12 U.S.C.
United States Code, 2011 Edition
Title 12 - BANKS AND BANKING
CHAPTER 35 - RIGHT TO FINANCIAL PRIVACY
From the U.S. Government Printing Office, www.gpo.gov

CHAPTER 35—RIGHT TO FINANCIAL PRIVACY

Sec.
3401.
Definitions.
3402.
Access to financial records by Government authorities prohibited; exceptions.
3403.
Confidentiality of financial records.
3404.
Customer authorizations.
3405.
Administrative subpena and summons.
3406.
Search warrants.
3407.
Judicial subpena.
3408.
Formal written request.
3409.
Delayed notice.
3410.
Customer challenges.
3411.
Duty of financial institutions.
3412.
Use of information.
3413.
Exceptions.
3414.
Special procedures.
3415.
Cost reimbursement.
3416.
Jurisdiction.
3417.
Civil penalties.
3418.
Injunctive relief.
3419.
Suspension of limitations.
3420.
Grand jury information; notification of certain persons prohibited.
3421.
Repealed.
3422.
Applicability to Securities and Exchange Commission.

        

§3401. Definitions

For the purpose of this chapter, the term—

(1) “financial institution”, except as provided in section 3414 of this title, means any office of a bank, savings bank, card issuer as defined in section 1602(n) 1 of title 15, industrial loan company, trust company, savings association, building and loan, or homestead association (including cooperative banks), credit union, or consumer finance institution, located in any State or territory of the United States, the District of Columbia, Puerto Rico, Guam, American Samoa, or the Virgin Islands;

(2) “financial record” means an original of, a copy of, or information known to have been derived from, any record held by a financial institution pertaining to a customer's relationship with the financial institution;

(3) “Government authority” means any agency or department of the United States, or any officer, employee, or agent thereof;

(4) “person” means an individual or a partnership of five or fewer individuals;

(5) “customer” means any person or authorized representative of that person who utilized or is utilizing any service of a financial institution, or for whom a financial institution is acting or has acted as a fiduciary, in relation to an account maintained in the person's name;

(6) “holding company” means—

(A) any bank holding company (as defined in section 1841 of this title); and

(B) any company described in section 1843(f)(1) of this title;


(7) “supervisory agency” means with respect to any particular financial institution, holding company, or any subsidiary of a financial institution or holding company, any of the following which has statutory authority to examine the financial condition, business operations, or records or transactions of that institution, holding company, or subsidiary—

(A) the Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation;

(B) the Bureau of Consumer Financial Protection;

(C) the National Credit Union Administration;

(D) the Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System;

(E) the Comptroller of the Currency;

(F) the Securities and Exchange Commission;

(G) the Commodity Futures Trading Commission;

(H) the Secretary of the Treasury, with respect to the Bank Secrecy Act (Public Law 91–508, title I) [12 U.S.C. 1951 et seq.] and subchapter II of chapter 53 of title 31; or

(I) any State banking or securities department or agency; and


(8) “law enforcement inquiry” means a lawful investigation or official proceeding inquiring into a violation of, or failure to comply with, any criminal or civil statute or any regulation, rule, or order issued pursuant thereto.

(Pub. L. 95–630, title XI, §1101, Nov. 10, 1978, 92 Stat. 3697; Pub. L. 101–73, title VII, §744(b), title IX, §941, Aug. 9, 1989, 103 Stat. 438, 496; Pub. L. 101–647, title XXV, §2596(c), Nov. 29, 1990, 104 Stat. 4908; Pub. L. 106–102, title VII, §727(b)(1), Nov. 12, 1999, 113 Stat. 1475; Pub. L. 108–177, title III, §374(b), Dec. 13, 2003, 117 Stat. 2628; Pub. L. 111–203, title X, §1099(1), July 21, 2010, 124 Stat. 2105.)

References in Text

Section 1602(n) of title 15, referred to in par. (1), was redesignated section 1602(o) of title 15 by Pub. L. 111–203, title X, §1100A(1)(A), July 21, 2010, 124 Stat. 2107.

The Bank Secrecy Act, referred to in par. (7)(H), is title I of Pub. L. 91–508, Oct. 26, 1970, 84 Stat. 1114, which is classified principally to chapter 21 (§1951 et seq.) of this title. For complete classification of this Act to the Code, see Short Title note set out under section 1951 of this title and Tables.

Codification

In par. (7)(H), “the Bank Secrecy Act (Public Law 91–508, title I) [12 U.S.C. 1951 et seq.] and subchapter II of chapter 53 of title 31” substituted for “the Bank Secrecy Act [12 U.S.C. 1951 et seq.] and the Currency and Foreign Transactions Reporting Act [31 U.S.C. 1051 et seq.] (Public Law 91–508, title I and II)”, on authority of Pub. L. 97–258, §4(b), Sept. 13, 1982, 96 Stat. 1067, the first section of which enacted Title 31, Money and Finance.

Amendments

2010—Par. (6). Pub. L. 111–203, §1099(1)(A), inserted “and” at end of subpar. (A), struck out “and” at end of subpar. (B), and struck out subpar. (C) which read as follows: “any savings and loan holding company (as defined in the Home Owners’ Loan Act);”.

Par. (7)(B). Pub. L. 111–203, §1099(1)(B), added subpar. (B) and struck out former subpar. (B) which read as follows: “Director, Office of Thrift Supervision;”.

2003—Par. (1). Pub. L. 108–177 inserted “, except as provided in section 3414 of this title,” before “means any office”.

1999—Par. (7)(G) to (I). Pub. L. 106–102 added subpar. (G) and redesignated former subpars. (G) and (H) as (H) and (I), respectively.

1990—Par. (6)(B). Pub. L. 101–647 substituted “section 1843(f)(1)” for “section 1842(f)(1)”.

1989—Par. (1). Pub. L. 101–73, §744(b)(1), substituted “savings association” for “savings and loan”.

Par. (6). Pub. L. 101–73, §941(3), added par. (6). Former par. (6) redesignated (7).

Par. (7). Pub. L. 101–73, §941(1), (2), redesignated former par. (6) as (7) and substituted new introductory provisions for former introductory provisions which read as follows: “ ‘supervisory agency’ means, with respect to any particular financial institution any of the following which has statutory authority to examine the financial condition or business operations of that institution—”. Former par. (7) redesignated (8).

Pub. L. 101–73, §744(b)(2), (3), redesignated subpars. (C) to (I) as (B) to (H), respectively, substituted “Director, Office of Thrift Supervision” for “the Federal Home Loan Bank Board” in subpar. (B), and struck out former subpar. (B) which read as follows: “the Federal Savings and Loan Insurance Corporation;”.

Par. (8). Pub. L. 101–73, §941(1), redesignated par. (7) as (8).

Effective Date of 2010 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 111–203 effective on the designated transfer date, see section 1100H of Pub. L. 111–203, set out as a note under section 552a of Title 5, Government Organization and Employees.

Effective Date

Chapter (except for section 3415 of this title) effective upon the expiration of 120 days after Nov. 10, 1978, see section 2101 of Pub. L. 95–630, set out as a note under section 375b of this title.

Short Title

Section 1100 of title XI of Pub. L. 95–630 provided that: “This title [enacting this chapter] may be cited as the ‘Right to Financial Privacy Act of 1978’.”

1 See References in Text note below.

§3402. Access to financial records by Government authorities prohibited; exceptions

Except as provided by section 3403(c) or (d), 3413, or 3414 of this title, no Government authority may have access to or obtain copies of, or the information contained in the financial records of any customer from a financial institution unless the financial records are reasonably described and—

(1) such customer has authorized such disclosure in accordance with section 3404 of this title;

(2) such financial records are disclosed in response to an administrative subpena or summons which meets the requirements of section 3405 of this title;

(3) such financial records are disclosed in response to a search warrant which meets the requirements of section 3406 of this title;

(4) such financial records are disclosed in response to a judicial subpena which meets the requirements of section 3407 of this title; or

(5) such financial records are disclosed in response to a formal written request which meets the requirements of section 3408 of this title.

(Pub. L. 95–630, title XI, §1102, Nov. 10, 1978, 92 Stat. 3697.)

§3403. Confidentiality of financial records

(a) Release of records by financial institutions prohibited

No financial institution, or officer, employees, or agent of a financial institution, may provide to any Government authority access to or copies of, or the information contained in, the financial records of any customer except in accordance with the provisions of this chapter.

(b) Release of records upon certification of compliance with chapter

A financial institution shall not release the financial records of a customer until the Government authority seeking such records certifies in writing to the financial institution that it has complied with the applicable provisions of this chapter.

(c) Notification to Government authority of existence of relevant information in records

Nothing in this chapter shall preclude any financial institution, or any officer, employee, or agent of a financial institution, from notifying a Government authority that such institution, or officer, employee, or agent has information which may be relevant to a possible violation of any statute or regulation. Such information may include only the name or other identifying information concerning any individual, corporation, or account involved in and the nature of any suspected illegal activity. Such information may be disclosed notwithstanding any constitution, law, or regulation of any State or political subdivision thereof to the contrary. Any financial institution, or officer, employee, or agent thereof, making a disclosure of information pursuant to this subsection, shall not be liable to the customer under any law or regulation of the United States or any constitution, law, or regulation of any State or political subdivision thereof, for such disclosure or for any failure to notify the customer of such disclosure.

(d) Release of records as incident to perfection of security interest, proving a claim in bankruptcy, collecting a debt, or processing an application with regard to a Government loan, loan guarantee, etc.

(1) Nothing in this chapter shall preclude a financial institution, as an incident to perfecting a security interest, proving a claim in bankruptcy, or otherwise collecting on a debt owing either to the financial institution itself or in its role as a fiduciary, from providing copies of any financial record to any court or Government authority.

(2) Nothing in this chapter shall preclude a financial institution, as an incident to processing an application for assistance to a customer in the form of a Government loan, loan guaranty, or loan insurance agreement, or as an incident to processing a default on, or administering, a Government guaranteed or insured loan, from initiating contact with an appropriate Government authority for the purpose of providing any financial record necessary to permit such authority to carry out its responsibilities under a loan, loan guaranty, or loan insurance agreement.

