18 U.S.C.
United States Code, 2011 Edition
Title 18 - CRIMES AND CRIMINAL PROCEDURE
PART I - CRIMES
CHAPTER 3 - ANIMALS, BIRDS, FISH, AND PLANTS
From the U.S. Government Printing Office, www.gpo.gov

CHAPTER 3—ANIMALS, BIRDS, FISH, AND PLANTS

Sec.
41.
Hunting, fishing, trapping; disturbance or injury on wildlife refuges.
42.
Importation or shipment of injurious mammals, birds, fish (including mollusks and crustacea), amphibia, and reptiles; permits, specimens for museums; regulations.
43.
Force, violence, and threats involving animal enterprises.
[44, 45.
Repealed.]
46.
Transportation of water hyacinths.
47.
Use of aircraft or motor vehicles to hunt certain wild horses or burros; pollution of watering holes.
48.
Animal crush videos.
49.
Enforcement of animal fighting prohibitions.

        

Historical and Revision Notes

The criminal provisions of the Migratory Bird Treaty Act, sections 703–711 of title 16, U.S.C., 1940 ed., Conservation, and the Migratory Bird Conservation Act, sections 715–715r of title 16, U.S.C., 1940 ed., Conservation, were considered for inclusion in this chapter. Since these provisions, except parts of sections 704–707 of said title 16, are so inextricably interwoven with the Migratory Bird Acts, it was found advisable to exclude them.

Amendments

2010—Pub. L. 111–294, §3(b), Dec. 9, 2010, 124 Stat. 3179, substituted “Animal crush videos” for “Depiction of animal cruelty” in item 48.

2007—Pub. L. 110–22, §2(b), May 3, 2007, 121 Stat. 88, added item 49.

2006—Pub. L. 109–374, §2(b), Nov. 27, 2006, 120 Stat. 2655, substituted “Force, violence, and threats involving animal enterprises” for “Animal enterprise terrorism” in item 43.

1999—Pub. L. 106–152, §1(b), Dec. 9, 1999, 113 Stat. 1732, added item 48.

1992—Pub. L. 102–346, §2(b), Aug. 26, 1992, 106 Stat. 929, which directed the general amendment of item 43, was executed by adding item 43 to reflect the probable intent of Congress, because item 43 had been previously struck out by Pub. L. 101–647. See 1990 Amendment note below.

1990—Pub. L. 101–647, title XII, §1206(b), title XXXV, §3506, Nov. 29, 1990, 104 Stat. 4832, 4922, substituted “Importation or shipment of injurious mammals, birds, fish (including mollusks and crustacea), amphibia, and reptiles; permits, specimens for museums; regulations” for “Importation of injurious animals and birds; permits; specimens for museums” in item 42, struck out item 43 “Transportation or importation in violation of state, national, or foreign laws”, item 44 “Marking packages or containers”, and item 45 “Capturing or killing carrier pigeons”, and inserted “; pollution of watering holes” after “burros” in item 47.

1959—Pub. L. 86–234, §1(b), Sept. 8, 1959, 73 Stat. 470, added item 47.

1956—Act Aug. 1, 1956, ch. 825, §2(b), 70 Stat. 798, amended chapter heading to include reference to “Plants” and added item 46.

§41. Hunting, fishing, trapping; disturbance or injury on wildlife refuges

Whoever, except in compliance with rules and regulations promulgated by authority of law, hunts, traps, captures, willfully disturbs or kills any bird, fish, or wild animal of any kind whatever, or takes or destroys the eggs or nest of any such bird or fish, on any lands or waters which are set apart or reserved as sanctuaries, refuges or breeding grounds for such birds, fish, or animals under any law of the United States or willfully injures, molests, or destroys any property of the United States on any such lands or waters, shall be fined under this title or imprisoned not more than six months, or both.

(June 25, 1948, ch. 645, 62 Stat. 686; Pub. L. 103–322, title XXXIII, §330016(1)(G), Sept. 13, 1994, 108 Stat. 2147.)

