18 U.S.C.
United States Code, 2011 Edition
Title 18 - CRIMES AND CRIMINAL PROCEDURE
PART I - CRIMES
CHAPTER 1 - GENERAL PROVISIONS
From the U.S. Government Printing Office, www.gpo.gov

CHAPTER 1—GENERAL PROVISIONS

Sec.
1.
Repealed.
2.
Principals.
3.
Accessory after the fact.
4.
Misprision of felony.
5.
United States defined.
6.
Department and agency defined.
7.
Special maritime and territorial jurisdiction of the United States defined.
8.
Obligation or other security of the United States defined.
9.
Vessel of the United States defined.
10.
Interstate commerce and foreign commerce defined.
11.
Foreign government defined.
12.
United States Postal Service defined.
13.
Laws of States adopted for areas within Federal jurisdiction.
[14.
Repealed.]
15.
Obligation or other security of foreign government defined.
16.
Crime of violence defined.
17.
Insanity defense.
18.
Organization defined.
19.
Petty offense defined.
20.
Financial institution defined.
21.
Stolen or counterfeit nature of property for certain crimes defined.
23.
Court of the United States defined.
24.
Definitions relating to Federal health care offense.
25.
Use of minors in crimes of violence.
26.
Definition of seaport.
27.
Mortgage lending business defined.

        

Senate Revision Amendment

In the analysis of sections under this chapter heading, a new item, “14. Applicability to Canal Zone.”, was inserted by Senate amendment, to follow underneath item 13, inasmuch as a new section 14, with such a catchline, was inserted, by Senate amendment, in this chapter. See Senate Report No. 1620, amendments Nos. 1 and 3, 80th Cong.

Amendments

2009—Pub. L. 111–21, §2(b)(2), May 20, 2009, 123 Stat. 1617, added item 27.

2006—Pub. L. 109–177, title III, §302(d), Mar. 9, 2006, 120 Stat. 233, added item 26.

2003—Pub. L. 108–21, title VI, §601(b), Apr. 30, 2003, 117 Stat. 687, added item 25.

2002—Pub. L. 107–273, div. B, title IV, §4004(a), Nov. 2, 2002, 116 Stat. 1812, struck out item 14 “Applicability to Canal Zone; definition”.

1996—Pub. L. 104–191, title II, §241(b), Aug. 21, 1996, 110 Stat. 2016, which directed the amendment of the table of sections at the beginning of chapter 2 of this title by inserting item 24, was executed by inserting item 24 in the table of sections at the beginning of this chapter, to reflect the probable intent of Congress.

1994—Pub. L. 103–332, title XXXII, §§320910(b), 320914(b), Sept. 13, 1994, 108 Stat. 2127, 2128, added items 21 and 23.

1990—Pub. L. 101–647, title XXXV, §3504, Nov. 29, 1990, 104 Stat. 4921, substituted “defense” for “Defense” in item 17.

1989—Pub. L. 101–73, title IX, §962(e)(3), Aug. 9, 1989, 103 Stat. 504, added item 20.

1987—Pub. L. 100–185, §4(b), Dec. 11, 1987, 101 Stat. 1279, added item 19.

1986—Pub. L. 99–646, §§34(b), 38(b), Nov. 10, 1986, 100 Stat. 3599, renumbered item 20 as 17 and added item 18.

1984—Pub. L. 98–473, title II, §§218(b), 402(b), 1001(b), Oct. 12, 1984, 98 Stat. 2027, 2057, 2136, substituted “Repealed” for “Offenses classified” in item 1 and added items 16 and 20.

1970—Pub. L. 91–375, §6(j)(1), Aug. 12, 1970, 84 Stat. 777, inserted “United States” before “Postal Service” in item 12.

1962—Pub. L. 87–845, §3(b), Oct. 18, 1962, 76A Stat. 698, inserted “; definition” in item 14.

1958—Pub. L. 85–921, §4, Sept. 2, 1958, 72 Stat. 1771, added item 15.

Commission on the Advancement of Federal Law Enforcement

Pub. L. 104–132, title VIII, §806, Apr. 24, 1996, 110 Stat. 1305, established Commission on the Advancement of Federal Law Enforcement, directed Commission to review and recommend action to Congress on Federal law enforcement priorities for 21st century, including Federal law enforcement capability to investigate and deter adequately threat of terrorism facing United States, standards and procedures, degree of coordination with international, State, and local law enforcement agencies, and other matters, provided for membership and administration of Commission, staffing and support functions, and powers to hold hearings and obtain official data for purposes of carrying out its duties, required report to Congress and public of findings, conclusions, and recommendations not later than 2 years after quorum of Commission had been appointed, and provided for termination of Commission 30 days after submitting report.

National Commission on Reform of Federal Criminal Laws

Pub. L. 89–801, Nov. 8, 1966, 80 Stat. 1516, as amended by Pub. L. 91–39, July 8, 1969, 83 Stat. 44, provided for the establishment of the National Commission on Reform of Federal Criminal Laws, its membership, duties, compensation of the members, the Director, and the staff of the Commission, established the Advisory Committee on Reform of Federal Criminal Laws, required the Commission to submit interim reports to the President and the Congress and to submit a final report within four years from Nov. 8, 1966, and further provided that the Commission shall cease to exist sixty days after the submission of the final report.

Ex. Ord. No. 11396. Coordination By Attorney General of Federal Law Enforcement and Crime Prevention Programs

Ex. Ord. No. 11396, Feb. 7, 1968, 33 F.R. 2689, provided:

WHEREAS the problem of crime in America today presents the Nation with a major challenge calling for maximum law enforcement efforts at every level of Government;

WHEREAS coordination of all Federal Criminal law enforcement activities and crime prevention programs is desirable in order to achieve more effective results;

WHEREAS the Federal Government has acknowledged the need to provide assistance to State and local law enforcement agencies in the development and administration of programs directed to the prevention and control of crime:

WHEREAS to provide such assistance the Congress has authorized various departments and agencies of the Federal Government to develop programs which may benefit State and local efforts directed at the prevention and control of crime, and the coordination of such programs is desirable to develop and administer them most effectively; and

WHEREAS the Attorney General, as the chief law officer of the Federal Government, is charged with the responsibility for all prosecutions for violations of the Federal criminal statutes and is authorized under the Law Enforcement Assistance Act of 1965 (79 Stat. 828) [formerly set out as a note preceding section 3001 of this title] to cooperate with and assist State, local, or other public or private agencies in matters relating to law enforcement organization, techniques and practices, and the prevention and control of crime.

NOW, THEREFORE, by virtue of the authority vested in the President by the Constitution and laws of the United States, it is ordered as follows:

Section 1. The Attorney General is hereby designated to facilitate and coordinate (1) the criminal law enforcement activities and crime prevention programs of all Federal departments and agencies, and (2) the activities of such departments, and agencies relating to the development and implementation of Federal programs which are designed, in whole or in substantial part, to assist State and local law enforcement agencies and crime prevention activities. The Attorney General may promulgate such rules and regulations and take such actions as he shall deem necessary or appropriate to carry out his functions under this Order.

Sec. 2. Each Federal department and agency is directed to cooperate with the Attorney General in the performance of his functions under this Order and shall, to the extent permitted by law and within the limits of available funds, furnish him such reports, information, and assistance as he may request.

Lyndon B. Johnson.      

Executive Order No. 11534

Ex. Ord. No. 11534, June 4, 1970, 35 F.R. 8865, which related to the National Council on Organized Crime, was revoked by Ex. Ord. No. 12110, Dec. 28, 1978, 44 F.R. 1069, formerly set out as a note under section 14 of the Federal Advisory Committee Act in the Appendix to Title 5, Government Organization and Employees.

[§1. Repealed. Pub. L. 98–473, title II, §218(a)(1), Oct. 12, 1984, 98 Stat. 2027]

Section, acts June 25, 1948, ch. 645, 62 Stat. 684; Oct. 30, 1984, Pub. L. 98–596, §8, 98 Stat. 3138, classified offenses as a felony, misdemeanor, or petty offense.

