18 U.S.C.
United States Code, 2011 Edition
Title 18 - CRIMES AND CRIMINAL PROCEDURE
PART I - CRIMES
CHAPTER 25 - COUNTERFEITING AND FORGERY
From the U.S. Government Printing Office, www.gpo.gov

CHAPTER 25—COUNTERFEITING AND FORGERY

Sec.
470.
Counterfeit acts committed outside the United States.
471.
Obligations or securities of United States.
472.
Uttering counterfeit obligations or securities.
473.
Dealing in counterfeit obligations or securities.
474.
Plates, stones, or analog, digital, or electronic images for counterfeiting obligations or securities.
474A.
Deterrents to counterfeiting of obligations and securities.
475.
Imitating obligations or securities; advertisements.
476.
Taking impressions of tools used for obligations or securities.
477.
Possessing or selling impressions of tools used for obligations or securities.
478.
Foreign obligations or securities.
479.
Uttering counterfeit foreign obligations or securities.
480.
Possessing counterfeit foreign obligations or securities.
481.
Plates, stones, or analog, digital, or electronic images for counterfeiting foreign obligations or securities.
482.
Foreign bank notes.
483.
Uttering counterfeit foreign bank notes.
484.
Connecting parts of different notes.
485.
Coins or bars.
486.
Uttering coins of gold, silver or other metal.
487.
Making or possessing counterfeit dies for coins.
488.
Making or possessing counterfeit dies for foreign coins.
489.
Making or possessing likeness of coins.
490.
Minor coins.
491.
Tokens or paper used as money.
492.
Forfeiture of counterfeit paraphernalia.
493.
Bonds and obligations of certain lending agencies.
494.
Contractors’ bonds, bids, and public records.
495.
Contracts, deeds, and powers of attorney.
496.
Customs matters.
497.
Letters patent.
498.
Military or naval discharge certificates.
499.
Military, naval, or official passes.
500.
Money orders.
501.
Postage stamps, postage meter stamps, and postal cards.
502.
Postage and revenue stamps of foreign governments.
503.
Postmarking stamps.
504.
Printing and filming of United States and foreign obligations and securities.
505.
Seals of courts; signatures of judges or court officers.
506.
Seals of departments or agencies.
507.
Ship's papers.
508.
Transportation requests of Government.
509.
Possessing and making plates or stones for Government transportation requests.
510.
Forging endorsements on Treasury checks or bonds or securities of the United States.
511.
Altering or removing motor vehicle identification numbers.
511A.
Unauthorized application of theft prevention decal or device.
512.
Forfeiture of certain motor vehicles and motor vehicle parts.
513.
Securities of the States and private entities.
514.
Fictitious obligations.

        

Amendments

2001—Pub. L. 107–56, title III, §§374(e)(4), 375(d)(4), Oct. 26, 2001, 115 Stat. 340, 341, substituted “, stones, or analog, digital, or electronic images” for “or stones” in items 474 and 481.

1996—Pub. L. 104–208, div. A, title I, §101(f) [title VI, §648(b)(2)], title II, §2603(b)(2), Sept. 30, 1996, 110 Stat. 3009–314, 3009–368, 3009–470, amended analysis identically, adding item 514.

1994—Pub. L. 103–322, title XII, §120003(b)(1), title XXII, §220003(d)(2), title XXXIII, §330010(14), Sept. 13, 1994, 108 Stat. 2022, 2077, 2144, added item 470, struck out extraneous period after “money” in item 491, and added item 511A.

1992—Pub. L. 102–550, title XV, §1553(b), Oct. 28, 1992, 106 Stat. 4071, added item 474A.

1990—Pub. L. 101–647, title XXXV, §3513, Nov. 29, 1990, 104 Stat. 4922, substituted “or paper used as money.” for “used as money or similar to coins” in item 491, “matters” for “entry certificates” in item 496, and “stamps, postage meter stamps,” for “stamps” in item 501.

1986—Pub. L. 99–646, §31(b), Nov. 10, 1986, 100 Stat. 3598, redesignated second item 510, relating to securities of the State and private entities, as item 513 and substituted “States” for “State”.

1984—Pub. L. 98–547, title II, §201(b), Oct. 25, 1984, 98 Stat. 2770, added items 511 and 512.

Pub. L. 98–473, title II, §1105(b), Oct. 12, 1984, 98 Stat. 2145, added second item 510 “Securities of the State and private entities”.

1983—Pub. L. 98–151, §115(c), Nov. 14, 1983, 97 Stat. 977, added item 510, relating to forging endorsements.

1965—Pub. L. 89–81, title II, §211(b), July 23, 1965, 79 Stat. 257, struck out “Gold or silver” before “Coins or bars” in item 485.

1958—Pub. L. 85–921, §2, Sept. 2, 1958, 72 Stat. 1771, substituted “Printing and filming of United States and foreign obligations and securities” for “Printing stamps for philatelic purposes” in item 504.

1951—Act July 16, 1951, ch. 226, §5(c), 65 Stat. 122, struck out “; publisher's illustrations excepted” in item 489.

§470. Counterfeit acts committed outside the United States

A person who, outside the United States, engages in the act of—

(1) making, dealing, or possessing any counterfeit obligation or other security of the United States; or

(2) making, dealing, or possessing any plate, stone, analog, digital, or electronic image, or other thing, or any part thereof, used to counterfeit such obligation or security,


if such act would constitute a violation of section 471, 473, or 474 if committed within the United States, shall be punished as is provided for the like offense within the United States.

(Added Pub. L. 103–322, title XII, §120003(a), Sept. 13, 1994, 108 Stat. 2021; amended Pub. L. 107–56, title III, §374(a), Oct. 26, 2001, 115 Stat. 340.)

Amendments

2001—Pub. L. 107–56, §374(a)(2), in concluding provisions, substituted “shall be punished as is provided for the like offense within the United States” for “shall be fined under this title, imprisoned not more than 20 years, or both”.

Par. (2). Pub. L. 107–56, §374(a)(1), inserted “analog, digital, or electronic image,” after “plate, stone,”.

Short Title of 1992 Amendment

Pub. L. 102–550, title XV, §1551, Oct. 28, 1992, 106 Stat. 4070, provided that: “This subtitle [subtitle E (§§1551–1554) of title XV of Pub. L. 102–550, enacting section 474A of this title and amending sections 474 and 504 of this title] may be cited as the ‘Counterfeit Deterrence Act of 1992’.”

Combatting International Counterfeiting of United States Currency

Pub. L. 104–132, title VIII, §807, Apr. 24, 1996, 110 Stat. 1308, provided that:

“(a) In General.—The Secretary of the Treasury (hereafter in this section referred to as the ‘Secretary’), in consultation with the advanced counterfeit deterrence steering committee, shall—

“(1) study the use and holding of United States currency in foreign countries; and

“(2) develop useful estimates of the amount of counterfeit United States currency that circulates outside the United States each year.

“(b) Evaluation Audit Plan.—

“(1) In general.—The Secretary shall develop an effective international evaluation audit plan that is designed to enable the Secretary to carry out the duties described in subsection (a) on a regular and thorough basis.

“(2) Submission of detailed written summary.—The Secretary shall submit a detailed written summary of the evaluation audit plan developed pursuant to paragraph (1) to the Congress before the end of the 6-month period beginning on the date of the enactment of this Act [Apr. 24, 1996].

“(3) First evaluation audit under plan.—The Secretary shall begin the first evaluation audit pursuant to the evaluation audit plan no later than the end of the 1-year period beginning on the date of the enactment of this Act.

“(4) Subsequent evaluation audits.—At least 1 evaluation audit shall be performed pursuant to the evaluation audit plan during each 3-year period beginning after the date of the commencement of the evaluation audit referred to in paragraph (3).

“(c) Reports.—

“(1) In general.—The Secretary shall submit a written report to the Committee on Banking and Financial Services [now Committee on Financial Services] of the House of Representatives and the Committee on Banking, Housing, and Urban Affairs of the Senate on the results of each evaluation audit conducted pursuant to subsection (b) within 90 days after the completion of the evaluation audit.

“(2) Contents.—In addition to such other information as the Secretary may determine to be appropriate, each report submitted to the Congress pursuant to paragraph (1) shall include the following information:

“(A) A detailed description of the evaluation audit process and the methods used to develop estimates of the amount of counterfeit United States currency in circulation outside the United States.

“(B) The method used to determine the currency sample examined in connection with the evaluation audit and a statistical analysis of the sample examined.

“(C) A list of the regions of the world, types of financial institutions, and other entities included.

“(D) An estimate of the total amount of United States currency found in each region of the world.

“(E) The total amount of counterfeit United States currency and the total quantity of each counterfeit denomination found in each region of the world.

“(3) Classification of information.—

“(A) In general.—To the greatest extent possible, each report submitted to the Congress under this subsection shall be submitted in an unclassified form.

“(B) Classified and unclassified forms.—If, in the interest of submitting a complete report under this subsection, the Secretary determines that it is necessary to include classified information in the report, the report shall be submitted in a classified and an unclassified form.

“(d) Sunset Provision.—This section shall cease to be effective as of the end of the 10-year period beginning on the date of the enactment of this Act [Apr. 24, 1996].

“(e) Rule of Construction.—No provision of this section shall be construed as authorizing any entity to conduct investigations of counterfeit United States currency.

“(f) Findings.—The Congress hereby finds the following:

“(1) United States currency is being counterfeited outside the United States.

“(2) The One Hundred Third Congress enacted, with the approval of the President on September 13, 1994, section 470 of title 18, United States Code, making such activity a crime under the laws of the United States.

“(3) The expeditious posting of agents of the United States Secret Service to overseas posts, which is necessary for the effective enforcement of section 470 and related criminal provisions, has been delayed.

“(4) While section 470 of title 18, United States Code, provides for a maximum term of imprisonment of 20 years as opposed to a maximum term of 15 years for domestic counterfeiting, the United States Sentencing Commission has failed to provide, in its sentencing guidelines, for an appropriate enhancement of punishment for defendants convicted of counterfeiting United States currency outside the United States.

“(g) Timely Consideration of Requests for Concurrence in Creation of Overseas Posts.—

“(1) In general.—The Secretary of State shall—

“(A) consider in a timely manner the request by the Secretary of the Treasury for the placement of such number of agents of the United States Secret Service as the Secretary of the Treasury considers appropriate in posts in overseas embassies; and

“(B) reach an agreement with the Secretary of the Treasury on such posts as soon as possible and, in any event, not later than December 31, 1996.

“(2) Cooperation of treasury required.—The Secretary of the Treasury shall promptly provide any information requested by the Secretary of State in connection with such requests.

“(3) Reports required.—The Secretary of the Treasury and the Secretary of State shall each submit, by February 1, 1997, a written report to the Committee on Banking and Financial Services of the House of Representatives and the Committee on Banking, Housing, and Urban Affairs of the Senate explaining the reasons for the rejection, if any, of any proposed post and the reasons for the failure, if any, to fill any approved post by such date.

“(h) Enhanced Penalties for International Counterfeiting of United States Currency.—Pursuant to the authority of the United States Sentencing Commission under section 994 of title 28, United States Code, the Commission shall amend the sentencing guidelines prescribed by the Commission to provide an appropriate enhancement of the punishment for a defendant convicted under section 470 of title 18 of such Code.”

[For transfer of the functions, personnel, assets, and obligations of the United States Secret Service, including the functions of the Secretary of the Treasury relating thereto, to the Secretary of Homeland Security, and for treatment of related references, see sections 381, 551(d), 552(d), and 557 of Title 6, Domestic Security, and the Department of Homeland Security Reorganization Plan of November 25, 2002, as modified, set out as a note under section 542 of Title 6.]

§471. Obligations or securities of United States

Whoever, with intent to defraud, falsely makes, forges, counterfeits, or alters any obligation or other security of the United States, shall be fined under this title or imprisoned not more than 20 years, or both.

(June 25, 1948, ch. 645, 62 Stat. 705; Pub. L. 103–322, title XXXIII, §330016(1)(K), Sept. 13, 1994, 108 Stat. 2147; Pub. L. 107–56, title III, §374(b), Oct. 26, 2001, 115 Stat. 340.)

Historical and Revision Notes

Based on title 18, U.S.C., 1940 ed., §262 (Mar. 4, 1909, ch. 321, §148, 35 Stat. 1115).

Mandatory punishment provision was rephrased in the alternative.

Changes in phraseology were made.

Amendments

2001—Pub. L. 107–56 substituted “20 years” for “fifteen years”.

1994—Pub. L. 103–322 substituted “fined under this title” for “fined not more than $5,000”.

§472. Uttering counterfeit obligations or securities

Whoever, with intent to defraud, passes, utters, publishes, or sells, or attempts to pass, utter, publish, or sell, or with like intent brings into the United States or keeps in possession or conceals any falsely made, forged, counterfeited, or altered obligation or other security of the United States, shall be fined under this title or imprisoned not more than 20 years, or both.

(June 25, 1948, ch. 645, 62 Stat. 705; Pub. L. 103–322, title XXXIII, §330016(1)(K), Sept. 13, 1994, 108 Stat. 2147; Pub. L. 107–56, title III, §374(c), Oct. 26, 2001, 115 Stat. 340.)

Historical and Revision Notes

Based on title 18, U.S.C., 1940 ed., §265 (Mar. 4, 1909, ch. 321, §151, 35 Stat. 1116).

Mandatory punishment provision was rephrased in the alternative.

Changes in phraseology were made.

Amendments

2001—Pub. L. 107–56 substituted “20 years” for “fifteen years”.

1994—Pub. L. 103–322 substituted “fined under this title” for “fined not more than $5,000”.

§473. Dealing in counterfeit obligations or securities

Whoever buys, sells, exchanges, transfers, receives, or delivers any false, forged, counterfeited, or altered obligation or other security of the United States, with the intent that the same be passed, published, or used as true and genuine, shall be fined under this title or imprisoned not more than 20 years, or both.

