18 U.S.C.
United States Code, 2011 Edition
Title 18 - CRIMES AND CRIMINAL PROCEDURE
PART II - CRIMINAL PROCEDURE
From the U.S. Government Printing Office, www.gpo.gov

PART II—CRIMINAL PROCEDURE

Chap.
Sec.
201.
General provisions
3001
203.
Arrest and commitment
3041
204.
Rewards for information concerning terrorist acts and espionage
3071
205.
Searches and seizures
3101
206.
Pen Registers and Trap and Trace Devices 1
3121

        

207.
Release and detention pending judicial proceedings
3141
208.
Speedy trial
3161
209.
Extradition
3181
211.
Jurisdiction and venue
3231
212.
Military extraterritorial jurisdiction
3261
212A.
Extraterritorial jurisdiction over certain trafficking in persons offenses
3271
213.
Limitations
3281
215.
Grand jury
3321
216.
Special grand jury
3331
217.
Indictment and information
3361
219.
Trial by United States magistrate judges
3401
221.
Arraignment, pleas and trial
3431
223.
Witnesses and evidence
3481
224.
Protection of witnesses
3521
225.
Verdict
3531
227.
Sentences
3551
228.
Death sentence
3591
228A.
Post-conviction DNA testing
3600
229.
Post-Sentence Administration 2
3601

        

[231.
Repealed.]
232.
Miscellaneous Sentencing Provisions 1
3661
232A.
Special forfeiture of collateral profits of crime
3681
233.
Contempts
3691
235.
Appeal
3731
237.
Crime victims’ rights
3771

        

Amendments

2006—Pub. L. 109–164, title I, §103(a)(2), Jan. 10, 2006, 119 Stat. 3563, added item for chapter 212A.

2004—Pub. L. 108–405, title I, §102(b), title IV, §411(a)(2), Oct. 30, 2004, 118 Stat. 2264, 2284, added items for chapters 228A and 237.

2000—Pub. L. 106–523, §2(b), Nov. 22, 2000, 114 Stat. 2492, added item for chapter 212.

1994—Pub. L. 103–359, title VIII, §803(c)(1), Oct. 14, 1994, 108 Stat. 3439, substituted “terrorist acts and espionage” for “terrorists acts” in item for chapter 204.

Pub. L. 103–322, title VI, §60002(b), Sept. 13, 1994, 108 Stat. 1968, added item for chapter 228.

1988—Pub. L. 100–702, title IV, §404(a)(1), Nov. 19, 1988, 102 Stat. 4651, struck out item 237 “Rules of criminal procedure”.

1986—Pub. L. 99–646, §41(d), Nov. 10, 1986, 100 Stat. 3600, struck out item for chapter 232 “Special forfeiture of collateral profits of crime” and added item for chapter 232A.

Pub. L. 99–508, title III, §301(b), Oct. 21, 1986, 100 Stat. 1872, added item for chapter 206.

1984—Pub. L. 98–533, title I, §101(b), Oct. 19, 1984, 98 Stat. 2708, added item for chapter 204.

Pub. L. 98–473, title II, §§203(d), 212(b), 1209(a), 1406(b), Oct. 12, 1984, 98 Stat. 1985, 2011, 2163, 2176, inserted “and detention pending judicial proceedings” in item for chapter 207, added items for chapters 224, 227, 229, 231, and 232, and struck out items for former chapters 227 “Sentence, judgment, and execution”, 229 “Fines, penalties and forfeitures” and 231 “Probation”.

1975—Pub. L. 93–619, title I, §102, Jan. 3, 1975, 88 Stat. 2086, added item for chapter 208.

1970—Pub. L. 91–452, title I, §101(b), Oct. 15, 1970, 84 Stat. 926, added item for chapter 216.

1968—Pub. L. 90–578, title III, §301(c), Oct. 17, 1968, 82 Stat. 1115, substituted “Trial by United States magistrates” for “Trial by commissioners” in item for chapter 219.

1966—Pub. L. 89–465, §5(e)(2), June 22, 1966, 80 Stat. 217, substituted “Release” for “Bail” in item for chapter 207.

Change of Name

“United States magistrate judges” substituted for “United States magistrates” in item for chapter 219 pursuant to section 321 of Pub. L. 101–650, set out as a note under section 631 of Title 28, Judiciary and Judicial Procedure.

1 So in original. First word only of item should be capitalized.

2 So in original. Does not conform to chapter heading and first word only of item should be capitalized.

CHAPTER 201—GENERAL PROVISIONS

Sec.
3001.
Procedure governed by rules; scope, purpose and effect; definition of terms; local rules; forms—Rule.
3002.
Courts always open—Rule.
3003.
Calendars—Rule.
3004.
Decorum in court room—Rule.
3005.
Counsel and witnesses in capital cases.
3006.
Assignment of counsel—Rule.
3006A.
Adequate representation of defendants.
3007.
Motions—Rule.
3008.
Service and filing of papers—Rule.
3009.
Records—Rule.
3010.
Exceptions unnecessary—Rule.
3011.
Computation of time—Rule.
3012.
Repealed.
3013.
Special assessment on convicted persons.

        

Amendments

1984—Pub. L. 98–473, title II, §§218(c), 1405(b), Oct. 12, 1984, 98 Stat. 2027, 2175, added item 3013 and substituted “Repealed” for “Orders respecting persons in custody” in item 3012.

1964—Pub. L. 88–455, §4, Aug. 20, 1964, 78 Stat. 554, added item 3006A.

Law Enforcement Assistance Act of 1965

Pub. L. 89–197, §§1–11, Sept. 22, 1965, 79 Stat. 828, as amended by Pub. L. 89–798, Nov. 8, 1966, 80 Stat. 1503, was repealed by Pub. L. 90–351, title I, §405, June 19, 1968, 82 Stat. 204, subject to the provisions of section 3745 of Title 42, The Public Health and Welfare. See section 3701 et seq. (chapter 46) of Title 42. Such Act had provided for grants and contracts for improvement of quality of state and local personnel through professional training; grants and contracts to improve state and local law enforcement techniques; delegation and redelegation of powers; contributions to program by recipients, rules and regulations, necessary stipends, and allowances; studies by Attorney General and technical assistance to states; prohibition against control over local agencies; advisory committees, compensation, and expenses; term of program; appropriations; and reports to President and Congress.

Coordination of Federal Law Enforcement and Crime Prevention Programs

Designation of Attorney General to coordinate Federal law enforcement and crime prevention program, see Ex. Ord. No. 11396, Feb. 7, 1968, 33 F.R. 2689, set out as a note preceding section 1 of this title.

§3001. Procedure governed by rules; scope, purpose and effect; definition of terms; local rules; forms—(Rule)

See Federal Rules of Criminal Procedure

Scope, rule 1.

Purpose and construction, rule 2.

Proceedings to which rules apply, rules 54 and 59.

Definition, rule 54(c).

Rules of District Courts and Circuit Courts of Appeal, rule 57.

Forms, rule 58.

Effective date, rule 59.

Citation of rule, rule 60.

(June 25, 1948, ch. 645, 62 Stat. 814.)

§3002. Courts always open—(Rule)

See Federal Rules of Criminal Procedure

Business hours, rule 56.

(June 25, 1948, ch. 645, 62 Stat. 814.)

§3003. Calendars—(Rule)

See Federal Rules of Criminal Procedure

Preference to criminal cases, rule 50.

(June 25, 1948, ch. 645, 62 Stat. 814.)

§3004. Decorum in court room—(Rule)

See Federal Rules of Criminal Procedure

Photographing or radio broadcasting prohibited, rule 53.

(June 25, 1948, ch. 645, 62 Stat. 814.)

§3005. Counsel and witnesses in capital cases

Whoever is indicted for treason or other capital crime shall be allowed to make his full defense by counsel; and the court before which the defendant is to be tried, or a judge thereof, shall promptly, upon the defendant's request, assign 2 such counsel, of whom at least 1 shall be learned in the law applicable to capital cases, and who shall have free access to the accused at all reasonable hours. In assigning counsel under this section, the court shall consider the recommendation of the Federal Public Defender organization, or, if no such organization exists in the district, of the Administrative Office of the United States Courts. The defendant shall be allowed, in his defense to make any proof that he can produce by lawful witnesses, and shall have the like process of the court to compel his witnesses to appear at his trial, as is usually granted to compel witnesses to appear on behalf of the prosecution.

(June 25, 1948, ch. 645, 62 Stat. 814; Pub. L. 103–322, title VI, §60026, Sept. 13, 1994, 108 Stat. 1982.)

Historical and Revision Notes

Based on title 18, U.S.C., 1940 ed., §563 (R.S. §1034).

Changes were made in phraseology.

Amendments

1994—Pub. L. 103–322 substituted “; and the court before which the defendant is to be tried, or a judge thereof, shall promptly, upon the defendant's request, assign 2 such counsel, of whom at least 1 shall be learned in the law applicable to capital cases, and who shall have free access to the accused at all reasonable hours. In assigning counsel under this section, the court shall consider the recommendation of the Federal Public Defender organization, or, if no such organization exists in the district, of the Administrative Office of the United States Courts. The defendant shall” for “learned in the law; and the court before which he is tried, or some judge thereof, shall immediately, upon his request, assign to him such counsel, not exceeding two, as he may desire, who shall have free access to him at all reasonable hours. He shall”.

§3006. Assignment of counsel—(Rule)

See Federal Rules of Criminal Procedure

Appointment by court, rule 44.

Accused to be informed of right to counsel, rules 5 and 44.

(June 25, 1948, ch. 645, 62 Stat. 814.)

§3006A. Adequate representation of defendants

(a) Choice of Plan.—Each United States district court, with the approval of the judicial council of the circuit, shall place in operation throughout the district a plan for furnishing representation for any person financially unable to obtain adequate representation in accordance with this section. Representation under each plan shall include counsel and investigative, expert, and other services necessary for adequate representation. Each plan shall provide the following:

(1) Representation shall be provided for any financially eligible person who—

(A) is charged with a felony or a Class A misdemeanor;

(B) is a juvenile alleged to have committed an act of juvenile delinquency as defined in section 5031 of this title;

(C) is charged with a violation of probation;

(D) is under arrest, when such representation is required by law;

(E) is charged with a violation of supervised release or faces modification, reduction, or enlargement of a condition, or extension or revocation of a term of supervised release;

(F) is subject to a mental condition hearing under chapter 313 of this title;

(G) is in custody as a material witness;

(H) is entitled to appointment of counsel under the sixth amendment to the Constitution;

(I) faces loss of liberty in a case, and Federal law requires the appointment of counsel; or

(J) is entitled to the appointment of counsel under section 4109 of this title.


(2) Whenever the United States magistrate judge or the court determines that the interests of justice so require, representation may be provided for any financially eligible person who—

(A) is charged with a Class B or C misdemeanor, or an infraction for which a sentence to confinement is authorized; or

(B) is seeking relief under section 2241, 2254, or 2255 of title 28.


(3) Private attorneys shall be appointed in a substantial proportion of the cases. Each plan may include, in addition to the provisions for private attorneys, either of the following or both:

(A) Attorneys furnished by a bar association or a legal aid agency,

(B) Attorneys furnished by a defender organization established in accordance with the provisions of subsection (g).


Prior to approving the plan for a district, the judicial council of the circuit shall supplement the plan with provisions for representation on appeal. The district court may modify the plan at any time with the approval of the judicial council of the circuit. It shall modify the plan when directed by the judicial council of the circuit. The district court shall notify the Administrative Office of the United States Courts of any modification of its plan.

(b) Appointment of Counsel.—Counsel furnishing representation under the plan shall be selected from a panel of attorneys designated or approved by the court, or from a bar association, legal aid agency, or defender organization furnishing representation pursuant to the plan. In every case in which a person entitled to representation under a plan approved under subsection (a) appears without counsel, the United States magistrate judge or the court shall advise the person that he has the right to be represented by counsel and that counsel will be appointed to represent him if he is financially unable to obtain counsel. Unless the person waives representation by counsel, the United States magistrate judge or the court, if satisfied after appropriate inquiry that the person is financially unable to obtain counsel, shall appoint counsel to represent him. Such appointment may be made retroactive to include any representation furnished pursuant to the plan prior to appointment. The United States magistrate judge or the court shall appoint separate counsel for persons having interests that cannot properly be represented by the same counsel, or when other good cause is shown.

(c) Duration and Substitution of Appointments.—A person for whom counsel is appointed shall be represented at every stage of the proceedings from his initial appearance before the United States magistrate judge or the court through appeal, including ancillary matters appropriate to the proceedings. If at any time after the appointment of counsel the United States magistrate judge or the court finds that the person is financially able to obtain counsel or to make partial payment for the representation, it may terminate the appointment of counsel or authorize payment as provided in subsection (f), as the interests of justice may dictate. If at any stage of the proceedings, including an appeal, the United States magistrate judge or the court finds that the person is financially unable to pay counsel whom he had retained, it may appoint counsel as provided in subsection (b) and authorize payment as provided in subsection (d), as the interests of justice may dictate. The United States magistrate judge or the court may, in the interests of justice, substitute one appointed counsel for another at any stage of the proceedings.

(d) Payment for Representation.—

(1) Hourly Rate.—Any attorney appointed pursuant to this section or a bar association or legal aid agency or community defender organization which has provided the appointed attorney shall, at the conclusion of the representation or any segment thereof, be compensated at a rate not exceeding $60 per hour for time expended in court or before a United States magistrate judge and $40 per hour for time reasonably expended out of court, unless the Judicial Conference determines that a higher rate of not in excess of $75 per hour is justified for a circuit or for particular districts within a circuit, for time expended in court or before a United States magistrate judge and for time expended out of court. The Judicial Conference shall develop guidelines for determining the maximum hourly rates for each circuit in accordance with the preceding sentence, with variations by district, where appropriate, taking into account such factors as the minimum range of the prevailing hourly rates for qualified attorneys in the district in which the representation is provided and the recommendations of the judicial councils of the circuits. Not less than 3 years after the effective date of the Criminal Justice Act Revision of 1986, the Judicial Conference is authorized to raise the maximum hourly rates specified in this paragraph up to the aggregate of the overall average percentages of the adjustments in the rates of pay under the General Schedule made pursuant to section 5305 1 of title 5 on or after such effective date. After the rates are raised under the preceding sentence, such maximum hourly rates may be raised at intervals of not less than 1 year each, up to the aggregate of the overall average percentages of such adjustments made since the last raise was made under this paragraph. Attorneys may be reimbursed for expenses reasonably incurred, including the costs of transcripts authorized by the United States magistrate 2 or the court, and the costs of defending actions alleging malpractice of counsel in furnishing representational services under this section. No reimbursement for expenses in defending against malpractice claims shall be made if a judgment of malpractice is rendered against the counsel furnishing representational services under this section. The United States magistrate 2 or the court shall make determinations relating to reimbursement of expenses under this paragraph.

(2) Maximum Amounts.—For representation of a defendant before the United States magistrate judge or the district court, or both, the compensation to be paid to an attorney or to a bar association or legal aid agency or community defender organization shall not exceed $7,000 for each attorney in a case in which one or more felonies are charged, and $2,000 for each attorney in a case in which only misdemeanors are charged. For representation of a defendant in an appellate court, the compensation to be paid to an attorney or to a bar association or legal aid agency or community defender organization shall not exceed $5,000 for each attorney in each court. For representation of a petitioner in a non-capital habeas corpus proceeding, the compensation for each attorney shall not exceed the amount applicable to a felony in this paragraph for representation of a defendant before a judicial officer of the district court. For representation of such petitioner in an appellate court, the compensation for each attorney shall not exceed the amount applicable for representation of a defendant in an appellate court. For representation of an offender before the United States Parole Commission in a proceeding under section 4106A of this title, the compensation shall not exceed $1,500 for each attorney in each proceeding; for representation of an offender in an appeal from a determination of such Commission under such section, the compensation shall not exceed $5,000 for each attorney in each court. For any other representation required or authorized by this section, the compensation shall not exceed $1,500 for each attorney in each proceeding. The compensation maximum amounts provided in this paragraph shall increase simultaneously by the same percentage, rounded to the nearest multiple of $100, as the aggregate percentage increases in the maximum hourly compensation rate paid pursuant to paragraph (1) for time expended since the case maximum amounts were last adjusted.

(3) Waiving Maximum Amounts.—Payment in excess of any maximum amount provided in paragraph (2) of this subsection may be made for extended or complex representation whenever the court in which the representation was rendered, or the United States magistrate judge if the representation was furnished exclusively before him, certifies that the amount of the excess payment is necessary to provide fair compensation and the payment is approved by the chief judge of the circuit. The chief judge of the circuit may delegate such approval authority to an active or senior circuit judge.

(4) Disclosure of fees.—

(A) In general.—Subject to subparagraphs (B) through (E), the amounts paid under this subsection for services in any case shall be made available to the public by the court upon the court's approval of the payment.

(B) Pre-trial or trial in progress.—If a trial is in pre-trial status or still in progress and after considering the defendant's interests as set forth in subparagraph (D), the court shall—

(i) redact any detailed information on the payment voucher provided by defense counsel to justify the expenses to the court; and

(ii) make public only the amounts approved for payment to defense counsel by dividing those amounts into the following categories:

(I) Arraignment and or plea.

(II) Bail and detention hearings.

(III) Motions.

(IV) Hearings.

(V) Interviews and conferences.

(VI) Obtaining and reviewing records.

(VII) Legal research and brief writing.

(VIII) Travel time.

(IX) Investigative work.

(X) Experts.

(XI) Trial and appeals.

(XII) Other.


(C) Trial completed.—

(i) In general.—If a request for payment is not submitted until after the completion of the trial and subject to consideration of the defendant's interests as set forth in subparagraph (D), the court shall make available to the public an unredacted copy of the expense voucher.

(ii) Protection of the rights of the defendant.—If the court determines that defendant's interests as set forth in subparagraph (D) require a limited disclosure, the court shall disclose amounts as provided in subparagraph (B).


(D) Considerations.—The interests referred to in subparagraphs (B) and (C) are—

(i) to protect any person's 5th amendment right against self-incrimination;

(ii) to protect the defendant's 6th amendment rights to effective assistance of counsel;

(iii) the defendant's attorney-client privilege;

(iv) the work product privilege of the defendant's counsel;

(v) the safety of any person; and

(vi) any other interest that justice may require, except that the amount of the fees shall not be considered a reason justifying any limited disclosure under section 3006A(d)(4) of title 18, United States Code.


(E) Notice.—The court shall provide reasonable notice of disclosure to the counsel of the defendant prior to the approval of the payments in order to allow the counsel to request redaction based on the considerations set forth in subparagraph (D). Upon completion of the trial, the court shall release unredacted copies of the vouchers provided by defense counsel to justify the expenses to the court. If there is an appeal, the court shall not release unredacted copies of the vouchers provided by defense counsel to justify the expenses to the court until such time as the appeals process is completed, unless the court determines that none of the defendant's interests set forth in subparagraph (D) will be compromised.

(F) Effective date.—The amendment made by paragraph (4) shall become effective 60 days after enactment of this Act, will apply only to cases filed on or after the effective date, and shall be in effect for no longer than 24 months after the effective date.


(5) Filing Claims.—A separate claim for compensation and reimbursement shall be made to the district court for representation before the United States magistrate judge and the court, and to each appellate court before which the attorney provided representation to the person involved. Each claim shall be supported by a sworn written statement specifying the time expended, services rendered, and expenses incurred while the case was pending before the United States magistrate judge and the court, and the compensation and reimbursement applied for or received in the same case from any other source. The court shall fix the compensation and reimbursement to be paid to the attorney or to the bar association or legal aid agency or community defender organization which provided the appointed attorney. In cases where representation is furnished exclusively before a United States magistrate judge, the claim shall be submitted to him and he shall fix the compensation and reimbursement to be paid. In cases where representation is furnished other than before the United States magistrate judge, the district court, or an appellate court, claims shall be submitted to the district court which shall fix the compensation and reimbursement to be paid.

(6) New Trials.—For purposes of compensation and other payments authorized by this section, an order by a court granting a new trial shall be deemed to initiate a new case.

(7) Proceedings Before Appellate Courts.—If a person for whom counsel is appointed under this section appeals to an appellate court or petitions for a writ of certiorari, he may do so without prepayment of fees and costs or security therefor and without filing the affidavit required by section 1915(a) of title 28.

(e) Services Other Than Counsel.—

(1) Upon Request.—Counsel for a person who is financially unable to obtain investigative, expert, or other services necessary for adequate representation may request them in an ex parte application. Upon finding, after appropriate inquiry in an ex parte proceeding, that the services are necessary and that the person is financially unable to obtain them, the court, or the United States magistrate judge if the services are required in connection with a matter over which he has jurisdiction, shall authorize counsel to obtain the services.

(2) Without Prior Request.—(A) Counsel appointed under this section may obtain, subject to later review, investigative, expert, and other services without prior authorization if necessary for adequate representation. Except as provided in subparagraph (B) of this paragraph, the total cost of services obtained without prior authorization may not exceed $800 and expenses reasonably incurred.

(B) The court, or the United States magistrate judge (if the services were rendered in a case disposed of entirely before the United States magistrate judge), may, in the interest of justice, and upon the finding that timely procurement of necessary services could not await prior authorization, approve payment for such services after they have been obtained, even if the cost of such services exceeds $800.

(3) Maximum Amounts.—Compensation to be paid to a person for services rendered by him to a person under this subsection, or to be paid to an organization for services rendered by an employee thereof, shall not exceed $2,400, exclusive of reimbursement for expenses reasonably incurred, unless payment in excess of that limit is certified by the court, or by the United States magistrate judge if the services were rendered in connection with a case disposed of entirely before him, as necessary to provide fair compensation for services of an unusual character or duration, and the amount of the excess payment is approved by the chief judge of the circuit. The chief judge of the circuit may delegate such approval authority to an active or senior circuit judge.

(4) Disclosure of fees.—The amounts paid under this subsection for services in any case shall be made available to the public.

(5) The dollar amounts provided in paragraphs (2) and (3) shall be adjusted simultaneously by an amount, rounded to the nearest multiple of $100, equal to the percentage of the cumulative adjustments taking effect under section 5303 of title 5 in the rates of pay under the General Schedule since the date the dollar amounts provided in paragraphs (2) and (3), respectively, were last enacted or adjusted by statute.

(f) Receipt of Other Payments.—Whenever the United States magistrate judge or the court finds that funds are available for payment from or on behalf of a person furnished representation, it may authorize or direct that such funds be paid to the appointed attorney, to the bar association or legal aid agency or community defender organization which provided the appointed attorney, to any person or organization authorized pursuant to subsection (e) to render investigative, expert, or other services, or to the court for deposit in the Treasury as a reimbursement to the appropriation, current at the time of payment, to carry out the provisions of this section. Except as so authorized or directed, no such person or organization may request or accept any payment or promise of payment for representing a defendant.

(g) Defender Organization.—

(1) Qualifications.—A district or a part of a district in which at least two hundred persons annually require the appointment of counsel may establish a defender organization as provided for either under subparagraphs (A) or (B) of paragraph (2) of this subsection or both. Two adjacent districts or parts of districts may aggregate the number of persons required to be represented to establish eligibility for a defender organization to serve both areas. In the event that adjacent districts or parts of districts are located in different circuits, the plan for furnishing representation shall be approved by the judicial council of each circuit.

(2) Types of Defender Organizations.—

(A) Federal Public Defender Organization.—A Federal Public Defender Organization shall consist of one or more full-time salaried attorneys. An organization for a district or part of a district or two adjacent districts or parts of districts shall be supervised by a Federal Public Defender appointed by the court of appeals of the circuit, without regard to the provisions of title 5 governing appointments in the competitive service, after considering recommendations from the district court or courts to be served. Nothing contained herein shall be deemed to authorize more than one Federal Public Defender within a single judicial district. The Federal Public Defender shall be appointed for a term of four years, unless sooner removed by the court of appeals of the circuit for incompetency, misconduct in office, or neglect of duty. Upon the expiration of his term, a Federal Public Defender may, by a majority vote of the judges of the court of appeals, continue to perform the duties of his office until his successor is appointed, or until one year after the expiration of such Defender's term, whichever is earlier. The compensation of the Federal Public Defender shall be fixed by the court of appeals of the circuit at a rate not to exceed the compensation received by the United States attorney for the district where representation is furnished or, if two districts or parts of districts are involved, the compensation of the higher paid United States attorney of the districts. The Federal Public Defender may appoint, without regard to the provisions of title 5 governing appointments in the competitive service, full-time attorneys in such number as may be approved by the court of appeals of the circuit and other personnel in such number as may be approved by the Director of the Administrative Office of the United States Courts. Compensation paid to such attorneys and other personnel of the organization shall be fixed by the Federal Public Defender at a rate not to exceed that paid to attorneys and other personnel of similar qualifications and experience in the Office of the United States attorney in the district where representation is furnished or, if two districts or parts of districts are involved, the higher compensation paid to persons of similar qualifications and experience in the districts. Neither the Federal Public Defender nor any attorney so appointed by him may engage in the private practice of law. Each organization shall submit to the Director of the Administrative Office of the United States Courts, at the time and in the form prescribed by him, reports of its activities and financial position and its proposed budget. The Director of the Administrative Office shall submit, in accordance with section 605 of title 28, a budget for each organization for each fiscal year and shall out of the appropriations therefor make payments to and on behalf of each organization. Payments under this subparagraph to an organization shall be in lieu of payments under subsection (d) or (e).

(B) Community Defender Organization.—A Community Defender Organization shall be a non-profit defense counsel service established and administered by any group authorized by the plan to provide representation. The organization shall be eligible to furnish attorneys and receive payments under this section if its bylaws are set forth in the plan of the district or districts in which it will serve. Each organization shall submit to the Judicial Conference of the United States an annual report setting forth its activities and financial position and the anticipated caseload and expenses for the next fiscal year. Upon application an organization may, to the extent approved by the Judicial Conference of the United States:

(i) receive an initial grant for expenses necessary to establish the organization; and

(ii) in lieu of payments under subsection (d) or (e), receive periodic sustaining grants to provide representation and other expenses pursuant to this section.


(3) Malpractice and Negligence Suits.—The Director of the Administrative Office of the United States Courts shall, to the extent the Director considers appropriate, provide representation for and hold harmless, or provide liability insurance for, any person who is an officer or employee of a Federal Public Defender Organization established under this subsection, or a Community Defender Organization established under this subsection which is receiving periodic sustaining grants, for money damages for injury, loss of liberty, loss of property, or personal injury or death arising from malpractice or negligence of any such officer or employee in furnishing representational services under this section while acting within the scope of that person's office or employment.

(h) Rules and Reports.—Each district court and court of appeals of a circuit shall submit a report on the appointment of counsel within its jurisdiction to the Administrative Office of the United States Courts in such form and at such times as the Judicial Conference of the United States may specify. The Judicial Conference of the United States may, from time to time, issue rules and regulations governing the operation of plans formulated under this section.

(i) Appropriations.—There are authorized to be appropriated to the United States courts, out of any money in the Treasury not otherwise appropriated, sums necessary to carry out the provisions of this section, including funds for the continuing education and training of persons providing representational services under this section. When so specified in appropriation acts, such appropriations shall remain available until expended. Payments from such appropriations shall be made under the supervision of the Director of the Administrative Office of the United States Courts.

(j) Districts Included.—As used in this section, the term “district court” means each district court of the United States created by chapter 5 of title 28, the District Court of the Virgin Islands, the District Court for the Northern Mariana Islands, and the District Court of Guam.

(k) Applicability in the District of Columbia.—The provisions of this section shall apply in the United States District Court for the District of Columbia and the United States Court of Appeals for the District of Columbia Circuit. The provisions of this section shall not apply to the Superior Court of the District of Columbia and the District of Columbia Court of Appeals.

(Added Pub. L. 88–455, §2, Aug. 20, 1964, 78 Stat. 552; amended Pub. L. 90–578, title III, §301(a)(1), Oct. 17, 1968, 82 Stat. 1115; Pub. L. 91–447, §1, Oct. 14, 1970, 84 Stat. 916; Pub. L. 93–412, §3, Sept. 3, 1974, 88 Stat. 1093; Pub. L. 97–164, title II, §206(a), (b), Apr. 2, 1982, 96 Stat. 53; Pub. L. 98–473, title II, §§223(e), 405, 1901, Oct. 12, 1984, 98 Stat. 2028, 2067, 2185; Pub. L. 99–651, title I, §§102, 103, Nov. 14, 1986, 100 Stat. 3642, 3645; Pub. L. 100–182, §19, Dec. 7, 1987, 101 Stat. 1270; Pub. L. 100–690, title VII, §7101(f), Nov. 18, 1988, 102 Stat. 4416; Pub. L. 101–650, title III, §321, Dec. 1, 1990, 104 Stat. 5117; Pub. L. 104–132, title IX, §903(a), Apr. 24, 1996, 110 Stat. 1318; Pub. L. 105–119, title III, §308, Nov. 26, 1997, 111 Stat. 2493; Pub. L. 106–113, div. B, §1000(a)(1) [title III, §308(a)], Nov. 29, 1999, 113 Stat. 1535, 1501A–37; Pub. L. 106–518, title II, §§210, 211, Nov. 13, 2000, 114 Stat. 2415; Pub. L. 108–447, div. B, title III, §304, Dec. 8, 2004, 118 Stat. 2894; Pub. L. 110–406, §§11–12(b), Oct. 13, 2008, 122 Stat. 4293, 4294; Pub. L. 111–174, §7, May 27, 2010, 124 Stat. 1217.)

References in Text

The effective date of the Criminal Justice Act Revision of 1986, referred to in subsec. (d)(1), is, with qualifications, 120 days after Nov. 14, 1986. See section 105 of Pub. L. 99–651, set out below as an Effective Date of 1986 Amendment note.

Section 5305 of title 5, referred to in subsec. (d)(1), was amended generally by Pub. L. 101–509, title V, §529 [title I, §101(a)(1)], Nov. 5, 1990, 104 Stat. 1427, 1436, and, as so amended, does not relate to adjustments in the rate of pay under the General Schedule. See section 5303 of Title 5, Government Organization and Employees.

The amendment made by paragraph (4), referred to in subsec. (d)(4)(F), probably means the amendment by section 308 of Pub. L. 105–119, which struck out former par. (4) of subsec. (d) and inserted the new par. (4).

Enactment of this Act, referred to in subsec. (d)(4)(F), probably means the date of enactment of Pub. L. 105–119, which enacted subsec. (d)(4) of this section and was approved Nov. 26, 1997.

Amendments

2010—Subsec. (e)(2). Pub. L. 111–174, §7(1)(A), substituted “$800” for “$500” in subpars. (A) and (B).

Subsec. (e)(3). Pub. L. 111–174, §7(1)(B), substituted “$2,400” for “$1,600” in first sentence.

Subsec. (e)(5). Pub. L. 111–174, §7(2), added par. (5).

2008—Subsec. (d)(2). Pub. L. 110–406, §11, inserted at end “The compensation maximum amounts provided in this paragraph shall increase simultaneously by the same percentage, rounded to the nearest multiple of $100, as the aggregate percentage increases in the maximum hourly compensation rate paid pursuant to paragraph (1) for time expended since the case maximum amounts were last adjusted.”

Subsecs. (d)(3), (e)(3). Pub. L. 110–406, §12(a), (b), inserted “or senior” after “active” in second sentence.

2004—Subsec. (d)(2). Pub. L. 108–447, §304(a), substituted “$7,000” for “$5,200” and “$2,000” for “$1,500” in first sentence, “$5,000” for “$3,700” in second sentence, “$1,500” for “$1,200” and “$5,000” for “$3,900” in fifth sentence, and “$1,500” for “$1,200” in last sentence.

Subsec. (e)(2). Pub. L. 108–447, §304(b)(1), substituted “$500” for “$300” in subpars. (A) and (B).

Subsec. (e)(3). Pub. L. 108–447, §304(b)(2), substituted “$1,600” for “$1,000” in first sentence.

2000—Subsec. (d)(1). Pub. L. 106–518, §211, substituted “Attorneys may be reimbursed for expenses reasonably incurred, including the costs of transcripts authorized by the United States magistrate or the court, and the costs of defending actions alleging malpractice of counsel in furnishing representational services under this section. No reimbursement for expenses in defending against malpractice claims shall be made if a judgment of malpractice is rendered against the counsel furnishing representational services under this section. The United States magistrate or the court shall make determinations relating to reimbursement of expenses under this paragraph.” for “Attorneys shall be reimbursed for expenses reasonably incurred, including the costs of transcripts authorized by the United States magistrate or the court.”

Subsec. (d)(2). Pub. L. 106–518, §210(4), (5), inserted after second sentence “For representation of a petitioner in a non-capital habeas corpus proceeding, the compensation for each attorney shall not exceed the amount applicable to a felony in this paragraph for representation of a defendant before a judicial officer of the district court. For representation of such petitioner in an appellate court, the compensation for each attorney shall not exceed the amount applicable for representation of a defendant in an appellate court.” and substituted “$1,200” for “$750” in last sentence.

Pub. L. 106–518, §210(1)–(3), in first sentence, substituted “$5,200” for “$3,500” and “$1,500” for “$1,000”, in second sentence, substituted “$3,700” for “$2,500”, and in third sentence, substituted “$1,200” for “$750” and “$3,900” for “$2,500”.

1999—Subsec. (d)(4)(D)(vi). Pub. L. 106–113 inserted “, except that the amount of the fees shall not be considered a reason justifying any limited disclosure under section 3006A(d)(4) of title 18, United States Code” after “require”.

1997—Subsec. (d)(4). Pub. L. 105–119 reenacted par. heading without change and amended text generally. Prior to amendment, text read as follows: “The amounts paid under this subsection, for representation in any case, shall be made available to the public.”

1996—Subsec. (d)(4) to (7). Pub. L. 104–132, §903(a)(1), added par. (4) and redesignated former pars. (4) to (6) as (5) to (7), respectively.

Subsec. (e)(4). Pub. L. 104–132, §903(a)(2), added par. (4).

1988—Subsec. (a)(1)(J). Pub. L. 100–690, §7101(f)(1), added subpar. (J).

Subsec. (d)(2). Pub. L. 100–690, §7101(f)(2), inserted provisions at end to representation of offender before United States Parole Commission, and in appeal from determination of such Commission.

1987—Subsec. (a)(1)(E) to (I). Pub. L. 100–182 added subpar. (E) and redesignated former subpars. (E) to (H) as (F) to (I), respectively.

1986—Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 99–651, §103, made technical amendments to Pub. L. 98–473, §223(e), see 1984 Amendment note below.

Pub. L. 99–651, §102(a)(1), substituted “in accordance with this section. Representation under each plan shall include counsel and investigative, expert, and other services necessary for adequate representation. Each plan shall provide the following:” and pars. (1) to (3) for prior provisions which read as follows: “(1) who is charged with a felony or misdemeanor (other than a petty offense as defined in section 1 of this title) or with juvenile delinquency by the commission of an act which, if committed by an adult, would be such a felony or misdemeanor or with a violation of probation, (2) who is under arrest, when such representation is required by law, (3) who is subject to revocation of parole, in custody as a material witness, or seeking collateral relief, as provided in subsection (g), (4) whose mental condition is the subject of a hearing pursuant to chapter 313 of this title, or (5) for whom the Sixth Amendment to the Constitution requires the appointment of counsel or for whom, in a case in which he faces loss of liberty, any Federal law requires the appointment of counsel. Representation under each plan shall include counsel and investigative, expert, and other services necessary for an adequate defense. Each plan shall include a provision for private attorneys. The plan may include, in addition to a provision for private attorneys in a substantial proportion of cases, either of the following or both:

“(1) attorneys furnished by a bar association or a legal aid agency; or

“(2) attorneys furnished by a defender organization established in accordance with the provisions of subsection (h).”

Subsec. (b). Pub. L. 99–651, §102(a)(2), substituted “In every case in which a person entitled to representation under a plan approved under subsection (a)” for “In every criminal case in which the defendant is charged with a felony or a misdemeanor (other than a petty offense as defined in section 1 of this title) or with juvenile delinquency by the commission of an act which, if committed by an adult, would be such a felony or misdemeanor or with a violation of probation and” and substituted “person” for “defendant” and “persons” for “defendants” wherever appearing.

Subsec. (d)(1). Pub. L. 99–651, §102(a)(3)(A), substituted “court, unless the Judicial Conference determines that a higher rate of not in excess of $75 per hour is justified for a circuit or for particular districts within a circuit, for time expended in court or before a United States magistrate and for time expended out of court. The Judicial Conference shall develop guidelines for determining the maximum hourly rates for each circuit in accordance with the preceding sentence, with variations by district, where appropriate, taking into account such factors as the minimum range of the prevailing hourly rates for qualified attorneys in the district in which the representation is provided and the recommendations of the judicial councils of the circuits. Not less than 3 years after the effective date of the Criminal Justice Act Revision of 1986, the Judicial Conference is authorized to raise the maximum hourly rates specified in this paragraph up to the aggregate of the overall average percentages of the adjustments in the rates of pay under the General Schedule made pursuant to section 5305 of title 5 on or after such effective date. After the rates are raised under the preceding sentence, such maximum hourly rates may be raised at intervals of not less than 1 year each, up to the aggregate of the overall average percentages of such adjustments made since the last raise was made under this paragraph. Attorneys” for “court. Such attorney”.

Subsec. (d)(2). Pub. L. 99–651, §102(a)(3)(B), substituted “$3,500” for “$2,000”, “$1,000” for “$800”, “$2,500” for “$2,000”, and substituted provision that for any other representation required or authorized by this section, the compensation shall not exceed $750 for each attorney in each proceeding, for provision that for representation in connection with a post-trial motion made after the entry of judgment or in a probation revocation proceeding or for representation provided under subsection (g) the compensation could not exceed $500 for each attorney in each proceeding in each court.

Subsec. (d)(3). Pub. L. 99–651, §102(a)(3)(C), inserted provision that the chief judge of the circuit may delegate such approval authority to an active circuit judge.

Subsec. (d)(4). Pub. L. 99–651, §102(a)(3)(D), substituted “provided representation to the person involved” for “represented the defendant”.

Subsec. (e)(1). Pub. L. 99–651, §102(a)(4)(A), substituted “adequate representation” for “an adequate defense”.

Subsec. (e)(2). Pub. L. 99–651, §102(a)(4)(B), designated existing provisions as subpar. (A), and substituted reference to adequate representation for reference to an adequate defense, inserted exception relating to subpar. (B), increased the authorized amount for services from $150 to $300, and added subpar. (B).

Subsec. (e)(3). Pub. L. 99–651, §102(a)(4)(C), substituted “$1,000” for “$300” and inserted provision that the chief judge of the circuit may delegate such approval authority to an active circuit judge.

Subsec. (g). Pub. L. 99–651, §102(b)(1), redesignated subsec. (h) as (g), and struck out former subsec. (g) which provided for discretionary appointments by the court or magistrate.

Subsec. (g)(2)(A), formerly (h)(2)(A). Pub. L. 99–651, §102(a)(5)(A), substituted “in accordance with section 605 of title 28” for “similarly as under title 28, United States Code, section 605, and subject to the conditions of that section”, and after fourth sentence inserted provision authorizing the continuation in office, upon a majority vote of the judges of the court of appeals, of a Federal Public Defender whose term has expired until appointment of a successor or until one year after the expiration of such Defender's term, whichever is earlier.

Subsec. (g)(2)(B), formerly (h)(2)(B). Pub. L. 99–651, §102(a)(5)(B), substituted “for the next fiscal year” for “for the coming year” in introductory provisions.

Subsec. (g)(3), formerly (h)(3). Pub. L. 99–651, §102(a)(5)(C), added par. (3).

Subsec. (h). Pub. L. 99–651, §102(b)(1), redesignated subsec. (i) as (h). Former subsec. (h) redesignated (g).

Subsec. (i). Pub. L. 99–651, §102(a)(6), (b)(1), redesignated subsec. (j) as (i) and inserted provision for funding continuing education and training of persons providing representational services under this section. Former subsec. (i) redesignated (h).

Subsec. (j). Pub. L. 99–651, §102(b), redesignated subsec. (k) as (j), and amended subsec. (j) generally to include the District Court for the Northern Mariana Islands. Former subsec. (j) redesignated (i).

Subsecs. (k), (l). Pub. L. 99–651, §102(a)(7), (b)(1), redesignated subsec. (l) as (k) and substituted “this section shall apply” for “this Act, other than subsection (h) of section 1, shall apply” and “this section shall not apply” for “this Act shall not apply”. Former subsec. (k) redesignated (j).

1984—Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 98–473, §405(a), added cl. (4) and redesignated former cl. (4) as (5).

Subsec. (a)(1)(A). Pub. L. 98–473, §223(e)(1), as amended by Pub. L. 99–651, §103, substituted “Class A misdemeanor” for “misdemeanor (other than a petty offense as defined in section 1 of this title)”.

Subsec. (a)(1)(E) to (I). Pub. L. 98–473, §223(e)(2), as amended by Pub. L. 99–651, §103, redesignated subpars. (F) to (I) as (E) to (H), respectively, and struck out former subpar. (E) which required that representation be provided for any financially eligible person who was entitled to appointment of counsel in parole proceedings under chapter 311 of this title.

Subsec. (a)(2)(A). Pub. L. 98–473, §223(e)(3), as amended by Pub. L. 99–651, §103, substituted “Class B or C misdemeanor, or an infraction” for “petty offense”.

Subsec. (d)(1). Pub. L. 98–473, §1901(1)–(3), substituted “$60” for “$30” and “$40” for “$20”, and struck out “, or such other hourly rate, fixed by the Judicial Council of the Circuit, not to exceed the minimum hourly scale established by a bar association for similar services rendered in the district” at end of first sentence.

Subsec. (d)(2). Pub. L. 98–473, §1901(4)–(6), substituted “$2,000” for “$1,000” in two places, “$800” for “$400”, and “$500” for “$250”.

Subsec. (g). Pub. L. 98–473, §405(b), struck out reference to section 4245 of title 18.

1982—Subsec. (h)(2)(A). Pub. L. 97–164, §206(a), substituted “court of appeals” for “judicial council” wherever appearing and “court of appeals of the circuit” for “Judicial Council of the Circuit”.

Subsec. (i). Pub. L. 97–164, §206(b), substituted “court of appeals” for “judicial council”.

1974—Subsec. (l). Pub. L. 93–412 substituted “shall apply in the United States District Court for the District of Columbia and the United States Court of Appeals for the District of Columbia Circuit. The provisions of this Act shall not apply to the Superior Court of the District of Columbia and the District of Columbia Court of Appeals”, for “shall be applicable in the District of Columbia”, and struck out provisions that the plan of the District of Columbia shall be approved jointly by the Judicial Council of the District of Columbia Circuit and the District of Columbia Court of Appeals.

1970—Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 91–447, §1(a), expanded coverage of district court plan for furnishing representation to financially disabled persons to include defendants charged with violation of probation, any person under arrest when such representation is required by law, any person who is subject to revocation of parole, in custody as a material witness, or seeking collateral relief as provided in subsec. (g) of this section, and any person for whom the Sixth Amendment to the Constitution requires appointment of counsel or for whom, in a case in which he faces loss of liberty, any Federal law requires the appointment of counsel, and required each plan to include a provision for participation by private attorneys in a substantial proportion of cases, as well as permitting attorneys to be furnished by bar, legal aid, or defender organizations in accordance with subsec. (h) of this section.

Subsec. (b). Pub. L. 91–447, §1(a), provided for appointment of counsel from a bar association, legal aid agency, or defender organization as well as from a panel of attorneys approved by the court, expanded advice to defendant of right to appointment of counsel where defendant is charged with juvenile delinquency by the commission of an act which, if committed by an adult, would be a felony or misdemeanor or with violation of probation, and provided for appointment of counsel to be retroactive so as to include any representation furnished pursuant to the plan prior to appointment.

Subsec. (c). Pub. L. 91–447, §1(a), expanded the scope of representation by appointed counsel to include ancillary matters appropriate to the proceedings.

Subsec. (d). Pub. L. 91–447, §1(a), raised the rate of compensation not to exceed $30 per hour for time expended in court and $20 per hour for time reasonably expended out of court, increased the limit to $1,000 for each attorney in a case involving one or more alleged felonies and $400 for each attorney in a case in which one or more misdemeanors are charged, established a $1,000 maximum for each attorney in each court for cases on appeal and provided a $250 maximum for each attorney for representation in connection with a post-trial motion, probation revocation proceedings and matters covered by subsec. (g) such as parole revocation and collateral relief proceedings, provided for waiver of maximum amounts and payment in excess of those amounts for extended or complex representation upon approval of the chief judge of the circuit, provided for separate claims of compensation to be submitted to the appropriate court, thus a U.S. magistrate fixes compensation in cases before him, appellate court fixes compensation in cases before it and in all other instances claims are to be made to the district court, provided a court order granting a new trial is deemed to initiate a new case for the purpose of compensation, and facilitate appellate proceedings by allowing a defendant for whom counsel is appointed to appeal or petition for a writ of certiorari without prepayment of fees and cost of security therefore and without filing the affidavit required by section 1915(a).

Subsec. (e). Pub. L. 91–447, §1(a), limited to $150, plus reasonable expenses, subject to later review and approval by the court, the cost of investigative, expert, or other services necessary for an adequate defense where these services are obtained without prior authorization because circumstances prevented counsel from securing prior court authorization, maintained existing limit on payment for authorized services at a $300 maximum but permitted waiver of that maximum if the court certifies that payment in excess of that limit is necessary to provide fair compensation, and provided that the amount of any excess payment must be approved by the chief judge of the circuit.

Subsec. (f). Pub. L. 91–447, §1(a), substantially reenacted subsec. (f).

Subsecs. (g) to (k). Pub. L. 91–447, §1(b), added subsecs. (g) and (h) and redesignated existing subsecs. (g) to (i) as (i) to (k), respectively.

Subsec. (l). Pub. L. 91–447, §1(c), added subsec. (l).

1968—Subsecs. (b) to (d). Pub. L. 90–578 substituted “United States magistrate” for “United States commissioner” wherever appearing.

Change of Name

“United States magistrate judge” substituted for “United States magistrate” wherever appearing in text pursuant to section 321 of Pub. L. 101–650, set out as a note under section 631 of Title 28, Judiciary and Judicial Procedure.

Effective Date of 1999 Amendment

Pub. L. 106–113, div. B, §1000(a)(1) [title III, §308(b)], Nov. 29, 1999, 113 Stat. 1535, 1501A–37, provided that: “This section [amending this section] shall apply to all disclosures made under section 3006A(d) of title 18, United States Code, related to any criminal trial or appeal involving a sentence of death where the underlying alleged criminal conduct took place on or after April 19, 1995.”

Effective Date of 1996 Amendment

Section 903(c) of Pub. L. 104–132 provided that: “The amendments made by this section [amending this section and section 848 of Title 21, Food and Drugs] apply to—

“(1) cases commenced on or after the date of the enactment of this Act [Apr. 24, 1996]; and

“(2) appellate proceedings, in which an appeal is perfected, on or after the date of the enactment of this Act.”

Effective Date of 1987 Amendment

Section 26 of Pub. L. 100–182 provided that: “The amendments made by this Act [amending this section, sections 3553, 3561, 3563, 3564, 3583, 3663, 3672, 3742, and 4106 of this title, section 994 of Title 28, Judiciary and Judicial Procedure, and sections 504 and 1111 of Title 29, Labor, enacting provisions set out as notes under sections 3551 and 3553 of this title, rule 35 of the Federal Rules of Criminal Procedure, set out in the Appendix to this title, and section 994 of Title 28, and amending provisions set out as a note under section 3551 of this title] shall apply with respect to offenses committed after the enactment of this Act [Dec. 7, 1987].”

Effective Date of 1986 Amendment

Section 105 of title I of Pub. L. 99–651 provided that: “This title and the amendments made by this title [amending this section and section 1825 of Title 28, Judiciary and Judicial Procedure, and enacting provisions set out as a note under this section] shall take effect one hundred and twenty days after the date of enactment of this Act [Nov. 14, 1986]. The maximum hourly rates provided in section 3006A(d)(1) of title 18, United States Code, as amended by section 102(a)(3)(A) of this Act, shall apply only to services performed on or after the effective date of this title. The maximum allowed for compensation for a case, as provided in section 3006A(d)(2) of title 18, United States Code, as amended by section 102(a)(3)(B) of this Act, shall apply only to compensation claims in which some portion of the claim is for services performed on or after the effective date of this title. The maximum compensation allowed pursuant to section 3006A(e) of title 18, United States Code, as amended by subparagraphs (B) and (C) of section 102(a)(4) of this Act, shall apply only to services obtained on or after the effective date of this title.”

Effective Date of 1984 Amendment

Amendment by section 223(e) of Pub. L. 98–473 effective Nov. 1, 1987, and applicable only to offenses committed after the taking effect of such amendment, see section 235(a)(1) of Pub. L. 98–473, set out as an Effective Date note under section 3551 of this title.

Effective Date of 1982 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 97–164 effective Oct. 1, 1982, see section 402 of Pub. L. 97–164, set out as a note under section 171 of Title 28, Judiciary and Judicial Procedure.

Effective Date of 1974 Amendment

Section 4 of Pub. L. 93–412 provided in part that the amendment of subsec. (l) of this section by Pub. L. 93–412 shall take effect on Sept. 3, 1974.

Effective Date of 1970 Amendment

Section 3 of Pub. L. 91–447 provided that: “The amendments made by section 1 of this Act [amending this section] shall become effective one hundred and twenty days after the date of enactment [Oct. 14, 1970].”

Effective Date of 1968 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 90–578 effective Oct. 17, 1968, except when a later effective date is applicable, which is the earlier of date when implementation of amendment by appointment of magistrates [now United States magistrate judges] and assumption of office takes place or third anniversary of enactment of Pub. L. 90–578 on Oct. 17, 1968, see section 403 of Pub. L. 90–578, set out as a note under section 631 of Title 28, Judiciary and Judicial Procedure.

Short Title of 1986 Amendment

Section 101 of title I of Pub. L. 99–651 provided that: “This title [amending this section and section 1825 of Title 28, Judiciary and Judicial Procedure, and enacting provisions set out as a note under this section] may be referred to as the ‘Criminal Justice Act Revision of 1986’.”

Short Title of 1984 Amendment

Section 1901 of chapter XIX (§1901) of title II of Pub. L. 98–473 provided in part that: “This chapter [amending this section] may be cited as the ‘Criminal Justice Act Revision of 1984’.”

Short Title

Section 1 of Pub. L. 88–455 provided: “That this Act [enacting this section and provisions set out as a note under this section] may be cited as the ‘Criminal Justice Act of 1964.’ ”

Savings Provision

Section 206(c) of Pub. L. 97–164 provided that: “The amendments made by subsection (a) of this section [amending subsec. (h)(2)(A) of this section] shall not affect the term of existing appointments.”

Award of Attorney's Fees and Litigation Expenses to Defense

Section 617 of Pub. L. 105–119 provided that: “During fiscal year 1998 and in any fiscal year thereafter, the court, in any criminal case (other than a case in which the defendant is represented by assigned counsel paid for by the public) pending on or after the date of the enactment of this Act [Nov. 26, 1997], may award to a prevailing party, other than the United States, a reasonable attorney's fee and other litigation expenses, where the court finds that the position of the United States was vexatious, frivolous, or in bad faith, unless the court finds that special circumstances make such an award unjust. Such awards shall be granted pursuant to the procedures and limitations (but not the burden of proof) provided for an award under section 2412 of title 28, United States Code. To determine whether or not to award fees and costs under this section, the court, for good cause shown, may receive evidence ex parte and in camera (which shall include the submission of classified evidence or evidence that reveals or might reveal the identity of an informant or undercover agent or matters occurring before a grand jury) and evidence or testimony so received shall be kept under seal. Fees and other expenses awarded under this provision to a party shall be paid by the agency over which the party prevails from any funds made available to the agency by appropriation. No new appropriations shall be made as a result of this provision.”

Government Rates of Travel for Criminal Justice Act Attorneys and Experts

Pub. L. 102–572, title VII, §702, Oct. 29, 1992, 106 Stat. 4515, provided that: “The Administrator of General Services, in entering into contracts providing for special rates to be charged by Federal Government sources of supply, including common carriers and hotels (or other commercial providers of lodging) for official travel and accommodation of Federal Government employees, shall provide for charging the same rates for attorneys, experts, and other persons traveling primarily in connection with carrying out responsibilities under section 3006A of title 18, United States Code, including community defender organizations established under subsection (g) of that section.”

Study of Federal Defender Program

Pub. L. 101–650, title III, §318, Dec. 1, 1990, 104 Stat. 5116, as amended by Pub. L. 102–198, §9, Dec. 9, 1991, 105 Stat. 1626, directed Judicial Conference of the United States to conduct a study of effectiveness of Federal defender program and to transmit a report on results of study to Committees on the Judiciary of Senate and House of Representatives no later than Mar. 31, 1993, with report to include recommendations for legislation, a proposed formula for compensation of Federal defender program counsel, and suggestions for procedural and operational changes by courts.

Funds for Payment of Compensation and Reimbursement

Pub. L. 101–45, title II, §102, June 30, 1989, 103 Stat. 122, provided in part: “That compensation and reimbursement of attorneys and others as authorized under section 3006A of title 18, United States Code, and section 1875(d) of title 28, United States Code, may hereinafter be paid from funds appropriated for ‘Defender Services’ in the year in which payment is required.”

Certification by Attorney General to Administrative Office of United States Courts of Payment of Obligated Expenses

Section 5(c) of Pub. L. 95–144, Oct. 28, 1977, 91 Stat. 1222, provided that: “The Attorney General shall certify to the Administrative Office of the United States Courts those expenses which it is obligated to pay on behalf of an indigent offender under section 3006A of title 18, United States Code, and similar statutes.”

Power and Function of a United States Commissioner

Section 2 of Pub. L. 91–447 provided that a United States commissioner for a district could exercise any power, function, or duty authorized to be performed by a United States magistrate under the amendments made by section 1 of Pub. L. 91–447, which amended this section, if such commissioner had authority to perform such power, function, or duty prior to the enactment of such amendments.

Submission of Plans

Section 3 of Pub. L. 88–455 directed each district court to submit a plan in accord with section 3006A of this title and the rules of the Judicial Conference of the United States to the judicial council of the circuit within 6 months from Aug. 20, 1964, further directed each judicial council to approve and send to the Administrative Office of the United States courts a plan for each district in its circuit within 9 months from Aug. 20, 1964, and also directed each district court and court of appeals to place its approved plan in operation within 1 year from Aug. 20, 1964.

1 See References in Text note below.

2 So in original. Probably should be “United States magistrate judge”.

§3007. Motions—(Rule)

See Federal Rules of Criminal Procedure

Motions substituted for pleas in abatement and special pleas in bar, rule 12.

Form and contents, rule 47.

(June 25, 1948, ch. 645, 62 Stat. 814.)

§3008. Service and filing of papers—(Rule)

See Federal Rules of Criminal Procedure

Requirement and manner of service; notice of orders; filing papers, rule 49.

(June 25, 1948, ch. 645, 62 Stat. 815.)

§3009. Records—(Rule)

See Federal Rules of Criminal Procedure

Keeping of records by district court clerks and magistrate judges, rule 55.

(June 25, 1948, ch. 645, 62 Stat. 815; Pub. L. 90–578, title III, §301(a)(4), Oct. 17, 1968, 82 Stat. 1115; Pub. L. 101–650, title III, §321, Dec. 1, 1990, 104 Stat. 5117.)

Amendments

1968—Pub. L. 90–578 substituted “magistrates” for “commissioners”.

Change of Name

Words “magistrate judges” substituted for “magistrates” in text pursuant to section 321 of Pub. L. 101–650, set out as a note under section 631 of Title 28, Judiciary and Judicial Procedure.

§3010. Exceptions unnecessary—(Rule)

See Federal Rules of Criminal Procedure

Objections substituted for exceptions, rule 51.

(June 25, 1948, ch. 645, 62 Stat. 815.)

§3011. Computation of time—(Rule)

See Federal Rules of Criminal Procedure

Computation: enlargement; expiration of term; motions and affidavits; service by mail, rule 45.

(June 25, 1948, ch. 645, 62 Stat. 815.)

[§3012. Repealed. Pub. L. 98–473, title II, §218(a)(2), Oct. 12, 1984, 98 Stat. 2027]

Section, act June 25, 1948, ch. 645, 62 Stat. 815, related to orders respecting prisoners or persons in custody.

Effective Date of Repeal

Repeal of section effective Nov. 1, 1987, and applicable only to offenses committed after the taking effect of such repeal, see section 235(a)(1) of Pub. L. 98–473, set out as an Effective Date note under section 3551 of this title.

§3013. Special assessment on convicted persons

(a) The court shall assess on any person convicted of an offense against the United States—

(1) in the case of an infraction or a misdemeanor—

(A) if the defendant is an individual—

(i) the amount of $5 in the case of an infraction or a class C misdemeanor;

(ii) the amount of $10 in the case of a class B misdemeanor; and

(iii) the amount of $25 in the case of a class A misdemeanor; and


(B) if the defendant is a person other than an individual—

(i) the amount of $25 in the case of an infraction or a class C misdemeanor;

(ii) the amount of $50 in the case of a class B misdemeanor; and

(iii) the amount of $125 in the case of a class A misdemeanor;


(2) in the case of a felony—

(A) the amount of $100 if the defendant is an individual; and

(B) the amount of $400 if the defendant is a person other than an individual.


(b) Such amount so assessed shall be collected in the manner that fines are collected in criminal cases.

(c) The obligation to pay an assessment ceases five years after the date of the judgment. This subsection shall apply to all assessments irrespective of the date of imposition.

(d) For the purposes of this section, an offense under section 13 of this title is an offense against the United States.

(Added Pub. L. 98–473, title II, §1405(a), Oct. 12, 1984, 98 Stat. 2174; amended Pub. L. 100–185, §3, Dec. 11, 1987, 101 Stat. 1279; Pub. L. 100–690, title VII, §§7082(b), 7085, Nov. 18, 1988, 102 Stat. 4407, 4408; Pub. L. 101–647, title XXXV, §3569, Nov. 29, 1990, 104 Stat. 4928; Pub. L. 104–132, title II, §210, Apr. 24, 1996, 110 Stat. 1240; Pub. L. 104–294, title VI, §601(r)(4), Oct. 11, 1996, 110 Stat. 3502.)

Amendments

1996—Subsec. (a)(2). Pub. L. 104–294 struck out “not less than” before “$100” in subpar. (A) and before “$400” in subpar. (B).

Pub. L. 104–132 substituted “not less than $100” for “$50” in subpar. (A) and “not less than $400” for “$200” in subpar. (B).

1990—Subsec. (a)(1)(B). Pub. L. 101–647 substituted “an infraction” for “a infraction” in cl. (i) and a semicolon for a period at end of cl. (iii).

1988—Subsec. (a)(1). Pub. L. 100–690, §7085, amended par. (1) generally. Prior to amendment, par. (1) read as follows: “in the case of a misdemeanor—

“(A) the amount of $25 if the defendant is an individual; and

“(B) the amount of $100 if the defendant is a person other than an individual; and”.

Subsec. (c). Pub. L. 100–690, §7082(b), inserted at end “This subsection shall apply to all assessments irrespective of the date of imposition.”

1987—Subsecs. (c), (d). Pub. L. 100–185 added subsecs. (c) and (d).

Effective Date of 1996 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 104–132 effective, to extent constitutionally permissible, for sentencing proceedings in cases in which defendant is convicted on or after Apr. 24, 1996, see section 211 of Pub. L. 104–132, set out as a note under section 2248 of this title.

Effective Date

Section effective 30 days after Oct. 12, 1984, see section 1409(a) of Pub. L. 98–473, set out as a note under section 10601 of Title 42, The Public Health and Welfare.

CHAPTER 203—ARREST AND COMMITMENT

Sec.
3041.
Power of courts and magistrates.
3042.
Extraterritorial jurisdiction.
[3043.
Repealed.]
3044.
Complaint—Rule.
3045.
Internal revenue violations.
3046.
Warrants or summons—Rule.1

        

3047.
Multiple warrants unnecessary.
3048.
Commitment to another district; removal—Rule.
3049.
Warrant for removal.
3050.
Bureau of Prisons employees’ powers.
3051.
Powers of Special Agents of Bureau of Alcohol, Tobacco, Firearms, and Explosives 2

        

3052.
Powers of Federal Bureau of Investigation.
3053.
Powers of marshals and deputies.
[3054.
Repealed.]
3055.
Officers’ powers to suppress Indian liquor traffic.
3056.
Powers, authorities, and duties of United States Secret Service.
3056A.
Powers, authorities, and duties of United States Secret Service Uniformed Division.
3057.
Bankruptcy investigations.
3058.
Interned belligerent nationals.
3059.
Rewards and appropriations therefor.3

        

3059A.
Special rewards for information relating to certain financial institution offenses.3
3059B.
General reward authority.3
3060.
Preliminary examination.
3061.
Investigative powers of Postal Service personnel.
3062.
General arrest authority for violation of release conditions.
3063.
Powers of Environmental Protection Agency.
3064.
Powers of Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration.

        

Amendments

2006—Pub. L. 109–177, title VI, §605(b), Mar. 9, 2006, 120 Stat. 255, added item 3056A.

Pub. L. 109–162, title XI, §1172(a), Jan. 5, 2006, 119 Stat. 3123, added item 3051.

2005—Pub. L. 109–59, title IV, §4143(c)(2), Aug. 10, 2005, 119 Stat. 1748, added item 3064.

1996—Pub. L. 104–294, title VI, §605(n), Oct. 11, 1996, 110 Stat. 3510, added item 3059B.

1994—Pub. L. 103–322, title XXXIII, §330010(18), Sept. 13, 1994, 108 Stat. 2144, inserted a period at end of item 3059A.

1990—Pub. L. 101–647, title XXXV, §3570, Nov. 29, 1990, 104 Stat. 4928, struck out item 3054 “Officer's powers involving animals and birds”.

Pub. L. 101–647, title XXV, §2587(b), Nov. 29, 1990, 104 Stat. 4905, as amended, effective as of date section 2587(b) of Pub. L. 101–647 took effect, by Pub. L. 103–322, title XXXIII, §330011(a), Sept. 13, 1994, 108 Stat. 2144, added item 3059A.

1988—Pub. L. 100–690, title VI, §6251(b), Nov. 18, 1988, 102 Stat. 4362, substituted “Investigative powers of Postal Service personnel” for “Powers of postal personnel” in item 3061.

Pub. L. 100–582, §4(b), Nov. 1, 1988, 102 Stat. 2959, added item 3063.

1984—Pub. L. 98–587, §1(b), Oct. 30, 1984, 98 Stat. 3111, substituted “Powers, authorities, and duties of United States Secret Service” for “Secret Service powers” in item 3056.

Pub. L. 98–473, title II, §204(e), Oct. 12, 1984, 98 Stat. 1986, substituted “Repealed” for “Security of the peace and good behavior” in item 3043 and added item 3062.

1970—Pub. L. 91–375, §6(j)(38)(B), Aug. 12, 1970, 84 Stat. 782, substituted “postal personnel” for “postal inspectors” in item 3061.

1968—Pub. L. 90–578, title III, §303(b), Oct. 17, 1968, 82 Stat. 1118, struck out reference to “Rule” in item 3060.

Pub. L. 90–560, §5(b), Oct. 12, 1968, 82 Stat. 998, added item 3061.

1951—Act Oct. 31, 1951, ch. 655, §56(f), 65 Stat. 729, struck out item 3051 “Extradition agent's powers”.

1 So in original. Does not conform to section catchline.

2 So in original. Probably should be followed by a period.

3 Section repealed by Pub. L. 107–273 without corresponding amendment of chapter analysis.

§3041. Power of courts and magistrates

For any offense against the United States, the offender may, by any justice or judge of the United States, or by any United States magistrate judge, or by any chancellor, judge of a supreme or superior court, chief or first judge of the common pleas, mayor of a city, justice of the peace, or other magistrate, of any state where the offender may be found, and at the expense of the United States, be arrested and imprisoned or released as provided in chapter 207 of this title, as the case may be, for trial before such court of the United States as by law has cognizance of the offense. Copies of the process shall be returned as speedily as may be into the office of the clerk of such court, together with the recognizances of the witnesses for their appearances to testify in the case.

A United States judge or magistrate judge shall proceed under this section according to rules promulgated by the Supreme Court of the United States. Any state judge or magistrate acting hereunder may proceed according to the usual mode of procedure of his state but his acts and orders shall have no effect beyond determining, pursuant to the provisions of section 3142 of this title, whether to detain or conditionally release the prisoner prior to trial or to discharge him from arrest.

(June 25, 1948, ch. 645, 62 Stat. 815; Pub. L. 89–465, §5(a), June 22, 1966, 80 Stat. 217; Pub. L. 90–578, title III, §301(a)(1), (3), Oct. 17, 1968, 82 Stat. 1115; Pub. L. 98–473, title II, §204(a), Oct. 12, 1984, 98 Stat. 1985; Pub. L. 101–650, title III, §321, Dec. 1, 1990, 104 Stat. 5117.)

Historical and Revision Notes

Based on title 18, U.S.C., 1940 ed., §591 (R.S. §1014; May 28, 1896, ch. 252, §19, 29 Stat. 184; Mar. 2, 1901, ch. 814, 31 Stat. 956).

This section was completely rewritten to omit all provisions superseded by Federal Rules of Criminal Procedure, rules 3, 4, 5, 40 and 54(a) which prescribed the procedure for preliminary proceedings and examinations before United States judges and commissioners and for removal proceedings but not for preliminary examinations before State magistrates.

Amendments

1984—Pub. L. 98–473 substituted “determining, pursuant to the provisions of section 3142 of this title, whether to detain or conditionally release the prisoner prior to trial” for “determining to hold the prisoner for trial”.

1968—Pub. L. 90–578 substituted “United States magistrate” and “magistrate” for “United States commissioner” and “commissioner”, respectively.

1966—Pub. L. 89–465 substituted “or released as provided in chapter 207 of this title” for “or bailed”.

Change of Name

“United States magistrate judge” substituted for “United States magistrate” in text pursuant to section 321 of Pub. L. 101–650, set out as a note under section 631 of Title 28, Judiciary and Judicial Procedure.

Effective Date of 1968 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 90–578 effective Oct. 17, 1968, except when a later effective date is applicable, which is the earlier of date when implementation of amendment by appointment of magistrates [now United States magistrate judges] and assumption of office takes place or third anniversary of enactment of Pub. L. 90–578 on Oct. 17, 1968, see section 403 of Pub. L. 90–578, set out as a note under section 631 of Title 28, Judiciary and Judicial Procedure.

Effective Date of 1966 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 89–465 effective ninety days after June 22, 1966, see section 6 of Pub. L. 89–465, set out as an Effective Date note under section 3146 of this title.

§3042. Extraterritorial jurisdiction

Section 3041 of this title shall apply in any country where the United States exercises extraterritorial jurisdiction for the arrest and removal therefrom to the United States of any citizen or national of the United States who is a fugitive from justice charged with or convicted of the commission of any offense against the United States, and shall also apply throughout the United States for the arrest and removal therefrom to the jurisdiction of any officer or representative of the United States vested with judicial authority in any country in which the United States exercises extraterritorial jurisdiction, of any citizen or national of the United States who is a fugitive from justice charged with or convicted of the commission of any offense against the United States in any country where it exercises extraterritorial jurisdiction.

