18 U.S.C.
United States Code, 2011 Edition
Title 18 - CRIMES AND CRIMINAL PROCEDURE
PART I - CRIMES
CHAPTER 95 - RACKETEERING
From the U.S. Government Printing Office, www.gpo.gov

CHAPTER 95—RACKETEERING

Sec.
1951.
Interference with commerce by threats or violence.
1952.
Interstate and foreign travel or transportation in aid of racketeering enterprises.
1953.
Interstate transportation of wagering paraphernalia.
1954.
Offer, acceptance, or solicitation to influence operations of employee benefit plan.
1955.
Prohibition of illegal gambling businesses.
1956.
Laundering of monetary instruments.
1957.
Engaging in monetary transactions in property derived from specified unlawful activity.
1958.
Use of interstate commerce facilities in the commission of murder-for-hire.
1959.
Violent crimes in aid of racketeering activity.
1960.
Prohibition of unlicensed money transmitting businesses.

        

Amendments

2001—Pub. L. 107–56, title III, §373(c), Oct. 26, 2001, 115 Stat. 340, substituted “unlicensed” for “illegal” in item 1960.

1992—Pub. L. 102–550, title XV, §1512(b), Oct. 28, 1992, 106 Stat. 4058, added item 1960.

1988—Pub. L. 100–690, title VII, §7053(c), Nov. 18, 1988, 102 Stat. 4402, redesignated items 1952A and 1952B as 1958 and 1959, respectively, and transferred them to the end of the table of sections.

1986—Pub. L. 99–570, title I, §1352(b), Oct. 27, 1986, 100 Stat. 3207–21, added items 1956 and 1957.

1984—Pub. L. 98–473, title II, §1002(b), Oct. 12, 1984, 98 Stat. 2137, added items 1952A and 1952B.

1970—Pub. L. 91–452, title VIII, §803(b), Oct. 15, 1970, 84 Stat. 938, added item 1955.

1962—Pub. L. 87–420, §17(f), Mar. 20, 1962, 76 Stat. 43, added item 1954.

1961—Pub. L. 87–228, §1(b), Sept. 13, 1961, 75 Stat. 499, added item 1952.

Pub. L. 87–218, §1, Sept. 13, 1961, 75 Stat. 492, added item 1953.

§1951. Interference with commerce by threats or violence

(a) Whoever in any way or degree obstructs, delays, or affects commerce or the movement of any article or commodity in commerce, by robbery or extortion or attempts or conspires so to do, or commits or threatens physical violence to any person or property in furtherance of a plan or purpose to do anything in violation of this section shall be fined under this title or imprisoned not more than twenty years, or both.

(b) As used in this section—

(1) The term “robbery” means the unlawful taking or obtaining of personal property from the person or in the presence of another, against his will, by means of actual or threatened force, or violence, or fear of injury, immediate or future, to his person or property, or property in his custody or possession, or the person or property of a relative or member of his family or of anyone in his company at the time of the taking or obtaining.

(2) The term “extortion” means the obtaining of property from another, with his consent, induced by wrongful use of actual or threatened force, violence, or fear, or under color of official right.

(3) The term “commerce” means commerce within the District of Columbia, or any Territory or Possession of the United States; all commerce between any point in a State, Territory, Possession, or the District of Columbia and any point outside thereof; all commerce between points within the same State through any place outside such State; and all other commerce over which the United States has jurisdiction.


(c) This section shall not be construed to repeal, modify or affect section 17 of Title 15, sections 52, 101–115, 151–166 of Title 29 or sections 151–188 of Title 45.

(June 25, 1948, ch. 645, 62 Stat. 793; Pub. L. 103–322, title XXXIII, §330016(1)(L), Sept. 13, 1994, 108 Stat. 2147.)

Historical and Revision Notes

Based on title 18, U.S.C., 1940 ed., §§420a–420e–1 (June 18, 1934, ch. 569, §§1–6, 48 Stat. 979, 980; July 3, 1946, ch. 537, 60 Stat. 420).

Section consolidates sections 420a to 420e–1 of Title 18, U.S.C., 1940 ed., with changes in phraseology and arrangement necessary to effect consolidation.

Provisions designating offense as felony were omitted as unnecessary in view of definitive section 1 of this title. (See reviser's note under section 550 of this title.)

Subsection (c) of the revised section is derived from title II of the 1946 amendment. It substitutes references to specific sections of the United States Code, 1940 ed., in place of references to numerous acts of Congress, in conformity to the style of the revision bill. Subsection (c) as rephrased will preclude any construction of implied repeal of the specified acts of Congress codified in the sections enumerated.

The words “attempts or conspires so to do” were substituted for sections 3 and 4 of the 1946 act, omitting as unnecessary the words “participates in an attempt” and the words “or acts in concert with another or with others”, in view of section 2 of this title which makes any person who participates in an unlawful enterprise or aids or assists the principal offender, or does anything towards the accomplishment of the crime, a principal himself.

Words “shall, upon conviction thereof,” were omitted as surplusage, since punishment cannot be imposed until a conviction is secured.

References in Text

Sections 101–115 of Title 29, referred to in subsec. (c), is a reference to act Mar. 23, 1932, ch. 90, 47 Stat. 70, popularly known as the Norris-LaGuardia Act. For complete classification of this Act to the Code, see Short Title note set out under section 101 of Title 29, Labor, and Tables.

Section 11 of that act, formerly classified to section 111 of Title 29, was repealed and reenacted as section 3692 of this title by act June 25, 1948, ch. 645, §21, 62 Stat. 862, eff. Sept. 1, 1948.

Section 12 of that act, formerly classified to section 112 of Title 29, was repealed by act June 25, 1948, and is covered by rule 42(b) of the Federal Rules of Criminal Procedure, set out in Appendix to this title.

Section 164 of Title 45, included within the reference in subsec. (c) to sections 151–188 of Title 45, was repealed by act Oct. 10, 1940, ch. 851, §4, 54 Stat. 1111.

Section 186 of Title 45, included within the reference in subsec. (c) to sections 151–188 of Title 45, was omitted from the Code.

Amendments

1994—Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 103–322 substituted “fined under this title” for “fined not more than $10,000”.

Short Title

This section is popularly known as the “Hobbs Act”.

§1952. Interstate and foreign travel or transportation in aid of racketeering enterprises

(a) Whoever travels in interstate or foreign commerce or uses the mail or any facility in interstate or foreign commerce, with intent to—

(1) distribute the proceeds of any unlawful activity; or

(2) commit any crime of violence to further any unlawful activity; or

(3) otherwise promote, manage, establish, carry on, or facilitate the promotion, management, establishment, or carrying on, of any unlawful activity,


and thereafter performs or attempts to perform—

(A) an act described in paragraph (1) or (3) shall be fined under this title, imprisoned not more than 5 years, or both; or

(B) an act described in paragraph (2) shall be fined under this title, imprisoned for not more than 20 years, or both, and if death results shall be imprisoned for any term of years or for life.


(b) As used in this section (i) “unlawful activity” means (1) any business enterprise involving gambling, liquor on which the Federal excise tax has not been paid, narcotics or controlled substances (as defined in section 102(6) of the Controlled Substances Act), or prostitution offenses in violation of the laws of the State in which they are committed or of the United States, (2) extortion, bribery, or arson in violation of the laws of the State in which committed or of the United States, or (3) any act which is indictable under subchapter II of chapter 53 of title 31, United States Code, or under section 1956 or 1957 of this title and (ii) the term “State” includes a State of the United States, the District of Columbia, and any commonwealth, territory, or possession of the United States.

(c) Investigations of violations under this section involving liquor shall be conducted under the supervision of the Attorney General.

(Added Pub. L. 87–228, §1(a), Sept. 13, 1961, 75 Stat. 498; amended Pub. L. 89–68, July 7, 1965, 79 Stat. 212; Pub. L. 91–513, title II, §701(i)(2), Oct. 27, 1970, 84 Stat. 1282; Pub. L. 99–570, title I, §1365(a), Oct. 27, 1986, 100 Stat. 3207–35; Pub. L. 101–647, title XII, §1205(i), title XVI, §1604, Nov. 29, 1990, 104 Stat. 4831, 4843; Pub. L. 103–322, title XIV, §140007(a), title XXXIII, §330016(1)(L), Sept. 13, 1994, 108 Stat. 2033, 2147; Pub. L. 107–296, title XI, §1112(h), Nov. 25, 2002, 116 Stat. 2277.)

References in Text

Section 102(6) of the Controlled Substances Act, referred to in subsec. (b)(i)(1), is classified to section 802(6) of Title 21, Food and Drugs.

Amendments

2002—Subsec. (c). Pub. L. 107–296 substituted “Attorney General” for “Secretary of the Treasury”.

1994—Pub. L. 103–322, §330016(1)(L), which directed the amendment of this section by substituting “under this title” for “not more than $10,000”, could not be executed because the phrase “not more than $10,000” did not appear in text subsequent to amendment of subsec. (a) by Pub. L. 103–322, §140007(a). See below.

Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 103–322, §140007(a), substituted “and thereafter performs or attempts to perform—” and subpars. (A) and (B) for former concluding provisions which read as follows: “and thereafter performs or attempts to perform any of the acts specified in subparagraphs (1), (2), and (3), shall be fined not more than $10,000 or imprisoned for not more than five years, or both.”

1990—Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 101–647, §1604, inserted “the mail or” after “uses” and struck out “including the mail,” before “with intent” in introductory provisions.

Subsec. (b). Pub. L. 101–647, §1205(i), inserted “(i)” after “As used in this section” and added cl. (ii).

1986—Subsec. (b)(3). Pub. L. 99–570 added cl. (3).

1970—Subsec. (b)(1). Pub. L. 91–513, §701(i)(2)(A), inserted “or controlled substances (as defined in section 102(6) of the Controlled Substances Act)”.

Subsec. (c). Pub. L. 91–513, §701(i)(2)(B), struck out reference to investigations involving narcotics.

1965—Subsec. (b)(2). Pub. L. 89–68 made section applicable to travel in aid of arson.

Effective Date of 2002 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 107–296 effective 60 days after Nov. 25, 2002, see section 4 of Pub. L. 107–296, set out as an Effective Date note under section 101 of Title 6, Domestic Security.

Effective Date of 1970 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 91–513 effective on first day of seventh calendar month that begins after Oct. 26, 1970, see section 704 of Pub. L. 91–513, set out as an Effective Date note under section 801 of Title 21, Food and Drugs.