(June 25, 1948, ch. 645, 62 Stat. 705; Pub. L. 103–322, title XXXIII, §330016(1)(K), Sept. 13, 1994, 108 Stat. 2147; Pub. L. 107–56, title III, §374(d), Oct. 26, 2001, 115 Stat. 340.)

Historical and Revision Notes

Based on title 18, U.S.C., 1940 ed., §268 (Mar. 4, 1909, ch. 321, §154, 35 Stat. 1117).

Reference to circulating notes of banking associations was omitted as covered by definition of obligation or other security in section 8 of this title.

Changes in phraseology were made.

Amendments

2001—Pub. L. 107–56 substituted “20 years” for “ten years”.

1994—Pub. L. 103–322 substituted “fined under this title” for “fined not more than $5,000”.

§474. Plates, stones, or analog, digital, or electronic images for counterfeiting obligations or securities

(a) Whoever, having control, custody, or possession of any plate, stone, or other thing, or any part thereof, from which has been printed, or which may be prepared by direction of the Secretary of the Treasury for the purpose of printing, any obligation or other security of the United States, uses such plate, stone, or other thing, or any part thereof, or knowingly suffers the same to be used for the purpose of printing any such or similar obligation or other security, or any part thereof, except as may be printed for the use of the United States by order of the proper officer thereof; or

Whoever makes or executes any plate, stone, or other thing in the likeness of any plate designated for the printing of such obligation or other security; or

Whoever, with intent to defraud, makes, executes, acquires, scans, captures, records, receives, transmits, reproduces, sells, or has in such person's control, custody, or possession, an analog, digital, or electronic image of any obligation or other security of the United States; or

Whoever sells any such plate, stone, or other thing, or brings into the United States any such plate, stone, or other thing, except under the direction of the Secretary of the Treasury or other proper officer, or with any other intent, in either case, than that such plate, stone, or other thing be used for the printing of the obligations or other securities of the United States; or

Whoever has in his control, custody, or possession any plate, stone, or other thing in any manner made after or in the similitude of any plate, stone, or other thing, from which any such obligation or other security has been printed, with intent to use such plate, stone, or other thing, or to suffer the same to be used in forging or counterfeiting any such obligation or other security, or any part thereof; or

Whoever has in his possession or custody, except under authority from the Secretary of the Treasury or other proper officer, any obligation or other security made or executed, in whole or in part, after the similitude of any obligation or other security issued under the authority of the United States, with intent to sell or otherwise use the same; or

Whoever prints, photographs, or in any other manner makes or executes any engraving, photograph, print, or impression in the likeness of any such obligation or other security, or any part thereof, or sells any such engraving, photograph, print, or impression, except to the United States, or brings into the United States, any such engraving, photograph, print, or impression, except by direction of some proper officer of the United States—

Is guilty of a class B felony.

(b) For purposes of this section, the term “analog, digital, or electronic image” includes any analog, digital, or electronic method used for the making, execution, acquisition, scanning, capturing, recording, retrieval, transmission, or reproduction of any obligation or security, unless such use is authorized by the Secretary of the Treasury. The Secretary shall establish a system (pursuant to section 504) to ensure that the legitimate use of such electronic methods and retention of such reproductions by businesses, hobbyists, press and others shall not be unduly restricted.

(June 25, 1948, ch. 645, 62 Stat. 706; Pub. L. 102–550, title XV, §1552, Oct. 28, 1992, 106 Stat. 4070; Pub. L. 104–208, div. A, title I, §101(f) [title VI, §648(a)], title II, §2603(a), Sept. 30, 1996, 110 Stat. 3009–314, 3009–367, 3009–470; Pub. L. 107–56, title III, §374(e)(1)–(3), Oct. 26, 2001, 115 Stat. 340.)

Historical and Revision Notes

Based on title 18, U.S.C., 1940 ed., §264 (Mar. 4, 1909, ch. 321, §150, 35 Stat. 1116).

References to persons causing, procuring, assisting or aiding were omitted as unnecessary as such persons are made principals by section 2 of this title.

Changes in phraseology were made.

Amendments

2001—Pub. L. 107–56, §374(e)(3), substituted “, stones, or analog, digital, or electronic images” for “or stones” in section catchline.

Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 107–56, §374(e)(1), inserted after second par. “Whoever, with intent to defraud, makes, executes, acquires, scans, captures, records, receives, transmits, reproduces, sells, or has in such person's control, custody, or possession, an analog, digital, or electronic image of any obligation or other security of the United States; or”.

Subsec. (b). Pub. L. 107–56, §374(e)(2), inserted first sentence and struck out former first sentence which read as follows: “For purposes of this section, the terms ‘plate’, ‘stone’, ‘thing’, or ‘other thing’ includes any electronic method used for the acquisition, recording, retrieval, transmission, or reproduction of any obligation or other security, unless such use is authorized by the Secretary of the Treasury.”

1996—Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 104–208, §§101(f) [title VI, §648(a)] and 2603(a), amended subsec. (a) identically, substituting “class B felony” for “class C felony” in last par.

1992—Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 102–550, §1552(1)–(4), designated existing provisions as subsec. (a), in sixth undesignated par., substituted “United States—” for “United States; or” at end, struck out seventh undesignated par. which read as follows: “Whoever has or retains in his control or possession, after a distinctive paper has been adopted by the Secretary of the Treasury for the obligations and other securities of the United States, any similar paper adapted to the making of any such obligation or other security, except under the authority of the Secretary of the Treasury or some other proper officer of the United States—”, and amended last undesignated par. generally. Prior to amendment, last par. read as follows: “Shall be fined not more than $5,000 or imprisoned not more than fifteen years, or both.”

Subsec. (b). Pub. L. 102–550, §1552(5), added subsec. (b).

Effective Date of 1996 Amendment

Section 101(f) [title VI, §648(c)] of div. A of Pub. L. 104–208 provided that: “This section [enacting section 514 of this title and amending this section and section 474A of this title] and the amendments made by this section shall become effective on the date of enactment of this Act [Sept. 30, 1996] and shall remain in effect during each fiscal year following that date of enactment.”

§474A. Deterrents to counterfeiting of obligations and securities

(a) Whoever has in his control or possession, after a distinctive paper has been adopted by the Secretary of the Treasury for the obligations and other securities of the United States, any similar paper adapted to the making of any such obligation or other security, except under the authority of the Secretary of the Treasury, is guilty of a class B felony.

(b) Whoever has in his control or possession, after a distinctive counterfeit deterrent has been adopted by the Secretary of the Treasury for the obligations and other securities of the United States by publication in the Federal Register, any essentially identical feature or device adapted to the making of any such obligation or security, except under the authority of the Secretary of the Treasury, is guilty of a class B felony.

(c) As used in this section—

(1) the term “distinctive paper” includes any distinctive medium of which currency is made, whether of wood pulp, rag, plastic substrate, or other natural or artificial fibers or materials; and

(2) the term “distinctive counterfeit deterrent” includes any ink, watermark, seal, security thread, optically variable device, or other feature or device;

(A) in which the United States has an exclusive property interest; or

(B) which is not otherwise in commercial use or in the public domain and which the Secretary designates as being necessary in preventing the counterfeiting of obligations or other securities of the United States.

(Added Pub. L. 102–550, title XV, §1553(a), Oct. 28, 1992, 106 Stat. 4070; amended Pub. L. 104–208, div. A, title I, §101(f) [title VI, §648(a)], title II, §2603(a), Sept. 30, 1996, 110 Stat. 3009–314, 3009–367, 3009–470.)

Amendments

1996—Subsecs. (a), (b). Pub. L. 104–208, §§101(f) [title VI, §648(a)] and 2603(a), amended section identically, substituting “class B felony” for “class C felony”.

Effective Date of 1996 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 104–208 effective Sept. 30, 1996, and to remain in effect for each fiscal year following Sept. 30, 1996, see section 101(f) [title VI, §648(c)] of Pub. L. 104–208, set out as a note under section 474 of this title.

§475. Imitating obligations or securities; advertisements

Whoever designs, engraves, prints, makes, or executes, or utters, issues, distributes, circulates, or uses any business or professional card, notice, placard, circular, handbill, or advertisement in the likeness or similitude of any obligation or security of the United States issued under or authorized by any Act of Congress or writes, prints, or otherwise impresses upon or attaches to any such instrument, obligation, or security, or any coin of the United States, any business or professional card, notice, or advertisement, or any notice or advertisement whatever, shall be fined under this title. Nothing in this section applies to evidence of postage payment approved by the United States Postal Service.

(June 25, 1948, ch. 645, 62 Stat. 706; July 16, 1951, ch. 226, §2, 65 Stat. 122; Pub. L. 103–322, title XXXIII, §330016(1)(G), Sept. 13, 1994, 108 Stat. 2147; Pub. L. 109–162, title XI, §1192, Jan. 5, 2006, 119 Stat. 3129.)

Historical and Revision Notes

Based on title 18, U.S.C., 1940 ed., §292 (Mar. 4, 1909, ch. 321, §177, 35 Stat. 1122).

Enumeration of obligations of the United States was omitted in view of definition in section 8 of this title.

Changes in phraseology were also made.

Amendments

2006—Pub. L. 109–162 inserted at end “Nothing in this section applies to evidence of postage payment approved by the United States Postal Service.”

1994—Pub. L. 103–322 substituted “fined under this title” for “fined not more than $500”.

1951—Act July 16, 1951, prohibited use of notices or advertising prints or labels on United States coins.

§476. Taking impressions of tools used for obligations or securities

Whoever, without authority from the United States, takes, procures, or makes an impression, stamp, analog, digital, or electronic image, or imprint of, from or by the use of any tool, implement, instrument, or thing used or fitted or intended to be used in printing, stamping, or impressing, or in making other tools, implements, instruments, or things to be used or fitted or intended to be used in printing, stamping, or impressing any obligation or other security of the United States, shall be fined under this title or imprisoned not more than 25 years, or both.

(June 25, 1948, ch. 645, 62 Stat. 707; Pub. L. 103–322, title XXXIII, §330016(1)(K), Sept. 13, 1994, 108 Stat. 2147; Pub. L. 107–56, title III, §374(f), Oct. 26, 2001, 115 Stat. 341.)

Historical and Revision Notes

Based on title 18, U.S.C., 1940 ed., §266 (Mar. 4, 1909, ch. 321, §152, 35 Stat. 1117).

Enumeration of substances on which impressions could be made and enumeration of various kinds of tools to be used were omitted as unnecessary.

Reference to circulating note or evidence of debt was omitted in view of definition of obligations and securities in section 8 of this title.

Changes in phraseology were also made.

Amendments

2001—Pub. L. 107–56 inserted “analog, digital, or electronic image,” after “impression, stamp,” and substituted “25 years” for “ten years”.

1994—Pub. L. 103–322 substituted “fined under this title” for “fined not more than $5,000”.

§477. Possessing or selling impressions of tools used for obligations or securities

Whoever, with intent to defraud, possesses, keeps, safeguards, or controls, without authority from the United States, any imprint, stamp, analog, digital, or electronic image, or impression, taken or made upon any substance or material whatsoever, of any tool, implement, instrument or thing, used, fitted or intended to be used, for any of the purposes mentioned in section 476 of this title; or

Whoever, with intent to defraud, sells, gives, or delivers any such imprint, stamp, analog, digital, or electronic image, or impression to any other person—

Shall be fined under this title or imprisoned not more than 25 years, or both.

(June 25, 1948, ch. 645, 62 Stat. 707; Pub. L. 103–322, title XXXIII, §330016(1)(K), Sept. 13, 1994, 108 Stat. 2147; Pub. L. 107–56, title III, §374(g), Oct. 26, 2001, 115 Stat. 341.)

Historical and Revision Notes

Based on title 18, U.S.C., 1940 ed., §267 (Mar. 4, 1909, ch. 321, §153, 35 Stat. 1117).

Changes in phraseology were made.

Amendments

2001—Pub. L. 107–56 inserted “analog, digital, or electronic image,” after “imprint, stamp,” in first and second pars. and substituted “25 years” for “ten years” in third par.

1994—Pub. L. 103–322 substituted “fined under this title” for “fined not more than $5,000”.

§478. Foreign obligations or securities

Whoever, within the United States, with intent to defraud, falsely makes, alters, forges, or counterfeits any bond, certificate, obligation, or other security of any foreign government, purporting to be or in imitation of any such security issued under the authority of such foreign government, or any treasury note, bill, or promise to pay, lawfully issued by such foreign government and intended to circulate as money, shall be fined under this title or imprisoned not more than 20 years, or both.

(June 25, 1948, ch. 645, 62 Stat. 707; Pub. L. 103–322, title XXXIII, §330016(1)(K), Sept. 13, 1994, 108 Stat. 2147; Pub. L. 107–56, title III, §375(a), Oct. 26, 2001, 115 Stat. 341.)

Historical and Revision Notes

Based on title 18, U.S.C., 1940 ed., §270 (Mar. 4, 1909, ch. 321, §156, 35 Stat. 1117).

Reference to persons causing, procuring, aiding or assisting was omitted as unnecessary as such persons are made principals by section 2 of this title.

Mandatory punishment provision was rephrased in the alternative.

Changes were also made in phraseology.

Amendments

2001—Pub. L. 107–56 substituted “20 years” for “five years”.

1994—Pub. L. 103–322 substituted “fined under this title” for “fined not more than $5,000”.

§479. Uttering counterfeit foreign obligations or securities

Whoever, within the United States, knowingly and with intent to defraud, utters, passes, or puts off, in payment or negotiation, any false, forged, or counterfeited bond, certificate, obligation, security, treasury note, bill, or promise to pay, mentioned in section 478 of this title, whether or not the same was made, altered, forged, or counterfeited within the United States, shall be fined under this title or imprisoned not more than 20 years, or both.