(Pub. L. 95–630, title XI, §1103, Nov. 10, 1978, 92 Stat. 3698; Pub. L. 99–570, title I, §1353(a), Oct. 27, 1986, 100 Stat. 3207–21; Pub. L. 100–690, title VI, §6186(a), Nov. 18, 1988, 102 Stat. 4357.)

Amendments

1988—Subsec. (c). Pub. L. 100–690 inserted “, corporation,” after “individual”.

1986—Subsec. (c). Pub. L. 99–570 inserted provisions that the disclosure of only the name or other identifying information concerning any individual or account involved in and the nature of any suspected illegal activity is permitted notwithstanding any constitution, law, or regulation of any State or political subdivision thereof to the contrary, and any financial institutions, officers, agents, or employees thereof making such disclosure shall not be liable to the customer under any State constitution or any Federal, State, or local law or regulation for such disclosure or failure to notify the customer thereof.

§3404. Customer authorizations

(a) Statement furnished by customer to financial institution and Government authority; contents

A customer may authorize disclosure under section 3402(1) of this title if he furnishes to the financial institution and to the Government authority seeking to obtain such disclosure a signed and dated statement which—

(1) authorizes such disclosure for a period not in excess of three months;

(2) states that the customer may revoke such authorization at any time before the financial records are disclosed;

(3) identifies the financial records which are authorized to be disclosed;

(4) specifies the purposes for which, and the Government authority to which, such records may be disclosed; and

(5) states the customer's rights under this chapter.

(b) Authorization as condition of doing business prohibited

No such authorization shall be required as a condition of doing business with any financial institution.

(c) Right of customer to access to financial institution's record of disclosures

The customer has the right, unless the Government authority obtains a court order as provided in section 3409 of this title, to obtain a copy of the record which the financial institution shall keep of all instances in which the customer's record is disclosed to a Government authority pursuant to this section, including the identity of the Government authority to which such disclosure is made.

(Pub. L. 95–630, title XI, §1104, Nov. 10, 1978, 92 Stat. 3698; Pub. L. 96–3, Mar. 7, 1979, 93 Stat. 5.)

Amendments

1979—Subsec. (d). Pub. L. 96–3 struck out subsec. (d) which had directed that all financial institutions promptly notify all of their customers of their rights under this chapter, that the Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System prepare a statement of customers’ rights under this chapter, and that the supplying of such a statement to their customers by the financial institutions be deemed compliance with the notification requirement.

§3405. Administrative subpena and summons

A Government authority may obtain financial records under section 3402(2) of this title pursuant to an administrative subpena or summons otherwise authorized by law only if—

(1) there is reason to believe that the records sought are relevant to a legitimate law enforcement inquiry;

(2) a copy of the subpena or summons has been served upon the customer or mailed to his last known address on or before the date on which the subpena or summons was served on the financial institution together with the following notice which shall state with reasonable specificity the nature of the law enforcement inquiry:

“Records or information concerning your transactions held by the financial institution named in the attached subpena or summons are being sought by this (agency or department) in accordance with the Right to Financial Privacy Act of 1978 [12 U.S.C. 3401 et seq.] for the following purpose: If you desire that such records or information not be made available, you must:

“1. Fill out the accompanying motion paper and sworn statement or write one of your own, stating that you are the customer whose records are being requested by the Government and either giving the reasons you believe that the records are not relevant to the legitimate law enforcement inquiry stated in this notice or any other legal basis for objecting to the release of the records.

“2. File the motion and statement by mailing or delivering them to the clerk of any one of the following United States district courts:

                      .

“3. Serve the Government authority requesting the records by mailing or delivering a copy of your motion and statement to                 .

“4. Be prepared to come to court and present your position in further detail.

“5. You do not need to have a lawyer, although you may wish to employ one to represent you and protect your rights.


If you do not follow the above procedures, upon the expiration of ten days from the date of service or fourteen days from the date of mailing of this notice, the records or information requested therein will be made available. These records may be transferred to other Government authorities for legitimate law enforcement inquiries, in which event you will be notified after the transfer.”; and

(3) ten days have expired from the date of service of the notice or fourteen days have expired from the date of mailing the notice to the customer and within such time period the customer has not filed a sworn statement and motion to quash in an appropriate court, or the customer challenge provisions of section 3410 of this title have been complied with.

(Pub. L. 95–630, title XI, §1105, Nov. 10, 1978, 92 Stat. 3699.)

References in Text

The Right to Financial Privacy Act of 1978, referred to in par. (2), is title XI of Pub. L. 95–630, Nov. 10, 1978, 92 Stat. 3697, which is classified generally to this chapter (§3401 et seq.). For complete classification of this Act to the Code, see Short Title note set out under section 3401 of this title and Tables.

§3406. Search warrants

(a) Applicability of Federal Rules of Criminal Procedure

A Government authority may obtain financial records under section 3402(3) of this title only if it obtains a search warrant pursuant to the Federal Rules of Criminal Procedure.

(b) Mailing of copy and notice to customer

No later than ninety days after the Government authority serves the search warrant, it shall mail to the customer's last known address a copy of the search warrant together with the following notice:

“Records or information concerning your transactions held by the financial institution named in the attached search warrant were obtained by this (agency or department) on (date) for the following purpose:    . You may have rights under the Right to Financial Privacy Act of 1978 [12 U.S.C. 3401 et seq.].”.

(c) Court-ordered delays in mailing

Upon application of the Government authority, a court may grant a delay in the mailing of the notice required in subsection (b) of this section, which delay shall not exceed one hundred and eighty days following the service of the warrant, if the court makes the findings required in section 3409(a) of this title. If the court so finds, it shall enter an ex parte order granting the requested delay and an order prohibiting the financial institution from disclosing that records have been obtained or that a search warrant for such records has been executed. Additional delays of up to ninety days may be granted by the court upon application, but only in accordance with this subsection. Upon expiration of the period of delay of notification of the customer, the following notice shall be mailed to the customer along with a copy of the search warrant:

“Records or information concerning your transactions held by the financial institution named in the attached search warrant were obtained by this (agency or department) on (date). Notification was delayed beyond the statutory ninety-day delay period pursuant to a determination by the court that such notice would seriously jeopardize an investigation concerning         . You may have rights under the Right to Financial Privacy Act of 1978 [12 U.S.C. 3401 et seq.].”.

(Pub. L. 95–630, title XI, §1106, Nov. 10, 1978, 92 Stat. 3700.)

References in Text

The Federal Rules of Criminal Procedure, referred to in subsec. (a), are set out in the Appendix to Title 18, Crimes and Criminal Procedure.

The Right to Financial Privacy Act of 1978, referred to in subsecs. (b) and (c), is title XI of Pub. L. 95–630, Nov. 10, 1978, 92 Stat. 3697, which is classified generally to this chapter (§3401 et seq.). For complete classification of this Act to the Code, see Short Title note set out under section 3401 of this title and Tables.

§3407. Judicial subpena

A Government authority may obtain financial records under section 3402(4) of this title pursuant to judicial subpena only if—

(1) such subpena is authorized by law and there is reason to believe that the records sought are relevant to a legitimate law enforcement inquiry;

(2) a copy of the subpena has been served upon the customer or mailed to his last known address on or before the date on which the subpena was served on the financial institution together with the following notice which shall state with reasonable specificity the nature of the law enforcement inquiry:

“Records or information concerning your transactions which are held by the financial institution named in the attached subpena are being sought by this (agency or department or authority) in accordance with the Right to Financial Privacy Act of 1978 [12 U.S.C. 3401 et seq.] for the following purpose: If you desire that such records or information not be made available, you must:

“1. Fill out the accompanying motion paper and sworn statement or write one of your own, stating that you are the customer whose records are being requested by the Government and either giving the reasons you believe that the records are not relevant to the legitimate law enforcement inquiry stated in this notice or any other legal basis for objecting to the release of the records.

“2. File the motion and statement by mailing or delivering them to the clerk of the        Court.

“3. Serve the Government authority requesting the records by mailing or delivering a copy of your motion and statement to                 .

“4. Be prepared to come to court and present your position in further detail.

“5. You do not need to have a lawyer, although you may wish to employ one to represent you and protect your rights.


If you do not follow the above procedures, upon the expiration of ten days from the date of service or fourteen days from the date of mailing of this notice, the records or information requested therein will be made available. These records may be transferred to other government authorities for legitimate law enforcement inquiries, in which event you will be notified after the transfer;” and

(3) ten days have expired from the date of service or fourteen days from the date of mailing of the notice to the customer and within such time period the customer has not filed a sworn statement and motion to quash in an appropriate court, or the customer challenge provisions of section 3410 of this title have been complied with.

(Pub. L. 95–630, title XI, §1107, Nov. 10, 1978, 92 Stat. 3700.)

References in Text

The Right to Financial Privacy Act of 1978, referred to in par. (2), is title XI of Pub. L. 95–630, Nov. 10, 1978, 92 Stat. 3697, which is classified generally to this chapter (§3401 et seq.). For complete classification of this Act to the Code, see Short Title note set out under section 3401 of this title and Tables.

§3408. Formal written request

A Government authority may request financial records under section 3402(5) of this title pursuant to a formal written request only if—

(1) no administrative summons or subpena authority reasonably appears to be available to that Government authority to obtain financial records for the purpose for which such records are sought;

(2) the request is authorized by regulations promulgated by the head of the agency or department;

(3) there is reason to believe that the records sought are relevant to a legitimate law enforcement inquiry; and

(4)(A) a copy of the request has been served upon the customer or mailed to his last known address on or before the date on which the request was made to the financial institution together with the following notice which shall state with reasonable specificity the nature of the law enforcement inquiry:

“Records or information concerning your transactions held by the financial institution named in the attached request are being sought by this (agency or department) in accordance with the Right to Financial Privacy Act of 1978 [12 U.S.C. 3401 et seq.] for the following purpose:

“If you desire that such records or information not be made available, you must:

“1. Fill out the accompanying motion paper and sworn statement or write one of your own, stating that you are the customer whose records are being requested by the Government and either giving the reasons you believe that the records are not relevant to the legitimate law enforcement inquiry stated in this notice or any other legal basis for objecting to the release of the records.