Effective Date of Repeal

Repeal of section effective Nov. 1, 1987, and applicable only to offenses committed after the taking effect of such repeal, see section 235(a)(1) of Pub. L. 98–473, set out as an Effective Date note under section 3551 of this title.

Short Title of 2011 Amendment

Pub. L. 112–44, §1, Oct. 21, 2011, 125 Stat. 532, provided that: “This Act [enacting provisions set out as a note under section 3551 of this title] may be cited as the ‘United States Parole Commission Extension Act of 2011’.”

Short Title of 2010 Amendment

Pub. L. 111–307, §1, Dec. 14, 2010, 124 Stat. 3282, provided that: “This Act [amending section 42 of this title] may be cited as the ‘Asian Carp Prevention and Control Act’.”

Pub. L. 111–294, §1, Dec. 9, 2010, 124 Stat. 3177, provided that: “This Act [amending section 48 of this title and enacting provisions set out as notes under section 48 of this title] may be cited as the ‘Animal Crush Video Prohibition Act of 2010’.”

Pub. L. 111–272, §1, Oct. 12, 2010, 124 Stat. 2855, provided that: “This Act [amending sections 926B and 926C of this title] may be cited as the ‘Law Enforcement Officers Safety Act Improvements Act of 2010’.”

Pub. L. 111–225, §1, Aug. 10, 2010, 124 Stat. 2387, provided that: “This Act [amending section 1791 of this title] may be cited as the ‘Cell Phone Contraband Act of 2010’.”

Pub. L. 111–174, §1, May 27, 2010, 124 Stat. 1216, provided that: “This Act [enacting section 114 of Title 28, Judiciary and Judicial Procedure, amending sections 2519, 3006A, 3154, and 3553 of this title and section 631 of Title 28, and repealing section 114 of Title 28] may be cited as the ‘Federal Judiciary Administrative Improvements Act of 2010’.”

Short Title of 2009 Amendment

Pub. L. 111–84, div. E, §4701, Oct. 28, 2009, 123 Stat. 2835, provided that: “This division [enacting sections 249 and 1389 of this title and sections 3716 and 3716a of Title 42, The Public Health and Welfare, amending section 249 of this title, enacting provisions set out as notes under section 249 of this title and section 3716 of Title 42, and amending provisions set out as a note under section 534 and provisions listed in a table relating to sentencing guidelines set out under section 994 of Title 28, Judiciary and Judicial Procedure] may be cited as the ‘Matthew Shepard and James Byrd, Jr. Hate Crimes Prevention Act’.”

Pub. L. 111–79, §1, Oct. 19, 2009, 123 Stat. 2086, provided that: “This Act [enacting section 3512 of this title and amending sections 2703, 2711, and 3127 of this title] may be cited as the ‘Foreign Evidence Request Efficiency Act of 2009’.”

Pub. L. 111–21, §1, May 20, 2009, 123 Stat. 1617, provided that: “This Act [enacting section 27 of this title, amending sections 20, 1014, 1031, 1348, 1956, and 1957 of this title and sections 3729 to 3733 of Title 31, Money and Finance, and enacting provisions set out as a note under section 3729 of Title 31] may be cited as the ‘Fraud Enforcement and Recovery Act of 2009’ or ‘FERA’.”

Short Title of 2008 Amendment

Pub. L. 110–407, §1, Oct. 13, 2008, 122 Stat. 4296, provided that: “This Act [enacting section 2285 of this title and section 70508 of Title 46, Shipping, amending sections 70501, 70502, 70504, and 70505 of Title 46, and enacting provisions set out as a note under section 2285 of this title and provisions listed in a table relating to sentencing guidelines set out as a note under section 994 of Title 28, Judiciary and Judicial Procedure] may be cited as the ‘Drug Trafficking Vessel Interdiction Act of 2008’.”

Pub. L. 110–358, title I, §101, Oct. 8, 2008, 122 Stat. 4001, provided that: “This title [amending sections 2251, 2251A, 2252 and 2252A of this title and enacting provisions set out as a note under section 2251 of this title] may be cited as the ‘Effective Child Pornography Prosecution Act of 2007’.”

Pub. L. 110–358, title II, §201, Oct. 8, 2008, 122 Stat. 4003, provided that: “This title [amending sections 1956, 2252 and 2252A of this title] may be cited as the ‘Enhancing the Effective Prosecution of Child Pornography Act of 2007’.”

Pub. L. 110–340, §1, Oct. 3, 2008, 122 Stat. 3735, provided that: “This Act [enacting sections 2442 and 3300 of this title, amending sections 1182 and 1227 of Title 8, Aliens and Nationality, and enacting provisions set out as a note under section 1158 of Title 8] may be cited as the ‘Child Soldiers Accountability Act of 2008’.”

Pub. L. 110–326, title I, §101, Sept. 26, 2008, 122 Stat. 3560, provided that: “This title [amending section 3056 of this title and enacting provisions set out as a note under section 3056 of this title] may be cited as the ‘Former Vice President Protection Act of 2008’.”

Pub. L. 110–326, title II, §201, Sept. 26, 2008, 122 Stat. 3560, provided that: “This title [amending sections 1030, 2332b, and 3663 of this title and amending provisions listed in a table relating to sentencing guidelines set out as a note under section 994 of Title 28, Judiciary and Judicial Procedure] may be cited as the ‘Identity Theft Enforcement and Restitution Act of 2008’.”

Pub. L. 110–179, §1, Jan. 7, 2008, 121 Stat. 2556, provided that: “This Act [enacting section 1040 of this title, amending sections 1341 and 1343 of this title, and enacting provisions listed in a table relating to sentencing guidelines set out as a note under section 994 of Title 28, Judiciary and Judicial Procedure] may be cited as the ‘Emergency and Disaster Assistance Fraud Penalty Enhancement Act of 2007’.”

Short Title of 2007 Amendment

Pub. L. 110–151, §1, Dec. 21, 2007, 121 Stat. 1821, provided that: “This Act [amending section 1091 of this title] may be cited as the ‘Genocide Accountability Act of 2007’.”

Pub. L. 110–22, §1, May 3, 2007, 121 Stat. 88, provided that: “This Act [enacting section 49 of this title and amending section 2156 of Title 7, Agriculture] may be cited as the ‘Animal Fighting Prohibition Enforcement Act of 2007’.”

Pub. L. 109–481, §1, Jan. 12, 2007, 120 Stat. 3673, provided that: “This Act [enacting section 706a of this title] may be cited as the ‘Geneva Distinctive Emblems Protection Act of 2006’.”

Pub. L. 109–476, §1, Jan. 12, 2007, 120 Stat. 3568, provided that: “This Act [enacting section 1039 of this title and provisions set out as a note under section 1039 of this title and amending provisions listed in a table relating to sentencing guidelines set out as a note under section 994 of Title 28, Judiciary and Judicial Procedure] may be cited as the ‘Telephone Records and Privacy Protection Act of 2006’.”

Short Title of 2006 Amendment

Pub. L. 109–437, §1, Dec. 20, 2006, 120 Stat. 3266, provided that: “This Act [amending section 704 of this title and enacting provisions set out as a note under section 704 of this title] may be cited as the ‘Stolen Valor Act of 2005’.”

Pub. L. 109–374, §1, Nov. 27, 2006, 120 Stat. 2652, provided that: “This Act [amending section 43 of this title] may be cited as the ‘Animal Enterprise Terrorism Act’.”

Pub. L. 109–181, §1(a)(1), Mar. 16, 2006, 120 Stat. 285, provided that: “This section [amending section 2320 of this title, enacting provisions set out as a note under section 2320 of this title, and enacting provisions listed in a table relating to sentencing guidelines set out as a note under section 994 of Title 28, Judiciary and Judicial Procedure] may be cited as the ‘Stop Counterfeiting in Manufactured Goods Act’.”

Pub. L. 109–181, §2(a), Mar. 16, 2006, 120 Stat. 288, provided that: “This section [amending sections 2318, 2319A, and 2320 of this title and section 1101 of Title 17, Copyrights] may be cited as the ‘Protecting American Goods and Services Act of 2005’.”

