18 U.S.C.
United States Code, 2011 Edition
Title 18 - CRIMES AND CRIMINAL PROCEDURE
PART I - CRIMES
CHAPTER 96 - RACKETEER INFLUENCED AND CORRUPT ORGANIZATIONS
From the U.S. Government Printing Office, www.gpo.gov

CHAPTER 96—RACKETEER INFLUENCED AND CORRUPT ORGANIZATIONS

Sec.
1961.
Definitions.
1962.
Prohibited activities.
1963.
Criminal penalties.
1964.
Civil remedies.
1965.
Venue and process.
1966.
Expedition of actions.
1967.
Evidence.
1968.
Civil investigative demand.

        

Amendments

1990—Pub. L. 101–647, title XXXV, §3559, Nov. 29, 1990, 104 Stat. 4927, struck out “racketeering” after “Prohibited” in item 1962.

1970—Pub. L. 91–452, title IX, §901(a), Oct. 15, 1970, 84 Stat. 941, added chapter 96 and items 1961 to 1968.

§1961. Definitions

As used in this chapter—

(1) “racketeering activity” means (A) any act or threat involving murder, kidnapping, gambling, arson, robbery, bribery, extortion, dealing in obscene matter, or dealing in a controlled substance or listed chemical (as defined in section 102 of the Controlled Substances Act), which is chargeable under State law and punishable by imprisonment for more than one year; (B) any act which is indictable under any of the following provisions of title 18, United States Code: Section 201 (relating to bribery), section 224 (relating to sports bribery), sections 471, 472, and 473 (relating to counterfeiting), section 659 (relating to theft from interstate shipment) if the act indictable under section 659 is felonious, section 664 (relating to embezzlement from pension and welfare funds), sections 891–894 (relating to extortionate credit transactions), section 1028 (relating to fraud and related activity in connection with identification documents), section 1029 (relating to fraud and related activity in connection with access devices), section 1084 (relating to the transmission of gambling information), section 1341 (relating to mail fraud), section 1343 (relating to wire fraud), section 1344 (relating to financial institution fraud), section 1425 (relating to the procurement of citizenship or nationalization unlawfully), section 1426 (relating to the reproduction of naturalization or citizenship papers), section 1427 (relating to the sale of naturalization or citizenship papers), sections 1461–1465 (relating to obscene matter), section 1503 (relating to obstruction of justice), section 1510 (relating to obstruction of criminal investigations), section 1511 (relating to the obstruction of State or local law enforcement), section 1512 (relating to tampering with a witness, victim, or an informant), section 1513 (relating to retaliating against a witness, victim, or an informant), section 1542 (relating to false statement in application and use of passport), section 1543 (relating to forgery or false use of passport), section 1544 (relating to misuse of passport), section 1546 (relating to fraud and misuse of visas, permits, and other documents), sections 1581–1592 (relating to peonage, slavery, and trafficking in persons).,1 section 1951 (relating to interference with commerce, robbery, or extortion), section 1952 (relating to racketeering), section 1953 (relating to interstate transportation of wagering paraphernalia), section 1954 (relating to unlawful welfare fund payments), section 1955 (relating to the prohibition of illegal gambling businesses), section 1956 (relating to the laundering of monetary instruments), section 1957 (relating to engaging in monetary transactions in property derived from specified unlawful activity), section 1958 (relating to use of interstate commerce facilities in the commission of murder-for-hire), section 1960 (relating to illegal money transmitters), sections 2251, 2251A, 2252, and 2260 (relating to sexual exploitation of children), sections 2312 and 2313 (relating to interstate transportation of stolen motor vehicles), sections 2314 and 2315 (relating to interstate transportation of stolen property), section 2318 (relating to trafficking in counterfeit labels for phonorecords, computer programs or computer program documentation or packaging and copies of motion pictures or other audiovisual works), section 2319 (relating to criminal infringement of a copyright), section 2319A (relating to unauthorized fixation of and trafficking in sound recordings and music videos of live musical performances), section 2320 (relating to trafficking in goods or services bearing counterfeit marks), section 2321 (relating to trafficking in certain motor vehicles or motor vehicle parts), sections 2341–2346 (relating to trafficking in contraband cigarettes), sections 2421–24 (relating to white slave traffic), sections 175–178 (relating to biological weapons), sections 229–229F (relating to chemical weapons), section 831 (relating to nuclear materials), (C) any act which is indictable under title 29, United States Code, section 186 (dealing with restrictions on payments and loans to labor organizations) or section 501(c) (relating to embezzlement from union funds), (D) any offense involving fraud connected with a case under title 11 (except a case under section 157 of this title), fraud in the sale of securities, or the felonious manufacture, importation, receiving, concealment, buying, selling, or otherwise dealing in a controlled substance or listed chemical (as defined in section 102 of the Controlled Substances Act), punishable under any law of the United States, (E) any act which is indictable under the Currency and Foreign Transactions Reporting Act, (F) any act which is indictable under the Immigration and Nationality Act, section 274 (relating to bringing in and harboring certain aliens), section 277 (relating to aiding or assisting certain aliens to enter the United States), or section 278 (relating to importation of alien for immoral purpose) if the act indictable under such section of such Act was committed for the purpose of financial gain, or (G) any act that is indictable under any provision listed in section 2332b(g)(5)(B);

(2) “State” means any State of the United States, the District of Columbia, the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico, any territory or possession of the United States, any political subdivision, or any department, agency, or instrumentality thereof;

(3) “person” includes any individual or entity capable of holding a legal or beneficial interest in property;

(4) “enterprise” includes any individual, partnership, corporation, association, or other legal entity, and any union or group of individuals associated in fact although not a legal entity;

(5) “pattern of racketeering activity” requires at least two acts of racketeering activity, one of which occurred after the effective date of this chapter and the last of which occurred within ten years (excluding any period of imprisonment) after the commission of a prior act of racketeering activity;

(6) “unlawful debt” means a debt (A) incurred or contracted in gambling activity which was in violation of the law of the United States, a State or political subdivision thereof, or which is unenforceable under State or Federal law in whole or in part as to principal or interest because of the laws relating to usury, and (B) which was incurred in connection with the business of gambling in violation of the law of the United States, a State or political subdivision thereof, or the business of lending money or a thing of value at a rate usurious under State or Federal law, where the usurious rate is at least twice the enforceable rate;

(7) “racketeering investigator” means any attorney or investigator so designated by the Attorney General and charged with the duty of enforcing or carrying into effect this chapter;

(8) “racketeering investigation” means any inquiry conducted by any racketeering investigator for the purpose of ascertaining whether any person has been involved in any violation of this chapter or of any final order, judgment, or decree of any court of the United States, duly entered in any case or proceeding arising under this chapter;

(9) “documentary material” includes any book, paper, document, record, recording, or other material; and

(10) “Attorney General” includes the Attorney General of the United States, the Deputy Attorney General of the United States, the Associate Attorney General of the United States, any Assistant Attorney General of the United States, or any employee of the Department of Justice or any employee of any department or agency of the United States so designated by the Attorney General to carry out the powers conferred on the Attorney General by this chapter. Any department or agency so designated may use in investigations authorized by this chapter either the investigative provisions of this chapter or the investigative power of such department or agency otherwise conferred by law.

