12 U.S.C.
United States Code, 2011 Edition
Title 12 - BANKS AND BANKING
CHAPTER 3 - FEDERAL RESERVE SYSTEM
SUBCHAPTER I - DEFINITIONS, ORGANIZATION, AND GENERAL PROVISIONS AFFECTING SYSTEM
From the U.S. Government Printing Office, www.gpo.gov

SUBCHAPTER I—DEFINITIONS, ORGANIZATION, AND GENERAL PROVISIONS AFFECTING SYSTEM

§221. Definitions

Wherever the word “bank” is used in this chapter, the word shall be held to include State bank, banking association, and trust company, except where national banks or Federal reserve banks are specifically referred to. For purposes of this chapter, a State bank includes any bank which is operating under the Code of Law for the District of Columbia.

The terms “national bank” and “national banking association” used in this chapter shall be held to be synonymous and interchangeable. The term “member bank” shall be held to mean any national bank, State bank, or bank or trust company which has become a member of one of the Federal reserve banks. The term “board” shall be held to mean Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System; the term “district” shall be held to mean Federal reserve district; the term “reserve bank” shall be held to mean Federal reserve bank; the term “the continental United States” means the States of the United States and the District of Columbia.

The terms “bonds and notes of the United States”, “bonds and notes of the Government of the United States”, and “bonds or notes of the United States” used in this chapter shall be held to include certificates of indebtedness and Treasury bills issued under section 3104 of title 31.

(Dec. 23, 1913, ch. 6, §1 (pars.), 38 Stat. 251; Aug. 23, 1935, ch. 614, title II, §203(a), 49 Stat. 704; Pub. L. 86–70, §8(a), June 25, 1959, 73 Stat. 142; Pub. L. 97–258, §2(c), Sept. 13, 1982, 96 Stat. 1058; Pub. L. 109–351, title VII, §725(a)(1), Oct. 13, 2006, 120 Stat. 2001; Pub. L. 109–356, title I, §123(a)(1), Oct. 16, 2006, 120 Stat. 2028.)

References in Text

This chapter, referred to in text, was in the original “this Act”, meaning act Dec. 23, 1913, ch. 6, 38 Stat. 251, as amended, known as the Federal Reserve Act. For complete classification of this Act to the Code, see References in Text note set out under section 226 of this title and Tables.

Codification

This section is comprised of the second to fourth pars. of section 1 of act Dec. 23, 1913. The first par. of section 1 is classified to section 226 of this title.

Amendments

2006—Pub. L. 109–351 and 109–356 amended section identically, inserting “For purposes of this chapter, a State bank includes any bank which is operating under the Code of Law for the District of Columbia.” at end of first par.

1982—Pub. L. 97–258 inserted provisions defining “bonds and notes of the United States”, “bonds and notes of the Government of the United States”, and “bonds or notes of the United States”. These provisions are based on acts Sept. 24, 1917, ch. 56, §5(c), 40 Stat. 290; Apr. 4, 1918, ch. 44, §4, 40 Stat. 504; Mar. 3, 1919, ch. 100, §3, 40 Stat. 1311; restated June 17, 1929, ch. 26, 46 Stat. 20 (former 31 U.S.C. 754(c)).

1959—Pub. L. 86–70 inserted definition of “the continental United States”.

Change of Name

Section 203(a) of act Aug. 23, 1935, changed name of Federal Reserve Board to Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System.

§221a. Additional definitions

As used in this chapter—

(a) The terms “banks”, “national bank”, “national banking association”, “member bank”, “board”, “district”, and “reserve bank” shall have the meanings assigned to them in section 221 of this title.