Historical and Revision Notes

Based on title 18, U.S.C., 1940 ed., §145 and §§676, 682, 683, 685, 688, 689b, 692a, and 694a of title 16, U.S.C., 1940 ed., Conservation (Jan. 24, 1905, ch. 137, §2, 33 Stat. 614; June 29, 1906, ch. 3593, §2, 34 Stat. 607; Mar. 4, 1909, ch. 321, §84, 35 Stat. 1104; Aug. 11, 1916, ch. 313, 39 Stat. 476; June 5, 1920, ch. 247, §2, 41 Stat. 986; Apr. 15, 1924, ch. 108, 43 Stat. 98; Feb. 28, 1925, ch. 376, 43 Stat. 1091; July 3, 1926, ch. 744, §6, 44 Stat. 821; July 3, 1926, ch. 776, §3, 44 Stat. 889; June 28, 1930, ch. 709, §2, 46 Stat. 828; Mar. 10, 1934, ch. 54, §2, 48 Stat. 400; Reorg. Plan No. II, §4(f), 4 F.R. 2731, 53 Stat. 1433).

This revised section condenses, consolidates, and simplifies similar provisions of sections 676, 682, 683, 685, 688, 689b, 692a, and 694a of title 16, U.S.C., 1940 ed., with section 145 of title 18, U.S.C., 1940 ed., with such changes of phraseology as make clear the intent of Congress to protect all wildlife within Federal sanctuaries, refuges, fish hatcheries, and breeding grounds. Irrelevant provisions of such sections in title 16 are to be retained in that title.

Because of the general nature of this consolidated section, no specific reference is made to rules and regulations issued by the Secretary of the Interior or any other personage, but only to rules and regulations “promulgated by authority of law”.

The punishment provided by the sections consolidated varied from a fine not exceeding $100 or imprisonment not exceeding 6 months, or both, in section 694a of title 16, U.S.C., 1940 ed., to a fine not exceeding $1,000 or imprisonment not exceeding 1 year, or both, in sections 676, 685, and 688 of such title 16. The revised section adopts the punishment provisions of the other five sections.

The references to “misdemeanor” in sections 676, 685, 688, 689b, 692a, and 694a of title 16, U.S.C., 1940 ed., were omitted as unnecessary in view of definition of “misdemeanor” in section 1 of this title, and also to conform with policy followed by codifiers of the 1909 Criminal Code, as stated in Senate Report 10, part 1, pages 12, 13, 14, Sixtieth Congress, first session, to accompany S. 2982.

Words “upon conviction”, contained in sections 676, 685, 688, 689b, 692a, and 694a of title 16, U.S.C., 1940 ed., were omitted as surplusage, because punishment can be imposed only after conviction.

Words “in any United States court of competent jurisdiction”, in sections 676, 685, and 688 of title 16, U.S.C., 1940 ed., words “in any United States court”, in sections 689b, 692a, and 694a of such title 16, and words “in the discretion of the court”, in said sections 676, 685, 688, and 689b, were likewise omitted as surplusage.

Amendments

1994—Pub. L. 103–322 substituted “fined under this title” for “fined not more than $500”.

§42. Importation or shipment of injurious mammals, birds, fish (including mollusks and crustacea), amphibia, and reptiles; permits, specimens for museums; regulations

(a)(1) The importation into the United States, any territory of the United States, the District of Columbia, the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico, or any possession of the United States, or any shipment between the continental United States, the District of Columbia, Hawaii, the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico, or any possession of the United States, of the mongoose of the species Herpestes auropunctatus; of the species of so-called “flying foxes” or fruit bats of the genus Pteropus; of the zebra mussel of the species Dreissena polymorpha; of the bighead carp of the species Hypophthalmichthys nobilis; and such other species of wild mammals, wild birds, fish (including mollusks and crustacea), amphibians, reptiles, brown tree snakes, or the offspring or eggs of any of the foregoing which the Secretary of the Interior may prescribe by regulation to be injurious to human beings, to the interests of agriculture, horticulture, forestry, or to wildlife or the wildlife resources of the United States, is hereby prohibited. All such prohibited mammals, birds, fish (including mollusks and crustacea), amphibians, and reptiles, and the eggs or offspring therefrom, shall be promptly exported or destroyed at the expense of the importer or consignee. Nothing in this section shall be construed to repeal or modify any provision of the Public Health Service Act or Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act. Also, this section shall not authorize any action with respect to the importation of any plant pest as defined in the Federal Plant Pest Act,1 insofar as such importation is subject to regulation under that Act.