Savings Provision

Amendment by Pub. L. 91–513 not to affect or abate any prosecutions for any violation of law or any civil seizures or forfeitures and injunctive proceedings commenced prior to the effective date of such amendment, and all administrative proceedings pending before the former Bureau of Narcotics and Dangerous Drugs on Oct. 27, 1970, were to be continued and brought to final determination in accord with laws and regulations in effect prior to Oct. 27, 1970, see section 702 of Pub. L. 91–513, set out as a Savings Provision note under section 321 of Title 21, Food and Drugs.

[§1952A. Renumbered §1958]

[§1952B. Renumbered §1959]

§1953. Interstate transportation of wagering paraphernalia

(a) Whoever, except a common carrier in the usual course of its business, knowingly carries or sends in interstate or foreign commerce any record, paraphernalia, ticket, certificate, bills, slip, token, paper, writing, or other device used, or to be used, or adapted, devised, or designed for use in (a) bookmaking; or (b) wagering pools with respect to a sporting event; or (c) in a numbers, policy, bolita, or similar game shall be fined under this title or imprisoned for not more than five years or both.

(b) This section shall not apply to (1) parimutuel betting equipment, parimutuel tickets where legally acquired, or parimutuel materials used or designed for use at racetracks or other sporting events in connection with which betting is legal under applicable State law, or (2) the transportation of betting materials to be used in the placing of bets or wagers on a sporting event into a State in which such betting is legal under the statutes of that State, or (3) the carriage or transportation in interstate or foreign commerce of any newspaper or similar publication, or (4) equipment, tickets, or materials used or designed for use within a State in a lottery conducted by that State acting under authority of State law, or (5) the transportation in foreign commerce to a destination in a foreign country of equipment, tickets, or materials designed to be used within that foreign country in a lottery which is authorized by the laws of that foreign country.

(c) Nothing contained in this section shall create immunity from criminal prosecution under any laws of any State, Commonwealth of Puerto Rico, territory, possession, or the District of Columbia.

(d) For the purposes of this section (1) “State” means a State of the United States, the District of Columbia, the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico, or any territory or possession of the United States; and (2) “foreign country” means any empire, country, dominion, colony, or protectorate, or any subdivision thereof (other than the United States, its territories or possessions).

(e) For the purposes of this section “lottery” means the pooling of proceeds derived from the sale of tickets or chances and allotting those proceeds or parts thereof by chance to one or more chance takers or ticket purchasers. “Lottery” does not include the placing or accepting of bets or wagers on sporting events or contests.

(Added Pub. L. 87–218, §1, Sept. 13, 1961, 75 Stat. 492; amended Pub. L. 93–583, §3, Jan. 2, 1975, 88 Stat. 1916; Pub. L. 96–90, §2, Oct. 23, 1979, 93 Stat. 698; Pub. L. 103–322, title XXXIII, §330016(1)(L), Sept. 13, 1994, 108 Stat. 2147.)

Amendments

1994—Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 103–322 substituted “fined under this title” for “fined not more than $10,000”.

1979—Subsec. (b)(5). Pub. L. 96–90, §2(1), added cl. (5).

Subsecs. (d), (e). Pub. L. 96–90, §2(2), added subsecs. (d) and (e).

1975—Subsec. (b)(4). Pub. L. 93–583 added cl. (4).

§1954. Offer, acceptance, or solicitation to influence operations of employee benefit plan

Whoever being—

(1) an administrator, officer, trustee, custodian, counsel, agent, or employee of any employee welfare benefit plan or employee pension benefit plan; or

(2) an officer, counsel, agent, or employee of an employer or an employer any of whose employees are covered by such plan; or

(3) an officer, counsel, agent, or employee of an employee organization any of whose members are covered by such plan; or

(4) a person who, or an officer, counsel, agent, or employee of an organization which, provides benefit plan services to such plan


receives or agrees to receive or solicits any fee, kickback, commission, gift, loan, money, or thing of value because of or with intent to be influenced with respect to, any of the actions, decisions, or other duties relating to any question or matter concerning such plan or any person who directly or indirectly gives or offers, or promises to give or offer, any fee, kickback, commission, gift, loan, money, or thing of value prohibited by this section, shall be fined under this title or imprisoned not more than three years, or both: Provided, That this section shall not prohibit the payment to or acceptance by any person of bona fide salary, compensation, or other payments made for goods or facilities actually furnished or for services actually performed in the regular course of his duties as such person, administrator, officer, trustee, custodian, counsel, agent, or employee of such plan, employer, employee organization, or organization providing benefit plan services to such plan.

As used in this section, the term (a) “any employee welfare benefit plan” or “employee pension benefit plan” means any employee welfare benefit plan or employee pension benefit plan, respectively, subject to any provision of title I of the Employee Retirement Income Security Act of 1974, and (b) “employee organization” and “administrator” as defined respectively in sections 3(4) and (3)(16) of the Employee Retirement Income Security Act of 1974.

(Added Pub. L. 87–420, §17(e), Mar. 20, 1962, 76 Stat. 42; amended Pub. L. 91–452, title II, §225, Oct. 15, 1970, 84 Stat. 930; Pub. L. 93–406, title I, §111(a)(2)(C), Sept. 2, 1974, 88 Stat. 852; Pub. L. 103–322, title XXXIII, §330016(1)(L), Sept. 13, 1994, 108 Stat. 2147.)

References in Text

The Employee Retirement Income Security Act of 1974, referred to in text, is Pub. L. 93–406, Sept. 2, 1974, 88 Stat. 829, as amended. Title I of the Employee Retirement Income Security Act of 1974, referred to in text, is classified generally to subchapter I (§1001 et seq.) of chapter 18 of Title 29, Labor. For complete classification of this Act to the Code, see Short Title note set out under section 1001 of Title 29 and Tables.

Section 3(4) of the Employee Retirement Income Security Act of 1974, referred to in text, is classified to section 1002(4) of Title 29.

Section (3)(16) of the Employee Retirement Income Security Act of 1974, referred to in text, probably means section 3(16) of the Employee Retirement Income Security Act of 1974, which is classified to section 1002(16) of Title 29.

Amendments

1994—Pub. L. 103–322 substituted “fined under this title” for “fined not more than $10,000” in first par.

1974—Pub. L. 93–406 substituted “any employee welfare benefit plan or employee pension benefit plan, respectively, subject to any provision of title I of the Employee Retirement Income Security Act of 1974” for “any such plan subject to the provisions of the Welfare and Pension Plans Disclosure Act, as amended” and “sections 3(4) and (3)(16) of the Employee Retirement Income Security Act of 1974” for “sections 3(3) and 5(b)(1) and (2) of the Welfare and Pension Plans Disclosure Act, as amended”.

1970—Pub. L. 91–452 struck out letter designation “(a)” preceding first sentence and struck out subsec. (b) which related to the immunity from prosecution of any witness compelled to testify or produce evidence after claiming his privilege against self-incrimination. See section 6001 et seq. of this title.

Effective Date of 1974 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 93–406 effective Jan. 1, 1975, except as provided in section 1031(b)(2) of Title 29, Labor, see section 1031 of Title 29.

Effective Date of 1970 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 91–452 effective on sixtieth day following Oct. 15, 1970, and not to affect any immunity to which any individual is entitled under this section by reason of any testimony given before sixtieth day following Oct. 15, 1970, see section 260 of Pub. L. 91–452, set out as an Effective Date; Savings Provision note under sections 6001 of this title.

Effective Date

Section effective 90 days after Mar. 20, 1962, see section 19 of Pub. L. 87–420, set out as a note under section 664 of this title.

§1955. Prohibition of illegal gambling businesses

(a) Whoever conducts, finances, manages, supervises, directs, or owns all or part of an illegal gambling business shall be fined under this title or imprisoned not more than five years, or both.

(b) As used in this section—

(1) “illegal gambling business” means a gambling business which—

(i) is a violation of the law of a State or political subdivision in which it is conducted;

(ii) involves five or more persons who conduct, finance, manage, supervise, direct, or own all or part of such business; and

(iii) has been or remains in substantially continuous operation for a period in excess of thirty days or has a gross revenue of $2,000 in any single day.


(2) “gambling” includes but is not limited to pool-selling, bookmaking, maintaining slot machines, roulette wheels or dice tables, and conducting lotteries, policy, bolita or numbers games, or selling chances therein.

(3) “State” means any State of the United States, the District of Columbia, the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico, and any territory or possession of the United States.


(c) If five or more persons conduct, finance, manage, supervise, direct, or own all or part of a gambling business and such business operates for two or more successive days, then, for the purpose of obtaining warrants for arrests, interceptions, and other searches and seizures, probable cause that the business receives gross revenue in excess of $2,000 in any single day shall be deemed to have been established.

(d) Any property, including money, used in violation of the provisions of this section may be seized and forfeited to the United States. All provisions of law relating to the seizures, summary, and judicial forfeiture procedures, and condemnation of vessels, vehicles, merchandise, and baggage for violation of the customs laws; the disposition of such vessels, vehicles, merchandise, and baggage or the proceeds from such sale; the remission or mitigation of such forfeitures; and the compromise of claims and the award of compensation to informers in respect of such forfeitures shall apply to seizures and forfeitures incurred or alleged to have been incurred under the provisions of this section, insofar as applicable and not inconsistent with such provisions. Such duties as are imposed upon the collector of customs or any other person in respect to the seizure and forfeiture of vessels, vehicles, merchandise, and baggage under the customs laws shall be performed with respect to seizures and forfeitures of property used or intended for use in violation of this section by such officers, agents, or other persons as may be designated for that purpose by the Attorney General.

(e) This section shall not apply to any bingo game, lottery, or similar game of chance conducted by an organization exempt from tax under paragraph (3) of subsection (c) of section 501 of the Internal Revenue Code of 1986, as amended, if no part of the gross receipts derived from such activity inures to the benefits of any private shareholder, member, or employee of such organization except as compensation for actual expenses incurred by him in the conduct of such activity.

(Added Pub. L. 91–452, title VIII, §803(a), Oct. 15, 1970, 84 Stat. 937; amended Pub. L. 99–514, §2, Oct. 22, 1986, 100 Stat. 2095; Pub. L. 103–322, title XXXIII, §330016(1)(N), Sept. 13, 1994, 108 Stat. 2148.)

References in Text

Paragraph (3) of subsection (c) of section 501 of the Internal Revenue Code of 1986, referred to in subsec. (e), is classified to section 501(c)(3) of Title 26, Internal Revenue Code.

Amendments

1994—Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 103–322 substituted “fined under this title” for “fined not more than $20,000”.