Pub. L. 109–178, §1, Mar. 9, 2006, 120 Stat. 278, provided that: “This Act [amending section 2709 of this title, section 3414 of Title 12, Banks and Banking, sections 1681u and 1681v of Title 15, Commerce and Trade, and sections 436 and 1861 of Title 50, War and National Defense, and enacting provisions set out as a note under section 3414 of Title 12] may be cited as the ‘USA PATRIOT Act Additional Reauthorizing Amendments Act of 2006’.”

Pub. L. 109–177, §1(a), Mar. 9, 2006, 120 Stat. 192, provided that: “This Act [see Tables for classification] may be cited as the ‘USA PATRIOT Improvement and Reauthorization Act of 2005’.”

Pub. L. 109–177, title II, §201, Mar. 9, 2006, 120 Stat. 230, provided that: “This title [enacting section 3599 of this title, amending section 3583 of this title and section 848 of Title 21, Food and Drugs, and enacting provisions set out as notes under section 46502 of Title 49, Transportation] may be cited as the ‘Terrorist Death Penalty Enhancement Act of 2005’.”

Pub. L. 109–177, title III, §301, Mar. 9, 2006, 120 Stat. 233, provided that: “This title [see Tables for classification] may be cited as the ‘Reducing Crime and Terrorism at America's Seaports Act of 2005’.”

Pub. L. 109–177, title IV, §401, Mar. 9, 2006, 120 Stat. 243, provided that: “This title [see Tables for classification] may be cited as the ‘Combating Terrorism Financing Act of 2005’.”

Pub. L. 109–177, title VI, §601, Mar. 9, 2006, 120 Stat. 251, provided that: “This title [see Tables for classification] may be cited as the ‘Secret Service Authorization and Technical Modification Act of 2005’.”

Short Title of 2004 Amendment

Pub. L. 108–458, title VI, §6701, Dec. 17, 2004, 118 Stat. 3764, provided that: “This subtitle [subtitle H (§§6701–6704) of title VI of Pub. L. 108–458, enacting section 1038 of this title, amending sections 1001, 1505, and 1958 of this title, and enacting provisions listed in a table relating to sentencing guidelines set out as a note under section 994 of Title 28, Judiciary and Judicial Procedure] may be cited as the ‘Stop Terrorist and Military Hoaxes Act of 2004’.”

Pub. L. 108–458, title VI, §6801, Dec. 17, 2004, 118 Stat. 3766, provided that: “This subtitle [subtitle I (§§6801–6803) of title VI of Pub. L. 108–458, enacting section 832 of this title, amending sections 175b, 1961, 2332a, and 2332b of this title and sections 2077 and 2122 of Title 42, The Public Health and Welfare, and enacting provisions set out as a note under section 175b of this title] may be cited as the ‘Weapons of Mass Destruction Prohibition Improvement Act of 2004’.”

Pub. L. 108–458, title VI, §6901, Dec. 17, 2004, 118 Stat. 3769, provided that: “This subtitle [subtitle J (§§6901–6911) of title VI of Pub. L. 108–458, enacting sections 175c, 2332g, and 2332h of this title, amending sections 1956, 2332b, and 2516 of this title, section 2778 of Title 22, Foreign Relations and Intercourse, and sections 2122 and 2272 of Title 42, The Public Health and Welfare, and enacting provisions set out as a note under section 175c of this title] may be cited as the ‘Prevention of Terrorist Access to Destructive Weapons Act of 2004’.”

Short Title of 2003 Amendment

Pub. L. 108–21, §1(a), Apr. 30, 2003, 117 Stat. 650, provided that: “This Act [see Tables for classification] may be cited as the ‘Prosecutorial Remedies and Other Tools to end the Exploitation of Children Today Act of 2003’ or ‘PROTECT Act’.”

Short Title of 2002 Amendment

Pub. L. 107–273, div. B, title IV, §4001, Nov. 2, 2002, 116 Stat. 1806, provided that: “This title [see Tables for classification] may be cited as the ‘Criminal Law Technical Amendments Act of 2002’.”

Short Title of 2001 Amendment

Pub. L. 107–56, §1(a), Oct. 26, 2001, 115 Stat. 272, as amended by Pub. L. 109–177, title I, §101(b), Mar. 9, 2006, 120 Stat. 194, provided that: “This Act [see Tables for classification] may be cited as the ‘Uniting and Strengthening America by Providing Appropriate Tools Required to Intercept and Obstruct Terrorism Act of 2001’ or the ‘USA PATRIOT Act’.”

Short Title of 1998 Amendments

Pub. L. 105–314, §1(a), Oct. 30, 1998, 112 Stat. 2974, provided that: “This Act [see Tables for classification] may be cited as the ‘Protection of Children From Sexual Predators Act of 1998’.”

Pub. L. 105–184, §1, June 23, 1998, 112 Stat. 520, provided that: “This Act [amending sections 709, 982, 2326, 2327, and 2703 of this title and enacting provisions listed in a table relating to sentencing guidelines set out as a note under section 994 of Title 28, Judiciary and Judicial Procedure] may be cited as the ‘Telemarketing Fraud Prevention Act of 1998’.”

Short Title of 1996 Amendments

Pub. L. 104–294, §1, Oct. 11, 1996, 110 Stat. 3488, provided that: “This Act [see Tables for classification] may be cited as the ‘Economic Espionage Act of 1996’.”

Pub. L. 104–132, §1, Apr. 24, 1996, 110 Stat. 1214, provided that: “This Act [see Tables for classification] may be cited as the ‘Antiterrorism and Effective Death Penalty Act of 1996’.”

Short Title of 1994 Amendment

Pub. L. 103–322, title X, §100001, Sept. 13, 1994, 108 Stat. 1996, provided that: “This title [amending section 13 of this title and section 3751 of Title 42, The Public Health and Welfare] may be cited as the ‘Drunk Driving Child Protection Act of 1994’.”

Short Title of 1990 Amendment

Pub. L. 101–647, §1, Nov. 29, 1990, 104 Stat. 4789, provided that: “This Act [see Tables for classification] may be cited as the ‘Crime Control Act of 1990’.”

Short Title of 1988 Amendment

Pub. L. 100–690, title VII, §7011, Nov. 18, 1988, 102 Stat. 4395, provided that: “This subtitle [subtitle B (§§7011–7096) of title VII of Pub. L. 100–690, see Tables for classification] may be cited as the ‘Minor and Technical Criminal Law Amendments Act of 1988’.”

Short Title of 1987 Amendment

Pub. L. 100–185, §1, Dec. 11, 1987, 101 Stat. 1279, provided that: “This Act [enacting section 19 of this title, amending sections 18, 3013, 3559, 3571, 3572, 3573, 3611, 3612, and 3663 of this title and section 604 of Title 28, Judiciary and Judicial Procedure, and enacting provisions set out as notes under section 3611 of this title] may be cited as the ‘Criminal Fine Improvements Act of 1987’.”

Short Title of 1986 Amendment

Pub. L. 99–646, §1, Nov. 10, 1986, 100 Stat. 3592, provided that: “This Act [see Tables for classification] may be cited as the ‘Criminal Law and Procedure Technical Amendments Act of 1986’.”

Short Title of 1984 Amendment

Section 200 of title II (§§200–2304) of Pub. L. 98–473 provided that: “This title [see Tables for classification] may be cited as the ‘Comprehensive Crime Control Act of 1984’.”

Severability

Pub. L. 108–21, §2, Apr. 30, 2003, 117 Stat. 651, provided that: “If any provision of this Act [see Tables for classification], or the application of such provision to any person or circumstance, is held invalid, the remainder of this Act, and the application of such provision to other persons not similarly situated or to other circumstances, shall not be affected by such invalidation.”

Pub. L. 107–56, §2, Oct. 26, 2001, 115 Stat. 275, provided that: “Any provision of this Act [see Short Title of 2001 Amendment note above] held to be invalid or unenforceable by its terms, or as applied to any person or circumstance, shall be construed so as to give it the maximum effect permitted by law, unless such holding shall be one of utter invalidity or unenforceability, in which event such provision shall be deemed severable from this Act and shall not affect the remainder thereof or the application of such provision to other persons not similarly situated or to other, dissimilar circumstances.”

