16 U.S.C.
United States Code, 2011 Edition
Title 16 - CONSERVATION
CHAPTER 12H - PACIFIC NORTHWEST ELECTRIC POWER PLANNING AND CONSERVATION
From the U.S. Government Printing Office, www.gpo.gov

CHAPTER 12H—PACIFIC NORTHWEST ELECTRIC POWER PLANNING AND CONSERVATION

Sec.
839.
Congressional declaration of purpose.
839a.
Definitions.
839b.
Regional planning and participation.
839c.
Sale of power.
839d.
Conservation and resource acquisition.
839d–1.
Federal projects in Pacific Northwest.
839e.
Rates.
839f.
Administrative provisions.
839g.
Savings provisions.
839h.
Separability.

        

§839. Congressional declaration of purpose

The purposes of this chapter, together with the provisions of other laws applicable to the Federal Columbia River Power System, are all intended to be construed in a consistent manner. Such purposes are also intended to be construed in a manner consistent with applicable environmental laws. Such purposes are:

(1) to encourage, through the unique opportunity provided by the Federal Columbia River Power System—

(A) conservation and efficiency in the use of electric power, and

(B) the development of renewable resources within the Pacific Northwest;


(2) to assure the Pacific Northwest of an adequate, efficient, economical, and reliable power supply;

(3) to provide for the participation and consultation of the Pacific Northwest States, local governments, consumers, customers, users of the Columbia River System (including Federal and State fish and wildlife agencies and appropriate Indian tribes), and the public at large within the region in—

(A) the development of regional plans and programs related to energy conservation, renewable resources, other resources, and protecting, mitigating and enhancing fish and wildlife resources,

(B) facilitating the orderly planning of the region's power system, and

(C) providing environmental quality;


(4) to provide that the customers of the Bonneville Power Administration and their consumers continue to pay all costs necessary to produce, transmit, and conserve resources to meet the region's electric power requirements, including the amortization on a current basis of the Federal investment in the Federal Columbia River Power System;

(5) to insure, subject to the provisions of this chapter—

(A) that the authorities and responsibilities of State and local governments, electric utility systems, water management agencies, and other non-Federal entities for the regulation, planning, conservation, supply, distribution, and use of electric power shall be construed to be maintained, and

(B) that Congress intends that this chapter not be construed to limit or restrict the ability of customers to take actions in accordance with other applicable provisions of Federal or State law, including, but not limited to, actions to plan, develop, and operate resources and to achieve conservation, without regard to this chapter; and


(6) to protect, mitigate and enhance the fish and wildlife, including related spawning grounds and habitat, of the Columbia River and its tributaries, particularly anadromous fish which are of significant importance to the social and economic well-being of the Pacific Northwest and the Nation and which are dependent on suitable environmental conditions substantially obtainable from the management and operation of the Federal Columbia River Power System and other power generating facilities on the Columbia River and its tributaries.

(Pub. L. 96–501, §2, Dec. 5, 1980, 94 Stat. 2697.)

References in Text

This chapter, referred to in provision preceding par. (1) and in par. (5), was in the original “this Act”, meaning Pub. L. 96–501, Dec. 5, 1980, 94 Stat. 2697, known as the Pacific Northwest Electric Power Planning and Conservation Act, which enacted this chapter, amended sections 837, 838i, and 838k of this title, and enacted provisions set out as notes under this section. For complete classification of this Act to the Code, see Short Title note set out below and Tables.

Effective Date

Section 11 of Pub. L. 96–501 provided that: “This Act [enacting this chapter, amending sections 837, 838i, and 838k of this title, and enacting provisions set out as notes under this section] shall be effective on the date of enactment [Dec. 5, 1980], or October 1, 1980, whichever is later. For purposes of this Act, the term ‘date of the enactment of this Act’ means such date of enactment [Dec. 5, 1980] or October 1, 1980, whichever is later.”

Short Title

Section 1 of Pub. L. 96–501 provided in part that: “This Act [enacting this chapter, amending sections 837, 838i, and 838k of this title, and enacting provisions set out as notes under this section] may be cited as the ‘Pacific Northwest Electric Power Planning and Conservation Act’.”

§839a. Definitions

As used in this chapter, the term—

(1) “Acquire” and “acquisition” shall not be construed as authorizing the Administrator to construct, or have ownership of, under this chapter or any other law, any electric generating facility.

(2) “Administrator” means the Administrator of the Bonneville Power Administration.

(3) “Conservation” means any reduction in electric power consumption as a result of increases in the efficiency of energy use, production, or distribution.

(4)(A) “Cost-effective”, when applied to any measure or resource referred to in this chapter, means that such measure or resource must be forecast—

(i) to be reliable and available within the time it is needed, and

(ii) to meet or reduce the electric power demand, as determined by the Council or the Administrator, as appropriate, of the consumers of the customers at an estimated incremental system cost no greater than that of the least-cost similarly reliable and available alternative measure or resource, or any combination thereof.


(B) For purposes of this paragraph, the term “system cost” means an estimate of all direct costs of a measure or resource over its effective life, including, if applicable, the cost of distribution and transmission to the consumer and, among other factors, waste disposal costs, end-of-cycle costs, and fuel costs (including projected increases), and such quantifiable environmental costs and benefits as the Administrator determines, on the basis of a methodology developed by the Council as part of the plan, or in the absence of the plan by the Administrator, are directly attributable to such measure or resource.

(C) In determining the amount of power that a conservation measure or other resource may be expected to save or to produce, the Council or the Administrator, as the case may be, shall take into account projected realization factors and plant factors, including appropriate historical experience with similar measures or resources.

(D) For purposes of this paragraph, the “estimated incremental system cost” of any conservation measure or resource shall not be treated as greater than that of any nonconservation measure or resource unless the incremental system cost of such conservation measure or resource is in excess of 110 per centum of the incremental system cost of the nonconservation measure or resource.

(5) “Consumer” means any end user of electric power.

(6) “Council” means, unless otherwise specifically provided, the members appointed to the Pacific Northwest Electric Power and Conservation Planning Council established pursuant to section 839b of this title.

(7) “Customer” means anyone who contracts for the purchase of power from the Administrator pursuant to this chapter.

(8) “Direct service industrial customer” means an industrial customer that contracts for the purchase of power from the Administrator for direct consumption.

(9) “Electric power” means electric peaking capacity, or electric energy, or both.

(10) “Federal base system resources” means—

(A) the Federal Columbia River Power System hydroelectric projects;

(B) resources acquired by the Administrator under long-term contracts in force on December 5, 1980; and

(C) resources acquired by the Administrator in an amount necessary to replace reductions in capability of the resources referred to in subparagraphs (A) and (B) of this paragraph.


(11) “Indian tribe” means any Indian tribe or band which is located in whole or in part in the region and which has a governing body which is recognized by the Secretary of the Interior.

(12) “Major resource” means any resource that—

(A) has a planned capability greater than fifty average megawatts, and

(B) if acquired by the Administrator, is acquired for a period of more than five years.


Such term does not include any resource acquired pursuant to section 838i(b)(6) of this title.

(13) “New large single load” means any load associated with a new facility, an existing facility, or an expansion of an existing facility—

(A) which is not contracted for, or committed to, as determined by the Administrator, by a public body, cooperative, investor-owned utility, or Federal agency customer prior to September 1, 1979, and

(B) which will result in an increase in power requirements of such customer of ten average megawatts or more in any consecutive twelve-month period.


(14) “Pacific Northwest”, “region”, or “regional” means—

(A) the area consisting of the States of Oregon, Washington, and Idaho, the portion of the State of Montana west of the Continental Divide, and such portions of the States of Nevada, Utah, and Wyoming as are within the Columbia River drainage basin; and

(B) any contiguous areas, not in excess of seventy-five air miles from the area referred to in subparagraph (A), which are a part of the service area of a rural electric cooperative customer served by the Administrator on December 5, 1980, which has a distribution system from which it serves both within and without such region.


(15) “Plan” means the Regional Electric Power and Conservation plan (including any amendments thereto) adopted pursuant to this chapter and such plan shall apply to actions of the Administrator as specified in this chapter.

(16) “Renewable resource” means a resource which utilizes solar, wind, hydro, geothermal, biomass, or similar sources of energy and which either is used for electric power generation or will reduce the electric power requirements of a consumer, including by direct application.

(17) “Reserves” means the electric power needed to avert particular planning or operating shortages for the benefit of firm power customers of the Administrator and available to the Administrator (A) from resources or (B) from rights to interrupt, curtail, or otherwise withdraw, as provided by specific contract provisions, portions of the electric power supplied to customers.

(18) “Residential use” or “residential load” means all usual residential, apartment, seasonal dwelling and farm electrical loads or uses, but only the first four hundred horsepower during any monthly billing period of farm irrigation and pumping for any farm.

(19) “Resource” means—

(A) electric power, including the actual or planned electric power capability of generating facilities, or

(B) actual or planned load reduction resulting from direct application of a renewable energy resource by a consumer, or from a conservation measure.


(20) “Secretary” means the Secretary of Energy.

(Pub. L. 96–501, §3, Dec. 5, 1980, 94 Stat. 2698.)

§839b. Regional planning and participation

(a) Pacific Northwest Electric Power and Conservation Planning Council; establishment and operation as regional agency

(1) The purposes of this section are to provide for the prompt establishment and effective operation of the Pacific Northwest Electric Power and Conservation Planning Council, to further the purposes of this chapter by the Council promptly preparing and adopting (A) a regional conservation and electric power plan and (B) a program to protect, mitigate, and enhance fish and wildlife, and to otherwise expeditiously and effectively carry out the Council's responsibilities and functions under this chapter.

(2) To achieve such purposes and facilitate cooperation among the States of Idaho, Montana, Oregon, and Washington, and with the Bonneville Power Administration, the consent of Congress is given for an agreement described in this paragraph and not in conflict with this chapter, pursuant to which—

(A) there shall be established a regional agency known as the “Pacific Northwest Electric Power and Conservation Planning Council” which (i) shall have its offices in the Pacific Northwest, (ii) shall carry out its functions and responsibilities in accordance with the provisions of this chapter, (iii) shall continue in force and effect in accordance with the provisions of this chapter, and (iv) except as otherwise provided in this chapter, shall not be considered an agency or instrumentality of the United States for the purpose of any Federal law; and

(B) two persons from each State may be appointed, subject to the applicable laws of each such State, to undertake the functions and duties of members of the Council.


The State may fill any vacancy occurring prior to the expiration of the term of any member. The appointment of six initial members, subject to applicable State law, by June 30, 1981, by at least three of such States shall constitute an agreement by the States establishing the Council and such agreement is hereby consented to by the Congress. Upon request of the Governors of two of the States, the Secretary shall extend the June 30, 1981, date for six additional months to provide more time for the States to make such appointments.

(3) Except as otherwise provided by State law, each member appointed to the Council shall serve for a term of three years, except that, with respect to members initially appointed, each Governor shall designate one member to serve a term of two years and one member to serve a term of three years. The members of the Council shall select from among themselves a chairman. The members and officers and employees of the Council shall not be deemed to be officers or employees of the United States for any purpose. The Council shall appoint, fix compensation, assign and delegate duties to such executive and additional personnel as the Council deems necessary to fulfill its functions under this chapter, taking into account such information and analyses as are, or are likely to be, available from other sources pursuant to provisions of this chapter. The compensation of the members shall be fixed by State law. The compensation of the members and the officers shall not exceed the rate prescribed for Federal officers and positions at step 1 of level GS–18 of the General Schedule.

(4) For the purpose of providing a uniform system of laws, in addition to this chapter, applicable to the Council relating to the making of contracts, conflicts-of-interest, financial disclosure, open meetings of the Council, advisory committees, disclosure of information, judicial review of Council functions and actions under this chapter, and related matters, the Federal laws applicable to such matters in the case of the Bonneville Power Administration shall apply to the Council to the extent appropriate, except that with respect to open meetings, the Federal laws applicable to open meetings in the case of the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission shall apply to the Council to the extent appropriate. In applying the Federal laws applicable to financial disclosure under the preceding sentence, such laws shall be applied to members of the Council without regard to the duration of their service on the Council or the amount of compensation received for such service. No contract, obligation, or other action of the Council shall be construed as an obligation of the United States or an obligation secured by the full faith and credit of the United States. For the purpose of judicial review of any action of the Council or challenging any provision of this chapter relating to functions and responsibilities of the Council, notwithstanding any other provision of law, the courts of the United States shall have exclusive jurisdiction of any such review.

(b) Alternative establishment of Council as Federal agency

(1) If the Council is not established and its members are not timely appointed in accordance with subsection (a) of this section, or if, at any time after such Council is established and its members are appointed in accordance with subsection (a) of this section—

(A) any provision of this chapter relating to the establishment of the Council or to any substantial function or responsibility of the Council (including any function or responsibility under subsection (d) or (h) of this section or under section 839d(c) of this title) is held to be unlawful by a final determination of any Federal court, or

(B) the plan or any program adopted by such Council under this section is held by a final determination of such a court to be ineffective by reason of subsection (a)(2)(B) of this section,


the Secretary shall establish the Council pursuant to this subsection as a Federal agency. The Secretary shall promptly publish a notice thereof in the Federal Register and notify the Governors of each of the States referred to in subsection (a) of this section.

(2) As soon as practicable, but not more than thirty days after the publication of the notice referred to in paragraph (1) of this subsection, and thereafter within forty-five days after a vacancy occurs, the Governors of the States of Washington, Oregon, Idaho, and Montana may each (under applicable State laws, if any) provide to the Secretary a list of nominations from such State for each of the State's positions to be selected for such Council. The Secretary may extend this time an additional thirty days. The list shall include at least two persons for each such position. The list shall include such information about such nominees as the Secretary may request. The Secretary shall appoint the Council members from each Governor's list of nominations for each State's positions, except that the Secretary may decline to appoint for any reason any of a Governor's nominees for a position and shall so notify the Governor. The Governor may thereafter make successive nominations within forty-five days of receipt of such notice until nominees acceptable to the Secretary are appointed for each position. In the event the Governor of any such State fails to make the required nominations for any State position on such Council within the time specified for such nominations, the Secretary shall select from such State and appoint the Council member or members for such position. The members of the Council shall select from among themselves one member of the Council as Chairman.