1986—Subsec. (e). Pub. L. 99–514 substituted “Internal Revenue Code of 1986” for “Internal Revenue Code of 1954”.

Transfer of Functions

Offices of collector of customs, comptroller of customs, surveyor of customs, and appraiser of merchandise in Bureau of Customs of Department of the Treasury to which appointments were required to be made by President with advice and consent of Senate ordered abolished, with such offices to be terminated not later than Dec. 31, 1966, by Reorg. Plan No. 1 of 1965, eff. May 25, 1965, 30 F.R. 7035, 79 Stat. 1317, set out in the Appendix to Title 5, Government Organization and Employees. Functions of offices eliminated were already vested in Secretary of the Treasury by Reorg. Plan No. 26 of 1950, eff. July 31, 1950, 15 F.R. 4935, 64 Stat. 1280, set out in the Appendix to Title 5.

National Gambling Impact Study Commission

Pub. L. 104–169, Aug. 3, 1996, 110 Stat. 1482, as amended by Pub. L. 105–30, §1, July 25, 1997, 111 Stat. 248, established the National Gambling Impact Study Commission to conduct a comprehensive legal and factual study of the social and economic impacts of gambling in the United States on Federal, State, local, and Native American tribal governments, as well as on communities and social institutions generally, including individuals, families, and businesses within such communities and institutions, and to submit a report, not later than two years after its first meeting, to the President, the Congress, State Governors, and Native American tribal governments containing the Commission's findings and conclusions, together with any recommendations of the Commission, and further provided for membership of the Commission, meetings, powers and duties of the Commission, personnel matters, contracts for research with the Advisory Commission on Intergovernmental Relations and the National Research Council, definitions, appropriations, and termination of the Commission 60 days after submission of its final report.

Priority of State Laws

Enactment of this section as not indicating an intent on the part of the Congress to occupy the field in which this section operates to the exclusion of State of local law on the same subject matter, or to relieve any person of any obligation imposed by any State or local law, see section 811 of Pub. L. 91–452, set out as a Priority of State Laws note under section 1511 of this title.

Commission on Review of National Policy Toward Gambling

Sections 804–809 of Pub. L. 91–452 established Commission on Review of National Policy Toward Gambling, provided for its membership and compensation of members and staff, empowered Commission to subpoena witnesses and grant immunity, required Commission to make a study of gambling in United States and existing Federal, State, and local policy and practices with respect to prohibition and taxation of gambling activities and to make a final report of its findings and recommendations to President and to Congress within four years of its establishment, and provided for its termination sixty days after submission of final report.

§1956. Laundering of monetary instruments

(a)(1) Whoever, knowing that the property involved in a financial transaction represents the proceeds of some form of unlawful activity, conducts or attempts to conduct such a financial transaction which in fact involves the proceeds of specified unlawful activity—

(A)(i) with the intent to promote the carrying on of specified unlawful activity; or

(ii) with intent to engage in conduct constituting a violation of section 7201 or 7206 of the Internal Revenue Code of 1986; or

(B) knowing that the transaction is designed in whole or in part—

(i) to conceal or disguise the nature, the location, the source, the ownership, or the control of the proceeds of specified unlawful activity; or

(ii) to avoid a transaction reporting requirement under State or Federal law,


shall be sentenced to a fine of not more than $500,000 or twice the value of the property involved in the transaction, whichever is greater, or imprisonment for not more than twenty years, or both. For purposes of this paragraph, a financial transaction shall be considered to be one involving the proceeds of specified unlawful activity if it is part of a set of parallel or dependent transactions, any one of which involves the proceeds of specified unlawful activity, and all of which are part of a single plan or arrangement.

(2) Whoever transports, transmits, or transfers, or attempts to transport, transmit, or transfer a monetary instrument or funds from a place in the United States to or through a place outside the United States or to a place in the United States from or through a place outside the United States—

(A) with the intent to promote the carrying on of specified unlawful activity; or

(B) knowing that the monetary instrument or funds involved in the transportation, transmission, or transfer represent the proceeds of some form of unlawful activity and knowing that such transportation, transmission, or transfer is designed in whole or in part—

(i) to conceal or disguise the nature, the location, the source, the ownership, or the control of the proceeds of specified unlawful activity; or

(ii) to avoid a transaction reporting requirement under State or Federal law,


shall be sentenced to a fine of not more than $500,000 or twice the value of the monetary instrument or funds involved in the transportation, transmission, or transfer, whichever is greater, or imprisonment for not more than twenty years, or both. For the purpose of the offense described in subparagraph (B), the defendant's knowledge may be established by proof that a law enforcement officer represented the matter specified in subparagraph (B) as true, and the defendant's subsequent statements or actions indicate that the defendant believed such representations to be true.

(3) Whoever, with the intent—

(A) to promote the carrying on of specified unlawful activity;

(B) to conceal or disguise the nature, location, source, ownership, or control of property believed to be the proceeds of specified unlawful activity; or

(C) to avoid a transaction reporting requirement under State or Federal law,


conducts or attempts to conduct a financial transaction involving property represented to be the proceeds of specified unlawful activity, or property used to conduct or facilitate specified unlawful activity, shall be fined under this title or imprisoned for not more than 20 years, or both. For purposes of this paragraph and paragraph (2), the term “represented” means any representation made by a law enforcement officer or by another person at the direction of, or with the approval of, a Federal official authorized to investigate or prosecute violations of this section.

(b) Penalties.—

(1) In general.—Whoever conducts or attempts to conduct a transaction described in subsection (a)(1) or (a)(3), or section 1957, or a transportation, transmission, or transfer described in subsection (a)(2), is liable to the United States for a civil penalty of not more than the greater of—

(A) the value of the property, funds, or monetary instruments involved in the transaction; or

(B) $10,000.


(2) Jurisdiction over foreign persons.—For purposes of adjudicating an action filed or enforcing a penalty ordered under this section, the district courts shall have jurisdiction over any foreign person, including any financial institution authorized under the laws of a foreign country, against whom the action is brought, if service of process upon the foreign person is made under the Federal Rules of Civil Procedure or the laws of the country in which the foreign person is found, and—

(A) the foreign person commits an offense under subsection (a) involving a financial transaction that occurs in whole or in part in the United States;

(B) the foreign person converts, to his or her own use, property in which the United States has an ownership interest by virtue of the entry of an order of forfeiture by a court of the United States; or

(C) the foreign person is a financial institution that maintains a bank account at a financial institution in the United States.


(3) Court authority over assets.—A court may issue a pretrial restraining order or take any other action necessary to ensure that any bank account or other property held by the defendant in the United States is available to satisfy a judgment under this section.

(4) Federal receiver.—

(A) In general.—A court may appoint a Federal Receiver, in accordance with subparagraph (B) of this paragraph, to collect, marshal, and take custody, control, and possession of all assets of the defendant, wherever located, to satisfy a civil judgment under this subsection, a forfeiture judgment under section 981 or 982, or a criminal sentence under section 1957 or subsection (a) of this section, including an order of restitution to any victim of a specified unlawful activity.

(B) Appointment and authority.—A Federal Receiver described in subparagraph (A)—

(i) may be appointed upon application of a Federal prosecutor or a Federal or State regulator, by the court having jurisdiction over the defendant in the case;

(ii) shall be an officer of the court, and the powers of the Federal Receiver shall include the powers set out in section 754 of title 28, United States Code; and

(iii) shall have standing equivalent to that of a Federal prosecutor for the purpose of submitting requests to obtain information regarding the assets of the defendant—

(I) from the Financial Crimes Enforcement Network of the Department of the Treasury; or

(II) from a foreign country pursuant to a mutual legal assistance treaty, multilateral agreement, or other arrangement for international law enforcement assistance, provided that such requests are in accordance with the policies and procedures of the Attorney General.


(c) As used in this section—

(1) the term “knowing that the property involved in a financial transaction represents the proceeds of some form of unlawful activity” means that the person knew the property involved in the transaction represented proceeds from some form, though not necessarily which form, of activity that constitutes a felony under State, Federal, or foreign law, regardless of whether or not such activity is specified in paragraph (7);

(2) the term “conducts” includes initiating, concluding, or participating in initiating, or concluding a transaction;

(3) the term “transaction” includes a purchase, sale, loan, pledge, gift, transfer, delivery, or other disposition, and with respect to a financial institution includes a deposit, withdrawal, transfer between accounts, exchange of currency, loan, extension of credit, purchase or sale of any stock, bond, certificate of deposit, or other monetary instrument, use of a safe deposit box, or any other payment, transfer, or delivery by, through, or to a financial institution, by whatever means effected;

(4) the term “financial transaction” means (A) a transaction which in any way or degree affects interstate or foreign commerce (i) involving the movement of funds by wire or other means or (ii) involving one or more monetary instruments, or (iii) involving the transfer of title to any real property, vehicle, vessel, or aircraft, or (B) a transaction involving the use of a financial institution which is engaged in, or the activities of which affect, interstate or foreign commerce in any way or degree;

(5) the term “monetary instruments” means (i) coin or currency of the United States or of any other country, travelers’ checks, personal checks, bank checks, and money orders, or (ii) investment securities or negotiable instruments, in bearer form or otherwise in such form that title thereto passes upon delivery;

(6) the term “financial institution” includes—

(A) any financial institution, as defined in section 5312(a)(2) of title 31, United States Code, or the regulations promulgated thereunder; and

(B) any foreign bank, as defined in section 1 of the International Banking Act of 1978 (12 U.S.C. 3101);


(7) the term “specified unlawful activity” means—

(A) any act or activity constituting an offense listed in section 1961(1) of this title except an act which is indictable under subchapter II of chapter 53 of title 31;

(B) with respect to a financial transaction occurring in whole or in part in the United States, an offense against a foreign nation involving—

(i) the manufacture, importation, sale, or distribution of a controlled substance (as such term is defined for the purposes of the Controlled Substances Act);

(ii) murder, kidnapping, robbery, extortion, destruction of property by means of explosive or fire, or a crime of violence (as defined in section 16);

(iii) fraud, or any scheme or attempt to defraud, by or against a foreign bank (as defined in paragraph 7 of section 1(b) of the International Banking Act of 1978)); 1

(iv) bribery of a public official, or the misappropriation, theft, or embezzlement of public funds by or for the benefit of a public official;

(v) smuggling or export control violations involving—

(I) an item controlled on the United States Munitions List established under section 38 of the Arms Export Control Act (22 U.S.C. 2778); or

(II) an item controlled under regulations under the Export Administration Regulations (15 C.F.R. Parts 730–774);