Pub. L. 104–132, title IX, §904, Apr. 24, 1996, 110 Stat. 1319, provided that: “If any provision of this Act [see Short Title of 1996 Amendments note above], an amendment made by this Act, or the application of such provision or amendment to any person or circumstance is held to be unconstitutional, the remainder of this Act, the amendments made by this Act, and the application of the provisions of such to any person or circumstance shall not be affected thereby.”

§2. Principals

(a) Whoever commits an offense against the United States or aids, abets, counsels, commands, induces or procures its commission, is punishable as a principal.

(b) Whoever willfully causes an act to be done which if directly performed by him or another would be an offense against the United States, is punishable as a principal.

(June 25, 1948, ch. 645, 62 Stat. 684; Oct. 31, 1951, ch. 655, §17b, 65 Stat. 717.)

Historical and Revision Notes

Based on title 18, U.S.C., 1940 ed., §550 (Mar. 4, 1909, ch. 321, §332, 35 Stat. 1152).

Section 2(a) comprises section 550 of title 18, U.S.C., 1940 ed., without change except in minor matters of phraseology.

Section 2(b) is added to permit the deletion from many sections throughout the revision of such phrases as “causes or procures”.

The section as revised makes clear the legislative intent to punish as a principal not only one who directly commits an offense and one who “aids, abets, counsels, commands, induces or procures” another to commit an offense, but also anyone who causes the doing of an act which if done by him directly would render him guilty of an offense against the United States.

It removes all doubt that one who puts in motion or assists in the illegal enterprise but causes the commission of an indispensable element of the offense by an innocent agent or instrumentality, is guilty as a principal even though he intentionally refrained from the direct act constituting the completed offense.

This accords with the following decisions: Rothenburg v. United States, 1918, 38 S. Ct. 18, 245 U.S. 480, 62 L. Ed. 414, and United States v. Hodorowicz, C. C. A. Ill. 1939, 105 F. 2d 218, certiorari denied, 60 S. Ct. 108, 308 U.S. 584, 84 L. Ed. 489. United States v. Giles, 1937, 57 S. Ct. 340, 300 U.S. 41, 81 L. Ed. 493, rehearing denied, 57 S. Ct. 505, 300 U.S. 687, 81 L. Ed. 888.

Amendments

1951—Subsec. (a). Act Oct. 31, 1951, inserted “punishable as”.

Subsec. (b). Act Oct. 31, 1951, inserted “willfully” before “causes”, and “or another” after “him”, and substituted “is punishable as a principal” for “is also a principal and punishable as such”.

§3. Accessory after the fact

Whoever, knowing that an offense against the United States has been committed, receives, relieves, comforts or assists the offender in order to hinder or prevent his apprehension, trial or punishment, is an accessory after the fact.

Except as otherwise expressly provided by any Act of Congress, an accessory after the fact shall be imprisoned not more than one-half the maximum term of imprisonment or (notwithstanding section 3571) fined not more than one-half the maximum fine prescribed for the punishment of the principal, or both; or if the principal is punishable by life imprisonment or death, the accessory shall be imprisoned not more than 15 years.

(June 25, 1948, ch. 645, 62 Stat. 684; Pub. L. 99–646, §43, Nov. 10, 1986, 100 Stat. 3601; Pub. L. 101–647, title XXXV, §3502, Nov. 29, 1990, 104 Stat. 4921; Pub. L. 103–322, title XXXIII, §§330011(h), 330016(2)(A), Sept. 13, 1994, 108 Stat. 2145, 2148.)

Historical and Revision Notes

Based on title 18, U.S.C., 1940 ed., §551 (Mar. 4, 1909, ch. 321, §333, 35 Stat. 1152).

The first paragraph is new. It is based upon authority of Skelly v. United States (C. C. A. Okl. 1935, 76 F. 2d 483, certiorari denied, 1935, 55 S. Ct. 914, 295 U.S. 757, 79 L. Ed. 1699), where the court defined an accessory after the fact as—


one who knowing a felony to have been committed by another, receives, relieves, comforts, or assists the felon in order to hinder the felon's apprehension, trial, or punishment—


and cited Jones’ Blackstone, books 3 and 4, page 2204; U.S. v. Hartwell (Fed. Cas. No. 15,318); Albritton v. State (32 Fla. 358, 13 So. 955); State v. Davis (14 R. I. 281); Schleeter v. Commonwealth (218 Ky. 72, 290 S. W. 1075). (See also State v. Potter, 1942, 221 N. C. 153, 19 S. E. 2d 257; Hunter v. State, 1935, 128 Tex. Cr. R. 191, 79 S. W. 2d 855; State v. Wells, 1940, 195 La. 754, 197 So. 419.)

The second paragraph is from section 551 of title 18, U.S.C., 1940 ed. Here only slight changes were made in phraseology.

Amendments

1994—Pub. L. 103–322, §330016(2)(A), inserted “(notwithstanding section 3571)” before “fined not more than one-half” in second par.

Pub. L. 103–322, §330011(h), amended directory language of Pub. L. 101–647, §3502. See 1990 Amendment note below.

1990—Pub. L. 101–647, as amended by Pub. L. 103–322, §330011(h), substituted “15 years” for “ten years” in second par.

1986—Pub. L. 99–646 inserted “life imprisonment or” in second par.

Effective Date of 1994 Amendment

Section 330011(h) of Pub. L. 103–322 provided that the amendment made by that section is effective as of Nov. 29, 1990.

§4. Misprision of felony

Whoever, having knowledge of the actual commission of a felony cognizable by a court of the United States, conceals and does not as soon as possible make known the same to some judge or other person in civil or military authority under the United States, shall be fined under this title or imprisoned not more than three years, or both.

(June 25, 1948, ch. 645, 62 Stat. 684; Pub. L. 103–322, title XXXIII, §330016(1)(G), Sept. 13, 1994, 108 Stat. 2147.)

Historical and Revision Notes

Based on title 18, U.S.C. 1940 ed., §251 (Mar. 4, 1909, ch. 321, §146, 35 Stat. 1114).

Changes in phraseology only.

Amendments

1994—Pub. L. 103–322 substituted “fined under this title” for “fined not more than $500”.

§5. United States defined

The term “United States”, as used in this title in a territorial sense, includes all places and waters, continental or insular, subject to the jurisdiction of the United States, except the Canal Zone.

(June 25, 1948, ch. 645, 62 Stat. 685.)

Historical and Revision Notes

Based on title 18, U.S.C., 1940 ed., §§39, 133, 346, 381, 502, and 632, and section 40 of title 50, U.S.C., 1940 ed., War and National Defense (June 15, 1917, ch. 30, title XIII, §1, 40 Stat. 231).

Section consolidates the first sentence of section 39, all of sections 133, 346, and 632, and the second sentences, respectively, of sections 381 and 502, all of title 18, U.S.C., 1940 ed., and section 40 of title 50, U.S.C., 1940 ed., War and National Defense, with minor changes in phraseology.

All of these sections and parts of sections were derived from section 1 of title XIII of said act of June 15, 1917. Said section 40 of title 50, U.S.C., War and National Defense, has also been retained in that title, as it still relates to some sections therein which were not transferred to this title.

The remainder of said section 39 of title 18, U.S.C., 1940 ed., which was derived from sections 2, 3, and 4 of title XIII of the act of June 15, 1917, relating to jurisdiction and other matters, is almost entirely obsolete. The provisions still in force are incorporated in section 3241 of this title.

The remaining provisions of said sections 381 and 502 of title 18, U.S.C., 1940 ed., which were derived from sources other than said section 1 of title XIII of the act of June 15, 1917, are incorporated in sections 1364 and 2275 of this title.

Senate Revision Amendment

Words “, except the Canal Zone.” were substituted for the period in this section by Senate amendment. See Senate Report No. 1620, amendment No. 2, 80th Cong.

References in Text

For definition of Canal Zone, referred to in text, see section 3602(b) of Title 22, Foreign Relations and Intercourse.

§6. Department and agency defined

As used in this title:

The term “department” means one of the executive departments enumerated in section 1 of Title 5, unless the context shows that such term was intended to describe the executive, legislative, or judicial branches of the government.