(b) Except where otherwise specifically provided, the term “affiliate” shall include any corporation, business trust, association, or other similar organization—

(1) Of which a member bank, directly or indirectly, owns or controls either a majority of the voting shares or more than 50 per centum of the number of shares voted for the election of its directors, trustees, or other persons exercising similar functions at the preceding election, or controls in any manner the election of a majority of its directors, trustees, or other persons exercising similar functions; or

(2) Of which control is held, directly or indirectly, through stock ownership or in any other manner, by the shareholders of a member bank who own or control either a majority of the shares of such bank or more than 50 per centum of the number of shares voted for the election of directors of such bank at the preceding election, or by trustees for the benefit of the shareholders of any such bank; or

(3) Of which a majority of its directors, trustees, or other persons exercising similar functions are directors of any one member bank; or

(4) Which owns or controls, directly or indirectly, either a majority of the shares of capital stock of a member bank or more than 50 per centum of the number of shares voted for the election of directors of a member bank at the preceding election, or controls in any manner the election of a majority of the directors of a member bank, or for the benefit of whose shareholders or members all or substantially all the capital stock of a member bank is held by trustees.

(June 16, 1933, ch. 89, §2, 48 Stat. 162; Aug. 23, 1935, ch. 614, title III, §301, 49 Stat. 707; Pub. L. 89–485, §13(a), (b), July 1, 1966, 80 Stat. 242.)

References in Text

As used in this chapter, referred to in text, was in the original “As used in this Act and in any provision of law amended by this Act”, meaning act June 16, 1933, ch. 89, 48 Stat. 162, as amended, known as the Banking Act of 1933. For complete classification of this Act to the Code, see References in Text note set out under section 227 of this title and Tables.

Amendments

1966—Subsec. (b)(4). Pub. L. 89–485, §13(a), added par. (4) which incorporates definitions of “holding company affiliate” contained in cls. (1) and (2) of former subsec. (c) of this section, and substituted “a member bank” for “any one bank” in first two places.

Subsec. (c). Pub. L. 89–485, §13(b), repealed definition of “holding company affiliate”, cls. (1) and (2) thereof now being incorporated in the subsec. (b)(4) definition of “affiliate”, substituting “a member bank” for “any one bank” in first two places and the par. excluding therefrom any corporations stock of which is fully owned by the United States and any organization determined by the Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System not to be engaged, directly or indirectly, as a business in holding the stock of, or managing or controlling, banks, banking associations, savings banks, or trust companies.

1935—Subsec. (c). Act Aug. 23, 1935, added last par.

§222. Federal reserve districts; membership of national banks

The continental United States, excluding Alaska, shall be divided into not less than eight nor more than twelve districts. Such districts may be readjusted and new districts may from time to time be created by the Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System, not to exceed twelve in all: Provided, That the districts shall be apportioned with due regard to the convenience and customary course of business and shall not necessarily be coterminous with any State or States. Such districts shall be known as Federal reserve districts and may be designated by number. When the State of Alaska or Hawaii is hereafter admitted to the Union the Federal Reserve 1 districts shall be readjusted by the Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System in such manner as to include such State. Every national bank in any State shall, upon commencing business or within ninety days after admission into the Union of the State in which it is located, become a member bank of the Federal Reserve System by subscribing and paying for stock in the Federal Reserve bank of its district in accordance with the provisions of this chapter and shall thereupon be an insured bank under the Federal Deposit Insurance Act [12 U.S.C. 1811 et seq.], and failure to do so shall subject such bank to the penalty provided by section 501a of this title.

(Dec. 23, 1913, ch. 6, §2 (part), 38 Stat. 251; Aug. 23, 1935, ch. 614, title II, §203(a), 49 Stat. 704; Pub. L. 85–508, §19, July 7, 1958, 72 Stat. 350; Pub. L. 86–3, §17, Mar. 18, 1959, 73 Stat. 12.)

References in Text

This chapter, referred to in text, was in the original “this Act”, meaning act Dec. 23, 1913, ch. 6, 38 Stat. 251, known as the Federal Reserve Act. For complete classification of this Act to the Code, see References in Text note set out under section 226 of this title and Tables.

The Federal Deposit Insurance Act, referred to in text, is act Sept. 21, 1950, ch. 967, §2, 64 Stat. 873, which is classified generally to chapter 16 (§1811 et seq.) of this title. For complete classification of this Act to the Code, see Short Title note set out under section 1811 of this title and Tables.

Codification

Section is based on part of the first par. of section 2 of act Dec. 23, 1913. Some of the other provisions of the first par. are classified to section 223 of this title, and some were not included in the Code.

The second par. of section 2 is classified in part to section 225 of this title. The rest of the second par. was not included in the Code.