(3) The members of the Council established by this subsection who are not employed by the United States or a State shall receive compensation at a rate equal to the rate prescribed for offices and positions at level GS–18 of the General Schedule for each day such members are engaged in the actual performance of duties as members of such Council, except that no such member may be paid more in any calendar year than an officer or employee at step 1 of level GS–18 is paid during such year. Members of such Council shall be considered officers or employees of the United States for purposes of title II of the Ethics in Government Act of 1978 (5 U.S.C. app.) 1 and shall also be allowed travel expenses, including per diem in lieu of subsistence, in the same manner as persons employed intermittently in Government service are allowed expenses under section 5703 of title 5. Such Council may appoint, and assign duties to, an executive director who shall serve at the pleasure of such Council and who shall be compensated at the rate established for GS–18 of the General Schedule. The executive director shall exercise the powers and duties delegated to such director by such Council, including the power to appoint and fix compensation of additional personnel in accordance with applicable Federal law to carry out the functions and responsibilities of such Council.

(4) When a Council is established under this subsection after a Council was established pursuant to subsection (a) of this section, the Secretary shall provide, to the greatest extent feasible, for the transfer to the Council established by this subsection of all funds, books, papers, documents, equipment, and other matters in order to facilitate the Council's capability to achieve the requirements of subsections (d) and (h) of this section. In order to carry out its functions and responsibilities under this chapter expeditiously, the Council shall take into consideration any actions of the Council under subsection (a) of this section and may review, modify, or confirm such actions without further proceedings.

(5)(A) At any time beginning one year after the plan referred to in such subsection (d) of this section and the program referred to in such subsection (h) of this section are both finally adopted in accordance with this chapter, the Council established pursuant to this subsection shall be terminated by the Secretary 90 days after the Governors of three of the States referred to in this subsection jointly provide for any reason to the Secretary a written request for such termination. Except as provided in subparagraph (B), upon such termination all functions and responsibilities of the Council under this chapter shall also terminate.

(B) Upon such termination of the Council, the functions and responsibilities of the Council set forth in subsection (h) of this section shall be transferred to, and continue to be funded and carried out, jointly, by the Administrator, the Secretary of the Interior, and the Administrator of the National Marine Fisheries Service, in the same manner and to the same extent as required by such subsection and in cooperation with the Federal and the region's State fish and wildlife agencies and Indian tribes referred to in subsection (h) of this section and the Secretary shall provide for the transfer to them of all records, books, documents, funds, and personnel of such Council that relate to subsection (h) matters. In order to carry out such functions and responsibilities expeditiously, the Administrator, the Secretary of the Interior, and the Administrator of the National Marine Fisheries Service shall take into consideration any actions of the Council under this subsection, and may review, modify, or confirm such actions without further proceedings. In the event the Council is terminated pursuant to this paragraph, whenever any action of the Administrator requires any approval or other action by the Council, the Administrator may take such action without such approval or action, except that the Administrator may not implement any proposal to acquire a major generating resource or to grant billing credits involving a major generating resource until the expenditure of funds for that purpose is specifically authorized by Act of Congress enacted after such termination.

(c) Organization and operation of Council

(1) The provisions of this subsection shall, except as specifically provided in this subsection, apply to the Council established pursuant to either subsection (a) or (b) of this section.

(2) A majority of the members of the Council shall constitute a quorum. Except as otherwise provided specifically in this chapter, all actions and decisions of the Council shall be by majority vote of the members present and voting. The plan or any part thereof and any amendment thereto shall not be approved unless such plan or amendment receives the votes of—

(A) a majority of the members appointed to the Council, including the vote of at least one member from each State with members on the Council; or

(B) at least six members of the Council.


(3) The Council shall meet at the call of the Chairman or upon the request of any three members of the Council. If any member of the Council disagrees with respect to any matter transmitted to any Federal or State official or any other person or wishes to express additional views concerning such matter, such member may submit a statement to accompany such matter setting forth the reasons for such disagreement or views.

(4) The Council shall determine its organization and prescribe its practices and procedures for carrying out its functions and responsibilities under this chapter. The Council shall make available to the public a statement of its organization, practices, and procedures, and make available to the public its annual work program budget at the time the President submits his annual budget to Congress.

(5) Upon request of the Council established pursuant to subsection (b) of this section, the head of any Federal agency is authorized to detail or assign to the Council, on a reimbursable basis, any of the personnel of such agency to assist the Council in the performance of its functions under this chapter.

(6) At the Council's request the Administrator of the General Services Administration shall furnish the Council established pursuant to subsection (b) of this section with such offices, equipment, supplies, and services in the same manner and to the same extent as such Administrator is authorized to furnish to any other Federal agency or instrumentality such offices, supplies, equipment, and services.

(7) Upon the request of the Congress or any committee thereof, the Council shall promptly provide to the Congress, or to such committee, any record, report, document, material, and other information which is in the possession of the Council.

(8) To obtain such information and advice as the Council determines to be necessary or appropriate to carry out its functions and responsibilities pursuant to this chapter, the Council shall, to the greatest extent practicable, solicit engineering, economic, social, environmental, and other technical studies from customers of the Administrator and from other bodies or organizations in the region with particular expertise.

(9) The Administrator and other Federal agencies, to the extent authorized by other provisions of law, shall furnish the Council all information requested by the Council as necessary for performance of its functions, subject to such requirements of law concerning trade secrets and proprietary data as may be applicable.

(10)(A) At the request of the Council, the Administrator shall pay from funds available to the Administrator the compensation and other expenses of the Council as are authorized by this chapter, including the reimbursement of those States with members on the Council for services and personnel to assist in preparing a plan pursuant to subsection (d) of this section and a program pursuant to subsection (h) of this section, as the Council determines are necessary or appropriate for the performance of its functions and responsibilities. Such payments shall be included by the Administrator in his annual budgets submitted to Congress pursuant to the Federal Columbia River Transmission System Act [16 U.S.C. 838 et seq.] and shall be subject to the requirements of that Act, including the audit requirements of section 11(d) of such Act [16 U.S.C. 838i(d)]. The records, reports, and other documents of the Council shall be available to the Comptroller General for review in connection with such audit or other review and examination by the Comptroller General pursuant to other provisions of law applicable to the Comptroller General. Funds provided by the Administrator for such payments shall not exceed annually an amount equal to 0.02 mill multiplied by the kilowatt hours of firm power forecast to be sold by the Administrator during the year to be funded. In order to assist the Council's initial organization, the Administrator after December 5, 1980, shall promptly prepare and propose an amended annual budget to expedite payment for Council activities.

(B) Notwithstanding the limitation contained in the fourth sentence of subparagraph (A) of this paragraph, upon an annual showing by the Council that such limitation will not permit the Council to carry out its functions and responsibilities under this chapter the Administrator may raise such limit up to any amount not in excess of 0.10 mill multiplied by the kilowatt hours of firm power forecast to be sold by the Administrator during the year to be funded.

(11) The Council shall establish a voluntary scientific and statistical advisory committee to assist in the development, collection, and evaluation of such statistical, biological, economic, social, environmental, and other scientific information as is relevant to the Council's development and amendment of a regional conservation and electric power plan.

(12) The Council may establish such other voluntary advisory committees as it determines are necessary or appropriate to assist it in carrying out its functions and responsibilities under this chapter.

(13) The Council shall ensure that the membership for any advisory committee established or formed pursuant to this section shall, to the extent feasible, include representatives of, and seek the advice of, the Federal, and the various regional, State, local, and Indian Tribal Governments, consumer groups, and customers.

(d) Regional conservation and electric power plan

(1) Within two years after the Council is established and the members are appointed pursuant to subsection (a) or (b) of this section, the Council shall prepare, adopt, and promptly transmit to the Administrator a regional conservation and electric power plan. The adopted plan, or any portion thereof, may be amended from time to time, and shall be reviewed by the Council not less frequently than once every five years. Prior to such adoption, public hearings shall be held in each Council member's State on the plan or substantial, nontechnical amendments to the plan proposed by the Council for adoption. A public hearing shall also be held in any other State of the region on the plan or amendments thereto, if the Council determines that the plan or amendments would likely have a substantial impact on that State in terms of major resources which may be developed in that State and which the Administrator may seek to acquire. Action of the Council under this subsection concerning such hearings shall be subject to section 553 of title 5 and such procedure as the Council shall adopt.

(2) Following adoption of the plan and any amendment thereto, all actions of the Administrator pursuant to section 839d of this title shall be consistent with the plan and any amendment thereto, except as otherwise specifically provided in this chapter.

(e) Plan priorities and requisite features; studies

(1) The plan shall, as provided in this paragraph, give priority to resources which the Council determines to be cost-effective. Priority shall be given: first, to conservation; second, to renewable resources; third, to generating resources utilizing waste heat or generating resources of high fuel conversion efficiency; and fourth, to all other resources.

(2) The plan shall set forth a general scheme for implementing conservation measures and developing resources pursuant to section 839d of this title to reduce or meet the Administrator's obligations with due consideration by the Council for (A) environmental quality, (B) compatibility with the existing regional power system, (C) protection, mitigation, and enhancement of fish and wildlife and related spawning grounds and habitat, including sufficient quantities and qualities of flows for successful migration, survival, and propagation of anadromous fish, and (D) other criteria which may be set forth in the plan.

(3) To accomplish the priorities established by this subsection, the plan shall include the following elements which shall be set forth in such detail as the Council determines to be appropriate:

(A) an energy conservation program to be implemented under this chapter, including, but not limited to, model conservation standards;

(B) recommendation for research and development;

(C) a methodology for determining quantifiable environmental costs and benefits under section 839a(4) of this title;

(D) a demand forecast of at least twenty years (developed in consultation with the Administrator, the customers, the States, including State agencies with ratemaking authority over electric utilities, and the public, in such manner as the Council deems appropriate) and a forecast of power resources estimated by the Council to be required to meet the Administrator's obligations and the portion of such obligations the Council determines can be met by resources in each of the priority categories referred to in paragraph (1) of this subsection which forecast (i) shall include regional reliability and reserve requirements, (ii) shall take into account the effect, if any, of the requirements of subsection (h) of this section on the availability of resources to the Administrator, and (iii) shall include the approximate amounts of power the Council recommends should be acquired by the Administrator on a long-term basis and may include, to the extent practicable, an estimate of the types of resources from which such power should be acquired;

(E) an analysis of reserve and reliability requirements and cost-effective methods of providing reserves designed to insure adequate electric power at the lowest probable cost;

(F) the program adopted pursuant to subsection (h) of this section; and

(G) if the Council recommends surcharges pursuant to subsection (f) of this section, a methodology for calculating such surcharges.


(4) The Council, taking into consideration the requirement that it devote its principal efforts to carrying out its responsibilities under subsections (d) and (h) of this section, shall undertake studies of conservation measures reasonably available to direct service industrial customers and other major consumers of electric power within the region and make an analysis of the estimated reduction in energy use which would result from the implementation of such measures as rapidly as possible, consistent with sound business practices. The Council shall consult with such customers and consumers in the conduct of such studies.

(f) Model conservation standards; surcharges

(1) Model conservation standards to be included in the plan shall include, but not be limited to, standards applicable to (A) new and existing structures, (B) utility, customer, and governmental conservation programs, and (C) other consumer actions for achieving conservation. Model conservation standards shall reflect geographic and climatic differences within the region and other appropriate considerations, and shall be designed to produce all power savings that are cost-effective for the region and economically feasible for consumers, taking into account financial assistance made available to consumers under section 839d(a) of this title. These model conservation standards shall be adopted by the Council and included in the plan after consultation, in such manner as the Council deems appropriate, with the Administrator, States, and political subdivisions, customers of the Administrator, and the public.

(2) The Council by a majority vote of the members of the Council is authorized to recommend to the Administrator a surcharge and the Administrator may thereafter impose such a surcharge, in accordance with the methodology provided in the plan, on customers for those portions of their loads within the region that are within States or political subdivisions which have not, or on the Administrator's customers which have not, implemented conservation measures that achieve energy savings which the Administrator determines are comparable to those which would be obtained under such standards. Such surcharges shall be established to recover such additional costs as the Administrator determines will be incurred because such projected energy savings attributable to such conservation measures have not been achieved, but in no case may such surcharges be less than 10 per centum or more than 50 per centum of the Administrator's applicable rates for such load or portion thereof.

(g) Public information; consultation; contracts and technical assistance

(1) To insure widespread public involvement in the formulation of regional power policies, the Council and Administrator shall maintain comprehensive programs to—

(A) inform the Pacific Northwest public of major regional power issues,

(B) obtain public views concerning major regional power issues, and

(C) secure advice and consultation from the Administrator's customers and others.


(2) In carrying out the provisions of this section, the Council and the Administrator shall—

(A) consult with the Administrator's customers;

(B) include the comments of such customers in the record of the Council's proceedings; and

(C) recognize and not abridge the authorities of State and local governments, electric utility systems, and other non-Federal entities responsible to the people of the Pacific Northwest for the planning, conservation, supply, distribution, and use of electric power and the operation of electric generating facilities.


(3) In the preparation, adoption, and implementation of the plan, the Council and the Administrator shall encourage the cooperation, participation, and assistance of appropriate Federal agencies, State entities, State political subdivisions, and Indian tribes. The Council and the Administrator are authorized to contract, in accordance with applicable law, with such agencies, entities, tribes, and subdivisions individually, in groups, or through associations thereof to (A) investigate possible measures to be included in the plan, (B) provide public involvement and information regarding a proposed plan or amendment thereto, and (C) provide services which will assist in the implementation of the plan. In order to assist in the implementation of the plan, particularly conservation, renewable resource, and fish and wildlife activities, the Administrator, when requested and subject to available funds, may provide technical assistance in establishing conservation, renewable resource, and fish and wildlife objectives by individual States or subdivisions thereof or Indian tribes. Such objectives, if adopted by a State or subdivision thereof or Indian tribes, may be submitted to the Council and the Administrator for review, and upon approval by the Council, may be incorporated as part of the plan.

(h) Fish and wildlife

(1)(A) The Council shall promptly develop and adopt, pursuant to this subsection, a program to protect, mitigate, and enhance fish and wildlife, including related spawning grounds and habitat, on the Columbia River and its tributaries. Because of the unique history, problems, and opportunities presented by the development and operation of hydroelectric facilities on the Columbia River and its tributaries, the program, to the greatest extent possible, shall be designed to deal with that river and its tributaries as a system.

(B) This subsection shall be applicable solely to fish and wildlife, including related spawning grounds and habitat, located on the Columbia River and its tributaries. Nothing in this subsection shall alter, modify, or affect in any way the laws applicable to rivers or river systems, including electric power facilities related thereto, other than the Columbia River and its tributaries, or affect the rights and obligations of any agency, entity, or person under such laws.