(vi) an offense with respect to which the United States would be obligated by a multilateral treaty, either to extradite the alleged offender or to submit the case for prosecution, if the offender were found within the territory of the United States; or

(vii) trafficking in persons, selling or buying of children, sexual exploitation of children, or transporting, recruiting or harboring a person, including a child, for commercial sex acts;


(C) any act or acts constituting a continuing criminal enterprise, as that term is defined in section 408 of the Controlled Substances Act (21 U.S.C. 848);

(D) an offense under section 32 (relating to the destruction of aircraft), section 37 (relating to violence at international airports), section 115 (relating to influencing, impeding, or retaliating against a Federal official by threatening or injuring a family member), section 152 (relating to concealment of assets; false oaths and claims; bribery), section 175c (relating to the variola virus), section 215 (relating to commissions or gifts for procuring loans), section 351 (relating to congressional or Cabinet officer assassination), any of sections 500 through 503 (relating to certain counterfeiting offenses), section 513 (relating to securities of States and private entities), section 541 (relating to goods falsely classified), section 542 (relating to entry of goods by means of false statements), section 545 (relating to smuggling goods into the United States), section 549 (relating to removing goods from Customs custody), section 554 (relating to smuggling goods from the United States), section 641 (relating to public money, property, or records), section 656 (relating to theft, embezzlement, or misapplication by bank officer or employee), section 657 (relating to lending, credit, and insurance institutions), section 658 (relating to property mortgaged or pledged to farm credit agencies), section 666 (relating to theft or bribery concerning programs receiving Federal funds), section 793, 794, or 798 (relating to espionage), section 831 (relating to prohibited transactions involving nuclear materials), section 844(f) or (i) (relating to destruction by explosives or fire of Government property or property affecting interstate or foreign commerce), section 875 (relating to interstate communications), section 922(l) (relating to the unlawful importation of firearms), section 924(n) (relating to firearms trafficking), section 956 (relating to conspiracy to kill, kidnap, maim, or injure certain property in a foreign country), section 1005 (relating to fraudulent bank entries), 1006 2 (relating to fraudulent Federal credit institution entries), 1007 2 (relating to Federal Deposit Insurance transactions), 1014 2 (relating to fraudulent loan or credit applications), section 1030 (relating to computer fraud and abuse), 1032 2 (relating to concealment of assets from conservator, receiver, or liquidating agent of financial institution), section 1111 (relating to murder), section 1114 (relating to murder of United States law enforcement officials), section 1116 (relating to murder of foreign officials, official guests, or internationally protected persons), section 1201 (relating to kidnaping), section 1203 (relating to hostage taking), section 1361 (relating to willful injury of Government property), section 1363 (relating to destruction of property within the special maritime and territorial jurisdiction), section 1708 (theft from the mail), section 1751 (relating to Presidential assassination), section 2113 or 2114 (relating to bank and postal robbery and theft), section 2252A (relating to child pornography) where the child pornography contains a visual depiction of an actual minor engaging in sexually explicit conduct, section 2260 (production of certain child pornography for importation into the United States), section 2280 (relating to violence against maritime navigation), section 2281 (relating to violence against maritime fixed platforms), section 2319 (relating to copyright infringement), section 2320 (relating to trafficking in counterfeit goods and services), section 2332 (relating to terrorist acts abroad against United States nationals), section 2332a (relating to use of weapons of mass destruction), section 2332b (relating to international terrorist acts transcending national boundaries), section 2332g (relating to missile systems designed to destroy aircraft), section 2332h (relating to radiological dispersal devices), section 2339A or 2339B (relating to providing material support to terrorists), section 2339C (relating to financing of terrorism), or section 2339D (relating to receiving military-type training from a foreign terrorist organization) of this title, section 46502 of title 49, United States Code, a felony violation of the Chemical Diversion and Trafficking Act of 1988 (relating to precursor and essential chemicals), section 590 of the Tariff Act of 1930 (19 U.S.C. 1590) (relating to aviation smuggling), section 422 of the Controlled Substances Act (relating to transportation of drug paraphernalia), section 38(c) (relating to criminal violations) of the Arms Export Control Act, section 11 (relating to violations) of the Export Administration Act of 1979, section 206 (relating to penalties) of the International Emergency Economic Powers Act, section 16 (relating to offenses and punishment) of the Trading with the Enemy Act, any felony violation of section 15 of the Food and Nutrition Act of 2008 (relating to supplemental nutrition assistance program benefits fraud) involving a quantity of benefits having a value of not less than $5,000, any violation of section 543(a)(1) of the Housing Act of 1949 (relating to equity skimming), any felony violation of the Foreign Agents Registration Act of 1938, any felony violation of the Foreign Corrupt Practices Act, or section 92 of the Atomic Energy Act of 1954 (42 U.S.C. 2122) (relating to prohibitions governing atomic weapons) 3

environmental crimes

(E) a felony violation of the Federal Water Pollution Control Act (33 U.S.C. 1251 et seq.), the Ocean Dumping Act (33 U.S.C. 1401 et seq.), the Act to Prevent Pollution from Ships (33 U.S.C. 1901 et seq.), the Safe Drinking Water Act (42 U.S.C. 300f et seq.), or the Resources Conservation and Recovery Act (42 U.S.C. 6901 et seq.); or

(F) any act or activity constituting an offense involving a Federal health care offense;


(8) the term “State” includes a State of the United States, the District of Columbia, and any commonwealth, territory, or possession of the United States; and

(9) the term “proceeds” means any property derived from or obtained or retained, directly or indirectly, through some form of unlawful activity, including the gross receipts of such activity.


(d) Nothing in this section shall supersede any provision of Federal, State, or other law imposing criminal penalties or affording civil remedies in addition to those provided for in this section.

(e) Violations of this section may be investigated by such components of the Department of Justice as the Attorney General may direct, and by such components of the Department of the Treasury as the Secretary of the Treasury may direct, as appropriate, and, with respect to offenses over which the Department of Homeland Security has jurisdiction, by such components of the Department of Homeland Security as the Secretary of Homeland Security may direct, and, with respect to offenses over which the United States Postal Service has jurisdiction, by the Postal Service. Such authority of the Secretary of the Treasury, the Secretary of Homeland Security, and the Postal Service shall be exercised in accordance with an agreement which shall be entered into by the Secretary of the Treasury, the Secretary of Homeland Security, the Postal Service, and the Attorney General. Violations of this section involving offenses described in paragraph (c)(7)(E) may be investigated by such components of the Department of Justice as the Attorney General may direct, and the National Enforcement Investigations Center of the Environmental Protection Agency.

(f) There is extraterritorial jurisdiction over the conduct prohibited by this section if—

(1) the conduct is by a United States citizen or, in the case of a non-United States citizen, the conduct occurs in part in the United States; and

(2) the transaction or series of related transactions involves funds or monetary instruments of a value exceeding $10,000.


(g) Notice of Conviction of Financial Institutions.—If any financial institution or any officer, director, or employee of any financial institution has been found guilty of an offense under this section, section 1957 or 1960 of this title, or section 5322 or 5324 of title 31, the Attorney General shall provide written notice of such fact to the appropriate regulatory agency for the financial institution.

(h) Any person who conspires to commit any offense defined in this section or section 1957 shall be subject to the same penalties as those prescribed for the offense the commission of which was the object of the conspiracy.

(i) Venue.—(1) Except as provided in paragraph (2), a prosecution for an offense under this section or section 1957 may be brought in—

(A) any district in which the financial or monetary transaction is conducted; or

(B) any district where a prosecution for the underlying specified unlawful activity could be brought, if the defendant participated in the transfer of the proceeds of the specified unlawful activity from that district to the district where the financial or monetary transaction is conducted.


(2) A prosecution for an attempt or conspiracy offense under this section or section 1957 may be brought in the district where venue would lie for the completed offense under paragraph (1), or in any other district where an act in furtherance of the attempt or conspiracy took place.

(3) For purposes of this section, a transfer of funds from 1 place to another, by wire or any other means, shall constitute a single, continuing transaction. Any person who conducts (as that term is defined in subsection (c)(2)) any portion of the transaction may be charged in any district in which the transaction takes place.

(Added Pub. L. 99–570, title I, §1352(a), Oct. 27, 1986, 100 Stat. 3207–18; amended Pub. L. 100–690, title VI, §§6183, 6465, 6466, 6469(a)(1), 6471(a), (b), title VII, §7031, Nov. 18, 1988, 102 Stat. 4354, 4375, 4377, 4378, 4398; Pub. L. 101–647, title I, §§105–108, title XII, §1205(j), title XIV, §§1402, 1404, title XXV, §2506, title XXXV, §3557, Nov. 29, 1990, 104 Stat. 4791, 4792, 4831, 4835, 4862, 4927; Pub. L. 102–550, title XV, §§1504(c), 1524, 1526(a), 1527(a), 1530, 1531, 1534, 1536, Oct. 28, 1992, 106 Stat. 4055, 4064–4067; Pub. L. 103–322, title XXXII, §320104(b), title XXXIII, §§330008(2), 330011(l), 330012, 330019, 330021(1), Sept. 13, 1994, 108 Stat. 2111, 2142, 2145, 2146, 2149, 2150; Pub. L. 103–325, title IV, §§411(c)(2)(E), 413(c)(1), (d), Sept. 23, 1994, 108 Stat. 2253–2255; Pub. L. 104–132, title VII, §726, Apr. 24, 1996, 110 Stat. 1301; Pub. L. 104–191, title II, §246, Aug. 21, 1996, 110 Stat. 2018; Pub. L. 104–294, title VI, §§601(f)(6), 604(b)(38), Oct. 11, 1996, 110 Stat. 3499, 3509; Pub. L. 106–569, title VII, §709(a), Dec. 27, 2000, 114 Stat. 3018; Pub. L. 107–56, title III, §§315, 317, 318, 376, title VIII, §805(b), title X, §1004, Oct. 26, 2001, 115 Stat. 308, 310, 311, 342, 378, 392; Pub. L. 107–273, div. B, title IV, §§4002(a)(11), (b)(5), (c)(2), 4005(d)(1), (e), Nov. 2, 2002, 116 Stat. 1807, 1809, 1812, 1813; Pub. L. 108–458, title VI, §6909, Dec. 17, 2004, 118 Stat. 3774; Pub. L. 109–164, title I, §103(b), Jan. 10, 2006, 119 Stat. 3563; Pub. L. 109–177, title III, §311(c), title IV, §§403(b), (c)(1), 405, 406(a)(2), 409, Mar. 9, 2006, 120 Stat. 242–244, 246; Pub. L. 110–234, title IV, §§4002(b)(1)(B), (D), (2)(M), 4115(c)(1)(A)(i), (B)(ii), May 22, 2008, 122 Stat. 1096, 1097, 1109; Pub. L. 110–246, §4(a), title IV, §§4002(b)(1)(B), (D), (2)(M), 4115(c)(1)(A)(i), (B)(ii), June 18, 2008, 122 Stat. 1664, 1857, 1858, 1870; Pub. L. 110–358, title II, §202, Oct. 8, 2008, 122 Stat. 4003; Pub. L. 111–21, §2(f)(1), May 20, 2009, 123 Stat. 1618.)