The third par. of section 2 is classified in part to section 282 of this title. The rest of the third par. was not included in the Code.

The fourth par. of section 2 is classified to section 502 of this title.

The sixth and seventh pars. of section 2 are classified to section 501a of this title.

The ninth par. of section 2 is classified to section 283 of this title.

The tenth par. of section 2 was classified in part to former section 284 of this title. The rest of the tenth par. was not included in the Code.

The eleventh and twelfth pars. of section 2 are classified to sections 285 and 286, respectively, of this title.

The thirteenth par. of section 2 is classified in part to section 224 of this title and in part to section 281 of this title. The rest of the thirteenth par. was not included in the Code.

The fifth and eighth pars. of section 2 were not included in the Code.

Former section 141 of this title purportedly derived from part of section 2 of act Dec. 23, 1913. But see Codification note set out under former section 141 of this title.

Amendments

1959—Pub. L. 86–3 required readjustment of districts when the State of Hawaii is admitted to the Union.

1958—Pub. L. 85–508 required readjustment of districts when the State of Alaska is admitted to the Union, and inserted provisions requiring national banks to become members of the Federal Reserve System upon commencing business or within 90 Days after admission into the Union of the State in which they are located.

Change of Name

Section 203(a) of act Aug. 23, 1935, changed name of Federal Reserve Board to Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System.

Admission of Alaska and Hawaii to Statehood

Alaska was admitted into the Union on Jan. 3, 1959, on issuance of Proc. No. 3269, Jan. 3, 1959, 24 F.R. 81, 73 Stat. C16, and Hawaii was admitted into the Union on Aug. 21, 1959, on issuance of Proc. No. 3309, Aug. 21, 1959, 24 F.R. 6868, 73 Stat. C74. For Alaska Statehood Law, see Pub. L. 85–508, July 7, 1958, 72 Stat. 339, set out as a note preceding section 21 of Title 48, Territories and Insular Possessions. For Hawaii Statehood Law, see Pub. L. 86–3, Mar. 18, 1959, 73 Stat. 4, set out as a note preceding section 491 of Title 48.

1 Capitalized as in original.

§223. Number of Federal reserve cities in district

A Federal reserve district shall contain only one Federal reserve city.

(Dec. 23, 1913, ch. 6, §2 (part), 38 Stat. 251.)

Codification

Section is based on part of the first par. of section 2 of act Dec. 23, 1913. Some of the other provisions of the first par. are classified to section 222 of this title, and some were not included in the Code. For classification of other pars. of section 2 of this Act, see Codification note under section 222 of this title.

§224. Status of reserve cities under former statutes

The organization of reserve districts and Federal reserve cities shall not be construed as changing the present status of reserve cities except in so far as this chapter changes the amount of reserves that may be carried with approved reserve agents located therein.

(Dec. 23, 1913, ch. 6, §2 (part), 38 Stat. 253; Pub. L. 86–114, §3(b)(5), July 28, 1959, 73 Stat. 264.)

References in Text

This chapter, referred to in text, was in the original “this Act”, meaning act Dec. 23, 1913, ch. 6, 38 Stat. 251, as amended, known as the Federal Reserve Act. For complete classification of this Act to the Code, see References in Text note set out under section 226 of this title and Tables.

Codification

Section is comprised of part of the thirteenth par. of section 2 of act Dec. 23, 1913. Some of the other provisions of the thirteenth par. are classified to section 281 of this title, and some were not included in the Code. For classification of other pars. of section 2 of this Act, see Codification note set out under section 222 of this title.

Amendments

1959—Pub. L. 86–114 struck out “and central reserve cities” after “reserve cities”.

Effective Date of 1959 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 86–114 effective three years after July 28, 1959, see section 3(b) of Pub. L. 86–114, set out as a Central Reserve and Reserve Cities note under former section 141 of this title.

Prior Provisions

Provisions relating to reserve cities and central reserve cities were contained in R.S. §§5191, 5192, and act Mar. 3, 1887, ch. 378, §§1, 2, 24 Stat. 559, 560.

§225. Federal reserve banks; title

A Federal reserve bank shall include in its title the name of the city in which it is situated, as “Federal Reserve Bank of Chicago.”