(2) The Council shall request, in writing, promptly after the Council is established under either subsection (a) or (b) of this section and prior to the development or review of the plan, or any major revision thereto, from the Federal, and the region's State, fish and wildlife agencies and from the region's appropriate Indian tribes, recommendations for—

(A) measures which can be expected to be implemented by the Administrator, using authorities under this chapter and other laws, and other Federal agencies to protect, mitigate, and enhance fish and wildlife, including related spawning grounds and habitat, affected by the development and operation of any hydroelectric project on the Columbia River and its tributaries;

(B) establishing objectives for the development and operation of such projects on the Columbia River and its tributaries in a manner designed to protect, mitigate, and enhance fish and wildlife; and

(C) fish and wildlife management coordination and research and development (including funding) which, among other things, will assist protection, mitigation, and enhancement of anadromous fish at, and between, the region's hydroelectric dams.


(3) Such agencies and tribes shall have 90 days to respond to such request, unless the Council extends the time for making such recommendations. The Federal, and the region's, water management agencies, and the region's electric power producing agencies, customers, and public may submit recommendations of the type referred to in paragraph (2) of this subsection. All recommendations shall be accompanied by detailed information and data in support of the recommendations.

(4)(A) The Council shall give notice of all recommendations and shall make the recommendations and supporting documents available to the Administrator, to the Federal, and the region's, State fish and wildlife agencies, to the appropriate Indian tribes, to Federal agencies responsible for managing, operating, or regulating hydroelectric facilities located on the Columbia River or its tributaries, and to any customer or other electric utility which owns or operates any such facility. Notice shall also be given to the public. Copies of such recommendations and supporting documents shall be made available for review at the offices of the Council and shall be available for reproduction at reasonable cost.

(B) The Council shall provide for public participation and comment regarding the recommendations and supporting documents, including an opportunity for written and oral comments, within such reasonable time as the Council deems appropriate.

(5) The Council shall develop a program on the basis of such recommendations supporting documents, and views and information obtained through public comment and participation, and consultation with the agencies, tribes, and customers referred to in subparagraph (A) of paragraph (4). The program shall consist of measures to protect, mitigate, and enhance fish and wildlife affected by the development, operation, and management of such facilities while assuring the Pacific Northwest an adequate, efficient economical, and reliable power supply. Enhancement measures shall be included in the program to the extent such measures are designed to achieve improved protection and mitigation.

(6) The Council shall include in the program measures which it determines, on the basis set forth in paragraph (5), will—

(A) complement the existing and future activities of the Federal and the region's State fish and wildlife agencies and appropriate Indian tribes;

(B) be based on, and supported by, the best available scientific knowledge;

(C) utilize, where equally effective alternative means of achieving the same sound biological objective exist, the alternative with the minimum economic cost;

(D) be consistent with the legal rights of appropriate Indian tribes in the region; and

(E) in the case of anadromous fish—

(i) provide for improved survival of such fish at hydroelectric facilities located on the Columbia River system; and

(ii) provide flows of sufficient quality and quantity between such facilities to improve production, migration, and survival of such fish as necessary to meet sound biological objectives.


(7) The Council shall determine whether each recommendation received is consistent with the purposes of this chapter. In the event such recommendations are inconsistent with each other, the Council, in consultation with appropriate entities, shall resolve such inconsistency in the program giving due weight to the recommendations, expertise, and legal rights and responsibilities of the Federal and the region's State fish and wildlife agencies and appropriate Indian tribes. If the Council does not adopt any recommendation of the fish and wildlife agencies and Indian tribes as part of the program or any other recommendation, it shall explain in writing, as part of the program, the basis for its finding that the adoption of such recommendation would be—

(A) inconsistent with paragraph (5) of this subsection;

(B) inconsistent with paragraph (6) of this subsection; or

(C) less effective than the adopted recommendations for the protection, mitigation, and enhancement of fish and wildlife.


(8) The Council shall consider, in developing and adopting a program pursuant to this subsection, the following principles:

(A) Enhancement measures may be used, in appropriate circumstances, as a means of achieving offsite protection and mitigation with respect to compensation for losses arising from the development and operation of the hydroelectric facilities of the Columbia River and its tributaries as a system.

(B) Consumers of electric power shall bear the cost of measures designed to deal with adverse impacts caused by the development and operation of electric power facilities and programs only.

(C) To the extent the program provides for coordination of its measures with additional measures (including additional enhancement measures to deal with impacts caused by factors other than the development and operation of electric power facilities and programs), such additional measures are to be implemented in accordance with agreements among the appropriate parties providing for the administration and funding of such additional measures.

(D) Monetary costs and electric power losses resulting from the implementation of the program shall be allocated by the Administrator consistent with individual project impacts and system wide objectives of this subsection.


(9) The Council shall adopt such program or amendments thereto within one year after the time provided for receipt of the recommendations. Such program shall also be included in the plan adopted by the Council under subsection (d) of this section.

(10)(A) The Administrator shall use the Bonneville Power Administration fund and the authorities available to the Administrator under this chapter and other laws administered by the Administrator to protect, mitigate, and enhance fish and wildlife to the extent affected by the development and operation of any hydroelectric project of the Columbia River and its tributaries in a manner consistent with the plan, if in existence, the program adopted by the Council under this subsection, and the purposes of this chapter. Expenditures of the Administrator pursuant to this paragraph shall be in addition to, not in lieu of, other expenditures authorized or required from other entities under other agreements or provisions of law.

(B) The Administrator may make expenditures from such fund which shall be included in the annual or supplementary budgets submitted to the Congress pursuant to the Federal Columbia River Transmission System Act [16 U.S.C. 838 et seq.]. Any amounts included in such budget for the construction of capital facilities with an estimated life of greater than 15 years and an estimated cost of at least $2,500,000 shall be funded in the same manner and in accordance with the same procedures as major transmission facilities under the Federal Columbia River Transmission System Act.

(C) The amounts expended by the Administrator for each activity pursuant to this subsection shall be allocated as appropriate by the Administrator, in consultation with the Corps of Engineers and the Water and Power Resources Service, among the various hydroelectric projects of the Federal Columbia River Power System. Amounts so allocated shall be allocated to the various project purposes in accordance with existing accounting procedures for the Federal Columbia River Power System.

(D) Independent Scientific Review Panel.—(i) The Northwest Power Planning Council (Council) shall appoint an Independent Scientific Review Panel (Panel), which shall be comprised of eleven members, to review projects proposed to be funded through that portion of the Bonneville Power Administration's (BPA) annual fish and wildlife budget that implements the Council's fish and wildlife program. Members shall be appointed from a list of no fewer than 20 scientists submitted by the National Academy of Sciences (Academy), provided that Pacific Northwest scientists with expertise in Columbia River anadromous and non-anadromous fish and wildlife and ocean experts shall be among those represented on the Panel. The Academy shall provide such nominations within 90 days of September 30, 1996, and in any case not later than December 31, 1996. If appointments are required in subsequent years, the Council shall request nominations from the Academy and the Academy shall provide nominations not later than 90 days after the date of this request. If the Academy does not provide nominations within these time requirements, the Council may appoint such members as the Council deems appropriate.

(ii) Scientific Peer Review Groups.—The Council shall establish Scientific Peer Review Groups (Peer Review Groups), which shall be comprised of the appropriate number of scientists, from a list submitted by the Academy to assist the Panel in making its recommendations to the Council for projects to be funded through BPA's annual fish and wildlife budget, provided that Pacific Northwest scientists with expertise in Columbia River anadromous and non-anadromous fish and wildlife and ocean experts shall be among those represented on the Peer Review Groups. The Academy shall provide such nominations within 90 days of September 30, 1996, and in any case not later than December 31, 1996. If appointments are required in subsequent years, the Council shall request nominations from the Academy and the Academy shall provide nominations not later than 90 days after the date of this request. If the Academy does not provide nominations within these time requirements, the Council may appoint such members as the Council deems appropriate.

(iii) Conflict of Interest and Compensation.—Panel and Peer Review Group members may be compensated and shall be considered subject to the conflict of interest standards that apply to scientists performing comparable work for the National Academy of Sciences; provided that a Panel or Peer Review Group members with a direct or indirect financial interest in a project, or projects, shall recuse himself or herself from review of, or recommendations associated with, such project or projects. All expenses of the Panel and the Peer Review Groups shall be paid by BPA as provided for under paragraph (vii). Neither the Panel nor the Peer Review Groups shall be deemed advisory committees within the meaning of the Federal Advisory Committee Act.

(iv) Project Criteria and Review.—The Peer Groups, in conjunction with the Panel, shall review projects proposed to be funded through BPA's annual fish and wildlife budget and make recommendations on matters related to such projects to the Council no later than June 15 of each year. If the recommendations are not received by the Council by this date, the Council may proceed to make final recommendations on project funding to BPA, relying on the best information available. The Panel and Peer Review Groups shall review a sufficient number of projects to adequately ensure that the list of prioritized projects recommended is consistent with the Council's program. Project recommendations shall be based on a determination that projects: are based on sound science principles; benefit fish and wildlife; and have a clearly defined objective and outcome with provisions for monitoring and evaluation of results. The Panel, with assistance from the Peer Review Groups, shall review, on an annual basis, the results of prior year expenditures based upon these criteria and submit its findings to the Council for its review.

(v) Public Review.—Upon completion of the review of projects to be funded through BPA's annual fish and wildlife budget, the Peer Review Groups shall submit its findings to the Panel. The Panel shall analyze the information submitted by the Peer Review Groups and submit recommendations on project priorities to the Council. The Council shall make the Panel's findings available to the public and subject to public comment.

(vi) Responsibilities of the Council.—The Council shall fully consider the recommendations of the Panel when making its final recommendations of projects to be funded through BPA's annual fish and wildlife budget, and if the Council does not incorporate a recommendation of the Panel, the Council shall explain in writing its reasons for not accepting Panel recommendations. In making its recommendations to BPA, the Council shall consider the impact of ocean conditions on fish and wildlife populations and shall determine whether the projects employ cost-effective measures to achieve program objectives. The Council, after consideration of the recommendations of the Panel and other appropriate entities, shall be responsible for making the final recommendations of projects to be funded through BPA's annual fish and wildlife budget.

(vii) Cost limitation.—The annual cost of this provision shall not exceed $500,000 in 1997 dollars.

(11)(A) The Administrator and other Federal agencies responsible for managing, operating, or regulating Federal or non-Federal hydroelectric facilities located on the Columbia River or its tributaries shall—

(i) exercise such responsibilities consistent with the purposes of this chapter and other applicable laws, to adequately protect, mitigate, and enhance fish and wildlife, including related spawning grounds and habitat, affected by such projects or facilities in a manner that provides equitable treatment for such fish and wildlife with the other purposes for which such system and facilities are managed and operated;

(ii) exercise such responsibilities, taking into account at each relevant stage of decisionmaking processes to the fullest extent practicable, the program adopted by the Council under this subsection. If, and to the extent that, such other Federal agencies as a result of such consideration impose upon any non-Federal electric power project measures to protect, mitigate, and enhance fish and wildlife which are not attributable to the development and operation of such project, then the resulting monetary costs and power losses (if any) shall be borne by the Administrator in accordance with this subsection.


(B) The Administrator and such Federal agencies shall consult with the Secretary of the Interior, the Administrator of the National Marine Fisheries Service, and the State fish and wildlife agencies of the region, appropriate Indian tribes, and affected project operators in carrying out the provisions of this paragraph and shall, to the greatest extent practicable, coordinate their actions.

(12)(A) Beginning on October 1 of the first fiscal year after all members to the Council are appointed initially, the Council shall submit annually a detailed report to the Committee on Energy and Natural Resources of the Senate and to the Committees on Energy and Commerce and on Natural Resources of the House of Representatives. The report shall describe the actions taken and to be taken by the Council under this chapter, including this subsection, the effectiveness of the fish and wildlife program, and potential revisions or modifications to the program to be included in the plan when adopted. At least ninety days prior to its submission of such report, the Council shall make available to such fish and wildlife agencies, and tribes, the Administrator and the customers a draft of such report. The Council shall establish procedures for timely comments thereon. The Council shall include as an appendix to such report such comments or a summary thereof.

(B) The Administrator shall keep such committees fully and currently informed of the actions taken and to be taken by the Administrator under this chapter, including this subsection.

(i) Review

The Council may from time to time review the actions of the Administrator pursuant to this section and section 839d of this title to determine whether such actions are consistent with the plan and programs, the extent to which the plan and programs is being implemented, and to assist the Council in preparing amendments to the plan and programs.

(j) Requests by Council for action

(1) The Council may request the Administrator to take an action under section 839d of this title to carry out the Administrator's responsibilities under the plan.

(2) To the greatest extent practicable within ninety days after the Council's request, the Administrator shall respond to the Council in writing specifying—

(A) the means by which the Administrator will undertake the action or any modification thereof requested by the Council, or

(B) the reasons why such action would not be consistent with the plan, or with the Administrator's legal obligations under this chapter, or other provisions of law, which the Administrator shall specifically identify.


(3) If the Administrator determines not to undertake the requested action, the Council, within sixty days after notice of the Administrator's determination, may request the Administrator to hold an informal hearing and make a final decision.

(k) Review and analysis of 5-year period of Council activities

(1) Not later than October 1, 1987, or six years after the Council is established under this chapter, whichever is later, the Council shall complete a thorough analysis of conservation measures and conservation resources implemented pursuant to this chapter during the five-year period beginning on the date the Council is established under this chapter to determine if such measures or resources:

(A) have resulted or are likely to result in costs to consumers in the region greater than the costs of additional generating resources or additional fuel which the Council determines would be necessary in the absence of such measures or resources;

(B) have not been or are likely not to be generally equitable to all consumers in the region; or

(C) have impaired or are likely to impair the ability of the Administrator to carry out his obligations under this chapter and other laws, consistent with sound business practices.


(2) The Administrator may determine that section 839a(4)(D) of this title shall not apply to any proposed conservation measure or resource if the Administrator finds after receipt of such analysis from the Council that such measure or resource would have any result or effect described in subparagraph (A), (B) or (C) of paragraph (1).

(Pub. L. 96–501, §4, Dec. 5, 1980, 94 Stat. 2700; Pub. L. 103–437, §6(u), Nov. 2, 1994, 108 Stat. 4587; Pub. L. 104–206, title V, §512, Sept. 30, 1996, 110 Stat. 3005; Pub. L. 106–60, title VI, §610, Sept. 29, 1999, 113 Stat. 502; Pub. L. 112–74, div. B, title III, §307, Dec. 23, 2011, 125 Stat. 877.)

References in Text

The Ethics in Government Act of 1978, referred to in subsec. (b)(3), is Pub. L. 95–521, Oct. 26, 1978, 92 Stat. 1824. Title II of the Ethics in Government Act of 1978 was set out in the Appendix to Title 5, Government Organization and Employees, prior to repeal by Pub. L. 101–194, title II, §201, Nov. 30, 1989, 103 Stat. 1724. For complete classification of this Act to the Code, see Short Title note set out under section 101 of Pub. L. 95–521 in the Appendix to Title 5 and Tables.