(Added Pub. L. 91–452, title IX, §901(a), Oct. 15, 1970, 84 Stat. 941; amended Pub. L. 95–575, §3(c), Nov. 2, 1978, 92 Stat. 2465; Pub. L. 95–598, title III, §314(g), Nov. 6, 1978, 92 Stat. 2677; Pub. L. 98–473, title II, §§901(g), 1020, Oct. 12, 1984, 98 Stat. 2136, 2143; Pub. L. 98–547, title II, §205, Oct. 25, 1984, 98 Stat. 2770; Pub. L. 99–570, title I, §1365(b), Oct. 27, 1986, 100 Stat. 3207–35; Pub. L. 99–646, §50(a), Nov. 10, 1986, 100 Stat. 3605; Pub. L. 100–690, title VII, §§7013, 7020(c), 7032, 7054, 7514, Nov. 18, 1988, 102 Stat. 4395, 4396, 4398, 4402, 4489; Pub. L. 101–73, title IX, §968, Aug. 9, 1989, 103 Stat. 506; Pub. L. 101–647, title XXXV, §3560, Nov. 29, 1990, 104 Stat. 4927; Pub. L. 103–322, title IX, §90104, title XVI, §160001(f), title XXXIII, §330021(1), Sept. 13, 1994, 108 Stat. 1987, 2037, 2150; Pub. L. 103–394, title III, §312(b), Oct. 22, 1994, 108 Stat. 4140; Pub. L. 104–132, title IV, §433, Apr. 24, 1996, 110 Stat. 1274; Pub. L. 104–153, §3, July 2, 1996, 110 Stat. 1386; Pub. L. 104–208, div. C, title II, §202, Sept. 30, 1996, 110 Stat. 3009–565; Pub. L. 104–294, title VI, §§601(b)(3), (i)(3), 604(b)(6), Oct. 11, 1996, 110 Stat. 3499, 3501, 3506; Pub. L. 107–56, title VIII, §813, Oct. 26, 2001, 115 Stat. 382; Pub. L. 107–273, div. B, title IV, §4005(f)(1), Nov. 2, 2002, 116 Stat. 1813; Pub. L. 108–193, §5(b), Dec. 19, 2003, 117 Stat. 2879; Pub. L. 108–458, title VI, §6802(e), Dec. 17, 2004, 118 Stat. 3767; Pub. L. 109–164, title I, §103(c), Jan. 10, 2006, 119 Stat. 3563; Pub. L. 109–177, title IV, §403(a), Mar. 9, 2006, 120 Stat. 243.)

References in Text

Section 102 of the Controlled Substances Act, referred to in par. (1)(A), (D), is classified to section 802 of Title 21, Food and Drugs.

The Currency and Foreign Transactions Reporting Act, referred to in par. (1)(E), is title II of Pub. L. 91–508, Oct. 26, 1970, 84 Stat. 1118, which was repealed and reenacted as subchapter II of chapter 53 of Title 31, Money and Finance, by Pub. L. 97–258, §4(b), Sept. 13, 1982, 96 Stat. 1067, the first section of which enacted Title 31.

The Immigration and Nationality Act, referred to in par. (1)(F), is act June 27, 1952, ch. 477, 66 Stat. 163, as amended, which is classified principally to chapter 12 (§1101 et seq.) of Title 8, Aliens and Nationality. Sections 274, 277, and 278 of the Act are classified to sections 1324, 1327, and 1328 of Title 8, respectively. For complete classification of this Act to the Code, see Short Title note set out under section 1101 of Title 8 and Tables.

The effective date of this chapter, referred to in par. (5), is Oct. 15, 1970.

Amendments

2006—Par. (1)(B). Pub. L. 109–177 inserted “section 1960 (relating to illegal money transmitters),” before “sections 2251”.

Pub. L. 109–164 substituted “1581–1592” for “1581–1591”.

2004—Par. (1)(B). Pub. L. 108–458 inserted “sections 175–178 (relating to biological weapons), sections 229–229F (relating to chemical weapons), section 831 (relating to nuclear materials),” before “(C) any act which is indictable under title 29”.

2003—Par. (1)(B). Pub. L. 108–193, which directed amendment of par. (1)(A) of this section by substituting “sections 1581–1591 (relating to peonage, slavery, and trafficking in persons).” for “sections 1581–1588 (relating to peonage and slavery)”, was executed by making the substitution in par. (1)(B) to reflect the probable intent of Congress.

2002—Par. (1)(G). Pub. L. 107–273 made technical amendment to directory language of Pub. L. 107–56. See 2001 Amendment note below.

2001—Par. (1)(G). Pub. L. 107–56, as amended by Pub. L. 107–273, which directed addition of cl. (G) before period at end, was executed by making the addition before the semicolon at end to reflect the probable intent of Congress.

1996—Par. (1)(B). Pub. L. 104–294, §604(b)(6), amended directory language of Pub. L. 103–322, §160001(f). See 1994 Amendment note below.

Pub. L. 104–294, §601(i)(3), substituted “2260” for “2258”.

Pub. L. 104–208 struck out “if the act indictable under section 1028 was committed for the purpose of financial gain” before “, section 1029”, inserted “section 1425 (relating to the procurement of citizenship or nationalization unlawfully), section 1426 (relating to the reproduction of naturalization or citizenship papers), section 1427 (relating to the sale of naturalization or citizenship papers),” after “section 1344 (relating to financial institution fraud),”, struck out “if the act indictable under section 1542 was committed for the purpose of financial gain” before “, section 1543”, “if the act indictable under section 1543 was committed for the purpose of financial gain” before “, section 1544”, “if the act indictable under section 1544 was committed for the purpose of financial gain” before “, section 1546”, and “if the act indictable under section 1546 was committed for the purpose of financial gain” before “, sections 1581–1588”.

Pub. L. 104–153 inserted “, section 2318 (relating to trafficking in counterfeit labels for phonorecords, computer programs or computer program documentation or packaging and copies of motion pictures or other audiovisual works), section 2319 (relating to criminal infringement of a copyright), section 2319A (relating to unauthorized fixation of and trafficking in sound recordings and music videos of live musical performances), section 2320 (relating to trafficking in goods or services bearing counterfeit marks)” after “sections 2314 and 2315 (relating to interstate transportation of stolen property)”.