(Dec. 23, 1913, ch. 6, §2 (part), 38 Stat. 252.)

Codification

Section is based on part of the second par. of section 2 of act Dec. 23, 1913. The rest of the second par. was not included in the Code. For classification of other pars. of section 2 of this Act, see Codification note set out under section 222 of this title.

§225a. Maintenance of long run growth of monetary and credit aggregates

The Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System and the Federal Open Market Committee shall maintain long run growth of the monetary and credit aggregates commensurate with the economy's long run potential to increase production, so as to promote effectively the goals of maximum employment, stable prices, and moderate long-term interest rates.

(Dec. 23, 1913, ch. 6, §2A, as added Pub. L. 95–188, title II, §202, Nov. 16, 1977, 91 Stat. 1387; amended Pub. L. 95–523, title I, §108(a), Oct. 27, 1978, 92 Stat. 1897; Pub. L. 100–418, title III, §3005(c), Aug. 23, 1988, 102 Stat. 1375; Pub. L. 106–569, title X, §1003(a), Dec. 27, 2000, 114 Stat. 3028.)

Codification

Another section 202 of Pub. L. 95–188 amended section 302 of this title.

Amendments

2000—Pub. L. 106–569 struck out provisions after first sentence relating to annual reports to Congress, transmittal of reports to Congressional Committees, consultations with Committees, report of Committee, changing conditions affecting achievement of objectives and plans, and explanation for deviations from objectives and plans.

1988—Pub. L. 100–418 inserted “, including an analysis of the impact of the exchange rate of the dollar on those trends” after “the Nation” in cl. (1).

1978—Pub. L. 95–523 substituted provisions relating to independent written reports of the Board of Governors to the Congress for provisions relating to the consultations of the Board of Governors with Congress at semi-annual hearings, substituted “the objectives and plans with respect to the ranges” for “such ranges”, inserted “of the monetary and credit aggregates disclosed in the reports submitted under this section” after “growth or diminution”, and inserted proviso respecting the inclusion of an explanation of reasons for revisions or deviations in subsequent consultations and reports.

Effective Date of 1978 Amendment

Section 108(b) of Pub. L. 95–523 provided that: “The amendment made by subsection (a) [amending this section] takes effect on January 1, 1979.”

§225b. Appearances before and reports to the Congress

(a) Appearances before the Congress

(1) In general

The Chairman of the Board shall appear before the Congress at semi-annual hearings, as specified in paragraph (2), regarding—

(A) the efforts, activities, objectives and plans of the Board and the Federal Open Market Committee with respect to the conduct of monetary policy; and

(B) economic developments and prospects for the future described in the report required in subsection (b) of this section.

(2) Schedule

The Chairman of the Board shall appear—

(A) before the Committee on Banking and Financial Services of the House of Representatives on or about February 20 of even numbered calendar years and on or about July 20 of odd numbered calendar years;

(B) before the Committee on Banking, Housing, and Urban Affairs of the Senate on or about July 20 of even numbered calendar years and on or about February 20 of odd numbered calendar years; and

(C) before either Committee referred to in subparagraph (A) or (B), upon request, following the scheduled appearance of the Chairman before the other Committee under subparagraph (A) or (B).

(b) Congressional report

The Board shall, concurrent with each semi-annual hearing required by this section, submit a written report to the Committee on Banking, Housing, and Urban Affairs of the Senate and the Committee on Banking and Financial Services of the House of Representatives, containing a discussion of the conduct of monetary policy and economic developments and prospects for the future, taking into account past and prospective developments in employment, unemployment, production, investment, real income, productivity, exchange rates, international trade and payments, and prices.

(c) Public access to information

The Board shall place on its home Internet website, a link entitled “Audit”, which shall link to a webpage that shall serve as a repository of information made available to the public for a reasonable period of time, not less than 6 months following the date of release of the relevant information, including—

(1) the reports prepared by the Comptroller General under section 714 of title 31;

(2) the annual financial statements prepared by an independent auditor for the Board in accordance with section 248b of this title;

(3) the reports to the Committee on Banking, Housing, and Urban Affairs of the Senate required under section 343(3) of this title (relating to emergency lending authority); and

(4) such other information as the Board reasonably believes is necessary or helpful to the public in understanding the accounting, financial reporting, and internal controls of the Board and the Federal reserve banks.