(June 25, 1948, ch. 645, 62 Stat. 707; Pub. L. 103–322, title XXXIII, §330016(1)(J), Sept. 13, 1994, 108 Stat. 2147; Pub. L. 107–56, title III, §375(b), Oct. 26, 2001, 115 Stat. 341.)

Historical and Revision Notes

Based on title 18, U.S.C., 1940 ed., §271 (Mar. 4, 1909, ch. 321, §157, 35 Stat. 1118).

Mandatory punishment provision was rephrased in the alternative.

Changes were made in phraseology.

Amendments

2001—Pub. L. 107–56 substituted “20 years” for “three years”.

1994—Pub. L. 103–322 substituted “fined under this title” for “fined not more than $3,000”.

§480. Possessing counterfeit foreign obligations or securities

Whoever, within the United States, knowingly and with intent to defraud, possesses or delivers any false, forged, or counterfeit bond, certificate, obligation, security, treasury note, bill, promise to pay, bank note, or bill issued by a bank or corporation of any foreign country, shall be fined under this title or imprisoned not more than 20 years, or both.

(June 25, 1948, ch. 645, 62 Stat. 707; Pub. L. 103–322, title XXXIII, §330016(1)(H), Sept. 13, 1994, 108 Stat. 2147; Pub. L. 107–56, title III, §375(c), Oct. 26, 2001, 115 Stat. 341.)

Historical and Revision Notes

Based on title 18, U.S.C., 1940 ed., §274 (Mar. 4, 1909, ch. 321, §160, 35 Stat. 1118).

Mandatory punishment provision was rephrased in the alternative.

Changes were also made in phraseology.

Amendments

2001—Pub. L. 107–56 substituted “20 years” for “one year”.

1994—Pub. L. 103–322 substituted “fined under this title” for “fined not more than $1,000”.

§481. Plates, stones, or analog, digital, or electronic images for counterfeiting foreign obligations or securities

Whoever, within the United States except by lawful authority, controls, holds, or possesses any plate, stone, or other thing, or any part thereof, from which has been printed or may be printed any counterfeit note, bond, obligation, or other security, in whole or in part, of any foreign government, bank, or corporation, or uses such plate, stone, or other thing, or knowingly permits or suffers the same to be used in counterfeiting such foreign obligations, or any part thereof; or

Whoever, except by lawful authority, makes or engraves any plate, stone, or other thing in the likeness or similitude of any plate, stone, or other thing designated for the printing of the genuine issues of the obligations of any foreign government, bank, or corporation; or

Whoever, with intent to defraud, makes, executes, acquires, scans, captures, records, receives, transmits, reproduces, sells, or has in such person's control, custody, or possession, an analog, digital, or electronic image of any bond, certificate, obligation, or other security of any foreign government, or of any treasury note, bill, or promise to pay, lawfully issued by such foreign government and intended to circulate as money; or

Whoever, except by lawful authority, prints, photographs, or makes, executes, or sells any engraving, photograph, print, or impression in the likeness of any genuine note, bond, obligation, or other security, or any part thereof, of any foreign government, bank, or corporation; or

Whoever brings into the United States any counterfeit plate, stone, or other thing, engraving, photograph, print, or other impressions of the notes, bonds, obligations, or other securities of any foreign government, bank, or corporation—

Shall be fined under this title or imprisoned not more than 25 years, or both.

(June 25, 1948, ch. 645, 62 Stat. 708; Pub. L. 103–322, title XXXIII, §330016(1)(K), Sept. 13, 1994, 108 Stat. 2147; Pub. L. 107–56, title III, §375(d)(1)–(3), Oct. 26, 2001, 115 Stat. 341.)

Historical and Revision Notes

Based on title 18, U.S.C., 1940 ed., §275 (Mar. 4, 1909, ch. 321, §161, 35 Stat. 1118).

References to persons causing, procuring, assisting or aiding were omitted as unnecessary as such persons are made principals by section 2 of this title.

Changes in phraseology were made.

Amendments

2001—Pub. L. 107–56 substituted “, stones, or analog, digital, or electronic images” for “or stones” in section catchline and “25 years” for “five years” in last par. and inserted after second par. “Whoever, with intent to defraud, makes, executes, acquires, scans, captures, records, receives, transmits, reproduces, sells, or has in such person's control, custody, or possession, an analog, digital, or electronic image of any bond, certificate, obligation, or other security of any foreign government, or of any treasury note, bill, or promise to pay, lawfully issued by such foreign government and intended to circulate as money; or”.

1994—Pub. L. 103–322 substituted “fined under this title” for “fined not more than $5,000” in last par.

§482. Foreign bank notes

Whoever, within the United States, with intent to defraud, falsely makes, alters, forges, or counterfeits any bank note or bill issued by a bank or corporation of any foreign country, and intended by the law or usage of such foreign country to circulate as money, such bank or corporation being authorized by the laws of such country, shall be fined under this title or imprisoned not more than 20 years, or both.

(June 25, 1948, ch. 645, 62 Stat. 708; Pub. L. 103–322, title XXXIII, §330016(1)(I), Sept. 13, 1994, 108 Stat. 2147; Pub. L. 107–56, title III, §375(e), Oct. 26, 2001, 115 Stat. 342.)

Historical and Revision Notes

Based on title 18, U.S.C., 1940 ed., §272 (Mar. 4, 1909, ch. 321, §158, 35 Stat. 1118).

Reference to persons causing, procuring, aiding and assisting was omitted as unnecessary as such persons are made principals by section 2 of this title.

Mandatory punishment provision was rephrased in the alternative.

Changes were made in phraseology.

Amendments

2001—Pub. L. 107–56 inserted “20 years” for “two years”.

1994—Pub. L. 103–322 substituted “fined under this title” for “fined not more than $2,000”.

§483. Uttering counterfeit foreign bank notes

Whoever, within the United States, utters, passes, puts off, or tenders in payment, with intent to defraud, any such false, forged, altered, or counterfeited bank note or bill, mentioned in section 482 of this title, knowing the same to be so false, forged, altered, and counterfeited, whether or not the same was made, forged, altered, or counterfeited within the United States, shall be fined under this title or imprisoned not more than 20 years, or both.

(June 25, 1948, ch. 645, 62 Stat. 708; Pub. L. 103–322, title XXXIII, §330016(1)(H), Sept. 13, 1994, 108 Stat. 2147; Pub. L. 107–56, title III, §375(f), Oct. 26, 2001, 115 Stat. 342.)

Historical and Revision Notes

Based on title 18, U.S.C., 1940 ed., §273 (Mar. 4, 1909, ch. 321, §159, 35 Stat. 1118).

Mandatory punishment provision was rephrased in the alternative.

Changes were made in phraseology.

Amendments

2001—Pub. L. 107–56 substituted “20 years” for “one year”.

1994—Pub. L. 103–322 substituted “fined under this title” for “fined not more than $1,000”.

§484. Connecting parts of different notes

Whoever so places or connects together different parts of two or more notes, bills, or other genuine instruments issued under the authority of the United States, or by any foreign government, or corporation, as to produce one instrument, with intent to defraud, shall be guilty of forgery in the same manner as if the parts so put together were falsely made or forged, and shall be fined under this title or imprisoned not more than 10 years, or both.

(June 25, 1948, ch. 645, 62 Stat. 708; Pub. L. 103–322, title XXXIII, §330016(1)(H), Sept. 13, 1994, 108 Stat. 2147; Pub. L. 107–56, title III, §374(h), Oct. 26, 2001, 115 Stat. 341.)

Historical and Revision Notes

Based on title 18, U.S.C., 1940 ed., §276 (Mar. 4, 1909, ch. 321, §162, 35 Stat. 1119).

Minor changes in phraseology were made.

Amendments

2001—Pub. L. 107–56 substituted “10 years” for “five years”.

1994—Pub. L. 103–322 substituted “fined under this title” for “fined not more than $1,000”.

§485. Coins or bars

Whoever falsely makes, forges, or counterfeits any coin or bar in resemblance or similitude of any coin of a denomination higher than 5 cents or any gold or silver bar coined or stamped at any mint or assay office of the United States, or in resemblance or similitude of any foreign gold or silver coin current in the United States or in actual use and circulation as money within the United States; or

Whoever passes, utters, publishes, sells, possesses, or brings into the United States any false, forged, or counterfeit coin or bar, knowing the same to be false, forged, or counterfeit, with intent to defraud any body politic or corporate, or any person, or attempts the commission of any offense described in this paragraph—

Shall be fined under this title or imprisoned not more than fifteen years, or both.

(June 25, 1948, ch. 645, 62 Stat. 708; Pub. L. 89–81, title II, §211(a), July 23, 1965, 79 Stat. 257; Pub. L. 103–322, title XXXIII, §330016(1)(K), Sept. 13, 1994, 108 Stat. 2147.)

Historical and Revision Notes

Based on title 18, U.S.C., 1940 ed., §277 (Mar. 4, 1909, ch. 321, §163, 35 Stat. 1119).

Reference to persons causing, procuring, aiding or assisting was omitted as unnecessary as such persons are made principals by section 2 of this title.

Mandatory punishment provision was rephrased in the alternative.

The provision for imprisonment for 10 years was changed to 15 years to conform to sections 471 and 472 of this title.

Changes were made in phraseology.

Amendments

1994—Pub. L. 103–322 substituted “fined under this title” for “fined not more than $5,000”.

1965—Pub. L. 89–81 struck out “Gold or silver” before “Coins or bars” in section catchline, changed the description of the United States coins covered in first par. from gold or silver coins to any coin of a denomination higher than 5 cents, and made minor structural changes in second par.

§486. Uttering coins of gold, silver or other metal

Whoever, except as authorized by law, makes or utters or passes, or attempts to utter or pass, any coins of gold or silver or other metal, or alloys of metals, intended for use as current money, whether in the resemblance of coins of the United States or of foreign countries, or of original design, shall be fined under this title 1 or imprisoned not more than five years, or both.

(June 25, 1948, ch. 645, 62 Stat. 709; Pub. L. 103–322, title XXXIII, §330016(1)(I), Sept. 13, 1994, 108 Stat. 2147.)

Historical and Revision Notes

Based on title 18, U.S.C., 1940 ed., §281 (Mar. 4, 1909, ch. 321, §167, 35 Stat. 1120).

Reference to persons causing or procuring was omitted as unnecessary in view of definition of “principal” in section 2 of this title.

Changes were made in phraseology.

Amendments

1994—Pub. L. 103–322, which directed the amendment of this section by substituting “fined under this title” for “fined not more than $2,000”, was executed by making the substitution for “fined not more than $3,000”, to reflect the probable intent of Congress.

1 See 1994 Amendment note below.

§487. Making or possessing counterfeit dies for coins

Whoever, without lawful authority, makes any die, hub, or mold, or any part thereof, either of steel or plaster, or any other substance, in likeness or similitude, as to the design or the inscription thereon, of any die, hub, or mold designated for the coining or making of any of the genuine gold, silver, nickel, bronze, copper, or other coins coined at the mints of the United States; or

Whoever, without lawful authority, possesses any such die, hub, or mold, or any part thereof, or permits the same to be used for or in aid of the counterfeiting of any such coins of the United States—

Shall be fined under this title or imprisoned not more than fifteen years, or both.

(June 25, 1948, ch. 645, 62 Stat. 709; Pub. L. 103–322, title XXXIII, §330016(1)(K), Sept. 13, 1994, 108 Stat. 2147.)

Historical and Revision Notes

Based on title 18, U.S.C., 1940 ed., §283 (Mar. 4, 1909, ch. 321, §169, 35 Stat. 1120).

Reference to persons causing, procuring, aiding or assisting was omitted as unnecessary as such persons are made principals by section 2 of this title.

Mandatory punishment provision was rephrased in the alternative.

The provision for imprisonment for 10 years was changed to 15 years to conform to section 471 of this title.

Changes in phraseology were made.

Amendments

1994—Pub. L. 103–322 substituted “fined under this title” for “fined not more than $5,000”.

§488. Making or possessing counterfeit dies for foreign coins

Whoever, within the United States, without lawful authority, makes any die, hub, or mold, or any part thereof, either of steel or of plaster, or of any other substance, in the likeness or similitude, as to the design or the inscription thereon, of any die, hub, or mold designated for the coining of the genuine coin of any foreign government; or

Whoever, without lawful authority, possesses any such die, hub, or mold, or any part thereof, or conceals, or knowingly suffers the same to be used for the counterfeiting of any foreign coin—

Shall be fined under this title or imprisoned not more than five years, or both.

(June 25, 1948, ch. 645, 62 Stat. 709; Pub. L. 103–322, title XXXIII, §330016(1)(K), Sept. 13, 1994, 108 Stat. 2147.)

Historical and Revision Notes

Based on title 18, U.S.C., 1940 ed., §284 (Mar. 4, 1909, ch. 321, §170, 35 Stat. 1120).

Reference to persons causing, procuring, aiding or assisting was omitted as unnecessary as such persons are made principals by section 2 of this title.

Provision for $2,000 fine was increased to $5,000 to conform with section 481 of this title.

Changes in phraseology were made.

Amendments

1994—Pub. L. 103–322 substituted “fined under this title” for “fined not more than $5,000”.

§489. Making or possessing likeness of coins

Whoever, within the United States, makes or brings therein from any foreign country, or possesses with intent to sell, give away, or in any other manner uses the same, except under authority of the Secretary of the Treasury or other proper officer of the United States, any token, disk, or device in the likeness or similitude as to design, color, or the inscription thereon of any of the coins of the United States or of any foreign country issued as money, either under the authority of the United States or under the authority of any foreign government shall be fined under this title.

(June 25, 1948, ch. 645, 62 Stat. 709; July 16, 1951, ch. 226, §3, 65 Stat. 122; Pub. L. 103–322, title XXXIII, §330016(1)(B), Sept. 13, 1994, 108 Stat. 2146.)

