 86, 90, 91, 93, 93a, 94, 141 to 144, 161, 164, 181, 182, 192 to 194, 196, 215c, 481 to 485, 501, 541, 548, and 582 of this title. See, also, sections 8, 333, 334, 475, 656, 709, 1004, and 1005 of Title 18, Crimes and Criminal Procedure. For complete classification of R.S. §§5133 to 5244 to the Code, see Tables.

Codification

R.S. §5168 derived from act June 3, 1864, ch. 106, §17, 13 Stat. 104, which was the National Bank Act. See section 38 of this title.

Amendments

1959—Pub. L. 86–230 substituted “all” for “at least 50 per centum” before “of its capital stock”.

Exception as to Transfer of Functions

Functions vested by any provision of law in Comptroller of the Currency, referred to in this section, not included in transfer of functions to Secretary of the Treasury, see note set out under section 1 of this title.

§27. Certificate of authority to commence banking

(a) If, upon a careful examination of the facts so reported, and of any other facts which may come to the knowledge of the Comptroller, whether by means of a special commission appointed by him for the purpose of inquiring into the condition of such association, or otherwise, it appears that such association is lawfully entitled to commence the business of banking, the Comptroller shall give to such association a certificate, under his hand and official seal, that such association has complied with all the provisions required to be complied with before commencing the business of banking, and that such association is authorized to commence such business. But the Comptroller may withhold from an association his certificate authorizing the commencement of business, whenever he has reason to suppose that the shareholders have formed the same for any other than the legitimate objects contemplated by title 62 of the Revised Statutes. A National Bank Association, to which the Comptroller of the Currency has heretofore issued or hereafter issues such certificate, is not illegally constituted solely because its operations are or have been required by the Comptroller of the Currency to be limited to those of a trust company and activities related thereto.

(b)(1) The Comptroller of the Currency may also issue a certificate of authority to commence the business of banking pursuant to this section to a national banking association which is owned exclusively (except to the extent directors’ qualifying shares are required by law) by other depository institutions or depository institution holding companies and is organized to engage exclusively in providing services to or for other depository institutions, their holding companies, and the officers, directors, and employees of such institutions and companies, and in providing correspondent banking services at the request of other depository institutions or their holding companies (also referred to as a “banker's bank”).

(2) Any national banking association chartered pursuant to paragraph (1) shall be subject to such rules, regulations, and orders as the Comptroller deems appropriate, and, except as otherwise specifically provided in such rules, regulations, or orders, shall be vested with or subject to the same rights, privileges, duties, restrictions, penalties, liabilities, conditions, and limitations that would apply under the national banking laws to a national bank.

(R.S. §5169; Pub. L. 95–630, title XV, §1504, Nov. 10, 1978, 92 Stat. 3713; Pub. L. 96–221, title VII, §712(a), (c), Mar. 31, 1980, 94 Stat. 189, 190; Pub. L. 97–320, title IV, §404(a), Oct. 15, 1982, 96 Stat. 1511; Pub. L. 103–325, title III, §322(a)(2), Sept. 23, 1994, 108 Stat. 2227.)

References in Text

Title 62 of the Revised Statutes, referred to in subsec. (a), was in the original “this Title” meaning title LXII of the Revised Statutes, consisting of R.S. §§5133 to 5244, which are classified to this section and sections 16, 21, 22 to 24a, 25a, 25b, 26, 29, 35 to 37, 39, 43, 52, 53, 55 to 57, 59 to 62, 66, 71, 72 to 76, 81, 83 to 86, 90, 91, 93, 93a, 94, 141 to 144, 161, 164, 181, 182, 192 to 194, 196, 215c, 481 to 485, 501, 541, 548, and 582 of this title. See, also, sections 8, 333, 334, 475, 656, 709, 1004, and 1005 of Title 18, Crimes and Criminal Procedure. For complete classification of R.S. §§5133 to 5244 to the Code, see Tables.

Codification

R.S. §5169 derived from act June 3, 1864, ch. 106, §§12, 18, 13 Stat. 102, 104, which was the National Bank Act. See section 38 of this title.

Amendments

1994—Subsec. (b)(1). Pub. L. 103–325, §322(a)(2)(A), inserted “or depository institution holding companies” after “by other depository institutions”.

Pub. L. 103–325, §322(a)(2)(B), which directed substitution of “services to or for other depository institutions, their holding companies, and the officers, directors, and employees of such institutions and companies, and in providing correspondent banking services at the request of other depository institutions or their holding companies (also referred to as a ‘banker's bank’)” for “services for other depository institutions and their officers, directors and employees”, was executed by making the substitution for “services for other depository institutions and their officers, directors, and employees” to reflect the probable intent of Congress.

1982—Pub. L. 97–320 designated existing provisions as subsec. (a) and added subsec. (b).

1980—Pub. L. 96–221, §712(a), (c), temporarily inserted provisions relating to treatment of national banking associations as additional banks within the contemplation of section 1842 of this title. See Termination Date of 1980 Amendment note below.

1978—Pub. L. 95–630 inserted provision that a National Bank Association, to which the Comptroller of the Currency has heretofore issued or hereafter issues such certificate, is not illegally constituted solely because its operations are or have been required by the Comptroller of the Currency to be limited to those of a trust company and activities related thereto.

Termination Date of 1980 Amendment

Section 712(c) of Pub. L. 96–221 provided that: “The amendments made by this section [amending this section and section 1842 of this title] are hereby repealed on October 1, 1981.”

Effective Date of 1978 Amendment

Section 1505 of Pub. L. 95–630 provided that: “This title [amending this section and sections 1715z–10 and 2902 of this title and amending provisions set out as a note under section 1666f of Title 15, Commerce and Trade] shall take effect upon enactment [Nov. 10, 1978].”

Exception as to Transfer of Functions

Functions vested by any provision of law in Comptroller of the Currency, referred to in this section, not included in transfer of functions to Secretary of the Treasury, see note set out under section 1 of this title.

§28. Repealed. Pub. L. 103–325, title VI, §602(e)(1), Sept. 23, 1994, 108 Stat. 2291

Section, R.S. §5170, required publication of certificate of authority to commence banking for 60 days after issuance.

Codification

R.S. §5170 derived from act June 3, 1864, ch. 106, §18, 13 Stat. 104, which was the National Bank Act. See section 38 of this title.

§29. Power to hold real property

A national banking association may purchase, hold, and convey real estate for the following purposes, and for no others:

First. Such as shall be necessary for its accommodation in the transaction of its business.

Second. Such as shall be mortgaged to it in good faith by way of security for debts previously contracted.

Third. Such as shall be conveyed to it in satisfaction of debts previously contracted in the course of its dealings.

Fourth. Such as it shall purchase at sales under judgments, decrees, or mortgages held by the association, or shall purchase to secure debts due to it.

But no such association shall hold the possession of any real estate under mortgage, or the title and possession of any real estate purchased to secure any debts due to it, for a longer period than five years except as otherwise provided in this section.

For real estate in the possession of a national banking association upon application by the association, the Comptroller of the Currency may approve the possession of any such real estate by such association for a period longer than five years, but not to exceed an additional five years, if (1) the association has made a good faith attempt to dispose of the real estate within the five-year period, or (2) disposal within the five-year period would be detrimental to the association. Upon notification by the association to the Comptroller of the Currency that such conditions exist that require the expenditure of funds for the development and improvement of such real estate, and subject to such conditions and limitations as the Comptroller of the Currency shall prescribe, the association may expend such funds as are needed to enable such association to recover its total investment.

Notwithstanding the five-year holding limitation of this section or any other provision of title 62 of the Revised Statutes, any national banking association which on October 15, 1982, held, directly or indirectly, real estate, including any subsurface rights or interests therein, that since December 31, 1979, had not been valued on the books of such association for more than a nominal amount, may continue to hold such real estate, rights, or interests for such longer period of time as would be permitted a State chartered bank by the law of the State in which the association is located if the aggregate amount of earnings from such real estate, rights, or interests is separately disclosed in the annual financial statements of the association.

(R.S. §5137; Feb. 25, 1927, ch. 191, §3, 44 Stat. 1227; Pub. L. 96–221, title VII, §701(a), Mar. 31, 1980, 94 Stat. 186; Pub. L. 97–25, title III, §302, July 27, 1981, 95 Stat. 145; Pub. L. 97–320, title IV, §413, Oct. 15, 1982, 96 Stat. 1521.)

References in Text

Title 62 of the Revised Statutes, referred to in last par., was in the original “this title” meaning title LXII of the Revised Statutes, consisting of R.S. §§5133 to 5244, which are classified to this section and sections 16, 21, 22 to 24a, 25a, 25b, 26, 27, 35 to 37, 39, 43, 52, 53, 55 to 57, 59 to 62, 66, 71, 72 to 76, 81, 83 to 86, 90, 91, 93, 93a, 94, 141 to 144, 161, 164, 181, 182, 192 to 194, 196, 215c, 481 to 485, 501, 541, 548, and 582 of this title. See, also, sections 8, 333, 334, 475, 656, 709, 1004, and 1005 of Title 18, Crimes and Criminal Procedure. For complete classification of R.S. §§5133 to 5244 to the Code, see Tables.

Codification

R.S. §5137 derived from act June 3, 1864, ch. 106, §28, 13 Stat. 107, which was the National Bank Act. See section 38 of this title.

Amendments

1982—Pub. L. 97–320 substituted “Notwithstanding the five-year holding limitation of this section or any other provision of title 62 of the Revised Statutes, any national banking association which on October 15, 1982, held, directly or indirectly, real estate, including any subsurface rights or interests therein, that since December 31, 1979, had not been valued on the books of such association for more than a nominal amount, may continue to hold such real estate, rights, or interests for such longer period of time as would be permitted a State chartered bank by the law of the State in which the association is located if the aggregate amount of earnings from such real estate, rights, or interests is separately disclosed in the annual financial statements of the association” for “Notwithstanding any other provision of this section, any national banking association which, on July 27, 1981, held title to and possession of real estate which was carried on the association's books at a nominal value on December 31, 1979, may continue to hold such real estate until December 31, 1982, if the earnings from such real estate are separately disclosed in the financial statements of the association”.

1981—Pub. L. 97–25 inserted provision that any national banking association which, on July 27, 1981, held title to and possession of real estate which was carried on the association's books at a nominal value on December 31, 1979, may continue to hold such real estate until December 31, 1982, if the earnings from such real estate are separately disclosed in the financial statements of the association.

1980—Pub. L. 96–221 inserted provisions relating to authorization to hold real estate in the possession of a national banking association upon application by the association.

1927—Par. First. Act Feb. 25, 1927, struck out “immediate,” before “accommodation,” in par. First.

§30. Change of name or location

(a) Name change

Any national banking association, upon written notice to the Comptroller of the Currency, may change its name, except that such new name shall include the word “National”.

(b) Location change

Any national banking association, upon written notice to the Comptroller of the Currency, may change the location of its main office to any authorized branch location within the limits of the city, town, or village in which it is situated, or, with a vote of shareholders owning two-thirds of the stock of such association for a relocation outside such limits and upon receipt of a certificate of approval from the Comptroller of the Currency, to any other location within or outside the limits of the city, town, or village in which it is located, but not more than thirty miles beyond such limits.

(c) Coordination with section 36 of this title

In the case of a national bank which relocates the main office of such bank from 1 State to another State after May 31, 1997, the bank may retain and operate branches within the State from which the bank relocated such office only to the extent authorized in section 36(e)(2) of this title.

(d) Retention of “Federal” in name of converted Federal savings association

(1) In general

Notwithstanding subsection (a) of this section or any other provision of law, any depository institution, the charter of which is converted from that of a Federal savings association to a national bank or a State bank after November 12, 1999, may retain the term “Federal” in the name of such institution if such institution remains an insured depository institution.

(2) Definitions

For purposes of this subsection, the terms “depository institution”, “insured depository institution”, “national bank”, and “State bank” have the meanings given those terms in section 1813 of this title.

(May 1, 1886, ch. 73, §2, 24 Stat. 18; Pub. L. 86–230, §3, Sept. 8, 1959, 73 Stat. 457; Pub. L. 97–320, title IV, §405(a), Oct. 15, 1982, 96 Stat. 1512; Pub. L. 97–457, §19(a), Jan. 12, 1983, 96 Stat. 2509; Pub. L. 103–328, title I, §102(b)(2), Sept. 29, 1994, 108 Stat. 2350; Pub. L. 106–102, title VII, §723, Nov. 12, 1999, 113 Stat. 1471.)

Amendments

1999—Subsec. (d). Pub. L. 106–102 added subsec. (d).

1994—Subsec. (c). Pub. L. 103–328 added subsec. (c).

1983—Subsec. (b). Pub. L. 97–457 inserted “for a relocation outside such limits” after “stock of such association”.

1982—Pub. L. 97–320 designated existing provisions as subsec. (a), substituted provisions permitting a change of name upon written notice to the Comptroller, such new name to include “National”, for provisions permitting a change of name or location of the main office, with approval of the Comptroller, within city limits, etc., or outside such limits by vote of shareholders, such change to be validated by certificate of approval, and added subsec. (b).

1959—Pub. L. 86–230 required approval of Comptroller of the Currency before a national bank could change location of its main office within the limitations of the city, town, or village in which it is situated.

Exception as to Transfer of Functions

Functions vested by any provision of law in Comptroller of the Currency, referred to in this section, not included in transfer of functions to Secretary of the Treasury, see note set out under section 1 of this title.

§31. Rights and liabilities as affected by change of name

All debts, liabilities, rights, provisions, and powers of the association under its old name shall devolve upon and inure to the association under its new name.

(May 1, 1886, ch. 73, §3, 24 Stat. 19.)

§32. Liabilities and suits as affected by change of name or location

Nothing contained in sections 30 and 31 of this title shall be so construed as in any manner to release any national banking association under its old name or at its old location from any liability, or affect any action or proceeding in law in which said association may be or become a party or interested.

(May 1, 1886, ch. 73, §4, 24 Stat. 19.)

§§33 to 34c. Transferred

Codification

Act Nov. 7, 1918, ch. 209, 40 Stat. 1043, as amended, formerly classified to sections 33 to 34c of this title, which related to consolidation and merger of national banking associations and such associations and State banks, was completely amended by Pub. L. 86–230, §20, Sept. 8 1959 73 Stat. 460, and is classified to sections 215 to 215b of this title.

Section 33, acts Nov. 7, 1918, ch. 209, §1, 40 Stat. 1043; June 16, 1933, ch. 89, §24(a), 48 Stat. 190; Aug. 23, 1935, ch. 614, §330, 49 Stat. 718, related to consolidation of national banks, capital stock, dissenting shareholders, notice and valuation of shares. See section 215 of this title.

Section 34, act Nov. 7, 1918, ch. 209, §2, 40 Stat. 1044, related to effect of consolidation on rights and liabilities. See section 215 of this title.

Section 34a, act Nov. 7, 1918, ch. 209, §3, as added Feb. 25, 1927, ch. 191, §1, 44 Stat. 1225, and amended June 16, 1933, ch. 89 §24, 48 Stat. 190; Aug. 23, 1935, ch. 614, §331, 49 Stat. 719; July 14, 1952, ch. 722, §2, 66 Stat. 601, related to consolidation of State bank, etc. with national bank, capital stock and dissenting shareholders. See section 215 of this title.

Section 34b, act Nov. 7, 1918, ch. 209, §4, as added July 14, 1952, ch. 722, §1, 66 Stat. 599, related to merger of national banking associations or State banks into national banking associations. See section 215a of this title.

Section 34c, act Nov. 7, 1918, ch. 209, §5, as added July 14, 1952, ch. 722, §1, 66, Stat. 601, related to definitions. See section 215b of this title.

§35. Organization of State banks as national banking associations

Any bank incorporated by special law of any State or of the United States or organized under the general laws of any State or of the United States and having an unimpaired capital sufficient to entitle it to become a national banking association under the provisions of the existing laws may, by the vote of the shareholders owning not less than fifty-one per centum of the capital stock of such bank or banking association, with the approval of the Comptroller of the Currency be converted into a national banking association, with a name that contains the word “national”: Provided, however, That said conversion shall not be in contravention of the State law. In such case the articles of association and organization certificate may be executed by a majority of the directors of the bank or banking institution, and the certificate shall declare that the owners of fifty-one per centum of the capital stock have authorized the directors to make such certificate and to change or convert the bank or banking institution into a national association. A majority of the directors, after executing the articles of association and the organization certificate, shall have power to execute all other papers and to do whatever may be required to make its organization perfect and complete as a national association. The shares of any such bank may continue to be for the same amount each as they were before the conversion, and the directors may continue to be directors of the association until others are elected or appointed in accordance with the provisions of the statutes of the United States. When the Comptroller has given to such bank or banking association a certificate that the provisions of this Act have been complied with, such bank or banking association, and all its stockholders, officers, and employees shall have the same powers and privileges and shall be subject to the same duties, liabilities, and regulations, in all respects, as shall have been prescribed by the Federal Reserve Act [12 U.S.C. 221 et seq.] and the National Banking Act for associations originally organized as national banking associations.

The Comptroller of the Currency may, in his discretion and subject to such conditions as he may prescribe, permit such converting bank to retain and carry at a value determined by the Comptroller such of the assets of such converting bank as do not conform to the legal requirements relative to assets acquired and held by national banking associations. The Comptroller of the Currency may not approve the conversion of a State bank or State savings association to a national banking association or Federal savings association during any period in which the State bank or State savings association is subject to a cease and desist order (or other formal enforcement order) issued by, or a memorandum of understanding entered into with, a State bank supervisor or the appropriate Federal banking agency with respect to a significant supervisory matter or a final enforcement action by a State Attorney General.

(R.S. §5154; Dec. 23, 1913, ch. 6, §8, 38 Stat. 258; Aug. 23, 1935, ch. 614, title III, §312, 49 Stat. 711; Pub. L. 97–457, §19(b), Jan. 12, 1983, 96 Stat. 2509; Pub. L. 111–203, title VI, §612(b), July 21, 2010, 124 Stat. 1612.)

References in Text

This Act, referred to in first par., may refer to the Federal Reserve Act, act Dec. 23, 1913, from which this wording is derived; or section 5154 of the Revised Statutes which the Federal Reserve Act amended; or act June 3, 1864, from which R.S. §5154 was derived; or Congress might have intended to refer to the preceding provisions of the 1913 amendment. Similar reference in R.S. §5154 prior to 1913 amendment was to “this Title,” meaning title 62 of the Revised Statutes, which title comprised the National Bank Act (June 3, 1864, ch. 106, 13 Stat. 99). See section 38 of this title. Note also specific reference to the Federal Reserve Act and the National Banking Act in first par.

The Federal Reserve Act, referred to in text, is act Dec. 23, 1913, ch. 6, 38 Stat. 251, as amended, which is classified principally to chapter 3 (§221 et seq.) of this title. For complete classification of this Act to the Code, see References in Text note set out under section 226 of this title and Tables.

The National Banking Act, referred to in text, is probably intended to be a reference to the National Bank Act, act June 3, 1864, ch. 106, 13 Stat. 99, as amended, which is classified principally to chapter 2 (§21 et seq.) of this title. For complete classification of this Act to the Code see References in Text note set out under section 38 of this title.

Codification

R.S. §5154 derived from act June 3, 1864, ch. 106, §44, 13 Stat. 112, which was the National Bank Act. See section 38 of this title.

Amendments

2010—Pub. L. 111–203 inserted at end “The Comptroller of the Currency may not approve the conversion of a State bank or State savings association to a national banking association or Federal savings association during any period in which the State bank or State savings association is subject to a cease and desist order (or other formal enforcement order) issued by, or a memorandum of understanding entered into with, a State bank supervisor or the appropriate Federal banking agency with respect to a significant supervisory matter or a final enforcement action by a State Attorney General.”

1983—Pub. L. 97–457 substituted “with a name that contains the word ‘national’ ” for “with any name approved by the Comptroller of the Currency” after “national banking association,”.

1935—Act Aug. 23, 1935, added last par.

Effective Date of 2010 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 111–203 effective 1 day after July 21, 2010, except as otherwise provided, see section 4 of Pub. L. 111–203, set out as an Effective Date note under section 5301 of this title.

Exception as to Transfer of Functions

Functions vested by any provision of law in Comptroller of the Currency, referred to in this section, not included in transfer of functions to Secretary of the Treasury, see note set out under section 1 of this title.

Exception to Prohibition on Approval of Conversions

Pub. L. 111–203, title VI, §612(d), July 21, 2010, 124 Stat. 1613, provided that: “The prohibition on the approval of conversions under the amendments made by subsections (a), (b), and (c) [enacting section 214d of this title and amending this section and section 1464 of this title] shall not apply, if—

“(1) the Federal banking agency that would be the appropriate Federal banking agency after the proposed conversion gives the appropriate Federal banking agency or State bank supervisor that issued the cease and desist order (or other formal enforcement order) or memorandum of understanding, as appropriate, written notice of the proposed conversion including a plan to address the significant supervisory matter in a manner that is consistent with the safe and sound operation of the institution;

“(2) within 30 days of receipt of the written notice required under paragraph (1), the appropriate Federal banking agency or State bank supervisor that issued the cease and desist order (or other formal enforcement order) or memorandum of understanding, as appropriate, does not object to the conversion or the plan to address the significant supervisory matter;

“(3) after conversion of the insured depository institution, the appropriate Federal banking agency after the conversion implements such plan; and

“(4) in the case of a final enforcement action by a State Attorney General, approval of the conversion is conditioned on compliance by the insured depository institution with the terms of such final enforcement action.”

[For definitions of terms used in section 612(d) of Pub. L. 111–203, set out above, see section 5301 of this title.]

Notification of Pending Enforcement Actions

Pub. L. 111–203, title VI, §612(e), July 21, 2010, 124 Stat. 1613, provided that:

“(1) Copy of conversion application.—At the time an insured depository institution files a conversion application, the insured depository institution shall transmit a copy of the conversion application to—

“(A) the appropriate Federal banking agency for the insured depository institution; and

“(B) the Federal banking agency that would be the appropriate Federal banking agency of the insured depository institution after the proposed conversion.

“(2) Notification and access to information.—Upon receipt of a copy of the application described in paragraph (1), the appropriate Federal banking agency for the insured depository institution proposing the conversion shall—

“(A) notify the Federal banking agency that would be the appropriate Federal banking agency for the institution after the proposed conversion in writing of any ongoing supervisory or investigative proceedings that the appropriate Federal banking agency for the institution proposing to convert believes is likely to result, in the near term and absent the proposed conversion, in a cease and desist order (or other formal enforcement order) or memorandum of understanding with respect to a significant supervisory matter; and

“(B) provide the Federal banking agency that would be the appropriate Federal banking agency for the institution after the proposed conversion access to all investigative and supervisory information relating to the proceedings described in subparagraph (A).”

[For definitions of terms used in section 612(e) of Pub. L. 111–203, set out above, see section 5301 of this title.]

§36. Branch banks

The conditions upon which a national banking association may retain or establish and operate a branch or branches are the following:

(a) Lawful and continuous operation

A national banking association may retain and operate such branch or branches as it may have had in lawful operation on February 25, 1927, and any national banking association which continuously maintained and operated not more than one branch for a period of more than twenty-five years immediately preceding February 25, 1927, may continue to maintain and operate such branch.

(b) Converted State banks

(1) A national bank resulting from the conversion of a State bank may retain and operate as a branch any office which was a branch of the State bank immediately prior to conversion if such office—

(A) might be established under subsection (c) of this section as a new branch of the resulting national bank, and is approved by the Comptroller of the Currency for continued operation as a branch of the resulting national bank;

(B) was a branch of any bank on February 25, 1927; or

(C) is approved by the Comptroller of the Currency for continued operation as a branch of the resulting national bank.


The Comptroller of the Currency may not grant approval under clause (C) of this paragraph if a State bank (in a situation identical to that of the national bank) resulting from the conversion of a national bank would be prohibited by the law of such State from retaining and operating as a branch an identically situated office which was a branch of the national bank immediately prior to conversion.

(2) A national bank (referred to in this paragraph as the “resulting bank”), resulting from the consolidation of a national bank (referred to in this paragraph as the “national bank”) under whose charter the consolidation is effected with another bank or banks, may retain and operate as a branch any office which, immediately prior to such consolidation, was in operation as—

(A) a main office or branch office of any bank (other than the national bank) participating in the consolidation if, under subsection (c) of this section, it might be established as a new branch of the resulting bank, and if the Comptroller of the Currency approves of its continued operation after the consolidation;

(B) a branch of any bank participating in the consolidation, and which, on February 25, 1927, was in operation as a branch of any bank; or

(C) a branch of the national bank and which, on February 25, 1927, was not in operation as a branch of any bank, if the Comptroller of the Currency approves of its continued operation after the consolidation.


The Comptroller of the Currency may not grant approval under clause (C) of this paragraph if a State bank (in a situation identical to that of the resulting national bank) resulting from the consolidation into a State bank of another bank or banks would be prohibited by the law of such State from retaining and operating as a branch an identically situated office which was a branch of the State bank immediately prior to consolidation.

(3) As used in this subsection, the term “consolidation” includes a merger.

(c) New branches

A national banking association may, with the approval of the Comptroller of the Currency, establish and operate new branches: (1) Within the limits of the city, town or village in which said association is situated, if such establishment and operation are at the time expressly authorized to State banks by the law of the State in question; and (2) at any point within the State in which said association is situated, if such establishment and operation are at the time authorized to State banks by the statute law of the State in question by language specifically granting such authority affirmatively and not merely by implication or recognition, and subject to the restrictions as to location imposed by the law of the State on State banks. In any State in which State banks are permitted by statute law to maintain branches within county or greater limits, if no bank is located and doing business in the place where the proposed agency is to be located, any national banking association situated in such State may, with the approval of the Comptroller of the Currency, establish and operate, without regard to the capital requirements of this section, a seasonal agency in any resort community within the limits of the county in which the main office of such association is located, for the purpose of receiving and paying out deposits, issuing and cashing checks and drafts, and doing business incident thereto: Provided, That any permit issued under this sentence shall be revoked upon the opening of a State or national bank in such community. Except as provided in the immediately preceding sentence, no such association shall establish a branch outside of the city, town, or village in which it is situated unless it has a combined capital stock and surplus equal to the combined amount of capital stock and surplus, if any, required by the law of the State in which such association is situated for the establishment of such branches by State banks, or, if the law of such State requires only a minimum capital stock for the establishment of such branches by State banks, unless such association has not less than an equal amount of capital stock.

(d) Branches resulting from interstate merger transactions

A national bank resulting from an interstate merger transaction (as defined in section 1831u(f)(6) 1 of this title) may maintain and operate a branch in a State other than the home State (as defined in subsection (g)(3)(B) of this section) of such bank in accordance with section 1831u of this title.

(e) Exclusive authority for additional branches

(1) In general

Effective June 1, 1997, a national bank may not acquire, establish, or operate a branch in any State other than the bank's home State (as defined in subsection (g)(3)(B) of this section) or a State in which the bank already has a branch unless the acquisition, establishment, or operation of such branch in such State by such national bank is authorized under this section or section 1823(f), 1823(k), or 1831u of this title.

(2) Retention of branches

In the case of a national bank which relocates the main office of such bank from 1 State to another State after May 31, 1997, the bank may retain and operate branches within the State which was the bank's home State (as defined in subsection (g)(3)(B) of this section) before the relocation of such office only to the extent the bank would be authorized, under this section or any other provision of law referred to in paragraph (1), to acquire, establish, or commence to operate a branch in such State if—

(A) the bank had no branches in such State; or

(B) the branch resulted from—

(i) an interstate merger transaction approved pursuant to section 1831u of this title; or

(ii) a transaction after May 31, 1997, pursuant to which the bank received assistance from the Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation under section 1823(c) of this title.

(f) Law applicable to interstate branching operations

(1) Law applicable to national bank branches

(A) In general

The laws of the host State regarding community reinvestment, consumer protection, fair lending, and establishment of intrastate branches shall apply to any branch in the host State of an out-of-State national bank to the same extent as such State laws apply to a branch of a bank chartered by that State, except—

(i) when Federal law preempts the application of such State laws to a national bank; or

(ii) when the Comptroller of the Currency determines that the application of such State laws would have a discriminatory effect on the branch in comparison with the effect the application of such State laws would have with respect to branches of a bank chartered by the host State.

(B) Enforcement of applicable State laws

The provisions of any State law to which a branch of a national bank is subject under this paragraph shall be enforced, with respect to such branch, by the Comptroller of the Currency.

(C) Review and report on actions by Comptroller

The Comptroller of the Currency shall conduct an annual review of the actions it has taken with regard to the applicability of State law to national banks (or their branches) during the preceding year, and shall include in its annual report required under section 14 of this title the results of the review and the reasons for each such action. The first such review and report after July 3, 1997, shall encompass all such actions taken on or after January 1, 1992.

(2) Treatment of branch as bank

All laws of a host State, other than the laws regarding community reinvestment, consumer protection, fair lending, establishment of intrastate branches, and the application or administration of any tax or method of taxation, shall apply to a branch (in such State) of an out-of-State national bank to the same extent as such laws would apply if the branch were a national bank the main office of which is in such State.

(3) Rule of construction

No provision of this subsection may be construed as affecting the legal standards for preemption of the application of State law to national banks.

(g) State “opt-in” election to permit interstate branching through de novo branches

(1) In general

Subject to paragraph (2), the Comptroller of the Currency may approve an application by a national bank to establish and operate a de novo branch in a State (other than the bank's home State) in which the bank does not maintain a branch if—

(A) the law of the State in which the branch is located, or is to be located, would permit establishment of the branch, if the national bank were a State bank chartered by such State; and

(B) the conditions established in, or made applicable to this paragraph by, paragraph (2) are met.

(2) Conditions on establishment and operation of interstate branch

(A) Establishment

An application by a national bank to establish and operate a de novo branch in a host State shall be subject to the same requirements and conditions to which an application for an interstate merger transaction is subject under paragraphs (1), (3), and (4) of section 1831u(b) of this title.

(B) Operation

Subsections (c) and (d)(2) of section 1831u of this title shall apply with respect to each branch of a national bank which is established and operated pursuant to an application approved under this subsection in the same manner and to the same extent such provisions of such section 1831u of this title apply to a branch of a national bank which resulted from an interstate merger transaction approved pursuant to such section 1831u of this title.

(3) Definitions

The following definitions shall apply for purposes of this section:

(A) De novo branch

The term “de novo branch” means a branch of a national bank which—

(i) is originally established by the national bank as a branch; and

(ii) does not become a branch of such bank as a result of—

(I) the acquisition by the bank of an insured depository institution or a branch of an insured depository institution; or

(II) the conversion, merger, or consolidation of any such institution or branch.

(B) Home State

The term “home State” means the State in which the main office of a national bank is located.

(C) Host State

The term “host State” means, with respect to a bank, a State, other than the home State of the bank, in which the bank maintains, or seeks to establish and maintain, a branch.

(h) Repealed. Pub. L. 104–208, div. A, title II, §2204, Sept. 30, 1996, 110 Stat. 3009–405

(i) Prior approval of branch locations

No branch of any national banking association shall be established or moved from one location to another without first obtaining the consent and approval of the Comptroller of the Currency.

(j) “Branch” defined

The term “branch” as used in this section shall be held to include any branch bank, branch office, branch agency, additional office, or any branch place of business located in any State or Territory of the United States or in the District of Columbia at which deposits are received, or checks paid, or money lent. The term “branch”, as used in this section, does not include an automated teller machine or a remote service unit.

(k) Branches in foreign countries, dependencies, or insular possessions

This section shall not be construed to amend or repeal section 25 of the Federal Reserve Act, as amended [12 U.S.C. 601 et seq.], authorizing the establishment by national banking associations of branches in foreign countries, or dependencies, or insular possessions of the United States.

(l) “State bank” and “bank” defined

The words “State bank,” “State banks,” “bank,” or “banks,” as used in this section, shall be held to include trust companies, savings banks, or other such corporations or institutions carrying on the banking business under the authority of State laws.

(R.S. §5155; Feb. 25, 1927, ch. 191, §7, 44 Stat. 1228; June 16, 1933, ch. 89, §23, 48 Stat. 189; Aug. 23, 1935, ch. 614, title III, §305, 49 Stat. 708; July 15, 1952, ch. 753, §2(b), 66 Stat. 633; Pub. L. 87–721, Sept. 28, 1962, 76 Stat. 667; Pub. L. 103–328, title I, §§102(b)(1), 103(a), Sept. 29, 1994, 108 Stat. 2349, 2352; Pub. L. 104–208, div. A, title II, §§2204, 2205(a), Sept. 30, 1996, 110 Stat. 3009–405; Pub. L. 105–24, §2(b), July 3, 1997, 111 Stat. 239; Pub. L. 111–203, title VI, §613(a), July 21, 2010, 124 Stat. 1614.)

References in Text

Section 1831u of this title, referred to in subsec. (d), was subsequently amended, and subsec. (f)(6) of section 1831u no longer defines the term “interstate merger transaction”. However, such term is defined elsewhere in that section.

Section 25 of the Federal Reserve Act, as amended, referred to in subsec. (k), is classified to subchapter I (§601 et seq.) of chapter 6 of this title.

Codification

R.S. §5155 derived from act Mar. 3, 1865, ch. 78, §7, 13 Stat. 484.

Amendments

2010—Subsec. (g)(1)(A). Pub. L. 111–203 amended subpar. (A) generally. Prior to amendment, subpar. (A) read as follows: “there is in effect in the host State a law that—

“(i) applies equally to all banks; and

“(ii) expressly permits all out-of-State banks to establish de novo branches in such State; and”.

1997—Subsec. (f)(1)(C). Pub. L. 105–24 added subpar. (C).

1996—Subsec. (h). Pub. L. 104–208, §2204, struck out subsec. (h) which read as follows: “The aggregate capital of every national banking association and its branches shall at no time be less than the aggregate minimum capital required by law for the establishment of an equal number of national banking associations situated in the various places where such association and its branches are situated.”

Subsec. (j). Pub. L. 104–208, §2205(a), inserted at end “The term ‘branch’, as used in this section, does not include an automated teller machine or a remote service unit.”

1994—Subsecs. (d) to (f). Pub. L. 103–328, §102(b)(1)(B), added subsecs. (d) to (f). Former subsecs. (d) to (f) redesignated (h) to (j), respectively.

Subsec. (g). Pub. L. 103–328, §103(a), added subsec. (g).

Pub. L. 103–328, §102(b)(1)(A), redesignated subsec. (g) as (k).

Subsecs. (h) to (l). Pub. L. 103–328, §102(b)(1)(A), redesignated subsecs. (d) to (h) as (h) to (l), respectively.

1962—Subsec. (b). Pub. L. 87–721 substituted provisions permitting a national bank resulting from the conversion of a State bank to retain and operate as a branch any office which was a branch of the State bank immediately prior to conversion if such office might be established as a new branch of the resulting national bank, and is approved by the Comptroller for continued operation as a branch of the resulting bank, or any office which was a branch of any bank on Feb. 25, 1927, or any office which is approved by the Comptroller for continued operation as a branch, and a national bank resulting from consolidation of a national bank under whose charter the consolidation is effected with another bank or banks to retain and operate any office which, immediately prior to consolidation, was in operation as a main office or branch office of any bank (other than the national bank) participating in the consolidation if it might be established as a new branch of the resulting bank, and if the Comptroller approves of its continued operation, or was in operation as a branch of any bank participating in the consolidation and which, on Feb. 25, 1927, was in operation as a branch of any bank, or was in operation as a branch of the national bank and which, on Feb. 25, 1927, was not in operation as a branch of any bank, if the Comptroller approves of its continued operation, for provisions which permitted State banks converted into or consolidated with national banking associations after Feb. 25, 1927, or two or more national banking associations which are consolidated, to retain and operate only those branches which may have been in lawful operation on Feb. 25, 1927, and inserted provisions prohibiting the Comptroller from granting approval under clauses (1)(C) and (2)(C) if a State bank resulting from the conversion or consolidation would be prohibited by law of the State from retaining and operating as a branch an identically situated office which was a branch of the national bank or State bank immediately prior to the conversion or consolidation.

1952—Subsec. (c). Act July 15, 1952, struck out the minimum capital requirement for the establishment of branches by national banks.

1935—Subsec. (c). Act Aug. 23, 1935, inserted second sentence and substituted “Except as provided in the immediately preceding sentence, no” for “No” in last sentence.

1933—Subsecs. (c), (d). Act June 16, 1963, amended subsecs. (c) and (d).

1927—Act Feb. 25, 1927, amended section generally.

Effective Date of 2010 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 111–203 effective 1 day after July 21, 2010, except as otherwise provided, see section 4 of Pub. L. 111–203, set out as an Effective Date note under section 5301 of this title.

Exception as to Transfer of Functions

Functions vested by any provision of law in Comptroller of the Currency, referred to in this section, not included in transfer of functions to Secretary of the Treasury, see note set out under section 1 of this title.

Right of State To Opt Out

Nothing in Pub. L. 105–24 to alter right of States under section 525 of Pub. L. 96–221, see section 3 of Pub. L. 105–24, set out as a note under section 1831a of this title.

Applicability of McFadden Act to Present Financial Environment; Report and Recommendations by President to Congress

Pub. L. 95–369, §14, Sept. 17, 1978, 92 Stat. 625, provided for a report to Congress by the President, not later than one year after Sept. 17, 1978, containing recommendations concerning the applicability of the McFadden Act [Feb. 25, 1927, ch. 191, 44 Stat. 1224] to the then current financial, banking, and economic environment.

1 See References in Text note below.

§37. Associations governed by chapter

The provisions of chapters 2, 3, and 4 of title 62 of the Revised Statutes, which are expressed without restrictive words, as applying to “national banking associations,” or to “associations,” apply to all associations organized to carry on the business of banking under any Act of Congress.

(R.S. §5157.)

References in Text

Chapters 2, 3, and 4 of title 62 of the Revised Statutes, referred to in text, was in the original “chapters two, three, and four of this Title,” meaning chapters 2, 3, and 4 of title 62 of the Revised Statutes, consisting of R.S. §§5157 to 5244, which are classified to this section and sections 16, 26, 27, 43, 55, 56, 60, 62, 81, 83 to 86, 91, 93, 93a, 94, 141 to 144, 161, 164, 181, 182, 192 to 194, 196, 481 to 485, 501, 541, and 582 of this title. See, also, sections 8, 333, 334, 475, 656, 709, 1004, and 1005 of Title 18, Crimes and Criminal Procedure. For complete classification of R.S. §§5157 to 5244 to the Code, see Tables.

§38. The National Bank Act

The Act entitled “An Act to provide a national currency secured by a pledge of United States bonds, and to provide for the circulation and redemption thereof,” approved June 3, 1864, shall be known as “The National Bank Act.”

(June 20, 1874, ch. 343, §1, 18 Stat. 123.)