Pub. L. 104–132, §433(1), (2), inserted “section 1028 (relating to fraud and related activity in connection with identification documents) if the act indictable under section 1028 was committed for the purpose of financial gain,” before “section 1029” and “section 1542 (relating to false statement in application and use of passport) if the act indictable under section 1542 was committed for the purpose of financial gain, section 1543 (relating to forgery or false use of passport) if the act indictable under section 1543 was committed for the purpose of financial gain, section 1544 (relating to misuse of passport) if the act indictable under section 1544 was committed for the purpose of financial gain, section 1546 (relating to fraud and misuse of visas, permits, and other documents) if the act indictable under section 1546 was committed for the purpose of financial gain, sections 1581–1588 (relating to peonage and slavery),” after “section 1513 (relating to retaliating against a witness, victim, or an informant),”.

Par. (1)(D). Pub. L. 104–294, §601(b)(3), substituted “section 157 of this title” for “section 157 of that title”.

Par. (1)(F). Pub. L. 104–132, §433(3), (4), which directed addition of cl. (F) before period at end, was executed by making the addition before the semicolon at end to reflect the probable intent of Congress.

1994—Par. (1)(A). Pub. L. 103–322, §330021(1), substituted “kidnapping” for “kidnaping”.

Pub. L. 103–322, §90104, substituted “a controlled substance or listed chemical (as defined in section 102 of the Controlled Substances Act)” for “narcotic or other dangerous drugs”.

Par. (1)(B). Pub. L. 103–322, §160001(f), as amended by Pub. L. 104–294, §604(b)(6), substituted “2251, 2251A, 2252, and 2258” for “2251–2252”.

Par. (1)(D). Pub. L. 103–394 inserted “(except a case under section 157 of that title)” after “title 11”.

Pub. L. 103–322, §90104, substituted “a controlled substance or listed chemical (as defined in section 102 of the Controlled Substances Act)” for “narcotic or other dangerous drugs”.

1990—Par. (1)(B). Pub. L. 101–647 substituted “section 1029 (relating to” for “section 1029 (relative to” and struck out “sections 2251 through 2252 (relating to sexual exploitation of children),” before “, section 1958”.

1989—Par. (1). Pub. L. 101–73 inserted “section 1344 (relating to financial institution fraud),” after “section 1343 (relating to wire fraud),”.

1988—Par. (1)(B). Pub. L. 100–690, §7514, inserted “sections 2251 through 2252 (relating to sexual exploitation of children),”.

Pub. L. 100–690, §7054, inserted “, section 1029 (relative to fraud and related activity in connection with access devices)” and “, section 1958 (relating to use of interstate commerce facilities in the commission of murder-for-hire), sections 2251–2252 (relating to sexual exploitation of children)”.

Pub. L. 100–690, §7032, substituted “section 2321” for “section 2320”.

Pub. L. 100–690, §7013, made technical amendment to directory language of Pub. L. 99–646. See 1986 Amendment note below.

Par. (10). Pub. L. 100–690, §7020(c), inserted “the Associate Attorney General of the United States,” after “Deputy Attorney General of the United States,”.

1986—Par. (1)(B). Pub. L. 99–646, as amended by Pub. L. 100–690, §7013, inserted “section 1512 (relating to tampering with a witness, victim, or an informant), section 1513 (relating to retaliating against a witness, victim, or an informant),” after “section 1511 (relating to the obstruction of State or local law enforcement),”.

Pub. L. 99–570 inserted “section 1956 (relating to the laundering of monetary instruments), section 1957 (relating to engaging in monetary transactions in property derived from specified unlawful activity),”.

1984—Par. (1)(A). Pub. L. 98–473, §1020(1), inserted “dealing in obscene matter,” after “extortion,”.

Par. (1)(B). Pub. L. 98–547 inserted “sections 2312 and 2313 (relating to interstate transportation of stolen motor vehicles),” and “section 2320 (relating to trafficking in certain motor vehicles or motor vehicle parts),”.

Pub. L. 98–473, §1020(2), inserted “sections 1461–1465 (relating to obscene matter),”.

Par. (1)(E). Pub. L. 98–473, §901(g), added cl. (E).

1978—Par. (1)(B). Pub. L. 95–575 inserted “sections 2341–2346 (relating to trafficking in contraband cigarettes),”.

Par. (1)(D). Pub. L. 95–598 substituted “fraud connected with a case under title 11” for “bankruptcy fraud”.

Effective Date of 2002 Amendment

Pub. L. 107–273, div. B, title IV, §4005(f)(1), Nov. 2, 2002, 116 Stat. 1813, provided that the amendment made by section 4005(f)(1) is effective Oct. 26, 2001.

Effective Date of 1996 Amendment

Amendment by section 604(b)(6) of Pub. L. 104–294 effective Sept. 13, 1994, see section 604(d) of Pub. L. 104–294, set out as a note under section 13 of this title.

Effective Date of 1994 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 103–394 effective Oct. 22, 1994, and not applicable with respect to cases commenced under Title 11, Bankruptcy, before Oct. 22, 1994, see section 702 of Pub. L. 103–394, set out as a note under section 101 of Title 11.

Effective Date of 1978 Amendments

Amendment by Pub. L. 95–598 effective Oct. 1, 1979, see section 402(a) of Pub. L. 95–598, set out as an Effective Date note preceding section 101 of Title 11, Bankruptcy.

Amendment by Pub. L. 95–575 effective Nov. 2, 1978, see section 4 of Pub. L. 95–575, set out as an Effective Date note under section 2341 of this title.

Short Title of 1984 Amendment

Section 301 of chapter III (§§301–322) of title II of Pub. L. 98–473 provided that: “This title [probably means this chapter, enacting sections 1589, 1600, 1613a, and 1616 of Title 19, Customs Duties and sections 853, 854, and 970 of Title 21, Food and Drugs, amending section 1963 of this title and sections 1602, 1605, 1606, 1607, 1608, 1609, 1610, 1611, 1612, 1613, 1614, 1615, 1618, 1619, and 1644 of Title 19, sections 824, 848, and 881 of Title 21, and section 524 of Title 28, Judiciary and Judicial Procedure, and repealing section 7607 of Title 26, Internal Revenue Code] may be cited as the ‘Comprehensive Forfeiture Act of 1984’.”

Short Title of 1970 Amendment

Pub. L. 91–452, §1, Oct. 15, 1970, 84 Stat. 922, provided in part: “That this Act [enacting this section, sections 841 to 848, 1511, 1623, 1955, 1962 to 1968, 3331 to 3334, 3503, 3504, 3575 to 3578, and 6001 to 6005 of this title, and section 1826 of Title 28, Judiciary and Judicial Procedure, amending sections 835, 1073, 1505, 1954, 2424, 2516, 2517, 3148, 3486, and 3500 of this title, sections 15, 87f, 135c, 499m, and 2115 of Title 7, Agriculture, section 25 of Title 11, Bankruptcy, section 1820 of Title 12, Banks and Banking, sections 49, 77v, 78u, 79r, 80a–41, 80b–9, 155, 717m, 1271, and 1714 of Title 15, Commerce and Trade, section 825f of Title 16, Conservation, section 1333 of Title 19, Customs Duties, section 373 of Title 21, Food and Drugs, section 161 of Title 29, Labor, section 506 of Title 33, Navigation and Navigable Waters, sections 405 and 2201 of Title 42, The Public Health and Welfare, sections 157 and 362 of Title 45, Railroads, section 1124 of former Title 46, Shipping, section 409 of Title 47, Telegraphs, Telephones, and Radio telegraphs, sections 9, 43, 46, 916, 1017, and 1484 of former Title 49, Transportation, section 792 of Title 50, War and National Defense, and sections 643a, 1152, 2026, and former section 2155 of Title 50, Appendix, repealing sections 837, 895, 1406, and 2514 of this title, sections 32 and 33 of Title 15; sections 4874 and 7493 of Title 26, Internal Revenue Code, section 827 of former Title 46, sections 47 and 48 of former Title 49, and sections 121 to 144 of Title 50, enacting provisions set out as notes under this section and sections 841, 1511, 1955, preceding 3331, preceding 3481, 3504, and 6001 of this title, and repealing provisions set out as a note under section 2510 of this title] may be cited as the ‘Organized Crime Control Act of 1970’.”