References in Text

Sections 7201 and 7206 of the Internal Revenue Code of 1986, referred to in subsec. (a)(1)(A)(ii), are classified, respectively, to sections 7201 and 7206 of Title 26, Internal Revenue Code.

The Federal Rules of Civil Procedure, referred to in subsec. (b)(2), are set out in the Appendix to Title 28, Judiciary and Judicial Procedure.

The Controlled Substances Act, referred to in subsec. (c)(7)(B)(i), (D), is title II of Pub. L. 91–513, Oct. 27, 1970, 84 Stat. 1242, which is classified principally to subchapter I (§801 et seq.) of chapter 13 of Title 21, Food and Drugs. Section 422 of the Act is classified to section 863 of Title 21. For complete classification of this Act to the Code, see Short Title note set out under section 801 of Title 21 and Tables.

The Chemical Diversion and Trafficking Act of 1988, referred to in subsec. (c)(7)(D), is subtitle A (§6051–6061) of title VI of Pub. L. 100–690, Nov. 18, 1988, 102 Stat. 4312. For complete classification of subtitle A to the Code, see Short Title of 1988 Amendment note set out under section 801 of Title 21, Food and Drugs, and Tables.

Section 38(c) of the Arms Export Control Act, referred to in subsec. (c)(7)(D), is classified to section 2778(c) of Title 22, Foreign Relations and Intercourse.

Section 11 of the Export Administration Act of 1979, referred to in subsec. (c)(7)(D), is classified to section 2410 of Title 50, Appendix, War and National Defense.

Section 206 of the International Emergency Economic Powers Act, referred to in subsec. (c)(7)(D), is classified to section 1705 of Title 50.

Section 16 of the Trading with the Enemy Act, referred to in subsec. (c)(7)(D), is classified to section 16 of Title 50, Appendix.

Section 15 of the Food and Nutrition Act of 2008, referred to in subsec. (c)(7)(D), is classified to section 2024 of Title 7, Agriculture.

Section 543(a)(1) of the Housing Act of 1949, referred to in subsec. (c)(7)(D), is classified to section 1490s(a)(1) of Title 42, The Public Health and Welfare.

The Foreign Agents Registration Act of 1938, referred to in subsec. (c)(7)(D), is act June 8, 1938, ch. 327, 52 Stat. 631, which is classified generally to subchapter II (§ 611 et seq.) of chapter 11 of Title 22, Foreign Relations and Intercourse. For complete classification of this Act to the Code, see Short Title note set out under section 611 of Title 22 and Tables.

The Foreign Corrupt Practices Act, referred to in subsec. (c)(7)(D), probably means the Foreign Corrupt Practices Act of 1977, title I of Pub. L. 95–213, Dec. 19, 1977, 91 Stat. 1494, which enacted sections 78dd–1 to 78dd–3 of Title 15, Commerce and Trade, and amended sections 78m and 78ff of Title 15. For complete classification of this Act to the Code, see Short Title of 1977 Amendment note set out under section 78a of Title 15 and Tables.

The Federal Water Pollution Control Act, referred to in subsec. (c)(7)(E), is act June 30, 1948, ch. 758, as amended generally by Pub. L. 92–500, §2, Oct. 18, 1972, 86 Stat. 816, which is classified generally to chapter 26 (§1251 et seq.) of Title 33, Navigation and Navigable Waters. For complete classification of this Act to the Code, see Short Title note set out under section 1251 of Title 33 and Tables.

The Ocean Dumping Act, referred to in subsec. (c)(7)(E), probably means title I of the Marine Protection, Research, and Sanctuaries Act of 1972, Pub. L. 92–532, Oct. 23, 1972, 86 Stat. 1053, which is classified generally to subchapter I (§1411 et seq.) of chapter 27 of Title 33. For complete classification of title I to the Code, see Tables.

The Act to Prevent Pollution from Ships, referred to in subsec. (c)(7)(E), is Pub. L. 96–478, Oct. 21, 1980, 94 Stat. 2297, which is classified principally to chapter 33 (§1901 et seq.) of Title 33. For complete classification of this Act to the Code, see Short Title note set out under section 1901 of Title 33 and Tables.

The Safe Drinking Water Act, referred to in subsec. (c)(7)(E), is title XIV of act July 1, 1944, as added Dec. 16, 1974, Pub. L. 93–523, §2(a), 88 Stat. 1660, which is classified generally to subchapter XII (§300f et seq.) of chapter 6A of Title 42, The Public Health and Welfare. For complete classification of this Act to the Code, see Short Title note set out under section 201 of Title 42 and Tables.

The Resources Conservation and Recovery Act, referred to in subsec. (c)(7)(E), probably means the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act of 1976, Pub. L. 94–580, Oct. 21, 1976, 90 Stat. 2796, which is classified generally to chapter 82 (§6901 et seq.) of Title 42. For complete classification of this Act to the Code, see Short Title of 1976 Amendment note set out under section 6901 of Title 42 and Tables.

Codification

Pub. L. 110–234 and Pub. L. 110–246 made identical amendments to this section. The amendments by Pub. L. 110–234 were repealed by section 4(a) of Pub. L. 110–246.

Amendments

2009—Subsec. (c)(9). Pub. L. 111–21 added par. (9).

2008—Subsec. (c)(7)(D). Pub. L. 110–358 inserted “section 2252A (relating to child pornography) where the child pornography contains a visual depiction of an actual minor engaging in sexually explicit conduct, section 2260 (production of certain child pornography for importation into the United States),” before “section 2280”.

Pub. L. 110–246, §4115(c)(1)(A)(i), (B)(ii), substituted “benefits” for “coupons”.

Pub. L. 110–246, §4002(b)(1)(B), (D), (2)(M), substituted “Food and Nutrition Act of 2008” for “Food Stamp Act of 1977” and “supplemental nutrition assistance program benefits” for “food stamp”.

2006—Subsec. (a)(1). Pub. L. 109–177, §405, inserted last sentence.

Subsec. (b)(3), (4)(A). Pub. L. 109–177, §406(a)(2), struck out “described in paragraph (2)” after “A court”.

Subsec. (c)(7)(B)(vii). Pub. L. 109–164 added cl. (vii).

Subsec. (c)(7)(D). Pub. L. 109–177, §409, inserted “, section 2339C (relating to financing of terrorism), or section 2339D (relating to receiving military-type training from a foreign terrorist organization)” after “section 2339A or 2339B (relating to providing material support to terrorists)” and struck out “or” before “section 2339A or 2339B”.

Pub. L. 109–177, §403(b), which directed amendment of subsec. (c)(7)(D) by substituting “any felony violation of the Foreign Corrupt Practices Act” for “or any felony violation of the Foreign Corrupt Practices Act”, could not be executed because of the amendment by Pub. L. 108–458, §6909(3). See 2004 Amendment note below.

Pub. L. 109–177, §311(c), inserted “section 554 (relating to smuggling goods from the United States),” before “section 641 (relating to public money, property, or records),”.

Subsec. (e). Pub. L. 109–177, §403(c)(1), amended subsec. (e) generally. Prior to amendment, subsec. (e) read as follows: “Violations of this section may be investigated by such components of the Department of Justice as the Attorney General may direct, and by such components of the Department of the Treasury as the Secretary of the Treasury may direct, as appropriate and, with respect to offenses over which the United States Postal Service has jurisdiction, by the Postal Service. Such authority of the Secretary of the Treasury and the Postal Service shall be exercised in accordance with an agreement which shall be entered into by the Secretary of the Treasury, the Postal Service, and the Attorney General. Violations of this section involving offenses described in paragraph (c)(7)(E) may be investigated by such components of the Department of Justice as the Attorney General may direct, and the National Enforcement Investigations Center of the Environmental Protection Agency.”

2004—Subsec. (c)(7)(D). Pub. L. 108–458, §6909(3), struck out “or” after “any felony violation of the Foreign Agents Registration Act of 1938,” and substituted “, or section 92 of the Atomic Energy Act of 1954 (42 U.S.C. 2122) (relating to prohibitions governing atomic weapons)” for semicolon at end.

Pub. L. 108–458, §6909(2), which directed the insertion of “section 2332g (relating to missile systems designed to destroy aircraft), section 2332h (relating to radiological dispersal devices),” after “section 2332(b) (relating to international terrorist acts transcending national boundaries),” was executed by making the insertion after text which contained the words “section 2332b” rather than “section 2332(b)”, to reflect the probable intent of Congress.

Pub. L. 108–458, §6909(1), inserted “section 175c (relating to the variola virus),” before “section 215”.

2002—Subsec. (c)(6)(B). Pub. L. 107–273, §4005(d)(1), substituted semicolon for period at end.

Subsec. (c)(7)(B)(ii). Pub. L. 107–273, §4002(b)(5)(A), realigned margins.

Subsec. (c)(7)(D). Pub. L. 107–273, §4005(e), repealed Pub. L. 107–56, §805(b). See 2001 Amendment note below.

Pub. L. 107–273, §4002(c)(2), substituted “services),” for “services),,” and “Code,” for “Code,,”.

Pub. L. 107–273, §4002(b)(5)(B), struck out “or” at end.

Pub. L. 107–273, §4002(a)(11), made technical corrections to directory language of Pub. L. 104–132, §726(2). See 1996 Amendment note below.

Subsec. (c)(7)(E). Pub. L. 107–273, §4002(b)(5)(C), substituted “; or” for period at end.

Subsec. (c)(7)(F). Pub. L. 107–273, §4002(b)(5)(D), substituted “any” for “Any” and semicolon for period at end.

2001—Subsec. (b). Pub. L. 107–56, §317, inserted subsec. heading, designated existing provisions as par. (1), inserted heading and inserted “, or section 1957” after “or (a)(3)” in introductory provisions, redesignated former pars. (1) and (2) as subpars. (A) and (B), respectively, of par. (1), realigned margins, and added pars. (2) to (4).

