18 U.S.C.
United States Code, 2011 Edition
Title 18 - CRIMES AND CRIMINAL PROCEDURE
PART I - CRIMES
CHAPTER 107 - SEAMEN AND STOWAWAYS
From the U.S. Government Printing Office, www.gpo.gov

CHAPTER 107—SEAMEN AND STOWAWAYS

Sec.
2191.
Cruelty to seamen.
2192.
Incitation of seamen to revolt or mutiny.
2193.
Revolt or mutiny of seamen.
2194.
Shanghaiing sailors.
2195.
Abandonment of sailors.
2196.
Drunkenness or neglect of duty by seamen.
2197.
Misuse of Federal certificate, license or document.
[2198.
Repealed.]
2199.
Stowaways on vessels or aircraft.

        

Amendments

1990—Pub. L. 101–647, title XII, §1207(b), Nov. 29, 1990, 104 Stat. 4832, struck out item 2198 “Seduction of female passenger”.

§2191. Cruelty to seamen

Whoever, being the master or officer of a vessel of the United States, on the high seas, or on any other waters within the admiralty and maritime jurisdiction of the United States, flogs, beats, wounds, or without justifiable cause, imprisons any of the crew of such vessel, or withholds from them suitable food and nourishment, or inflicts upon them any corporal or other cruel and unusual punishment, shall be fined under this title or imprisoned not more than five years, or both.

(June 25, 1948, ch. 645, 62 Stat. 800; Pub. L. 104–294, title VI, §601(a)(8), Oct. 11, 1996, 110 Stat. 3498.)

Historical and Revision Notes

Based on title 18, U.S.C., 1940 ed., §482 and section 712 of title 46, U.S.C., 1940 ed., Shipping (Dec. 21, 1898, ch. 28, §22, 30 Stat. 761; Mar. 4, 1909, ch. 321, §291, 35 Stat. 1145).

Section consolidates section 482 of title 18, U.S.C., 1940 ed., and the following language from section 712 of title 46, U.S.C., 1940 ed., Shipping, prohibiting flogging and corporal punishment: “and any master or other officer thereof who shall violate the aforesaid provisions of this section, or either thereof, shall be deemed guilty of a misdemeanor, punishable by imprisonment for not less than three months nor more than two years.” That language was the basis for the addition of the word “flogs” and the words “any corporal or other” for the word “any.” The punishment imposed by section 482 was adopted as that was the later statute as incorporated in 1909 Criminal Code.

Words “shall be deemed guilty of a misdemeanor,” contained in said section 712 of title 46, were omitted in view of definitive section 1 of this title.

Minor changes were made in phraseology.

Amendments

1996—Pub. L. 104–294 substituted “fined under this title” for “fined not more than $1,000”.

§2192. Incitation of seamen to revolt or mutiny

Whoever, being of the crew of a vessel of the United States, on the high seas, or on any other waters within the admiralty and maritime jurisdiction of the United States, endeavors to make a revolt or mutiny on board such vessel, or combines, conspires, or confederates with any other person on board to make such revolt or mutiny, or solicits, incites, or stirs up any other of the crew to disobey or resist the lawful orders of the master or other officer of such vessel, or to refuse or neglect his proper duty on board thereof, or to betray his proper trust, or assembles with others in a tumultuous and mutinous manner, or makes a riot on board thereof, or unlawfully confines the master or other commanding officer thereof, shall be fined under this title or imprisoned not more than five years, or both.

(June 25, 1948, ch. 645, 62 Stat. 800; Pub. L. 104–294, title VI, §601(a)(8), Oct. 11, 1996, 110 Stat. 3498.)

Historical and Revision Notes

Based on title 18, U.S.C., 1940 ed., §483 (Mar. 4, 1909, ch. 321, §292, 35 Stat. 1146).

Minor changes were made in phraseology.

Amendments

1996—Pub. L. 104–294 substituted “fined under this title” for “fined not more than $1,000”.