References in Text

The National Bank Act, referred to in text, is act June 3, 1864, ch. 106, 13 Stat. 99, as amended. The act was incorporated into the Revised Statutes as R.S. §§324 to 327, 328 to 331, 333, 380, 563, 629, 736, 884, 885, 3473, 3475, 3651, 5133 to 5136, 5137 to 5154, 5156, 5158 to 5170, 5172, 5173, 5175, 5177, 5182 to 5184, 5187, 5189, 5190 to 5192, 5195 to 5204, 5206, 5209 to 5211, 5214 to 5215, 5219 to 5222, 5224 to 5239, 5240 to 5242, 5417, which are classified to sections 1 to 4, 8, 11 to 14, 21, 22 to 24, 26, 27, 29, 35, 39, 52, 53, 56, 57, 59 to 62, 66, 71, 72 to 76, 81, 84 to 86, 90, 91, 93, 94, 141 to 144, 161, 165, 181, 182, 192 to 194, 196, 481 to 485, 541, and 548 of this title, section 197 of Title 19, Customs Duties, and section 543 of former Title 31, Money and Finance. See, also, sections 8, 333, 334, 471, 472, 656, and 1005 of Title 18, Crimes and Criminal Procedure, and sections 507, 1348, 1394, and 1733 of Title 28, Judiciary and Judicial Procedure.

§39. Reservation of rights of associations organized under Act of 1863

Nothing in title 62 of the Revised Statutes shall affect any appointments made, acts done, or proceedings had or commenced prior to the third day of June 1864, in or toward the organization of any national banking association under the act of February 25, 1863; but all associations which, on the third day of June 1864, were organized or commenced to be organized under that act, shall enjoy all the rights and privileges granted, and be subject to all the duties, liabilities, and restrictions imposed by title 62 of the Revised Statutes, notwithstanding all the steps prescribed by title 62 of the Revised Statutes for the organization of associations were not pursued, if such associations were duly organized under that act.

(R.S. §5156.)

References in Text

Title 62 of the Revised Statutes, referred to in text, was in the original “this Title” meaning title LXII of the Revised Statutes, consisting of R.S. §§5133 to 5244, which are classified to this section and sections 16, 21, 22 to 24a, 25a, 25b, 26, 27, 29, 35 to 37, 43, 52, 53, 55 to 57, 59 to 62, 66, 71, 72 to 76, 81, 83 to 86, 90, 91, 93, 93a, 94, 141 to 144, 161, 164, 181, 182, 192 to 194, 196, 215c, 481 to 485, 501, 541, 548, and 582 of this title. See, also, sections 8, 333, 334, 475, 656, 709, 1004, and 1005 of Title 18, Crimes and Criminal Procedure. For complete classification of R.S. §§5133 to 5244 to the Code, see Tables.

Act of February 25, 1863, referred to in text, was act Feb. 25, 1863, ch. 58, 12 Stat. 665, which was the original National Bank Act, and was repealed by act June 3, 1864, ch. 106, §62, 13 Stat. 118.

Codification

R.S. §5156 derived from act June 3, 1864, ch. 106, §62, 13 Stat. 118, which was the National Bank Act. See section 38 of this title.

§40. Virgin Islands; extension of National Bank Act

The National Bank Act, as amended [12 U.S.C. 21 et seq.], and all other Acts of Congress relating to national banks, shall, insofar as not locally inapplicable after July 19, 1932, apply to the Virgin Islands of the United States.

(July 19, 1932, ch. 508, 47 Stat. 703.)

References in Text

The National Bank Act, referred to in text, is act June 3, 1864, ch. 106, 13 Stat. 99, as amended, which is classified principally to chapter 2 (§21 et seq.) of this title. For complete classification of this Act to the Code, see References in Text note set out under section 38 of this title.

§41. Guam; extension of National Bank Act

The National Bank Act [12 U.S.C. 21 et seq.], and all other Acts of Congress relating to national banks, shall, insofar as not locally inapplicable after August 1, 1956, apply to Guam.

(Aug. 1, 1956, ch. 852, §2, 70 Stat. 908.)

References in Text

The National Bank Act, referred to in text, is act June 3, 1864, ch. 106, 13 Stat. 99, as amended, which is classified principally to chapter 2 (§21 et seq.) of this title. For complete classification of this Act to the Code, see References in Text note set out under section 38 of this title.

§42. Territorial application

The provisions of all Acts of Congress relating to national banks shall apply in the several States, the District of Columbia, the several Territories and possessions of the United States, and the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico.

(Pub. L. 86–230, §14, Sept. 8, 1959, 73 Stat. 458.)

§43. Interpretations concerning preemption of certain State laws

(a) Notice and opportunity for comment required

Before issuing any opinion letter or interpretive rule, in response to a request or upon the agency's own motion, that concludes that Federal law preempts the application to a national bank of any State law regarding community reinvestment, consumer protection, fair lending, or the establishment of intrastate branches, or before making a determination under section 36(f)(1)(A)(ii) of this title, the appropriate Federal banking agency (as defined in section 1813 of this title) shall—

(1) publish in the Federal Register notice of the preemption or discrimination issue that the agency is considering (including a description of each State law at issue);

(2) give interested parties not less than 30 days in which to submit written comments; and

(3) in developing the final opinion letter or interpretive rule issued by the agency, or making any determination under section 36(f)(1)(A)(ii) of this title, consider any comments received.

(b) Publication required

The appropriate Federal banking agency shall publish in the Federal Register—

(1) any final opinion letter or interpretive rule concluding that Federal law preempts the application of any State law regarding community reinvestment, consumer protection, fair lending, or establishment of intrastate branches to a national bank; and

(2) any determination under section 36(f)(1)(A)(ii) of this title.

(c) Exceptions

(1) No new issue or significant basis

This section shall not apply with respect to any opinion letter or interpretive rule that—

(A) raises issues of Federal preemption of State law that are essentially identical to those previously resolved by the courts or on which the agency has previously issued an opinion letter or interpretive rule; or

(B) responds to a request that contains no significant legal basis on which to make a preemption determination.

(2) Judicial, legislative, or intragovernmental materials

This section shall not apply with respect to materials prepared for use in judicial proceedings or submission to Congress or a Member of Congress, or for intragovernmental use.

(3) Emergency

The appropriate Federal banking agency may make exceptions to subsection (a) of this section if—

(A) the agency determines in writing that the exception is necessary to avoid a serious and imminent threat to the safety and soundness of any national bank; or

(B) the opinion letter or interpretive rule is issued in connection with—

(i) an acquisition of 1 or more banks in default or in danger of default (as such terms are defined in section 1813 of this title); or

(ii) an acquisition with respect to which the Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation provides assistance under section 1823(c) of this title.

(R.S. §5244, as added Pub. L. 103–328, title I, §114, Sept. 29, 1994, 108 Stat. 2366.)

Codification

Another R.S. §5244 is classified to section 8 of Title 33, Navigation and Navigable Waters.

SUBCHAPTER II—CAPITAL, STOCK, AND STOCKHOLDERS

§51. Repealed. Pub. L. 106–569, title XII, §1233(c), Dec. 27, 2000, 114 Stat. 3037

Section, R.S. §5138; Mar. 14, 1900, ch. 41, §10, 31 Stat. 48; Feb. 25, 1927, ch. 191, §4, 44 Stat. 1227; June 16, 1933, ch. 89, §17(a), 48 Stat. 185; Aug. 23, 1935, ch. 614, title III, §309, 49 Stat. 709, related to capital and surplus requirements.

§51a. Preferred stock; issuance authorized

Notwithstanding any other provision of law, any national banking association may, with the approval of the Comptroller of the Currency and by vote of shareholders owning a majority of the stock of such association, upon not less than five days’ notice, given by registered mail or by certified mail pursuant to action taken by its board of directors, issue preferred stock of one or more classes, in such amount and with such par value as shall be approved by said Comptroller, and make such amendments to its articles of association as may be necessary for this purpose; but, in the case of any newly organized national banking association which has not yet issued common stock, the requirement of notice to and vote of shareholders shall not apply. No issue of preferred stock shall be valid until the par value of all stock so issued shall be paid in and notice thereof, duly acknowledged before a notary public by the president, vice president, or cashier of said association, has been transmitted to the Comptroller of the Currency and his certificate obtained specifying the amount of such issue of preferred stock and his approval thereof and that the amount has been duly paid in as a part of the capital of such association; which certificate shall be deemed to be conclusive evidence that such preferred stock has been duly and validly issued.

(Mar. 9, 1933, ch. 1, title III, §301, 48 Stat. 5; June 15, 1933, ch. 79, 48 Stat. 147; Aug. 23, 1935, ch. 614, title III, §336, 49 Stat. 720; Pub. L. 86–507, §1(9), June 11, 1960, 74 Stat. 200.)

Amendments

1960—Pub. L. 86–507 inserted “or by certified mail” after “registered mail”.

1935—Act Aug. 23, 1935, amended last sentence generally.

1933—Act June 15, 1933, struck out all of former section and inserted a new section which incorporated all former provisions and inserted “of one or more classes,” in first sentence.

Exception as to Transfer of Functions

Functions vested by any provision of law in Comptroller of the Currency, referred to in this section, not included in transfer of functions to Secretary of the Treasury, see note set out under section 1 of this title.

§51b. Dividends, voting, and retirement of preferred stock; individual liability

(a) Notwithstanding any other provision of law, whether relating to restriction upon the payment of dividends upon capital stock or otherwise, the holders of such preferred stock shall be entitled to receive such cumulative dividends and shall have such voting and conversion rights and such control of management, and such stock shall be subject to retirement in such manner and upon such conditions, as may be provided in the articles of association with the approval of the Comptroller of the Currency. The holders of such preferred stock shall not be held individually responsible as such holders for any debts, contracts, or engagements of such association, and shall not be liable for assessments to restore impairments in the capital of such association as now provided by law with reference to holders of common stock.

(b) No dividends shall be declared or paid on common stock until the cumulative dividends on the preferred stock shall have been paid in full; and, if the association is placed in voluntary liquidation or a conservator or a receiver is appointed therefor, no payments shall be made to the holders of the common stock until the holders of the preferred stock shall have been paid in full the par value of such stock plus all accumulated dividends.

(Mar. 9, 1933, ch. 1, title III, §302, 48 Stat. 5; June 15, 1933, ch. 79, 48 Stat. 148; Pub. L. 96–221, title VII, §702, Mar. 31, 1980, 94 Stat. 186.)

Amendments

1980—Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 96–221 struck out limitation on payment of cumulative dividends at a rate not exceeding 6 per centum per annum.

1933—Subsec. (a). Act June 15, 1933, struck out former subsec. (a) and inserted a new subsec. (a) which incorporated all former provisions and inserted “Notwithstanding any other provision of law, whether relating to restriction upon the payment of dividends upon capital stock or otherwise” and “and conversion rights,” in first sentence.

Exception as to Transfer of Functions

Functions vested by any provision of law in Comptroller of the Currency, referred to in this section, not included in transfer of functions to Secretary of the Treasury, see note set out under section 1 of this title.

§51b–1. Consideration of preferred stock in determining impairment of capital; dividends; retirement

If any part of the capital of a national bank, State member bank, or bank applying for membership in the Federal Reserve System consists of preferred stock, the determination of whether or not the capital of such bank is impaired and the amount of such impairment shall be based upon the par value of its stock even though the amount which the holders of such preferred stock shall be entitled to receive in the event of retirement or liquidation shall be in excess of the par value of such preferred stock. If any such bank or trust company shall have outstanding any capital notes or debentures of the type which the Reconstruction Finance Corporation is authorized to purchase pursuant to the provisions of section 51d of this title, the capital of such bank may be deemed to be unimpaired if the sound value of its assets is not less than its total liabilities, including capital stock, but excluding such capital notes or debentures and any obligations of the bank expressly subordinated thereto. Notwithstanding any other provision of law, the holders of preferred stock issued by a national banking association pursuant to the provisions of the Emergency Banking and Bank Conservation Act, approved March 9, 1933, as amended, shall be entitled to receive such cumulative dividends on the purchase price received by the association for such stock and, in the event of the retirement of such stock, to receive such retirement price, not in excess of such purchase price plus all accumulated dividends, as may be provided in the articles of association with the approval of the Comptroller of the Currency. If the association is placed in voluntary liquidation, or if a conservator or a receiver is appointed therefor, no payment shall be made to the holders of common stock until the holders of preferred stock shall have been paid in full such amount as may be provided in the articles of association with the approval of the Comptroller of the Currency, not in excess of such purchase price of such preferred stock plus all accumulated dividends.

(Aug. 23, 1935, ch. 614, title III, §345, 49 Stat. 722; Pub. L. 96–221, title VII, §703, Mar. 31, 1980, 94 Stat. 186.)

References in Text

Section 51d of this title, referred to in text, which was section 304 of the Emergency Banking and Bank Conservation Act, approved March 9, 1933, ch. 1, 48 Stat. 6, as amended, and which authorized the Reconstruction Finance Corporation, upon the request of the Secretary of the Treasury approved by the President, to purchase, or to make loans upon, the capital stock of any bank or trust company requiring funds for capital purposes in connection with its organization or reorganization, and which made provision for the purchase of the capital notes of banks organized in States which subject holders of preferred stock to double liability and for the sale of any stock or notes purchased under such authority, was repealed by act June 30, 1947, ch. 166, title II, §206(b), (o), 61 Stat. 208. However, according to the information received from the Department of the Treasury, the second sentence of this section is not obsolete even though it contains such obsolete reference to section 51d of this title, and even though, under 1957 Reorg. Plan No. 1, eff. June 30, 1957, 22 F.R. 4633, 71 Stat. 647, set out in the Appendix to Title 5, Government Organization and Employees, the Reconstruction Finance Corporation was abolished, for many banks have outstanding debentures which they obtained pursuant to the provisions of section 51d, and which they are not required to redeem; and their benefits or entitlements conferred by the second sentence of this section will remain until the debentures are redeemed.

The Emergency Banking and Bank Conservation Act, approved March 9, 1933, as amended, referred to in text, is act Mar. 9, 1933, ch. 1, 48 Stat. 1, as amended, which is classified to sections 51a, 51b, 51c, 51d, 95 to 95b, 201 to 212, 248, 347b, 347c, 347d, and 445 of this title and section 5 of Title 50, Appendix, War and National Defense.

Amendments

1980—Pub. L. 96–221 struck out limitation on payment of cumulative dividends at a rate not exceeding 6 per centum per annum.

Exception as to Transfer of Functions

Functions vested by any provision of law in Comptroller of the Currency, referred to in this section, not included in transfer of functions to Secretary of the Treasury, see note set out under section 1 of this title.

§51c. “Common stock”, “capital”, and “capital stock” defined

The term “common stock” as used in sections 51a, 51b, 51c, and 51d 1 of this title means stock of national banking associations other than preferred stock issued under the provisions of said sections. The term “capital” as used in provisions of law relating to the capital of national banking associations shall mean the amount of unimpaired common stock plus the amount of preferred stock outstanding and unimpaired; and the term “capital stock”, as used in sections 101, 177, and 178 1 of this title, shall mean only the amount of common stock outstanding.

(Mar. 9, 1933, ch. 1, title III, §303, 48 Stat. 5.)

References in Text

Section 51d of this title, referred to in text, was repealed by act June 30, 1947, ch. 166, title II, §206(b), (o), 61 Stat. 208. For effect of the repeal on outstanding debentures held by banks, see note under section 51b–1 of this title.

Sections 101, 177, and 178 of this title, referred to in text, were repealed by Pub. L. 103–325, title VI, §602(f)(2), (5), Sept. 23, 1994, 108 Stat. 2292, 2293.

1 See References in Text note below.

§§51d to 51f. Repealed. June 30, 1947, ch. 166, title II, §206(b), (o), 61 Stat. 208

Section 51d, acts Mar. 9, 1933, ch. 1, title III, §304, 48 Stat. 6; Mar. 24, 1933, ch. 8, §2, 48 Stat. 21; Mar. 20, 1936, ch. 160, §1, 49 Stat. 1185; June 25, 1940, ch. 427, §1, 54 Stat. 572, related to subscription for and sale of preferred stock in banks by the Reconstruction Finance Corporation.

Sections 51e and 51f, act Mar. 20, 1936, ch. 160, §§2, 3, 49 Stat. 1185, related to rate of interest on loans and separability provisions.

§52. Par value and incidents of stock; transfer of shares

The capital stock of each association shall be divided into shares of $100 each, or into shares of such less amount as may be provided in the articles of association, and be deemed personal property, and transferable on the books of the association in such manner as may be prescribed in the by-laws or articles of association. Every person becoming a shareholder by such transfer shall, in proportion to his shares, succeed to all rights and liabilities of the prior holder of such shares; and no change shall be made in the articles of association by which the rights, remedies, or security of the existing creditors of the association shall be impaired.

Certificates issued after August 23, 1935, representing shares of stock of the association shall state (1) the name and location of the association, (2) the name of the holder of record of the stock represented thereby, (3) the number and class of shares which the certificate represents, and (4) if the association shall issue stock of more than one class, the respective rights, preferences, privileges, voting rights, powers, restrictions, limitations, and qualifications of each class of stock issued shall be stated in full or in summary upon the front or back of the certificates or shall be incorporated by a reference to the articles of association set forth on the front of the certificates. Every certificate shall be signed by the president and the cashier of the association, or by such other officers as the bylaws of the association shall provide, and shall be sealed with the seal of the association.

After August 23, 1935, no certificate evidencing the stock of any such association shall bear any statement purporting to represent the stock of any other corporation, except a member bank or a corporation engaged on June 16, 1934, in holding the bank premises of such association, nor shall the ownership, sale, or transfer of any certificate representing the stock of any such association be conditioned in any manner whatsoever upon the ownership, sale, or transfer of a certificate representing the stock of any other corporation, except a member bank or a corporation engaged on June 16, 1934 in holding the bank premises of such association: Provided, That this section shall not operate to prevent the ownership, sale, or transfer of stock of any other corporation being conditioned upon the ownership, sale, or transfer of a certificate representing stock of a national banking association.

(R.S. §5139; Feb. 25, 1927, ch. 191, §16, 44 Stat. 1233; June 16, 1933, ch. 89, §18, 48 Stat. 186; Aug. 23, 1935, ch. 614, title III, §§310(a), 335, 49 Stat. 710, 720.)

Codification

R.S. §5139 derived from act June 3, 1864, ch. 106, §12, 13 Stat. 102, which was the National Bank Act. See section 38 of this title.

Amendments

1935—Act Aug. 23, 1935, §335, added second par.

Act Aug. 23, 1935, §310(a), among other changes in last par., inserted proviso.

1933—Act June 16, 1933, added last par.

1927—Act Feb. 25, 1927, inserted “or into shares of such less amount as may be provided in the articles of association” in first sentence.

§53. When capital stock paid in

All of the capital stock of every national banking association shall be paid in before it shall be authorized to commence business.

(R.S. §5140; Pub. L. 86–230, §4, Sept. 8, 1959, 73 Stat. 457.)

Codification

R.S. §5140 derived from act June 3, 1864, ch. 106, §14, 13 Stat. 103, which was the National Bank Act. See section 38 of this title.

Amendments

1959—Pub. L. 86–230 substituted requirement that all the capital stock of a national bank must be paid in before it commences business for permissive authority to be open for business upon payment of 50 per centum of the capital stock and installment payment of the remaining 50 per centum.

§54. Repealed. Pub. L. 86–230, §5, Sept. 8, 1959, 73 Stat. 457

Section, R.S. §5141, related to failure to pay installments, remedy and effect if reduction of capital resulted.

§55. Enforcing payment of deficiency in capital stock; assessments; liquidation; receivership

Every association which shall have failed to pay up its capital stock, as required by law, and every association whose capital stock shall have become impaired by losses or otherwise, shall, within three months after receiving notice thereof from the Comptroller of the Currency, pay the deficiency in the capital stock, by assessment upon the shareholders pro rata for the amount of capital stock held by each; and the Treasurer of the United States shall withhold the interest upon all bonds held by him in trust for any such association, upon notification from the Comptroller of the Currency, until otherwise notified by him. If any such association shall fail to pay up its capital stock, and shall refuse to go into liquidation, as provided by law, for three months after receiving notice from the comptroller, a receiver may be appointed to close up the business of the association, according to the provisions of section 192 of this title. And provided, That if any shareholder or shareholders of such bank shall neglect or refuse, after three months’ notice, to pay the assessment, as provided in this section, it shall be the duty of the board of directors to cause a sufficient amount of the capital stock of such shareholder or shareholders to be sold at public auction (after thirty days’ notice shall be given by posting such notice of sale in the office of the bank, and by publishing such notice in a newspaper of the city or town in which the bank is located, or in a newspaper published nearest thereto,) 1 to make good the deficiency, and the balance, if any, shall be returned to such delinquent shareholder or shareholders.

(R.S. §5205; June 30, 1876, ch. 156, §4, 19 Stat. 64.)

Codification

R.S. §5205 derived from act Mar. 3, 1873, ch. 269, §1, 17 Stat. 603.

Transfer of Functions

All functions of all officers of the Department of the Treasury, and all functions of all agencies and employees of such Department, were transferred, with certain exceptions, to the Secretary of the Treasury, with power vested in him to authorize their performance or the performance of any of his functions, by any of those officers, agencies, and employees, by 1950 Reorg. Plan No. 26, §§1, 2, eff. July 31, 1950, 15 F.R. 4935, 64 Stat. 1280, formerly set out in the Appendix to Title 5, Government Organization and Employees. See section 321(c) of Title 31, Money and Finance. The Comptroller of the Currency and the Treasurer of the United States, both referred to in this section, are officers of the Treasury Department, but such Plan excepted, from the transfer, any function vested by law in the Comptroller of the Currency.

Application to District of Columbia

Provisions of this section were made applicable to banks, etc., in the District of Columbia by act Mar. 4, 1933, ch. 274, §4, 47 Stat. 1567.

1 So in original.

§56. Prohibition on withdrawal of capital; unearned dividends

No association, or any member thereof, shall, during the time it shall continue its banking operations, withdraw, or permit to be withdrawn, either in the form of dividends or otherwise, any portion of its capital. If losses have at any time been sustained by any such association, equal to or exceeding its undivided profits then on hand, no dividend shall be made; and no dividend shall ever be made by any association, while it continues its banking operations, to an amount greater than its undivided profits, subject to other applicable provisions of law. But nothing in this section shall prevent the reduction of the capital stock of the association under section 59 of this title.

(R.S. §5204; Pub. L. 103–325, title VI, §602(h)(1), Sept. 23, 1994, 108 Stat. 2294.)

Codification

R.S. §5204 derived from act June 3, 1864, ch. 106, §38, 13 Stat. 110, which was the National Bank Act. See section 38 of this title.

Amendments

1994—Pub. L. 103–325 substituted “undivided profits, subject to other applicable provisions of law” for “net profits then on hand, deducting therefrom its losses and bad debts” in second sentence and struck out after second sentence “All debts due to any associations, on which interest is past due and unpaid for a period of six months, unless the same are well secured, and in process of collection, shall be considered bad debts within the meaning of this section.”

§57. Increase of capital by provision in articles of association

Any national banking association may, with the approval of the Comptroller of the Currency, and by a vote of shareholders owning two-thirds of the stock of such associations, increase its capital stock to any sum approved by the said comptroller, but no increase in capital shall be valid until the whole amount of such increase is paid in and notice thereof, duly acknowledged before a notary public by the president, vice president, or cashier of said association, has been transmitted to the Comptroller of the Currency and his certificate obtained specifying the amount of such increase in capital stock and his approval thereof, and that it has been duly paid in as part of the capital of such association: Provided, however, That a national banking association may, with the approval of the Comptroller of the Currency, and by the vote of shareholders owning two-thirds of the stock of such association, increase its capital stock by the declaration of a stock dividend, provided that the surplus of said association, after the approval of the increase, shall be at least equal to 20 per centum of the capital stock as increased. Such increase shall not be effective until a certificate certifying to such declaration of dividend, signed by the president, vice president, or cashier of said association and duly acknowledged before a notary public, shall have been forwarded to the Comptroller of the Currency and his certificate obtained specifying the amount of such increase of capital stock by stock dividend, and his approval thereof.

(R.S. §5142; Feb. 25, 1927, ch. 191, §5, 44 Stat. 1227.)

Codification

R.S. §5142 derived from act June 3, 1864, ch. 106, §13, 13 Stat. 103, which was the National Bank Act. See section 38 of this title.

Amendments

1927—Act Feb. 25, 1927, among other changes, inserted proviso.

Exception as to Transfer of Functions

Functions vested by any provision of law in Comptroller of the Currency, referred to in this section, not included in transfer of functions to Secretary of the Treasury, see note set out under section 1 of this title.

§58. Repealed. Pub. L. 86–230, §6, Sept. 8, 1959, 73 Stat. 457

Section, act May 1, 1886, ch. 73, §1, 24 Stat. 18, related to increase of capital by vote of shareholders. See section 57 of this title.

§59. Reduction of capital

(a) In general

Subject to the approval of the Comptroller of the Currency, a national banking association may, by a vote of shareholders owning, in the aggregate, two-thirds of its capital stock, reduce its capital.

(b) Shareholder distributions authorized

As part of its capital reduction plan approved in accordance with subsection (a), and with the affirmative vote of shareholders owning at least two thirds of the shares of each class of its stock outstanding (each voting as a class), a national banking association may distribute cash or other assets to its shareholders.

(R.S. §5143; Dec. 23, 1913, ch. 6, §28, 38 Stat. 274; Aug. 23, 1935, ch. 614, title III, §334, 49 Stat. 720; Pub. L. 109–351, title III, §304, Oct. 13, 2006, 120 Stat. 1970.)

Codification

R.S. §5143 derived from act June 3, 1864, ch. 106, §13, 13 Stat. 103, which was the National Bank Act. See section 38 of this title.

Amendments

2006—Pub. L. 109–351 amended section generally. Prior to amendment, section read as follows: “Any association formed under title 62 of the Revised Statutes may, by the vote of shareholders owning two-thirds of its capital stock, reduce its capital to any sum not below the amount required by title 62 of the Revised Statutes to authorize the formation of associations; but no such reduction shall be allowable which will reduce the capital of the association below the amount required for its outstanding circulation, nor shall any reduction be made until the amount of the proposed reduction has been reported to the Comptroller of the Currency and such reduction has been approved by said Comptroller of the Currency and no shareholder shall be entitled to any distribution of cash or other assets by reason of any reduction of the common capital of any association unless such distribution shall have been approved by the Comptroller of the Currency and by the affirmative vote of at least two-thirds of the shares of each class of stock outstanding, voting as classes.”

1935—Act Aug. 23, 1935, substituted “and no shareholder shall be entitled to any distribution of cash or other assets by reason of any reduction of the common capital of any association unless such distribution shall have been approved by the Comptroller of the Currency and by the affirmative vote of at least two-thirds of the shares of each class of stock outstanding, voting as classes” for “and by the Federal Reserve Board or by the organization committee pending the organization of the Federal Reserve Board”.

§60. National bank dividends

(a) In general

Subject to subsection (b), the directors of any national bank may declare a dividend of so much of the undivided profits of the bank as the directors judge to be expedient.

(b) Approval required under certain circumstances

A national bank may not declare and pay dividends in any year in excess of an amount equal to the sum of the total of the net income of the bank for that year and the retained net income of the bank for the preceding 2 years, minus the sum of any transfers required by the Comptroller of the Currency and any transfers required to be made to a fund for the retirement of any preferred stock, unless the Comptroller of the Currency approves the declaration and payment of dividends in excess of such amount.

(R.S. §5199; Aug. 23, 1935, ch. 614, title III, §315, 49 Stat. 712; Pub. L. 86–230, §21(a), Sept. 8, 1959, 73 Stat. 465; Pub. L. 103–325, title VI, §602(h)(2), Sept. 23, 1994, 108 Stat. 2294; Pub. L. 109–351, title III, §302(a), Oct. 13, 2006, 120 Stat. 1970.)

Codification

R.S. §5199 derived from act June 3, 1864, ch. 106, §33, 13 Stat. 109, which was the National Bank Act. See section 38 of this title.

Amendments

2006—Pub. L. 109–351 amended section generally. Prior to amendment, section related to periodic declarations of dividends subject to certain surplus fund requirements and to the approval of the Comptroller of the Currency in certain situations.

1994—Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 103–325, §602(h)(2)(A), (B), substituted “undivided profits of the association, subject to the limitations in subsection (b) of this section,” for “net profits of the association” in first sentence and “net income” for “net profits” wherever subsequently appearing.

Subsec. (b). Pub. L. 103–325, §602(h)(2)(B), substituted “net income” for “net profits” in two places.

Subsec. (c). Pub. L. 103–325, §602(h)(2)(C), struck out subsec. (c) which read as follows: “For the purpose of this section the term ‘net profits’ shall mean the remainder of all earnings from current operations plus actual recoveries on loans and investments and other assets, after deducting from the total thereof all current operating expenses, actual losses, accrued dividends on preferred stock, if any, and all Federal and State taxes.”

1959—Pub. L. 86–230 designated existing provisions as subsec. (a), authorized the declaration of dividends, quarterly and annually, when at least one-tenth of the bank's net profits of the preceding half year or of the preceding two consecutive half-year periods has been carried to the surplus fund, respectively, and added subsecs. (b) and (c).

1935—Act Aug. 23, 1935, among other changes, inserted proviso.

§61. Shareholders’ voting rights; cumulative and distributive voting; preferred stock; trust shares; proxies, liability restrictions; percentage requirement exclusion of trust shares

In all elections of directors, each shareholder shall have the right to vote the number of shares owned by him for as many persons as there are directors to be elected, or, if so provided by the articles of association of the national bank, to cumulate such shares and give one candidate as many votes as the number of directors multiplied by the number of his shares shall equal or to distribute them on the same principle among as many candidates as he shall think fit; and in deciding all other questions at meetings of shareholders, each shareholder shall be entitled to one vote on each share of stock held by him; except that (1) this shall not be construed as limiting the voting rights of holders of preferred stock under the terms and provisions of articles of association, or amendments thereto, adopted pursuant to the provisions of section 51b of this title; (2) in the election of directors, shares of its own stock held by a national bank as sole trustee, whether registered in its own name as such trustee or in the name of its nominee, shall not be voted by the registered owner unless under the terms of the trust the manner in which such shares shall be voted may be determined by a donor or beneficiary of the trust and unless such donor or beneficiary actually directs how such shares shall be voted; and (3) shares of its own stock held by a national bank and one or more persons as trustees may be voted by such other person or persons, as trustees, in the same manner as if he or they were the sole trustee. Shareholders may vote by proxies duly authorized in writing; but no officer, clerk, teller, or bookkeeper of such bank shall act as proxy; and no shareholder whose liability is past due and unpaid shall be allowed to vote. Whenever shares of stock cannot be voted by reason of being held by the bank as sole trustee such shares shall be excluded in determining whether matters voted upon by the shareholders were adopted by the requisite percentage of shares.

(R.S. §5144; June 16, 1933, ch. 89, §19, 48 Stat. 186; Aug. 23, 1935, ch. 614, title III, §311, 49 Stat. 710; Sept. 3, 1954, ch. 1263, §21, 68 Stat. 1234; Pub. L. 86–114, §4, July 28, 1959, 73 Stat. 264; Pub. L. 89–485, §13(c), July 1, 1966, 80 Stat. 242; Pub. L. 109–351, title III, §301, Oct. 13, 2006, 120 Stat. 1969.)

Codification

R.S. §5144 derived from act June 3, 1864, ch. 106, §11, 13 Stat. 102, which was the National Bank Act. See section 38 of this title.

Amendments

2006—Pub. L. 109–351 substituted “or, if so provided by the articles of association of the national bank, to cumulate” for “or to cumulate” and struck out comma after “his shares shall equal”.

1966—Pub. L. 89–485 struck out: clause (4) requirement of a voting permit from the Board for voting shares controlled by a holding company affiliate of a national bank except when voting in favor of voluntary liquidation of an association; second par. definition of control of shares by a holding company affiliate; third par, prescribing procedure for obtaining a voting permit: application to Board, grant or denial of permit in the public interest, factors for consideration, and conditions described in subsecs. (a) to (e) for granting a permit; subsec. (a) requirement of agreement of the holding company affiliate to an examination of the affiliate by bank examiners, reports by such examiners, examination of affiliated banks, and publication of individual or consolidated statements of condition of such banks; subsec. (b) provisions for possession of readily marketable assets other than bank stock and reinvestment of a prescribed amount of net earnings in such assets; subsec. (c) provisions for reserve of assets, use of assets for capital replacement, and situations involving more than one holding company affiliate; subsec. (d) provisions for penalties for false entries; subsec. (e) requirements for disclosure in application of a absence of securities company status and for declaration of dividends out of net earnings; penultimate par. prescribing procedure for revocation of voting permit and prohibiting the use of the bank as a depositary for public moneys of the United States and payment of dividends to the affiliate; and last par. authorization for forfeiture of rights, privileges, and franchises of national banks.

1959—Subsec. (c). Pub. L. 86–114 authorized the Board to designate one of the chain of holding company affiliates which would have to maintain the 12 percent reserve and exempted the other holding company affiliates from the requirement.

1954—Subsec. (d). Act Sept. 3, 1954, substituted “section 1005 of Title 18” for “section 592 of this title”.

1935—Act Aug. 23, 1935, amended first par., first sentence of third par., and inserted “and the provisions of this subsection, instead of subsection (b), shall apply to all holding company affiliates with respect to any shares of bank stock owned or controlled by them as to which there is no statutory liability imposed upon the holders of such bank stock” at end of subsec. (c).

1933—Act June 16, 1933, inserted provisions for cumulative voting of shares or distribution of votes on a cumulative voting principle, prohibited national banks holding their own shares as sole trustee from voting such shares but permitted such shares to be voted when held by another person or persons as trustees with the bank, denied voting rights to shares controlled by a holding company affiliate of a national bank unless a voting permit was first obtained, provided for application for a voting permit to the Federal Reserve Board, specified conditions for granting the voting permit and procedure for its revocation, and authorized the forfeiture of a National Bank's rights, privileges, and franchises upon such revocation.

§62. List of shareholders

The president and cashier of every national banking association shall cause to be kept at all times a full and correct list of the names and residences of all the shareholders in the association, and the number of shares held by each, in the office where its business is transacted. Such list shall be subject to the inspection of all the shareholders and creditors of the association, and the officers authorized to assess taxes under State authority, during business hours of each day in which business may be legally transacted. A copy of such list, verified by the oath of such president or cashier, shall be transmitted to the Comptroller of the Currency within ten days of any demand therefor made by him.

(R.S. §5210; May 18, 1953, ch. 59, §1, 67 Stat. 27.)

Codification

R.S. §5210 derived from act June 3, 1864, ch. 106, §40, 13 Stat. 111, which was the National Bank Act. See section 38 of this title.

Amendments

1953—Act May 18, 1953, changed the requirement for annual transmission of a copy of the shareholders list to the Comptroller of the Currency by authorizing the Comptroller to acquire such copy at any time on 10 days’ notice.

Exception as to Transfer of Functions

Functions vested by any provision of law in Comptroller of the Currency, referred to in this section, not included in transfer of functions to Secretary of the Treasury, see note set out under section 1 of this title.

Application to District of Columbia

Provisions of this section were made applicable to banks, etc., in the District of Columbia by act Mar. 4, 1933, ch. 274, §4, 47 Stat. 1567.

§§63, 64. Repealed. Pub. L. 86–230, §7, Sept. 8, 1959, 73 Stat. 457

Section 63, R.S. §5151, related to individual liability of shareholders.

Section 64, act Dec. 23, 1913, ch. 6, §23, 38 Stat. 273, related to transfer of shares as affecting individual liability of shareholders. Limitation on liability of shareholders, see section 64a of this title.

The status of former section 63 of this title had been doubtful. At different times it had been held to have been repealed, superseded, and superseded only in part by former section 64 of this title which related to the same subject. See American T. Co. v. Grut, C.C.A. 1935, 80 F.2d 155; Miller v. Hamner, C.C.A. 1920, 269 F. 891; and First Nat. Bank v. First Nat. Bank, D.C. 1926, 14 F.2d 129.

§64a. Individual liability of shareholders; limitation on liability

The additional liability imposed upon shareholders in national banking associations by the provisions of sections 63 and 64 of this title shall not apply with respect to shares in any such association issued after June 16, 1933. Such additional liability shall cease on July 1, 1937, with respect to all shares issued by any association which shall be transacting the business of banking on July 1, 1937: Provided, That not less than six months prior to such date, such association shall have caused notice of such prospective termination of liability to be published in a newspaper published in the city, town, or county in which such association is located, and if no newspaper is published in such city, town, or county, then in a newspaper of general circulation therein. If the association fail 1 to give such notice as and when above provided, a termination of such additional liability may thereafter be accomplished as of the date six month 2 subsequent to publication, in the manner above provided. In the case of each association which has not caused notice of such prospective termination of liability to be published prior to May 18, 1953, the Comptroller of the Currency shall cause such notice to be published in the manner provided in this section, and on the date six months subsequent to such publication by the Comptroller of the Currency such additional liability shall cease.

(June 16, 1933, ch. 89, §22, 48 Stat. 189; Aug. 23, 1935, ch. 614, title III, §304, 49 Stat. 708; May 18, 1953, ch. 59, §2, 67 Stat. 27.)

References in Text

Sections 63 and 64 of this title, referred to in text, were repealed by Pub. L. 86–230, §7, Sept. 8, 1959, 73 Stat. 457.

Amendments

1953—Act May 18, 1953, provided for termination of the additional liability, referred to in the section, by action of the Comptroller of the Currency with regard to those associations which had not, prior to May 18, 1953, caused notice of termination to be published.

1935—Act Aug. 23, 1935, added second and third sentences.

Exception as to Transfer of Functions

Functions vested by any provision of law in Comptroller of the Currency, referred to in this section, not included in transfer of functions to Secretary of the Treasury, see note set out under section 1 of this title.

1 So in original. Probably should be “fails”.

2 So in original. Probably should be “months”.

§65. Repealed. Pub. L. 86–230, §8, Sept. 8, 1959, 73 Stat. 457

Section, acts June 30, 1876, ch. 156, §2, 19 Stat. 63; Sept. 3, 1954, ch. 1263, §22, 68 Stat. 1234, related to enforcement of shareholders’ individual liability by creditors on liquidation. Limitation on liability of shareholders, see section 64a of this title.

§66. Personal liability of representatives of stockholders

Persons holding stock as executors, administrators, guardians, or trustees, shall not be personally subject to any liabilities as stockholders; but the estates and funds in their hands shall be liable in like manner and to the same extent as the testator, intestate, ward, or person interested in such trust funds would be, if living and competent to act and hold the stock in his own name.

(R.S. §5152.)

Codification

R.S. §5152 derived from act June 3, 1864, ch. 106, §63, 13 Stat. 118, which was the National Bank Act. See section 38 of this title.

§67. Individual liability of shareholders; compromises; authority of receiver

Any receiver of a national banking association is authorized, with the approval of the Comptroller of the Currency and upon the order of a court of record of competent jurisdiction, to compromise, either before or after judgment, the individual liability of any shareholder of such association.

(Feb. 25, 1930, ch. 58, 46 Stat. 74.)

Exception as to Transfer of Functions

Functions vested by any provision of law in Comptroller of the Currency, referred to in this section, not included in transfer to Secretary of the Treasury, see note set out under section 1 of this title.

Application to District of Columbia

Provisions of this section were made applicable to banks, etc., in the District of Columbia by act Mar. 4, 1933, ch. 274, §4, 47 Stat. 1567.