Such fugitive first mentioned may, by any officer or representative of the United States vested with judicial authority in any country in which the United States exercises extraterritorial jurisdiction and agreeably to the usual mode of process against offenders subject to such jurisdiction, be arrested and detained or conditionally released pursuant to section 3142 of this title, as the case may be, pending the issuance of a warrant for his removal, which warrant the principal officer or representative of the United States vested with judicial authority in the country where the fugitive shall be found shall seasonably issue, and the United States marshal or corresponding officer shall execute.

Such marshal or other officer, or the deputies of such marshal or officer, when engaged in executing such warrant without the jurisdiction of the court to which they are attached, shall have all the powers of a marshal of the United States so far as such powers are requisite for the prisoner's safekeeping and the execution of the warrant.

(June 25, 1948, ch. 645, 62 Stat. 815; Pub. L. 98–473, title II, §204(b), Oct. 12, 1984, 98 Stat. 1985.)

Historical and Revision Notes

Based on title 18, U.S.C., 1940 ed., §662b (Mar. 22, 1934, ch. 73, §1, 48 Stat. 454).

Words “crime or” before “offense” were omitted as unnecessary.

Words “and the Philippine Islands” were deleted in two places as obsolete in view of the independence of the Commonwealth of the Philippines effective July 4, 1946.

Words “its Territories, Districts, or possessions, including the Panama Canal Zone or any other territory governed, occupied, or controlled by it” were omitted as covered by section 5 of this title defining the term “United States”.

Minor changes were made in phraseology.

Amendments

1984—Pub. L. 98–473 substituted “detained or conditionally released pursuant to section 3142 of this title” for “imprisoned or admitted to bail”.

[§3043. Repealed. Pub. L. 98–473, title II, §204(c), Oct. 12, 1984, 98 Stat. 1986]

Section, acts June 25, 1948, ch. 645, 62 Stat. 816; Oct. 17, 1968, Pub. L. 90–578, title III, §301(a)(2), 82 Stat. 1115, related to authority of justices, judges, and magistrates to hold to security of the peace and for good behavior. See section 3142 of this title.

§3044. Complaint—(Rule)

See Federal Rules of Criminal Procedure

Contents of complaint; oath, Rule 3.

(June 25, 1948, ch. 645, 62 Stat. 816.)

§3045. Internal revenue violations

Warrants of arrest for violations of internal revenue laws may be issued by United States magistrate judges upon the complaint of a United States attorney, assistant United States attorney, collector, or deputy collector of internal revenue or revenue agent, or private citizen; but no such warrant of arrest shall be issued upon the complaint of a private citizen unless first approved in writing by a United States attorney.

(June 25, 1948, ch. 645, 62 Stat. 816; Pub. L. 90–578, title III, §301(a)(2), Oct. 17, 1968, 82 Stat. 1115; Pub. L. 101–650, title III, §321, Dec. 1, 1990, 104 Stat. 5117.)

Historical and Revision Notes

Based on title 18, U.S.C., 1940 ed., §594 (May 28, 1896, ch. 252, §19, 29 Stat. 184; Mar. 2, 1901, ch. 814, 31 Stat. 956).

Minor changes were made in phraseology.

Amendments

1968—Pub. L. 90–578 substituted “United States magistrates” for “United States commissioners”.

Change of Name

“United States magistrate judges” substituted for “United States magistrates” in text pursuant to section 321 of Pub. L. 101–650, set out as a note under section 631 of Title 28, Judiciary and Judicial Procedure.

Effective Date of 1968 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 90–578 effective Oct. 17, 1968, except when a later effective date is applicable, which is the earlier of date when implementation of amendment by appointment of magistrates [now United States magistrate judges] and assumption of office takes place or third anniversary of enactment of Pub. L. 90–578 on Oct. 17, 1968, see section 403 of Pub. L. 90–578, set out as a note under section 631 of Title 28, Judiciary and Judicial Procedure.

Abolition of Offices of Collector and Deputy Collector of Internal Revenue

Offices of Collector and Deputy Collector of Internal Revenue abolished by Reorg. Plan No. 1 of 1952, §1, eff. Mar. 14, 1952, 17 F.R. 2243, 66 Stat. 823, set out in the Appendix to Title 5, Government Organization and Employees, and the offices of “district commissioner of internal revenue”, and so many other offices, with titles to be determined by Secretary of the Treasury, were established by section 2(a) of the Plan.

§3046. Warrant or summons—(Rule)

See Federal Rules of Criminal Procedure

Issuance upon complaint, Rule 4.

Issuance upon indictment, Rule 9.

Summons on request of government; form; contents; service; return, Rules 4, 9.

(June 25, 1948, ch. 645, 62 Stat. 816.)

§3047. Multiple warrants unnecessary

When two or more charges are made, or two or more indictments are found against any person, only one writ or warrant shall be necessary to commit him for trial. It shall be sufficient to state in the writ the name or general character of the offenses, or to refer to them only in general terms.

(June 25, 1948, ch. 645, 62 Stat. 816.)

Historical and Revision Notes

Based on title 18, U.S.C., 1940 ed., §602 (R.S. §1027).

Minor changes were made in phraseology.

§3048. Commitment to another district; removal—(Rule)

See Federal Rules of Criminal Procedure

Arrest in nearby or distant districts; informative statement by judge or magistrate judge; hearing and removal; warrant; Rule 40.

(June 25, 1948, ch. 645, 62 Stat. 817; Pub. L. 90–578, title III, §301(a)(3), Oct. 17, 1968, 82 Stat. 1115; Pub. L. 101–650, title III, §321, Dec. 1, 1990, 104 Stat. 5117.)

Amendments

1968—Pub. L. 90–578 substituted “magistrate” for “commissioner”.

Change of Name

Words “magistrate judge” substituted for “magistrate” in text pursuant to section 321 of Pub. L. 101–650, set out as a note under section 631 of Title 28, Judiciary and Judicial Procedure.

§3049. Warrant for removal

Only one writ or warrant is necessary to remove a prisoner from one district to another. One copy thereof may be delivered to the sheriff or jailer from whose custody the prisoner is taken, and another to the sheriff or jailer to whose custody he is committed, and the original writ, with the marshal's return thereon, shall be returned to the clerk of the district to which he is removed.

(June 25, 1948, ch. 645, 62 Stat. 817.)

Historical and Revision Notes

Based on title 18, U.S.C., 1940 ed., §604 (R.S. §1029).

§3050. Bureau of Prisons employees’ powers

An officer or employee of the Bureau of Prisons may—

(1) make arrests on or off of Bureau of Prisons property without warrant for violations of the following provisions regardless of where the violation may occur: sections 111 (assaulting officers), 751 (escape), and 752 (assisting escape) of title 18, United States Code, and section 1826(c) (escape) of title 28, United States Code;

(2) make arrests on Bureau of Prisons premises or reservation land of a penal, detention, or correctional facility without warrant for violations occurring thereon of the following provisions: sections 661 (theft), 1361 (depredation of property), 1363 (destruction of property), 1791 (contraband), 1792 (mutiny and riot), and 1793 (trespass) of title 18, United States Code; and

(3) arrest without warrant for any other offense described in title 18 or 21 of the United States Code, if committed on the premises or reservation of a penal or correctional facility of the Bureau of Prisons if necessary to safeguard security, good order, or government property;


if such officer or employee has reasonable grounds to believe that the arrested person is guilty of such offense, and if there is likelihood of such person's escaping before an arrest warrant can be obtained. If the arrested person is a fugitive from custody, such prisoner shall be returned to custody. Officers and employees of the said Bureau of Prisons may carry firearms under such rules and regulations as the Attorney General may prescribe.

(June 25, 1948, ch. 645, 62 Stat. 817; Pub. L. 99–646, §65, Nov. 10, 1986, 100 Stat. 3615.)

Historical and Revision Notes

Based on title 18, U.S.C., 1940 ed., §753k (June 29, 1940, ch. 449, §5, 54 Stat. 693).

Section was broadened to include authority to make arrests for mutiny, riot or traffic in dangerous instrumentalities, by reference to section 1792 of this title.

Minor changes were made in phraseology and provision for taking arrested person before magistrate was omitted as covered by rule 5(a) of the Federal Rules of Criminal Procedure.

Amendments

1986—Pub. L. 99–646 amended first sentence generally and substituted “such prisoner” for “he” in second sentence. Prior to amendment, first sentence read as follows: “An officer or employee of the Bureau of Prisons of the Department of Justice may make arrests without warrant for violations of any of the provisions of sections 751, 752, 1791, or 1792 of this title, if he has reasonable grounds to believe that the arrested person is guilty of such offense, and if there is likelihood of his escaping before a warrant can be obtained for his arrest.”

Transfer of Functions

Functions of all other officers of Department of Justice and functions of all agencies and employees of such Department, with a few exceptions, transferred to Attorney General, with power vested in him to authorize their performance or performance of any of his functions by any of such officers, agencies, and employees, by Reorg. Plan No. 2 of 1950, §§1, 2, eff. May 24, 1950, 15 F.R. 3173, 64 Stat. 1261, set out in the Appendix to Title 5, Government Organization and Employees.

§3051. Powers of Special Agents 1 of Bureau of Alcohol, Tobacco, Firearms, and Explosives

(a) Special agents of the Bureau of Alcohol, Tobacco, Firearms, and Explosives, as well as any other investigator or officer charged by the Attorney General with the duty of enforcing any of the criminal, seizure, or forfeiture provisions of the laws of the United States, may carry firearms, serve warrants and subpoenas issued under the authority of the United States and make arrests without warrant for any offense against the United States committed in their presence, or for any felony cognizable under the laws of the United States if they have reasonable grounds to believe that the person to be arrested has committed or is committing such felony.

(b) Any special agent of the Bureau of Alcohol, Tobacco, Firearms, and Explosives may, in respect to the performance of his or her duties, make seizures of property subject to forfeiture to the United States.

(c)(1) Except as provided in paragraphs (2) and (3), and except to the extent that such provisions conflict with the provisions of section 983 of title 18, United States Code, insofar as section 983 applies, the provisions of the Customs laws relating to—

(A) the seizure, summary and judicial forfeiture, and condemnation of property;

(B) the disposition of such property;

(C) the remission or mitigation of such forfeiture; and

(D) the compromise of claims,


shall apply to seizures and forfeitures incurred, or alleged to have been incurred, under any applicable provision of law enforced or administered by the Bureau of Alcohol, Tobacco, Firearms, and Explosives.

(2) For purposes of paragraph (1), duties that are imposed upon a customs officer or any other person with respect to the seizure and forfeiture of property under the customs laws of the United States shall be performed with respect to seizures and forfeitures of property under this section by such officers, agents, or any other person as may be authorized or designated for that purpose by the Attorney General.

(3) Notwithstanding any other provision of law, the disposition of firearms forfeited by reason of a violation of any law of the United States shall be governed by the provisions of section 5872(b) of the Internal Revenue Code of 1986.

(Added Pub. L. 107–296, title XI, §1113, Nov. 25, 2002, 116 Stat. 2279.)

References in Text

Section 5872(b) of the Internal Revenue Code of 1986, referred to in subsec. (c)(3), is classified to section 5872(b) of Title 26, Internal Revenue Code.

Prior Provisions

A prior section 3051, act June 25, 1948, ch. 645, §1, 62 Stat. 817, related to powers of extradition agents, prior to repeal by act Oct. 31, 1951, ch. 655, §56(f), 65 Stat. 729. Substantially identical provisions are contained in section 3193 of this title.

Effective Date

Section effective 60 days after Nov. 25, 2002, see section 4 of Pub. L. 107–296, set out as a note under section 101 of Title 6, Domestic Security.

1 So in original. The words “Special Agents” probably should not be capitalized.

§3052. Powers of Federal Bureau of Investigation

The Director, Associate Director, Assistant to the Director, Assistant Directors, inspectors, and agents of the Federal Bureau of Investigation of the Department of Justice may carry firearms, serve warrants and subpoenas issued under the authority of the United States and make arrests without warrant for any offense against the United States committed in their presence, or for any felony cognizable under the laws of the United States if they have reasonable grounds to believe that the person to be arrested has committed or is committing such felony.

(June 25, 1948, ch. 645, 62 Stat. 817; Jan. 10, 1951, ch. 1221, §1, 64 Stat. 1239.)

Historical and Revision Notes

Based on section 300a of title 5, U.S.C., 1940 ed., Executive Departments and Government Officers and Employees (June 18, 1934, ch. 595, 48 Stat. 1008; Mar. 22, 1935, ch. 39, title II, 49 Stat. 77).

Language relating to seizures under warrant is in section 3107 of this title.

Minor changes were made in phraseology particularly with respect to omission of provision covered by rule 5(a) of Federal Rules of Criminal Procedure.

Amendments

1951—Act Jan. 10, 1951, allowed F. B. I. personnel to make arrests without a warrant for any offense against the United States committed in their presence.

Transfer of Functions

Functions of all other officers of Department of Justice and functions of all agencies and employees of such Department, with a few exceptions, transferred to Attorney General, with power vested in him to authorize their performance or performance of any of his functions by any of such officers, agencies, and employees, by Reorg. Plan No. 2 of 1950, §§1, 2, eff. May 24, 1950, 15 F.R. 3173, 64 Stat. 1261, set out in the Appendix to Title 5, Government Organization and Employees.

§3053. Powers of marshals and deputies

United States marshals and their deputies may carry firearms and may make arrests without warrant for any offense against the United States committed in their presence, or for any felony cognizable under the laws of the United States if they have reasonable grounds to believe that the person to be arrested has committed or is committing such felony.

(June 25, 1948, ch. 645, 62 Stat. 817.)

Historical and Revision Notes

Based on section 504a of title 28, U.S.C., 1940 ed., Judicial Code and Judiciary (June 15, 1935, ch. 259, §2, 49 Stat. 378).

Minor changes were made in phraseology.

Transfer of Functions

Functions of all other officers of Department of Justice and functions of all agencies and employees of such Department, with a few exceptions, transferred to Attorney General, with power vested in him to authorize their performance or performance of any of his functions by any of such officers, agencies, and employees, by Reorg. Plan No. 2 of 1950, §§1, 2, eff. May 24, 1950, 15 F.R. 3173, 64 Stat. 1261, set out in the Appendix to Title 5, Government Organization and Employees.

[§3054. Repealed. Pub. L. 97–79, §9(b)(3), Nov. 16, 1981, 95 Stat. 1079]

Section, acts June 25, 1948, ch. 645, 62 Stat. 817; Dec. 5, 1969, Pub. L. 91–135, §7(b), 83 Stat. 281, provided for an officer's power to act in enforcing sections 42, 43, and 44 of this title relating to animals and birds. See section 3375 of Title 16, Conservation.

§3055. Officers’ powers to suppress Indian liquor traffic

The chief special officer for the suppression of the liquor traffic among Indians and duly authorized officers working under his supervision whose appointments are made or affirmed by the Commissioner of Indian Affairs or the Secretary of the Interior may execute all warrants of arrest and other lawful precepts issued under the authority of the United States and in the execution of his duty he may command all necessary assistance.

(June 25, 1948, ch. 645, 62 Stat. 817.)

Historical and Revision Notes

Based on section 250 of title 25, U.S.C., 1940 ed., Indians (Aug. 24, 1912, ch. 388, §1, 37 Stat. 519).

The only change was to delete the words at the beginning of the section, “The powers conferred by section 504 of title 28 upon marshals and their deputies are conferred upon.” and the addition, at the end of the section, of the phrase expressing such powers beginning with the words “may execute all warrants”.

§3056. Powers, authorities, and duties of United States Secret Service

(a) Under the direction of the Secretary of Homeland Security, the United States Secret Service is authorized to protect the following persons:

(1) The President, the Vice President (or other officer next in the order of succession to the Office of President), the President-elect, and the Vice President-elect.

(2) The immediate families of those individuals listed in paragraph (1).

(3) Former Presidents and their spouses for their lifetimes, except that protection of a spouse shall terminate in the event of remarriage unless the former President did not serve as President prior to January 1, 1997, in which case, former Presidents and their spouses for a period of not more than ten years from the date a former President leaves office, except that—

(A) protection of a spouse shall terminate in the event of remarriage or the divorce from, or death of a former President; and

(B) should the death of a President occur while in office or within one year after leaving office, the spouse shall receive protection for one year from the time of such death:


Provided, That the Secretary of Homeland Security shall have the authority to direct the Secret Service to provide temporary protection for any of these individuals at any time if the Secretary of Homeland Security or designee determines that information or conditions warrant such protection.

(4) Children of a former President who are under 16 years of age for a period not to exceed ten years or upon the child becoming 16 years of age, whichever comes first.

(5) Visiting heads of foreign states or foreign governments.

(6) Other distinguished foreign visitors to the United States and official representatives of the United States performing special missions abroad when the President directs that such protection be provided.

(7) Major Presidential and Vice Presidential candidates and, within 120 days of the general Presidential election, the spouses of such candidates. As used in this paragraph, the term “major Presidential and Vice Presidential candidates” means those individuals identified as such by the Secretary of Homeland Security after consultation with an advisory committee consisting of the Speaker of the House of Representatives, the minority leader of the House of Representatives, the majority and minority leaders of the Senate, and one additional member selected by the other members of the committee. The Committee shall not be subject to the Federal Advisory Committee Act (5 U.S.C. App. 2).

(8) Former Vice Presidents, their spouses, and their children who are under 16 years of age, for a period of not more than six months after the date the former Vice President leaves office. The Secretary of Homeland Security shall have the authority to direct the Secret Service to provide temporary protection for any of these individuals at any time thereafter if the Secretary of Homeland Security or designee determines that information or conditions warrant such protection.


The protection authorized in paragraphs (2) through (8) may be declined.

(b) Under the direction of the Secretary of Homeland Security, the Secret Service is authorized to detect and arrest any person who violates—

(1) section 508, 509, 510, 871, or 879 of this title or, with respect to the Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation, Federal land banks, and Federal land bank associations, section 213, 216,1 433, 493, 657, 709, 1006, 1007, 1011, 1013, 1014, 1907, or 1909 of this title;

(2) any of the laws of the United States relating to coins, obligations, and securities of the United States and of foreign governments; or

(3) any of the laws of the United States relating to electronic fund transfer frauds, access device frauds, false identification documents or devices, and any fraud or other criminal or unlawful activity in or against any federally insured financial institution; except that the authority conferred by this paragraph shall be exercised subject to the agreement of the Attorney General and the Secretary of Homeland Security and shall not affect the authority of any other Federal law enforcement agency with respect to those laws.


(c)(1) Under the direction of the Secretary of Homeland Security, officers and agents of the Secret Service are authorized to—

(A) execute warrants issued under the laws of the United States;

(B) carry firearms;

(C) make arrests without warrant for any offense against the United States committed in their presence, or for any felony cognizable under the laws of the United States if they have reasonable grounds to believe that the person to be arrested has committed or is committing such felony;

(D) offer and pay rewards for services and information leading to the apprehension of persons involved in the violation or potential violation of those provisions of law which the Secret Service is authorized to enforce;

(E) pay expenses for unforeseen emergencies of a confidential nature under the direction of the Secretary of Homeland Security and accounted for solely on the Secretary's certificate; and

(F) perform such other functions and duties as are authorized by law.


(2) Funds expended from appropriations available to the Secret Service for the purchase of counterfeits and subsequently recovered shall be reimbursed to the appropriations available to the Secret Service at the time of the reimbursement.

(d) Whoever knowingly and willfully obstructs, resists, or interferes with a Federal law enforcement agent engaged in the performance of the protective functions authorized by this section or by section 1752 of this title shall be fined not more than $1,000 or imprisoned not more than one year, or both.

(e)(1) When directed by the President, the United States Secret Service is authorized to participate, under the direction of the Secretary of Homeland Security, in the planning, coordination, and implementation of security operations at special events of national significance, as determined by the President.

(2) At the end of each fiscal year, the President through such agency or office as the President may designate, shall report to the Congress—

(A) what events, if any, were designated special events of national significance for security purposes under paragraph (1); and

(B) the criteria and information used in making each designation.


(f) Under the direction of the Secretary of Homeland Security, the Secret Service is authorized, at the request of any State or local law enforcement agency, or at the request of the National Center for Missing and Exploited Children, to provide forensic and investigative assistance in support of any investigation involving missing or exploited children.

(g) The United States Secret Service shall be maintained as a distinct entity within the Department of Homeland Security and shall not be merged with any other Department function. No personnel and operational elements of the United States Secret Service shall report to an individual other than the Director of the United States Secret Service, who shall report directly to the Secretary of Homeland Security without being required to report through any other official of the Department.

(June 25, 1948, ch. 645, 62 Stat. 818; July 16, 1951, ch. 226, §4, 65 Stat. 122; Aug. 31, 1954, ch. 1143, §2, 68 Stat. 999; Pub. L. 86–168, title I, §104(h), Aug. 18, 1959, 73 Stat. 387; Pub. L. 87–791, Oct. 10, 1962, 76 Stat. 809; Pub. L. 87–829, §3, Oct. 15, 1962, 76 Stat. 956; Pub. L. 89–186, Sept. 15, 1965, 79 Stat. 791; Pub. L. 89–218, Sept. 29, 1965, 79 Stat. 890; Pub. L. 90–608, ch. XI, §1101, Oct. 21, 1968, 82 Stat. 1198; Pub. L. 91–644, title V, §19, Jan. 2, 1971, 84 Stat. 1892; Pub. L. 91–651, §4, Jan. 5, 1971, 84 Stat. 1941; Pub. L. 93–346, §8, July 12, 1974, as added Pub. L. 93–552, title VI, §609(a), Dec. 27, 1974, 88 Stat. 1765; Pub. L. 94–408, §2, Sept. 11, 1976, 90 Stat. 1239; Pub. L. 97–297, §3, Oct. 12, 1982, 96 Stat. 1318; Pub. L. 97–308, §2, Oct. 14, 1982, 96 Stat. 1452; Pub. L. 98–151, §115(b), Nov. 14, 1983, 97 Stat. 977; Pub. L. 98–587, §1(a), Oct. 30, 1984, 98 Stat. 3110; Pub. L. 103–329, title V, §530, Sept. 30, 1994, 108 Stat. 2412; Pub. L. 104–294, title VI, §605(i), Oct. 11, 1996, 110 Stat. 3510; Pub. L. 106–544, §3, Dec. 19, 2000, 114 Stat. 2716; Pub. L. 107–56, title V, §506(b), Oct. 26, 2001, 115 Stat. 367; Pub. L. 107–296, title XVII, §1703(a)(1), Nov. 25, 2002, 116 Stat. 2313; Pub. L. 108–21, title III, §322, Apr. 30, 2003, 117 Stat. 665; Pub. L. 109–177, title VI, §§604, 607, 608(a), Mar. 9, 2006, 120 Stat. 253, 256; Pub. L. 110–326, title I, §102, Sept. 26, 2008, 122 Stat. 3560.)

Historical and Revision Notes

Based on title 18, U.S.C., 1940 ed., §148, and on sections 264(x) and 986 of title 12, U.S.C., 1940 ed., Banks and Banking (Dec. 23, 1913, ch. 6, §12B, subsection (x), as added June 16, 1933, ch. 89, §8, 48 Stat. 178; July 17, 1916, ch. 245, §31, sixth paragraph, 39 Stat. 382 (384); Dec. 11, 1926, ch. 2, §3, 44 Stat. 918; Aug. 23, 1935, ch. 614, §101, 49 Stat. 684, 703).

Section consolidates said section 148 of title 18, U.S.C., 1940 ed., and said sections 264(x) and 986 of title 12, U.S.C., 1940 ed., Banks and Banking.

Said section 148 of title 12, U.S.C., 1940 ed., Banks and Banking, was concerned with offenses relating to counterfeiting and passing, etc., of transportation requests and to the unlawful possession or making of plates, stones, etc., used in making such requests, which were defined in sections 146 and 147 of said title 18, now sections 508 and 509 of this title.

Said sections 264(x) and 986 of title 12, U.S.C., 1940 ed., Banks and Banking, were concerned with various offenses as defined in sections 981–985, 987 of said title 12, relating to Federal land banks, joint-stock land banks and national farm loan associations, and as defined in section 264 of said title 12 relating to the Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation. All of the provisions of said sections 981–985, 987 of said title 12, and the criminal provisions of said section 264 of said title 12, were transferred to this title where they were, in some instances, consolidated with similar provisions from other sections. Such provisions are now incorporated in sections 218, 221, 433, 493, 657, 709, 1006, 1007, 1011, 1013, 1014, 1907, and 1909 of this title. In most instances, these sections, as the result of the consolidations, relate to other organizations as well as those mentioned above, but, by enumerating the Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation, Federal land banks, joint-stock land banks, and national farm loan associations in this section, the powers of the Secret Service are not broadened beyond what they were in said sections 264(x) and 986 of said title 12.

In this section, the wording of said section 148 of title 18, U.S.C., 1940 ed., and section 986 of title 12, U.S.C., 1940 ed., Banks and Banking reading “The Secretary of the Treasury is hereby authorized to direct and use the Secret Service Division of the Treasury Department” was adopted, rather than the wording of said section 264(x) of said title 12, which read “The Secret Service Division of the Treasury Department is authorized.”

Words “of the United States marshal having jurisdiction”, following “custody” in all three of said sections, were omitted as surplusage.

Changes were made in phraseology.

References in Text

The Federal Advisory Committee Act, referred to in subsec. (a)(7), is Pub. L. 92–463, Oct. 6, 1972, 86 Stat. 770, as amended, which is set out in the Appendix to Title 5, Government Organization and Employees.

Section 216 of this title, referred to in subsec. (b)(1), was repealed by Pub. L. 98–473, title II, §1107(b), Oct. 12, 1984, 98 Stat. 2146.

Amendments

2008—Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 110–326, §102(2), substituted “(8)” for “(7)” in concluding provisions.

Subsec. (a)(8). Pub. L. 110–326, §102(1), added par. (8).

2006—Subsec. (a)(7). Pub. L. 109–177, §608(a), which directed amendment of subsec. (a)(7) by inserting “The Committee shall not be subject to the Federal Advisory Committee Act (5 U.S.C. App. 2).” after “other members of the Committee.”, was executed by making the insertion after “other members of the committee.”, to reflect the probable intent of Congress.

Subsec. (f). Pub. L. 109–177, §604, substituted “the Secret Service is” for “officers and agents of the Secret Service are”.

Subsec. (g). Pub. L. 109–177, §607, added subsec. (g).

2003—Subsec. (f). Pub. L. 108–21 added subsec. (f).

2002—Subsecs. (a) to (c)(1), (e)(1). Pub. L. 107–296 substituted “of Homeland Security” for “of the Treasury” wherever appearing.

2001—Subsec. (b)(3). Pub. L. 107–56 substituted “access device frauds, false identification documents or devices, and any fraud or other criminal or unlawful activity in or against any federally insured financial institution” for “credit and debit card frauds, and false identification documents or devices”.

2000—Subsec. (e). Pub. L. 106–544 added subsec. (e).

1996—Subsec. (a)(3). Pub. L. 104–294 redesignated subpars. (1) and (2) as (A) and (B), respectively, and realigned margins.

1994—Subsec. (a)(3). Pub. L. 103–329, §530(a), inserted before period at end “unless the former President did not serve as President prior to January 1, 1997, in which case, former Presidents and their spouses for a period of not more than ten years from the date a former President leaves office, except that—

“(1) protection of a spouse shall terminate in the event of remarriage or the divorce from, or death of a former President; and

“(2) should the death of a President occur while in office or within one year after leaving office, the spouse shall receive protection for one year from the time of such death:

Provided, That the Secretary of the Treasury shall have the authority to direct the Secret Service to provide temporary protection for any of these individuals at any time if the Secretary of the Treasury or designee determines that information or conditions warrant such protection”.

Subsec. (a)(4). Pub. L. 103–329, §530(b), inserted before period at end “for a period not to exceed ten years or upon the child becoming 16 years of age, whichever comes first”.

1984—Pub. L. 98–587 amended section generally, providing authority for the Secret Service to conduct criminal investigations of, make arrests in, and present for prosecutorial consideration, cases relating to electronic fund transfer frauds, and providing the Secret Service with authority to conduct investigations and make arrests relating to credit and debit card frauds, and false identification documents and devices, to be exercised subject to the agreement of the Attorney General and the Secretary of the Treasury.

1983—Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 98–151 inserted reference to section 510 of this section in fifth clause.

1982—Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 97–297, §3(1), substituted “871, and 879 of this title” for “and 871 of this title”.

Pub. L. 97–297, §3(2), substituted “and Federal land bank associations are concerned, of sections 213, 216” for “, joint-stock land banks and Federal land bank associations are concerned, of sections 218, 221”.

Subsec. (b). Pub. L. 97–308 increased the limitation on fines to $1,000 from $300.

1976—Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 94–408 substituted “, and the members of their immediate families unless the members decline such protection;” for “; protect the members of the immediate family of the Vice-President, unless such protection is declined;”.

Subsec. (b). Pub. L. 94–408 inserted reference to other Federal law enforcement agents.

1974—Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 93–552 inserted provisions relating to the protection of the immediate family of the Vice President unless declined, and the payment of expenses for unforeseen emergencies of a confidential nature under the direction of the Secretary of the Treasury and accounted for solely on his certificate.

1971—Pub. L. 91–651 authorized the Secret Service to protect the person of a visiting head of a foreign state or foreign government and, at the direction of the President, other distinguished foreign visitors to the United States and official representatives of the United States performing special missions abroad, and substituted “Director, Deputy Director, Assistant Directors, Assistants to the Director” for “Chief, Deputy Chief, Assistant Chief”.

Pub. L. 91–644 designated existing provisions as subsec. (a) and added subsec. (b).

1968—Pub. L. 90–608 substituted the death or remarriage of a former President's widow and the attainment by his minor children of age 16 for the passage of a period of four years after he leaves or dies in office as the events terminating Secret Service protection for the widow and minor children, respectively, of a former President.

1965—Pub. L. 89–218 authorized the Chief, Deputy Chief, Assistant Chief, inspectors, and agents of the Secret Service to make arrests without warrant for offenses committed against the United States in their presence or for any felony cognizable under the laws of the United States if they have reasonable grounds to believe that the person to be arrested has committed or is committing the felony and substituted “508, 509, and 871” for “508 and 509”.

Pub. L. 89–186 substituted provision for the protection of the person of a former President and his wife during his lifetime and the person of a widow and minor children of a former President for a period of four years after he leaves or dies in office, unless the protection is declined, for provision calling for the protection of a former President, at his request, for a reasonable period after he leaves office.

1962—Pub. L. 87–829 authorized the protection of the Vice President, without requiring his request therefor, and any officer next in the order of succession to the office of President, the Vice-President-elect, and of a former president, at his request, for a reasonable period after he leaves office.

Pub. L. 87–791 required moneys expended from Secret Service appropriations for the purchase of counterfeits and subsequently recovered to be reimbursed to the appropriation current at the time of deposit.

1959—Pub. L. 86–168 substituted “Federal land bank associations” for “national farm loan associations”.

1954—Act Aug. 31, 1954, struck out “detect, and arrest any person violating any laws of the United States directly concerning official matters administered by and under the direct control of the Treasury Department”.

1951—Act July 16, 1951, provided basic authority for the Secret Service to perform certain functions and activities heretofore carried out by virtue of authority contained in appropriation acts.

Effective Date of 2008 Amendment

Pub. L. 110–326, title I, §103, Sept. 26, 2008, 122 Stat. 3560, provided that: “The amendments made by this Act [probably should be “title”, meaning title I of Pub. L. 110–326, which amended this section and enacted provisions set out as a note under section 1 of this title] shall apply with respect to any Vice President holding office on or after the date of enactment of the Act [Sept. 26, 2008].”

Effective Date of 2002 Amendment

Pub. L. 107–296, title XVII, §1703(b), Nov. 25, 2002, 116 Stat. 2314, provided that: “The amendments made by this section [amending this section and former sections 202 and 208 of Title 3, The President] shall take effect on the date of transfer of the United States Secret Service to the Department [of Homeland Security].”

Effective Date of 1974 Amendment

Pub. L. 93–552, title VI, §609(b), Dec. 27, 1974, 88 Stat. 1765, provided that: “Except as otherwise provided therein, the amendment made by subsection (a) of this section [amending this section, former section 202 of Title 3, The President, and provisions set out as a note under section 111 of Title 3] shall become effective July 12, 1974.”

Effective Date of 1959 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 86–168 effective Dec. 31, 1959, see section 104(k) of Pub. L. 86–168.

Transfer of Functions

For transfer of the functions, personnel, assets, and obligations of the United States Secret Service, including the functions of the Secretary of the Treasury relating thereto, to the Secretary of Homeland Security, and for treatment of related references, see sections 381, 551(d), 552(d), and 557 of Title 6, Domestic Security, and the Department of Homeland Security Reorganization Plan of November 25, 2002, as modified, set out as a note under section 542 of Title 6.

Use of Funds for United States Secret Service Protection

Pub. L. 109–295, title V, §517(b), Oct. 4, 2006, 120 Stat. 1380, as amended by Pub. L. 110–161, div. E, title V, §517, Dec. 26, 2007, 121 Stat. 2073, provided that: “For fiscal year 2008, and each fiscal year thereafter, the Director of the United States Secret Service may enter into an agreement to perform protection of a Federal official other than a person granted protection under section 3056(a) of title 18, United States Code, on a fully reimbursable basis.”

Funds for Training

Pub. L. 108–90, title II, Oct. 1, 2003, 117 Stat. 1145, provided in part: “That in fiscal year 2004 and thereafter, subject to the reimbursement of actual costs to this account, funds appropriated in this account shall be available, at the discretion of the Director, for the following: training United States Postal Service law enforcement personnel and Postal police officers, training Federal law enforcement officers, training State and local government law enforcement officers on a space-available basis, and training private sector security officials on a space-available basis”.

Expansion of National Electronic Crime Task Force Initiative

Pub. L. 107–56, title I, §105, Oct. 26, 2001, 115 Stat. 277, as amended by Pub. L. 109–177, title VI, §608(b), Mar. 9, 2006, 120 Stat. 256, provided that: “The Director of the United States Secret Service shall take appropriate actions to develop a national network of electronic crime task forces, based on the New York Electronic Crimes Task Force model, throughout the United States, for the purpose of preventing, detecting, and investigating various forms of electronic crimes, including potential terrorist attacks against critical infrastructure and financial payment systems. The electronic crimes task forces shall not be subject to the Federal Advisory Committee Act (5 U.S.C. App. 2) [5 U.S.C. App.].”

National Threat Assessment Center

Pub. L. 106–544, §4, Dec. 19, 2000, 114 Stat. 2716, provided that:

“(a) Establishment.—The United States Secret Service (hereafter in this section referred to as the ‘Service’), at the direction of the Secretary of the Treasury, may establish the National Threat Assessment Center (hereafter in this section referred to as the ‘Center’) as a unit within the Service.

“(b) Functions.—The Service may provide the following to Federal, State, and local law enforcement agencies through the Center:

“(1) Training in the area of threat assessment.

“(2) Consultation on complex threat assessment cases or plans.

“(3) Research on threat assessment and the prevention of targeted violence.

“(4) Facilitation of information sharing among all such agencies with protective or public safety responsibilities.

“(5) Programs to promote the standardization of Federal, State, and local threat assessments and investigations involving threats.

“(6) Any other activities the Secretary determines are necessary to implement a comprehensive threat assessment capability.

“(c) Report.—Not later than 1 year after the date of the enactment of this Act [Dec. 19, 2000], the Service shall submit a report to the Committees on the Judiciary of the Senate and the House of Representatives detailing the manner in which the Center will operate.”

Telecommunications Support to United States Secret Service by White House Communications Agency

Pub. L. 104–208, div. A, title I, §101(b) [title VIII, §8100], Sept. 30, 1996, 110 Stat. 3009–71, 3009–108, as amended by Pub. L. 106–92, §2, Nov. 9, 1999, 113 Stat. 1309, provided that: “Beginning in fiscal year 1997 and thereafter, and notwithstanding any other provision of law, fixed and mobile telecommunications support shall be provided by the White House Communications Agency (WHCA) to the United States Secret Service (USSS), without reimbursement, in connection with the Secret Service's duties directly related to the protection of the President or the Vice President or other officer immediately next in order of succession to the office of the President at the White House Security Complex in the Washington, D.C. Metropolitan Area and Camp David, Maryland. For these purposes, the White House Security Complex includes the White House, the White House grounds, the Dwight D. Eisenhower Executive Office Building, the New Executive Office Building, the Blair House, the Treasury Building, and the Vice President's Residence at the Naval Observatory.”

Off-Set of Costs of Protecting Former Presidents and Spouses

Pub. L. 104–208, div. A, title I, §101(f) [title V, §509], Sept. 30, 1996, 110 Stat. 3009–314, 3009–345, provided that: “The United States Secret Service may, during the fiscal year ending September 30, 1997, and hereafter, accept donations of money to off-set costs incurred while protecting former Presidents and spouses of former Presidents when the former President or spouse travels for the purpose of making an appearance or speech for a payment of money or any thing of value.”

Similar provisions were contained in the following prior appropriations acts:

Pub. L. 104–52, title V, §509, Nov. 19, 1995, 109 Stat. 492.

Pub. L. 103–329, title V, §514, Sept. 30, 1994, 108 Stat. 2410.

Pub. L. 103–123, title V, §515, Oct. 28, 1993, 107 Stat. 1253.

Pub. L. 102–393, title V, §519, Oct. 6, 1992, 106 Stat. 1759.

Pub. L. 102–141, title V, §522, Oct. 28, 1991, 105 Stat. 865.

Pub. L. 101–509, title V, §525, Nov. 5, 1990, 104 Stat. 1426.

Former Vice President or Spouse; Protection

Pub. L. 103–1, Jan. 15, 1993, 107 Stat. 3, provided: “That—

“(1) the United States Secret Service, in addition to other duties now provided by law, is authorized to furnish protection to—

“(A) the person occupying the Office of Vice President of the United States immediately preceding January 20, 1993, or

“(B) his spouse,

if the President determines that such person may thereafter be in significant danger; and

“(2) protection of any such person, pursuant to the authority provided in paragraph (1), shall continue only for such period as the President determines, except that such protection shall not continue beyond July 20, 1993, unless otherwise permitted by law.”

Pub. L. 96–503, Dec. 5, 1980, 94 Stat. 2740, provided: “That the United States Secret Service, in addition to other duties now provided by law, is authorized to furnish protection to (a) the person occupying the Office of Vice President of the United States immediately preceding January 20, 1981, or (b) his spouse, if the President determines that such person may thereafter be in significant danger: Provided, however, That protection of any such person shall continue only for such period as the President determines and shall not continue beyond July 20, 1981, unless otherwise permitted by law.”

Secret Service Protection of Former Federal Officials

Pub. L. 95–1, Jan. 19, 1977, 91 Stat. 3, provided: “That the United States Secret Service, in addition to other duties now provided by law, is authorized to furnish protection to a person who (a) as a Federal Government official has been receiving protection by the United States Secret Service for a period immediately preceding January 20, 1977, or (b) as a member of such official's immediate family has been receiving protection by either the United States Secret Service or other security personnel of the official's department immediately preceding January 20, 1977, if the President determines that such person may thereafter be in significant danger: Provided, however, That protection of any such person shall continue only for such period as the President determines and shall not continue beyond July 20, 1977, unless otherwise permitted by law.”

Presidential Protection Assistance Act of 1976

Pub. L. 94–524, Oct. 17, 1976, 90 Stat. 2475, as amended by Pub. L. 99–190, §143, Dec. 19, 1985, 99 Stat. 1324; Pub. L. 101–136, title V, §527, Nov. 3, 1989, 103 Stat. 815; Pub. L. 101–509, title V, §531(a), Nov. 5, 1990, 104 Stat. 1469; Pub. L. 102–141, title V, §533, Oct. 28, 1991, 105 Stat. 867; Pub. L. 104–52, title V, §529, Nov. 19, 1995, 109 Stat. 496; Pub. L. 104–316, title I, §109(a), Oct. 19, 1996, 110 Stat. 3832, provided: “That this Act may be cited as the ‘Presidential Protection Assistance Act of 1976’.

Sec. 2. As used in this Act the term—

“(1) ‘Secret Service’ means the United States Secret Service, the Department of the Treasury;

“(2) ‘Director’ means the Director of the Secret Service;

“(3) ‘protectee’ means any person eligible to receive the protection authorized by section 3056 of title 18, United States Code, or Public Law 90–331 (82 Stat. 170) [set out as a note above];

“(4) ‘Executive departments’ has the same meaning as provided in section 101 of title 5, United States Code;

“(5) ‘Executive agencies’ has the same meaning as provided in section 105 of title 5, United States Code;

“(6) ‘Coast Guard’ means the United States Coast Guard, Department of Transportation or such other Executive department or Executive agency to which the United States Coast Guard may subsequently be transferred;

“(7) ‘duties’ means all responsibilities of an Executive department or Executive agency relating to the protection of any protectee; and

“(8) ‘non-Governmental property’ means any property owned, leased, occupied, or otherwise utilized by a protectee which is not owned or controlled by the Government of the United States of America.

Sec. 3. (a) Each protectee may designate one non-governmental property to be fully secured by the Secret Service on a permanent basis.

“(b) A protectee may thereafter designate a different non-Governmental property in lieu of the non-Governmental property previously designated under subsection (a) (hereinafter in this Act referred to as the ‘previously designated property’) as the one non-Governmental property to be fully secured by the Secret Service on a permanent basis under subsection (a). Thereafter, any expenditures by the Secret Service to maintain a permanent guard detail or for permanent facilities, equipment, and services to secure the non-Governmental property previously designated under subsection (a) shall be subject to the limitations imposed under section 4.

“(c) For the purposes of this section, where two or more protectees share the same domicile, such protectees shall be deemed a single protectee.

Sec. 4. Expenditures by the Secret Service for maintaining a permanent guard detail and for permanent facilities, equipment, and services to secure any non-Governmental property in addition to the one non-Governmental property designated by each protectee under subsection 3(a) or 3(b) may not exceed a cumulative total of $200,000 at each such additional non-Governmental property, unless expenditures in excess of that amount are specifically approved by resolutions adopted by the Committees on Appropriations of the House and Senate, respectively.

Sec. 5. (a) All improvements and other items acquired by the Federal Government and used for the purpose of securing any non-Governmental property in the performance of the duties of the Secret Service shall be the property of the United States.

“(b) Upon termination of Secret Service protection at any non-Governmental property all such improvements and other items shall be removed from the non-Governmental property unless the Director determines that it would not be economically feasible to do so; except that such improvements and other items shall be removed and the non-Governmental property shall be restored to its original state if the owner of such property at the time of termination requests the removal of such improvements or other items. If any such improvements or other items are not removed, the owner of the non-Governmental property at the time of termination shall compensate the United States for the original cost of such improvements or other items or for the amount by which they have increased the fair market value of the property, as determined by the Director, as of the date of termination, whichever is less.

“(c) In the event that any non-Governmental property becomes a previously designated property and Secret Service protection at that property has not been terminated, all such improvements and other items which the Director determines are not necessary to secure the previously designated property within the limitations imposed under section 4 shall be removed or compensated for in accordance with the procedures set forth under Subsection (b) of this section.

Sec. 6. Executive departments and Executive agencies shall assist the Secret Service in the performance of its duties by providing services, equipment, and facilities on a temporary and reimbursable basis when requested by the Director and on a permanent and reimbursable basis upon advance written request of the Director; except that the Department of Defense and the Coast Guard shall provide such assistance on a temporary basis without reimbursement when assisting the Secret Service in its duties directly related to the protection of the President or the Vice President or other officer immediately next in order of succession to the office of the President.

Sec. 7. No services, equipment, or facilities may be ordered, purchased, leased, or otherwise procured for the purposes of carrying out the duties of the Secret Service by persons other than officers or employees of the Federal Government duly authorized by the Director to make such orders, purchases, leases, or procurements.

Sec. 8. No funds may be expended or obligated for the purpose of carrying out the purposes of section 3056 of title 18, United States Code, and section 1 of Public Law 90–331 [set out as a note above] other than funds specifically appropriated to the Secret Service for those purposes with the exception of—

“(1) expenditures made by the Department of Defense or the Coast Guard from funds appropriated to the Department of Defense or the Coast Guard in providing assistance on a temporary basis to the Secret Service in the performance of its duties directly related to the protection of the President or the Vice President or other officer next in order of succession to the office of the President; and

“(2) expenditures made by Executive departments and agencies, in providing assistance at the request of the Secret Service in the performance of its duties, and which will be reimbursed by the Secret Service under section 6 of this Act.

Sec. 9. The Director, the Secretary of Defense, and the Commandant of the Coast Guard shall each transmit a detailed semi-annual report of expenditures made pursuant to this Act during the six-month period immediately preceding such report by the Secret Service, the Department of Defense, and the Coast Guard, respectively, to the Committees on Appropriations, Committees on the Judiciary, and Committees on Government Operations [now Committee on Oversight and Government Reform of the House of Representatives and Committee on Homeland Security and Governmental Affairs of the Senate] of the House of Representatives and the Senate, respectively, on March 31 and September 30, of each year.

Sec. 10. Expenditures made pursuant to this Act shall be subject to audit by the Comptroller General and his authorized representatives, who shall have access to all records relating to such expenditures. The Comptroller General shall transmit a report of the results of any such audit to the Committees on Appropriations, Committees on the Judiciary, and Committees on Government Operations [now Committee on Oversight and Government Reform of the House of Representatives and Committee on Homeland Security and Governmental Affairs of the Senate] of the House of Representatives and the Senate, respectively.

Sec. 11. Section 2 of Public Law 90–331 (82 Stat. 170) [formerly set out as a note below] is repealed.

Sec. 12. In carrying out the protection of the President of the United States, pursuant to section 3056(a) of title 18, at the one non-governmental property designated by the President of the United States to be fully secured by the United States Secret Service on a permanent basis, as provided in section 3.(a) of Public Law 94–524 [section 3(a) of this note], or at an airport facility used for travel en route to or from such property[,] the Secretary of the Treasury may utilize, with their consent, the law enforcement services, personnel, equipment, and facilities of the affected State and local governments. Further, the Secretary of the Treasury is authorized to reimburse such State and local governments for the utilization of such services, personnel, equipment, and facilities. All claims for such reimbursement by the affected governments will be submitted to the Secretary of the Treasury on a quarterly basis. Expenditures for this reimbursement are authorized not to exceed $300,000 at the one nongovernmental property, and $70,000 at the airport facility, in any one fiscal year: Provided, That the designated site is located in a municipality or political subdivision of any State where the permanent resident population is 7,000 or less and where the absence of such Federal assistance would place an undue economic burden on the affected State and local governments: Provided further, That the airport facility is wholly or partially located in a municipality or political subdivison [sic] of any State where the permanent resident population is 7,000 or less, the airport is located within 25 nautical miles of the designated nongovernmental property, and where the absence of such Federal assistance would place an undue economic burden on the affected State and local governments.”

[For transfer of authorities, functions, personnel, and assets of the Coast Guard, including the authorities and functions of the Secretary of Transportation relating thereto, to the Department of Homeland Security, and for treatment of related references, see sections 468(b), 551(d), 552(d), and 557 of Title 6, Domestic Security, and the Department of Homeland Security Reorganization Plan of November 25, 2002, as modified, set out as a note under section 542 of Title 6.]

Major Presidential or Vice Presidential Candidates and Spouses; Personal Protection

Pub. L. 90–331, June 6, 1968, 82 Stat. 170, as amended by Pub. L. 94–408, §1, Sept. 11, 1976, 90 Stat. 1239; Pub. L. 94–524, §11, Oct. 17, 1976, 90 Stat. 2477; Pub. L. 96–329, Aug. 11, 1980, 94 Stat. 1029, which had provided for personal protection of major presidential or vice presidential candidates and had authorized protection of spouses commencing not more than 120 days before the general Presidential election, and appropriated for fiscal year ending June 30, 1968, $400,000 for execution of such provisions, was repealed by Pub. L. 98–587, §2, Oct. 30, 1984, 98 Stat. 3111. See subsec. (a)(7) of this section.

Extension of Protection of President's Widow and Children

Pub. L. 90–145, Nov. 17, 1967, 81 Stat. 466, extended until Mar. 1, 1969, the authority vested in the United States Secret Service by section 3056 of this title, as it existed prior to the amendment in 1968 by Pub. L. 90–608, to protect the widow and minor children of a former President who were receiving such protection on Nov. 17, 1967.

Applicability of Reorg. Plan No. 26 of 1950

Section 5 of Pub. L. 91–651 provided that: “Section 3056 of title 18, United States Code, as amended by section 4 of this Act, shall be subject to Reorganization Plan Numbered 26 of 1950 (64 Stat. 1280) [set out in the Appendix to Title 5, Government Organization and Employees].”

1 See References in Text note below.

§3056A. Powers, authorities, and duties of United States Secret Service Uniformed Division

(a) There is hereby created and established a permanent police force, to be known as the “United States Secret Service Uniformed Division”. Subject to the supervision of the Secretary of Homeland Security, the United States Secret Service Uniformed Division shall perform such duties as the Director, United States Secret Service, may prescribe in connection with the protection of the following:

(1) The White House in the District of Columbia.

(2) Any building in which Presidential offices are located.

(3) The Treasury Building and grounds.

(4) The President, the Vice President (or other officer next in the order of succession to the Office of President), the President-elect, the Vice President-elect, and their immediate families.

(5) Foreign diplomatic missions located in the metropolitan area of the District of Columbia.

(6) The temporary official residence of the Vice President and grounds in the District of Columbia.

(7) Foreign diplomatic missions located in metropolitan areas (other than the District of Columbia) in the United States where there are located twenty or more such missions headed by full-time officers, except that such protection shall be provided only—

(A) on the basis of extraordinary protective need;

(B) upon request of an affected metropolitan area; and

(C) when the extraordinary protective need arises at or in association with a visit to—

(i) a permanent mission to, or an observer mission invited to participate in the work of, an international organization of which the United States is a member; or

(ii) an international organization of which the United States is a member;


except that such protection may also be provided for motorcades and at other places associated with any such visit and may be extended at places of temporary domicile in connection with any such visit.


(8) Foreign consular and diplomatic missions located in such areas in the United States, its territories and possessions, as the President, on a case-by-case basis, may direct.

(9) Visits of foreign government officials to metropolitan areas (other than the District of Columbia) where there are located twenty or more consular or diplomatic missions staffed by accredited personnel, including protection for motorcades and at other places associated with such visits when such officials are in the United States to conduct official business with the United States Government.

(10) Former Presidents and their spouses, as provided in section 3056(a)(3) of title 18.

(11) An event designated under section 3056(e) of title 18 as a special event of national significance.

(12) Major Presidential and Vice Presidential candidates and, within 120 days of the general Presidential election, the spouses of such candidates, as provided in section 3056(a)(7) of title 18.

(13) Visiting heads of foreign states or foreign governments.


(b)(1) Under the direction of the Director of the Secret Service, members of the United States Secret Service Uniformed Division are authorized to—

(A) carry firearms;

(B) make arrests without warrant for any offense against the United States committed in their presence, or for any felony cognizable under the laws of the United States if they have reasonable grounds to believe that the person to be arrested has committed or is committing such felony; and

(C) perform such other functions and duties as are authorized by law.


(2) Members of the United States Secret Service Uniformed Division shall possess privileges and powers similar to those of the members of the Metropolitan Police of the District of Columbia.

(c) Members of the United States Secret Service Uniformed Division shall be furnished with uniforms and other necessary equipment.

(d) In carrying out the functions pursuant to paragraphs (7) and (9) of subsection (a), the Secretary of Homeland Security may utilize, with their consent, on a reimbursable basis, the services, personnel, equipment, and facilities of State and local governments, and is authorized to reimburse such State and local governments for the utilization of such services, personnel, equipment, and facilities. The Secretary of Homeland Security may carry out the functions pursuant to paragraphs (7) and (9) of subsection (a) by contract. The authority of this subsection may be transferred by the President to the Secretary of State. In carrying out any duty under paragraphs (7) and (9) of subsection (a), the Secretary of State is authorized to utilize any authority available to the Secretary under title II of the State Department Basic Authorities Act of 1956.

(Added Pub. L. 109–177, title VI, §605(a), Mar. 9, 2006, 120 Stat. 253.)

References in Text

Title II of the State Department Basic Authorities Act of 1956, referred to in subsec. (d), is title II of act Aug. 1, 1956, ch. 841, as added Aug. 24, 1982, Pub. L. 97–241, title II, §202(b), 96 Stat. 283, known as the Foreign Missions Act, which is classified principally to chapter 53 (§4301 et seq.) of Title 22, Foreign Relations and Intercourse. For complete classification of title II to the Code, see Short Title note set out under section 4301 of Title 22 and Tables.

Change of Name

Pub. L. 95–179, Nov. 15, 1977, 91 Stat. 1371, provided in part that: “Any reference in any other law or in any regulation, document, record, or other paper of the United States to the Executive Protective Service shall be held to be a reference to the United States Secret Service Uniformed Division.”

Pub. L. 91–297, title II, §202, June 30, 1970, 84 Stat. 358, provided that: “All laws of the United States in force on the date of enactment of this title [June 30, 1970] in which reference is made to the White House Police force are amended by substituting ‘Executive Protective Service’ for each such reference.”

Savings Provisions

Pub. L. 109–177, title VI, §606, Mar. 9, 2006, 120 Stat. 256, provided that:

“(a) This title [see Tables for classification] does not affect the retirement benefits of current employees or annuitants that existed on the day before the effective date of this Act [probably means Mar. 9, 2006, the date of enactment of Pub. L. 109–177].

“(b) This title does not affect any Executive order transferring to the Secretary of State the authority of section 208 of title 3 (now section 3056A(d) of title 18) in effect on the day before the effective date of this Act.”

Conversion to New Salary Schedule

Pub. L. 106–554, §1(a)(4) [div. B, title IX, §905], Dec. 21, 2000, 114 Stat. 2763, 2763A–306, as amended by Pub. L. 111–282, §4(b)(4), Oct. 15, 2010, 124 Stat. 3043, provided that:

“(a) In General.—

“(1) Determination of rates of basic pay.—Effective on the first day of the 1st pay period beginning 6 months after the date of enactment of this Act [Dec. 21, 2000], the Secretary of the Interior shall fix the rates of basic pay for officers and members of the United States Park Police, in accordance with this subsection.

“(2) Placement on revised salary schedule.—

“(A) In general.—Each officer and member shall be placed in and receive basic compensation at the corresponding scheduled service step of the salary schedule under section 501(c) of the District of Columbia Police and Firemen's Salary Act of 1958 [Pub. L. 85–584, title V, Aug. 1, 1958, 72 Stat. 485] (as amended by section 902(a)) in accordance with the member's total years of creditable service, receiving credit for all service step adjustments. If the scheduled rate of pay for the step to which the officer or member would be assigned in accordance with this paragraph is lower than the officer's or member's salary immediately prior to the enactment of this paragraph, the officer or member will be placed in and receive compensation at the next higher service step.

“(B) Credit for increases during transition.—Each member whose position is to be converted to the salary schedule under section 501(b) of the District of Columbia Police and Firemen's Salary Act of 1958 (as amended by subsection (a)) and who, prior to the effective date of this section [set out below] has earned, but has not been credited with, an increase in his or her rate of pay shall be afforded that increase before such member is placed in the corresponding service step in the salary schedule under section 501(b).

“(C) Creditable service described.—For purposes of this paragraph, an officer's or member's creditable service is any police service in pay status with the United States Secret Service Uniformed Division, United States Park Police, or Metropolitan Police Department.

“(b) Hold Harmless for Current Total Compensation.—Notwithstanding any other provision of law, if the total rate of compensation for an officer or employee for any pay period occurring after conversion to the salary schedule pursuant to subsection (a) (determined by taking into account any locality-based comparability adjustments, longevity pay, and other adjustments paid in addition to the rate of basic compensation) is less than the officer's or employee's total rate of compensation (as so determined) on the date of enactment [Dec. 21, 2000], the rate of compensation for the officer or employee for the pay period shall be equal to—

“(1) the rate of compensation on the date of enactment (as so determined); increased by

“(2) a percentage equal to 50 percent of sum of the percentage adjustments made in the rate of basic compensation under section 501(c) of the District of Columbia Police and Firemen's Salary Act of 1958 (as amended by subsection (a)) for pay periods occurring after the date of enactment and prior to the pay period involved.

“(c) Conversion Not Treated as Transfer or Promotion.—The conversion of positions and individuals to appropriate classes of the salary schedule under section 501(c) of the District of Columbia Police and Firemen's Salary Act of 1958 (as amended by section 902(a)) and the initial adjustments of rates of basic pay of those positions and individuals in accordance with subsection (a) shall not be considered to be transfers or promotions within the meaning of section 304 of the District of Columbia Police and Firemen's Salary Act of 1958 [Pub. L. 85–584, title III, Aug. 1, 1958, 72 Stat. 484] (sec. 4–413, D.C. Code).

“(d) Transfer of Credit for Satisfactory Service.—Each individual whose position is converted to the salary schedule under section 501(c) of the District of Columbia Police and Firemen's Salary Act of 1958 (as amended by section 902(a)) in accordance with subsection (a) shall be granted credit for purposes of such individual's first service step adjustment under the salary schedule in such section 501(c) for all satisfactory service performed by the individual since the individual's last increase in basic pay prior to the adjustment under that section.

“(e) Adjustment To Take Into Account General Schedule Adjustments During Transition.—The rates provided under the salary schedule under section 501(c) of the District of Columbia Police and Firemen's Salary Act of 1958 (as amended by section 902(a)) shall be increased by the percentage of any annual adjustment applicable to the General Schedule authorized under section 5303 of title 5, United States Code, which takes effect during the period which begins on the date of the enactment of this Act [Dec. 21, 2000] and ends on the first day of the first pay period beginning 6 months after the date of enactment of this Act.

“(f) Conversion Not Treated as Salary Increase for Purposes of Certain Pensions and Allowances.—The conversion of positions and individuals to appropriate classes of the salary schedule under section 501(c) of the District of Columbia Police and Firemen's Salary Act of 1958 (as amended by section 2[902](a)) and the initial adjustments of rates of basic pay of those positions and individuals in accordance with subsection (a) shall not be treated as an increase in salary for purposes of section 3 of the Act entitled ‘An Act to provide increased pensions for widows and children of deceased members of the Police Department and the Fire Department of the District of Columbia’, approved August 4, 1949 [ch. 394, 63 Stat. 566] (sec. 4–604, D.C. Code), or section 301 of the District of Columbia Police and Firemen's Salary Act of 1953 [June 20, 1953, ch. 146, title III, 67 Stat. 75] (sec. 4–605, D.C. Code).”

[Pub. L. 111–282, §4(b)(4), Oct. 15, 2010, 124 Stat. 3043, which directed amendment of section 1(a)(4) [div. B, title IX, §905(a)(1)] of Pub. L. 106–554, set out above, by striking out “the Secretary of Treasury” and all that followed through “United States Secret Service Uniformed Division, and”, was executed by striking out “the Secretary of the Treasury shall fix the rates of basic pay for officers and members of the United States Secret Service Uniformed Division, and” to reflect the probable intent of Congress.

[Pub. L. 106–554, §1(a)(4) [div. B, title IX, §909], Dec. 21, 2000, 114 Stat. 2763, 2763A–310, provided that: “Except as provided in section 908(c) [114 Stat. 2763A–310], this title [enacting provisions set out as notes above and under sections 5301, 5304, and 5305 of Title 5, Government Organization and Employees, and amending provisions set out as a note under section 5305 of Title 5] and the amendments made by this title shall become effective on the first day of the first pay period beginning 6 months after the date of enactment [Dec. 21, 2000].”]

Secret Service Uniformed Division Compensation

Pub. L. 105–61, title I, §118, Oct. 10, 1997, 111 Stat. 1285, as amended by Pub. L. 111–282, §4(b)(3), Oct. 15, 2010, 124 Stat. 3043, provided that:

“(a) New Rates of Basic Pay.—[Amended Pub. L. 85–584, title V, §501, Aug. 1, 1958, 72 Stat. 485.]

“(b) [Repealed. Pub. L. 111–282, §4(b)(3), Oct. 15, 2010, 124 Stat. 3043.]

“(c) Limitation on Pay Period Earnings.—[Amended act Aug. 15, 1950, ch. 715, 64 Stat. 477.]

“(d) Savings Provision.—On the effective date of this section, any existing special salary rates authorized for members of the United States Secret Service Uniformed Division under section 5305 of title 5, United States Code (or any previous similar provision of law) and any special rates of pay or special pay adjustments under section 403, 404, or 405 of the Federal Law Enforcement Pay Reform Act of 1990 [Pub. L. 101–509, §529 [title IV, §§403–405], 5 U.S.C. 5305 note] applicable to members of the United States Secret Service Uniformed Division shall be rendered inapplicable.

“(e) Conforming Amendment.—[Amended Pub. L. 101–509, §529 [title IV, §405], set out as a note under section 5305 of Title 5, Government Organization and Employees.]

“(f) Effective Date.—The provisions of this section shall become effective on the first day of the first pay period beginning after the date of enactment of this Act [Oct. 10, 1997].”

Ex. Ord. No. 12478. Transfer of Authority to the Secretary of State To Make Reimbursements for Protection of Foreign Missions to International Organizations

Ex. Ord. No. 12478, May 23, 1984, 49 F.R. 22053, provided:

By authority vested in me as President by the Constitution and statutes of the United States of America, and in accordance with the provisions of the Act of December 31, 1975, Public Law 94–196 (89 Stat. 1109), codified as [former] sections 202(7) and 208(a) of Title 3, United States Code, as amended, it is hereby ordered as follows:

Section 1. There is transferred to the Secretary of State authority to determine the need for and to approve terms and conditions of the provision of reimbursable extraordinary protective activities for foreign diplomatic missions pursuant to [former] section 202(7), and the authority to make reimbursements to State and local governments for services, personnel, equipment, and facilities pursuant to [former] section 208(a) of Title 3, United States Code;

Sec. 2. There are transferred to the Secretary of State such unexpended moneys as may have been appropriated to the Department of the Treasury for the purpose of permitting reimbursements to be made under the provisions of [former] section 208(a) of Title 3, United States Code;

Sec. 3. The authority transferred pursuant to this Order shall be exercised in coordination with protective security programs administered by the Secretary of State under the Foreign Missions Act of 1982 [22 U.S.C. 4301 et seq.]; authority available under that Act may also be applied to any foreign mission to which [former] section 202(7) applies; and

Sec. 4. This Order shall be effective on October 1, 1984.

Ronald Reagan.      

§3057. Bankruptcy investigations

(a) Any judge, receiver, or trustee having reasonable grounds for believing that any violation under chapter 9 of this title or other laws of the United States relating to insolvent debtors, receiverships or reorganization plans has been committed, or that an investigation should be had in connection therewith, shall report to the appropriate United States attorney all the facts and circumstances of the case, the names of the witnesses and the offense or offenses believed to have been committed. Where one of such officers has made such report, the others need not do so.

(b) The United States attorney thereupon shall inquire into the facts and report thereon to the judge, and if it appears probable that any such offense has been committed, shall without delay, present the matter to the grand jury, unless upon inquiry and examination he decides that the ends of public justice do not require investigation or prosecution, in which case he shall report the facts to the Attorney General for his direction.

(June 25, 1948, ch. 645, 62 Stat. 818; May 24, 1949, ch. 139, §48, 63 Stat. 96; Pub. L. 95–598, title III, §314(i), Nov. 6, 1978, 92 Stat. 2677.)

Historical and Revision Notes

1948 Act

Based on section 52(e)(1), (2) of title 11, U.S.C., 1940 ed., Bankruptcy (July 1, 1898, ch. 541, §29e(1), (2), as added by May 27, 1926, ch. 406, §11, 44 Stat. 665, 666; June 22, 1938, ch. 575, §1, 52 Stat. 840, 856).

Remaining provisions of section 52 of title 11, U.S.C., 1940 ed., Bankruptcy, constitute sections 151–154, and 3284 of this title.

The words “or laws relating to insolvent debtors, receiverships, or reorganization plans” were inserted to avoid reference to “Title 11”.

Minor changes were made in phraseology.

1949 Act

This section [section 48] clarifies the meaning of section 3057 of title 18, U.S.C., by expressly limiting to laws “of the United States”, violations of laws which are to be reported to the United States attorney.

Amendments

1978—Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 95–598, §314(i), substituted “judge” for “referee” and “violation under chapter 9 of this title” for “violations of the bankruptcy laws”.

Subsec. (b). Pub. L. 95–598, §314(i)(1), substituted “judge” for “referee”.

1949—Subsec. (a). Act May 24, 1949, substituted “or other laws of the United States” for “or laws”.

Effective Date of 1978 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 95–598 effective Oct. 1, 1979, see section 402(a) of Pub. L. 95–598, set out as an Effective Date note preceding section 101 of Title 11, Bankruptcy.

Savings Provision

Amendment by Pub. L. 95–598 not to affect the application of chapter 9 (§151 et seq.), chapter 96 (§1961 et seq.), or section 2516, 3057, or 3284 of this title to any act of any person (1) committed before Oct. 1, 1979, or (2) committed after Oct. 1, 1979, in connection with a case commenced before such date, see section 403(d) of Pub. L. 95–598, set out as a note preceding section 101 of Title 11, Bankruptcy.

Transfer of Functions

Functions of all other officers of Department of Justice and functions of all agencies and employees of such Department, with a few exceptions, transferred to Attorney General, with power vested in him to authorize their performance or performance of any of his functions by any of such officers, agencies, and employees, by Reorg. Plan No. 2 of 1950, §§1, 2, eff. May 24, 1950, 15 F.R. 3173, 64 Stat. 1261, set out in the Appendix to Title 5, Government Organization and Employees.

§3058. Interned belligerent nationals

Whoever, belonging to the armed land or naval forces of a belligerent nation or belligerent faction and being interned in the United States, in accordance with the law of nations, leaves or attempts to leave said jurisdiction, or leaves or attempts to leave the limits of internment without permission from the proper official of the United States in charge, or willfully overstays a leave of absence granted by such official, shall be subject to arrest by any marshal or deputy marshal of the United States, or by the military or naval authorities thereof, and shall be returned to the place of internment and there confined and safely kept for such period of time as the official of the United States in charge shall direct.

(June 25, 1948, ch. 645, 62 Stat. 818; Pub. L. 101–647, title XXXV, §3571, Nov. 29, 1990, 104 Stat. 4928.)

Historical and Revision Notes

Based on title 18, U.S.C., 1940 ed., §37 (June 15, 1917, ch. 30, title V, §7, 40 Stat. 223).

Said section 37 was incorporated in this section and section 756 of this title.

Minor verbal changes were made.

Amendments

1990—Pub. L. 101–647 substituted “belligerent” for “beligerent” before “nation”.

[§§3059 to 3059B. Repealed. Pub. L. 107–273, div. A, title III, §301(c)(2), Nov. 2, 2002, 116 Stat. 1781]

Section 3059, act June 25, 1948, ch. 645, 62 Stat. 818; Pub. L. 97–258, §2(d)(2), Sept. 13, 1982, 96 Stat. 1058; Pub. L. 103–322, title XXV, §250004, Sept. 13, 1994, 108 Stat. 2086, related to rewards and appropriations therefor.