The Federal Columbia River Transmission System Act, referred to in subsecs. (c)(10)(A) and (h)(10)(B), is Pub. L. 93–454, Oct. 18, 1974, 88 Stat. 1376, which is classified generally to chapter 12G (§838 et seq.) of this title. For complete classification of this Act to the Code, see Short Title note set out under section 838 of this title and Tables.

The Federal Advisory Committee Act, referred to in subsec. (h)(10)(D)(iii), is Pub. L. 92–463, Oct. 6, 1972, 86 Stat. 770, which is set out in the Appendix to Title 5, Government Organization and Employees.

Codification

September 30, 1996, referred to in subsec. (h)(10)(D)(i), (ii), was in the original “the date of this enactment”, which was translated as meaning the date of enactment of Pub. L. 104–206, which enacted subsec. (h)(10)(D), to reflect the probable intent of Congress.

Amendments

2011—Subsec. (h)(10)(B). Pub. L. 112–74, which directed amendment of “section 839b(h)(10)(B) of title 16, United States Code” by substituting “$2,500,000” for “$1,000,000”, was executed by making the substitution in subsec. (h)(10)(B) of this section, which is section 4 of the Pacific Northwest Electric Power Planning and Conservation Act, to reflect the probable intent of Congress.

1999—Subsec. (h)(10)(D)(vii), (viii). Pub. L. 106–60 added cl. (vii) and struck out former cls. (vii) and (viii) which read as follows:

“(vii) Cost Limitation.—The cost of this provision shall not exceed $2,000,000 in 1997 dollars.

“(viii) Expiration.—This paragraph shall expire on September 30, 2000.”

1996—Subsec. (h)(10)(D). Pub. L. 104–206, which directed that subpar. (D) be inserted after subsec. (h)(10)(C) of the Northwest Power Planning and Conservation Act, was executed by adding subsec. (h)(10)(D) to this section, which is from the Pacific Northwest Electric Power Planning and Conservation Act, to reflect the probable intent of Congress.

1994—Subsec. (h)(12)(A). Pub. L. 103–437 substituted “Committees on Energy and Commerce and on Natural Resources” for “Committees on Interstate and Foreign Commerce and on Interior and Insular Affairs”.

Change of Name

Committee on Energy and Commerce of House of Representatives treated as referring to Committee on Commerce of House of Representatives by section 1(a) of Pub. L. 104–14, set out as a note preceding section 21 of Title 2, The Congress. Committee on Commerce of House of Representatives changed to Committee on Energy and Commerce of House of Representatives, and jurisdiction over matters relating to securities and exchanges and insurance generally transferred to Committee on Financial Services of House of Representatives by House Resolution No. 5, One Hundred Seventh Congress, Jan. 3, 2001.

The Water and Power Resources Service, referred to in subsec. (h)(10)(C), changed to the Bureau of Reclamation on May 18, 1981. See 155 Dep't of the Interior, Departmental Manual 1.1 (2008 repl.); Sec'y James G. Watt, Dep't of the Interior, Secretarial Order 3064, §§3, 5 (May 18, 1981).

Termination of Reporting Requirements

For termination, effective May 15, 2000, of provisions in subsec. (h)(12)(A) of this section relating to submitting annually a detailed report to the Committee on Energy and Natural Resources of the Senate and to the Committees on Energy and Commerce and on Natural Resources of the House of Representatives, see section 3003 of Pub. L. 104–66, as amended, set out as a note under section 1113 of Title 31, Money and Finance, and page 188 of House Document No. 103–7.

References in Other Laws to GS–16, 17, or 18 Pay Rates

References in laws to the rates of pay for GS–16, 17, or 18, or to maximum rates of pay under the General Schedule, to be considered references to rates payable under specified sections of Title 5, Government Organization and Employees, see section 529 [title I, §101(c)(1)] of Pub. L. 101–509, set out in a note under section 5376 of Title 5.

Operation and Maintenance of Fish Passage Facilities Within the Yakima River Basin; Funding

Pub. L. 98–381, title I, §109, Aug. 17, 1984, 98 Stat. 1340, provided that: “The Secretary of the Interior, acting pursuant to Federal reclamation law (Act of June 17, 1902, 32 Stat. 388 [see Short Title note under section 371 of Title 43, Public Lands], and Acts amendatory thereof and supplementary thereto) and in accordance with the Pacific Northwest Electric Power Planning and Conservation Act (94 Stat. 2697) [16 U.S.C. 839 et seq.] is authorized to design, construct, operate, and maintain fish passage facilities within the Yakima River Basin, and to accept funds from any entity, public or private, to design, construct, operate, and maintain such facilities.”

1 See References in Text note below.

§839c. Sale of power

(a) Preferences and priorities

All power sales under this chapter shall be subject at all times to the preference and priority provisions of the Bonneville Project Act of 1937 (16 U.S.C. 832 and following) and, in particular, sections 4 and 5 thereof [16 U.S.C. 832c and 832d]. Such sales shall be at rates established pursuant to section 839e of this title.

(b) Sales to public bodies, cooperatives, and Federal agency customers

(1) Whenever requested, the Administrator shall offer to sell to each requesting public body and cooperative entitled to preference and priority under the Bonneville Project Act of 1937 [16 U.S.C. 832 et seq.] and to each requesting investor-owned utility electric power to meet the firm power load of such public body, cooperative or investor-owned utility in the Region to the extent that such firm power load exceeds—

(A) the capability of such entity's firm peaking and energy resources used in the year prior to December 5, 1980, to serve its firm load in the region, and

(B) such other resources as such entity determines, pursuant to contracts under this chapter, will be used to serve its firm load in the region.


In determining the resources which are used to serve a firm load, for purposes of subparagraphs (A) and (B), any resources used to serve a firm load under such subparagraphs shall be treated as continuing to be so used, unless such use is discontinued with the consent of the Administrator, or unless such use is discontinued because of obsolescence, retirement, loss of resource, or loss of contract rights.

(2) Contracts with investor-owned utilities shall provide that the Administrator may reduce his obligations under such contracts in accordance with section 5(a) of the Bonneville Project Act of 1937 [16 U.S.C. 832d(a)].

(3) In addition to his authorities to sell electric power under paragraph (1), the Administrator is also authorized to sell electric power to Federal agencies in the region.

(4) Sales under this subsection shall be made only if the public body, cooperative, Federal agency or investor-owned utility complies with the Administrator's standards for service in effect on December 5, 1980, or as subsequently revised.

(5) The Administrator shall include in contracts executed in accordance with this subsection provisions that enable the Administrator to restrict his contractual obligations to meet the loads referred to in this subsection in the future if the Administrator determines, after a reasonable period of experience under this chapter, that the Administrator cannot be assured on a planning basis of acquiring sufficient resources to meet such loads during a specified period of insufficiency. Any such contract with a public body, cooperative, or Federal agency shall specify a reasonable minimum period between a notice of restriction and the earliest date such restriction may be imposed.

(6) Contracts executed in accordance with this subsection with public body, cooperative, and Federal agency customers shall—

(A) provide that the restriction referred to in paragraph (5) shall not be applicable to any such customers until the operating year in which the total of such customers’ firm loads to be served by the Administrator equals or exceeds the firm capability of the Federal base system resources;

(B) not permit restrictions which would reduce the total contractual entitlement of such customers to an amount less than the firm capability of the Federal base system resources; and

(C) contain a formula for determining annually, on a uniform basis, each such customer's contractual entitlement to firm power during such a period of restriction, which formula shall not consider customer resources other than those the customer has determined, as of December 5, 1980, to be used to serve its own firm loads.


The formula referred to in subparagraph (C) shall obligate the Administrator to provide on an annual basis only firm power needed to serve the portion of such customer's firm load in excess of the capability of such customer's own firm resources determined by such customer under paragraph (1) of this subsection to be used to serve its firm load.

(7) Required sale.—

(A) Definition of a joint operating entity.—In this section, the term “joint operating entity” means an entity that is lawfully organized under State law as a public body or cooperative prior to September 22, 2000, and is formed by and whose members or participants are two or more public bodies or cooperatives, each of which was a customer of the Bonneville Power Administration on or before January 1, 1999.

(B) Sale.—Pursuant to paragraph (1), the Administrator shall sell, at wholesale to a joint operating entity, electric power solely for the purpose of meeting the regional firm power consumer loads of regional public bodies and cooperatives that are members of or participants in the joint operating entity.

(C) No resale.—A public body or cooperative to which a joint operating entity sells electric power under subparagraph (B) shall not resell that power except to retail customers of the public body or cooperative or to another regional member or participant of the same joint operating entity, or except as otherwise permitted by law.

(c) Purchase and exchange sales

(1) Whenever a Pacific Northwest electric utility offers to sell electric power to the Administrator at the average system cost of that utility's resources in each year, the Administrator shall acquire by purchase such power and shall offer, in exchange, to sell an equivalent amount of electric power to such utility for resale to that utility's residential users within the region.

(2) The purchase and exchange sale referred to in paragraph (1) of this subsection with any electric utility shall be limited to an amount not in excess of 50 per centum of such utility's Regional residential load in the year beginning July 1, 1980, such 50 per centum limit increasing in equal annual increments to 100 per centum of such load in the year beginning July 1, 1985, and each year thereafter.

(3) The cost benefits, as specified in contracts with the Administrator, of any purchase and exchange sale referred to in paragraph (1) of this subsection which are attributable to any electric utility's residential load within a State shall be passed through directly to such utility's residential loads within such State, except that a State which lies partially within and partially without the region may require that such cost benefits be distributed among all of the utility's residential loads in that State.

(4) An electric utility may terminate, upon reasonable terms and conditions agreed to by the Administrator and such utility prior to such termination, its purchase and sale under this subsection if the supplemental rate charge provided for in section 839e(b)(3) of this title is applied and the cost of electric power sold to such utility under this subsection exceeds, after application of such rate charge, the average system cost of power sold by such utility to the Administrator under this subsection.

(5) Subject to the provisions of sections 839b and 839d of this title, in lieu of purchasing any amount of electric power offered by a utility under paragraph (1) of this subsection, the Administrator may acquire an equivalent amount of electric power from other sources to replace power sold to such utility as part of an exchange sale if the cost of such acquisition is less than the cost of purchasing the electric power offered by such utility.

(6) Exchange sales to a utility pursuant to this subsection shall not be restricted below the amounts of electric power acquired by the Administrator from, or on behalf of, such utility pursuant to this subsection.

(7) The “average system cost” for electric power sold to the Administrator under this subsection shall be determined by the Administrator on the basis of a methodology developed for this purpose in consultation with the Council, the Administrator's customers, and appropriate State regulatory bodies in the region. Such methodology shall be subject to review and approval by the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission. Such average system cost shall not include—

(A) the cost of additional resources in an amount sufficient to serve any new large single load of the utility;

(B) the cost of additional resources in an amount sufficient to meet any additional load outside the region occurring after December 5, 1980; and

(C) any costs of any generating facility which is terminated prior to initial commercial operation.

(d) Sales to existing direct service industrial customers

(1)(A) The Administrator is authorized to sell in accordance with this subsection electric power to existing direct service industrial customers. Such sales shall provide a portion of the Administrator's reserves for firm power loads within the region.

(B) After December 5, 1980, the Administrator shall offer in accordance with subsection (g) of this section to each existing direct service industrial customer an initial long term contract that provides such customer an amount of power equivalent to that to which such customer is entitled under its contract dated January or April 1975 providing for the sale of “industrial firm power.”

(2) The Administrator shall not sell electric power, including reserves, directly to new direct service industrial customers.

(3) The Administrator shall not sell amounts of electric power, including reserves, to existing direct service industrial customers in excess of the amount permitted under paragraph (1) unless the Administrator determines, after a plan has been adopted pursuant to section 839b of this title, that such proposed sale is consistent with the plan and that—

(A) additional power system reserves are required for the region's firm loads,

(B) the proposed sale would provide a cost-effective method of supplying such reserves,

(C) such loads or loads of similar character cannot provide equivalent operating or planning benefits to the region if served by an electric utility under contractual arrangements providing reserves, and

(D) the Administrator has or can acquire sufficient electric power to serve such loads, and


unless the Council has determined such sale is consistent with the plan. After such determination by the Administrator and by the Council, the Administrator is authorized to offer to existing direct service industrial customers power in such amounts in excess of the amount permitted under paragraph (1) of this subsection as the Administrator determines to be necessary to provide additional power system reserves to meet the region's firm loads.

(4)(A) As used in this section, the term “existing direct service industrial customer” means any direct service industrial customer of the Administrator which has a contract for the purchase of electric power from the Administrator on December 5, 1980.

(B) The term “new direct service industrial customer” means any industrial entity other than an existing direct service industrial customer.

(C)(i) Where a new contract is offered in accordance with subsection (g) of this section to any existing direct service industrial customer which has not received electric power prior to December 5, 1980, from the Administrator pursuant to a contract with the Administrator existing on December 5, 1980, electric power delivered under such new contract shall be conditioned on the Administrator reasonably acquiring, in accordance with this chapter and within such estimated period of time (as specified in the contract) as he deems reasonable, sufficient resources to meet, on a planning basis, the load requirement of such customer. Such contract shall also provide that the obligation of the Administrator to acquire such resources to meet such load requirement shall, except as provided in clause (ii) of this subparagraph, apply only to such customer and shall not be sold or exchanged by such customer to any other person.

(ii) Rights under a contract described in clause (i) of this subparagraph may be transferred by an existing direct service industrial customer referred to in clause (i) to a successor in interest in connection with a reorganization or other transfer of all major assets of such customer. Following such a transfer, such successor in interest (or any other subsequent successor in interest) may also transfer rights under such a contract only in connection with a reorganization or other transfer of all assets of such successor in interest.

(iii) The limitations of clause (i) of this subparagraph shall not apply to any customer referred to in clause (i) whenever the Administrator determines that such customer is receiving electric power pursuant to a contract referred to in such clause (ii).

(e) Contractual entitlements to firm power

(1) The contractual entitlement to firm power of any customer from whom, or on whose behalf, the Administrator has acquired electric power pursuant to section 839d of this title may not be restricted below the amount of electric power so acquired from, or on behalf of, such customer. If in any year such customer's requirements are less than such entitlement, any excess of such entitlement shall be first made available to increase the entitlement of other customers of the same class before being available for the entitlement of other customers. For purposes of this paragraph, the following entities shall each constitute a class:

(A) public bodies and cooperatives;

(B) Federal agencies;

(C) direct service industrial; and

(D) investor owned utilities.