(2) As used in this subsection, the term “wild” relates to any creatures that, whether or not raised in captivity, normally are found in a wild state; and the terms “wildlife” and “wildlife resources” include those resources that comprise wild mammals, wild birds, fish (including mollusks and crustacea), and all other classes of wild creatures whatsoever, and all types of aquatic and land vegetation upon which such wildlife resources are dependent.

(3) Notwithstanding the foregoing, the Secretary of the Interior, when he finds that there has been a proper showing of responsibility and continued protection of the public interest and health, shall permit the importation for zoological, educational, medical, and scientific purposes of any mammals, birds, fish (including mollusks and crustacea), amphibia, and reptiles, or the offspring or eggs thereof, where such importation would be prohibited otherwise by or pursuant to this Act, and this Act shall not restrict importations by Federal agencies for their own use.

(4) Nothing in this subsection shall restrict the importation of dead natural-history specimens for museums or for scientific collections, or the importation of domesticated canaries, parrots (including all other species of psittacine birds), or such other cage birds as the Secretary of the Interior may designate.

(5) The Secretary of the Treasury and the Secretary of the Interior shall enforce the provisions of this subsection, including any regulations issued hereunder, and, if requested by the Secretary of the Interior, the Secretary of the Treasury may require the furnishing of an appropriate bond when desirable to insure compliance with such provisions.

(b) Whoever violates this section, or any regulation issued pursuant thereto, shall be fined under this title or imprisoned not more than six months, or both.

(c) The Secretary of the Interior within one hundred and eighty days of the enactment of the Lacey Act Amendments of 1981 shall prescribe such requirements and issue such permits as he may deem necessary for the transportation of wild animals and birds under humane and healthful conditions, and it shall be unlawful for any person, including any importer, knowingly to cause or permit any wild animal or bird to be transported to the United States, or any Territory or district thereof, under inhumane or unhealthful conditions or in violation of such requirements. In any criminal prosecution for violation of this subsection and in any administrative proceeding for the suspension of the issuance of further permits—

(1) the condition of any vessel or conveyance, or the enclosures in which wild animals or birds are confined therein, upon its arrival in the United States, or any Territory or district thereof, shall constitute relevant evidence in determining whether the provisions of this subsection have been violated; and

(2) the presence in such vessel or conveyance at such time of a substantial ratio of dead, crippled, diseased, or starving wild animals or birds shall be deemed prima facie evidence of the violation of the provisions of this subsection.

(June 25, 1948, ch. 645, 62 Stat. 687; May 24, 1949, ch. 139, §2, 63 Stat. 89; Pub. L. 86–702, §1, Sept. 2, 1960, 74 Stat. 753; Pub. L. 97–79, §9(d), Nov. 16, 1981, 95 Stat. 1079; Pub. L. 101–646, title I, §1208, Nov. 29, 1990, 104 Stat. 4772; Pub. L. 102–237, title X, §1013(e), Dec. 13, 1991, 105 Stat. 1901; Pub. L. 103–322, title XXXIII, §330016(1)(G), Sept. 13, 1994, 108 Stat. 2147; Pub. L. 104–332, §2(h)(1), Oct. 26, 1996, 110 Stat. 4091; Pub. L. 111–307, §2, Dec. 14, 2010, 124 Stat. 3282.)

Historical and Revision Notes

1948 Act

Based on title 18, U.S.C., 1940 ed., §§391, 394 (Mar. 4, 1909, ch. 321, §§241, 244, 35 Stat. 1137, 1138; June 15, 1935, ch. 261, title II, §201, 49 Stat. 381; Reorg. Plan No. II, §4(f), 4 F.R. 2731, 53 Stat. 1433).

This section consolidates the provisions of sections 391 and 394 of title 18, U.S.C., 1940 ed., as subsections (a) and (b), respectively.

In subsection (a) the words “Territory or District thereof” were omitted as unnecessary in view of the definition of the United States in section 5 of this title.

In subsection (b) the words “upon conviction thereof”, were omitted as surplusage because punishment can only be imposed after conviction.

The amount of the fine was reduced from $1,000 to $500, thus making the violation a petty offense as defined in section 1 of this title. (See also section 41 of this title which provides a similar punishment.)

Minor verbal changes were also made.