SUBCHAPTER III—DIRECTORS

§71. Election

The affairs of each association shall be managed by not less than five directors, who shall be elected by the shareholders at a meeting to be held at any time before the association is authorized by the Comptroller of the Currency to commence the business of banking; and afterward at meetings to be held on such day of each year as is specified therefor in the bylaws. The directors shall hold office for a period of not more than 3 years, and until their successors are elected and have qualified. In accordance with regulations issued by the Comptroller of the Currency, a national bank may adopt bylaws that provide for staggering the terms of its directors.

(R.S. §5145; Pub. L. 88–232, §1, Dec. 23, 1963, 77 Stat. 472; Pub. L. 106–569, title XII, §1205(a), Dec. 27, 2000, 114 Stat. 3033.)

Codification

R.S. §5145 derived from act June 3, 1864, ch. 106, §§9, 10, 13 Stat. 102, which was the National Bank Act. See section 38 of this title.

Amendments

2000—Pub. L. 106–569 substituted “for a period of not more than 3 years” for “for one year” and inserted at end “In accordance with regulations issued by the Comptroller of the Currency, a national bank may adopt bylaws that provide for staggering the terms of its directors.”

1963—Pub. L. 88–232 substituted “on such day of each year as is specified therefor in the bylaws” for “on such day in January of each year as is specified therefor in the articles of association”.

Exception as to Transfer of Functions

Functions vested by any provision of law in Comptroller of the Currency, referred to in this section, not included in transfer of functions to Secretary of the Treasury, see note set out under section 1 of this title.

§71a. Number of directors; penalties

After one year from June 16, 1933, notwithstanding any other provision of law, the board of directors, board of trustees, or other similar governing body of every national banking association and of every State bank or trust company which is a member of the Federal Reserve System shall consist of not less than five nor more than twenty-five members, except that the Comptroller of the Currency may, by regulation or order, exempt a national bank from the 25-member limit established by this section. If any national banking association violates the provisions of this section and continues such violation after thirty days’ notice from the Comptroller of the Currency, the said Comptroller may appoint a receiver or conservator therefor, in accordance with the provisions of existing law. If any State bank or trust company which is a member of the Federal Reserve System violates the provisions of this section and continues such violation after thirty days’ notice from the Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System, it shall be subject to the forfeiture of its membership in the Federal Reserve System in accordance with the provisions of section 327 of this title.

(June 16, 1933, ch. 89, §31, 48 Stat. 194; June 16, 1934, ch. 546, §4, 48 Stat. 971; Aug. 23, 1935, ch. 614, title II, §203(a), title III, §306, 49 Stat. 704, 708; Pub. L. 106–569, title XII, §1205(b), Dec. 27, 2000, 114 Stat. 3034.)

Amendments

2000—Pub. L. 106–569 inserted before period at end of first sentence “, except that the Comptroller of the Currency may, by regulation or order, exempt a national bank from the 25-member limit established by this section”.

1935—Act June 16, 1934, as amended by act Aug. 23, 1935, §306, repealed a former provision of this section relating to stock ownership requirements of directors, trustees, or members of similar governing bodies of any national banking association, or of any State bank or trust company which is a member of the Federal Reserve System.

1934—Act June 16, 1934, repealed a former provision of this section relating to stock ownership requirements of directors, trustees, or members of similar governing bodies of member banks of the Federal Reserve System.

Change of Name

Section 203(a) of act Aug. 23, 1935, changed name of Federal Reserve Board to Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System.

Exception as to Transfer of Functions

Functions vested by any provision of law in Comptroller of the Currency, referred to in this section, not included in transfer of functions to Secretary of the Treasury, see note set out under section 1 of this title.

§72. Qualifications

Every director must, during his whole term of service, be a citizen of the United States, and at least a majority of the directors must have resided in the State, Territory, or District in which the association is located, or within one hundred miles of the location of the office of the association, for at least one year immediately preceding their election, and must be residents of such State or within one-hundred-mile territory of the location of the association during their continuance in office, except that the Comptroller may, in the discretion of the Comptroller, waive the requirement of residency, and waive the requirement of citizenship in the case of not more than a minority of the total number of directors. Every director must own in his or her own right either shares of the capital stock of the association of which he or she is a director the aggregate par value of which is not less than $1,000, or an equivalent interest, as determined by the Comptroller of the Currency, in any company which has control over such association within the meaning of section 1841 of this title. If the capital of the bank does not exceed $25,000, every director must own in his or her own right either shares of such capital stock the aggregate par value of which is not less than $500, or an equivalent interest, as determined by the Comptroller of the Currency, in any company which has control over such association within the meaning of section 1841 of this title. Any director who ceases to be the owner of the required number of shares of the stock, or who becomes in any other manner disqualified, shall thereby vacate his place.

(R.S. §5146; Feb. 28, 1905, ch. 1163, 33 Stat. 818; Mar. 1, 1921, ch. 100, 41 Stat. 1199; Feb. 25, 1927, ch. 191, §17, 44 Stat. 1233; Apr. 27, 1956, ch. 215, 70 Stat. 119; Pub. L. 95–369, §2, Sept. 17, 1978, 92 Stat. 608; Pub. L. 96–221, title VII, §710, Mar. 31, 1980, 94 Stat. 189; Pub. L. 103–325, title III, §313, Sept. 23, 1994, 108 Stat. 2221; Pub. L. 104–208, div. A, title II, §2241, Sept. 30, 1996, 110 Stat. 3009–418; Pub. L. 106–569, title XII, §1233(a), Dec. 27, 2000, 114 Stat. 3037.)

Codification

R.S. §5146 derived from act June 3, 1864, ch. 106, §§9, 10, 13 Stat. 102, which was the National Bank Act. See section 38 of this title.

Amendments

2000—Pub. L. 106–569 inserted before period at end of first sentence “, and waive the requirement of citizenship in the case of not more than a minority of the total number of directors”.

1996—Pub. L. 104–208 substituted “except that the Comptroller may, in the discretion of the Comptroller, waive the requirement of residency” for “except that in the case of an association which is a subsidiary or affiliate of a foreign bank, the Comptroller of the Currency may in his discretion waive the requirement of citizenship in the case of not more than a minority of the total number of directors” before period at end of first sentence.

1994—Pub. L. 103–325, which directed the substitution of “a majority” for “two thirds”, was executed by making the substitution for “two-thirds” in first sentence to reflect the probable intent of Congress.

1980—Pub. L. 96–221 inserted provisions setting forth additional ownership requirements with respect to equivalent interest determinations by the Comptroller of the Currency.

1978—Pub. L. 95–369 authorized the Comptroller of the Currency, in case of associations which are subsidiaries of affiliates of foreign banks, to waive citizenship requirements of not more than a minority of the total number of directors.

1956—Act Apr. 27, 1956, substituted “two-thirds”, “one hundred”, “one-hundred-mile”, for “three-fourths”, “fifty”, and “fifty-mile”, respectively.

1927—Act Feb. 25, 1927, substituted a minimum value of stock ownership for minimum number of shares in both instances.

§73. Oath

Each director, when appointed or elected, shall take an oath that he will, so far as the duty devolves on him, diligently and honestly administer the affairs of such association, and will not knowingly violate or willingly permit to be violated any of the provisions of title 62 of the Revised Statutes, and that he is the owner in good faith, and in his own right, of the number of shares of stock required by title 62 of the Revised Statutes, subscribed by him, or standing in his name on the books of the association, and that the same is not hypothecated, or in any way pledged, as security for any loan or debt. The oath shall be taken before a notary public, properly authorized and commissioned by the State in which he resides, or before any other officer having an official seal and authorized by the State to administer oaths, except that the oath shall not be taken before any such notary public or other officer who is an officer of the director's bank. The oath, subscribed by the director making it, and certified by the notary public or other officer before whom it is taken, shall be immediately transmitted to the Comptroller of the Currency and shall be filed and preserved in his office for a period of ten years.

(R.S. §5147; Feb. 20, 1925, ch. 274, 43 Stat. 955.)

References in Text

Title 62 of the Revised Statutes, referred to in text, was in the original “this Title” meaning title LXII of the Revised Statutes, consisting of R.S. §§5133 to 5244, which are classified to this section and sections 16, 21, 22 to 24a, 25a, 25b, 26, 27, 29, 35 to 37, 39, 43, 52, 53, 55 to 57, 59 to 62, 66, 71, 72, 74 to 76, 81, 83 to 86, 90, 91, 93, 93a, 94, 141 to 144, 161, 164, 181, 182, 192 to 194, 196, 215c, 481 to 485, 501, 541, 548, and 582 of this title. See, also, sections 8, 333, 334, 475, 656, 709, 1004, and 1005 of Title 18, Crimes and Criminal Procedure. For complete classification of R.S. §§5133 to 5244 to the Code, see Tables.

Codification

R.S. §5147 derived from act June 3, 1864, ch. 106, §9, 13 Stat. 102, which was the National Bank Act. See section 38 of this title.

Exception as to Transfer of Functions

Functions vested by any provision of law in Comptroller of the Currency, referred to in this section, not included in transfer of functions to Secretary of the Treasury, see note set out under section 1 of this title.

§74. Vacancies

Any vacancy in the board shall be filled by appointment by the remaining directors, and any director so appointed shall hold his place until the next election.

(R.S. §5148.)

Codification

R.S. §5148 derived from act June 3, 1864, ch. 106, §10, 13 Stat. 102, which was the National Bank Act. See section 38 of this title.

§75. Legal holiday, annual meeting on; proceedings where no election held on proper day

When the day fixed in the bylaws for the regular annual meeting of the shareholders falls on a legal holiday in the State in which the bank is located, the shareholders meeting shall be held, and the directors elected, on the next following banking day. If, from any cause, an election of directors is not made on the day fixed, or in the event of a legal holiday, on the next following banking day, an election may be held on any subsequent day within sixty days of the day fixed, to be designated by the board of directors, or, if the directors fail to fix the day, by shareholders representing two-thirds of the shares, at least ten days’ notice thereof in all cases having been given by first-class mail to the shareholders.

(R.S. §5149; Pub. L. 86–230, §9, Sept. 8, 1959, 73 Stat. 457; Pub. L. 88–232, §2, Dec. 23, 1963, 77 Stat. 472.)

Codification

R.S. §5149 derived from act June 3, 1864, ch. 106, §10, 13 Stat. 102, which was the National Bank Act. See section 38 of this title.

Amendments

1963—Pub. L. 88–232 substituted “bylaws” for “articles of association”.

1959—Pub. L. 86–230 provided that when the day fixed for the regular annual meeting of the shareholders falls on a legal holiday, the meeting shall be held on the next following banking day and authorized election of directors to be held within sixty days of a fixed day upon ten days’ notice to the shareholders by first-class mail instead of upon thirty days’ notice in newspaper and at a date designated in the articles or bylaws or by the shareholders.

§76. President of bank as member of board; chairman of board

The president of the bank shall be a member of the board and shall be the chairman thereof, but the board may designate a director in lieu of the president to be chairman of the board, who shall perform such duties as may be designated by the board.

(R.S. §5150; Feb. 25, 1927, ch. 191, §6, 44 Stat. 1228.)

Codification

R.S. §5150 derived from act June 3, 1864, ch. 106, §9, 13 Stat. 102, which was the National Bank Act. See section 38 of this title.

Amendments

1927—Act Feb. 25, 1927, amended section generally. Prior to amendment, section read as follows: “One of the directors, to be chosen by the board, shall be president of the board.”

§77. Repealed. Pub. L. 89–695, title II, §207, Oct. 16, 1966, 80 Stat. 1055

Section, act June 16, 1933, ch. 89, §30, 48 Stat. 193, provided authority for removal of directors or officers of national banks, District banks, or State member banks for continued violations of law or for continued unsafe or unsound practices in conducting the business of such banks.

Codification

Section 401 of Pub. L. 89–695, Oct. 16, 1966, 80 Stat. 1056, which provided for reenactment of this section effective upon expiration of the period ending at the close of June 30, 1972, was repealed by Pub. L. 91–609, title IX, §908, Dec. 31, 1970, 84 Stat. 1811.

Conditions Governing Employment of Personnel Not Repealed, Modified, or Affected

Nothing contained in section 207 of Pub. L. 89–695 repealing this section to be construed as repealing, modifying, or affecting section 1829 of this title, see section 206 of Pub. L. 89–695, set out as a note under section 1813 of this title.

§78. Repealed. Pub. L. 106–102, title I, §101(b), Nov. 12, 1999, 113 Stat. 1341

Section, acts June 16, 1933, ch. 89, §32, 48 Stat. 194; Aug. 23, 1935, ch. 614, §307, 49 Stat. 709, related to certain persons excluded from serving as officers, directors, or employees of member banks.

Effective Date of Repeal

Repeal effective 120 days after Nov. 12, 1999, see section 161 of Pub. L. 106–102, set out as an Effective Date of 1999 Amendment note under section 24 of this title.

SUBCHAPTER IV—REGULATION OF THE BANKING BUSINESS; POWERS AND DUTIES OF NATIONAL BANKS

§81. Place of business

The general business of each national banking association shall be transacted in the place specified in its organization certificate and in the branch or branches, if any, established or maintained by it in accordance with the provisions of section 36 of this title.

(R.S. §5190; Feb. 25, 1927, ch. 191, §8, 44 Stat. 1229.)

Codification

R.S. §5190 derived from act June 3, 1864, ch. 106, §8, 13 Stat. 101, which was the National Bank Act. See section 38 of this title.

Amendments

1927—Act Feb. 25, 1927, among other changes, inserted “and in the branch or branches, if any, established or maintained by it in accordance with the provisions of section 36 of this title”.

§82. Repealed. Pub. L. 97–320, title IV, §402, Oct. 15, 1982, 96 Stat. 1510

Section, R.S. §5202; Dec. 23, 1913, ch. 6, §13 (par.), 38 Stat. 264; Sept. 7, 1916, ch. 461, 39 Stat. 753; Apr. 5, 1918, ch. 45, §20, 40 Stat. 512; Oct. 22, 1919, ch. 79, §2, 41 Stat. 297; Mar. 4, 1923, ch. 252, title V, §504, 42 Stat. 1481; Feb. 25, 1927, ch. 191, §11, 44 Stat. 1231; Jan. 22, 1932, ch. 8, §5, formerly §6, 47 Stat. 8, renumbered and amended June 30, 1947, ch. 166, title I, §1, 61 Stat. 202; May 20, 1933, ch. 35, §2, 48 Stat. 73; June 19, 1934, ch. 653, §2, 48 Stat. 1107; Sept. 8, 1959, Pub. L. 86–230, §10, 73 Stat. 458; Sept. 9, 1959, Pub. L. 86–251, §2, 73 Stat. 488; July 24, 1970, Pub. L. 91–351, title II, §201(b), 84 Stat. 451; Jan. 4, 1975, Pub. L. 93–646, §11, 88 Stat. 2337, provided that no national banking association could at any time be indebted, or in any way liable, to an amount exceeding the amount of its capital stock at such time actually paid in and remaining undiminished by losses or otherwise, plus 50 percent of the amount of its unimpaired surplus fund, except on account of demands of the nature following: notes of circulation; moneys deposited with or collected by the association; bills of exchange or drafts drawn against money actually on deposit to the credit of the association, or due thereto; liabilities to the stockholders of the association for dividends and reserve profits; liabilities incurred under the provisions of the Federal Reserve Act; liabilities incurred under the provisions of the Federal Deposit Insurance Act [12 U.S.C. 1811 et seq.]; liabilities created by the indorsement of accepted bills of exchange payable abroad actually owned by the indorsing bank and discounted at home or abroad; liabilities incurred under the provisions of sections 1031 to 1033 of this title; liabilities incurred on account of loans made with the express approval of the Comptroller of the Currency under former section 84(9) of this title; liabilities incurred under the provisions of section 352a of this title; liabilities incurred in connection with sales of mortgages, or participations therein, to the Federal National Mortgage Association or the Federal Home Loan Mortgage Corporation; and liabilities incurred in borrowing from the Export-Import Bank of the United States.

§83. Loans by bank on its own stock

(a) General prohibition

No national bank shall make any loan or discount on the security of the shares of its own capital stock.

(b) Exclusion

For purposes of this section, a national bank shall not be deemed to be making a loan or discount on the security of the shares of its own capital stock if it acquires the stock to prevent loss upon a debt previously contracted for in good faith.

(R.S. §5201; Pub. L. 106–569, title XII, §1207(a), Dec. 27, 2000, 114 Stat. 3034.)

Codification

R.S. §5201 derived from act June 3, 1864, ch. 106, §35, 13 Stat. 110, which was the National Bank Act. See section 38 of this title.

Amendments

2000—Pub. L. 106–569 amended section catchline and text generally. Prior to amendment, text read as follows: “No association shall make any loan or discount on the security of the shares of its own capital stock, nor be the purchaser or holder of any such shares, unless such security or purchase shall be necessary to prevent loss upon a debt previously contracted in good faith; and stock so purchased or acquired shall, within six months from the time of its purchase, be sold or disposed of at public or private sale; or, in default thereof, a receiver may be appointed to close up the business of the association, according to section 192 of this title.”

§84. Lending limits

(a) Total loans and extensions of credit

(1) The total loans and extensions of credit by a national banking association to a person outstanding at one time and not fully secured, as determined in a manner consistent with paragraph (2) of this subsection, by collateral having a market value at least equal to the amount of the loan or extension of credit shall not exceed 15 per centum of the unimpaired capital and unimpaired surplus of the association.

(2) The total loans and extensions of credit by a national banking association to a person outstanding at one time and fully secured by readily marketable collateral having a market value, as determined by reliable and continuously available price quotations, at least equal to the amount of the funds outstanding shall not exceed 10 per centum of the unimpaired capital and unimpaired surplus of the association. This limitation shall be separate from and in addition to the limitation contained in paragraph (1) of this subsection.

(b) Definitions

For the purposes of this section—

(1) the term “loans and extensions of credit” shall include all direct or indirect advances of funds to a person made on the basis of any obligation of that person to repay the funds or repayable from specific property pledged by or on behalf of the person and, to the extent specified by the Comptroller of the Currency, such term shall also include any liability of a national banking association to advance funds to or on behalf of a person pursuant to a contractual commitment; and

(2) the term “person” shall include an individual, sole proprietorship, partnership, joint venture, association, trust, estate, business trust, corporation, sovereign government or agency, instrumentality, or political subdivision thereof, or any similar entity or organization.

(c) Exceptions

The limitations contained in subsection (a) of this section shall be subject to the following exceptions:

(1) Loans or extensions of credit arising from the discount of commercial or business paper evidencing an obligation to the person negotiating it with recourse shall not be subject to any limitation based on capital and surplus.

(2) The purchase of bankers’ acceptances of the kind described in section 372 of this title and issued by other banks shall not be subject to any limitation based on capital and surplus.

(3) Loans and extensions of credit secured by bills of lading, warehouse receipts, or similar documents transferring or securing title to readily marketable staples shall be subject to a limitation of 35 per centum of capital and surplus in addition to the general limitations if the market value of the staples securing each additional loan or extension of credit at all times equals or exceeds 115 per centum of the outstanding amount of such loan or extension of credit. The staples shall be fully covered by insurance whenever it is customary to insure such staples.

(4) Loans or extensions of credit secured by bonds, notes, certificates of indebtedness, or Treasury bills of the United States or by other such obligations fully guaranteed as to principal and interest by the United States shall not be subject to any limitation based on capital and surplus.

(5) Loans or extensions of credit to or secured by unconditional takeout commitments or guarantees of any department, agency, bureau, board, commission, or establishment of the United States or any corporation wholly owned directly or indirectly by the United States shall not be subject to any limitation based on capital and surplus.

(6) Loans or extensions of credit secured by a segregated deposit account in the lending bank shall not be subject to any limitation based on capital and surplus.

(7) Loans or extensions of credit to any financial institution or to any receiver, conservator, superintendent of banks, or other agent in charge of the business and property of such financial institution, when such loans or extensions of credit are approved by the Comptroller of the Currency, shall not be subject to any limitation based on capital and surplus.

(8)(A) Loans and extensions of credit arising from the discount of negotiable or nonnegotiable installment consumer paper which carries a full recourse endorsement or unconditional guarantee by the person transferring the paper shall be subject under this section to a maximum limitation equal to 25 per centum of such capital and surplus, notwithstanding the collateral requirements set forth in subsection (a)(2) of this section.

(B) If the bank's files or the knowledge of its officers of the financial condition of each maker of such consumer paper is reasonably adequate, and an officer of the bank designated for that purpose by the board of directors of the bank certifies in writing that the bank is relying primarily upon the responsibility of each maker for payment of such loans or extensions of credit and not upon any full or partial recourse endorsement or guarantee by the transferor, the limitations of this section as to the loans or extensions of credit of each such maker shall be the sole applicable loan limitations.

(9)(A) Loans and extensions of credit secured by shipping documents or instruments transferring or securing title covering livestock or giving a lien on livestock when the market value of the livestock securing the obligation is not at any time less than 115 per centum of the face amount of the note covered, shall be subject under this section, notwithstanding the collateral requirements set forth in subsection (a)(2) of this section, to a maximum limitation equal to 25 per centum of such capital and surplus.

(B) Loans and extensions of credit which arise from the discount by dealers in dairy cattle of paper given in payment for dairy cattle, which paper carries a full recourse endorsement or unconditional guarantee of the seller, and which are secured by the cattle being sold, shall be subject under this section, notwithstanding the collateral requirements set forth in subsection (a)(2) of this section, to a limitation of 25 per centum of such capital and surplus.

(10) Loans or extensions of credit to the Student Loan Marketing Association shall not be subject to any limitation based on capital and surplus.

(d) Authority of Comptroller of the Currency

(1) The Comptroller of the Currency may prescribe rules and regulations to administer and carry out the purposes of this section, including rules or regulations to define or further define terms used in this section and to establish limits or requirements other than those specified in this section for particular classes or categories of loans or extensions of credit.

(2) The Comptroller of the Currency also shall have authority to determine when a loan putatively made to a person shall for purposes of this section be attributed to another person.

(R.S. §5200; June 22, 1906, ch. 3516, 34 Stat. 451; Sept. 24, 1918, ch. 176, §6, 40 Stat. 967; Oct. 22, 1919, ch. 79, §1, 41 Stat. 296; Feb. 25, 1927, ch. 191, §10, 44 Stat. 1229; May 20, 1933, ch. 35, §1, 48 Stat. 73; June 16, 1933, ch. 89, §26(a), 48 Stat. 191; Aug. 23, 1935, ch. 614, title III, §321(b), 49 Stat. 713; June 11, 1942, ch. 404, §8, 56 Stat. 356; July 15, 1949, ch. 338, title VI, §602(b), 63 Stat. 440; July 22, 1937, ch. 517, §15(a), as added Aug. 14, 1946, ch. 964, §5, 60 Stat. 1079; amended Pub. L. 85–748, §1(c), Aug. 25, 1958, 72 Stat. 841; Pub. L. 86–251, §3, Sept. 9, 1959, 73 Stat. 488; Pub. L. 87–723, §4(c)(4), Sept. 28, 1962, 76 Stat. 672; Pub. L. 90–19, §27(b), May 25, 1967, 81 Stat. 29; Pub. L. 92–318, title I, §133(c)(2), June 23, 1972, 86 Stat. 270; Pub. L. 97–320, title IV, §401(a), Oct. 15, 1982, 96 Stat. 1508; Pub. L. 97–457, §17(a), Jan. 12, 1983, 96 Stat. 2509; Pub. L. 111–203, title VI, §610(a), July 21, 2010, 124 Stat. 1611.)

Amendment of Subsection (b)

Pub. L. 111–203, title VI, §610(a), (c), July 21, 2010, 124 Stat. 1611, 1612, provided that, effective 1 year after the transfer date, subsection (b) of this section is amended:

(1) in paragraph (1), by substituting “shall include—

“(A) all direct or indirect advances of funds to a person made on the basis of any obligation of that person to repay the funds or repayable from specific property pledged by or on behalf of the person;

“(B) to the extent specified by the Comptroller of the Currency, any liability of a national banking association to advance funds to or on behalf of a person pursuant to a contractual commitment; and

“(C) any credit exposure to a person arising from a derivative transaction, repurchase agreement, reverse repurchase agreement, securities lending transaction, or securities borrowing transaction between the national banking association and the person;”


for “shall include” and all that follows through the end of the paragraph;

(2) in paragraph (2), by substituting “; and” for the period at the end; and

(3) by adding at the end the following:

“(3) the term ‘derivative transaction’ includes any transaction that is a contract, agreement, swap, warrant, note, or option that is based, in whole or in part, on the value of, any interest in, or any quantitative measure or the occurrence of any event relating to, one or more commodities, securities, currencies, interest or other rates, indices, or other assets.”

See Effective Date of 2010 Amendment note below.

References in Text

Section 372 of this title, referred to in subsec. (c)(2), was in the original a reference to “section 13 of the Federal Reserve Act”. Provisions of section 13 describing bankers’ acceptances are classified to section 372 of this title. Other provisions of section 13 are classified to sections 342 to 347, 347c, 347d of this title.

Codification

R.S. §5200 derived from act June 3, 1864, ch. 106, §29, 13 Stat. 108, which was the National Bank Act. See section 38 of this title.

Amendments

1983—Subsec. (b)(1). Pub. L. 97–457 inserted a comma before “to the extent specified by the Comptroller of the Currency”.

1982—Pub. L. 97–320 amended section generally. Prior to amendment, section read as follows: “The total obligations to any national banking association of any person, copartnership, association, or corporation shall at no time exceed 10 per centum of the amount of the capital stock of such association actually paid in and unimpaired and 10 per centum of its unimpaired surplus fund. The term ‘obligations’ shall mean the direct liability of the maker or acceptor of paper discounted with or sold to such association and the liability of the indorser, drawer, or guarantor who obtains a loan from or discounts paper with or sells paper under his guaranty to such association and shall include in the case of obligations of a copartnership or association the obligations of the several members thereof and shall include in the case of obligations of a corporation all obligations of all subsidiaries thereof in which such corporation owns or controls a majority interest. Such limitation of 10 per centum shall be subject to the following exceptions:

“(1) Obligations in the form of drafts or bills of exchange drawn in good faith against actually existing values shall not be subject under this section to any limitation based upon such capital and surplus.

“(2) Obligations arising out of the discount of commercial or business paper actually owned by the person, copartnership, association, or corporation negotiating the same shall not be subject under this section to any limitation based upon such capital and surplus.

“(3) Obligations drawn in good faith against actually existing values and secured by goods or commodities in process of shipment shall not be subject under this section to any limitation based upon such capital and surplus.

“(4) Obligations as indorser or guarantor of notes, other than commercial or business paper excepted under paragraph (2) of this section, having a maturity of not more than six months, and owned by the person, corporation, association, or copartnership indorsing and negotiating the same, shall be subject under this section to a limitation of 15 per centum of such capital and surplus in addition to such 10 per centum of such capital and surplus.

“(5) Obligations in the form of banker's acceptances of other banks of the kind described in section 372 of this title shall not be subject under this section to any limitation based upon such capital and surplus.

“(6) Obligations of any person, copartnership, association or corporation, in the form of notes or drafts secured by shipping documents, warehouse receipts or other such documents transferring or securing title covering readily marketable nonperishable staples when such property is fully covered by insurance, if it is customary to insure such staples, shall be subject under this section to a limitation of 15 per centum of such capital and surplus in addition to such 10 per centum of such capital and surplus when the market value of such staples securing such obligation is not at any time less than 115 per centum of the face amount of such obligation, and to an additional increase of limitation of 5 per centum of such capital and surplus in addition to such 25 per centum of such capital and surplus when the market value of such staples securing such additional obligation is not at any time less than 120 per centum of the face amount of such additional obligation, and to a further additional increase of limitation of 5 per centum of such capital and surplus in addition to such 30 per centum of such capital and surplus when the market value of such staples securing such additional obligation is not at any time less than 125 per centum of the face amount of such additional obligation, and to a further additional increase of limitation of 5 per centum of such capital and surplus in addition to such 35 per centum of such capital and surplus when the market value of such staples securing such additional obligation is not at any time less than 130 per centum of the face amount of such additional obligation, and to a further additional increase of limitation of 5 per centum of such capital and surplus in addition to such 40 per centum of such capital and surplus when the market value of such staples securing such additional obligation is not at any time less than 135 per centum of the face amount of such additional obligation, and to a further additional increase of limitation of 5 per centum of such capital and surplus in addition to such 45 per centum of such capital and surplus when the market value of such staples securing such additional obligation is not at any time less than 140 per centum of the face amount of such additional obligation, but this exception shall not apply to obligations of any one person, copartnership, association, or corporation arising from the same transactions and/or secured by the identical staples for more than ten months. Obligations of any person, copartnership, association, or corporation in the form of notes or drafts secured by shipping documents, warehouse receipts, or other such documents transferring or securing title covering refrigerated or frozen readily marketable staples when such property is fully covered by insurance, shall be subject under this section to a limitation of 15 per centum of such capital and surplus in addition to such 10 per centum of such capital and surplus when the market value of such staples securing such obligation is not at any time less than 115 per centum of the face amount of such additional obligation, but this exception shall not apply to obligations of any one person, copartnership, association or corporation arising from the same transactions and/or secured by the identical staples for more than six months.

“(7) Obligations of any person, copartnership, association, or corporation in the form of notes or drafts secured by shipping documents or instruments transferring or securing title covering livestock or giving a lien on livestock when the market value of the livestock securing the obligation is not at any time less than 115 per centum of the face amount of the notes covered by such documents shall be subject under this section to a limitation of 15 per centum of such capital and surplus in addition to such 10 per centum of such capital and surplus. Obligations arising out of the discount by dealers in dairy cattle of paper given in payment for dairy cattle, which bear a full recourse endorsement or unconditional guarantee of the seller and are secured by the cattle being sold, shall be subject under this section to a limitation of 15 per centum of such capital and surplus in addition to such 10 per centum of such capital and surplus.

“(8) Obligations of any person, copartnership, association, or corporation secured by not less than a like amount of bonds or notes of the United States issued since April 24, 1917, or certificates of indebtedness of the United States, Treasury bills of the United States, or obligations fully guaranteed both as to principal and interest by the United States, shall (except to the extent permitted by rules and regulations prescribed by the Comptroller of the Currency, with the approval of the Secretary of the Treasury) be subject under this section to a limitation of 15 per centum of such capital and surplus in addition to such 10 per centum of such capital and surplus.

“(9) Obligations representing loans to any national banking association or to any banking institution organized under the laws of any State, or to any receiver, conservator, or superintendent of banks, or to any other agent, in charge of the business and property of any such association or banking institution, when such loans are approved by the Comptroller of the Currency, shall not be subject under this section to any limitation based upon such capital and surplus.

“(10) Obligations shall not be subject under this section to any limitation based upon such capital and surplus to the extent that such obligations are secured or covered by guaranties, or by commitments or agreements to take over or to purchase, made by any Federal Reserve bank or by the United States or any department, bureau, board, commission, or establishment of the United States, including any corporation wholly owned directly or indirectly by the United States: Provided, That such guaranties, agreements, or commitments are unconditional and must be performed by payment of cash or its equivalent within sixty days after demand. The Comptroller of the Currency is authorized to define the terms herein used if and when he may deem it necessary.

“(11) Obligations of a local public agency (as defined in section 110(h) of the Housing Act of 1949 [42 U.S.C. 1460(h)]) or of a public housing agency (as defined in the United States Housing Act of 1937, as amended [42 U.S.C. 1437 et seq.]) which have a maturity of not more than eighteen months shall not be subject under this section to any limitation, if such obligations are secured by an agreement between the obligor agency and the Secretary of Housing and Urban Development in which the agency agrees to borrow from the Secretary, and the Secretary agrees to lend to the agency, prior to the maturity of such obligations, monies in an amount which (together with any other monies irrevocably committed to the payment of interest on such obligations) will suffice to pay the principal of such obligations with interest to maturity, which monies under the terms of said agreement are required to be used for that purpose.

“(12) Obligations insured by the Secretary of Agriculture pursuant to the Bankhead-Jones Farm Tenant Act, as amended [7 U.S.C. 1000 et seq.], or the Act of August 28, 1937, as amended (relating to the conservation of water resources), or title V of the Housing Act of 1949 [42 U.S.C. 1471 et seq.], shall be subject under this section to a limitation of 15 per centum of such capital and surplus in addition to such 10 per centum of such capital and surplus.

“(13) Obligations as endorser or guarantor of negotiable or nonnegotiable installment consumer paper which carries a full recourse endorsement or unconditional guarantee by the person, copartnership, association, or corporation transferring the same, shall be subject under this section to a limitation of 15 per centum of such capital and surplus in addition to such 10 per centum of such capital and surplus: Provided, however, That if the bank's files or the knowledge of its officers of the financial condition of each maker of such obligations is reasonably adequate, and upon certification by an officer of the bank designated for that purpose by the board of directors of the bank, that the responsibility of each maker of such obligations has been evaluated and the bank is relying primarily upon each such maker for the payment of such obligations, the limitations of this section as to the obligations of each such maker shall be the sole applicable loan limitation: Provided further, That such certification shall be in writing and shall be retained as part of the records of such bank.

“(14) Obligations of the Student Loan Marketing Association shall not be subject to any limitation based upon such capital and surplus.”

1972—Par. (14). Pub. L. 92–318 added par. (14).

1967—Par. (11). Pub. L. 90–19 substituted “Secretary of Housing and Urban Development” for “Housing and Home Finance Administrator or the Public Housing Administration” and “Secretary” for “Administrator or Administration” wherever appearing, respectively.

1962—Par. (12). Pub. L. 87–723 inserted “or title V of the Housing Act of 1949” before “shall be subject under this section”.

1959—Par. (6). Pub. L. 86–251, §3(a), substituted “secured by” for “secured upon” and inserted exception with respect to obligations secured by documents transferring or securing title covering refrigerated or frozen readily marketable staples.

Par. (7). Pub. L. 86–251, §3(b), inserted exception with respect to obligations arising out of the discount by dealers in dairy cattle of paper given in payment for dairy cattle.

Par. (8). Pub. L. 86–251, §3(c), struck out “in the form of notes” after “corporation”.

Par. (13). Pub. L. 86–251, §3(d), added par. (13).

1958—Par. (12). Pub. L. 85–748 amended section 15(a) of act July 22, 1937, as added by act Aug. 14, 1946, by inserting sentence amending R.S. §5200 by adding par. (12).

1949—Par. (11). Act July 15, 1949, added par. (11).

1942—Par. (10). Act June 11, 1942, added par. (10).

1935—Par. (8). Act Aug. 23, 1935, inserted “Treasury bills of the United States, or obligations fully guaranteed both as to principal and interest by the United States”.

1933—Par. (1). Act June 16, 1933, inserted provision relating to obligations of a corporation and its subsidiaries in second sentence.

Par. (9). Act May 20, 1933, added par. (9).

1927—Act Feb. 25, 1927, reenacted section, subdividing it into eight numbered exceptions.

Effective Date of 2010 Amendment

Pub. L. 111–203, title VI, §610(c), July 21, 2010, 124 Stat. 1612, provided that: “The amendments made by this section [amending this section and section 1464 of this title] shall take effect 1 year after the transfer date.”

[For definition of “transfer date” as used in section 610(c) of Pub. L. 111–203, set out above, see section 5301 of this title.]

Effective Date of 1982 Amendment

Section 401(b) of Pub. L. 97–320 provided that: “This section [amending this section] shall take effect upon the expiration of one hundred and eighty days after the date of its enactment [Oct. 15, 1982].”

Repeals

Repealing provisions of Consolidated Farmers Home Administration Act of 1961 as not having the effect of repealing the amendment to this section enacted by act July 22, 1937, §15(a), as added Aug. 14, 1946, see section 341(a) of Pub. L. 87–128, title III, Aug. 8, 1961, 75 Stat. 318, set out as a note under section 1921 of Title 7, Agriculture.

Savings Provision

Section 26(b) of act June 16, 1933, provided: “The amendment made by this section [amending this section] shall not apply to such obligations of subsidiaries held by such association on the date this section takes effect.”

Exception as to Transfer of Functions

Functions vested by any provision of law in Comptroller of the Currency, referred to in this section, not included in transfer of functions to Secretary of the Treasury, see note set out under section 1 of this title.

Application to District of Columbia

Provisions of this section were made applicable to banks, etc., in the District of Columbia by act Mar. 4, 1933, ch. 274, §3, 47 Stat. 1567.

§85. Rate of interest on loans, discounts and purchases

Any association may take, receive, reserve, and charge on any loan or discount made, or upon any notes, bills of exchange, or other evidences of debt, interest at the rate allowed by the laws of the State, Territory, or District where the bank is located, or at a rate of 1 per centum in excess of the discount rate on ninety-day commercial paper in effect at the Federal reserve bank in the Federal reserve district where the bank is located, whichever may be the greater, and no more, except that where by the laws of any State a different rate is limited for banks organized under State laws, the rate so limited shall be allowed for associations organized or existing in any such State under title 62 of the Revised Statutes. When no rate is fixed by the laws of the State, or Territory, or District, the bank may take, receive, reserve, or charge a rate not exceeding 7 per centum, or 1 per centum in excess of the discount rate on ninety day commercial paper in effect at the Federal reserve bank in the Federal reserve district where the bank is located, whichever may be the greater, and such interest may be taken in advance, reckoning the days for which the note, bill, or other evidence of debt has to run. The maximum amount of interest or discount to be charged at a branch of an association located outside of the States of the United States and the District of Columbia shall be at the rate allowed by the laws of the country, territory, dependency, province, dominion, insular possession, or other political subdivision where the branch is located. And the purchase, discount, or sale of a bona fide bill of exchange, payable at another place than the place of such purchase, discount, or sale, at not more than the current rate of exchange for sight drafts in addition to the interest, shall not be considered as taking or receiving a greater rate of interest.

(R.S. §5197; June 16, 1933, ch. 89, §25, 48 Stat. 191; Aug. 23, 1935, ch. 614, title III, §314, 49 Stat. 711; Pub. L. 93–501, title II, §201, Oct. 29, 1974, 88 Stat. 1558; Pub. L. 96–104, title I, §101, Nov. 5, 1979, 93 Stat. 789; Pub. L. 96–161, title II, §201, Dec. 28, 1979, 93 Stat. 1235; Pub. L. 96–221, title V, §529, Mar. 31, 1980, 94 Stat. 168.)

References in Text

Title 62 of the Revised Statutes, referred to in text, was in the original “this Title” meaning title LXII of the Revised Statutes, consisting of R.S. §§5133 to 5244, which are classified to this section and sections 16, 21, 22 to 24a, 25a, 25b, 26, 27, 29, 35 to 37, 39, 43, 52, 53, 55 to 57, 59 to 62, 66, 71, 72 to 76, 81, 83, 84, 86, 90, 91, 93, 93a, 94, 141 to 144, 161, 164, 181, 182, 192 to 194, 196, 215c, 481 to 485, 501, 541, 548, and 582 of this title. See, also, sections 8, 333, 334, 475, 656, 709, 1004, and 1005 of Title 18, Crimes and Criminal Procedure. For complete classification of R.S. §§5133 to 5244 to the Code, see Tables.

Codification

R.S. §5197 derived from act June 3, 1864, ch. 106, §30, 13 Stat. 108, which was the National Bank Act. See section 38 of this title.

Section 201 of Pub. L. 96–161, cited as a credit to this section, was repealed by section 529 of Pub. L. 96–221, effective at the close of Mar. 31, 1980. The amendment of this section by that repealed provision, described in the 1979 Amendments note below, shall continue in effect for limited purposes pursuant to section 529. See Savings Provisions note, describing the provisions of section 529 of Pub. L. 96–221, set out below.