Pub. L. 91–452, title IX, §901(a), Oct. 15, 1970, 84 Stat. 941, is popularly known as the “Racketeer Influenced and Corrupt Organizations Act”. See also Short Title note below.

Short Title

This chapter is popularly known as the “Racketeer Influenced and Corrupt Organizations Act”.

Savings Provision

Amendment by section 314 of Pub. L. 95–598 not to affect the application of chapter 9 (§151 et seq.), chapter 96 (§1961 et seq.), or section 2516, 3057, or 3284 of this title to any act of any person (1) committed before Oct. 1, 1979, or (2) committed after Oct. 1, 1979, in connection with a case commenced before such date, see section 403(d) of Pub. L. 95–598, set out as a note preceding section 101 of Title 11, Bankruptcy.

Separability

Section 1301 of Pub. L. 91–452 provided that: “If the provisions of any part of this Act [see Short Title of 1970 Amendment note set out above] or the application thereof to any person or circumstances be held invalid, the provisions of the other parts and their application to other persons or circumstances shall not be affected thereby.”

Congressional Statement of Findings and Purpose

Section 1 of Pub. L. 91–452 provided in part that:

“The Congress finds that (1) organized crime in the United States is a highly sophisticated, diversified, and widespread activity that annually drains billions of dollars from America's economy by unlawful conduct and the illegal use of force, fraud, and corruption; (2) organized crime derives a major portion of its power through money obtained from such illegal endeavors as syndicated gambling, loan sharking, the theft and fencing of property, the importation and distribution of narcotics and other dangerous drugs, and other forms of social exploitation; (3) this money and power are increasingly used to infiltrate and corrupt legitimate business and labor unions and to subvert and corrupt our democratic processes; (4) organized crime activities in the United States weaken the stability of the Nation's economic system, harm innocent investors and competing organizations, interfere with free competition, seriously burden interstate and foreign commerce, threaten the domestic security, and undermine the general welfare of the Nation and its citizens; and (5) organized crime continues to grow because of defects in the evidence-gathering process of the law inhibiting the development of the legally admissible evidence necessary to bring criminal and other sanctions or remedies to bear on the unlawful activities of those engaged in organized crime and because the sanctions and remedies available to the Government are unnecessarily limited in scope and impact.

“It is the purpose of this Act [see Short Title of 1970 Amendment note above] to seek the eradication of organized crime in the United States by strengthening the legal tools in the evidence-gathering process, by establishing new penal prohibitions, and by providing enhanced sanctions and new remedies to deal with the unlawful activities of those engaged in organized crime.”

Liberal Construction of Provisions; Supersedure of Federal or State Laws; Authority of Attorneys Representing United States

Section 904 of title IX of Pub. L. 91–452 provided that:

“(a) The provisions of this title [enacting this chapter and amending sections 1505, 2516, and 2517 of this title] shall be liberally construed to effectuate its remedial purposes.

“(b) Nothing in this title shall supersede any provision of Federal, State, or other law imposing criminal penalties or affording civil remedies in addition to those provided for in this title.

“(c) Nothing contained in this title shall impair the authority of any attorney representing the United States to—

“(1) lay before any grand jury impaneled by any district court of the United States any evidence concerning any alleged racketeering violation of law;

“(2) invoke the power of any such court to compel the production of any evidence before any such grand jury; or

“(3) institute any proceeding to enforce any order or process issued in execution of such power or to punish disobedience of any such order or process by any person.”

President's Commission on Organized Crime; Taking of Testimony and Receipt of Evidence

Pub. L. 98–368, July 17, 1984, 98 Stat. 490, provided for the Commission established by Ex. Ord. No. 12435, formerly set out below, authority relating to taking of testimony, receipt of evidence, subpoena power, testimony of persons in custody, immunity, service of process, witness fees, access to other records and information, Federal protection for members and staff, closure of meetings, rules, and procedures, for the period of July 17, 1984, until the earlier of 2 years or the expiration of the Commission.

Executive Order No. 12435

Ex. Ord. No. 12435, July 28, 1983, 48 F.R. 34723, as amended Ex. Ord. No. 12507, Mar. 22, 1985, 50 F.R. 11835, which established and provided for the administration of the President's Commission on Organized Crime, was revoked by Ex. Ord. No. 12610, Sept. 30, 1987, 52 F.R. 36901, formerly set out as a note under section 14 of the Federal Advisory Committee Act in the Appendix to Title 5, Government Organization and Employees.

1 So in original.

§1962. Prohibited activities

(a) It shall be unlawful for any person who has received any income derived, directly or indirectly, from a pattern of racketeering activity or through collection of an unlawful debt in which such person has participated as a principal within the meaning of section 2, title 18, United States Code, to use or invest, directly or indirectly, any part of such income, or the proceeds of such income, in acquisition of any interest in, or the establishment or operation of, any enterprise which is engaged in, or the activities of which affect, interstate or foreign commerce. A purchase of securities on the open market for purposes of investment, and without the intention of controlling or participating in the control of the issuer, or of assisting another to do so, shall not be unlawful under this subsection if the securities of the issuer held by the purchaser, the members of his immediate family, and his or their accomplices in any pattern or racketeering activity or the collection of an unlawful debt after such purchase do not amount in the aggregate to one percent of the outstanding securities of any one class, and do not confer, either in law or in fact, the power to elect one or more directors of the issuer.

(b) It shall be unlawful for any person through a pattern of racketeering activity or through collection of an unlawful debt to acquire or maintain, directly or indirectly, any interest in or control of any enterprise which is engaged in, or the activities of which affect, interstate or foreign commerce.

(c) It shall be unlawful for any person employed by or associated with any enterprise engaged in, or the activities of which affect, interstate or foreign commerce, to conduct or participate, directly or indirectly, in the conduct of such enterprise's affairs through a pattern of racketeering activity or collection of unlawful debt.

(d) It shall be unlawful for any person to conspire to violate any of the provisions of subsection (a), (b), or (c) of this section.