1949 Act

This section [section 2] incorporates in section 42 of title 18, U.S.C., with slight changes in phraseology, the provisions of act of June 29, 1948 (ch. 716, 62 Stat. 1096), which became law subsequent to the enactment of the revision of title 18.

References in Text

The Public Health Service Act, referred to in subsec. (a)(1), is act July 1, 1944, ch. 373, 58 Stat. 682, as amended, which is classified generally to chapter 6A (§201 et seq.) of Title 42, The Public Health and Welfare. For complete classification of this Act to the Code, see Short Title note set out under section 201 of Title 42 and Tables.

The Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act, referred to in subsec. (a)(1), is act June 25, 1938, ch. 675, 52 Stat. 1040, as amended, which is classified generally to chapter 9 (§301 et seq.) of Title 21, Foods and Drugs. For complete classification of this Act to the Code, see section 301 of Title 21 and Tables.

The Federal Plant Pest Act, referred to in subsec. (a)(1), is Pub. L. 85–36, title I, May 23, 1957, 71 Stat. 31, as amended, which was classified generally to chapter 7B (§150aa et seq.) of Title 7, Agriculture, prior to repeal by Pub. L. 106–224, title IV, §438(a)(2), June 20, 2000, 114 Stat. 454. For complete classification of this Act to the Code, see Tables.

This Act, referred to in subsec. (a)(3), probably refers to Pub. L. 86–702, which amended this section and section 43 of this title.

The enactment of the Lacey Act Amendments of 1981, referred to in subsec. (c), means the date of enactment of Pub. L. 97–79, which was approved Nov. 16, 1981.

Amendments

2010—Subsec. (a)(1). Pub. L. 111–307 inserted “of the bighead carp of the species Hypophthalmichthys nobilis;” after “Dreissena polymorpha;”.

1996—Subsec. (a)(1). Pub. L. 104–332 made technical amendment to Pub. L. 101–646, §1208. See 1990 Amendment note below.

1994—Subsec. (b). Pub. L. 103–322 substituted “fined under this title” for “fined not more than $500”.

1991—Subsec. (a)(1). Pub. L. 102–237 inserted “brown tree snakes,” after “reptiles,” in first sentence.

1990—Subsec. (a)(1). Pub. L. 101–646, as amended by Pub. L. 104–332, inserted “of the zebra mussel of the species Dreissena polymorpha;” after “Pteropus;”.

1981—Subsec. (c). Pub. L. 97–79 substituted “Secretary of the Interior within one hundred and eighty days of the enactment of the Lacey Act Amendments of 1981” for “Secretary of the Treasury”.

1960—Pub. L. 86–702 substituted “Importation or shipment of injurious mammals, birds, fish (including mollusks and crustacea), amphibia and reptiles; permits; specimens for museums; regulations” for “Importation of injurious animals and birds; permits; specimens for museums” in section catchline.

Subsec. (a)(1). Pub. L. 86–702 designated first sentence of subsec. (a) as par. (1), prohibited importation into the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico or any possession of the United States and shipments between the continental United States, the District of Columbia, Hawaii, the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico, or any possession of the United States, described the mongoose and flying foxes by their scientific names, extended the provisions prohibiting importation or shipment to include wild mammals, wild birds, fish (including mollusks and crustacea), amphibians, reptiles, or their eggs or offspring, empowered the Secretary to prohibit importation or shipment if injurious to human beings, forestry, or to wildlife or wildlife resources, required prompt exportation or destruction at the expense of the importer or consignee, provided that this section shall not be construed to repeal or modify any provision of the Public Health Service Act or Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act and that it shall not authorize any action with respect to the importation of plant pests, and deleted provisions which required destruction of prohibited birds and animals or their return at the expense of the owner, and which prohibited the importation of the English sparrow and the starling.

Subsec. (a)(2), (3). Pub. L. 86–702 added pars. (2) and (3).

Subsec. (a)(4). Pub. L. 86–702 designated second sentence of subsec. (a) as par. (4), limited importation of natural-history specimens to dead ones, and included all species of psittacine birds.

Subsec. (a)(5). Pub. L. 86–702 designated third sentence of subsec. (a) as par. (5), authorized enforcement by the Secretary of the Interior, and permitted the Secretary of the Treasury, if requested by the Secretary of the Interior, to require the furnishing of a bond.