(Dec. 23, 1913, ch. 6, §2B, as added Pub. L. 106–569, title X, §1003(b)(1), Dec. 27, 2000, 114 Stat. 3028; amended Pub. L. 111–203, title XI, §1103(a), July 21, 2010, 124 Stat. 2118.)

Amendments

2010—Subsec. (c). Pub. L. 111–203 added subsec. (c).

Change of Name

Committee on Banking and Financial Services of House of Representatives abolished and replaced by Committee on Financial Services of House of Representatives, and jurisdiction over matters relating to securities and exchanges and insurance generally transferred from Committee on Energy and Commerce of House of Representatives by House Resolution No. 5, One Hundred Seventh Congress, Jan. 3, 2001.

Effective Date of 2010 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 111–203 effective 1 day after July 21, 2010, except as otherwise provided, see section 4 of Pub. L. 111–203, set out as an Effective Date note under section 5301 of this title.

§226. “Federal Reserve Act”

The short title of the Act of December 23, 1913, ch. 6, 38 Stat. 251, shall be the “Federal Reserve Act.”

(Dec. 23, 1913, ch. 6, §1 (par.), 38 Stat. 251.)

References in Text

The Act of December 23, 1913, ch. 6, referred to in text, is classified to this section, sections 1, 35, 59, 90, 92, 141, 142, 221, 222 to 225b, 241 to 246, 247 to 247b, 248, 248–1, 248a, 248b, 261 to 263, 281 to 290, 301 to 308, 321 to 336, 338 to 339a, 341 to 352, 353 to 361, 371 to 371b, 371b–2 to 376, 391, 392, 393, 411 to 416, 418 to 421, 441 to 448, 461, 462, 462b to 467, 481 to 486, 501a to 506, 521, 522, 531, 601 to 604a, and 611 to 633 of this title and as a provision set out as a note under this section. Subsecs. (a)–(c) and (h)–(k) of section 22 of the Act, which were classified to former sections 593 to 599 of this title, were repealed and restated in sections 217 to 220, 433, 655, 656, 1005, 1014, 1906, and 1909 of Title 18, Crimes and Criminal Procedure, by act June 25, 1948, ch. 645, §§1, 21, 62 Stat. 683, 862, the first section of which enacted Title 18. Sections 217 to 220 of Title 18 were subsequently renumbered sections 212 to 215 of Title 18, respectively, by Pub. L. 87–849, §1(d), Oct. 23, 1962, 76 Stat. 1125. Sections 212 and 213 of Title 18, as renumbered by Pub. L. 87–849, were subsequently repealed by Pub. L. 108–198, §2(a), Dec. 19, 2003, 117 Stat. 2899. For complete classification of this Act to the Code, see Tables.

Codification

This section is comprised of the first par. of section 1 of act Dec. 23, 1913. The second to fourth pars. of section 1 are classified to section 221 of this title.

Short Title of 1996 Amendment

Pub. L. 104–208, div. A, title II, §2001(a), Sept. 30, 1996, 110 Stat. 3009–394, provided that: “This title [see Tables for classification] may be cited as the ‘Economic Growth and Regulatory Paperwork Reduction Act of 1996’.”

Short Title of 1992 Amendment

Pub. L. 102–491, §1, Oct. 24, 1992, 106 Stat. 3144, provided that: “This Act [amending section 522 of this title] may be cited as the ‘Federal Reserve Bank Branch Modernization Act’.”