(Added Pub. L. 91–452, title IX, §901(a), Oct. 15, 1970, 84 Stat. 942; amended Pub. L. 100–690, title VII, §7033, Nov. 18, 1988, 102 Stat. 4398.)

Amendments

1988—Subsec. (d). Pub. L. 100–690 substituted “subsection” for “subsections”.

§1963. Criminal penalties

(a) Whoever violates any provision of section 1962 of this chapter shall be fined under this title or imprisoned not more than 20 years (or for life if the violation is based on a racketeering activity for which the maximum penalty includes life imprisonment), or both, and shall forfeit to the United States, irrespective of any provision of State law—

(1) any interest the person has acquired or maintained in violation of section 1962;

(2) any—

(A) interest in;

(B) security of;

(C) claim against; or

(D) property or contractual right of any kind affording a source of influence over;


any enterprise which the person has established, operated, controlled, conducted, or participated in the conduct of, in violation of section 1962; and

(3) any property constituting, or derived from, any proceeds which the person obtained, directly or indirectly, from racketeering activity or unlawful debt collection in violation of section 1962.


The court, in imposing sentence on such person shall order, in addition to any other sentence imposed pursuant to this section, that the person forfeit to the United States all property described in this subsection. In lieu of a fine otherwise authorized by this section, a defendant who derives profits or other proceeds from an offense may be fined not more than twice the gross profits or other proceeds.

(b) Property subject to criminal forfeiture under this section includes—

(1) real property, including things growing on, affixed to, and found in land; and

(2) tangible and intangible personal property, including rights, privileges, interests, claims, and securities.


(c) All right, title, and interest in property described in subsection (a) vests in the United States upon the commission of the act giving rise to forfeiture under this section. Any such property that is subsequently transferred to a person other than the defendant may be the subject of a special verdict of forfeiture and thereafter shall be ordered forfeited to the United States, unless the transferee establishes in a hearing pursuant to subsection (l) that he is a bona fide purchaser for value of such property who at the time of purchase was reasonably without cause to believe that the property was subject to forfeiture under this section.

(d)(1) Upon application of the United States, the court may enter a restraining order or injunction, require the execution of a satisfactory performance bond, or take any other action to preserve the availability of property described in subsection (a) for forfeiture under this section—

(A) upon the filing of an indictment or information charging a violation of section 1962 of this chapter and alleging that the property with respect to which the order is sought would, in the event of conviction, be subject to forfeiture under this section; or

(B) prior to the filing of such an indictment or information, if, after notice to persons appearing to have an interest in the property and opportunity for a hearing, the court determines that—

(i) there is a substantial probability that the United States will prevail on the issue of forfeiture and that failure to enter the order will result in the property being destroyed, removed from the jurisdiction of the court, or otherwise made unavailable for forfeiture; and

(ii) the need to preserve the availability of the property through the entry of the requested order outweighs the hardship on any party against whom the order is to be entered:


Provided, however, That an order entered pursuant to subparagraph (B) shall be effective for not more than ninety days, unless extended by the court for good cause shown or unless an indictment or information described in subparagraph (A) has been filed.

(2) A temporary restraining order under this subsection may be entered upon application of the United States without notice or opportunity for a hearing when an information or indictment has not yet been filed with respect to the property, if the United States demonstrates that there is probable cause to believe that the property with respect to which the order is sought would, in the event of conviction, be subject to forfeiture under this section and that provision of notice will jeopardize the availability of the property for forfeiture. Such a temporary order shall expire not more than fourteen days after the date on which it is entered, unless extended for good cause shown or unless the party against whom it is entered consents to an extension for a longer period. A hearing requested concerning an order entered under this paragraph shall be held at the earliest possible time, and prior to the expiration of the temporary order.

(3) The court may receive and consider, at a hearing held pursuant to this subsection, evidence and information that would be inadmissible under the Federal Rules of Evidence.

(e) Upon conviction of a person under this section, the court shall enter a judgment of forfeiture of the property to the United States and shall also authorize the Attorney General to seize all property ordered forfeited upon such terms and conditions as the court shall deem proper. Following the entry of an order declaring the property forfeited, the court may, upon application of the United States, enter such appropriate restraining orders or injunctions, require the execution of satisfactory performance bonds, appoint receivers, conservators, appraisers, accountants, or trustees, or take any other action to protect the interest of the United States in the property ordered forfeited. Any income accruing to, or derived from, an enterprise or an interest in an enterprise which has been ordered forfeited under this section may be used to offset ordinary and necessary expenses to the enterprise which are required by law, or which are necessary to protect the interests of the United States or third parties.

(f) Following the seizure of property ordered forfeited under this section, the Attorney General shall direct the disposition of the property by sale or any other commercially feasible means, making due provision for the rights of any innocent persons. Any property right or interest not exercisable by, or transferable for value to, the United States shall expire and shall not revert to the defendant, nor shall the defendant or any person acting in concert with or on behalf of the defendant be eligible to purchase forfeited property at any sale held by the United States. Upon application of a person, other than the defendant or a person acting in concert with or on behalf of the defendant, the court may restrain or stay the sale or disposition of the property pending the conclusion of any appeal of the criminal case giving rise to the forfeiture, if the applicant demonstrates that proceeding with the sale or disposition of the property will result in irreparable injury, harm or loss to him. Notwithstanding 31 U.S.C. 3302(b), the proceeds of any sale or other disposition of property forfeited under this section and any moneys forfeited shall be used to pay all proper expenses for the forfeiture and the sale, including expenses of seizure, maintenance and custody of the property pending its disposition, advertising and court costs. The Attorney General shall deposit in the Treasury any amounts of such proceeds or moneys remaining after the payment of such expenses.

(g) With respect to property ordered forfeited under this section, the Attorney General is authorized to—

(1) grant petitions for mitigation or remission of forfeiture, restore forfeited property to victims of a violation of this chapter, or take any other action to protect the rights of innocent persons which is in the interest of justice and which is not inconsistent with the provisions of this chapter;

(2) compromise claims arising under this section;

(3) award compensation to persons providing information resulting in a forfeiture under this section;

(4) direct the disposition by the United States of all property ordered forfeited under this section by public sale or any other commercially feasible means, making due provision for the rights of innocent persons; and

(5) take appropriate measures necessary to safeguard and maintain property ordered forfeited under this section pending its disposition.


(h) The Attorney General may promulgate regulations with respect to—

(1) making reasonable efforts to provide notice to persons who may have an interest in property ordered forfeited under this section;

(2) granting petitions for remission or mitigation of forfeiture;

(3) the restitution of property to victims of an offense petitioning for remission or mitigation of forfeiture under this chapter;

(4) the disposition by the United States of forfeited property by public sale or other commercially feasible means;

(5) the maintenance and safekeeping of any property forfeited under this section pending its disposition; and

(6) the compromise of claims arising under this chapter.