Subsec. (b). Pub. L. 86–702 included violations of regulations.

1949—Subsec. (a). Act May 24, 1949, made section applicable to any Territory or district thereof as well as to the United States, and changed phraseology.

Subsec. (b). Act May 24, 1949, reenacted subsec. (b) without change.

Subsec. (c). Act May 24, 1949, added subsec. (c).

Invasive Species

For provisions relating to restrictions on the introduction of invasive species into natural ecosystems of the United States, see Ex. Ord. No. 13112, Feb. 3, 1999, 64 F.R. 6183, set out as a note under section 4321 of Title 42, The Public Health and Welfare.

1 See References in Text note below.

§43. Force, violence, and threats involving animal enterprises

(a) Offense.—Whoever travels in interstate or foreign commerce, or uses or causes to be used the mail or any facility of interstate or foreign commerce—

(1) for the purpose of damaging or interfering with the operations of an animal enterprise; and

(2) in connection with such purpose—

(A) intentionally damages or causes the loss of any real or personal property (including animals or records) used by an animal enterprise, or any real or personal property of a person or entity having a connection to, relationship with, or transactions with an animal enterprise;

(B) intentionally places a person in reasonable fear of the death of, or serious bodily injury to that person, a member of the immediate family (as defined in section 115) of that person, or a spouse or intimate partner of that person by a course of conduct involving threats, acts of vandalism, property damage, criminal trespass, harassment, or intimidation; or

(C) conspires or attempts to do so;


shall be punished as provided for in subsection (b).

(b) Penalties.—The punishment for a violation of section 1 (a) or an attempt or conspiracy to violate subsection (a) shall be—

(1) a fine under this title or imprisonment not 2 more than 1 year, or both, if the offense does not instill in another the reasonable fear of serious bodily injury or death and—

(A) the offense results in no economic damage or bodily injury; or

(B) the offense results in economic damage that does not exceed $10,000;


(2) a fine under this title or imprisonment for not more than 5 years, or both, if no bodily injury occurs and—

(A) the offense results in economic damage exceeding $10,000 but not exceeding $100,000; or

(B) the offense instills in another the reasonable fear of serious bodily injury or death;


(3) a fine under this title or imprisonment for not more than 10 years, or both, if—

(A) the offense results in economic damage exceeding $100,000; or

(B) the offense results in substantial bodily injury to another individual;


(4) a fine under this title or imprisonment for not more than 20 years, or both, if—

(A) the offense results in serious bodily injury to another individual; or

(B) the offense results in economic damage exceeding $1,000,000; and


(5) imprisonment for life or for any terms of years, a fine under this title, or both, if the offense results in death of another individual.


(c) Restitution.—An order of restitution under section 3663 or 3663A of this title with respect to a violation of this section may also include restitution—

(1) for the reasonable cost of repeating any experimentation that was interrupted or invalidated as a result of the offense;

(2) for the loss of food production or farm income reasonably attributable to the offense; and

(3) for any other economic damage, including any losses or costs caused by economic disruption, resulting from the offense.


(d) Definitions.—As used in this section—

(1) the term “animal enterprise” means—

(A) a commercial or academic enterprise that uses or sells animals or animal products for profit, food or fiber production, agriculture, education, research, or testing;

(B) a zoo, aquarium, animal shelter, pet store, breeder, furrier, circus, or rodeo, or other lawful competitive animal event; or

(C) any fair or similar event intended to advance agricultural arts and sciences;


(2) the term “course of conduct” means a pattern of conduct composed of 2 or more acts, evidencing a continuity of purpose;

(3) the term “economic damage”—

(A) means the replacement costs of lost or damaged property or records, the costs of repeating an interrupted or invalidated experiment, the loss of profits, or increased costs, including losses and increased costs resulting from threats, acts or vandalism, property damage, trespass, harassment, or intimidation taken against a person or entity on account of that person's or entity's connection to, relationship with, or transactions with the animal enterprise; but

(B) does not include any lawful economic disruption (including a lawful boycott) that results from lawful public, governmental, or business reaction to the disclosure of information about an animal enterprise;


(4) the term “serious bodily injury” means—

(A) injury posing a substantial risk of death;

(B) extreme physical pain;

(C) protracted and obvious disfigurement; or

(D) protracted loss or impairment of the function of a bodily member, organ, or mental faculty; and


(5) the term “substantial bodily injury” means—

(A) deep cuts and serious burns or abrasions;

(B) short-term or nonobvious disfigurement;

(C) fractured or dislocated bones, or torn members of the body;

(D) significant physical pain;

(E) illness;

(F) short-term loss or impairment of the function of a bodily member, organ, or mental faculty; or

(G) any other significant injury to the body.