“2. File the motion and statement by mailing or delivering them to the clerk of any one of the following United States District Courts:

                      .

“3. Serve the Government authority requesting the records by mailing or delivering a copy of your motion and statement to                 .

“4. Be prepared to come to court and present your position in further detail.

“5. You do not need to have a lawyer, although you may wish to employ one to represent you and protect your rights.


If you do not follow the above procedures, upon the expiration of ten days from the date of service or fourteen days from the date of mailing of this notice, the records or information requested therein may be made available. These records may be transferred to other Government authorities for legitimate law enforcement inquiries, in which event you will be notified after the transfer;” and

(B) ten days have expired from the date of service or fourteen days from the date of mailing of the notice by the customer and within such time period the customer has not filed a sworn statement and an application to enjoin the Government authority in an appropriate court, or the customer challenge provisions of section 3410 of this title have been complied with.

(Pub. L. 95–630, title XI, §1108, Nov. 10, 1978, 92 Stat. 3701.)

References in Text

The Right to Financial Privacy Act of 1978, referred to in par. (4), is title XI of Pub. L. 95–630, Nov. 10, 1978, 92 Stat. 3697, which is classified generally to this chapter (§3401 et seq.). For complete classification of this Act to the Code, see Short Title note set out under section 3401 of this title and Tables.

§3409. Delayed notice

(a) Application by Government authority; findings

Upon application of the Government authority, the customer notice required under section 3404(c), 3405(2), 3406(c), 3407(2), 3408(4), or 3412(b) of this title may be delayed by order of an appropriate court if the presiding judge or magistrate judge finds that—

(1) the investigation being conducted is within the lawful jurisdiction of the Government authority seeking the financial records;

(2) there is reason to believe that the records being sought are relevant to a legitimate law enforcement inquiry; and

(3) there is reason to believe that such notice will result in—

(A) endangering life or physical safety of any person;

(B) flight from prosecution;

(C) destruction of or tampering with evidence;

(D) intimidation of potential witnesses; or

(E) otherwise seriously jeopardizing an investigation or official proceeding or unduly delaying a trial or ongoing official proceeding to the same extent as the circumstances in the preceeding 1 subparagraphs.


An application for delay must be made with reasonable specificity.

(b) Grant of delay order; duration and specifications; extensions; copy of request and notice to customer

(1) If the court makes the findings required in paragraphs (1), (2), and (3) of subsection (a) of this section, it shall enter an ex parte order granting the requested delay for a period not to exceed ninety days and an order prohibiting the financial institution from disclosing that records have been obtained or that a request for records has been made, except that, if the records have been sought by a Government authority exercising financial controls over foreign accounts in the United States under section 5(b) of the Trading with the Enemy Act [12 U.S.C. 95a, 50 U.S.C. App. 5(b)], the International Emergency Economic Powers Act (title II, Public Law 95–223) [50 U.S.C. 1701 et seq.], or section 287c of title 22, and the court finds that there is reason to believe that such notice may endanger the lives or physical safety of a customer or group of customers, or any person or group of persons associated with a customer, the court may specify that the delay be indefinite.

(2) Extensions of the delay of notice provided in paragraph (1) of up to ninety days each may be granted by the court upon application, but only in accordance with this subsection.

(3) Upon expiration of the period of delay of notification under paragraph (1) or (2), the customer shall be served with or mailed a copy of the process or request together with the following notice which shall state with reasonable specificity the nature of the law enforcement inquiry:

“Records or information concerning your transactions which are held by the financial institution named in the attached process or request were supplied to or requested by the Government authority named in the process or request on (date). Notification was withheld pursuant to a determination by the (title of court so ordering) under the Right to Financial Privacy Act of 1978 [12 U.S.C. 3401 et seq.] that such notice might (state reason).        The purpose of the investigation or official proceeding was        .”.

(c) Notice requirement respecting emergency access to financial records

When access to financial records is obtained pursuant to section 3414(b) of this title (emergency access), the Government authority shall, unless a court has authorized delay of notice pursuant to subsections (a) and (b) of this section, as soon as practicable after such records are obtained serve upon the customer, or mail by registered or certified mail to his last known address, a copy of the request to the financial institution together with the following notice which shall state with reasonable specificity the nature of the law enforcement inquiry:

“Records concerning your transactions held by the financial institution named in the attached request were obtained by (agency or department) under the Right to Financial Privacy Act of 1978 [12 U.S.C. 3401 et seq.] on (date) for the following purpose:        Emergency access to such records was obtained on the grounds that (state grounds).”.

(d) Preservation of memorandums, affidavits, or other papers

Any memorandum, affidavit, or other paper filed in connection with a request for delay in notification shall be preserved by the court. Upon petition by the customer to whom such records pertain, the court may order disclosure of such papers to the petitioner unless the court makes the findings required in subsection (a) of this section.

(Pub. L. 95–630, title XI, §1109, Nov. 10, 1978, 92 Stat. 3702; Pub. L. 101–650, title III, §321, Dec. 1, 1990, 104 Stat. 5117.)

References in Text

The International Emergency Economic Powers Act, referred to in subsec. (b)(1), is title II of Pub. L. 95–223, Dec. 28, 1977, 91 Stat. 1626, which is classified generally to chapter 35 (§1701 et seq.) of Title 50, War and National Defense. For complete classification of this Act to the Code, see Short Title note set out under section 1701 of Title 50 and Tables.

The Right to Financial Privacy Act of 1978, referred to in subsecs. (b)(3) and (c), is title XI of Pub. L. 95–630, Nov. 10, 1978, 92 Stat. 3697, which is classified generally to this chapter (§3401 et seq.). For complete classification of this Act to the Code, see Short Title note set out under section 3401 of this title and Tables.

Change of Name

In subsec. (a), “magistrate judge” substituted for “magistrate” pursuant to section 321 of Pub. L. 101–650, set out as a note under section 631 of Title 28, Judiciary and Judicial Procedure.

1 So in original. Probably should be “preceding”.

§3410. Customer challenges

(a) Filing of motion to quash or application to enjoin; proper court; contents

Within ten days of service or within fourteen days of mailing of a subpena, summons, or formal written request, a customer may file a motion to quash an administrative summons or judicial subpena, or an application to enjoin a Government authority from obtaining financial records pursuant to a formal written request, with copies served upon the Government authority. A motion to quash a judicial subpena shall be filed in the court which issued the subpena. A motion to quash an administrative summons or an application to enjoin a Government authority from obtaining records pursuant to a formal written request shall be filed in the appropriate United States district court. Such motion or application shall contain an affidavit or sworn statement—

(1) stating that the applicant is a customer of the financial institution from which financial records pertaining to him have been sought; and

(2) stating the applicant's reasons for believing that the financial records sought are not relevant to the legitimate law enforcement inquiry stated by the Government authority in its notice, or that there has not been substantial compliance with the provisions of this chapter.


Service shall be made under this section upon a Government authority by delivering or mailing by registered or certified mail a copy of the papers to the person, office, or department specified in the notice which the customer has received pursuant to this chapter. For the purposes of this section, “delivery” has the meaning stated in rule 5(b) of the Federal Rules of Civil Procedure.

(b) Filing of response; additional proceedings

If the court finds that the customer has complied with subsection (a) of this section, it shall order the Government authority to file a sworn response, which may be filed in camera if the Government includes in its response the reasons which make in camera review appropriate. If the court is unable to determine the motion or application on the basis of the parties’ initial allegations and response, the court may conduct such additional proceedings as it deems appropriate. All such proceedings shall be completed and the motion or application decided within seven calendar days of the filing of the Government's response.

(c) Decision of court

If the court finds that the applicant is not the customer to whom the financial records sought by the Government authority pertain, or that there is a demonstrable reason to believe that the law enforcement inquiry is legitimate and a reasonable belief that the records sought are relevant to that inquiry, it shall deny the motion or application, and, in the case of an administrative summons or court order other than a search warrant, order such process enforced. If the court finds that the applicant is the customer to whom the records sought by the Government authority pertain, and that there is not a demonstrable reason to believe that the law enforcement inquiry is legitimate and a reasonable belief that the records sought are relevant to that inquiry, or that there has not been substantial compliance with the provisions of this chapter, it shall order the process quashed or shall enjoin the Government authority's formal written request.

(d) Appeals

A court ruling denying a motion or application under this section shall not be deemed a final order and no interlocutory appeal may be taken therefrom by the customer. An appeal of a ruling denying a motion or application under this section may be taken by the customer (1) within such period of time as provided by law as part of any appeal from a final order in any legal proceeding initiated against him arising out of or based upon the financial records, or (2) within thirty days after a notification that no legal proceeding is contemplated against him. The Government authority obtaining the financial records shall promptly notify a customer when a determination has been made that no legal proceeding against him is contemplated. After one hundred and eighty days from the denial of the motion or application, if the Government authority obtaining the records has not initiated such a proceeding, a supervisory official of the Government authority shall certify to the appropriate court that no such determination has been made. The court may require that such certifications be made, at reasonable intervals thereafter, until either notification to the customer has occurred or a legal proceeding is initiated as described in clause (A). 1

(e) Sole judicial remedy available to customer

The challenge procedures of this chapter constitute the sole judicial remedy available to a customer to oppose disclosure of financial records pursuant to this chapter.

(f) Affect on challenges by financial institutions

Nothing in this chapter shall enlarge or restrict any rights of a financial institution to challenge requests for records made by a Government authority under existing law. Nothing in this chapter shall entitle a customer to assert the rights of a financial institution.

(Pub. L. 95–630, title XI, §1110, Nov. 10, 1978, 92 Stat. 3703.)

References in Text

Rule 5(b) of the Federal Rules of Civil Procedure, referred to in subsec. (a), is set out in the Appendix to Title 28, Judiciary and Judicial Procedure.

1 So in original. Section does not contain a clause (A).

§3411. Duty of financial institutions

Upon receipt of a request for financial records made by a Government authority under section 3405 or 3407 of this title, the financial institution shall, unless otherwise provided by law, proceed to assemble the records requested and must be prepared to deliver the records to the Government authority upon receipt of the certificate required under section 3403(b) of this title.