Section 3059A, added Pub. L. 101–647, title XXV, §2587(a), Nov. 29, 1990, 104 Stat. 4904; amended Pub. L. 103–322, title XXXII, §320607, title XXXIII, §330010(10), (17), Sept. 13, 1994, 108 Stat. 2120, 2143, 2144; Pub. L. 104–294, title VI, §§601(f)(4), 604(b)(24), Oct. 11, 1996, 110 Stat. 3499, 3508, related to special rewards for information relating to certain financial institution offenses.

Section 3059B, added Pub. L. 104–132, title VIII, §815(e)(1), Apr. 24, 1996, 110 Stat. 1315, set forth general reward authority.

§3060. Preliminary examination

(a) Except as otherwise provided by this section, a preliminary examination shall be held within the time set by the judge or magistrate judge pursuant to subsection (b) of this section, to determine whether there is probable cause to believe that an offense has been committed and that the arrested person has committed it.

(b) The date for the preliminary examination shall be fixed by the judge or magistrate judge at the initial appearance of the arrested person. Except as provided by subsection (c) of this section, or unless the arrested person waives the preliminary examination, such examination shall be held within a reasonable time following initial appearance, but in any event not later than—

(1) the fourteenth day following the date of the initial appearance of the arrested person before such officer if the arrested person is held in custody without any provision for release, or is held in custody for failure to meet the conditions of release imposed, or is released from custody only during specified hours of the day; or

(2) the twentieth day following the date of the initial appearance if the arrested person is released from custody under any condition other than a condition described in paragraph (1) of this subsection.


(c) With the consent of the arrested person, the date fixed by the judge or magistrate judge for the preliminary examination may be a date later than that prescribed by subsection (b), or may be continued one or more times to a date subsequent to the date initially fixed therefor. In the absence of such consent of the accused, the judge or magistrate judge may extend the time limits only on a showing that extraordinary circumstances exist and justice requires the delay.

(d) Except as provided by subsection (e) of this section, an arrested person who has not been accorded the preliminary examination required by subsection (a) within the period of time fixed by the judge or magistrate judge in compliance with subsections (b) and (c), shall be discharged from custody or from the requirement of bail or any other condition of release, without prejudice, however, to the institution of further criminal proceedings against him upon the charge upon which he was arrested.

(e) No preliminary examination in compliance with subsection (a) of this section shall be required to be accorded an arrested person, nor shall such arrested person be discharged from custody or from the requirement of bail or any other condition of release pursuant to subsection (d), if at any time subsequent to the initial appearance of such person before a judge or magistrate judge and prior to the date fixed for the preliminary examination pursuant to subsections (b) and (c) an indictment is returned or, in appropriate cases, an information is filed against such person in a court of the United States.

(f) Proceedings before United States magistrate judges under this section shall be taken down by a court reporter or recorded by suitable sound recording equipment. A copy of the record of such proceeding shall be made available at the expense of the United States to a person who makes affidavit that he is unable to pay or give security therefor, and the expense of such copy shall be paid by the Director of the Administrative Office of the United States Courts.

(June 25, 1948, ch. 645, 62 Stat. 819; Pub. L. 90–578, title III, §303(a), Oct. 17, 1968, 82 Stat. 1117; Pub. L. 101–650, title III, §321, Dec. 1, 1990, 104 Stat. 5117; Pub. L. 109–162, title XI, §1179, Jan. 5, 2006, 119 Stat. 3126; Pub. L. 111–16, §3(9), May 7, 2009, 123 Stat. 1608.)

Amendments

2009—Subsec. (b)(1). Pub. L. 111–16 substituted “fourteenth day” for “tenth day”.

2006—Subsec. (c). Pub. L. 109–162 substituted “In the absence of such consent of the accused, the judge or magistrate judge may extend the time limits only on a showing that extraordinary circumstances exist and justice requires the delay.” for “In the absence of such consent of the accused, the date fixed for the preliminary hearing may be a date later than that prescribed by subsection (b), or may be continued to a date subsequent to the date initially fixed therefor, only upon the order of a judge of the appropriate United States district court after a finding that extraordinary circumstances exist, and that the delay of the preliminary hearing is indispensable to the interests of justice.”

1968—Pub. L. 90–578 substituted provisions of subsecs. (a) to (f) of this section detailing preliminary examination content for prior provisions which directed attention to the rule in section catchline, and directed one to see Federal Rules of Criminal Procedure, including “Proceedings before commissioner, appearance, advice as to right to counsel, hearing, Rule 5.”.

Change of Name

Words “magistrate judge” and “United States magistrate judges” substituted for “magistrate” and “United States magistrates”, respectively, wherever appearing in text pursuant to section 321 of Pub. L. 101–650, set out as a note under section 631 of Title 28, Judiciary and Judicial Procedure.

Effective Date of 2009 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 111–16 effective Dec. 1, 2009, see section 7 of Pub. L. 111–16, set out as a note under section 109 of Title 11, Bankruptcy.

Effective Date of 1968 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 90–578 effective Oct. 17, 1968, except when a later effective date is applicable, which is the earlier of date when implementation of amendment by appointment of magistrates [now United States magistrate judges] and assumption of office takes place or third anniversary of enactment of Pub. L. 90–578 on Oct. 17, 1968, see section 403 of Pub. L. 90–578, set out as a note under section 631 of Title 28, Judiciary and Judicial Procedure.

§3061. Investigative powers of Postal Service personnel

(a) Subject to subsection (b) of this section, Postal Inspectors and other agents of the United States Postal Service designated by the Board of Governors to investigate criminal matters related to the Postal Service and the mails may—

(1) serve warrants and subpoenas issued under the authority of the United States;

(2) make arrests without warrant for offenses against the United States committed in their presence;

(3) make arrests without warrant for felonies cognizable under the laws of the United States if they have reasonable grounds to believe that the person to be arrested has committed or is committing such a felony;

(4) carry firearms; and

(5) make seizures of property as provided by law.


(b) The powers granted by subsection (a) of this section shall be exercised only—

(1) in the enforcement of laws regarding property in the custody of the Postal Service, property of the Postal Service, the use of the mails, and other postal offenses; and

(2) to the extent authorized by the Attorney General pursuant to agreement between the Attorney General and the Postal Service, in the enforcement of other laws of the United States, if the Attorney General determines that violations of such laws have a detrimental effect upon the operations of the Postal Service.


(c)(1) The Postal Service may employ police officers for duty in connection with the protection of property owned or occupied by the Postal Service or under the charge and control of the Postal Service, and persons on that property, including duty in areas outside the property to the extent necessary to protect the property and persons on the property.

(2) With respect to such property, such officers shall have the power to—

(A) enforce Federal laws and regulations for the protection of persons and property;

(B) carry firearms; and

(C) make arrests without a warrant for any offense against the Unites 1 States committed in the presence of the officer or for any felony cognizable under the laws of the United States if the officer has reasonable grounds to believe that the person to be arrested has committed or is committing a felony.


(3) With respect to such property, such officers may have, to such extent as the Postal Service may by regulations prescribe, the power to—

(A) serve warrants and subpoenas issued under the authority of the United States; and

(B) conduct investigations, on and off the property in question, of offenses that may have been committed against property owned or occupied by the Postal Service or persons on the property.


(4)(A) As to such property, the Postmaster General may prescribe regulations necessary for the protection and administration of property owned or occupied by the Postal Service and persons on the property. The regulations may include reasonable penalties, within the limits prescribed in subparagraph (B), for violations of the regulations. The regulations shall be posted and remain posted in a conspicuous place on the property.

(B) A person violating a regulation prescribed under this subsection shall be fined under this title, imprisoned for not more than 30 days, or both.

(Added Pub. L. 90–560, §5(a), Oct. 12, 1968, 82 Stat. 998; amended Pub. L. 91–375, §6(j)(38)(A), Aug. 12, 1970, 84 Stat. 781; Pub. L. 100–690, title VI, §6251(a), Nov. 18, 1988, 102 Stat. 4362; Pub. L. 109–435, title X, §1001, Dec. 20, 2006, 120 Stat. 3254.)

Amendments

2006—Subsec. (c). Pub. L. 109–435 added subsec. (c).

1988—Pub. L. 100–690 substituted “Investigative powers of Postal Service personnel” for “Powers of postal personnel” in section catchline, and amended text generally. Prior to amendment, text read as follows:

“(a) Subject to subsection (b) of this section, officers and employees of the Postal Service performing duties related to the inspection of postal matters may, to the extent authorized by the Board of Governors—

“(1) serve warrants and subpenas issued under the authority of the United States;

“(2) make arrests without warrant for offenses against the United States committed in their presence; and

“(3) make arrests without warrant for felonies cognizable under the laws of the United States if they have reasonable grounds to believe that the person to be arrested has committed or is committing such a felony.

“(b) The powers granted by subsection (a) of this section shall be exercised only in the enforcement of laws regarding property of the United States in the custody of the Postal Service, including property of the Postal Service, the use of the mails, and other postal offenses.”

1970—Pub. L. 91–375, §6(j)(38)(A)(i), substituted “postal personnel” for “postal inspectors” in section catchline.

Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 91–375, §6(j)(38)(A)(ii), substituted “officers and employees of the Postal Service performing duties related to the inspection of postal matters may, to the extent authorized by the Board of Governors—” for “postal inspectors may, to the extent authorized by the Postmaster General—”.

Subsec. (b). Pub. L. 91–375, §6(j)(38)(A)(iii), substituted “Postal Service, including property of the Postal Service,” for “postal service”.

Effective Date of 1970 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 91–375 effective within 1 year after Aug. 12, 1970, on date established therefor by the Board of Governors of the United States Postal Service and published by it in the Federal Register, see section 15(a) of Pub. L. 91–375, set out as an Effective Date note preceding section 101 of Title 39, Postal Service.

1 So in original. Probably should be “United”.

§3062. General arrest authority for violation of release conditions

A law enforcement officer, who is authorized to arrest for an offense committed in his presence, may arrest a person who is released pursuant to chapter 207 if the officer has reasonable grounds to believe that the person is violating, in his presence, a condition imposed on the person pursuant to section 3142(c)(1)(B)(iv), (v), (viii), (ix), or (xiii), or, if the violation involves a failure to remain in a specified institution as required, a condition imposed pursuant to section 3142(c)(1)(B)(x).

(Added Pub. L. 98–473, title II, §204(d), Oct. 12, 1984, 98 Stat. 1986; amended Pub. L. 100–690, title VII, §7052, Nov. 18, 1988, 102 Stat. 4401.)

Amendments

1988—Pub. L. 100–690 substituted “section 3142(c)(1)(B)(iv), (v), (viii), (ix), or (xiii)” for “section 3142(c)(2)(D), (c)(2)(E), (c)(2)(H), (c)(2)(I), or (c)(2)(M)” and “section 3142(c)(1)(B)(x)” for “section 3142(c)(2)(J)”.

§3063. Powers of Environmental Protection Agency

(a) Upon designation by the Administrator of the Environmental Protection Agency, any law enforcement officer of the Environmental Protection Agency with responsibility for the investigation of criminal violations of a law administered by the Environmental Protection Agency, may—

(1) carry firearms;

(2) execute and serve any warrant or other processes issued under the authority of the United States; and

(3) make arrests without warrant for—

(A) any offense against the United States committed in such officer's presence; or

(B) any felony offense against the United States if such officer has probable cause to believe that the person to be arrested has committed or is committing that felony offense.


(b) The powers granted under subsection (a) of this section shall be exercised in accordance with guidelines approved by the Attorney General.

(Added Pub. L. 100–582, §4(a), Nov. 1, 1988, 102 Stat. 2958.)

§3064. Powers of Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration

Authorized employees of the Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration may direct a driver of a commercial motor vehicle (as defined in section 31132 of title 49) to stop for inspection of the vehicle, driver, cargo, and required records at or in the vicinity of an inspection site.

(Added Pub. L. 109–59, title IV, §4143(b), Aug. 10, 2005, 119 Stat. 1748.)

CHAPTER 204—REWARDS FOR INFORMATION CONCERNING TERRORIST ACTS AND ESPIONAGE

Sec.
3071.
Information for which rewards authorized.
3072.
Determination of entitlement; maximum amount; Presidential approval; conclusiveness.
3073.
Protection of identity.
3074.
Exception of governmental officials.
3075.
Authorization for appropriations.1

        

3076.
Eligibility for witness security program.
3077.
Definitions.

        

Amendments

1994—Pub. L. 103–359, title VIII, §803(c)(2), Oct. 14, 1994, 108 Stat. 3439, inserted “AND ESPIONAGE” after “TERRORIST ACTS” in chapter heading.

1 Section repealed by Pub. L. 107–273 without corresponding amendment of chapter analysis.

§3071. Information for which rewards authorized

(a) With respect to acts of terrorism primarily within the territorial jurisdiction of the United States, the Attorney General may reward any individual who furnishes information—

(1) leading to the arrest or conviction, in any country, of any individual or individuals for the commission of an act of terrorism against a United States person or United States property; or

(2) leading to the arrest or conviction, in any country, of any individual or individuals for conspiring or attempting to commit an act of terrorism against a United States person or property; or

(3) leading to the prevention, frustration, or favorable resolution of an act of terrorism against a United States person or property.


(b) With respect to acts of espionage involving or directed at the United States, the Attorney General may reward any individual who furnishes information—

(1) leading to the arrest or conviction, in any country, of any individual or individuals for commission of an act of espionage against the United States;

(2) leading to the arrest or conviction, in any country, of any individual or individuals for conspiring or attempting to commit an act of espionage against the United States; or

(3) leading to the prevention or frustration of an act of espionage against the United States.

(Added Pub. L. 98–533, title I, §101(a), Oct. 19, 1984, 98 Stat. 2706; amended Pub. L. 103–359, title VIII, §803(a), Oct. 14, 1994, 108 Stat. 3438.)

Amendments

1994—Pub. L. 103–359 designated existing provisions as subsec. (a) and added subsec. (b).

Short Title

Section 1 of Pub. L. 98–533 provided that: “This Act [enacting this chapter and section 2708 of Title 22, Foreign Relations and Intercourse, amending sections 2669, 2678 and 2704 of Title 22, enacting provisions set out as a note under section 5928 of Title 5, Government Organization and Employees and amending provisions set out as a note under section 2651 of Title 22] may be cited as the ‘1984 Act to Combat International Terrorism’.”

Attorney General's Authority To Pay Rewards To Combat Terrorism

Pub. L. 107–56, title V, §501, Oct. 26, 2001, 115 Stat. 363, which provided that funds available to Attorney General could be used for payment of rewards to combat terrorism and defend Nation against terrorist acts, in accordance with procedures and regulations established or issued by Attorney General, and set forth conditions in making such rewards, was repealed by Pub. L. 107–273, div. A, title III, §301(c)(1), Nov. 2, 2002, 116 Stat. 1781.

§3072. Determination of entitlement; maximum amount; Presidential approval; conclusiveness

The Attorney General shall determine whether an individual furnishing information described in section 3071 is entitled to a reward and the amount to be paid.

(Added Pub. L. 98–533, title I, §101(a), Oct. 19, 1984, 98 Stat. 2707; amended Pub. L. 107–273, div. A, title III, §301(c)(2), Nov. 2, 2002, 116 Stat. 1781.)

Amendments

2002—Pub. L. 107–273, which directed amendment of section 3072 of chapter 203, was executed to this section, which is in chapter 204, by striking out at end “A reward under this section may be in an amount not to exceed $500,000. A reward of $100,000 or more may not be made without the approval of the President or the Attorney General personally. A determination made by the Attorney General or the President under this chapter shall be final and conclusive, and no court shall have power or jurisdiction to review it.”

§3073. Protection of identity

Any reward granted under this chapter shall be certified for payment by the Attorney General. If it is determined that the identity of the recipient of a reward or of the members of the recipient's immediate family must be protected, the Attorney General may take such measures in connection with the payment of the reward as deemed necessary to effect such protection.

(Added Pub. L. 98–533, title I, §101(a), Oct. 19, 1984, 98 Stat. 2707.)

§3074. Exception of governmental officials

No officer or employee of any governmental entity who, while in the performance of his or her official duties, furnishes the information described in section 3071 shall be eligible for any monetary reward under this chapter.

(Added Pub. L. 98–533, title I, §101(a), Oct. 19, 1984, 98 Stat. 2707.)

[§3075. Repealed. Pub. L. 107–273, div. A, title III, §301(c)(2), Nov. 2, 2002, 116 Stat. 1781]

Section, added Pub. L. 98–533, title I, §101(a), Oct. 19, 1984, 98 Stat. 2707, authorized appropriations for the purpose of this chapter.

Pub. L. 107–273, which directed the repeal of section 3075 of chapter 203, was executed to this section which is in chapter 204.

§3076. Eligibility for witness security program

Any individual (and the immediate family of such individual) who furnishes information which would justify a reward by the Attorney General under this chapter or by the Secretary of State under section 36 of the State Department Basic Authorities Act of 1956 may, in the discretion of the Attorney General, participate in the Attorney General's witness security program authorized under chapter 224 of this title.

(Added Pub. L. 98–533, title I, §101(a), Oct. 19, 1984, 98 Stat. 2707; amended Pub. L. 99–646, §45, Nov. 10, 1986, 100 Stat. 3601.)

References in Text

Section 36 of the State Department Basic Authorities Act of 1956, referred to in text, is classified to section 2708 of Title 22, Foreign Relations and Intercourse.

Amendments

1986—Pub. L. 99–646 substituted “chapter 224 of this title” for “title V of the Organized Crime Control Act of 1970”.

§3077. Definitions

As used in this chapter, the term—

(1) “act of terrorism” means an act of domestic or international terrorism as defined in section 2331;

(2) “United States person” means—

(A) a national of the United States as defined in section 101(a)(22) of the Immigration and Nationality Act (8 U.S.C. 1101(a)(22));

(B) an alien lawfully admitted for permanent residence in the United States as defined in section 101(a)(20) of the Immigration and Nationality Act (8 U.S.C. 1101(a)(20));

(C) any person within the United States;

(D) any employee or contractor of the United States Government, regardless of nationality, who is the victim or intended victim of an act of terrorism by virtue of that employment;

(E) a sole proprietorship, partnership, company, or association composed principally of nationals or permanent resident aliens of the United States; and

(F) a corporation organized under the laws of the United States, any State, the District of Columbia, or any territory or possession of the United States, and a foreign subsidiary of such corporation;


(3) “United States property” means any real or personal property which is within the United States or, if outside the United States, the actual or beneficial ownership of which rests in a United States person or any Federal or State governmental entity of the United States;

(4) “United States”, when used in a geographical sense, includes Puerto Rico and all territories and possessions of the United States;

(5) “State” includes any State of the United States, the District of Columbia, the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico, and any other possession or territory of the United States;

(6) “government entity” includes the Government of the United States, any State or political subdivision thereof, any foreign country, and any state, provincial, municipal, or other political subdivision of a foreign country;

(7) “Attorney General” means the Attorney General of the United States or that official designated by the Attorney General to perform the Attorney General's responsibilities under this chapter; and

(8) “act of espionage” means an activity that is a violation of—

(A) section 793, 794, or 798 of this title; or

(B) section 4 of the Subversive Activities Control Act of 1950.

(Added Pub. L. 98–533, title I, §101(a), Oct. 19, 1984, 98 Stat. 2707; amended Pub. L. 100–690, title VII, §7051, Nov. 18, 1988, 102 Stat. 4401; Pub. L. 101–647, title XXXV, §3572, Nov. 29, 1990, 104 Stat. 4929; Pub. L. 103–322, title XXXIII, §330021(1), Sept. 13, 1994, 108 Stat. 2150; Pub. L. 103–359, title VIII, §803(b), Oct. 14, 1994, 108 Stat. 3439; Pub. L. 104–294, title VI, §605(g), Oct. 11, 1996, 110 Stat. 3510; Pub. L. 107–56, title VIII, §802(b), Oct. 26, 2001, 115 Stat. 376.)

References in Text

Section 4 of the Subversive Activities Control Act of 1950, referred to in par. (8)(B), is classified to section 783 of Title 50, War and National Defense.

Amendments

2001—Par. (1). Pub. L. 107–56 amended par. (1) generally. Prior to amendment, par. (1) read as follows: “ ‘act of terrorism’ means an activity that—

“(A) involves a violent act or an act dangerous to human life that is a violation of the criminal laws of the United States or of any State, or that would be a criminal violation if committed within the jurisdiction of the United States or of any State; and

“(B) appears to be intended—

“(i) to intimidate or coerce a civilian population;

“(ii) to influence the policy of a government by intimidation or coercion; or

“(iii) to affect the conduct of a government by assassination or kidnapping;”.

1996—Par. (8)(A). Pub. L. 104–294 substituted “this title” for “title 18, United States Code”.

1994—Par. (1)(B)(iii). Pub. L. 103–322 substituted “kidnapping” for “kidnaping”.

Par. (8). Pub. L. 103–359 added par. (8).

1990—Pub. L. 101–647 substituted a semicolon for a period at end of pars. (1) to (3), moved the comma from before the close quotation mark to after that mark in par. (4), substituted a semicolon for a period at end of par. (5), and substituted “; and” for period at end of par. (6).

1988—Par. (4). Pub. L. 100–690 amended par. (4) generally. Prior to amendment, par. (4) read as follows: “ ‘United States’—

“(A) when used in a geographical sense, includes Puerto Rico and all territories and possessions of the United States; and

“(B) when used in the context of section 3073 shall have the meaning given to it in the Immigration and Nationality Act (8 U.S.C. 1101 et seq.).”

CHAPTER 205—SEARCHES AND SEIZURES

Sec.
3101.
Effect of rules of court—Rule.
3102.
Authority to issue search warrant—Rule.
3103.
Grounds for issuing search warrant—Rule.
3103a.
Additional grounds for issuing warrant.
3104.
Issuance of search warrant; contents—Rule.
3105.
Persons authorized to serve search warrant.
3106.
Officer authorized to serve search warrant—Rule.
3107.
Service of warrants and seizures by Federal Bureau of Investigation.
3108.
Execution, service, and return—Rule.
3109.
Breaking doors or windows for entry or exit.
3110.
Property defined—Rule.
3111.
Property seizable on search warrant—Rule.
[3112.
Repealed.]
3113.
Liquor violations in Indian country.
3114.
Return of seized property and suppression of evidence; motion—Rule.
3115.
Inventory upon execution and return of search warrant—Rule.
3116.
Records of examining magistrate judge; return to clerk of court—Rule.
3117.
Mobile tracking devices.
3118.
Implied consent for certain tests.

        

Codification

Pub. L. 90–351 enacted section 3103a of this title as part of chapter 204, and Pub. L. 90–462, §3, Aug. 8, 1968, 82 Stat. 638, corrected the chapter designation from 204 to 205.

Amendments

1990—Pub. L. 101–647, title XXXV, §3573(d), Nov. 29, 1990, 104 Stat. 4929, struck out item 3112 “Search warrants for seizure of animals, birds, or eggs” and renumbered item 3117, “Implied consent for certain tests”, as 3118.

1988—Pub. L. 100–690, title VI, §6477(b)(2), Nov. 18, 1988, 102 Stat. 4381, added item 3117 “Implied consent for certain tests”.

1986—Pub. L. 99–508, title I, §108(b), Oct. 21, 1986, 100 Stat. 1858, added item 3117 “Mobile tracking devices”.

1968—Pub. L. 90–351, title IX, §1401(b), June 19, 1968, 82 Stat. 238, added item 3103a.

Change of Name

Words “magistrate judge” substituted for “magistrate” in item 3116 pursuant to section 321 of Pub. L. 101–650, set out as a note under section 631 of Title 28, Judiciary and Judicial Procedure.

§3101. Effect of rules of court—(Rule)

See Federal Rules of Criminal Procedure

Rules generally applicable throughout United States, Rule 54.

Acts of Congress superseded, Rule 41(g).

(June 25, 1948, ch. 645, 62 Stat. 819.)

References in Text

Rule 41(g), referred to in text, was relettered 41(h) by 1972 amendment eff. Oct. 1, 1972.

§3102. Authority to issue search warrant—(Rule)

See Federal Rules of Criminal Procedure

Federal, State or Territorial Judges, or U.S. magistrate judges authorized to issue search warrants, Rule 41(a).

(June 25, 1948, ch. 645, 62 Stat. 819; Pub. L. 90–578, title III, §301(a)(4), Oct. 17, 1968, 82 Stat. 1115; Pub. L. 101–650, title III, §321, Dec. 1, 1990, 104 Stat. 5117.)

Amendments

1968—Pub. L. 90–578 substituted “magistrates” for “Commissioners”.

Change of Name

“U.S. magistrate judges” substituted for “U.S. magistrates” in text pursuant to section 321 of Pub. L. 101–650, set out as a note under section 631 of Title 28, Judiciary and Judicial Procedure.

Effective Date of 1968 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 90–578 effective Oct. 17, 1968, except when a later effective date is applicable, which is the earlier of date when implementation of amendment by appointment of magistrates [now United States magistrate judges] and assumption of office takes place or third anniversary of enactment of Pub. L. 90–578 on Oct. 17, 1968, see section 403 of Pub. L. 90–578, set out as a note under section 631 of Title 28, Judiciary and Judicial Procedure.

§3103. Grounds for issuing search warrant—(Rule)

See Federal Rules of Criminal Procedure

Grounds prescribed for issuance of search warrant, Rule 41(b).

(June 25, 1948, ch. 645, 62 Stat. 819.)

§3103a. Additional grounds for issuing warrant

(a) In General.—In addition to the grounds for issuing a warrant in section 3103 of this title, a warrant may be issued to search for and seize any property that constitutes evidence of a criminal offense in violation of the laws of the United States.

(b) Delay.—With respect to the issuance of any warrant or court order under this section, or any other rule of law, to search for and seize any property or material that constitutes evidence of a criminal offense in violation of the laws of the United States, any notice required, or that may be required, to be given may be delayed if—

(1) the court finds reasonable cause to believe that providing immediate notification of the execution of the warrant may have an adverse result (as defined in section 2705, except if the adverse results consist only of unduly delaying a trial) 1 ;

(2) the warrant prohibits the seizure of any tangible property, any wire or electronic communication (as defined in section 2510), or, except as expressly provided in chapter 121, any stored wire or electronic information, except where the court finds reasonable necessity for the seizure; and

(3) the warrant provides for the giving of such notice within a reasonable period not to exceed 30 days after the date of its execution, or on a later date certain if the facts of the case justify a longer period of delay.


(c) Extensions of Delay.—Any period of delay authorized by this section may be extended by the court for good cause shown, subject to the condition that extensions should only be granted upon an updated showing of the need for further delay and that each additional delay should be limited to periods of 90 days or less, unless the facts of the case justify a longer period of delay.

(d) Reports.—

(1) Report by judge.—Not later than 30 days after the expiration of a warrant authorizing delayed notice (including any extension thereof) entered under this section, or the denial of such warrant (or request for extension), the issuing or denying judge shall report to the Administrative Office of the United States Courts—

(A) the fact that a warrant was applied for;

(B) the fact that the warrant or any extension thereof was granted as applied for, was modified, or was denied;

(C) the period of delay in the giving of notice authorized by the warrant, and the number and duration of any extensions; and

(D) the offense specified in the warrant or application.


(2) Report by administrative office of the united states courts.—Beginning with the fiscal year ending September 30, 2007, the Director of the Administrative Office of the United States Courts shall transmit to Congress annually a full and complete report summarizing the data required to be filed with the Administrative Office by paragraph (1), including the number of applications for warrants and extensions of warrants authorizing delayed notice, and the number of such warrants and extensions granted or denied during the preceding fiscal year.

(3) Regulations.—The Director of the Administrative Office of the United States Courts, in consultation with the Attorney General, is authorized to issue binding regulations dealing with the content and form of the reports required to be filed under paragraph (1).

(Added Pub. L. 90–351, title IX, §1401(a), June 19, 1968, 82 Stat. 238; amended Pub. L. 107–56, title II, §213, Oct. 26, 2001, 115 Stat. 285; Pub. L. 109–177, title I, §114, Mar. 9, 2006, 120 Stat. 210.)

Codification

Pub. L. 90–351 enacted section 3103a of this title as part of chapter 204, and Pub. L. 90–462, §3, Aug. 8, 1968, 82 Stat. 638, corrected the chapter designation from 204 to 205.

Amendments

2006—Subsec. (b)(1). Pub. L. 109–177, §114(b), inserted “, except if the adverse results consist only of unduly delaying a trial” after “2705”.

Subsec. (b)(3). Pub. L. 109–177, §114(a)(1), added par. (3) and struck out former par. (3) which read as follows: “the warrant provides for the giving of such notice within a reasonable period of its execution, which period may thereafter be extended by the court for good cause shown.”

Subsecs. (c), (d). Pub. L. 109–177, §114(a)(2), (c), added subsecs. (c) and (d).

2001—Pub. L. 107–56 designated existing provisions as subsec. (a), inserted heading, and added subsec. (b).

1 So in original. The closing parenthesis probably should follow “section 2705”.

§3104. Issuance of search warrant; contents—(Rule)

See Federal Rules of Criminal Procedure

Issuance of search warrant on affidavit; contents to identify persons or place; command to search forthwith, Rule 41(c).

(June 25, 1948, ch. 645, 62 Stat. 819.)

§3105. Persons authorized to serve search warrant

A search warrant may in all cases be served by any of the officers mentioned in its direction or by an officer authorized by law to serve such warrant, but by no other person, except in aid of the officer on his requiring it, he being present and acting in its execution.

(June 25, 1948, ch. 645, 62 Stat. 819.)

Historical and Revision Notes

Based on title 18, U.S.C., 1940 ed., §617 (June 15, 1917, ch. 30, title XI, §7, 40 Stat. 229).

Minor change was made in phraseology.

§3106. Officer authorized to serve search warrant—(Rule)

See Federal Rules of Criminal Procedure

Officer to whom search warrant shall be directed, Rule 41(c).

(June 25, 1948, ch. 645, 62 Stat. 819.)

§3107. Service of warrants and seizures by Federal Bureau of Investigation

The Director, Associate Director, Assistant to the Director, Assistant Directors, agents, and inspectors of the Federal Bureau of Investigation of the Department of Justice are empowered to make seizures under warrant for violation of the laws of the United States.

(June 25, 1948, ch. 645, 62 Stat. 819; Jan. 10, 1951, ch. 1221, §2, 64 Stat. 1239.)

Historical and Revision Notes

Based on section 300a of title 5, U.S.C., 1940 ed., Executive Departments and Government Officers and Employees (June 18, 1934, ch. 595, 48 Stat. 1008; Mar. 22, 1935, ch. 39, title II, 49 Stat. 77).

Section 300a of title 5, U.S.C., 1940 ed., Executive Departments and Government Officers and Employees, was used as the basis for this section and section 3052 of this title.

Amendments

1951—Act Jan. 10, 1951, included within its provisions the Associate Director and the Assistant to the Director.

Transfer of Functions

Functions of all other officers of Department of Justice and functions of all agencies and employees of such Department, with a few exceptions, transferred to Attorney General, with power vested in him to authorize their performance or performance of any of his functions by any of such officers, agencies, and employees, by Reorg. Plan No. 2 of 1950, §§1, 2, eff. May 24, 1950, 15 F.R. 3173, 64 Stat. 1261, set out in the Appendix to Title 5, Government Organization and Employees.

§3108. Execution, service, and return—(Rule)

See Federal Rules of Criminal Procedure

Method and time for execution, service and return of search warrant, Rule 41(c), (d).

(June 25, 1948, ch. 645, 62 Stat. 819.)

§3109. Breaking doors or windows for entry or exit

The officer may break open any outer or inner door or window of a house, or any part of a house, or anything therein, to execute a search warrant, if, after notice of his authority and purpose, he is refused admittance or when necessary to liberate himself or a person aiding him in the execution of the warrant.

(June 25, 1948, ch. 645, 62 Stat. 820.)

Historical and Revision Notes

Based on title 18, U.S.C., 1940 ed., §§618, 619 (June 15, 1917, ch. 30, title XI, §§8, 9, 40 Stat. 229).

Said sections 618 and 619 were consolidated with minor changes in phraseology but without change of substance.

§3110. Property defined—(Rule)

See Federal Rules of Criminal Procedure

Term “property” as used in Rule 41 includes documents, books, papers and any other tangible objects, Rule 41(g).

(June 25, 1948, ch. 645, 62 Stat. 820.)

References in Text

Rule 41(g), referred to in text, was redesignated 41(h) by 1972 amendment eff. Oct. 1, 1972.

§3111. Property seizable on search warrant—(Rule)

See Federal Rules of Criminal Procedure

Specified property seizable on search warrant, Rule 41(b).

(June 25, 1948, ch. 645, 62 Stat. 820.)

[§3112. Repealed. Pub. L. 97–79, §9(b)(3), Nov. 16, 1981, 95 Stat. 1079]

Section, acts June 25, 1948, ch. 645, 62 Stat. 820; Dec. 5, 1969, Pub. L. 91–135, §7(c), 83 Stat. 281; Nov. 8, 1978, Pub. L. 95–616, §3(j)(1), 92 Stat. 3112, provided for issuance of search warrants for seizure of animals, birds, and eggs. See section 3375 of Title 16, Conservation.

§3113. Liquor violations in Indian country

If any superintendent of Indian affairs, or commanding officer of a military post, or special agent of the Office of Indian Affairs for the suppression of liquor traffic among Indians and in the Indian country and any authorized deputies under his supervision has probable cause to believe that any person is about to introduce or has introduced any spirituous liquor, beer, wine or other intoxicating liquors named in sections 1154 and 1156 of this title into the Indian country in violation of law, he may cause the places, conveyances, and packages of such person to be searched. If any such intoxicating liquor is found therein, the same, together with such conveyances and packages of such person, shall be seized and delivered to the proper officer, and shall be proceeded against by libel in the proper court, and forfeited, one-half to the informer and one-half to the use of the United States. If such person be a trader, his license shall be revoked and his bond put in suit.

Any person in the service of the United States authorized by this section to make searches and seizures, or any Indian may take and destroy any ardent spirits or wine found in the Indian country, except such as are kept or used for scientific, sacramental, medicinal, or mechanical purposes or such as may be introduced therein by the Department of the Army.

(June 25, 1948, ch. 645, 62 Stat. 820; Oct. 31, 1951, ch. 655, §30, 65 Stat. 721; Pub. L. 103–322, title XXXIII, §330004(15), Sept. 13, 1994, 108 Stat. 2142.)

Historical and Revision Notes

Based on sections 246, 248, 252 of title 25, U.S.C., 1940 ed., Indians (R.S. §2140; Mar. 1, 1907, ch. 2285, 34 Stat. 1017; May 18, 1916, ch. 125, §1, 39 Stat. 124).

Said sections 246, 248, and 252 were consolidated. References to Indian agent and subagent were deleted since those positions no longer exist. See section 64 of title 25, U.S.C., 1940 ed., Indians, and notes thereunder.

Words “except such as are kept or used for scientific, sacramental, medicinal or mechanical purposes” were inserted. See reviser's note under section 1154 of this title.

Words “conveyances and packages” were substituted for the enumeration, “boats, teams, wagons and sleds * * * and goods, packages and peltries.”

Minor changes were made in phraseology.

Amendments

1994—Pub. L. 103–322 struck out last par. which read as follows: “In all cases arising under this section and sections 1154 and 1156 of this title, Indians shall be competent witnesses.”

1951—Act Oct. 31, 1951, substituted “Department of the Army” for “War Department” in second par.

§3114. Return of seized property and suppression of evidence; motion—(Rule)

See Federal Rules of Criminal Procedure

Return of property and suppression of evidence upon motion, Rule 41(e).

(June 25, 1948, ch. 645, 62 Stat. 820.)

§3115. Inventory upon execution and return of search warrant—(Rule)

See Federal Rules of Criminal Procedure

Inventory of property seized under search warrant and copies to persons affected, Rule 41(d).

(June 25, 1948, ch. 645, 62 Stat. 820.)

§3116. Records of examining magistrate judge; return to clerk of court—(Rule)

See Federal Rules of Criminal Procedure

Magistrate judges and clerks of court to keep records as prescribed by Director of the Administrative Office of the United States Courts, Rule 55.

Return or filing of records with clerk, Rule 41(f).

(June 25, 1948, ch. 645, 62 Stat. 821; Pub. L. 90–578, title III, §301(a)(4), Oct. 17, 1968, 82 Stat. 1115; Pub. L. 101–650, title III, §321, Dec. 1, 1990, 104 Stat. 5117.)

Historical and Revision Notes

Section 627 of title 18, U.S.C., 1940 ed., relating to the filing of search warrants and companion papers, was omitted as unnecessary in view of Rule 41(f) of the Federal Rules of Criminal Procedure.

References in Text

Rule 41(f), referred to in text, was redesignated 41(g) by 1972 amendment eff. Oct. 1, 1972.

Amendments

1968—Pub. L. 90–578 substituted “Magistrates” for “Commissioners”.

Change of Name

Words “magistrate judge” substituted for “magistrate” in section catchline and “Magistrate judges” substituted for “Magistrates” in text pursuant to section 321 of Pub. L. 101–650, set out as a note under section 631 of Title 28, Judiciary and Judicial Procedure.

Effective Date of 1968 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 90–578 effective Oct. 17, 1968, except when a later effective date is applicable, which is the earlier of date when implementation of amendment by appointment of magistrates [now United States magistrate judges] and assumption of office takes place or third anniversary of enactment of Pub. L. 90–578 on Oct. 17, 1968, see section 403 of Pub. L. 90–578, set out as a note under section 631 of Title 28, Judiciary and Judicial Procedure.

§3117. Mobile tracking devices

(a) In General.—If a court is empowered to issue a warrant or other order for the installation of a mobile tracking device, such order may authorize the use of that device within the jurisdiction of the court, and outside that jurisdiction if the device is installed in that jurisdiction.

(b) Definition.—As used in this section, the term “tracking device” means an electronic or mechanical device which permits the tracking of the movement of a person or object.

(Added Pub. L. 99–508, title I, §108(a), Oct. 21, 1986, 100 Stat. 1858.)

Codification

Another section 3117 was renumbered section 3118 of this title.

Effective Date

Section effective 90 days after Oct. 21, 1986, and, in case of conduct pursuant to court order or extension, applicable only with respect to court orders and extensions made after such date, with special rule for State authorizations of interceptions, see section 111 of Pub. L. 99–508, set out as an Effective Date of 1986 Amendment note under section 2510 of this title.

§3118. Implied consent for certain tests

(a) Consent.—Whoever operates a motor vehicle in the special maritime and territorial jurisdiction of the United States consents thereby to a chemical test or tests of such person's blood, breath, or urine, if arrested for any offense arising from such person's driving while under the influence of a drug or alcohol in such jurisdiction. The test or tests shall be administered upon the request of a police officer having reasonable grounds to believe the person arrested to have been driving a motor vehicle upon the special maritime and territorial jurisdiction of the United States while under the influence of drugs or alcohol in violation of the laws of a State, territory, possession, or district.

(b) Effect of Refusal.—Whoever, having consented to a test or tests by reason of subsection (a), refuses to submit to such a test or tests, after having first been advised of the consequences of such a refusal, shall be denied the privilege of operating a motor vehicle upon the special maritime and territorial jurisdiction of the United States during the period of a year commencing on the date of arrest upon which such test or tests was refused, and such refusal may be admitted into evidence in any case arising from such person's driving while under the influence of a drug or alcohol in such jurisdiction. Any person who operates a motor vehicle in the special maritime and territorial jurisdiction of the United States after having been denied such privilege under this subsection shall be treated for the purposes of any civil or criminal proceedings arising out of such operation as operating such vehicle without a license to do so.

(Added Pub. L. 100–690, title VI, §6477(b)(1), Nov. 18, 1988, 102 Stat. 4381, §3117; renumbered §3118, Pub. L. 101–647, title XXXV, §3574, Nov. 29, 1990, 104 Stat. 4929.)

Amendments

1990—Pub. L. 101–647 renumbered second section 3117 of this title as this section.

CHAPTER 206—PEN REGISTERS AND TRAP AND TRACE DEVICES

Sec.
3121.
General prohibition on pen register and trap and trace device use; exception.
3122.
Application for an order for a pen register or a trap and trace device.
3123.
Issuance of an order for a pen register or a trap and trace device.
3124.
Assistance in installation and use of a pen register or a trap and trace device.
3125.
Emergency pen register and trap and trace device installation.
3126.
Reports concerning pen registers and trap and trace devices.
3127.
Definitions for chapter.

        

Amendments

1988—Pub. L. 100–690, title VII, §§7068, 7092(c), Nov. 18, 1988, 102 Stat. 4405, 4411, substituted “trap and trace” for “trap or trace” in item 3123, added item 3125, and redesignated former items 3125 and 3126 as 3126 and 3127, respectively.

§3121. General prohibition on pen register and trap and trace device use; exception

(a) In General.—Except as provided in this section, no person may install or use a pen register or a trap and trace device without first obtaining a court order under section 3123 of this title or under the Foreign Intelligence Surveillance Act of 1978 (50 U.S.C. 1801 et seq.).

(b) Exception.—The prohibition of subsection (a) does not apply with respect to the use of a pen register or a trap and trace device by a provider of electronic or wire communication service—

(1) relating to the operation, maintenance, and testing of a wire or electronic communication service or to the protection of the rights or property of such provider, or to the protection of users of that service from abuse of service or unlawful use of service; or

(2) to record the fact that a wire or electronic communication was initiated or completed in order to protect such provider, another provider furnishing service toward the completion of the wire communication, or a user of that service, from fraudulent, unlawful or abusive use of service; or (3) where the consent of the user of that service has been obtained.


(c) Limitation.—A government agency authorized to install and use a pen register or trap and trace device under this chapter or under State law shall use technology reasonably available to it that restricts the recording or decoding of electronic or other impulses to the dialing, routing, addressing, and signaling information utilized in the processing and transmitting of wire or electronic communications so as not to include the contents of any wire or electronic communications.

(d) Penalty.—Whoever knowingly violates subsection (a) shall be fined under this title or imprisoned not more than one year, or both.

(Added Pub. L. 99–508, title III, §301(a), Oct. 21, 1986, 100 Stat. 1868; amended Pub. L. 103–414, title II, §207(b), Oct. 25, 1994, 108 Stat. 4292; Pub. L. 107–56, title II, §216(a), Oct. 26, 2001, 115 Stat. 288.)

References in Text

The Foreign Intelligence Surveillance Act of 1978, referred to in subsec. (a), is Pub. L. 95–511, Oct. 25, 1978, 92 Stat. 1783, as amended, which is classified principally to chapter 36 (§1801 et seq.) of Title 50, War and National Defense. For complete classification of this Act to the Code, see Short Title note set out under section 1801 of Title 50 and Tables.

Amendments

2001—Subsec. (c). Pub. L. 107–56 inserted “or trap and trace device” after “pen register” and “, routing, addressing,” after “dialing” and substituted “the processing and transmitting of wire or electronic communications so as not to include the contents of any wire or electronic communications” for “call processing”.

1994—Subsecs. (c), (d). Pub. L. 103–414 added subsec. (c) and redesignated former subsec. (c) as (d).

Effective Date

Section 302 of title III of Pub. L. 99–508 provided that:

“(a) In General.—Except as provided in subsection (b), this title and the amendments made by this title [enacting this chapter and section 1367 of this title] shall take effect ninety days after the date of the enactment of this Act [Oct. 21, 1986] and shall, in the case of conduct pursuant to a court order or extension, apply only with respect to court orders or extensions made after this title takes effect.

“(b) Special Rule for State Authorizations of Interceptions.—Any pen register or trap and trace device order or installation which would be valid and lawful without regard to the amendments made by this title shall be valid and lawful notwithstanding such amendments if such order or installation occurs during the period beginning on the date such amendments take effect and ending on the earlier of—

“(1) the day before the date of the taking effect of changes in State law required in order to make orders or installations under Federal law as amended by this title; or

“(2) the date two years after the date of the enactment of this Act [Oct. 21, 1986].”

§3122. Application for an order for a pen register or a trap and trace device

(a) Application.—(1) An attorney for the Government may make application for an order or an extension of an order under section 3123 of this title authorizing or approving the installation and use of a pen register or a trap and trace device under this chapter, in writing under oath or equivalent affirmation, to a court of competent jurisdiction.

(2) Unless prohibited by State law, a State investigative or law enforcement officer may make application for an order or an extension of an order under section 3123 of this title authorizing or approving the installation and use of a pen register or a trap and trace device under this chapter, in writing under oath or equivalent affirmation, to a court of competent jurisdiction of such State.

(b) Contents of Application.—An application under subsection (a) of this section shall include—

(1) the identity of the attorney for the Government or the State law enforcement or investigative officer making the application and the identity of the law enforcement agency conducting the investigation; and

(2) a certification by the applicant that the information likely to be obtained is relevant to an ongoing criminal investigation being conducted by that agency.

(Added Pub. L. 99–508, title III, §301(a), Oct. 21, 1986, 100 Stat. 1869.)

§3123. Issuance of an order for a pen register or a trap and trace device

(a) In General.—

(1) Attorney for the government.—Upon an application made under section 3122(a)(1), the court shall enter an ex parte order authorizing the installation and use of a pen register or trap and trace device anywhere within the United States, if the court finds that the attorney for the Government has certified to the court that the information likely to be obtained by such installation and use is relevant to an ongoing criminal investigation. The order, upon service of that order, shall apply to any person or entity providing wire or electronic communication service in the United States whose assistance may facilitate the execution of the order. Whenever such an order is served on any person or entity not specifically named in the order, upon request of such person or entity, the attorney for the Government or law enforcement or investigative officer that is serving the order shall provide written or electronic certification that the order applies to the person or entity being served.

(2) State investigative or law enforcement officer.—Upon an application made under section 3122(a)(2), the court shall enter an ex parte order authorizing the installation and use of a pen register or trap and trace device within the jurisdiction of the court, if the court finds that the State law enforcement or investigative officer has certified to the court that the information likely to be obtained by such installation and use is relevant to an ongoing criminal investigation.

(3)(A) Where the law enforcement agency implementing an ex parte order under this subsection seeks to do so by installing and using its own pen register or trap and trace device on a packet-switched data network of a provider of electronic communication service to the public, the agency shall ensure that a record will be maintained which will identify—

(i) any officer or officers who installed the device and any officer or officers who accessed the device to obtain information from the network;

(ii) the date and time the device was installed, the date and time the device was uninstalled, and the date, time, and duration of each time the device is accessed to obtain information;

(iii) the configuration of the device at the time of its installation and any subsequent modification thereof; and

(iv) any information which has been collected by the device.


To the extent that the pen register or trap and trace device can be set automatically to record this information electronically, the record shall be maintained electronically throughout the installation and use of such device.

(B) The record maintained under subparagraph (A) shall be provided ex parte and under seal to the court which entered the ex parte order authorizing the installation and use of the device within 30 days after termination of the order (including any extensions thereof).

(b) Contents of Order.—An order issued under this section—

(1) shall specify—

(A) the identity, if known, of the person to whom is leased or in whose name is listed the telephone line or other facility to which the pen register or trap and trace device is to be attached or applied;

(B) the identity, if known, of the person who is the subject of the criminal investigation;

(C) the attributes of the communications to which the order applies, including the number or other identifier and, if known, the location of the telephone line or other facility to which the pen register or trap and trace device is to be attached or applied, and, in the case of an order authorizing installation and use of a trap and trace device under subsection (a)(2), the geographic limits of the order; and

(D) a statement of the offense to which the information likely to be obtained by the pen register or trap and trace device relates; and


(2) shall direct, upon the request of the applicant, the furnishing of information, facilities, and technical assistance necessary to accomplish the installation of the pen register or trap and trace device under section 3124 of this title.


(c) Time Period and Extensions.—(1) An order issued under this section shall authorize the installation and use of a pen register or a trap and trace device for a period not to exceed sixty days.

(2) Extensions of such an order may be granted, but only upon an application for an order under section 3122 of this title and upon the judicial finding required by subsection (a) of this section. The period of extension shall be for a period not to exceed sixty days.

(d) Nondisclosure of Existence of Pen Register or a Trap and Trace Device.—An order authorizing or approving the installation and use of a pen register or a trap and trace device shall direct that—

(1) the order be sealed until otherwise ordered by the court; and

(2) the person owning or leasing the line or other facility to which the pen register or a trap and trace device is attached or applied, or who is obligated by the order to provide assistance to the applicant, not disclose the existence of the pen register or trap and trace device or the existence of the investigation to the listed subscriber, or to any other person, unless or until otherwise ordered by the court.

(Added Pub. L. 99–508, title III, §301(a), Oct. 21, 1986, 100 Stat. 1869; amended Pub. L. 107–56, title II, §216(b), Oct. 26, 2001, 115 Stat. 288.)

Amendments

2001—Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 107–56, §216(b)(1), reenacted heading without change and amended text generally. Prior to amendment, text read as follows: “Upon an application made under section 3122 of this title, the court shall enter an ex parte order authorizing the installation and use of a pen register or a trap and trace device within the jurisdiction of the court if the court finds that the attorney for the Government or the State law enforcement or investigative officer has certified to the court that the information likely to be obtained by such installation and use is relevant to an ongoing criminal investigation.”

Subsec. (b)(1)(A). Pub. L. 107–56, §216(b)(2)(A), inserted “or other facility” after “telephone line” and “or applied” before semicolon at end.

Subsec. (b)(1)(C). Pub. L. 107–56, §216(b)(2)(B), added subpar. (C) and struck out former subpar (C) which read as follows: “the number and, if known, physical location of the telephone line to which the pen register or trap and trace device is to be attached and, in the case of a trap and trace device, the geographic limits of the trap and trace order; and”.

Subsec. (d)(2). Pub. L. 107–56, §216(b)(3), inserted “or other facility” after “leasing the line” and substituted “or applied, or who is obligated by the order” for “, or who has been ordered by the court”.

§3124. Assistance in installation and use of a pen register or a trap and trace device

(a) Pen Registers.—Upon the request of an attorney for the Government or an officer of a law enforcement agency authorized to install and use a pen register under this chapter, a provider of wire or electronic communication service, landlord, custodian, or other person shall furnish such investigative or law enforcement officer forthwith all information, facilities, and technical assistance necessary to accomplish the installation of the pen register unobtrusively and with a minimum of interference with the services that the person so ordered by the court accords the party with respect to whom the installation and use is to take place, if such assistance is directed by a court order as provided in section 3123(b)(2) of this title.

(b) Trap and Trace Device.—Upon the request of an attorney for the Government or an officer of a law enforcement agency authorized to receive the results of a trap and trace device under this chapter, a provider of a wire or electronic communication service, landlord, custodian, or other person shall install such device forthwith on the appropriate line or other facility and shall furnish such investigative or law enforcement officer all additional information, facilities and technical assistance including installation and operation of the device unobtrusively and with a minimum of interference with the services that the person so ordered by the court accords the party with respect to whom the installation and use is to take place, if such installation and assistance is directed by a court order as provided in section 3123(b)(2) of this title. Unless otherwise ordered by the court, the results of the trap and trace device shall be furnished, pursuant to section 3123(b) or section 3125 of this title, to the officer of a law enforcement agency, designated in the court order, at reasonable intervals during regular business hours for the duration of the order.

(c) Compensation.—A provider of a wire or electronic communication service, landlord, custodian, or other person who furnishes facilities or technical assistance pursuant to this section shall be reasonably compensated for such reasonable expenses incurred in providing such facilities and assistance.

(d) No Cause of Action Against a Provider Disclosing Information Under This Chapter.—No cause of action shall lie in any court against any provider of a wire or electronic communication service, its officers, employees, agents, or other specified persons for providing information, facilities, or assistance in accordance with a court order under this chapter or request pursuant to section 3125 of this title.

(e) Defense.—A good faith reliance on a court order under this chapter, a request pursuant to section 3125 of this title, a legislative authorization, or a statutory authorization is a complete defense against any civil or criminal action brought under this chapter or any other law.

(f) Communications Assistance Enforcement Orders.—Pursuant to section 2522, an order may be issued to enforce the assistance capability and capacity requirements under the Communications Assistance for Law Enforcement Act.

(Added Pub. L. 99–508, title III, §301(a), Oct. 21, 1986, 100 Stat. 1870; amended Pub. L. 100–690, title VII, §§7040, 7092(b), (d), Nov. 18, 1988, 102 Stat. 4399, 4411; Pub. L. 101–647, title XXXV, §3575, Nov. 29, 1990, 104 Stat. 4929; Pub. L. 103–414, title II, §201(b)(2), Oct. 25, 1994, 108 Stat. 4290; Pub. L. 107–56, title II, §216(c)(5), (6), Oct. 26, 2001, 115 Stat. 290.)

References in Text

The Communications Assistance for Law Enforcement Act, referred to in subsec. (f), is title I of Pub. L. 103–414, Oct. 25, 1994, 108 Stat. 4279, which is classified generally to subchapter I (§1001 et seq.) of chapter 9 of Title 47, Telegraphs, Telephones, and Radiotelegraphs. For complete classification of this Act to the Code, see Short Title note set out under section 1001 of Title 47 and Tables.

Amendments

2001—Subsec. (b). Pub. L. 107–56, §216(c)(6), inserted “or other facility” after “the appropriate line”.

Subsec. (d). Pub. L. 107–56, §216(c)(5), struck out “the terms of” before “a court order”.

1994—Subsec. (f). Pub. L. 103–414 added subsec. (f).

1990—Subsec. (b). Pub. L. 101–647 substituted “section 3123(b)” for “subsection 3123(b)”.

1988—Subsec. (b). Pub. L. 100–690, §§7040, 7092(d), inserted “, pursuant to subsection 3123(b) or section 3125 of this title,” after “shall be furnished” and “order” after last reference to “court”.

Subsec. (d). Pub. L. 100–690, §7092(b)(1), inserted “or request pursuant to section 3125 of this title” after “this chapter”.

Subsec. (e). Pub. L. 100–690, §7092(b)(2), inserted “under this chapter, a request pursuant to section 3125 of this title” after “court order”.

Assistance to Law Enforcement Agencies

Pub. L. 107–56, title II, §222, Oct. 26, 2001, 115 Stat. 292, provided that: “Nothing in this Act [see Short Title of 2001 Amendment note set out under section 1 of this title] shall impose any additional technical obligation or requirement on a provider of a wire or electronic communication service or other person to furnish facilities or technical assistance. A provider of a wire or electronic communication service, landlord, custodian, or other person who furnishes facilities or technical assistance pursuant to section 216 [amending this section and sections 3121, 3123, and 3127 of this title] shall be reasonably compensated for such reasonable expenditures incurred in providing such facilities or assistance.”

§3125. Emergency pen register and trap and trace device installation

(a) Notwithstanding any other provision of this chapter, any investigative or law enforcement officer, specially designated by the Attorney General, the Deputy Attorney General, the Associate Attorney General, any Assistant Attorney General, any acting Assistant Attorney General, or any Deputy Assistant Attorney General, or by the principal prosecuting attorney of any State or subdivision thereof acting pursuant to a statute of that State, who reasonably determines that—

(1) an emergency situation exists that involves—

(A) immediate danger of death or serious bodily injury to any person;

(B) conspiratorial activities characteristic of organized crime;

(C) an immediate threat to a national security interest; or

(D) an ongoing attack on a protected computer (as defined in section 1030) that constitutes a crime punishable by a term of imprisonment greater than one year;


that requires the installation and use of a pen register or a trap and trace device before an order authorizing such installation and use can, with due diligence, be obtained, and

(2) there are grounds upon which an order could be entered under this chapter to authorize such installation and use;


may have installed and use a pen register or trap and trace device if, within forty-eight hours after the installation has occurred, or begins to occur, an order approving the installation or use is issued in accordance with section 3123 of this title.

(b) In the absence of an authorizing order, such use shall immediately terminate when the information sought is obtained, when the application for the order is denied or when forty-eight hours have lapsed since the installation of the pen register or trap and trace device, whichever is earlier.

(c) The knowing installation or use by any investigative or law enforcement officer of a pen register or trap and trace device pursuant to subsection (a) without application for the authorizing order within forty-eight hours of the installation shall constitute a violation of this chapter.

(d) A provider of a wire or electronic service, landlord, custodian, or other person who furnished facilities or technical assistance pursuant to this section shall be reasonably compensated for such reasonable expenses incurred in providing such facilities and assistance.

(Added Pub. L. 100–690, title VII, §7092(a)(2), Nov. 18, 1988, 102 Stat. 4410; amended Pub. L. 103–322, title XXXIII, §330008(3), Sept. 13, 1994, 108 Stat. 2142; Pub. L. 104–294, title VI, §601(f)(5), Oct. 11, 1996, 110 Stat. 3499; Pub. L. 107–296, title II, §225(i), Nov. 25, 2002, 116 Stat. 2158.)

Prior Provisions

A prior section 3125 was renumbered section 3126 of this title.

Amendments

2002—Subsec. (a)(1)(C), (D). Pub. L. 107–296 added subpars. (C) and (D).

1996—Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 104–294 struck out closing quotation mark at end.

1994—Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 103–322, §330008(3)(A), (B), substituted “use;” for “use’ ” in par. (2) and directed that matter beginning with “may have installed” and ending with “section 3123 of this title” be realigned so that it is flush to the left margin, which was executed to text containing a period after “section 3123 of this title”, to reflect the probable intent of Congress.

Subsec. (d). Pub. L. 103–322, §330008(3)(C), substituted “provider of” for “provider for”.

Effective Date of 2002 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 107–296 effective 60 days after Nov. 25, 2002, see section 4 of Pub. L. 107–296, set out as an Effective Date note under section 101 of Title 6, Domestic Security.

§3126. Reports concerning pen registers and trap and trace devices

The Attorney General shall annually report to Congress on the number of pen register orders and orders for trap and trace devices applied for by law enforcement agencies of the Department of Justice, which report shall include information concerning—

(1) the period of interceptions authorized by the order, and the number and duration of any extensions of the order;

(2) the offense specified in the order or application, or extension of an order;

(3) the number of investigations involved;

(4) the number and nature of the facilities affected; and

(5) the identity, including district, of the applying investigative or law enforcement agency making the application and the person authorizing the order.

(Added Pub. L. 99–508, title III, §301(a), Oct. 21, 1986, 100 Stat. 1871, §3125; renumbered §3126, Pub. L. 100–690, title VII, §7092(a)(1), Nov. 18, 1988, 102 Stat. 4410; amended Pub. L. 106–197, §3, May 2, 2000, 114 Stat. 247.)

Prior Provisions

A prior section 3126 was renumbered section 3127 of this title.

Amendments

2000—Pub. L. 106–197 substituted “, which report shall include information concerning—” and pars. (1) to (5) for period at end.

1988—Pub. L. 100–690 renumbered section 3125 of this title as this section.

Report on Use of DCS 1000 (Carnivore) To Implement Orders Under Section 3123

Pub. L. 107–273, div. A, title III, §305(a), Nov. 2, 2002, 116 Stat. 1782, provided that: “At the same time that the Attorney General submits to Congress the annual reports required by section 3126 of title 18, United States Code, that are respectively next due after the end of each of the fiscal years 2002 and 2003, the Attorney General shall also submit to the Chairmen and ranking minority members of the Committees on the Judiciary of the Senate and of the House of Representatives a report, covering the same respective time period, on the number of orders under section 3123 applied for by law enforcement agencies of the Department of Justice whose implementation involved the use of the DCS 1000 program (or any subsequent version of such program), which report shall include information concerning—

“(1) the period of interceptions authorized by the order, and the number and duration of any extensions of the order;

“(2) the offense specified in the order or application, or extension of an order;

“(3) the number of investigations involved;

“(4) the number and nature of the facilities affected;

“(5) the identity of the applying investigative or law enforcement agency making the application for an order; and

“(6) the specific persons authorizing the use of the DCS 1000 program (or any subsequent version of such program) in the implementation of such order.”

§3127. Definitions for chapter

As used in this chapter—

(1) the terms “wire communication”, “electronic communication”, “electronic communication service”, and “contents” have the meanings set forth for such terms in section 2510 of this title;

(2) the term “court of competent jurisdiction” means—

(A) any district court of the United States (including a magistrate judge of such a court) or any United States court of appeals that—

(i) has jurisdiction over the offense being investigated;

(ii) is in or for a district in which the provider of a wire or electronic communication service is located;

(iii) is in or for a district in which a landlord, custodian, or other person subject to subsections (a) or (b) of section 3124 of this title is located; or

(iv) is acting on a request for foreign assistance pursuant to section 3512 of this title; or


(B) a court of general criminal jurisdiction of a State authorized by the law of that State to enter orders authorizing the use of a pen register or a trap and trace device;


(3) the term “pen register” means a device or process which records or decodes dialing, routing, addressing, or signaling information transmitted by an instrument or facility from which a wire or electronic communication is transmitted, provided, however, that such information shall not include the contents of any communication, but such term does not include any device or process used by a provider or customer of a wire or electronic communication service for billing, or recording as an incident to billing, for communications services provided by such provider or any device or process used by a provider or customer of a wire communication service for cost accounting or other like purposes in the ordinary course of its business;

(4) the term “trap and trace device” means a device or process which captures the incoming electronic or other impulses which identify the originating number or other dialing, routing, addressing, and signaling information reasonably likely to identify the source of a wire or electronic communication, provided, however, that such information shall not include the contents of any communication;

(5) the term “attorney for the Government” has the meaning given such term for the purposes of the Federal Rules of Criminal Procedure; and

(6) the term “State” means a State, the District of Columbia, Puerto Rico, and any other possession or territory of the United States.

(Added Pub. L. 99–508, title III, §301(a), Oct. 21, 1986, 100 Stat. 1871, §3126; renumbered §3127, Pub. L. 100–690, title VII, §7092(a)(1), Nov. 18, 1988, 102 Stat. 4410; amended Pub. L. 107–56, title II, §216(c)(1)–(4), Oct. 26, 2001, 115 Stat. 290; Pub. L. 111–79, §2(3), Oct. 19, 2009, 123 Stat. 2087.)

References in Text

The Federal Rules of Criminal Procedure, referred to in par. (5), are set out in the Appendix to this title.

Amendments

2009—Par. (2)(A). Pub. L. 111–79 substituted “that—” and cls. (i) to (iv) for “having jurisdiction over the offense being investigated; or”.

2001—Par. (1). Pub. L. 107–56, §216(c)(4), struck out “and” after “ ‘electronic communication’,” and inserted “, and ‘contents’ ” after “ ‘electronic communication service’ ”.

Par. (2)(A). Pub. L. 107–56, §216(c)(1), added subpar. (A) and struck out former subpar. (A) which read as follows: “a district court of the United States (including a magistrate judge of such a court) or a United States Court of Appeals; or”.

Par. (3). Pub. L. 107–56, §216(c)(2), substituted “dialing, routing, addressing, or signaling information transmitted by an instrument or facility from which a wire or electronic communication is transmitted, provided, however, that such information shall not include the contents of any communication” for “electronic or other impulses which identify the numbers dialed or otherwise transmitted on the telephone line to which such device is attached” and inserted “or process” after “device” wherever appearing.

Par. (4). Pub. L. 107–56, §216(c)(3), inserted “or process” after “means a device” and substituted “or other dialing, routing, addressing, and signaling information reasonably likely to identify the source of a wire or electronic communication, provided, however, that such information shall not include the contents of any communication;” for “of an instrument or device from which a wire or electronic communication was transmitted;”.

1988—Pub. L. 100–690 renumbered section 3126 of this title as this section.

CHAPTER 207—RELEASE AND DETENTION PENDING JUDICIAL PROCEEDINGS

Sec.
3141.
Release and detention authority generally.
3142.
Release or detention of a defendant pending trial.
3143.
Release or detention of a defendant pending sentence or appeal.
3144.
Release or detention of a material witness.
3145.
Review and appeal of a release or detention order.
3146.
Penalty for failure to appear.
3147.
Penalty for an offense committed while on release.
3148.
Sanctions for violation of a release condition.
3149.
Surrender of an offender by a surety.
3150.
Applicability to a case removed from a State court.
[3150a.
Repealed.]
3151.
Refund of forfeited bail.
3152.
Establishment of pretrial services.
3153.
Organization and administration of pretrial services.
3154.
Functions and powers relating to pretrial services.
3155.
Annual reports.
3156.
Definitions.

        

Amendments

1988—Pub. L. 100–690, title VII, §7084(b), Nov. 18, 1988, 102 Stat. 4408, added item 3151.

1984—Pub. L. 98–473, title II, §203(e), Oct. 12, 1984, 98 Stat. 1985, inserted “AND DETENTION PENDING JUDICIAL PROCEEDING” in chapter heading, added new items 3141 to 3150, and struck out former items 3141 to 3151 as follows: item 3141 “Power of courts and magistrates”, item 3142 “Surrender by bail”, item 3143 “Additional bail”, item 3144 “Cases removed from State courts”, item 3145 “Parties and witnesses—Rule”, item 3146 “Release in noncapital cases prior to trial”, item 3147 “Appeal from conditions of release”, item 3148 “Release in capital cases or after conviction”, item 3149 “Release of material witnesses”, item 3150 “Penalties for failure to appear”, item 3150a “Refund of forfeited bail”, item 3151 “Contempt”.

1982—Pub. L. 97–267, §6, Sept. 27, 1982, 96 Stat. 1138, struck out “agencies” after “services” in item 3152, substituted “and administration of pretrial services” for “of pretrial services agencies” in item 3153, “relating to pretrial services” for “of pretrial services agencies” in item 3154, and “Annual reports” for “Report to Congress” in item 3155.

Pub. L. 97–258, §2(d)(3)(A), Sept. 13, 1982, 96 Stat. 1058, added item 3150a.

1975—Pub. L. 93–619, title II, §202, Jan. 3, 1975, 88 Stat. 2089, added items 3153 to 3156, and in item 3152, substituted “Establishment of Pretrial Services Agencies” for “Definitions”.

1966—Pub. L. 89–465, §§3(b), 5(e)(1), June 22, 1966, 80 Stat. 216, 217, substituted “RELEASE” for “BAIL” in chapter heading and “Release in noncapital cases prior to trial” for “Jumping Bail” in item 3146, and added items 3147 to 3152.

1954—Act Aug. 20, 1954, ch. 772, §2, 68 Stat. 748, added item 3146.

§3141. Release and detention authority generally

(a) Pending Trial.—A judicial officer authorized to order the arrest of a person under section 3041 of this title before whom an arrested person is brought shall order that such person be released or detained, pending judicial proceedings, under this chapter.

(b) Pending Sentence or Appeal.—A judicial officer of a court of original jurisdiction over an offense, or a judicial officer of a Federal appellate court, shall order that, pending imposition or execution of sentence, or pending appeal of conviction or sentence, a person be released or detained under this chapter.

(Added Pub. L. 98–473, title II, §203(a), Oct. 12, 1984, 98 Stat. 1976; amended Pub. L. 99–646, §55(a), (b), Nov. 10, 1986, 100 Stat. 3607.)

Prior Provisions

A prior section 3141, acts June 25, 1948, ch. 645, 62 Stat. 821; June 22, 1966, Pub. L. 89–465, §5(b), 80 Stat. 217, related to powers of courts and magistrates with respect to release on bail or otherwise, prior to repeal in the revision of this chapter by section 203(a) of Pub. L. 98–473.

Amendments

1986—Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 99–646, §55(a), (b), substituted “authorized to order the arrest of a person under section 3041 of this title before whom an arrested person is brought shall order that such person be released” for “who is authorized to order the arrest of a person pursuant to section 3041 of this title shall order that an arrested person who is brought before him be released” and “under this chapter” for “pursuant to the provisions of this chapter”.

Subsec. (b). Pub. L. 99–646, §55(a), substituted “under this chapter” for “pursuant to the provisions of this chapter”.