Subsec. (c)(6). Pub. L. 107–56, §318, added par. (6) and struck out former par. (6) which read as follows: “the term ‘financial institution’ has the definition given that term in section 5312(a)(2) of title 31, United States Code, or the regulations promulgated thereunder;”.

Subsec. (c)(7)(B). Pub. L. 107–56, §315(1), substituted “destruction of property by means of explosive or fire, or a crime of violence (as defined in section 16)” for “or destruction of property by means of explosive or fire” in cl. (ii), inserted a closing parenthesis after “1978” in cl. (iii), and added cls. (iv) to (vi).

Subsec. (c)(7)(D). Pub. L. 107–56, §376, inserted “or 2339B” after “2339A”. Pub. L. 107–56, §805(b), which amended subpar. (D) identically, was repealed by Pub. L. 107–273, §4005(e).

Pub. L. 107–56, §315(2), inserted “section 541 (relating to goods falsely classified),” before “section 542”, “section 922(l) (relating to the unlawful importation of firearms), section 924(n) (relating to firearms trafficking),” before “section 956”, “section 1030 (relating to computer fraud and abuse),” before “1032”, and “any felony violation of the Foreign Agents Registration Act of 1938,” before “or any felony violation of the Foreign Corrupt Practices Act”.

Subsec. (i). Pub. L. 107–56, §1004, added subsec. (i).

2000—Subsec. (c)(7)(D). Pub. L. 106–569 inserted “any violation of section 543(a)(1) of the Housing Act of 1949 (relating to equity skimming),” after “coupons having a value of not less than $5,000,”.

1996—Subsec. (c)(7)(B)(ii). Pub. L. 104–132, §726(1), amended cl. (ii) generally. Prior to amendment, cl. (ii) read as follows: “kidnapping, robbery, or extortion; or”.

Subsec. (c)(7)(B)(iii). Pub. L. 104–294, §601(f)(6), struck out one closing parenthesis after “1978”.

Subsec. (c)(7)(D). Pub. L. 104–294, §604(b)(38), amended directory language of Pub. L. 103–322, §320104(b). See 1994 Amendment note below.

Pub. L. 104–132, §726(2), as amended by Pub. L. 107–273, §4002(a)(11), inserted “section 32 (relating to the destruction of aircraft), section 37 (relating to violence at international airports), section 115 (relating to influencing, impeding, or retaliating against a Federal official by threatening or injuring a family member),” after “an offense under”, “section 351 (relating to congressional or Cabinet officer assassination),” after “section 215 (relating to commissions or gifts for procuring loans),”, “section 831 (relating to prohibited transactions involving nuclear materials), section 844(f) or (i) (relating to destruction by explosives or fire of Government property or property affecting interstate or foreign commerce),” after “798 (relating to espionage),”, “section 956 (relating to conspiracy to kill, kidnap, maim, or injure certain property in a foreign country),” after “section 875 (relating to interstate communications),”, “section 1111 (relating to murder), section 1114 (relating to murder of United States law enforcement officials), section 1116 (relating to murder of foreign officials, official guests, or internationally protected persons),” after “1032 (relating to concealment of assets from conservator, receiver, or liquidating agent of financial institution),”, “section 1361 (relating to willful injury of Government property), section 1363 (relating to destruction of property within the special maritime and territorial jurisdiction),” after “section 1203 (relating to hostage taking),”, “section 1751 (relating to Presidential assassination),” after “1708 (theft from the mail),”, “section 2280 (relating to violence against maritime navigation), section 2281 (relating to violence against maritime fixed platforms),” after “2114 (relating to bank and postal robbery and theft),”, and substituted “section 2320” for “or section 2320” and “, section 2332 (relating to terrorist acts abroad against United States nationals), section 2332a (relating to use of weapons of mass destruction), section 2332b (relating to international terrorist acts transcending national boundaries), or section 2339A (relating to providing material support to terrorists) of this title, section 46502 of title 49, United States Code,” for “of this title”.

Subsec. (c)(7)(F). Pub. L. 104–191 added subpar. (F).

1994—Subsec. (a)(2). Pub. L. 103–325, §413(c)(1)(A)(ii), substituted “transfer” for “transfer.” in concluding provisions and two times in subpar. (B).

Pub. L. 103–322, §330019(a)(3), and Pub. L. 103–325, §413(c)(1)(A)(i), amended par. (2) identically, inserting “not more than” before “$500,000” in concluding provisions.

Subsec. (b). Pub. L. 103–325, §413(c)(1)(B), inserted “or (a)(3)” after “(a)(1)” and substituted “transfer” for “transfer.”

Subsec. (c)(7)(B)(ii). Pub. L. 103–322, §330021(1), substituted “kidnapping” for “kidnaping”.

Subsec. (c)(7)(B)(iii). Pub. L. 103–322, §330019(a)(1), and Pub. L. 103–325, §413(c)(1)(C), each amended cl. (iii) by inserting a closing parenthesis after “1978”.

Subsec. (c)(7)(D). Pub. L. 103–322, §330019(b), and Pub. L. 103–325, §413(c)(1)(D), amended subpar. (D) identically, substituting “section 15 of the Food Stamp Act of 1977” for “section 9(c) of the Food Stamp Act of 1977”.

Pub. L. 103–322, §330011(l), and Pub. L. 103–325, §413(d), made identical amendments repealing Pub. L. 101–647, §3557(2)(E). See 1990 Amendment note below.

Pub. L. 103–322, §320104(b), as amended by Pub. L. 104–294, §604(b)(38), substituted “section 2319 (relating to copyright infringement), or section 2320 (relating to trafficking in counterfeit goods and services),” for “or section 2319 (relating to copyright infringement)”.

Subsec. (c)(7)(E). Pub. L. 103–322, §330012, and Pub. L. 103–325, §413(c)(1)(E), amended subpar. (E) identically, striking out second period at end.

Subsec. (e). Pub. L. 103–322, §330008(2), and Pub. L. 103–325, §413(c)(1)(F), amended subsec. (e) identically, substituting “Environmental Protection Agency” for “Evironmental Protection Agency”.

Subsec. (g). Pub. L. 103–325, §411(c)(2)(E), in subsec. (g) relating to notice of conviction of financial institutions, substituted “section 5322 or 5324 of title 31” for “section 5322 of title 31”.

Pub. L. 103–322, §330019(a)(2), and Pub. L. 103–325, §413(c)(1)(G), made identical amendments redesignating subsec. (g) relating to penalty for money laundering conspiracies as (h).

Subsec. (h). Pub. L. 103–322, §330019(a)(2), and Pub. L. 103–325, §413(c)(1)(G), made identical amendments redesignating subsec. (g) relating to penalty for money laundering conspiracies as (h).

1992—Subsec. (a)(2). Pub. L. 102–550, §1531(a), substituted “transportation, transmission, or transfer.” for “transportation” wherever appearing in subpar. (B) and concluding provisions.

Subsec. (a)(3). Pub. L. 102–550, §1531(b), in concluding provisions, substituted “property represented to be the proceeds” for “property represented by a law enforcement officer to be the proceeds”.

Subsec. (b). Pub. L. 102–550, §1531(a), substituted “transportation, transmission, or transfer.” for “transportation” in introductory provisions.

Subsec. (c)(3). Pub. L. 102–550, §1527(a)(2), inserted “use of a safe deposit box,” before “or any other payment”.

Subsec. (c)(4)(A). Pub. L. 102–550, §1527(a)(1), added clause (iii), struck out “which in any way or degree affects interstate or foreign commerce,” after “or aircraft,” and inserted “which in any way or degree affects interstate or foreign commerce” after “(A) or transaction”.

Subsec. (c)(6). Pub. L. 102–550, §1526(a), substituted “or the regulations” for “and the regulations”.

Subsec. (c)(7)(B). Pub. L. 102–550, §1536, designated part of existing provisions as cl. (i) and added cls. (ii) and (iii).

Subsec. (c)(7)(D). Pub. L. 102–550, §§1524, 1534(1), (2), struck out “1341 (relating to mail fraud) or section 1343 (relating to wire fraud) affecting a financial institution, section 1344 (relating to bank fraud),” after “hostage taking),”, inserted “section 1708 (theft from the mail),” before “section 2113”, substituted “section 422 of the Controlled Substances Act” for “section 1822 of the Mail Order Drug Paraphernalia Control Act (100 Stat. 3207–51; 21 U.S.C. 857)”, and struck out “or” before “section 16”.

Pub. L. 102–550, §1534(3), which directed insertion of “, any felony violation of section 9(c) of the Food Stamp Act of 1977 (relating to food stamp fraud) involving a quantity of coupons having a value of not less than $5,000, or any felony violation of the Foreign Corrupt Practices Act” before semicolon, was executed by making insertion before semicolon at end to reflect the probable intent of Congress.

Subsec. (g). Pub. L. 102–550, §1530, added subsec. (g) relating to penalty for money laundering conspiracies.

Pub. L. 102–550, §1504(c), added subsec. (g) relating to notice of conviction of financial institutions.

1990—Subsec. (a)(2). Pub. L. 101–647, §108(1), inserted at end “For the purpose of the offense described in subparagraph (B), the defendant's knowledge may be established by proof that a law enforcement officer represented the matter specified in subparagraph (B) as true, and the defendant's subsequent statements or actions indicate that the defendant believed such representations to be true.”

Subsec. (a)(3). Pub. L. 101–647, §108(2), inserted “and paragraph (2)” after “this paragraph” in last sentence.

Subsec. (c)(1). Pub. L. 101–647, §106, substituted “State, Federal, or foreign” for “State or Federal”.

Subsec. (c)(4). Pub. L. 101–647, §1402, inserted “(A)” before “a transaction” the first place it appears, “(B)” before “a transaction” the second place it appears, “(i)” before “involving” the first place it appears, and “(ii)” before “involving” the second place it appears.

Subsec. (c)(5). Pub. L. 101–647, §105, amended par. (5) generally. Prior to amendment, par. (5) read as follows: “the term ‘monetary instruments’ means coin or currency of the United States or of any other country, travelers” checks, personal checks, bank checks, money orders, investment securities in bearer form or otherwise in such form that title thereto passes upon delivery, and negotiable instruments in bearer form or otherwise in such form that title thereto passes upon delivery;”.

Subsec. (c)(7)(A). Pub. L. 101–647, §3557(1), substituted “subchapter II of chapter 53 of title 31” for “the Currency and Foreign Transactions Reporting Act”.