(Pub. L. 95–630, title XI, §1111, Nov. 10, 1978, 92 Stat. 3705.)

§3412. Use of information

(a) Transfer of financial records to other agencies or departments; certification

Financial records originally obtained pursuant to this chapter shall not be transferred to another agency or department unless the transferring agency or department certifies in writing that there is reason to believe that the records are relevant to a legitimate law enforcement inquiry, or intelligence or counterintelligence activity, investigation or analysis related to international terrorism within the jurisdiction of the receiving agency or department.

(b) Mailing of copy of certification and notice to customer

When financial records subject to this chapter are transferred pursuant to subsection (a) of this section, the transferring agency or department shall, within fourteen days, send to the customer a copy of the certification made pursuant to subsection (a) of this section and the following notice, which shall state the nature of the law enforcement inquiry with reasonable specificity: “Copies of, or information contained in, your financial records lawfully in possession of                    have been furnished to              pursuant to the Right of Financial Privacy Act of 1978 [12 U.S.C. 3401 et seq.] for the following purpose:             . If you believe that this transfer has not been made to further a legitimate law enforcement inquiry, you may have legal rights under the Financial Privacy Act of 1978 or the Privacy Act of 1974 [5 U.S.C. 552a].”

(c) Court-ordered delays in mailing

Notwithstanding subsection (b) of this section, notice to the customer may be delayed if the transferring agency or department has obtained a court order delaying notice pursuant to section 3409(a) and (b) of this title and that order is still in effect, or if the receiving agency or department obtains a court order authorizing a delay in notice pursuant to section 3409(a) and (b) of this title. Upon the expiration of any such period of delay, the transferring agency or department shall serve to the customer the notice specified in subsection (b) of this section and the agency or department that obtained the court order authorizing a delay in notice pursuant to section 3409(a) and (b) of this title shall serve to the customer the notice specified in section 3409(b) of this title.

(d) Exchanges of examination reports by supervisory agencies; transfer of financial records to defend customer action; withholding of information

Nothing in this chapter prohibits any supervisory agency from exchanging examination reports or other information with another supervisory agency. Nothing in this chapter prohibits the transfer of a customer's financial records needed by counsel for a Government authority to defend an action brought by the customer. Nothing in this chapter shall authorize the withholding of information by any officer or employee of a supervisory agency from a duly authorized committee or subcommittee of the Congress.

(e) Exchange of records, reports, or other information

Notwithstanding section 3401(6) 1 of this title or any other provision of law, the exchange of financial records, examination reports or other information with respect to a financial institution, holding company, or any subsidiary of a depository institution or holding company, among and between the five member supervisory agencies of the Federal Financial Institutions Examination Council, the Securities and Exchange Commission, the Federal Trade Commission, the Commodity Futures Trading Commission, and the Bureau of Consumer Financial Protection is permitted.

(f) Transfer to Attorney General or Secretary of the Treasury

(1) In general

Nothing in this chapter shall apply when financial records obtained by an agency or department of the United States are disclosed or transferred to the Attorney General or the Secretary of the Treasury upon the certification by a supervisory level official of the transferring agency or department that—

(A) there is reason to believe that the records may be relevant to a violation of Federal criminal law; and

(B) the records were obtained in the exercise of the agency's or department's supervisory or regulatory functions.

(2) Limitation on use

Records so transferred shall be used only for criminal investigative or prosecutive purposes, for civil actions under section 1833a of this title, or for forfeiture under sections 2 981 or 982 of title 18 by the Department of Justice and only for criminal investigative purposes relating to money laundering and other financial crimes by the Department of the Treasury and shall, upon completion of the investigation or prosecution (including any appeal), be returned only to the transferring agency or department. No agency or department so transferring such records shall be deemed to have waived any privilege applicable to those records under law.

(Pub. L. 95–630, title XI, §1112, Nov. 10, 1978, 92 Stat. 3705; Pub. L. 97–320, title IV, §432(a), Oct. 15, 1982, 96 Stat. 1527; Pub. L. 100–690, title VI, §6186(b), Nov. 18, 1988, 102 Stat. 4357; Pub. L. 101–73, title IX, §944, Aug. 9, 1989, 103 Stat. 498; Pub. L. 102–242, title IV, §411(1), Dec. 19, 1991, 105 Stat. 2375; Pub. L. 102–550, title XV, §1516, title XVI, §1606(b), Oct. 28, 1992, 106 Stat. 4059, 4087; Pub. L. 106–102, title II, §231(b)(2), title VII, §727(b)(2), Nov. 12, 1999, 113 Stat. 1407, 1475; Pub. L. 107–56, title III, §358(f)(1), Oct. 26, 2001, 115 Stat. 327; Pub. L. 109–455, §10, Dec. 22, 2006, 120 Stat. 3381; Pub. L. 111–203, title X, §1099(2), July 21, 2010, 124 Stat. 2105.)

Amendment of Section

For termination of amendment by section 13 of Pub. L. 109–455, see Termination Date of 2006 Amendment note below.

References in Text

The Right of Financial Privacy Act of 1978, and the Financial Privacy Act of 1978, referred to in subsec. (b), both probably mean title XI of Pub. L. 95–630, Nov. 10, 1978, 92 Stat. 3697, known as the Right to Financial Privacy Act of 1978, which is classified generally to this chapter (§3401 et seq.). For complete classification of this Act to the Code, see Short Title note set out under section 3401 of this title and Tables.

The Privacy Act of 1974, referred to in subsec. (b), is Pub. L. 93–579, Dec. 31, 1974, 88 Stat. 1896, which enacted section 552a of Title 5, Government Organization and Employees, and provisions set out as notes under section 552a of Title 5.

Section 3401(6) of this title, referred to in subsec. (e), was redesignated section 3401(7) of this title by Pub. L. 101–73, title IX, §941(1), Aug. 9, 1989, 103 Stat. 496.

Amendments

2010—Subsec. (e). Pub. L. 111–203 substituted “the Commodity Futures Trading Commission, and the Bureau of Consumer Financial Protection is permitted” for “and the Commodity Futures Trading Commission is permitted”.

2006—Subsec. (e). Pub. L. 109–455, §§10, 13, temporarily inserted “the Federal Trade Commission,” after “the Securities and Exchange Commission,”. See Termination Date of 2006 Amendment note below.

2001—Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 107–56 inserted “, or intelligence or counterintelligence activity, investigation or analysis related to international terrorism” after “legitimate law enforcement inquiry”.

1999—Subsec. (e). Pub. L. 106–102 inserted “, examination reports” after “financial records” and substituted “provision of law,” for “provision of this chapter,” and “, the Securities and Exchange Commission, and the Commodity Futures Trading Commission” for “and the Securities and Exchange Commission”.

1992—Subsec. (f)(1). Pub. L. 102–550, §1516(1), inserted “or the Secretary of the Treasury” after “the Attorney General”.

Subsec. (f)(2). Pub. L. 102–550, §1606(b), inserted a comma before “for civil actions” and made technical amendment to reference to sections 981 or 982 of title 18.

Pub. L. 102–550, §1516(2), inserted “and only for criminal investigative purposes relating to money laundering and other financial crimes by the Department of the Treasury” after “the Department of Justice”.

1991—Subsec. (f)(2). Pub. L. 102–242 inserted “for civil actions under section 1833a of this title, or for forfeiture under sections 981 or 982 of title 18” after “or prosecutive purposes” and inserted at end “No agency or department so transferring such records shall be deemed to have waived any privilege applicable to those records under law.”

1989—Subsec. (e). Pub. L. 101–73, §944(1), which directed the insertion of “, holding company, or any subsidiary of a depository institution or holding company,” after “with respect to a depository institution”, was executed by making the insertion after “with respect to a financial institution”, as the probable intent of Congress.

Pub. L. 101–73, §944(2), substituted “Council and the Securities and Exchange Commission” for “Council”.

1988—Subsec. (f). Pub. L. 100–690 added subsec. (f).

1982—Subsec. (e). Pub. L. 97–320 added subsec. (e).

Effective Date of 2010 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 111–203 effective on the designated transfer date, see section 1100H of Pub. L. 111–203, set out as a note under section 552a of Title 5, Government Organization and Employees.

Termination Date of 2006 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 109–455 to cease to have effect 7 years after Dec. 22, 2006, see section 13 of Pub. L. 109–455, set out as a note under section 44 of Title 15, Commerce and Trade.

Effective Date of 2001 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 107–56 applicable with respect to reports filed or records maintained on, before, or after Oct. 26, 2001, see section 358(h) of Pub. L. 107–56, set out as a note under section 1829b of this title.

Effective Date of 1992 Amendment

Amendment by section 1606(b) of Pub. L. 102–550 effective as if included in the Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation Improvement Act of 1991, Pub. L. 102–242, as of Dec. 19, 1991, see section 1609(a) of Pub. L. 102–550, set out as a note under section 191 of this title.

1 See References in Text note below.

2 So in original. Probably should be “section”.

§3413. Exceptions

(a) Disclosure of financial records not identified with particular customers

Nothing in this chapter prohibits the disclosure of any financial records or information which is not identified with or identifiable as being derived from the financial records of a particular customer.

(b) Disclosure to, or examination by, supervisory agency pursuant to exercise of supervisory, regulatory, or monetary functions with respect to financial institutions, holding companies, subsidiaries, institution-affiliated parties, or other persons

This chapter shall not apply to the examination by or disclosure to any supervisory agency of financial records or information in the exercise of its supervisory, regulatory, or monetary functions, including conservatorship or receivership functions, with respect to any financial institution, holding company, subsidiary of a financial institution or holding company, institution-affiliated party (within the meaning of section 1813(u) of this title) with respect to a financial institution, holding company, or subsidiary, or other person participating in the conduct of the affairs thereof.

(c) Disclosure pursuant to title 26

Nothing in this chapter prohibits the disclosure of financial records in accordance with procedures authorized by title 26.