The term “agency” includes any department, independent establishment, commission, administration, authority, board or bureau of the United States or any corporation in which the United States has a proprietary interest, unless the context shows that such term was intended to be used in a more limited sense.

(June 25, 1948, ch. 645, 62 Stat. 685.)

Historical and Revision Notes

This section defines the terms “department” and “agency” of the United States. The word “department” appears 57 times in title 18, U.S.C., 1940 ed., and the word “agency” 14 times. It was considered necessary to define clearly these words in order to avoid possible litigation as to the scope or coverage of a given section containing such words. (See United States v. Germaine, 1878, 99 U.S. 508, 25 L. Ed. 482, for definition of words “department” or “head of department.”)

The phrase “corporation in which the United States has a proprietary interest” is intended to include those governmental corporations in which stock is not actually issued, as well as those in which stock is owned by the United States. It excludes those corporations in which the interest of the Government is custodial or incidental.

References in Text

Section 1 of Title 5, referred to in text, was repealed by Pub. L. 89–554, §8, Sept. 6, 1966, 80 Stat. 632, and reenacted by the first section thereof as section 101 of Title 5, Government Organization and Employees.

§7. Special maritime and territorial jurisdiction of the United States defined

The term “special maritime and territorial jurisdiction of the United States”, as used in this title, includes:

(1) The high seas, any other waters within the admiralty and maritime jurisdiction of the United States and out of the jurisdiction of any particular State, and any vessel belonging in whole or in part to the United States or any citizen thereof, or to any corporation created by or under the laws of the United States, or of any State, Territory, District, or possession thereof, when such vessel is within the admiralty and maritime jurisdiction of the United States and out of the jurisdiction of any particular State.

(2) Any vessel registered, licensed, or enrolled under the laws of the United States, and being on a voyage upon the waters of any of the Great Lakes, or any of the waters connecting them, or upon the Saint Lawrence River where the same constitutes the International Boundary Line.

(3) Any lands reserved or acquired for the use of the United States, and under the exclusive or concurrent jurisdiction thereof, or any place purchased or otherwise acquired by the United States by consent of the legislature of the State in which the same shall be, for the erection of a fort, magazine, arsenal, dockyard, or other needful building.

(4) Any island, rock, or key containing deposits of guano, which may, at the discretion of the President, be considered as appertaining to the United States.

(5) Any aircraft belonging in whole or in part to the United States, or any citizen thereof, or to any corporation created by or under the laws of the United States, or any State, Territory, district, or possession thereof, while such aircraft is in flight over the high seas, or over any other waters within the admiralty and maritime jurisdiction of the United States and out of the jurisdiction of any particular State.

(6) Any vehicle used or designed for flight or navigation in space and on the registry of the United States pursuant to the Treaty on Principles Governing the Activities of States in the Exploration and Use of Outer Space, Including the Moon and Other Celestial Bodies and the Convention on Registration of Objects Launched into Outer Space, while that vehicle is in flight, which is from the moment when all external doors are closed on Earth following embarkation until the moment when one such door is opened on Earth for disembarkation or in the case of a forced landing, until the competent authorities take over the responsibility for the vehicle and for persons and property aboard.

(7) Any place outside the jurisdiction of any nation with respect to an offense by or against a national of the United States.

(8) To the extent permitted by international law, any foreign vessel during a voyage having a scheduled departure from or arrival in the United States with respect to an offense committed by or against a national of the United States.

(9) With respect to offenses committed by or against a national of the United States as that term is used in section 101 of the Immigration and Nationality Act—

(A) the premises of United States diplomatic, consular, military or other United States Government missions or entities in foreign States, including the buildings, parts of buildings, and land appurtenant or ancillary thereto or used for purposes of those missions or entities, irrespective of ownership; and

(B) residences in foreign States and the land appurtenant or ancillary thereto, irrespective of ownership, used for purposes of those missions or entities or used by United States personnel assigned to those missions or entities.


Nothing in this paragraph shall be deemed to supersede any treaty or international agreement with which this paragraph conflicts. This paragraph does not apply with respect to an offense committed by a person described in section 3261(a) of this title.

(June 25, 1948, ch. 645, 62 Stat. 685; July 12, 1952, ch. 695, 66 Stat. 589; Pub. L. 97–96, §6, Dec. 21, 1981, 95 Stat. 1210; Pub. L. 98–473, title II, §1210, Oct. 12, 1984, 98 Stat. 2164; Pub. L. 103–322, title XII, §120002, Sept. 13, 1994, 108 Stat. 2021; Pub. L. 107–56, title VIII, §804, Oct. 26, 2001, 115 Stat. 377.)

Historical and Revision Notes

Based on title 18, U.S.C., 1940 ed., §451 (Mar. 4, 1909, ch. 321, §272, 35 Stat. 1142; June 11, 1940, ch. 323, 54 Stat. 304).

The words “The term ‘special maritime and territorial jurisdiction of the United States’ as used in this title includes:” were substituted for the words “The crimes and offenses defined in sections 451–468 of this title shall be punished as herein prescribed.”

This section first appeared in the 1909 Criminal Code. It made it possible to combine in one chapter all the penal provisions covering acts within the admiralty and maritime jurisdiction without the necessity of repeating in each section the places covered.

The present section has made possible the allocation of the diverse provisions of chapter 11 of Title 18, U.S.C., 1940 ed., to particular chapters restricted to particular offenses, as contemplated by the alphabetical chapter arrangement.

In several revised sections of said chapter 11 the words “within the special maritime and territorial jurisdiction of the United States” have been added. Thus the jurisdictional limitation will be preserved in all sections of said chapter 11 describing an offense.

Enumeration of names of Great Lakes was omitted as unnecessary.

Other minor changes were necessary now that the section defines a term rather than the place of commission of crime or offense; however, the extent of the special jurisdiction as originally enacted has been carefully followed.

References in Text

Section 101 of the Immigration and Nationality Act, referred to in par. (9), is classified to section 1101 of Title 8, Aliens and Nationality.

Amendments

2001—Par. (9). Pub. L. 107–56 added par. (9).

1994—Par. (8). Pub. L. 103–322 added par. (8).

1984—Par. (7). Pub. L. 98–473 added par. (7).

1981—Par. (6). Pub. L. 97–96 added par. (6).

1952—Par. (5). Act July 12, 1952, added par. (5).

Territorial Sea Extending to Twelve Miles Included in Special Maritime and Territorial Jurisdiction

Pub. L. 104–132, title IX, §901(a), Apr. 24, 1996, 110 Stat. 1317, provided that: “The Congress declares that all the territorial sea of the United States, as defined by Presidential Proclamation 5928 of December 27, 1988 [set out as a note under section 1331 of Title 43, Public Lands], for purposes of Federal criminal jurisdiction is part of the United States, subject to its sovereignty, and is within the special maritime and territorial jurisdiction of the United States for the purposes of title 18, United States Code.”

§8. Obligation or other security of the United States defined

The term “obligation or other security of the United States” includes all bonds, certificates of indebtedness, national bank currency, Federal Reserve notes, Federal Reserve bank notes, coupons, United States notes, Treasury notes, gold certificates, silver certificates, fractional notes, certificates of deposit, bills, checks, or drafts for money, drawn by or upon authorized officers of the United States, stamps and other representatives of value, of whatever denomination, issued under any Act of Congress, and canceled United States stamps.

(June 25, 1948, ch. 645, 62 Stat. 685.)

Historical and Revision Notes

Based on title 18, U.S.C., 1940 ed., §261 (Mar. 4, 1909, ch. 321, §147, 35 Stat. 1115; Jan. 27, 1938, ch. 10, §3, 52 Stat. 7).

The terms of this section were general enough to justify its inclusion in this chapter rather than retaining it in the chapter on “Counterfeiting” where the terms which it specifically defines are set out in sections 471–476, 478, 481, 483, 492, and 504 of this title.

Words “Federal Reserve notes, Federal Reserve bank notes” were inserted before “coupons” because such notes have almost supplanted national bank currency.

Minor changes were made in phraseology.

§9. Vessel of the United States defined

The term “vessel of the United States”, as used in this title, means a vessel belonging in whole or in part to the United States, or any citizen thereof, or any corporation created by or under the laws of the United States, or of any State, Territory, District, or possession thereof.