Historical and Revision Notes

Based on title 18, U.S.C., 1940 ed., §285 (Mar. 4, 1909, ch. 321, §171, 35 Stat. 1121; Feb. 15, 1912, ch. 38, 37 Stat. 64).

Reference to persons causing or procuring was omitted as unnecessary in view of definition of “principal” in section 2 of this title.

Changes were made in phraseology.

Amendments

1994—Pub. L. 103–322 substituted “fined under this title” for “fined not more than $100”.

1951—Act July 16, 1951, struck out “publisher's illustrations excepted” in section catchline, struck out from text all language which could be interpreted to prohibit or restrict the making and printing of coin illustrations in magazines and other publications, and gave the Secretary of the Treasury the authority to make exceptions to the application of this section.

§490. Minor coins

Whoever falsely makes, forges, or counterfeits any coin in the resemblance or similitude of any of the one-cent and 5-cent coins minted at the mints of the United States; or

Whoever passes, utters, publishes, or sells, or brings into the United States, or possesses any such false, forged, or counterfeited coin, with intent to defraud any person, shall be fined under this title or imprisoned not more than three years, or both.

(June 25, 1948, ch. 645, 62 Stat. 709; Pub. L. 98–216, §3(b)(1), Feb. 14, 1984, 98 Stat. 6; Pub. L. 103–322, title XXXIII, §330016(1)(H), Sept. 13, 1994, 108 Stat. 2147.)

Historical and Revision Notes

Based on title 18, U.S.C., 1940 ed., §278 (Mar. 4, 1909, ch. 321, §164, 35 Stat. 1119).

Reference to persons causing, procuring, aiding or assisting was omitted as unnecessary as such persons are made principals by section 2 of this title.

Mandatory punishment provision was rephrased in the alternative.

Changes were made in phraseology.

Amendments

1994—Pub. L. 103–322 substituted “fined under this title” for “fined not more than $1,000”.

1984—Pub. L. 98–216 substituted “one-cent and 5-cent coins minted” for “minor coins coined”.

Effective Date of 1984 Amendment

Section 4(c) of Pub. L. 98–216 provided that: “The amendments made by sections 1(3), (4), and (7) and 3(b)(1) of this Act [amending this section and sections 3322, 3528, and 5132 of Title 31, Money and Finance] are effective as of September 13, 1982.”

§491. Tokens or paper used as money

(a) Whoever, being 18 years of age or over, not lawfully authorized, makes, issues, or passes any coin, card, token, or device in metal, or its compounds, intended to be used as money, or whoever, being 18 years of age or over, with intent to defraud, makes, utters, inserts, or uses any card, token, slug, disk, device, paper, or other thing similar in size and shape to any of the lawful coins or other currency of the United States or any coin or other currency not legal tender in the United States, to procure anything of value, or the use or enjoyment of any property or service from any automatic merchandise vending machine, postage-stamp machine, turnstile, fare box, coinbox telephone, parking meter or other lawful receptacle, depository, or contrivance designed to receive or to be operated by lawful coins or other currency of the United States, shall be fined under this title, or imprisoned not more than one year, or both.

(b) Whoever manufactures, sells, offers, or advertises for sale, or exposes or keeps with intent to furnish or sell any token, slug, disk, device, paper, or other thing similar in size and shape to any of the lawful coins or other currency of the United States, or any token, disk, paper, or other device issued or authorized in connection with rationing or food and fiber distribution by any agency of the United States, with knowledge or reason to believe that such tokens, slugs, disks, devices, papers, or other things are intended to be used unlawfully or fraudulently to procure anything of value, or the use or enjoyment of any property or service from any automatic merchandise vending machine, postage-stamp machine, turnstile, fare box, coinbox telephone, parking meter, or other lawful receptacle, depository, or contrivance designed to receive or to be operated by lawful coins or other currency of the United States shall be fined under this title or imprisoned not more than one year, or both.

Nothing contained in this section shall create immunity from criminal prosecution under the laws of any State, Commonwealth of Puerto Rico, territory, possession, or the District of Columbia.

(c) “Knowledge or reason to believe”, within the meaning of paragraph (b) of this section, may be shown by proof that any law-enforcement officer has, prior to the commission of the offense with which the defendant is charged, informed the defendant that tokens, slugs, disks, or other devices of the kind manufactured, sold, offered, or advertised for sale by him or exposed or kept with intent to furnish or sell, are being used unlawfully or fraudulently to operate certain specified automatic merchandise vending machines, postage-stamp machines, turnstiles, fare boxes, coin-box telephones, parking meters, or other receptacles, depositories, or contrivances, designed to receive or to be operated by lawful coins of the United States.

(June 25, 1948, ch. 645, 62 Stat. 710; Pub. L. 87–667, Sept. 19, 1962, 76 Stat. 555; Pub. L. 103–322, title XXXIII, §330016(1)(H), Sept. 13, 1994, 108 Stat. 2147.)

Historical and Revision Notes

Based on title 18, U.S.C., 1940 ed., §§282, 282a (Mar. 4, 1909, ch. 321, §168, 35 Stat. 1120, and §168a as added Apr. 1, 1944, ch. 151, 58 Stat. 149).

Mandatory punishment provision in subsection (a) was rephrased in the alternative.

Sections were consolidated and changes were made in phraseology.

Reference to persons causing or procuring was omitted as unnecessary in view of definition of “principal” in section 2 of this title.

Punishment provision in paragraph (a) of 5 years was changed to 1 year to make the offense a misdemeanor as was done in paragraph (b) of this section, which represents the latest expression of the intention of Congress. See definition of felony and misdemeanor in section 1 of this title and note thereunder.

In paragraph (b) the $3,000 fine was reduced to $1,000 to conform to paragraph (a) and as more in keeping with the gravity of offense.

Amendments

1994—Subsecs. (a), (b). Pub. L. 103–322 substituted “fined under this title” for “fined not more than $1,000”.

1962—Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 87–667 inserted “being 18 years of age or over,” before “not lawfully authorized”, and “or whoever, being 18 years of age or over, with intent to defraud, makes, utters, inserts, or uses any card, token, slug, disk, device, paper, or other thing similar in size and shape to any of the lawful coins or other currency of the United States or any coin or other currency not legal tender in the United States, to procure anything of value, or the use or enjoyment of any property or service from any automatic merchandise vending machine, postage-stamp machine, turnstile, fare box, coinbox telephone, parking meter or other lawful receptacle, depository, or contrivance designed to receive or to be operated by lawful coins or other currency of the United States,” and deleted “for any 1-cent, 2-cent, 3-cent, or 5-cent piece, authorized by law, or for coins of equal value” after “intended to be used as money”.

Subsec. (b). Pub. L. 87–667 substituted “device, paper, or other thing similar” for “device similar”, “paper, or other device issued or authorized in connection with rationing or food and fiber distribution” for “or other device issued or authorized in connection with rationing”, and “devices, papers, or other things are intended to be used unlawfully” for “or other devices may be used unlawfully”, inserted “or other currency” before “of the United States” in two places, and “lawful” before “receptacle, depository”, and provided that nothing in this section shall create immunity from criminal prosecution under the laws of any State, Commonwealth of Puerto Rico, territory, possession, or the District of Columbia.

§492. Forfeiture of counterfeit paraphernalia

All counterfeits of any coins or obligations or other securities of the United States or of any foreign government, or any articles, devices, and other things made, possessed, or used in violation of this chapter or of sections 331–333, 335, 336, 642 or 1720, of this title, or any material or apparatus used or fitted or intended to be used, in the making of such counterfeits, articles, devices or things, found in the possession of any person without authority from the Secretary of the Treasury or other proper officer, shall be forfeited to the United States.

Whoever, having the custody or control of any such counterfeits, material, apparatus, articles, devices, or other things, fails or refuses to surrender possession thereof upon request by any authorized agent of the Treasury Department, or other proper officer, shall be fined under this title or imprisoned not more than one year, or both.

Whenever, except as hereinafter in this section provided, any person interested in any article, device, or other thing, or material or apparatus seized under this section files with the Secretary of the Treasury, before the disposition thereof, a petition for the remission or mitigation of such forfeiture, the Secretary of the Treasury, if he finds that such forfeiture was incurred without willful negligence or without any intention on the part of the petitioner to violate the law, or finds the existence of such mitigating circumstances as to justify the remission or the mitigation of such forfeiture, may remit or mitigate the same upon such terms and conditions as he deems reasonable and just.

If the seizure involves offenses other than offenses against the coinage, currency, obligations or securities of the United States or any foreign government, the petition for the remission or mitigation of forfeiture shall be referred to the Attorney General, who may remit or mitigate the forfeiture upon such terms as he deems reasonable and just.

(June 25, 1948, ch. 645, 62 Stat. 710; Pub. L. 107–273, div. B, title IV, §4002(d)(1)(A), Nov. 2, 2002, 116 Stat. 1809.)

Historical and Revision Notes

Based on title 18, U.S.C., 1940 ed., §286 (Mar. 4, 1909, ch. 321, §172, 35 Stat. 1121; Jan. 27, 1938, ch. 10, §4, 52 Stat. 7).

Section was materially shortened through merger of former third and fourth sentences with present first and second paragraphs by extending latter to include “articles, devices, and other things”. This necessitated many insertions and deletions in the first two paragraphs, which, however, did not affect the substance of the section.

A reference in the former third sentence to violations of certain sections was broadened to read “in violation of this chapter or of sections 331–333, 335–336, 642, 1720, of this title” and incorporated in the first paragraph. This translation extends for the first time the provisions of this section to subject matter of sections 493–496, 498, 499, 504–509 of this title. All of the sections covered by the original reference in this section are represented in the translation except section 261, now section 8 of this title, and section 287 of title 18, U.S.C., 1940 ed., which were omitted therefrom as unnecessary, since the former is definitive and the latter related to procedure only, and is superseded by rule 41(a), (b) of the Federal Rules of Criminal Procedure.

The revised section was so written as to limit the authority of the Secretary of the Treasury to forfeitures within the enforcement powers of the Treasury Department, which advises that it does not investigate counterfeiting offenses not involving coins, currency, or Government obligations and securities. The Attorney General is the appropriate officer to remit or mitigate other forfeitures.

Changes in phraseology were also made.

Amendments

2002—Pub. L. 107–273 substituted “under this title” for “not more than $100” in second par.

§493. Bonds and obligations of certain lending agencies

Whoever falsely makes, forges, counterfeits or alters any note, bond, debenture, coupon, obligation, instrument, or writing in imitation or purporting to be in imitation of, a note, bond, debenture, coupon, obligation, instrument or writing, issued by the Reconstruction Finance Corporation, Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation, National Credit Union Administration, Home Owners’ Loan Corporation, Farm Credit Administration, Department of Housing and Urban Development, or any land bank, intermediate credit bank, insured credit union, bank for cooperatives or any lending, mortgage, insurance, credit or savings and loan corporation or association authorized or acting under the laws of the United States, shall be fined under this title or imprisoned not more than 10 years, or both.

Whoever passes, utters, or publishes, or attempts to pass, utter or publish any note, bond, debenture, coupon, obligation, instrument or document knowing the same to have been falsely made, forged, counterfeited or altered, contrary to the provisions of this section, shall be fined under this title or imprisoned not more than 10 years, or both.

(June 25, 1948, ch. 645, 62 Stat. 711; Pub. L. 87–353, §3(p), Oct. 4, 1961, 75 Stat. 774; Pub. L. 90–19, §24(a), May 25, 1967, 81 Stat. 27; Pub. L. 91–468, §3, Oct. 19, 1970, 84 Stat. 1016; Pub. L. 103–322, title XXXIII, §330016(1)(L), Sept. 13, 1994, 108 Stat. 2147; Pub. L. 107–56, title III, §374(i), Oct. 26, 2001, 115 Stat. 341.)

Historical and Revision Notes

Based on sections 264(t), 982, 1126, 1138d(b), 1316, 1441(b), 1467(b), 1731(b) of title 12, U.S.C., 1940 ed., Banks and Banking, and section 616(b) of title 15, U.S.C. 1940 ed., Commerce and Trade (Dec. 23, 1913, ch. 6, §12B(t), as added June 16, 1933, ch. 89, §8, 48 Stat. 178, and amended Aug. 23, 1935, ch. 614, §101, 49 Stat. 684; July 17, 1916, ch. 245, §31 (second paragraph), 39 Stat. 383; July 17, 1916, ch. 245, §211(f), as added Mar. 4, 1923, ch. 252, title I, §2, 42 Stat. 1460; Mar. 4, 1923, ch. 252, title II, §216(f), 42 Stat. 1472; Jan. 22, 1932, ch. 8, §16(b), 47 Stat. 11; July 22, 1932, ch. 522, §21(b), 47 Stat. 738; June 13, 1933, ch. 64, §8(b), 48 Stat. 134; June 16, 1933, ch. 98, §64(b), 48 Stat. 268; June 27, 1934, ch. 847, §512(b), 48 Stat. 1265).

Each of the nine sections from which this section was derived contained similar provisions with respect to one or more named agencies or corporations. The punishment was the same in each section except that in sections 982, 1126, and 1316 of title 12, U.S.C., 1940 ed., Banks and Banking, the maximum fine was $5,000. This section adopts the $10,000 maximum fine provided in the other six former sections.

This section condenses and simplifies the form of the former sections without change of substance, except where the maximum fine differs as noted above.

The enumeration of “note, bond, debenture, coupon, obligation, instrument, or writing” does not occur in any one of the original sections but is an adequate enumeration of the instruments mentioned in each.

Certain specific agencies are enumerated by name as are “land bank, intermediate credit bank, bank for cooperatives,” but the phrase “or any lending, mortgage, insurance, credit, or savings and loan corporation or association” was used to embrace the following: National Farm Loan Association, Federal Savings and Loan Insurance Corporation, Federal Savings and Loan Associations, National Agricultural Credit Corporation, Production Credit Corporations, Production Credit Associations, Home Loan Banks, National Mortgage Associations, and Central Bank for Cooperatives, Regional Agricultural Credit Corporation, or any instrumentalities created for similar purposes.