Effective Date of 1986 Amendment

Section 55(j) of Pub. L. 99–646 provided that: “The amendments made by this section [amending this section and sections 3142 to 3144, 3146 to 3148, and 3156 of this title] shall take effect 30 days after the date of enactment of this Act [Nov. 10, 1986].”

Short Title of 2004 Amendment

Pub. L. 108–458, title VI, §6951, Dec. 17, 2004, 118 Stat. 3775, provided that: “This subtitle [subtitle K (§§6951, 6952) of title VI of Pub. L. 108–458, amending section 3142 of this title] may be cited as the ‘Pretrial Detention of Terrorists Act of 2004’.”

Short Title of 1990 Amendment

Pub. L. 101–647, title IX, §901, Nov. 29, 1990, 104 Stat. 4826, provided that: “This title [amending sections 3143 and 3145 of this title] may be cited as the ‘Mandatory Detention for Offenders Convicted of Serious Crimes Act’.”

Short Title of 1984 Amendment

Section 202 of chapter I (§§202–210) of title II of Pub. L. 98–473 provided that: “This chapter [enacting sections 3062 and 3141 to 3150 of this title, amending sections 3041, 3042, 3154, 3156, 3731, 3772, and 4282 of this title and section 636 of Title 28, Judiciary and Judicial Procedure, repealing sections 3043 and 3141 to 3151 of this title, and amending rules 5, 15, 40, 46, and 54 of the Federal Rules of Criminal Procedure, set out in the Appendix to this title, and rule 9 of the Federal Rules of Appellate Procedure, set out in the Appendix to Title 28] may be cited as the ‘Bail Reform Act of 1984’.”

Short Title of 1982 Amendment

Pub. L. 97–267, §1, Sept. 27, 1982, 96 Stat. 1136, provided: “That this Act [amending sections 3152 to 3155 of this title and section 604 of Title 28, Judiciary and Judicial Procedure, and enacting provisions set out as notes under sections 3141 and 3152 of this title] may be cited as the ‘Pretrial Services Act of 1982’.”

Short Title

Section 1 of Pub. L. 89–465 provided: “That this Act [enacting sections 3146 to 3152 of this title, amending sections 3041, 3141 to 3143, and 3568 of this title, and enacting provisions set out as a note below] may be cited as the ‘Bail Reform Act of 1966’.”

Purpose of Bail Reform Act of 1966

Section 2 of Pub. L. 89–465 provided that: “The purpose of this Act [enacting sections 3146 to 3152 of this title, amending sections 3041, 3141 to 3143, and 3568 of this title and enacting provisions set out as a note above] is to revise the practices relating to bail to assure that all persons, regardless of their financial status, shall not needlessly be detained pending their appearance to answer charges, to testify, or pending appeal, when detention serves neither the ends of justice nor the public interest.”

§3142. Release or detention of a defendant pending trial

(a) In General.—Upon the appearance before a judicial officer of a person charged with an offense, the judicial officer shall issue an order that, pending trial, the person be—

(1) released on personal recognizance or upon execution of an unsecured appearance bond, under subsection (b) of this section;

(2) released on a condition or combination of conditions under subsection (c) of this section;

(3) temporarily detained to permit revocation of conditional release, deportation, or exclusion under subsection (d) of this section; or

(4) detained under subsection (e) of this section.


(b) Release on Personal Recognizance or Unsecured Appearance Bond.—The judicial officer shall order the pretrial release of the person on personal recognizance, or upon execution of an unsecured appearance bond in an amount specified by the court, subject to the condition that the person not commit a Federal, State, or local crime during the period of release and subject to the condition that the person cooperate in the collection of a DNA sample from the person if the collection of such a sample is authorized pursuant to section 3 of the DNA Analysis Backlog Elimination Act of 2000 (42 U.S.C. 14135a), unless the judicial officer determines that such release will not reasonably assure the appearance of the person as required or will endanger the safety of any other person or the community.

(c) Release on Conditions.—(1) If the judicial officer determines that the release described in subsection (b) of this section will not reasonably assure the appearance of the person as required or will endanger the safety of any other person or the community, such judicial officer shall order the pretrial release of the person—

(A) subject to the condition that the person not commit a Federal, State, or local crime during the period of release and subject to the condition that the person cooperate in the collection of a DNA sample from the person if the collection of such a sample is authorized pursuant to section 3 of the DNA Analysis Backlog Elimination Act of 2000 (42 U.S.C. 14135a); and

(B) subject to the least restrictive further condition, or combination of conditions, that such judicial officer determines will reasonably assure the appearance of the person as required and the safety of any other person and the community, which may include the condition that the person—

(i) remain in the custody of a designated person, who agrees to assume supervision and to report any violation of a release condition to the court, if the designated person is able reasonably to assure the judicial officer that the person will appear as required and will not pose a danger to the safety of any other person or the community;

(ii) maintain employment, or, if unemployed, actively seek employment;

(iii) maintain or commence an educational program;

(iv) abide by specified restrictions on personal associations, place of abode, or travel;

(v) avoid all contact with an alleged victim of the crime and with a potential witness who may testify concerning the offense;

(vi) report on a regular basis to a designated law enforcement agency, pretrial services agency, or other agency;

(vii) comply with a specified curfew;

(viii) refrain from possessing a firearm, destructive device, or other dangerous weapon;

(ix) refrain from excessive use of alcohol, or any use of a narcotic drug or other controlled substance, as defined in section 102 of the Controlled Substances Act (21 U.S.C. 802), without a prescription by a licensed medical practitioner;

(x) undergo available medical, psychological, or psychiatric treatment, including treatment for drug or alcohol dependency, and remain in a specified institution if required for that purpose;

(xi) execute an agreement to forfeit upon failing to appear as required, property of a sufficient unencumbered value, including money, as is reasonably necessary to assure the appearance of the person as required, and shall provide the court with proof of ownership and the value of the property along with information regarding existing encumbrances as the judicial office may require;

(xii) execute a bail bond with solvent sureties; who will execute an agreement to forfeit in such amount as is reasonably necessary to assure appearance of the person as required and shall provide the court with information regarding the value of the assets and liabilities of the surety if other than an approved surety and the nature and extent of encumbrances against the surety's property; such surety shall have a net worth which shall have sufficient unencumbered value to pay the amount of the bail bond;

(xiii) return to custody for specified hours following release for employment, schooling, or other limited purposes; and

(xiv) satisfy any other condition that is reasonably necessary to assure the appearance of the person as required and to assure the safety of any other person and the community.


In any case that involves a minor victim under section 1201, 1591, 2241, 2242, 2244(a)(1), 2245, 2251, 2251A, 2252(a)(1), 2252(a)(2), 2252(a)(3), 2252A(a)(1), 2252A(a)(2), 2252A(a)(3), 2252A(a)(4), 2260, 2421, 2422, 2423, or 2425 of this title, or a failure to register offense under section 2250 of this title, any release order shall contain, at a minimum, a condition of electronic monitoring and each of the conditions specified at subparagraphs (iv), (v), (vi), (vii), and (viii).


(2) The judicial officer may not impose a financial condition that results in the pretrial detention of the person.

(3) The judicial officer may at any time amend the order to impose additional or different conditions of release.

(d) Temporary Detention To Permit Revocation of Conditional Release, Deportation, or Exclusion.—If the judicial officer determines that—

(1) such person—

(A) is, and was at the time the offense was committed, on—

(i) release pending trial for a felony under Federal, State, or local law;

(ii) release pending imposition or execution of sentence, appeal of sentence or conviction, or completion of sentence, for any offense under Federal, State, or local law; or

(iii) probation or parole for any offense under Federal, State, or local law; or


(B) is not a citizen of the United States or lawfully admitted for permanent residence, as defined in section 101(a)(20) of the Immigration and Nationality Act (8 U.S.C. 1101(a)(20)); and


(2) such person may flee or pose a danger to any other person or the community;


such judicial officer shall order the detention of such person, for a period of not more than ten days, excluding Saturdays, Sundays, and holidays, and direct the attorney for the Government to notify the appropriate court, probation or parole official, or State or local law enforcement official, or the appropriate official of the Immigration and Naturalization Service. If the official fails or declines to take such person into custody during that period, such person shall be treated in accordance with the other provisions of this section, notwithstanding the applicability of other provisions of law governing release pending trial or deportation or exclusion proceedings. If temporary detention is sought under paragraph (1)(B) of this subsection, such person has the burden of proving to the court such person's United States citizenship or lawful admission for permanent residence.

(e) Detention.—(1) If, after a hearing pursuant to the provisions of subsection (f) of this section, the judicial officer finds that no condition or combination of conditions will reasonably assure the appearance of the person as required and the safety of any other person and the community, such judicial officer shall order the detention of the person before trial.

(2) In a case described in subsection (f)(1) of this section, a rebuttable presumption arises that no condition or combination of conditions will reasonably assure the safety of any other person and the community if such judicial officer finds that—

(A) the person has been convicted of a Federal offense that is described in subsection (f)(1) of this section, or of a State or local offense that would have been an offense described in subsection (f)(1) of this section if a circumstance giving rise to Federal jurisdiction had existed;

(B) the offense described in subparagraph (A) was committed while the person was on release pending trial for a Federal, State, or local offense; and

(C) a period of not more than five years has elapsed since the date of conviction, or the release of the person from imprisonment, for the offense described in subparagraph (A), whichever is later.


(3) Subject to rebuttal by the person, it shall be presumed that no condition or combination of conditions will reasonably assure the appearance of the person as required and the safety of the community if the judicial officer finds that there is probable cause to believe that the person committed—

(A) an offense for which a maximum term of imprisonment of ten years or more is prescribed in the Controlled Substances Act (21 U.S.C. 801 et seq.), the Controlled Substances Import and Export Act (21 U.S.C. 951 et seq.), or chapter 705 of title 46;

(B) an offense under section 924(c), 956(a), or 2332b of this title;

(C) an offense listed in section 2332b(g)(5)(B) of title 18, United States Code, for which a maximum term of imprisonment of 10 years or more is prescribed;

(D) an offense under chapter 77 of this title for which a maximum term of imprisonment of 20 years or more is prescribed; or

(E) an offense involving a minor victim under section 1201, 1591, 2241, 2242, 2244(a)(1), 2245, 2251, 2251A, 2252(a)(1), 2252(a)(2), 2252(a)(3), 2252A(a)(1), 2252A(a)(2), 2252A(a)(3), 2252A(a)(4), 2260, 2421, 2422, 2423, or 2425 of this title.


(f) Detention Hearing.—The judicial officer shall hold a hearing to determine whether any condition or combination of conditions set forth in subsection (c) of this section will reasonably assure the appearance of such person as required and the safety of any other person and the community—

(1) upon motion of the attorney for the Government, in a case that involves—

(A) a crime of violence, a violation of section 1591, or an offense listed in section 2332b(g)(5)(B) for which a maximum term of imprisonment of 10 years or more is prescribed;

(B) an offense for which the maximum sentence is life imprisonment or death;

(C) an offense for which a maximum term of imprisonment of ten years or more is prescribed in the Controlled Substances Act (21 U.S.C. 801 et seq.), the Controlled Substances Import and Export Act (21 U.S.C. 951 et seq.), or chapter 705 of title 46;

(D) any felony if such person has been convicted of two or more offenses described in subparagraphs (A) through (C) of this paragraph, or two or more State or local offenses that would have been offenses described in subparagraphs (A) through (C) of this paragraph if a circumstance giving rise to Federal jurisdiction had existed, or a combination of such offenses; or

(E) any felony that is not otherwise a crime of violence that involves a minor victim or that involves the possession or use of a firearm or destructive device (as those terms are defined in section 921), or any other dangerous weapon, or involves a failure to register under section 2250 of title 18, United States Code; or


(2) upon motion of the attorney for the Government or upon the judicial officer's own motion in a case, that involves—

(A) a serious risk that such person will flee; or

(B) a serious risk that such person will obstruct or attempt to obstruct justice, or threaten, injure, or intimidate, or attempt to threaten, injure, or intimidate, a prospective witness or juror.


The hearing shall be held immediately upon the person's first appearance before the judicial officer unless that person, or the attorney for the Government, seeks a continuance. Except for good cause, a continuance on motion of such person may not exceed five days (not including any intermediate Saturday, Sunday, or legal holiday), and a continuance on motion of the attorney for the Government may not exceed three days (not including any intermediate Saturday, Sunday, or legal holiday). During a continuance, such person shall be detained, and the judicial officer, on motion of the attorney for the Government or sua sponte, may order that, while in custody, a person who appears to be a narcotics addict receive a medical examination to determine whether such person is an addict. At the hearing, such person has the right to be represented by counsel, and, if financially unable to obtain adequate representation, to have counsel appointed. The person shall be afforded an opportunity to testify, to present witnesses, to cross-examine witnesses who appear at the hearing, and to present information by proffer or otherwise. The rules concerning admissibility of evidence in criminal trials do not apply to the presentation and consideration of information at the hearing. The facts the judicial officer uses to support a finding pursuant to subsection (e) that no condition or combination of conditions will reasonably assure the safety of any other person and the community shall be supported by clear and convincing evidence. The person may be detained pending completion of the hearing. The hearing may be reopened, before or after a determination by the judicial officer, at any time before trial if the judicial officer finds that information exists that was not known to the movant at the time of the hearing and that has a material bearing on the issue whether there are conditions of release that will reasonably assure the appearance of such person as required and the safety of any other person and the community.

(g) Factors To Be Considered.—The judicial officer shall, in determining whether there are conditions of release that will reasonably assure the appearance of the person as required and the safety of any other person and the community, take into account the available information concerning—

(1) the nature and circumstances of the offense charged, including whether the offense is a crime of violence, a violation of section 1591, a Federal crime of terrorism, or involves a minor victim or a controlled substance, firearm, explosive, or destructive device;

(2) the weight of the evidence against the person;

(3) the history and characteristics of the person, including—

(A) the person's character, physical and mental condition, family ties, employment, financial resources, length of residence in the community, community ties, past conduct, history relating to drug or alcohol abuse, criminal history, and record concerning appearance at court proceedings; and

(B) whether, at the time of the current offense or arrest, the person was on probation, on parole, or on other release pending trial, sentencing, appeal, or completion of sentence for an offense under Federal, State, or local law; and


(4) the nature and seriousness of the danger to any person or the community that would be posed by the person's release. In considering the conditions of release described in subsection (c)(1)(B)(xi) or (c)(1)(B)(xii) of this section, the judicial officer may upon his own motion, or shall upon the motion of the Government, conduct an inquiry into the source of the property to be designated for potential forfeiture or offered as collateral to secure a bond, and shall decline to accept the designation, or the use as collateral, of property that, because of its source, will not reasonably assure the appearance of the person as required.


(h) Contents of Release Order.—In a release order issued under subsection (b) or (c) of this section, the judicial officer shall—

(1) include a written statement that sets forth all the conditions to which the release is subject, in a manner sufficiently clear and specific to serve as a guide for the person's conduct; and

(2) advise the person of—

(A) the penalties for violating a condition of release, including the penalties for committing an offense while on pretrial release;

(B) the consequences of violating a condition of release, including the immediate issuance of a warrant for the person's arrest; and

(C) sections 1503 of this title (relating to intimidation of witnesses, jurors, and officers of the court), 1510 (relating to obstruction of criminal investigations), 1512 (tampering with a witness, victim, or an informant), and 1513 (retaliating against a witness, victim, or an informant).


(i) Contents of Detention Order.—In a detention order issued under subsection (e) of this section, the judicial officer shall—

(1) include written findings of fact and a written statement of the reasons for the detention;

(2) direct that the person be committed to the custody of the Attorney General for confinement in a corrections facility separate, to the extent practicable, from persons awaiting or serving sentences or being held in custody pending appeal;

(3) direct that the person be afforded reasonable opportunity for private consultation with counsel; and

(4) direct that, on order of a court of the United States or on request of an attorney for the Government, the person in charge of the corrections facility in which the person is confined deliver the person to a United States marshal for the purpose of an appearance in connection with a court proceeding.


The judicial officer may, by subsequent order, permit the temporary release of the person, in the custody of a United States marshal or another appropriate person, to the extent that the judicial officer determines such release to be necessary for preparation of the person's defense or for another compelling reason.

(j) Presumption of Innocence.—Nothing in this section shall be construed as modifying or limiting the presumption of innocence.

(Added Pub. L. 98–473, title II, §203(a), Oct. 12, 1984, 98 Stat. 1976; amended Pub. L. 99–646, §§55(a), (c), 72, Nov. 10, 1986, 100 Stat. 3607, 3617; Pub. L. 100–690, title VII, §7073, Nov. 18, 1988, 102 Stat. 4405; Pub. L. 101–647, title X, §1001(b), title XXXVI, §§3622–3624, Nov. 29, 1990, 104 Stat. 4827, 4965; Pub. L. 104–132, title VII, §§702(d), 729, Apr. 24, 1996, 110 Stat. 1294, 1302; Pub. L. 108–21, title II, §203, Apr. 30, 2003, 117 Stat. 660; Pub. L. 108–458, title VI, §6952, Dec. 17, 2004, 118 Stat. 3775; Pub. L. 109–162, title X, §1004(b), Jan. 5, 2006, 119 Stat. 3085; Pub. L. 109–248, title II, §216, July 27, 2006, 120 Stat. 617; Pub. L. 109–304, §17(d)(7), Oct. 6, 2006, 120 Stat. 1707; Pub. L. 110–457, title II, §§222(a), 224(a), Dec. 23, 2008, 122 Stat. 5067, 5072.)

References in Text

The Controlled Substances Act, referred to in subsecs. (e) and (f)(1)(C), is title II of Pub. L. 91–513, Oct. 27, 1970, 84 Stat. 1242, as amended, which is classified principally to subchapter I (§801 et seq.) of chapter 13 of Title 21, Food and Drugs. For complete classification of this Act to the Code, see Short Title note set out under section 801 of Title 21 and Tables.

The Controlled Substances Import and Export Act, referred to in subsecs. (e) and (f)(1)(C), is title III of Pub. L. 91–513, Oct. 27, 1970, 84 Stat. 1285, as amended, which is classified principally to subchapter II (§951 et seq.) of chapter 13 of Title 21. For complete classification of this Act to the Code, see Short Title note set out under section 951 of Title 21 and Tables.

Prior Provisions

A prior section 3142, acts June 25, 1948, ch. 645, 62 Stat. 821; June 22, 1966, Pub. L. 89–465, §5(c), 80 Stat. 217, set forth provisions relating to surrender by bail, prior to repeal in the revision of this chapter by section 203(a) of Pub. L. 98–473.

Amendments

2008—Subsec. (e). Pub. L. 110–457, §222(a)(1)–(4), designated first through third sentences as pars. (1) to (3), respectively, and redesignated former pars. (1) to (3) as subpars. (A) to (C), respectively, of par. (2).

Subsec. (e)(2)(B), (C). Pub. L. 110–457, §222(a)(5), substituted “subparagraph (A)” for “paragraph (1) of this subsection”.

Subsec. (e)(3). Pub. L. 110–457, §222(a)(6), substituted “committed—” for “committed”, “46;” for “46,”, “title;” for “title, or”, and “10 years or more is prescribed;” for “10 years or more is prescribed or”, inserted subpar. (A), (B), (C), and (E) designations, and added subpar. (D).

Subsecs. (f)(1)(A), (g)(1). Pub. L. 110–457, §224(a), substituted “violence, a violation of section 1591,” for “violence,”.

2006—Subsecs. (b), (c)(1)(A). Pub. L. 109–162 inserted “and subject to the condition that the person cooperate in the collection of a DNA sample from the person if the collection of such a sample is authorized pursuant to section 3 of the DNA Analysis Backlog Elimination Act of 2000 (42 U.S.C. 14135a)” after “period of release”.

Subsec. (c)(1)(B). Pub. L. 109–248, §216(1), inserted concluding provisions.

Subsecs. (e), (f)(1)(C). Pub. L. 109–304 substituted “chapter 705 of title 46” for “the Maritime Drug Law Enforcement Act (46 U.S.C. App. 1901 et seq.)”.

Subsec. (f)(1)(E). Pub. L. 109–248, §216(2), added subpar. (E).

Subsec. (g)(1). Pub. L. 109–248, §216(3), added par. (1) and struck out former par. (1) which read as follows: “the nature and circumstances of the offense charged, including whether the offense is a crime of violence, or an offense listed in section 2332b(g)(5)(B) for which a maximum term of imprisonment of 10 years or more is prescribed or involves a narcotic drug;”.

2004—Subsec. (e). Pub. L. 108–458, §6952(1), in concluding provisions, inserted “or” before “the Maritime” and “or an offense listed in section 2332b(g)(5)(B) of title 18, United States Code, for which a maximum term of imprisonment of 10 years or more is prescribed” after “or 2332b of this title,”.

Subsecs. (f)(1)(A), (g)(1). Pub. L. 108–458, §6952(2), inserted “, or an offense listed in section 2332b(g)(5)(B) for which a maximum term of imprisonment of 10 years or more is prescribed” after “violence”.

2003—Subsec. (e). Pub. L. 108–21, in concluding provisions, substituted “1901 et seq.),” for “1901 et seq.), or” and “of this title, or an offense involving a minor victim under section 1201, 1591, 2241, 2242, 2244(a)(1), 2245, 2251, 2251A, 2252(a)(1), 2252(a)(2), 2252(a)(3), 2252A(a)(1), 2252A(a)(2), 2252A(a)(3), 2252A(a)(4), 2260, 2421, 2422, 2423, or 2425 of this title” for “of title 18 of the United States Code”.

1996—Subsec. (e). Pub. L. 104–132, §702(d), inserted “, 956(a), or 2332b” after “section 924(c)” in concluding provisions.

Subsec. (f). Pub. L. 104–132, §729, in concluding provisions, inserted “(not including any intermediate Saturday, Sunday, or legal holiday)” after “five days” and after “three days”.

1990—Subsec. (c)(1)(B)(xi). Pub. L. 101–647, §3622, amended cl. (xi) generally. Prior to amendment, cl. (xi) read as follows: “execute an agreement to forfeit upon failing to appear as required, such designated property, including money, as is reasonably necessary to assure the appearance of the person as required, and post with the court such indicia of ownership of the property or such percentage of the money as the judicial officer may specify;”.

Subsec. (c)(1)(B)(xii). Pub. L. 101–647, §3623, amended cl. (xii) generally. Prior to amendment, cl. (xii) read as follows: “execute a bail bond with solvent sureties in such amount as is reasonably necessary to assure the appearance of the person as required;”.

Subsecs. (e), (f)(1)(C). Pub. L. 101–647, §1001(b), substituted “the Maritime Drug Law Enforcement Act (46 U.S.C. App. 1901 et seq.)” for “section 1 of the Act of September 15, 1980 (21 U.S.C. 955a)”.

Subsec. (g)(4). Pub. L. 101–647, §3624, substituted “subsection (c)(1)(B)(xi) or (c)(1)(B)(xii)” for “subsection (c)(2)(K) or (c)(2)(L)”.

1988—Subsec. (c)(3). Pub. L. 100–690 substituted “the order” for “order”.

1986—Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 99–646, §55(a), (c)(1), in par. (1) struck out “his” after “released on” and substituted “under subsection (b) of this section” for “pursuant to the provisions of subsection (b)”, in par. (2) substituted “under subsection (c) of this section” for “pursuant to the provisions of subsection (c)”, in par. (3) substituted “under subsection (d) of this section” for “pursuant to provisions of subsection (d)”, and in par. (4) substituted “under subsection (e) of this section” for “pursuant to provisions of subsection (e)”.

Subsec. (b). Pub. L. 99–646, §55(c)(2), struck out “his” after “person on” and “period of”.

Subsec. (c). Pub. L. 99–646, §55(c)(3), designated existing provision as par. (1) and redesignated former pars. (1) and (2) as subpars. (A) and (B), in provision preceding subpar. (A) substituted “subsection (b) of this section” for “subsection (b)” and “such judicial officer” for “he”, in subpar. (B) redesignated subpars. (A) to (N) as cls. (i) to (xiv), in provision preceding cl. (i) substituted “such judicial officer” for “he”, in cl. (i) substituted “assume supervision” for “supervise him”, in cl. (iv) substituted “on personal” for “on his personal”, in cl. (x) substituted “medical, psychological,” for “medical”, designated provision relating to the judicial officer not imposing a financial condition that results in the pretrial detention of a person as par. (2), and designated provision permitting the judicial officer to impose at any time additional or different conditions of release as par. (3), and in par. (3) struck out “his” after “amend”.

Subsec. (d). Pub. L. 99–646, §55(c)(4), in pars. (1) and (2) substituted “such person” for “the person” and in concluding provisions substituted “such person” for “the person” in four places, “such judicial officer” for “he”, “paragraph (1)(B) of this subsection” for “paragraph (1)(B)”, and “such person's United States citizenship or lawful admission” for “that he is a citizen of the United States or is lawfully admitted”.

Subsec. (e). Pub. L. 99–646, §55(c)(5), in introductory provisions inserted “of this section” after “subsection (f)” and substituted “such judicial officer” for “he”, “before” for “prior to”, “described in subsection (f)(1) of this section” for “described in (f)(1)”, and “if such judicial officer” for “if the judge”, in par. (1) inserted “of this section” after “subsection (f)(1)” in two places, and in pars. (2) and (3) inserted “of this section” after “paragraph (1)”.

Subsec. (f). Pub. L. 99–646, §72, in par. (1)(D) substituted “any felony if the person has been convicted of two or more offenses” for “any felony committed after the person had been convicted of two or more prior offenses” and inserted “, or a combination of such offenses”, in par. (2)(A) inserted “or” after “flee;”, and in concluding provisions, inserted provision permitting the hearing to be reopened at any time before trial if the judicial officer finds that information exists that was unknown to the movant at the time of the hearing and that has a material bearing on whether there are conditions of release that will reasonably assure the appearance of the person as required and the safety of any other person and the community.

Pub. L. 99–646, §55(c)(6), substituted “such person” for “the person” wherever appearing, in introductory provision inserted “of this section” after “subsection (c)” and struck out “in a case” after “community”, in par. (1) inserted “in a case” and in subpar. (D) of par. (1) inserted “of this paragraph” in two places, in par. (2) substituted “upon” for “Upon” and inserted “in a case”, and in concluding provisions, substituted “sua sponte” for “on his own motion”, “whether such person is an addict” for “whether he is an addict”, and “financially” for “he is financially”, and struck out “for him” after “appointed” and “on his own behalf” after “witnesses”.

Subsec. (g). Pub. L. 99–646, §55(c)(7), in par. (3)(A) substituted “the person's” for “his”, in par. (3)(B) substituted “the person” for “he”, and in par. (4) inserted “of this section”.

Subsec. (h). Pub. L. 99–646, §55(a), (c)(8), in introductory provision substituted “under” for “pursuant to the provisions of” and inserted “of this section” and in par. (2)(C) struck out “the provisions of” before “sections 1503”.

Subsec. (i). Pub. L. 99–646, §55(a), (c)(9), in introductory provision substituted “under” for “pursuant to the provisions of” and inserted “of this section” and in par. (3) struck out “his” after “consultation with”.

Effective Date of 1990 Amendment

Amendment by sections 3622 to 3624 of Pub. L. 101–647 effective 180 days after Nov. 29, 1990, see section 3631 of Pub. L. 101–647, set out as an Effective Date note under section 3001 of Title 28, Judiciary and Judicial Procedure.

Effective Date of 1986 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 99–646 effective 30 days after Nov. 10, 1986, see section 55(j) of Pub. L. 99–646, set out as a note under section 3141 of this title.

Abolition of Immigration and Naturalization Service and Transfer of Functions

For abolition of Immigration and Naturalization Service, transfer of functions, and treatment of related references, see note set out under section 1551 of Title 8, Aliens and Nationality.

§3143. Release or detention of a defendant pending sentence or appeal

(a) Release or Detention Pending Sentence.—(1) Except as provided in paragraph (2), the judicial officer shall order that a person who has been found guilty of an offense and who is awaiting imposition or execution of sentence, other than a person for whom the applicable guideline promulgated pursuant to 28 U.S.C. 994 does not recommend a term of imprisonment, be detained, unless the judicial officer finds by clear and convincing evidence that the person is not likely to flee or pose a danger to the safety of any other person or the community if released under section 3142(b) or (c). If the judicial officer makes such a finding, such judicial officer shall order the release of the person in accordance with section 3142(b) or (c).

(2) The judicial officer shall order that a person who has been found guilty of an offense in a case described in subparagraph (A), (B), or (C) of subsection (f)(1) of section 3142 and is awaiting imposition or execution of sentence be detained unless—

(A)(i) the judicial officer finds there is a substantial likelihood that a motion for acquittal or new trial will be granted; or

(ii) an attorney for the Government has recommended that no sentence of imprisonment be imposed on the person; and

(B) the judicial officer finds by clear and convincing evidence that the person is not likely to flee or pose a danger to any other person or the community.


(b) Release or Detention Pending Appeal by the Defendant.—(1) Except as provided in paragraph (2), the judicial officer shall order that a person who has been found guilty of an offense and sentenced to a term of imprisonment, and who has filed an appeal or a petition for a writ of certiorari, be detained, unless the judicial officer finds—

(A) by clear and convincing evidence that the person is not likely to flee or pose a danger to the safety of any other person or the community if released under section 3142(b) or (c) of this title; and

(B) that the appeal is not for the purpose of delay and raises a substantial question of law or fact likely to result in—

(i) reversal,

(ii) an order for a new trial,

(iii) a sentence that does not include a term of imprisonment, or

(iv) a reduced sentence to a term of imprisonment less than the total of the time already served plus the expected duration of the appeal process.


If the judicial officer makes such findings, such judicial officer shall order the release of the person in accordance with section 3142(b) or (c) of this title, except that in the circumstance described in subparagraph (B)(iv) of this paragraph, the judicial officer shall order the detention terminated at the expiration of the likely reduced sentence.

(2) The judicial officer shall order that a person who has been found guilty of an offense in a case described in subparagraph (A), (B), or (C) of subsection (f)(1) of section 3142 and sentenced to a term of imprisonment, and who has filed an appeal or a petition for a writ of certiorari, be detained.

(c) Release or Detention Pending Appeal by the Government.—The judicial officer shall treat a defendant in a case in which an appeal has been taken by the United States under section 3731 of this title, in accordance with section 3142 of this title, unless the defendant is otherwise subject to a release or detention order. Except as provided in subsection (b) of this section, the judicial officer, in a case in which an appeal has been taken by the United States under section 3742, shall—

(1) if the person has been sentenced to a term of imprisonment, order that person detained; and

(2) in any other circumstance, release or detain the person under section 3142.

(Added Pub. L. 98–473, title II, §203(a), Oct. 12, 1984, 98 Stat. 1981; amended Pub. L. 98–473, title II, §223(f), Oct. 12, 1984, 98 Stat. 2028; Pub. L. 99–646, §§51(a), (b), 55(a), (d), Nov. 10, 1986, 100 Stat. 3605–3607, 3609; Pub. L. 100–690, title VII, §7091, Nov. 18, 1988, 102 Stat. 4410; Pub. L. 101–647, title IX, §902(a), (b), title X, §1001(a), Nov. 29, 1990, 104 Stat. 4826, 4827; Pub. L. 102–572, title VII, §703, Oct. 29, 1992, 106 Stat. 4515.)

Prior Provisions

A prior section 3143, acts June 25, 1948, ch. 645, 62 Stat. 821; June 22, 1966, Pub. L. 89–465, §5(d), 80 Stat. 217, related to additional bail, prior to repeal in the revision of this chapter by section 203(a) of Pub. L. 98–473.

Amendments

1992—Subsec. (b)(1). Pub. L. 102–572 substituted “subparagraph (B)(iv) of this paragraph” for “paragraph (b)(2)(D)”.

1990—Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 101–647, §902(a), designated existing provisions as par. (1), substituted “Except as provided in paragraph (2), the judicial officer” for “The judicial officer”, and added par. (2).

Subsec. (a)(1). Pub. L. 101–647, §1001(a), substituted “awaiting” for “waiting”.

Subsec. (b). Pub. L. 101–647, §902(b), designated existing provisions as par. (1), substituted “Except as provided in paragraph (2), the judicial officer” for “The judicial officer”, redesignated former pars. (1) and (2) as subpars. (A) and (B), redesignated former subpars. (A) to (D) as cls. (i) to (iv), respectively, of subpar. (B), and added par. (2).

1988—Subsec. (b). Pub. L. 100–690, §7091(2), inserted “, except that in the circumstance described in paragraph (b)(2)(D), the judicial officer shall order the detention terminated at the expiration of the likely reduced sentence” before period at end.

Subsec. (b)(2). Pub. L. 100–690, §7091(1), added par. (2) and struck out former par. (2) which read as follows: “that the appeal is not for purpose of delay and raises a substantial question of law or fact likely to result in reversal, an order for a new trial, or a sentence that does not include a term of imprisonment.”

1986—Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 99–646, §55(d)(1), (2), (4), substituted “under” for “pursuant to” and “such judicial officer” for “he” and struck out “the provisions of” after “in accordance with”.

Subsec. (b). Pub. L. 99–646, §55(d)(1)–(4), in par. (1) substituted “under” for “pursuant to” and inserted “of this title” after “(c)”, and in concluding provision, substituted “such judicial officer” for “he”, struck out “the provisions of” after “in accordance with”, and inserted “of this title” after “(c)”.

Subsec. (b)(2). Pub. L. 99–646, §51(a)(1), substituted “reversal,” for “reversal or” and inserted “, or a sentence that does not include a term of imprisonment”.

Subsec. (c). Pub. L. 99–646, §51(a)(2), inserted provision that, except as provided in subsec. (b), the judicial officer, in a case in which an appeal has been taken by the United States under section 3742, if the person has been sentenced to a term of imprisonment, order that person detained, and in any other circumstance, release or detain the person under section 3142.

Pub. L. 99–646, §55(a), (d)(2), (5), substituted “under section 3731” for “pursuant to the provisions of section 3731” and “with section 3142 of this title” for “with the provisions of section 3142”.

Pub. L. 99–646, §51(b), provided that the amendment of subsec. (c) by section 223(f)(2) of Pub. L. 98–473 shall not take effect. See 1984 Amendment note below.

1984—Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 98–473, §223(f)(1), inserted provisions relating to applicable guideline under section 994 of title 28.

Subsec. (c). Pub. L. 98–473, §223(f)(2), which would have added a final sentence requiring a judge to treat a defendant in a case in which an appeal had been taken by the United States pursuant to the provisions of section 3742 in accordance with the provisions of (1) subsection (a) if the person had been sentenced to a term of imprisonment; or (2) section 3142 if the person had not been sentenced to a term of imprisonment did not become effective pursuant to section 51(b) of Pub. L. 99–646. See 1986 Amendment note above.

Effective Date of 1992 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 102–572 effective Jan. 1, 1993, see section 1101 of Pub. L. 102–572, set out as a note under section 905 of Title 2, The Congress.

Effective Date of 1986 Amendment

Section 51(c) of Pub. L. 99–646 provided that: “The amendment made by subsection (a)(2) [amending this section] shall take effect on the date of the taking of effect of section 3742 of title 18, United States Code [Nov. 1, 1987].”

Amendment by section 55(a), (d) of Pub. L. 99–646 effective 30 days after Nov. 10, 1986, see section 55(j) of Pub. L. 99–646, set out as a note under section 3141 of this title.

Effective Date of 1984 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 98–473 effective Nov. 1, 1987, and applicable only to offenses committed after the taking effect of such amendment, see section 235(a)(1) of Pub. L. 98–473, set out as an Effective Date note under section 3551 of this title.

§3144. Release or detention of a material witness

If it appears from an affidavit filed by a party that the testimony of a person is material in a criminal proceeding, and if it is shown that it may become impracticable to secure the presence of the person by subpoena, a judicial officer may order the arrest of the person and treat the person in accordance with the provisions of section 3142 of this title. No material witness may be detained because of inability to comply with any condition of release if the testimony of such witness can adequately be secured by deposition, and if further detention is not necessary to prevent a failure of justice. Release of a material witness may be delayed for a reasonable period of time until the deposition of the witness can be taken pursuant to the Federal Rules of Criminal Procedure.

(Added Pub. L. 98–473, title II, §203(a), Oct. 12, 1984, 98 Stat. 1982; amended Pub. L. 99–646, §55(e), Nov. 10, 1986, 100 Stat. 3609.)

References in Text

The Federal Rules of Criminal Procedure, referred to in text, are set out in the Appendix to this title.

Prior Provisions

A prior section 3144, act June 25, 1948, ch. 645, 62 Stat. 821, related to cases removed from State courts, prior to repeal in the revision of this chapter by section 203(a) of Pub. L. 98–473.

Amendments

1986—Pub. L. 99–646 substituted “subpoena” for “subpena” and inserted “of this title”.

Effective Date of 1986 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 99–646 effective 30 days after Nov. 10, 1986, see section 55(j) of Pub. L. 99–646, set out as a note under section 3141 of this title.

§3145. Review and appeal of a release or detention order

(a) Review of a Release Order.—If a person is ordered released by a magistrate judge, or by a person other than a judge of a court having original jurisdiction over the offense and other than a Federal appellate court—

(1) the attorney for the Government may file, with the court having original jurisdiction over the offense, a motion for revocation of the order or amendment of the conditions of release; and

(2) the person may file, with the court having original jurisdiction over the offense, a motion for amendment of the conditions of release.


The motion shall be determined promptly.

(b) Review of a Detention Order.—If a person is ordered detained by a magistrate judge, or by a person other than a judge of a court having original jurisdiction over the offense and other than a Federal appellate court, the person may file, with the court having original jurisdiction over the offense, a motion for revocation or amendment of the order. The motion shall be determined promptly.

(c) Appeal From a Release or Detention Order.—An appeal from a release or detention order, or from a decision denying revocation or amendment of such an order, is governed by the provisions of section 1291 of title 28 and section 3731 of this title. The appeal shall be determined promptly. A person subject to detention pursuant to section 3143(a)(2) or (b)(2), and who meets the conditions of release set forth in section 3143(a)(1) or (b)(1), may be ordered released, under appropriate conditions, by the judicial officer, if it is clearly shown that there are exceptional reasons why such person's detention would not be appropriate.

(Added Pub. L. 98–473, title II, §203(a), Oct. 12, 1984, 98 Stat. 1982; amended Pub. L. 101–647, title IX, §902(c), Nov. 29, 1990, 104 Stat. 4827; Pub. L. 101–650, title III, §321, Dec. 1, 1990, 104 Stat. 5117.)

Prior Provisions

A prior section 3145, act June 25, 1948, ch. 645, 62 Stat. 821, provided cross references to the Federal Rules of Criminal Procedure for rules covering parties and witnesses, prior to repeal in the revision of this chapter by section 203(a) of Pub. L. 98–473.

Amendments

1990—Subsec. (c). Pub. L. 101–647 inserted at end “A person subject to detention pursuant to section 3143(a)(2) or (b)(2), and who meets the conditions of release set forth in section 3143(a)(1) or (b)(1), may be ordered released, under appropriate conditions, by the judicial officer, if it is clearly shown that there are exceptional reasons why such person's detention would not be appropriate.”

Change of Name

Words “magistrate judge” substituted for “magistrate” in subsecs. (a) and (b) pursuant to section 321 of Pub. L. 101–650, set out as a note under section 631 of Title 28, Judiciary and Judicial Procedure.

§3146. Penalty for failure to appear

(a) Offense.—Whoever, having been released under this chapter knowingly—

(1) fails to appear before a court as required by the conditions of release; or

(2) fails to surrender for service of sentence pursuant to a court order;


shall be punished as provided in subsection (b) of this section.

(b) Punishment.—(1) The punishment for an offense under this section is—

(A) if the person was released in connection with a charge of, or while awaiting sentence, surrender for service of sentence, or appeal or certiorari after conviction for—

(i) an offense punishable by death, life imprisonment, or imprisonment for a term of 15 years or more, a fine under this title or imprisonment for not more than ten years, or both;

(ii) an offense punishable by imprisonment for a term of five years or more, a fine under this title or imprisonment for not more than five years, or both;

(iii) any other felony, a fine under this title or imprisonment for not more than two years, or both; or

(iv) a misdemeanor, a fine under this title or imprisonment for not more than one year, or both; and


(B) if the person was released for appearance as a material witness, a fine under this chapter or imprisonment for not more than one year, or both.


(2) A term of imprisonment imposed under this section shall be consecutive to the sentence of imprisonment for any other offense.

(c) Affirmative Defense.—It is an affirmative defense to a prosecution under this section that uncontrollable circumstances prevented the person from appearing or surrendering, and that the person did not contribute to the creation of such circumstances in reckless disregard of the requirement to appear or surrender, and that the person appeared or surrendered as soon as such circumstances ceased to exist.

(d) Declaration of Forfeiture.—If a person fails to appear before a court as required, and the person executed an appearance bond pursuant to section 3142(b) of this title or is subject to the release condition set forth in clause (xi) or (xii) of section 3142(c)(1)(B) of this title, the judicial officer may, regardless of whether the person has been charged with an offense under this section, declare any property designated pursuant to that section to be forfeited to the United States.

(Added Pub. L. 98–473, title II, §203(a), Oct. 12, 1984, 98 Stat. 1982; amended Pub. L. 99–646, §55(f), Nov. 10, 1986, 100 Stat. 3609; Pub. L. 103–322, title XXXIII, §330016(2)(K), Sept. 13, 1994, 108 Stat. 2148; Pub. L. 104–294, title VI, §601(a)(4), Oct. 11, 1996, 110 Stat. 3498.)

Prior Provisions

A prior section 3146, added Pub. L. 89–465, §3(a), June 22, 1966, 80 Stat. 214; amended Pub. L. 97–291, §8, Oct. 12, 1982, 96 Stat. 1257, related to release in noncapital cases prior to trial, prior to repeal in the revision of this chapter by section 203(a) of Pub. L. 98–473.

Another prior section 3146, act Aug. 20, 1954, ch. 772, §1, 68 Stat. 747, which prescribed penalties for jumping bail, was repealed by Pub. L. 89–465, §3(a), June 22, 1966, 80 Stat. 214, and covered by former sections 3150 and 3151 of this title.

Amendments

1996—Subsec. (b)(1)(A)(iv). Pub. L. 104–294 substituted “a fine under this title” for “a fined under this title”.

1994—Subsec. (b)(1)(A)(iv). Pub. L. 103–322 substituted “fined under this title” for “fine under this chapter”.

1986—Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 99–646, §55(f)(1), added subsec. (a) and struck out former subsec. (a) which read as follows: “A person commits an offense if, after having been released pursuant to this chapter—

“(1) he knowingly fails to appear before a court as required by the conditions of his release; or

“(2) he knowingly fails to surrender for service of sentence pursuant to a court order.”

Subsec. (b). Pub. L. 99–646, §55(f)(1), added subsec. (b) and struck out former subsec. (b) which was captioned “Grading”, and which read as follows: “If the person was released—

“(1) in connection with a charge of, or while awaiting sentence, surrender for service of sentence, or appeal or certiorari after conviction, for—

“(A) an offense punishable by death, life imprisonment, or imprisonment for a term of fifteen years or more, he shall be fined not more than $25,000 or imprisoned for not more than ten years, or both;

“(B) an offense punishable by imprisonment for a term of five or more years, but less than fifteen years, he shall be fined not more than $10,000 or imprisoned for not more than five years, or both;

“(C) any other felony, he shall be fined not more than $5,000 or imprisoned for not more than two years, or both; or

“(D) a misdemeanor, he shall be fined not more than $2,000 or imprisoned for not more than one year, or both; or

“(2) for appearance as a material witness, he shall be fined not more than $1,000 or imprisoned for not more than one year, or both.

A term of imprisonment imposed pursuant to this section shall be consecutive to the sentence of imprisonment for any other offense.”

Subsec. (c). Pub. L. 99–646, §55(f)(2), substituted “requirement to appear” for “requirement that he appear” and “the person appeared” for “he appeared”.

Subsec. (d). Pub. L. 99–646, §55(f)(3), inserted “of this title” after “3142(b)” and substituted “clause (xi) or (xii) of section 3142(c)(1)(B) of this title” for “section 3142(c)(2)(K) or (c)(2)(L)”.

Effective Date of 1986 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 99–646 effective 30 days after Nov. 10, 1986, see section 55(j) of Pub. L. 99–646, set out as a note under section 3141 of this title.

§3147. Penalty for an offense committed while on release

A person convicted of an offense committed while released under this chapter shall be sentenced, in addition to the sentence prescribed for the offense, to—

(1) a term of imprisonment of not more than ten years if the offense is a felony; or

(2) a term of imprisonment of not more than one year if the offense is a misdemeanor.


A term of imprisonment imposed under this section shall be consecutive to any other sentence of imprisonment.

(Added Pub. L. 98–473, title II, §203(a), Oct. 12, 1984, 98 Stat. 1983; amended Pub. L. 98–473, title II, §223(g), Oct. 12, 1984, 98 Stat. 2028; Pub. L. 99–646, §55(g), Nov. 10, 1986, 100 Stat. 3610.)

Prior Provisions

A prior section 3147, added Pub. L. 89–465, §3(a), June 22, 1966, 80 Stat. 215, related to appeals from conditions of release, prior to repeal in the revision of this chapter by section 203(a) of Pub. L. 98–473.

Amendments

1986—Pub. L. 99–646 substituted “under” for “pursuant to” in two places and “for the offense,” for “for the offense”.

1984—Pub. L. 98–473, §223(g), struck out “not less than two years and” after “imprisonment of” in par. (1), and “not less than ninety days and” after “imprisonment of” in par. (2).

Effective Date of 1986 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 99–646 effective 30 days after Nov. 10, 1986, see section 55(j) of Pub. L. 99–646, set out as a note under section 3141 of this title.

Effective Date of 1984 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 98–473 effective Nov. 1, 1987, and applicable only to offenses committed after the taking effect of such amendment, see section 235(a)(1) of Pub. L. 98–473, set out as an Effective Date note under section 3551 of this title.

§3148. Sanctions for violation of a release condition

(a) Available Sanctions.—A person who has been released under section 3142 of this title, and who has violated a condition of his release, is subject to a revocation of release, an order of detention, and a prosecution for contempt of court.

(b) Revocation of Release.—The attorney for the Government may initiate a proceeding for revocation of an order of release by filing a motion with the district court. A judicial officer may issue a warrant for the arrest of a person charged with violating a condition of release, and the person shall be brought before a judicial officer in the district in which such person's arrest was ordered for a proceeding in accordance with this section. To the extent practicable, a person charged with violating the condition of release that such person not commit a Federal, State, or local crime during the period of release, shall be brought before the judicial officer who ordered the release and whose order is alleged to have been violated. The judicial officer shall enter an order of revocation and detention if, after a hearing, the judicial officer—

(1) finds that there is—

(A) probable cause to believe that the person has committed a Federal, State, or local crime while on release; or

(B) clear and convincing evidence that the person has violated any other condition of release; and


(2) finds that—

(A) based on the factors set forth in section 3142(g) of this title, there is no condition or combination of conditions of release that will assure that the person will not flee or pose a danger to the safety of any other person or the community; or

(B) the person is unlikely to abide by any condition or combination of conditions of release.


If there is probable cause to believe that, while on release, the person committed a Federal, State, or local felony, a rebuttable presumption arises that no condition or combination of conditions will assure that the person will not pose a danger to the safety of any other person or the community. If the judicial officer finds that there are conditions of release that will assure that the person will not flee or pose a danger to the safety of any other person or the community, and that the person will abide by such conditions, the judicial officer shall treat the person in accordance with the provisions of section 3142 of this title and may amend the conditions of release accordingly.

(c) Prosecution for Contempt.—The judicial officer may commence a prosecution for contempt, under section 401 of this title, if the person has violated a condition of release.

(Added Pub. L. 98–473, title II, §203(a), Oct. 12, 1984, 98 Stat. 1983; amended Pub. L. 99–646, §55(a), (h), Nov. 10, 1986, 100 Stat. 3607, 3610.)

Prior Provisions

A prior section 3148, added Pub. L. 89–465, §3(a), June 22, 1966, 80 Stat. 215; amended Pub. L. 91–452, title X, §1002, Oct. 12, 1970, 84 Stat. 952, related to release in capital cases or after conviction, prior to repeal in the revision of this chapter by section 203(a) of Pub. L. 98–473.

Amendments

1986—Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 99–646, §55(a), (h)(1), substituted “under section 3142 of this title” for “pursuant to the provisions of section 3142”.

Subsec. (b). Pub. L. 99–646, §55(h)(2), in introductory provision, substituted “such person's arrest” for “his arrest”, “condition of release that such person not commit” for “condition of his release that he not commit”, and “period of release,” for “period of release”, in par. (1)(B) substituted “condition of release” for “condition of his release”, in par. (2)(A) inserted “of this title” after “section 3142(g)”, and in concluding provision, substituted “the judicial officer shall” for “he shall” and inserted “of this title” after “section 3142”.

Subsec. (c). Pub. L. 99–646, §55(a), (h)(3), substituted “judicial officer” for “judge”, “under section 401 of this title” for “pursuant to the provisions of section 401”, and “condition of release” for “condition of his release”.

Effective Date of 1986 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 99–646 effective 30 days after Nov. 10, 1986, see section 55(j) of Pub. L. 99–646, set out as a note under section 3141 of this title.

§3149. Surrender of an offender by a surety

A person charged with an offense, who is released upon the execution of an appearance bond with a surety, may be arrested by the surety, and if so arrested, shall be delivered promptly to a United States marshal and brought before a judicial officer. The judicial officer shall determine in accordance with the provisions of section 3148(b) whether to revoke the release of the person, and may absolve the surety of responsibility to pay all or part of the bond in accordance with the provisions of Rule 46 of the Federal Rules of Criminal Procedure. The person so committed shall be held in official detention until released pursuant to this chapter or another provision of law.

(Added Pub. L. 98–473, title II, §203(a), Oct. 12, 1984, 98 Stat. 1984.)

Prior Provisions

A prior section 3149, added Pub. L. 89–465, §3(a), June 22, 1966, 80 Stat. 216, related to release of material witnesses, prior to repeal in the revision of this chapter by section 203(a) of Pub. L. 98–473.

§3150. Applicability to a case removed from a State court

The provisions of this chapter apply to a criminal case removed to a Federal court from a State court.

(Added Pub. L. 98–473, title II, §203(a), Oct. 12, 1984, 98 Stat. 1984.)

Prior Provisions

A prior section 3150, added Pub. L. 89–465, §3(a), June 22, 1966, 80 Stat. 216, related to penalties for failure to appear, prior to repeal in the revision of this chapter by section 203(a) of Pub. L. 98–473.

[§3150a. Repealed. Pub. L. 98–473, title II, §203(a), Oct. 12, 1984, 98 Stat. 1976]

Section, added Pub. L. 97–258, §2(d)(3)(B), Sept. 13, 1982, 96 Stat. 1059; amended Pub. L. 98–473, title II, §1410, Oct. 12, 1984, 98 Stat. 2178, related to refund of forfeited bail. Section 1410 of Pub. L. 98–473 was subsequently repealed by Pub. L. 99–646, §49, Nov. 10, 1986, 100 Stat. 3605.

§3151. Refund of forfeited bail

Appropriations available to refund money erroneously received and deposited in the Treasury are available to refund any part of forfeited bail deposited into the Treasury and ordered remitted under the Federal Rules of Criminal Procedure.

(Added Pub. L. 100–690, title VII, §7084(a), Nov. 18, 1988, 102 Stat. 4408.)

References in Text

The Federal Rules of Criminal Procedure, referred to in text, are set out in the Appendix to this title.

Prior Provisions

A prior section 3151, added Pub. L. 89–465, §3(a), June 22, 1966, 80 Stat. 216, related to contempt power of courts, prior to repeal by Pub. L. 98–473, title II, §203(a), Oct. 12, 1984, 98 Stat. 1976.

§3152. Establishment of pretrial services

(a) On and after the date of the enactment of the Pretrial Services Act of 1982, the Director of the Administrative Office of the United States Courts (hereinafter in this chapter referred to as the “Director”) shall, under the supervision and direction of the Judicial Conference of the United States, provide directly, or by contract or otherwise (to such extent and in such amounts as are provided in appropriation Acts), for the establishment of pretrial services in each judicial district (other than the District of Columbia). Pretrial services established under this section shall be supervised by a chief probation officer appointed under section 3654 of this title or by a chief pretrial services officer selected under subsection (c) of this section.

(b) Beginning eighteen months after the date of the enactment of the Pretrial Services Act of 1982, if an appropriate United States district court and the circuit judicial council jointly recommend the establishment under this subsection of pretrial services in a particular district, pretrial services shall be established under the general authority of the Administrative Office of the United States Courts.

(c) The pretrial services established under subsection (b) of this section shall be supervised by a chief pretrial services officer appointed by the district court. The chief pretrial services officer appointed under this subsection shall be an individual other than one serving under authority of section 3602 of this title.

(Added Pub. L. 93–619, title II, §201, Jan. 3, 1975, 88 Stat. 2086; amended Pub. L. 97–267, §2, Sept. 27, 1982, 96 Stat. 1136; Pub. L. 110–406, §10, Oct. 13, 2008, 122 Stat. 4293.)

References in Text

The date of enactment of the Pretrial Services Act of 1982, referred to in subsecs. (a) and (b), is the date of enactment of Pub. L. 97–267, which was approved Sept. 27, 1982.

Prior Provisions

A prior section 3152, as added by Pub. L. 89–465, §3(a), June 22, 1966, 80 Stat. 216, defined the terms “judicial officer” and “offense”, prior to repeal by Pub. L. 93–619, §201. See section 3156 of this title.

Amendments

2008—Subsec. (c). Pub. L. 110–406 added subsec. (c) and struck out former subsec. (c) which related to supervision of pretrial services.

1982—Pub. L. 97–267 struck out “agencies” after “services” in section catchline, divided previously unlettered text provisions into subsecs. (a), (b), and (c), and substituted revised provisions as so redesignated for provisions which required the Director of the Administrative Office of the United States Courts to establish, on a demonstration basis, in each of ten representative judicial districts (other than the District of Columbia), a pretrial services agency authorized to maintain effective supervision and control over, and to provide supportive services to, defendants released under this chapter such districts to be designated by the Chief Justice of the United States after consultation with the Attorney General, on the basis of such considerations as the number of criminal cases prosecuted annually in the district, the percentage of defendants in the district presently detained prior to trial, the incidence of crime charged against persons released pending trial under this chapter, and the availability of community resources to implement the conditions of release which may be imposed under this chapter.

Authorization of Appropriations

Section 9 of Pub. L. 97–267 provided that:

“(a) There are authorized to be appropriated, for the fiscal year ending September 30, 1984, and each succeeding fiscal year thereafter, such sums as may be necessary to carry out the functions and powers of pretrial services established under section 3152(b) of title 18, United States Code.

“(b) There are authorized to be appropriated for the fiscal year ending September 30, 1983, and the fiscal year ending September 30, 1984, such sums as may be necessary to carry out the functions and powers of the pretrial services agencies established under section 3152 of title 18 of the United States Code in effect before the date of enactment of this Act [Sept. 27, 1982].”

Status of Pretrial Services Agencies in Effect Prior to September 27, 1982

Section 8 of Pub. L. 97–267 provided that: “During the period beginning on the date of enactment of this Act [Sept. 27, 1982] and ending eighteen months after the date of the enactment of this Act, the pretrial services agencies established under section 3152 of title 18 of the United States Code in effect before the date of enactment of this Act may continue to operate, employ staff, provide pretrial services, and perform such functions and powers as are authorized under chapter 207 of title 18 of the United States Code [this chapter].”

§3153. Organization and administration of pretrial services

(a)(1) With the approval of the district court, the chief pretrial services officer in districts in which pretrial services are established under section 3152(b) of this title shall appoint such other personnel as may be required. The position requirements and rate of compensation of the chief pretrial services officer and such other personnel shall be established by the Director with the approval of the Judicial Conference of the United States, except that no such rate of compensation shall exceed the rate of basic pay in effect and then payable for grade GS–16 of the General Schedule under section 5332 of title 5, United States Code.

(2) The chief pretrial services officer in districts in which pretrial services are established under section 3152(b) of this title is authorized, subject to the general policy established by the Director and the approval of the district court, to procure temporary and intermittent services to the extent authorized by section 3109 of title 5, United States Code. The staff, other than clerical staff, may be drawn from law school students, graduate students, or such other available personnel.

(b) The chief probation officer in all districts in which pretrial services are established under section 3152(a) of this title shall designate personnel appointed under chapter 231 of this title to perform pretrial services under this chapter.

(c)(1) Except as provided in paragraph (2) of this subsection, information obtained in the course of performing pretrial services functions in relation to a particular accused shall be used only for the purposes of a bail determination and shall otherwise be confidential. Each pretrial services report shall be made available to the attorney for the accused and the attorney for the Government.

(2) The Director shall issue regulations establishing the policy for release of information made confidential by paragraph (1) of this subsection. Such regulations shall provide exceptions to the confidentiality requirements under paragraph (1) of this subsection to allow access to such information—

(A) by qualified persons for purposes of research related to the administration of criminal justice;

(B) by persons under contract under section 3154(4) of this title;

(C) by probation officers for the purpose of compiling presentence reports;

(D) insofar as such information is a pretrial diversion report, to the attorney for the accused and the attorney for the Government; and

(E) in certain limited cases, to law enforcement agencies for law enforcement purposes.


(3) Information made confidential under paragraph (1) of this subsection is not admissible on the issue of guilt in a criminal judicial proceeding unless such proceeding is a prosecution for a crime committed in the course of obtaining pretrial release or a prosecution for failure to appear for the criminal judicial proceeding with respect to which pretrial services were provided.

(Added Pub. L. 93–619, title II, §201, Jan. 3, 1975, 88 Stat. 2086; amended Pub. L. 97–287, §3, Sept. 27, 1982, 96 Stat. 1136.)

Amendments

1982—Pub. L. 97–267 substantially revised section by substituting provisions relating to the organization and administration of pretrial services for provisions relating to organization and administration of pretrial services agencies which vested the powers of five such agencies in the Division of Probation of the Administrative Office of the United States Courts and the powers of the remaining five agencies in Boards of Trustees, set forth requirements for membership and terms of office with respect to such Boards, and provided for appointment of Federal probation officers in agencies governed by the Division of Probation, and chief pretrial service officers in agencies governed by Boards of Trustees, which designated officers would be responsible for the direction and supervision of their respective agencies.

References in Other Laws to GS–16, 17, or 18 Pay Rates

References in laws to the rates of pay for GS–16, 17, or 18, or to maximum rates of pay under the General Schedule, to be considered references to rates payable under specified sections of Title 5, Government Organization and Employees, see section 529 [title I, §101(c)(1)] of Pub. L. 101–509, set out in a note under section 5376 of Title 5.

§3154. Functions and powers relating to pretrial services

Pretrial services functions shall include the following:

(1) Collect, verify, and report to the judicial officer, prior to the pretrial release hearing, information pertaining to the pretrial release of each individual charged with an offense, including information relating to any danger that the release of such person may pose to any other person or the community, and, where appropriate, include a recommendation as to whether such individual should be released or detained and, if release is recommended, recommend appropriate conditions of release; except that a district court may direct that information not be collected, verified, or reported under this paragraph on individuals charged with Class A misdemeanors as defined in section 3559(a)(6) of this title.

(2) Review and modify the reports and recommendations specified in paragraph (1) of this section for persons seeking release pursuant to section 3145 of this chapter.

(3) Supervise persons released into its custody under this chapter.

(4) Operate or contract for the operation of appropriate facilities for the custody or care of persons released under this chapter including residential halfway houses, addict and alcoholic treatment centers, and counseling services, and contract with any appropriate public or private agency or person, or expend funds, to monitor and provide treatment as well as nontreatment services to any such persons released in the community, including equipment and emergency housing, corrective and preventative guidance and training, and other services reasonably deemed necessary to protect the public and ensure that such persons appear in court as required.

(5) Inform the court and the United States attorney of all apparent violations of pretrial release conditions, arrests of persons released to the custody of providers of pretrial services or under the supervision of providers of pretrial services, and any danger that any such person may come to pose to any other person or the community, and recommend appropriate modifications of release conditions.

(6) Serve as coordinator for other local agencies which serve or are eligible to serve as custodians under this chapter and advise the court as to the eligibility, availability, and capacity of such agencies.

(7) Assist persons released under this chapter in securing any necessary employment, medical, legal, or social services.

(8) Prepare, in cooperation with the United States marshal and the United States attorney such pretrial detention reports as are required by the provisions of the Federal Rules of Criminal Procedure relating to the supervision of detention pending trial.

(9) Develop and implement a system to monitor and evaluate bail activities, provide information to judicial officers on the results of bail decisions, and prepare periodic reports to assist in the improvement of the bail process.

(10) To the extent provided for in an agreement between a chief pretrial services officer in districts in which pretrial services are established under section 3152(b) of this title, or the chief probation officer in all other districts, and the United States attorney, collect, verify, and prepare reports for the United States attorney's office of information pertaining to the pretrial diversion of any individual who is or may be charged with an offense, and perform such other duties as may be required under any such agreement.

(11) Make contracts, to such extent and in such amounts as are provided in appropriation Acts, for the carrying out of any pretrial services functions.

(12)(A) As directed by the court and to the degree required by the regimen of care or treatment ordered by the court as a condition of release, keep informed as to the conduct and provide supervision of a person conditionally released under the provisions of section 4243 or 4246 of this title, and report such person's conduct and condition to the court ordering release and the Attorney General or his designee.

(B) Any violation of the conditions of release shall immediately be reported to the court and the Attorney General or his designee.

(13) If approved by the district court, be authorized to carry firearms under such rules and regulations as the Director of the Administrative Office of the United States Courts may prescribe.

(14) Perform, in a manner appropriate for juveniles, any of the functions identified in this section with respect to juveniles awaiting adjudication, trial, or disposition under chapter 403 of this title who are not detained.

(15) Perform such other functions as specified under this chapter.

(Added Pub. L. 93–619, title II, §201, Jan. 3, 1975, 88 Stat. 2087; amended Pub. L. 97–267, §4, Sept. 27, 1982, 96 Stat. 1137; Pub. L. 98–473, title II, §203(b), Oct. 12, 1984, 98 Stat. 1984; Pub. L. 101–647, title XXXV, §3576, Nov. 29, 1990, 104 Stat. 4929; Pub. L. 102–572, title VII, §701(b), title X, §1002, Oct. 29, 1992, 106 Stat. 4515, 4521; Pub. L. 104–317, title I, §101(b), Oct. 19, 1996, 110 Stat. 3848; Pub. L. 110–406, §15(a), Oct. 13, 2008, 122 Stat. 4294; Pub. L. 111–174, §5, May 27, 2010, 124 Stat. 1216.)

Amendments

2010—Pars. (14), (15). Pub. L. 111–174 added par. (14) and redesignated former par. (14) as (15).

2008—Par. (4). Pub. L. 110–406 inserted “, and contract with any appropriate public or private agency or person, or expend funds, to monitor and provide treatment as well as nontreatment services to any such persons released in the community, including equipment and emergency housing, corrective and preventative guidance and training, and other services reasonably deemed necessary to protect the public and ensure that such persons appear in court as required” before period at end.

1996—Pars. (13), (14). Pub. L. 104–317 added par. (13) and redesignated former par. (13) as (14).

1992—Par. (1). Pub. L. 102–572, §1002, inserted before period at end “; except that a district court may direct that information not be collected, verified, or reported under this paragraph on individuals charged with Class A misdemeanors as defined in section 3559(a)(6) of this title”.

Pars. (12), (13). Pub. L. 102–572, §701(b), added par. (12) and redesignated former par. (12) as (13).

1990—Par. (1). Pub. L. 101–647 substituted “community, and, where appropriate, include a recommendation as to whether such individual should be released or detained and, if release is recommended, recommend appropriate conditions of release.” for “community” and all that followed through end of par. (1).

1984—Par. (1). Pub. L. 98–473, §203(b)(1), which directed the amendment of par. (1), by striking out “and recommend appropriate release conditions for each such person” and inserting in lieu thereof “and, where appropriate, include a recommendation as to whether such individual should be released or detained and, if release is recommended, recommend appropriate conditions of release” could not be executed because such language did not appear. See 1990 Amendment note above.

Par. (2). Pub. L. 98–473, §203(b)(2), substituted “section 3145” for “section 3146(e) or section 3147”.

1982—Pub. L. 97–267 substituted “relating to pretrial services” for “of pretrial services agencies” in section catchline, in par. (1) struck out provisions relating to agency files concerning the pretrial release of persons charged with an offense, the establishment of regulations concerning the release of such files, and the access to and admissibility of these files, in par. (4) struck out provision relating to the cooperation of the Administrative Office of the United States Courts and the approval of the Attorney General and provision not limiting this paragraph to those facilities listed thereunder, in par. (5) inserted provisions that pretrial services may provide the United States Attorney as well as the court with information described under this paragraph and that such information also includes any danger that a person released to the custody of pretrial services may come to pose to any other person or the community, in par. (9) substituted provisions that pretrial services shall develop and implement a system to monitor and evaluate bail activities, provide information on the result of bail decisions, and prepare periodic reports to assist the improvement of the bail process for provisions that pretrial services agencies would perform such other functions as the court might assign, and added pars. (10)–(12).

Effective Date of 1992 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 102–572 effective Jan. 1, 1993, see section 1101 of Pub. L. 102–572, set out as a note under section 905 of Title 2, The Congress.

Demonstration Program for Drug Testing of Arrested Persons and Defendants on Probation or Supervised Release

Pub. L. 100–690, title VII, §7304, Nov. 18, 1988, 102 Stat. 4464, provided that:

“(a) Establishment.—The Director of the Administrative Office of the United States Courts shall establish a demonstration program of mandatory testing of criminal defendants.

“(b) Length of Program.—The demonstration program shall begin not later than January 1, 1989, and shall last two years.

“(c) Selection of Districts.—The Judicial Conference of the United States shall select 8 Federal judicial districts in which to carry out the demonstration program, so that the group selected represents a mix of districts on the basis of criminal caseload and the types of cases in that caseload.

“(d) Inclusion in Pretrial Services.—In each of the districts in which the demonstration program takes place, pretrial services under chapter 207 of title 18, United States Code, shall arrange for the drug testing of defendants in criminal cases. To the extent feasible, such testing shall be completed before the defendant makes the defendant's initial appearance in the case before a judicial officer. The results of such testing shall be included in the report to the judicial officer under section 3154 of title 18, United States Code.

“(e) Mandatory Condition of Probation and Supervised Release.—In each of the judicial districts in which the demonstration program is in effect, it shall be an additional, mandatory condition of probation, and an additional mandatory condition of supervised release for offenses occurring or completed on or after January 1, 1989, for any defendant convicted of a felony, that such defendant refrain from any illegal use of any controlled substance (as defined in section 102 of the Controlled Substances Act [21 U.S.C. 802]) and submit to periodic drug tests for use of controlled substances at least once every 60 days. The requirement that drug tests be administered at least once every 60 days may be suspended upon motion of the Director of the Administrative Office, or the Director's designee, if, after at least one year of probation or supervised release, the defendant has passed all drug tests administered pursuant to this section. No action may be taken against a defendant pursuant to a drug test administered in accordance with this subsection unless the drug test confirmation is a urine drug test confirmed using gas chromatography techniques or such test as the Secretary of Health and Human Services may determine to be of equivalent accuracy.