(June 25, 1948, ch. 645, 62 Stat. 685.)

Historical and Revision Notes

Based on title 18, U.S.C., 1940 ed., §501 (Mar. 4, 1909, ch. 321, §310, 35 Stat. 1148).

Section is made applicable to the entire title rather than to sections 481 et seq. of title 18, U.S.C., 1940 ed.

Minor changes in phraseology were made.

§10. Interstate commerce and foreign commerce defined

The term “interstate commerce”, as used in this title, includes commerce between one State, Territory, Possession, or the District of Columbia and another State, Territory, Possession, or the District of Columbia.

The term “foreign commerce”, as used in this title, includes commerce with a foreign country.

(June 25, 1948, ch. 645, 62 Stat. 686.)

Historical and Revision Notes

Based on title 18, U.S.C., 1940 ed., §§408, 408b, 414(a), and 419a(b) (Oct. 29, 1919, ch. 89, §2(b), 41 Stat. 325; June 22, 1932, ch. 271, §2, 47 Stat. 326; May 18, 1934, ch. 301, 48 Stat. 782; May 22, 1934, ch. 333, §2(a), 48 Stat. 794; Aug. 18, 1941, ch. 366, §2(b), 55 Stat. 631).

This section consolidates into one section identical definitions contained in sections 408, 408b, 414(a), and 419a(b) of title 18, U.S.C., 1940 ed.

In addition to slight improvements in style, the word “commerce” was substituted for “transportation” in order to avoid the narrower connotation of the word “transportation” since “commerce” obviously includes more than “transportation.” The word “Possession” was inserted in two places to make the definition more accurate and comprehensive since the places included in the word “Possession” would normally be within the term defined and a narrower construction should be handled by express statutory exclusion in those crimes which Congress intends to restrict to commerce within the continental United States.

§11. Foreign government defined

The term “foreign government”, as used in this title except in sections 112, 878, 970, 1116, and 1201, includes any government, faction, or body of insurgents within a country with which the United States is at peace, irrespective of recognition by the United States.

(June 25, 1948, ch. 645, 62 Stat. 686; Pub. L. 94–467, §11, Oct. 8, 1976, 90 Stat. 2001.)

Historical and Revision Notes

Based on title 18, U.S.C., 1940 ed., §§98, 288, 349; section 235 of title 22 U.S.C., 1940 ed., Foreign Relations and Intercourse; section 41 of title 50, U.S.C., 1940 ed., War and National Defense (June 15, 1917, ch. 30, title VIII, §4, 40 Stat. 226).

The definition of “foreign government” contained in this section, with minor changes in phraseology, is from section 4 of title VIII of act June 15, 1917 (Ch. 30, 40 Stat. 217, 226), known as the Espionage Act of 1917. This definition was incorporated in sections 98, 288, and 349 of title 18 and in section 235 of title 22, Foreign Relations and Intercourse, and in section 41 of Title 50, War and National Defense, U.S.C., all in 1940 ed., since the definition was specifically enacted with reference to said sections and others not material here.

The remaining provisions of said sections 98 and 349 of title 18, U.S.C., 1940 ed., which were derived from sources other than said section 4 of title VIII of the act of June 15, 1917, are incorporated in sections 502 and 957 of this title.

Amendments

1976—Pub. L. 94–467 inserted “except in sections 112, 878, 970, 1116, and 1201” after “title”.

§12. United States Postal Service defined

As used in this title, the term “Postal Service” means the United States Postal Service established under title 39, and every officer and employee of that Service, whether or not such officer or employee has taken the oath of office.

(June 25, 1948, ch. 645, 62 Stat. 686; Pub. L. 91–375, §6(j)(2), Aug. 12, 1970, 84 Stat. 777; Pub. L. 101–647, title XXXV, §3505, Nov. 29, 1990, 104 Stat. 4921.)

Historical and Revision Notes

Based on title 18, U.S.C., 1940 ed., §§301, 360 (Mar. 4, 1909, ch. 321, §§230, 231, 35 Stat. 1134).

This section consolidates sections 301 and 360 of title 18, U.S.C., 1940 ed., with necessary changes in phraseology.

Amendments

1990—Pub. L. 101–647 substituted “whether or not such officer or employee has taken the oath of office” for “whether he has taken the oath of office”.

1970—Pub. L. 91–375 inserted “United States” before “Postal Service” in section catchline and substituted in text as definition of “Postal Service” the United States Postal Service established under title 39, and every officer and employee of that Service, whether he has taken the oath of office, for prior definition which included the Post Office Department and every employee, thereof, whether or not he has taken the oath of office.

Effective Date of 1970 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 91–375 effective within 1 year after Aug. 12, 1970, on date established therefor by the Board of Governors of the United States Postal Service and published by it in the Federal Register, see section 15(a) of Pub. L. 91–375, set out as an Effective Date note preceding section 101 of Title 39, Postal Service.

§13. Laws of States adopted for areas within Federal jurisdiction

(a) Whoever within or upon any of the places now existing or hereafter reserved or acquired as provided in section 7 of this title, or on, above, or below any portion of the territorial sea of the United States not within the jurisdiction of any State, Commonwealth, territory, possession, or district is guilty of any act or omission which, although not made punishable by any enactment of Congress, would be punishable if committed or omitted within the jurisdiction of the State, Territory, Possession, or District in which such place is situated, by the laws thereof in force at the time of such act or omission, shall be guilty of a like offense and subject to a like punishment.

(b)(1) Subject to paragraph (2) and for purposes of subsection (a) of this section, that which may or shall be imposed through judicial or administrative action under the law of a State, territory, possession, or district, for a conviction for operating a motor vehicle under the influence of a drug or alcohol, shall be considered to be a punishment provided by that law. Any limitation on the right or privilege to operate a motor vehicle imposed under this subsection shall apply only to the special maritime and territorial jurisdiction of the United States.

(2)(A) In addition to any term of imprisonment provided for operating a motor vehicle under the influence of a drug or alcohol imposed under the law of a State, territory, possession, or district, the punishment for such an offense under this section shall include an additional term of imprisonment of not more than 1 year, or if serious bodily injury of a minor is caused, not more than 5 years, or if death of a minor is caused, not more than 10 years, and an additional fine under this title, or both, if—

(i) a minor (other than the offender) was present in the motor vehicle when the offense was committed; and

(ii) the law of the State, territory, possession, or district in which the offense occurred does not provide an additional term of imprisonment under the circumstances described in clause (i).


(B) For the purposes of subparagraph (A), the term “minor” means a person less than 18 years of age.

(c) Whenever any waters of the territorial sea of the United States lie outside the territory of any State, Commonwealth, territory, possession, or district, such waters (including the airspace above and the seabed and subsoil below, and artificial islands and fixed structures erected thereon) shall be deemed, for purposes of subsection (a), to lie within the area of the State, Commonwealth, territory, possession, or district that it would lie within if the boundaries of such State, Commonwealth, territory, possession, or district were extended seaward to the outer limit of the territorial sea of the United States.

(June 25, 1948, ch. 645, 62 Stat. 686; Pub. L. 100–690, title VI, §6477(a), Nov. 18, 1988, 102 Stat. 4381; Pub. L. 103–322, title X, §100002, Sept. 13, 1994, 108 Stat. 1996; Pub. L. 104–132, title IX, §901(b), Apr. 24, 1996, 110 Stat. 1317; Pub. L. 104–294, title VI, §604(b)(32), Oct. 11, 1996, 110 Stat. 3508.)

Historical and Revision Notes

Based on title 18, U.S.C., 1940 ed., §468 (Mar. 4, 1909, ch. 321, §289, 35 Stat. 1145; June 15, 1933, ch. 85, 48 Stat. 152; June 20, 1935, ch. 284, 49 Stat. 394; June 6, 1940, ch. 241, 54 Stat. 234).

Act March 4, 1909, §289 used the words “now in force” when referring to the laws of any State, organized Territory or district, to be considered in force.

As amended on June 15, 1933, the words “by the laws thereof in force on June 1, 1933, and remaining in force at the time of the doing or omitting the doing of such act or thing, would be penal,” were used.