§2193. Revolt or mutiny of seamen

Whoever, being of the crew of a vessel of the United States, on the high seas, or on any other waters within the admiralty and maritime jurisdiction of the United States, unlawfully and with force, or by fraud, or intimidation, usurps the command of such vessel from the master or other lawful officer in command thereof, or deprives him of authority and command on board, or resists or prevents him in the free and lawful exercise thereof, or transfers such authority and command to another not lawfully entitled thereto, is guilty of a revolt and mutiny, and shall be fined under this title or imprisoned not more than ten years, or both.

(June 25, 1948, ch. 645, 62 Stat. 800; Pub. L. 103–322, title XXXIII, §330016(1)(I), Sept. 13, 1994, 108 Stat. 2147.)

Historical and Revision Notes

Based on title 18, U.S.C., 1940 ed., §484 (Mar. 4, 1909, ch. 321, §293, 35 Stat. 1146).

Punishment provision for mandatory fine and imprisonment was rephrased in the alternative so as to vest power in the court to impose either a fine, or imprisonment, or both, in its discretion.

Amendments

1994—Pub. L. 103–322 substituted “fined under this title” for “fined not more than $2,000”.

§2194. Shanghaiing sailors

Whoever, with intent that any person shall perform service or labor of any kind on board of any vessel engaged in trade and commerce among the several States or with foreign nations, or on board of any vessel of the United States engaged in navigating the high seas or any navigable water of the United States, procures or induces, or attempts to procure or induce, another, by force or threats or by representations which he knows or believes to be untrue, or while the person so procured or induced is intoxicated or under the influence of any drug, to go on board of any such vessel, or to sign or in anywise enter into any agreement to go on board of any such vessel to perform service or labor thereon; or

Whoever knowingly detains on board of any such vessel any person so procured or induced to go on board, or to enter into any agreement to go on board, by any means herein defined—

Shall be fined under this title or imprisoned not more than one year, or both.

(June 25, 1948, ch. 645, 62 Stat. 800; Pub. L. 104–294, title VI, §601(a)(8), Oct. 11, 1996, 110 Stat. 3498.)

Historical and Revision Notes

Based on title 18, U.S.C., 1940 ed., §144 (Mar. 4, 1909, ch. 321, §82, 35 Stat. 1103).

Reference to persons aiding or abetting was omitted as unnecessary as such persons are made principals by section 2 of this title.

Minor changes were made in phraseology and arrangement.

Amendments

1996—Pub. L. 104–294 substituted “fined under this title” for “fined not more than $1,000” in last par.

§2195. Abandonment of sailors

Whoever, being master or commander of a vessel of the United States, while abroad, maliciously and without justifiable cause forces any officer or mariner of such vessel on shore, in order to leave him behind in any foreign port or place, or refuses to bring home again all such officers and mariners of such vessel whom he carried out with him, as are in a condition to return and willing to return, when he is ready to proceed on his homeward voyage, shall be fined under this title or imprisoned not more than six months, or both.

(June 25, 1948, ch. 645, 62 Stat. 801; Pub. L. 103–322, title XXXIII, §330016(1)(G), Sept. 13, 1994, 108 Stat. 2147.)

Historical and Revision Notes

Based on title 18, U.S.C., 1940 ed., §486 (Mar. 4, 1909, ch. 321, §295, 35 Stat. 1146).

Amendments

1994—Pub. L. 103–322 substituted “fined under this title” for “fined not more than $500”.

§2196. Drunkenness or neglect of duty by seamen

Whoever, being a master, officer, radio operator, seaman, apprentice or other person employed on any merchant vessel, by willful breach of duty, or by reason of drunkenness, does any act tending to the immediate loss or destruction of, or serious damage to, such vessel, or tending immediately to endanger the life or limb of any person belonging to or on board of such vessel; or, by willful breach of duty or by neglect of duty or by reason of drunkenness, refuses or omits to do any lawful act proper and requisite to be done by him for preserving such vessel from immediate loss, destruction, or serious damage, or for preserving any person belonging to or on board of such ship from immediate danger to life or limb, shall be imprisoned not more than one year.