Reference to persons causing, procuring, aiding or assisting was omitted as unnecessary, such persons being principals by section 2 of this title.

The section was written in two paragraphs; the first denouncing forgery, counterfeiting, and altering; the second, passing, uttering, and publishing. This arrangement, together with the simplified style of the rewritten section, will permit the repeal of similar provisions in at least nine complicated sections now in title 12, U.S.C., 1940 ed., Banks and Banking.

Section 1138d(f) of title 12, U.S.C., 1940 ed., Banks and Banking, was omitted from this revision and recommended for repeal. It provides as follows: “Whoever conspires with another to accomplish any of the acts made unlawful by the preceding provisions of this section shall, on conviction thereof, be subject to the same fine or imprisonment, or both, as is applicable in the case of conviction for doing such unlawful act.”

The only case construing such subsection (f) is United States v. Halbrook, D.C. Mo. 1941, 36 F. Supp. 345, in which the District Judge said by way of obiter dictum in a footnote that “Under this section no overt act need be shown as is true in the case of a prosecution under section 37 of the Criminal Code”, now section 371 of this title.

Indeed the indictment upon which Halbrook was acquitted was drawn under section 88 of title 18, U.S.C., 1940 ed., now section 371 of this title, which required allegation and proof of an overt act and provided punishment by fine of not more than $10,000, or imprisonment for not more than 2 years, or both. The second indictment charged only substantive violations and involved neither conspiracy section.

It will be noted that section 1138d(f) of title 12, U.S.C., 1940 ed., Banks and Banking, applies in terms only to the Farm Credit Administration, intermediate credit banks, Federal Farm Mortgage Corporation, and by reference to the banks for cooperatives, Production Credit Associations and Production Credit Corporations, and is not applicable to land banks, loan associations, Federal Housing Administration, Home Owners’ Loan Corporation, or other institutions.

It is also noted that in the only reported case involving this section, the United States attorney drew his conspiracy indictment not under section 1138d(f) of title 12, U.S.C., 1940 ed., Banks and Banking, but under section 88 of title 18, U.S.C., 1940 ed., which is now section 371 of this title, indicating considerable doubt as to the scope and effect of section 1138d(f) of said title 12, U.S.C., 1940 ed., Banks and Banking.

There is no sound reason for differentiating between types of credit, insurance, banking and lending agencies in the punishment of conspiracy or in the requirement as to proof of overt acts. Since conspiracies involving offenses equally serious such as obstruction of justice, bribery, embezzlements, counterfeiting and false statements and offenses against the Treasury of the United States as well as the Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation and the Home Owners’ Loan Corporation are punishable under the general conspiracy statute, the same rule should be applied to lesser agencies.

The blanket provision for punishment of “any person who willfully violates any other provision of this Act” was omitted as useless, in view of the specific provisions for penalties elsewhere in the Act.

Amendments

2001—Pub. L. 107–56 substituted “10 years” for “five years” in two places.

1994—Pub. L. 103–322 substituted “fined under this title” for “fined not more than $10,000” in two places.

1970—Pub. L. 91–468 inserted National Credit Union Administration and insured credit unions in enumeration of lending agencies.

1967—Pub. L. 90–19 substituted “Department of Housing and Urban Development” for “Federal Housing Administration”.

1961—Pub. L. 87–353 struck out reference to the Federal Farm Mortgage Corporation.

Exceptions From Transfer of Functions

Functions of corporations of Department of Agriculture, boards of directors and officers of such corporations; Advisory Board of Commodity Credit Corporation; and Farm Credit Administration or any agency, officer or entity of, under, or subject to supervision of said Administration excepted from functions of officers, agencies, and employees transferred to Secretary of Agriculture by Reorg. Plan No. 2 of 1953, §1, eff. June 4, 1953, 18 F.R. 3219, 67 Stat. 633, set out in the Appendix to Title 5, Government Organization and Employees.

Abolition of Reconstruction Finance Corporation

Section 6(a) of Reorg. Plan No. 1 of 1957, eff. June 30, 1957, 22 F.R. 4633, 71 Stat. 647, set out in the Appendix to Title 5, Government Organization and Employees, abolished the Reconstruction Finance Corporation.

Abolition of Home Owners’ Loan Corporation

For dissolution and abolition of Home Owners’ Loan Corporation, referred to in this section, by act June 30, 1953, ch. 170, §21, 67 Stat. 126, see note set out under section 1463 of Title 12, Banks and Banking.

Farm Credit Administration

Establishment of Farm Credit Administration as independent agency, and other changes in status, function, etc., see Ex. Ord. No. 6084 set out prec. section 2241 of Title 12, Banks and Banking. See also section 2001 et seq. of Title 12.

§494. Contractors’ bonds, bids, and public records

Whoever falsely makes, alters, forges, or counterfeits any bond, bid, proposal, contract, guarantee, security, official bond, public record, affidavit, or other writing for the purpose of defrauding the United States; or

Whoever utters or publishes as true or possesses with intent to utter or publish as true, any such false, forged, altered, or counterfeited writing, knowing the same to be false, forged, altered, or counterfeited; or

Whoever transmits to, or presents at any office or to any officer of the United States, any such false, forged, altered, or counterfeited writing, knowing the same to be false, forged, altered, or counterfeited—

Shall be fined under this title or imprisoned not more than ten years, or both.

(June 25, 1948, ch. 645, 62 Stat. 711; Pub. L. 103–322, title XXXIII, §330016(1)(H), Sept. 13, 1994, 108 Stat. 2147.)

Historical and Revision Notes

Based on title 18, U.S.C., 1940 ed., §72 (Mar. 4, 1909, ch. 321, §28, 35 Stat. 1094).

Reference to persons causing, procuring, aiding or assisting was omitted as unnecessary as such persons are made principals by section 2 of this title.

Changes were also made in phraseology.

Amendments

1994—Pub. L. 103–322 substituted “fined under this title” for “fined not more than $1,000”.

§495. Contracts, deeds, and powers of attorney

Whoever falsely makes, alters, forges, or counterfeits any deed, power of attorney, order, certificate, receipt, contract, or other writing, for the purpose of obtaining or receiving, or of enabling any other person, either directly or indirectly, to obtain or receive from the United States or any officers or agents thereof, any sum of money; or

Whoever utters or publishes as true any such false, forged, altered, or counterfeited writing, with intent to defraud the United States, knowing the same to be false, altered, forged, or counterfeited; or

Whoever transmits to, or presents at any office or officer of the United States, any such writing in support of, or in relation to, any account or claim, with intent to defraud the United States, knowing the same to be false, altered, forged, or counterfeited—

Shall be fined under this title or imprisoned not more than ten years, or both.

(June 25, 1948, ch. 645, 62 Stat. 711; Pub. L. 103–322, title XXXIII, §330016(1)(H), Sept. 13, 1994, 108 Stat. 2147.)

Historical and Revision Notes

Based on title 18, U.S.C., 1940 ed., §73 (Mar. 4, 1909, ch. 321, §29, 35 Stat. 1094).

Reference in first paragraph to persons causing, procuring, aiding or assisting was omitted as unnecessary as such persons are made principals by section 2 of this title.

Mandatory punishment provision was rephrased in the alternative.

Changes were made in phraseology.

Amendments

1994—Pub. L. 103–322 substituted “fined under this title” for “fined not more than $1,000”.

§496. Customs matters

Whoever forges, counterfeits or falsely alters any writing made or required to be made in connection with the entry or withdrawal of imports or collection of customs duties, or uses any such writing knowing the same to be forged, counterfeited or falsely altered, shall be fined under this title or imprisoned not more than three years, or both.

(June 25, 1948, ch. 645, 62 Stat. 711; Pub. L. 103–322, title XXXIII, §330016(1)(L), Sept. 13, 1994, 108 Stat. 2147.)

Historical and Revision Notes

Based on title 18, U.S.C., 1940 ed., §119 (Mar. 4, 1909, ch. 321, §63, 35 Stat. 1100).

Section was rewritten to apply to all customs documents or writings. The Treasury Department advises that certificates of entry are obsolete.

Mandatory punishment provision was rephrased in the alternative.

Changes were made in phraseology.

Amendments

1994—Pub. L. 103–322 substituted “fined under this title” for “fined not more than $10,000”.

§497. Letters patent

Whoever falsely makes, forges, counterfeits, or alters any letters patent granted or purporting to have been granted by the President of the United States; or

Whoever passes, utters, or publishes, or attempts to pass, utter, or publish as genuine, any such letters patent, knowing the same to be forged, counterfeited or falsely altered—

Shall be fined under this title or imprisoned not more than ten years, or both.

(June 25, 1948, ch. 645, 62 Stat. 712; Pub. L. 103–322, title XXXIII, §330016(1)(K), Sept. 13, 1994, 108 Stat. 2147.)

Historical and Revision Notes

Based on title 18, U.S.C., 1940 ed., §71 (Mar. 4, 1909, ch. 321, §27, 35 Stat. 1094).

Mandatory punishment provision was rephrased in the alternative.

Changes were made in phraseology.

Amendments

1994—Pub. L. 103–322 substituted “fined under this title” for “fined not more than $5,000”.

§498. Military or naval discharge certificates

Whoever forges, counterfeits, or falsely alters any certificate of discharge from the military or naval service of the United States, or uses, unlawfully possesses or exhibits any such certificate, knowing the same to be forged, counterfeited, or falsely altered, shall be fined under this title 1 or imprisoned not more than one year, or both.

(June 25, 1948, ch. 645, 62 Stat. 712; Pub. L. 103–322, title XXXIII, §330016(1)(K), Sept. 13, 1994, 108 Stat. 2147.)

Historical and Revision Notes

Based on title 18, U.S.C., 1940, ed., §136 (Mar. 4, 1917, ch. 180, 39 Stat. 1182).

Reference to any person causing, procuring, aiding or assisting was omitted as unnecessary as such persons are made principals by section 2 of this title.

At the end of this section words “in the discretion of the court” were omitted as unnecessary, as the punishment provisions, being framed in the alternative by the use of the disjunctive “or,” vest in the court the power to impose a fine or prison sentence in its discretion.

Changes in phraseology were made.

Amendments

1994—Pub. L. 103–322, which directed the amendment of this section by substituting “fined under this title” for “fined not more than $5,000”, was executed by making the substitution for “fined not more than $1,000”, to reflect the probable intent of Congress.

1 See 1994 Amendment note below.

§499. Military, naval, or official passes

Whoever falsely makes, forges, counterfeits, alters, or tampers with any naval, military, or official pass or permit, issued by or under the authority of the United States, or with intent to defraud uses or possesses any such pass or permit, or personates or falsely represents himself to be or not to be a person to whom such pass or permit has been duly issued, or willfully allows any other person to have or use any such pass or permit, issued for his use alone, shall be fined under this title or imprisoned not more than five years, or both.

(June 25, 1948, ch. 645, 62 Stat. 712; Pub. L. 103–322, title XXXIII, §330016(1)(I), Sept. 13, 1994, 108 Stat. 2147.)

Historical and Revision Notes

Based on title 18, U.S.C., 1940 ed., §132 (June 15, 1917, ch. 30, title X, §3, 40 Stat. 228).

Changes were made in phraseology.

Amendments

1994—Pub. L. 103–322 substituted “fined under this title” for “fined not more than $2,000”.

§500. Money orders

Whoever, with intent to defraud, falsely makes, forges, counterfeits, engraves, or prints any order in imitation of or purporting to be a blank money order or a money order issued by or under the direction of the Post Office Department or Postal Service; or

Whoever forges or counterfeits the signature or initials of any person authorized to issue money orders upon or to any money order, postal note, or blank therefor provided or issued by or under the direction of the Post Office Department or Postal Service, or post office department or corporation of any foreign country, and payable in the United States, or any material signature or indorsement thereon, or any material signature to any receipt or certificate of identification thereof; or

Whoever falsely alters, in any material respect, any such money order or postal note; or

Whoever, with intent to defraud, passes, utters or publishes or attempts to pass, utter or publish any such forged or altered money order or postal note, knowing any material initials, signature, stamp impression or indorsement thereon to be false, forged, or counterfeited, or any material alteration therein to have been falsely made; or

Whoever issues any money order or postal note without having previously received or paid the full amount of money payable therefor, with the purpose of fraudulently obtaining or receiving, or fraudulently enabling any other person, either directly or indirectly, to obtain or receive from the United States or Postal Service, or any officer, employee, or agent thereof, any sum of money whatever; or

Whoever embezzles, steals, or knowingly converts to his own use or to the use of another, or without authority converts or disposes of any blank money order form provided by or under the authority of the Post Office Department or Postal Service; or

Whoever receives or possesses any such money order form with the intent to convert it to his own use or gain or use or gain of another knowing it to have been embezzled, stolen or converted; or

Whoever, with intent to defraud the United States, the Postal Service, or any person, transmits, presents, or causes to be transmitted or presented, any money order or postal note knowing the same—

(1) to contain any forged or counterfeited signature, initials, or any stamped impression, or

(2) to contain any material alteration therein unlawfully made, or

(3) to have been unlawfully issued without previous payment of the amount required to be paid upon such issue, or

(4) to have been stamped without lawful authority; or


Whoever steals, or with intent to defraud or without being lawfully authorized by the Post Office Department or Postal Service, receives, possesses, disposes of or attempts to dispose of any postal money order machine or any stamp, tool, or instrument specifically designed to be used in preparing or filling out the blanks on postal money order forms—

Shall be fined under this title 1 or imprisoned not more than five years, or both.