“(f) Report to Congress.—Not later than 90 days after the first year of the demonstration program and not later than 90 days after the end of the demonstration program, the Director of the Administrative Office of the United States Courts shall report to Congress on the effectiveness of the demonstration program and include in such report recommendations as to whether mandatory drug testing of defendants should be made more general and permanent.”

§3155. Annual reports

Each chief pretrial services officer in districts in which pretrial services are established under section 3152(b) of this title, and each chief probation officer in all other districts, shall prepare an annual report to the chief judge of the district court and the Director concerning the administration and operation of pretrial services. The Director shall be required to include in the Director's annual report to the Judicial Conference under section 604 of title 28 a report on the administration and operation of the pretrial services for the previous year.

(Added Pub. L. 93–619, title II, §201, Jan. 3, 1975, 88 Stat. 2088; amended Pub. L. 97–267, §5, Sept. 27, 1982, 96 Stat. 1138.)

Amendments

1982—Pub. L. 97–267 substituted provisions that each pretrial services officer or chief probation officer shall prepare an annual report to the chief judge of the district court and to the Director concerning the administration and operation of pretrial services and that the Director must include in the Director's annual report to the Judicial Conference a report on the administration and operation of the pretrial services for the previous year for provisions relating to the Director's annual report to Congress, the contents of the Director's fourth annual report, and that on or before the expiration of the forty-eighth-month period following July 1, 1975, the Director would file a comprehensive report with Congress concerning the administration and operation of the amendments made by the Speedy Trial Act of 1974, including his views and recommendations with respect thereto.

§3156. Definitions

(a) As used in sections 3141–3150 of this chapter—

(1) the term “judicial officer” means, unless otherwise indicated, any person or court authorized pursuant to section 3041 of this title, or the Federal Rules of Criminal Procedure, to detain or release a person before trial or sentencing or pending appeal in a court of the United States, and any judge of the Superior Court of the District of Columbia;

(2) the term “offense” means any criminal offense, other than an offense triable by court-martial, military commission, provost court, or other military tribunal, which is in violation of an Act of Congress and is triable in any court established by Act of Congress;

(3) the term “felony” means an offense punishable by a maximum term of imprisonment of more than one year;

(4) the term “crime of violence” means—

(A) an offense that has as an element of the offense the use, attempted use, or threatened use of physical force against the person or property of another;

(B) any other offense that is a felony and that, by its nature, involves a substantial risk that physical force against the person or property of another may be used in the course of committing the offense; or

(C) any felony under chapter 109A, 110, or 117; and


(5) the term “State” includes a State of the United States, the District of Columbia, and any commonwealth, territory, or possession of the United States.


(b) As used in sections 3152–3155 of this chapter—

(1) the term “judicial officer” means, unless otherwise indicated, any person or court authorized pursuant to section 3041 of this title, or the Federal Rules of Criminal Procedure, to detain or release a person before trial or sentencing or pending appeal in a court of the United States, and

(2) the term “offense” means any Federal criminal offense which is in violation of any Act of Congress and is triable by any court established by Act of Congress (other than a Class B or C misdemeanor or an infraction, or an offense triable by court-martial, military commission, provost court, or other military tribunal).

(Added Pub. L. 93–619, title II, §201, Jan. 3, 1975, 88 Stat. 2088; amended Pub. L. 98–473, title II, §§203(c), 223(h), Oct. 12, 1984, 98 Stat. 1985, 2029; Pub. L. 99–646, §55(i), Nov. 10, 1986, 100 Stat. 3610; Pub. L. 103–322, title IV, §40501, Sept. 13, 1994, 108 Stat. 1945; Pub. L. 104–294, title VI, §607(i), Oct. 11, 1996, 110 Stat. 3512; Pub. L. 105–314, title VI, §601, Oct. 30, 1998, 112 Stat. 2982.)

Amendments

1998—Subsec. (a)(4)(C). Pub. L. 105–314 added subpar. (C) and struck out former subpar. (C) which read as follows: “any felony under chapter 109A or chapter 110; and”.

1996—Subsec. (a)(5). Pub. L. 104–294 added par. (5).

1994—Subsec. (a)(4)(C). Pub. L. 103–322 added subpar. (C).

1986—Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 99–646 substituted “the term” for “The term” in pars. (1) to (4) and struck out “and” after “Congress;” in par. (2).

1984—Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 98–473, §203(c)(1), substituted “3141” for “3146” in provision preceding par. (1).

Subsec. (a)(1). Pub. L. 98–473, §203(c)(2), substituted “to detain or release” for “to bail or otherwise release” and struck out “and” after “District of Columbia;”.

Subsec. (a)(3), (4). Pub. L. 98–473, §203(c)(3), (4), added pars. (3) and (4).

Subsec. (b)(1). Pub. L. 98–473, §203(c)(5), substituted “to detain or release” for “to bail or otherwise release”.

Subsec. (b)(2). Pub. L. 98–473, §223(h), substituted “Class B or C misdemeanor or an infraction” for “petty offense as defined in section 1(3) of this title”.

Effective Date of 1986 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 99–646 effective 30 days after Nov. 10, 1986, see section 55(j) of Pub. L. 99–646, set out as a note under section 3141 of this title.

Effective Date of 1984 Amendment

Amendment by section 223(h) of Pub. L. 98–473 effective Nov. 1, 1987, and applicable only to offenses committed after the taking effect of such amendment, see section 235(a)(1) of Pub. L. 98–473, set out as an Effective Date note under section 3551 of this title.

CHAPTER 208—SPEEDY TRIAL

Sec.
3161.
Time limits and exclusions.
3162.
Sanctions.
3163.
Effective dates.
3164.
Persons detained or designated as being of high risk.
3165.
District plans—generally.
3166.
District plans—contents.
3167.
Reports to Congress.
3168.
Planning process.
3169.
Federal Judicial Center.
3170.
Speedy trial data.
3171.
Planning appropriations.
3172.
Definitions.
3173.
Sixth amendment rights.
3174.
Judicial emergency and implementation.

        

Amendments

1979—Pub. L. 96–43, §11, Aug. 2, 1979, 93 Stat. 332, substituted “Persons detained or designated as being of high risk” for “Interim limits” in item 3164 and inserted “and implementation” in item 3174.

1975—Pub. L. 93–619, title I, §101, Jan. 3, 1975, 88 Stat. 2076, added chapter 208 and items 3161 to 3174.

§3161. Time limits and exclusions

(a) In any case involving a defendant charged with an offense, the appropriate judicial officer, at the earliest practicable time, shall, after consultation with the counsel for the defendant and the attorney for the Government, set the case for trial on a day certain, or list it for trial on a weekly or other short-term trial calendar at a place within the judicial district, so as to assure a speedy trial.

(b) Any information or indictment charging an individual with the commission of an offense shall be filed within thirty days from the date on which such individual was arrested or served with a summons in connection with such charges. If an individual has been charged with a felony in a district in which no grand jury has been in session during such thirty-day period, the period of time for filing of the indictment shall be extended an additional thirty days.

(c)(1) In any case in which a plea of not guilty is entered, the trial of a defendant charged in an information or indictment with the commission of an offense shall commence within seventy days from the filing date (and making public) of the information or indictment, or from the date the defendant has appeared before a judicial officer of the court in which such charge is pending, whichever date last occurs. If a defendant consents in writing to be tried before a magistrate judge on a complaint, the trial shall commence within seventy days from the date of such consent.

(2) Unless the defendant consents in writing to the contrary, the trial shall not commence less than thirty days from the date on which the defendant first appears through counsel or expressly waives counsel and elects to proceed pro se.

(d)(1) If any indictment or information is dismissed upon motion of the defendant, or any charge contained in a complaint filed against an individual is dismissed or otherwise dropped, and thereafter a complaint is filed against such defendant or individual charging him with the same offense or an offense based on the same conduct or arising from the same criminal episode, or an information or indictment is filed charging such defendant with the same offense or an offense based on the same conduct or arising from the same criminal episode, the provisions of subsections (b) and (c) of this section shall be applicable with respect to such subsequent complaint, indictment, or information, as the case may be.

(2) If the defendant is to be tried upon an indictment or information dismissed by a trial court and reinstated following an appeal, the trial shall commence within seventy days from the date the action occasioning the trial becomes final, except that the court retrying the case may extend the period for trial not to exceed one hundred and eighty days from the date the action occasioning the trial becomes final if the unavailability of witnesses or other factors resulting from the passage of time shall make trial within seventy days impractical. The periods of delay enumerated in section 3161(h) are excluded in computing the time limitations specified in this section. The sanctions of section 3162 apply to this subsection.

(e) If the defendant is to be tried again following a declaration by the trial judge of a mistrial or following an order of such judge for a new trial, the trial shall commence within seventy days from the date the action occasioning the retrial becomes final. If the defendant is to be tried again following an appeal or a collateral attack, the trial shall commence within seventy days from the date the action occasioning the retrial becomes final, except that the court retrying the case may extend the period for retrial not to exceed one hundred and eighty days from the date the action occasioning the retrial becomes final if unavailability of witnesses or other factors resulting from passage of time shall make trial within seventy days impractical. The periods of delay enumerated in section 3161(h) are excluded in computing the time limitations specified in this section. The sanctions of section 3162 apply to this subsection.

(f) Notwithstanding the provisions of subsection (b) of this section, for the first twelve-calendar-month period following the effective date of this section as set forth in section 3163(a) of this chapter the time limit imposed with respect to the period between arrest and indictment by subsection (b) of this section shall be sixty days, for the second such twelve-month period such time limit shall be forty-five days and for the third such period such time limit shall be thirty-five days.

(g) Notwithstanding the provisions of subsection (c) of this section, for the first twelve-calendar-month period following the effective date of this section as set forth in section 3163(b) of this chapter, the time limit with respect to the period between arraignment and trial imposed by subsection (c) of this section shall be one hundred and eighty days, for the second such twelve-month period such time limit shall be one hundred and twenty days, and for the third such period such time limit with respect to the period between arraignment and trial shall be eighty days.

(h) The following periods of delay shall be excluded in computing the time within which an information or an indictment must be filed, or in computing the time within which the trial of any such offense must commence:

(1) Any period of delay resulting from other proceedings concerning the defendant, including but not limited to—

(A) delay resulting from any proceeding, including any examinations, to determine the mental competency or physical capacity of the defendant;

(B) delay resulting from trial with respect to other charges against the defendant;

(C) delay resulting from any interlocutory appeal;

(D) delay resulting from any pretrial motion, from the filing of the motion through the conclusion of the hearing on, or other prompt disposition of, such motion;

(E) delay resulting from any proceeding relating to the transfer of a case or the removal of any defendant from another district under the Federal Rules of Criminal Procedure;

(F) delay resulting from transportation of any defendant from another district, or to and from places of examination or hospitalization, except that any time consumed in excess of ten days from the date an order of removal or an order directing such transportation, and the defendant's arrival at the destination shall be presumed to be unreasonable;

(G) delay resulting from consideration by the court of a proposed plea agreement to be entered into by the defendant and the attorney for the Government; and

(H) delay reasonably attributable to any period, not to exceed thirty days, during which any proceeding concerning the defendant is actually under advisement by the court.


(2) Any period of delay during which prosecution is deferred by the attorney for the Government pursuant to written agreement with the defendant, with the approval of the court, for the purpose of allowing the defendant to demonstrate his good conduct.

(3)(A) Any period of delay resulting from the absence or unavailability of the defendant or an essential witness.

(B) For purposes of subparagraph (A) of this paragraph, a defendant or an essential witness shall be considered absent when his whereabouts are unknown and, in addition, he is attempting to avoid apprehension or prosecution or his whereabouts cannot be determined by due diligence. For purposes of such subparagraph, a defendant or an essential witness shall be considered unavailable whenever his whereabouts are known but his presence for trial cannot be obtained by due diligence or he resists appearing at or being returned for trial.

(4) Any period of delay resulting from the fact that the defendant is mentally incompetent or physically unable to stand trial.

(5) If the information or indictment is dismissed upon motion of the attorney for the Government and thereafter a charge is filed against the defendant for the same offense, or any offense required to be joined with that offense, any period of delay from the date the charge was dismissed to the date the time limitation would commence to run as to the subsequent charge had there been no previous charge.

(6) A reasonable period of delay when the defendant is joined for trial with a codefendant as to whom the time for trial has not run and no motion for severance has been granted.

(7)(A) Any period of delay resulting from a continuance granted by any judge on his own motion or at the request of the defendant or his counsel or at the request of the attorney for the Government, if the judge granted such continuance on the basis of his findings that the ends of justice served by taking such action outweigh the best interest of the public and the defendant in a speedy trial. No such period of delay resulting from a continuance granted by the court in accordance with this paragraph shall be excludable under this subsection unless the court sets forth, in the record of the case, either orally or in writing, its reasons for finding that the ends of justice served by the granting of such continuance outweigh the best interests of the public and the defendant in a speedy trial.

(B) The factors, among others, which a judge shall consider in determining whether to grant a continuance under subparagraph (A) of this paragraph in any case are as follows:

(i) Whether the failure to grant such a continuance in the proceeding would be likely to make a continuation of such proceeding impossible, or result in a miscarriage of justice.

(ii) Whether the case is so unusual or so complex, due to the number of defendants, the nature of the prosecution, or the existence of novel questions of fact or law, that it is unreasonable to expect adequate preparation for pretrial proceedings or for the trial itself within the time limits established by this section.

(iii) Whether, in a case in which arrest precedes indictment, delay in the filing of the indictment is caused because the arrest occurs at a time such that it is unreasonable to expect return and filing of the indictment within the period specified in section 3161(b), or because the facts upon which the grand jury must base its determination are unusual or complex.

(iv) Whether the failure to grant such a continuance in a case which, taken as a whole, is not so unusual or so complex as to fall within clause (ii), would deny the defendant reasonable time to obtain counsel, would unreasonably deny the defendant or the Government continuity of counsel, or would deny counsel for the defendant or the attorney for the Government the reasonable time necessary for effective preparation, taking into account the exercise of due diligence.


(C) No continuance under subparagraph (A) of this paragraph shall be granted because of general congestion of the court's calendar, or lack of diligent preparation or failure to obtain available witnesses on the part of the attorney for the Government.

(8) Any period of delay, not to exceed one year, ordered by a district court upon an application of a party and a finding by a preponderance of the evidence that an official request, as defined in section 3292 of this title, has been made for evidence of any such offense and that it reasonably appears, or reasonably appeared at the time the request was made, that such evidence is, or was, in such foreign country.


(i) If trial did not commence within the time limitation specified in section 3161 because the defendant had entered a plea of guilty or nolo contendere subsequently withdrawn to any or all charges in an indictment or information, the defendant shall be deemed indicted with respect to all charges therein contained within the meaning of section 3161, on the day the order permitting withdrawal of the plea becomes final.

(j)(1) If the attorney for the Government knows that a person charged with an offense is serving a term of imprisonment in any penal institution, he shall promptly—

(A) undertake to obtain the presence of the prisoner for trial; or

(B) cause a detainer to be filed with the person having custody of the prisoner and request him to so advise the prisoner and to advise the prisoner of his right to demand trial.


(2) If the person having custody of such prisoner receives a detainer, he shall promptly advise the prisoner of the charge and of the prisoner's right to demand trial. If at any time thereafter the prisoner informs the person having custody that he does demand trial, such person shall cause notice to that effect to be sent promptly to the attorney for the Government who caused the detainer to be filed.

(3) Upon receipt of such notice, the attorney for the Government shall promptly seek to obtain the presence of the prisoner for trial.

(4) When the person having custody of the prisoner receives from the attorney for the Government a properly supported request for temporary custody of such prisoner for trial, the prisoner shall be made available to that attorney for the Government (subject, in cases of interjurisdictional transfer, to any right of the prisoner to contest the legality of his delivery).

(k)(1) If the defendant is absent (as defined by subsection (h)(3)) on the day set for trial, and the defendant's subsequent appearance before the court on a bench warrant or other process or surrender to the court occurs more than 21 days after the day set for trial, the defendant shall be deemed to have first appeared before a judicial officer of the court in which the information or indictment is pending within the meaning of subsection (c) on the date of the defendant's subsequent appearance before the court.

(2) If the defendant is absent (as defined by subsection (h)(3)) on the day set for trial, and the defendant's subsequent appearance before the court on a bench warrant or other process or surrender to the court occurs not more than 21 days after the day set for trial, the time limit required by subsection (c), as extended by subsection (h), shall be further extended by 21 days.

(Added Pub. L. 93–619, title I, §101, Jan. 3, 1975, 88 Stat. 2076; amended Pub. L. 96–43, §§2–5, Aug. 2, 1979, 93 Stat. 327, 328; Pub. L. 98–473, title II, §1219, Oct. 12, 1984, 98 Stat. 2167; Pub. L. 100–690, title VI, §6476, Nov. 18, 1988, 102 Stat. 4380; Pub. L. 101–650, title III, §321, Dec. 1, 1990, 104 Stat. 5117; Pub. L. 110–406, §13, Oct. 13, 2008, 122 Stat. 4294.)

Amendments

2008—Subsec. (h)(1)(B) to (J). Pub. L. 110–406, §13(1), redesignated subpars. (D) to (J) as (B) to (H), respectively, and struck out former subpars. (B) and (C) which read as follows:

“(B) delay resulting from any proceeding, including any examination of the defendant, pursuant to section 2902 of title 28, United States Code;

“(C) delay resulting from deferral of prosecution pursuant to section 2902 of title 28, United States Code;”.

Subsec. (h)(5) to (9). Pub. L. 110–406, §13(2), (3), redesignated pars. (6) to (9) as (5) to (8), respectively, and struck out former par. (5) which read as follows: “Any period of delay resulting from the treatment of the defendant pursuant to section 2902 of title 28, United States Code.”

1988—Subsec. (k). Pub. L. 100–690 added subsec. (k).

1984—Subsec. (h)(8)(C). Pub. L. 98–473, §1219(1), substituted “subparagraph (A) of this paragraph” for “paragraph (8)(A) of this subsection”.

Subsec. (h)(9). Pub. L. 98–473, §1219(2), added par. (9).

1979—Subsec. (c)(1). Pub. L. 96–43, §2, merged the ten day indictment-to-arraignment and the sixty day arraignment-to-trial limits into a single seventy day indictment-to-trial period.

Subsec. (c)(2). Pub. L. 96–43, §2, added par. (2).

Subsec. (d). Pub. L. 96–43, §3(a), designated existing provisions as par. (1) and added par. (2).

Subsec. (e). Pub. L. 96–43, §3(b), substituted “seventy days” for “sixty days” in three places and inserted provisions excluding the periods of delay enumerated in subsec. (h) of this section in computing the time limitations specified in this section and applying the sanctions of section 3162 of this title to this subsection.

Subsec. (h)(1). Pub. L. 96–43, §4, added to the listing of excludable delays, delays resulting from the deferral of prosecution under section 2902 of title 28, delays caused by consideration by the court of proposed plea agreements, and delays resulting from the transportation of a defendant from another district or for the purpose of examination or hospitalization, and expanded provisions relating to exclusions of periods of delay resulting from hearings on pretrial motions, examinations and hearings relating to the mental or physical condition of defendant, or the removal of a defendant from another district under the Federal Rules of Criminal Procedure.

Subsec. (h)(8)(B)(ii). Pub. L. 96–43, §5(a), expanded provisions authorizing the granting of continuances based on the complexity or unusual nature of a case to include delays in preparation of all phases of a case, including pretrial motion preparation.

Subsec. (h)(8)(B)(iii). Pub. L. 96–43, §5(b), inserted provision authorizing a continuance where the delay in filing the indictment is caused by the arrest taking place at such time that the return and filing of the indictment can not reasonably be expected within the period specified in section 3161(b) of this title.

Subsec. (h)(8)(B)(iv). Pub. L. 96–43, §5(c), added cl. (iv).

Change of Name

Words “magistrate judge” substituted for “magistrate” in subsec. (c)(1) pursuant to section 321 of Pub. L. 101–650, set out as a note under section 631 of Title 28, Judiciary and Judicial Procedure.

Effective Date of 1984 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 98–473 effective 30 days after Oct. 12, 1984, see section 1220 of Pub. L. 98–473, set out as an Effective Date note under section 3505 of this title.

Short Title of 1979 Amendment

Section 1 of Pub. L. 96–43 provided: “That this Act [amending this section and sections 3163 to 3168, 3170 and 3174 of this title] may be cited as the ‘Speedy Trial Act Amendments Act of 1979’.”

Short Title

Section 1 of Pub. L. 93–619 provided: “That this Act [enacting this chapter and sections 3153 to 3156 of this title, and amending section 3152 of this title, and section 604 of Title 28, Judiciary and Judicial Procedure] may be cited as the ‘Speedy Trial Act of 1974’.”

§3162. Sanctions

(a)(1) If, in the case of any individual against whom a complaint is filed charging such individual with an offense, no indictment or information is filed within the time limit required by section 3161(b) as extended by section 3161(h) of this chapter, such charge against that individual contained in such complaint shall be dismissed or otherwise dropped. In determining whether to dismiss the case with or without prejudice, the court shall consider, among others, each of the following factors: the seriousness of the offense; the facts and circumstances of the case which led to the dismissal; and the impact of a reprosecution on the administration of this chapter and on the administration of justice.

(2) If a defendant is not brought to trial within the time limit required by section 3161(c) as extended by section 3161(h), the information or indictment shall be dismissed on motion of the defendant. The defendant shall have the burden of proof of supporting such motion but the Government shall have the burden of going forward with the evidence in connection with any exclusion of time under subparagraph 3161(h)(3). In determining whether to dismiss the case with or without prejudice, the court shall consider, among others, each of the following factors: the seriousness of the offense; the facts and circumstances of the case which led to the dismissal; and the impact of a reprosecution on the administration of this chapter and on the administration of justice. Failure of the defendant to move for dismissal prior to trial or entry of a plea of guilty or nolo contendere shall constitute a waiver of the right to dismissal under this section.

(b) In any case in which counsel for the defendant or the attorney for the Government (1) knowingly allows the case to be set for trial without disclosing the fact that a necessary witness would be unavailable for trial; (2) files a motion solely for the purpose of delay which he knows is totally frivolous and without merit; (3) makes a statement for the purpose of obtaining a continuance which he knows to be false and which is material to the granting of a continuance; or (4) otherwise willfully fails to proceed to trial without justification consistent with section 3161 of this chapter, the court may punish any such counsel or attorney, as follows:

(A) in the case of an appointed defense counsel, by reducing the amount of compensation that otherwise would have been paid to such counsel pursuant to section 3006A of this title in an amount not to exceed 25 per centum thereof;

(B) in the case of a counsel retained in connection with the defense of a defendant, by imposing on such counsel a fine of not to exceed 25 per centum of the compensation to which he is entitled in connection with his defense of such defendant;

(C) by imposing on any attorney for the Government a fine of not to exceed $250;

(D) by denying any such counsel or attorney for the Government the right to practice before the court considering such case for a period of not to exceed ninety days; or

(E) by filing a report with an appropriate disciplinary committee.


The authority to punish provided for by this subsection shall be in addition to any other authority or power available to such court.

(c) The court shall follow procedures established in the Federal Rules of Criminal Procedure in punishing any counsel or attorney for the Government pursuant to this section.

(Added Pub. L. 93–619, title I, §101, Jan. 3, 1975, 88 Stat. 2079.)

§3163. Effective dates

(a) The time limitation in section 3161(b) of this chapter—

(1) shall apply to all individuals who are arrested or served with a summons on or after the date of expiration of the twelve-calendar-month period following July 1, 1975; and

(2) shall commence to run on such date of expiration to all individuals who are arrested or served with a summons prior to the date of expiration of such twelve-calendar-month period, in connection with the commission of an offense, and with respect to which offense no information or indictment has been filed prior to such date of expiration.


(b) The time limitation in section 3161(c) of this chapter—

(1) shall apply to all offenses charged in informations or indictments filed on or after the date of expiration of the twelve-calendar-month period following July 1, 1975; and

(2) shall commence to run on such date of expiration as to all offenses charged in informations or indictments filed prior to that date.


(c) Subject to the provisions of section 3174(c), section 3162 of this chapter shall become effective and apply to all cases commenced by arrest or summons, and all informations or indictments filed, on or after July 1, 1980.

(Added Pub. L. 93–619, title I, §101, Jan. 3, 1975, 88 Stat. 2080; amended Pub. L. 96–43, §6, Aug. 2, 1979, 93 Stat. 328.)

Amendments

1979—Subsec. (c). Pub. L. 96–43 substituted provision that section 3162 of this title was to become effective and apply to all cases commenced by arrest or summons, and all informations and indictments filed, on or after July 1, 1980, subject to section 3174(c) of this title, for provision that such section was to become effective after the date of expiration of the fourth twelve-calendar-month period following July 1, 1975.

§3164. Persons detained or designated as being of high risk

(a) The trial or other disposition of cases involving—

(1) a detained person who is being held in detention solely because he is awaiting trial, and

(2) a released person who is awaiting trial and has been designated by the attorney for the Government as being of high risk,


shall be accorded priority.

(b) The trial of any person described in subsection (a)(1) or (a)(2) of this section shall commence not later than ninety days following the beginning of such continuous detention or designation of high risk by the attorney for the Government. The periods of delay enumerated in section 3161(h) are excluded in computing the time limitation specified in this section.

(c) Failure to commence trial of a detainee as specified in subsection (b), through no fault of the accused or his counsel, or failure to commence trial of a designated releasee as specified in subsection (b), through no fault of the attorney for the Government, shall result in the automatic review by the court of the conditions of release. No detainee, as defined in subsection (a), shall be held in custody pending trial after the expiration of such ninety-day period required for the commencement of his trial. A designated releasee, as defined in subsection (a), who is found by the court to have intentionally delayed the trial of his case shall be subject to an order of the court modifying his nonfinancial conditions of release under this title to insure that he shall appear at trial as required.

(Added Pub. L. 93–619, title I, §101, Jan. 3, 1975, 88 Stat. 2081; amended Pub. L. 96–43, §7, Aug. 2, 1979, 93 Stat. 329.)

Amendments

1979—Pub. L. 96–43, §7(1), substituted “Persons detained or designated as being of high risk” for “Interim limits” in section catchline.

Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 96–43, §7(2), struck out provisions limiting the trial priority to be accorded persons specified in cls. (1) and (2) of this subsection to the interim period commencing ninety days following July 1, 1975 and ending on the date immediately preceding the date on which the time limits provided for under section 3161(b) and (c) of this title become effective.

Subsec. (b). Pub. L. 96–43, §7(3), struck out provisions making trial priority provisions of this subsection applicable during an interim period only and requiring the trial of any person detained or designated by the government as being of high risk on or before the first day of such interim period to commence no later than ninety days following the first day of the period and inserted provision excluding the periods of delay specified in section 3161(h) of this title in computing the time limitation of this section.

§3165. District plans—generally

(a) Each district court shall conduct a continuing study of the administration of criminal justice in the district court and before United States magistrate judges of the district and shall prepare plans for the disposition of criminal cases in accordance with this chapter. Each such plan shall be formulated after consultation with, and after considering the recommendations of, the Federal Judicial Center and the planning group established for that district pursuant to section 3168. The plans shall be prepared in accordance with the schedule set forth in subsection (e) of this section.

(b) The planning and implementation process shall seek to accelerate the disposition of criminal cases in the district consistent with the time standards of this chapter and the objectives of effective law enforcement, fairness to accused persons, efficient judicial administration, and increased knowledge concerning the proper functioning of the criminal law. The process shall seek to avoid underenforcement, overenforcement and discriminatory enforcement of the law, prejudice to the prompt disposition of civil litigation, and undue pressure as well as undue delay in the trial of criminal cases.

(c) The plans prepared by each district court shall be submitted for approval to a reviewing panel consisting of the members of the judicial council of the circuit and either the chief judge of the district court whose plan is being reviewed or such other active judge of that court as the chief judge of that district court may designate. If approved by the reviewing panel, the plan shall be forwarded to the Administrative Office of the United States Courts, which office shall report annually on the operation of such plans to the Judicial Conference of the United States.

(d) The district court may modify the plan at any time with the approval of the reviewing panel. It shall modify the plan when directed to do so by the reviewing panel or the Judicial Conference of the United States. Modifications shall be reported to the Administrative Office of the United States Courts.

(e)(1) Prior to the expiration of the twelve-calendar-month period following July 1, 1975, each United States district court shall prepare and submit a plan in accordance with subsections (a) through (d) above to govern the trial or other disposition of offenses within the jurisdiction of such court during the second and third twelve-calendar-month periods following the effective date of subsection 3161(b) and subsection 3161(c).

(2) Prior to the expiration of the thirty-six calendar month period following July 1, 1975, each United States district court shall prepare and submit a plan in accordance with subsections (a) through (d) above to govern the trial or other disposition of offenses within the jurisdiction of such court during the fourth and fifth twelve-calendar-month periods following the effective date of subsection 3161(b) and subsection 3161(c).

(3) Not later than June 30, 1980, each United States district court with respect to which implementation has not been ordered under section 3174(c) shall prepare and submit a plan in accordance with subsections (a) through (d) to govern the trial or other disposition of offenses within the jurisdiction of such court during the sixth and subsequent twelve-calendar-month periods following the effective date of subsection 3161(b) and subsection 3161(c) in effect prior to the date of enactment of this paragraph.

(f) Plans adopted pursuant to this section shall, upon adoption, and recommendations of the district planning group shall, upon completion, become public documents.

(Added Pub. L. 93–619, title I, §101, Jan. 3, 1975, 88 Stat. 2081; amended Pub. L. 96–43, §8, Aug. 2, 1979, 93 Stat. 329; Pub. L. 101–647, title XXXV, §3577, Nov. 29, 1990, 104 Stat. 4929; Pub. L. 101–650, title III, §321, Dec. 1, 1990, 104 Stat. 5117.)

References in Text

For the effective date of subsection 3161(b) and subsection 3161(c) in effect prior to the date of enactment of this paragraph, referred to in subsec. (e), see section 3163(a) and (b) of this title. The date of enactment of par. (3) of subsec. (e) of this section is the date of enactment of Pub. L. 96–43, which was approved Aug. 2, 1979. Subsecs. (a) and (b) of section 3163 of this title were not amended by Pub. L. 96–43.

Amendments

1990—Subsec. (e)(2). Pub. L. 101–647 substituted “twelve-calendar-month” for “twelve-calendar month”.

1979—Subsec. (e)(2). Pub. L. 96–43, §8(1), substituted “fifth twelve-calendar” for “subsequent twelve-calendar”.

Subsec. (e)(3). Pub. L. 96–43, §8(2), added par. (3).

Change of Name

“United States magistrate judges” substituted for “United States magistrates” in subsec. (a) pursuant to section 321 of Pub. L. 101–650, set out as a note under section 631 of Title 28, Judiciary and Judicial Procedure.

§3166. District plans—contents

(a) Each plan shall include a description of the time limits, procedural techniques, innovations, systems and other methods, including the development of reliable methods for gathering and monitoring information and statistics, by which the district court, the United States attorney, the Federal public defender, if any, and private attorneys experienced in the defense of criminal cases, have expedited or intend to expedite the trial or other disposition of criminal cases, consistent with the time limits and other objectives of this chapter.

(b) Each plan shall include information concerning the implementation of the time limits and other objectives of this chapter, including:

(1) the incidence of and reasons for, requests or allowances of extensions of time beyond statutory or district standards;

(2) the incidence of, and reasons for, periods of delay under section 3161(h) of this title;

(3) the incidence of, and reasons for, the invocation of sanctions for noncompliance with time standards, or the failure to invoke such sanctions, and the nature of the sanction, if any invoked for noncompliance;

(4) the new timetable set, or requested to be set, for an extension;

(5) the effect on criminal justice administration of the prevailing time limits and sanctions, including the effects on the prosecution, the defense, the courts, the correctional process, costs, transfers and appeals;

(6) the incidence and length of, reasons for, and remedies for detention prior to trial, and information required by the provisions of the Federal Rules of Criminal Procedure relating to the supervision of detention pending trial;

(7) the identity of cases which, because of their special characteristics, deserve separate or different time limits as a matter of statutory classifications;

(8) the incidence of, and reasons for each thirty-day extension under section 3161(b) with respect to an indictment in that district; and

(9) the impact of compliance with the time limits of subsections (b) and (c) of section 3161 upon the civil case calendar in the district.


(c) Each district plan required by section 3165 shall include information and statistics concerning the administration of criminal justice within the district, including, but not limited to:

(1) the time span between arrest and indictment, indictment and trial, and conviction and sentencing;

(2) the number of matters presented to the United States Attorney for prosecution, and the numbers of such matters prosecuted and not prosecuted;

(3) the number of matters transferred to other districts or to States for prosecution;

(4) the number of cases disposed of by trial and by plea;

(5) the rates of nolle prosequi, dismissal, acquittal, conviction, diversion, or other disposition;

(6) the extent of preadjudication detention and release, by numbers of defendants and days in custody or at liberty prior to disposition; and

(7)(A) the number of new civil cases filed in the twelve-calendar-month period preceding the submission of the plan;

(B) the number of civil cases pending at the close of such period; and

(C) the increase or decrease in the number of civil cases pending at the close of such period, compared to the number pending at the close of the previous twelve-calendar-month period, and the length of time each such case has been pending.


(d) Each plan shall further specify the rule changes, statutory amendments, and appropriations needed to effectuate further improvements in the administration of justice in the district which cannot be accomplished without such amendments or funds.

(e) Each plan shall include recommendations to the Administrative Office of the United States Courts for reporting forms, procedures, and time requirements. The Director of the Administrative Office of the United States Courts, with the approval of the Judicial Conference of the United States, shall prescribe such forms and procedures and time requirements consistent with section 3170 after consideration of the recommendations contained in the district plan and the need to reflect both unique local conditions and uniform national reporting standards.

(f) Each plan may be accompanied by guidelines promulgated by the judicial council of the circuit for use by all district courts within that circuit to implement and secure compliance with this chapter.

(Added Pub. L. 93–619, title I, §101, Jan. 3, 1975, 88 Stat. 2082; amended Pub. L. 96–43, §9(a)–(c), Aug. 2, 1979, 93 Stat. 329; Pub. L. 101–647, title XXXV, §3578, Nov. 29, 1990, 104 Stat. 4929.)

Amendments

1990—Subsec. (b)(8). Pub. L. 101–647 substituted “extension” for “extention”.

1979—Subsec. (b)(9). Pub. L. 96–43, §9(a), added par. (9).

Subsec. (c)(7). Pub. L. 96–43, §9(b), added par. (7).

Subsec. (f). Pub. L. 96–43, §9(c), added subsec. (f).

§3167. Reports to Congress

(a) The Administrative Office of the United States Courts, with the approval of the Judicial Conference, shall submit periodic reports to Congress detailing the plans submitted pursuant to section 3165. The reports shall be submitted within three months following the final dates for the submission of plans under section 3165(e) of this title.

(b) Such reports shall include recommendations for legislative changes or additional appropriations to achieve the time limits and objectives of this chapter. The report shall also contain pertinent information such as the state of the criminal docket at the time of the adoption of the plan; the extent of pretrial detention and release; and a description of the time limits, procedural techniques, innovations, systems, and other methods by which the trial or other disposition of criminal cases have been expedited or may be expedited in the districts. Such reports shall also include the following:

(1) The reasons why, in those cases not in compliance with the time limits of subsections (b) and (c) of section 3161, the provisions of section 3161(h) have not been adequate to accommodate reasonable periods of delay.

(2) The category of offenses, the number of defendants, and the number of counts involved in those cases which are not meeting the time limits specified in subsections (b) and (c) of section 3161.

(3) The additional judicial resources which would be necessary in order to achieve compliance with the time limits specified in subsections (b) and (c) of section 3161.

(4) The nature of the remedial measures which have been employed to improve conditions and practices in those districts with low compliance experience under this chapter or to promote the adoption of practices and procedures which have been successful in those districts with high compliance experience under this chapter.

(5) If a district has experienced difficulty in complying with this chapter, but an application for relief under section 3174 has not been made, the reason why such application has not been made.

(6) The impact of compliance with the time limits of subsections (b) and (c) of section 3161 upon the civil case calendar in each district as demonstrated by the information assembled and statistics compiled and submitted under sections 3166 and 3170.


(c) Not later than December 31, 1979, the Department of Justice shall prepare and submit to the Congress a report which sets forth the impact of the implementation of this chapter upon the office of the United States Attorney in each district and which shall also include—

(1) the reasons why, in those cases not in compliance, the provisions of section 3161(h) have not been adequate to accommodate reasonable periods of delay;

(2) the nature of the remedial measures which have been employed to improve conditions and practices in the offices of the United States Attorneys in those districts with low compliance experience under this chapter or to promote the adoption of practices and procedures which have been successful in those districts with high compliance experience under this chapter;

(3) the additional resources for the offices of the United States Attorneys which would be necessary to achieve compliance with the time limits of subsections (b) and (c) of section 3161;

(4) suggested changes in the guidelines or other rules implementing this chapter or statutory amendments which the Department of Justice deems necessary to further improve the administration of justice and meet the objectives of this chapter; and

(5) the impact of compliance with the time limits of subsections (b) and (c) of section 3161 upon the litigation of civil cases by the offices of the United States Attorneys and the rule changes, statutory amendments, and resources necessary to assure that such litigation is not prejudiced by full compliance with this chapter.

(Added Pub. L. 93–619, title I, §101, Jan. 3, 1975, 88 Stat. 2083; amended Pub. L. 96–43, §9(e), Aug. 2, 1979, 93 Stat. 330.)

Amendments

1979—Subsec. (b). Pub. L. 96–43, §9(e)(1), inserted last sentence containing pars. (1) to (6).

Subsec. (c). Pub. L. 96–43, §9(e)(2), added subsec. (c).

§3168. Planning process

(a) Within sixty days after July 1, 1975, each United States district court shall convene a planning group consisting at minimum of the Chief Judge, a United States magistrate judge, if any designated by the Chief Judge, the United States Attorney, the Clerk of the district court, the Federal Public Defender, if any, two private attorneys, one with substantial experience in the defense of criminal cases in the district and one with substantial experience in civil litigation in the district, the Chief United States Probation Officer for the district, and a person skilled in criminal justice research who shall act as reporter for the group. The group shall advise the district court with respect to the formulation of all district plans and shall submit its recommendations to the district court for each of the district plans required by section 3165. The group shall be responsible for the initial formulation of all district plans and of the reports required by this chapter and in aid thereof, it shall be entitled to the planning funds specified in section 3171.

(b) The planning group shall address itself to the need for reforms in the criminal justice system, including but not limited to changes in the grand jury system, the finality of criminal judgments, habeas corpus and collateral attacks, pretrial diversion, pretrial detention, excessive reach of Federal criminal law, simplification and improvement of pretrial and sentencing procedures, and appellate delay.

(c) Members of the planning group with the exception of the reporter shall receive no additional compensation for their services, but shall be reimbursed for travel, subsistence and other necessary expenses incurred by them in carrying out the duties of the advisory group in accordance with the provisions of title 5, United States Code, chapter 57. The reporter shall be compensated in accordance with section 3109 of title 5, United States Code, and notwithstanding other provisions of law he may be employed for any period of time during which his services are needed.

(Added Pub. L. 93–619, title I, §101, Jan. 3, 1975, 88 Stat. 2083; amended Pub. L. 96–43, §9(d), Aug. 2, 1979, 93 Stat. 330; Pub. L. 101–650, title III, §321, Dec. 1, 1990, 104 Stat. 5117.)

Amendments

1979—Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 96–43 substituted “two private attorneys, one with substantial experience in the defense of criminal cases in the district and one with substantial experience in civil litigation in the district” for “a private attorney experienced in the defense of criminal cases in the district”.

Change of Name

“United States magistrate judge” substituted for “United States magistrate” in subsec. (a) pursuant to section 321 of Pub. L. 101–650, set out as a note under section 631 of Title 28, Judiciary and Judicial Procedure.

§3169. Federal Judicial Center

The Federal Judicial Center shall advise and consult with the planning groups and the district courts in connection with their duties under this chapter.

(Added Pub. L. 93–619, title I, §101, Jan. 3, 1975, 88 Stat. 2084.)

§3170. Speedy trial data

(a) To facilitate the planning process, the implementation of the time limits, and continuous and permanent compliance with the objectives of this chapter, the clerk of each district court shall assemble the information and compile the statistics described in sections 3166(b) and 3166(c) of this title. The clerk of each district court shall assemble such information and compile such statistics on such forms and under such regulations as the Administrative Office of the United States Courts shall prescribe with the approval of the Judicial Conference and after consultation with the Attorney General.

(b) The clerk of each district court is authorized to obtain the information required by sections 3166(b) and 3166(c) from all relevant sources including the United States Attorney, Federal Public Defender, private defense counsel appearing in criminal cases in the district, United States district court judges, and the chief Federal Probation Officer for the district. This subsection shall not be construed to require the release of any confidential or privileged information.

(c) The information and statistics compiled by the clerk pursuant to this section shall be made available to the district court, the planning group, the circuit council, and the Administrative Office of the United States Courts.

(Added Pub. L. 93–619, title I, §101, Jan. 3, 1975, 88 Stat. 2084; amended Pub. L. 96–43, §9(f), Aug. 2, 1979, 93 Stat. 331; Pub. L. 101–647, title XXXV, §3579, Nov. 29, 1990, 104 Stat. 4929.)

Amendments

1990—Subsecs. (a), (b). Pub. L. 101–647 substituted “sections 3166(b) and 3166(c)” for “sections 3166(b) and (c)”.

1979—Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 96–43 inserted “continuous and permanent compliance with the” and substituted “described in” for “required by”.

§3171. Planning appropriations

(a) There is authorized to be appropriated for the fiscal year ending June 30, 1975, to the Federal judiciary the sum of $2,500,000 to be allocated by the Administrative Office of the United States Courts to Federal judicial districts to carry out the initial phases of planning and implementation of speedy trial plans under this chapter. The funds so appropriated shall remain available until expended.

(b) No funds appropriated under this section may be expended in any district except by two-thirds vote of the planning group. Funds to the extent available may be expended for personnel, facilities, and any other purpose permitted by law.

(Added Pub. L. 93–619, title I, §101, Jan. 3, 1975, 88 Stat. 2084.)

§3172. Definitions

As used in this chapter—

(1) the terms “judge” or “judicial officer” mean, unless otherwise indicated, any United States magistrate judge, Federal district judge, and

(2) the term “offense” means any Federal criminal offense which is in violation of any Act of Congress and is triable by any court established by Act of Congress (other than a Class B or C misdemeanor or an infraction, or an offense triable by court-martial, military commission, provost court, or other military tribunal).

(Added Pub. L. 93–619, title I, §101, Jan. 3, 1975, 88 Stat. 2085; amended Pub. L. 98–473, title II, §223(i), Oct. 12, 1984, 98 Stat. 2029; Pub. L. 101–650, title III, §321, Dec. 1, 1990, 104 Stat. 5117.)

Amendments

1984—Par. (2). Pub. L. 98–473 substituted “Class B or C misdemeanor or an infraction” for “petty offense as defined in section 1(3) of this title”.

Change of Name

“United States magistrate judge” substituted for “United States magistrate” in par. (1) pursuant to section 321 of Pub. L. 101–650, set out as a note under section 631 of Title 28, Judiciary and Judicial Procedure.

Effective Date of 1984 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 98–473 effective Nov. 1, 1987, and applicable only to offenses committed after the taking effect of such amendment, see section 235(a)(1) of Pub. L. 98–473, set out as an Effective Date note under section 3551 of this title.

§3173. Sixth amendment rights

No provision of this chapter shall be interpreted as a bar to any claim of denial of speedy trial as required by amendment VI of the Constitution.

(Added Pub. L. 93–619, title I, §101, Jan. 3, 1975, 88 Stat. 2085.)

§3174. Judicial emergency and implementation

(a) In the event that any district court is unable to comply with the time limits set forth in section 3161(c) due to the status of its court calendars, the chief judge, where the existing resources are being efficiently utilized, may, after seeking the recommendations of the planning group, apply to the judicial council of the circuit for a suspension of such time limits as provided in subsection (b). The judicial council of the circuit shall evaluate the capabilities of the district, the availability of visiting judges from within and without the circuit, and make any recommendations it deems appropriate to alleviate calendar congestion resulting from the lack of resources.

(b) If the judicial council of the circuit finds that no remedy for such congestion is reasonably available, such council may, upon application by the chief judge of a district, grant a suspension of the time limits in section 3161(c) in such district for a period of time not to exceed one year for the trial of cases for which indictments or informations are filed during such one-year period. During such period of suspension, the time limits from arrest to indictment, set forth in section 3161(b), shall not be reduced, nor shall the sanctions set forth in section 3162 be suspended; but such time limits from indictment to trial shall not be increased to exceed one hundred and eighty days. The time limits for the trial of cases of detained persons who are being detained solely because they are awaiting trial shall not be affected by the provisions of this section.

(c)(1) If, prior to July 1, 1980, the chief judge of any district concludes, with the concurrence of the planning group convened in the district, that the district is prepared to implement the provisions of section 3162 in their entirety, he may apply to the judicial council of the circuit in which the district is located to implement such provisions. Such application shall show the degree of compliance in the district with the time limits set forth in subsections (b) and (c) of section 3161 during the twelve-calendar-month period preceding the date of such application and shall contain a proposed order and schedule for such implementation, which includes the date on which the provisions of section 3162 are to become effective in the district, the effect such implementation will have upon such district's practices and procedures, and provision for adequate notice to all interested parties.

(2) After review of any such application, the judicial council of the circuit shall enter an order implementing the provisions of section 3162 in their entirety in the district making application, or shall return such application to the chief judge of such district, together with an explanation setting forth such council's reasons for refusing to enter such order.

(d)(1) The approval of any application made pursuant to subsection (a) or (c) by a judicial council of a circuit shall be reported within ten days to the Director of the Administrative Office of the United States Courts, together with a copy of the application, a written report setting forth in sufficient detail the reasons for granting such application, and, in the case of an application made pursuant to subsection (a), a proposal for alleviating congestion in the district.

(2) The Director of the Administrative Office of the United States Courts shall not later than ten days after receipt transmit such report to the Congress and to the Judicial Conference of the United States. The judicial council of the circuit shall not grant a suspension to any district within six months following the expiration of a prior suspension without the consent of the Congress by Act of Congress. The limitation on granting a suspension made by this paragraph shall not apply with respect to any judicial district in which the prior suspension is in effect on the date of the enactment of the Speedy Trial Act Amendments Act of 1979.

(e) If the chief judge of the district court concludes that the need for suspension of time limits in such district under this section is of great urgency, he may order the limits suspended for a period not to exceed thirty days. Within ten days of entry of such order, the chief judge shall apply to the judicial council of the circuit for a suspension pursuant to subsection (a).

(Added Pub. L. 93–619, title I, §101, Jan. 3, 1975, 88 Stat. 2085; amended Pub. L. 96–43, §10, Aug. 2, 1979, 93 Stat. 331.)

References in Text

The date of enactment of the Speedy Trial Act Amendments Act of 1979, referred to in subsec. (d)(2), means the date of enactment of Pub. L. 96–43, which was approved Aug. 2, 1979.

Amendments

1979—Pub. L. 96–43, §10(6), inserted “and implementation” in section catchline.

Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 96–43, §10(1), inserted “as provided by subsection (b)”.

Subsec. (b). Pub. L. 96–43, §10(2), (3), substituted provisions authorizing the circuit judicial council, upon application of the chief judge of a district, to grant a suspension of the time limits prescribed by section 3161(c) of this title for provisions requiring such circuit council to apply to the Judicial Council of the United States for a suspension of such time limits and substituted provision placing a one hundred and eighty day limit on any time increase from indictment to trial for provision placing such limit for any increase from arraignment to trial.

Subsec. (c). Pub. L. 96–43, §10(4), substituted provisions authorizing the chief judge of any district, with the approval of the planning group convened in such district, to apply to the circuit council to implement the provisions of section 3162 of this title at any time prior to the date the sanctions prescribed therein were to become effective, so long as there was concurrence that the district was prepared to fully implement the provisions of such section for provisions specifying the reporting requirements of this chapter, assuring involvement of the Congress in the suspension process, and guaranteeing that there be an interval of at least six months between consecutive suspension periods. See subsec. (d) of this section.

Subsecs. (d), (e). Pub. L. 96–43, §10(5), added subsecs. (d) and (e).

CHAPTER 209—EXTRADITION

Sec.
3181.
Scope and limitation of chapter.
3182.
Fugitives from State or Territory to State, District, or Territory.
3183.
Fugitives from State, Territory, or Possession into extraterritorial jurisdiction of United States.
3184.
Fugitives from foreign country to United States.
3185.
Fugitives from country under control of United States into the United States.
3186.
Secretary of State to surrender fugitive.
3187.
Provisional arrest and detention within extraterritorial jurisdiction.
3188.
Time of commitment pending extradition.
3189.
Place and character of hearing.
3190.
Evidence on hearing.
3191.
Witnesses for indigent fugitives.
3192.
Protection of accused.
3193.
Receiving agent's authority over offenders.
3194.
Transportation of fugitive by receiving agent.
3195.
Payment of fees and costs.
3196.
Extradition of United States citizens.

        

Amendments

1996—Pub. L. 104–294, title VI, §601(f)(9), (10), Oct. 11, 1996, 110 Stat. 3500, inserted comma after “District” in item 3182 and after “Territory” in item 3183.

1990—Pub. L. 101–623, §11(b), Nov. 21, 1990, 104 Stat. 3356, added item 3196.

§3181. Scope and limitation of chapter

(a) The provisions of this chapter relating to the surrender of persons who have committed crimes in foreign countries shall continue in force only during the existence of any treaty of extradition with such foreign government.

(b) The provisions of this chapter shall be construed to permit, in the exercise of comity, the surrender of persons, other than citizens, nationals, or permanent residents of the United States, who have committed crimes of violence against nationals of the United States in foreign countries without regard to the existence of any treaty of extradition with such foreign government if the Attorney General certifies, in writing, that—

(1) evidence has been presented by the foreign government that indicates that had the offenses been committed in the United States, they would constitute crimes of violence as defined under section 16 of this title; and

(2) the offenses charged are not of a political nature.


(c) As used in this section, the term “national of the United States” has the meaning given such term in section 101(a)(22) of the Immigration and Nationality Act (8 U.S.C. 1101(a)(22)).

(June 25, 1948, ch. 645, 62 Stat. 822; Pub. L. 104–132, title IV, §443(a), Apr. 24, 1996, 110 Stat. 1280.)

Historical and Revision Notes

Based on title 18, U.S.C., 1940 ed., §658 (R.S. §5274).

Minor changes were made in phraseology.

Amendments

1996—Pub. L. 104–132 designated existing provisions as subsec. (a) and added subsecs. (b) and (c).

Extradition Treaties Interpretation

Pub. L. 105–323, title II, Oct. 30, 1998, 112 Stat. 3033, provided that:

“SEC. 201. SHORT TITLE.

“This title may be cited as the ‘Extradition Treaties Interpretation Act of 1998’.

“SEC. 202. FINDINGS.

“Congress finds that—

“(1) each year, several hundred children are kidnapped by a parent in violation of law, court order, or legally binding agreement and brought to, or taken from, the United States;

“(2) until the mid-1970's, parental abduction generally was not considered a criminal offense in the United States;

“(3) since the mid-1970's, United States criminal law has evolved such that parental abduction is now a criminal offense in each of the 50 States and the District of Columbia;

“(4) in enacting the International Parental Kidnapping Crime Act of 1993 (Public Law 103–173; 107 Stat. 1998; 18 U.S.C. 1204), Congress recognized the need to combat parental abduction by making the act of international parental kidnapping a Federal criminal offense;

“(5) many of the extradition treaties to which the United States is a party specifically list the offenses that are extraditable and use the word ‘kidnapping’, but it has been the practice of the United States not to consider the term to include parental abduction because these treaties were negotiated by the United States prior to the development in United States criminal law described in paragraphs (3) and (4);

“(6) the more modern extradition treaties to which the United States is a party contain dual criminality provisions, which provide for extradition where both parties make the offense a felony, and therefore it is the practice of the United States to consider such treaties to include parental abduction if the other foreign state party also considers the act of parental abduction to be a criminal offense; and

“(7) this circumstance has resulted in a disparity in United States extradition law which should be rectified to better protect the interests of children and their parents.

“SEC. 203. INTERPRETATION OF EXTRADITION TREATIES.

“For purposes of any extradition treaty to which the United States is a party, Congress authorizes the interpretation of the terms ‘kidnaping’ and ‘kidnapping’ to include parental kidnapping.”

Judicial Assistance to International Tribunal for Yugoslavia and International Tribunal for Rwanda

Pub. L. 104–106, div. A, title XIII, §1342, Feb. 10, 1996, 110 Stat. 486, as amended by Pub. L. 111–117, div. F, title VII, §7034(t), Dec. 16, 2009, 123 Stat. 3364, provided that:

“(a) Surrender of Persons.—

“(1) Application of united states extradition laws.—Except as provided in paragraphs (2) and (3), the provisions of chapter 209 of title 18, United States Code, relating to the extradition of persons to a foreign country pursuant to a treaty or convention for extradition between the United States and a foreign government, shall apply in the same manner and extent to the surrender of persons, including United States citizens, to—

“(A) the International Tribunal for Yugoslavia, pursuant to the Agreement Between the United States and the International Tribunal for Yugoslavia; and

“(B) the International Tribunal for Rwanda, pursuant to the Agreement Between the United States and the International Tribunal for Rwanda.

“(2) Evidence on hearings.—For purposes of applying section 3190 of title 18, United States Code, in accordance with paragraph (1), the certification referred to in that section may be made by the principal diplomatic or consular officer of the United States resident in such foreign countries where the International Tribunal for Yugoslavia or the International Tribunal for Rwanda may be permanently or temporarily situated.

“(3) Payment of fees and costs.—(A) The provisions of the Agreement Between the United States and the International Tribunal for Yugoslavia and of the Agreement Between the United States and the International Tribunal for Rwanda shall apply in lieu of the provisions of section 3195 of title 18, United States Code, with respect to the payment of expenses arising from the surrender by the United States of a person to the International Tribunal for Yugoslavia or the International Tribunal for Rwanda, respectively, or from any proceedings in the United States relating to such surrender.

“(B) The authority of subparagraph (A) may be exercised only to the extent and in the amounts provided in advance in appropriations Acts.

“(4) Nonapplicability of the federal rules.—The Federal Rules of Evidence [set out in the Appendix to Title 28, Judiciary and Judicial Procedure] and the Federal Rules of Criminal Procedure [set out in the Appendix to this title] do not apply to proceedings for the surrender of persons to the International Tribunal for Yugoslavia or the International Tribunal for Rwanda.

“(b) Assistance to Foreign and International Tribunals and to Litigants Before Such Tribunals.—[Amended section 1782 of Title 28, Judiciary and Judicial Procedure.]

“(c) Definitions.—For purposes of this section:

“(1) International tribunal for yugoslavia.—The term ‘International Tribunal for Yugoslavia’ means the International Tribunal for the Prosecution of Persons Responsible for Serious Violations of International Humanitarian Law in the Territory of the Former Yugoslavia, as established by United Nations Security Council Resolution 827 of May 25, 1993.

“(2) International tribunal for rwanda.—The term ‘International Tribunal for Rwanda’ means the International Tribunal for the Prosecution of Persons Responsible for Genocide and Other Serious Violations of International Humanitarian Law Committed in the Territory of Rwanda and Rwandan Citizens Responsible for Genocide and Other Such Violations Committed in the Territory of Neighboring States, as established by United Nations Security Council Resolution 955 of November 8, 1994.

“(3) Agreement between the united states and the international tribunal for yugoslavia.—The term ‘Agreement Between the United States and the International Tribunal for Yugoslavia’ means the Agreement on Surrender of Persons Between the Government of the United States and the International Tribunal for the Prosecution of Persons Responsible for Serious Violations of International Law in the Territory of the Former Yugoslavia, signed at The Hague, October 5, 1994, as amended.

“(4) Agreement between the united states and the international tribunal for rwanda.—The term ‘Agreement between the United States and the International Tribunal for Rwanda’ means the Agreement on Surrender of Persons Between the Government of the United States and the International Tribunal for the Prosecution of Persons Responsible for Genocide and Other Serious Violations of International Humanitarian Law Committed in the Territory of Rwanda and Rwandan Citizens Responsible for Genocide and Other Such Violations Committed in the Territory of Neighboring States, signed at The Hague, January 24, 1995.”

Extradition and Mutual Legal Assistance Treaties and Model Comprehensive Antidrug Laws

Pub. L. 100–690, title IV, §4605, Nov. 18, 1988, 102 Stat. 4290, which directed greater emphasis on updating of extradition treaties and on negotiating mutual legal assistance treaties with major drug producing and drug-transit countries, and called for development of model treaties and anti-narcotics legislation, was repealed by Pub. L. 102–583, §6(e)(1), Nov. 2, 1992, 106 Stat. 4933.

Pub. L. 100–204, title VIII, §803, Dec. 22, 1987, 101 Stat. 1397, provided that: “The Secretary of State shall ensure that the Country Plan for the United States diplomatic mission in each major illicit drug producing country and in each major drug-transit country (as those terms are defined in section 481(i) of the Foreign Assistance Act of 1961 [22 U.S.C. 2291(i)]) includes, as an objective to be pursued by the mission—

“(1) negotiating an updated extradition treaty which ensures that drug traffickers can be extradited to the United States, or

“(2) if an existing treaty provides for such extradition, taking such steps as may be necessary to ensure that the treaty is effectively implemented.”

Pub. L. 99–93, title I, §133, Aug. 16, 1985, 99 Stat. 420, provided that: “The Secretary of State, with the assistance of the National Drug Enforcement Policy Board, shall increase United States efforts to negotiate updated extradition treaties relating to narcotics offenses with each major drug-producing country, particularly those in Latin America.”

EXTRADITION AGREEMENTS

The United States currently has bilateral extradition agreements with the following countries:

 
CountryDate signedEntered into forceCitation
Albania Mar. 1, 1933 Nov. 14, 1935 49 Stat. 3313.
Antigua and Barbuda June 3, 1996 July 1, 1999 TIAS.
Argentina June 10, 1997 June 15, 2000 TIAS 12866.
Australia Dec. 22, 1931 Aug. 30, 1935 47 Stat. 2122.
  May 14, 1974 May 8, 1976 27 UST 957.
  Sept. 4, 1990 Dec. 21, 1992 1736 UNTS 344.
Austria Jan. 8, 1998 Jan. 1, 2000 TIAS 12916.
  July 20, 2005 Feb. 1, 2010  
Bahamas Mar. 9, 1990 Sept. 22, 1994 TIAS.
Barbados Feb. 28, 1996 Mar. 3, 2000 TIAS.
Belgium Apr. 27, 1987 Sept. 1, 1997 TIAS.
  Dec. 16, 2004 Feb. 1, 2010  
Belize Mar. 30, 2000 Mar. 27, 2001 TIAS.
Bolivia June 27, 1995 Nov. 21, 1996 TIAS.
Brazil Jan. 13, 1961 Dec. 17, 1964 15 UST 2093.
  June 18, 1962 Dec. 17, 1964 15 UST 2112.
Bulgaria Mar. 19, 1924 June 24, 1924 43 Stat. 1886.
  June 8, 1934 Aug. 15, 1935 49 Stat. 3250.
  Sept. 19, 2007 May 21, 2009  
Burma Dec. 22, 1931 Nov. 1, 1941 47 Stat. 2122.
Canada Dec. 3, 1971 Mar. 22, 1976 27 UST 983.
  June 28, July 9, 1974 Mar. 22, 1976 27 UST 1017.
  Jan. 11, 1988 Nov. 26, 1991 TIAS.
  Jan. 12, 2001 Apr. 30, 2003  
Chile Apr. 17, 1900 June 26, 1902 32 Stat. 1850.
Colombia Sept. 14, 1979 Mar. 4, 1982 TIAS.
Congo (Brazzaville) Jan. 6, 1909

Jan. 15, 1929

Apr. 23, 1936

July 27, 1911

May 19, 1929

Sept. 24, 1936

37 Stat. 1526.

46 Stat. 2276.

50 Stat. 1117.

Costa Rica Dec. 4, 1982 Oct. 11, 1991 TIAS.
Cuba Apr. 6, 1904 Mar. 2, 1905 33 Stat. 2265.
  Dec. 6, 1904 Mar. 2, 1905 33 Stat. 2273.
Jan. 14, 1926 June 18, 1926 44 Stat. 2392.
Cyprus June 17, 1996 Sept. 14, 1999 TIAS.
  Jan. 20, 2006 Feb. 1, 2010  
Czech Republic 1 July 2, 1925

Apr. 29, 1935

Mar. 29, 1926

Aug. 28, 1935

44 Stat. 2367.

49 Stat. 3253.

  May 16, 2006 Feb. 1, 2010  
Denmark June 22, 1972 July 31, 1974 25 UST 1293.
  June 23, 2005 Feb. 1, 2010  
Dominica Oct. 10, 1996 May 25, 2000 TIAS.
Dominican Republic June 19, 1909 Aug. 2, 1910 36 Stat. 2468.
Ecuador June 28, 1872 Nov. 12, 1873 18 Stat. 199.
  Sept. 22, 1939 May 29, 1941 55 Stat. 1196.
Egypt Aug. 11, 1874 Apr. 22, 1875 19 Stat. 572.
El Salvador Apr. 18, 1911 July 10, 1911 37 Stat. 1516.
Estonia Nov. 8, 1923 Nov. 15, 1924 43 Stat. 1849.
  Oct. 10, 1934 May 7, 1935 49 Stat. 3190.
  Feb. 8, 2006 Apr. 7, 2009  
European Union June 25, 2003 Feb. 1, 2010  
Fiji Dec. 22, 1931 June 24, 1935 47 Stat. 2122.
  July 14, 1972, Aug. 17, 1973 Aug. 17, 1973 24 UST 1965.
Finland June 11, 1976 May 11, 1980 31 UST 944.
  Dec. 16, 2004 Feb. 1, 2010  
France Apr. 23, 1996 Feb. 1, 2002 TIAS.
  Sept. 30, 2004 Feb. 1, 2010  
Gambia Dec. 22, 1931 June 24, 1935 47 Stat. 2122.
Germany June 20, 1978 Aug. 29, 1980 32 UST 1485.
  Oct. 21, 1986 Mar. 11, 1993 TIAS.
  Apr. 18, 2006 Feb. 1, 2010  
Ghana Dec. 22, 1931 June 24, 1935 47 Stat. 2122.
Greece May 6, 1931 Nov. 1, 1932 47 Stat. 2185.
  Sept. 2, 1937 Sept. 2, 1937 51 Stat. 357.
  Jan. 18, 2006 Feb. 1, 2010  
Grenada May 30, 1996 Sept. 14, 1999 TIAS.
Guatemala Feb. 27, 1903 Aug. 15, 1903 33 Stat. 2147.
  Feb. 20, 1940 Mar. 13, 1941 55 Stat. 1097.
Guyana Dec. 22, 1931 June 24, 1935 47 Stat. 2122.
Haiti Aug. 9, 1904 June 28, 1905 34 Stat. 2858.
Honduras Jan. 15, 1909 July 10, 1912 37 Stat. 1616.
  Feb. 21, 1927 June 5, 1928 45 Stat. 2489.
Hong Kong Dec. 20, 1996 Jan. 21, 1998 TIAS.
Hungary Dec. 1, 1994 Mar. 18, 1997 TIAS.
  Nov. 15, 2005 Feb. 1, 2010  
Iceland Jan. 6, 1902 May 16, 1902 32 Stat. 1096.
  Nov. 6, 1905 Feb. 19, 1906 34 Stat. 2887.
India June 25, 1997 July 21, 1999 TIAS 12873.
Iraq June 7, 1934 Apr. 23, 1936 49 Stat. 3380.
Ireland July 13, 1983 Dec. 15, 1984 TIAS 10813.
  July 14, 2005 Feb. 1, 2010  
Israel Dec. 10, 1962 Dec. 5, 1963 14 UST 1707.2
  July 6, 2005 Jan. 10, 2007  
Italy Oct. 13, 1983 Sept. 24, 1984 35 UST 3023.
  May 3, 2006 Feb. 1, 2010  
Jamaica June 14, 1983 July 7, 1991 TIAS.
Japan Mar. 3, 1978 Mar. 26, 1980 31 UST 892.
Jordan Mar. 28, 1995 July 29, 1995 TIAS.
Kenya Dec. 22, 1931 June 24, 1935 47 Stat. 2122.
  May 14, Aug. 19, 1965 Aug. 19, 1965 16 UST 1866.
Kiribati June 8, 1972 Jan. 21, 1977 28 UST 227.
Latvia Oct. 16, 1923 Mar. 1, 1924 43 Stat. 1738.
  Oct. 10, 1934 Mar. 29, 1935 49 Stat. 3131.
  Dec. 7, 2005 Apr. 15, 2009  
Lesotho Dec. 22, 1931 June 24, 1935 47 Stat. 2122.
Liberia Nov. 1, 1937 Nov. 21, 1939 54 Stat. 1733.
Liechtenstein May 20, 1936 June 28, 1937 50 Stat. 1337.
Lithuania Oct. 23, 2001 Mar. 31, 2003 TIAS 13166.
  June 15, 2005 Feb. 1, 2010  
Luxembourg Oct. 1, 1996 Feb. 1, 2002 TIAS 12804.
  Feb. 1, 2005 Feb. 1, 2010  
Malawi Dec. 22, 1931 June 24, 1935 47 Stat. 2122.
  Dec. 17, 1966, Jan. 6, Apr. 4, 1967 Apr. 4, 1967 18 UST 1822.
Malaysia Aug. 3, 1995 June 2, 1997 TIAS.
Malta Dec. 22, 1931 June 24, 1935 47 Stat. 2122.
  May 18, 2006 July 1, 2009  
Marshall Islands Apr. 30, 2003 May 1, 2004  
Mauritius Dec. 22, 1931 June 24, 1935 47 Stat. 2122.
Mexico May 4, 1978 Jan. 25, 1980 31 UST 5059.
  Nov. 13, 1997 May 21, 2001 TIAS 12897.
Micronesia, Federated States of May 14, 2003 June 25, 2004  
Monaco Feb. 15, 1939 Mar. 28, 1940 54 Stat. 1780.
Nauru Dec. 22, 1931 Aug. 30, 1935 47 Stat. 2122.
Netherlands June 24, 1980 Sept. 15, 1983 35 UST 1334.
  Sept. 29, 2004 Feb. 1, 2010  
New Zealand Jan. 12, 1970 Dec. 8, 1970 22 UST 1.
Nicaragua Mar. 1, 1905 July 14, 1907 35 Stat. 1869.
Nigeria Dec. 22, 1931 June 24, 1935 47 Stat. 2122.
Norway June 9, 1977 Mar. 7, 1980 31 UST 5619.
Pakistan Dec. 22, 1931 Mar. 9, 1942 47 Stat. 2122.
Panama May 25, 1904 May 8, 1905 34 Stat. 2851.
Papua New Guinea Dec. 22, 1931 Aug. 30, 1935 47 Stat. 2122.
  Feb. 2, 23, 1988 Feb. 23, 1988 TIAS.
Paraguay Nov. 9, 1998 Mar. 9, 2001 TIAS 12995.
Peru July 26, 2001 Aug. 25, 2003  
Philippines Nov. 13, 1994 Nov. 22, 1996 TIAS.
Poland July 10, 1996 Sept. 17, 1999 TIAS.
  June 9, 2006 Feb. 1, 2010  
Portugal May 7, 1908 Nov. 14, 1908 35 Stat. 2071.
  July 14, 2005 Feb. 1, 2010  
Romania July 23, 1924 Apr. 7, 1925 44 Stat. 2020.
  Nov. 10, 1936 July 27, 1937 50 Stat. 1349.
  Sept. 10, 2007 May 8, 2009  
Saint Kitts and Nevis Sept. 18, 1996 Feb. 23, 2000 TIAS 12805.
Saint Lucia Apr. 18, 1996 Feb. 2, 2000 TIAS.
Saint Vincent and the Grenadines Aug. 15, 1996 Sept. 8, 1999 TIAS.
San Marino Jan. 10, 1906 July 8, 1908 35 Stat. 1971.
  Oct. 10, 1934 June 28, 1935 49 Stat. 3198.
Seychelles Dec. 22, 1931 June 24, 1935 47 Stat. 2122.
Sierra Leone Dec. 22, 1931 June 24, 1935 47 Stat. 2122.
Singapore Dec. 22, 1931 June 24, 1935 47 Stat. 2122.
  Apr. 23, June 10, 1969 June 10, 1969 20 UST 2764.
Slovakia 1 July 2, 1925

Apr. 29, 1935

Feb. 6, 2006

Mar. 29, 1926

Aug. 28, 1935

Feb. 1, 2010

44 Stat. 2367.

49 Stat. 3253.

Slovenia 1 Oct. 17, 2005 Feb. 1, 2010  
Solomon Islands June 8, 1972 Jan. 21, 1977 28 UST 277.
South Africa Sept. 16, 1999 June 25, 2001 TIAS.
South Korea June 9, 1998 Dec. 20, 1999 TIAS 12962.
Spain May 29, 1970 June 16, 1971 22 UST 737.
  Jan. 25, 1975 June 2, 1978 29 UST 2283.
  Feb. 9, 1988 July 2, 1993 TIAS.
  Mar. 12, 1996 July 25, 1999 TIAS.
  Dec. 17, 2004 Feb. 1, 2010  
Sri Lanka Sept. 30, 1999 Jan. 12, 2001 TIAS.
Suriname June 2, 1887 July 11, 1889 26 Stat. 1481.
  Jan. 18, 1904 Aug. 28, 1904 33 Stat. 2257.
Swaziland Dec. 22, 1931 June 24, 1935 47 Stat. 2122.
  May 13, July 28, 1970 July 28, 1970 21 UST 1930.
Sweden Oct. 24, 1961 Dec. 3, 1963 14 UST 1845.
  Mar. 14, 1983 Sept. 24, 1984 35 UST 2501.
  Dec. 16, 2004 Feb. 1, 2010  
Switzerland Nov. 14, 1990 Sept. 10, 1997 TIAS.
Tanzania Dec. 22, 1931 June 24, 1935 47 Stat. 2122.
  Nov. 30, Dec. 6, 1965 Dec. 6, 1965 16 UST 2066.
Thailand Dec. 14, 1983 May 17, 1991 TIAS.
Tonga Dec. 22, 1931 Aug. 1, 1966 47 Stat. 2122.
  Mar. 14, Apr. 13, 1977 Apr. 13, 1977 28 UST 5290.
Trinidad and Tobago Mar. 4, 1996 Nov. 29, 1999 TIAS.
Turkey June 7, 1979 Jan. 1, 1981 32 UST 3111.
Tuvalu June 8, 1972 Jan. 21, 1977 28 UST 227.
  Apr. 25, 1980 32 UST 1310.
United Kingdom Mar. 31, 2003

Dec. 16, 2004

Apr. 26, 2007

Feb. 1, 2010

 

 

Uruguay Apr. 6, 1973 Apr. 11, 1984 35 UST 3197.
Venezuela Jan. 19, 21, 1922 Apr. 14, 1923 43 Stat. 1698.
Yugoslavia 1 Oct. 25, 1901 June 12, 1902 32 Stat. 1890.
Zambia Dec. 22, 1931 June 24, 1935 47 Stat. 2122.
Zimbabwe July 25, 1997 Apr. 26, 2000  

1 Status of agreements with successor states of Czechoslovakia and Yugoslavia is under review; inquire of the Treaty Office of the United States Department of State.