(June 25, 1948, ch. 645, 62 Stat. 801.)

Historical and Revision Notes

Based on section 704 of title 46, U.S.C., 1940 ed., Shipping (R.S. §4602).

Words “officer, radio operator,” and “or other person employed on” were inserted at beginning of section to insure clarity and scope of section. Section 701 of title 46, U.S.C., 1940 ed., Shipping, is very similar to this section as revised, and has been applied to mates [Morris v. Cornell, D.C. Mass. 1843, Fed. Cas. No. 9,829; Gladding v. Constant, D.C. Mass. 1844, Fed. Cas. No. 5,468; Foye v. Dabney, D.C. Mass. 1853, Fed. Cas. No. 5,022; Foye v. Lickie, D.C. Mass. 1853, Fed. Cas. No. 5,023; The Sylvia De Grasse, D.C.N.Y. 1843, Fed. Cas. No. 12,676; The Sadie C. Sumner, D.C. Mass. 1905, 142 F. 611], as well as engineers, assistant engineers and cooks. (See notes of decisions under section 701, of title 46, U.S.C., Shipping.)

Words “be guilty of a misdemeanor” were omitted as unnecessary in view of general definition of “misdemeanor” in section 1 of this title.

Minor changes were made in phraseology including substitution of “one year” for “twelve months” at end of section.

§2197. Misuse of Federal certificate, license or document

Whoever, not being lawfully entitled thereto, uses, exhibits, or attempts to use or exhibit, or, with intent unlawfully to use the same, receives or possesses any certificate, license, or document issued to vessels, or officers or seamen by any officer or employee of the United States authorized by law to issue the same; or

Whoever, without authority, alters or attempts to alter any such certificate, license, or document by addition, interpolation, deletion, or erasure; or

Whoever forges, counterfeits, or steals, or attempts to forge, counterfeit, or steal, any such certificate, license, or document; or unlawfully possesses or knowingly uses any such altered, changed, forged, counterfeit, or stolen certificate, license, or document; or

Whoever, without authority, prints or manufactures any blank form of such certificate, license, or document, or

Whoever possesses without lawful excuse, and with intent unlawfully to use the same, any blank form of such certificate, license, or document; or

Whoever, in any manner, transfers or negotiates such transfer of, any blank form of such certificate, license, or document, or any such altered, forged, counterfeit, or stolen certificate, license, or document, or any such certificate, license, or document to which the party transferring or receiving the same is not lawfully entitled—

Shall be fined under this title or imprisoned not more than five years, or both.

(June 25, 1948, ch. 645, 62 Stat. 801; Pub. L. 103–322, title XXXIII, §330016(1)(K), Sept. 13, 1994, 108 Stat. 2147.)

Historical and Revision Notes

Based on section 710a of title 46, U.S.C., 1940 ed., Shipping (June 25, 1936, ch. 816, §6, 49 Stat. 1936).

The phrase “the Bureau of Marine Inspection and Navigation,” identifying the agency issuing the certificate, license or document, was omitted without change of substance. The functions of the Bureau of Marine Inspection and Navigation were transferred to the Bureau of Customs and the Coast Guard by Executive Order 9083 Feb. 28, 1942, title 50, App. U.S.C., 1940 ed., following §601. Such transfer is temporary under section 621 of title 50, App., U.S.C., 1940 ed. (First War Powers Act).

As revised the section is broad enough to embrace certificates, licenses and documents issued by the officers or employees of the Coast Guard and Customs Service, as the case may be.

Reference to persons causing, procuring, aiding or abetting was omitted as such persons are principals under section 2 of this title.

Words “upon conviction thereof” were omitted as unnecessary, since punishment cannot be imposed until a conviction is secured.

Changes were made in phraseology and arrangement.