(d) Disclosure pursuant to Federal statute or rule promulgated thereunder

Nothing in this chapter shall authorize the withholding of financial records or information required to be reported in accordance with any Federal statute or rule promulgated thereunder.

(e) Disclosure pursuant to Federal Rules of Criminal Procedure or comparable rules of other courts

Nothing in this chapter shall apply when financial records are sought by a Government authority under the Federal Rules of Civil or Criminal Procedure or comparable rules of other courts in connection with litigation to which the Government authority and the customer are parties.

(f) Disclosure pursuant to administrative subpena issued by administrative law judge

Nothing in this chapter shall apply when financial records are sought by a Government authority pursuant to an administrative subpena issued by an administrative law judge in an adjudicatory proceeding subject to section 554 of title 5 and to which the Government authority and the customer are parties.

(g) Disclosure pursuant to legitimate law enforcement inquiry respecting name, address, account number, and type of account of particular customers

The notice requirements of this chapter and sections 3410 and 3412 of this title shall not apply when a Government authority by a means described in section 3402 of this title and for a legitimate law enforcement inquiry is seeking only the name, address, account number, and type of account of any customer or ascertainable group of customers associated (1) with a financial transaction or class of financial transactions, or (2) with a foreign country or subdivision thereof in the case of a Government authority exercising financial controls over foreign accounts in the United States under section 5(b) of the Trading with the Enemy Act [12 U.S.C. 95a, 50 U.S.C. App. 5(b)]; the International Emergency Economic Powers Act (title II, Public Law 95–223) [50 U.S.C. 1701 et seq.]; or section 287c of title 22.

(h) Disclosure pursuant to lawful proceeding, investigation, etc., directed at financial institution or legal entity or consideration or administration respecting Government loans, loan guarantees, etc.

(1) Nothing in this chapter (except sections 3403, 3417 and 3418 of this title) shall apply when financial records are sought by a Government authority—

(A) in connection with a lawful proceeding, investigation, examination, or inspection directed at a financial institution (whether or not such proceeding, investigation, examination, or inspection is also directed at a customer) or at a legal entity which is not a customer; or

(B) in connection with the authority's consideration or administration of assistance to the customer in the form of a Government loan, loan guaranty, or loan insurance program.


(2) When financial records are sought pursuant to this subsection, the Government authority shall submit to the financial institution the certificate required by section 3403(b) of this title. For access pursuant to paragraph (1)(B), no further certification shall be required for subsequent access by the certifying Government authority during the term of the loan, loan guaranty, or loan insurance agreement.

(3) After the effective date of this chapter, whenever a customer applies for participation in a Government loan, loan guaranty, or loan insurance program, the Government authority administering such program shall give the customer written notice of the authority's access rights under this subsection. No further notification shall be required for subsequent access by that authority during the term of the loan, loan guaranty, or loan insurance agreement.

(4) Financial records obtained pursuant to this subsection may be used only for the purpose for which they were originally obtained, and may be transferred to another agency or department only when the transfer is to facilitate a lawful proceeding, investigation, examination, or inspection directed at a financial institution (whether or not such proceeding, investigation, examination, or inspection is also directed at a customer), or at a legal entity which is not a customer, except that—

(A) nothing in this paragraph prohibits the use or transfer of a customer's financial records needed by counsel representing a Government authority in a civil action arising from a Government loan, loan guaranty, or loan insurance agreement; and

(B) nothing in this paragraph prohibits a Government authority providing assistance to a customer in the form of a loan, loan guaranty, or loan insurance agreement from using or transferring financial records necessary to process, service or foreclose a loan, or to collect on an indebtedness to the Government resulting from a customer's default.


(5) Notification that financial records obtained pursuant to this subsection may relate to a potential civil, criminal, or regulatory violation by a customer may be given to an agency or department with jurisdiction over that violation, and such agency or department may then seek access to the records pursuant to the provisions of this chapter.

(6) Each financial institution shall keep a notation of each disclosure made pursuant to paragraph (1)(B) of this subsection, including the date of such disclosure and the Government authority to which it was made. The customer shall be entitled to inspect this information.

(i) Disclosure pursuant to issuance of subpena or court order respecting grand jury proceeding

Nothing in this chapter (except sections 3415 and 3420 of this title) shall apply to any subpena or court order issued in connection with proceedings before a grand jury, except that a court shall have authority to order a financial institution, on which a grand jury subpoena for customer records has been served, not to notify the customer of the existence of the subpoena or information that has been furnished to the grand jury, under the circumstances and for the period specified and pursuant to the procedures established in section 3409 of this title.

(j) Disclosure pursuant to proceeding, investigation, etc., instituted by Government Accountability Office and directed at a government authority

This chapter shall not apply when financial records are sought by the Government Accountability Office pursuant to an authorized proceeding, investigation, examination or audit directed at a government authority.

(k) Disclosure necessary for proper administration of programs of certain Government authorities

(1) Nothing in this chapter shall apply to the disclosure by the financial institution of the name and address of any customer to the Department of the Treasury, the Social Security Administration, or the Railroad Retirement Board, where the disclosure of such information is necessary to, and such information is used solely for the purpose of, the proper administration of section 1441 of title 26, title II of the Social Security Act [42 U.S.C. 401 et seq.], or the Railroad Retirement Act of 1974 [45 U.S.C. 231 et seq.].

(2) Nothing in this chapter shall apply to the disclosure by the financial institution of information contained in the financial records of any customer to any Government authority that certifies, disburses, or collects payments, where the disclosure of such information is necessary to, and such information is used solely for the purpose of—

(A) verification of the identity of any person or proper routing and delivery of funds in connection with the issuance of a Federal payment or collection of funds by a Government authority; or

(B) the investigation or recovery of an improper Federal payment or collection of funds or an improperly negotiated Treasury check.


(3) Notwithstanding any other provision of law, a request authorized by paragraph (1) or (2) (and the information contained therein) may be used by the financial institution or its agents solely for the purpose of providing information contained in the financial records of the customer to the Government authority requesting the information, and the financial institution and its agents shall be barred from redisclosure of such information. Any Government authority receiving information pursuant to paragraph (1) or (2) may not disclose or use the information, except for the purposes set forth in such paragraph.

(l) Crimes against financial institutions by insiders

Nothing in this chapter shall apply when any financial institution or supervisory agency provides any financial record of any officer, director, employee, or controlling shareholder (within the meaning of subparagraph (A) or (B) of section 1841(a)(2) of this title or subparagraph (A) or (B) of section 1730a(a)(2) of this title) of such institution, or of any major borrower from such institution who there is reason to believe may be acting in concert with any such officer, director, employee, or controlling shareholder, to the Attorney General of the United States, to a State law enforcement agency, or, in the case of a possible violation of subchapter II of chapter 53 of title 31, to the Secretary of the Treasury if there is reason to believe that such record is relevant to a possible violation by such person of—

(1) any law relating to crimes against financial institutions or supervisory agencies by directors, officers, employees, or controlling shareholders of, or by borrowers from, financial institutions; or

(2) any provision of subchapter II of chapter 53 of title 31 or of section 1956 or 1957 of title 18.


No supervisory agency which transfers any such record under this subsection shall be deemed to have waived any privilege applicable to that record under law.

(m) Disclosure to, or examination by, employees or agents of Board of Governors of Federal Reserve System or Federal Reserve Bank

This chapter shall not apply to the examination by or disclosure to employees or agents of the Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System or any Federal Reserve Bank of financial records or information in the exercise of the Federal Reserve System's authority to extend credit to the financial institutions or others.

(n) Disclosure to, or examination by, Resolution Trust Corporation or its employees or agents

This chapter shall not apply to the examination by or disclosure to the Resolution Trust Corporation or its employees or agents of financial records or information in the exercise of its conservatorship, receivership, or liquidation functions with respect to a financial institution.

(o) Disclosure to, or examination by, Federal Housing Finance Agency or Federal home loan banks

This chapter shall not apply to the examination by or disclosure to the Federal Housing Finance Agency or any of the Federal home loan banks of financial records or information in the exercise of the Federal Housing Finance Agency's authority to extend credit (either directly or through a Federal home loan bank) to financial institutions or others.

(p) Access to information necessary for administration of certain veteran benefits laws

(1) Nothing in this chapter shall apply to the disclosure by the financial institution of the name and address of any customer to the Department of Veterans Affairs where the disclosure of such information is necessary to, and such information is used solely for the purposes of, the proper administration of benefits programs under laws administered by the Secretary.

(2) Notwithstanding any other provision of law, any request authorized by paragraph (1) (and the information contained therein) may be used by the financial institution or its agents solely for the purpose of providing the customer's name and address to the Department of Veterans Affairs and shall be barred from redisclosure by the financial institution or its agents.

(q) Disclosure pursuant to Federal contractor-issued travel charge card

Nothing in this chapter shall apply to the disclosure of any financial record or information to a Government authority in conjunction with a Federal contractor-issued travel charge card issued for official Government travel.

(r) Disclosure to the Bureau of Consumer Financial Protection

Nothing in this chapter shall apply to the examination by or disclosure to the Bureau of Consumer Financial Protection of financial records or information in the exercise of its authority with respect to a financial institution.

(Pub. L. 95–630, title XI, §1113, Nov. 10, 1978, 92 Stat. 3706; Pub. L. 98–21, title I, §121(c)(3)(C), Apr. 20, 1983, 97 Stat. 83; Pub. L. 99–514, §2, Oct. 22, 1986, 100 Stat. 2095; Pub. L. 99–570, title I, §1353(b), Oct. 27, 1986, 100 Stat. 3207–22; Pub. L. 100–690, title VI, §6186(c), Nov. 18, 1988, 102 Stat. 4358; Pub. L. 101–73, title IX, §942, Aug. 9, 1989, 103 Stat. 497; Pub. L. 101–647, title I, §104, Nov. 29, 1990, 104 Stat. 4791; Pub. L. 102–242, title IV, §411(2)–(4), Dec. 19, 1991, 105 Stat. 2375; Pub. L. 102–568, title VI, §603(a), Oct. 29, 1992, 106 Stat. 4342; Pub. L. 105–264, §2(c)(1), Oct. 19, 1998, 112 Stat. 2351; Pub. L. 108–271, §8(b), July 7, 2004, 118 Stat. 814; Pub. L. 110–234, title XIV, §14205, May 22, 2008, 122 Stat. 1459; Pub. L. 110–246, §4(a), title XIV, §14205, June 18, 2008, 122 Stat. 1664, 2221; Pub. L. 110–289, div. A, title II, §1216(a), July 30, 2008, 122 Stat. 2792; Pub. L. 111–203, title X, §1099(3), July 21, 2010, 124 Stat. 2105.)