2 Typographical error corrected by diplomatic notes exchanged Apr. 4 and 11, 1967. See 18 UST 382, 383.

Convention on Extradition

The United States is a party to the Multilateral Convention on Extradition signed at Montevideo on Dec. 26, 1933, entered into force for the United States on Jan. 25, 1935. 49 Stat. 3111.

Other states which have become parties: Argentina, Chile, Colombia, Dominican Republic, Ecuador, El Salvador, Guatemala, Honduras, Mexico, Nicaragua, Panama.

§3182. Fugitives from State or Territory to State, District, or Territory

Whenever the executive authority of any State or Territory demands any person as a fugitive from justice, of the executive authority of any State, District, or Territory to which such person has fled, and produces a copy of an indictment found or an affidavit made before a magistrate of any State or Territory, charging the person demanded with having committed treason, felony, or other crime, certified as authentic by the governor or chief magistrate of the State or Territory from whence the person so charged has fled, the executive authority of the State, District, or Territory to which such person has fled shall cause him to be arrested and secured, and notify the executive authority making such demand, or the agent of such authority appointed to receive the fugitive, and shall cause the fugitive to be delivered to such agent when he shall appear. If no such agent appears within thirty days from the time of the arrest, the prisoner may be discharged.

(June 25, 1948, ch. 645, 62 Stat. 822; Pub. L. 104–294, title VI, §601(f)(9), Oct. 11, 1996, 110 Stat. 3500.)

Historical and Revision Notes

Based on title 18, U.S.C., 1940 ed., §662 (R.S. §5278).

Last sentence as to costs and expenses to be paid by the demanding authority was incorporated in section 3195 of this title.

Word “District” was inserted twice to make section equally applicable to fugitives found in the District of Columbia.

“Thirty days” was substituted for “six months” since, in view of modern conditions, the smaller time is ample for the demanding authority to act.

Minor changes were made in phraseology.

Amendments

1996—Pub. L. 104–294 inserted comma after “District” in section catchline and in two places in text.

§3183. Fugitives from State, Territory, or Possession into extraterritorial jurisdiction of United States

Whenever the executive authority of any State, Territory, District, or possession of the United States demands any American citizen or national as a fugitive from justice who has fled to a country in which the United States exercises extraterritorial jurisdiction, and produces a copy of an indictment found or an affidavit made before a magistrate of the demanding jurisdiction, charging the fugitive so demanded with having committed treason, felony, or other offense, certified as authentic by the Governor or chief magistrate of such demanding jurisdiction, or other person authorized to act, the officer or representative of the United States vested with judicial authority to whom the demand has been made shall cause such fugitive to be arrested and secured, and notify the executive authorities making such demand, or the agent of such authority appointed to receive the fugitive, and shall cause the fugitive to be delivered to such agent when he shall appear.

If no such agent shall appear within three months from the time of the arrest, the prisoner may be discharged.

The agent who receives the fugitive into his custody shall be empowered to transport him to the jurisdiction from which he has fled.

(June 25, 1948, ch. 645, 62 Stat. 822; Pub. L. 107–273, div. B, title IV, §4004(d), Nov. 2, 2002, 116 Stat. 1812.)

Historical and Revision Notes

Based on title 18, U.S.C., 1940 ed., §662c (Mar. 22, 1934, ch. 73, §2, 48 Stat. 455).

Said section 662c was incorporated in this section and sections 752 and 3195 of this title.

Provision as to costs or expenses to be paid by the demanding authority were incorporated in section 3196 of this title.

Reference to the Philippine Islands was deleted as obsolete in view of the independence of the Commonwealth of the Philippines effective July 4, 1946.

The attention of Congress is directed to the probability that this section may be of little, if any, possible use in view of present world conditions.

Minor changes were made in phraseology.

Amendments

2002—Pub. L. 107–273 struck out “or the Panama Canal Zone,” after “possession of the United States” in first par.

§3184. Fugitives from foreign country to United States

Whenever there is a treaty or convention for extradition between the United States and any foreign government, or in cases arising under section 3181(b), any justice or judge of the United States, or any magistrate judge authorized so to do by a court of the United States, or any judge of a court of record of general jurisdiction of any State, may, upon complaint made under oath, charging any person found within his jurisdiction, with having committed within the jurisdiction of any such foreign government any of the crimes provided for by such treaty or convention, or provided for under section 3181(b), issue his warrant for the apprehension of the person so charged, that he may be brought before such justice, judge, or magistrate judge, to the end that the evidence of criminality may be heard and considered. Such complaint may be filed before and such warrant may be issued by a judge or magistrate judge of the United States District Court for the District of Columbia if the whereabouts within the United States of the person charged are not known or, if there is reason to believe the person will shortly enter the United States. If, on such hearing, he deems the evidence sufficient to sustain the charge under the provisions of the proper treaty or convention, or under section 3181(b), he shall certify the same, together with a copy of all the testimony taken before him, to the Secretary of State, that a warrant may issue upon the requisition of the proper authorities of such foreign government, for the surrender of such person, according to the stipulations of the treaty or convention; and he shall issue his warrant for the commitment of the person so charged to the proper jail, there to remain until such surrender shall be made.

(June 25, 1948, ch. 645, 62 Stat. 822; Pub. L. 90–578, title III, §301(a)(3), Oct. 17, 1968, 82 Stat. 1115; Pub. L. 100–690, title VII, §7087, Nov. 18, 1988, 102 Stat. 4409; Pub. L. 101–647, title XVI, §1605, Nov. 29, 1990, 104 Stat. 4843; Pub. L. 101–650, title III, §321, Dec. 1, 1990, 104 Stat. 5117; Pub. L. 104–132, title IV, §443(b), Apr. 24, 1996, 110 Stat. 1281.)

Historical and Revision Notes

Based on title 18, U.S.C., 1940 ed., §651 (R.S. §5270; June 6, 1900, ch. 793, 31 Stat. 656).

Minor changes of phraseology were made.

Amendments

1996—Pub. L. 104–132, in first sentence, inserted “or in cases arising under section 3181(b),” after “United States and any foreign government,” and “or provided for under section 3181(b),” after “treaty or convention,” and in third sentence, inserted “or under section 3181(b),” after “treaty or convention,”.

1990—Pub. L. 101–647 inserted “or, if there is reason to believe the person will shortly enter the United States” after “are not known” in second sentence.

1988—Pub. L. 100–690 inserted after first sentence “Such complaint may be filed before and such warrant may be issued by a judge or magistrate of the United States District Court for the District of Columbia if the whereabouts within the United States of the person charged are not known.”

1968—Pub. L. 90–578 substituted “magistrate” for “commissioner” in two places.

Change of Name

Words “magistrate judge” substituted for “magistrate” wherever appearing in text pursuant to section 321 of Pub. L. 101–650, set out as a note under section 631 of Title 28, Judiciary and Judicial Procedure.

Effective Date of 1968 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 90–578 effective Oct. 17, 1968, except when a later effective date is applicable, which is the earlier of date when implementation of amendment by appointment of magistrates [now United States magistrate judges] and assumption of office takes place or third anniversary of enactment of Pub. L. 90–578 on Oct. 17, 1968, see section 403 of Pub. L. 90–578, set out as a note under section 631 of Title 28, Judiciary and Judicial Procedure.

§3185. Fugitives from country under control of United States into the United States

Whenever any foreign country or territory, or any part thereof, is occupied by or under the control of the United States, any person who, having violated the criminal laws in force therein by the commission of any of the offenses enumerated below, departs or flees from justice therein to the United States, shall, when found therein, be liable to arrest and detention by the authorities of the United States, and on the written request or requisition of the military governor or other chief executive officer in control of such foreign country or territory shall be returned and surrendered as hereinafter provided to such authorities for trial under the laws in force in the place where such offense was committed.

(1) Murder and assault with intent to commit murder;

(2) Counterfeiting or altering money, or uttering or bringing into circulation counterfeit or altered money;

(3) Counterfeiting certificates or coupons of public indebtedness, bank notes, or other instruments of public credit, and the utterance or circulation of the same;

(4) Forgery or altering and uttering what is forged or altered;

(5) Embezzlement or criminal malversation of the public funds, committed by public officers, employees, or depositaries;

(6) Larceny or embezzlement of an amount not less than $100 in value;

(7) Robbery;

(8) Burglary, defined to be the breaking and entering by nighttime into the house of another person with intent to commit a felony therein;

(9) Breaking and entering the house or building of another, whether in the day or nighttime, with the intent to commit a felony therein;

(10) Entering, or breaking and entering the offices of the Government and public authorities, or the offices of banks, banking houses, savings banks, trust companies, insurance or other companies, with the intent to commit a felony therein;

(11) Perjury or the subornation of perjury;

(12) A felony under chapter 109A of this title;

(13) Arson;

(14) Piracy by the law of nations;

(15) Murder, assault with intent to kill, and manslaughter, committed on the high seas, on board a ship owned by or in control of citizens or residents of such foreign country or territory and not under the flag of the United States, or of some other government;

(16) Malicious destruction of or attempt to destroy railways, trams, vessels, bridges, dwellings, public edifices, or other buildings, when the act endangers human life.


This chapter, so far as applicable, shall govern proceedings authorized by this section. Such proceedings shall be had before a judge of the courts of the United States only, who shall hold such person on evidence establishing probable cause that he is guilty of the offense charged.

No return or surrender shall be made of any person charged with the commission of any offense of a political nature.

If so held, such person shall be returned and surrendered to the authorities in control of such foreign country or territory on the order of the Secretary of State of the United States, and such authorities shall secure to such a person a fair and impartial trial.

(June 25, 1948, ch. 645, 62 Stat. 823; May 24, 1949, ch. 139, §49, 63 Stat. 96; Pub. L. 99–646, §87(c)(6), Nov. 10, 1986, 100 Stat. 3623; Pub. L. 99–654, §3(a)(6), Nov. 14, 1986, 100 Stat. 3663.)

Historical and Revision Notes

1948 Act

Based on title 18, U.S.C., 1940 ed., §652 (R.S. §5270; June 6, 1900, ch. 793, 31 Stat. 656).

Reference to territory of the United States and the District of Columbia was omitted as covered by definitive section 5 of this title.

Changes were made in phraseology and arrangement.

1949 Act

This section [section 49] corrects typographical errors in section 3185 of title 18, U.S.C., by transferring to subdivision (3) the words, “indebtedness, bank notes, or other instruments of public”, from subdivision (2) of such section where they had been erroneously included.

Amendments

1986—Par. (12). Pub. L. 99–646 and Pub. L. 99–654 amended par. (12) identically, substituting “A felony under chapter 109A of this title” for “Rape”.

1949—Pars. (2), (3). Act May 24, 1949, transferred “indebtedness, bank notes, or other instruments of public” from par. (2) to par. (3).

Effective Date of 1986 Amendments

Amendments by Pub. L. 99–646 and Pub. L. 99–654 effective, respectively, 30 days after Nov. 10, 1986, and 30 days after Nov. 14, 1986, see section 87(e) of Pub. L. 99–646 and section 4 of Pub. L. 99–654, set out as an Effective Date note under section 2241 of this title.

§3186. Secretary of State to surrender fugitive

The Secretary of State may order the person committed under sections 3184 or 3185 of this title to be delivered to any authorized agent of such foreign government, to be tried for the offense of which charged.

Such agent may hold such person in custody, and take him to the territory of such foreign government, pursuant to such treaty.

A person so accused who escapes may be retaken in the same manner as any person accused of any offense.

(June 25, 1948, ch. 645, 62 Stat. 824.)

Historical and Revision Notes

Based on title 18, U.S.C., 1940 ed., §653 (R.S. §5272).

Changes were made in phraseology and surplusage was deleted.

§3187. Provisional arrest and detention within extraterritorial jurisdiction

The provisional arrest and detention of a fugitive, under sections 3042 and 3183 of this title, in advance of the presentation of formal proofs, may be obtained by telegraph upon the request of the authority competent to request the surrender of such fugitive addressed to the authority competent to grant such surrender. Such request shall be accompanied by an express statement that a warrant for the fugitive's arrest has been issued within the jurisdiction of the authority making such request charging the fugitive with the commission of the crime for which his extradition is sought to be obtained.

No person shall be held in custody under telegraphic request by virtue of this section for more than ninety days.

(June 25, 1948, ch. 645, 62 Stat. 824.)

Historical and Revision Notes

Based on title 18, U.S.C., 1940 ed., §662d (Mar. 22, 1934, ch. 73, §3, 48 Stat. 455).

Provision for expense to be borne by the demanding authority is incorporated in section 3195 of this title.

Changes were made in phraseology and arrangement.

§3188. Time of commitment pending extradition

Whenever any person who is committed for rendition to a foreign government to remain until delivered up in pursuance of a requisition, is not so delivered up and conveyed out of the United States within two calendar months after such commitment, over and above the time actually required to convey the prisoner from the jail to which he was committed, by the readiest way, out of the United States, any judge of the United States, or of any State, upon application made to him by or on behalf of the person so committed, and upon proof made to him that reasonable notice of the intention to make such application has been given to the Secretary of State, may order the person so committed to be discharged out of custody, unless sufficient cause is shown to such judge why such discharge ought not to be ordered.

(June 25, 1948, ch. 645, 62 Stat. 824.)

Historical and Revision Notes

Based on title 18, U.S.C., 1940 ed., §654 (R.S. §5273).

Changes in phraseology only were made.

§3189. Place and character of hearing

Hearings in cases of extradition under treaty stipulation or convention shall be held on land, publicly, and in a room or office easily accessible to the public.

(June 25, 1948, ch. 645, 62 Stat. 824.)

Historical and Revision Notes

Based on title 18, U.S.C., 1940 ed., §657 (Aug. 3, 1882, ch. 378, §1, 22 Stat. 215).

First word “All” was omitted as unnecessary.

§3190. Evidence on hearing

Depositions, warrants, or other papers or copies thereof offered in evidence upon the hearing of any extradition case shall be received and admitted as evidence on such hearing for all the purposes of such hearing if they shall be properly and legally authenticated so as to entitle them to be received for similar purposes by the tribunals of the foreign country from which the accused party shall have escaped, and the certificate of the principal diplomatic or consular officer of the United States resident in such foreign country shall be proof that the same, so offered, are authenticated in the manner required.

(June 25, 1948, ch. 645, 62 Stat. 824.)

Historical and Revision Notes

Based on title 18, U.S.C., 1940 ed., §655 (R.S. §5271; Aug. 3, 1882, ch. 378, §5, 22 Stat. 216).

Unnecessary words were deleted.

§3191. Witnesses for indigent fugitives

On the hearing of any case under a claim of extradition by a foreign government, upon affidavit being filed by the person charged setting forth that there are witnesses whose evidence is material to his defense, that he cannot safely go to trial without them, what he expects to prove by each of them, and that he is not possessed of sufficient means, and is actually unable to pay the fees of such witnesses, the judge or magistrate judge hearing the matter may order that such witnesses be subpenaed; and the costs incurred by the process, and the fees of witnesses, shall be paid in the same manner as in the case of witnesses subpenaed in behalf of the United States.

(June 25, 1948, ch. 645, 62 Stat. 825; Pub. L. 90–578, title III, §301(a)(3), Oct. 17, 1968, 82 Stat. 1115; Pub. L. 101–650, title III, §321, Dec. 1, 1990, 104 Stat. 5117.)

Historical and Revision Notes

Based on title 18, U.S.C., 1940 ed., §656 (Aug. 3, 1882, ch. 378, §3, 22 Stat. 215).

Words “that similar” after “manner” were omitted as unnecessary.

Amendments

1968—Pub. L. 90–578 substituted “magistrate” for “commissioner”.

Change of Name

Words “magistrate judge” substituted for “magistrate” in text pursuant to section 321 of Pub. L. 101–650, set out as a note under section 631 of Title 28, Judiciary and Judicial Procedure.

Effective Date of 1968 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 90–578 effective Oct. 17, 1968, except when a later effective date is applicable, which is the earlier of date when implementation of amendment by appointment of magistrates [now United States magistrate judges] and assumption of office takes place or third anniversary of enactment of Pub. L. 90–578 on Oct. 17, 1968, see section 403 of Pub. L. 90–578, set out as a note under section 631 of Title 28, Judiciary and Judicial Procedure.

§3192. Protection of accused

Whenever any person is delivered by any foreign government to an agent of the United States, for the purpose of being brought within the United States and tried for any offense of which he is duly accused, the President shall have power to take all necessary measures for the transportation and safekeeping of such accused person, and for his security against lawless violence, until the final conclusion of his trial for the offenses specified in the warrant of extradition, and until his final discharge from custody or imprisonment for or on account of such offenses, and for a reasonable time thereafter, and may employ such portion of the land or naval forces of the United States, or of the militia thereof, as may be necessary for the safe-keeping and protection of the accused.

(June 25, 1948, ch. 645, 62 Stat. 825.)

Historical and Revision Notes

Based on title 18, U.S.C., 1940 ed., §659 (R.S. §5275).

Words “crimes or” before “offenses” were omitted as unnecessary.

§3193. Receiving agent's authority over offenders

A duly appointed agent to receive, in behalf of the United States, the delivery, by a foreign government, of any person accused of crime committed within the United States, and to convey him to the place of his trial, shall have all the powers of a marshal of the United States, in the several districts through which it may be necessary for him to pass with such prisoner, so far as such power is requisite for the prisoner's safe-keeping.

(June 25, 1948, ch. 645, 62 Stat. 825.)

Historical and Revision Notes

Based on title 18, U.S.C., 1940 ed., §660 (R.S. §5276).

Words “jurisdiction of the” were omitted in view of the definition of United States in section 5 of this title.

Minor changes only were made in phraseology.

Ex. Ord. No. 11517. Issuance and Signature by Secretary of State of Warrants Appointing Agents To Return Fugitives From Justice Extradited to United States

Ex. Ord. No. 11517, Mar. 19, 1970, 35 F.R. 4937, provided:

WHEREAS the President of the United States, under section 3192 of Title 18, United States Code, has been granted the power to take all necessary measures for the transportation, safekeeping and security against lawless violence of any person delivered by any foreign government to an agent of the United States for return to the United States for trial for any offense of which he is duly accused; and

WHEREAS fugitives from justice in the United States whose extradition from abroad has been requested by the Government of the United States and granted by a foreign government are to be returned in the custody of duly appointed agents in accordance with the provisions of section 3193 of Title 18, United States Code; and

WHEREAS such duly appointed agents under the provisions of the law mentioned above, being authorized to receive delivery of the fugitive in behalf of the United States and to convey him to the place of his trial, are given the powers of a marshal of the United States in the several districts of the United States through which it may be necessary for them to pass with such prisoner, so far as such power is requisite for the prisoner's safekeeping; and

WHEREAS such warrants serve as a certification to the foreign government delivering the fugitives to any other foreign country through which such agents may pass, and to authorities in the United States of the powers therein conferred upon the agents; and

WHEREAS it is desirable by delegation of functions heretofore performed by the President to simplify and thereby expedite the issuance of such warrants to agents in the interests of the prompt return of fugitives to the United States:

NOW, THEREFORE, by virtue of the authority vested in me by section 301 of Title 3 of the United States Code, and as President of the United States, it is ordered as follows:

Section 1. The Secretary of State is hereby designated and empowered to issue and sign all warrants appointing agents to receive, in behalf of the United States, the delivery in extradition by a foreign government of any person accused of a crime committed within the United States, and to convey such person to the place of his trial.

Sec. 2. Agents appointed in accordance with section 1 of this order shall have all the powers conferred in respect of such agents by applicable treaties of the United States and by section 3193 of Title 18, United States Code, or by any other provisions of United States law.

Sec. 3. Executive Order No. 10347, April 18, 1952, as amended by Executive Order No. 11354, May 23, 1967, is further amended by deleting numbered paragraph 4 and renumbering paragraphs 5 and 6 as paragraphs 4 and 5, respectively.

Richard Nixon.      

§3194. Transportation of fugitive by receiving agent

Any agent appointed as provided in section 3182 of this title who receives the fugitive into his custody is empowered to transport him to the State or Territory from which he has fled.

(June 25, 1948, ch. 645, 62 Stat. 825.)

Historical and Revision Notes

Based on title 18, U.S.C., 1940 ed., §663 (R.S. §5279).

Last sentence of said section 663, relating to rescue of such fugitive, was omitted as covered by section 752 of this title, the punishment provision of which is based on later statutes. (See reviser's note under that section.)

Minor changes were made in phraseology.

§3195. Payment of fees and costs

All costs or expenses incurred in any extradition proceeding in apprehending, securing, and transmitting a fugitive shall be paid by the demanding authority.

All witness fees and costs of every nature in cases of international extradition, including the fees of the magistrate judge, shall be certified by the judge or magistrate judge before whom the hearing shall take place to the Secretary of State of the United States, and the same shall be paid out of appropriations to defray the expenses of the judiciary or the Department of Justice as the case may be.

The Attorney General shall certify to the Secretary of State the amounts to be paid to the United States on account of said fees and costs in extradition cases by the foreign government requesting the extradition, and the Secretary of State shall cause said amounts to be collected and transmitted to the Attorney General for deposit in the Treasury of the United States.

(June 25, 1948, ch. 645, 62 Stat. 825; Pub. L. 90–578, title III, §301(a)(3), Oct. 17, 1968, 82 Stat. 1115; Pub. L. 101–650, title III, §321, Dec. 1, 1990, 104 Stat. 5117.)

Historical and Revision Notes

Based on title 18, U.S.C., 1940 ed., §§662, 662c, 662d, 668 (R.S. §5278; Aug. 3, 1882, ch. 378, §4, 22 Stat. 216; June 28, 1902, ch. 1301, §1, 32 Stat. 475; Mar. 22, 1934, ch. 73, §§2, 3, 48 Stat. 455).

First paragraph of this section consolidates provisions as to costs and expenses from said sections 662, 662c, and 662d.

Minor changes were made in phraseology and surplusage was omitted.

Remaining provisions of said sections 662, 662c, and 662d of title 18, U.S.C., 1940 ed., are incorporated in sections 752, 3182, 3183, and 3187 of this title.

The words “or the Department of Justice as the case may be” were added at the end of the second paragraph in conformity with the appropriation acts of recent years. See for example act July 5, 1946, ch. 541, title II, 60 Stat. 460.

Amendments

1968—Pub. L. 90–578 substituted “magistrate” for “commissioner” in two places.

Change of Name

Words “magistrate judge” substituted for “magistrate” wherever appearing in text pursuant to section 321 of Pub. L. 101–650, set out as a note under section 631 of Title 28, Judiciary and Judicial Procedure.

Effective Date of 1968 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 90–578 effective Oct. 17, 1968, except when a later effective date is applicable, which is the earlier of a date when implementation of amendment by appointment of magistrates [now United States magistrate judges] and assumption of office takes place or third anniversary of enactment of Pub. L. 90–578 on Oct. 17, 1968, see section 403 of Pub. L. 90–578, set out as a note under section 631 of Title 28, Judiciary and Judicial Procedure.

§3196. Extradition of United States citizens

If the applicable treaty or convention does not obligate the United States to extradite its citizens to a foreign country, the Secretary of State may, nevertheless, order the surrender to that country of a United States citizen whose extradition has been requested by that country if the other requirements of that treaty or convention are met.

(Added Pub. L. 101–623, §11(a), Nov. 21, 1990, 104 Stat. 3356.)

CHAPTER 211—JURISDICTION AND VENUE

Sec.
3231.
District courts.
3232.
District of offense—Rule.
3233.
Transfer within district—Rule.
3234.
Change of venue to another district—Rule.
3235.
Venue in capital cases.
3236.
Murder or manslaughter.
3237.
Offenses begun in one district and completed in another.
3238.
Offenses not committed in any district.
3239.
Optional venue for espionage and related offenses.
3240.
Creation of new district or division.
3241.
Jurisdiction of offenses under certain sections.
3242.
Indians committing certain offenses; acts on reservations.
3243.
Jurisdiction of State of Kansas over offenses committed by or against Indians on Indian reservations.
3244.
Jurisdiction of proceedings relating to transferred offenders.

        

Amendments

1994—Pub. L. 103–322, title XXXII, §320909(b), Sept. 13, 1994, 108 Stat. 2127, added item 3239.

1984—Pub. L. 98–473, title II, §1204(b), Oct. 12, 1984, 98 Stat. 2152, struck out item 3239 “Threatening communications”.

1978—Pub. L. 95–598, title III, §314(j)(2), Nov. 6, 1978, 92 Stat. 2678, added item 3244.

§3231. District courts

The district courts of the United States shall have original jurisdiction, exclusive of the courts of the States, of all offenses against the laws of the United States.

Nothing in this title shall be held to take away or impair the jurisdiction of the courts of the several States under the laws thereof.

(June 25, 1948, ch. 645, 62 Stat. 826.)

Historical and Revision Notes

Based on section 588d of title 12, U.S.C., 1940 ed., Banks and Banking; title 18, U.S.C., 1940 ed., §§546, 547 (Mar. 4, 1909, ch. 321, §§326, 340, 35 Stat. 1151, 1153; Mar. 3, 1911, ch. 231, §291, 36 Stat. 1167; May 18, 1934, ch. 304, §4, 48 Stat. 783).

This section was formed by combining sections 546 and 547 of title 18, U.S.C., 1940 ed., with section 588d of title 12, U.S.C., Banks and Banking, with no change of substance.

The language of said section 588d of title 12, U.S.C., 1940 ed., which related to bank robbery, or killing or kidnapping as an incident thereto (see section 2113, of this title), and which read “Jurisdiction over any offense defined by sections 588b and 588c of this title shall not be reserved exclusively to courts of the United States” was omitted as adequately covered by this section.

Senate Revision Amendment

The text of this section was changed by Senate amendment. See Senate Report No. 1620, amendment No. 10, 80th Cong.

§3232. District of offense—(Rule)

See Federal Rules of Criminal Procedure

Proceedings to be in district and division in which offense committed, Rule 18.

(June 25, 1948, ch. 645, 62 Stat. 826.)

§3233. Transfer within district—(Rule)

See Federal Rules of Criminal Procedure

Arraignment, plea, trial, sentence in district of more than one division, Rule 19.

(June 25, 1948, ch. 645, 62 Stat. 826.)

References in Text

Rule 19 of the Federal Rules of Criminal Procedure, referred to in text, was rescinded Feb. 28, 1966, eff. July 1, 1966.

§3234. Change of venue to another district—(Rule)

See Federal Rules of Criminal Procedure

Plea or disposal of case in district other than that in which defendant was arrested, Rule 20.

(June 25, 1948, ch. 645, 62 Stat. 826.)

§3235. Venue in capital cases

The trial of offenses punishable with death shall be had in the county where the offense was committed, where that can be done without great inconvenience.

(June 25, 1948, ch. 645, 62 Stat. 826.)

Historical and Revision Notes

Based on section 101 of title 28, U.S.C., 1940 ed., Judicial Code and Judiciary (Mar. 3, 1911, ch. 231, §40, 36 Stat. 1100).

§3236. Murder or manslaughter

In all cases of murder or manslaughter, the offense shall be deemed to have been committed at the place where the injury was inflicted, or the poison administered or other means employed which caused the death, without regard to the place where the death occurs.

(June 25, 1948, ch. 645, 62 Stat. 826.)

Historical and Revision Notes

Based on title 18, U.S.C., 1940 ed., §553 (Mar. 4, 1909, ch. 321, §336, 35 Stat. 1152).

§3237. Offenses begun in one district and completed in another

(a) Except as otherwise expressly provided by enactment of Congress, any offense against the United States begun in one district and completed in another, or committed in more than one district, may be inquired of and prosecuted in any district in which such offense was begun, continued, or completed.

Any offense involving the use of the mails, transportation in interstate or foreign commerce, or the importation of an object or person into the United States is a continuing offense and, except as otherwise expressly provided by enactment of Congress, may be inquired of and prosecuted in any district from, through, or into which such commerce, mail matter, or imported object or person moves.

(b) Notwithstanding subsection (a), where an offense is described in section 7203 of the Internal Revenue Code of 1986, or where venue for prosecution of an offense described in section 7201 or 7206(1), (2), or (5) of such Code (whether or not the offense is also described in another provision of law) is based solely on a mailing to the Internal Revenue Service, and prosecution is begun in a judicial district other than the judicial district in which the defendant resides, he may upon motion filed in the district in which the prosecution is begun, elect to be tried in the district in which he was residing at the time the alleged offense was committed: Provided, That the motion is filed within twenty days after arraignment of the defendant upon indictment or information.

(June 25, 1948, ch. 645, 62 Stat. 826; Pub. L. 85–595, Aug. 6, 1958, 72 Stat. 512; Pub. L. 89–713, §2, Nov. 2, 1966, 80 Stat. 1108; Pub. L. 98–369, div. A, title I, §162, July 18, 1984, 98 Stat. 697; Pub. L. 98–473, title II, §1204(a), Oct. 12, 1984, 98 Stat. 2152; Pub. L. 99–514, §2, Oct. 22, 1986, 100 Stat. 2095.)

Historical and Revision Notes

Based on section 103 of title 28, U.S.C., 1940 ed., Judicial Code and Judiciary (Mar. 3, 1911, ch. 231, §42, 36 Stat. 1100).

Section was completely rewritten to clarify legislative intent and in order to omit special venue provisions from many sections.

The phrase “committed in more than one district” may be comprehensive enough to include “begun in one district and completed in another”, but the use of both expressions precludes any doubt as to legislative intent.

Rules 18–22 of the Federal Rules of Criminal Procedure are in accord with this section.

The last paragraph of the revised section was added to meet the situation created by the decision of the Supreme Court of the United States in United States v. Johnson, 1944, 65 S. Ct. 249, 89 L. Ed. 236, which turned on the absence of a special venue provision in the Dentures Act, section 1821 of this revision. The revised section removes all doubt as to the venue of continuing offenses and makes unnecessary special venue provisions except in cases where Congress desires to restrict the prosecution of offenses to particular districts as in section 1073 of this revision.

References in Text

Section 7203 of the Internal Revenue Code of 1986, referred to in subsec. (b), is classified to section 7203 of Title 26, Internal Revenue Code.

Section 7201 or 7206(1), (2), or (5) of such Code, referred to in subsec. (b), are classified respectively to sections 7201 and 7206(1), (2), (5) of Title 26.

Amendments

1986—Subsec. (b). Pub. L. 99–514 substituted “Internal Revenue Code of 1986” for “Internal Revenue Code of 1954”.

1984—Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 98–473 inserted “or the importation of an object or person into the United States” and “, or imported object or person” in second par.

Subsec. (b). Pub. L. 98–369 substituted “venue for prosecution of an offense” for “an offense involves use of the mails and is an offense” and inserted “is based solely on a mailing to the Internal Revenue Service”.

1966—Subsec. (b). Pub. L. 89–713 inserted reference to offenses described in section 7203 of the Internal Revenue Code of 1954.

1958—Pub. L. 85–595 designated existing provisions as subsec. (a) and added subsec. (b).

Effective Date of 1966 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 89–713 effective Nov. 2, 1966, see section 6 of Pub. L. 89–713, set out as a note under section 6091 of Title 26, Internal Revenue Code.

§3238. Offenses not committed in any district

The trial of all offenses begun or committed upon the high seas, or elsewhere out of the jurisdiction of any particular State or district, shall be in the district in which the offender, or any one of two or more joint offenders, is arrested or is first brought; but if such offender or offenders are not so arrested or brought into any district, an indictment or information may be filed in the district of the last known residence of the offender or of any one of two or more joint offenders, or if no such residence is known the indictment or information may be filed in the District of Columbia.

(June 25, 1948, ch. 645, 62 Stat. 826; Pub. L. 88–27, May 23, 1963, 77 Stat. 48.)

Historical and Revision Notes

Based on section 102 of title 28, U.S.C., 1940 ed., Judicial Code and Judiciary (Mar. 3, 1911, ch. 231, §41, 36 Stat. 1100).

Words “begun or” were inserted to clarify scope of this section and section 3237 of this title.

This section is similar to section 219 of title 22, U.S.C., 1940 ed., Foreign Relations and Intercourse, providing in part that unlawful issuance of passports may be prosecuted in the district where the offender may be arrested or in custody. Said provision is therefore omitted as covered by this section. The remaining provisions of said section 219 are incorporated in section 1541 of this title.

Amendments

1963—Pub. L. 88–27 authorized the trial of offenses not committed in any district in the district in which the offender, or any one of two or more joint offenders, is arrested; an indictment or information to be filed in the district of the last known residence of the offender or of any one of two or more joint offenders where the offender or offenders are not arrested or brought into any district; and an indictment or information to be filed in the District of Columbia where there is no knowledge of the residence of the offender or of any one of two or more joint offenders.

§3239. Optional venue for espionage and related offenses

The trial for any offense involving a violation, begun or committed upon the high seas or elsewhere out of the jurisdiction of any particular State or district, of—

(1) section 793, 794, 798, or section 1030(a)(1) of this title;

(2) section 601 of the National Security Act of 1947 (50 U.S.C. 421); or

(3) section 4(b) or 4(c) of the Subversive Activities Control Act of 1950 (50 U.S.C. 783(b) or (c));


may be in the District of Columbia or in any other district authorized by law.

(Added Pub. L. 103–322, title XXXII, §320909(a), Sept. 13, 1994, 108 Stat. 2127.)

Prior Provisions

A prior section 3239, act June 25, 1948, ch. 645, 62 Stat. 827, related to threatening communications, prior to repeal by Pub. L. 98–473, title II, §1204(b), Oct. 12, 1984, 98 Stat. 2152.

§3240. Creation of new district or division

Whenever any new district or division is established, or any county or territory is transferred from one district or division to another district or division, prosecutions for offenses committed within such district, division, county, or territory prior to such transfer, shall be commenced and proceeded with the same as if such new district or division had not been created, or such county or territory had not been transferred, unless the court, upon the application of the defendant, shall order the case to be removed to the new district or division for trial.

(June 25, 1948, ch. 645, 62 Stat. 827; May 24, 1949, ch. 139, §50, 63 Stat. 96.)

Historical and Revision Notes

1948 Act

Based on section 121 of title 28, U.S.C., 1940 ed., Judicial Code and Judiciary (Mar. 3, 1911, ch. 231, §59, 36 Stat. 1103).

Section 121 of title 28, U.S.C., 1940 ed., Judicial Code and Judiciary, was divided into two sections. Only the portion relating to venue in civil cases was left in title 28, U.S.C., 1940 ed., Judicial Code and Judiciary.

Minor changes of phraseology were made.

1949 Act

This section [section 50] strikes the second sentence of section 3240 of title 18, U.S.C., as unnecessary. Section “119” of title 28, U.S.C., referred to in such sentence, became section 1404 of title 28 upon its revision and enactment into positive law in 1948, but reference to the latter, in said section 3240 of title 18, U.S.C., is surplusage in view of rule 19 et seq. of the Federal Rules of Criminal Procedure and the remainder of such section 3240.

Amendments

1949—Act May 24, 1949, struck out “The transfer of such prosecutions shall be made in the manner provided in section 119 of Title 28”.

§3241. Jurisdiction of offenses under certain sections

The District Court of the Virgin Islands shall have jurisdiction of offenses under the laws of the United States, not locally inapplicable, committed within the territorial jurisdiction of such courts, and jurisdiction, concurrently with the district courts of the United States, of offenses against the laws of the United States committed upon the high seas.

(June 25, 1948, ch. 645, 62 Stat. 827; Pub. L. 85–508, §12(i), July 7, 1958, 72 Stat. 348; Pub. L. 107–273, div. B, title IV, §4004(e), Nov. 2, 2002, 116 Stat. 1812.)

Historical and Revision Notes

Based on title 18, U.S.C., 1940 ed., §§39, 574; sections 23, 101, 1406 of title 48, U.S.C., 1940 ed., Territories and Insular Possessions; section 39 of title 50, U.S.C., 1940 ed., War and National Defense (June 6, 1900, ch. 786, §4, 31 Stat. 322; Aug. 24, 1912, ch. 387, §3, 37 Stat. 512; June 15, 1917, ch. 30, title XIII, §2, 40 Stat. 231; Mar. 2, 1921, ch. 110, 41 Stat. 1203; June 22, 1936, ch. 699, §28, 49 Stat. 1814).

Section consolidates portions of sections 39 and 574 of title 18, U.S.C., 1940 ed., with jurisdictional provisions of sections 23, 101, and 1406 of title 48, U.S.C., 1940 ed., and section 39 of title 50 U.S.C., 1940 ed., with changes of phraseology necessary to effect consolidation.

The revised section simplifies and clarifies the Federal jurisdiction of the district courts of the Territories and Possessions. The enumeration of sections in section 574 of title 18, U.S.C., 1940 ed., was omitted as incomplete and misleading and the general language of the revised section was made applicable to the Canal Zone.

The phrase “the several courts of the first instance in the Philippine Islands” in section 574 of title 18, U.S.C., 1940 ed., was omitted as obsolete in view of the independence of the Commonwealth of the Philippines effective July 4, 1946.

The last sentence of section 574 of title 18, U.S.C., 1940 ed., with reference to the powers of district attorneys was omitted as unnecessary and otherwise covered by sections 403 and 404 of title 22, U.S.C., 1940 ed., Foreign Relations and Intercourse.

Definition of United States in section 39 of title 18, U.S.C., 1940 ed., is incorporated in section 5 of this title.

Amendments

2002—Pub. L. 107–273 struck out “United States District Court for the Canal Zone and the” after “The”.

1958—Pub. L. 85–508 struck out provisions which related to the District Court for the Territory of Alaska. See section 81A of Title 28, Judiciary and Judicial Procedure, which establishes a United States District Court for the State of Alaska.

Effective Date of 1958 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 85–508 effective Jan. 3, 1959, on admission of Alaska into the Union pursuant to Proc. No. 3269, Jan. 3, 1959, 24 F.R. 81, 73 Stat. c16, as required by sections 1 and 8(c) of Pub. L. 85–508, see notes set out under section 81A of Title 28, Judiciary and Judicial Procedure, and preceding former section 21 of Title 48, Territories and Insular Possessions.

§3242. Indians committing certain offenses; acts on reservations

All Indians committing any offense listed in the first paragraph of and punishable under section 1153 (relating to offenses committed within Indian country) of this title shall be tried in the same courts and in the same manner as are all other persons committing such offense within the exclusive jurisdiction of the United States.

(June 25, 1948, ch. 645, 62 Stat. 827; May 24, 1949, ch. 139, §51, 63 Stat. 96; Pub. L. 89–707, §2, Nov. 2, 1966, 80 Stat. 1101; Pub. L. 94–297, §4, May 29, 1976, 90 Stat. 586.)

Historical and Revision Notes

1948 Act

Based on title 18, U.S.C., 1940 ed., §548 (Mar. 4, 1909, ch. 321, §328, 35 Stat. 1151; June 1932, ch. 284, 47 Stat. 337).

The provisions defining rape in accordance with the law of the State and prescribing imprisonment at the discretion of the court for rape by an Indian upon an Indian are now included in section 1153 of this title. (See also section 6 of this title.)

Section 549 of said title 18, relating to crimes in Indian reservations in South Dakota, was omitted as covered by section 1153 of this title. Accordingly the last sentence of said section 548, extending this section to prosecutions of Indians in South Dakota, was also omitted as unnecessary because this section is sufficient and applicable. Other provisions of said section 548 are incorporated in sections 1151 and 1153 of this title.

Minor changes were made in phraseology.

1949 Act

This section [section 51] conforms section 3242 of title 18, U.S.C., with sections 1151 and 1153 of such title, thus eliminating inconsistency and ambiguity with respect to the definition of Indian country.

Amendments

1976—Pub. L. 94–297 substituted provision setting out reference to offenses listed in first paragraph of and punishable under section 1153 of this title, for provision specifically enumerating the covered offenses.

1966—Pub. L. 89–707 added carnal knowledge and assault with intent to commit rape as offenses cognizable within the exclusive jurisdiction of the United States when committed on and within the Indian country.

1949—Act May 24, 1949, substituted “within the Indian country” for “within any Indian reservation, including rights-of-way running through the reservation,”.

§3243. Jurisdiction of State of Kansas over offenses committed by or against Indians on Indian reservations

Jurisdiction is conferred on the State of Kansas over offenses committed by or against Indians on Indian reservations, including trust or restricted allotments, within the State of Kansas, to the same extent as its courts have jurisdiction over offenses committed elsewhere within the State in accordance with the laws of the State.

This section shall not deprive the courts of the United States of jurisdiction over offenses defined by the laws of the United States committed by or against Indians on Indian reservations.

(June 25, 1948, ch. 645, 62 Stat. 827.)

Historical and Revision Notes

Based on section 217a of title 25, U.S.C., 1940 ed., Indians (June 8, 1940, ch. 276, 54 Stat. 249).

The attention of Congress is directed to consideration of the question whether this section should be broadened and made applicable to all states rather than only to Kansas. Such change was not regarded as within the scope of this revision.

Changes were made in phraseology.

§3244. Jurisdiction of proceedings relating to transferred offenders

When a treaty is in effect between the United States and a foreign country providing for the transfer of convicted offenders—

(1) the country in which the offender was convicted shall have exclusive jurisdiction and competence over proceedings seeking to challenge, modify, or set aside convictions or sentences handed down by a court of such country;

(2) all proceedings instituted by or on behalf of an offender transferred from the United States to a foreign country seeking to challenge, modify, or set aside the conviction or sentence upon which the transfer was based shall be brought in the court which would have jurisdiction and competence if the offender had not been transferred;

(3) all proceedings instituted by or on behalf of an offender transferred to the United States pertaining to the manner of execution in the United States of the sentence imposed by a foreign court shall be brought in the United States district court for the district in which the offender is confined or in which supervision is exercised and shall name the Attorney General and the official having immediate custody or exercising immediate supervision of the offender as respondents. The Attorney General shall defend against such proceedings;

(4) all proceedings instituted by or on behalf of an offender seeking to challenge the validity or legality of the offender's transfer from the United States shall be brought in the United States district court of the district in which the proceedings to determine the validity of the offender's consent were held and shall name the Attorney General as respondent; and

(5) all proceedings instituted by or on behalf of an offender seeking to challenge the validity or legality of the offender's transfer to the United States shall be brought in the United States district court of the district in which the offender is confined or of the district in which supervision is exercised and shall name the Attorney General and the official having immediate custody or exercising immediate supervision of the offender as respondents. The Attorney General shall defend against such proceedings.

(Added Pub. L. 95–144, §3, Oct. 28, 1977, 91 Stat. 1220, title 28, §2256; renumbered Pub. L. 95–598, title III, §314(j)(1), Nov. 6, 1978, 92 Stat. 2677.)

Codification

Section was formerly classified to section 2256 of Title 28, Judiciary and Judicial Procedure.

Savings Provision

Amendment by section 314 of Pub. L. 95–598 not to affect the application of chapter 9 (§151 et seq.), chapter 96 (§1961 et seq.), or section 2516, 3057, or 3284 of this title to any act of any person (1) committed before Oct. 1, 1979, or (2) committed after Oct. 1, 1979, in connection with a case commenced before such date, see section 403(d) of Pub. L. 95–598, set out as a note preceding section 101 of Title 11, Bankruptcy.

CHAPTER 212—MILITARY EXTRATERRITORIAL JURISDICTION

Sec.
3261.
Criminal offenses committed by certain members of the Armed Forces and by persons employed by or accompanying the Armed Forces outside the United States.
3262.
Arrest and commitment.
3263.
Delivery to authorities of foreign countries.
3264.
Limitation on removal.
3265.
Initial proceedings.
3266.
Regulations.
3267.
Definitions.

        

§3261. Criminal offenses committed by certain members of the Armed Forces and by persons employed by or accompanying the Armed Forces outside the United States

(a) Whoever engages in conduct outside the United States that would constitute an offense punishable by imprisonment for more than 1 year if the conduct had been engaged in within the special maritime and territorial jurisdiction of the United States—

(1) while employed by or accompanying the Armed Forces outside the United States; or

(2) while a member of the Armed Forces subject to chapter 47 of title 10 (the Uniform Code of Military Justice),


shall be punished as provided for that offense.

(b) No prosecution may be commenced against a person under this section if a foreign government, in accordance with jurisdiction recognized by the United States, has prosecuted or is prosecuting such person for the conduct constituting such offense, except upon the approval of the Attorney General or the Deputy Attorney General (or a person acting in either such capacity), which function of approval may not be delegated.

(c) Nothing in this chapter may be construed to deprive a court-martial, military commission, provost court, or other military tribunal of concurrent jurisdiction with respect to offenders or offenses that by statute or by the law of war may be tried by a court-martial, military commission, provost court, or other military tribunal.

(d) No prosecution may be commenced against a member of the Armed Forces subject to chapter 47 of title 10 (the Uniform Code of Military Justice) under this section unless—

(1) such member ceases to be subject to such chapter; or

(2) an indictment or information charges that the member committed the offense with one or more other defendants, at least one of whom is not subject to such chapter.

(Added Pub. L. 106–523, §2(a), Nov. 22, 2000, 114 Stat. 2488.)

Short Title of 2000 Amendment

Pub. L. 106–523, §1, Nov. 22, 2000, 114 Stat. 2488, provided that: “This Act [enacting this chapter] may be cited as the ‘Military Extraterritorial Jurisdiction Act of 2000’.”

§3262. Arrest and commitment

(a) The Secretary of Defense may designate and authorize any person serving in a law enforcement position in the Department of Defense to arrest, in accordance with applicable international agreements, outside the United States any person described in section 3261(a) if there is probable cause to believe that such person violated section 3261(a).

(b) Except as provided in sections 3263 and 3264, a person arrested under subsection (a) shall be delivered as soon as practicable to the custody of civilian law enforcement authorities of the United States for removal to the United States for judicial proceedings in relation to conduct referred to in such subsection unless such person has had charges brought against him or her under chapter 47 of title 10 for such conduct.

(Added Pub. L. 106–523, §2(a), Nov. 22, 2000, 114 Stat. 2489.)

§3263. Delivery to authorities of foreign countries

(a) Any person designated and authorized under section 3262(a) may deliver a person described in section 3261(a) to the appropriate authorities of a foreign country in which such person is alleged to have violated section 3261(a) if—

(1) appropriate authorities of that country request the delivery of the person to such country for trial for such conduct as an offense under the laws of that country; and

(2) the delivery of such person to that country is authorized by a treaty or other international agreement to which the United States is a party.


(b) The Secretary of Defense, in consultation with the Secretary of State, shall determine which officials of a foreign country constitute appropriate authorities for purposes of this section.

(Added Pub. L. 106–523, §2(a), Nov. 22, 2000, 114 Stat. 2489.)

§3264. Limitation on removal

(a) Except as provided in subsection (b), and except for a person delivered to authorities of a foreign country under section 3263, a person arrested for or charged with a violation of section 3261(a) shall not be removed—

(1) to the United States; or

(2) to any foreign country other than a country in which such person is believed to have violated section 3261(a).


(b) The limitation in subsection (a) does not apply if—

(1) a Federal magistrate judge orders the person to be removed to the United States to be present at a detention hearing held pursuant to section 3142(f);

(2) a Federal magistrate judge orders the detention of the person before trial pursuant to section 3142(e), in which case the person shall be promptly removed to the United States for purposes of such detention;

(3) the person is entitled to, and does not waive, a preliminary examination under the Federal Rules of Criminal Procedure, in which case the person shall be removed to the United States in time for such examination;

(4) a Federal magistrate judge otherwise orders the person to be removed to the United States; or

(5) the Secretary of Defense determines that military necessity requires that the limitations in subsection (a) be waived, in which case the person shall be removed to the nearest United States military installation outside the United States adequate to detain the person and to facilitate the initial appearance described in section 3265(a).

(Added Pub. L. 106–523, §2(a), Nov. 22, 2000, 114 Stat. 2489.)

References in Text

The Federal Rules of Criminal Procedure, referred to in subsec. (b)(3), are set out in the Appendix to this title.

§3265. Initial proceedings

(a)(1) In the case of any person arrested for or charged with a violation of section 3261(a) who is not delivered to authorities of a foreign country under section 3263, the initial appearance of that person under the Federal Rules of Criminal Procedure—

(A) shall be conducted by a Federal magistrate judge; and

(B) may be carried out by telephony or such other means that enables voice communication among the participants, including any counsel representing the person.


(2) In conducting the initial appearance, the Federal magistrate judge shall also determine whether there is probable cause to believe that an offense under section 3261(a) was committed and that the person committed it.

(3) If the Federal magistrate judge determines that probable cause exists that the person committed an offense under section 3261(a), and if no motion is made seeking the person's detention before trial, the Federal magistrate judge shall also determine at the initial appearance the conditions of the person's release before trial under chapter 207 of this title.

(b) In the case of any person described in subsection (a), any detention hearing of that person under section 3142(f)—

(1) shall be conducted by a Federal magistrate judge; and

(2) at the request of the person, may be carried out by telephony or such other means that enables voice communication among the participants, including any counsel representing the person.


(c)(1) If any initial proceeding under this section with respect to any such person is conducted while the person is outside the United States, and the person is entitled to have counsel appointed for purposes of such proceeding, the Federal magistrate judge may appoint as such counsel for purposes of such hearing a qualified military counsel.

(2) For purposes of this subsection, the term “qualified military counsel” means a judge advocate made available by the Secretary of Defense for purposes of such proceedings, who—

(A) is a graduate of an accredited law school or is a member of the bar of a Federal court or of the highest court of a State; and

(B) is certified as competent to perform such duties by the Judge Advocate General of the armed force of which he is a member.

(Added Pub. L. 106–523, §2(a), Nov. 22, 2000, 114 Stat. 2490.)

References in Text

The Federal Rules of Criminal Procedure, referred to in subsec. (a)(1), are set out in the Appendix to this title.

§3266. Regulations

(a) The Secretary of Defense, after consultation with the Secretary of State and the Attorney General, shall prescribe regulations governing the apprehension, detention, delivery, and removal of persons under this chapter and the facilitation of proceedings under section 3265. Such regulations shall be uniform throughout the Department of Defense.

(b)(1) The Secretary of Defense, after consultation with the Secretary of State and the Attorney General, shall prescribe regulations requiring that, to the maximum extent practicable, notice shall be provided to any person employed by or accompanying the Armed Forces outside the United States who is not a national of the United States that such person is potentially subject to the criminal jurisdiction of the United States under this chapter.

(2) A failure to provide notice in accordance with the regulations prescribed under paragraph (1) shall not defeat the jurisdiction of a court of the United States or provide a defense in any judicial proceeding arising under this chapter.

(c) The regulations prescribed under this section, and any amendments to those regulations, shall not take effect before the date that is 90 days after the date on which the Secretary of Defense submits a report containing those regulations or amendments (as the case may be) to the Committee on the Judiciary of the House of Representatives and the Committee on the Judiciary of the Senate.

(Added Pub. L. 106–523, §2(a), Nov. 22, 2000, 114 Stat. 2491.)

§3267. Definitions

As used in this chapter:

(1) The term “employed by the Armed Forces outside the United States” means—

(A) employed as—

(i) a civilian employee of—

(I) the Department of Defense (including a nonappropriated fund instrumentality of the Department); or

(II) any other Federal agency, or any provisional authority, to the extent such employment relates to supporting the mission of the Department of Defense overseas;


(ii) a contractor (including a subcontractor at any tier) of—

(I) the Department of Defense (including a nonappropriated fund instrumentality of the Department); or

(II) any other Federal agency, or any provisional authority, to the extent such employment relates to supporting the mission of the Department of Defense overseas; or


(iii) an employee of a contractor (or subcontractor at any tier) of—

(I) the Department of Defense (including a nonappropriated fund instrumentality of the Department); or

(II) any other Federal agency, or any provisional authority, to the extent such employment relates to supporting the mission of the Department of Defense overseas;


(B) present or residing outside the United States in connection with such employment; and

(C) not a national of or ordinarily resident in the host nation.


(2) The term “accompanying the Armed Forces outside the United States” means—

(A) a dependent of—

(i) a member of the Armed Forces;

(ii) a civilian employee of the Department of Defense (including a nonappropriated fund instrumentality of the Department); or

(iii) a Department of Defense contractor (including a subcontractor at any tier) or an employee of a Department of Defense contractor (including a subcontractor at any tier);


(B) residing with such member, civilian employee, contractor, or contractor employee outside the United States; and

(C) not a national of or ordinarily resident in the host nation.


(3) The term “Armed Forces” has the meaning given the term “armed forces” in section 101(a)(4) of title 10.

(4) The terms “Judge Advocate General” and “judge advocate” have the meanings given such terms in section 801 of title 10.

(Added Pub. L. 106–523, §2(a), Nov. 22, 2000, 114 Stat. 2491; amended Pub. L. 108–375, div. A, title X, §1088, Oct. 28, 2004, 118 Stat. 2066.)

Amendments

2004—Par. (1)(A). Pub. L. 108–375 amended subpar. (A) generally. Prior to amendment, subpar. (A) read as follows: “employed as a civilian employee of the Department of Defense (including a nonappropriated fund instrumentality of the Department), as a Department of Defense contractor (including a subcontractor at any tier), or as an employee of a Department of Defense contractor (including a subcontractor at any tier);”.

CHAPTER 212A—EXTRATERRITORIAL JURISDICTION OVER CERTAIN TRAFFICKING IN PERSONS OFFENSES

Sec.
3271.
Trafficking in persons offenses committed by persons employed by or accompanying the Federal Government outside the United States.
3272.
Definitions.

        

§3271. Trafficking in persons offenses committed by persons employed by or accompanying the Federal Government outside the United States

(a) Whoever, while employed by or accompanying the Federal Government outside the United States, engages in conduct outside the United States that would constitute an offense under chapter 77 or 117 of this title if the conduct had been engaged in within the United States or within the special maritime and territorial jurisdiction of the United States shall be punished as provided for that offense.

(b) No prosecution may be commenced against a person under this section if a foreign government, in accordance with jurisdiction recognized by the United States, has prosecuted or is prosecuting such person for the conduct constituting such offense, except upon the approval of the Attorney General or the Deputy Attorney General (or a person acting in either such capacity), which function of approval may not be delegated.

(Added Pub. L. 109–164, title I, §103(a)(1), Jan. 10, 2006, 119 Stat. 3562.)

§3272. Definitions

As used in this chapter:

(1) The term “employed by the Federal Government outside the United States” means—

(A) employed as a civilian employee of the Federal Government, as a Federal contractor (including a subcontractor at any tier), or as an employee of a Federal contractor (including a subcontractor at any tier);

(B) present or residing outside the United States in connection with such employment; and

(C) not a national of or ordinarily resident in the host nation.


(2) The term “accompanying the Federal Government outside the United States” means—

(A) a dependant of—

(i) a civilian employee of the Federal Government; or

(ii) a Federal contractor (including a subcontractor at any tier) or an employee of a Federal contractor (including a subcontractor at any tier);


(B) residing with such civilian employee, contractor, or contractor employee outside the United States; and

(C) not a national of or ordinarily resident in the host nation.

(Added Pub. L. 109–164, title I, §103(a)(1), Jan. 10, 2006, 119 Stat. 3562.)

CHAPTER 213—LIMITATIONS

Sec.
3281.
Capital offenses.
3282.
Offenses not capital.
3283.
Child abuse offenses.1

        

3284.
Concealment of bankrupt's assets.
3285.
Criminal contempt.
3286.
Extension of statute of limitation for certain terrorism offenses.
3287.
Wartime suspension of limitations.
3288.
Indictments and information dismissed after period of limitations.
3289.
Indictments and information dismissed before period of limitations.
3290.
Fugitives from justice.
3291.
Nationality, citizenship and passports.
3292.
Suspension of limitations to permit United States to obtain foreign evidence.
3293.
Financial institution offenses.
3294.
Theft of major artwork.
3295.
Arson offenses.
3296.
Counts dismissed pursuant to a plea agreement.
3297.
Cases involving DNA evidence.
3298.
Trafficking-related offenses 2

        

3299.
Child abduction and sex offenses 2
3300.
Recruitment or use of child soldiers.
3301.
Securities fraud offenses.

        

Amendments

2010—Pub. L. 111–203, title X, §1079A(b)(2), July 21, 2010, 124 Stat. 2079, added item 3301.

2008—Pub. L. 110–340, §2(a)(3)(B), Oct. 3, 2008, 122 Stat. 3736, added item 3300.

2006—Pub. L. 109–248, title II, §211(2), July 27, 2006, 120 Stat. 616, added item 3299.

Pub. L. 109–162, title XI, §1182(b), Jan. 5, 2006, 119 Stat. 3126, added item 3298.

2004—Pub. L. 108–405, title II, §204(b), Oct. 30, 2004, 118 Stat. 2271, added item 3297.

2002—Pub. L. 107–273, div. B, title III, §3003(b), Nov. 2, 2002, 116 Stat. 1805, added item 3296.

1996—Pub. L. 104–132, title VII, §708(c)(2), Apr. 24, 1996, 110 Stat. 1297, added item 3295.

1994—Pub. L. 103–322, title XII, §120001(c), title XXXII, §320902(d)(2), title XXXIII, §330018(c), Sept. 13, 1994, 108 Stat. 2021, 2124, 2149, substituted “Child abuse offenses” for “Customs and slave trade violations” in item 3283 and added items 3286 and 3294.

1990—Pub. L. 101–647, title XII, §1207(b), Nov. 29, 1990, 104 Stat. 4832, struck out item 3286 “Seduction on vessel of United States”.

1989—Pub. L. 101–73, title IX, §961(l)(2), Aug. 9, 1989, 103 Stat. 501, added item 3293.

1988—Pub. L. 100–690, title VII, §7081(c), Nov. 18, 1988, 102 Stat. 4407, substituted “Indictments and information dismissed after period of limitations” for “Reindictment where defect found after period of limitations” in item 3288 and “Indictments and information dismissed before period of limitations” for “Reindictment where defect found before period of limitations” in item 3289.

1984—Pub. L. 98–473, title II, §1218(b), Oct. 12, 1984, 98 Stat. 2167, added item 3292.

1951—Act June 30, 1951, ch. 194, §2, 65 Stat. 107, added item 3291.

1 Section catchline amended by Pub. L. 108–21 without corresponding amendment of chapter analysis.

2 So in original. Probably should be followed by a period.

§3281. Capital offenses

An indictment for any offense punishable by death may be found at any time without limitation.

(June 25, 1948, ch. 645, 62 Stat. 827; Pub. L. 103–322, title XXXIII, §330004(16), Sept. 13, 1994, 108 Stat. 2142.)

Historical and Revision Notes

Based on title 18, U.S.C., 1940 ed., §§581a, 581b (Aug. 4, 1939, ch. 419, §§1, 2, 53 Stat. 1198).

Sections 581a and 581b of title 18, U.S.C., 1940 ed., were consolidated into this section without change of substance.

Amendments

1994—Pub. L. 103–322 struck out before period at end “except for offenses barred by the provisions of law existing on August 4, 1939”.

§3282. Offenses not capital

(a) In General.—Except as otherwise expressly provided by law, no person shall be prosecuted, tried, or punished for any offense, not capital, unless the indictment is found or the information is instituted within five years next after such offense shall have been committed.

(b) DNA Profile Indictment.—

(1) In general.—In any indictment for an offense under chapter 109A for which the identity of the accused is unknown, it shall be sufficient to describe the accused as an individual whose name is unknown, but who has a particular DNA profile.

(2) Exception.—Any indictment described under paragraph (1), which is found not later than 5 years after the offense under chapter 109A is committed, shall not be subject to—

(A) the limitations period described under subsection (a); and

(B) the provisions of chapter 208 until the individual is arrested or served with a summons in connection with the charges contained in the indictment.


(3) Defined term.—For purposes of this subsection, the term “DNA profile” means a set of DNA identification characteristics.

(June 25, 1948, ch. 645, 62 Stat. 828; Sept. 1, 1954, ch. 1214, §12(a), formerly §10(a), 68 Stat. 1145; renumbered Pub. L. 87–299, §1, Sept. 26, 1961, 75 Stat. 648; Pub. L. 108–21, title VI, §610(a), Apr. 30, 2003, 117 Stat. 692.)

Historical and Revision Notes

Based on section 746(g) of title 8, U.S.C., 1940 ed., Aliens and Nationality, and on title 18, U.S.C., 1940 ed., §582 (R.S. §1044; Apr. 13, 1876, ch. 56, 19 Stat. 32; Nov. 17, 1921, ch. 124, §1, 42 Stat. 220; Dec. 27, 1927, ch. 6, 45 Stat. 51; Oct. 14, 1940, ch. 876, title I, subchap. III, §346(g), 54 Stat. 1167).

Section 582 of title 18, U.S.C., 1940 ed., and section 746(g) of title 8, U.S.C., 1940 ed., Aliens and Nationality, were consolidated. “Except as otherwise expressly provided by law” was inserted to avoid enumeration of exceptive provisions.

The proviso contained in the act of 1927 “That nothing herein contained shall apply to any offense for which an indictment has been heretofore found or an information instituted, or to any proceedings under any such indictment or information,” was omitted as no longer necessary.

In the consolidation of these sections the 5-year period of limitation for violations of the Nationality Code, provided for in said section 746(g) of title 8, U.S.C., 1940 ed., Aliens and Nationality, is reduced to 3 years. There seemed no sound basis for considering 3 years adequate in the case of heinous felonies and gross frauds against the United States but inadequate for misuse of a passport or false statement to a naturalization examiner.

Amendments

2003—Pub. L. 108–21 designated existing provisions as subsec. (a), inserted heading, and added subsec. (b).

1954—Act Sept. 1, 1954, changed the limitation period from three years to five years.

Effective Date of 1954 Amendment

Section 12(b) of act Sept. 1, 1954, formerly section 10(b), as renumbered by Pub. L. 87–299, §1, provided that: “The amendment made by subsection (a) [amending this section] shall be effective with respect to offenses (1) committed on or after September 1, 1954, or (2) committed prior to such date, if on such date prosecution therefor is not barred by provisions of law in effect prior to such date.”

Fugitives From Justice

Statutes of limitations as not extending to persons fleeing from justice, see section 3290 of this title.

Offenses Against Internal Security

Limitation period in connection with offenses against internal security, see section 783 of Title 50, War and National Defense.

Sections 792, 793, and 794 of This Title; Limitation Period

Limitation period in connection with sections 792, 793, and 794 of this title, see note set out under section 792.

§3283. Offenses against children

No statute of limitations that would otherwise preclude prosecution for an offense involving the sexual or physical abuse, or kidnaping, of a child under the age of 18 years shall preclude such prosecution during the life of the child, or for ten years after the offense, whichever is longer.

(June 25, 1948, ch. 645, 62 Stat. 828; Pub. L. 103–322, title XXXIII, §330018(a), Sept. 13, 1994, 108 Stat. 2149; Pub. L. 108–21, title II, §202, Apr. 30, 2003, 117 Stat. 660; Pub. L. 109–162, title XI, §1182(c), Jan. 5, 2006, 119 Stat. 3126.)

Historical and Revision Notes

Based on title 18, U.S.C., 1940 ed., §584 (R.S. §1046; July 5, 1884, ch. 225, §2, 23 Stat. 122).

Words “customs laws” were substituted for “revenue laws,” since different limitations are provided for internal revenue violations by section 3748 of title 26, U.S.C., 1940 ed., Internal Revenue Code.