(2) Any contractual entitlement to firm power which is based on electric power acquired from, or on behalf of, a customer pursuant to section 839d of this title shall be in addition to any other contractual entitlement to firm power not subject to restriction that such customer may have under this section. For the purposes of this subsection, references to amounts of power acquired by the Administrator pursuant to section 839d of this title shall be deemed to mean the amounts specified in the resource acquisition contracts exclusive of any amounts recognized in such contracts as replacement for Federal base system resources.

(3) The Administrator shall, consistent with the provisions of this chapter, insure that any restrictions upon any particular customer class made pursuant to this subsection and subsection (b) of this section are distributed equitably throughout the region.

(f) Surplus power

The Administrator is authorized to sell, or otherwise dispose of, electric power, including power acquired pursuant to this and other Acts, that is surplus to his obligations incurred pursuant to subsections (b), (c), and (d) of this section in accordance with this and other Acts applicable to the Administrator, including the Bonneville Project Act of 1937 (16 U.S.C. 832 and following), the Federal Columbia River Transmission System Act (16 U.S.C. 838 and following), and the Act of August 31, 1964 (16 U.S.C. 837–837h).

(g) Long-term contracts

(1) As soon as practicable within nine months after December 5, 1980, the Administrator shall commence necessary negotiations for, and offer, initial long-term contracts (within the limitations of the third sentence of section 5(a) of the Bonneville Project Act [16 U.S.C. 832d(a)]) simultaneously to—

(A) existing public body and cooperative customers and investor-owned utility customers under subsection (b) of this section;

(B) Federal agency customers under subsection (b) of this section;

(C) electric utility customers under subsection (c) of this section; and

(D) direct service industrial customers under subsection (d)(1) of this section.


(2) Each customer offered a contract pursuant to this subsection shall have one year from the date of such offer to accept such contract. Such contract shall be effective as provided in this subsection.

(3) An initial contract with a public body, cooperative or investor-owned electric utility customer or a Federal agency customer pursuant to subsection (b) of this section shall be effective on the date executed by such customer, unless another effective date is otherwise agreed to by the Administrator and the customer.

(4) An initial contract with an electric utility customer pursuant to subsection (c) of this section shall be effective on the date executed by such customer, but no earlier than the first day of the tenth month after December 5, 1980.

(5) An initial contract with a direct service industrial customer pursuant to subsection (d)(1) of this section, shall be effective on the date agreed upon by the Administrator and such customer, but no later than the first day of the tenth month after December 5, 1980. When such contract is executed, it may for rate purposes be given retroactive effect to such first day.

(6) Initial contracts offered public body, cooperative and Federal agency customers in accordance with this subsection shall provide that during a period of insufficiency declared in accordance with subsection (b) of this section each customer's contractual entitlement shall, to the extent of its requirements on the Administrator, be no less than the amount of firm power received from the Administrator in the year immediately preceding the period of insufficiency.

(7) The Administrator shall be deemed to have sufficient resources for the purpose of entering into the initial contracts specified in paragraph (1)(A) through (D).

(Pub. L. 96–501, §5, Dec. 5, 1980, 94 Stat. 2712; Pub. L. 106–273, §1, Sept. 22, 2000, 114 Stat. 802.)

References in Text

The Bonneville Project Act of 1937, referred to in subsecs. (a), (b)(1), and (f), is act Aug. 20, 1937, ch. 720, 50 Stat. 731, which is classified generally to chapter 12B (§832 et seq.) of this title. For complete classification of this Act to the Code, see Short Title note set out under section 832 of this title and Tables.

The Federal Columbia River Transmission System Act, referred to in subsec. (f), is Pub. L. 93–454, Oct. 18, 1974, 88 Stat. 1376, which is classified generally to chapter 12G (§838 et seq.) of this title. For complete classification of this Act to the Code, see Short Title note set out under section 838 of this title and Tables.

Act of August 31, 1964, referred to in subsec. (f), is Pub. L. 88–552, Aug. 31, 1964, 78 Stat. 756, which is classified generally to chapter 12F (§837 et seq.) of this title. For complete classification of this Act to the Code, see Tables.

Amendments

2000—Subsec. (b)(7). Pub. L. 106–273 added par. (7).

§839d. Conservation and resource acquisition

(a) Conservation measures; resources

(1) The Administrator shall acquire such resources through conservation, implement all such conservation measures, and acquire such renewable resources which are installed by a residential or small commercial consumer to reduce load, as the Administrator determines are consistent with the plan, or if no plan is in effect with the criteria of section 839b(e)(1) of this title and the considerations of section 839b(e)(2) of this title and, in the case of major resources, in accordance with subsection (c) of this section. Such conservation measures and such resources may include, but are not limited to—

(A) loans and grants to consumers for insulation or weatherization, increased system efficiency, and waste energy recovery by direct application,

(B) technical and financial assistance to, and other cooperation with, the Administrator's customers and governmental authorities to encourage maximum cost-effective voluntary conservation and the attainment of any cost-effective conservation objectives adopted by individual States or subdivisions thereof,

(C) aiding the Administrator's customers and governmental authorities in implementing model conservation standards adopted pursuant to section 839b(f) of this title, and

(D) conducting demonstration projects to determine the cost effectiveness of conservation measures and direct application of renewable energy resources.


(2) In addition to acquiring electric power pursuant to section 839c(c) of this title, or on a short-term basis pursuant to section 11(b)(6)(i) of the Federal Columbia River Transmission System Act [16 U.S.C. 838i(b)(6)(i)], the Administrator shall acquire, in accordance with this section, sufficient resources—

(A) to meet his contractual obligations that remain after taking into account planned savings from measures provided for in paragraph (1) of this subsection, and

(B) to assist in meeting the requirements of section 839b(h) of this title.


The Administrator shall acquire such resources without considering restrictions which may apply pursuant to section 839c(b) of this title.

(b) Acquisition of resources

(1) Except as specifically provided in this section, acquisition of resources under this chapter shall be consistent with the plan, as determined by the Administrator.

(2) The Administrator may acquire resources (other than major resources) under this chapter which are not consistent with the plan, but which are determined by the Administrator to be consistent with the criteria of section 839b(e)(1) of this title and the considerations of section 839b(e)(2) of this title.

(3) If no plan is in effect, the Administrator may acquire resources under this chapter which are determined by the Administrator to be consistent with the criteria of section 839b(e)(1) of this title and the considerations of section 839b(e)(2) of this title.

(4) The Administrator shall acquire any non-Federal resources to replace Federal base system resources only in accordance with the provisions of this section. The Administrator shall include in the contracts for the acquisition of any such non-Federal replacement resources provisions which will enable him to ensure that such non-Federal replacement resources are developed and operated in a manner consistent with the considerations specified in section 839b(e)(2) of this title.

(5) Notwithstanding any acquisition of resources pursuant to this section, the Administrator shall not reduce his efforts to achieve conservation and to acquire renewable resources installed by a residential or small commercial consumer to reduce load, pursuant to subsection (a)(1) of this section.

(c) Procedure for acquiring major resources, implementing conservation measures, paying or reimbursing investigation and preconstruction expenses, or granting billing credits

(1) For each proposal under subsection (a), (b), (f), (h), or (l) of this section to acquire a major resource, to implement a conservation measure which will conserve an amount of electric power equivalent to that of a major resource, to pay or reimburse investigation and preconstruction expenses of the sponsors of a major resource, or to grant billing credits or services involving a major resource, the Administrator shall—

(A) publish notice of the proposed action in the Federal Register and provide a copy of such notice to the Council, the Governor of each State in which facilities would be constructed or a conservation measure implemented, and the Administrator's customers;

(B) not less than sixty days following publication of such notice, conduct one or more public hearings, presided over by a hearing officer, at which testimony and evidence shall be received, with opportunity for such rebuttal and cross-examination as the hearing officer deems appropriate in the development of an adequate hearing record;

(C) develop a record to assist in evaluating the proposal which shall include the transcript of the public hearings, together with exhibits, and such other materials and information as may have been submitted to, or developed by, the Administrator; and

(D) following completion of such hearings, promptly provide to the Council and make public a written decision that includes, in addition to a determination respecting the requirements of subsection (a), (b), (f), (h), (l), or (m) of this section, as appropriate—

(i) if a plan is in effect, a finding that the proposal is either consistent or inconsistent with the plan or, notwithstanding its inconsistency with the plan, a finding that it is needed to meet the Administrator's obligations under this chapter, or

(ii) if no plan is in effect, a finding that the proposal is either consistent or inconsistent with the criteria of section 839b(e)(1) of this title and the considerations of section 839b(e)(2) of this title or notwithstanding its inconsistency, a finding that it is needed to meet the Administrator's obligations under this chapter.


In the case of subsection (f) of this section, such decision shall be treated as satisfying the applicable requirements of this subsection and of subsection (f) of this section, if it includes a finding of probable consistency, based upon the Administrator's evaluation of information available at the time of completion of the hearing under this paragraph. Such decision shall include the reasons for such finding.


(2) Within sixty days of the receipt of the Administrator's decision pursuant to paragraph (1)(D) of this subsection, the Council may determine by a majority vote of all members of the Council, and notify the Administrator—

(A) that the proposal is either consistent or inconsistent with the plan, or

(B) if no plan is in effect, that the proposal is either consistent or inconsistent with the criteria of section 839b(e)(1) of this title and the considerations of section 839b(e)(2) of this title.


(3) The Administrator may not implement any proposal referred to in paragraph (1) that is determined pursuant to paragraph (1) or (2) by either the Administrator or the Council to be inconsistent with the plan or, if no plan is in effect, with the criteria of section 839b(e)(1) of this title and the considerations of section 839b(e)(2) of this title—

(A) unless the Administrator finds that, notwithstanding such inconsistency, such resource is needed to meet the Administrator's obligations under this chapter, and

(B) until the expenditure of funds for that purpose has been specifically authorized by Act of Congress enacted after December 5, 1980.


(4) Before the Administrator implements any proposal referred to in paragraph (1) of this subsection, the Administrator shall—

(A) submit to the appropriate committees of the Congress the administrative record of the decision (including any determination by the Council under paragraph (2)) and a statement of the procedures followed or to be followed for compliance with the National Environmental Policy Act of 1969 [42 U.S.C. 4321 et seq.],

(B) publish notice of the decision in the Federal Register, and

(C) note the proposal in the Administrator's annual or supplementary budget submittal made pursuant to the Federal Columbia River Transmission System Act (16 U.S.C. 838 and following).


The Administrator may not implement any such proposal until ninety days after the date on which such proposal has been noted in such budget or after the date on which such decision has been published in the Federal Register, whichever is later.

(5) The authority of the Council to make a determination under paragraph (2)(B) if no plan is in effect shall expire on the date two years after the establishment of the Council.

(d) Acquisition of resources other than major resources

The Administrator is authorized to acquire a resource, other than a major resource, whether or not such resource meets the criteria of section 839b(e)(1) of this title and the considerations of section 839b(e)(2) of this title but which he determines is an experimental, developmental, demonstration, or pilot project of a type with a potential for providing cost-effective service to the region. The Administrator shall make no obligation for the acquisition of such resource until it is included in the annual budgets submitted to the Congress pursuant to the Federal Columbia River Transmission System Act [16 U.S.C. 838 et seq.].

(e) Effectuation of priorities; use of customers and local entities

(1) In order to effectuate the priority given to conservation measures and renewable resources under this chapter, the Administrator shall, to the maximum extent practicable, make use of his authorities under this chapter to acquire conservation measures and renewable resources, to implement conservation measures, and to provide credits and technical and financial assistance for the development and implementation of such resources and measures (including the funding of, and the securing of debt for, expenses incurred during the investigation and preconstruction of resources, as authorized in subsection (f) of this section).

(2) To the extent conservation measures or acquisition of resources require direct arrangements with consumers, the Administrator shall make maximum practicable use of customers and local entities capable of administering and carrying out such arrangements.

(f) Agreements; investigation and initial development of renewable resources other than major resources; reimbursement of investigation and preconstruction expenses

(1) For resources which the Administrator determines may be eligible for acquisition under this section and satisfy the criteria of section 839b(e)(1) of this title and the considerations of section 839b(e)(2) of this title or, if a plan is in effect, to be consistent with the plan, the Administrator is authorized to enter into agreements with sponsors of—

(A) a renewable resource, other than a major resource, to fund or secure debt incurred in the investigation and initial development of such resource, or

(B) any other resource to provide for the reimbursement of the sponsor's investigation and preconstruction expenses concerning such resource (which expenses shall not include procurement of capital equipment or construction material for such resource).


In the case of any resource referred to in subparagraph (B) of this paragraph, such reimbursement is authorized only if—

(i) such resource is subsequently denied State siting approval or other necessary Federal or State permits, or approvals,

(ii) such investigation subsequently demonstrates, as determined by the Administrator, that such resource does not meet the criteria of section 839b(e)(1) of this title and the considerations of section 839b(e)(2) of this title or is not acceptable because of environmental impacts, or

(iii) after such investigation the Administrator determines not to acquire the resource and the sponsor determines not to construct the resource.


(2) The Administrator may exercise the authority of this subsection only after he determines that the failure to do so would result in inequitable hardship to the consumers of such sponsors. The Administrator may provide reimbursement under this subsection only for expenses incurred after December 5, 1980.

(3) Any agreement under paragraph (1) of this subsection shall provide the Administrator an option to acquire any such resource, including a renewable resource, and shall include such other provisions, as the Administrator deems appropriate, for the Administrator's recovery from such sponsors or any assignee of the sponsors, if such sponsor or assignee continues development of the resource, of any advances made by the Administrator pursuant to such agreement.

(4) The Administrator shall not reimburse any expense incurred by the sponsors (except necessary expenses involved in the liquidation of the resource) after the date of a final denial of application for State siting approval or after the date the Administrator determines that the resource to be inconsistent with the plan or the criteria of section 839b(e)(1) of this title and the considerations of section 839b(e)(2) of this title.

(g) Environmental impact statements

At the request of the appropriate State, any environmental impact statement which may be required with respect to a resource, to the extent determined possible by the Administrator in accordance with applicable law and regulations, may be prepared jointly and in coordination with any required environmental impact statement of the State or any other statement which serves the purpose of an environmental impact statement which is required by State law.

(h) Billing credits

(1) If a customer so requests, the Administrator shall grant billing credits to such customer, and provide services to such customer at rates established for such services, for—

(A) conservation activities independently undertaken or continued after December 5, 1980, by such customer or political subdivision served by such customer which reduce the obligation of the Administrator that would otherwise have existed to acquire other resources under this chapter, or

(B) resources constructed, completed, or acquired after December 5, 1980, by a customer, an entity acting on behalf of such customer, or political subdivision served by the customer which reduce the obligation of the Administrator to acquire resources under this chapter. Such resources shall be renewable resources or multipurpose projects or other resources which are not inconsistent with the plan or, in the absence of a plan, not inconsistent with the criteria of section 839b(e)(1) of this title and the considerations of section 839b(e)(2) of this title.