(e) Rules of Construction.—Nothing in this section shall be construed—

(1) to prohibit any expressive conduct (including peaceful picketing or other peaceful demonstration) protected from legal prohibition by the First Amendment to the Constitution;

(2) to create new remedies for interference with activities protected by the free speech or free exercise clauses of the First Amendment to the Constitution, regardless of the point of view expressed, or to limit any existing legal remedies for such interference; or

(3) to provide exclusive criminal penalties or civil remedies with respect to the conduct prohibited by this action, or to preempt State or local laws that may provide such penalties or remedies.

(Added Pub. L. 102–346, §2(a), Aug. 26, 1992, 106 Stat. 928; amended Pub. L. 104–294, title VI, §601(r)(3), Oct. 11, 1996, 110 Stat. 3502; Pub. L. 107–188, title III, §336, June 12, 2002, 116 Stat. 681; Pub. L. 109–374, §2(a), Nov. 27, 2006, 120 Stat. 2652.)

Prior Provisions

A prior section 43, acts June 25, 1948, ch. 645, 62 Stat. 687; Sept. 2, 1960, Pub. L. 86–702, §2, 74 Stat. 754; Dec. 5, 1969, Pub. L. 91–135, §7(a), 83 Stat. 279, related to transportation of wildlife taken in violation of State, national, or foreign law, the receipt of such wildlife, and the making of false records in relation thereto, prior to repeal by Pub. L. 97–79, §9(b)(2), Nov. 16, 1981, 95 Stat. 1079. See section 3372(a) of Title 16, Conservation.

Amendments

2006—Pub. L. 109–374 amended section catchline and text generally, substituting provisions relating to force, violence, and threats involving animal enterprises for provisions relating to animal enterprise terrorism.

2002—Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 107–188, §336(a), amended heading and text of subsec. (a) generally, deleting par. (2) reference to intentionally stealing and to requirement that economic damage exceed $10,000, and in concluding provisions substituting reference to punishment under subsec. (b) for reference to fine or imprisonment of not more than one year.

Subsec. (b). Pub. L. 107–188, §336(b), amended subsec. (b) generally, substituting “Penalties” for “Aggravated Offense” in heading and list of penalties for property damage, personal injury and death for reference to serious bodily injury and death in text.

Subsec. (c)(3). Pub. L. 107–188, §336(c), added par. (3).

1996—Subsec. (c). Pub. L. 104–294 inserted “or 3663A” after “section 3663” in introductory provisions.

Short Title

Section 1 of Pub. L. 102–346 provided that: “This Act [enacting this section and provisions set out below] may be cited as the ‘Animal Enterprise Protection Act of 1992’.”

Study of Effect of Terrorism on Certain Animal Enterprises

Section 3 of Pub. L. 102–346 directed Attorney General and Secretary of Agriculture to jointly conduct a study on extent and effects of domestic and international terrorism on enterprises using animals for food or fiber production, agriculture, research, or testing, and, not later than 1 year after Aug. 26, 1992, submit a report that describes the results of the study together with any appropriate recommendations and legislation to Congress.

1 So in original. Probably should be “subsection”.

2 So in original. Probably should be preceded by “for”.

[§44. Repealed. Pub. L. 97–79, §9(b)(2), Nov. 16, 1981, 95 Stat. 1079]

Section, acts June 25, 1948, ch. 645, 62 Stat. 687; Dec. 5, 1969, Pub. L. 91–135, §8, 83 Stat. 281, related to marking of packages or containers used in the shipment of fish and wildlife. See section 3372(b) of Title 16, Conservation.

[§45. Repealed. Pub. L. 101–647, title XII, §1206(a), Nov. 29, 1990, 104 Stat. 4832]

Section, act June 25, 1948, ch. 645, 62 Stat. 688, related to penalties for capturing or killing carrier pigeons.