Amendments

1994—Pub. L. 103–322 substituted “fined under this title” for “fined not more than $5,000” in last par.

[§2198. Repealed. Pub. L. 101–647, title XII, §1207(b), Nov. 29, 1990, 104 Stat. 4832]

Section, act June 25, 1948, ch. 645, 62 Stat. 802, related to penalties for seducing a female passenger on an American vessel by employees of the vessel.

§2199. Stowaways on vessels or aircraft

Whoever, without the consent of the owner, charterer, master, or person in command of any vessel, or aircraft, with intent to obtain transportation, boards, enters or secretes himself aboard such vessel or aircraft and is thereon at the time of departure of said vessel or aircraft from a port, harbor, wharf, airport or other place within the jurisdiction of the United States; or

Whoever, with like intent, having boarded, entered or secreted himself aboard a vessel or aircraft at any place within or without the jurisdiction of the United States, remains aboard after the vessel or aircraft has left such place and is thereon at any place within the jurisdiction of the United States; or

Whoever, with intent to obtain a ride or transportation, boards or enters any aircraft owned or operated by the United States without the consent of the person in command or other duly authorized officer or agent—

(1) shall be fined under this title, imprisoned not more than 5 years, or both;

(2) if the person commits an act proscribed by this section, with the intent to commit serious bodily injury, and serious bodily injury occurs (as defined under section 1365, including any conduct that, if the conduct occurred in the special maritime and territorial jurisdiction of the United States, would violate section 2241 or 2242) to any person other than a participant as a result of a violation of this section, shall be fined under this title or imprisoned not more than 20 years, or both; and

(3) if an individual commits an act proscribed by this section, with the intent to cause death, and if the death of any person other than a participant occurs as a result of a violation of this section, shall be fined under this title, imprisoned for any number of years or for life, or both.


The word “aircraft” as used in this section includes any contrivance for navigation or flight in the air.

(June 25, 1948, ch. 645, 62 Stat. 802; Pub. L. 104–294, title VI, §601(a)(8), Oct. 11, 1996, 110 Stat. 3498; Pub. L. 109–177, title III, §308, Mar. 9, 2006, 120 Stat. 241.)

Historical and Revision Notes

Based on title 18, U.S.C., 1940 ed., §§469–474 (June 11, 1940, ch. 326, §§1–3, 54 Stat. 306; Mar. 4, 1944, ch. 82, §§1–4, 58 Stat. 111; Apr. 10, 1944, ch. 162, 58 Stat. 188).

Sections consolidated and rewritten with changes of phraseology and substance.

In section 469 of title 18, U.S.C., 1940 ed., the element of intent not to pay for transportation was omitted as unnecessary since the payment of transportation will invariably remove the stowaway from the operation of the section by purchasing the master's “consent”.

In section 472 of title 18, U.S.C., 1940 ed., the enumerations of State, Territory, Possession, District of Columbia, and The Canal Zone, was omitted as adequately covered by “place within the jurisdiction of the United States.”

The punishment provision is the same as in sections 470, 472, and 473 of title 18, U.S.C., 1940 ed., but the fine is $500 more than the maximum fine provided by said section 469. There seemed no point, however, in preserving a differential in favor of the stowaway as against the aider and abettor of $500. The court can be trusted to exercise a wise discretion within the slightly larger limits provided by the revised section.

The provision for punishment of aiders and abettors in section 470 of title 18, U.S.C., 1940 ed., was omitted as unnecessary since they are punishable as principals by section 2 of this title.

Sections 471 and 474 of title 18, U.S.C., 1940 ed., were omitted as obviously unnecessary.

Amendments

2006—Pub. L. 109–177 added pars. (1) to (3) and struck out former fourth undesignated par. which read as follows: “Shall be fined under this title or imprisoned not more than one year, or both.”

1996—Pub. L. 104–294 substituted “fined under this title” for “fined not more than $1,000” in fourth undesignated par.