References in Text

The Federal Rules of Civil Procedure, referred to in subsec. (e), are set out in the Appendix to Title 28, Judiciary and Judicial Procedure.

The Federal Rules of Criminal Procedure, referred to in subsec. (e), are set out in the Appendix to Title 18, Crimes and Criminal Procedure.

The International Emergency Economic Powers Act, referred to in subsec. (g), is title II of Pub. L. 95–223, Dec. 28, 1977, 91 Stat. 1626, which is classified generally to chapter 35 (§1701 et seq.) of Title 50, War and National Defense. For complete classification of this Act to the Code, see Short Title note set out under section 1701 of Title 50 and Tables.

The effective date of this chapter, referred to in subsec. (h)(3), is the date upon the expiration of 120 days after Nov. 10, 1978. See section 2101 of Pub. L. 95–630, set out as an Effective Date note under section 375b of this title.

The Social Security Act, referred to in subsec. (k)(1), is act Aug. 14, 1935, ch. 531, 49 Stat. 620. Title II of such Act is classified generally to subchapter II (§401 et seq.) of chapter 7 of Title 42, The Public Health and Welfare. For complete classification of this Act to the Code, see section 1305 of Title 42 and Tables.

The Railroad Retirement Act of 1974, referred to in subsec. (k)(1), is act Aug. 29, 1935, ch. 812, as amended, generally by Pub. L. 93–445, title I, §101, Oct. 16, 1974, 88 Stat. 1305, which is classified generally to subchapter IV (§231 et seq.) of chapter 9 of Title 45, Railroads. For further details and complete classification of this Act to the Code, see Codification note set out preceding section 231 of Title 45, section 231t of Title 45, and Tables.

Codification

Pub. L. 110–234 and Pub. L. 110–246 made identical amendments to this section. The amendments by Pub. L. 110–234 were repealed by section 4(a) of Pub. L. 110–246.

Amendments

2010—Subsec. (r). Pub. L. 111–203 added subsec. (r).

2008—Subsec. (k). Pub. L. 110–246, §14205, inserted heading, added pars. (2) and (3), and struck out former par. (2) which read as follows: “Notwithstanding any other provision of law, any request authorized by paragraph (1) (and the information contained therein) may be used by the financial institution or its agents solely for the purpose of providing the customer's name and address to the Department of the Treasury, the Social Security Administration, or the Railroad Retirement Board and shall be barred from redisclosure by the financial institution or its agents.”

Subsec. (o). Pub. L. 110–289 substituted “Federal Housing Finance Agency” for “Federal Housing Finance Board” and “Federal Housing Finance Agency's” for “Federal Housing Finance Board's”.

2004—Subsec. (j). Pub. L. 108–271 substituted “Government Accountability Office” for “General Accounting Office”.

1998—Subsec. (q). Pub. L. 105–264 added subsec. (q).

1992—Subsec. (p). Pub. L. 102–568 added subsec. (p).

1991—Subsec. (h)(1)(A), (4). Pub. L. 102–242, §411(2), (3), substituted “a financial institution (whether or not such proceeding, investigation, examination, or inspection is also directed at a customer)” for “the financial institution in possession of such records”.

Subsec. (l). Pub. L. 102–242, §411(4), inserted at end “No supervisory agency which transfers any such record under this subsection shall be deemed to have waived any privilege applicable to that record under law.”

1990—Subsec. (l)(2). Pub. L. 101–647 inserted before period at end “or of section 1956 or 1957 of title 18”.

1989—Subsec. (b). Pub. L. 101–73, §942(1), amended subsec. (b) generally. Prior to amendment, subsec. (b) read as follows: “Nothing in this chapter prohibits examination by or disclosure to any supervisory agency of financial records or information in the exercise of its supervisory, regulatory, or monetary functions with respect to a financial institution.”

Subsecs. (m) to (o). Pub. L. 101–73, §942(2), added subsecs. (m) to (o).

1988—Subsec. (l). Pub. L. 100–690 added subsec. (l).

1986—Subsec. (c). Pub. L. 99–514 substituted “Internal Revenue Code of 1986” for “Internal Revenue Code of 1954”, which for purposes of codification was translated as “title 26” thus requiring no change in text.

Subsec. (i). Pub. L. 99–570 inserted “, except that a court shall have authority to order a financial institution, on which a grand jury subpoena for customer records has been served, not to notify the customer of the existence of the subpoena or information that has been furnished to the grand jury, under the circumstances and for the period specified and pursuant to the procedures established in section 3409 of this title”.

Subsec. (k)(1). Pub. L. 99–514 substituted “Internal Revenue Code of 1986” for “Internal Revenue Code of 1954”, which for purposes of codification was translated as “title 26” thus requiring no change in text.

1983—Subsec. (k). Pub. L. 98–21 added subsec. (k).

Effective Date of 2010 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 111–203 effective on the designated transfer date, see section 1100H of Pub. L. 111–203, set out as a note under section 552a of Title 5, Government Organization and Employees.

Effective Date of 2008 Amendment

Amendment of this section and repeal of Pub. L. 110–234 by Pub. L. 110–246 effective May 22, 2008, the date of enactment of Pub. L. 110–234, see section 4 of Pub. L. 110–246, set out as an Effective Date note under section 8701 of Title 7, Agriculture.

Effective Date of 1998 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 105–264 effective Oct. 1, 1983, and applicable to any records created pursuant to United States Travel and Transportation Payment and Expense Control System or any Federal contractor-issued travel charge card issued for official Government travel, see section 2(c)(2) of Pub. L. 105–264, set out as a Requiring Use of Travel Charge Card note under section 5701 of Title 5, Government Organization and Employees.

Effective Date of 1983 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 98–21 applicable to benefits received after Dec. 31, 1983, in taxable years ending after such date, except for any portion of a lump-sum payment of social security benefits received after Dec. 31, 1983, if the generally applicable payment date for such portion was before Jan. 1, 1984, see section 121(g) of Pub. L. 98–21, set out as an Effective Date note under section 86 of Title 26, Internal Revenue Code.

§3414. Special procedures

(a) Access to financial records for certain intelligence and protective purposes

(1) Nothing in this chapter (except sections 3415, 3417, 3418, and 3421 1 of this title) shall apply to the production and disclosure of financial records pursuant to requests from—

(A) a Government authority authorized to conduct foreign counter- or foreign positive-intelligence activities for purposes of conducting such activities;

(B) the Secret Service for the purpose of conducting its protective functions (18 U.S.C. 3056; 18 U.S.C. 3056A, Public Law 90–331,1 as amended); or

(C) a Government authority authorized to conduct investigations of, or intelligence or counterintelligence analyses related to, international terrorism for the purpose of conducting such investigations or analyses.


(2) In the instances specified in paragraph (1), the Government authority shall submit to the financial institution the certificate required in section 3403(b) of this title signed by a supervisory official of a rank designated by the head of the Government authority.

(3)(A) If the Government authority described in paragraph (1) or the Secret Service, as the case may be, certifies that otherwise there may result a danger to the national security of the United States, interference with a criminal, counterterrorism, or counterintelligence investigation, interference with diplomatic relations, or danger to the life or physical safety of any person, no financial institution, or officer, employee, or agent of such institution, shall disclose to any person (other than those to whom such disclosure is necessary to comply with the request or an attorney to obtain legal advice or legal assistance with respect to the request) that the Government authority or the Secret Service has sought or obtained access to a customer's financial records.

(B) The request shall notify the person or entity to whom the request is directed of the nondisclosure requirement under subparagraph (A).

(C) Any recipient disclosing to those persons necessary to comply with the request or to an attorney to obtain legal advice or legal assistance with respect to the request shall inform such persons of any applicable nondisclosure requirement. Any person who receives a disclosure under this subsection shall be subject to the same prohibitions on disclosure under subparagraph (A).

(D) At the request of the authorized Government authority or the Secret Service, any person making or intending to make a disclosure under this section shall identify to the requesting official of the authorized Government authority or the Secret Service the person to whom such disclosure will be made or to whom such disclosure was made prior to the request, except that nothing in this section shall require a person to inform the requesting official of the authorized Government authority or the Secret Service of the identity of an attorney to whom disclosure was made or will be made to obtain legal advice or legal assistance with respect to the request for financial records under this subsection.

(4) The Government authority specified in paragraph (1) shall compile an annual tabulation of the occasions in which this section was used.

(5)(A) Financial institutions, and officers, employees, and agents thereof, shall comply with a request for a customer's or entity's financial records made pursuant to this subsection by the Federal Bureau of Investigation when the Director of the Federal Bureau of Investigation (or the Director's designee in a position not lower than Deputy Assistant Director at Bureau headquarters or a Special Agent in Charge in a Bureau field office designated by the Director) certifies in writing to the financial institution that such records are sought for foreign counter intelligence 2 purposes to protect against international terrorism or clandestine intelligence activities, provided that such an investigation of a United States person is not conducted solely upon the basis of activities protected by the first amendment to the Constitution of the United States.

(B) The Federal Bureau of Investigation may disseminate information obtained pursuant to this paragraph only as provided in guidelines approved by the Attorney General for foreign intelligence collection and foreign counterintelligence investigations conducted by the Federal Bureau of Investigation, and, with respect to dissemination to an agency of the United States, only if such information is clearly relevant to the authorized responsibilities of such agency.

(C) On the dates provided in section 415b of title 50, the Attorney General shall fully inform the congressional intelligence committees (as defined in section 401a of title 50) concerning all requests made pursuant to this paragraph.