This section was held to apply to offenses under the customs laws. Those offenses are within the term “revenue laws” but not within the term “internal revenue laws”. United States v. Hirsch (1879, 100 U.S. 33, 25 L. Ed. 539), United States v. Shorey (1869, Fed. Cas. No. 16,282), and United States v. Platt (1840, Fed. Cas. No. 16,054a) applied this section in customs cases. Hence it appears that there was no proper basis for the complete elimination from section 584 of title 18, U.S.C., 1940 ed., of the reference to revenue laws.

Meaning of “revenue laws”. United States v. Norton (1876, 91 U.S. 566, 23 L.Ed. 454), quoting Webster that “revenue” refers to “The income of a nation, derived from its taxes, duties, or other sources, for the payment of the national expenses.” Quoting United States v. Mayo (1813, Fed. Cas. No. 15,755) that “revenue laws” meant such laws “as are made for the direct and avowed purpose of creating revenue or public funds for the service of the Government.”

Definition of revenue. “Revenue” is the income of a State, and the revenue of the Post Office Department, being raised by a tax on mailable matter conveyed in the mail, and which is disbursed in the public service, is as much a part of the income of the government as moneys collected for duties on imports (United States v. Bromley, 53 U.S. 88, 99, 13 L. Ed. 905).

“Revenue” is the product or fruit of taxation. It matters not in what form the power of taxation may be exercised or to what subjects it may be applied, its exercise is intended to provide means for the support of the Government, and the means provided are necessarily to be regarded as the internal revenue. Duties upon imports are imposed for the same general object and, because they are so imposed, the money thus produced is considered revenue, not because it is derived from any particular source (United States v. Wright, 1870, Fed. Cas. No. 16,770).

“Revenue law” is defined as a law for direct object of imposing and collecting taxes, dues, imports, and excises for government and its purposes (In re Mendenhall, D.C. Mont. 1935, 10 F. Supp. 122).

Act Cong. March 2, 1799, ch. 22, 1 Stat. 627, regulating the collection of duties on imports, is a revenue law, within the meaning of act Cong. April 18, 1818, ch. 70, 3 Stat. 433, providing for the mode of suing for and recovering penalties and forfeitures for violations of the revenue laws of the United States (The Abigail, 1824, Fed. Cas. No. 18).

Changes were made in phraseology.

Amendments

2006—Pub. L. 109–162 inserted “, or for ten years after the offense, whichever is longer” after “of the child”.

2003—Pub. L. 108–21 substituted “Offenses against children” for “Child abuse offenses” in section catchline and amended text generally. Prior to amendment, text read as follows: “No statute of limitations that would otherwise preclude prosecution for an offense involving the sexual or physical abuse of a child under the age of 18 years shall preclude such prosecution before the child reaches the age of 25 years.”

1994—Pub. L. 103–322 substituted “Child abuse offenses” for “Customs and slave trade violations” as section catchline and amended text generally. Prior to amendment, text read as follows: “No person shall be prosecuted, tried or punished for any violation of the customs laws or the slave trade laws of the United States unless the indictment is found or the information is instituted within five years next after the commission of the offense.”

§3284. Concealment of bankrupt's assets

The concealment of assets of a debtor in a case under title 11 shall be deemed to be a continuing offense until the debtor shall have been finally discharged or a discharge denied, and the period of limitations shall not begin to run until such final discharge or denial of discharge.

(June 25, 1948, ch. 645, 62 Stat. 828; Pub. L. 95–598, title III, §314(k), Nov. 6, 1978, 92 Stat. 2678.)

Historical and Revision Notes

Based on section 52(d) of title 11, U.S.C., 1940 ed., Bankruptcy (May 27, 1926, ch. 406, §11d, 44 Stat. 665; June 22, 1938, ch. 575, §1, 52 Stat. 856).

The 3-year-limitation provision was omitted as unnecessary in view of the general statute, section 3282 of this title.

The words “or a discharge denied” and “or denial of discharge” were added on the recommendation of the Department of Justice to supply an omission in existing law.

Other subsections of said section 52 of title 11, U.S.C., 1940 ed., are incorporated in sections 151–154 and 3057 of this title.

Other minor changes of phraseology were made.

Amendments

1978—Pub. L. 95–598 substituted “debtor in a case under title 11” for “bankrupt or other debtor”.

Effective Date of 1978 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 95–598 effective Oct. 1, 1979, see section 402(a) of Pub. L. 95–598, set out as an Effective Date note preceding section 101 of Title 11, Bankruptcy.

Savings Provision

Amendment by section 314 of Pub. L. 95–598 not to affect the application of chapter 9 (§151 et seq.), chapter 96 (§1961 et seq.), or section 2516, 3057, or 3284 of this title to any act of any person (1) committed before Oct. 1, 1979, or (2) committed after Oct. 1, 1979, in connection with a case commenced before such date, see section 403(d) of Pub. L. 95–598, set out as a note preceding section 101 of Title 11, Bankruptcy.

§3285. Criminal contempt

No proceeding for criminal contempt within section 402 of this title shall be instituted against any person, corporation or association unless begun within one year from the date of the act complained of; nor shall any such proceeding be a bar to any criminal prosecution for the same act.

(June 25, 1948, ch. 645, 62 Stat. 828.)

Historical and Revision Notes

Based on section 390 of title 28, U.S.C., 1940 ed., Judicial Code and Judiciary (Oct. 15, 1914, ch. 323, §25, 38 Stat. 740).

Word “criminal” was inserted before “contempt” in first line. Words “within section 402 of this title” were inserted after “contempt”.

The correct meaning and narrow application of title 28, U.S.C., 1940 ed., §390, are preserved, as section 389 of that title is incorporated in sections 402 and 3691 of this title.

Words “corporation or association” were inserted after “person”, thus embodying applicable definition of section 390a of title 28, U.S.C., 1940 ed. (See reviser's note under section 402 of this title.)

§3286. Extension of statute of limitation for certain terrorism offenses

(a) Eight-Year Limitation.—Notwithstanding section 3282, no person shall be prosecuted, tried, or punished for any noncapital offense involving a violation of any provision listed in section 2332b(g)(5)(B), or a violation of section 112, 351(e), 1361, or 1751(e) of this title, or section 46504, 46505, or 46506 of title 49, unless the indictment is found or the information is instituted within 8 years after the offense was committed. Notwithstanding the preceding sentence, offenses listed in section 3295 are subject to the statute of limitations set forth in that section.

(b) No Limitation.—Notwithstanding any other law, an indictment may be found or an information instituted at any time without limitation for any offense listed in section 2332b(g)(5)(B), if the commission of such offense resulted in, or created a forseeable 1 risk of, death or serious bodily injury to another person.

(Added Pub. L. 103–322, title XII, §120001(a), Sept. 13, 1994, 108 Stat. 2021; amended Pub. L. 104–132, title VII, §702(c), Apr. 24, 1996, 110 Stat. 1294; Pub. L. 104–294, title VI, §601(b)(1), Oct. 11, 1996, 110 Stat. 3498; Pub. L. 107–56, title VIII, §809(a), Oct. 26, 2001, 115 Stat. 379; Pub. L. 107–273, div. B, title IV, §4002(c)(1), Nov. 2, 2002, 116 Stat. 1808.)

Prior Provisions

A prior section 3286, act June 25, 1948, ch. 645, 62 Stat. 828, related to seduction on vessel of United States, prior to repeal by Pub. L. 101–647, title XII, §1207(b), Nov. 29, 1990, 104 Stat. 4832.

Amendments

2002—Pub. L. 107–273 repealed Pub. L. 104–294, §601(b)(1). See 1996 Amendment note below.

2001—Pub. L. 107–56 reenacted section catchline without change and amended text generally. Text read as follows: “Notwithstanding section 3282, no person shall be prosecuted, tried, or punished for any non-capital offense involving a violation of section 32 (aircraft destruction), section 37 (airport violence), section 112 (assaults upon diplomats), section 351 (crimes against Congressmen or Cabinet officers), section 1116 (crimes against diplomats), section 1203 (hostage taking), section 1361 (willful injury to government property), section 1751 (crimes against the President), section 2280 (maritime violence), section 2281 (maritime platform violence), section 2332 (terrorist acts abroad against United States nationals), section 2332a (use of weapons of mass destruction), 2332b (acts of terrorism transcending national boundaries), or section 2340A (torture) of this title or section 46502, 46504, 46505, or 46506 of title 49, unless the indictment is found or the information is instituted within 8 years after the offense was committed.”

1996—Pub. L. 104–132, §702(c)(2)–(4), substituted “2332” for “2331”, “2332a” for “2339”, and “37” for “36”. Pub. L. 104–294, §601(b)(1), which amended section identically, was repealed by Pub. L. 107–273.

Pub. L. 104–132, §702(c)(1), (5), inserted “2332b (acts of terrorism transcending national boundaries),” after “(use of weapons of mass destruction),”, and substituted “any non-capital offense” for “any offense”.

Effective Date of 2002 Amendment

Pub. L. 107–273, div. B, title IV, §4002(c)(1), Nov. 2, 2002, 116 Stat. 1808, provided that the amendment made by section 4002(c)(1) is effective Oct. 11, 1996.

Effective Date of 2001 Amendment

Pub. L. 107–56, title VIII, §809(b), Oct. 26, 2001, 115 Stat. 380, provided that: “The amendments made by this section [amending this section] shall apply to the prosecution of any offense committed before, on, or after the date of the enactment of this section [Oct. 26, 2001].”

Effective Date

Section 120001(b) of Pub. L. 103–322 provided that: “The amendment made by subsection (a) [enacting this section] shall not apply to any offense committed more than 5 years prior to the date of enactment of this Act [Sept. 13, 1994].”

1 So in original. Probably should be “foreseeable”.

§3287. Wartime suspension of limitations

When the United States is at war or Congress has enacted a specific authorization for the use of the Armed Forces, as described in section 5(b) of the War Powers Resolution (50 U.S.C. 1544(b)), the running of any statute of limitations applicable to any offense (1) involving fraud or attempted fraud against the United States or any agency thereof in any manner, whether by conspiracy or not, or (2) committed in connection with the acquisition, care, handling, custody, control or disposition of any real or personal property of the United States, or (3) committed in connection with the negotiation, procurement, award, performance, payment for, interim financing, cancelation, or other termination or settlement, of any contract, subcontract, or purchase order which is connected with or related to the prosecution of the war or directly connected with or related to the authorized use of the Armed Forces, or with any disposition of termination inventory by any war contractor or Government agency, shall be suspended until 5 years after the termination of hostilities as proclaimed by a Presidential proclamation, with notice to Congress, or by a concurrent resolution of Congress.

Definitions of terms in section 103 1 of title 41 shall apply to similar terms used in this section. For purposes of applying such definitions in this section, the term “war” includes a specific authorization for the use of the Armed Forces, as described in section 5(b) of the War Powers Resolution (50 U.S.C. 1544(b)).

(June 25, 1948, ch. 645, 62 Stat. 828; Pub. L. 110–329, div. C, title VIII, §8117, Sept. 30, 2008, 122 Stat. 3647; Pub. L. 110–417, [div. A], title VIII, §855, Oct. 14, 2008, 122 Stat. 4545; Pub. L. 111–84, div. A, title X, §1073(c)(7), Oct. 28, 2009, 123 Stat. 2475.)

Historical and Revision Notes

Based on title 18, U.S.C., 1940 ed., §590a (Aug. 24, 1942, ch. 555, §1, 56 Stat. 747; July 1, 1944, ch. 358, §19(b), 58 Stat. 667; Oct. 3, 1944, ch. 479, §28, 58 Stat. 781).

The phrase “when the United States is at war” was inserted at the beginning of this section to make it permanent instead of temporary legislation, and to obviate the necessity of reenacting such legislation in the future. This permitted the elimination of references to dates and to the provision limiting the application of the section to transactions not yet fully barred. When the provisions of the War Contract Settlements Act of 1944, upon which this section is based, are considered in connection with said section 590a which it amends, it is obvious that no purpose can be served now by the provisions omitted.

Phrase (2), reading “or committed in connection with the acquisition, care, handling, custody, control or disposition of any real or personal property of the United States” was derived from section 28 of the Surplus Property Act of 1944 which amended said section 590a of title 18, U.S.C., 1940 ed. This act is temporary by its terms and relates only to offenses committed in the disposition of surplus property thereunder.

The revised section extends its provisions to all offenses involving the disposition of any property, real or personal, of the United States. This extension is more apparent than real since phrase (2), added as the result of said Act, was merely a more specific statement of offenses embraced in phrase (1) of this section.

The revised section is written in general terms as permanent legislation applicable whenever the United States is at war. (See, also, reviser's note under section 284 of this title.)

The last paragraph was added to obviate any possibility of doubt as to meaning of terms defined in section 103 of title 41, U.S.C., 1940 ed., Public Contracts.

Changes were made in phraseology.

References in Text

Section 103 of title 41, referred to in text, probably means section 3 of act July 1, 1944, ch. 358, 58 Stat. 650, which was classified to section 103 of former Title 41, Public Contracts, prior to repeal by Pub. L. 111–350, §7(b), Jan. 4, 2011, 124 Stat. 3855. For disposition of sections of former Title 41, see Disposition Table preceding section 101 of Title 41.

Amendments

2009—Pub. L. 111–84 repealed Pub. L. 110–417, §855. See 2008 Amendment note below.

2008—Pub. L. 110–417, §855, which amended this section identically to amendment by Pub. L. 110–329, was repealed by Pub. L. 111–84. See 2008 Amendment note below.

Pub. L. 110–329, in first par., inserted “or Congress has enacted a specific authorization for the use of the Armed Forces, as described in section 5(b) of the War Powers Resolution (50 U.S.C. 1544(b)),” after “is at war” and “or directly connected with or related to the authorized use of the Armed Forces” after “prosecution of the war” and substituted “5 years” for “three years” and “proclaimed by a Presidential proclamation, with notice to Congress,” for “proclaimed by the President”, and, in second par., inserted last sentence.

Effective Date of 2009 Amendment

Pub. L. 111–84, div. A, title X, §1073(c), Oct. 28, 2009, 123 Stat. 2474, provided in part that the amendment made by section 1073(c)(7) of Pub. L. 111–84 is effective as of Oct. 14, 2008, and as if included in Pub. L. 110–417 as enacted.

1 See References in Text note below.

§3288. Indictments and information dismissed after period of limitations

Whenever an indictment or information charging a felony is dismissed for any reason after the period prescribed by the applicable statute of limitations has expired, a new indictment may be returned in the appropriate jurisdiction within six calendar months of the date of the dismissal of the indictment or information, or, in the event of an appeal, within 60 days of the date the dismissal of the indictment or information becomes final, or, if no regular grand jury is in session in the appropriate jurisdiction when the indictment or information is dismissed, within six calendar months of the date when the next regular grand jury is convened, which new indictment shall not be barred by any statute of limitations. This section does not permit the filing of a new indictment or information where the reason for the dismissal was the failure to file the indictment or information within the period prescribed by the applicable statute of limitations, or some other reason that would bar a new prosecution.

(June 25, 1948, ch. 645, 62 Stat. 828; Pub. L. 88–139, §2, Oct. 16, 1963, 77 Stat. 248; Pub. L. 88–520, §1, Aug. 30, 1964, 78 Stat. 699; Pub. L. 100–690, title VII, §7081(a), Nov. 18, 1988, 102 Stat. 4407.)

Historical and Revision Notes

Based on title 18, U.S.C., 1940 ed., §§556a, 587, 589 (Apr. 30, 1934, ch. 170, §1, 48 Stat. 648; May 10, 1934, ch. 278, §§1, 3, 48 Stat. 772; July 10, 1940, ch. 567, 54 Stat. 747).

This section is a consolidation of sections 556a, 587, and 589 of title 18, U.S.C., 1940 ed., without change of substance. (See reviser's note under section 3289 of this title.)

Amendments

1988—Pub. L. 100–690, in section catchline, substituted “Indictments and information dismissed after period of limitations” for “Indictment where defect found after period of limitations”, and in text, substituted “Whenever an indictment or information charging a felony is dismissed for any reason” for “Whenever an indictment is dismissed for any error, defect, or irregularity with respect to the grand jury, or an indictment or information filed after the defendant waives in open court prosecution by indictment is found otherwise defective or insufficient for any cause,”, inserted “, or, in the event of an appeal, within 60 days of the date the dismissal of the indictment or information becomes final” after “dismissal of the indictment or information”, and inserted provisions which prohibited filing of new indictment or information where reason for dismissal was failure to file within period prescribed or some other reason that would bar a new prosecution.

1964—Pub. L. 88–520 substituted “Indictment” for “Reindictment” in section catchline, included indictments or informations filed after the defendant waives in open court prosecution by indictment which are dismissed for any error, defect, or irregularity, or are otherwise found defective or insufficient, and substituted provisions authorizing the return of a new indictment in the appropriate jurisdiction within six calendar months of the date of the dismissal of the indictment or information, or, if no regular grand jury is in session when the indictment or information is dismissed, within six calendar months of the date when the next grand jury is convened, for provisions which authorized the return of a new indictment not later than the end of the next succeeding regular session of the court, following the session at which the indictment was found defective or insufficient, during which a grand jury shall be in session.

1963—Pub. L. 88–139 substituted “session” for “term” wherever appearing.

§3289. Indictments and information dismissed before period of limitations

Whenever an indictment or information charging a felony is dismissed for any reason before the period prescribed by the applicable statute of limitations has expired, and such period will expire within six calendar months of the date of the dismissal of the indictment or information, a new indictment may be returned in the appropriate jurisdiction within six calendar months of the expiration of the applicable statute of limitations, or, in the event of an appeal, within 60 days of the date the dismissal of the indictment or information becomes final, or, if no regular grand jury is in session in the appropriate jurisdiction at the expiration of the applicable statute of limitations, within six calendar months of the date when the next regular grand jury is convened, which new indictment shall not be barred by any statute of limitations. This section does not permit the filing of a new indictment or information where the reason for the dismissal was the failure to file the indictment or information within the period prescribed by the applicable statute of limitations, or some other reason that would bar a new prosecution.

(June 25, 1948, ch. 645, 62 Stat. 829; Pub. L. 88–139, §2, Oct. 16, 1963, 77 Stat. 248; Pub. L. 88–520, §2, Aug. 30, 1964, 78 Stat. 699; Pub. L. 100–690, title VII, §7081(b), Nov. 18, 1988, 102 Stat. 4407; Pub. L. 101–647, title XII, §1213, title XXV, §2595(b), title XXXV, §3580, Nov. 29, 1990, 104 Stat. 4833, 4907, 4929; Pub. L. 103–322, title XXXIII, §330011(q)(2), Sept. 13, 1994, 108 Stat. 2145.)

Historical and Revision Notes

Based on title 18, U.S.C., 1940 ed., §§556a, 588, 589 (Apr. 30, 1934, ch. 170, §1, 48 Stat. 648; May 10, 1934, ch. 278, §§2, 3, 48 Stat. 772).

Consolidation of sections 556a, 588, and 589 of title 18, U.S.C., 1940 ed., without change of substance. The provisions of said section 556a, with reference to time of filing motion, were omitted and numerous changes of phraseology were necessary to effect consolidation, particularly in view of rules 6(b) and 12(b)(2), (3), (5) of the Federal Rules of Criminal Procedure.

Words “regular or special” were omitted and “regular” inserted after “succeeding” to harmonize with section 3288 of this title.

Amendments

1994—Pub. L. 103–322, §330011(q)(2), repealed amendment by Pub. L. 101–647, §1213. See 1990 Amendment note below.

1990—Pub. L. 101–647, §3580, inserted a comma after “information” the second place it appeared.

Pub. L. 101–647, §2595(b), struck out “or, in the event of an appeal, within 60 days of the date the dismissal of the indictment or information becomes final,” after “the date of the dismissal of the indictment or information” and inserted such language after “within six calendar months of the expiration of the applicable statute of limitations,”.

Pub. L. 101–647, §1213, which directed the striking of “or, in the event of an appeal, within 60 days of the date the dismissal of the indictment or information becomes final,” and the insertion of such language after “within six months of the expiration of the statute of limitations,”, was repealed by Pub. L. 103–322, §330011(q)(2). See above.

1988—Pub. L. 100–690 in section catchline substituted “Indictments and information dismissed after period of limitations” for “Indictment where defect found before period of limitations”, and in text, substituted “Whenever an indictment or information charging a felony is dismissed for any reason” for “Whenever an indictment is dismissed for any error, defect, or irregularity with respect to the grand jury, or an indictment or information filed after the defendant waives in open court prosecution by indictment is found otherwise defective or insufficient for any cause,”, inserted “or, in the event of an appeal, within 60 days of the date the dismissal of the indictment or information becomes final” after “dismissal of the indictment or information”, and inserted provisions which prohibited filing of new indictment or information where reason for dismissal was failure to file within period prescribed or some other reason that would bar a new prosecution.

1964—Pub. L. 88–520 substituted “Indictment” for “Reindictment” in section catchline, included indictments or informations filed after the defendant waives in open court prosecution by indictment which are dismissed for any error, defect, or irregularity, or are otherwise found defective or insufficient, and substituted provisions authorizing, where the period of the statute of limitations will expire within six calendar months of the date of the dismissal, the return of a new indictment within six calendar months of the expiration of the applicable statute of limitations, or, if no regular grand jury is in session at the expiration of the applicable statute of limitations, within six calendar months of the date when the next regular grand jury is convened, for provisions which authorized, where the period of the statute of limitations will expire before the end of the next regular session of the court to which such indictment was returned, the return of a new indictment not later than the end of the next succeeding regular session of the court following the session at which the indictment was found defective or insufficient, during which a grand jury shall be in session.

1963—Pub. L. 88–139 substituted “session” for “term” wherever appearing.

Effective Date of 1994 Amendment

Section 330011(q)(2) of Pub. L. 103–322 provided that the amendment made by that section is effective as of the date on which section 1213 of Pub. L. 101–647 took effect.

§3290. Fugitives from justice

No statute of limitations shall extend to any person fleeing from justice.

(June 25, 1948, ch. 645, 62 Stat. 829.)

Historical and Revision Notes

Based on Title 18, U.S.C., 1940 ed., §583 (R.S. §1045).

Said section 583 was rephrased and made applicable to all statutes of limitation and is merely declaratory of the generally accepted rule of law.

§3291. Nationality, citizenship and passports

No person shall be prosecuted, tried, or punished for violation of any provision of sections 1423 to 1428, inclusive, of chapter 69 and sections 1541 to 1544, inclusive, of chapter 75 of title 18 of the United States Code, or for conspiracy to violate any of such sections, unless the indictment is found or the information is instituted within ten years after the commission of the offense.

(Added June 30, 1951, ch. 194, §1, 65 Stat. 107; amended Pub. L. 103–322, title XXXIII, §330008(9), Sept. 13, 1994, 108 Stat. 2143.)

Amendments

1994—Pub. L. 103–322 substituted “violate any of such sections” for “violate any of the afore-mentioned sections”.

§3292. Suspension of limitations to permit United States to obtain foreign evidence

(a)(1) Upon application of the United States, filed before return of an indictment, indicating that evidence of an offense is in a foreign country, the district court before which a grand jury is impaneled to investigate the offense shall suspend the running of the statute of limitations for the offense if the court finds by a preponderance of the evidence that an official request has been made for such evidence and that it reasonably appears, or reasonably appeared at the time the request was made, that such evidence is, or was, in such foreign country.

(2) The court shall rule upon such application not later than thirty days after the filing of the application.

(b) Except as provided in subsection (c) of this section, a period of suspension under this section shall begin on the date on which the official request is made and end on the date on which the foreign court or authority takes final action on the request.

(c) The total of all periods of suspension under this section with respect to an offense—

(1) shall not exceed three years; and

(2) shall not extend a period within which a criminal case must be initiated for more than six months if all foreign authorities take final action before such period would expire without regard to this section.


(d) As used in this section, the term “official request” means a letter rogatory, a request under a treaty or convention, or any other request for evidence made by a court of the United States or an authority of the United States having criminal law enforcement responsibility, to a court or other authority of a foreign country.

(Added Pub. L. 98–473, title II, §1218(a), Oct. 12, 1984, 98 Stat. 2167.)

Effective Date

Section effective 30 days after Oct. 12, 1984, see section 1220 of Pub. L. 98–473, set out as a note under section 3505 of this title.

§3293. Financial institution offenses

No person shall be prosecuted, tried, or punished for a violation of, or a conspiracy to violate—

(1) section 215, 656, 657, 1005, 1006, 1007, 1014, 1033, or 1344;

(2) section 1341 or 1343, if the offense affects a financial institution; or

(3) section 1963, to the extent that the racketeering activity involves a violation of section 1344;


unless the indictment is returned or the information is filed within 10 years after the commission of the offense.

(Added Pub. L. 101–73, title IX, §961(l)(1), Aug. 9, 1989, 103 Stat. 501; amended Pub. L. 101–647, title XXV, §2505(a), Nov. 29, 1990, 104 Stat. 4862; Pub. L. 103–322, title XXXII, §320604(b), title XXXIII, §330002(e), Sept. 13, 1994, 108 Stat. 2119, 2140.)

Amendments

1994—Par. (1). Pub. L. 103–322 struck out “1008,” after “1007,” and inserted “1033,” after “1014,”.

1990—Par. (3). Pub. L. 101–647 added par. (3).

Effective Date of 1990 Amendment

Section 2505(b) of Pub. L. 101–647 provided that: “The amendments made by subsection (a) [amending this section] shall apply to any offense committed before the date of the enactment of this section [Nov. 29, 1990], if the statute of limitations applicable to that offense had not run as of such date.”

Effect of This Section on Offenses for Which Prior Period of Limitations Had Not Run

Section 961(l)(3) of Pub. L. 101–73 provided that: “The amendments made by this subsection [enacting this section] shall apply to an offense committed before the effective date of this section [Aug. 9, 1989], if the statute of limitations applicable to that offense under this chapter had not run as of such date.”

§3294. Theft of major artwork

No person shall be prosecuted, tried, or punished for a violation of or conspiracy to violate section 668 unless the indictment is returned or the information is filed within 20 years after the commission of the offense.

(Added Pub. L. 103–322, title XXXII, §320902(b), Sept. 13, 1994, 108 Stat. 2124.)

§3295. Arson offenses

No person shall be prosecuted, tried, or punished for any non-capital offense under section 81 or subsection (f), (h), or (i) of section 844 unless the indictment is found or the information is instituted not later than 10 years after the date on which the offense was committed.

(Added Pub. L. 104–132, title VII, §708(c)(1), Apr. 24, 1996, 110 Stat. 1297.)

§3296. Counts dismissed pursuant to a plea agreement

(a) In General.—Notwithstanding any other provision of this chapter, any counts of an indictment or information that are dismissed pursuant to a plea agreement shall be reinstated by the District Court if—

(1) the counts sought to be reinstated were originally filed within the applicable limitations period;

(2) the counts were dismissed pursuant to a plea agreement approved by the District Court under which the defendant pled guilty to other charges;

(3) the guilty plea was subsequently vacated on the motion of the defendant; and

(4) the United States moves to reinstate the dismissed counts within 60 days of the date on which the order vacating the plea becomes final.


(b) Defenses; Objections.—Nothing in this section shall preclude the District Court from considering any defense or objection, other than statute of limitations, to the prosecution of the counts reinstated under subsection (a).

(Added Pub. L. 107–273, div. B, title III, §3003(a), Nov. 2, 2002, 116 Stat. 1805.)

§3297. Cases involving DNA evidence

In a case in which DNA testing implicates an identified person in the commission of a felony, no statute of limitations that would otherwise preclude prosecution of the offense shall preclude such prosecution until a period of time following the implication of the person by DNA testing has elapsed that is equal to the otherwise applicable limitation period.

(Added Pub. L. 108–405, title II, §204(a), Oct. 30, 2004, 118 Stat. 2271; amended Pub. L. 109–162, title X, §1005, Jan. 5, 2006, 119 Stat. 3086.)

Amendments

2006—Pub. L. 109–162 struck out “except for a felony offense under chapter 109A,” before “no statute of limitations”.

Effective Date

Pub. L. 108–405, title II, §204(c), Oct. 30, 2004, 118 Stat. 2271, provided that: “The amendments made by this section [enacting this section] shall apply to the prosecution of any offense committed before, on, or after the date of the enactment of this section [Oct. 30, 2004] if the applicable limitation period has not yet expired.”

§3298. Trafficking-related offenses

No person shall be prosecuted, tried, or punished for any non-capital offense or conspiracy to commit a non-capital offense under section 1581 (Peonage; Obstructing Enforcement), 1583 (Enticement into Slavery), 1584 (Sale into Involuntary Servitude), 1589 (Forced Labor), 1590 (Trafficking with Respect to Peonage, Slavery, Involuntary Servitude, or Forced Labor), or 1592 (Unlawful Conduct with Respect to Documents in furtherance of Trafficking, Peonage, Slavery, Involuntary Servitude, or Forced Labor) of this title or under section 274(a) of the Immigration and Nationality Act unless the indictment is found or the information is instituted not later than 10 years after the commission of the offense.

(Added Pub. L. 109–162, title XI, §1182(a), Jan. 5, 2006, 119 Stat. 3126.)

References in Text

Section 274(a) of the Immigration and Nationality Act, referred to in text, is classified to section 1324(a) of Title 8, Aliens and Nationality.

§3299. Child abduction and sex offenses

Notwithstanding any other law, an indictment may be found or an information instituted at any time without limitation for any offense under section 1201 involving a minor victim, and for any felony under chapter 109A, 110 (except for section 1 2257 and 2257A), or 117, or section 1591.

(Added Pub. L. 109–248, title II, §211(1), July 27, 2006, 120 Stat. 616.)

1 So in original. Probably should be “sections”.

§3300. Recruitment or use of child soldiers

No person may be prosecuted, tried, or punished for a violation of section 2442 unless the indictment or the information is filed not later than 10 years after the commission of the offense.

(Added Pub. L. 110–340, §2(a)(2), Oct. 3, 2008, 122 Stat. 3736.)

§3301. Securities fraud offenses

(a) Definition.—In this section, the term “securities fraud offense” means a violation of, or a conspiracy or an attempt to violate—

(1) section 1348;

(2) section 32(a) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 (15 U.S.C. 78ff(a));

(3) section 24 of the Securities Act of 1933 (15 U.S.C. 77x);

(4) section 217 of the Investment Advisers Act of 1940 (15 U.S.C. 80b–17);

(5) section 49 of the Investment Company Act of 1940 (15 U.S.C. 80a–48); or

(6) section 325 of the Trust Indenture Act of 1939 (15 U.S.C. 77yyy).


(b) Limitation.—No person shall be prosecuted, tried, or punished for a securities fraud offense, unless the indictment is found or the information is instituted within 6 years after the commission of the offense.

(Added Pub. L. 111–203, title X, §1079A(b)(1), July 21, 2010, 124 Stat. 2079.)

Effective Date

Section effective 1 day after July 21, 2010, except as otherwise provided, see section 4 of Pub. L. 111–203, set out as a note under section 5301 of Title 12, Banks and Banking.

CHAPTER 215—GRAND JURY

Sec.
3321.
Number of grand jurors; summoning additional jurors.
3322.
Disclosure of certain matters occurring before grand jury.
[3323 to 3328. Repealed.]

        

Amendments

1989—Pub. L. 101–73, title IX, §964(b), Aug. 9, 1989, 103 Stat. 506, added item 3322 “Disclosure of certain matters occurring before grand jury” and struck out former items 3322 “Number; summoning—Rule”, 3323 “Objections and motions—Rule”, 3324 “Foreman and deputy; powers and duties; records—Rule”, 3325 “Persons present at proceedings—Rule”, 3326 “Secrecy of proceedings and disclosure—Rule”, 3327 “Indictment; finding and return—Rule”, and 3328 “Discharging jury and excusing juror—Rule”.

§3321. Number of grand jurors; summoning additional jurors

Every grand jury impaneled before any district court shall consist of not less than sixteen nor more than twenty-three persons. If less than sixteen of the persons summoned attend, they shall be placed on the grand jury, and the court shall order the marshal to summon, either immediately or for a day fixed, from the body of the district, and not from the bystanders, a sufficient number of persons to complete the grand jury. Whenever a challenge to a grand juror is allowed, and there are not in attendance other jurors sufficient to complete the grand jury, the court shall make a like order to the marshal to summon a sufficient number of persons for that purpose.

(June 25, 1948, ch. 645, 62 Stat. 829.)

Historical and Revision Notes

Based on section 419 of title 28, U.S.C., 1940 ed., Judicial Code and Judiciary (Mar. 3, 1911, ch. 231, §282, 36 Stat. 1165).

The provisions of the first sentence are embodied in rule 6(a) of the Federal Rules of Criminal Procedure, but it has been retained because of its relation to the remainder of the text which is not covered by said rule.

§3322. Disclosure of certain matters occurring before grand jury

(a) A person who is privy to grand jury information—

(1) received in the course of duty as an attorney for the government; or

(2) disclosed under rule 6(e)(3)(A)(ii) of the Federal Rules of Criminal Procedure;


may disclose that information to an attorney for the government for use in enforcing section 951 of the Financial Institutions Reform, Recovery and Enforcement Act of 1989 or for use in connection with any civil forfeiture provision of Federal law.

(b)(1) Upon motion of an attorney for the government, a court may direct disclosure of matters occurring before a grand jury during an investigation of a banking law violation to identified personnel of a Federal or State financial institution regulatory agency—

(A) for use in relation to any matter within the jurisdiction of such regulatory agency; or

(B) to assist an attorney for the government to whom matters have been disclosed under subsection (a).


(2) A court may issue an order under paragraph (1) at any time during or after the completion of the investigation of the grand jury, upon a finding of a substantial need.

(c) A person to whom matter has been disclosed under this section shall not use such matter other than for the purpose for which such disclosure was authorized.

(d) As used in this section—

(1) the term “banking law violation” means a violation of, or a conspiracy to violate—

(A) section 215, 656, 657, 1005, 1006, 1007, 1014, 1344, 1956, or 1957;

(B) section 1341 or 1343 affecting a financial institution; or

(C) any provision of subchapter II of chapter 53 of title 31, United States Code;


(2) the term “attorney for the government” has the meaning given such term in the Federal Rules of Criminal Procedure; and

(3) the term “grand jury information” means matters occurring before a grand jury other than the deliberations of the grand jury or the vote of any grand juror.

(Added Pub. L. 101–73, title IX, §964(a), Aug. 9, 1989, 103 Stat. 505; amended Pub. L. 106–102, title VII, §740, Nov. 12, 1999, 113 Stat. 1480; Pub. L. 106–185, §10, Apr. 25, 2000, 114 Stat. 217; Pub. L. 107–273, div. C, title I, §11002, Nov. 2, 2002, 116 Stat. 1816.)

References in Text

Section 951 of the Financial Institutions Reform, Recovery and Enforcement Act of 1989, referred to in subsec. (a), is classified to section 1833a of Title 12, Banks and Banking.

The Federal Rules of Criminal Procedure, referred to in subsecs. (a)(2) and (d)(2), are set out in the Appendix to this title.

Prior Provisions

A prior section 3322, act June 25, 1948, ch. 645, 62 Stat. 829, related to the summoning of and number of grand jurors, prior to repeal by Pub. L. 101–73, §964(a). See Rule 6(a) of the Federal Rules of Criminal Procedure, set out in the Appendix to this title.

Amendments

2002—Subsec. (d)(1)(A). Pub. L. 107–273, §11002(1), substituted “1344, 1956, or 1957;” for “or 1344; or”.

Subsec. (d)(1)(C). Pub. L. 107–273, §11002(2), (3), added subpar. (C).

2000—Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 106–185 struck out “concerning a banking law violation” after “grand jury information” in introductory provisions and substituted “any civil forfeiture provision of Federal law” for “civil forfeiture under section 981 of title 18, United States Code, of property described in section 981(a)(1)(C) of such title” in concluding provisions.

1999—Subsec. (b)(1). Pub. L. 106–102, §740(1), inserted “Federal or State” before “financial institution” in introductory provisions.

Subsec. (b)(2). Pub. L. 106–102, §740(2), inserted “at any time during or after the completion of the investigation of the grand jury,” after “paragraph (1)”.

Effective Date of 2000 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 106–185 applicable to any forfeiture proceeding commenced on or after the date that is 120 days after Apr. 25, 2000, see section 21 of Pub. L. 106–185, set out as a note under section 1324 of Title 8, Aliens and Nationality.

[§§3323 to 3328. Repealed. Pub. L. 101–73, title IX, §964(a), Aug. 9, 1989, 103 Stat. 505]

Section 3323, act June 25, 1948, ch. 645, 62 Stat. 829, related to challenging the array of grand jurors or individual grand jurors and motions to dismiss. See Rule 6(b) of the Federal Rules of Criminal Procedure, set out in the Appendix to this title.

Section 3324, act June 25, 1948, ch. 645, 62 Stat. 829, related to the appointment of the grand jury foreman and deputy foreman, oaths, affirmations and indictments, and records of jurors concurring. See Rule 6(c) of the Federal Rules of Criminal Procedure, set out in the Appendix to this title.

Section 3325, act June 25, 1948, ch. 645, 62 Stat. 829, related to persons who may be present while the grand jury is in session, and exclusion while the jury is deliberating or voting. See Rule 6(d) of the Federal Rules of Criminal Procedure, set out in the Appendix to this title.

Section 3326, act June 25, 1948, ch. 645, 62 Stat. 829, related to disclosure of proceedings to government attorneys, disclosure by direction of the court or permission of the defendant, and secrecy of the indictment. See Rule 6(e) of the Federal Rules of Criminal Procedure, set out in the Appendix to this title.

Section 3327, act June 25, 1948, ch. 645, 62 Stat. 830, related to concurrence of 12 or more jurors in the indictment and return of the indictment to the judge in open court. See Rule 6(f) of the Federal Rules of Criminal Procedure, set out in the Appendix to this title.

Section 3328, act June 25, 1948, ch. 645, 62 Stat. 830, related to discharge of grand jury by court, limitation of service, and excusing jurors for cause. See Rule 6(g) of the Federal Rules of Criminal Procedure, set out in the Appendix to this title.

CHAPTER 216—SPECIAL GRAND JURY

Sec.
3331.
Summoning and term.
3332.
Powers and duties.
3333.
Reports.
3334.
General provisions.

        

Amendments

1970—Pub. L. 91–452, title I, §101(a), Oct. 15, 1970, 84 Stat. 923, added chapter 216 and items 3331 to 3334.

National Commission on Individual Rights

Pub. L. 91–452, title XII, §§1201–1211, Oct. 15, 1970, 84 Stat. 960, 961, established the National Commission on Individual Rights to conduct a comprehensive study and review of Federal laws and practices relating to special grand juries authorized under chapter 216 of this title, dangerous special offender sentencing under section 3575 of this title, wiretapping and electronic surveillance, bail reform and preventive detention, no-knock search warrants, the accumulation of data on individuals by Federal agencies as authorized by law or acquired by executive action, and other practices which in its opinion might infringe upon the individual rights of the people of the United States. The Commission was required to make interim reports at least every two years and a final report to the President and Congress six years after Jan. 1, 1972, and was to cease to exist 60 days after submission of the final report.

§3331. Summoning and term

(a) In addition to such other grand juries as shall be called from time to time, each district court which is located in a judicial district containing more than four million inhabitants or in which the Attorney General, the Deputy Attorney General, the Associate Attorney General, or any designated Assistant Attorney General, certifies in writing to the chief judge of the district that in his judgment a special grand jury is necessary because of criminal activity in the district shall order a special grand jury to be summoned at least once in each period of eighteen months unless another special grand jury is then serving. The grand jury shall serve for a term of eighteen months unless an order for its discharge is entered earlier by the court upon a determination of the grand jury by majority vote that its business has been completed. If, at the end of such term or any extension thereof, the district court determines the business of the grand jury has not been completed, the court may enter an order extending such term for an additional period of six months. No special grand jury term so extended shall exceed thirty-six months, except as provided in subsection (e) of section 3333 of this chapter.

(b) If a district court within any judicial circuit fails to extend the term of a special grand jury or enters an order for the discharge of such grand jury before such grand jury determines that it has completed its business, the grand jury, upon the affirmative vote of a majority of its members, may apply to the chief judge of the circuit for an order for the continuance of the term of the grand jury. Upon the making of such an application by the grand jury, the term thereof shall continue until the entry upon such application by the chief judge of the circuit of an appropriate order. No special grand jury term so extended shall exceed thirty-six months, except as provided in subsection (e) of section 3333 of this chapter.

(Added Pub. L. 91–452, title I, §101(a), Oct. 15, 1970, 84 Stat. 923; amended Pub. L. 100–690, title VII, §7020(d), Nov. 18, 1988, 102 Stat. 4396.)

Amendments

1988—Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 100–690 inserted “, the Associate Attorney General” after “Deputy Attorney General”.

§3332. Powers and duties

(a) It shall be the duty of each such grand jury impaneled within any judicial district to inquire into offenses against the criminal laws of the United States alleged to have been committed within that district. Such alleged offenses may be brought to the attention of the grand jury by the court or by any attorney appearing on behalf of the United States for the presentation of evidence. Any such attorney receiving information concerning such an alleged offense from any other person shall, if requested by such other person, inform the grand jury of such alleged offense, the identity of such other person, and such attorney's action or recommendation.

(b) Whenever the district court determines that the volume of business of the special grand jury exceeds the capacity of the grand jury to discharge its obligations, the district court may order an additional special grand jury for that district to be impaneled.

(Added Pub. L. 91–452, title I, §101(a), Oct. 15, 1970, 84 Stat. 924.)

References in Text

The criminal laws of the United States, referred to in subsec. (a), are classified generally to this title.

§3333. Reports

(a) A special grand jury impaneled by any district court, with the concurrence of a majority of its members, may, upon completion of its original term, or each extension thereof, submit to the court a report—

(1) concerning noncriminal misconduct, malfeasance, or misfeasance in office involving organized criminal activity by an appointed public officer or employee as the basis for a recommendation of removal or disciplinary action; or

(2) regarding organized crime conditions in the district.


(b) The court to which such report is submitted shall examine it and the minutes of the special grand jury and, except as otherwise provided in subsections (c) and (d) of this section, shall make an order accepting and filing such report as a public record only if the court is satisfied that it complies with the provisions of subsection (a) of this section and that—

(1) the report is based upon facts revealed in the course of an investigation authorized by subsection (a) of section 3332 and is supported by the preponderance of the evidence; and

(2) when the report is submitted pursuant to paragraph (1) of subsection (a) of this section, each person named therein and any reasonable number of witnesses in his behalf as designated by him to the foreman of the grand jury were afforded an opportunity to testify before the grand jury prior to the filing of such report, and when the report is submitted pursuant to paragraph (2) of subsection (a) of this section, it is not critical of an identified person.


(c)(1) An order accepting a report pursuant to paragraph (1) of subsection (a) of this section and the report shall be sealed by the court and shall not be filed as a public record or be subject to subpena or otherwise made public (i) until at least thirty-one days after a copy of the order and report are served upon each public officer or employee named therein and an answer has been filed or the time for filing an answer has expired, or (ii) if an appeal is taken, until all rights of review of the public officer or employee named therein have expired or terminated in an order accepting the report. No order accepting a report pursuant to paragraph (1) of subsection (a) of this section shall be entered until thirty days after the delivery of such report to the public officer or body pursuant to paragraph (3) of subsection (c) of this section. The court may issue such orders as it shall deem appropriate to prevent unauthorized publication of a report. Unauthorized publication may be punished as contempt of the court.

(2) Such public officer or employee may file with the clerk a verified answer to such a report not later than twenty days after service of the order and report upon him. Upon a showing of good cause, the court may grant such public officer or employee an extension of time within which to file such answer and may authorize such limited publication of the report as may be necessary to prepare such answer. Such an answer shall plainly and concisely state the facts and law constituting the defense of the public officer or employee to the charges in said report, and, except for those parts thereof which the court determines to have been inserted scandalously, prejudiciously, or unnecessarily, such answer shall become an appendix to the report.

(3) Upon the expiration of the time set forth in paragraph (1) of subsection (c) of this section, the United States attorney shall deliver a true copy of such report, and the appendix, if any, for appropriate action to each public officer or body having jurisdiction, responsibility, or authority over each public officer or employee named in the report.

(d) Upon the submission of a report pursuant to subsection (a) of this section, if the court finds that the filing of such report as a public record may prejudice fair consideration of a pending criminal matter, it shall order such report sealed and such report shall not be subject to subpena or public inspection during the pendency of such criminal matter, except upon order of the court.

(e) Whenever the court to which a report is submitted pursuant to paragraph (1) of subsection (a) of this section is not satisfied that the report complies with the provisions of subsection (b) of this section, it may direct that additional testimony be taken before the same grand jury, or it shall make an order sealing such report, and it shall not be filed as a public record or be subject to subpena or otherwise made public until the provisions of subsection (b) of this section are met. A special grand jury term may be extended by the district court beyond thirty-six months in order that such additional testimony may be taken or the provisions of subsection (b) of this section may be met.

(f) As used in this section, “public officer or employee” means any officer or employee of the United States, any State, the District of Columbia, the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico, any territory or possession of the United States, or any political subdivision, or any department, agency, or instrumentality thereof.

(Added Pub. L. 91–452, title I, §101(a), Oct. 15, 1970, 84 Stat. 924.)

§3334. General provisions

The provisions of chapter 215, title 18, United States Code, and the Federal Rules of Criminal Procedure applicable to regular grand juries shall apply to special grand juries to the extent not inconsistent with sections 3331, 3332, or 3333 of this chapter.

(Added Pub. L. 91–452, title I, §101(a), Oct. 15, 1970, 84 Stat. 926.)

CHAPTER 217—INDICTMENT AND INFORMATION

Sec.
3361.
Form and contents—Rule.
3362.
Waiver of indictment and prosecution on information—Rule.
3363.
Joinder of offenses—Rule.
3364.
Joinder of defendants—Rule.
3365.
Amendment of information—Rule.
3366.
Bill of particulars—Rule.
3367.
Dismissal—Rule.

        

§3361. Form and contents—(Rule)

See Federal Rules of Criminal Procedure

Contents and form; striking surplusage, Rule 7(a), (c), (d).

(June 25, 1948, ch. 645, 62 Stat. 830.)

§3362. Waiver of indictment and prosecution on information—(Rule)

See Federal Rules of Criminal Procedure

Waiver of indictment for offenses not punishable by death, Rule 7(b).

(June 25, 1948, ch. 645, 62 Stat. 830.)

§3363. Joinder of offenses—(Rule)

See Federal Rules of Criminal Procedure

Joinder of two or more offenses in same indictment, Rule 8(a).

Trial together of indictments or informations, Rule 13.

(June 25, 1948, ch. 645, 62 Stat. 830.)

§3364. Joinder of defendants—(Rule)

See Federal Rules of Criminal Procedure

Joinder of two or more defendants charged in same indictment, Rule 8(b).

Relief from prejudicial joinder, Rule 14.

(June 25, 1948, ch. 645, 62 Stat. 830.)

§3365. Amendment of information—(Rule)

See Federal Rules of Criminal Procedure

Amendment of information, time and conditions, Rule 7(e).

(June 25, 1948, ch. 645, 62 Stat. 830.)

§3366. Bill of particulars—(Rule)

See Federal Rules of Criminal Procedure

Bill of particulars for cause; motion after arraignment; time; amendment, Rule 7(f).

(June 25, 1948, ch. 645, 62 Stat. 830.)

§3367. Dismissal—(Rule)

See Federal Rules of Criminal Procedure

Dismissal filed by Attorney General or United States Attorney, Rule 48.

Dismissal on objection to array of grand jury or lack of legal qualification of individual grand juror, Rule 6(b)(2).

(June 25, 1948, ch. 645, 62 Stat. 830.)

CHAPTER 219—TRIAL BY UNITED STATES MAGISTRATE JUDGES

Sec.
3401.
Misdemeanors; application of probation laws.
3402.
Rules of procedure, practice and appeal.

        

Amendments

1979—Pub. L. 96–82, §7(c), Oct. 10, 1979, 93 Stat. 646, substituted “Misdemeanors” for “Minor offenses” in item 3401.

1968—Pub. L. 90–578, title III, §§301(c), 302(c), Oct. 17, 1968, 82 Stat. 1115, 1116, substituted “TRIAL BY UNITED STATES MAGISTRATES” for “TRIAL BY COMMISSIONERS” in chapter heading, and substituted “Minor offenses” for “Petty offenses” and struck out “fees” after “probation laws” in item 3401.

Change of Name

“UNITED STATES MAGISTRATE JUDGES” substituted for “UNITED STATES MAGISTRATES” in chapter heading pursuant to section 321 of Pub. L. 101–650, set out as a note under section 631 of Title 28, Judiciary and Judicial Procedure.

§3401. Misdemeanors; application of probation laws

(a) When specially designated to exercise such jurisdiction by the district court or courts he serves, any United States magistrate judge shall have jurisdiction to try persons accused of, and sentence persons convicted of, misdemeanors committed within that judicial district.

(b) Any person charged with a misdemeanor, other than a petty offense may elect, however, to be tried before a district judge for the district in which the offense was committed. The magistrate judge shall carefully explain to the defendant that he has a right to trial, judgment, and sentencing by a district judge and that he may have a right to trial by jury before a district judge or magistrate judge. The magistrate judge may not proceed to try the case unless the defendant, after such explanation, expressly consents to be tried before the magistrate judge and expressly and specifically waives trial, judgment, and sentencing by a district judge. Any such consent and waiver shall be made in writing or orally on the record.

(c) A magistrate judge who exercises trial jurisdiction under this section, and before whom a person is convicted or pleads either guilty or nolo contendere, may, with the approval of a judge of the district court, direct the probation service of the court to conduct a presentence investigation on that person and render a report to the magistrate judge prior to the imposition of sentence.

(d) The probation laws shall be applicable to persons tried by a magistrate judge under this section, and such officer shall have power to grant probation and to revoke, modify, or reinstate the probation of any person granted probation by a magistrate judge.

(e) Proceedings before United States magistrate judges under this section shall be taken down by a court reporter or recorded by suitable sound recording equipment. For purposes of appeal a copy of the record of such proceedings shall be made available at the expense of the United States to a person who makes affidavit that he is unable to pay or give security therefor, and the expense of such copy shall be paid by the Director of the Administrative Office of the United States Courts.

(f) The district court may order that proceedings in any misdemeanor case be conducted before a district judge rather than a United States magistrate judge upon the court's own motion or, for good cause shown, upon petition by the attorney for the Government. Such petition should note the novelty, importance, or complexity of the case, or other pertinent factors, and be filed in accordance with regulations promulgated by the Attorney General.

(g) The magistrate judge may, in a petty offense case involving a juvenile, exercise all powers granted to the district court under chapter 403 of this title. The magistrate judge may, in the case of any misdemeanor, other than a petty offense, involving a juvenile in which consent to trial before a magistrate judge has been filed under subsection (b), exercise all powers granted to the district court under chapter 403 of this title. For purposes of this subsection, proceedings under chapter 403 of this title may be instituted against a juvenile by a violation notice or complaint, except that no such case may proceed unless the certification referred to in section 5032 of this title has been filed in open court at the arraignment.

(h) The magistrate judge shall have power to modify, revoke, or terminate supervised release of any person sentenced to a term of supervised release by a magistrate judge.

(i) A district judge may designate a magistrate judge to conduct hearings to modify, revoke, or terminate supervised release, including evidentiary hearings, and to submit to the judge proposed findings of fact and recommendations for such modification, revocation, or termination by the judge, including, in the case of revocation, a recommended disposition under section 3583(e) of this title. The magistrate judge shall file his or her proposed findings and recommendations.

(June 25, 1948, ch. 645, 62 Stat. 830; Pub. L. 85–508, §12(j), July 7, 1958, 72 Stat. 348; Pub. L. 90–578, title III, §302(a), Oct. 17, 1968, 82 Stat. 1115; Pub. L. 96–82, §7(a), (b), Oct. 10, 1979, 93 Stat. 645, 646; Pub. L. 98–473, title II, §223(j), Oct. 12, 1984, 98 Stat. 2029; Pub. L. 100–690, title VII, §7072(a), Nov. 18, 1988, 102 Stat. 4405; Pub. L. 101–650, title III, §321, Dec. 1, 1990, 104 Stat. 5117; Pub. L. 102–572, title I, §103, Oct. 29, 1992, 106 Stat. 4507; Pub. L. 104–317, title II, §202(a), Oct. 19, 1996, 110 Stat. 3848; Pub. L. 106–518, title II, §203(a), Nov. 13, 2000, 114 Stat. 2414.)

Historical and Revision Notes

Based on title 18, U.S.C., 1940 ed., §§576, 576b, 576c, 576d (Oct. 9, 1940, ch. 785, §§1, 3–5, 54 Stat. 1058, 1059).

The phrase “the commissioner shall have power to grant probation” was inserted in paragraph (c) in order to make clear the authority of the commissioner to grant probation without application to the District judge.

Four sections were consolidated herein with minor rearrangements and deletion of unnecessary words.

Amendments

2000—Subsec. (b). Pub. L. 106–518, §203(a)(1), struck out “that is a class B misdemeanor charging a motor vehicle offense, a class C misdemeanor, or an infraction,” after “petty offense”.

Subsec. (g). Pub. L. 106–518, §203(a)(2), substituted first sentence for former first sentence which read: “The magistrate judge may, in a petty offense case involving a juvenile, that is a class B misdemeanor charging a motor vehicle offense, a class C misdemeanor, or an infraction, exercise all powers granted to the district court under chapter 403 of this title.”, substituted “the case of any misdemeanor, other than a petty offense,” for “any other class B or C misdemeanor case” in second sentence, and struck out at end “No term of imprisonment shall be imposed by the magistrate in any such case.”

1996—Subsec. (b). Pub. L. 104–317, §202(a)(1), inserted “, other than a petty offense that is a class B misdemeanor charging a motor vehicle offense, a class C misdemeanor, or an infraction,” after “misdemeanor”, substituted “tried before a district judge” for “tried before a judge of the district court” and “by a district judge” for “by a judge of the district court”, substituted “magistrate judge” for “magistrate” in two places, and substituted “The magistrate judge may not proceed to try the case unless the defendant, after such explanation, expressly consents to be tried before the magistrate judge and expressly and specifically waives trial, judgment, and sentencing by a district judge. Any such consent and waiver shall be made in writing or orally on the record.” for “The magistrate shall not proceed to try the case unless the defendant, after such explanation, files a written consent to be tried before the magistrate that specifically waives trial, judgment, and sentencing by a judge of the district court.”

Subsec. (g). Pub. L. 104–317, §202(a)(2), substituted “The magistrate judge may, in a petty offense case involving a juvenile, that is a class B misdemeanor charging a motor vehicle offense, a class C misdemeanor, or an infraction, exercise all powers granted to the district court under chapter 403 of this title. The magistrate judge may, in any other class B or C misdemeanor case involving a juvenile in which consent to trial before a magistrate judge has been filed under subsection (b), exercise all powers granted to the district court under chapter 403 of this title.” for “The magistrate may, in a Class B or C misdemeanor case, or infraction case, involving a juvenile in which consent to trial before a magistrate has been filed under subsection (b) of this section, exercise all powers granted to the district court under chapter 403 of this title.”

1992—Subsec. (d). Pub. L. 102–572, §103(1), substituted “and to revoke, modify, or reinstate the probation of any person granted probation by a magistrate judge” for “and to revoke or reinstate the probation of any person granted probation by him”.

Subsecs. (h), (i). Pub. L. 102–572, §103(2), added subsecs. (h) and (i).

1988—Subsec. (g). Amendment by Pub. L. 100–690 directing that “and section 4216” be struck out after “under chapter 402” in subsec. (g), was executed to subsec. (g) applicable to offenses committed prior to Nov. 1, 1987, as the probable intent of Congress, in view of the amendment by section 223(j) of Pub. L. 98–473. See 1984 Amendment notes below.

1984—Subsecs. (g), (h). Pub. L. 98–473, §223(j)(1), redesignated subsec. (h) as (g) and struck out former subsec. (g) which related to powers of magistrate in case involving youthful offender. Former subsec. (g), as amended by Pub. L. 100–690, read as follows: “The magistrate may, in a case involving a youth offender in which consent to trial before a magistrate has been filed under subsection (b) of this section, impose sentence and exercise the other powers granted to the district court under chapter 402 of this title, except that—

“(1) the magistrate may not sentence the youth offender to the custody of the Attorney General pursuant to such chapter for a period in excess of 1 year for conviction of a misdemeanor or 6 months for conviction of a petty offense;

“(2) such youth offender shall be released conditionally under supervision no later than 3 months before the expiration of the term imposed by the magistrate, and shall be discharged unconditionally on or before the expiration of the maximum sentence imposed; and

“(3) the magistrate may not suspend the imposition of sentence and place the youth offender on probation for a period in excess of 1 year for conviction of a misdemeanor or 6 months for conviction of a petty offense.”

Pub. L. 98–473, §223(j)(2), which directed amendment of subsec. (h) by substituting reference to Class B or C misdemeanor case or an infraction case, for reference to petty offense case, was executed to subsec. (g) as the probable intent of Congress in view of redesignation of subsec. (h) as (g) by section 223(j)(1) of Pub. L. 98–473, see above.

1979—Pub. L. 96–82, §7(b), substituted “Misdemeanors” for “Minor offenses” in section catchline.

Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 96–82, §7(a)(1), substituted “any United States magistrate shall have jurisdiction to try persons accused of, and sentence persons convicted of, misdemeanors committed” for “and under such conditions as may be imposed by the terms of the special designation, any United States magistrate shall have jurisdiction to try persons accused of, and sentence persons convicted of, minor offenses committed”.

Subsec. (b). Pub. L. 96–82, §7(a)(2), substituted reference to persons charged with misdemeanors for reference to persons charged with minor offenses, substituted reference to right to trial, judgment, and sentencing for reference to right to trial, and struck out provisions relating to the waiver of the right to a trial by jury.

Subsec. (f). Pub. L. 96–82, §7(a)(3), substituted provisions authorizing the district court to order misdemeanor proceedings to be conducted before a district court judge for provisions defining term “minor offenses”.

Subsecs. (g), (h). Pub. L. 96–82, §7(a)(4), added subsecs. (g) and (h).

1968—Pub. L. 90–578 substituted “Minor offenses” for “Petty offenses” and struck out provision for “fees” in section catchline.

Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 90–578 provided for trial by a magistrate rather than a commissioner of minor offenses instead of petty offenses, under such conditions as may be imposed by the terms of the special designation, required imposition of sentence after conviction instead of sentencing of person committing the offense, and omitted provision for trial of offense committed in any place over which the Congress has exclusive power to legislate or over which the United States has concurrent jurisdiction.

Subsec. (b). Pub. L. 90–578 provided that the person be charged with a minor offense rather than a petty offense, prescribed trial in district court for the district in which the offense was committed, and required an explanation to be given of right to trial before a district court judge with right to jury trial before such judge and that the written consent to trial before the magistrate specifically waive trial before the district court judge and any right to a jury trial.

Subsec. (c). Pub. L. 90–578 substituted authorization for magistrate to conduct presentence investigation for prior provisions making probation laws applicable to persons tried by commissioners having power to grant probation, now incorporated in subsec. (d) of this section.

Subsec. (d). Pub. L. 90–578 incorporated existing provisions of former subsec. (c) of this section in provisions designated as subsec. (d), substituted “magistrate” for “commissioner”, authorized revocation or reinstatement of probation by the officer granting the probation, and struck out former provision for receipt of fees provided by law for services as a commissioner.

Subsec. (e). Pub. L. 90–578 substituted requirement that proceedings before magistrates be taken down by a court reporter or recorded by sound recording equipment and provision for availability of a copy of the record of such proceedings for appeal purposes to be paid by the Director at Federal expense when a person is unable to pay or give security therefor for prior provisions making the section inapplicable to the District of Columbia and interpreting it as not repealing or limiting existing jurisdiction, power or authority of commissioners appointed in the several national parks.

Subsec. (f). Pub. L. 90–578 added subsec. (f).

1958—Subsec. (e). Pub. L. 85–508 struck out provisions which related to commissioners appointed for Alaska. See section 81A of Title 28, Judiciary and Judicial Procedure, which establishes a United States District Court for the State of Alaska.

Change of Name

“United States magistrate judge”, “magistrate judge”, and “magistrate judges” substituted for “United States magistrate”, “magistrate”, and “magistrates”, respectively, in subsecs. (a), (c), (e), and (f), and “magistrate judge under” substituted for “magistrate under” in subsec. (d), pursuant to section 321 of Pub. L. 101–650, set out as a note under section 631 of Title 28, Judiciary and Judicial Procedure.

Effective Date of 1992 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 102–572 effective Jan. 1, 1993, see section 1101 of Pub. L. 102–572, set out as a note under section 905 of Title 2, The Congress.

Effective Date of 1984 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 98–473 effective Nov. 1, 1987, and applicable only to offenses committed after the taking effect of such amendment, see section 235(a)(1) of Pub. L. 98–473, set out as an Effective Date note under section 3551 of this title.

Effective Date of 1968 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 90–578 effective Oct. 17, 1968, except when a later effective date is applicable, which is the earlier of date when implementation of amendment by appointment of magistrates [now United States magistrate judges] and assumption of office takes place or third anniversary of enactment of Pub. L. 90–578 on Oct. 17, 1968, see section 403 of Pub. L. 90–578, set out as a note under section 631 of Title 28, Judiciary and Judicial Procedure.

Effective Date of 1958 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 85–508 effective Jan. 3, 1959, on admission of Alaska into the Union pursuant to Proc. No. 3269, Jan. 3, 1959, 24 F.R. 81, 73 Stat. c16, as required by sections 1 and 8(c) of Pub. L. 85–508, see notes set out under section 81A of Title 28, Judiciary and Judicial Procedure, and preceding former section 21 of Title 48, Territories and Insular Possessions.

§3402. Rules of procedure, practice and appeal 1

In all cases of conviction by a United States magistrate judge an appeal of right shall lie from the judgment of the magistrate judge to a judge of the district court of the district in which the offense was committed.

(June 25, 1948, ch. 645, 62 Stat. 831; Pub. L. 90–578, title III, §302(b), Oct. 17, 1968, 82 Stat. 1116; Pub. L. 100–702, title IV, §404(b)(2), Nov. 19, 1988, 102 Stat. 4651; Pub. L. 101–650, title III, §321, Dec. 1, 1990, 104 Stat. 5117.)

Historical and Revision Notes

Based on title 18 U.S.C., 1940 ed., §576a (Oct. 9, 1940, ch. 685, §2, 54 Stat. 1059).

Amendments

1988—Pub. L. 100–702 struck out second par. which read as follows: “The Supreme Court shall prescribe rules of procedure and practice for the trial of cases before magistrates and for taking and hearing of appeals to the judges of the district courts of the United States.”

1968—Pub. L. 90–578 provided that the appeal shall be of right, substituted “a United States magistrate”, “magistrate”, and “magistrates” for “United States commissioners”, “commissioner”, and “commissioners”, respectively, and provided that the appeals be to the judge of the district court and not to the district court and that the rules of the Supreme Court relate to appeals to the judges of the district courts rather than to the district courts.

Change of Name

“United States magistrate judge” and “magistrate judge” substituted for “United States magistrate” and “magistrate”, respectively, in text pursuant to section 321 of Pub. L. 101–650, set out as a note under section 631 of Title 28, Judiciary and Judicial Procedure.

Effective Date of 1988 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 100–702 effective Dec. 1, 1988, see section 407 of Pub. L. 100–702, set out as a note under section 2071 of Title 28, Judiciary and Judicial Procedure.

Effective Date of 1968 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 90–578 effective Oct. 17, 1968, except when a later effective date is applicable, which is the earlier of date when implementation of amendment by appointment of magistrates [now United States magistrate judges] and assumption of office takes place or third anniversary of enactment of Pub. L. 90–578 on Oct. 17, 1968, see section 403 of Pub. L. 90–578, set out as a note under section 631 of title 28, Judiciary and Judicial Procedure.

1 Section catchline was not amended to conform to change made in text by Pub. L. 100–702.

CHAPTER 221—ARRAIGNMENT, PLEAS AND TRIAL

Sec.
3431.
Term of court; power of court unaffected by expiration—Rule.
3432.
Indictment and list of jurors and witnesses for prisoner in capital cases.
3433.
Arraignment—Rule.
3434.
Presence of defendant—Rule.
3435.
Receiver of stolen property triable before or after principal.
3436.
Consolidation of indictments or informations—Rule.
3437.
Severance—Rule.
3438.
Pleas—Rule.
3439.
Demurrers and special pleas in bar or abatement abolished; relief on motion—Rule.
3440.
Defenses and objections determined on motion—Rule.
3441.
Jury; number of jurors; waiver—Rule.
3442.
Jurors, examination, peremptory challenges; alternates—Rule.
3443.
Instructions to jury—Rule.
3444.
Disability of judge—Rule.
3445.
Motion for judgment of acquittal—Rule.
3446.
New trial—Rule.

        

§3431. Term of court; power of court unaffected by expiration—(Rule)

See Federal Rules of Criminal Procedure

Expiration of term without significance in criminal cases, Rule 45(c).

(June 25, 1948, ch. 645, 62 Stat. 831.)

References in Text

Rule 45(c) of the Federal Rules of Criminal Procedure, referred to in text, was rescinded Feb. 28, 1966, eff. July 1, 1966.

§3432. Indictment and list of jurors and witnesses for prisoner in capital cases

A person charged with treason or other capital offense shall at least three entire days before commencement of trial, excluding intermediate weekends and holidays, be furnished with a copy of the indictment and a list of the veniremen, and of the witnesses to be produced on the trial for proving the indictment, stating the place of abode of each venireman and witness, except that such list of the veniremen and witnesses need not be furnished if the court finds by a preponderance of the evidence that providing the list may jeopardize the life or safety of any person.

(June 25, 1948, ch. 645, 62 Stat. 831; Pub. L. 103–322, title VI, §60025, Sept. 13, 1994, 108 Stat. 1982; Pub. L. 111–16, §3(10), May 7, 2009, 123 Stat. 1608.)

Historical and Revision Notes

Based on title 18, U.S.C., 1940 ed., §562 (R.S. §1033).

Words “or other capital offense” inserted after “treason” and “jurors” substituted for “jury”. The concluding sentence “When any person is indicted for any other capital offense, such copy of the indictment and list of the jurors and witnesses shall be delivered to him at least two entire days before the trial” was omitted. The change made by the revisers, permitting an additional day's preparation for trial in homicide, kidnapping, rape, and other capital cases seemed not unreasonable.

Words “shall be delivered to him”, at end of section, were omitted as unnecessary.

Rule 10 of the Federal Rules of Criminal Procedure requires that the defendant in every case be given a copy of the indictment or information before he is called upon to plead. Thus there is no conflict between the rule and the revised section.

Minor changes in phraseology were made.

Amendments

2009—Pub. L. 111–16 inserted “, excluding intermediate weekends and holidays,” after “commencement of trial”.

1994—Pub. L. 103–322 inserted before period at end “, except that such list of the veniremen and witnesses need not be furnished if the court finds by a preponderance of the evidence that providing the list may jeopardize the life or safety of any person”.

Effective Date of 2009 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 111–16 effective Dec. 1, 2009, see section 7 of Pub. L. 111–16, set out as a note under section 109 of Title 11, Bankruptcy.

§3433. Arraignment—(Rule)

See Federal Rules of Criminal Procedure

Reading and furnishing copy of indictment to accused, Rule 10.