Section 101 of Pub. L. 96–104, cited as a credit to this section, was repealed by section 212 of Pub. L. 96–161, effective at the close of Dec. 27, 1979. The amendment of this section by that repealed provision, described in the 1979 Amendments note below, shall continue in effect for limited purposes pursuant to section 212 of Pub. L. 96–161. See Savings Provisions note, describing the provisions of section 212 of Pub. L. 96–161, set out below. The amendment by Pub. L. 96–104, §101, was duplicated with identical language in the amendment made by Pub. L. 96–161, §201. See 1979 Amendments note below.

Section 201 of Pub. L. 93–501, cited as a credit to this section, was repealed by Pub. L. 96–104, §1, Nov. 5, 1979, 93 Stat. 789. The amendment of this section by that repealed provision, described in the 1974 Amendment note set out under this section, was duplicated in 1979 with identical language under section 101 of Pub. L. 96–104. See 1979 Amendments note below.

Amendments

1980—Pub. L. 96–221 repealed Pub. L. 96–104 and title II of Pub. L. 96–161, resulting in the striking out of “or in the case of business or agricultural loans in the amount of $25,000 or more, at a rate of 5 per centum in excess of the discount rate on ninety-day commercial paper in effect at the Federal Reserve bank in the Federal Reserve district where the bank is located,” before “whichever may be the greater” in two places. See Codification and 1979 Amendment notes under this section.

1979—Pub. L. 96–161 inserted provisions relating to a 5 per centum interest rate on business or agricultural loans in the amount of $25,000 or more that were identical to provisions inserted earlier by Pub. L. 96–104. See Codification note above.

Pub. L. 96–104 substituted “or in the case of business or agricultural loans in the amount of $25,000 or more, at a rate of 5 per centum in excess of the discount rate on ninety-day commercial paper in effect at the Federal Reserve bank in the Federal Reserve district where the bank is located, whichever may be the greater” for “whichever may be the greater” in two places. See Codification note above.

1974—Pub. L. 93–501 substituted “or in the case of business or agricultural loans in the amount of $25,000 or more, at a rate of 5 per centum in excess of the discount rate on ninety-day commercial paper in effect at the Federal Reserve bank in the Federal Reserve district where the bank is located, whichever may be the greater” for “whichever may be the greater” in two places.

1935—Act Aug. 23, 1935, inserted third sentence.

1933—Act June 16, 1933, authorized interest at the alternative rate of 1 per centum in excess of the discount rate on ninety-day commercial paper in effect at the federal reserve bank in the Federal reserve district where the bank is located if greater.

Effective Date of 1980 Amendment

Section 529 of Pub. L. 96–221 provided that the amendment made by that section is effective at the close of Mar. 31, 1980.

Effective Date of 1979 Amendments

Section 207 of Pub. L. 96–161, which provided that amendment by Pub. L. 96–161 was applicable to loans made in any State during the period beginning on Dec. 28, 1979, and ending on the earliest of (1) in the case of a State statute, July 1, 1980; (2) the date, after Dec. 28, 1979, on which such State adopts a law stating in substance that such State does not want the amendment of this section made by Pub. L. 96–161 to apply with respect to loans made in such State; or (3) the date on which such State certifies that the voters of such State, after Dec. 28, 1979, have voted in favor of, or to retain, any law, provision of the constitution of such State, or amendment to the constitution of such State which prohibits the charging of interest at the rates provided in the amendment of this section by Pub. L. 96–161, was repealed by Pub. L. 96–221, title V, §529, Mar. 31, 1980, 94 Stat. 168.

Section 107 of Pub. L. 96–104, which provided that amendment by Pub. L. 96–104 was applicable to loans made by any State during the period beginning on Nov. 5, 1979, and ending on the earlier of July 1, 1981, or the date after Nov. 5, 1979, on which such State adopts a law stating in substance that such State does not want the amendment of this section to apply with respect to loans made in such State, or the date on which such State certifies that the voters of such State have voted in favor of, or to retain, any law, provision of the constitution of such State, or amendment of the constitution of such State, which prohibits the charging of interest at the rates provided in the amendment of this section, was repealed by Pub. L. 96–161, title II, §212, Dec. 28, 1979, 93 Stat. 1239.

Effective and Termination Dates of 1974 Amendment

Section 206 of Pub. L. 93–501, which provided that amendment by Pub. L. 93–501 applicable to loans made in any state after Oct. 29, 1974, but prior to the earlier of July 1, 1977, or the date (after Oct. 29, 1974) of enactment by the state of a law prohibiting the charging of interest at the rates provided in the amendment of this section, was repealed by Pub. L. 96–104, §1, Nov. 5, 1979, 93 Stat. 789.

Savings Provisions

Section 529 of Pub. L. 96–221 provided in part that, notwithstanding the repeal of Pub. L. 96–104 and title II of Pub. L. 96–161, the provisions added to this section by those repealed laws shall continue to apply to any loan made, any deposit made, or any obligation issued in any State during any period when those provisions were in effect in such State.

Section 212 of Pub. L. 96–161 provided in part that, notwithstanding the repeal, effective at the close of Dec. 27, 1979, of Pub. L. 96–104 [which had enacted sections 86a, 371b–1, 1730e, and 1831a of this title, amended sections 85, 1425b, and 1828 of this title and section 687 of Title 15, Commerce and Trade, repealed sections 371b–1, 1730e, and 1831a of this title and notes set out under sections 371b–1 and 1831a of this title, and enacted provisions set out as notes under this section and sections 86a, 371b–1, and 1831a of this title], the amendment which had been made by title I of Pub. L. 96–104 and the provisions of that title would continue to apply to any loan made in any State on or after Nov. 5, 1979, but prior to the repeal of Pub. L. 96–104, and that the amendments made by title II of Pub. L. 96–104 would continue to apply to any deposit made or obligation issued in any State on or after Nov. 5, 1979, but prior to the repeal of Pub. L. 96–104.

Section 1 of Pub. L. 96–104 provided in part that, notwithstanding the repeal of titles II and III of Pub. L. 93–501 [which had enacted sections 371b–1, 1730e, and 1831a of this title, amended sections 85, 1425b, and 1828 of this title, and section 687 of Title 15, Commerce and Trade, and enacted provisions set out as notes under sections 371b–1 and 1831a of this title], the amendments which had been made by title II of that Act and the provisions of such title would continue to apply to any loan made in any State during the period specified in section 206 of such Act [set out as a note under section 1831a of this title] and that the amendments which had been made by title III of such Act would continue to apply to any deposit made or obligation issued in any State during the period specified in section 304 of such Act [set out as a note under section 371b–1 of this title].

Choice of Highest Applicable Interest Rate

In any case in which one or more provisions of, or amendments made by, title V of Pub. L. 96–221 [enacting sections 86a, 1730g, 1735f–7a, 1785(g), and 1831d of this title and section 687(i) of Title 15, Commerce and Trade, and enacting provisions set out as notes under sections 86a, 1730g, and 1735f–7 of this title], section 1735f–7 of this title, or any other provisions of law, including this section, apply with respect to the same loan, mortgage, credit sale, or advance, such loan, mortgage, credit sale, or advance may be made at the highest applicable rate, see section 528 of Pub. L. 96–221, set out as a note under section 1735f–7a of this title.

States Having Constitutional Provisions Regarding Maximum Interest Rates

Section 213 of Pub. L. 96–161 provided that the provisions of title II of Pub. L. 96–161, which amended this section, repealed provisions which had formerly amended this section, and enacted provisions set out as notes under this section, to continue to apply until July 1, 1981, in the case of any State having a constitutional provision regarding maximum interest rates.

§86. Usurious interest; penalty for taking; limitations

The taking, receiving, reserving, or charging a rate of interest greater than is allowed by section 85 of this title, when knowingly done, shall be deemed a forfeiture of the entire interest which the note, bill, or other evidence of debt carries with it, or which has been agreed to be paid thereon. In case the greater rate of interest has been paid, the person by whom it has been paid, or his legal representatives, may recover back, in an action in the nature of an action of debt, twice the amount of the interest thus paid from the association taking or receiving the same: Provided, That such action is commenced within two years from the time the usurious transaction occurred.

(R.S. §5198.)

Codification

R.S. §5198 (less last sentence) derived from act June 3, 1864, ch. 106, §30, 13 Stat. 108, which was the National Bank Act. See section 38 of this title.

Section is based on R.S. §5198, less last sentence as added by act Feb. 18, 1875, ch. 80, §1, 18 Stat. 320, which is classified to section 94 of this title.

§86a. Omitted

Codification

Section, Pub. L. 96–221, title V, §511, Mar. 31, 1980, 94 Stat. 164; Pub. L. 96–399, title III, §324(b), (d), Oct. 8, 1980, 94 Stat. 1648, which authorized interest on business or agricultural loans of $1,000 or more at a rate of not more than 5 per centum in excess of the discount rate, was omitted pursuant to section 512 of Pub. L. 96–221 which made these provisions applicable only with respect to such loans made in any State during the period beginning on April 1, 1980, and ending on the earlier of (1) April 1, 1983, or (2) the date, on or after April 1, 1980, on which such State adopts a law or certifies that the voters of such State have voted in favor of any provision, constitutional or otherwise, which states explicitly that such State does not want these provisions to apply with respect to loans made in such State.

A prior section 86a, Pub. L. 96–161, title II, §205, Dec. 28, 1979, 93 Stat. 1237, similar to this section as enacted by Pub. L. 96–221, was repealed by section 529 of Pub. L. 96–221, effective at the close of Mar. 31, 1980, except that its provisions would continue to apply to any loan made, any deposit made, or any obligation issued in any State during any period when that section was in effect in such State. For the effective date provisions relating to the prior section 86a, see section 207 of Pub. L. 96–161.

Another prior section 86a, Pub. L. 96–104, title I, §105, Nov. 5, 1979, 93 Stat. 791, identical to this section as enacted by Pub. L. 96–161, was repealed by section 212 of Pub. L. 96–161, effective at the close of Dec. 27, 1979, except that its provisions would continue to apply to loans made in any State on or after Nov. 5, 1979, but prior to such repeal.

Section 301 of Pub. L. 96–104, which limited the applicability of Pub. L. 96–104 to those States having a constitutional provision that all contracts for a greater rate of interest than 10 per centum per annum are void as to both principal and interest, was repealed by section 212 of Pub. L. 96–161, effective at the close of Dec. 27, 1979.

§§87 to 89. Repealed. Pub. L. 103–325, title VI, §602(e)(2)–(4), Sept. 23, 1994, 108 Stat. 2291

Section 87, R.S. §5203, related to restriction on use by bank of its circulating notes.

Section 88, R.S. §5206, related to restriction on use by bank of notes of other banks.

Section 89, R.S. §5196, related to duty of bank to receive circulating notes of other banks in payment of debts.

§90. Depositaries of public moneys and financial agents of Government

All national banking associations, designated for that purpose by the Secretary of the Treasury, shall be depositaries of public money, under such regulations as may be prescribed by the Secretary; and they may also be employed as financial agents of the Government; and they shall perform all such reasonable duties, as depositaries of public money and financial agents of the Government, as may be required of them. The Secretary of the Treasury shall require the associations thus designated to give satisfactory security, by the deposit of United States bonds and otherwise, for the safe-keeping and prompt payment of the public money deposited with them, and for the faithful performance of their duties as financial agents of the Government: Provided, That the Secretary shall, on or before the 1st of January of each year, make a public statement of the securities required during that year for such deposits. And every association so designated as receiver or depositary of the public money shall take and receive at par all of the national currency bills, by whatever association issued, which have been paid into the Government for internal revenue, or for loans or stocks: Provided, That the Secretary of the Treasury shall distribute the deposits herein provided for, as far as practicable, equitably between the different States and sections.

Any national banking association may, upon the deposit with it of any funds by any State or political subdivision thereof or any agency or other governmental instrumentality of one or more States or political subdivisions thereof, including any officer, employee, or agent thereof in his official capacity, give security for the safekeeping and prompt payment of the funds so deposited to the same extent and of the same kind as is authorized by the law of the State in which such association is located in the case of other banking institutions in the State.

Any national banking association may, upon the deposit with it of any funds by any federally recognized Indian tribe, or any officer, employee, or agent thereof in his or her official capacity, give security for the safekeeping and prompt payment of the funds so deposited by the deposit of United States bonds and otherwise as may be prescribed by the Secretary of the Treasury for public funds under the first paragraph of this section.

Notwithstanding chapters 1 to 11 of title 40 and division C (except sections 3302, 3307(e), 3501(b), 3509, 3906, 4710, and 4711) of subtitle I of title 41, the Secretary may select associations as financial agents in accordance with any process the Secretary deems appropriate and their reasonable duties may include the provision of electronic benefit transfer services (including State-administered benefits with the consent of the States), as defined by the Secretary.

(R.S. §5153; Mar. 3, 1901, ch. 871, 31 Stat. 1448; Mar. 4, 1907, ch. 2913, §3, 34 Stat. 1290; Dec. 23, 1913, ch. 6, §27, 38 Stat. 274; Aug. 4, 1914, ch. 225, 38 Stat. 682; June 25, 1930, ch. 604, 46 Stat. 809; Aug. 18, 1950, ch. 754, 64 Stat. 463; Pub. L. 96–153, title III, §323(f), Dec. 21, 1979, 93 Stat. 1120; Pub. L. 104–208, div. A, title I, §101(f) [§2(1)], Sept. 30, 1996, 110 Stat. 3009–314, 3009–386.)

Codification

In text, “chapters 1 to 11 of title 40 and division C (except sections 3302, 3307(e), 3501(b), 3509, 3906, 4710, and 4711) of subtitle I of title 41” substituted for “the Federal Property and Administrative Services Act of 1949, as amended” on authority of Pub. L. 107–217, §5(c), Aug. 21, 2002, 116 Stat. 1303, which Act enacted Title 40, Public Buildings, Property, and Works, and Pub. L. 111–350, §6(c), Jan. 4, 2011, 124 Stat. 3854, which Act enacted Title 41, Public Contracts.

R.S. §5153 derived from act June 3, 1864, ch. 106, §45, 13 Stat. 113, which was the National Bank Act. See section 38 of this title.

Amendments

1996—Pub. L. 104–208 added fourth par.

1979—Pub. L. 96–153 added third par.

1950—Act Aug. 18, 1950, permitted national banks to accept and give security for deposits of funds made by agencies or governmental instrumentalities or States or political subdivisions thereof and by their officers, employees or agents.

1930—Act June 25, 1930, added second par.

§91. Transfers by bank and other acts in contemplation of insolvency

All transfers of the notes, bonds, bills of exchange, or other evidences of debt owing to any national banking association, or of deposits to its credit; all assignments of mortgages, sureties on real estate, or of judgments or decrees in its favor; all deposits of money, bullion, or other valuable thing for its use, or for the use of any of its shareholders or creditors; and all payments of money to either, made after the commission of an act of insolvency, or in contemplation thereof, made with a view to prevent the application of its assets in the manner prescribed by chapter 4 of title 62 of the Revised Statutes, or with a view to the preference of one creditor to another, except in payment of its circulating notes, shall be utterly null and void; and no attachment, injunction, or execution, shall be issued against such association or its property before final judgment in any suit, action, or proceeding, in any State, county, or municipal court.

(R.S. §5242.)

References in Text

Chapter 4 of title 62 of the Revised Statutes, referred to in text, was in the original “this chapter”, meaning chapter 4 of title 62 of the Revised Statutes, consisting of R.S. §§5220 to 5244, which are classified to this section and sections 16, 43, 93, 93a, 181, 182, 192 to 194, 196, and 481 to 485 of this title. See, also, section 709 of Title 18, Crimes and Criminal Procedure. For complete classification of R.S. §§5220 to 5244 to the Code, see Tables.

Codification

R.S. §5242 derived from act June 3, 1864, ch. 106, §52, 13 Stat. 115, which was the National Bank Act, and act Mar. 3, 1873, ch. 269, §2, 17 Stat. 603. See section 38 of this title.

§92. Acting as insurance agent or broker

In addition to the powers now vested by law in national banking associations organized under the laws of the United States any such association located and doing business in any place the population of which does not exceed five thousand inhabitants, as shown by the last preceding decennial census, may, under such rules and regulations as may be prescribed by the Comptroller of the Currency, act as the agent for any fire, life, or other insurance company authorized by the authorities of the State in which said bank is located to do business in said State, by soliciting and selling insurance and collecting premiums on policies issued by such company; and may receive for services so rendered such fees or commissions as may be agreed upon between the said association and the insurance company for which it may act as agent: Provided, however, That no such bank shall in any case assume or guarantee the payment of any premium on insurance policies issued through its agency by its principal: And provided further, That the bank shall not guarantee the truth of any statement made by an assured in filing his application for insurance.

(Dec. 23, 1913, ch. 6, §13 (par.), as added Sept. 7, 1916, ch. 461, 39 Stat. 753; amended Pub. L. 97–320, title IV, §403(b), Oct. 15, 1982, 96 Stat. 1511.)

Codification

Section is based on the eleventh par. of section 13 of act Dec. 23, 1913, as amended. The eleventh par. constituted the ninth par. of section 13 in 1916 (39 Stat. 752, 753), became the tenth par. in 1923 (42 Stat. 1478), and became the eleventh par. in 1932 (47 Stat. 715). For further details, see Codification notes under sections 342 to 344 of this title.

For decision by U.S. Supreme Court that, despite faulty placement of quotation marks, act Sept. 7, 1916, placed within section 13 of act Dec. 23, 1913, each of the ten pars. located between the phrases that introduced the amendments to sections 13 and 14 of said act, that only the seventh par. (rather than seventh to tenth pars.) comprised the amended R.S. §5202, and that section 20 of act Apr. 5, 1918 (40 Stat. 512) (which amended R.S. §5202 comprised of a single par.), did not amend section 13 of said act so as to repeal the eighth to tenth pars., see United States National Bank of Oregon v. Independent Insurance Agents of America, Inc., et al., 508 U.S. 439, 113 S.Ct. 2173, 124 L.Ed. 2d 402 (1993). As the result of subsequent amendments, such seventh to tenth pars. of section 13 now constitute the ninth to twelfth pars. The ninth par. amended former section 82 of this title, and the tenth to twelfth pars. are classified to sections 361, 92, and 373, respectively, of this title.

Amendments

1982—Pub. L. 97–320 struck out “; and may also act as the broker or agent for others in making or procuring loans on real estate located within one hundred miles of the place in which said bank may be located, receiving for such services a reasonable fee or commission” after “may act as agent” and “guarantee either the principal or interest of any such loans or” after “shall in any case”.

Effective Date of 1982 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 97–320 effective upon the expiration of 180 days after Oct. 15, 1982, see section 403(c) of Pub. L. 97–320, set out as a note under section 371 of this title.

Moratorium

Pub. L. 100–86, title II, §201(a), (b)(5), Aug. 10, 1987, 101 Stat. 581, 583, provided that, during period beginning Mar. 6, 1987, and ending Mar. 1, 1988, national banks and Federal branches or agencies of foreign banks could not expand their insurance agency activities pursuant to this section into places where they were not conducting such activities as of Mar. 5, 1987.

§92a. Trust powers

(a) Authority of Comptroller of the Currency

The Comptroller of the Currency shall be authorized and empowered to grant by special permit to national banks applying therefor, when not in contravention of State or local law, the right to act as trustee, executor, administrator, registrar of stocks and bonds, guardian of estates, assignee, receiver, committee of estates of lunatics, or in any other fiduciary capacity in which State banks, trust companies, or other corporations which come into competition with national banks are permitted to act under the laws of the State in which the national bank is located.

(b) Grant and exercise of powers deemed not in contravention of State or local law

Whenever the laws of such State authorize or permit the exercise of any or all of the foregoing powers by State banks, trust companies, or other corporations which compete with national banks, the granting to and the exercise of such powers by national banks shall not be deemed to be in contravention of State or local law within the meaning of this section.

(c) Segregation of fiduciary and general assets; separate books and records; access of State banking authorities to reports of examinations, books, records, and assets

National banks exercising any or all of the powers enumerating 1 in this section shall segregate all assets held in any fiduciary capacity from the general assets of the bank and shall keep a separate set of books and records showing in proper detail all transactions engaged in under authority of this section. The State banking authorities may have access to reports of examination made by the Comptroller of the Currency insofar as such reports relate to the trust department of such bank, but nothing in this section shall be construed as authorizing the State banking authorities to examine the books, records, and assets of such bank.

(d) Prohibited operations; separate investment account; collateral for certain funds used in conduct of business

No national bank shall receive in its trust department deposits of current funds subject to check or the deposit of checks, drafts, bills of exchange, or other items for collection or exchange purposes. Funds deposited or held in trust by the bank awaiting investment shall be carried in a separate account and shall not be used by the bank in the conduct of its business unless it shall first set aside in the trust department United States bonds or other securities approved by the Comptroller of the Currency.

(e) Lien and claim upon bank failure

In the event of the failure of such bank the owners of the funds held in trust for investment shall have a lien on the bonds or other securities so set apart in addition to their claim against the estate of the bank.

(f) Deposits of securities for protection of private or court trusts; execution of and exemption from bond

Whenever the laws of a State require corporations acting in a fiduciary capacity to deposit securities with the State authorities for the protection of private or court trusts, national banks so acting shall be required to make similar deposits and securities so deposited shall be held for the protection of private or court trusts, as provided by the State law. National banks in such cases shall not be required to execute the bond usually required of individuals if State corporations under similar circumstances are exempt from this requirement. National banks shall have power to execute such bond when so required by the laws of the State.

(g) Officials’ oath or affidavit

In any case in which the laws of a State require that a corporation acting as trustee, executor, administrator, or in any capacity specified in this section, shall take an oath or make an affidavit, the president, vice president, cashier, or trust officer of such national bank may take the necessary oath or execute the necessary affidavit.

(h) Loans of trust funds to officers and employees prohibited; penalties

It shall be unlawful for any national banking association to lend any officer, director, or employee any funds held in trust under the powers conferred by this section. Any officer, director, or employee making such loan, or to whom such loan is made, may be fined not more than $5,000, or imprisoned not more than five years, or may be both fined and imprisoned, in the discretion of the court.

(i) Considerations determinative of grant or denial of applications; minimum capital and surplus for issuance of permit

In passing upon applications for permission to exercise the powers enumerated in this section, the Comptroller of the Currency may take into consideration the amount of capital and surplus of the applying bank, whether or not such capital and surplus is sufficient under the circumstances of the case, the needs of the community to be served, and any other facts and circumstances that seem to him proper, and may grant or refuse the application accordingly: Provided, That no permit shall be issued to any national banking association having a capital and surplus less than the capital and surplus required by State law of State banks, trust companies, and corporations exercising such powers.

(j) Surrender of authorization; board resolution; Comptroller certification; activities affected; regulations

Any national banking association desiring to surrender its right to exercise the powers granted under this section, in order to relieve itself of the necessity of complying with the requirements of this section, or to have returned to it any securities which it may have deposited with the State authorities for the protection of private or court trusts, or for any other purpose, may file with the Comptroller of the Currency a certified copy of a resolution of its board of directors signifying such desire. Upon receipt of such resolution, the Comptroller of the Currency, after satisfying himself that such bank has been relieved in accordance with State law of all duties as trustee, executory,2 administrator, registrar of stocks and bonds, guardian of estates, assignee, receiver, committee of estates of lunatics or other fiduciary, under court, private, or other appointments previously accepted under authority of this section, may, in his discretion, issue to such bank a certificate certifying that such bank is no longer authorized to exercise the powers granted by this section. Upon the issuance of such a certificate by the Comptroller of the Currency, such bank (1) shall no longer be subject to the provisions of this section or the regulations of the Comptroller of the Currency made pursuant thereto, (2) shall be entitled to have returned to it any securities which it may have deposited with the State authorities for the protection of private or court trusts, and (3) shall not exercise thereafter any of the powers granted by this section without first applying for and obtaining a new permit to exercise such powers pursuant to the provisions of this section. The Comptroller of the Currency is authorized and empowered to promulgate such regulations as he may deem necessary to enforce compliance with the provisions of this section and the proper exercise of the powers granted therein.

(k) Revocation; procedures applicable

(1) In addition to the authority conferred by other law, if, in the opinion of the Comptroller of the Currency, a national banking association is unlawfully or unsoundly exercising, or has unlawfully or unsoundly exercised, or has failed for a period of five consecutive years to exercise, the powers granted by this section or otherwise fails or has failed to comply with the requirements of this section, the Comptroller may issue and serve upon the association a notice of intent to revoke the authority of the association to exercise the powers granted by this section. The notice shall contain a statement of the facts constituting the alleged unlawful or unsound exercise of powers, or failure to exercise powers, or failure to comply, and shall fix a time and place at which a hearing will be held to determine whether an order revoking authority to exercise such powers should issue against the association.

(2) Such hearing shall be conducted in accordance with the provisions of section 1818(h) of this title, and subject to judicial review as provided in such section, and shall be fixed for a date not earlier than thirty days nor later than sixty days after service of such notice unless an earlier or later date is set by the Comptroller at the request of any association so served.

(3) Unless the association so served shall appear at the hearing by a duly authorized representative, it shall be deemed to have consented to the issuance of the revocation order. In the event of such consent, or if upon the record made at any such hearing, the Comptroller shall find that any allegation specified in the notice of charges has been established, the Comptroller may issue and serve upon the association an order prohibiting it from accepting any new or additional trust accounts and revoking authority to exercise any and all powers granted by this section, except that such order shall permit the association to continue to service all previously accepted trust accounts pending their expeditious divestiture or termination.

(4) A revocation order shall become effective not earlier than the expiration of thirty days after service of such order upon the association so served (except in the case of a revocation order issued upon consent, which shall become effective at the time specified therein), and shall remain effective and enforceable, except to such extent as it is stayed, modified, terminated, or set aside by action of the Comptroller or a reviewing court.

(Pub. L. 87–722, §1, Sept. 28, 1962, 76 Stat. 668; Pub. L. 96–221, title VII, §704, Mar. 31, 1980, 94 Stat. 187.)

Amendments

1980—Subsec. (k). Pub. L. 96–221 added subsec. (k).

Savings Provision

Section 2 of Pub. L. 87–722 provided that: “Nothing contained in this Act [enacting this section, amending sections 581 and 584(a)(2) of Title 26, and repealing section 248(k) of this title] shall be deemed to affect or curtail the right of any national bank to act in fiduciary capacities under a permit granted before the date of enactment of this Act [Sept. 28, 1962] by the Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System, nor to affect the validity of any transactions entered into at any time by any national bank pursuant to such permit. On and after the date of enactment of this Act the exercise of fiduciary powers by national banks shall be subject to the provisions of this Act and the requirements of regulations issued by the Comptroller of the Currency pursuant to the authority granted by this Act.”

1 So in original. Probably should be “enumerated”.

2 So in original. Probably should be “executor,”.

§93. Violation of provisions of chapter

(a) Forfeiture of franchise; personal liability of directors

If the directors of any national banking association shall knowingly violate, or knowingly permit any of the officers, agents, or servants of the association to violate any of the provisions of title 62 of the Revised Statutes, all the rights, privileges, and franchises of the association shall be thereby forfeited. Such violation shall, however, be determined and adjudged by a proper district or Territorial court of the United States in a suit brought for that purpose by the Comptroller of the Currency, in his own name, before the association shall be declared dissolved. And in cases of such violation, every director who participated in or assented to the same shall be held liable in his personal and individual capacity for all damages which the association, its shareholders, or any other person, shall have sustained in consequence of such violation.

(b) Civil money penalty

(1) First tier

Any national banking association which, and any institution-affiliated party (within the meaning of section 1813(u) of this title) with respect to such association who, violates any provision of title 62 of the Revised Statutes or any of the provisions of section 92a of this title, or any regulation issued pursuant thereto, shall forfeit and pay a civil penalty of not more than $5,000 for each day during which such violation continues.

(2) Second tier

Notwithstanding paragraph (1), any national banking association which, and any institution-affiliated party (within the meaning of section 1813(u) of this title) with respect to such association who, commits any violation described in paragraph (1) which— 1

(A)(i) commits any violation described in any 2 paragraph (1);

(ii) recklessly engages in an unsafe or unsound practice in conducting the affairs of such association; or

(iii) breaches any fiduciary duty;

(B) which violation, practice, or breach—

(i) is part of a pattern of misconduct;

(ii) causes or is likely to cause more than a minimal loss to such association; or

(iii) results in pecuniary gain or other benefit to such party,


shall forfeit and pay a civil penalty of not more than $25,000 for each day during which such violation, practice, or breach continues.

(3) Third tier

Notwithstanding paragraphs (1) and (2), any national banking association which, and any institution-affiliated party (within the meaning of section 1813(u) of this title) with respect to such association who—

(A) knowingly—

(i) commits any violation described in paragraph (1);

(ii) engages in any unsafe or unsound practice in conducting the affairs of such association; or

(iii) breaches any fiduciary duty; and


(B) knowingly or recklessly causes a substantial loss to such association or a substantial pecuniary gain or other benefit to such party by reason of such violation, practice, or breach,


shall forfeit and pay a civil penalty in an amount not to exceed the applicable maximum amount determined under paragraph (4) for each day during which such violation, practice, or breach continues.

(4) Maximum amounts of penalties for any violation described in paragraph (3)

The maximum daily amount of any civil penalty which may be assessed pursuant to paragraph (3) for any violation, practice, or breach described in such paragraph is—

(A) in the case of any person other than a national banking association, an amount to not 3 exceed $1,000,000; and

(B) in the case of a national banking association, an amount not to exceed the lesser of—

(i) $1,000,000; or

(ii) 1 percent of the total assets of such association.

(5) Assessment; etc.

Any penalty imposed under paragraph (1), (2), or (3) shall be assessed and collected by the Comptroller of the Currency in the manner provided in subparagraphs (E), (F), (G), and (I) of section 1818(i)(2) of this title for penalties imposed (under such section) and any such assessment shall be subject to the provisions of such section.

(6) Hearing

The association or other person against whom any penalty is assessed under this subsection shall be afforded an agency hearing if such association or person submits a request for such hearing within 20 days after the issuance of the notice of assessment. Section 1818(h) of this title shall apply to any proceeding under this subsection.

(7) Disbursement

All penalties collected under authority of this subsection shall be deposited into the Treasury.

(8) “Violate” defined

For purposes of this section, the term “violate” includes any action (alone or with another or others) for or toward causing, bringing about, participating in, counseling, or aiding or abetting a violation.

(12) 4 Regulations

The Comptroller shall prescribe regulations establishing such procedures as may be necessary to carry out this subsection.

(c) Notice under this section after separation from service

The resignation, termination of employment or participation, or separation of an institution-affiliated party (within the meaning of section 1813(u) of this title) with respect to such an association (including a separation caused by the closing of such an association) shall not affect the jurisdiction and authority of the Comptroller of the Currency to issue any notice and proceed under this section against any such party, if such notice is served before the end of the 6-year period beginning on the date such party ceased to be such a party with respect to such association (whether such date occurs before, on, or after August 9, 1989).

(d) Forfeiture of franchise for money laundering or cash transaction reporting offenses

(1) In general

(A) Conviction of title 18 offenses

(i) Duty to notify

If a national bank, a Federal branch, or Federal agency has been convicted of any criminal offense under section 1956 or 1957 of title 18, the Attorney General shall provide to the Comptroller of the Currency a written notification of the conviction and shall include a certified copy of the order of conviction from the court rendering the decision.

(ii) Notice of termination; pretermination hearing

After receiving written notification from the Attorney General of such a conviction, the Comptroller of the Currency shall issue to the national bank, Federal branch, or Federal agency a notice of the Comptroller's intention to terminate all rights, privileges, and franchises of the bank, Federal branch, or Federal agency and schedule a pretermination hearing.

(B) Conviction of title 31 offenses

If a national bank, a Federal branch, or a Federal agency is convicted of any criminal offense under section 5322 or 5324 of title 31, after receiving written notification from the Attorney General, the Comptroller of the Currency may issue to the national bank, Federal branch, or Federal agency a notice of the Comptroller's intention to terminate all rights, privileges, and franchises of the bank, Federal branch, or Federal agency and schedule a pretermination hearing.

(C) Judicial review

Section 1818(h) of this title shall apply to any proceeding under this subsection.

(2) Factors to be considered

In determining whether a franchise shall be forfeited under paragraph (1), the Comptroller of the Currency shall take into account the following factors:

(A) The extent to which directors or senior executive officers of the national bank, Federal branch, or Federal agency knew of, or were involved in, the commission of the money laundering offense of which the bank, Federal branch, or Federal agency was found guilty.

(B) The extent to which the offense occurred despite the existence of policies and procedures within the national bank, Federal branch, or Federal agency which were designed to prevent the occurrence of any such offense.

(C) The extent to which the national bank, Federal branch, or Federal agency has fully cooperated with law enforcement authorities with respect to the investigation of the money laundering offense of which the bank, Federal branch, or Federal agency was found guilty.

(D) The extent to which the national bank, Federal branch, or Federal agency has implemented additional internal controls (since the commission of the offense of which the bank, Federal branch, or Federal agency was found guilty) to prevent the occurrence of any other money laundering offense.

(E) The extent to which the interest of the local community in having adequate deposit and credit services available would be threatened by the forfeiture of the franchise.

(3) Successor liability

This subsection shall not apply to a successor to the interests of, or a person who acquires, a bank, a Federal branch, or a Federal agency that violated a provision of law described in paragraph (1), if the successor succeeds to the interests of the violator, or the acquisition is made, in good faith and not for purposes of evading this subsection or regulations prescribed under this subsection.

(4) “Senior executive officer” defined

The term “senior executive officer” has the same meaning as in regulations prescribed under section 1831i(f) of this title.

(d) 5 Authority

The Comptroller of the Currency may act in the Comptroller's own name and through the Comptroller's own attorneys in enforcing any provision of title 62 of the Revised Statutes, regulations thereunder, or any other law or regulation, or in any action, suit, or proceeding to which the Comptroller of the Currency is a party.

(R.S. §5239; Mar. 3, 1911, ch. 231, §291, 36 Stat. 1167; Pub. L. 95–630, title I, §103, Nov. 10, 1978, 92 Stat. 3643; Pub. L. 97–320, title IV, §424(d)(3), (f), (g), Oct. 15, 1982, 96 Stat. 1523; Pub. L. 97–457, §24, Jan. 12, 1983, 96 Stat. 2510; Pub. L. 101–73, title IX, §§905(e), 907(e), Aug. 9, 1989, 103 Stat. 460, 469; Pub. L. 102–550, title XV, §1502(a), Oct. 28, 1992, 106 Stat. 4045; Pub. L. 103–322, title XXXIII, §330017(b)(2), Sept. 13, 1994, 108 Stat. 2149; Pub. L. 103–325, title III, §331(b)(3), title IV, §§411(c)(2)(C), 413(b)(2), Sept. 23, 1994, 108 Stat. 2232, 2253, 2254.)

References in Text

Title 62 of the Revised Statutes, referred to in subsecs. (a), (b)(1), and (d), was in the original “this Title” meaning title LXII of the Revised Statutes, consisting of R.S. §§5133 to 5244, which are classified to this section and sections 16, 21, 22 to 24a, 25a, 25b, 26, 27, 29, 35 to 37, 39, 43, 52, 53, 55 to 57, 59 to 62, 66, 71, 72 to 76, 81, 83 to 86, 90, 91, 93a, 94, 141 to 144, 161, 164, 181, 182, 192 to 194, 196, 215c, 481 to 485, 501, 541, 548, and 582 of this title. See, also, sections 8, 333, 334, 475, 656, 709, 1004, and 1005 of Title 18, Crimes and Criminal Procedure. For complete classification of R.S. §§5133 to 5244 to the Code, see Tables.

Codification

R.S. §5239 derived from act June 3, 1864, ch. 106, §53, 13 Stat. 116, which was the National Bank Act. See section 38 of this title.

Act Mar. 3, 1911, conferred the powers and duties of the former circuit courts upon the district courts.

Amendments

1994—Subsec. (c). Pub. L. 103–322, §330017(b)(2), and Pub. L. 103–325, §413(b)(2), amended section identically, redesignating subsec. (c), relating to forfeiture of franchise for money laundering, as (d).

Subsec. (d). Pub. L. 103–322, §330017(b)(2), and Pub. L. 103–325, §413(b)(2), amended section identically, redesignating subsec. (c), relating to forfeiture of franchise for money laundering, as (d).

Pub. L. 103–325, §331(b)(3), added subsec. (d) relating to authority.

Subsec. (d)(1)(B). Pub. L. 103–325, §411(c)(2)(C), substituted “section 5322 or 5324 of title 31” for “section 5322 of title 31”.

1992—Subsec. (c). Pub. L. 102–550 added subsec. (c) relating to forfeiture of franchise for money laundering.

1989—Subsec. (b). Pub. L. 101–73, §907(e), amended subsec. (b) generally, revising and restating as pars. (1) to (8) and (12) provisions of former pars. (1) to (8).

Subsec. (c). Pub. L. 101–73, §905(e), added subsec. (c) relating to notice after separation from service.

1982—Subsec. (b)(1). Pub. L. 97–320, as amended by Pub. L. 97–457, inserted “or any of the provisions of section 92a of this title”, and substituted “may be assessed” for “shall be assessed” and “title” for “chapter”.

1978—Pub. L. 95–630 designated existing provisions as subsec. (a) and added subsec. (b).

Effective Date of 1989 Amendment

Section 907(l) of Pub. L. 101–73 provided that: “The amendments made by this section [amending this section and sections 481, 504, 505, 1467a, 1786, 1817, 1818, 1828, 1847, and 1972 of this title] shall apply with respect to conduct engaged in by any person after the date of the enactment of this Act [Aug. 9, 1989], except that the increased maximum civil penalties of $5,000 and $25,000 per violation or per day may apply to such conduct engaged in before such date if such conduct—

“(1) is not already subject to a notice (initiating an administrative proceeding) issued by the appropriate Federal banking agency (as defined in section 3(q) of the Federal Deposit Insurance Act [12 U.S.C. 1813(q)]) or the National Credit Union Administration Board; and

“(2) occurred after the completion of the last report of examination of the institution involved by the appropriate Federal banking agency (as so defined) occurring before the date of the enactment of this Act.”

Effective Date of 1978 Amendment

Section 109 of title I of Pub. L. 95–630 provided that: “Any amendment made by this title which provides for the imposition of civil penalties [enacting sections 504 and 505 of this title and amending this section and sections 1464, 1730, 1730a, 1786, 1818, 1828, and 1847 of this title] shall apply only to violations occurring or continuing after the date of its enactment [Nov. 10, 1978].”

Exception as to Transfer of Functions

Functions vested by any provision of law in Comptroller of the Currency, referred to in this section, not included in transfer of functions to Secretary of the Treasury, see note set out under section 1 of this title.

1 So in original. The words “, commits any violation described in paragraph (1) which” probably should not appear.

2 So in original. The word “any” probably should not appear.

3 So in original. Probably should be “not to”.

4 So in original. No pars. (9) to (11) have been enacted.

5 So in original. Probably should be “(e)”.

§93a. Authority to prescribe rules and regulations

Except to the extent that authority to issue such rules and regulations has been expressly and exclusively granted to another regulatory agency, the Comptroller of the Currency is authorized to prescribe rules and regulations to carry out the responsibilities of the office, except that the authority conferred by this section does not apply to section 36 of this title or to securities activities of National Banks under the Act commonly known as the “Glass-Steagall Act”.