§46. Transportation of water hyacinths

(a) Whoever knowingly delivers or receives for transportation, or transports, in interstate commerce, alligator grass (alternanthera philoxeroides), or water chestnut plants (trapa natans) or water hyacinth plants (eichhornia crassipes) or the seeds of such grass or plants; or

(b) Whoever knowingly sells, purchases, barters, exchanges, gives, or receives any grass, plant, or seed which has been transported in violation of subsection (a); or

(c) Whoever knowingly delivers or receives for transportation, or transports, in interstate commerce, an advertisement, to sell, purchase, barter, exchange, give, or receive alligator grass or water chestnut plants or water hyacinth plants or the seeds of such grass or plants—

Shall be fined under this title, or imprisoned not more than six months, or both.

(Added Aug. 1, 1956, ch. 825, §1, 70 Stat. 797; amended Pub. L. 103–322, title XXXIII, §330016(1)(G), Sept. 13, 1994, 108 Stat. 2147.)

Amendments

1994—Pub. L. 103–322 substituted “fined under this title” for “fined not more than $500”.

§47. Use of aircraft or motor vehicles to hunt certain wild horses or burros; pollution of watering holes

(a) Whoever uses an aircraft or a motor vehicle to hunt, for the purpose of capturing or killing, any wild unbranded horse, mare, colt, or burro running at large on any of the public land or ranges shall be fined under this title, or imprisoned not more than six months, or both.

(b) Whoever pollutes or causes the pollution of any watering hole on any of the public land or ranges for the purpose of trapping, killing, wounding, or maiming any of the animals referred to in subsection (a) of this section shall be fined under this title, or imprisoned not more than six months, or both.

(c) As used in subsection (a) of this section—

(1) The term “aircraft” means any contrivance used for flight in the air; and

(2) The term “motor vehicle” includes an automobile, automobile truck, automobile wagon, motorcycle, or any other self-propelled vehicle designed for running on land.

(Added Pub. L. 86–234, §1(a), Sept. 8, 1959, 73 Stat. 470; amended Pub. L. 103–322, title XXXIII, §330016(1)(G), Sept. 13, 1994, 108 Stat. 2147.)

Amendments

1994—Subsecs. (a), (b). Pub. L. 103–322 substituted “fined under this title” for “fined not more than $500”.

§48. Animal crush videos

(a) Definition.—In this section the term “animal crush video” means any photograph, motion-picture film, video or digital recording, or electronic image that—

(1) depicts actual conduct in which 1 or more living non-human mammals, birds, reptiles, or amphibians is intentionally crushed, burned, drowned, suffocated, impaled, or otherwise subjected to serious bodily injury (as defined in section 1365 and including conduct that, if committed against a person and in the special maritime and territorial jurisdiction of the United States, would violate section 2241 or 2242); and

(2) is obscene.


(b) Prohibitions.—

(1) Creation of animal crush videos.—It shall be unlawful for any person to knowingly create an animal crush video, if—

(A) the person intends or has reason to know that the animal crush video will be distributed in, or using a means or facility of, interstate or foreign commerce; or

(B) the animal crush video is distributed in, or using a means or facility of, interstate or foreign commerce.


(2) Distribution of animal crush videos.—It shall be unlawful for any person to knowingly sell, market, advertise, exchange, or distribute an animal crush video in, or using a means or facility of, interstate or foreign commerce.


(c) Extraterritorial Application.—Subsection (b) shall apply to the knowing sale, marketing, advertising, exchange, distribution, or creation of an animal crush video outside of the United States, if—

(1) the person engaging in such conduct intends or has reason to know that the animal crush video will be transported into the United States or its territories or possessions; or

(2) the animal crush video is transported into the United States or its territories or possessions.


(d) Penalty.—Any person who violates subsection (b) shall be fined under this title, imprisoned for not more than 7 years, or both.

(e) Exceptions.—

(1) In general.—This section shall not apply with regard to any visual depiction of—

(A) customary and normal veterinary or agricultural husbandry practices;

(B) the slaughter of animals for food; or

(C) hunting, trapping, or fishing.


(2) Good-faith distribution.—This section shall not apply to the good-faith distribution of an animal crush video to—

(A) a law enforcement agency; or

(B) a third party for the sole purpose of analysis to determine if referral to a law enforcement agency is appropriate.