The amendment of June 20, 1935, extended the date to “April 1, 1935,” and the amendment of June 6, 1940, extended the date to “February 1, 1940”.

The revised section omits the specification of any date as unnecessary in a revision, which speaks from the date of its enactment. Such omission will not only make effective within Federal reservations, the local State laws in force on the date of the enactment of the revision, but will authorize the Federal courts to apply the same measuring stick to such offenses as is applied in the adjoining State under future changes of the State law and will make unnecessary periodic pro forma amendments of this section to keep abreast of changes of local laws. In other words, the revised section makes applicable to offenses committed on such reservations, the law of the place that would govern if the reservation had not been ceded to the United States.

The word “Possession” was inserted to clarify scope of section.

Minor changes were made in phraseology.

Amendments

1996—Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 104–132, §901(b)(1), inserted “or on, above, or below any portion of the territorial sea of the United States not within the jurisdiction of any State, Commonwealth, territory, possession, or district” after “section 7 of this title,”.

Subsec. (b)(2)(A). Pub. L. 104–294 substituted “under this title” for “of not more than $1,000”.

Subsec. (c). Pub. L. 104–132, §901(b)(2), added subsec. (c).

1994—Subsec. (b). Pub. L. 103–322 designated existing provisions as par. (1), substituted “Subject to paragraph (2) and for purposes” for “For purposes”, and added par. (2).

1988—Pub. L. 100–690 designated existing provisions as subsec. (a) and added subsec. (b).

Effective Date of 1996 Amendment

Section 604(d) of Pub. L. 104–294 provided that: “The amendments made by this section [amending this section, sections 36, 112, 113, 241, 242, 245, 351, 511, 542, 544, 545, 668, 704, 709, 794, 1014, 1030, 1112, 1169, 1512, 1515, 1516, 1751, 1956, 1961, 2114, 2311, 2339A, 2423, 2511, 2512, 2721, 3059A, 3561, 3582, 3592, and 5037 of this title, section 802 of Title 21, Food and Drugs, sections 540A and 991 of Title 28, Judiciary and Judicial Procedure, and sections 3631, 5633, 10604, and 14011 of Title 42, The Public Health and Welfare, and amending provisions set out as notes under sections 1001, 1169, and 2325 of this title and section 994 of Title 28] shall take effect on the date of enactment of Public Law 103–322 [Sept. 13, 1994].”

Territorial Sea of United States

For extension of territorial sea of United States, see Proc. No. 5928, set out as a note under section 1331 of Title 43, Public Lands.

[§14. Repealed. Pub. L. 107–273, div. B, title IV, §4004(a), Nov. 2, 2002, 116 Stat. 1812]

Section, act June 25, 1948, ch. 645, 62 Stat. 686; Aug. 5, 1953, ch. 325, 67 Stat. 366; Pub. L. 87–845, §3(a), Oct. 18, 1962, 76A Stat. 698; Pub. L. 90–357, §59, June 22, 1968, 82 Stat. 248; Pub. L. 101–647, title XXXV, §3519(c), Nov. 29, 1990, 104 Stat. 4923; Pub. L. 103–322, title XXXIII, §330010(9), Sept. 13, 1994, 108 Stat. 2143, listed Title 18 sections applicable to and within Canal Zone.

§15. Obligation or other security of foreign government defined

The term “obligation or other security of any foreign government” includes, but is not limited to, uncanceled stamps, whether or not demonetized.

(Added Pub. L. 85–921, §3, Sept. 2, 1958, 72 Stat. 1771.)

§16. Crime of violence defined

The term “crime of violence” means—

(a) an offense that has as an element the use, attempted use, or threatened use of physical force against the person or property of another, or

(b) any other offense that is a felony and that, by its nature, involves a substantial risk that physical force against the person or property of another may be used in the course of committing the offense.

(Added Pub. L. 98–473, title II, §1001(a), Oct. 12, 1984, 98 Stat. 2136.)

§17. Insanity defense

(a) Affirmative Defense.—It is an affirmative defense to a prosecution under any Federal statute that, at the time of the commission of the acts constituting the offense, the defendant, as a result of a severe mental disease or defect, was unable to appreciate the nature and quality or the wrongfulness of his acts. Mental disease or defect does not otherwise constitute a defense.

(b) Burden of Proof.—The defendant has the burden of proving the defense of insanity by clear and convincing evidence.

(Added Pub. L. 98–473, title II, §402(a), Oct. 12, 1984, 98 Stat. 2057, §20; renumbered §17, Pub. L. 99–646, §34(a), Nov. 10, 1986, 100 Stat. 3599.)

§18. Organization defined

As used in this title, the term “organization” means a person other than an individual.

(Added Pub. L. 99–646, §38(a), Nov. 10, 1986, 100 Stat. 3599; amended Pub. L. 100–185, §4(c), Dec. 11, 1987, 101 Stat. 1279; Pub. L. 100–690, title VII, §7012, Nov. 18, 1988, 102 Stat. 4395.)

Amendments

1988—Pub. L. 100–690 made technical correction of directory language of Pub. L. 99–646, §38(a), similar to that made by Pub. L. 100–185.

1987—Pub. L. 100–185 made technical correction in directory language of Pub. L. 99–646, §38(a).

§19. Petty offense defined

As used in this title, the term “petty offense” means a Class B misdemeanor, a Class C misdemeanor, or an infraction, for which the maximum fine is no greater than the amount set forth for such an offense in section 3571(b)(6) or (7) in the case of an individual or section 3571(c)(6) or (7) in the case of an organization.

(Added Pub. L. 100–185, §4(a), Dec. 11, 1987, 101 Stat. 1279; amended Pub. L. 100–690, title VII, §7089(a), Nov. 18, 1988, 102 Stat. 4409.)

Amendments

1988—Pub. L. 100–690 inserted “, for which the maximum fine is no greater than the amount set forth for such an offense in section 3571(b)(6) or (7) in the case of an individual or section 3571(c)(6) or (7) in the case of an organization” after “infraction”.

§20. Financial institution defined

As used in this title, the term “financial institution” means—

(1) an insured depository institution (as defined in section 3(c)(2) of the Federal Deposit Insurance Act);

(2) a credit union with accounts insured by the National Credit Union Share Insurance Fund;

(3) a Federal home loan bank or a member, as defined in section 2 of the Federal Home Loan Bank Act (12 U.S.C. 1422), of the Federal home loan bank system;

(4) a System institution of the Farm Credit System, as defined in section 5.35(3) of the Farm Credit Act of 1971;

(5) a small business investment company, as defined in section 103 of the Small Business Investment Act of 1958 (15 U.S.C. 662);

(6) a depository institution holding company (as defined in section 3(w)(1) of the Federal Deposit Insurance Act;

(7) a Federal Reserve bank or a member bank of the Federal Reserve System;

(8) an organization operating under section 25 or section 25(a) 1 of the Federal Reserve Act;

(9) a branch or agency of a foreign bank (as such terms are defined in paragraphs (1) and (3) of section 1(b) of the International Banking Act of 1978); or

(10) a mortgage lending business (as defined in section 27 of this title) or any person or entity that makes in whole or in part a federally related mortgage loan as defined in section 3 of the Real Estate Settlement Procedures Act of 1974.

(Added Pub. L. 98–473, title II, §1107(a), Oct. 12, 1984, 98 Stat. 2145, §215(b); amended Pub. L. 99–370, §2, Aug. 4, 1986, 100 Stat. 779; renumbered §20 and amended Pub. L. 101–73, title IX, §962(e)(1), (2), Aug. 9, 1989, 103 Stat. 503; Pub. L. 101–647, title XXV, §2597(a), Nov. 29, 1990, 104 Stat. 4908; Pub. L. 111–21, §2(a), May 20, 2009, 123 Stat. 1617.)

References in Text

Section 3 of the Federal Deposit Insurance Act, referred to in pars. (1) and (6), is classified to section 1813 of Title 12, Banks and Banking.

Section 5.35(3) of the Farm Credit Act of 1971, referred to in par. (4), is classified to section 2271(3) of Title 12, Banks and Banking.