(R.S. §5239A, as added Pub. L. 96–221, title VII, §708, Mar. 31, 1980, 94 Stat. 188.)

References in Text

The Glass-Steagall Act, referred to in text, probably refers to act June 16, 1933, ch. 89, 48 Stat. 162, as amended, also known as the Banking Act of 1933 or the Glass-Steagall Act, 1933, rather than to act Feb. 27, 1932, ch. 58, 47 Stat. 56, known as the Glass-Steagall Act, 1932. Section 16 of the 1933 act, which amended section 24 (Seventh) of this title, related in part to securities activities of national banks. For complete classification of these Acts to the Code, see Tables.

§94. Venue of suits

Any action or proceeding against a national banking association for which the Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation has been appointed receiver, or against the Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation as receiver of such association, shall be brought in the district or territorial court of the United States held within the district in which that association's principal place of business is located, or, in the event any State, county, or municipal court has jurisdiction over such an action or proceeding, in such court in the county or city in which that association's principal place of business is located.

(R.S. §5198; Feb. 18, 1875, ch. 80, §1, 18 Stat. 320; Mar. 3, 1911, ch. 231, §291, 36 Stat. 1167; Pub. L. 97–320, title IV, §406, Oct. 15, 1982, 96 Stat. 1512; Pub. L. 97–457, §20(a), Jan. 12, 1983, 96 Stat. 2509.)

Codification

The last sentence of R.S. §5198, as added by act Feb. 18, 1875, ch. 80, §1, 18 Stat. 320, appears to have been derived from act June 3, 1864, ch. 106, §57, 13 Stat. 116, which was the National Bank Act. See section 38 of this title.

Section is comprised of last sentence of R.S. §5198 as added by act Feb. 18, 1875, ch. 80, §1, 18 Stat. 320. The remaining sentences of R.S. §5198 are classified to section 86 of this title.

Act Mar. 3, 1911, conferred powers and duties of former circuit courts on district courts.

Amendments

1982—Pub. L. 97–320, as amended by Pub. L. 97–457, amended section generally. Prior to amendment section read as follows: “Actions and proceedings against any association under this chapter may be had in any district or Territorial court of the United States held within the district in which such association may be established, or in any State, county, or municipal court in the county or city in which said association is located having jurisdiction in similar cases.”

Effective Date of 1983 Amendment

Section 20(b) of Pub. L. 97–457 provided that: “The amendment made by subsection (a) [amending this section] shall be deemed to have taken effect upon the enactment of Public Law 97–320 [Oct. 15, 1982].”

§94a. Repealed. June 25, 1948, ch. 646, §39, 62 Stat. 992, eff. Sept. 1, 1948

Section, act July 12, 1882, ch. 290, §4, 22 Stat. 163, related to jurisdiction and venue. See sections 1348 and 1394 of Title 28, Judiciary and Judicial Procedure.

§95. Emergency limitations and restrictions on business of members of Federal Reserve System; designation of legal holiday for national banking associations; exceptions; “State” defined

(a) In order to provide for the safer and more effective operation of the National Banking System and the Federal Reserve System, to preserve for the people the full benefits of the currency provided for by the Congress through the National Banking System and the Federal Reserve System, and to relieve interstate commerce of the burdens and obstructions resulting from the receipt on an unsound or unsafe basis of deposits subject to withdrawal by check, during such emergency period as the President of the United States by proclamation may prescribe, no member bank of the Federal Reserve System shall transact any banking business except to such extent and subject to such regulations, limitations and restrictions as may be prescribed by the Secretary of the Treasury, with the approval of the President. Any individual, partnership, corporation, or association, or any director, officer or employee thereof, violating any of the provisions of this section shall be deemed guilty of a misdemeanor and, upon conviction thereof, shall be fined not more than $10,000 or, if a natural person, may, in addition to such fine, be imprisoned for a term not exceeding ten years. Each day that any such violation continues shall be deemed a separate offense.

(b)(1) In the event of natural calamity, riot, insurrection, war, or other emergency conditions occurring in any State whether caused by acts of nature or of man, the Comptroller of the Currency may designate by proclamation any day a legal holiday for the national banking associations located in that State. In the event that the emergency conditions affect only part of a State, the Comptroller of the Currency may designate the part so affected and may proclaim a legal holiday for the national banking associations located in that affected part. In the event that a State or a State official authorized by law designates any day as a legal holiday for ceremonial or emergency reasons, for the State or any part thereof, that same day shall be a legal holiday for all national banking associations or their offices located in that State or the part so affected. A national banking association or its affected offices may close or remain open on such a State-designated holiday unless the Comptroller of the Currency by written order directs otherwise.

(2) For the purpose of this subsection, the term “State” means any of the several States, the District of Columbia, the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico, the Northern Mariana Islands, Guam, the Virgin Islands, American Samoa, the Trust Territory of the Pacific Islands, or any other territory or possession of the United States.

(Mar. 9, 1933, ch. 1, title I, §4, 48 Stat. 2; Pub. L. 96–221, title VII, §705, Mar. 31, 1980, 94 Stat. 187; Pub. L. 97–320, title IV, §407, Oct. 15, 1982, 96 Stat. 1513; Pub. L. 97–457, §21, Jan. 12, 1983, 96 Stat. 2509.)

Amendments

1983—Subsec. (b)(1). Pub. L. 97–457 inserted “a State or” before “a State official”.

1982—Subsec. (b)(1). Pub. L. 97–320 substituted “In the event that a State official authorized by law designates any day as a legal holiday for ceremonial or emergency reasons, for the State or any part thereof, that same day shall be a legal holiday for all national banking associations or their offices located in that State or the part so affected. A national banking association or its affected offices may close or remain open on such a State-designated holiday unless the Comptroller of the Currency by written order directs otherwise” for “In the event that a State or a State official authorized by law designates any day as a legal holiday for either emergency or ceremonial reasons for all banks chartered by that State to do business within that State, that same day shall be a legal holiday for all national banking associations chartered to do business within that State unless the Comptroller of the Currency shall by written order permit all national banking associations located in that State to remain open”.

1980—Pub. L. 96–221 designated existing provisions as subsec. (a) and added subsec. (b).

Termination of Trust Territory of the Pacific Islands

For termination of Trust Territory of the Pacific Islands, see note set out preceding section 1681 of Title 48, Territories and Insular Possessions.

Bank Holiday of 1933

Proclamations Nos. 2039, 2040, and 2070, dated Mar. 6, 1933, Mar. 9, 1933, and Dec. 30, 1933, respectively, related to the temporary suspension of banking transactions beginning Mar. 6, 1933, by all member banks of the Federal Reserve System.

Pursuant to Ex. Ord. No. 6073, dated March 10, 1933, formerly set out as a note under this section, the Secretary of the Treasury by order of March 11, 1933, authorized all Federal reserve banks and nonmember banks and other banking institutions to resume their normal and usual banking functions on March 13, 1933, subject to certain restrictions. See 31 C.F.R. 121.20–121.22. The fifth and sixth paragraphs of Ex. Ord. No. 6073, relating to the removal of gold coin, gold bullion, or gold certificates from the United States by corporations, etc., including banking institutions and authorization of banking institutions to pay out gold coin, gold bullion or gold certificates, were revoked by Ex. Ord. No. 11825, Dec. 31, 1974, 40 F.R. 1003, set out as a note under section 95a of this title.

Proc. No. 2725. Exemption of Member Banks of Federal Reserve System

Proc. No. 2725, Apr. 7, 1947, 12 F.R. 2343, 61 Stat. 1062, provided:

NOW, THEREFORE, I, HARRY S. TRUMAN, President of the United States of America, acting under and by virtue of the authority vested in me by section 5(b) of the Trading with the Enemy Act of October 6, 1917, 40 Stat. 415, as amended [section 5(b) of Appendix to Title 50], and section 4 of the act of March 9, 1933, 48 Stat. 2 [this section] and by virtue of all other authority vested in me, do hereby, in the interest of the internal management of the Government, proclaim, order, direct, and declare that the said proclamations of March 6 and March 9, 1933, and Executive order of March 10, 1933, as amended, are further amended to exclude from their scope banking institutions which are members of the Federal Reserve System: Provided, however, That no banking institution shall pay out any gold coin, gold bullion, or gold certificates, except as authorized by the Secretary of the Treasury, or allow the withdrawal of any currency for hoarding.

This proclamation shall become effective as of March 15, 1947.

§95a. Regulation of transactions in foreign exchange of gold and silver; property transfers; vested interests, enforcement and penalties

(1) During the time of war, the President may, through any agency that he may designate, and under such rules and regulations as he may prescribe, by means of instructions, licenses, or otherwise—

(A) investigate, regulate, or prohibit, any transactions in foreign exchange, transfers of credit or payments between, by, through, or to any banking institution, and the importing, exporting, hoarding, melting, or earmarking of gold or silver coin or bullion, currency or securities, and

(B) investigate, regulate, direct and compel, nullify, void, prevent or prohibit, any acquisition holding, withholding, use, transfer, withdrawal, transportation, importation or exportation of, or dealing in, or exercising any right, power, or privilege with respect to, or transactions involving, any property in which any foreign country or a national thereof has any interest,


by any person, or with respect to any property, subject to the jurisdiction of the United States; and any property or interest of any foreign country or national thereof shall vest, when, as, and upon the terms, directed by the President, in such agency or person as may be designated from time to time by the President, and upon such terms and conditions as the President may prescribe such interest or property shall be held, used, administered, liquidated, sold, or otherwise dealt with in the interest of and for the benefit of the United States, and such designated agency or person may perform any and all acts incident to the accomplishment or furtherance of these purposes; and the President shall, in the manner hereinabove provided, require any person to keep a full record of, and to furnish under oath, in the form of reports or otherwise, complete information relative to any act or transaction referred to in this subdivision either before, during, or after the completion thereof, or relative to any interest in foreign property, or relative to any property in which any foreign country or any national thereof has or has had any interest, or as may be otherwise necessary to enforce the provisions of this subdivision, and in any case in which a report could be required, the President may, in the manner hereinabove provided, require the production, or if necessary to the national security or defense, the seizure, of any books of account, records, contracts, letters, memoranda, or other papers, in the custody or control of such person.

(2) Any payment, conveyance, transfer, assignment, or delivery of property or interest therein, made to or for the account of the United States, or as otherwise directed, pursuant to this section or any rule, regulation, instruction, or direction issued hereunder shall to the extent thereof be a full acquittance and discharge for all purposes of the obligation of the person making the same; and no person shall be held liable in any court for or in respect to anything done or omitted in good faith in connection with the administration of, or in pursuance of and in reliance on, this section, or any rule, regulation, instruction, or direction issued hereunder.

(3) As used in this subdivision the term “United States” means the United States and any place subject to the jurisdiction thereof; Provided, however, That the foregoing shall not be construed as a limitation upon the power of the President, which is hereby conferred, to prescribe from time to time, definitions, not inconsistent with the purposes of this subdivision, for any or all of the terms used in this subdivision. As used in this subdivision the term “person” means an individual, partnership, association, or corporation.

(4) The authority granted to the President by this section does not include the authority to regulate or prohibit, directly or indirectly, the importation from any country, or the exportation to any country, whether commercial or otherwise, regardless of format or medium of transmission, of any information or informational materials, including but not limited to, publications, films, posters, phonograph records, photographs, microfilms, microfiche, tapes, compact disks, CD ROMs, artworks, and news wire feeds. The exports exempted from regulation or prohibition by this paragraph do not include those which are otherwise controlled for export under section 2404 of title 50, Appendix, or under section 2405 of title 50, Appendix to the extent that such controls promote the nonproliferation or antiterrorism policies of the United States, or with respect to which acts are prohibited by chapter 37 of title 18.

(Oct. 6, 1917, ch. 106, §5(b), 40 Stat. 415; Sept. 24, 1918, ch. 176, §5, 40 Stat. 966; Mar. 9, 1933, ch. 1, title I, §2, 48 Stat. 1; May 7, 1940, ch. 185, §1, 54 Stat. 179; Dec. 18, 1941, ch. 593, title III, §301, 55 Stat. 839; Proc. No. 2695, eff. July 4, 1946, 11 F.R. 7517, 69 Stat. 1352; Pub. L. 95–223, title I, §§101(a), 102, 103(b), Dec. 28, 1977, 91 Stat. 1625, 1626; Pub. L. 100–418, title II, §2502(a)(1), Aug. 23, 1988, 102 Stat. 1371; Pub. L. 103–236, title V, §525(b)(1), Apr. 30, 1994, 108 Stat. 474.)

Codification

Section 5(b) of act Oct. 6, 1917, is part of the Trading with the Enemy Act and is also classified to section 5(b) of the Appendix to Title 50, War and National Defense.

Words “, including the Philippine Islands, and the several courts of first instance of the Commonwealth of the Philippine Islands shall have jurisdiction in all cases, civil or criminal, arising under this section in the Philippine Islands and concurrent jurisdiction with the district courts of the United States of all cases, civil or criminal, arising upon the high seas” following “to the jurisdiction thereof:” in subsec. (3) were omitted on authority of 1946 Proc. No. 2695, which granted the Philippine Islands independence, and which was issued pursuant to section 1394 of Title 22, Foreign Relations and Intercourse. Proc. No. 2695 is set out as a note under section 1394 of Title 22.

Amendments

1994—Par. (4). Pub. L. 103–236 amended par. (4) generally. Prior to amendment, par. (4) read as follows: “The authority granted to the President in this section does not include the authority to regulate or prohibit, directly or indirectly, the importation from any country, or the exportation to any country, whether commercial or otherwise, of publications, films, posters, phonograph records, photographs, microfilms, microfiche, tapes, or other informational materials, which are not otherwise controlled for export under section 2404 of title 50, Appendix, or with respect to which no acts are prohibited by chapter 37 of title 18.”

1988—Par. (4). Pub. L. 100–418 added par. (4).

1977—Par. (1). Pub. L. 95–223, §§101(a), 102, substituted “During the time of war, the President may, through any agency that he may designate, and under such rules and regulations” for “During the time of war or during any other period of national emergency declared by the President, the President may, through any agency, that he may designate, or otherwise, and under such rules and regulations” in the provisions preceding subpar. (A), and, in the provisions following subpar. (B), struck out “; and the President may, in the manner hereinabove provided, take other and further measures not inconsistent herewith for the enforcement of the subdivision” after “control of such person”.

Par. (3). Pub. L. 95–223, §103(b), struck out provisions that whoever willfully violated any of the provisions of this subdivision or of any license, order, rule, or regulation issued thereunder, could be fined not more than $10,000, or, if a natural person, could be imprisoned for not more than ten years, or both; and that any officer, director, or agent of any corporation who knowingly participated in that violation could be punished by a like fine, imprisonment, or both.

1941—Act Dec. 18, 1941, broadened the powers of the President to take, administer, control, use and liquidate foreign-owned property and added a flexibility of control which enabled the President and the agencies designated by him to cope with the problems surrounding alien property, its ownership or control, on the basis of the particular facts in each case.

1940—Act May 7, 1940, included dealings in evidences of indebtedness or ownership of property in which foreign states, nationals or political subdivisions thereof have an interest.

1933—Act Mar. 9, 1933, amended section generally by, among other things, extending the President's power to any time of war or national emergency, by permitting regulations to be issued by any agency designated by the President, by providing for the furnishing under oath of complete information relative to transactions under this section and by placing sanctions on violations to the extent of a $10,000 fine or ten years imprisonment.

1918—Act Sept. 24, 1918, inserted provisions relating to the hoarding or melting of gold or silver coin or bullion or currency and to the regulation of transactions in bonds or certificates of indebtedness.

Delegation of Powers

Delegation of President's powers under this section to Secretary of the Treasury and Alien Property Custodian; and transfer of Alien Property Custodian's powers to Attorney General, see Ex. Ord. Nos. 9095 and 9788, set out as notes under section 6 of the Appendix to Title 50, War and National Defense.

All powers conferred upon President by this section delegated to Secretary of the Treasury by Memorandum of the President dated Feb. 12, 1942, 7 F.R. 1409.

Administration of Export Administration Act

For provisions relating to the administration of the Export Administration Act, see Executive Orders set out as notes under section 2403 of Title 50, Appendix, War and National Defense.

Limitation on Exercise of Emergency Authorities

Section 525(b)(2) of Pub. L. 103–236 provided that: “The authorities conferred upon the President by section 5(b) of the Trading With the Enemy Act [this section], which were being exercised with respect to a country on July 1, 1977, as a result of a national emergency declared by the President before such date, and are being exercised on the date of the enactment of this Act [Apr. 30, 1994], do not include the authority to regulate or prohibit, directly or indirectly, any activity which, under section 5(b)(4) of the Trading With the Enemy Act, as amended by paragraph (1) of this subsection, may not be regulated or prohibited.”

Section 2502(a)(2) of Pub. L. 100–418 provided that: “The authorities conferred upon the President by section 5(b) of the Trading With the Enemy Act [this section], which were being exercised with respect to a country on July 1, 1977, as a result of a national emergency declared by the President before such date, and are being exercised on the date of the enactment of this Act [Aug. 23, 1988], do not include the authority to regulate or prohibit, directly or indirectly, any activity which, under section 5(b)(4) of the Trading With the Enemy Act, as added by paragraph (1) of this subsection, may not be regulated or prohibited.”

Extension and Termination of National Emergency Powers Under the Trading With the Enemy Act

Section 101(b), (c) of Pub. L. 95–223 provided that:

“(b) Notwithstanding the amendment made by subsection (a) [amending par. (1) of this section], the authorities conferred upon the President by section 5(b) of the Trading With the Enemy Act [this section], which were being exercised with respect to a country on July 1, 1977, as a result of a national emergency declared by the President before such date, may continue to be exercised with respect to such country, except that, unless extended, the exercise of such authorities shall terminate (subject to the savings provisions of the second sentence of section 101(a) of the National Emergencies Act [section 1601(a) of Title 50, War and National Defense]) at the end of the two-year period beginning on the date of enactment of the National Emergencies Act [Sept 14, 1976]. The President may extend the exercise of such authorities for one-year periods upon a determination for each such extension that the exercise of such authorities with respect to such country for another year is in the national interest of the United States.

“(c) The termination and extension provisions of subsection (b) of this section supersede the provisions of section 101(a) [section 1601(a) of Title 50, War and National Defense] and of title II [section 1621 et seq. of Title 50] of the National Emergencies Act to the extent that the provisions of subsection (b) of this section are inconsistent with those provisions.”

Removal of Limitations and Restraints in Financing Exports

Pub. L. 92–126, §2, Aug. 17, 1971, 85 Stat. 346, provided that: “In connection with section 2 of Executive Order Number 11387, dated January 1, 1968 [formerly set out below] and any rule, regulation, or guideline established by the Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System in connection with a voluntary foreign credit restraint program, there shall be no limitation or restraint, or suggestion that there be a limitation or restraint, on the part of any bank or financial institution in connection with the extension of credit for the purpose of financing exports of the United States.”

World War II Alien Property Custodian

Reestablishment and termination of Office of Alien Property Custodian during World War II, see notes under section 6 of the Appendix to Title 50, War and National Defense.

Diplomatic Property of Germany and Japan

Ex. Ord. No. 9760, July 24, 1946, 11 F.R. 7999, set out in notes to section 6 of Title 50, Appendix, War and National Defense, supersedes conflicting provisions of Ex. Ord. No. 8389, set out below.

Executive Order No. 6260

Ex. Ord. No. 6260, Aug. 28, 1933, as amended by Ex. Ord. No. 6359, Oct. 25, 1933; Ex. Ord. No. 6556, Jan. 12, 1934; Ex. Ord. No. 6560, Jan. 15, 1934; Ex. Ord. No. 10896, Nov. 29, 1960, 25 F.R. 12281; Ex. Ord. No. 10905, Jan. 14, 1961, 26 F.R. 321; Ex. Ord. No. 11037, July 20, 1962, 27 F.R. 6967, formerly set out as a note under this section, which related to the hoarding, export, and earmarking of gold coin, bullion, or currency, and transactions in foreign exchange, was revoked by Ex. Ord. No. 11825, Dec. 31, 1974, 40 F.R. 1003, set out below.

Executive Order No. 6560

Ex. Ord. No. 6560, Jan. 15, 1934, as amended by Ex. Ord. No. 8389. April 10, 1940, 6 p.m. E. S. T., 5 F.R. 1400; Ex. Ord. No. 8405, May 10, 1940, 7:55 a.m. E. S. T., 5 F.R. 1677; Ex. Ord. No. 8493, July 25, 1940, 5 F.R. 2667, formerly set out as a note under this section, which declared the existence of a national emergency and prescribed regulations for the investigation, regulation, and prohibition of transactions in foreign exchange, transfers of credit between or payments by banking institutions, and export of currency or silver coin by persons within the United States or subject to its jurisdiction, was based on authority of section 95a of this title (act Oct. 6, 1917, ch. 106, §5(b), 40 Stat. 415, comprising part of the Trading With the Enemy Act) which was amended in 1977 to remove the powers of the President to regulate transactions during a period of national emergency other than a war.

Ex. Ord. No. 8389. Regulating Transactions in Foreign Exchange and Foreign-Owned Property, Providing for the Reporting of All Foreign-Owned Property

Ex. Ord. No. 8389, Apr. 10, 1940, 5 F.R. 1400, as amended by Ex. Ord. No. 8405, May 10, 1940, 5 F.R. 1677; Ex. Ord. No. 8446, June 17, 1940, 5 F.R. 2279; Ex. Ord. No. 8484, July 15, 1940, 5 F.R. 2586; Ex. Ord. No. 8493, July 25, 1940, 5 F.R. 2667; Ex. Ord. No. 8565, Oct. 10, 1940, 5 F.R. 4062; Ex. Ord. No. 8701, Mar. 4, 1941, 6 F.R. 1285; Ex. Ord. No. 8711, Mar. 13, 1941, 6 F.R. 1443; Ex. Ord. No. 8721, Mar. 24, 1941, 6 F.R. 1622; Ex. Ord. No. 8746, Apr. 28, 1941, 6 F.R. 2187; Ex. Ord. No. 8785, June 14, 1941, 6 F.R. 2897; Ex. Ord. No. 8832, July 26, 1941, 6 F.R. 3715; Ex. Ord. No. 8963, Dec. 9, 1941, 6 F.R. 6348; Ex. Ord. No. 8998, Dec. 26, 1941, 6 F.R. 6787, provided:

section 1. certain foreign banking transactions prohibited

All of the following transactions are prohibited, except as specifically authorized by the Secretary of the Treasury by means of regulations, rulings, instructions, licenses, or otherwise, if (i) such transactions are by, or on behalf of, or pursuant to the direction of any foreign country designated in this Order, or any national thereof, or (ii) such transactions involve property in which any foreign country designated in this Order, or any national thereof, has at any time on or since the effective date of this Order had any interest of any nature whatsoever, direct or indirect:

A. All transfers of credit between any banking institutions within the United States; and all transfers of credit between any banking institution within the United States and any banking institution outside the United States (including any principal, agent, home office, branch, or correspondent outside the United States, of a banking institution within the United States);

B. All payments by or to any banking institution within the United States;

C. All transactions in foreign exchange by any person within the United States;

D. The export or withdrawal from the United States, or the earmarking of gold or silver coin or bullion or currency by any person within the United States;

E. All transfers, withdrawals or exportations of, or dealings in, any evidences of indebtedness or evidences of ownership of property by any person within the United States; and

F. Any transaction for the purpose or which has the effect of evading or avoiding the foregoing prohibitions.

section 2. dealings in foreign securities; regulations

A. All of the following transactions are prohibited, except as specifically authorized by the Secretary of the Treasury by means of regulations, rulings, instructions, licenses, or otherwise:

(1) The acquisition, disposition or transfer of, or other dealing in, or with respect to, any security or evidence thereof on which there is stamped or imprinted, or to which there is affixed or otherwise attached, a tax stamp or other stamp of a foreign country designated in this Order or a notarial or similar seal which by its contents indicates that it was stamped, imprinted, affixed or attached within such foreign country, or where the attendant circumstances disclose or indicate that such stamp or seal may, at any time, have been stamped, imprinted, affixed or attached thereto; and

(2) The acquisition by, or transfer to, any person within the United States of any interest in any security or evidence thereof if the attendant circumstances disclose or indicate that the security or evidence thereof is not physically situated within the United States.

B. The Secretary of the Treasury may investigate, regulate, or prohibit under such regulations, rulings, or instructions as he may prescribe, by means of licenses or otherwise, the sending, mailing, importing or otherwise bringing, directly or indirectly, into the United States, from any foreign country, of any securities or evidences thereof or the receiving or holding in the United States of any securities or evidences thereof so brought into the United States.

section 3. foreign countries affected; effective date of prohibitions

The term “foreign country designated in this Order” means a foreign country included in the following schedule, and the term “effective date of this Order” means with respect to any such foreign country, or any national thereof, the date specified in the following schedule:

(a) April 8, 1940—

Norway and

Denmark;

(b) May 10, 1940—

The Netherlands,

Belgium and

Luxembourg;

(c) June 17, 1940—

France (including Monaco);

(d) July 10, 1940—

Latvia, Estonia and

Lithuania;

(e) October 9, 1940—

Rumania;

(f) March 4, 1941—

Bulgaria;

(g) March 13, 1941—

Hungary;

(h) March 24, 1941—

Yugoslavia;

(i) April 28, 1941—

Greece; and

(j) June 14, 1941—

Albania,

Andorra,

Austria,

Czechoslovakia,

Danzig,

Finland,

Germany,

Italy,

Liechtenstein,

Poland,

Portugal,

San Marino,

Spain,

Sweden,

Switzerland, and

Union of Soviet Socialist Republics;

(k) June 14, 1941—

China and

Japan;

(l) June 14, 1941—

Thailand;

(m) June 14, 1941—

Hong Kong.


The “effective date of this Order” with respect to any foreign country not designated in this Order shall be deemed to be June 14, 1941.

section 4. records of foreign banking and security transactions; investigations

A. The Secretary of the Treasury and/or the Attorney General may require, by means of regulations, rulings, instructions, or otherwise, any person to keep a full record of, and to furnish under oath, in the form of reports or otherwise, from time to time and at any time or times, complete information relative to, any transaction referred to in section 5(b) of the Act of October 6, 1917 (40 Stat. 415) [this section], as amended, or relative to any property in which any foreign country or any national thereof has any interest of any nature whatsoever, direct or indirect, including the production of any books of account, contracts, letters, or other papers, in connection therewith, in the custody or control of such person, either before or after such transaction is completed; and the Secretary of the Treasury and/or the Attorney General may, through any agency, investigate any such transaction or act, or any violation of the provisions of this Order.

B. Every person engaging in any of the transactions referred to in sections 1 and 2 of this Order shall keep a full record of each such transaction engaged in by him, regardless of whether such transaction is effected pursuant to license or otherwise, and such record shall be available for examination for at least one year after the date of such transaction.

section 5. definitions

A. As used in the first paragraph of section 1 of this Order “transactions (which) involve property in which any foreign country designated in this Order, or any national thereof, has * * * any interest of any nature whatsoever, direct or indirect,” shall include but not by way of limitation (i) any payment or transfer to any such foreign country or national thereof, (ii) any export or withdrawal from the United States to such foreign country, and (iii) any transfer of credit, or payment of an obligation, expressed in terms of the currency of such foreign country.

B. The term “United States” means the United States and any place subject to the jurisdiction thereof, and the term “continental United States” means the States of the United States, the District of Columbia, and the Territory of Alaska: Provided, however, That for the purposes of this Order the term “United States” shall not be deemed to include any territory included within the term “foreign country” as defined in paragraph D of this section.

C. The term “person” means an individual, partnership, association, corporation, or other organization.

D. The term “foreign country” shall include, but not by way of limitation,

(i) The state and the government thereof on the effective date of this Order as well as any political subdivision, agency, or instrumentality thereof or any territory, dependency, colony, protectorate, mandate, dominion, possession or place subject to the jurisdiction thereof.

(ii) Any other government (including any political subdivision, agency, or instrumentality thereof) to the extent and only to the extent that such government exercises or claims to exercise de jure or de facto sovereignty over the area which on such effective date constituted such foreign country, and

(iii) Any territory which on or since the effective date of this Order is controlled or occupied by the military, naval or police forces or other authority of such foreign country;

(iv) Any person to the extent that such person is, or has been, or to the extent that there is reasonable cause to believe that such person is, or has been, since such effective date, acting or purporting to act directly or indirectly for the benefit or on behalf of any of the foregoing. Hong Kong shall be deemed to be a foreign country within the meaning of this subdivision.

E. The term “national” shall include,

(i) Any person who has been domiciled in, or a subject, citizen or resident of a foreign country at any time on or since the effective date of this Order,

(ii) Any partnership, association, corporation or other organization, organized under the laws of, or which on or since the effective date of this Order had or has had its principal place of business in such foreign country, or which on or since such effective date was or has been controlled by, or a substantial part of the stock, shares, bonds, debentures, notes, drafts, or other securities or obligations of which, was or has been owned or controlled by, directly or indirectly, such foreign country and/or one or more nationals thereof as herein defined.

(iii) Any person to the extent that such person is, or has been, since such effective date, acting or purporting to act directly or indirectly for the benefit or on behalf of any national of such foreign country, and

(iv) Any other person who there is reasonable cause to believe is a “national” as herein defined.


In any case in which by virtue of the foregoing definition a person is a national of more than one foreign country, such person shall be deemed to be a national of each such foreign country. In any case in which the combined interests of two or more foreign countries designated in this Order and/or nationals thereof are sufficient in the aggregate to constitute, within the meaning of the foregoing, control of 25 per centum or more of the stock, shares, bonds, debentures, notes, drafts, or other securities or obligations of a partnership, association, corporation or other organization, but such control or a substantial part of such stock, shares, bonds, debentures, notes, drafts, or other securities or obligations is not held by any one such foreign country and/or national thereof, such partnership, association, corporation or other organization shall be deemed to be a national of each of such foreign countries. The Secretary of the Treasury shall have full power to determine that any person is or shall be deemed to be a “national” within the meaning of this definition, and the foreign country of which such person is or shall be deemed to be a national. Without limitation of the foregoing, the term “national” shall also include any other person who is determined by the Secretary of the Treasury to be, or to have been, since such effective date, acting or purporting to act directly or indirectly for the benefit or under the direction of a foreign country designated in this Order or national thereof, as herein defined.

F. The term “banking institution” as used in this Order shall include any person engaged primarily or incidentally in the business of banking, of granting or transferring credits, or of purchasing or selling foreign exchange or procuring purchasers and sellers thereof, as principal or agent, or any person holding credits for others as a direct or incidental part of his business, or brokers, and each principal, agent, home office, branch or correspondent of any person so engaged shall be regarded as a separate “banking institution”.

G. The term “this Order”, as used herein, shall mean Executive Order No. 8389 of April 10, 1940, as amended.

section 6. construction with ex. ord. no. 6560; saving clause

Executive Order No. 8389 of April 10, 1940, as amended, shall no longer be deemed to be an amendment to or a part of Executive Order No. 6560 of January 15, 1934. Executive Order No. 6560 of January 15, 1934, and the Regulations of November 12, 1934, are hereby modified in so far as they are inconsistent with the provisions of this Order, and except as so modified, continue in full force and effect. Nothing herein shall be deemed to revoke any license, ruling, or instruction now in effect and issued pursuant to Executive Order No. 6560 of January 15, 1934, as amended, or pursuant to this Order; provided, however, that all such licenses, rulings, or instructions shall be subject to the provisions hereof. Any amendment, modification or revocation by or pursuant to the provisions of this Order of any orders, regulations, rulings, instructions or licenses shall not affect any act done, or any suit or proceeding had or commenced in any civil or criminal case prior to such amendment, modification or revocation, and all penalties, forfeitures and liabilities under any such orders, regulations, rulings, instructions or licenses shall continue and may be enforced as if such amendment, modification or revocation had not been made.

section 7. regulations by secretary of the treasury

Without limitation as to any other powers or authority of the Secretary of the Treasury or the Attorney General under any other provision of this Order, the Secretary of the Treasury is authorized and empowered to prescribe from time to time regulations, rulings, and instructions to carry out the purposes of this Order and to provide therein or otherwise the conditions under which licenses may be granted by or through such officers or agencies as the Secretary of the Treasury may designate, and the decision of the Secretary with respect to the granting, denial or other disposition of an application or license shall be final.

section 8. offenses and penalties under act oct. 6, 1917

Section 5(b) of the Act of October 6, 1917, as amended, provides in part:

“* * * Whoever willfully violates any of the provisions of this subdivision or of any license, order, rule or regulation issued thereunder, shall, upon conviction, be fined not more than $10,000, or, if a natural person, may be imprisoned for not more than ten years, or both; and any officer, director, or agent of any corporation who knowingly participates in such violation may be punished by a like fine, imprisonment, or both.”

section 9. amendments of order and regulations prescribed thereunder

This Order and any regulations, rulings, licenses or instructions issued hereunder may be amended, modified or revoked at any time.

[Ex. Ord. No. 8389 and the regulations and general rulings issued thereunder by the Secretary of the Treasury were approved and confirmed by Res. May 7, 1940, ch. 185, §2, 54 Stat. 179.]

[Ex. Ord. No. 9760, July 24, 1946, 11 F.R. 7999, 50 U.S.C. App., §6 note, relating to diplomatic property of Germany and Japan in the United States, supersedes conflicting provisions of Ex. Ord. No. 8389, set out above.]

Executive Orders Nos. 8446, 8484, 8565, 8701, 8711, 8721, 8746

The application of Ex. Ord. No. 6560, §§9 to 14, to French property by Ex. Ord. No. 8446, 5 F.R. 2279; to Latvian, Estonian and Lithuanian property by Ex. Ord. No. 8484, 5 F.R. 2586; to Rumanian property by Ex. Ord. No. 8565, 5 F.R. 4062; to Bulgarian property by Ex. Ord. No. 8701, 6 F.R. 1285; to Hungarian property by Ex. Ord. No. 8711, 6 F.R. 1443; to Yugoslav property by Ex. Ord. No. 8721, 6 F.R. 1622; to Greek property by Ex. Ord. No. 8746, 6 F.R. 2187, was incorporated in the provisions of Ex. Ord. No. 8389 as amended by Ex. Ord. No. 8785, set out above.

Ex. Ord. No. 9747. Functions of Alien Property Custodian and Treasury Department Continued in Philippines

Ex. Ord. No. 9747, July 3, 1946, 11 F.R. 7518, provided:

The terms and provisions of Executive Order 9095 of March 11, 1942, as amended [formerly set out as a note under section 6 of the Appendix to Title 50, War and National Defense], and Executive Order No. 8389 of April 10, 1940, as amended [set out above], shall continue in force in the Philippines after July 4, 1946, and all powers and authority delegated by the said Executive Orders to the Alien Property Custodian and to the Secretary of the Treasury, respectively, shall after July 4, 1946, continue to be exercised in the Philippines by the said officers, respectively, as therein provided.

Executive Order No. 10348

Ex. Ord. No. 10348, Apr. 26, 1952, 17 F.R. 3769, which provided that Ex. Ord. No. 8389, Apr. 10, 1940, 5 F.R. 1400, as amended, set out above, and all delegations, designations, regulations, rulings, instructions, and licenses issued under such order, should be continued in force according to their terms for the duration of the period of the national emergency proclaimed by Proclamation No. 2914 of December 16, 1950, set out as a note preceding section 1 of the Appendix to Title 50, War and National Defense, was superseded by Ex. Ord. No. 11281, May 13, 1966, 31 F.R. 7215, set out as a note under section 6 of the Appendix to Title 50.

Executive Order No. 11387

Ex. Ord. No. 11387, Jan. 1, 1968, 33 F.R. 47, which prohibited transfers of capital to or within a foreign country or to any national thereof outside the United States by a person subject to the jurisdiction of the United States who owns a 10 percent interest in a foreign business venture, was revoked by Ex. Ord. No. 12553, Feb. 25, 1986, 51 F.R. 7237.

Ex. Ord. No. 11825. Revocation of Executive Orders Pertaining to Regulation of Acquisition of, Holding of, or Other Transactions in Gold

Ex. Ord. No. 11825, Dec. 31, 1974, 40 F.R. 1003, provided:

By virtue of the authority vested in me by section 1 of the Act of August 8, 1950, 64 Stat. 419, and section 5(b) of the Act of October 6, 1917, as amended (12 U.S.C. 95a) [this section], and as President of the United States, and in view of the provisions of section 3 of Public Law 93–110, 87 Stat. 352, as amended by section 2 of Public Law 93–373, 88 Stat. 445, [set out as notes under section 442 of former Title 31, Money and Finance], it is ordered as follows:

Section 1. Executive Order No. 6260 of August 28, 1933, as amended by Executive Order No. 6359 of October 25, 1933, Executive Order No. 6556 of January 12, 1934, Executive Order No. 6560 of January 15, 1934, Executive Order No. 10896 of November 29, 1960, Executive Order No. 10905 of January 14, 1961, and Executive Order No. 11037 of July 20, 1962; the fifth and sixth paragraphs of Executive Order No. 6073, March 10, 1933 [formerly set out as a note under section 95 of this title]; sections 3 and 4 of Executive Order No. 6359 of October 25, 1933 [formerly set out as a note under section 248 of this title]; and paragraph 2(d) of Executive Order No. 10289 of September 17, 1951 [set out as a note under section 301 of Title 3, The President], are hereby revoked.

Section 2. The revocation, in whole or in part, of such prior Executive orders relating to regulation on the acquisition of, holding of, or other transactions in gold shall not affect any act completed, or any right accruing or accrued, or any suit or proceeding finished or started in any civil or criminal cause prior to the revocation, but all such liabilities, penalties, and forfeitures under the Executive orders shall continue and may be enforced in the same manner as if the revocation had not been made.

This order shall become effective on December 31, 1974.

Gerald R. Ford.      

§95b. Ratification of acts of President and Secretary of the Treasury under section 95a

The actions, regulations, rules, licenses, orders and proclamations heretofore or hereafter taken, promulgated, made, or issued by the President of the United States or the Secretary of the Treasury since March 4, 1933, pursuant to the authority conferred by section 95a of this title, are approved and confirmed.

(Mar. 9, 1933, ch. 1, title I, §1, 48 Stat. 1.)

Codification

This section is also set out as a note under section 5 of Title 50, Appendix, War and National Defense.

SUBCHAPTER V—OBTAINING AND ISSUING CIRCULATING NOTES

§§101 to 110. Repealed. Pub. L. 103–325, title VI, §602(e)(5)–(11), (f)(2)–(4)(A), (g)(9), Sept. 23, 1994, 108 Stat. 2292, 2294

Section 101, acts Mar. 14, 1900, ch. 41, §12, 31 Stat. 49; Oct. 5, 1917, ch. 74, §2, 40 Stat. 342, provided for delivery of circulating notes in blank to national banking associations depositing bonds with Treasurer of United States.

Section 101a, R.S. §5159; Dec. 23, 1913, ch. 6, §17, 38 Stat. 268; June 21, 1917, ch. 32, §9, 40 Stat. 239, related to deposit of bonds to secure circulating notes.