Pending the promulgation of such regulations, all provisions of law relating to the disposition of property, or the proceeds from the sale thereof, or the remission or mitigation of forfeitures for violation of the customs laws, and the compromise of claims and the award of compensation to informers in respect of such forfeitures shall apply to forfeitures incurred, or alleged to have been incurred, under the provisions of this section, insofar as applicable and not inconsistent with the provisions hereof. Such duties as are imposed upon the Customs Service or any person with respect to the disposition of property under the customs law shall be performed under this chapter by the Attorney General.

(i) Except as provided in subsection (l), no party claiming an interest in property subject to forfeiture under this section may—

(1) intervene in a trial or appeal of a criminal case involving the forfeiture of such property under this section; or

(2) commence an action at law or equity against the United States concerning the validity of his alleged interest in the property subsequent to the filing of an indictment or information alleging that the property is subject to forfeiture under this section.


(j) The district courts of the United States shall have jurisdiction to enter orders as provided in this section without regard to the location of any property which may be subject to forfeiture under this section or which has been ordered forfeited under this section.

(k) In order to facilitate the identification or location of property declared forfeited and to facilitate the disposition of petitions for remission or mitigation of forfeiture, after the entry of an order declaring property forfeited to the United States the court may, upon application of the United States, order that the testimony of any witness relating to the property forfeited be taken by deposition and that any designated book, paper, document, record, recording, or other material not privileged be produced at the same time and place, in the same manner as provided for the taking of depositions under Rule 15 of the Federal Rules of Criminal Procedure.

(l)(1) Following the entry of an order of forfeiture under this section, the United States shall publish notice of the order and of its intent to dispose of the property in such manner as the Attorney General may direct. The Government may also, to the extent practicable, provide direct written notice to any person known to have alleged an interest in the property that is the subject of the order of forfeiture as a substitute for published notice as to those persons so notified.

(2) Any person, other than the defendant, asserting a legal interest in property which has been ordered forfeited to the United States pursuant to this section may, within thirty days of the final publication of notice or his receipt of notice under paragraph (1), whichever is earlier, petition the court for a hearing to adjudicate the validity of his alleged interest in the property. The hearing shall be held before the court alone, without a jury.

(3) The petition shall be signed by the petitioner under penalty of perjury and shall set forth the nature and extent of the petitioner's right, title, or interest in the property, the time and circumstances of the petitioner's acquisition of the right, title, or interest in the property, any additional facts supporting the petitioner's claim, and the relief sought.

(4) The hearing on the petition shall, to the extent practicable and consistent with the interests of justice, be held within thirty days of the filing of the petition. The court may consolidate the hearing on the petition with a hearing on any other petition filed by a person other than the defendant under this subsection.

(5) At the hearing, the petitioner may testify and present evidence and witnesses on his own behalf, and cross-examine witnesses who appear at the hearing. The United States may present evidence and witnesses in rebuttal and in defense of its claim to the property and cross-examine witnesses who appear at the hearing. In addition to testimony and evidence presented at the hearing, the court shall consider the relevant portions of the record of the criminal case which resulted in the order of forfeiture.

(6) If, after the hearing, the court determines that the petitioner has established by a preponderance of the evidence that—

(A) the petitioner has a legal right, title, or interest in the property, and such right, title, or interest renders the order of forfeiture invalid in whole or in part because the right, title, or interest was vested in the petitioner rather than the defendant or was superior to any right, title, or interest of the defendant at the time of the commission of the acts which gave rise to the forfeiture of the property under this section; or

(B) the petitioner is a bona fide purchaser for value of the right, title, or interest in the property and was at the time of purchase reasonably without cause to believe that the property was subject to forfeiture under this section;


the court shall amend the order of forfeiture in accordance with its determination.

(7) Following the court's disposition of all petitions filed under this subsection, or if no such petitions are filed following the expiration of the period provided in paragraph (2) for the filing of such petitions, the United States shall have clear title to property that is the subject of the order of forfeiture and may warrant good title to any subsequent purchaser or transferee.

(m) If any of the property described in subsection (a), as a result of any act or omission of the defendant—

(1) cannot be located upon the exercise of due diligence;

(2) has been transferred or sold to, or deposited with, a third party;

(3) has been placed beyond the jurisdiction of the court;

(4) has been substantially diminished in value; or

(5) has been commingled with other property which cannot be divided without difficulty;


the court shall order the forfeiture of any other property of the defendant up to the value of any property described in paragraphs (1) through (5).

(Added Pub. L. 91–452, title IX, §901(a), Oct. 15, 1970, 84 Stat. 943; amended Pub. L. 98–473, title II, §§302, 2301(a)–(c), Oct. 12, 1984, 98 Stat. 2040, 2192; Pub. L. 99–570, title I, §1153(a), Oct. 27, 1986, 100 Stat. 3207–13; Pub. L. 99–646, §23, Nov. 10, 1986, 100 Stat. 3597; Pub. L. 100–690, title VII, §§7034, 7058(d), Nov. 18, 1988, 102 Stat. 4398, 4403; Pub. L. 101–647, title XXXV, §3561, Nov. 29, 1990, 104 Stat. 4927; Pub. L. 111–16, §3(4), May 7, 2009, 123 Stat. 1607.)

References in Text

The Federal Rules of Evidence, referred to in subsec. (d)(3), are set out in the Appendix to Title 28, Judiciary and Judicial Procedure.

Amendments

2009—Subsec. (d)(2). Pub. L. 111–16 substituted “fourteen days” for “ten days”.

1990—Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 101–647 substituted “or both” for “or both.” in introductory provisions.

1988—Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 100–690, §7058(d), substituted “shall be fined under this title or imprisoned not more than 20 years (or for life if the violation is based on a racketeering activity for which the maximum penalty includes life imprisonment), or both.” for “shall be fined not more than $25,000 or imprisoned not more than twenty years, or both”.

Subsecs. (m), (n). Pub. L. 100–690, §7034, redesignated former subsec. (n) as (m) and substituted “act or omission” for “act of omission”.

1986—Subsecs. (c) to (m). Pub. L. 99–646 substituted “(l)” for “(m)” in subsec. (c), redesignated subsecs. (e) to (m) as (d) to (l), respectively, and substituted “(l)” for “(m)” in subsec. (i) as redesignated.

Subsec. (n). Pub. L. 99–570 added subsec. (n).

1984—Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 98–473, §2301(a), inserted “In lieu of a fine otherwise authorized by this section, a defendant who derives profits or other proceeds from an offense may be fined not more than twice the gross profits or other proceeds.” following par. (3).

Pub. L. 98–473, §302, amended subsec. (a) generally, designating existing provisions as pars. (1) and (2), inserting par. (3), and provisions following par. (3) relating to power of the court to order forfeiture to the United States.

Subsec. (b). Pub. L. 98–473, §302, amended subsec. (b) generally, substituting provisions relating to property subject to forfeiture, for provisions relating to jurisdiction of the district courts of the United States.