Subsec. (c)(7)(C). Pub. L. 101–647, §1404(a)(1), struck out “or” at end.

Subsec. (c)(7)(D). Pub. L. 101–647, §3557(2)(A)–(D), substituted “section 2113” for “or section 2113”, substituted “theft), or” for “theft) of this title,”, inserted “of this title” after “2319 (relating to copyright infringement)”, and substituted “paraphernalia” for “paraphenalia”.

Pub. L. 101–647, §3557(2)(E), which directed the amendment of subpar. (D) by striking the final period, was repealed by Pub. L. 103–322, §330011(l), and Pub. L. 103–325, §413(d).

Pub. L. 101–647, §2506(2), inserted “section 1341 (relating to mail fraud) or section 1343 (relating to wire fraud) affecting a financial institution,” after “section 1203 (relating to hostage taking),”.

Pub. L. 101–647, §2506(1), inserted “section 1005 (relating to fraudulent bank entries), 1006 (relating to fraudulent Federal credit institution entries), 1007 (relating to Federal Deposit Insurance transactions), 1014 (relating to fraudulent loan or credit applications), 1032 (relating to concealment of assets from conservator, receiver, or liquidating agent of financial institution),” after “section 875 (relating to interstate communications),”.

Pub. L. 101–647, §1404(a)(2), inserted “; or” after “Trading with the Enemy Act” at end.

Pub. L. 101–647, §107, substituted “a felony violation of the Chemical Diversion and Trafficking Act of 1988” for “section 310 of the Controlled Substances Act (21 U.S.C. 830)”.

Subsec. (c)(7)(E). Pub. L. 101–647, §1404(a)(2), amended par. (7) by inserting “; or” and subpar. (E) before the period.

Subsec. (c)(8). Pub. L. 101–647, §1205(j), added par. (8).

Subsec. (e). Pub. L. 101–647, §1404(b), inserted at end “Violations of this section involving offenses described in paragraph (c)(7)(E) may be investigated by such components of the Department of Justice as the Attorney General may direct, and the National Enforcement Investigations Center of the Evironmental [sic] Protection Agency.”

1988—Subsec. (a)(1)(A). Pub. L. 100–690, §6471(a), amended subpar. (A) generally, designating existing provisions as cl. (i) and adding cl. (ii).

Subsec. (a)(2). Pub. L. 100–690, §6471(b), substituted “transports, transmits, or transfers, or attempts to transport, transmit, or transfer” for “transports or attempts to transport” in introductory provisions.

Subsec. (a)(3). Pub. L. 100–690, §6465, added par. (3).

Subsec. (c)(7)(D). Pub. L. 100–690, §7031, substituted “section 513” for “section 511” and “section 545” for “section 543” and inserted “section 657 (relating to lending, credit, and insurance institutions), section 658 (relating to property mortgaged or pledged to farm credit agencies),”.

Pub. L. 100–690, §6466, inserted “section 542 (relating to entry of goods by means of false statements),”, “section 549 (relating to removing goods from Customs custody),”, and “section 2319 (relating to copyright infringement), section 310 of the Controlled Substances Act (21 U.S.C. 830) (relating to precursor and essential chemicals), section 590 of the Tariff Act of 1930 (19 U.S.C. 1590) (relating to aviation smuggling), section 1822 of the Mail Order Drug Paraphernalia Control Act (100 Stat. 3207–51; 21 U.S.C. 857) (relating to transportation of drug paraphenalia [sic]),”.

Pub. L. 100–690, §6183, substituted “section 38(c) (relating to criminal violations) of the Arms Export Control Act, section 11 (relating to violations) of the Export Administration Act of 1979, section 206 (relating to penalties) of the International Emergency Economic Powers Act, or section 16 (relating to offenses and punishment) of the Trading with the Enemy Act.” for “section 38 of the Arms Export Control Act (22 U.S.C. 2778), section 2 (relating to criminal penalties) of the Export Administration Act of 1979 (50 U.S.C. App. 2401), section 203 (relating to criminal sanctions) of the International Emergency Economic Powers Act (50 U.S.C. 1702), or section 3 (relating to criminal violations) of the Trading with the Enemy Act (50 U.S.C. App. 3)”.

Subsec. (e). Pub. L. 100–690, §6469(a)(1), substituted “and, with respect to offenses over which the United States Postal Service has jurisdiction, by the Postal Service. Such authority of the Secretary of the Treasury and the Postal Service shall be exercised in accordance with an agreement which shall be entered into by the Secretary of the Treasury, the Postal Service, and the Attorney General.” for “. Such authority of the Secretary of the Treasury shall be exercised in accordance with an agreement which shall be entered into by the Secretary of the Treasury and the Attorney General.”

Effective Date of 2008 Amendment

Amendment of this section and repeal of Pub. L. 110–234 by Pub. L. 110–246 effective May 22, 2008, the date of enactment of Pub. L. 110–234, except as otherwise provided, see section 4 of Pub. L. 110–246, set out as an Effective Date note under section 8701 of Title 7, Agriculture.

Amendment by sections 4002(b)(1)(B), (D), (2)(M), and 4115(c)(1)(A)(i), (B)(ii) of Pub. L. 110–246 effective Oct. 1, 2008, see section 4407 of Pub. L. 110–246, set out as a note under section 1161 of Title 2, The Congress.

Effective Date of 2002 Amendment

Pub. L. 107–273, div. B, title IV, §4002(a)(11), Nov. 2, 2002, 116 Stat. 1807, provided that the amendment made by section 4002(a)(11) is effective Apr. 24, 1996.

Pub. L. 107–273, div. B, title IV, §4005(e), Nov. 2, 2002, 116 Stat. 1813, provided that the amendment made by section 4005(e) is effective Oct. 26, 2001.

Effective Date of 1996 Amendment

Amendment by section 604(b)(38) of Pub. L. 104–294 effective Sept. 13, 1994, see section 604(d) of Pub. L. 104–294, set out as a note under section 13 of this title.

Effective Date of 1994 Amendments

Section 330011(l) of Pub. L. 103–322 and section 413(d) of Pub. L. 103–325 provided that the repeal of section 3557(2)(E) of Pub. L. 101–647 made by those sections is effective as of the date of enactment of Pub. L. 101–647, which was approved Nov. 29, 1990.

1 So in original. The second closing parenthesis probably should not appear.

2 So in original. Probably should be preceded by “section”.

3 So in original. Probably should be followed by a semicolon.

§1957. Engaging in monetary transactions in property derived from specified unlawful activity

(a) Whoever, in any of the circumstances set forth in subsection (d), knowingly engages or attempts to engage in a monetary transaction in criminally derived property of a value greater than $10,000 and is derived from specified unlawful activity, shall be punished as provided in subsection (b).

(b)(1) Except as provided in paragraph (2), the punishment for an offense under this section is a fine under title 18, United States Code, or imprisonment for not more than ten years or both.

(2) The court may impose an alternate fine to that imposable under paragraph (1) of not more than twice the amount of the criminally derived property involved in the transaction.

(c) In a prosecution for an offense under this section, the Government is not required to prove the defendant knew that the offense from which the criminally derived property was derived was specified unlawful activity.

(d) The circumstances referred to in subsection (a) are—

(1) that the offense under this section takes place in the United States or in the special maritime and territorial jurisdiction of the United States; or

(2) that the offense under this section takes place outside the United States and such special jurisdiction, but the defendant is a United States person (as defined in section 3077 of this title, but excluding the class described in paragraph (2)(D) of such section).


(e) Violations of this section may be investigated by such components of the Department of Justice as the Attorney General may direct, and by such components of the Department of the Treasury as the Secretary of the Treasury may direct, as appropriate, and, with respect to offenses over which the Department of Homeland Security has jurisdiction, by such components of the Department of Homeland Security as the Secretary of Homeland Security may direct, and, with respect to offenses over which the United States Postal Service has jurisdiction, by the Postal Service. Such authority of the Secretary of the Treasury, the Secretary of Homeland Security, and the Postal Service shall be exercised in accordance with an agreement which shall be entered into by the Secretary of the Treasury, the Secretary of Homeland Security, the Postal Service, and the Attorney General.

(f) As used in this section—

(1) the term “monetary transaction” means the deposit, withdrawal, transfer, or exchange, in or affecting interstate or foreign commerce, of funds or a monetary instrument (as defined in section 1956(c)(5) of this title) by, through, or to a financial institution (as defined in section 1956 of this title), including any transaction that would be a financial transaction under section 1956(c)(4)(B) of this title, but such term does not include any transaction necessary to preserve a person's right to representation as guaranteed by the sixth amendment to the Constitution;

(2) the term “criminally derived property” means any property constituting, or derived from, proceeds obtained from a criminal offense; and

(3) the terms “specified unlawful activity” and “proceeds” shall have the meaning given those terms in section 1956 of this title.

(Added Pub. L. 99–570, title I, §1352(a), Oct. 27, 1986, 100 Stat. 3207–21; amended Pub. L. 100–690, title VI, §§6182, 6184, 6469(a)(2), Nov. 18, 1988, 102 Stat. 4354, 4377; Pub. L. 102–550, title XV, §§1526(b), 1527(b), Oct. 28, 1992, 106 Stat. 4065; Pub. L. 103–322, title XXXIII, §330020, Sept. 13, 1994, 108 Stat. 2149; Pub. L. 103–325, title IV, §413(c)(2), Sept. 23, 1994, 108 Stat. 2255; Pub. L. 109–177, title IV, §403(c)(2), Mar. 9, 2006, 120 Stat. 243; Pub. L. 111–21, §2(f)(2), May 20, 2009, 123 Stat. 1618.)

Amendments

2009—Subsec. (f)(3). Pub. L. 111–21 added par. (3) and struck out former par. (3) which read as follows: “the term ‘specified unlawful activity’ has the meaning given that term in section 1956 of this title.”

2006—Subsec. (e). Pub. L. 109–177 amended subsec. (e) generally. Prior to amendment, subsec. (e) read as follows: “Violations of this section may be investigated by such components of the Department of Justice as the Attorney General may direct, and by such components of the Department of the Treasury as the Secretary of the Treasury may direct, as appropriate and, with respect to offenses over which the United States Postal Service has jurisdiction, by the Postal Service. Such authority of the Secretary of the Treasury and the Postal Service shall be exercised in accordance with an agreement which shall be entered into by the Secretary of the Treasury, the Postal Service, and the Attorney General.”