Short Title of 1987 Amendment

Pub. L. 100–86, §1(a), Aug. 10, 1987, 101 Stat. 552, provided that: “This Act [enacting sections 371c–1, 1439–1, 1441, 1442a, 1467, 1467a, 1730h, 1730i, 1772b, 1772c, 3806, and 4001 to 4010 of this title and section 3334 of Title 31, Money and Finance, amending sections 24, 248a, 481, 619, 1430, 1436, 1464, 1467, 1725 to 1727, 1729 to 1730a, 1730h, 1757, 1761a, 1761b, 1764, 1766, 1767, 1785 to 1788, 1813, 1817, 1821, 1823, 1828, 1831d, 1832, 1841 to 1843, 1846, 1849, and 3106 of this title, sections 905 and 906 of Title 2, The Congress, sections 45, 46, and 57a of Title 15, Commerce and Trade, and sections 3328, 3702, 3712, 9101, and 9105 of Title 31, providing for future repeal of sections 1442a, 1467a, and 1730i of this title, enacting provisions set out as notes under sections 226, 248a, 619, 1437, 1441, 1464, 1467, 1467a, 1730, 1730a, 1751, 1811, 1841, and 4001 of this title and section 3328 of Title 31, and amending provisions set out as a note under section 1729 of this title] may be cited as the ‘Competitive Equality Banking Act of 1987’.”

Pub. L. 100–86, title I, §100, Aug. 10, 1987, 101 Stat. 554, provided that: “This title [enacting section 371c–1 of this title, amending sections 24, 619, 1430, 1730, 1730a, 1813, 1828, 1831d, 1832, 1841 to 1843, and 1846 of this title, and enacting provisions set out as notes under sections 226, 619, 1730a, and 1841 of this title] may be cited as the ‘Competitive Equality Amendments of 1987’.”

Pub. L. 100–86, title III, §301, Aug. 10, 1987, 101 Stat. 585, provided that: “This title [enacting section 1441 of this title, amending sections 1430, 1436, 1725, 1727, and 1730 of this title and section 9101 of Title 31, Money and Finance, and enacting provisions set out as a note under section 1730 of this title] may be cited as the ‘Federal Savings and Loan Insurance Corporation Recapitalization Act of 1987’.”

Pub. L. 100–86, title IV, §401, Aug. 10, 1987, 101 Stat. 604, provided that: “This title [enacting sections 1442a, 1467, 1467a, 1730h, and 1730i of this title, amending sections 1464, 1467, 1729 to 1730a, and 1730h of this title, and section 9105 of Title 31, Money and Finance, providing for future repeal of sections 1442a, 1467a, and 1730i of this title, and enacting provisions set out as notes under sections 1437, 1441, 1467, and 1467a of this title] may be cited as the ‘Thrift Industry Recovery Act’.”

Short Title of 1982 Amendment

Pub. L. 97–320, §1, Oct. 15, 1982, 96 Stat. 1469, provided that: “This Act [enacting sections 216 to 216d, 1701j–3, 1795j, 1866, 1867, 3208, and 3801 to 3805 of this title and section 1099 of Title 20, Education, amending sections 22, 24, 27, 29, 30, 84, 93, 94, 95, 371, 371c, 375a, 375b, 461, 484, 504, 505, 1425a, 1426, 1428a, 1430, 1431, 1436, 1437, 1462, 1464, 1718, 1719, 1725, 1726, 1727, 1728, 1729, 1730, 1730a, 1752, 1752a, 1753, 1755, 1757, 1760, 1761, 1761a, 1761b, 1761c, 1763, 1764, 1766, 1770, 1771, 1782, 1783, 1785, 1786, 1795f, 1813, 1814, 1815, 1817, 1818, 1820, 1821, 1822, 1823, 1828, 1831c, 1832, 1841, 1842, 1843, 1847, 1861, 1862, 1863, 1864, 1865, 1972, 3106, 3204, 3305, 3412, 3414, and 3503 of this title, section 109 of Title 11, Bankruptcy, sections 1602 and 1603 of Title 15, Commerce and Trade, and sections 8103 and 8105 of Title 42, The Public Health and Welfare, repealing section 82 of this title and provisions set out as a note under section 461 of this title, enacting provisions set out as notes under this section, sections 84, 371, 371c, 1461, 1464, 1811, 1817, 1823, 3503, and 3801 of this title, and sections 1602 and 1603 of Title 15, and amending provisions set out as notes under sections 92 and 191 of this title] may be cited as the ‘Garn-St Germain Depository Institutions Act of 1982’.”