Subsec. (c). Pub. L. 98–473, §302, amended subsec. (c) generally, substituting provisions relating to transfer of rights, etc., in property to the United States, or to other transferees, for provisions relating to seizure and transfer of property to the United States and procedures related thereto.

Subsec. (d). Pub. L. 98–473, §2301(b), struck out subsec. (d) which provided: “If any of the property described in subsection (a): (1) cannot be located; (2) has been transferred to, sold to, or deposited with, a third party; (3) has been placed beyond the jurisdiction of the court; (4) has been substantially diminished in value by any act or omission of the defendant; or (5) has been commingled with other property which cannot be divided without difficulty; the court shall order the forfeiture of any other property of the defendant up to the value of any property described in paragraphs (1) through (5).”

Pub. L. 98–473, §302, added subsec. (d).

Subsecs. (e) to (m). Pub. L. 98–473, §302, added subsecs. (d) to (m).

Subsec. (m)(1). Pub. L. 98–473, §2301(c), struck out “for at least seven successive court days” after “dispose of the property”.

Effective Date of 2009 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 111–16 effective Dec. 1, 2009, see section 7 of Pub. L. 111–16, set out as a note under section 109 of Title 11, Bankruptcy.

Transfer of Functions

For transfer of functions, personnel, assets, and liabilities of the United States Customs Service of the Department of the Treasury, including functions of the Secretary of the Treasury relating thereto, to the Secretary of Homeland Security, and for treatment of related references, see sections 203(1), 551(d), 552(d), and 557 of Title 6, Domestic Security, and the Department of Homeland Security Reorganization Plan of November 25, 2002, as modified, set out as a note under section 542 of Title 6.

§1964. Civil remedies

(a) The district courts of the United States shall have jurisdiction to prevent and restrain violations of section 1962 of this chapter by issuing appropriate orders, including, but not limited to: ordering any person to divest himself of any interest, direct or indirect, in any enterprise; imposing reasonable restrictions on the future activities or investments of any person, including, but not limited to, prohibiting any person from engaging in the same type of endeavor as the enterprise engaged in, the activities of which affect interstate or foreign commerce; or ordering dissolution or reorganization of any enterprise, making due provision for the rights of innocent persons.

(b) The Attorney General may institute proceedings under this section. Pending final determination thereof, the court may at any time enter such restraining orders or prohibitions, or take such other actions, including the acceptance of satisfactory performance bonds, as it shall deem proper.

(c) Any person injured in his business or property by reason of a violation of section 1962 of this chapter may sue therefor in any appropriate United States district court and shall recover threefold the damages he sustains and the cost of the suit, including a reasonable attorney's fee, except that no person may rely upon any conduct that would have been actionable as fraud in the purchase or sale of securities to establish a violation of section 1962. The exception contained in the preceding sentence does not apply to an action against any person that is criminally convicted in connection with the fraud, in which case the statute of limitations shall start to run on the date on which the conviction becomes final.

(d) A final judgment or decree rendered in favor of the United States in any criminal proceeding brought by the United States under this chapter shall estop the defendant from denying the essential allegations of the criminal offense in any subsequent civil proceeding brought by the United States.

(Added Pub. L. 91–452, title IX, §901(a), Oct. 15, 1970, 84 Stat. 943; amended Pub. L. 98–620, title IV, §402(24)(A), Nov. 8, 1984, 98 Stat. 3359; Pub. L. 104–67, title I, §107, Dec. 22, 1995, 109 Stat. 758.)

Amendments

1995—Subsec. (c). Pub. L. 104–67 inserted before period at end “, except that no person may rely upon any conduct that would have been actionable as fraud in the purchase or sale of securities to establish a violation of section 1962. The exception contained in the preceding sentence does not apply to an action against any person that is criminally convicted in connection with the fraud, in which case the statute of limitations shall start to run on the date on which the conviction becomes final”.

1984—Subsec. (b). Pub. L. 98–620 struck out provision that in any action brought by the United States under this section, the court had to proceed as soon as practicable to the hearing and determination thereof.

Effective Date of 1995 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 104–67 not to affect or apply to any private action arising under title I of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 (15 U.S.C. 78a et seq.) or title I of the Securities Act of 1933 (15 U.S.C. 77a et seq.), commenced before and pending on Dec. 22, 1995, see section 108 of Pub. L. 104–67, set out as a note under section 77l of Title 15, Commerce and Trade.

Effective Date of 1984 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 98–620 not applicable to cases pending on Nov. 8, 1984, see section 403 of Pub. L. 98–620, set out as an Effective Date note under section 1657 of Title 28, Judiciary and Judicial Procedure.

Construction of 1995 Amendment

Nothing in amendment by Pub. L. 104–67 to be deemed to create or ratify any implied right of action, or to prevent Securities and Exchange Commission, by rule or regulation, from restricting or otherwise regulating private actions under Securities Exchange Act of 1934 (15 U.S.C. 78a et seq.), see section 203 of Pub. L. 104–67, set out as a Construction note under section 78j–1 of Title 15, Commerce and Trade.

§1965. Venue and process

(a) Any civil action or proceeding under this chapter against any person may be instituted in the district court of the United States for any district in which such person resides, is found, has an agent, or transacts his affairs.

(b) In any action under section 1964 of this chapter in any district court of the United States in which it is shown that the ends of justice require that other parties residing in any other district be brought before the court, the court may cause such parties to be summoned, and process for that purpose may be served in any judicial district of the United States by the marshal thereof.

(c) In any civil or criminal action or proceeding instituted by the United States under this chapter in the district court of the United States for any judicial district, subpenas issued by such court to compel the attendance of witnesses may be served in any other judicial district, except that in any civil action or proceeding no such subpena shall be issued for service upon any individual who resides in another district at a place more than one hundred miles from the place at which such court is held without approval given by a judge of such court upon a showing of good cause.

(d) All other process in any action or proceeding under this chapter may be served on any person in any judicial district in which such person resides, is found, has an agent, or transacts his affairs.

(Added Pub. L. 91–452, title IX, §901(a), Oct. 15, 1970, 84 Stat. 944.)

§1966. Expedition of actions

In any civil action instituted under this chapter by the United States in any district court of the United States, the Attorney General may file with the clerk of such court a certificate stating that in his opinion the case is of general public importance. A copy of that certificate shall be furnished immediately by such clerk to the chief judge or in his absence to the presiding district judge of the district in which such action is pending. Upon receipt of such copy, such judge shall designate immediately a judge of that district to hear and determine action.

(Added Pub. L. 91–452, title IX, §901(a), Oct. 15, 1970, 84 Stat. 944; amended Pub. L. 98–620, title IV, §402(24)(B), Nov. 8, 1984, 98 Stat. 3359.)

Amendments

1984—Pub. L. 98–620 struck out provision that the judge so designated had to assign such action for hearing as soon as practicable, participate in the hearings and determination thereof, and cause such action to be expedited in every way.