Section 25 of the Federal Reserve Act, referred to in par. (8), is classified to subchapter I (§601 et seq.) of chapter 6 of Title 12, Banks and Banking. Section 25(a) of the Federal Reserve Act, which is classified to subchapter II (§611 et seq.) of chapter 6 of Title 12, was renumbered section 25A of that act by Pub. L. 102–242, title I, §142(e)(2), Dec. 19, 1991, 105 Stat. 2281.

Section 1(b) of the International Banking Act of 1978, referred to in par. (9), is classified to section 3101 of Title 12, Banks and Banking.

Section 3 of the Real Estate Settlement Procedures Act of 1974, referred to in par. (10), is classified to section 2602 of Title 12, Banks and Banking.

Prior Provisions

A prior section 20 was renumbered section 17 of this title.

Amendments

2009—Par. (10). Pub. L. 111–21 added par. (10).

1990—Pars. (7) to (9). Pub. L. 101–647 added pars. (7) to (9).

1989—Pub. L. 101–73, §962(e)(1), (2)(A)–(C), redesignated subsec. (b) of section 215 of this title as this section, inserted section catchline, struck out subsec. (b) designation before “As used”, and substituted “used in this title” for “used in this section”.

Par. (1). Pub. L. 101–73, §962(e)(2)(D), amended par. (1) generally. Prior to amendment, par. (1) read as follows: “a bank with deposits insured by the Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation;”.

Par. (2). Pub. L. 101–73, §962(e)(2)(E), (H), redesignated par. (3) as (2) and struck out former par. (2) which read as follows: “an institution with accounts insured by the Federal Savings and Loan Insurance Corporation;”.

Par. (3). Pub. L. 101–73, §962(e)(2)(H), redesignated par. (4) as (3). Former par. (3) redesignated (2).

Par. (4). Pub. L. 101–73, §962(e)(2)(F), (H), redesignated par. (5) as (4) and amended it generally. Prior to amendment, par. (4) read as follows: “a Federal land bank, Federal intermediate credit bank, bank for cooperatives, production credit association, and Federal land bank association;”. Former par. (4) redesignated (3).

Par. (5). Pub. L. 101–73, §962(e)(2)(H), redesignated par. (6) as (5). Former par. (5) redesignated (4).

Pars. (6), (7). Pub. L. 101–73, §962(e)(2)(G), (H), redesignated par. (7) as (6) and amended it generally. Prior to amendment, par. (6) read as follows: “a bank holding company as defined in section 2 of the Bank Holding Company Act of 1956 (12 U.S.C. 1841); or”. Former par. (6) redesignated (5).

Par. (8). Pub. L. 101–73, §962(e)(2)(E), struck out par. (8) which read as follows: “a savings and loan holding company as defined in section 408 of the National Housing Act (12 U.S.C. 1730a).”

1986—Pub. L. 99–370 amended subsec. (b) [formerly §215(b)] generally expanding provisions formerly contained in subsec. (c) [former §215(c)] defining “financial institution”.

1 See References in Text note below.

§21. Stolen or counterfeit nature of property for certain crimes defined

(a) Wherever in this title it is an element of an offense that—

(1) any property was embezzled, robbed, stolen, converted, taken, altered, counterfeited, falsely made, forged, or obliterated; and

(2) the defendant knew that the property was of such character;


such element may be established by proof that the defendant, after or as a result of an official representation as to the nature of the property, believed the property to be embezzled, robbed, stolen, converted, taken, altered, counterfeited, falsely made, forged, or obliterated.

(b) For purposes of this section, the term “official representation” means any representation made by a Federal law enforcement officer (as defined in section 115) or by another person at the direction or with the approval of such an officer.

(Added Pub. L. 103–322, title XXXII, §320910(a), Sept. 13, 1994, 108 Stat. 2127.)

§23.1 Court of the United States defined

As used in this title, except where otherwise expressly provided 2 the term “court of the United States” includes the District Court of Guam, the District Court for the Northern Mariana Islands, and the District Court of the Virgin Islands.

(Added Pub. L. 103–322, title XXXII, §320914(a), Sept. 13, 1994, 108 Stat. 2128.)

1 So in original. No section 22 has been enacted.

2 So in original. Probably should be followed by a comma.

§24. Definitions relating to Federal health care offense

(a) As used in this title, the term “Federal health care offense” means a violation of, or a criminal conspiracy to violate—

(1) section 669, 1035, 1347, or 1518 of this title or section 1128B of the Social Security Act (42 U.S.C. 1320a–7b); or

(2) section 287, 371, 664, 666, 1001, 1027, 1341, 1343, 1349, or 1954 of this title section 301 of the Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act (21 U.S.C. 331), or section 501 of the Employee Retirement Income Security Act of 1974 (29 U.S.C. 1131), or section 411, 518, or 511 of the Employee Retirement Income Security Act of 1974,,1 if the violation or conspiracy relates to a health care benefit program.


(b) As used in this title, the term “health care benefit program” means any public or private plan or contract, affecting commerce, under which any medical benefit, item, or service is provided to any individual, and includes any individual or entity who is providing a medical benefit, item, or service for which payment may be made under the plan or contract.

(Added Pub. L. 104–191, title II, §241(a), Aug. 21, 1996, 110 Stat. 2016; amended Pub. L. 111–148, title VI, §6602, title X, §10606(c), Mar. 23, 2010, 124 Stat. 780, 1008.)

References in Text

Sections 411, 518, and 511 of the Employee Retirement Income Security Act of 1974, referred to in subsec. (a)(2), are classified to sections 1111, 1148, and 1141, respectively, of Title 29, Labor.

Amendments

2010—Subsec. (a)(1). Pub. L. 111–148, §10606(c)(1), substituted “or section 1128B of the Social Security Act (42 U.S.C. 1320a–7b); or” for semicolon.

Subsec. (a)(2). Pub. L. 111–148, §10606(c)(2)(B), which directed insertion of “section 301 of the Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act (21 U.S.C. 331), or section 501 of the Employee Retirement Income Security Act of 1974 (29 U.S.C. 1131),” after “title,” was executed by making the insertion after “title” to reflect the probable intent of Congress because “title,” did not appear subsequent to amendment by Pub. L. 111–148, §6602. See below.

Pub. L. 111–148, §10606(c)(2)(A), inserted “1349,” after “1343,”.

Pub. L. 111–148, §6602, inserted “or section 411, 518, or 511 of the Employee Retirement Income Security Act of 1974,” after “1954 of this title”.

1 So in original. The second comma probably should follow “1954 of this title”.

§25. Use of minors in crimes of violence

(a) Definitions.—In this section, the following definitions shall apply:

(1) Crime of violence.—The term “crime of violence” has the meaning set forth in section 16.

(2) Minor.—The term “minor” means a person who has not reached 18 years of age.

(3) Uses.—The term “uses” means employs, hires, persuades, induces, entices, or coerces.


(b) Penalties.—Any person who is 18 years of age or older, who intentionally uses a minor to commit a crime of violence for which such person may be prosecuted in a court of the United States, or to assist in avoiding detection or apprehension for such an offense, shall—

(1) for the first conviction, be subject to twice the maximum term of imprisonment and twice the maximum fine that would otherwise be authorized for the offense; and

(2) for each subsequent conviction, be subject to 3 times the maximum term of imprisonment and 3 times the maximum fine that would otherwise be authorized for the offense.

(Added Pub. L. 108–21, title VI, §601[(a)], Apr. 30, 2003, 117 Stat. 686.)

§26. Definition of seaport

As used in this title, the term “seaport” means all piers, wharves, docks, and similar structures, adjacent to any waters subject to the jurisdiction of the United States, to which a vessel may be secured, including areas of land, water, or land and water under and in immediate proximity to such structures, buildings on or contiguous to such structures, and the equipment and materials on such structures or in such buildings.

(Added Pub. L. 109–177, title III, §302(c), Mar. 9, 2006, 120 Stat. 233.)

§27. Mortgage lending business defined

In this title, the term “mortgage lending business” means an organization which finances or refinances any debt secured by an interest in real estate, including private mortgage companies and any subsidiaries of such organizations, and whose activities affect interstate or foreign commerce.

(Added Pub. L. 111–21, §2(b)(1), May 20, 2009, 123 Stat. 1617.)