(D) Prohibition of certain disclosure.—

(i) If the Director of the Federal Bureau of Investigation, or his designee in a position not lower than Deputy Assistant Director at Bureau headquarters or a Special Agent in Charge in a Bureau field office designated by the Director, certifies that otherwise there may result a danger to the national security of the United States, interference with a criminal, counterterrorism, or counterintelligence investigation, interference with diplomatic relations, or danger to the life or physical safety of any person, no financial institution, or officer, employee, or agent of such institution, shall disclose to any person (other than those to whom such disclosure is necessary to comply with the request or an attorney to obtain legal advice or legal assistance with respect to the request) that the Federal Bureau of Investigation has sought or obtained access to a customer's or entity's financial records under subparagraph (A).

(ii) The request shall notify the person or entity to whom the request is directed of the nondisclosure requirement under clause (i).

(iii) Any recipient disclosing to those persons necessary to comply with the request or to an attorney to obtain legal advice or legal assistance with respect to the request shall inform such persons of any applicable nondisclosure requirement. Any person who receives a disclosure under this subsection shall be subject to the same prohibitions on disclosure under clause (i).

(iv) At the request of the Director of the Federal Bureau of Investigation or the designee of the Director, any person making or intending to make a disclosure under this section shall identify to the Director or such designee the person to whom such disclosure will be made or to whom such disclosure was made prior to the request, except that nothing in this section shall require a person to inform the Director or such designee of the identity of an attorney to whom disclosure was made or will be made to obtain legal advice or legal assistance with respect to the request for financial records under subparagraph (A).

(b) Emergency access to financial records

(1) Nothing in this chapter shall prohibit a Government authority from obtaining financial records from a financial institution if the Government authority determines that delay in obtaining access to such records would create imminent danger of—

(A) physical injury to any person;

(B) serious property damage; or

(C) flight to avoid prosecution.


(2) In the instances specified in paragraph (1), the Government shall submit to the financial institution the certificate required in section 3403(b) of this title signed by a supervisory official of a rank designated by the head of the Government authority.

(3) Within five days of obtaining access to financial records under this subsection, the Government authority shall file with the appropriate court a signed, sworn statement of a supervisory official of a rank designated by the head of the Government authority setting forth the grounds for the emergency access. The Government authority shall thereafter comply with the notice provisions of section 3409(c) of this title.

(4) The Government authority specified in paragraph (1) shall compile an annual tabulation of the occasions in which this section was used.

(d) 3 Definition of “financial institution”

For purposes of this section, and sections 3415 and 3417 of this title insofar as they relate to the operation of this section, the term “financial institution” has the same meaning as in subsections (a)(2) and (c)(1) of section 5312 of title 31, except that, for purposes of this section, such term shall include only such a financial institution any part of which is located inside any State or territory of the United States, the District of Columbia, Puerto Rico, Guam, American Samoa, the Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands, or the United States Virgin Islands.

(Pub. L. 95–630, title XI, §1114, Nov. 10, 1978, 92 Stat. 3707; Pub. L. 97–320, title IV, §432(b), Oct. 15, 1982, 96 Stat. 1527; Pub. L. 99–569, title IV, §404, Oct. 27, 1986, 100 Stat. 3197; Pub. L. 107–56, title III, §358(f)(2), title V, §505(b), Oct. 26, 2001, 115 Stat. 327, 365; Pub. L. 107–306, title VIII, §811(b)(9), Nov. 27, 2002, 116 Stat. 2426; Pub. L. 108–177, title III, §374(a), Dec. 13, 2003, 117 Stat. 2628; Pub. L. 109–177, title I, §116(d), (e), title VI, §605(e)(1), Mar. 9, 2006, 120 Stat. 215, 216, 255; Pub. L. 109–178, §4(d), Mar. 9, 2006, 120 Stat. 280.)

References in Text

Section 3421 of this title, referred to in subsec. (a)(1), was repealed by Pub. L. 104–66, title III, §3001(d), Dec. 21, 1995, 109 Stat. 734.

Public Law 90–331, as amended, referred to in subsec. (a)(1)(B), is Pub. L. 90–331, June 6, 1968, 82 Stat. 170, as amended, which was set out as a note under section 3056 of Title 18, Crimes and Criminal Procedure, prior to repeal by Pub. L. 98–587, §2, Oct. 30, 1984, 98 Stat. 3111. See 18 U.S.C. 3056(a)(7).

Amendments

2006—Subsec. (a)(1)(B). Pub. L. 109–177, §605(e)(1), which directed the amendment of section 3414 of title 12, United States Code, by substituting “18 U.S.C. 3056A” for “3 U.S.C. 202” in subsec. (a)(1)(B), was executed to this section, which is section 1114 of the Right to Financial Privacy Act of 1978, to reflect the probable intent of Congress.

Subsec. (a)(3). Pub. L. 109–177, §116(d), which directed the general amendment of section 1114(a)(3) of the Right to Financial Privacy Act, was executed to subsec. (a)(3) of this section, which is section 1114 of the Right to Financial Privacy Act of 1978, to reflect the probable intent of Congress. Prior to amendment, par. (3) read as follows: “No financial institution, or officer, employee, or agent of such institution, shall disclose to any person that a Government authority described in paragraph (1) has sought or obtained access to a customer's financial records.”

Subsec. (a)(3)(D). Pub. L. 109–178, §4(d)(1), which directed the general amendment of subsec. (a)(3)(D) of section 1114(a)(3) of the Right to Financial Privacy Act, was executed to subsec. (a)(3)(D) of this section, which is section 1114 of the Right to Financial Privacy Act of 1978, to reflect the probable intent of Congress. Prior to amendment, subpar. (D) read as follows: “At the request of the authorized Government agency or the Secret Service, any person making or intending to make a disclosure under this section shall identify to the requesting official of the authorized Government agency or the Secret Service the person to whom such disclosure will be made or to whom such disclosure was made prior to the request, but in no circumstance shall a person be required to inform such requesting official that the person intends to consult an attorney to obtain legal advice or legal assistance.”

Subsec. (a)(5)(D). Pub. L. 109–177, §116(e), which directed the general amendment of section 1114(a)(5)(D) of the Right to Financial Privacy Act, was executed to subsec. (a)(5)(D) of this section, which is section 1114 of the Right to Financial Privacy Act of 1978, to reflect the probable intent of Congress. Prior to amendment, subpar. (D) read as follows: “No financial institution, or officer, employee, or agent of such institution, shall disclose to any person that the Federal Bureau of Investigation has sought or obtained access to a customer's or entity's financial records under this paragraph.”

Subsec. (a)(5)(D)(iv). Pub. L. 109–178, §4(d)(2), which directed the general amendment of clause (iv) of section 1114(a)(5)(D) of the Right to Financial Privacy Act, was executed to clause (iv) of subsec. (a)(5)(D) of this section, which is section 1114 of the Right to Financial Privacy Act of 1978, to reflect the probable intent of Congress. Prior to amendment, cl. (iv) read as follows: “At the request of the Director of the Federal Bureau of Investigation or the designee of the Director, any person making or intending to make a disclosure under this section shall identify to the Director or such designee the person to whom such disclosure will be made or to whom such disclosure was made prior to the request, but in no circumstance shall a person be required to inform the Director or such designee that the person intends to consult an attorney to obtain legal advice or legal assistance.”

2003—Subsec. (d). Pub. L. 108–177 added subsec. (d).

2002—Subsec. (a)(5)(C). Pub. L. 107–306 substituted “On the dates provided in section 415b of title 50, the Attorney General shall fully inform the congressional intelligence committees (as defined in section 401a of title 50)” for “On a semiannual basis the Attorney General shall fully inform the Permanent Select Committee on Intelligence of the House of Representatives and the Select Committee on Intelligence of the Senate”.

2001—Subsec. (a)(1)(C). Pub. L. 107–56, §358(f)(2), added subpar. (C).

Subsec. (a)(5)(A). Pub. L. 107–56, §505(b), inserted “in a position not lower than Deputy Assistant Director at Bureau headquarters or a Special Agent in Charge in a Bureau field office designated by the Director” after “Director's designee” and substituted “sought for foreign counter intelligence purposes to protect against international terrorism or clandestine intelligence activities, provided that such an investigation of a United States person is not conducted solely upon the basis of activities protected by the first amendment to the Constitution of the United States” for “sought for foreign counterintelligence purposes and that there are specific and articulable facts giving reason to believe that the customer or entity whose records are sought is a foreign power or an agent of a foreign power as defined in section 1801 of title 50”.

1986—Subsec. (a)(5). Pub. L. 99–569 added par. (5).

1982—Subsec. (b)(2). Pub. L. 97–320 struck out “of” after “financial institution”.

Effective Date of 2006 Amendment

Pub. L. 109–178, Mar. 9, 2006, 120 Stat. 282, provided in part that: “This Act [amending this section, sections 1681u and 1681v of Title 15, Commerce and Trade, section 2709 of Title 18, Crimes and Criminal Procedure, and sections 436 and 1861 of Title 50, War and National Defense, and enacting provisions set out as a note under section 1 of Title 18] shall become effective immediately upon enactment [Mar. 9, 2006].”

Effective Date of 2001 Amendment

Amendment by section 358(f)(2) of Pub. L. 107–56 applicable with respect to reports filed or records maintained on, before, or after Oct. 26, 2001, see section 358(h) of Pub. L. 107–56, set out as a note under section 1829b of this title.

Transfer of Functions

For transfer of the functions, personnel, assets, and obligations of the United States Secret Service, including the functions of the Secretary of the Treasury relating thereto, to the Secretary of Homeland Security, and for treatment of related references, see sections 381, 551(d), 552(d), and 557 of Title 6, Domestic Security, and the Department of Homeland Security Reorganization Plan of November 25, 2002, as modified, set out as a note under section 542 of Title 6.

1 See References in Text note below.

2 So in original. Probably should be “counterintelligence”.

3 So in original. No subsec. (c) has been enacted.

§3415. Cost reimbursement

Except for records obtained pursuant to section 3403(d) or 3413(a) through (h) of this title, or as otherwise provided by law, a Government authority shall pay to the financial institution assembling or providing financial records pertaining to a customer and in accordance with procedures established by this chapter a fee for reimbursement for such costs as are reasonably necessary and which have been directly incurred in searching for, reproducing, or transporting books, papers, records, or other data required or requested to be produced. The Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System shall, by regulation, establish the rates and conditions under which such payment may be made.