(June 25, 1948, ch. 645, 62 Stat. 712; Pub. L. 91–375, §6(j)(5), Aug. 12, 1970, 84 Stat. 777; Pub. L. 92–430, Sept. 23, 1972, 86 Stat. 722; Pub. L. 103–322, title XXXIII, §330016(1)(L), Sept. 13, 1994, 108 Stat. 2147.)

Historical and Revision Notes

Based on title 18, U.S.C., 1940 ed., §347 (Mar. 4, 1909, ch. 321, §218, 35 Stat. 1131).

References to persons causing, procuring, aiding or assisting were omitted as unnecessary as such persons are made principals by section 2 of this title.

Changes were made in phraseology.

Amendments

1994—Pub. L. 103–322, which directed the amendment of this section by substituting “fined under this title” for “fined not more than $10,000”, was executed by making the substitution for “fined not more than $5,000” in last par., to reflect the probable intent of Congress.

1972—Pub. L. 92–430 substituted “a blank money order or a money order issued by or under the direction of” for “a money order issued by” and struck out “, or by any officer or employee thereof” in first par.; substituted “or initials of any person authorized to issue money orders” for “of any officer or employee of the Postal Service,” in second par.; inserted “or attempts to pass, utter or publish” before “any such forged” and substituted “material initials, signature, stamp impression” for “material signature” in fourth par.; inserted “or Postal Service” after “the United States” in fifth par.; inserted sixth and seventh pars.; inserted “, the Postal Service” after “the United States”, and substituted “presents, or causes to be transmitted or presented, any money order” for “or presents to any officer or employee, or at any office of the United States, any money order” and designated material after “knowing the same” as cls. (1) to (3) with minor changes and added cl. (4) in eighth par.; inserted ninth par., and enacted provisions of former seventh par. as tenth par.

1970—Pub. L. 91–375 inserted reference to Postal Service and substituted “officer or employee” for “postmaster or agent” in first par. and substituted “officer or employee of the Postal Service” for “postmaster, assistant postmaster, chief clerk, or clerk” and “Post Office Department or the Postal Service, or post office department or corporation of any foreign country” for “Post Office Department of the United States, or of any foreign country” in second par.

Change of Name

Post Office Department redesignated United States Postal Service pursuant to Pub. L. 91–375, §6(o), Aug. 12, 1970, 84 Stat. 733, set out as a note preceding section 101 of Title 39, Postal Service.

Effective Date of 1970 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 91–375 effective within 1 year after Aug. 12, 1970, on date established therefor by the Board of Governors of the United States Postal Service and published by it in the Federal Register, see section 15(a) of Pub. L. 91–375, set out as an Effective Date note preceding section 101 of Title 39, Postal Service.

1 See 1994 Amendment note below.

§501. Postage stamps, postage meter stamps, and postal cards

Whoever forges or counterfeits any postage stamp, postage meter stamp, or any stamp printed upon any stamped envelope, or postal card, or any die, plate, or engraving thereof; or

Whoever makes or prints, or knowingly uses or sells, or possesses with intent to use or sell, any such forged or counterfeited postage stamp, postage meter stamp, stamped envelope, postal card, die, plate, or engraving; or

Whoever makes, or knowingly uses or sells, or possesses with intent to use or sell, any paper bearing the watermark of any stamped envelope, or postal card, or any fraudulent imitation thereof; or

Whoever makes or prints, or authorizes to be made or printed, any postage stamp, postage meter stamp, stamped envelope, or postal card, of the kind authorized and provided by the Post Office Department or by the Postal Service, without the special authority and direction of the Department or Postal Service; or

Whoever after such postage stamp, postage meter stamp, stamped envelope, or postal card has been printed, with intent to defraud, delivers the same to any person not authorized by an instrument in writing, duly executed under the hand of the Postmaster General and the seal of the Post Office Department or the Postal Service, to receive it—

Shall be fined under this title or imprisoned not more than five years, or both.

(June 25, 1948, ch. 645, 62 Stat. 713; Pub. L. 91–375, §6(j)(6), Aug. 12, 1970, 84 Stat. 777; Pub. L. 91–448, §1(a), Oct. 14, 1970, 84 Stat. 920; Pub. L. 103–322, title XXXIII, §330016(1)(G), Sept. 13, 1994, 108 Stat. 2147.)

Historical and Revision Notes

Based on title 18, U.S.C., 1940 ed., §348 (Mar. 4, 1909, ch. 321, §219, 35 Stat. 1132).

Reference to persons causing or procuring was omitted as unnecessary in view of definition of “principal” in section 2 of this title.

Minor changes of phraseology were made.

Amendments

1994—Pub. L. 103–322 substituted “fined under this title” for “fined not more than $500” in last par.

1970—Pub. L. 91–448 inserted references to the Postal Service and to postage meter stamps. Pub. L. 91–448, §1(b), repealed section 6(j)(6) of the Postal Reorganization Act, Pub. L. 91–375, Aug. 12, 1970, 84 Stat. 719, by which the references to the Postal Service had been inserted earlier.

Pub. L. 91–375 inserted “or by the Postal Service,” after “Post Office Department,” and substituted “the Department or Postal Service” for “said department” in fourth par. and struck out the comma after “stamped envelope” and “to defraud” and inserted “or the Postal Service” after “Post Office Department” in fifth par.

Change of Name

Post Office Department redesignated United States Postal Service pursuant to Pub. L. 91–375, §6(o), Aug. 12, 1970, 84 Stat. 733, set out as a note preceding section 101 of Title 39, Postal Service.

Effective Date of 1970 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 91–375 effective within 1 year after Aug. 12, 1970, on date established therefor by Board of Governors of United States Postal Service and published by it in Federal Register, see section 15(a) of Pub. L. 91–375, set out as an Effective Date note preceding section 101 of Title 39, Postal Service.

§502. Postage and revenue stamps of foreign governments

Whoever forges, or counterfeits, or knowingly utters or uses any forged or counterfeit postage stamp or revenue stamp of any foreign government, shall be fined under this title or imprisoned not more than five years, or both.

(June 25, 1948, ch. 645, 62 Stat. 713; Pub. L. 103–322, title XXXIII, §330016(1)(G), Sept. 13, 1994, 108 Stat. 2147.)

Historical and Revision Notes

Based on title 18, U.S.C., 1940 ed., §349 (Mar. 4, 1909, ch. 321, §220, 35 Stat. 1132; May 26, 1926, ch. 396, 44 Stat. 653).

A paragraph defining “foreign government” was combined with other like provisions to form section 11 of this title. A proviso against repeal, “Provided, however, That nothing in this section shall be held to repeal or modify section 350 of this title [now section 504 of this title]”, was deleted as unnecessary since that section by express reference to this one makes it clear that these sections are in pari materia.

Minor changes in phraseology were also made.

Amendments

1994—Pub. L. 103–322 substituted “fined under this title” for “fined not more than $500”.

§503. Postmarking stamps

Whoever forges or counterfeits any postmarking stamp, or impression thereof with intent to make it appear that such impression is a genuine postmark, or makes or knowingly uses or sells, or possesses with intent to use or sell, any forged or counterfeited postmarking stamp, die, plate, or engraving, or such impression thereof, shall be fined under this title or imprisoned not more than five years, or both.

(June 25, 1948, ch. 645, 62 Stat. 713; Pub. L. 103–322, title XXXIII, §330016(1)(H), Sept. 13, 1994, 108 Stat. 2147.)

Historical and Revision Notes

Based on title 18, U.S.C., 1940 ed., §349a (Aug. 26, 1935, ch. 692, 49 Stat. 866).

Minor changes in phraseology were made.

Amendments

1994—Pub. L. 103–322 substituted “fined under this title” for “fined not more than $1,000”.

§504. Printing and filming of United States and foreign obligations and securities

Notwithstanding any other provision of this chapter, the following are permitted:

(1) The printing, publishing, or importation, or the making or importation of the necessary plates for such printing or publishing, of illustrations of—

(A) postage stamps of the United States,

(B) revenue stamps of the United States,

(C) any other obligation or other security of the United States, and

(D) postage stamps, revenue stamps, notes, bonds, and any other obligation or other security of any foreign government, bank, or corporation.


Illustrations permitted by the foregoing provisions of this section shall be made in accordance with the following conditions—

(i) all illustrations shall be in black and white, except that illustrations of postage stamps issued by the United States or by any foreign government and stamps issued under the Migratory Bird Hunting Stamp Act of 1934 may be in color;

(ii) all illustrations (including illustrations of uncanceled postage stamps in color and illustrations of stamps issued under the Migratory Bird Hunting Stamp Act of 1934 in color) shall be of a size less than three-fourths or more than one and one-half, in linear dimension, of each part of any matter so illustrated which is covered by subparagraph (A), (B), (C), or (D) of this paragraph, except that black and white illustrations of postage and revenue stamps issued by the United States or by any foreign government and colored illustrations of canceled postage stamps issued by the United States may be in the exact linear dimension in which the stamps were issued; and

(iii) the negatives and plates used in making the illustrations shall be destroyed after their final use in accordance with this section.


The Secretary of the Treasury shall prescribe regulations to permit color illustrations of such currency of the United States as the Secretary determines may be appropriate for such purposes.

(2) The provisions of this section shall not permit the reproduction of illustrations of obligations or other securities, by or through electronic methods used for the acquisition, recording, retrieval, transmission, or reproduction of any obligation or other security, unless such use is authorized by the Secretary of the Treasury. The Secretary shall establish a system to ensure that the legitimate use of such electronic methods and retention of such reproductions by businesses, hobbyists, press or others shall not be unduly restricted.

(3) The making or importation of motion-picture films, microfilms, or slides, for projection upon a screen or for use in telecasting, of postage and revenue stamps and other obligations and securities of the United States, and postage and revenue stamps, notes, bonds, and other obligations or securities of any foreign government, bank, or corporation. No prints or other reproductions shall be made from such films or slides, except for the purposes of paragraph (1), without the permission of the Secretary of the Treasury.


For the purposes of this section the term “postage stamp” includes postage meter stamps.

(June 25, 1948, ch. 645, 62 Stat. 713; Pub. L. 85–921, §1, Sept. 2, 1958, 72 Stat. 1771; Pub. L. 90–353, §1, June 20, 1968, 82 Stat. 240; Pub. L. 91–448, §2, Oct. 14, 1970, 84 Stat. 921; Pub. L. 98–369, div. A, title X, §1077(b)(1), (2), July 18, 1984, 98 Stat. 1054; Pub. L. 102–550, title XV, §1554, Oct. 28, 1992, 106 Stat. 4071; Pub. L. 104–294, title VI, §601(e), (f)(3), Oct. 11, 1996, 110 Stat. 3499.)

Historical and Revision Notes

Based on title 18, U.S.C., 1940 ed., §350 (Mar. 3, 1923, ch. 218, 42 Stat. 1437; Jan. 27, 1938, ch. 10, §2, 52 Stat. 6).

Minor changes in phraseology were made.

References in Text

The Migratory Bird Hunting Stamp Act, referred to in par. (1)(i), (ii), subsequently renamed the Migratory Bird Hunting and Conservation Stamp Act, is act Mar. 16, 1934, ch. 71, 48 Stat. 451, as amended, which is classified generally to subchapter IV (§718 et seq.) of chapter 7 of Title 16, Conservation. For complete classification of this Act to the Code, see Short Title note set out under section 718 of Title 16 and Tables.

Amendments

1996—Par. (1). Pub. L. 104–294, §601(e)(1), substituted “The printing” for “the printing” in introductory provisions.

Par. (3). Pub. L. 104–294, §601(e)(2), (f)(3), substituted “The making or importation of” for “the making or importation, of”.

1992—Par. (1). Pub. L. 102–550, §1554(1), (2), in subpar. (D), substituted a period for the comma at end, in provisions following subpar. (D), struck out “for philatelic, numismatic, educational, historical, or newsworthy purposes in articles, books, journals, newspapers, or albums (but not for advertising purposes, except illustrations of stamps and paper money in philatelic or numismatic advertising of legitimate numismatists and dealers in stamps or publishers of or dealers in philatelic or numismatic articles, books, journals, newspapers, or albums).” before “Illustrations permitted”, and inserted at end “The Secretary of the Treasury shall prescribe regulations to permit color illustrations of such currency of the United States as the Secretary determines may be appropriate for such purposes.”

Par. (2). Pub. L. 102–550, §1554(3), added par. (2). Former par. (2) redesignated (3).

Par. (3). Pub. L. 102–550, §1554(3), (4), redesignated par. (2) as (3) and struck out “but not for advertising purposes except philatelic advertising,” after “or importation,”.

1984—Par. (1)(i). Pub. L. 98–369, §1077(b)(1), inserted “and stamps issued under the Migratory Bird Hunting Stamp Act of 1934”.

Par. (1)(ii). Pub. L. 98–369, §1077(b)(2), inserted “and illustrations of stamps issued under the Migratory Bird Hunting Stamp Act of 1934 in color”.

1970—Pub. L. 91–448 inserted provision including postage meter stamp within the meaning of postage stamp for the purposes of this section.

1968—Par. (1). Pub. L. 90–353 inserted provisions so as to permit colored illustrations of canceled United States postage stamps in the exact size of genuine stamps and colored illustrations of uncanceled United States and foreign stamps if the size of the illustrations is less than three-fourths or more than one and one-half times the size of the genuine stamps and permitted the use of colored illustrations of stamps in public documents relating to stamps printed by the Government Printing Office at the request of the Postmaster General.

1958—Pub. L. 85–921 permitted black and white illustrations of revenue stamps of the United States for philatelic and numismatic purposes, black and white illustrations of United States and foreign paper money and other obligations and securities for educational, historical, and newsworthy purposes, and permitted motion picture films, microfilms, and slides of United States and foreign postage and revenue stamps, paper money, and other obligations and securities, except films in connection with advertising.

Effective Date of 1984 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 98–369 effective July 18, 1984, see section 1077(c) of Pub. L. 98–369, set out as a note under section 718e of Title 16, Conservation.