(2) The energy and capacity on which a credit under this subsection to a customer is based shall be the amount by which a conservation activity or resource actually changes the customer's net requirement for supply of electric power or reserves from the Administrator.

(3) The amount of credits for conservation under this subsection shall be set to credit the customer implementing or continuing the conservation activity for which the credit is granted for the savings resulting from such activity. The rate impact on the Administrator's other customers of granting the credit shall be equal to the rate impact such customers would have experienced had the Administrator been obligated to acquire resources in an amount equal to that actually saved by the activity for which the credit is granted.

(4) For resources other than conservation, the customer shall be credited for net costs actually incurred by such customer, an entity acting on behalf of such customer, or political subdivision served by such customer, in acquiring, constructing, or operating the resource for which the credit is granted. The rate impact to the Administrator's other customers of granting the credit shall be no greater than the rate impact such customers would have experienced had the Administrator been obligated to acquire resources in an amount equal to that actually produced by the resource for which the credit is granted.

(5) Retail rate structures which are voluntarily implemented by the Administrator's customers and which induce conservation or installation of consumer-owned renewable resources shall be considered, for purposes of this subsection, to be (A) conservation activities independently undertaken or carried on by such customers, or (B) customer-owned renewable resources, and shall qualify for billing credits upon the same showing as that required for other conservation or renewable resource activities.

(6) Prior to granting any credit or providing services pursuant to this subsection, the Administrator shall—

(A) comply with the notice provisions of subsection (c) of this section, and include in such notice the methodology the Administrator proposes to use in determining the amount of any such credit;

(B) include the cost of such credit in the Administrator's annual or amended budget submittal to the Congress made pursuant to the Federal Columbia River Transmission System Act (16 U.S.C. 838(j)) [16 U.S.C. 838 et seq.];

(C) require that resources in excess of customer's reasonable load growth shall have been offered to others for ownership, participation or other sponsorship pursuant to subsection (m) of this section, except in the case of conservation, multi-purpose projects uniquely suitable for development by the customer, or renewable resources; and

(D) require that the operators of any generating resource for which a billing credit is to be granted agree to operate such resource in a manner compatible with the planning and operation of the region's power system.

(i) Contracts

Contracts for the acquisition of resources and for billing credits for major resources, including conservation activities, entered into pursuant to this section shall contain such terms and conditions, applicable after the contract is entered into, as will—

(1) insure timely construction, scheduling, completion, and operation of resources,

(2) insure that the costs of any acquisition are as low as reasonably possible, consistent (A) with sound engineering, operating, and safety practices, and (B) the protection, mitigation, and enhancement of fish and wildlife, including related spawning grounds and habitat affected by the development of such resources, and

(3) insure that the Administrator exercises effective oversight, inspection, audit, and review of all aspects of such construction and operation.


Such contracts shall contain provisions assuring that the Administrator has the authority to approve all costs of, and proposals for, major modifications in construction, scheduling or operations and to assure that the Administrator is provided with such current information as he deems necessary to evaluate such construction and operation.

(j) Obligations not to be considered general obligations of United States or secured by full faith and credit of United States

(1) All contractual and other obligations required to be carried out by the Administrator pursuant to this chapter shall be secured solely by the Administrator's revenues received from the sale of electric power and other services. Such obligations are not, nor shall they be construed to be, general obligations of the United States, nor are such obligations intended to be or are they secured by the full faith and credit of the United States.

(2) All contracts entered into by the Administrator for the acquisition of resources pursuant to this chapter shall require that, in the sale of any obligations, all offerings and promotional material for the sale of such obligations shall include the language contained in the second sentence of paragraph (1) of this subsection. The Administrator shall monitor and enforce such requirement.

(k) Equitable distribution of benefits

In the exercise of his authorities pursuant to this section, the Administrator shall, consistent with the provisions of this chapter and the Administrator's obligations to particular customer classes, insure that benefits under this section, including financial and technical assistance, conduct of conservation demonstrations, and experimental projects, services, and billing credits, are distributed equitably throughout the region.

(l) Investigations

(1) The Administrator is authorized and directed to investigate opportunities for adding to the region's resources or reducing the region's power costs through the accelerated or cooperative development of resources located outside the States of Idaho, Montana, Oregon, and Washington if such resources are renewable resources, and are now or in the future planned or considered for eventual development by nonregional agencies or authorities that will or would own, sponsor, or otherwise develop them. The Administrator shall keep the Council fully and currently informed of such investigations, and seek the Council's advice as to the desirability of pursuing such investigations.

(2) The Administrator is authorized and directed to investigate periodically opportunities for mutually beneficial interregional exchanges of electric power that reduce the need for additional generation or generating capacity in the Pacific Northwest and the regions with which such exchanges may occur. The Council shall take into consideration in formulating a plan such investigations.

(3) After the Administrator submits a report to Congress pursuant to paragraph (5) of this subsection, the Administrator is authorized to acquire resources consistent with such investigations and consistent with the plan or, if no plan is in effect, with the priorities of section 839b(e)(1) of this title and the considerations of section 839b(e)(2) of this title. Such acquisitions shall be in accordance with the provisions of this subsection.

(4) The Administrator shall conduct the investigations and the acquisitions, if any, authorized under this subsection with the assistance of other Federal agencies as may be appropriate.

(5) No later than July 1, 1981, the Administrator shall submit to the Congress a report of the results of the investigations undertaken pursuant to this subsection, together with the prospects for obtaining additional resources under the authority granted by this subsection and for reductions in generation or generating capacity through exchanges.

(m) Offering of reasonable shares to each Pacific Northwest electric utility

Except as to resources under construction on December 5, 1980, the Administrator shall determine in each case of a major resource acquisition that a reasonable share of the particular resource, or a reasonable equivalent, has been offered to each Pacific Northwest electric utility for ownership, participation, or other sponsorship, but not in excess of the amounts needed to meet such utility's Regional load.

(Pub. L. 96–501, §6, Dec. 5, 1980, 94 Stat. 2717.)

References in Text

The National Environmental Policy Act of 1969, referred to in subsec. (c)(4)(A), is Pub. L. 91–190, Jan. 1, 1970, 83 Stat. 852, which is classified generally to chapter 55 (§4321 et seq.) of Title 42, The Public Health and Welfare. For complete classification of this Act to the Code, see Short Title note set out under section 4321 of Title 42 and Tables.

The Federal Columbia River Transmission System Act, referred to in subsecs. (c)(4)(C), (d), and (h)(6)(B), is Pub. L. 93–454, Oct. 18, 1974, 88 Stat. 1376, which is classified generally to chapter 12G (§838 et seq.) of this title. For complete classification of this Act to the Code, see Short Title note set out under section 838 of this title and Tables.

§839d–1. Federal projects in Pacific Northwest

Without further appropriation and without fiscal year limitation, the Secretaries of the Interior and Army are authorized to plan, design, construct, operate and maintain generation additions, improvements and replacements, at their respective Federal projects in the Pacific Northwest Region as defined in the Pacific Northwest Electric Power Planning and Conservation Act (Northwest Power Act), Public Law 96–501 (16 U.S.C. 839a(14)), and to operate and maintain the respective Secretary's power facilities in the Region, that the respective Secretary determines necessary or appropriate and that the Bonneville Power Administrator subsequently determines necessary or appropriate, with any funds that the Administrator determines to make available to the respective Secretary for such purposes. Each Secretary is authorized, without further appropriation, to accept and use such funds for such purposes: Provided, That, such funds shall continue to be exempt from sequestration pursuant to section 905(g)(1) of title 2: Provided further, That this section shall not modify or affect the applicability of any provision of the Northwest Power Act [16 U.S.C. 839 et seq.]. This provision shall be effective on October 1, 1993.

(Pub. L. 102–486, title XXIV, §2406, Oct. 24, 1992, 106 Stat. 3099.)

References in Text

The Pacific Northwest Electric Power Planning and Conservation Act, referred to in text, is Pub. L. 96–501, Dec. 5, 1980, 94 Stat. 2697, which is classified principally to this chapter (§839 et seq.). For complete classification of this Act to the Code, see Short Title note set out under section 839 of this title and Tables.

Codification

Section was enacted as part of the Energy Policy Act of 1992, and not as part of the Pacific Northwest Electric Power Planning and Conservation Act which comprises this chapter.

§839e. Rates

(a) Establishment; periodic review and revision; confirmation and approval by Federal Energy Regulatory Commission

(1) The Administrator shall establish, and periodically review and revise, rates for the sale and disposition of electric energy and capacity and for the transmission of non-Federal power. Such rates shall be established and, as appropriate, revised to recover, in accordance with sound business principles, the costs associated with the acquisition, conservation, and transmission of electric power, including the amortization of the Federal investment in the Federal Columbia River Power System (including irrigation costs required to be repaid out of power revenues) over a reasonable period of years and the other costs and expenses incurred by the Administrator pursuant to this chapter and other provisions of law. Such rates shall be established in accordance with sections 9 and 10 of the Federal Columbia River Transmission System Act (16 U.S.C. 838) [16 U.S.C. 838g and 838h], section 5 of the Flood Control Act of 1944 [16 U.S.C. 825s], and the provisions of this chapter.

(2) Rates established under this section shall become effective only, except in the case of interim rules as provided in subsection (i)(6) of this section, upon confirmation and approval by the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission upon a finding by the Commission, that such rates—

(A) are sufficient to assure repayment of the Federal investment in the Federal Columbia River Power System over a reasonable number of years after first meeting the Administrator's other costs,

(B) are based upon the Administrator's total system costs, and

(C) insofar as transmission rates are concerned, equitably allocate the costs of the Federal transmission system between Federal and non-Federal power utilizing such system.

(b) General application of rates to meet general requirements

(1) The Administrator shall establish a rate or rates of general application for electric power sold to meet the general requirements of public body, cooperative, and Federal agency customers within the Pacific Northwest, and loads of electric utilities under section 839c(c) of this title. Such rate or rates shall recover the costs of that portion of the Federal base system resources needed to supply such loads until such sales exceed the Federal base system resources. Thereafter, such rate or rates shall recover the cost of additional electric power as needed to supply such loads, first from the electric power acquired by the Administrator under section 839c(c) of this title and then from other resources.

(2) After July 1, 1985, the projected amounts to be charged for firm power for the combined general requirements of public body, cooperative and Federal agency customers, exclusive of amounts charged such customers under subsection (g) of this section for the costs of conservation, resource and conservation credits, experimental resources and uncontrollable events, may not exceed in total, as determined by the Administrator, during any year after July 1, 1985, plus the ensuing four years, an amount equal to the power costs for general requirements of such customers if, the Administrator assumes that—

(A) the public body and cooperative customers’ general requirements had included during such five-year period the direct service industrial customer loads which are—

(i) served by the Administrator, and

(ii) located within or adjacent to the geographic service boundaries of such public bodies and cooperatives;


(B) public body, cooperative, and Federal agency customers were served, during such five-year period, with Federal base system resources not obligated to other entities under contracts existing as of December 5, 1980, (during the remaining term of such contracts) excluding obligations to direct service industrial customer loads included in subparagraph (A) of this paragraph;

(C) no purchases or sales by the Administrator as provided in section 839c(c) of this title were made during such five-year period;

(D) all resources that would have been required, during such five-year period, to meet remaining general requirements of the public body, cooperative and Federal agency customers (other than requirements met by the available Federal base system resources determined under subparagraph (B) of this paragraph) were—

(i) purchased from such customers by the Administrator pursuant to section 839d of this title, or

(ii) not committed to load pursuant to section 839c(b) of this title,


and were the least expensive resources owned or purchased by public bodies or cooperatives; and any additional needed resources were obtained at the average cost of all other new resources acquired by the Administrator; and

(E) the quantifiable monetary savings, during such five-year period, to public body, cooperative and Federal agency customers resulting from—

(i) reduced public body and cooperative financing costs as applied to the total amount of resources, other than Federal base system resources, identified under subparagraph (D) of this paragraph, and

(ii) reserve benefits as a result of the Administrator's actions under this chapter 1


were not achieved.


(3) Any amounts not charged to public body, cooperative, and Federal agency customers by reason of paragraph (2) of this subsection shall be recovered through supplemental rate charges for all other power sold by the Administrator to all customers. Rates charged public body, cooperative, or Federal agency customers pursuant to this subsection shall not include any costs or benefits of a net revenue surplus or deficiency occurring for the period ending June 30, 1985, to the extent such surplus or deficiency is caused by—

(A) a difference between actual power deliveries and power deliveries projected for the purpose of establishing rates to direct service industrial customers under subsection (c)(1) of this subsection, and

(B) an overrecovery or underrecovery of the net costs incurred by the Administrator under section 839c(c) of this title as a result of such difference.


Any such revenue surplus or deficiency incurred shall be recovered from, or repaid to, customers over a reasonable period of time after July 1, 1985, through a supplemental rate charge or credit applied proportionately for all other power sold by the Administrator at rates established under other subsections of this section prior to July 1, 1985.

(4) The term “general requirements” as used in this section means the public body, cooperative or Federal agency customer's electric power purchased from the Administrator under section 839c(b) of this title, exclusive of any new large single load.

(c) Rates applicable to direct service industrial customers

(1) The rate or rates applicable to direct service industrial customers shall be established—

(A) for the period prior to July 1, 1985, at a level which the Administrator estimates will be sufficient to recover the cost of resources the Administrator determines are required to serve such customers’ load and the net costs incurred by the Administrator pursuant to section 839c(c) of this title, based upon the Administrator's projected ability to make power available to such customers pursuant to their contracts, to the extent that such costs are not recovered through rates applicable to other customers; and

(B) for the period beginning July 1, 1985, at a level which the Administrator determines to be equitable in relation to the retail rates charged by the public body and cooperative customers to their industrial consumers in the region.


(2) The determination under paragraph (1)(B) of this subsection shall be based upon the Administrator's applicable wholesale rates to such public body and cooperative customers and the typical margins included by such public body and cooperative customers in their retail industrial rates but shall take into account—

(A) the comparative size and character of the loads served,

(B) the relative costs of electric capacity, energy, transmission, and related delivery facilities provided and other service provisions, and

(C) direct and indirect overhead costs,


all as related to the delivery of power to industrial customers, except that the Administrator's rates during such period shall in no event be less than the rates in effect for the contract year ending on June 30, 1985.

(3) The Administrator shall adjust such rates to take into account the value of power system reserves made available to the Administrator through his rights to interrupt or curtail service to such direct service industrial customers.