Section 102, R.S. §5158, construed term “United States bonds” as including registered bonds.

Section 103, act Oct. 5, 1917, ch. 74, §3, 40 Stat. 342, related to denominations of notes and limitation on amount of $1 and $2 notes.

Section 104, R.S. §5172; May 30, 1908, ch. 229, §11, 35 Stat. 551; Dec. 23, 1913, ch. 6, §27, 38 Stat. 274; Aug. 4, 1914, ch. 225, 38 Stat. 682; Mar. 3, 1919, ch. 101, §4, 40 Stat. 1315, related to printing and form of circulating notes.

Section 105, act June 20, 1874, ch. 343, §5, 18 Stat. 124, provided that Comptroller of Currency was to print charter numbers of association on national bank notes.

Section 106, act Mar. 3, 1875, ch. 130, §1, 18 Stat. 372, provided for printing national-bank notes on distinctive paper adopted by Secretary of the Treasury.

Section 107, R.S. §5173, related to custody of plates and dies procured for printing notes and payment of expenses.

Section 108, R.S. §5174; Feb. 27, 1877, ch. 69, §1, 19 Stat. 252, related to examination of plates, dies, and other material from which national-bank circulation was printed, and destruction of obsolete material.

Section 109, R.S. §5182; Jan. 13, 1920, ch. 38, 41 Stat. 387, provided that banks could issue and circulate notes the same as money if signed by officers in manner of obligatory promissory notes payable on demand at place of business, and specified demands for which such notes were to be received.

Section 110, R.S. §5183; Feb. 18, 1875, ch. 80, §1, 18 Stat. 320, prohibited banks from issuing unauthorized notes.

SUBCHAPTER VI—REDEMPTION AND REPLACEMENT OF CIRCULATING NOTES

§121. Repealed. Pub. L. 103–325, title VI, §602(f)(4)(B), Sept. 23, 1994, 108 Stat. 2292

Section, acts June 20, 1874, ch. 343, §3, 18 Stat. 123; Dec. 23, 1913, ch. 6, §20, 38 Stat. 271; May 29, 1920, ch. 214, §1, 41 Stat. 654, provided that every national banking association was to establish reserve in Treasury for redemption of notes by Treasurer of United States, forward notes unfit for use to Treasurer for disposition, and reimburse expenses of Treasury.

§121a. Redemption of notes unidentifiable as to bank of issue

Whenever any Federal Reserve bank notes or Federal Reserve notes are presented to the Treasurer of the United States for redemption and such notes cannot be identified as to the bank of issue or the bank through which issued, the Treasurer of the United States may redeem such notes under such rules and regulations as the Secretary of the Treasury may prescribe.

(June 13, 1933, ch. 62, §1, 48 Stat. 127; Pub. L. 89–427, §4(a), May 20, 1966, 80 Stat. 161; Pub. L. 103–325, title VI, §602(g)(8)(A), Sept. 23, 1994, 108 Stat. 2294.)

Amendments

1994—Pub. L. 103–325, §602(g)(8)(A)(ii), which directed the amendment of this section by striking out “, and the notes, other than Federal Reserves notes, so redeemed shall be forwarded to the Comptroller of the Currency for cancellation and destruction” after “Treasury may prescribe”, was executed by striking out text which contained the word “Reserves” rather than “Reserve”, to reflect the probable intent of Congress.

Pub. L. 103–325, §602(g)(8)(A)(i), substituted “Whenever any Federal Reserve bank notes,” for “Whenever any national-bank notes, Federal Reserve bank notes,”.

1966—Pub. L. 89–427 excepted Federal Reserve notes from the category of notes which, upon redemption by the Treasurer of the United States, must be forwarded to the Comptroller of the Currency for cancellation and destruction.

Transfer of Functions

For transfer of functions to Secretary of the Treasury, see note set out under section 55 of this title.

§122. Repealed. Pub. L. 97–258, §5(b), Sept. 13, 1982, 96 Stat. 1068

Section, act July 14, 1890, ch. 708, §6, 26 Stat. 289, related to deposits received by the Treasurer from national banks made to redeem circulating notes of such banks and disposition of those deposits.

§122a. Redeemed notes of unidentifiable issue; funds charged against

Federal Reserve bank notes redeemed by the Treasurer of the United States under section 121a of this title shall be charged against the balance of deposits for the retirement of Federal Reserve bank notes under the provisions of sections 122 and 445 1 of this title; and charges for Federal Reserve notes redeemed by the Treasurer of the United States under section 121a of this title shall be apportioned among the twelve Federal Reserve banks as determined by the Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System.

(June 13, 1933, ch. 62, §2, 48 Stat. 128; Pub. L. 89–427, §4(b), May 20, 1966, 80 Stat. 161; Pub. L. 103–325, title VI, §602(g)(8)(B), Sept. 23, 1994, 108 Stat. 2294.)

References in Text

Section 122 of this title, referred to in text, was repealed by Pub. L. 97–258, §5(b), Sept. 13, 1982, 96 Stat. 1068.

Section 445 of this title, referred to in text, was repealed by act June 12, 1945, ch. 186, §3, 59 Stat. 238.

Amendments

1994—Pub. L. 103–325 struck out “National-bank notes and” before “Federal Reserve bank notes redeemed” and “national-bank notes and” after “deposits for the retirement of”.

1966—Pub. L. 89–427 substituted provisions allowing the Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System to determine the proper apportioning between the Federal Reserve banks of the charges for the redemption by the Treasurer of the United States of Federal Reserve notes that are unidentifiable as to bank of issue for provisions that set out the exact formula for determining the proper apportioning of charges using a proportion based upon the amount of Federal Reserve notes of each Federal Reserve bank in circulation in the 31st day of December of the year preceding the date of redemption, with the amount apportioned under the formula charged by the Treasurer of the United States against deposit in the gold-redemption fund made by the bank or its Federal Reserve agent.

Transfer of Functions

For transfer of functions to Secretary of the Treasury, see note set out under section 55 of this title.

1 See References in Text note below.

§§123 to 126. Repealed. Pub. L. 103–325, title VI, §602(e)(12), (13), (f)(4)(C), (6), Sept. 23, 1994, 108 Stat. 2292, 2293

Section 123, R.S. §5195; June 20, 1874, ch. 343, §3, 18 Stat. 123, related to redemption of notes by bank at own counter.

Section 124, R.S. §5184; June 23, 1874, ch. 455, §1, 18 Stat. 206, related to destroying and replacing notes unfit for use.

Section 125, act July 28, 1892, ch. 317, 27 Stat. 322, related to redemption of lost or stolen notes.

Section 126, act June 20, 1874, ch. 343, §8, 18 Stat. 125, related to duty of Treasurer, designated depositaries, and national-bank depositaries of United States to return notes of failed or liquidated banks to Treasury for redemption.

§127. Repealed. Pub. L. 89–554, §8(a), Sept. 6, 1966, 80 Stat. 633

Section, act Mar. 3, 1875, ch. 130, §3, 18 Stat. 399, provided for a clerical force for redemption of circulating notes.

SUBCHAPTER VII—PROCEEDINGS ON FAILURE OF BANK TO REDEEM CIRCULATING NOTES

§§131 to 138. Repealed. Pub. L. 103–325, title VI, §602(e)(14)–(21), Sept. 23, 1994, 108 Stat. 2292

Section 131, R.S. §5226; June 20, 1874, ch. 343, §3, 18 Stat. 123, related to protest of notes and waiver of demand and notice of protest.

Section 132, R.S. §5227, related to appointment by Comptroller of the Currency of special agent to examine failure of national banking association to redeem its circulating notes and provided for forfeiture of association's bonds to United States based on findings of agent.

Section 133, R.S. §5228; Feb. 18, 1875, ch. 80, §1, 18 Stat. 320, prohibited banking associations from continuing in business after default.

Section 134, R.S. §5229, provided that, upon declaration of forfeiture of association's bonds, Comptroller of the Currency was to notify holders of circulating notes to present notes for payment and was authorized to cancel bonds pledged by association.

Section 135, R.S. §5232, related to disposition of redeemed notes and perpetuation of evidence of payment of such notes.

Section 136, R.S. §5233, related to cancellation of redeemed notes.

Section 137, R.S. §5230, provided Comptroller of the Currency with option of selling defaulting association's bonds at auction, rather than cancelling them, and granted United States paramount lien on all association assets in case of deficiencies from such sale.

Section 138, R.S. §5231, related to private sale of defaulting association's bonds by Comptroller of the Currency.

SUBCHAPTER VIII—RESERVE CITIES; LAWFUL RESERVES

§141. Omitted

Codification

Section, R.S. §5191 (part); acts Dec. 23, 1913, ch. 6, §2 (part), 38 Stat. 251; Aug. 23, 1935, ch. 614, title II, §203(a), 49 Stat. 704, which set out a list of reserve and central reserve cities and permitted the Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System to reclassify, add to, or terminate the designation of such cities, was apparently included in the 1926 ed. of the Code on the basis of authorities other than the source credits. Accordingly, and because the continuing accuracy of the table was doubtful, this section was omitted.

Some of the other provisions of R.S. §5191 are classified to sections 142 and 143 of this title and some were not included in the Code.

For classification of other provisions of section 2 of act Dec. 23, 1913, see Codification note set out under section 222 of this title.

Central Reserve and Reserve Cities

Pub. L. 86–114, §3(b), July 28, 1959, 73 Stat. 263, provided that: “Effective three years after the date of the enactment of this Act [July 28, 1959]—

“(1) New York and Chicago are reclassified as reserve cities under the Federal Reserve Act;

“(2) the classification ‘central reserve city’ under the Federal Reserve Act, and the authority of the Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System to classify or reclassify cities as ‘central reserve cities’ under such Act, are terminated;

“(3) section 5192 of the Revised Statutes of the United States (12 U.S.C., sec. 144) is amended by striking out ‘central reserve or’;

“(4) section 2 of the Act of March 3, 1887 (ch. 378; 24 Stat. 560) is repealed;

“(5) the last paragraph of section 2 of the Federal Reserve act (12 U.S.C., sec. 224) is amended by striking out ‘and central reserve cities’;

“(6) section 11(e) of the Federal Reserve Act (12 U.S.C., sec. 248e) is amended by striking out ‘and central reserve’ each place it appears;

“(7) the third paragraph (lettered (a)) of section 19 of the Federal Reserve Act (12 U.S.C., sec. 462) is amended by striking out ‘or central reserve’;

“(8) the fifth paragraph (lettered (c)) of such section 19 is repealed;

“(9) subparagraph (2) of the sixth paragraph of such section 19 (as added by the first section of this Act) is amended by striking out ‘and a member bank in a central reserve city may hold and maintain the reserve balances which are in effect under this section for member banks described in paragraph (a) or (b),’;

“(10) the seventh paragraph of such section 19 is amended by striking out clauses (1), (2), (3), and (4) and inserting in lieu thereof the following: ‘(1) by member banks in reserve cities, (2) by member banks not in reserve cities, or (3) by all member banks’; and

“(11) the seventh paragraph of such section is further amended by striking out ‘and central reserve cities’.”

§142. Banks in reserve cities; reserves

National banking associations located in reserve cities or central reserve cities shall maintain reserves provided for in section 462 of this title for banks so located.

(R.S. §5191 (part); Dec. 23, 1913, ch. 6, §§19, 27, 38 Stat. 270, 274; Aug. 4, 1914, ch. 225, 38 Stat. 682; Aug. 15, 1914, ch. 252, 38 Stat. 691; June 21, 1917, ch. 32, §10, 40 Stat. 239.)

References in Text

Section 462 of this title, referred to in text, was omitted from the Code. See section 461 of this title.

Codification

R.S. §5191 derived from act June 3, 1864, ch. 106, §31, 13 Stat. 108, which was the National Bank Act, and act Mar. 1, 1872, ch. 22, 17 Stat. 32. See section 38 of this title.

Some of the other provisions of R.S. §5191 were classified to section 141 of this title prior to its omission from the Code, some are classified to section 143 of this title, and some were not included in the Code.

Termination of Central Reserve Cities

Central reserve cities terminated, see section 3(b) of Pub. L. 86–114 set out as a note under former section 141 of this title.

§143. Banks in Alaska and insular possessions; lawful money reserves

Every national banking association located in Alaska or in a dependency or insular possession or any part of the United States outside of the continental United States, and not a member of the Federal reserve system, shall at all times have on hand in lawful money of the United States an amount equal to at least 15 percent of the aggregate amount of its deposits in all respects. Whenever the lawful money of any such association shall fall below 15 percent of its deposits such association shall not increase its liabilities by making any new loans or discounts other than by discounting or purchasing bills of exchange payable at sight nor make any dividends of its profits until the required proportion between the aggregate amount of its deposits and its lawful money of the United States has been restored. And the Comptroller of the Currency shall notify any such association whose lawful money reserve shall be below the amount required to be kept on hand to make good such reserve, and if such association shall fail for thirty days thereafter so to make good its lawful money the Comptroller may, with the concurrence of the Secretary of the Treasury, appoint a receiver to wind up the business of the association as provided in section 192 of this title.

(R.S. §5191 (part).)

Codification

R.S. §5191 derived from act June 3, 1864, ch. 106, §31, 13 Stat. 108, which was the National Bank Act, and act Mar. 1, 1872, ch. 22, 17 Stat. 32. See section 38 of this title.

Some of the other provisions of R.S. §5191 were classified to section 141 of this title prior to its omission from the Code, some are classified to section 142 of this title, and some were not included in the Code.

Exception as to Transfer of Functions

Functions vested by any provision of law in Comptroller of the Currency, referred to in this section, not included in transfer of functions to Secretary of the Treasury, see note set out under section 1 of this title.

§144. Certain balances counted toward reserves in dependencies and insular possessions

Four-fifths of the reserve of 15 per centum which a national bank located in a dependency or insular possession or any part of the United States outside of the continental United States, and not a member of the Federal Reserve System, is required to keep, may consist of balances due such bank from associations approved by the Comptroller of the Currency and located in any one of the reserve cities as now or hereafter defined by law or designated by the Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System.

(R.S. §5192; July 1, 1952, ch. 536, 66 Stat. 314; Pub. L. 86–70, §7, June 25, 1959, 73 Stat. 142; Pub. L. 86–114, §3(b)(3), July 28, 1959, 73 Stat. 263.)

Codification

R.S. §5192 derived from act June 3, 1864, ch. 106, §31, 13 Stat. 108, which was the National Bank Act. See section 38 of this title.

Amendments

1959—Pub. L. 86–114 struck out “central reserve or” before “reserve cities”.

Pub. L. 86–70 struck out “in Alaska or” before “in a dependency”.

1952—Act July 1, 1952, reduced the required amount of cash on hand from two-fifths to one-fifth of the required reserve of 15 per centum.

Effective Date of 1959 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 86–114 effective three years after July 28, 1959, see section 3(b) of Pub. L. 86–114, set out as a Central Reserve and Reserve Cities note under former section 141 of this title.

Exception as to Transfer of Functions

Functions vested by any provision of law in Comptroller of the Currency, referred to in this section, not included in transfer of functions to Secretary of the Treasury, see note set out under section 1 of this title.

§§145, 146. Repealed. Pub. L. 97–258, §5(b), Sept. 13, 1982, 96 Stat. 1068

Section 145, act July 14, 1890, ch. 708, §2, 26 Stat. 289, authorized counting of treasury notes held by national banking associations as part of their lawful reserve.

Section 146, act July 12, 1882, ch. 290, §12, 22 Stat. 165, related to holding of gold and silver certificates by national banking associations.

SUBCHAPTER IX—FORMATION OF ASSOCIATIONS TO ISSUE GOLD NOTES

§§151 to 153. Repealed. Pub. L. 103–325, title VI, §602(e)(22), (23), (f)(7), Sept. 23, 1994, 108 Stat. 2292, 2293

Section 151, R.S. §5185; Jan. 19, 1875, ch. 19, 18 Stat. 302, related to organization of associations to issue gold notes.

Section 152, R.S. §5186, related to mandatory establishment of lawful money reserves by associations issuing gold notes and reception by such associations of gold notes of other associations in payment of debts.

Section 153, act Feb. 14, 1880, ch. 25, 21 Stat. 66, related to conversion of gold banks into currency banks.

SUBCHAPTER X—BANK EXAMINATIONS; REPORTS

§161. Reports to Comptroller of the Currency

(a) Reports of condition; form; contents; date of making; publication

Every association shall make reports of condition to the Comptroller of the Currency in accordance with the Federal Deposit Insurance Act [12 U.S.C. 1811 et seq.]. The Comptroller of the Currency may call for additional reports of condition, in such form and containing such information as he may prescribe, on dates to be fixed by him, and may call for special reports from any particular association whenever in his judgment the same are necessary for his use in the performance of his supervisory duties. Each report of condition shall contain a declaration by the president, a vice president, the cashier, or by any other officer designated by the board of directors of the bank to make such declaration, that the report is true and correct to the best of his knowledge and belief. The correctness of the report of condition shall be attested by the signatures of at least three of the directors of the bank other than the officer making such declaration, with the declaration that the report has been examined by them and to the best of their knowledge and belief is true and correct. Each report shall exhibit in detail and under appropriate heads the resources and liabilities of the association at the close of business on any past day specified by the Comptroller, and shall be transmitted to the Comptroller within the period of time specified by the Comptroller. Special reports called for by the Comptroller need contain only such information as is specified by the Comptroller in his request therefor, and publication of such reports need be made only if directed by the Comptroller.

(b) Payment of dividends

Every association shall make to the Comptroller reports of the payment of dividends, including advance reports of dividends proposed to be declared or paid in such cases and under such conditions as the Comptroller deems necessary to carry out the purposes of the laws relating to national banking associations in such form and at such times as he may require.

(c) Reports of affiliates; form; contents; date of making; publication; penalties

Each national banking association shall obtain from each of its affiliates other than member banks and furnish to the Comptroller of the Currency not less than four reports during each year, in such form as the Comptroller may prescribe, verified by the oath or affirmation of the president or such other officer as may be designated by the board of directors of such affiliate to verify such reports, disclosing the information hereinafter provided for as of dates identical with those for which the Comptroller shall during such year require the reports of the condition of the association. Each such report of an affiliate shall be transmitted to the Comptroller at the same time as the corresponding report of the association, except that the Comptroller may, in his discretion, extend such time for good cause shown. Each such report shall contain such information as in the judgment of the Comptroller of the Currency shall be necessary to disclose fully the relations between such affiliate and such bank and to enable the Comptroller to inform himself as to the effect of such relations upon the affairs of such bank. The Comptroller shall also have power to call for additional reports with respect to any such affiliate whenever in his judgment the same are necessary in order to obtain a full and complete knowledge of the conditions of the association with which it is affiliated. Such additional reports shall be transmitted to the Comptroller of the Currency in such form as he may prescribe.

(R.S. §5211; Feb. 27, 1877, ch. 69, §1, 19 Stat. 252; Dec. 28, 1922, ch. 18, 42 Stat. 1067; Feb. 25, 1927, ch. 191, §13, 44 Stat. 1232; June 16, 1933, ch. 89, §27, 48 Stat. 191; Pub. L. 86–230, §§11, 22(b), Sept. 8, 1959, 73 Stat. 458, 466; Pub. L. 86–671, §5, July 14, 1960, 74 Stat. 551; Pub. L. 89–485, §13(d), July 1, 1966, 80 Stat. 243; Pub. L. 101–73, title IX, §911(b)(1), Aug. 9, 1989, 103 Stat. 478; Pub. L. 103–325, title III, §308(a), Sept. 23, 1994, 108 Stat. 2218.)

References in Text

The Federal Deposit Insurance Act, referred to in subsec. (a), is act Sept. 21, 1950, ch. 967, §2, 64 Stat. 873, as amended, which is classified generally to chapter 16 (§1811 et seq.) of this title. For complete classification of this Act to the Code, see Short Title note set out under section 1811 of this title and Tables.

Codification

R.S. §5211 derived from act June 3, 1864, ch. 106, §34, 13 Stat. 109, which was the National Bank Act, and act Mar. 3, 1869, ch. 130, §1, 15 Stat. 326. See section 38 of this title.

Amendments

1994—Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 103–325, §308(a)(1), struck out before period at end of fifth sentence “; and the statement of resources and liabilities in the same form in which it is made to the Comptroller shall be published in a newspaper published in the place where such association is established, or if there is no newspaper in the place, then in the one published nearest thereto in the same county, at the expense of the association, and such proof of publication shall be furnished as may be required by the Comptroller”.

Subsec. (c). Pub. L. 103–325, §308(a)(2), struck out after third sentence “The reports of such affiliates shall be published by the association under the same conditions as govern its own condition reports.”

1989—Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 101–73, §911(b)(1)(A), in fifth sentence substituted “within the period of time specified by the Comptroller” for “within ten days after the receipt of a request therefor from him”.

Subsec. (c). Pub. L. 101–73, §911(b)(1)(B), struck out at end “Any such affiliated bank which fails to obtain and furnish any report required under this section shall be subject to a penalty of $100 for each day during which such failure continues.”

1966—Subsec. (c). Pub. L. 89–485 struck out second sentence stating that the term “affiliate” shall include holding company affiliates as well as other affiliates.

1960—Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 86–671, §5(a), designated existing provisions of former first par. as subsec. (a), substituted provisions relating to the making of reports of condition in accordance with the Federal Deposit Insurance Act and additional reports of condition containing declaration of officer for former provisions requiring minimum of three reports annually verified by an officer, inserted provisions respecting contents and publication of special reports and deleted requirement for making reports of payment of dividends, which is incorporated in subsec. (b) of this section.

Subsec. (b). Pub. L. 86–671, §5(a), designated existing provisions of former first par. as subsec. (b).

Subsec. (c). Pub. L. 86–671, §5(b), designated existing provisions of former second par. as subsec. (c) and substituted “four” for “three” in first sentence.

1959—Pub. L. 86–230 required transmission of reports to the Comptroller within ten instead of five days and the making of reports of the payment of dividends including advance reports of dividends proposed to be declared or paid, respectively.

1933—Act June 16, 1933, added second par.

1927—Act Feb. 25, 1927, inserted “or of a vice-president, or of an assistant cashier of the association designated by its board of directors to verify such reports in the absence of the president and cashier, taken before a notary public properly authorized and commissioned by the State in which such notary resides and the association is located, or any other officer having an official seal, authorized in such State to administer oaths” in first sentence, and “and the statement of resources and liabilities together with acknowledgment and attestation”, in second sentence.

Effective Date of 1989 Amendment

Section 911(i)[(g)] of Pub. L. 101–73 provided that: “The amendments made by this section [amending this section and sections 164, 324, 1782, 1817, 1847, and 1882 of this title] shall apply with respect to reports filed or required to be filed after the date of the enactment of this Act [Aug. 9, 1989].”

Effective Date of 1960 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 86–671 effective Jan. 1, 1961, see section 7 of Pub. L. 86–671, set out as a note under section 1817 of this title.

Exception as to Transfer of Functions

Functions vested by any provision of law in Comptroller of the Currency, referred to in this section, not included in transfer of functions to Secretary of the Treasury, see note set out under section 1 of this title.

§162. Repealed. Pub. L. 86–671, §6, July 14, 1960, 74 Stat. 552.

Section, act Feb. 26, 1881, ch. 82, 21 Stat. 352, prescribed the manner of verification of reports of condition of national banks. See section 1817 of this title.

Effective Date of Repeal

Repeal effective Jan. 1, 1961, see section 7 of Pub. L. 86–671, set out as an Effective Date of 1960 Amendment note under section 1817 of this title.

§163. Repealed. Pub. L. 86–230, §22(a), Sept. 8, 1959, 73 Stat. 466

Section, R.S. §5212, related to report of dividends and net earnings. See section 161 of this title.

§164. Penalty for failure to make reports

(a) First tier

Any association which—

(1) maintains procedures reasonably adapted to avoid any inadvertent error and, unintentionally and as a result of such an error—

(A) fails to make, obtain, transmit, or publish any report or information required by the Comptroller of the Currency under section 161 of this title, within the period of time specified by the Comptroller; or

(B) submits or publishes any false or misleading report or information; or


(2) inadvertently transmits or publishes any report which is minimally late,


shall be subject to a penalty of not more than $2,000 for each day during which such failure continues or such false or misleading information is not corrected. The association shall have the burden of proving that an error was inadvertent and that a report was inadvertently transmitted or published late.

(b) Second tier

Any association which—

(1) fails to make, obtain, transmit, or publish any report or information required by the Comptroller of the Currency under section 161 of this title, within the period of time specified by the Comptroller; or

(2) submits or publishes any false or misleading report or information,


in a manner not described in subsection (a) of this section shall be subject to a penalty of not more than $20,000 for each day during which such failure continues or such false or misleading information is not corrected.

(c) Third tier

Notwithstanding subsections (a) and (b) of this section, if any association knowingly or with reckless disregard for the accuracy of any information or report described in subsection (b) of this section submits or publishes any false or misleading report or information, the Comptroller may assess a penalty of not more than $1,000,000 or 1 percent of total assets of the association, whichever is less, per day for each day during which such failure continues or such false or misleading information is not corrected.

(d) Assessment; etc.

Any penalty imposed under subsection (a), (b), or (c) of this section shall be assessed and collected by the Comptroller of the Currency in the manner provided in subparagraphs (E), (F), (G), and (I) of section 1818(i)(2) of this title (for penalties imposed under such section) and any such assessment (including the determination of the amount of the penalty) shall be subject to the provisions of such section.

(e) Hearing

Any association against which any penalty is assessed under this subsection 1 shall be afforded an agency hearing if such association submits a request for such hearing within 20 days after the issuance of the notice of assessment. Section 1818(h) of this title shall apply to any proceeding under this section.

(R.S. §5213; Pub. L. 86–230, §12, Sept. 8, 1959, 73 Stat. 458; Pub. L. 101–73, title IX, §911(b)(2), Aug. 9, 1989, 103 Stat. 478.)

Codification

R.S. §5213 derived from act Mar. 3, 1869, ch. 130, §§1, 2, 15 Stat. 326, 327.

Amendments

1989—Pub. L. 101–73 amended section generally. Prior to amendment, section read as follows: “Every association which fails to make and transmit any report required under section 161 of this title shall be subject to a penalty of $100 for each day after the periods, respectively, therein mentioned, that it delays to make and transmit its report. Whenever any association delays or refuses to pay the penalty herein imposed, after it has been assessed by the Comptroller of the Currency, the amount thereof may be retained by the Treasurer of the United States, upon the order of the Comptroller of the Currency, out of the interest, as it may become due to the association, on the bonds deposited with him to secure circulation. All sums of money collected for penalties under this section shall be paid into the Treasury of the United States.”

1959—Pub. L. 86–230 substituted “section 161 of this title” for “either section 161 or 163 of this title”.

Effective Date of 1989 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 101–73 applicable with respect to reports filed or required to be filed after Aug. 9, 1989, see section 911(i) of Pub. L. 101–73, set out as a note under section 161 of this title.

Exception as to Transfer of Functions

Functions vested by any provision of law in Comptroller of the Currency, referred to in this section, not included in transfer of functions to Secretary of the Treasury, see note set out under section 1 of this title.

1 So in original. Probably should be “section”.

§165. Omitted

Codification

Section, R.S. §5241, related to limitation of visitorial powers. See section 484 of this title.

SUBCHAPTER XI—MISCELLANEOUS PROVISIONS REGARDING UNITED STATES BONDS IN RELATION TO NATIONAL BANKS

§§168 to 177. Repealed. Pub. L. 103–325, title VI, §602(e)(24)–(31), (f)(4)(D), (5)(A), Sept. 23, 1994, 108 Stat. 2292, 2293

Section 168, R.S. §5160, authorized associations to take up bonds upon returning circulating notes to Comptroller of the Currency.

Section 169, R.S. §5161, related to exchange of United States coupon bonds for registered bonds.

Section 170, R.S. §5162; Aug. 23, 1935, ch. 614, §313, 49 Stat. 711, related to manner of making transfers of bonds.

Section 171, R.S. §5163, related to establishment of registry of transferred bonds by Comptroller of the Currency.

Section 172, R.S. §5164, required Comptroller of the Currency to notify national banking associations of transfers from its accounts.

Section 173, R.S. §5165, related to examination of registry and bonds by Comptroller of the Currency and Treasurer of United States.

Section 174, R.S. §5166, related to annual examination of bonds by national banking associations.

Section 175, R.S. §5167, related to custody of bonds and collection of interest.

Section 176, acts June 20, 1874, ch. 343, §4, 18 Stat. 124; June 21, 1917, ch. 32, §9, 40 Stat. 239, provided that associations desiring to withdraw circulating notes could, upon deposit of money with Treasurer of United States, withdraw bonds on deposit with Treasurer for security of such notes.

Section 177, acts July 12, 1882, ch. 290, §8, 22 Stat. 164; Mar. 14, 1900, ch. 41, §12, 31 Stat. 49; June 21, 1917, ch. 32, §9, 40 Stat. 239, related to amount of bonds banks were required to keep on deposit with Treasurer of United States, as security for circulating notes, and authorized banks having deposits in excess of such amount to reduce, or retire in full, their circulation by depositing lawful money.

§177a. Funds available for cost of transporting and redeeming national and Federal Reserve bank notes

The cost of transporting and redeeming outstanding national bank notes and Federal Reserve bank notes as may be presented to the Treasurer of the United States for redemption shall be paid from the regular annual appropriation for the Department of the Treasury.

(Oct. 10, 1940, ch. 841, 54 Stat. 1093; Pub. L. 103–325, title VI, §602(g)(10), Sept. 23, 1994, 108 Stat. 2294.)

Amendments

1994—Pub. L. 103–325 amended section generally. Prior to amendment, section read as follows: “After the reimbursement to the Treasury from funds derived from assessments made pursuant to section 177 of this title, of all costs lawfully charged thereto for the fiscal year ending June 30, 1941, the balance of such funds shall be covered into the Treasury as miscellaneous receipts; and thereafter the cost of transporting and redeeming such outstanding national bank notes and Federal Reserve bank notes as may be presented to the Treasurer of the United States for redemption shall be paid from the regular annual appropriations for the Treasury Department.”

§178. Repealed. Pub. L. 103–325, title VI, §602(f)(5)(B), Sept. 23, 1994, 108 Stat. 2293

Section, acts July 12, 1882, ch. 290, §9, 22 Stat. 164; Mar. 14, 1900, ch. 41, §12, 31 Stat. 49; Mar. 4, 1907, ch. 2913, §4, 34 Stat. 1290, authorized national banking associations desiring to withdraw circulating notes to deposit money with Treasurer of United States and withdraw bonds or other securities securing such notes.

SUBCHAPTER XII—VOLUNTARY DISSOLUTION

§181. Voluntary dissolution; appointment and removal of liquidating agent or committee; examination

Any association may go into liquidation and be closed by the vote of its shareholders owning two-thirds of its stock. If the liquidation is to be effected in whole or in part through the sale of any of its assets to and the assumption of its deposit liabilities by another bank, the purchase and sale agreement must also be approved by its shareholders owning two-thirds of its stock unless an emergency exists and the Comptroller of the Currency specifically waives such requirement for shareholder approval.

The shareholders shall designate one or more persons to act as liquidating agent or committee, who shall conduct the liquidation in accordance with law and under the supervision of the board of directors, who shall require a suitable bond to be given by said agent or committee. The liquidating agent or committee shall render annual reports to the Comptroller of the Currency on the 31st day of December of each year showing the progress of said liquidation until the same is completed. The liquidating agent or committee shall also make an annual report to a meeting of the shareholders to be held on the date fixed in the articles of association for the annual meeting, at which meeting the shareholders may, if they see fit, by a vote representing a majority of the entire stock of the bank, remove the liquidating agent or committee and appoint one or more others in place thereof. A special meeting of the shareholders may be called at any time in the same manner as if the bank continued an active bank and at said meeting the shareholders may, by vote of the majority of the stock, remove the liquidating agent or committee. The Comptroller of the Currency is authorized to have an examination made at any time into the affairs of the liquidating bank until the claims of all creditors have been satisfied, and the expense of making such examinations shall be assessed against such bank in the same manner as in the case of examinations made pursuant to subchapter XV of chapter 3 of this title.

(R.S. §5220; Aug. 23, 1935, ch. 614, title III, §317, 49 Stat. 712; Pub. L. 86–230, §15, Sept. 8, 1959, 73 Stat. 458.)

References in Text

Subchapter XV [§481 et seq.] of chapter 3 of this title, referred to in second par., was in the original a reference to section 5240 of the Revised Statutes.

Codification

R.S. §5220 derived from act June 3, 1864, ch. 106, §42, 13 Stat. 112, which was the National Bank Act. See section 38 of this title.

Amendments

1959—Pub. L. 86–230 required shareholder approval of purchase and sale agreement where there is liquidation of a bank effected through sale of its assets and assumption of deposit liabilities and authorized waiver of such requirement in an emergency.

1935—Act Aug. 23, 1935, added second par.

Exception as to Transfer of Functions

Functions vested by any provision of law in Comptroller of the Currency, referred to in this section, not included in transfer of functions to Secretary of the Treasury, see note set out under section 1 of this title.

§182. Notice of intent to dissolve

Whenever a vote is taken to go into liquidation it shall be the duty of the board of directors to cause notice of this fact to be certified, under the seal of the association, by its president or cashier, to the Comptroller of the Currency, and publication thereof to be made for a period of two months in every issue of a newspaper published in the city or town in which the association is located, or if no newspaper is there published, then in the newspaper published nearest thereto, that the association is closing up its affairs, and notifying its creditors to present their claims against the association for payment.

(R.S. §5221; Aug. 9, 1955, ch. 626, 69 Stat. 546.)

Codification

R.S. §5221 derived from act June 3, 1864, ch. 106, §42, 13 Stat. 112, which was the National Bank Act. See section 38 of this title.

Amendments

1955—Act Aug. 9, 1955, struck out provisions relating to publication in a newspaper published in the City of New York, and notification to holders of national bank notes to present them for payment.

Exception as to Transfer of Functions

Functions vested by any provision of law in Comptroller of the Currency, referred to in this section, not included in transfer of functions to Secretary of the Treasury, see note set out under section 1 of this title.

§§183 to 186. Repealed. Pub. L. 103–325, title VI, §602(e)(32)–(35), Sept. 23, 1994, 108 Stat. 2292

Section 183, R.S. §5222, provided that, within six months of voting to liquidate, an association was to deposit with Treasurer of United States money sufficient to redeem all outstanding circulation.

Section 184, R.S. §5223, exempted associations which wound up business for purpose of consolidating with another association from requirement to deposit money to redeem all outstanding circulation.

Section 185, R.S. §5224; Feb. 18, 1875, ch. 80, §1, 18 Stat. 320, related to reassignment of bonds to association and redemption of notes.

Section 186, R.S. §5225; Feb. 27, 1877, ch. 69, §1, 19 Stat. 252, related to destruction of redeemed notes by Treasurer.

SUBCHAPTER XIII—RECEIVERSHIP

§191. Appointment of receiver for a national bank

(a) In general

The Comptroller of the Currency may, without prior notice or hearings, appoint a receiver for any national bank (and such receiver shall be the Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation if the national bank is an insured bank (as defined in section 1813(h) of this title)) if the Comptroller determines, in the Comptroller's discretion, that—

(1) 1 or more of the grounds specified in section 1821(c)(5) of this title exist; or

(2) the association's board of directors consists of fewer than 5 members.

(b) Judicial review

If the Comptroller of the Currency appoints a receiver under subsection (a), the national bank may, within 30 days thereafter, bring an action in the United States district court for the judicial district in which the home office of such bank is located, or in the United States District Court for the District of Columbia, for an order requiring the Comptroller of the Currency to remove the receiver, and the court shall, upon the merits, dismiss such action or direct the Comptroller of the Currency to remove the receiver.

(June 30, 1876, ch. 156, §2, formerly §1, 19 Stat. 63; Pub. L. 86–230, §16, Sept. 8, 1959, 73 Stat. 458; Pub. L. 102–242, title I, §133(b), Dec. 19, 1991, 105 Stat. 2271; renumbered §2 and amended Pub. L. 102–550, title XVI, §1603(d)(6), (7), Oct. 28, 1992, 106 Stat. 4080; Pub. L. 109–351, title VII, §701(a), Oct. 13, 2006, 120 Stat. 1984.)

Prior Provisions

A prior section 2 of act June 30, 1876, was classified to section 65 of this title, prior to repeal by Pub. L. 86–230, §8, Sept. 8, 1959, 73 Stat. 457.

Amendments

2006—Pub. L. 109–351, §701(a)(1), which directed the general amendment of the section catchline by replacing it with “Appointment of receiver for a national bank” followed by “(a) In general” and the words “The Comptroller of the Currency”, was executed by inserting the new catchline and the subsec. (a) designation and heading but not the words “The Comptroller of the Currency” which already appeared in text, to reflect the probable intent of Congress.

Subsec. (b). Pub. L. 109–351, §701(a)(2), added subsec. (b).

1992—Pub. L. 102–550, §1603(d)(7)(B), substituted “appoint a receiver for any national bank (and such receiver shall be the Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation if the national bank is an insured bank (as defined in section 1813(h) of this title))” for “appoint the Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation as receiver for any national banking association” in introductory provisions.

Pub. L. 102–550, §1603(d)(6), amended directory language of Pub. L. 102–242, §133(b). See 1991 Amendment note below.

1991—Pub. L. 102–242, §133(b), as amended by Pub. L. 102–550, §1603(d)(6), amended section generally. Prior to amendment, section read as follows: “Whenever any national banking association shall be dissolved, and its rights, privileges, and franchises declared forfeited, as prescribed in section 93 of this title, or whenever any creditor of any national banking association shall have obtained a judgment against it in any court of record, and made application, accompanied by a certificate from the clerk of the court stating that such judgment has been rendered and has remained unpaid for the space of thirty days, or whenever the comptroller shall become satisfied of the insolvency of a national banking association, he may, after due examination of its affairs, in either case, appoint a receiver, who shall proceed to close up such association.”

1959—Pub. L. 86–230 struck out provisions which required receiver to enforce the personal liability of shareholders.

Effective Date of 2006 Amendment

Pub. L. 109–351, title VII, §701(c), Oct. 13, 2006, 120 Stat. 1985, provided that: “The amendments made by subsections (a) and (b) [amending this section and section 1821 of this title] shall apply with respect to conservators or receivers appointed on or after the date of enactment of this Act [Oct. 13, 2006].”

Effective Date of 1992 Amendment

Section 1609 of Pub. L. 102–550 provided that:

“(a) In General.—Except as provided in subsection (b) or any other provision of this subtitle [subtitle A (§§1601–1609) of title XVI of Pub. L. 102–550, see Tables for classification], the amendments made by this subtitle to the Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation Improvement Act of 1991, the Federal Deposit Insurance Act, and any other law shall take effect as if such amendments had been included in the Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation Improvement Act of 1991 [Pub. L. 102–242] as of the date of the enactment of such Act [Dec. 19, 1991].

“(b) Effective Date of Certain Amendments.—In the case of any amendment made by this subtitle to any provision of law added or amended by the Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation Improvement Act of 1991 [see Tables for classification] effective after December 19, 1992, the amendment made by this subtitle shall take effect on the effective date of the amendment made by the Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation Improvement Act of 1991.”