(f) No Preemption.—Nothing in this section shall be construed to preempt the law of any State or local subdivision thereof to protect animals.

(Added Pub. L. 106–152, §1(a), Dec. 9, 1999, 113 Stat. 1732; amended Pub. L. 111–294, §3(a), Dec. 9, 2010, 124 Stat. 3178.)

Amendments

2010—Pub. L. 111–294 amended section generally. Prior to amendment, section related to depiction of animal cruelty.

Severability

Pub. L. 111–294, §3(c), Dec. 9, 2010, 124 Stat. 3179, provided that: “If any provision of section 48 of title 18, United States Code (as amended by this section), or the application of the provision to any person or circumstance, is held to be unconstitutional, the provision and the application of the provision to other persons or circumstances shall not be affected thereby.”

Findings

Pub. L. 111–294, §2, Dec. 9, 2010, 124 Stat. 3177, provided that: “The Congress finds the following:

“(1) The United States has a long history of prohibiting the interstate sale, marketing, advertising, exchange, and distribution of obscene material and speech that is integral to criminal conduct.

“(2) The Federal Government and the States have a compelling interest in preventing intentional acts of extreme animal cruelty.

“(3) Each of the several States and the District of Columbia criminalize intentional acts of extreme animal cruelty, such as the intentional crushing, burning, drowning, suffocating, or impaling of animals for no socially redeeming purpose.

“(4) There are certain extreme acts of animal cruelty that appeal to a specific sexual fetish. These acts of extreme animal cruelty are videotaped, and the resulting video tapes are commonly referred to as ‘animal crush videos’.

“(5) The Supreme Court of the United States has long held that obscenity is an exception to speech protected under the First Amendment to the Constitution of the United States.

“(6) In the judgment of Congress, many animal crush videos are obscene in the sense that the depictions, taken as a whole—

“(A) appeal to the prurient interest in sex;

“(B) are patently offensive; and

“(C) lack serious literary, artistic, political, or scientific value.

“(7) Serious criminal acts of extreme animal cruelty are integral to the creation, sale, distribution, advertising, marketing, and exchange of animal crush videos.

“(8) The creation, sale, distribution, advertising, marketing, and exchange of animal crush videos is intrinsically related and integral to creating an incentive for, directly causing, and perpetuating demand for the serious acts of extreme animal cruelty the videos depict. The primary reason for those criminal acts is the creation, sale, distribution, advertising, marketing, and exchange of the animal crush video image.

“(9) The serious acts of extreme animal cruelty necessary to make animal crush videos are committed in a clandestine manner that—

“(A) allows the perpetrators of such crimes to remain anonymous;

“(B) makes it extraordinarily difficult to establish the jurisdiction within which the underlying criminal acts of extreme animal cruelty occurred; and

“(C) often precludes proof that the criminal acts occurred within the statute of limitations.

“(10) Each of the difficulties described in paragraph (9) seriously frustrates and impedes the ability of State authorities to enforce the criminal statutes prohibiting such behavior.”

§49. Enforcement of animal fighting prohibitions

Whoever violates subsection (a), (b), (c), or (e) of section 26 of the Animal Welfare Act shall be fined under this title, imprisoned for not more than 5 years, or both, for each violation.

(Added Pub. L. 110–22, §2(a), May 3, 2007, 121 Stat. 88; amended Pub. L. 110–234, title XIV, §14207(b), May 22, 2008, 122 Stat. 1462; Pub. L. 110–246, §4(a), title XIV, §14207(b), June 18, 2008, 122 Stat. 1664, 2224.)

References in Text

Section 26(a)–(c), (e) of the Animal Welfare Act, referred to in text, is section 2156(a)–(c), (e) of Title 7, Agriculture.

Codification

Pub. L. 110–234 and Pub. L. 110–246 made identical amendments to this section. The amendments by Pub. L. 110–234 were repealed by section 4(a) of Pub. L. 110–246.

Amendments

2008—Pub. L. 110–246, §14207(b), substituted “5 years” for “3 years”.

Effective Date of 2008 Amendment

Amendment of this section and repeal of Pub. L. 110–234 by Pub. L. 110–246 effective May 22, 2008, the date of enactment of Pub. L. 110–234, see section 4 of Pub. L. 110–246, set out as an Effective Date note under section 8701 of Title 7, Agriculture.