Pub. L. 97–320, title IV, §410(a), Oct. 15, 1982, 96 Stat. 1515, provided that: “This section [amending sections 371c, 375b, 1820, 1828 and 1972 of this title, and enacting provisions set out as a note under section 371c of this title] may be cited as the ‘Banking Affiliates Act of 1982’.”

Short Title of 1980 Amendment

Pub. L. 96–221, §1, Mar. 31, 1980, 94 Stat. 132, provided that: “This Act [enacting sections 4a, 86a, 93a, 248a, 1730g, 1735f–7a, 1831d, and 3501 to 3524 of this title, and section 1646 of Title 15, Commerce and Trade, amending sections 24, 27, 29, 51b, 51b–1, 72, 85, 92, 95, 214a, 248, 342, 347b, 355, 360, 371a, 412, 461, 463, 481, 1425a, 1425b, 1431, 1464, 1724, 1726, 1728, 1752, 1757, 1763, 1785, 1787, 1795, to 1795i, 1813, 1817, 1821, 1828, 1832, 1842, and 1843 of this title, and sections 57a, 687, 1602 to 1607, 1610, 1612, 1613, 1631, 1632, 1635, 1637, 1638, 1640, 1641, 1643, 1663, 1664, 1665a, 1666, 1666d, 1667d, and 1691f of Title 15, repealing sections 86a, 371b–1, 1730e, and 1831a of this title, and sections 1614, 1636, and 1639 of Title 15, enacting provisions set out as notes under this section, sections 27, 85, 86a, 191, 248, 355, 371a, 1425a, 1724, 1730g, 1735f–7, 1735f–7a, 1787, 1813, 1817, 3101, 3501, and 3521 of this title, and sections 1601, 1602, and 1607 of Title 15, and repealing provisions set out as notes under sections 85, 86a, 371b–1, and 1831a of this title] may be cited as the ‘Depository Institutions Deregulation and Monetary Control Act of 1980’.”

Pub. L. 96–221, title I, §101, Mar. 31, 1980, 94 Stat. 132, provided that: “This title [enacting section 248a of this title, amending sections 248, 342, 347b, 355, 360, 412, 461, 463, and 1425a of this title and enacting provisions set out as notes under sections 248 and 355 of this title] may be cited as the ‘Monetary Control Act of 1980’.”

Pub. L. 96–221, title III, §301, Mar. 31, 1980, 94 Stat. 145, provided that: “This title [amending sections 371a, 1431, 1464, 1724, 1728, 1752, 1757, 1763, 1785, 1787, 1795 to 1795i, 1813, 1817, 1821, 1828, and 1832 of this title and enacting provisions set out as notes under sections 371a, 1724, 1787, 1813, and 1817 of this title] may be cited as the ‘Consumer Checking Account Equity Act of 1980’.”

Short Title of 1978 Amendment

Pub. L. 95–630, §1, Nov. 10, 1978, 92 Stat. 3641, provided: “That this Act [enacting sections 375b, 504, 505, 635a–1 to 635a–3, 1795 to 1795i, 1831c, 3106a, 3201 to 3207, 3301 to 3308, and 3401 to 3422 of this title, sections 1693 to 1693r of Title 15, Commerce and Trade, and section 2153e–1 of Title 42, The Public Health and Welfare, amending sections 27, 93, 375a, 412, 635, 635e to 635g, 1451, 1462, 1464, 1715z–10, 1726, 1728 to 1730a, 1752 to 1756, 1757 to 1759, 1761 to 1763, 1766, 1767, 1771, 1772a, 1781 to 1789, 1795b to 1795g, 1813, 1817 to 1821, 1828, 1832, 1843, 1844, 1847, 1865, 1972, and 2902 of this title, sections 5108, 5314, and 5315 of Title 5, Government Organization and Employees, sections 709 and 1114 of Title 18, Crimes and Criminal Procedure, and sections 67 and 856 of former Title 31, Money and Finance, enacting provisions set out as notes under sections 27, 93, 375b, 461, 601, 635, 1451, 1728, 1730, 1751, 1752, 1795, 1817, 1832, 3201, 3301, 3401, and 3415 of this title, and sections 1601 and 1693 of Title 15; and amending provisions set out as notes under this section, section 461 of this title, and section 1666f of Title 15] may be cited as the ‘Financial Institutions Regulatory and Interest Rate Control Act of 1978’.”