Effective Date of 1991 Amendment

Section 133(g) of Pub. L. 102–242 provided that: “The amendments made by this section [amending this section and sections 203, 248, 1464, and 1821 of this title] shall become effective 1 year after the date of enactment of this Act [Dec. 19, 1991].”

Short Title

Section 1 of act June 30, 1876, as added by act Oct. 28, 1992, Pub. L. 102–550, title XVI, §1603(d)(7)(A), 106 Stat. 4080, provided that: “This Act [enacting this section, sections 65 and 197 of this title, and section 424 of former Title 31, Money and Finance, and amending section 55 of this title] may be cited as the ‘National Bank Receivership Act’.”

Exception as to Transfer of Functions

Functions vested by any provision of law in Comptroller of the Currency, referred to in this section, not included in transfer of functions to Secretary of the Treasury, see note set out under section 1 of this title.

Application to District of Columbia

Provisions of this section were made applicable to banks, etc., in the District of Columbia by act Mar. 4, 1933, ch. 274, §4, 47 Stat. 1567.

Termination of National Bank Closed Receivership Fund

Pub. L. 96–221, title VII, §§721–723, Mar. 31, 1980, 94 Stat. 190, 191, as amended Pub. L. 97–320, title IV, §409, Oct. 15, 1982, 96 Stat. 1515, provided that:

Sec. 721. The purpose of this part [enacting this provision] is to terminate the closed receivership fund by—

“(1) providing final notice of availability of liquidating dividends to creditors of national banks which have been closed and for which the Comptroller has appointed a receiver other than the Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation;

“(2) barring rights of creditors to collect liquidating dividends from the Comptroller of the Currency after a reasonable period of time following such final notice; and

“(3) refunding to the Comptroller the principal amount of such fund and any income earned thereon.

Sec. 722. For purposes of this part—

“(1) the term ‘closed receivership fund’ means the aggregation of undisbursed liquidating dividends from national banks which have been closed and for which the Comptroller has appointed a receiver other than the Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation, held by the Comptroller in his capacity as successor to receivers of those banks;

“(2) the term ‘Comptroller’ means the Comptroller of the Currency;

“(3) the term ‘claimant’ means a depositor or other creditor who asserts a claim against a closed national bank for a liquidating dividend; and

“(4) the term ‘liquidating dividend’ means an amount of money in the closed receivership fund determined by a receiver of a closed national bank or by the Comptroller to be owed by that bank to a depositor or other creditor.

Sec. 723. (a) The Comptroller shall publish notice once a week for four weeks in the Federal Register that all rights of depositors and other creditors of closed national banks to collect liquidating dividends from the closed receivership fund shall be barred after twelve months following the last date of publication of such notice.

“(b) The Comptroller shall pay the principal amount of a liquidating dividend, exclusive of any income earned thereon, to a claimant presenting a valid claim, if the claimant applies to collect within twelve months following the last date notice is published.

“(c) If a creditor shall fail to apply to collect a liquidating dividend within twelve months after the last date notice is published, all rights of the claimant against the closed receivership fund with respect to the liquidating dividend shall be barred.

“(d) The principal amount of any liquidating dividends (1) for which claims have not been asserted within twelve months following the last date notice is published or (2) for which the Comptroller has determined a valid claim has not been submitted shall, together with any income earned on liquidating dividends and other moneys, if any, remaining in the closed receivership fund, be covered into the general funds of the Comptroller.”

§192. Default in payment of circulating notes

On becoming satisfied, as specified in sections 131 and 132 1 of this title, that any association is in default, the Comptroller of the Currency may forthwith appoint a receiver, and require of him such bond and security as he deems proper. Such receiver, under the direction of the Comptroller, shall take possession of the books, records, and assets of every description of such association, collect all debts, dues, and claims belonging to it, and, upon the order of a court of record of competent jurisdiction, may sell or compound all bad or doubtful debts, and, on a like order, may sell all the real and personal property of such association, on such terms as the court shall direct. Such receiver shall pay over all money so made to the Treasurer of the United States, subject to the order of the Comptroller, and also make report to the Comptroller of all his acts and proceedings.

Provided, That the Comptroller may, if he deems proper, deposit any of the money so made in any regular Government depositary, or in any State or national bank either of the city or town in which the insolvent bank was located, or of a city or town as adjacent thereto as practicable; if such deposit is made he shall require the depositary to deposit United States bonds or other satisfactory securities with the Treasurer of the United States for the safekeeping and prompt payment of the money so deposited: Provided, That no security in the form of deposit of United States bonds, or otherwise, shall be required in the case of such parts of the deposits as are insured under section 12B of the Federal Reserve Act, as amended. Such depositary shall pay upon such money interest at such rate as the Comptroller may prescribe, not less, however, than 2 per centum per annum upon the average monthly amount of such deposits.

(R.S. §5234; May 15, 1916, ch. 121, 39 Stat. 121; Aug. 23, 1935, ch. 614, title III, §339, 49 Stat. 721; Pub. L. 86–230, §17, Sept. 8, 1959, 73 Stat. 458; Pub. L. 103–325, title VI, §602(g)(11), Sept. 23, 1994, 108 Stat. 2294.)

References in Text

Sections 131 and 132 of this title, referred to in text, were repealed by Pub. L. 103–325, title VI, §602(e)(14), (15), Sept. 23, 1994, 108 Stat. 2292.

Section 12B of the Federal Reserve Act, as amended, referred to in text, formerly classified to section 264 of this title, has been withdrawn from the Federal Reserve Act and incorporated in the Federal Deposit Insurance Act which is classified generally to chapter 16 (§1811 et seq.) of this title.

Codification

R.S. §5234 derived from act June 3, 1864, ch. 106, §50, 13 Stat. 114, which was part of the National Bank Act. See section 38 of this title.

Amendments

1994—Pub. L. 103–325 struck out “has refused to pay its circulating notes as therein mentioned, and” before “is in default”.

1959—Pub. L. 86–230 struck out provisions which required receiver to enforce the personal liability of shareholders.

1935—Act Aug. 23, 1935, inserted second proviso in second par.

Transfer of Functions

For transfer of functions to Secretary of the Treasury, see note set out under section 55 of this title.

Application to District of Columbia

Provisions of this section were made applicable to banks, etc., in the District of Columbia by act Mar. 4, 1933, ch. 274, §4, 47 Stat. 1567.

Interest on Deposits

So much of existing law requiring the payment of interest with respect to any funds deposited by the United States or by any public instrumentality, agency, or officer thereof, as is inconsistent with former section 371a, sections 371b, 374, 374a, and 461, former sections 462 to 465, and section 466 of this title, repealed, see former section 371a of this title.

1 See References in Text note below.

§193. Notice to present claims

The Comptroller shall, upon appointing a receiver, cause notice to be given, by advertisement in such newspapers as he may direct, for three consecutive months, calling on all persons who may have claims against such association to present the same, and to make legal proof thereof.

(R.S. §5235.)

Codification

R.S. §5235 derived from act June 3, 1864, ch. 106, §50, 13 Stat. 114, which was part of the National Bank Act. See section 38 of this title.

Exception as to Transfer of Functions

Functions vested by any provision of law in Comptroller of the Currency, referred to in this section, not included in transfer of functions to Secretary of the Treasury, see note set out under section 1 of this title.

Application to District of Columbia

Provisions of this section were made applicable to banks, etc., in the District of Columbia by act Mar. 4, 1933, ch. 274, §4, 47 Stat. 1567.

§194. Dividends on adjusted claims; distribution of assets

From time to time, the comptroller shall make a ratable dividend of the money so paid over to him by such receiver on all such claims as may have been proved to his satisfaction or adjudicated in a court of competent jurisdiction, and, as the proceeds of the assets of such association are paid over to him, shall make further dividends on all claims previously proved or adjudicated; and the remainder of the proceeds, if any, shall be paid over to the shareholders of such association, or their legal representatives, in proportion to the stock by them respectively held.

(R.S. §5236; Pub. L. 103–325, title VI, §602(g)(12), Sept. 23, 1994, 108 Stat. 2294.)

Codification

R.S. §5236 derived from act June 3, 1864, ch. 106, §50, 13 Stat. 114, which was the National Bank Act. See section 38 of this title.

Amendments

1994—Pub. L. 103–325 struck out “, after full provision has been first made for refunding to the United States any deficiency in redeeming the notes of such association” after “From time to time”.

Exception as to Transfer of Functions

Functions vested by any provision of law in Comptroller of the Currency, referred to in this section, not included in transfer of functions to Secretary of the Treasury, see note set out under section 1 of this title.

Application to District of Columbia

Provisions of this section were made applicable to banks, etc. in the District of Columbia by act Mar. 4, 1933, ch. 274, §4, 47 Stat. 1567.

§195. Repealed. Pub. L. 103–325, title VI, §602(e)(36), Sept. 23, 1994, 108 Stat. 2292

Section, R.S. §5237; Mar. 3, 1911, ch. 231, §289, 36 Stat. 1167, related to injunction by bank denying failure to redeem notes.

§196. Expenses

All expenses of any preliminary or other examinations into the condition of any association shall be paid by such association. All expenses of any receivership shall be paid out of the assets of such association before distribution of the proceeds thereof.

(R.S. §5238; Pub. L. 103–325, title VI, §602(g)(13), Sept. 23, 1994, 108 Stat. 2294.)

Codification

R.S. §5238 derived from act June 3, 1864, ch. 106, §51, 13 Stat. 115, which was the National Bank Act. See section 38 of this title.

Amendments

1994—Pub. L. 103–325 struck out at beginning “All fees for protesting the notes issued by any national banking association shall be paid by the person procuring the protest to be made, and such association shall be liable therefor; but no part of the bonds deposited by such association shall be applied to the payment of such fees.”

§197. Shareholders’ meeting; continuance of receivership; appointment of agent; winding up business; distribution of assets

(a) Whenever any national banking association shall have been or shall be placed in the hands of a receiver, as provided in section fifty-two hundred and thirty-four [12 U.S.C. 192] and other sections of the Revised Statutes of the United States and section 1821(c) of this title, and when, as provided in section 194 of this title, there has been paid to each and every creditor of such association whose claim or claims as such creditor shall have been proved or allowed as therein prescribed, the full amount of such claims, and all expenses of the receivership, the Comptroller of the Currency or the Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation, where that Corporation has been appointed receiver of the bank, shall call a meeting of the shareholders of the association by giving notice thereof for thirty days in a newspaper published in the town, city, or county where the business of the association was carried on, or if no newspaper is there published, in the newspaper published nearest thereto. At such meeting the shareholders shall determine whether the receiver shall be continued and shall wind up the affairs of the association, or whether an agent shall be elected for that purpose, and in so determining the shareholders shall vote by ballot, in person or by proxy, each share of stock entitling the holder to one vote, and the majority of the stock in number of shares shall be necessary to determine whether the receiver shall be continued, or whether an agent shall be elected. In case such majority shall determine that the receiver shall be continued, the receiver shall thereupon proceed with the execution of the trust, and shall sell, dispose of, or otherwise collect the assets of the association, and shall possess all the powers and authority, and be subject to all the duties and liabilities originally conferred or imposed upon such receiver so far as they remain applicable. In case such meeting shall, by the vote of a majority of the stock in number of shares, determine that an agent shall be elected, the meeting shall thereupon proceed to elect an agent, voting by ballot, in person or by proxy, each share of stock entitling the holder to one vote, and the person who shall receive votes representing at least a majority of stock in number of shares shall be declared the agent for the purposes hereinafter provided; and when such agent shall have executed a bond to the shareholders conditioned for the payment and discharge in full or, to the extent possible from the remaining assets of the association, of each and every claim that may thereafter be proved and allowed by and before a competent court and for the faithful performance of his duties, in the penalty fixed by the shareholders at such meeting, with a surety or sureties to be approved by the district court of the United States for the district where the business of the association was carried on, and shall have filed such bond in the office of the clerk of such court, the Comptroller and the receiver, or the Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation, where that Corporation has been appointed receiver of the bank, shall thereupon transfer and deliver to such agent all the uncollected or other assets of the association then remaining in the hands or subject to the order and control of the Comptroller and such receiver, or either of them, or the Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation; and for this purpose the Comptroller and such receiver, or the Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation, as the case may be, are severally empowered and directed to execute any deed, assignment, transfer, or other instrument in writing that may be necessary and proper; and upon the execution and delivery of such instrument to such agent the Comptroller and such receiver or the Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation shall by virtue of this Act be discharged from any and all liabilities to the association and to each and all the creditors and shareholders thereof.

(b) Upon receiving such deed, assignment, transfer, or other instrument the person elected such agent shall hold, control, and dispose of the assets and property of the association which he may receive under the terms hereof for the benefit of the shareholders of the association, and he may in his own name, or in the name of the association, sue and be sued and do all other lawful acts and things necessary to finally settle and distribute the assets and property in his hands, and may sell, compromise, or compound the debts due to the association, with the consent and approval of the district court of the United States for the district where the business of the association was carried on, and shall at the conclusion of his trust render to such district court a full account of all his proceedings, receipts, and expenditures as such agent, which court shall, upon due notice, settle and adjust such accounts and discharge such agent and sureties upon such bond. In case any such agent so elected shall die, resign, or be removed, any shareholder may call a meeting of the shareholders of the association in the town, city, or village where the business of the association was carried on, by giving notice thereof for thirty days in a newspaper published in such town, city, or village, or if no newspaper is there published, in the newspaper published nearest thereto, at which meeting the shareholders shall elect an agent, voting by ballot, in person or by proxy, each share of stock entitling the holder to one vote, and when such agent shall have received votes representing at least a majority of the stock in number of shares, and shall have executed a bond to the shareholders conditioned for the payment and discharge in full or, to the extent possible from the remaining assets of the association, of each and every claim that may thereafter be proved and allowed by and before a competent court and for the faithful performance of his duties, in the penalty fixed by the shareholders at such meeting, with a surety or sureties, to be approved by such court, and file such bond in the office of the clerk of that court, he shall have all the rights, powers, and duties of the agent first elected as hereinbefore provided. At any meeting held as hereinbefore provided administrators or executors of deceased shareholders may act and sign as the decedent might have done if living, and guardians of minors and trustees of other persons may so act and sign for their ward or wards or cestui que trust. The proceeds of the assets or property of any such association which may be undistributed at the time of such meeting or may be subsequently received shall be distributed as follows:

First. To pay the expenses of the execution of the trust to the date of such payment.

Second. To repay any amount or amounts which have been paid in by any shareholder or shareholders of the association upon and by reason of any and all assessments made upon the stock of the association by order of the Comptroller of the Currency in accordance with the provisions of the statutes of the United States.

Third. To pay the balance ratably among such stockholders, in proportion to the number of shares held and owned by each. Such distribution shall be made from time to time as the proceeds shall be received and as shall be deemed advisable by the Comptroller of the Currency, or the Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation if continued as receiver of the bank under subsection (a) of this section, or such agent, as the case may be.

(June 30, 1876, ch. 156, §3, 19 Stat. 63; Aug. 3, 1892, ch. 360, 27 Stat. 345; Mar. 2, 1897, ch. 354, 29 Stat. 600; Mar. 3, 1911, ch. 231, §291, 36 Stat. 1167; Pub. L. 86–230, §18, Sept. 8, 1959, 73 Stat. 458.)

References in Text

Section fifty-two hundred and thirty-four and other sections of the Revised Statutes of the United States, referred to in subsec. (a), are classified to section 192 of this title and other sections of the Code. See Tables.

This Act, referred to in subsec. (a), is act June 30, 1876, ch. 156, 19 Stat. 63, as amended, sections 1 to 4 of which are classified as a note under section 191 of this title and to section 191 of this title, this section, and section 55 of this title, respectively. Section 5 of the Act, which was classified to section 424 of former Title 31, was repealed and reenacted as section 5153 of Title 31, Money and Finance, by Pub. L. 97–258, Sept. 13, 1982, 96 Stat. 877.

Amendments

1959—Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 86–230 designated former first par., less last sentence, as subsec. (a), and incorporated references to Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation respecting receiverships under section 1821(c) of this title, convocation of shareholders, transfer of assets, execution of instruments and discharge from liability, omitted provision for deposit of money with the Treasurer of the United States for the redemption of the circulating notes of the association, and for the value of shares as a test to determine whether a majority vote has been cast in a stockholders’ meeting, required the windup agent to file a bond to the shareholders in an amount satisfactory to them with sureties approved by appropriate district court instead of a bond from the shareholders satisfactory to the Comptroller and to condition the bond to payment of proved claims to the extent possible from the remaining instead of payment of the claims in full, only.

Subsec. (b). Pub. L. 86–230 designated former last sentence of first par. and second par., as subsec. (b), and omitted provisions which related to refusal of agent to serve as a ground for the calling of an election of another agent, to the value of shares as a test to determine whether a majority vote has been cast in a stockholders’ meeting, required the bond of the windup agent to be conditioned for payment of proved claims to the extent possible from the remaining assets instead of payment of the claims in full, only, and provided for the distribution of the balance as shall be deemed advisable by the Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation.

Transfer of Functions

Functions vested by any provision of law in Comptroller of the Currency, referred to in this section, not included in transfer of functions to Secretary of the Treasury, see Exception as to Transfer of Functions note set out under section 1 of this title.

Act Mar. 3, 1911, conferred upon the district courts all powers formerly vested in the former circuit courts.

Application to District of Columbia

Provisions of this section were made applicable to banks, etc., in the District of Columbia by act Mar. 4, 1933, ch. 274, §4, 47 Stat. 1567.

§197a. Resumption of business by closed bank on consent of depositors

In any case in which, in the opinion of the Comptroller of the Currency, it would be to the advantage of the depositors and unsecured creditors of any national banking association whose business has been closed, for such association to resume business upon the retention by the association, for a reasonable period to be prescribed by the Comptroller, of all or any part of its deposits, the Comptroller is authorized, in his discretion, to permit the association to resume business if depositors and unsecured creditors of the association representing at least 75 per centum of its total deposit and unsecured credit liabilities consent in writing to such retention of deposits. Nothing in this section shall be construed to affect in any manner any powers of the Comptroller under the provisions of law in force on June 16, 1933, with respect to the reorganization of national banking associations.

(June 16, 1933, ch. 89, §29, 48 Stat. 193.)

Exception as to Transfer of Functions

Functions vested by any provision of law in Comptroller of the Currency, referred to in this section, not included in transfer of functions to Secretary of the Treasury, see note set out under section 1 of this title.

§198. Purchase by receiver of property of bank; request to Comptroller

Whenever the receiver of any national bank duly appointed by the Comptroller of the Currency, and who shall have duly qualified and entered upon the discharge of his trust, shall find it in his opinion necessary, in order to fully protect and benefit his said trust, to the extent of any and all equities that such trust may have in any property, real or personal, by reason of any bond, mortgage, assignment, or other proper legal claim attaching thereto, and which said property is to be sold under any execution, decree of foreclosure, or proper order of any court of jurisdiction, he may certify the facts in the case, together with his opinion as to the value of the property to be sold, and the value of the equity his said trust may have in the same, to the Comptroller of the Currency, together with a request for the right and authority to use and employ so much of the money of said trust as may be necessary to purchase such property at such sale.

(Mar. 29, 1886, ch. 28, §1, 24 Stat. 8.)

Exception as to Transfer of Functions

Functions vested by any provision of law in Comptroller of the Currency, referred to in this section, not included in transfer of functions to Secretary of the Treasury, see note set out under section 1 of this title.

Application to District of Columbia

Provisions of this section were made applicable to banks, etc., in the District of Columbia by act Mar. 4, 1933, ch. 274, §4, 47 Stat. 1567.

§199. Approval of request

Such request, if approved by the Comptroller of the Currency, shall be, together with the certificate of facts in the case, and his recommendation as to the amount of money which, in his judgment, should be so used and employed, submitted to the Secretary of the Treasury, and if the same shall likewise be approved by him, the request shall be by the Comptroller of the Currency allowed, and notice thereof, with copies of the request, certificate of facts, and indorsement of approvals, shall be filed with the Treasurer of the United States.

(Mar. 29, 1886, ch. 28, §2, 24 Stat. 8.)

Transfer of Functions

For transfer of functions to Secretary of the Treasury, see note set out under section 55 of this title.

Application to District of Columbia

Provisions of this section were made applicable to banks, etc., in the District of Columbia by act Mar. 4, 1933, ch. 274, §4, 47 Stat. 1567.

§200. Payment

Whenever any such request shall be allowed as hereinbefore provided, the said Comptroller of the Currency shall be, and is, empowered to draw upon and from such funds of any such trust as may be deposited with the Treasurer of the United States for the benefit of the bank in interest, to the amount as may be recommended and allowed and for the purpose for which such allowance was made: Provided, however, That all payments to be made for or on account of the purchase of any such property and under any such allowance shall be made by the Comptroller of the Currency direct, with the approval of the Secretary of the Treasury, for such purpose only and in such manner as he may determine and order.

(Mar. 29, 1886, ch. 28, §3, 24 Stat. 8.)

Transfer of Functions

For transfer of functions to Secretary of the Treasury, see note set out under section 55 of this title.

Application to District of Columbia

Provisions of this section were made applicable to banks, etc., in the District of Columbia by act Mar. 4, 1933, ch. 274, §4, 47 Stat. 1567.

SUBCHAPTER XIV—BANK CONSERVATION ACT

§201. Short title

This subchapter may be cited as the “Bank Conservation Act.”

(Mar. 9, 1933, ch. 1, title II, §201, 48 Stat. 2.)

§202. Definitions

As used in this subchapter, the term “bank” means any national banking association or any other financial institution chartered or licensed under Federal law and subject to the supervision of the Comptroller of the Currency; the term “voluntary dissolution and liquidation” means a transaction pursuant to section 181 of this title that involves the assumption of the bank's insured deposit liabilities and the sale of the bank, or of control of the bank, as a going concern; and the term “State” means any State, Territory, or possession of the United States, and the Canal Zone.

(Mar. 9, 1933, ch. 1, title II, §202, 48 Stat. 2; Pub. L. 101–73, title VIII, §801, Aug. 9, 1989, 103 Stat. 441; Pub. L. 109–351, title VII, §725(b), Oct. 13, 2006, 120 Stat. 2001; Pub. L. 109–356, title I, §123(b), Oct. 16, 2006, 120 Stat. 2028.)

References in Text

For definition of Canal Zone, referred to in text, see section 3602(b) of Title 22, Foreign Relations and Intercourse.

Amendments

2006—Pub. L. 109–351 and 109–356 amended section identically, substituting “means any national” for “means (1) any national” and striking out “, and (2) any bank or trust company located in the District of Columbia and operating under the supervision of the Comptroller of the Currency” before first semicolon.

1989—Pub. L. 101–73, §801(1), in cl. (1), extended term “bank” to include any financial institution chartered or licensed under Federal law and subject to supervision of Comptroller of the Currency.

Pub. L. 101–73, §801(2), in cl. (2), inserted definition of term “voluntary dissolution and liquidation”.

§203. Appointment of conservator

(a) Appointment

The Comptroller of the Currency may, without prior notice or hearings, appoint a conservator (which may be the Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation) to the possession and control of a bank whenever the Comptroller of the Currency determines that 1 or more of the grounds specified in section 11(c)(5) of the Federal Deposit Insurance Act [12 U.S.C. 1821(c)(5)] exist.

(b) Judicial review

(1) In general

Not later than 20 days after the initial appointment of a conservator pursuant to this section, the bank may bring an action in the United States district court for the judicial district in which the home office of such bank is located, or in the United States District Court for the District of Columbia, for an order requiring the Comptroller to terminate the appointment of the conservator, and the court, upon the merits, shall dismiss such action or shall direct the Comptroller to terminate the appointment of such conservator. The Comptroller's decision to appoint a conservator pursuant to this section shall be set aside only if the court finds that such decision was arbitrary, capricious, an abuse of discretion, or otherwise not in accordance with law.

(2) Stay

The conservator may request that any judicial action or proceeding to which the conservator or the bank is or may become a party be stayed for a period of up to 45 days after the appointment of the conservator. Upon petition, the court shall grant such stay as to all parties.

(3) Actions and orders

Except as otherwise provided in this subsection, no court may take any action regarding the removal of a conservator, or restrain, or affect the exercise of powers or functions of a conservator. A court, upon application by the Comptroller, shall have jurisdiction to enforce an order of the Comptroller relating to—

(A) the conservatorship and the bank in conservatorship, or

(B) restraining or affecting the exercise of powers or functions of a conservator.

(c) Additional grounds for appointment

In addition to the foregoing provisions, the Comptroller may appoint a conservator for a bank if—

(1) the bank, by an affirmative vote of a majority of its board of directors or by an affirmative vote of a majority of its shareholders, consents to such appointment, or

(2) the Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation terminates the bank's status as an insured bank.


The appointment of a conservator pursuant to this subsection shall not be subject to review.

(d) Exclusive authority

The Comptroller shall have exclusive power and jurisdiction to appoint a conservator for a bank. Whenever the Comptroller appoints a conservator for any bank, the Comptroller may appoint the Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation conservator for such bank. The Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation, as such conservator, shall have all the powers granted under the Federal Deposit Insurance Act [12 U.S.C. 1811 et seq.], and (when not inconsistent therewith) any other rights, powers, and privileges possessed by conservators of banks under this Act and any other provision of law. The Comptroller may also appoint another person as conservator, who shall be subject to the provisions of this Act.

(e) Replacement of conservator

The Comptroller may, without notice or hearing, replace a conservator with another conservator. Such replacement shall not affect the bank's right under subsection (b) of this section to obtain judicial review of the Comptroller's original decision to appoint a conservator.

(Mar. 9, 1933, ch. 1, title II, §203, 48 Stat. 2; Pub. L. 101–73, title VIII, §802, Aug. 9, 1989, 103 Stat. 442; Pub. L. 102–242, title I, §133(c), Dec. 19, 1991, 105 Stat. 2271.)

References in Text

The Federal Deposit Insurance Act, referred to in subsec. (d), is act Sept. 21, 1950, ch. 967, §2, 64 Stat. 873, as amended, which is classified generally to chapter 16 (§1811 et seq.) of this title. For complete classification of this Act to the Code, see Short Title note set out under section 1811 of this title and Tables.

This Act, referred to in subsec. (d), is act Mar. 9, 1933, ch. 1, 48 Stat. 1, as amended, popularly known as the Emergency Banking and Bank Conservation Act, which is classified to sections 51a, 51b, 51c, 51d, 95 to 95b, 201 to 212, 248, 347b, 347c, 347d, 445 of this title and to section 5 of Title 50, Appendix, War and National Defense.

Section 51d of this title was repealed by act June 30, 1947, ch. 166, title II, §206(b), (o), 61 Stat. 208. For effect of the repeal on outstanding debentures held by banks, see References in Text note set out under section 51b–1 of this title.

Amendments

1991—Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 102–242 amended subsec. (a) generally, substituting present provisions for provisions which specified circumstances under which Comptroller could appoint conservator.

1989—Pub. L. 101–73 amended section generally, changing structure of section from a single unlettered paragraph to one consisting of subsections (a) to (e).

Effective Date of 1991 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 102–242 effective 1 year after Dec. 19, 1991, see section 133(g) of Pub. L. 102–242, set out as a note under section 191 of this title.

Exception as to Transfer of Functions

Functions vested by any provision of law in Comptroller of the Currency, referred to in this section, not included in transfer of functions to Secretary of the Treasury, see note set out under section 1 of this title.

Conservators of State Banks

Ex. Ord. No. 6080, Mar. 18, 1933, provided for appointment of conservators of State banks under certain regulations.

§204. Examinations

The Comptroller of the Currency (in consultation with the Board of Directors of the Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation when the Corporation is appointed conservator) is authorized to examine and supervise the bank in conservatorship as long as the bank continues to operate as a going concern. The Comptroller may use reports and other information provided by the Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation for this purpose.

(Mar. 9, 1933, ch. 1, title II, §204, 48 Stat. 3; Pub. L. 101–73, title VIII, §803, Aug. 9, 1989, 103 Stat. 443.)

Amendments

1989—Pub. L. 101–73 amended section generally. Prior to amendment, section read as follows: “The Comptroller of the Currency shall cause to be made such examinations of the affairs of such bank as shall be necessary to inform him as to the financial condition of such bank, and the examiner shall make a report thereon to the Comptroller of the Currency at the earliest practicable date.”

Exception as to Transfer of Functions

Functions vested by any provision of law in Comptroller of the Currency, referred to in this section, not included in transfer of functions to Secretary of the Treasury, see note set out under section 1 of this title.

§205. Termination of conservatorship

(a) General rule

At any time the Comptroller 1 becomes satisfied that it may safely be done and that it would be in the public interest, the Comptroller (with the agreement of the Board of Directors of the Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation when the Corporation has been appointed conservator) may—

(1) terminate the conservatorship and permit the involved bank to resume the transaction of its business subject to such terms, conditions, and limitations as the Comptroller may prescribe; or

(2) terminate the conservatorship upon a sale, merger, consolidation, purchase and assumption, change in control, or voluntary dissolution and liquidation of the involved bank.

(b) Other grounds for termination

The Comptroller also may terminate the conservatorship upon the appointment of a receiver pursuant to section 191 of this title.

(c) Enforcement under Federal Deposit Insurance Act

Such terms, conditions, and limitations as may be prescribed under subsection (a)(1) of this section shall be enforceable under the provisions of section 8(i) of the Federal Deposit Insurance Act [12 U.S.C. 1818(i)], to the same extent as an order issued pursuant to section 8(b) of the Federal Deposit Insurance Act [12 U.S.C. 1818(b)] which has become final. The bank may bring an action in the United States district court for the judicial district in which the home office of such bank is located or in the United States District Court for the District of Columbia for an order requiring the Comptroller to terminate the order. An action for judicial review of the terms, conditions, and limitations may not be commenced later than 20 days from the date of the termination of the conservatorship or the imposition of the order, whichever is later.

(d) Action upon termination

(1) In general

Upon termination of the conservatorship under subsection (a)(2) of this section, the Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation, as conservator, or when another person is appointed conservator, such other person, shall conclude the affairs of the conservatorship in accordance with paragraph (2).

(2) Deposit and distribution of proceeds

(A) Within 180 days of the sale, merger, consolidation, purchase and assumption, change in control, or voluntary dissolution and liquidation, the conservator shall deposit all net proceeds received from the transaction, less any outstanding expenses of the conservatorship, with the United States district court for the judicial district in which the home office of such bank is located and shall cause notice to be published for three consecutive months and notify by mail all known and remaining creditors and shareholders. Within 60 days thereafter, any depositor, creditor, or other claimant of the bank, or any shareholder of the bank may bring an action in interpleader in that court for distribution of the proceeds. The district court shall distribute such funds equitably. If no such action is instituted within one year after the date the funds are deposited with the district court, title to such net proceeds shall revert to the United States and the district court shall remit the funds to the Treasury of the United States.

(B) The conservator shall be deemed to have discharged all responsibility of the conservatorship upon the deposit of the proceeds with the district court and giving the required notifications.

(Mar. 9, 1933, ch. 1, title II, §205, 48 Stat. 3; Pub. L. 101–73, title VIII, §804, Aug. 9, 1989, 103 Stat. 443.)

References in Text

The Federal Deposit Insurance Act, referred to in subsec. (c), is act Sept. 21, 1950, ch. 967, §2, 64 Stat. 873, as amended, which is classified generally to chapter 16 (§1811 et seq.) of this title. For complete classification of this Act to the Code, see Short Title note set out under section 1811 of this title and Tables.

Amendments

1989—Pub. L. 101–73 amended section generally. Prior to amendment, section read as follows: “If the Comptroller of the Currency becomes satisfied that it may safely be done and that it would be in the public interest, he may, in his discretion, terminate the conservatorship and permit such bank to resume the transaction of its business subject to such terms, conditions, restrictions and limitations as he may prescribe.”

Exception as to Transfer of Functions

Functions vested by any provision of law in Comptroller of the Currency, referred to in this section, not included in transfer of functions to Secretary of the Treasury, see note set out under section 1 of this title.

1 So in original. Probably should be “Comptroller of the Currency”.

§206. Conservator; powers and duties

(a) General powers

A conservator shall have all the powers of the shareholders, directors, and officers of the bank and may operate the bank in its own name unless the Comptroller 1 in the order of appointment limits the conservator's authority.

(b) Subject to rules of Comptroller

The conservator shall be subject to such rules, regulations, and orders as the Comptroller from time to time deems appropriate; and, except as otherwise specifically provided in such rules, regulations, or orders or in section 209 of this title, shall have the same rights and privileges and be subject to the same duties, restrictions, penalties, conditions, and limitations as apply to directors, officers, or employees of a national bank.

(c) Payment of depositors and creditors

The Comptroller may require the conservator to set aside and make available for withdrawal by depositors and payment to other creditors such amounts as in the opinion of the Comptroller may safely be used for that purpose. All depositors and creditors who are similarly situated shall be treated in the same manner.

(d) Compensation of conservator and employees

The conservator and professional employees appointed to represent or assist the conservator shall not be paid amounts greater than are payable to employees of the Federal Government for similar services, except that the Comptroller of the Currency may authorize payment at higher rates (but not in excess of rates prevailing in the private sector), if the Comptroller determines that paying such higher rates is necessary in order to recruit and retain competent personnel.

(e) Expenses

All expenses of any such conservatorship shall be paid by the bank and shall be a lien upon the bank which shall be prior to any other lien.

(Mar. 9, 1933, ch. 1, title II, §206, 48 Stat. 3; Pub. L. 101–73, title VIII, §805, Aug. 9, 1989, 103 Stat. 445.)

Amendments

1989—Pub. L. 101–73 amended section generally. Prior to amendment, section read as follows: “While such bank is in the hands of the conservator appointed by the Comptroller of the Currency, the Comptroller may require the conservator to set aside and make available for withdrawal by depositors and payment to other creditors, on a ratable basis, such amounts as in the opinion of the Comptroller may safely be used for this purpose; and the Comptroller may, in his discretion, permit the conservator to receive deposits, but deposits received while the bank is in the hands of the conservator shall not be subject to any limitation as to payment or withdrawal, and such deposits shall be segregated and shall not be used to liquidate any indebtedness of such bank existing at the time that a conservator was appointed for it, or any subsequent indebtedness incurred for the purpose of liquidating any indebtedness of such bank existing at the time such conservator was appointed. Such deposits received while the bank is in the hands of the conservator shall be kept on hand in cash, invested in the direct obligations of the United States, or deposited with a Federal reserve bank. The Federal reserve banks are authorized to open and maintain separate deposit accounts for such purpose, or for the purpose of receiving deposits from State officials in charge of State banks under similar circumstances.”

Exception as to Transfer of Functions

Functions vested by any provision of law in Comptroller of the Currency, referred to in this section, not included in transfer of functions to Secretary of the Treasury, see note set out under section 1 of this title.

1 So in original. Probably should be “Comptroller of the Currency”.

§§207, 208. Repealed. Pub. L. 101–73, title VIII, §808, Aug. 9, 1989, 103 Stat. 446

Section 207, acts Mar. 9, 1933, ch. 1, title II, §207, 48 Stat. 3; May 20, 1933, ch. 34, 48 Stat. 72, prescribed conditions for reorganization of banks, requiring consent of depositors and other creditors, of stockholders, or of both depositors and other creditors and stockholders, namely that the reorganization plan be fair and equitable to depositors, other creditors, and stockholders and be in the public interest; that the plan be consented to in writing; and that the approved plan be binding on all consenting or nonconsenting depositors, creditors, and stockholders.

Section 208, act Mar. 9, 1933, ch. 1, title II, §208, 48 Stat. 4, made the provisions for segregation of deposits inapplicable after termination of conservatorship, and provided for termination of conservatorship after publication of notice of termination and mailing of a copy of such notice by registered mail to depositors of record.

§209. Liability protection

(a) Federal agency and employees

In any case in which the conservator is a Federal agency or an employee of the Government, the provisions of chapters 161 and 171 of title 28 shall apply with respect to such conservator's liability for acts or omissions performed pursuant to and in the course of the duties and responsibilities of the conservatorship.

(b) Other conservators

In any case where the conservator is not a conservator described in subsection (a) of this section, the conservator shall not be liable for damages in tort or otherwise for acts or omissions performed pursuant to and in the course of the duties and responsibilities of the conservatorship, unless such acts or omissions constitute gross negligence, including any similar conduct or any form of intentional tortious conduct, as determined by a court.

(c) Indemnification

The Comptroller 1 shall have authority to indemnify the conservator on such terms as the Comptroller deems proper.

(Mar. 9, 1933, ch. 1, title II, §209, 48 Stat. 5; Sept. 3, 1954, ch. 1263, §23, 68 Stat. 1234; Pub. L. 101–73, title VIII, §806, Aug. 9, 1989, 103 Stat. 445.)

Amendments

1989—Pub. L. 101–73 amended section generally. Prior to amendment, section read as follows: “Conservators appointed pursuant to the provisions of this subchapter shall be subject to the provisions of and to the penalties prescribed by sections 334, 656, and 1005 of title 18; and sections 202, 216, 281, 431, 432, and 433 of title 18, in so far as applicable, are extended to apply to contracts, agreements, proceedings, dealings, claims and controversies by or with any such conservator or the Comptroller of the Currency under the provisions of this subchapter.”

1954—Act Sept. 3, 1954, corrected references to title 18.

Exception as to Transfer of Functions

Functions vested by any provision of law in Comptroller of the Currency, referred to in this section, not included in transfer of functions to Secretary of the Treasury, see note set out under section 1 of this title.

1 So in original. Probably should be “Comptroller of the Currency”.

§210. Governmental powers unimpaired

Nothing in this subchapter shall be construed to impair in any manner any powers of the President, the Secretary of the Treasury, the Comptroller of the Currency, or the Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System.

(Mar. 9, 1933, ch. 1, title II, §210, 48 Stat. 5; Aug. 23, 1935, ch. 614, title II, §203(a), 49 Stat. 704.)

Change of Name

Section 203(a) of act Aug. 23, 1935, changed the name of the Federal Reserve Board to Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System.

Exception as to Transfer of Functions

Functions vested by any provision of law in Comptroller of the Currency, referred to in this section, not included in transfer of functions to Secretary of the Treasury, see note set out under section 1 of this title.

§211. Rules and regulations

(a) In general

The Comptroller of the Currency may prescribe such rules and regulations as the Comptroller may deem necessary to carry out the provisions of this Act.

(b) F.D.I.C. as conservator

In any case in which the Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation is the conservator, any rules or regulations prescribed by the Comptroller shall be consistent with any rules and regulations prescribed by the Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation pursuant to the Federal Deposit Insurance Act [12 U.S.C. 1811 et seq.].

(Mar. 9, 1933, ch. 1, title II, §211, 48 Stat. 5; Pub. L. 101–73, title VIII, §807, Aug. 9, 1989, 103 Stat. 446.)

References in Text

This Act, referred to in subsec. (a), is act Mar. 9, 1933, ch. 1, 48 Stat. 1, as amended, popularly known as the Emergency Banking and Bank Conservation Act, which is classified to sections 51a, 51b, 51c, 51d, 95 to 95b, 201 to 212, 248, 347b, 347c, 347d, and 445 of this title and section 5 of Title 50, Appendix, War and National Defense.

Section 51d of this title was repealed by act June 30, 1947, ch. 166, title II, §206(b), (o), 61 Stat. 208. For effect of the repeal on outstanding debentures held by banks, see References in Text note set out under section 51b–1 of this title.