Effective Date of 1984 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 98–620 not applicable to cases pending on Nov. 8, 1984, see section 403 of Pub. L. 98–620, set out as an Effective Date note under section 1657 of Title 28, Judiciary and Judicial Procedure.

§1967. Evidence

In any proceeding ancillary to or in any civil action instituted by the United States under this chapter the proceedings may be open or closed to the public at the discretion of the court after consideration of the rights of affected persons.

(Added Pub. L. 91–452, title IX, §901(a), Oct. 15, 1970, 84 Stat. 944.)

§1968. Civil investigative demand

(a) Whenever the Attorney General has reason to believe that any person or enterprise may be in possession, custody, or control of any documentary materials relevant to a racketeering investigation, he may, prior to the institution of a civil or criminal proceeding thereon, issue in writing, and cause to be served upon such person, a civil investigative demand requiring such person to produce such material for examination.

(b) Each such demand shall—

(1) state the nature of the conduct constituting the alleged racketeering violation which is under investigation and the provision of law applicable thereto;

(2) describe the class or classes of documentary material produced thereunder with such definiteness and certainty as to permit such material to be fairly identified;

(3) state that the demand is returnable forthwith or prescribe a return date which will provide a reasonable period of time within which the material so demanded may be assembled and made available for inspection and copying or reproduction; and

(4) identify the custodian to whom such material shall be made available.


(c) No such demand shall—

(1) contain any requirement which would be held to be unreasonable if contained in a subpena duces tecum issued by a court of the United States in aid of a grand jury investigation of such alleged racketeering violation; or

(2) require the production of any documentary evidence which would be privileged from disclosure if demanded by a subpena duces tecum issued by a court of the United States in aid of a grand jury investigation of such alleged racketeering violation.


(d) Service of any such demand or any petition filed under this section may be made upon a person by—

(1) delivering a duly executed copy thereof to any partner, executive officer, managing agent, or general agent thereof, or to any agent thereof authorized by appointment or by law to receive service of process on behalf of such person, or upon any individual person;

(2) delivering a duly executed copy thereof to the principal office or place of business of the person to be served; or

(3) depositing such copy in the United States mail, by registered or certified mail duly addressed to such person at its principal office or place of business.


(e) A verified return by the individual serving any such demand or petition setting forth the manner of such service shall be prima facie proof of such service. In the case of service by registered or certified mail, such return shall be accompanied by the return post office receipt of delivery of such demand.

(f)(1) The Attorney General shall designate a racketeering investigator to serve as racketeer document custodian, and such additional racketeering investigators as he shall determine from time to time to be necessary to serve as deputies to such officer.

(2) Any person upon whom any demand issued under this section has been duly served shall make such material available for inspection and copying or reproduction to the custodian designated therein at the principal place of business of such person, or at such other place as such custodian and such person thereafter may agree and prescribe in writing or as the court may direct, pursuant to this section on the return date specified in such demand, or on such later date as such custodian may prescribe in writing. Such person may upon written agreement between such person and the custodian substitute for copies of all or any part of such material originals thereof.

(3) The custodian to whom any documentary material is so delivered shall take physical possession thereof, and shall be responsible for the use made thereof and for the return thereof pursuant to this chapter. The custodian may cause the preparation of such copies of such documentary material as may be required for official use under regulations which shall be promulgated by the Attorney General. While in the possession of the custodian, no material so produced shall be available for examination, without the consent of the person who produced such material, by any individual other than the Attorney General. Under such reasonable terms and conditions as the Attorney General shall prescribe, documentary material while in the possession of the custodian shall be available for examination by the person who produced such material or any duly authorized representatives of such person.

(4) Whenever any attorney has been designated to appear on behalf of the United States before any court or grand jury in any case or proceeding involving any alleged violation of this chapter, the custodian may deliver to such attorney such documentary material in the possession of the custodian as such attorney determines to be required for use in the presentation of such case or proceeding on behalf of the United States. Upon the conclusion of any such case or proceeding, such attorney shall return to the custodian any documentary material so withdrawn which has not passed into the control of such court or grand jury through the introduction thereof into the record of such case or proceeding.

(5) Upon the completion of—

(i) the racketeering investigation for which any documentary material was produced under this chapter, and

(ii) any case or proceeding arising from such investigation, the custodian shall return to the person who produced such material all such material other than copies thereof made by the Attorney General pursuant to this subsection which has not passed into the control of any court or grand jury through the introduction thereof into the record of such case or proceeding.


(6) When any documentary material has been produced by any person under this section for use in any racketeering investigation, and no such case or proceeding arising therefrom has been instituted within a reasonable time after completion of the examination and analysis of all evidence assembled in the course of such investigation, such person shall be entitled, upon written demand made upon the Attorney General, to the return of all documentary material other than copies thereof made pursuant to this subsection so produced by such person.

(7) In the event of the death, disability, or separation from service of the custodian of any documentary material produced under any demand issued under this section or the official relief of such custodian from responsibility for the custody and control of such material, the Attorney General shall promptly—

(i) designate another racketeering investigator to serve as custodian thereof, and

(ii) transmit notice in writing to the person who produced such material as to the identity and address of the successor so designated.


Any successor so designated shall have with regard to such materials all duties and responsibilities imposed by this section upon his predecessor in office with regard thereto, except that he shall not be held responsible for any default or dereliction which occurred before his designation as custodian.

(g) Whenever any person fails to comply with any civil investigative demand duly served upon him under this section or whenever satisfactory copying or reproduction of any such material cannot be done and such person refuses to surrender such material, the Attorney General may file, in the district court of the United States for any judicial district in which such person resides, is found, or transacts business, and serve upon such person a petition for an order of such court for the enforcement of this section, except that if such person transacts business in more than one such district such petition shall be filed in the district in which such person maintains his principal place of business, or in such other district in which such person transacts business as may be agreed upon by the parties to such petition.

(h) Within twenty days after the service of any such demand upon any person, or at any time before the return date specified in the demand, whichever period is shorter, such person may file, in the district court of the United States for the judicial district within which such person resides, is found, or transacts business, and serve upon such custodian a petition for an order of such court modifying or setting aside such demand. The time allowed for compliance with the demand in whole or in part as deemed proper and ordered by the court shall not run during the pendency of such petition in the court. Such petition shall specify each ground upon which the petitioner relies in seeking such relief, and may be based upon any failure of such demand to comply with the provisions of this section or upon any constitutional or other legal right or privilege of such person.

(i) At any time during which any custodian is in custody or control of any documentary material delivered by any person in compliance with any such demand, such person may file, in the district court of the United States for the judicial district within which the office of such custodian is situated, and serve upon such custodian a petition for an order of such court requiring the performance by such custodian of any duty imposed upon him by this section.

(j) Whenever any petition is filed in any district court of the United States under this section, such court shall have jurisdiction to hear and determine the matter so presented, and to enter such order or orders as may be required to carry into effect the provisions of this section.

(Added Pub. L. 91–452, title IX, §901(a), Oct. 15, 1970, 84 Stat. 944.)