Short Title of 1977 Amendment

Pub. L. 95–188, title II, §201, Nov. 16, 1977, 91 Stat. 1387, provided that: “This title [enacting section 225a of this title, amending sections 242 and 302 of this title and section 208 of Title 18, Crimes and Criminal Procedure, and enacting provisions set out as a note under section 242 of this title] may be cited as the ‘Federal Reserve Reform Act of 1977’.”

Short Title of 1932 Amendment

Act Feb. 27, 1932, ch. 58, 47 Stat. 56, which enacted sections 347a and 347b of this title, and amended section 412 of this title, is popularly known as the Glass-Steagall Act, 1932.

Separability; Right To Amend, Alter or Repeal

Pub. L. 100–86, title XII, §1205, Aug. 10, 1987, 101 Stat. 663, provided that: “If any provision of this Act [see Short Title of 1987 Amendment note above] or the application thereof to any person or circumstances is held invalid, the remainder of the Act and the application of the provision to other persons not similarly situated or to other circumstances shall not be affected thereby.”

Sections 30 and 31, formerly 29 and 30, respectively, of act Dec. 23, 1913, as renumbered by act Nov. 10, 1978, Pub. L. 95–630, title I, §101, 92 Stat. 3641, provided:

Sec. 30. If any clause, sentence, paragraph, or part of this Act shall for any reason be adjudged by any court of competent jurisdiction to be invalid, such judgment shall not affect, impair, or invalidate the remainder of this Act, but shall be confined in its operation to the clause, sentence, paragraph, or part thereof directly involved in the controversy in which such judgment shall have been rendered.

Sec. 31. The right to amend, alter, or repeal this Act is hereby expressly reserved.”

§227. “Banking Act of 1933”

The short title of the Act of June 16, 1933, ch. 89, 48 Stat. 162, shall be the “Banking Act of 1933.”

(June 16, 1933, ch. 89, §1, 48 Stat. 162.)

References in Text

The Banking Act of 1933, also known as the Glass-Steagall Act, 1933, referred to in text, is classified to sections 24, 33, 34a, 36, 51, 52, 61, 64a, 71a, 77, 78, 84, 85, 161, 197a, 221a, 227, 242, 244, 248, 289, 301, 304, 321, 329, 333 to 338, 347, 348a, 371b, 371c, 371d, 374a, 375a, 377, 378, 481, and 632 of this title. For complete classification of this Act to the Code, see Tables.

Right To Amend, Alter or Repeal; Separability

Section 34 of act June 16, 1933, provided: “The right to alter, amend, or repeal this Act is hereby expressly reserved. If any provision of this act, or the application thereof to any person or circumstances, is held invalid, the remainder of the act, and the application of such provision to other persons or circumstances, shall not be affected thereby”.

§228. “Banking Act of 1935”

The act of August 23, 1935, ch. 614, 49 Stat. 684, may be cited as the “Banking Act of 1935.”

(Aug. 23, 1935, ch. 614, §1, 49 Stat. 684.)

References in Text

The Banking Act of 1935, referred to in text, is classified to sections 2, 24, 33 to 34c, 35, 36, 51, 51a, 51b–1, 52, 59 to 61, 64a, 71a, 78, 84, 85, 170, 181, 192, 221a, 228, 241, 242, 244, 247a, 248, 263, 287, 288, 321, 324, 336, 341, 343, 347b, 352a, 355, 357, 371, 371b, 371c, 375a, 377, 378, 461, 462a–1, 462b, 465, 481, 482, 486, 619, 1702, 1703, 1709, and 1713 of this title; section 101 of Title 11, Bankruptcy; section 19 of Title 15, Commerce and Trade. See, also, sections 217, 218, 334, 655, 656, 709, 1005, 1906, 1909, and 2113 of Title 18, Crimes and Criminal Procedure. For complete classification of this Act to the Code see Tables.

Separability

Section 346 of act Aug. 23, 1935, provided: “If any provision of this Act, or the application thereof to any person or circumstances, is held invalid, the remainder of the Act, and the application of such provision to other persons and circumstances, shall not be affected thereby.”