§505. Seals of courts; signatures of judges or court officers

Whoever forges the signature of any judge, register, or other officer of any court of the United States, or of any Territory thereof, or forges or counterfeits the seal of any such court, or knowingly concurs in using any such forged or counterfeit signature or seal, for the purpose of authenticating any proceeding or document, or tenders in evidence any such proceeding or document with a false or counterfeit signature of any such judge, register, or other officer, or a false or counterfeit seal of the court, subscribed or attached thereto, knowing such signature or seal to be false or counterfeit, shall be fined under this title or imprisoned not more than five years, or both.

(June 25, 1948, ch. 645, 62 Stat. 714; Pub. L. 103–322, title XXXIII, §330016(1)(K), Sept. 13, 1994, 108 Stat. 2147.)

Historical and Revision Notes

Based on title 18, U.S.C., 1940 ed., §236 (Mar. 4, 1909, ch. 321, §130, 35 Stat. 1112).

Mandatory punishment provision was rephrased in the alternative.

Minor changes of phraseology were made.

Amendments

1994—Pub. L. 103–322 substituted “fined under this title” for “fined not more than $5,000”.

§506. Seals of departments or agencies

(a) Whoever—

(1) falsely makes, forges, counterfeits, mutilates, or alters the seal of any department or agency of the United States, or any facsimile thereof;

(2) knowingly uses, affixes, or impresses any such fraudulently made, forged, counterfeited, mutilated, or altered seal or facsimile thereof to or upon any certificate, instrument, commission, document, or paper of any description; or

(3) with fraudulent intent, possesses, sells, offers for sale, furnishes, offers to furnish, gives away, offers to give away, transports, offers to transport, imports, or offers to import any such seal or facsimile thereof, knowing the same to have been so falsely made, forged, counterfeited, mutilated, or altered,


shall be fined under this title, or imprisoned not more than 5 years, or both.

(b) Notwithstanding subsection (a) or any other provision of law, if a forged, counterfeited, mutilated, or altered seal of a department or agency of the United States, or any facsimile thereof, is—

(1) so forged, counterfeited, mutilated, or altered;

(2) used, affixed, or impressed to or upon any certificate, instrument, commission, document, or paper of any description; or

(3) with fraudulent intent, possessed, sold, offered for sale, furnished, offered to furnish, given away, offered to give away, transported, offered to transport, imported, or offered to import,


with the intent or effect of facilitating an alien's application for, or receipt of, a Federal benefit to which the alien is not entitled, the penalties which may be imposed for each offense under subsection (a) shall be two times the maximum fine, and 3 times the maximum term of imprisonment, or both, that would otherwise be imposed for an offense under subsection (a).

(c) For purposes of this section—

(1) the term “Federal benefit” means—

(A) the issuance of any grant, contract, loan, professional license, or commercial license provided by any agency of the United States or by appropriated funds of the United States; and

(B) any retirement, welfare, Social Security, health (including treatment of an emergency medical condition in accordance with section 1903(v) of the Social Security Act (19 1 U.S.C. 1396b(v))), disability, veterans, public housing, education, supplemental nutrition assistance program benefits,2 or unemployment benefit, or any similar benefit for which payments or assistance are provided by an agency of the United States or by appropriated funds of the United States; and


(2) each instance of forgery, counterfeiting, mutilation, or alteration shall constitute a separate offense under this section.

(June 25, 1948, ch. 645, 62 Stat. 714; Pub. L. 103–322, title XXXIII, §330016(1)(K), Sept. 13, 1994, 108 Stat. 2147; Pub. L. 104–208, div. C, title V, §561, Sept. 30, 1996, 110 Stat. 3009–681; Pub. L. 110–234, title IV, §4002(b)(1)(E), (2)(M), May 22, 2008, 122 Stat. 1096, 1097; Pub. L. 110–246, §4(a), title IV, §4002(b)(1)(E), (2)(M), June 18, 2008, 122 Stat. 1664, 1857, 1858.)

Historical and revision Notes

Based on title 18, U.S.C., 1940 ed., §131 (June 15, 1917, ch. 30, title X, §2, 40 Stat. 228).

Reference to persons causing, procuring, aiding or assisting was omitted as unnecessary as such persons are made principals by section 2 of this title.

In view of definitions of department and agency in section 6 of this title, words “department or agency” in first paragraph were substituted for “executive department, or any bureau, commission, or office”.

Provision for 10 years’ imprisonment was reduced to 5 years to conform to punishment provision in section 505 of this title, covering an offense of like gravity.

Minor changes in phraseology were also made.

Codification

Pub. L. 110–234 and Pub. L. 110–246 made identical amendments to this section. The amendments by Pub. L. 110–234 were repealed by section 4(a) of Pub. L. 110–246.

Amendments

2008—Subsec. (c)(1)(B). Pub. L. 110–246, §4002(b)(1)(E), (2)(M), substituted “supplemental nutrition assistance program benefits” for “food stamps”.

1996—Pub. L. 104–208 reenacted section catchline without change and amended text generally. Prior to amendment, text read as follows:

“Whoever falsely makes, forges, counterfeits, mutilates, or alters the seal of any department or agency of the United States; or

“Whoever knowingly uses, affixes, or impresses any such fraudulently made, forged, counterfeited, mutilated, or altered seal to or upon any certificate, instrument, commission, document, or paper, of any description; or

“Whoever, with fraudulent intent, possesses any such seal, knowing the same to have been so falsely made, forged, counterfeited, mutilated, or altered—

“Shall be fined under this title or imprisoned not more than five years, or both.”

1994—Pub. L. 103–322 substituted “fined under this title” for “fined not more than $5,000”.

Effective Date of 2008 Amendment

Amendment of this section and repeal of Pub. L. 110–234 by Pub. L. 110–246 effective May 22, 2008, the date of enactment of Pub. L. 110–234, except as otherwise provided, see section 4 of Pub. L. 110–246, set out as an Effective Date note under section 8701 of Title 7, Agriculture.

Amendment by section 4002(b)(1)(E), (2)(M) of Pub. L. 110–246 effective Oct. 1, 2008, see section 4407 of Pub. L. 110–246, set out as a note under section 1161 of Title 2, The Congress.

1 So in original. Probably should be “42”.

2 So in original. The word “benefits” probably should not appear.

§507. Ship's papers

Whoever falsely makes, forges, counterfeits, or alters any instrument in imitation of or purporting to be, an abstract or official copy or certificate of the documentation of any vessel, or a certificate of ownership, pass, or clearance, granted for any vessel, under the authority of the United States, or a permit, debenture, or other official document granted by any officer of the customs by virtue of his office; or

Whoever utters, publishes, or passes, or attempts to utter, publish, or pass, as true, any such false, forged, counterfeited, or falsely altered instrument, abstract, official copy, certificate, pass, clearance, permit, debenture, or other official document herein specified, knowing the same to be false, forged, counterfeited, or falsely altered, with an intent to defraud—

Shall be fined under this title or imprisoned not more than three years, or both.

(June 25, 1948, ch. 645, 62 Stat. 714; Pub. L. 103–322, title XXXIII, §330016(1)(H), Sept. 13, 1994, 108 Stat. 2147; Pub. L. 109–304, §17(d)(2), Oct. 6, 2006, 120 Stat. 1707.)

Historical and Revision Notes

Based on title 18, U.S.C., 1940 ed., §129 (Mar. 4, 1909, ch. 321, §72, 35 Stat. 1101).

The words “passport” and “sea letter” were omitted as obsolete, in view of the Presidential proclamation of April 10, 1815, discontinuing the use of such passports and sea letters.

Mandatory punishment provisions were rephrased in the alternative.

Minor changes of phraseology were made.

Amendments

2006—Pub. L. 109–304 in first par. substituted “documentation of any vessel” for “recording, registry, or enrollment of any vessel, in the office of any collector of the customs, or a license to any vessel for carrying on the coasting trade or fisheries of the United States” and struck out “collector or other” after “granted by any” and in second par. struck out “license,” after “certificate,”.

1994—Pub. L. 103–322 substituted “fined under this title” for “fined not more than $1,000”.

Transfer of Functions

All offices of collector of customs, comptroller of customs, surveyor of customs, and appraiser of merchandise in Bureau of Customs of Department of the Treasury to which appointments were required to be made by President with advice and consent of Senate ordered abolished, with such offices to be terminated not later than Dec. 31, 1966, by Reorg. Plan No. 1 of 1965, eff. May 25, 1965, 30 F.R. 7035, 79 Stat. 1317, set out in the Appendix to Title 5, Government Organization and Employees. All functions of offices eliminated were already vested in Secretary of the Treasury by Reorg. Plan No. 26 of 1950, eff. July 31, 1950, 15 F.R. 4935, 64 Stat. 1280, set out in the Appendix to Title 5.

§508. Transportation requests of Government

Whoever falsely makes, forges, or counterfeits in whole or in part, any form or request in similitude of the form or request provided by the Government for requesting a common carrier to furnish transportation on account of the United States or any department or agency thereof, or knowingly alters any form or request provided by the Government for requesting a common carrier to furnish transportation on account of the United States or any department or agency thereof; or

Whoever knowingly passes, utters, publishes, or sells, or attempts to pass, utter, publish, or sell, any such false, forged, counterfeited, or altered form or request—

Shall be fined under this title or imprisoned not more than ten years, or both.

(June 25, 1948, ch. 645, 62 Stat. 715; Pub. L. 103–322, title XXXIII, §330016(1)(K), Sept. 13, 1994, 108 Stat. 2147.)

Historical and Revision Notes

Based on title 18, U.S.C., 1940 ed., §146 (Dec. 11, 1926, ch. 2, §1, 44 Stat. 917).

References to persons causing, procuring, aiding or assisting were omitted as unnecessary as such persons are made principals by section 2 of this title.

Also, in first paragraph, word “agency” was substituted for “branch”, in view of definitions of department and agency in section 6 of this title.

Words “upon conviction” in last paragraph were omitted as surplusage since punishment cannot be imposed until a conviction is secured.

Minor changes of phraseology were also made.

Amendments

1994—Pub. L. 103–322 substituted “fined under this title” for “fined not more than $5,000”.

§509. Possessing and making plates or stones for Government transportation requests

Whoever, except by lawful authority, controls, holds or possesses any plate, stone, or other thing, or any part thereof, from which has been printed or may be printed any form or request for Government transportation, or uses such plate, stone, or other thing, or knowingly permits or suffers the same to be used in making any such form or request or any part of such a form or request; or

Whoever makes or engraves any plate, stone, or thing, in the likeness of any plate, stone, or thing designated for the printing of the genuine issues of the form or request for Government transportation; or

Whoever prints, photographs, or in any other manner makes, executes, or sells any engraving, photograph, print, or impression in the likeness of any genuine form or request for Government transportation, or any part thereof; or

Whoever brings into the United States or any place subject to the jurisdiction thereof, any plate, stone, or other thing, or engraving, photograph, print, or other impression of the form or request for Government transportation—

Shall be fined under this title or imprisoned not more than ten years, or both.

(June 25, 1948, ch. 645, 62 Stat. 715; Pub. L. 103–322, title XXXIII, §330016(1)(K), Sept. 13, 1994, 108 Stat. 2147.)

Historical and Revision Notes

Based on title 18, U.S.C., 1940 ed., §147 (Dec. 11, 1926, ch. 2, §2, 44 Stat. 918).

References to persons causing, procuring, aiding or assisting were omitted as unnecessary as such persons are made principals by section 2 of this title.

Words “upon conviction” in last paragraph were omitted as surplusage since punishment cannot be imposed until a conviction is secured.

Minor changes in phraseology were also made.

Amendments

1994—Pub. L. 103–322 substituted “fined under this title” for “fined not more than $5,000” in last par.

§510. Forging endorsements on Treasury checks or bonds or securities of the United States

(a) Whoever, with intent to defraud—

(1) falsely makes or forges any endorsement or signature on a Treasury check or bond or security of the United States; or

(2) passes, utters, or publishes, or attempts to pass, utter, or publish, any Treasury check or bond or security of the United States bearing a falsely made or forged endorsement or signature;


shall be fined under this title or imprisoned not more than ten years, or both.


(b) Whoever, with knowledge that such Treasury check or bond or security of the United States is stolen or bears a falsely made or forged endorsement or signature buys, sells, exchanges, receives, delivers, retains, or conceals any such Treasury check or bond or security of the United States shall be fined under this title or imprisoned not more than ten years, or both.

(c) If the face value of the Treasury check or bond or security of the United States or the aggregate face value, if more than one Treasury check or bond or security of the United States, does not exceed $1,000, in any of the above-mentioned offenses, the penalty shall be a fine under this title or imprisonment for not more than one year, or both.

(Added Pub. L. 98–151, §115(a), Nov. 14, 1983, 97 Stat. 976; amended Pub. L. 101–647, title XXXV, §3514, Nov. 29, 1990, 104 Stat. 4923; Pub. L. 103–322, title XXXIII, §330016(1)(H), (L), Sept. 13, 1994, 108 Stat. 2147; Pub. L. 104–294, title VI, §§602(e), 606(b), Oct. 11, 1996, 110 Stat. 3503, 3511; Pub. L. 107–273, div. B, title IV, §4002(a)(1), Nov. 2, 2002, 116 Stat. 1806.)

Amendments

2002—Subsec. (c). Pub. L. 107–273 substituted “fine under this title” for “fine of under this title”.

1996—Subsec. (b). Pub. L. 104–294, §602(e), struck out “that in fact is stolen or bears a forged or falsely made endorsement or signature” after “bond or security of the United States”.

Subsec. (c). Pub. L. 104–294, §606(b), substituted “$1,000” for “$500”.

1994—Subsecs. (a), (b). Pub. L. 103–322, §330016(1)(L), substituted “fined under this title” for “fined not more than $10,000”.