(d) Discount rates; special rates

(1) In order to avoid adverse impacts on retail rates of the Administrator's customers with low system densities, the Administrator shall, to the extent appropriate, apply discounts to the rate or rates for such customers.

(2) In order to avoid adverse impacts of increased rates pursuant to this chapter on any direct service industrial customer using raw minerals indigenous to the region as its primary resource, the Administrator, upon request of such customer showing such impacts and after considering the effect of such request on his other obligations under this chapter, is authorized, if the Administrator determines that such impacts will be significant, to establish a special rate applicable to such customer if all power sold to such customer may be interrupted, curtailed, or withdrawn to meet firm loads in the region. Such rate shall be established in accordance with this section and shall include such terms and conditions as the Administrator deems appropriate.

(e) Uniform rates; rates for sale of peaking capacity; time-of-day, seasonal, and other rates

Nothing in this chapter prohibits the Administrator from establishing, in rate schedules of general application, a uniform rate or rates for sale of peaking capacity or from establishing time-of-day, seasonal rates, or other rate forms.

(f) Basis for rates

Rates for all other firm power sold by the Administrator for use in the Pacific Northwest shall be based upon the cost of the portions of Federal base system resources, purchases of power under section 839c(c) of this title and additional resources which, in the determination of the Administrator, are applicable to such sales.

(g) Allocation of costs and benefits

Except to the extent that the allocation of costs and benefits is governed by provisions of law in effect on December 5, 1980, or by other provisions of this section, the Administrator shall equitably allocate to power rates, in accordance with generally accepted ratemaking principles and the provisions of this chapter, all costs and benefits not otherwise allocated under this section, including, but not limited to, conservation, fish and wildlife measures, uncontrollable events, reserves, the excess costs of experimental resources acquired under section 839d of this title, the cost of credits granted pursuant to section 839d of this title, operating services, and the sale of or inability to sell excess electric power.

(h) Surcharges

Notwithstanding any other provision of this section (except the provisions of subsection (a) of this section), the Administrator shall adjust power rates to include any surcharges arising under section 839b(f) of this title, and shall allocate any revenues from such charges in such manner as the Administrator determines will help achieve the purposes of section 839b(f) of this title.

(i) Procedures

In establishing rates under this section, the Administrator shall use the following procedures:

(1) Notice of the proposed rates shall be published in the Federal Register with a statement of the justification and reasons supporting such rates. Such notice shall include a date for a hearing in accordance with paragraph (2) of this subsection.

(2) One or more hearings shall be conducted as expeditiously as practicable by a hearing officer to develop a full and complete record and to receive public comment in the form of written and oral presentation of views, data, questions, and argument related to such proposed rates. In any such hearing—

(A) any person shall be provided an adequate opportunity by the hearing officer to offer refutation or rebuttal of any material submitted by any other person or the Administrator, and

(B) the hearing officer, in his discretion, shall allow a reasonable opportunity for cross examination, which, as determined by the hearing officer, is not dilatory, in order to develop information and material relevant to any such proposed rate.


(3) In addition to the opportunity to submit oral and written material at the hearings, any written views, data, questions, and arguments submitted by persons prior to, or before the close of, hearings shall be made a part of the administrative record.

(4) After such a hearing, the Administrator may propose revised rates, publish such proposed rates in the Federal Register, and conduct additional hearings in accordance with this subsection.

(5) The Administrator shall make a final decision establishing a rate or rates based on the record which shall include the hearing transcript, together with exhibits, and such other materials and information as may have been submitted to, or developed by, the Administrator. The decision shall include a full and complete justification of the final rates pursuant to this section.

(6) The final decision of the Administrator shall become effective on confirmation and approval of such rates by the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission pursuant to subsection (a)(2) of this section. The Commission shall have the authority, in accordance with such procedures, if any, as the Commission shall promptly establish and make effective within one year after December 5, 1980, to approve the final rate submitted by the Administrator on an interim basis, pending the Commission's final decision in accordance with such subsection. Pending the establishment of such procedures by the Commission, if such procedures are required, the Secretary is authorized to approve such interim rates during such one-year period in accordance with the applicable procedures followed by the Secretary prior to December 5, 1980. Such interim rates, at the discretion of the Secretary, shall continue in effect until July 1, 1982.

(j) Cost figures to be indicated on rate schedules and power billings

All rate schedules adopted, and all power billings rendered, by the Administrator pursuant to this section shall indicate—

(1) the approximate cost contribution of different resource categories to the Administrator's rates for the sale of energy and capacity, and

(2) the cost of resources acquired to meet load growth within the region and the relation of such cost to the average cost of resources available to the Administrator.

(k) Statutory basis for procedures used in establishing rates or rate schedules

Notwithstanding any other provision of this chapter, all rates or rate schedules for the sale of nonfirm electric power within the United States, but outside the region, shall be established after December 5, 1980, by the Administrator in accordance with the procedures of subsection (i) of this section (other than the first sentence of paragraph (6) thereof) and in accordance with the Bonneville Project Act [16 U.S.C. 832 et seq.], the Flood Control Act of 1944, and the Federal Columbia River Transmission System Act [16 U.S.C. 838 et seq.]. Notwithstanding section 201(f) of the Federal Power Act [16 U.S.C. 824(f)], such rates or rate schedules shall become effective after review by the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission for conformance with the requirements of such Acts and after approval thereof by the Commission. Such review shall be based on the record of proceedings established under subsection (i) of this section. The parties to such proceedings under subsection (i) of this section shall be afforded an opportunity by the Commission for an additional hearing in accordance with the procedures established for ratemaking by the Commission pursuant to the Federal Power Act [16 U.S.C. 791a et seq.].

(l) Rates for sales outside United States; negotiations

In order to further the purposes of this chapter and to protect the consumers of the region, the Administrator may negotiate, or establish, rates for electric power sold by the Administrator to any entity not located in the United States which shall be equitable in relation to rates for all electric power which is, or may be, purchased by the Administrator or the Administrator's customers from entities outside the United States. In establishing rates other than by negotiation, the provisions of subsection (i) of this section shall apply. In the case of any negotiation with an entity not located in the United States, the Administrator shall provide public notice of any proposal to negotiate such rates. Such negotiated rates shall be not less than the rates established under this chapter for nonfirm power sold within the United States but outside the region. The Administrator shall also afford notice of any rates negotiated pursuant to this subsection.

(m) Impact aid payments; formula

(1) Beginning the first fiscal year after the plan and program required by section 839b(d) and (h) of this title are finally adopted, the Administrator may, subject to the provisions of this section, make annual impact aid payments to the appropriate local governments within the region with respect to major transmission facilities of the Administrator, as defined in section 3(c) of the Federal Columbia River Transmission Act [16 U.S.C. 838a(c)]—

(A) which are located within the jurisdictional boundaries of such governments,

(B) which are determined by the Administrator to have a substantial impact on such governments, and

(C) where the construction of such facilities, or any modification thereof, is completed after December 5, 1980, and, in the case of a modification of an existing facility, such modification substantially increases the capacity of such existing transmission facility.


(2) Payments made under this subsection for any fiscal year shall be determined by the Administrator pursuant to a regionwide, uniform formula to be established by rule in accordance with the procedures set forth in subsection (i) of this section. Such rule shall become effective on its approval, after considering its effect on rates established pursuant to this section, by the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission. In developing such formula, the Administrator shall identify, and take into account, the local governmental services provided to the Administrator concerning such facilities and the associated costs to such governments as the result of such facilities.

(3) Payments made pursuant to this subsection shall be made solely from the fund established by section 11 of the Federal Columbia River Transmission System Act [16 U.S.C. 838i]. The provisions of section 13 of such Act [16 U.S.C. 838k], and any appropriations provided to the Administrator under any law, shall not be available for such payments. The authorization of payments under this subsection shall not be construed as an obligation of the United States.

(4) No payment may be made under this subsection with respect to any land or interests in land owned by the United States within the region and administered by any Federal agency (other than the Administrator), without regard to how the United States obtained ownership thereof, including lands or interests therein acquired or withdrawn by a Federal agency for purposes of such agency and subsequently made available to the Administrator for such facilities.

(n) Limiting the inclusion of costs of protection of, mitigation of damage to, and enhancement of fish and wildlife, within rates charged by the Bonneville Power Administration, to the rate period in which the costs are incurred

Notwithstanding any other provision of this section, rates established by the Administrator, under this section shall recover costs for protection, mitigation and enhancement of fish and wildlife, whether under this chapter or any other Act, not to exceed such amounts the Administrator forecasts will be expended during the fiscal year 2002–2006 rate period, while preserving the Administrator's ability to establish appropriate reserves and maintain a high Treasury payment probability for the subsequent rate period.

(Pub. L. 96–501, §7, Dec. 5, 1980, 94 Stat. 2723; Pub. L. 106–60, title III, §316, Sept. 29, 1999, 113 Stat. 497.)

References in Text

The Bonneville Project Act, referred to in subsec. (k), is act Aug. 20, 1937, ch. 720, 50 Stat. 731, popularly known as the Bonneville Project Act of 1937, which is classified generally to chapter 12B (§832 et seq.) of this title. For complete classification of this Act to the Code, see Short Title note set out under section 832 of this title and Tables.

The Flood Control Act of 1944, referred to in subsec. (k), is act Dec. 22, 1944, ch. 665, 58 Stat. 887, which enacted sections 460d and 825s of this title, sections 701–1, 701a–1, 708, and 709 of Title 33, Navigation and Navigable Waters, and section 390 of Title 43, Public Lands, and enacted provisions set out as notes under sections 701c, 701f, and 701j of Title 33. For complete classification of this Act to the Code, see Tables. For provisions of the Act relating to sale of electric power, see section 825s of this title.

The Federal Columbia River Transmission System Act, referred to in subsec. (k), is Pub. L. 93–454, Oct. 18, 1974, 88 Stat. 1376, which is classified generally to chapter 12G (§838 et seq.) of this title. For complete classification of this Act to the Code, see Short Title note set out under section 838 of this title and Tables.

The Federal Power Act, referred to in subsec. (k), is act June 10, 1920, ch. 285, 41 Stat. 1063, which is classified generally to chapter 12 (§791a et seq.) of this title. For complete classification of this Act to the Code, see section 791a of this title and Tables.

Amendments

1999—Subsec. (n). Pub. L. 106–60 added subsec. (n).

1 So in original. Probably should be followed by a comma.

§839f. Administrative provisions

(a) Contract authority

Subject to the provisions of this chapter, the Administrator is authorized to contract in accordance with section 2(f) of the Bonneville Project Act of 1937 (16 U.S.C. 832a(f)). Other provisions of law applicable to such contracts on December 5, 1980, shall continue to be applicable.

(b) Executive and administrative functions of Administrator of Bonneville Power Administration; sound and businesslike implementation of chapter

The Administrator shall discharge the executive and administrative functions of his office in accordance with the policy established by the Bonneville Project Act of 1937 (16 U.S.C. 832 and following), section 7152(a)(2) and (3) of title 42, and this chapter. The Secretary of Energy, the Council, and the Administrator shall take such steps as are necessary to assure the timely implementation of this chapter in a sound and businesslike manner. Nothing in this chapter shall be construed by the Secretary, the Administrator, or any other official of the Department of Energy to modify, alter, or otherwise affect the requirements and directives expressed by the Congress in section 7152(a)(2) and (3) of title 42 or the operations of such officials as they existed prior to December 5, 1980.

(c) Limitations and conditions on contracts for sale or exchange of electric power for use outside Pacific Northwest

Any contract of the Administrator for the sale or exchange of electric power for use outside the Pacific Northwest shall be subject to limitations and conditions corresponding to those provided in sections 2 and 3 of the Act of August 31, 1964 (16 U.S.C. 837a and 837b) for any contract for the sale, delivery, or exchange of hydroelectric energy or peaking capacity generated within the Pacific Northwest for use outside the Pacific Northwest. In applying such sections for the purposes of this subsection, the term “surplus energy” shall mean electric energy for which there is no market in the Pacific Northwest at any rate established for the disposition of such energy, and the term “surplus peaking capacity” shall mean electric peaking capacity for which there is no demand in the Pacific Northwest at the rate established for the disposition of such capacity. The authority granted, and duties imposed upon, the Secretary by sections 5 and 7 of such Act (16 U.S.C. 837e and 837f) [16 U.S.C. 837d and 837f] shall also apply to the Administrator in connection with resources acquired by the Administrator pursuant to this chapter. The Administrator shall, in making any determination, under any contract executed pursuant to section 839c of this title, of the electric power requirements of any Pacific Northwest customer, which is a non-Federal entity having its own generation, exclude, in addition to hydroelectric generated energy excluded from such requirements pursuant to section 3(d) of such Act (16 U.S.C. 837b(d)), any amount of energy included in the resources of such customer for service to firm loads in the region if (1) such amount was disposed of by such customer outside the region, and (2) as a result of such disposition, the firm energy requirements of such customer or other customers of the Administrator are increased. Such amount of energy shall not be excluded, if the Administrator determines that through reasonable measures such amount of energy could not be conserved or otherwise retained for service to regional loads. The Administrator may sell as replacement for any amount of energy so excluded only energy that would otherwise be surplus.

(d) Disposition of power which does not increase amount of firm power Administrator is obligated to provide to any customer

No restrictions contained in subsection (c) of this section shall limit or interfere with the sale, exchange or other disposition of any power by any utility or group thereof from any existing or new non-Federal resource if such sale, exchange or disposition does not increase the amount of firm power the Administrator would be obligated to provide to any customer. In addition to the directives contained in subsections (i)(1)(B) and (i)(3) of this section and subject to:

(1) any contractual obligations of the Administrator,

(2) any other obligations under existing law, and

(3) the availability of capacity in the Federal transmission system,


the Administrator shall provide transmission access, load factoring, storage and other services normally attendant thereto to such utilities and shall not discriminate against any utility or group thereof on the basis of independent development of such resource in providing such services.

(e) Judicial review; suits

(1) For purposes of sections 701 through 706 of title 5, the following actions shall be final actions subject to judicial review—

(A) adoption of the plan or amendments thereto by the Council under section 839b of this title, adoption of the program by the Council, and any determination by the Council under section 839b(h) of this title;

(B) sales, exchanges, and purchases of electric power under section 839c of this title;

(C) the Administrator's acquisition of resources under section 839d of this title;

(D) implementation of conservation measures under section 839d of this title;

(E) execution of contracts for assistance to sponsors under section 839d(f) of this title;

(F) granting of credits under section 839d(h) of this title;

(G) final rate determinations under section 839e of this title; and

(H) any rule prescribed by the Administrator under section 839e(m)(2) of this title.