1994—Subsec. (f)(1). Pub. L. 103–322, §330020, and Pub. L. 103–325, §413(c)(2), amended par. (1) identically, striking out second comma after “(as defined in section 1956 of this title)”.

1992—Subsec. (f)(1). Pub. L. 102–550 substituted “section 1956 of this title” for “section 5312 of title 31” and inserted “, including any transaction that would be a financial transaction under section 1956(c)(4)(B) of this title,” before “but such term does not include”.

1988—Subsec. (e). Pub. L. 100–690, §6469(a)(2), substituted “and, with respect to offenses over which the United States Postal Service has jurisdiction, by the Postal Service. Such authority of the Secretary of the Treasury and the Postal Service shall be exercised in accordance with an agreement which shall be entered into by the Secretary of the Treasury, the Postal Service, and the Attorney General.” for “. Such authority of the Secretary of the Treasury shall be exercised in accordance with an agreement which shall be entered into by the Secretary of the Treasury and the Attorney General.”

Subsec. (f)(1). Pub. L. 100–690, §§6182, 6184, substituted “in section 1956(c)(5) of this title” for “for the purposes of subchapter II of chapter 53 of title 31” and inserted “, but such term does not include any transaction necessary to preserve a person's right to representation as guaranteed by the sixth amendment to the Constitution”.

§1958. Use of interstate commerce facilities in the commission of murder-for-hire

(a) Whoever travels in or causes another (including the intended victim) to travel in interstate or foreign commerce, or uses or causes another (including the intended victim) to use the mail or any facility of interstate or foreign commerce, with intent that a murder be committed in violation of the laws of any State or the United States as consideration for the receipt of, or as consideration for a promise or agreement to pay, anything of pecuniary value, or who conspires to do so, shall be fined under this title or imprisoned for not more than ten years, or both; and if personal injury results, shall be fined under this title or imprisoned for not more than twenty years, or both; and if death results, shall be punished by death or life imprisonment, or shall be fined not more than $250,000, or both.

(b) As used in this section and section 1959—

(1) “anything of pecuniary value” means anything of value in the form of money, a negotiable instrument, a commercial interest, or anything else the primary significance of which is economic advantage;

(2) “facility of interstate or foreign commerce” includes means of transportation and communication; and

(3) “State” includes a State of the United States, the District of Columbia, and any commonwealth, territory, or possession of the United States.

(Added Pub. L. 98–473, title II, §1002(a), Oct. 12, 1984, 98 Stat. 2136, §1952A; renumbered §1958 and amended Pub. L. 100–690, title VII, §§7053(a), 7058(b), Nov. 18, 1988, 102 Stat. 4402, 4403; Pub. L. 101–647, title XII, §1205(k), title XXXV, §3558, Nov. 29, 1990, 104 Stat. 4831, 4927; Pub. L. 103–322, title VI, §60003(a)(11), title XIV, §140007(b), title XXXII, §320105, title XXXIII, §330016(1)(L), (N), (Q), Sept. 13, 1994, 108 Stat. 1969, 2033, 2111, 2147, 2148; Pub. L. 104–294, title VI, §§601(g)(3), 605(a), Oct. 11, 1996, 110 Stat. 3500, 3509; Pub. L. 108–458, title VI, §6704, Dec. 17, 2004, 118 Stat. 3766.)

Amendments

2004—Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 108–458, §6704(1), substituted “facility of” for “facility in”.

Subsec. (b)(2). Pub. L. 108–458, §6704(2), inserted “or foreign” after “interstate”.

1996—Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 104–294 substituted comma for “or who conspires to do so” after “or who conspires to do so” and substituted “this title or imprisoned” for “this title and imprisoned” before “for not more than twenty years”.

1994—Pub. L. 103–322, §330016(1)(Q), which directed the amendment of this section by substituting “under this title” for “not more than $50,000”, could not be executed because the phrase “not more than $50,000” did not appear in text subsequent to amendment of subsec. (a) by Pub. L. 103–322, §60003(a)(11). See below.

Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 103–322, §330016(1)(N), substituted “fined under this title” for “fined not more than $20,000” after “injury results, shall be”.

Pub. L. 103–322, §330016(1)(L), substituted “fined under this title” for “fined not more than $10,000” before “or imprisoned for not more than ten years”.

Pub. L. 103–322, §§140007(b), 320105, each amended subsec. (a) by inserting “or who conspires to do so” after “anything of pecuniary value,”.

Pub. L. 103–322, §60003(a)(11), substituted “and if death results, shall be punished by death or life imprisonment, or shall be fined not more than $250,000, or both” for “and if death results, shall be subject to imprisonment for any term of years or for life, or shall be fined not more than $50,000, or both” before period at end.

1990—Subsec. (b). Pub. L. 101–647, §3558, substituted “section 1959” for “section 1952B” in introductory provisions.

Subsec. (b)(3). Pub. L. 101–647, §1205(k), added par. (3).

1988—Pub. L. 100–690, §7053(a), renumbered section 1952A of this title as this section.

Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 100–690, §7058(b), substituted “ten years” for “five years”.

§1959. Violent crimes in aid of racketeering activity

(a) Whoever, as consideration for the receipt of, or as consideration for a promise or agreement to pay, anything of pecuniary value from an enterprise engaged in racketeering activity, or for the purpose of gaining entrance to or maintaining or increasing position in an enterprise engaged in racketeering activity, murders, kidnaps, maims, assaults with a dangerous weapon, commits assault resulting in serious bodily injury upon, or threatens to commit a crime of violence against any individual in violation of the laws of any State or the United States, or attempts or conspires so to do, shall be punished—

(1) for murder, by death or life imprisonment, or a fine under this title, or both; and for kidnapping, by imprisonment for any term of years or for life, or a fine under this title, or both;

(2) for maiming, by imprisonment for not more than thirty years or a fine under this title, or both;

(3) for assault with a dangerous weapon or assault resulting in serious bodily injury, by imprisonment for not more than twenty years or a fine under this title, or both;

(4) for threatening to commit a crime of violence, by imprisonment for not more than five years or a fine under this title, or both;

(5) for attempting or conspiring to commit murder or kidnapping, by imprisonment for not more than ten years or a fine under this title, or both; and

(6) for attempting or conspiring to commit a crime involving maiming, assault with a dangerous weapon, or assault resulting in serious bodily injury, by imprisonment for not more than three years or a fine of 1 under this title, or both.


(b) As used in this section—

(1) “racketeering activity” has the meaning set forth in section 1961 of this title; and

(2) “enterprise” includes any partnership, corporation, association, or other legal entity, and any union or group of individuals associated in fact although not a legal entity, which is engaged in, or the activities of which affect, interstate or foreign commerce.

(Added Pub. L. 98–473, title II, §1002(a), Oct. 12, 1984, 98 Stat. 2137, §1952B; renumbered §1959, Pub. L. 100–690, title VII, §7053(b), Nov. 18, 1988, 102 Stat. 4402; Pub. L. 103–322, title VI, §60003(a)(12), title XXXIII, §§330016(1)(J), (2)(C), 330021(1), Sept. 13, 1994, 108 Stat. 1969, 2147, 2148, 2150.)

Amendments

1994—Subsec. (a)(1). Pub. L. 103–322, §330016(2)(C), substituted “fine under this title” for “fine of not more than $250,000” in two places.

Pub. L. 103–322, §60003(a)(12), amended par. (1) generally. Prior to amendment, par. (1) read as follows:

“(1) for murder or kidnaping, by imprisonment for any term of years or for life or a fine of not more than $50,000, or both;”.

Subsec. (a)(2) to (4). Pub. L. 103–322, §330016(2)(C), substituted “fine under this title” for “fine of not more than $30,000” in par. (2), “fine of not more than $20,000” in par. (3), and “fine of not more than $5,000” in par. (4).

Subsec. (a)(5). Pub. L. 103–322, §330021(1), substituted “kidnapping” for “kidnaping”.

Pub. L. 103–322, §330016(2)(C), substituted “fine under this title” for “fine of not more than $10,000”.

Subsec. (a)(6). Pub. L. 103–322, §330016(1)(J), substituted “under this title” for “not more than $3,000” after “fine of”.

1988—Pub. L. 100–690 renumbered section 1952B of this title as this section.

1 So in original. The word “of” probably should not appear.

§1960. Prohibition of unlicensed money transmitting businesses

(a) Whoever knowingly conducts, controls, manages, supervises, directs, or owns all or part of an unlicensed money transmitting business, shall be fined in accordance with this title or imprisoned not more than 5 years, or both.

(b) As used in this section—

(1) the term “unlicensed money transmitting business” means a money transmitting business which affects interstate or foreign commerce in any manner or degree and—

(A) is operated without an appropriate money transmitting license in a State where such operation is punishable as a misdemeanor or a felony under State law, whether or not the defendant knew that the operation was required to be licensed or that the operation was so punishable;

(B) fails to comply with the money transmitting business registration requirements under section 5330 of title 31, United States Code, or regulations prescribed under such section; or

(C) otherwise involves the transportation or transmission of funds that are known to the defendant to have been derived from a criminal offense or are intended to be used to promote or support unlawful activity;


(2) the term “money transmitting” includes transferring funds on behalf of the public by any and all means including but not limited to transfers within this country or to locations abroad by wire, check, draft, facsimile, or courier; and

(3) the term “State” means any State of the United States, the District of Columbia, the Northern Mariana Islands, and any commonwealth, territory, or possession of the United States.

(Added Pub. L. 102–550, title XV, §1512(a), Oct. 28, 1992, 106 Stat. 4057; amended Pub. L. 103–325, title IV, §408(c), Sept. 23, 1994, 108 Stat. 2252; Pub. L. 107–56, title III, §373(a), Oct. 26, 2001, 115 Stat. 339; Pub. L. 109–162, title XI, §1171(a)(2), Jan. 5, 2006, 119 Stat. 3123.)

Amendments

2006—Subsec. (b)(1)(C). Pub. L. 109–162 substituted “to be used” for “to be used to be used”.

2001—Pub. L. 107–56 amended section catchline and text generally, substituting provisions relating to prohibition of unlicensed money transmitting businesses for similar provisions relating to prohibition of illegal money transmitting businesses.

1994—Subsec. (b)(1). Pub. L. 103–325 amended par. (1) generally. Prior to amendment, par. (1) read as follows:

“(1) the term ‘illegal money transmitting business’ means a money transmitting business that affects interstate or foreign commerce in any manner or degree and which is knowingly operated in a State—

“(A) without the appropriate money transmitting State license; and

“(B) where such operation is punishable as a misdemeanor or a felony under State law;”.