Subsec. (c). Pub. L. 103–322, §330016(1)(H), substituted “fined under this title” for “fined not more than $1,000”.

1990—Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 101–647 inserted semicolon after “or signature” in par. (2) and moved provisions beginning with “shall be fined” flush with left margin.

§511. Altering or removing motor vehicle identification numbers

(a) A person who—

(1) knowingly removes, obliterates, tampers with, or alters an identification number for a motor vehicle or motor vehicle part; or

(2) with intent to further the theft of a motor vehicle, knowingly removes, obliterates, tampers with, or alters a decal or device affixed to a motor vehicle pursuant to the Motor Vehicle Theft Prevention Act,


shall be fined under this title, imprisoned not more than 5 years, or both.

(b)(1) Subsection (a) of this section does not apply to a removal, obliteration, tampering, or alteration by a person specified in paragraph (2) of this subsection (unless such person knows that the vehicle or part involved is stolen).

(2) The persons referred to in paragraph (1) of this subsection are—

(A) a motor vehicle scrap processor or a motor vehicle demolisher who complies with applicable State law with respect to such vehicle or part;

(B) a person who repairs such vehicle or part, if the removal, obliteration, tampering, or alteration is reasonably necessary for the repair;

(C) a person who restores or replaces an identification number for such vehicle or part in accordance with applicable State law; and

(D) a person who removes, obliterates, tampers with, or alters a decal or device affixed to a motor vehicle pursuant to the Motor Vehicle Theft Prevention Act, if that person is the owner of the motor vehicle, or is authorized to remove, obliterate, tamper with or alter the decal or device by—

(i) the owner or his authorized agent;

(ii) applicable State or local law; or

(iii) regulations promulgated by the Attorney General to implement the Motor Vehicle Theft Prevention Act.


(c) As used in this section, the term—

(1) “identification number” means a number or symbol that is inscribed or affixed for purposes of identification under chapter 301 and part C of subtitle VI of title 49;

(2) “motor vehicle” has the meaning given that term in section 32101 of title 49;

(3) “motor vehicle demolisher” means a person, including any motor vehicle dismantler or motor vehicle recycler, who is engaged in the business of reducing motor vehicles or motor vehicle parts to metallic scrap that is unsuitable for use as either a motor vehicle or a motor vehicle part;

(4) “motor vehicle scrap processor” means a person—

(A) who is engaged in the business of purchasing motor vehicles or motor vehicle parts for reduction to metallic scrap for recycling;

(B) who, from a fixed location, uses machinery to process metallic scrap into prepared grades; and

(C) whose principal product is metallic scrap for recycling;


but such term does not include any activity of any such person relating to the recycling of a motor vehicle or a motor vehicle part as a used motor vehicle or a used motor vehicle part.


(d) For purposes of subsection (a) of this section, the term “tampers with” includes covering a program decal or device affixed to a motor vehicle pursuant to the Motor Vehicle Theft Prevention Act for the purpose of obstructing its visibility.

(Added Pub. L. 98–547, title II, §201(a), Oct. 25, 1984, 98 Stat. 2768; amended Pub. L. 103–272, §5(e)(3), July 5, 1994, 108 Stat. 1373; Pub. L. 103–322, title XXII, §220003(a)–(c), Sept. 13, 1994, 108 Stat. 2076, 2077; Pub. L. 104–294, title VI, §604(b)(8), Oct. 11, 1996, 110 Stat. 3507.)

References in Text

The Motor Vehicle Theft Prevention Act, referred to in subsecs. (a)(2), (b)(2)(D), and (d), is title XXII of Pub. L. 103–322, Sept. 13, 1994, 108 Stat. 2074, which enacted section 511A of this title and section 14171 of Title 42, The Public Health and Welfare, amended this section, and enacted provisions set out as a note under section 13701 of Title 42. For complete classification of this Act to the Code, see Short Title note set out under section 13701 of Title 42 and Tables.

Codification

Another section 511 was renumbered section 513 of this title.

Amendments

1996—Subsec. (b)(2)(D). Pub. L. 104–294 realigned margins.

1994—Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 103–322, §220003(a), amended subsec. (a) generally. Prior to amendment, subsec. (a) read as follows: “Whoever knowingly removes, obliterates, tampers with, or alters an identification number for a motor vehicle, or motor vehicle part, shall be fined not more than $10,000 or imprisoned not more than five years, or both.”

Subsec. (b)(2)(D). Pub. L. 103–322, §220003(b), added subpar. (D).

Subsec. (c)(1). Pub. L. 103–272, §5(e)(3)(A), substituted “chapter 301 and part C of subtitle VI of title 49” for “the National Traffic and Motor Vehicle Safety Act of 1966, or the Motor Vehicle Information and Cost Savings Act”.

Subsec. (c)(2). Pub. L. 103–272, §5(e)(3)(B), substituted “section 32101 of title 49” for “section 2 of the Motor Vehicle Information and Cost Savings Act”.

Subsec. (d). Pub. L. 103–322, §220003(c), added subsec. (d).

Effective Date of 1996 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 104–294 effective Sept. 13, 1994, see section 604(d) of Pub. L. 104–294, set out as a note under section 13 of this title.

§511A. Unauthorized application of theft prevention decal or device

(a) Whoever affixes to a motor vehicle a theft prevention decal or other device, or a replica thereof, unless authorized to do so pursuant to the Motor Vehicle Theft Prevention Act, shall be punished by a fine not to exceed $1,000.

(b) For purposes of this section, the term “theft prevention decal or device” means a decal or other device designed in accordance with a uniform design for such devices developed pursuant to the Motor Vehicle Theft Prevention Act.

(Added Pub. L. 103–322, title XXII, §220003(d)(1), Sept. 13, 1994, 108 Stat. 2077.)

References in Text

The Motor Vehicle Theft Prevention Act, referred to in text, is title XXII of Pub. L. 103–322, Sept. 13, 1994, 108 Stat. 2074, which enacted this section and section 14171 of Title 42, The Public Health and Welfare, amended section 511 of this title, and enacted provisions set out as a note under section 13701 of Title 42. For complete classification of this Act to the Code, see Short Title note set out under section 13701 of Title 42 and Tables.

§512. Forfeiture of certain motor vehicles and motor vehicle parts

(a) If an identification number for a motor vehicle or motor vehicle part is removed, obliterated, tampered with, or altered, such vehicle or part shall be subject to seizure and forfeiture to the United States unless—

(1) in the case of a motor vehicle part, such part is attached to a motor vehicle and the owner of such motor vehicle does not know that the identification number has been removed, obliterated, tampered with, or altered;

(2) such motor vehicle or part has a replacement identification number that—

(A) is authorized by the Secretary of Transportation under chapter 301 of title 49; or

(B) conforms to applicable State law;


(3) such removal, obliteration, tampering, or alteration is caused by collision or fire or is carried out as described in section 511(b) of this title; or

(4) such motor vehicle or part is in the possession or control of a motor vehicle scrap processor who does not know that such identification number was removed, obliterated, tampered with, or altered in any manner other than by collision or fire or as described in section 511(b) of this title.


(b) All provisions of law relating to—

(1) the seizure and condemnation of vessels, vehicles, merchandise, and baggage for violation of customs laws, and procedures for summary and judicial forfeiture applicable to such violations;

(2) the disposition of such vessels, vehicles, merchandise, and baggage or the proceeds from such disposition;

(3) the remission or mitigation of such forfeiture; and

(4) the compromise of claims and the award of compensation to informers with respect to such forfeiture;


shall apply to seizures and forfeitures under this section, to the extent that such provisions are not inconsistent with this section. The duties of the collector of customs or any other person with respect to seizure and forfeiture under such provisions shall be performed under this section by such persons as may be designated by the Attorney General.

(c) As used in this section, the terms “identification number”, “motor vehicle”, and “motor vehicle scrap processor” have the meanings given those terms in section 511 of this title.

(Added Pub. L. 98–547, title II, §201(a), Oct. 25, 1984, 98 Stat. 2769; amended Pub. L. 103–272, §5(e)(4), July 5, 1994, 108 Stat. 1373.)

Amendments

1994—Subsec. (a)(2)(A). Pub. L. 103–272 substituted “chapter 301 title 49” for “the National Traffic and Motor Vehicle Safety Act of 1966”.

§513. Securities of the States and private entities

(a) Whoever makes, utters or possesses a counterfeited security of a State or a political subdivision thereof or of an organization, or whoever makes, utters or possesses a forged security of a State or political subdivision thereof or of an organization, with intent to deceive another person, organization, or government shall be fined under this title 1 or imprisoned for not more than ten years, or both.

(b) Whoever makes, receives, possesses, sells or otherwise transfers an implement designed for or particularly suited for making a counterfeit or forged security with the intent that it be so used shall be punished by a fine under this title or by imprisonment for not more than ten years, or both.

(c) For purposes of this section—

(1) the term “counterfeited” means a document that purports to be genuine but is not, because it has been falsely made or manufactured in its entirety;

(2) the term “forged” means a document that purports to be genuine but is not because it has been falsely altered, completed, signed, or endorsed, or contains a false addition thereto or insertion therein, or is a combination of parts of two or more genuine documents;

(3) the term “security” means—

(A) a note, stock certificate, treasury stock certificate, bond, treasury bond, debenture, certificate of deposit, interest coupon, bill, check, draft, warrant, debit instrument as defined in section 916(c) 2 of the Electronic Fund Transfer Act, money order, traveler's check, letter of credit, warehouse receipt, negotiable bill of lading, evidence of indebtedness, certificate of interest in or participation in any profit-sharing agreement, collateral-trust certificate, pre-reorganization certificate of subscription, transferable share, investment contract, voting trust certificate, or certificate of interest in tangible or intangible property;

(B) an instrument evidencing ownership of goods, wares, or merchandise;

(C) any other written instrument commonly known as a security;

(D) a certificate of interest in, certificate of participation in, certificate for, receipt for, or warrant or option or other right to subscribe to or purchase, any of the foregoing; or

(E) a blank form of any of the foregoing;


(4) the term “organization” means a legal entity, other than a government, established or organized for any purpose, and includes a corporation, company, association, firm, partnership, joint stock company, foundation, institution, society, union, or any other association of persons which operates in or the activities of which affect interstate or foreign commerce; and

(5) the term “State” includes a State of the United States, the District of Columbia, Puerto Rico, Guam, the Virgin Islands, and any other territory or possession of the United States.

(Added Pub. L. 98–473, title II, §1105(a), Oct. 12, 1984, 98 Stat. 2144, §511; renumbered §513, Pub. L. 99–646, §31(a), Nov. 10, 1986, 100 Stat. 3598; amended Pub. L. 101–647, title XXXV, §3515, Nov. 29, 1990, 104 Stat. 4923; Pub. L. 103–322, title XXXIII, §§330008(1), 330016(2)(C), Sept. 13, 1994, 108 Stat. 2142, 2148.)

References in Text

Section 916 of the Electronic Fund Transfer Act, referred to in subsec. (c)(3)(A), was renumbered section 917 by Pub. L. 111–24, title IV, §401(1), May 22, 2009, 123 Stat. 1751, and is classified to section 1693n of Title 15, Commerce and Trade.

Amendments

1994—Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 103–322, §330016(2)(C), which directed the amendment of this section by substituting “under this title” for “of not more than $250,000”, was executed by making the substitution for “not more than $250,000”, to reflect the probable intent of Congress.

Subsec. (b). Pub. L. 103–322, §330016(2)(C), substituted “fine under this title” for “fine of not more than $250,000”.

Subsec. (c)(4). Pub. L. 103–322, §330008(1), substituted “association of persons” for “association or persons”.

1990—Subsec. (c)(3)(A). Pub. L. 101–647 struck out “(15 U.S.C. 1693(c))” after “Electronic Fund Transfer Act” and inserted comma after “profit-sharing agreement”.

1 See 1994 Amendment note below.

2 See References in Text note below.

§514. Fictitious obligations

(a) Whoever, with the intent to defraud—

(1) draws, prints, processes, produces, publishes, or otherwise makes, or attempts or causes the same, within the United States;

(2) passes, utters, presents, offers, brokers, issues, sells, or attempts or causes the same, or with like intent possesses, within the United States; or

(3) utilizes interstate or foreign commerce, including the use of the mails or wire, radio, or other electronic communication, to transmit, transport, ship, move, transfer, or attempts or causes the same, to, from, or through the United States,


any false or fictitious instrument, document, or other item appearing, representing, purporting, or contriving through scheme or artifice, to be an actual security or other financial instrument issued under the authority of the United States, a foreign government, a State or other political subdivision of the United States, or an organization, shall be guilty of a class B felony.

(b) For purposes of this section, any term used in this section that is defined in section 513(c) has the same meaning given such term in section 513(c).

(c) The United States Secret Service, in addition to any other agency having such authority, shall have authority to investigate offenses under this section.

(Added Pub. L. 104–208, div. A, title I, §101(f) [title VI, §648(b)(1)], title II, §2603(b)(1), Sept. 30, 1996, 110 Stat. 3009–314, 3009–367, 3009–470.)

Codification

Sections 101(f) [title VI, §648(b)(1)] and 2603(b)(1) of div. A of Pub. L. 104–208 added identical sections 514.

Effective Date

Section effective Sept. 30, 1996, and to remain in effect for each fiscal year following Sept. 30, 1996, see section 101(f) [title VI, §648(c)] of Pub. L. 104–208, set out as an Effective Date of 1996 Amendment note under section 474 of this title.

Transfer of Functions

For transfer of the functions, personnel, assets, and obligations of the United States Secret Service, including the functions of the Secretary of the Treasury relating thereto, to the Secretary of Homeland Security, and for treatment of related references, see sections 381, 551(d), 552(d), and 557 of Title 6, Domestic Security, and the Department of Homeland Security Reorganization Plan of November 25, 2002, as modified, set out as a note under section 542 of Title 6.