(2) The record upon review of such final actions shall be limited to the administrative record compiled in accordance with this chapter. The scope of review of such actions without a hearing or after a hearing shall be governed by section 706 of title 5, except that final determinations regarding rates under section 839e of this title shall be supported by substantial evidence in the rulemaking record required by section 839e(i) of this title considered as a whole. The scope of review of an action under section 839d(c) of this title shall be governed by section 706 of title 5. Nothing in this section shall be construed to require a hearing pursuant to section 554, 556, or 557 of title 5.

(3) Nothing in this section shall be construed to preclude judicial review of other final actions and decisions by the Council or Administrator.

(4) For purposes of this subsection—

(A) major resources shall be deemed to be acquired upon publication in the Federal Register pursuant to section 839d(c)(4)(B) of this title;

(B) resources, other than major resources, shall be deemed to be acquired upon execution of the contract therefor;

(C) conservation measures shall be deemed to be implemented upon execution of the contract or grant therefor; and

(D) rate determinations pursuant to section 839e of this title shall be deemed final upon confirmation and approval by the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission.


(5) Suits to challenge the constitutionality of this chapter, or any action thereunder, final actions and decisions taken pursuant to this chapter by the Administrator or the Council, or the implementation of such final actions, whether brought pursuant to this chapter, the Bonneville Project Act [16 U.S.C. 832 et seq.], the Act of August 31, 1964 (16 U.S.C. 837–837h), or the Federal Columbia River Transmission System Act (16 U.S.C. 838 and following), shall be filed in the United States court of appeals for the region. Such suits shall be filed within ninety days of the time such action or decision is deemed final, or, if notice of the action is required by this chapter to be published in the Federal Register, within ninety days from such notice, or be barred. In the case of a challenge of the plan or programs or amendments thereto, such suit shall be filed within sixty days after publication of a notice of such final action in the Federal Register. Such court shall have jurisdiction to hear and determine any suit brought as provided in this section. The plan and program, as finally adopted or portions thereof, or amendments thereto, shall not thereafter be reviewable as a part of any other action under this chapter or any other law. Suits challenging any other actions under this chapter shall be filed in the appropriate court.

(f) Tax treatment of interest on governmental obligations

For purposes of enabling the Administrator to acquire resources necessary to meet the firm load of public bodies, cooperatives, and Federal agencies from a governmental unit at a cost no greater than the cost which would be applicable in the absence of such acquisition, the exemption from gross income of interest on certain governmental obligations provided in section 103(a)(1) 1 of title 26 shall not be affected by the Administrator's acquisition of such resources if—

(1) the Administrator, prior to contracting for such acquisition, certifies to his reasonable belief, that the persons for whom the Administrator is acquiring such resources for sale pursuant to section 839c of this title are public bodies, cooperatives, and Federal agencies, unless the Administrator also certifies that he is unable to acquire such resources without selling a portion thereof to persons who are not exempt persons (as defined in section 103(b) 1 of title 26), and

(2) based upon such certification, the Secretary of the Treasury determines in accordance with applicable regulations that less than a major portion of the resource is to be furnished to persons who are not exempt persons (as defined in section 103(b) 1 of title 26).


The certification under paragraph (1) shall be made in accordance with this subsection and a procedure and methodology approved by the Secretary of the Treasury. For purposes of this subsection, the term “major portion” shall have the meaning provided by regulations issued by the Secretary of the Treasury.

(g) Review of rates for sale of power to Administrator by investor-owned utility customers

When reviewing rates for the sale of power to the Administrator by an investor-owned utility customer under section 839c(c) or 839d of this title, the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission shall, in accordance with section 824h of this title—

(1) convene a joint State board, and

(2) invest such board with such duties and authority as will assist the Commission in its review of such rates.

(h) Companies which own or operate facilities for the generation of electricity primarily for sale to Administrator

(1) No “company” (as defined in section 79b(a)(2) 1 of title 15), which owns or operates facilities for the generation of electricity (together with associated transmission and other facilities) primarily for sale to the Administrator under section 839d of this title shall be deemed an “electric utility company” (as defined in section 79b(a)(3) 1 of title 15), within the meaning of any provision or provisions of chapter 2C 1 of title 15, if at least 90 per centum of the electricity generated by such company is sold to the Administrator under section 839d of this title, and if—

(A) the organization of such company is consistent with the policies of section 79a(b) and (c) 1 of title 15, as determined by the Securities and Exchange Commission, with the concurrence of the Administrator, at the time of such organization; and

(B) participation in any facilities of such “company” has been offered to public bodies and cooperatives in the region pursuant to section 839d(m) of this title.


(2) The Administrator shall include in any contract for the acquisition of a major resource from such “company” provisions limiting the amount of equity investment, if any, in such “company” to that which the Administrator determines will be consistent with achieving the lowest attainable power costs attributable to such major resource.

(3) In the case of any “company” which meets the requirements of paragraph (1), the Administrator, with the concurrence of such Commission, shall approve all significant contracts entered into by, and between, such “company” and any sponsor company or any subsidiary of such sponsor company which are determined to be consistent with the policies of section 79a(b) and (c) 1 of title 15 at the time such contracts are entered into. The Administrator and the Securities and Exchange Commission shall exercise such approval authority within sixty days after receipt of such contracts. Such contracts shall not be effective without such approval.

(4) Paragraph (1) of this subsection shall continue to apply to any such “company” unless the Administrator or the Securities and Exchange Commission, or both, through periodic review, (A) determine at any time that the “company” no longer operates in a manner consistent with the policies of section 79a(b) and (c) 1 of title 15 and in accordance with this subsection, and (B) notify the “company” in writing of such preliminary determination. This subsection shall cease to apply to such “company” thirty days after receipt of notification of a final determination thereof. A final determination shall be made only after public notice of the preliminary determination and after a hearing completed not later than sixty days from the date of publication of such notice. Such final determination shall be made within thirty days after the date of completion of such hearing.

(i) Electric power acquisition or disposition

(1) At the request and expense of any customer or group of customers of the Administrator within the Pacific Northwest, the Administrator shall, to the extent practicable—

(A) acquire any electric power required by (i) any customer or group of customers to enable them to replace resources determined to serve firm load under section 839c(b) of this title, or (ii) direct service industrial customers to replace electric power that is or may be curtailed or interrupted by the Administrator (other than power the Administrator is obligated to replace), with the cost of such replacement power to be distributed among the direct service industrial customers requesting such power; and

(B) dispose of, or assist in the disposal of, any electric power that a customer or group of customers proposes to sell within or without the region at rates and upon terms specified by such customer or group of customers, if such disposition is not in conflict with the Administrator's other marketing obligations and the policies of this chapter and other applicable laws.


(2) In implementing the provisions of subparagraphs (A) and (B) of paragraph (1), the Administrator may prescribe policies and conditions for the independent acquisition or disposition of electric power by any direct service industrial customer or group of such customers for the purpose of assuring each direct service industrial customer an opportunity to participate in such acquisition or disposition.

(3) The Administrator shall furnish services including transmission, storage, and load factoring unless he determines such services cannot be furnished without substantial interference with his power marketing program, applicable operating limitations or existing contractual obligations. The Administrator shall, to the extent practicable, give priority in making such services available for the marketing, within and without the Pacific Northwest, of capability from projects under construction on December 5, 1980, if such capability has been offered for sale at cost, including a reasonable rate of return, to the Administrator pursuant to this chapter and such offer is not accepted within one year.

(j) Retail rate designs which encourage conservation and efficient use of electric energy, installation of consumer-owned renewable resources, and rate research and development

(1) The Council, as soon as practicable after December 5, 1980 shall prepare, in consultation with the Administrator, the customers, appropriate State regulatory bodies, and the public, a report and shall make recommendations with respect to the various retail rate designs which will encourage conservation and efficient use of electric energy and the installation of consumer-owned renewable resources on a cost-effective basis, as well as areas for research and development for possible application to retail utility rates within the region. Studies undertaken pursuant to this subsection shall not affect the responsibilities of any customer or the Administrator which may exist under the Public Utility Regulatory Policies Act of 1978.

(2) Upon request, and solely on behalf of customers so requesting, the Administrator is authorized to (A) provide assistance in analyzing and developing retail rate structures that will encourage cost-effective conservation and the installation of cost-effective consumer-owned renewable resources; (B) provide estimates of the probable power savings and the probable amount of billing credits under section 839d(h) of this title that might be realized by such customers as a result of adopting and implementing such retail rate structures; and (C) solicit additional information and analytical assistance from appropriate State regulatory bodies and the Administrator's other customers.

(k) Executive position for conservation and renewable resources

There is hereby established within the administration an executive position for conservation and renewable resources. Such executive shall be appointed by the Administrator and shall be assigned responsibility for conservation and direct-application renewable resource programs (including the administration of financial assistance for such programs). Such position is hereby established in the senior executive service in addition to the number of such positions heretofore established in accordance with other provisions of law applicable to such positions.

(Pub. L. 96–501, §9, Dec. 5, 1980, 94 Stat. 2729; Pub. L. 99–514, §2, Oct. 22, 1986, 100 Stat. 2095.)

References in Text

The Bonneville Project Act of 1937, referred to in subsecs. (b) and (e)(5), is act Aug. 20, 1937, ch. 720, 50 Stat. 731, as amended, which is classified generally to chapter 12B (§832 et seq.) of this title. For complete classification of this Act to the Code, see Short Title note set out under section 832 of this title and Tables.

Act of August 31, 1964, referred to in subsec. (e)(5), is Pub. L. 88–552, Aug. 31, 1964, 78 Stat. 756, as amended, which is classified generally to chapter 12F (§837 et seq.) of this title. For complete classification of this Act to the Code, see Tables.

The Federal Columbia River Transmission System Act, referred to in subsec. (e)(5), is Pub. L. 93–454, Oct. 18, 1974, 88 Stat. 1376, as amended, which is classified generally to chapter 12G (§838 et seq.) of this title. For complete classification of this Act to the Code, see Short Title note set out under section 838 of this title and Tables.

Section 103 of title 26, referred to in subsec. (f), which related to interest on certain governmental obligations was amended generally by Pub. L. 99–514, title XIII, §1301(a), Oct. 22, 1986, 100 Stat. 2602, and as so amended relates to interest on State and local bonds. Section 103(b)(3), which prior to the general amendment defined exempt persons, relates to the applicability of the interest exclusion to bonds not in registered form, etc.

Chapter 2C of title 15, referred to in subsec. (h), contained the Public Utility Holding Company Act of 1935, act Aug. 26, 1935, ch. 687, title I, 49 Stat. 803, as amended, and consisted of section 79 et seq. of Title 15, Commerce and Trade, prior to repeal by Pub. L. 109–58, title XII, §1263, Aug. 8, 2005, 119 Stat. 974. For complete classification of this Act to the Code, see Tables.

The Public Utility Regulatory Policies Act of 1978, referred to in subsec. (j)(1), is Pub. L. 95–617, Nov. 9, 1978, 92 Stat. 3117, as amended. For complete classification of this Act to Code, see Short Title note set out under section 2601 of this title and Tables.

Amendments

1986—Subsec. (f). Pub. L. 99–514 substituted “Internal Revenue Code of 1986” for “Internal Revenue Code of 1954”, which for purposes of codification was translated as “title 26” thus requiring no change in text.

1 See References in Text note below.

§839g. Savings provisions

(a) Rights of States and political subdivisions of States

Nothing in this chapter shall be construed to affect or modify any right of any State or political subdivision thereof or electric utility to—

(1) determine retail electric rates, except as provided by section 839c(c)(3) of this title;

(2) develop and implement plans and programs for the conservation, development, and use of resources; or

(3) make energy facility siting decisions, including, but not limited to, determining the need for a particular facility, evaluating alternative sites, and considering alternative methods of meeting the determined need.

(b) Rights and obligations under existing contracts

Nothing in this chapter shall alter, diminish, or abridge the rights and obligations of the Administrator or any customer under any contract existing as of December 5, 1980.

(c) Statutory preferences and priorities of public bodies and cooperatives in sale of federally generated power

Nothing in this chapter shall alter, diminish, abridge, or otherwise affect the provisions of other Federal laws by which public bodies and cooperatives are entitled to preference and priority in the sale of federally generated electric power.

(d) Contractual rights under provisions later found to be unconstitutional

If any provision of this chapter is found to be unconstitutional, then any contract entered into by the Administrator, prior to such finding and in accordance with such provisions, to sell power, acquire or credit resources, or to reimburse investigation and preconstruction expenses pursuant to section 839c of this title, and section 839d(a), (f) or (h) of this title shall not be affected by such finding.

(e) Treaty and other rights of Indian tribes

Nothing in this chapter shall be construed to affect or modify any treaty or other right of an Indian tribe.

(f) Reservation of electric power for Montana; Hungry Horse and Libby Dams and Reservoirs

The reservation under law of electric power primarily for use in the State of Montana by reason of the construction of Hungry Horse and Libby Dams and Reservoirs within that State is hereby affirmed. Such reservation shall also apply to 50 per centum of any electric power produced at Libby Reregulating Dam if built. Electric power so reserved shall be sold at the rate or rates set pursuant to section 839e of this title.

(g) Rights of States to prohibit recovery of resource construction costs through retail rates

Nothing in this chapter shall be construed to affect or modify the right of any State to prohibit utilities regulated by the appropriate State regulatory body from recovering, through their retail rates, costs during any period of resource construction.

(h) Water appropriations

Nothing in this chapter shall be construed as authorizing the appropriation of water by any Federal, State, or local agency, Indian tribe, or any other entity or individual. Nor shall any provision of this chapter of any plan or program adopted pursuant to the chapter (1) affect the rights or jurisdictions of the United States, the States, Indian tribes, or other entities over waters of any river or stream or over any groundwater resource, (2) alter, amend, repeal, interpret, modify, or be in conflict with any interstate compact made by the States, or (3) otherwise be construed to alter or establish the respective rights of States, the United States, Indian tribes, or any person with respect to any water or water-related right.

(i) Existing Federal licenses, permits, and certificates

Nothing in this chapter shall be construed to affect the validity of any existing license, permit, or certificate issued by any Federal agency pursuant to any other Federal law.

(Pub. L. 96–501, §10, Dec. 5, 1980, 94 Stat. 2734.)

§839h. Separability

If any provision of section 839b(a) through (c) of this title or any other provision of this chapter or the application thereof to any person, State, Indian tribe, entity, or circumstance is held invalid, neither the remainder of section 839b of this title or any other provisions of this chapter, nor the application of such provisions to other persons, States, Indian tribes, entities, or circumstances, shall be affected thereby.

(Pub. L. 96–501, §12, Dec. 5, 1980, 94 Stat. 2736.)