(Pub. L. 95–630, title XI, §1115(a), Nov. 10, 1978, 92 Stat. 3708.)

Effective Date

Section 1115(b) of Pub. L. 95–630 provided that: “This section shall take effect on October 1, 1979.”

§3416. Jurisdiction

An action to enforce any provision of this chapter may be brought in any appropriate United States district court without regard to the amount in controversy within three years from the date on which the violation occurs or the date of discovery of such violation, whichever is later.

(Pub. L. 95–630, title XI, §1116, Nov. 10, 1978, 92 Stat. 3708.)

§3417. Civil penalties

(a) Liability of agencies or departments of United States or financial institutions

Any agency or department of the United States or financial institution obtaining or disclosing financial records or information contained therein in violation of this chapter is liable to the customer to whom such records relate in an amount equal to the sum of—

(1) $100 without regard to the volume of records involved;

(2) any actual damages sustained by the customer as a result of the disclosure;

(3) such punitive damages as the court may allow, where the violation is found to have been willful or intentional; and

(4) in the case of any successful action to enforce liability under this section, the costs of the action together with reasonable attorney's fees as determined by the court.

(b) Disciplinary action for willful or intentional violation of chapter by agents or employees of department or agency

Whenever the court determines that any agency or department of the United States has violated any provision of this chapter and the court finds that the circumstances surrounding the violation raise questions of whether an officer or employee of the department or agency acted willfully or intentionally with respect to the violation, the Director of the Office of Personnel Management shall promptly initiate a proceeding to determine whether disciplinary action is warranted against the agent or employee who was primarily responsible for the violation. The Director after investigation and consideration of the evidence submitted, shall submit his findings and recommendations to the administrative authority of the agency concerned and shall send copies of the findings and recommendations to the officer or employee or his representative. The administrative authority shall take the corrective action that the Director recommends.

(c) Good faith defense

Any financial institution or agent or employee thereof making a disclosure of financial records pursuant to this chapter in good-faith reliance upon a certificate by any Government authority or pursuant to the provisions of section 3413(l) of this title shall not be liable to the customer for such disclosure under this chapter, the constitution of any State, or any law or regulation of any State or any political subdivision of any State.

(d) Exclusive judicial remedies and sanctions

The remedies and sanctions described in this chapter shall be the only authorized judicial remedies and sanctions for violations of this chapter.

(Pub. L. 95–630, title XI, §1117, Nov. 10, 1978, 92 Stat. 3708; 1978 Reorg. Plan No. 2, §102, eff. Jan. 1, 1979, 43 F.R. 36067, 92 Stat. 3783; Pub. L. 100–690, title VI, §6186(d), Nov. 18, 1988, 102 Stat. 4358.)

Amendments

1988—Subsec. (c). Pub. L. 100–690 inserted “or pursuant to the provisions of section 3413(l) of this title” after “Government authority” and “under this chapter, the constitution of any State, or any law or regulation of any State or any political subdivision of any State” after “such disclosure”.

Transfer of Functions

“Director of the Office of Personnel Management” and “Director” substituted in subsec. (b) for “Civil Service Commission” and “Commission” pursuant to Reorg. Plan No. 2 of 1978, §102, 43 F.R. 36037, 92 Stat. 3783, set out under section 1101 of Title 5, Government Organization and Employees, which transferred functions vested by statute in Civil Service Commission to Director of Office of Personnel Management (except as otherwise specified), effective Jan. 1, 1979, as provided by section 1–102 of Ex. Ord. No. 12107, Dec. 28, 1978, 44 F.R. 1055, set out under section 1101 of Title 5.

§3418. Injunctive relief

In addition to any other remedy contained in this chapter, injunctive relief shall be available to require that the procedures of this chapter are complied with. In the event of any successful action, costs together with reasonable attorney's fees as determined by the court may be recovered.

(Pub. L. 95–630, title XI, §1118, Nov. 10, 1978, 92 Stat. 3709.)

§3419. Suspension of limitations

If any individual files a motion or application under this chapter which has the effect of delaying the access of a Government authority to financial records pertaining to such individual, any applicable statute of limitations shall be deemed to be tolled for the period extending from the date such motion or application was filed until the date upon which the motion or application is decided.

(Pub. L. 95–630, title XI, §1119, Nov. 10, 1978, 92 Stat. 3709.)

§3420. Grand jury information; notification of certain persons prohibited

(a) Financial records about a customer obtained from a financial institution pursuant to a subpena issued under the authority of a Federal grand jury—

(1) shall be returned and actually presented to the grand jury unless the volume of such records makes such return and actual presentation impractical in which case the grand jury shall be provided with a description of the contents of the records.; 1

(2) shall be used only for the purpose of considering whether to issue an indictment or presentment by that grand jury, or of prosecuting a crime for which that indictment or presentment is issued, or for a purpose authorized by rule 6(e) of the Federal Rules of Criminal Procedure, or for a purpose authorized by section 3412(a) of this title;

(3) shall be destroyed or returned to the financial institution if not used for one of the purposes specified in paragraph (2); and

(4) shall not be maintained, or a description of the contents of such records shall not be maintained by any Government authority other than in the sealed records of the grand jury, unless such record has been used in the prosecution of a crime for which the grand jury issued an indictment or presentment or for a purpose authorized by rule 6(e) of the Federal Rules of Criminal Procedure.


(b)(1) No officer, director, partner, employee, or shareholder of, or agent or attorney for, a financial institution shall, directly or indirectly, notify any person named in a grand jury subpoena served on such institution in connection with an investigation relating to a possible—

(A) crime against any financial institution or supervisory agency or crime involving a violation of the Controlled Substance Act [21 U.S.C. 801 et seq.], the Controlled Substances Import and Export Act [21 U.S.C. 951 et seq.], section 1956 or 1957 of title 18, sections 5313, 5316 and 5324 of title 31, or section 6050I of title 26; or

(B) conspiracy to commit such a crime,


about the existence or contents of such subpoena, or information that has been furnished to the grand jury in response to such subpoena.

(2) Section 1818 of this title and section 1786(k)(2) of this title shall apply to any violation of this subsection.

(Pub. L. 95–630, title XI, §1120, Nov. 10, 1978, 92 Stat. 3709; Pub. L. 100–690, title VI, §6186(e), Nov. 18, 1988, 102 Stat. 4358; Pub. L. 101–73, title IX, §943, Aug. 9, 1989, 103 Stat. 497; Pub. L. 102–550, title XV, §1532, Oct. 28, 1992, 106 Stat. 4066; Pub. L. 107–56, title III, §358(f)(3), Oct. 26, 2001, 115 Stat. 327.)

References in Text

Rule 6(e) of the Federal Rules of Criminal Procedure, referred to in subsec. (a)(2), (4), is set out in the Appendix to Title 18, Crimes and Criminal Procedure.

The Controlled Substance Act, referred to in subsec. (b)(1)(A), probably means the Controlled Substances Act, which is title II of Pub. L. 91–513, Oct. 27, 1970, 84 Stat. 1242, as amended, and which is classified principally to subchapter I (§801 et seq.) of chapter 13 of Title 21, Food and Drugs. For complete classification of this Act to the Code, see Short Title note set out under section 801 of Title 21 and Tables.

The Controlled Substances Import and Export Act, referred to in subsec. (b)(1)(A), is title III of Pub. L. 91–513, Oct. 27, 1970, 84 Stat. 1285, as amended, which is classified principally to subchapter II (§951 et seq.) of chapter 13 of Title 21. For complete classification of this Act to the Code, see Short Title note set out under section 951 of Title 21 and Tables.

Amendments

2001—Subsec. (a)(2). Pub. L. 107–56 inserted “, or for a purpose authorized by section 3412(a) of this title” before semicolon at end.

1992—Subsec. (b)(1)(A). Pub. L. 102–550 inserted before semicolon “or crime involving a violation of the Controlled Substance Act, the Controlled Substances Import and Export Act, section 1956 or 1957 of title 18, sections 5313, 5316 and 5324 of title 31, or section 6050I of title 26”.

1989—Pub. L. 101–73 designated existing provisions as subsec. (a) and added subsec. (b).

1988—Par. (1). Pub. L. 100–690 inserted “unless the volume of such records makes such return and actual presentation impractical in which case the grand jury shall be provided with a description of the contents of the records.” before semicolon at end.

Effective Date of 2001 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 107–56 applicable with respect to reports filed or records maintained on, before, or after Oct. 26, 2001, see section 358(h) of Pub. L. 107–56, set out as a note under section 1829b of this title.

1 So in original.

§3421. Repealed. Pub. L. 104–66, title III, §3001(d), Dec. 21, 1995, 109 Stat. 734

Section, Pub. L. 95–630, title XI, §1121, Nov. 10, 1978, 92 Stat. 3710, related to reporting requirements.

§3422. Applicability to Securities and Exchange Commission

Except as provided in the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 [15 U.S.C. 78a et seq.], this chapter shall apply with respect to the Securities and Exchange Commission.

(Pub. L. 95–630, title XI, §1122, Nov. 10, 1978, 92 Stat. 3710; Pub. L. 96–433, §2, Oct. 10, 1980, 94 Stat. 1855.)

References in Text

The Securities Exchange Act of 1934, referred to in text, is act June 6, 1934, ch. 404, 48 Stat. 881, as amended, which is classified principally to chapter 2B (§78a et seq.) of Title 15, Commerce and Trade. For complete classification of this Act to the Code, see section 78a of Title 15 and Tables.

Amendments

1980—Pub. L. 96–433 substituted provision making this chapter applicable with respect to the Commission, except as provided in the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, for provision exempting the Commission from this chapter for a period of two years from November 10, 1978.

Effective Date of 1980 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 96–433 effective Nov. 10, 1980, see section 5(b) of Pub. L. 96–433, set out as a note under section 78u of Title 15, Commerce and Trade.