The Federal Deposit Insurance Act, referred to in subsec. (b), is act Sept. 21, 1950, ch. 967, §2, 64 Stat. 873, as amended, which is classified generally to chapter 16 (§1811 et seq.) of this title. For complete classification of this Act to the Code, see Short Title note set out under section 1811 of this title and Tables.

Amendments

1989—Pub. L. 101–73 amended section generally. Prior to amendment, section read as follows: “The Comptroller of the Currency is authorized and empowered, with the approval of the Secretary of the Treasury, to prescribe such rules and regulations as he may deem necessary in order to carry out the provisions of this subchapter. Whoever violates any rule or regulation made pursuant to this section shall be deemed guilty of a misdemeanor and, upon conviction thereof, shall be fined not more than $5,000, or imprisoned not more than one year, or both.”

Exception as to Transfer of Functions

Functions vested by any provision of law in Comptroller of the Currency, referred to in this section, not included in transfer of functions to Secretary of the Treasury, see note set out under section 1 of this title.

§212. Right to amend; separability

The right to alter, amend, or repeal this Act is expressly reserved. If any provision of this Act, or the application there of to any person or circumstances, is held invalid, the remainder of the Act, and the application of such provision to other persons or circumstances, shall not be affected thereby.

(Mar. 9, 1933, ch. 1, title V, §502, 48 Stat. 7.)

References in Text

This Act, referred to in text, is act Mar. 9, 1933, ch. 1, 48 Stat. 1, as amended, popularly known as the Emergency Banking and Bank Conservation Act, which is classified to sections 51a, 51b, 51c, 51d, 95 to 95b, 201 to 212, 248, 347b, 347c, 347d, and 445 of this title and section 5 of Title 50, Appendix, War and National Defense.

Section 51d of this title was repealed by act June 30, 1947, ch. 166, title II, §206(b), (o), 61 Stat. 208. For effect of the repeal on outstanding debentures held by banks, see References in Text note set out under section 51b–1 of this title.

Codification

This section was not enacted as part of title II of act Mar. 9, 1933, ch. 1, 48 Stat. 2, which comprises this subchapter.

§213. Transferred

Codification

Section, act Jan. 30, 1934, ch. 6, §13, 48 Stat. 343, relating to ratification of acts of the President and Secretary of the Treasury, was transferred to section 824 of former Title 31, and subsequently repealed by Pub. L. 97–258, Sept. 13, 1982, 96 Stat. 1068, the first section of which enacted Title 31, Money and Finance.

SUBCHAPTER XV—CONVERSION OF NATIONAL BANKS INTO STATE BANKS

§214. Definitions

(a) As used in this subchapter and section 321 of this title the term “State bank” means any bank, banking association, trust company, savings bank (other than a mutual savings bank), or other banking institution which is engaged in the business of receiving deposits and which is incorporated under the laws of any State, any Territory of the United States, Puerto Rico, or the Virgin Islands, or which is operating under the Code of Law for the District of Columbia.

(b) For purposes of merger or consolidation under this subchapter and section 321 of this title the term “national banking association” means one or more national banking associations, and the term “State bank” means one or more State banks.

(Aug. 17, 1950, ch. 729, §1, 64 Stat. 455; Sept. 3, 1954, ch. 1263, §24, 68 Stat. 1234; Pub. L. 109–351, title VII, §725(f), Oct. 13, 2006, 120 Stat. 2002; Pub. L. 109–356, title I, §123(f), Oct. 16, 2006, 120 Stat. 2029.)

Amendments

2006—Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 109–351 and 109–356 amended subsec. (a) identically, striking out “(except a national banking association)” before period at end.

1954—Act Sept. 3, 1954, substituted “this subchapter and section 321 of this title” for “sections 214 to 214c, 264(e)(2), (i)(2), (v)(4), and 321 of this title” wherever appearing.

Separability

Section 9 of act Aug. 17, 1950, provided that: “If any provision of this Act [enacting this subchapter and amending of sections 264 and 321 of this title], or the application thereof to any person or circumstance, is held invalid, the remainder of the Act and the application of such provision to other persons or circumstances shall not be affected thereby.”

§214a. Procedure for conversion, merger, or consolidation; vote of stockholders

A national banking association may, by vote of the holders of at least two-thirds of each class of its capital stock, convert into, or merge or consolidate with, a State bank in the same State in which the national banking association is located, under a State charter, in the following manner:

(a) Approval of board of directors; publication of notice of stockholders’ meeting; waiver of publication; notice by registered or certified mail

The plan of conversion, merger, or consolidation must be approved by a majority of the entire board of directors of the national banking association. The bank shall publish notice of the time, place, and object of the shareholders’ meeting to act upon the plan, in some newspaper with general circulation in the place where the principal office of the national banking association is located, at least once a week for four consecutive weeks: Provided, That newspaper publication may be dispensed with entirely if waived by all the shareholders and in the case of a merger or consolidation one publication at least ten days before the meeting shall be sufficient if publication for four weeks is waived by holders of at least two-thirds of each class of capital stock and prior written consent of the Comptroller of the Currency is obtained. The national banking association shall send such notice to each shareholder of record by registered mail or by certified mail at least ten days prior to the meeting, which notice may be waived specifically by any shareholder.

(b) Rights of dissenting stockholders

A shareholder of a national banking association who votes against the conversion, merger, or consolidation, or who has given notice in writing to the bank at or prior to such meeting that he dissents from the plan, shall be entitled to receive in cash the value of the shares held by him, if and when the conversion, merger, or consolidation is consummated, upon written request made to the resulting State bank at any time before thirty days after the date of consummation of such conversion, merger, or consolidation, accompanied by the surrender of his stock certificates. The value of such shares shall be determined as of the date on which the shareholders’ meeting was held authorizing the conversion, merger, or consolidation, by a committee of three persons, one to be selected by majority vote of the dissenting shareholders entitled to receive the value of their shares, one by the directors of the resulting State bank, and the third by the two so chosen. The valuation agreed upon by any two of three appraisers thus chosen shall govern; but, if the value so fixed shall not be satisfactory to any dissenting shareholder who has requested payment as provided herein, such shareholder may within five days after being notified of the appraised value of his shares appeal to the Comptroller of the Currency, who shall cause a reappraisal to be made, which shall be final and binding as to the value of the shares of the appellant. If, within ninety days from the date of consummation of the conversion, merger, or consolidation, for any reason one or more of the appraisers is not selected as herein provided, or the appraisers fail to determine the value of such shares, the Comptroller shall upon written request of any interested party, cause an appraisal to be made, which shall be final and binding on all parties. The expenses of the Comptroller in making the reappraisal, or the appraisal as the case may be, shall be paid by the resulting State bank. The plan of conversion, merger, or consolidation shall provide the manner of disposing of the shares of the resulting State bank not taken by the dissenting shareholders of the national banking association.

(Aug. 17, 1950, ch. 729, §2, 64 Stat. 455; Pub. L. 86–507, §1(10), June 11, 1960, 74 Stat. 200; Pub. L. 96–221, title VII, §706, Mar. 31, 1980, 94 Stat. 188.)

Amendments

1980—Subsec. (b). Pub. L. 96–221 substituted “majority” for “unanimous”.

1960—Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 86–507 inserted “or by certified mail” after “registered mail”.

§214b. Continuation of business and corporate entity

The franchise of a national banking association as a national banking association shall automatically terminate when its conversion into or its merger or consolidation with a State bank under a State charter is consummated and the resulting State bank shall be considered the same business and corporate entity as the national banking association, although as to rights, powers, and duties the resulting bank is a State bank. Any reference to such national banking association in any contract, will, or document shall be considered a reference to the State bank if not inconsistent with the provisions of the contract, will, or document or applicable law.

(Aug. 17, 1950, ch. 729, §3, 64 Stat. 456.)

§214c. Conversions in contravention of State law

No conversion of a national banking association into a State bank or its merger or consolidation with a State bank shall take place under this subchapter and section 321 of this title in contravention of the law of the State in which the national banking association is located; and no such conversion, merger, or consolidation shall take place under said sections unless under the law of the State in which such national banking association is located State banks may without approval by any State authority convert into and merge or consolidate with national banking associations under limitations or conditions no more restrictive than those contained in section 214a of this title with respect to the conversion of a national bank into, or merger or consolidation of a national bank with, a State bank under State charter.

(Aug. 17, 1950, ch. 729, §4, 64 Stat. 456; July 12, 1952, ch. 696, 66 Stat. 590; Sept. 3, 1954, ch. 1263, §25, 68 Stat. 1235.)

Amendments

1954—Act Sept. 3, 1954, substituted “this subchapter and section 321 of this title” for “sections 214 to 214c, 264(e)(2), (i)(2), (v)(4), and 321 of this title”.

1952—Act July 12, 1952, amended section so that the limitation of this section beyond which State law cannot go will be measured by the standard set out in section 214a of this title for National-to-State conversions.

§214d. Prohibition on conversion

A national banking association may not convert to a State bank or State savings association during any period in which the national banking association is subject to a cease and desist order (or other formal enforcement order) issued by, or a memorandum of understanding entered into with, the Comptroller of the Currency with respect to a significant supervisory matter.

(Aug. 17, 1950, ch. 729, §10, as added Pub. L. 111–203, title VI, §612(a), July 21, 2010, 124 Stat. 1612.)

Effective Date

Section effective 1 day after July 21, 2010, except as otherwise provided, see section 4 of Pub. L. 111–203, set out as a note under section 5301 of this title.

SUBCHAPTER XVI—CONSOLIDATION AND MERGER

§215. Consolidation of banks within same State

(a) In general

Any national bank or any bank incorporated under the laws of any State may, with the approval of the Comptroller, be consolidated with one or more national banking associations located in the same State under the charter of a national banking association on such terms and conditions as may be lawfully agreed upon by a majority of the board of directors of each association or bank proposing to consolidate, and be ratified and confirmed by the affirmative vote of the shareholders of each such association or bank owning at least two-thirds of its capital stock outstanding, or by a greater proportion of such capital stock in the case of such State bank if the laws of the State where it is organized so require, at a meeting to be held on the call of the directors after publishing notice of the time, place, and object of the meeting for four consecutive weeks in a newspaper of general circulation published in the place where the association or bank is located, or, if there is no such newspaper, then in the paper of general circulation published nearest thereto, and after sending such notice to each shareholder of record by certified or registered mail at least ten days prior to the meeting, except to those shareholders who specifically waive notice, but any additional notice shall be given to the shareholders of such State bank which may be required by the laws of the State where it is organized. Publication of notice may be waived, in cases where the Comptroller determines that an emergency exists justifying such waiver, by unanimous action of the shareholders of the association or State bank.

(b) Liability of consolidated association; capital stock; dissenting shareholders

The consolidated association shall be liable for all liabilities of the respective consolidating banks or associations. The capital stock of such consolidated association shall not be less than that required under existing law for the organization of a national bank in the place in which it is located: Provided, That if such consolidation shall be voted for at such meetings by the necessary majorities of the shareholders of each association and State bank proposing to consolidate, and thereafter the consolidation shall be approved by the Comptroller, any shareholder of any of the associations or State banks so consolidated who has voted against such consolidation at the meeting of the association or bank of which he is a stockholder, or who has given notice in writing at or prior to such meeting to the presiding officer that he dissents from the plan of consolidation, shall be entitled to receive the value of the shares so held by him when such consolidation is approved by the Comptroller upon written request made to the consolidated association at any time before thirty days after the date of consummation of the consolidation, accompanied by the surrender of his stock certificates.

(c) Valuation of shares

The value of the shares of any dissenting shareholder shall be ascertained, as of the effective date of the consolidation, by an appraisal made by a committee of three persons, composed of (1) one selected by the vote of the holders of the majority of the stock, the owners of which are entitled to payment in cash; (2) one selected by the directors of the consolidated banking association; and (3) one selected by the two so selected. The valuation agreed upon by any two of the three appraisers shall govern. If the value so fixed shall not be satisfactory to any dissenting shareholder who has requested payment, that shareholder may, within five days after being notified of the appraised value of his shares, appeal to the Comptroller, who shall cause a reappraisal to be made which shall be final and binding as to the value of the shares of the appellant.

(d) Appraisal by Comptroller; expenses of consolidated association; sale and resale of shares; State appraisal and consolidation law

If, within ninety days from the date of consummation of the consolidation, for any reason one or more of the appraisers is not selected as herein provided, or the appraisers fail to determine the value of such shares, the Comptroller shall upon written request of any interested party cause an appraisal to be made which shall be final and binding on all parties. The expenses of the Comptroller in making the reappraisal or the appraisal, as the case may be, shall be paid by the consolidated banking association. The value of the shares ascertained shall be promptly paid to the dissenting shareholders by the consolidated banking association. Within thirty days after payment has been made to all dissenting shareholders as provided for in this section the shares of stock of the consolidated banking association which would have been delivered to such dissenting shareholders had they not requested payment shall be sold by the consolidated banking association at an advertised public auction, unless some other method of sale is approved by the Comptroller, and the consolidated banking association shall have the right to purchase any of such shares at such public auction, if it is the highest bidder therefor, for the purpose of reselling such shares within thirty days thereafter to such person or persons and at such price not less than par as its board of directors by resolution may determine. If the shares are sold at public auction at a price greater than the amount paid to the dissenting shareholders the excess in such sale price shall be paid to such shareholders. The appraisal of such shares of stock in any State bank shall be determined in the manner prescribed by the law of the State in such cases, rather than as provided in this section, if such provision is made in the State law; and no such consolidation shall be in contravention of the law of the State under which such bank is incorporated.

(e) Status of consolidated association; property rights and interests vested and held as fiduciary

The corporate existence of each of the consolidating banks or banking associations participating in such consolidation shall be merged into and continued in the consolidated national banking association and such consolidated national banking association shall be deemed to be the same corporation as each bank or banking association participating in the consolidation. All rights, franchises, and interests of the individual consolidating banks or banking associations in and to every type of property (real, personal, and mixed) and choses in action shall be transferred to and vested in the consolidated national banking association by virtue of such consolidation without any deed or other transfer. The consolidated national banking association, upon the consolidation and without any order or other action on the part of any court or otherwise, shall hold and enjoy all rights of property, franchises, and interests, including appointments, designations, and nominations, and all other rights and interests as trustee, executor, administrator, registrar of stocks and bonds, guardian of estates, assignee, receiver, and committee of estates of lunatics, and in every other fiduciary capacity, in the same manner and to the same extent as such rights, franchises, and interests were held or enjoyed by any one of the consolidating banks or banking associations at the time of consolidation, subject to the conditions hereinafter provided.

(f) Removal as fiduciary; discrimination

Where any consolidating bank or banking association, at the time of the consolidation, was acting under appointment of any court as trustee, executor, administrator, registrar of stocks and bonds, guardian of estates, assignee, receiver, or committee of estates of lunatics, or in any other fiduciary capacity, the consolidated national banking association shall be subject to removal by a court of competent jurisdiction in the same manner and to the same extent as was such consolidating bank or banking association prior to the consolidation. Nothing contained in this section shall be considered to impair in any manner the right of any court to remove the consolidated national banking association and to appoint in lieu thereof a substitute trustee, executor, or other fiduciary, except that such right shall not be exercised in such a manner as to discriminate against national banking associations, nor shall any consolidated national banking association be removed solely because of the fact that it is a national banking association.

(g) Issuance of stock by consolidated association; preemptive rights

Stock of the consolidated national banking association may be issued as provided by the terms of the consolidation agreement, free from any preemptive rights of the shareholders of the respective consolidating banks.

(Nov. 7, 1918, ch. 209, §2, formerly §1, as added Pub. L. 86–230, §20, Sept. 8, 1959, 73 Stat. 460; renumbered §2 and amended Pub. L. 103–328, title I, §102(b)(4)(C), Sept. 29, 1994, 108 Stat. 2351.)

Codification

Provisions similar to those comprising this section were contained in sections 1 and 2 of act Nov. 7, 1918, ch. 209, 40 Stat. 1043, and section 3 of act Nov. 7, 1918, ch. 209, added Feb. 25, 1927, ch. 191, §1, 44 Stat. 1225 (formerly classified to sections 33 to 34a of this title) prior to the complete amendment and renumbering of act Nov. 7, 1918, by Pub. L. 86–230.

Amendments

1994—Pub. L. 103–328 inserted section catchline and, in subsec. (a), inserted heading and substituted “Any national bank” for “Any national banking association”.

Short Title

Section 1 of act Nov. 7, 1918, ch. 209, as added Sept. 29, 1994, Pub. L. 103–328, title I, §102(b)(4)(C), 108 Stat. 2351, provided that: “This Act [enacting this subchapter] may be cited as the ‘National Bank Consolidation and Merger Act’.”

§215a. Merger of national banks or State banks into national banks

(a) Approval of Comptroller, board and shareholders; merger agreement; notice; capital stock; liability of receiving association

One or more national banking associations or one or more State banks, with the approval of the Comptroller, under an agreement not inconsistent with this subchapter, may merge into a national banking association located within the same State, under the charter of the receiving association. The merger agreement shall—

(1) be agreed upon in writing by a majority of the board of directors of each association or State bank participating in the plan of merger;

(2) be ratified and confirmed by the affirmative vote of the shareholders of each such association or State bank owning at least two-thirds of its capital stock outstanding, or by a greater proportion of such capital stock in the case of a State bank if the laws of the State where it is organized so require, at a meeting to be held on the call of the directors, after publishing notice of the time, place, and object of the meeting for four consecutive weeks in a newspaper of general circulation published in the place where the association or State bank is located, or, if there is no such newspaper, then in the newspaper of general circulation published nearest thereto, and after sending such notice to each shareholder of record by certified or registered mail at least ten days prior to the meeting, except to those shareholders who specifically waive notice, but any additional notice shall be given to the shareholders of such State bank which may be required by the laws of the State where it is organized. Publication of notice may be waived, in cases where the Comptroller determines that an emergency exists justifying such waiver, by unanimous action of the shareholders of the association or State banks;

(3) specify the amount of the capital stock of the receiving association, which shall not be less than that required under existing law for the organization of a national bank in the place in which it is located and which will be outstanding upon completion of the merger, the amount of stock (if any) to be allocated, and cash (if any) to be paid, to the shareholders of the association or State bank being merged into the receiving association; and

(4) provide that the receiving association shall be liable for all liabilities of the association or State bank being merged into the receiving association.

(b) Dissenting shareholders

If a merger shall be voted for at the called meetings by the necessary majorities of the shareholders of each association or State bank participating in the plan of merger, and thereafter the merger shall be approved by the Comptroller, any shareholder of any association or State bank to be merged into the receiving association who has voted against such merger at the meeting of the association or bank of which he is a stockholder, or has given notice in writing at or prior to such meeting to the presiding officer that he dissents from the plan of merger, shall be entitled to receive the value of the shares so held by him when such merger shall be approved by the Comptroller upon written request made to the receiving association at any time before thirty days after the date of consummation of the merger, accompanied by the surrender of his stock certificates.

(c) Valuation of shares

The value of the shares of any dissenting shareholder shall be ascertained, as of the effective date of the merger, by an appraisal made by a committee of three persons, composed of (1) one selected by the vote of the holders of the majority of the stock, the owners of which are entitled to payment in cash; (2) one selected by the directors of the receiving association; and (3) one selected by the two so selected. The valuation agreed upon by any two of the three appraisers shall govern. If the value so fixed shall not be satisfactory to any dissenting shareholder who has requested payment, that shareholder may, within five days after being notified of the appraised value of his shares, appeal to the Comptroller, who shall cause a reappraisal to be made which shall be final and binding as to the value of the shares of the appellant.

(d) Application to shareholders of merging associations: appraisal by Comptroller; expenses of receiving association; sale and resale of shares; State appraisal and merger law

If, within ninety days from the date of consummation of the merger, for any reason one or more of the appraisers is not selected as herein provided, or the appraisers fail to determine the value of such shares, the Comptroller shall upon written request of any interested party cause an appraisal to be made which shall be final and binding on all parties. The expenses of the Comptroller in making the reappraisal or the appraisal, as the case may be, shall be paid by the receiving association. The value of the shares ascertained shall be promptly paid to the dissenting shareholders by the receiving association. The shares of stock of the receiving association which would have been delivered to such dissenting shareholders had they not requested payment shall be sold by the receiving association at an advertised public auction, and the receiving association shall have the right to purchase any of such shares at such public auction, if it is the highest bidder therefor, for the purpose of reselling such shares within thirty days thereafter to such person or persons and at such price not less than par as its board of directors by resolution may determine. If the shares are sold at public auction at a price greater than the amount paid to the dissenting shareholders, the excess in such sale price shall be paid to such dissenting shareholders. The appraisal of such shares of stock in any State bank shall be determined in the manner prescribed by the law of the State in such cases, rather than as provided in this section, if such provision is made in the State law; and no such merger shall be in contravention of the law of the State under which such bank is incorporated. The provisions of this subsection shall apply only to shareholders of (and stock owned by them in) a bank or association being merged into the receiving association.

(e) Status of receiving association; property rights and interests vested and held as fiduciary

The corporate existence of each of the merging banks or banking associations participating in such merger shall be merged into and continued in the receiving association and such receiving association shall be deemed to be the same corporation as each bank or banking association participating in the merger. All rights, franchises, and interests of the individual merging banks or banking associations in and to every type of property (real, personal, and mixed) and choses in action shall be transferred to and vested in the receiving association by virtue of such merger without any deed or other transfer. The receiving association, upon the merger and without any order or other action on the part of any court or otherwise, shall hold and enjoy all rights of property, franchises, and interests, including appointments, designations, and nominations, and all other rights and interests as trustee, executor, administrator, registrar of stocks and bonds, guardian of estates, assignee, receiver, and committee of estates of lunatics, and in every other fiduciary capacity, in the same manner and to the same extent as such rights, franchises, and interests were held or enjoyed by any one of the merging banks or banking associations at the time of the merger, subject to the conditions hereinafter provided.

(f) Removal as fiduciary; discrimination

Where any merging bank or banking association, at the time of the merger, was acting under appointment of any court as trustee, executor, administrator, registrar of stocks and bonds, guardian of estates, assignee, receiver, or committee of estates of lunatics, or in any other fiduciary capacity, the receiving association shall be subject to removal by a court of competent jurisdiction in the same manner and to the same extent as was such merging bank or banking association prior to the merger. Nothing contained in this section shall be considered to impair in any manner the right of any court to remove the receiving association and to appoint in lieu thereof a substitute trustee, executor, or other fiduciary, except that such right shall not be exercised in such a manner as to discriminate against national banking associations, nor shall any receiving association be removed solely because of the fact that it is a national banking association.

(g) Issuance of stock by receiving association; preemptive rights

Stock of the receiving association may be issued as provided by the terms of the merger agreement, free from any preemptive rights of the shareholders of the respective merging banks.

(Nov. 7, 1918, ch. 209, §3, formerly §2, as added Pub. L. 86–230, §20, Sept. 8, 1959, 73 Stat. 463; renumbered §3, Pub. L. 103–328, title I, §102(b)(4)(A), Sept. 29, 1994, 108 Stat. 2351.)

Codification

Provisions similar to those comprising this section were contained in section 4 of act Nov. 7, 1918, ch. 209, as added July 14, 1952, ch. 722, §1, 66 Stat. 599 (formerly classified to section 34b of this title), prior to the complete amendment and renumbering of act Nov. 7, 1918, by Pub. L. 86–230.

§215a–1. Interstate consolidations and mergers

(a) In general

A national bank may engage in a consolidation or merger under this subchapter with an out-of-State bank if the consolidation or merger is approved pursuant to section 1831u of this title.

(b) Scope of application

Subsection (a) of this section shall not apply with respect to any consolidation or merger before June 1, 1997, unless the home State of each bank involved in the transaction has in effect a law described in section 1831u(a)(3) of this title.

(c) Definitions

The terms “home State” and “out-of-State bank” have the same meaning as in section 1831u(f) 1 of this title.

(Nov. 7, 1918, ch. 209, §4, as added Pub. L. 103–328, title I, §102(b)(4)(D), Sept. 29, 1994, 108 Stat. 2351.)

References in Text

Section 1831u of this title, referred to in subsec. (c), was subsequently amended, and subsec. (f) of section 1831u no longer defines the terms “home State” and “out-of-State bank”. However, such terms are defined elsewhere in that section.

1 See References in Text note below.

§215a–2. Expedited procedures for certain reorganizations

(a) In general

A national bank may, with the approval of the Comptroller, pursuant to rules and regulations promulgated by the Comptroller, and upon the affirmative vote of the shareholders of such bank owning at least two-thirds of its capital stock outstanding, reorganize so as to become a subsidiary of a bank holding company or of a company that will, upon consummation of such reorganization, become a bank holding company.

(b) Reorganization plan

A reorganization authorized under subsection (a) of this section shall be carried out in accordance with a reorganization plan that—

(1) specifies the manner in which the reorganization shall be carried out;

(2) is approved by a majority of the entire board of directors of the national bank;

(3) specifies—

(A) the amount of cash or securities of the bank holding company, or both, or other consideration to be paid to the shareholders of the reorganizing bank in exchange for their shares of stock of the bank;

(B) the date as of which the rights of each shareholder to participate in such exchange will be determined; and

(C) the manner in which the exchange will be carried out; and


(4) is submitted to the shareholders of the reorganizing bank at a meeting to be held on the call of the directors in accordance with the procedures prescribed in connection with a merger of a national bank under section 215a of this title.

(c) Rights of dissenting shareholders

If, pursuant to this section, a reorganization plan has been approved by the shareholders and the Comptroller, any shareholder of the bank who has voted against the reorganization at the meeting referred to in subsection (b)(4) of this section, or has given notice in writing at or prior to that meeting to the presiding officer that the shareholder dissents from the reorganization plan, shall be entitled to receive the value of his or her shares, as provided by section 215a of this title for the merger of a national bank.

(d) Effect of reorganization

The corporate existence of a national bank that reorganizes in accordance with this section shall not be deemed to have been affected in any way by reason of such reorganization.

(e) Approval under the Bank Holding Company Act

This section does not affect in any way the applicability of the Bank Holding Company Act of 1956 [12 U.S.C. 1841 et seq.] to a transaction described in subsection (a) of this section.

(Nov. 7, 1918, ch. 209, §5, as added Pub. L. 106–569, title XII, §1204(2), Dec. 27, 2000, 114 Stat. 3033.)

References in Text

The Bank Holding Company Act of 1956, referred to in subsec. (e), is act May 9, 1956, ch. 240, 70 Stat. 133, as amended, which is classified principally to chapter 17 (§1841 et seq.) of this title. For complete classification of this Act to the Code, see Short Title note set out under section 1841 of this title and Tables.

§215a–3. Mergers and consolidations with subsidiaries and nonbank affiliates

(a) In general

Upon the approval of the Comptroller, a national bank may merge with one or more of its nonbank subsidiaries or affiliates.

(b) Scope

Nothing in this section shall be construed—

(1) to affect the applicability of section 1828(c) of this title; or

(2) to grant a national bank any power or authority that is not permissible for a national bank under other applicable provisions of law.

(c) Regulations

The Comptroller shall promulgate regulations to implement this section.

(Nov. 7, 1918, ch. 209, §6, as added Pub. L. 106–569, title XII, §1206, Dec. 27, 2000, 114 Stat. 3034.)

§215b. Definitions

As used in this subchapter, the term—

(1) “State bank” means any bank, banking association, trust company, savings bank (other than a mutual savings bank), or other banking institution which is engaged in the business of receiving deposits and which is incorporated under the laws of any State, or which is operating under the Code of Law for the District of Columbia;

(2) “State” means the several States and Territories, the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico, the Virgin Islands, and the District of Columbia;

(3) “Comptroller” means the Comptroller of the Currency; and

(4) “Receiving association” means the national banking association into which one or more national banking associations or one or more State banks, located within the same State, merge.

(Nov. 7, 1918, ch. 209, §7, formerly §3, as added Pub. L. 86–230, §20, Sept. 8, 1959, 73 Stat. 465; renumbered §5, Pub. L. 103–328, title I, §102(b)(4)(B), Sept. 29, 1994, 108 Stat. 2351; renumbered §7, Pub. L. 106–569, title XII, §1204(1), Dec. 27, 2000, 114 Stat. 3033; amended Pub. L. 109–351, title VII, §725(e), Oct. 13, 2006, 120 Stat. 2002; Pub. L. 109–356, title I, §123(e), Oct. 16, 2006, 120 Stat. 2029.)

Codification

Provisions similar to those comprising this section were contained in section 5 of act Nov. 7, 1918, ch. 209, as added July 14, 1952, ch. 722, §1, 66 Stat. 601 (formerly classified to section 34c of this title), prior to the complete amendment and renumbering of act Nov. 7, 1918, by Pub. L. 86–230.

Amendments

2006—Par. (1). Pub. L. 109–351 and 109–356 amended par. (1) identically, striking out “(except a national banking association located in the District of Columbia)” before semicolon at end.

§215c. Mergers, consolidations, and other acquisitions authorized

(a) In general

Subject to sections 1815(d)(3) 1 and 1828(c) of this title and all other applicable laws, any national bank may acquire or be acquired by any insured depository institution.

(b) Expedited approval of acquisitions

(1) In general

Any application by a national bank to acquire or be acquired by another insured depository institution which is required to be filed with the Comptroller of the Currency under any applicable law or regulation shall be approved or disapproved in writing by the agency before the end of the 60-day period beginning on the date such application is filed with the agency.

(2) Extensions of period

The period for approval or disapproval referred to in paragraph (1) may be extended for an additional 30-day period if the Comptroller of the Currency determines that—

(A) an applicant has not furnished all of the information required to be submitted; or

(B) in the Comptroller's judgment, any material information submitted is substantially inaccurate or incomplete.

(c) Rule of construction

No provision of this section shall be construed as authorizing a national bank or a subsidiary of a national bank to engage in any activity not otherwise authorized under this Act 1 or any other law governing the powers of national banks.

(d) “Acquire” defined

For purposes of this section, the term “acquire” means to acquire, directly or indirectly, ownership or control through a merger or consolidation or an acquisition of assets or assumption of liabilities, provided that following such merger, consolidation, or acquisition, an acquiring insured depository institution may not own the shares of the acquired insured depository institution.

(R.S. §5156A, as added Pub. L. 102–242, title V, §502(b), Dec. 19, 1991, 105 Stat. 2393; amended Pub. L. 104–208, div. A, title II, §2201(b)(1), Sept. 30, 1996, 110 Stat. 3009–403.)

References in Text

Section 1815(d)(3) of this title, referred to in subsec. (a), which related to optional conversions by insured depository institutions subject to special rules on deposit insurance payments, was struck out and former section 1815(d)(1)(C) redesignated section 1815(d)(3) by Pub. L. 109–173, §8(a)(4), (5)(D), Feb. 15, 2006, 119 Stat. 3610, 3611.

This Act, referred to in subsec. (c), probably means the National Bank Act, act June 3, 1864, ch. 106, 13 Stat. 99, as amended, which is classified principally to chapter 2 (§21 et seq.) of this title. For complete classification of this Act to the Code, see References in Text note set out under section 38 of this title.

Codification

Section was not enacted as part of act Nov. 7, 1918, ch. 209, as added Sept. 8, 1959, Pub. L. 86–230, §20, 73 Stat. 460, which comprises this subchapter.

Amendments

1996—Subsec. (b)(1). Pub. L. 104–208 substituted “under any applicable law” for “by section 1815(d)(3) of this title or any other applicable law”.

1 See References in Text note below.

SUBCHAPTER XVII—DISPOSITION OF UNCLAIMED PROPERTY RECOVERED FROM CLOSED NATIONAL BANKS

§216. Purpose

The purpose of this subchapter is to dispose of unclaimed property in the possession, custody, or control of the Comptroller of the Currency by—

(1) providing final notice of the availability of unclaimed property from closed national banks;

(2) barring rights of claimants to obtain such property from the Comptroller after a reasonable period of time following such notice; and

(3) authorizing the Comptroller to dispose of such property for which no claims have been filed and validated under this subchapter.

(Pub. L. 96–221, title VII, §731, as added Pub. L. 97–320, title IV, §408, Oct. 15, 1982, 96 Stat. 1513; amended Pub. L. 109–351, title VII, §725(c)(1), Oct. 13, 2006, 120 Stat. 2001; Pub. L. 109–356, title I, §123(c)(1), Oct. 16, 2006, 120 Stat. 2029.)

Amendments

2006—Par. (1). Pub. L. 109–351 and 109–356 amended par. (1) identically, striking out “and closed banks in the District of Columbia” before semicolon at end.

§216a. Definitions

For purposes of this subchapter—

(1) the term “Comptroller” means the Comptroller of the Currency;

(2) the term “unclaimed property” means any articles, items, assets, other property, or the proceeds thereof from safe deposit boxes or other safekeeping arrangements with closed national banks, which are in the possession, custody, or control of the Comptroller in its capacity as successor to receivers of those banks; and

(3) the term “claimant” means any person or entity, including a State under applicable statutory law, asserting a demonstrable legal interest in title to, or custody or possession of, unclaimed property.

(Pub. L. 96–221, title VII, §732, as added Pub. L. 97–320, title IV, §408, Oct. 15, 1982, 96 Stat. 1513; amended Pub. L. 109–351, title VII, §725(c)(2), Oct. 13, 2006, 120 Stat. 2001; Pub. L. 109–356, title I, §123(c)(2), Oct. 16, 2006, 120 Stat. 2029.)

Amendments

2006—Par. (2). Pub. L. 109–351 and 109–356 amended par. (2) identically, striking out “or closed banks in the District of Columbia” after “closed national banks”.

§216b. Disposition of unclaimed property

(a) Limitations for filing claims; publication of notice in Federal Register; contents of notice; disclosure of descriptive information; inspection of specific property

(1) Within twelve months following October 15, 1982, the Comptroller shall publish formal notice in the Federal Register that all claims to rights of any claimant to obtain title to, or custody or possession of, any unclaimed property in the possession, custody, or control of the Comptroller must be filed within twelve months following the last date of publication of such formal notice in the Federal Register or shall thereafter be barred.

(2) Such notice shall contain the names of last known owners, if any, names and locations of affected closed banks, and a general description of the types of unclaimed property held by the Comptroller. The Comptroller may provide additional notice in local communities as it deems appropriate.

(3)(A) The Comptroller shall not disclose, by publication, inspection or otherwise, information relating to the ownership or description of any specific unclaimed property prior to publication of formal notice under this section.

(B) Thereafter, the Comptroller shall disclose descriptive information of specific unclaimed property only to a claimant thereof. The Comptroller may recoup expenses associated with any publication or other provision of notice from any sale of property authorized by this subchapter. Reasonable opportunity for inspection of specific property by a claimant thereof shall be provided in Washington, District of Columbia.

(b) Delivery of property to claimant upon proof of entitlement; determination of validity of claims; recoupment of expenses; liability for losses; insurance requirements

(1) The Comptroller shall deliver such property to any claimant or his or her legally authorized representative upon receiving proof deemed adequate by the Comptroller that such claimant is entitled to the property, but only if the claimant files for the property within twelve months following the last date formal notice is published in the Federal Register.

(2)(A) The Comptroller shall have authority to determine the validity of all claims filed. The Comptroller may recoup expenses associated with the handling and processing of claims from any sale of property authorized by this subchapter.

(B) All expenses associated with the delivery of any property shall be borne by the claimant. The Comptroller shall not be responsible for any loss in connection with the handling, storage, or delivery of any property to the claimant. The Comptroller may require the claimant to purchase insurance to cover the risk of any loss.

(c) Vesting of rights, title and interest in unclaimed property in United States; sale, use, destruction or disposition of property; proceeds of sale as miscellaneous receipts

(1) If, after twelve months from the date formal notice is published in the Federal Register, any such property remains in the possession, custody, or control of the Comptroller for which no valid claim has been filed, all rights, title, and interest in such property shall immediately be vested in the United States.

(2) The Comptroller shall thereupon, in his discretion, sell, use, destroy, or otherwise dispose of any such unclaimed property. Such disposition may include donations to the Smithsonian Institution for addition to the national collection.

(3) The proceeds of any sale authorized by this section, after recoupment by the Comptroller of any expenses incurred hereunder, shall be covered into the Treasury as miscellaneous receipts.

(d) Liability for determination of validity of claims; liability for delivery, sale, etc., of property

The United States, the Comptroller, or any officer, employee, or agent thereof shall not be subject to personal or legal liability for any determination as to the validity of any claim or claims filed under this subchapter or for any delivery, sale, destruction, or other disposition of unclaimed property.

(e) Court action for determination of ownership, etc., in State or Federal court of competent jurisdiction; de novo nature of action; parties

(1) A court action to determine legal ownership, entitlement, or right to possession may be filed in any State or Federal court of competent jurisdiction other than against the United States, the Comptroller, or any officer, agent, or employee thereof.

(2) Such actions shall be determined de novo without regard to any agency determination or any disposition or delivery by the Comptroller of any particular property to any person.

(3) The United States, the Comptroller, or any officer, employee, or agent thereof shall neither be a party to any such judicial proceeding nor be bound by any decision, decree, or order resulting therefrom.

(f) Jurisdiction of United States Court of Federal Claims of actions against United States, Comptroller, officer, etc.; scope of review of actions of Comptroller; limitations; claims against Comptroller, officer, etc., as claim against United States

(1) The United States Court of Federal Claims shall have exclusive jurisdiction to hear and determine any suit brought against the United States, the Comptroller, or any officer, employee, or agent thereof with regard to any determination of a claim or the disposition of any unclaimed property.

(2) The United States Court of Federal Claims may set aside actions of the Comptroller only if such actions are found to be arbitrary, capricious, an abuse of discretion, or otherwise not in accordance with law.

(3) All claims for which the United States Court of Federal Claims has jurisdiction under this subsection shall be barred unless suit is filed within two years from the date of expiration of the twelve-month notice period provided by this subchapter.

(4) For purposes of section 1491 of title 28, any Claim 1 against the Comptroller, the United States, or any officer, employee, or agent thereof shall be considered a claim against the United States.

(Pub. L. 96–221, title VII, §733, as added Pub. L. 97–320, title IV, §408, Oct. 15, 1982, 96 Stat. 1513; amended Pub. L. 102–572, title IX, §902(b)(1), Oct. 29, 1992, 106 Stat. 4516.)

Amendments

1992—Subsec. (f)(1) to (3). Pub. L. 102–572 substituted “United States Court of Federal Claims” for “United States Claims Court”.

Effective Date of 1992 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 102–572 effective Oct. 29, 1992, see section 911 of Pub. L. 102–572, set out as a note under section 171 of Title 28, Judiciary and Judicial Procedure.

1 So in original. Probably should not be capitalized.

§216c. Rules and regulations

The Comptroller may issue rules and regulations necessary or appropriate to carry out this subchapter.

(Pub. L. 96–221, title VII, §734, as added Pub. L. 97–320, title IV, §408, Oct. 15, 1982, 96 Stat. 1515.)

§216d. Severability

If any provision of this subchapter or the application of such provision to any person or circumstance is held invalid, the remainder of this subchapter and the application of such provision to other persons or circumstances shall not be affected thereby.

(Pub. L. 96–221, title VII, §735, as added Pub. L. 97–320, title IV, §408, Oct. 15, 1982, 96 Stat. 1515.)