(June 25, 1948, ch. 645, 62 Stat. 831.)

§3434. Presence of defendant—(Rule)

See Federal Rules of Criminal Procedure

Right of defendant to be present generally; corporation; waiver, Rule 43.

(June 25, 1948, ch. 645, 62 Stat. 831.)

§3435. Receiver of stolen property triable before or after principal

A person charged with receiving or concealing stolen property may be tried either before or after the trial of the principal offender.

(June 25, 1948, ch. 645, 62 Stat. 831.)

Historical and Revision Notes

Based on title 18, U.S.C., 1940 ed., §§101, 467 (Mar. 4, 1909, ch. 321, §§48, 288, 35 Stat. 1098, 1145).

Other provisions of sections 101 and 467 of title 18, U.S.C., 1940 ed., were incorporated in sections 641 and 662 of this title.

Necessary changes were made in phraseology.

§3436. Consolidation of indictments or informations—(Rule)

See Federal Rules of Criminal Procedure

Two or more indictments or informations triable together, Rule 13.

(June 25, 1948, ch. 645, 62 Stat. 832.)

§3437. Severance—(Rule)

See Federal Rules of Criminal Procedure

Relief from prejudicial joinder of defendants or offenses, Rule 14.

(June 25, 1948, ch. 645, 62 Stat. 832.)

§3438. Pleas—(Rule)

See Federal Rules of Criminal Procedure

Plea of guilty, not guilty, or nolo contendere; acceptance by court; refusal to plead; corporation failing to appear, Rule 11.

Withdrawal of plea of guilty, Rule 32.

(June 25, 1948, ch. 645, 62 Stat. 832.)

§3439. Demurrers and special pleas in bar or abatement abolished; relief on motion—(Rule)

See Federal Rules of Criminal Procedure

Motion to dismiss or for appropriate relief substituted for demurrer or dilatory plea or motion to quash, Rule 12.

(June 25, 1948, ch. 645, 62 Stat. 832.)

§3440. Defenses and objections determined on motion—(Rule)

See Federal Rules of Criminal Procedure

Defenses or objections which may or must be raised before trial; time; hearing; effect of determination; limitations by law unaffected, Rule 12(b).

(June 25, 1948, ch. 645, 62 Stat. 832.)

§3441. Jury; number of jurors; waiver—(Rule)

See Federal Rules of Criminal Procedure

Jury trial, waiver, twelve jurors or less by written stipulation, trial by court on general or special findings, Rule 23.

(June 25, 1948, ch. 645, 62 Stat. 832.)

§3442. Jurors, examination, peremptory challenges; alternates—(Rule)

See Federal Rules of Criminal Procedure

Examination and peremptory challenges of trial jurors; alternate jurors, Rule 24.

(June 25, 1948, ch. 645, 62 Stat. 832.)

§3443. Instructions to jury—(Rule)

See Federal Rules of Criminal Procedure

Court's instructions to jury, written requests and copies, objections, Rule 30.

(June 25, 1948, ch. 645, 62 Stat. 832.)

§3444. Disability of judge—(Rule)

See Federal Rules of Criminal Procedure

Disability of judge after verdict or finding of guilt, Rule 25.

(June 25, 1948, ch. 645, 62 Stat. 832.)

§3445. Motion for judgment of acquittal—(Rule)

See Federal Rules of Criminal Procedure

Motions for directed verdict abolished.

Motions for judgment of acquittal adopted; court may reserve decision; renewal, Rule 29.

(June 25, 1948, ch. 645, 62 Stat. 832.)

§3446. New trial—(Rule)

See Federal Rules of Criminal Procedure

Granting of new trial, grounds, and motion, Rule 33.

(June 25, 1948, ch. 645, 62 Stat. 832.)

CHAPTER 223—WITNESSES AND EVIDENCE

Sec.
3481.
Competency of accused.
3482.
Evidence and witnesses—Rule.
3483.
Indigent defendants, process to produce evidence—Rule.
3484.
Subpoenas—Rule.
3485.
Expert witnesses—Rule.
3486.
Administrative subpoenas.
[3486A.
Repealed.]
3487.
Refusal to pay as evidence of embezzlement.
3488.
Intoxicating liquor in Indian country as evidence of unlawful introduction.
3489.
Discovery and inspection—Rule.
3490.
Official record or entry—Rule.
3491.
Foreign documents.
3492.
Commission to consular officers to authenticate foreign documents.
3493.
Deposition to authenticate foreign documents.
3494.
Certification of genuineness of foreign document.
3495.
Fees and expenses of consuls, counsel, interpreters and witnesses.
3496.
Regulations by President as to commissions, fees of witnesses, counsel and interpreters.
3497.
Account as evidence of embezzlement.
3498.
Depositions—Rule.
3499.
Contempt of court by witness—Rule.
3500.
Demands for production of statements and reports of witnesses.
3501.
Admissibility of confessions.
3502.
Admissibility in evidence of eye witness testimony.
[3503.
Repealed.]
3504.
Litigation concerning sources of evidence.
3505.
Foreign records of regularly conducted activity.
3506.
Service of papers filed in opposition to official request by United States to foreign government for criminal evidence.
3507.
Special master at foreign deposition.
3508.
Custody and return of foreign witnesses.
3509.
Child victims’ and child witnesses’ rights.
3510.
Rights of victims to attend and observe trial.
3511.
Judicial review of requests for information.
3512.
Foreign requests for assistance in criminal investigations and prosecutions.

        

Amendments

2009—Pub. L. 111–79, §2(5), Oct. 19, 2009, 123 Stat. 2089, added item 3512.

2006—Pub. L. 109–177, title I, §115(1), Mar. 9, 2006, 120 Stat. 211, added item 3511.

2002—Pub. L. 107–273, div. B, title IV, §4002(c)(3)(B), Nov. 2, 2002, 116 Stat. 1809, struck out item 3503 “Depositions to preserve testimony”.

2000—Pub. L. 106–544, §5(b)(2), (3), Dec. 19, 2000, 114 Stat. 2718, struck out “in Federal health care investigations” after “subpoenas” in item 3486 and struck out item 3486A “Administrative subpoenas in cases involving child abuse and child sexual exploitation”.

1998—Pub. L. 105–314, title VI, §606(b), Oct. 30, 1998, 112 Stat. 2985, added items 3486 and 3486A and struck out former item 3486 “Authorized investigative demand procedures”.

1997—Pub. L. 105–6, §2(b), Mar. 19, 1997, 111 Stat. 12, added item 3510.

1996—Pub. L. 104–294, title VI, §604(a)(4), Oct. 11, 1996, 110 Stat. 3506, substituted “victims’ ” for “Victims’ ” in item 3509.

Pub. L. 104–191, title II, §248(b), Aug. 21, 1996, 110 Stat. 2019, added item 3486.

1994—Pub. L. 103–322, title XXXIII, §330002(j), Sept. 13, 1994, 108 Stat. 2140, added item 3509.

1988—Pub. L. 100–690, title VI, §6484(b), Nov. 18, 1988, 102 Stat. 4384, added item 3508.

1984—Pub. L. 98–473, title II, §1217(b), Oct. 12, 1984, 98 Stat. 2166, added items 3505, 3506, and 3507.

1970—Pub. L. 91–452, title II, §228(b), title VI, §601(b), title VII, §702(b), Oct. 15, 1970, 84 Stat. 930, 935, 936, added items 3503 and 3504, and struck out item 3486 “Compelled testimony tending to incriminate witnesses; immunity”.

1968—Pub. L. 90–351, title II, §701(b), June 19, 1968, 82 Stat. 211, added items 3501 and 3502.

1957—Pub. L. 85–269, Sept. 2, 1957, 71 Stat. 596, added item 3500.

1954—Act Aug. 20, 1954, ch. 769, §2, 68 Stat. 746, rephrased item 3486.

Protected Facilities for Housing Government Witnesses

Pub. L. 91–452, title V, §§501–504, Oct. 15, 1970, 84 Stat. 933, which authorized the Attorney General to provide for the security of Government witnesses and the families of Government witnesses in legal proceedings against any person alleged to have participated in an organized criminal activity, was repealed by Pub. L. 98–473, title II, §1209(b), Oct. 12, 1984, 98 Stat. 2163, effective Oct. 1, 1984.

§3481. Competency of accused

In trial of all persons charged with the commission of offenses against the United States and in all proceedings in courts martial and courts of inquiry in any State, District, Possession or Territory, the person charged shall, at his own request, be a competent witness. His failure to make such request shall not create any presumption against him.

(June 25, 1948, ch. 645, 62 Stat. 833.)

Historical and Revision Notes

Based on section 632 of title 28, U.S.C., 1940 ed., Judicial Code and Judiciary, and section 1200, Art. 42(a), of Title 34, Navy. (Mar. 16, 1878, ch. 37, 20 Stat. 30).

Section was rewritten without change of substance.

Short Title of 1997 Amendment

Pub. L. 105–6, §1, Mar. 19, 1997, 111 Stat. 12, provided that: “This Act [enacting section 3510 of this title, amending section 3593 of this title, and enacting provisions set out as a note under section 3510 of this title] may be cited as the ‘Victim Rights Clarification Act of 1997’.”

§3482. Evidence and witnesses—(Rule)

See Federal Rules of Criminal Procedure

Competency and privileges of witnesses and admissibility of evidence governed by principles of common law, Rule 26.

(June 25, 1948, ch. 645, 62 Stat. 833.)

References in Text

Rule 26 of the Federal Rules of Criminal Procedure, referred to in text, was amended in 1972. The subject matter is covered by the Federal Rules of Evidence, set out in the Appendix to Title 28, Judiciary and Judicial Procedure.

§3483. Indigent defendants, process to produce evidence—(Rule)

See Federal Rules of Criminal Procedure

Subpoena for indigent defendants, motion, affidavit, costs, Rule 17(b).

(June 25, 1948, ch. 645, 62 Stat. 833.)

§3484. Subpoenas—(Rule)

See Federal Rules of Criminal Procedure

Form, contents and issuance of subpoena, Rule 17(a).

Service in United States, Rule 17(d), (e,1).

Service in foreign country, Rule 17(d), (e,2).

Indigent defendants, Rule 17(b).

On taking depositions, Rule 17(f).

Papers and documents, Rule 17(c).

Disobedience of subpoena as contempt of court, Rule 17(g).

(June 25, 1948, ch. 645, 62 Stat. 833.)

§3485. Expert witnesses—(Rule)

See Federal Rules of Criminal Procedure

Selection and appointment of expert witnesses by court or parties; compensation, Rule 28.

(June 25, 1948, ch. 645, 62 Stat. 833.)

References in Text

Rule 28 of the Federal Rules of Criminal Procedure, referred to in text, was amended in 1972. The subject matter of this reference is covered by Federal Rules of Evidence, set out in the Appendix to Title 28, Judiciary and Judicial Procedure.

§3486. Administrative subpoenas

(a) Authorization.—(1)(A) In any investigation of—

(i)(I) a Federal health care offense; or (II) a Federal offense involving the sexual exploitation or abuse of children, the Attorney General; or

(ii) an offense under section 871 or 879, or a threat against a person protected by the United States Secret Service under paragraph (5) or (6) of section 3056,1 if the Director of the Secret Service determines that the threat constituting the offense or the threat against the person protected is imminent, the Secretary of the Treasury,


may issue in writing and cause to be served a subpoena requiring the production and testimony described in subparagraph (B).

(B) Except as provided in subparagraph (C), a subpoena issued under subparagraph (A) may require—

(i) the production of any records or other things relevant to the investigation; and

(ii) testimony by the custodian of the things required to be produced concerning the production and authenticity of those things.


(C) A subpoena issued under subparagraph (A) with respect to a provider of electronic communication service or remote computing service, in an investigation of a Federal offense involving the sexual exploitation or abuse of children shall not extend beyond—

(i) requiring that provider to disclose the information specified in section 2703(c)(2), which may be relevant to an authorized law enforcement inquiry; or

(ii) requiring a custodian of the records of that provider to give testimony concerning the production and authentication of such records or information.


(D) As used in this paragraph, the term “Federal offense involving the sexual exploitation or abuse of children” means an offense under section 1201, 1591, 2241(c), 2242, 2243, 2251, 2251A, 2252, 2252A, 2260, 2421, 2422, or 2423, in which the victim is an individual who has not attained the age of 18 years.

(2) A subpoena under this subsection shall describe the objects required to be produced and prescribe a return date within a reasonable period of time within which the objects can be assembled and made available.

(3) The production of records relating to a Federal health care offense shall not be required under this section at any place more than 500 miles distant from the place where the subpoena for the production of such records is served. The production of things in any other case may be required from any place within the United States or subject to the laws or jurisdiction of the United States.

(4) Witnesses subpoenaed under this section shall be paid the same fees and mileage that are paid witnesses in the courts of the United States.

(5) At any time before the return date specified in the summons, the person or entity summoned may, in the United States district court for the district in which that person or entity does business or resides, petition for an order modifying or setting aside the summons, or a prohibition of disclosure ordered by a court under paragraph (6).

(6)(A) A United State 2 district court for the district in which the summons is or will be served, upon application of the United States, may issue an ex parte order that no person or entity disclose to any other person or entity (other than to an attorney in order to obtain legal advice) the existence of such summons for a period of up to 90 days.

(B) Such order may be issued on a showing that the things being sought may be relevant to the investigation and there is reason to believe that such disclosure may result in—

(i) endangerment to the life or physical safety of any person;

(ii) flight to avoid prosecution;

(iii) destruction of or tampering with evidence; or

(iv) intimidation of potential witnesses.


(C) An order under this paragraph may be renewed for additional periods of up to 90 days upon a showing that the circumstances described in subparagraph (B) continue to exist.

(7) A summons issued under this section shall not require the production of anything that would be protected from production under the standards applicable to a subpoena duces tecum issued by a court of the United States.

(8) If no case or proceeding arises from the production of records or other things pursuant to this section within a reasonable time after those records or things are produced, the agency to which those records or things were delivered shall, upon written demand made by the person producing those records or things, return them to that person, except where the production required was only of copies rather than originals.

(9) A subpoena issued under paragraph (1)(A)(i)(II) or (1)(A)(ii) may require production as soon as possible, but in no event less than 24 hours after service of the subpoena.

(10) As soon as practicable following the issuance of a subpoena under paragraph (1)(A)(ii), the Secretary of the Treasury shall notify the Attorney General of its issuance.

(b) Service.—A subpoena issued under this section may be served by any person who is at least 18 years of age and is designated in the subpoena to serve it. Service upon a natural person may be made by personal delivery of the subpoena to him. Service may be made upon a domestic or foreign corporation or upon a partnership or other unincorporated association which is subject to suit under a common name, by delivering the subpoena to an officer, to a managing or general agent, or to any other agent authorized by appointment or by law to receive service of process. The affidavit of the person serving the subpoena entered on a true copy thereof by the person serving it shall be proof of service.

(c) Enforcement.—In the case of contumacy by or refusal to obey a subpoena issued to any person, the Attorney General may invoke the aid of any court of the United States within the jurisdiction of which the investigation is carried on or of which the subpoenaed person is an inhabitant, or in which he carries on business or may be found, to compel compliance with the subpoena. The court may issue an order requiring the subpoenaed person to appear before the Attorney General to produce records, if so ordered, or to give testimony concerning the production and authentication of such records. Any failure to obey the order of the court may be punished by the court as a contempt thereof. All process in any such case may be served in any judicial district in which such person may be found.

(d) Immunity From Civil Liability.—Notwithstanding any Federal, State, or local law, any person, including officers, agents, and employees, receiving a subpoena under this section, who complies in good faith with the subpoena and thus produces the materials sought, shall not be liable in any court of any State or the United States to any customer or other person for such production or for nondisclosure of that production to the customer.

(e) Limitation on Use.—(1) Health information about an individual that is disclosed under this section may not be used in, or disclosed to any person for use in, any administrative, civil, or criminal action or investigation directed against the individual who is the subject of the information unless the action or investigation arises out of and is directly related to receipt of health care or payment for health care or action involving a fraudulent claim related to health; or if authorized by an appropriate order of a court of competent jurisdiction, granted after application showing good cause therefor.

(2) In assessing good cause, the court shall weigh the public interest and the need for disclosure against the injury to the patient, to the physician-patient relationship, and to the treatment services.

(3) Upon the granting of such order, the court, in determining the extent to which any disclosure of all or any part of any record is necessary, shall impose appropriate safeguards against unauthorized disclosure.

(Added Pub. L. 104–191, title II, §248(a), Aug. 21, 1996, 110 Stat. 2018; amended Pub. L. 105–277, div. A, §101(b) [title I, §122], Oct. 21, 1998, 112 Stat. 2681–50, 2681–72; Pub. L. 105–314, title VI, §606(a)(1), Oct. 30, 1998, 112 Stat. 2984; Pub. L. 106–544, §5(a), (b)(1), (c), Dec. 19, 2000, 114 Stat. 2716, 2718; Pub. L. 108–21, title V, §509, Apr. 30, 2003, 117 Stat. 684; Pub. L. 110–457, title II, §224(b), Dec. 23, 2008, 122 Stat. 5072.)

Prior Provisions

A prior section 3486, acts June 25, 1948, ch. 645, 62 Stat. 833; Aug. 20, 1954, ch. 769, §1, 68 Stat. 745; Aug. 28, 1965, Pub. L. 89–141, §2, 79 Stat. 581, set forth procedure for granting of immunity to witnesses compelled to testify or produce evidence in course of any Congressional investigation, or case or proceeding before any grand jury or court of the United States, involving interference with or endangering of national security or defense of the United States, prior to repeal by Pub. L. 91–452, title II, §228(a), Oct. 15, 1970, 84 Stat. 930, effective on sixtieth day following Oct. 15, 1970. See section 6001 et seq. of this title.

Amendments

2008—Subsec. (a)(1)(D). Pub. L. 110–457 inserted “1591,” after “1201,”.

2003—Subsec. (a)(1)(C)(i). Pub. L. 108–21 substituted “the information specified in section 2703(c)(2)” for “the name, address, local and long distance telephone toll billing records, telephone number or other subscriber number or identity, and length of service of a subscriber to or customer of such service and the types of services the subscriber or customer utilized”.

2000—Pub. L. 106–544, §5(b)(1), struck out “in Federal health care investigations” after “subpoenas” in section catchline.

Subsec. (a)(1). Pub. L. 106–544, §5(a)(1), amended par. (1) generally. Prior to amendment, par. (1) read as follows: “In any investigation relating to any act or activity involving a Federal health care offense, or any act or activity involving a Federal offense relating to the sexual exploitation or other abuse of children, the Attorney General or the Attorney General's designee may issue in writing and cause to be served a subpoena—

“(A) requiring the production of any records (including any books, papers, documents, electronic media, or other objects or tangible things), which may be relevant to an authorized law enforcement inquiry, that a person or legal entity may possess or have care, custody, or control; or

“(B) requiring a custodian of records to give testimony concerning the production and authentication of such records.”

Subsec. (a)(3). Pub. L. 106–544, §5(a)(2), inserted “relating to a Federal health care offense” after “production of records” and inserted at end “The production of things in any other case may be required from any place within the United States or subject to the laws or jurisdiction of the United States.”

Subsec. (a)(4). Pub. L. 106–544, §5(c)(1), substituted “subpoenaed” for “summoned”.

Subsec. (a)(5) to (10). Pub. L. 106–544, §5(a)(3), added pars. (5) to (10).

Subsec. (d). Pub. L. 106–544, §5(c)(2), substituted “subpoena” for “summons” in two places.

1998—Pub. L. 105–314 substituted “Administrative subpoenas in Federal health care investigations” for “Authorized investigative demand procedures” in section catchline.

Subsec. (a)(1). Pub. L. 105–277 inserted “or any act or activity involving a Federal offense relating to the sexual exploitation or other abuse of children,” after “health care offense,” in introductory provisions.

Transfer of Functions

For transfer of the functions, personnel, assets, and obligations of the United States Secret Service, including the functions of the Secretary of the Treasury relating thereto, to the Secretary of Homeland Security, and for treatment of related references, see sections 381, 551(d), 552(d), and 557 of Title 6, Domestic Security, and the Department of Homeland Security Reorganization Plan of November 25, 2002, as modified, set out as a note under section 542 of Title 6.

1 So in original. Probably should be section “3056(a),”.

2 So in original.

[§3486A. Repealed. Pub. L. 106–544, §5(b)(3), Dec. 19, 2000, 114 Stat. 2718]

Section, added Pub. L. 105–314, title VI, §606(a)(2), Oct. 30, 1998, 112 Stat. 2984, related to administrative subpoenas in cases involving child abuse and child sexual exploitation.

§3487. Refusal to pay as evidence of embezzlement

The refusal of any person, whether in or out of office, charged with the safe-keeping, transfer, or disbursement of the public money to pay any draft, order, or warrant, drawn upon him by the Government Accountability Office, for any public money in his hands belonging to the United States, no matter in what capacity the same may have been received, or may be held, or to transfer or disburse any such money, promptly, upon the legal requirement of any authorized officer, shall be deemed, upon the trial of any indictment against such person for embezzlement, prima facie evidence of such embezzlement.

(June 25, 1948, ch. 645, 62 Stat. 833; Pub. L. 108–271, §8(b), July 7, 2004, 118 Stat. 814.)

Historical and Revision Notes

Based on title 18, U.S.C., 1940 ed., §180 (Mar. 4, 1909, ch. 321, §94, 35 Stat. 1106; June 10, 1921, ch. 18, §304, 42 Stat. 24).

“General Accounting Office” was substituted for “proper accounting officer of the Treasury”.

Amendments

2004—Pub. L. 108–271 substituted “Government Accountability Office” for “General Accounting Office”.

§3488. Intoxicating liquor in Indian country as evidence of unlawful introduction

The possession by a person of intoxicating liquors in Indian country where the introduction is prohibited by treaty or Federal statute shall be prima facie evidence of unlawful introduction.

(June 25, 1948, ch. 645, 62 Stat. 834.)

Historical and Revision Notes

Based on section 245 of title 25, U.S.C., 1940 ed., Indians (May 18, 1916, ch. 125, §1, 39 Stat. 124).

The only change made was the insertion of the word “Indian” before “country”, to substitute specificity for generality. (See definition of “Indian country” in section 1151 of this title.)

§3489. Discovery and inspection—(Rule)

See Federal Rules of Criminal Procedure

Inspection of documents and papers taken from defendant, Rule 16.

(June 25, 1948, ch. 645, 62 Stat. 834.)

§3490. Official record or entry—(Rule)

See Federal Rules of Criminal Procedure

Proof of official record or entry as in civil actions, Rule 27.

(June 25, 1948, ch. 645, 62 Stat. 834.)

§3491. Foreign documents

Any book, paper, statement, record, account, writing, or other document, or any portion thereof, of whatever character and in whatever form, as well as any copy thereof equally with the original, which is not in the United States shall, when duly certified as provided in section 3494 of this title, be admissible in evidence in any criminal action or proceeding in any court of the United States if the court shall find, from all the testimony taken with respect to such foreign document pursuant to a commission executed under section 3492 of this title, that such document (or the original thereof in case such document is a copy) satisfies the authentication requirements of the Federal Rules of Evidence, unless in the event that the genuineness of such document is denied, any party to such criminal action or proceeding making such denial shall establish to the satisfaction of the court that such document is not genuine. Nothing contained herein shall be deemed to require authentication under the provisions of section 3494 of this title of any such foreign documents which may otherwise be properly authenticated by law.

(June 25, 1948, ch. 645, 62 Stat. 834; May 24, 1949, ch. 139, §52, 63 Stat. 96; Pub. L. 88–619, §2, Oct. 3, 1964, 78 Stat. 995; Pub. L. 94–149, §3, Dec. 12, 1975, 89 Stat. 806.)

Historical and Revision Notes

1948 Act

Based on section 695a of title 28, U.S.C., 1940 ed., Judicial Code and Judiciary (June 20, 1936, ch. 640, §2, 49 Stat. 1562.)

1949 Act

This section [section 52] corrects section 3491 of title 18, U.S.C., so that the references therein will be to the correct section numbers in title 28, U.S.C., as revised and enacted in 1948.

References in Text

The Federal Rules of Evidence, referred to in text, are set out in the Appendix to Title 28, Judiciary and Judicial Procedure.

Amendments

1975—Pub. L. 94–149 substituted “the authentication requirements of the Federal Rules of Evidence” for “the requirements of section 1732 of Title 28”.

1964—Pub. L. 88–619 struck out “and section 1741 of Title 28” after “section 3494 of this title” in two places.

1949—Act May 24, 1949, substituted “section 1741” for “section 695e” and “section 1732” for “section 695” wherever appearing.

§3492. Commission to consular officers to authenticate foreign documents

(a) The testimony of any witness in a foreign country may be taken either on oral or written interrogatories, or on interrogatories partly oral and partly written, pursuant to a commission issued, as hereinafter provided, for the purpose of determining whether any foreign documents sought to be used in any criminal action or proceeding in any court of the United States are genuine, and whether the authentication requirements of the Federal Rules of Evidence are satisfied with respect to any such document (or the original thereof in case such document is a copy). Application for the issuance of a commission for such purpose may be made to the court in which such action or proceeding is pending by the United States or any other party thereto, after five days’ notice in writing by the applicant party, or his attorney, to the opposite party, or his attorney of record, which notice shall state the names and addresses of witnesses whose testimony is to be taken and the time when it is desired to take such testimony. In granting such application the court shall issue a commission for the purpose of taking the testimony sought by the applicant addressed to any consular officer of the United States conveniently located for the purpose. In cases of testimony taken on oral or partly oral interrogatories, the court shall make provisions in the commission for the selection as hereinafter provided of foreign counsel to represent each party (except the United States) to the criminal action or proceeding in which the foreign documents in question are to be used, unless such party has, prior to the issuance of the commission, notified the court that he does not desire the selection of foreign counsel to represent him at the time of taking of such testimony. In cases of testimony taken on written interrogatories, such provision shall be made only upon the request of any such party prior to the issuance of such commission. Selection of foreign counsel shall be made by the party whom such foreign counsel is to represent within ten days prior to the taking of testimony or by the court from which the commission issued, upon the request of such party made within such time.

(b) Any consular officer to whom a commission is addressed to take testimony, who is interested in the outcome of the criminal action or proceeding in which the foreign documents in question are to be used or has participated in the prosecution of such action or proceeding, whether by investigations, preparation of evidence, or otherwise, may be disqualified on his own motion or on that of the United States or any other party to such criminal action or proceeding made to the court from which the commission issued at any time prior to the execution thereof. If after notice and hearing, the court grants the motion, it shall instruct the consular officer thus disqualified to send the commission to any other consular officer of the United States named by the court, and such other officer shall execute the commission according to its terms and shall for all purposes be deemed the officer to whom the commission is addressed.

(c) The provisions of this section and sections 3493–3496 of this title applicable to consular officers shall be applicable to diplomatic officers pursuant to such regulations as may be prescribed by the President. For purposes of this section and sections 3493 through 3496 of this title, the term “consular officers” includes any United States citizen who is designated to perform notarial functions pursuant to section 1750 of the Revised Statutes, as amended (22 U.S.C. 4221).

(June 25, 1948, ch. 645, 62 Stat. 834; May 24, 1949, ch. 139, §53, 63 Stat. 96; Pub. L. 94–149, §4, Dec. 12, 1975, 89 Stat. 806; Pub. L. 105–277, div. G, subdiv. B, title XXII, §2222(c)(2), Oct. 21, 1998, 112 Stat. 2681–818.)

Historical and Revision Notes

1948 Act

Based on section 695b of title 28, U.S.C., 1940 ed., Judicial Code and Judiciary (June 20, 1936, ch. 640, §3, 49 Stat. 1562).

1949 Act

This section [section 53] corrects section 3492(a) of title 18, U.S.C., so that the reference in the first sentence thereof will be to the correct section number in title 28, U.S.C., as revised and enacted in 1948.

References in Text

The Federal Rules of Evidence, referred to in subsec. (a), are set out in the Appendix to Title 28, Judiciary and Judicial Procedure.

Amendments

1998—Subsec. (c). Pub. L. 105–277 inserted at end “For purposes of this section and sections 3493 through 3496 of this title, the term ‘consular officers’ includes any United States citizen who is designated to perform notarial functions pursuant to section 1750 of the Revised Statutes, as amended (22 U.S.C. 4221).”

1975—Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 94–149 substituted “the authentication requirements of the Federal Rules of Evidence” for “the requirements of section 1732 of Title 28”.

1949—Subsec. (a). Act May 24, 1949, substituted “section 1732” for “section 695”.

§3493. Deposition to authenticate foreign documents

The consular officer to whom any commission authorized under section 3492 of this title is addressed shall take testimony in accordance with its terms. Every person whose testimony is taken shall be cautioned and sworn to testify the whole truth and carefully examined. His testimony shall be reduced to writing or typewriting by the consular officer taking the testimony, or by some person under his personal supervision, or by the witness himself, in the presence of the consular officer and by no other person, and shall, after it has been reduced to writing or typewriting, be subscribed by the witness. Every foreign document, with respect to which testimony is taken, shall be annexed to such testimony and subscribed by each witness who appears for the purpose of establishing the genuineness of such document. When counsel for all the parties attend the examination of any witness whose testimony is to be taken on written interrogatories, they may consent that oral interrogatories in addition to those accompanying the commission may be put to the witness. The consular officer taking any testimony shall require an interpreter to be present when his services are needed or are requested by any party or his attorney.

(June 25, 1948, ch. 645, 62 Stat. 835.)

Historical and Revision Notes

Based on section 695c of title 28, U.S.C., 1940 ed., Judicial Code and Judiciary (June 20, 1936, ch. 640, §4, 49 Stat. 1563).

§3494. Certification of genuineness of foreign document

If the consular officer executing any commission authorized under section 3492 of this title shall be satisfied, upon all the testimony taken, that a foreign document is genuine, he shall certify such document to be genuine under the seal of his office. Such certification shall include a statement that he is not subject to disqualification under the provisions of section 3492 of this title. He shall thereupon transmit, by mail, such foreign documents, together with the record of all testimony taken and the commission which has been executed, to the clerk of the court from which such commission issued, in the manner in which his official dispatches are transmitted to the Government. The clerk receiving any executed commission shall open it and shall make any foreign documents and record of testimony, transmitted with such commission, available for inspection by the parties to the criminal action or proceeding in which such documents are to be used, and said parties shall be furnished copies of such documents free of charge.

(June 25, 1948, ch. 645, 62 Stat. 835.)

Historical and Revision Notes

Based on section 695d of title 28, U.S.C., 1940 ed., Judicial Code and Judiciary (June 20, 1936, ch. 640, §5, 49 Stat. 1563).

§3495. Fees and expenses of consuls, counsel, interpreters and witnesses

(a) The consular fees prescribed under section 1201 of Title 22, for official services in connection with the taking of testimony under sections 3492–3494 of this title, and the fees of any witness whose testimony is taken shall be paid by the party who applied for the commission pursuant to which such testimony was taken. Every witness under section 3493 of this title shall be entitled to receive, for each day's attendance, fees prescribed under section 3496 of this title. Every foreign counsel selected pursuant to a commission issued on application of the United States, and every interpreter whose services are required by a consular officer under section 3493 of this title, shall be paid by the United States, such compensation, together with such personal and incidental expense upon verified statements filed with the consular officer, as he may allow. Compensation and expenses of foreign counsel selected pursuant to a commission issued on application of any party other than the United States shall be paid by the party whom such counsel represents and shall be allowed in the same manner.

(b) Whenever any party makes affidavit, prior to the issuance of a commission for the purpose of taking testimony, that he is not possessed of sufficient means and is actually unable to pay any fees and costs incurred under this section, such fees and costs shall, upon order of the court, be paid in the same manner as fees and costs are paid which are chargeable to the United States.

(c) Any appropriation available for the payment of fees and costs in the case of witnesses subpenaed in behalf of the United States in criminal cases shall be available for any fees or costs which the United States is required to pay under this section.

(June 25, 1948, ch. 645, 62 Stat. 836; May 24, 1949, ch. 139, §54, 63 Stat. 96.)

Historical and Revision Notes

1948 Act

Based on section 695f of title 28, U.S.C., 1940 ed., Judicial Code and Judiciary (June 20, 1936, ch. 640, §7, 49 Stat. 1564).

1949 Act

This section [section 54] corrects the reference in the first sentence of section 3495(a) of title 18, U.S.C., because the provisions which were formerly set out as section 127 of title 22, U.S.C., are now set out as section 1201 of such title.

References in Text

Section 1201 of Title 22, referred to in subsec. (a), was transferred to section 4219 of Title 22, Foreign Relations and Intercourse.

Amendments

1949—Subsec. (a). Act May 24, 1949, substituted “section 1201” for “section 127”.

§3496. Regulations by President as to commissions, fees of witnesses, counsel and interpreters

The President is authorized to prescribe regulations governing the manner of executing and returning commissions by consular officers under the provisions of sections 3492–3494 of this title and schedules of fees allowable to witnesses, foreign counsel, and interpreters under section 3495 of this title.

(June 25, 1948, ch. 645, 62 Stat. 836.)

Historical and Revision Notes

Based on section 695g of title 28, U.S.C., 1940 ed., Judicial Code and Judiciary (June 20, 1936, ch. 640, §8, 49 Stat. 1564).

Ex. Ord. No. 10307. Delegation of Authority

Ex. Ord. No. 10307, Nov. 23, 1951, 16 F.R. 11907, provided:

By virtue of the authority vested in me by the act of August 8, 1950, 64 Stat. 419 (3 U.S.C. Supp. 301–303), I hereby delegate to the Secretary of State (1) the authority vested in the President by section 3496 of title 18 of the United States Code (62 Stat. 836) to prescribe regulations governing the manner of executing and returning commissions by consular officers under the provisions of sections 3492–3494 of the said title, and schedules of fees allowable to witnesses, foreign counsel, and interpreters under section 3495 of the said title, and (2) the authority vested in the President by section 3492(c) of title 18 of the United States Code (62 Stat. 835) to prescribe regulations making the provisions of sections 3492–3496 of the said title applicable to diplomatic officers.

Executive Order No. 8298 of December 4, 1939, entitled “Regulations Governing the Manner of Executing and Returning Commissions by Officers of the Foreign Service in Criminal Cases, and Schedule of Fees and Compensation in Such Cases”, is hereby revoked.

§3497. Account as evidence of embezzlement

Upon the trial of any indictment against any person for embezzling public money it shall be sufficient evidence, prima facie, for the purpose of showing a balance against such person, to produce a transcript from the books and proceedings of the Government Accountability Office.

(June 25, 1948, ch. 645, 62 Stat. 836; Pub. L. 108–271, §8(b), July 7, 2004, 118 Stat. 814.)

Historical and Revision Notes

Based on title 18, U.S.C., 1940 ed., §§179, 355; section 668 of title 28, U.S.C., 1940 ed., Judicial Code and Judiciary (R.S. §887; Mar. 4, 1909, ch. 321, §§93, 225, 35 Stat. 1105, 1133; June 10, 1921, ch. 18, §304, 42 Stat. 24).

This section is a consolidation of section 179 of title 18, U.S.C., 1940 ed., with similar provisions of section 355 of title 18, U.S.C., 1940 ed., and section 668 of title 28, U.S.C., 1940 ed., Judicial Code and Judiciary, with changes of phraseology only except that “General Accounting Office” was substituted for “Treasury Department”.

Other provisions of said section 355 of title 18, U.S.C., 1940 ed., are incorporated in section 1711 of this title.

Words in second sentence of said section 355 of title 18, U.S.C., 1940 ed., which preceded the semicolon therein and which read “Any failure to produce or to pay over any such money or property, when required so to do as above provided, shall be taken to be prima facie evidence of such embezzlement” were omitted as surplusage, because such failure to produce or to pay over such money or property constitutes embezzlement. (See sections 653 and 1711 of this title.)

Amendments

2004—Pub. L. 108–271 substituted “Government Accountability Office” for “General Accounting Office”.

§3498. Depositions—(Rule)

See Federal Rules of Criminal Procedure

Time, manner and conditions of taking depositions; costs; notice; use; objections; written interrogatories, Rule 15.

Subpoenas on taking depositions, Rule 17(f).

(June 25, 1948, ch. 645, 62 Stat. 836.)

§3499. Contempt of court by witness—(Rule)

See Federal Rules of Criminal Procedure

Disobedience of subpoena without excuse as contempt, Rule 17(g).

(June 25, 1948, ch. 645, 62 Stat. 836.)

§3500. Demands for production of statements and reports of witnesses

(a) In any criminal prosecution brought by the United States, no statement or report in the possession of the United States which was made by a Government witness or prospective Government witness (other than the defendant) shall be the subject of subpena, discovery, or inspection until said witness has testified on direct examination in the trial of the case.

(b) After a witness called by the United States has testified on direct examination, the court shall, on motion of the defendant, order the United States to produce any statement (as hereinafter defined) of the witness in the possession of the United States which relates to the subject matter as to which the witness has testified. If the entire contents of any such statement relate to the subject matter of the testimony of the witness, the court shall order it to be delivered directly to the defendant for his examination and use.

(c) If the United States claims that any statement ordered to be produced under this section contains matter which does not relate to the subject matter of the testimony of the witness, the court shall order the United States to deliver such statement for the inspection of the court in camera. Upon such delivery the court shall excise the portions of such statement which do not relate to the subject matter of the testimony of the witness. With such material excised, the court shall then direct delivery of such statement to the defendant for his use. If, pursuant to such procedure, any portion of such statement is withheld from the defendant and the defendant objects to such withholding, and the trial is continued to an adjudication of the guilt of the defendant, the entire text of such statement shall be preserved by the United States and, in the event the defendant appeals, shall be made available to the appellate court for the purpose of determining the correctness of the ruling of the trial judge. Whenever any statement is delivered to a defendant pursuant to this section, the court in its discretion, upon application of said defendant, may recess proceedings in the trial for such time as it may determine to be reasonably required for the examination of such statement by said defendant and his preparation for its use in the trial.

(d) If the United States elects not to comply with an order of the court under subsection (b) or (c) hereof to deliver to the defendant any such statement, or such portion thereof as the court may direct, the court shall strike from the record the testimony of the witness, and the trial shall proceed unless the court in its discretion shall determine that the interests of justice require that a mistrial be declared.

(e) The term “statement”, as used in subsections (b), (c), and (d) of this section in relation to any witness called by the United States, means—

(1) a written statement made by said witness and signed or otherwise adopted or approved by him;

(2) a stenographic, mechanical, electrical, or other recording, or a transcription thereof, which is a substantially verbatim recital of an oral statement made by said witness and recorded contemporaneously with the making of such oral statement; or

(3) a statement, however taken or recorded, or a transcription thereof, if any, made by said witness to a grand jury.

(Added Pub. L. 85–269, Sept. 2, 1957, 71 Stat. 595; amended Pub. L. 91–452, title I, §102, Oct. 15, 1970, 84 Stat. 926.)

Amendments

1970—Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 91–452, §102(a), struck out “to an agent of the Government” after “(other than the defendant)”.

Subsec. (d). Pub. L. 91–452, §102(b), substituted “subsection” for “paragraph”.

Subsec. (e). Pub. L. 91–452, §102(c), (d), struck out “or” after “by him;” in par. (1), struck out “to an agent of the Government” after “said witness” in par. (2), and added par. (3).

§3501. Admissibility of confessions

(a) In any criminal prosecution brought by the United States or by the District of Columbia, a confession, as defined in subsection (e) hereof, shall be admissible in evidence if it is voluntarily given. Before such confession is received in evidence, the trial judge shall, out of the presence of the jury, determine any issue as to voluntariness. If the trial judge determines that the confession was voluntarily made it shall be admitted in evidence and the trial judge shall permit the jury to hear relevant evidence on the issue of voluntariness and shall instruct the jury to give such weight to the confession as the jury feels it deserves under all the circumstances.

(b) The trial judge in determining the issue of voluntariness shall take into consideration all the circumstances surrounding the giving of the confession, including (1) the time elapsing between arrest and arraignment of the defendant making the confession, if it was made after arrest and before arraignment, (2) whether such defendant knew the nature of the offense with which he was charged or of which he was suspected at the time of making the confession, (3) whether or not such defendant was advised or knew that he was not required to make any statement and that any such statement could be used against him, (4) whether or not such defendant had been advised prior to questioning of his right to the assistance of counsel; and (5) whether or not such defendant was without the assistance of counsel when questioned and when giving such confession.

The presence or absence of any of the above-mentioned factors to be taken into consideration by the judge need not be conclusive on the issue of voluntariness of the confession.

(c) In any criminal prosecution by the United States or by the District of Columbia, a confession made or given by a person who is a defendant therein, while such person was under arrest or other detention in the custody of any law-enforcement officer or law-enforcement agency, shall not be inadmissible solely because of delay in bringing such person before a magistrate judge or other officer empowered to commit persons charged with offenses against the laws of the United States or of the District of Columbia if such confession is found by the trial judge to have been made voluntarily and if the weight to be given the confession is left to the jury and if such confession was made or given by such person within six hours immediately following his arrest or other detention: Provided, That the time limitation contained in this subsection shall not apply in any case in which the delay in bringing such person before such magistrate judge or other officer beyond such six-hour period is found by the trial judge to be reasonable considering the means of transportation and the distance to be traveled to the nearest available such magistrate judge or other officer.

(d) Nothing contained in this section shall bar the admission in evidence of any confession made or given voluntarily by any person to any other person without interrogation by anyone, or at any time at which the person who made or gave such confession was not under arrest or other detention.

(e) As used in this section, the term “confession” means any confession of guilt of any criminal offense or any self-incriminating statement made or given orally or in writing.

(Added Pub. L. 90–351, title II, §701(a), June 19, 1968, 82 Stat. 210; amended Pub. L. 90–578, title III, §301(a)(3), Oct. 17, 1968, 82 Stat. 1115; Pub. L. 101–650, title III, §321, Dec. 1, 1990, 104 Stat. 5117.)

Amendments

1968—Subsec. (c). Pub. L. 90–578 substituted “magistrate” for “commissioner” wherever appearing.

Change of Name

Words “magistrate judge” substituted for “magistrate” wherever appearing in subsec. (c) pursuant to section 321 of Pub. L. 101–650, set out as a note under section 631 of Title 28, Judiciary and Judicial Procedure.

§3502. Admissibility in evidence of eye witness testimony

The testimony of a witness that he saw the accused commit or participate in the commission of the crime for which the accused is being tried shall be admissible in evidence in a criminal prosecution in any trial court ordained and established under article III of the Constitution of the United States.

(Added Pub. L. 90–351, title II, §701(a), June 19, 1968, 82 Stat. 211.)

[§3503. Repealed. Pub. L. 107–273, div. B, title IV, §4002(c)(3)(A), Nov. 2, 2002, 116 Stat. 1809]

Section, added Pub. L. 91–452, title VI, §601(a), Oct. 15, 1970, 84 Stat. 934, related to depositions to preserve testimony.

§3504. Litigation concerning sources of evidence

(a) In any trial, hearing, or other proceeding in or before any court, grand jury, department, officer, agency, regulatory body, or other authority of the United States—

(1) upon a claim by a party aggrieved that evidence is inadmissible because it is the primary product of an unlawful act or because it was obtained by the exploitation of an unlawful act, the opponent of the claim shall affirm or deny the occurrence of the alleged unlawful act;

(2) disclosure of information for a determination if evidence is inadmissible because it is the primary product of an unlawful act occurring prior to June 19, 1968, or because it was obtained by the exploitation of an unlawful act occurring prior to June 19, 1968, shall not be required unless such information may be relevant to a pending claim of such inadmissibility; and

(3) no claim shall be considered that evidence of an event is inadmissible on the ground that such evidence was obtained by the exploitation of an unlawful act occurring prior to June 19, 1968, if such event occurred more than five years after such allegedly unlawful act.


(b) As used in this section “unlawful act” means any act the use of any electronic, mechanical, or other device (as defined in section 2510(5) of this title) in violation of the Constitution or laws of the United States or any regulation or standard promulgated pursuant thereto.

(Added Pub. L. 91–452, title VII, §702(a), Oct. 15, 1970, 84 Stat. 935.)

Congressional Statement of Findings

Section 701 of title VII of Pub. L. 91–452 provided that: “The Congress finds that claims that evidence offered in proceedings was obtained by the exploitation of unlawful acts, and is therefore inadmissible in evidence, (1) often cannot reliably be determined when such claims concern evidence of events occurring years after the allegedly unlawful act, and (2) when the allegedly unlawful act has occurred more than five years prior to the event in question, there is virtually no likelihood that the evidence offered to prove the event has been obtained by the exploitation of that allegedly unlawful act.”

Applicability to Proceedings

Section 703 of title VII of Pub. L. 91–452 provided that: “This title [enacting this section and provisions set as notes under this section] shall apply to all proceedings, regardless of when commenced, occurring after the date of its enactment [Oct. 15, 1970]. Paragraph (3) of subsection (a) of section 3504, chapter 223, title 18, United States Code, shall not apply to any proceeding in which all information to be relied upon to establish inadmissibility was possessed by the party making such claim and adduced in such proceeding prior to such enactment.”

§3505. Foreign records of regularly conducted activity

(a)(1) In a criminal proceeding in a court of the United States, a foreign record of regularly conducted activity, or a copy of such record, shall not be excluded as evidence by the hearsay rule if a foreign certification attests that—

(A) such record was made, at or near the time of the occurrence of the matters set forth, by (or from information transmitted by) a person with knowledge of those matters;

(B) such record was kept in the course of a regularly conducted business activity;

(C) the business activity made such a record as a regular practice; and

(D) if such record is not the original, such record is a duplicate of the original;


unless the source of information or the method or circumstances of preparation indicate lack of trustworthiness.

(2) A foreign certification under this section shall authenticate such record or duplicate.

(b) At the arraignment or as soon after the arraignment as practicable, a party intending to offer in evidence under this section a foreign record of regularly conducted activity shall provide written notice of that intention to each other party. A motion opposing admission in evidence of such record shall be made by the opposing party and determined by the court before trial. Failure by a party to file such motion before trial shall constitute a waiver of objection to such record or duplicate, but the court for cause shown may grant relief from the waiver.

(c) As used in this section, the term—

(1) “foreign record of regularly conducted activity” means a memorandum, report, record, or data compilation, in any form, of acts, events, conditions, opinions, or diagnoses, maintained in a foreign country;

(2) “foreign certification” means a written declaration made and signed in a foreign country by the custodian of a foreign record of regularly conducted activity or another qualified person that, if falsely made, would subject the maker to criminal penalty under the laws of that country; and

(3) “business” includes business, institution, association, profession, occupation, and calling of every kind, whether or not conducted for profit.

(Added Pub. L. 98–473, title II, §1217(a), Oct. 12, 1984, 98 Stat. 2165.)

Effective Date

Section 1220 of part K (§§1217–1220) of chapter XII of title II of Pub. L. 98–473 provided that: “This part and the amendments made by this part [enacting this section and sections 3292, 3506, and 3507 of this title and amending section 3161 of this title] shall take effect thirty days after the date of the enactment of this Act [Oct. 12, 1984].”

§3506. Service of papers filed in opposition to official request by United States to foreign government for criminal evidence

(a) Except as provided in subsection (b) of this section, any national or resident of the United States who submits, or causes to be submitted, a pleading or other document to a court or other authority in a foreign country in opposition to an official request for evidence of an offense shall serve such pleading or other document on the Attorney General at the time such pleading or other document is submitted.

(b) Any person who is a party to a criminal proceeding in a court of the United States who submits, or causes to be submitted, a pleading or other document to a court or other authority in a foreign country in opposition to an official request for evidence of an offense that is a subject of such proceeding shall serve such pleading or other document on the appropriate attorney for the Government, pursuant to the Federal Rules of Criminal Procedure, at the time such pleading or other document is submitted.

(c) As used in this section, the term “official request” means a letter rogatory, a request under a treaty or convention, or any other request for evidence made by a court of the United States or an authority of the United States having criminal law enforcement responsibility, to a court or other authority of a foreign country.

(Added Pub. L. 98–473, title II, §1217(a), Oct. 12, 1984, 98 Stat. 2166.)

Effective Date

Section effective 30 days after Oct. 12, 1984, see section 1220 of Pub. L. 98–473, set out as a note under section 3505 of this title.

§3507. Special master at foreign deposition

Upon application of a party to a criminal case, a United States district court before which the case is pending may, to the extent permitted by a foreign country, appoint a special master to carry out at a deposition taken in that country such duties as the court may direct, including presiding at the deposition or serving as an advisor on questions of United States law. Notwithstanding any other provision of law, a special master appointed under this section shall not decide questions of privilege under foreign law. The refusal of a court to appoint a special master under this section, or of the foreign country to permit a special master appointed under this section to carry out a duty at a deposition in that country, shall not affect the admissibility in evidence of a deposition taken under the provisions of the Federal Rules of Criminal Procedure.

(Added Pub. L. 98–473, title II, §1217(a), Oct. 12, 1984, 98 Stat. 2166.)

Effective Date

Section effective 30 days after Oct. 12, 1984, see section 1220 of Pub. L. 98–473, set out as a note under section 3505 of this title.

§3508. Custody and return of foreign witnesses

(a) When the testimony of a person who is serving a sentence, is in pretrial detention, or is otherwise being held in custody, in a foreign country, is needed in a State or Federal criminal proceeding, the Attorney General shall, when he deems it appropriate in the exercise of his discretion, have the authority to request the temporary transfer of that person to the United States for the purposes of giving such testimony, to transport such person to the United States in custody, to maintain the custody of such person while he is in the United States, and to return such person to the foreign country.

(b) Where the transfer to the United States of a person in custody for the purposes of giving testimony is provided for by treaty or convention, by this section, or both, that person shall be returned to the foreign country from which he is transferred. In no event shall the return of such person require any request for extradition or extradition proceedings, or proceedings under the immigration laws.

(c) Where there is a treaty or convention between the United States and the foreign country in which the witness is being held in custody which provides for the transfer, custody and return of such witnesses, the terms and conditions of that treaty shall apply. Where there is no such treaty or convention, the Attorney General may exercise the authority described in paragraph (a) if both the foreign country and the witness give their consent.

(Added Pub. L. 100–690, title VI, §6484(a), Nov. 18, 1988, 102 Stat. 4384.)

§3509. Child victims’ and child witnesses’ rights

(a) Definitions.—For purposes of this section—

(1) the term “adult attendant” means an adult described in subsection (i) who accompanies a child throughout the judicial process for the purpose of providing emotional support;

(2) the term “child” means a person who is under the age of 18, who is or is alleged to be—

(A) a victim of a crime of physical abuse, sexual abuse, or exploitation; or

(B) a witness to a crime committed against another person;


(3) the term “child abuse” means the physical or mental injury, sexual abuse or exploitation, or negligent treatment of a child;

(4) the term “physical injury” includes lacerations, fractured bones, burns, internal injuries, severe bruising or serious bodily harm;

(5) the term “mental injury” means harm to a child's psychological or intellectual functioning which may be exhibited by severe anxiety, depression, withdrawal or outward aggressive behavior, or a combination of those behaviors, which may be demonstrated by a change in behavior, emotional response, or cognition;

(6) the term “exploitation” means child pornography or child prostitution;

(7) the term “multidisciplinary child abuse team” means a professional unit composed of representatives from health, social service, law enforcement, and legal service agencies to coordinate the assistance needed to handle cases of child abuse;

(8) the term “sexual abuse” includes the employment, use, persuasion, inducement, enticement, or coercion of a child to engage in, or assist another person to engage in, sexually explicit conduct or the rape, molestation, prostitution, or other form of sexual exploitation of children, or incest with children;

(9) the term “sexually explicit conduct” means actual or simulated—

(A) sexual intercourse, including sexual contact in the manner of genital-genital, oral-genital, anal-genital, or oral-anal contact, whether between persons of the same or of opposite sex; sexual contact means the intentional touching, either directly or through clothing, of the genitalia, anus, groin, breast, inner thigh, or buttocks of any person with an intent to abuse, humiliate, harass, degrade, or arouse or gratify sexual desire of any person;

(B) bestiality;

(C) masturbation;

(D) lascivious exhibition of the genitals or pubic area of a person or animal; or

(E) sadistic or masochistic abuse;


(10) the term “sex crime” means an act of sexual abuse that is a criminal act;

(11) the term “negligent treatment” means the failure to provide, for reasons other than poverty, adequate food, clothing, shelter, or medical care so as to seriously endanger the physical health of the child; and

(12) the term “child abuse” does not include discipline administered by a parent or legal guardian to his or her child provided it is reasonable in manner and moderate in degree and otherwise does not constitute cruelty.


(b) Alternatives to Live In-Court Testimony.—

(1) Child's live testimony by 2-way closed circuit television.—

(A) In a proceeding involving an alleged offense against a child, the attorney for the Government, the child's attorney, or a guardian ad litem appointed under subsection (h) may apply for an order that the child's testimony be taken in a room outside the courtroom and be televised by 2-way closed circuit television. The person seeking such an order shall apply for such an order at least 7 days before the trial date, unless the court finds on the record that the need for such an order was not reasonably foreseeable.

(B) The court may order that the testimony of the child be taken by closed-circuit television as provided in subparagraph (A) if the court finds that the child is unable to testify in open court in the presence of the defendant, for any of the following reasons:

(i) The child is unable to testify because of fear.

(ii) There is a substantial likelihood, established by expert testimony, that the child would suffer emotional trauma from testifying.

(iii) The child suffers a mental or other infirmity.

(iv) Conduct by defendant or defense counsel causes the child to be unable to continue testifying.


(C) The court shall support a ruling on the child's inability to testify with findings on the record. In determining whether the impact on an individual child of one or more of the factors described in subparagraph (B) is so substantial as to justify an order under subparagraph (A), the court may question the minor in chambers, or at some other comfortable place other than the courtroom, on the record for a reasonable period of time with the child attendant, the prosecutor, the child's attorney, the guardian ad litem, and the defense counsel present.

(D) If the court orders the taking of testimony by television, the attorney for the Government and the attorney for the defendant not including an attorney pro se for a party shall be present in a room outside the courtroom with the child and the child shall be subjected to direct and cross-examination. The only other persons who may be permitted in the room with the child during the child's testimony are—

(i) the child's attorney or guardian ad litem appointed under subsection (h);

(ii) persons necessary to operate the closed-circuit television equipment;

(iii) a judicial officer, appointed by the court; and

(iv) other persons whose presence is determined by the court to be necessary to the welfare and well-being of the child, including an adult attendant.


The child's testimony shall be transmitted by closed circuit television into the courtroom for viewing and hearing by the defendant, jury, judge, and public. The defendant shall be provided with the means of private, contemporaneous communication with the defendant's attorney during the testimony. The closed circuit television transmission shall relay into the room in which the child is testifying the defendant's image, and the voice of the judge.

(2) Videotaped deposition of child.—(A) In a proceeding involving an alleged offense against a child, the attorney for the Government, the child's attorney, the child's parent or legal guardian, or the guardian ad litem appointed under subsection (h) may apply for an order that a deposition be taken of the child's testimony and that the deposition be recorded and preserved on videotape.

(B)(i) Upon timely receipt of an application described in subparagraph (A), the court shall make a preliminary finding regarding whether at the time of trial the child is likely to be unable to testify in open court in the physical presence of the defendant, jury, judge, and public for any of the following reasons:

(I) The child will be unable to testify because of fear.

(II) There is a substantial likelihood, established by expert testimony, that the child would suffer emotional trauma from testifying in open court.

(III) The child suffers a mental or other infirmity.

(IV) Conduct by defendant or defense counsel causes the child to be unable to continue testifying.


(ii) If the court finds that the child is likely to be unable to testify in open court for any of the reasons stated in clause (i), the court shall order that the child's deposition be taken and preserved by videotape.

(iii) The trial judge shall preside at the videotape deposition of a child and shall rule on all questions as if at trial. The only other persons who may be permitted to be present at the proceeding are—

(I) the attorney for the Government;

(II) the attorney for the defendant;

(III) the child's attorney or guardian ad litem appointed under subsection (h);

(IV) persons necessary to operate the videotape equipment;

(V) subject to clause (iv), the defendant; and

(VI) other persons whose presence is determined by the court to be necessary to the welfare and well-being of the child.


The defendant shall be afforded the rights applicable to defendants during trial, including the right to an attorney, the right to be confronted with the witness against the defendant, and the right to cross-examine the child.

(iv) If the preliminary finding of inability under clause (i) is based on evidence that the child is unable to testify in the physical presence of the defendant, the court may order that the defendant, including a defendant represented pro se, be excluded from the room in which the deposition is conducted. If the court orders that the defendant be excluded from the deposition room, the court shall order that 2-way closed circuit television equipment relay the defendant's image into the room in which the child is testifying, and the child's testimony into the room in which the defendant is viewing the proceeding, and that the defendant be provided with a means of private, contemporaneous communication with the defendant's attorney during the deposition.

(v) Handling of videotape.—The complete record of the examination of the child, including the image and voices of all persons who in any way participate in the examination, shall be made and preserved on video tape in addition to being stenographically recorded. The videotape shall be transmitted to the clerk of the court in which the action is pending and shall be made available for viewing to the prosecuting attorney, the defendant, and the defendant's attorney during ordinary business hours.

(C) If at the time of trial the court finds that the child is unable to testify as for a reason described in subparagraph (B)(i), the court may admit into evidence the child's videotaped deposition in lieu of the child's testifying at the trial. The court shall support a ruling under this subparagraph with findings on the record.

(D) Upon timely receipt of notice that new evidence has been discovered after the original videotaping and before or during trial, the court, for good cause shown, may order an additional videotaped deposition. The testimony of the child shall be restricted to the matters specified by the court as the basis for granting the order.

(E) In connection with the taking of a videotaped deposition under this paragraph, the court may enter a protective order for the purpose of protecting the privacy of the child.

(F) The videotape of a deposition taken under this paragraph shall be destroyed 5 years after the date on which the trial court entered its judgment, but not before a final judgment is entered on appeal including Supreme Court review. The videotape shall become part of the court record and be kept by the court until it is destroyed.


(c) Competency Examinations.—

(1) Effect of federal rules of evidence.—Nothing in this subsection shall be construed to abrogate rule 601 of the Federal Rules of Evidence.

(2) Presumption.—A child is presumed to be competent.

(3) Requirement of written motion.—A competency examination regarding a child witness may be conducted by the court only upon written motion and offer of proof of incompetency by a party.

(4) Requirement of compelling reasons.—A competency examination regarding a child may be conducted only if the court determines, on the record, that compelling reasons exist. A child's age alone is not a compelling reason.

(5) Persons permitted to be present.—The only persons who may be permitted to be present at a competency examination are—

(A) the judge;

(B) the attorney for the Government;

(C) the attorney for the defendant;

(D) a court reporter; and

(E) persons whose presence, in the opinion of the court, is necessary to the welfare and well-being of the child, including the child's attorney, guardian ad litem, or adult attendant.


(6) Not before jury.—A competency examination regarding a child witness shall be conducted out of the sight and hearing of a jury.

(7) Direct examination of child.—Examination of a child related to competency shall normally be conducted by the court on the basis of questions submitted by the attorney for the Government and the attorney for the defendant including a party acting as an attorney pro se. The court may permit an attorney but not a party acting as an attorney pro se to examine a child directly on competency if the court is satisfied that the child will not suffer emotional trauma as a result of the examination.

(8) Appropriate questions.—The questions asked at the competency examination of a child shall be appropriate to the age and developmental level of the child, shall not be related to the issues at trial, and shall focus on determining the child's ability to understand and answer simple questions.

(9) Psychological and psychiatric examinations.—Psychological and psychiatric examinations to assess the competency of a child witness shall not be ordered without a showing of compelling need.


(d) Privacy Protection.—

(1) Confidentiality of information.—(A) A person acting in a capacity described in subparagraph (B) in connection with a criminal proceeding shall—

(i) keep all documents that disclose the name or any other information concerning a child in a secure place to which no person who does not have reason to know their contents has access; and

(ii) disclose documents described in clause (i) or the information in them that concerns a child only to persons who, by reason of their participation in the proceeding, have reason to know such information.


(B) Subparagraph (A) applies to—

(i) all employees of the Government connected with the case, including employees of the Department of Justice, any law enforcement agency involved in the case, and any person hired by the Government to provide assistance in the proceeding;

(ii) employees of the court;

(iii) the defendant and employees of the defendant, including the attorney for the defendant and persons hired by the defendant or the attorney for the defendant to provide assistance in the proceeding; and

(iv) members of the jury.


(2) Filing under seal.—All papers to be filed in court that disclose the name of or any other information concerning a child shall be filed under seal without necessity of obtaining a court order. The person who makes the filing shall submit to the clerk of the court—

(A) the complete paper to be kept under seal; and

(B) the paper with the portions of it that disclose the name of or other information concerning a child redacted, to be placed in the public record.


(3) Protective orders.—(A) On motion by any person the court may issue an order protecting a child from public disclosure of the name of or any other information concerning the child in the course of the proceedings, if the court determines that there is a significant possibility that such disclosure would be detrimental to the child.

(B) A protective order issued under subparagraph (A) may—

(i) provide that the testimony of a child witness, and the testimony of any other witness, when the attorney who calls the witness has reason to anticipate that the name of or any other information concerning a child may be divulged in the testimony, be taken in a closed courtroom; and

(ii) provide for any other measures that may be necessary to protect the privacy of the child.


(4) Disclosure of information.—This subsection does not prohibit disclosure of the name of or other information concerning a child to the defendant, the attorney for the defendant, a multidisciplinary child abuse team, a guardian ad litem, or an adult attendant, or to anyone to whom, in the opinion of the court, disclosure is necessary to the welfare and well-being of the child.


(e) Closing the Courtroom.—When a child testifies the court may order the exclusion from the courtroom of all persons, including members of the press, who do not have a direct interest in the case. Such an order may be made if the court determines on the record that requiring the child to testify in open court would cause substantial psychological harm to the child or would result in the child's inability to effectively communicate. Such an order shall be narrowly tailored to serve the Government's specific compelling interest.

(f) Victim Impact Statement.—In preparing the presentence report pursuant to rule 32(c) of the Federal Rules of Criminal Procedure, the probation officer shall request information from the multidisciplinary child abuse team and other appropriate sources to determine the impact of the offense on the child victim and any other children who may have been affected. A guardian ad litem appointed under subsection (h) shall make every effort to obtain and report information that accurately expresses the child's and the family's views concerning the child's victimization. A guardian ad litem shall use forms that permit the child to express the child's views concerning the personal consequences of the child's victimization, at a level and in a form of communication commensurate with the child's age and ability.

(g) Use of Multidisciplinary Child Abuse Teams.—

(1) In general.—A multidisciplinary child abuse team shall be used when it is feasible to do so. The court shall work with State and local governments that have established multidisciplinary child abuse teams designed to assist child victims and child witnesses, and the court and the attorney for the Government shall consult with the multidisciplinary child abuse team as appropriate.

(2) Role of multidisciplinary child abuse teams.—The role of the multidisciplinary child abuse team shall be to provide for a child services that the members of the team in their professional roles are capable of providing, including—

(A) medical diagnoses and evaluation services, including provision or interpretation of x-rays, laboratory tests, and related services, as needed, and documentation of findings;

(B) telephone consultation services in emergencies and in other situations;

(C) medical evaluations related to abuse or neglect;

(D) psychological and psychiatric diagnoses and evaluation services for the child, parent or parents, guardian or guardians, or other caregivers, or any other individual involved in a child victim or child witness case;

(E) expert medical, psychological, and related professional testimony;

(F) case service coordination and assistance, including the location of services available from public and private agencies in the community; and

(G) training services for judges, litigators, court officers and others that are involved in child victim and child witness cases, in handling child victims and child witnesses.


(h) Guardian Ad Litem.—

(1) In general.—The court may appoint, and provide reasonable compensation and payment of expenses for, a guardian ad litem for a child who was a victim of, or a witness to, a crime involving abuse or exploitation to protect the best interests of the child. In making the appointment, the court shall consider a prospective guardian's background in, and familiarity with, the judicial process, social service programs, and child abuse issues. The guardian ad litem shall not be a person who is or may be a witness in a proceeding involving the child for whom the guardian is appointed.

(2) Duties of guardian ad litem.—A guardian ad litem may attend all the depositions, hearings, and trial proceedings in which a child participates, and make recommendations to the court concerning the welfare of the child. The guardian ad litem may have access to all reports, evaluations and records, except attorney's work product, necessary to effectively advocate for the child. (The extent of access to grand jury materials is limited to the access routinely provided to victims and their representatives.) A guardian ad litem shall marshal and coordinate the delivery of resources and special services to the child. A guardian ad litem shall not be compelled to testify in any court action or proceeding concerning any information or opinion received from the child in the course of serving as a guardian ad litem.

(3) Immunities.—A guardian ad litem shall be presumed to be acting in good faith and shall be immune from civil and criminal liability for complying with the guardian's lawful duties described in paragraph (2).


(i) Adult Attendant.—A child testifying at or attending a judicial proceeding shall have the right to be accompanied by an adult attendant to provide emotional support to the child. The court, at its discretion, may allow the adult attendant to remain in close physical proximity to or in contact with the child while the child testifies. The court may allow the adult attendant to hold the child's hand or allow the child to sit on the adult attendant's lap throughout the course of the proceeding. An adult attendant shall not provide the child with an answer to any question directed to the child during the course of the child's testimony or otherwise prompt the child. The image of the child attendant, for the time the child is testifying or being deposed, shall be recorded on videotape.

(j) Speedy Trial.—In a proceeding in which a child is called to give testimony, on motion by the attorney for the Government or a guardian ad litem, or on its own motion, the court may designate the case as being of special public importance. In cases so designated, the court shall, consistent with these rules, expedite the proceeding and ensure that it takes precedence over any other. The court shall ensure a speedy trial in order to minimize the length of time the child must endure the stress of involvement with the criminal process. When deciding whether to grant a continuance, the court shall take into consideration the age of the child and the potential adverse impact the delay may have on the child's well-being. The court shall make written findings of fact and conclusions of law when granting a continuance in cases involving a child.

(k) Stay of Civil Action.—If, at any time that a cause of action for recovery of compensation for damage or injury to the person of a child exists, a criminal action is pending which arises out of the same occurrence and in which the child is the victim, the civil action shall be stayed until the end of all phases of the criminal action and any mention of the civil action during the criminal proceeding is prohibited. As used in this subsection, a criminal action is pending until its final adjudication in the trial court.

(l) Testimonial Aids.—The court may permit a child to use anatomical dolls, puppets, drawings, mannequins, or any other demonstrative device the court deems appropriate for the purpose of assisting a child in testifying.

(m) Prohibition on Reproduction of Child Pornography.—

(1) In any criminal proceeding, any property or material that constitutes child pornography (as defined by section 2256 of this title) shall remain in the care, custody, and control of either the Government or the court.

(2)(A) Notwithstanding Rule 16 of the Federal Rules of Criminal Procedure, a court shall deny, in any criminal proceeding, any request by the defendant to copy, photograph, duplicate, or otherwise reproduce any property or material that constitutes child pornography (as defined by section 2256 of this title), so long as the Government makes the property or material reasonably available to the defendant.

(B) For the purposes of subparagraph (A), property or material shall be deemed to be reasonably available to the defendant if the Government provides ample opportunity for inspection, viewing, and examination at a Government facility of the property or material by the defendant, his or her attorney, and any individual the defendant may seek to qualify to furnish expert testimony at trial.

(Added Pub. L. 101–647, title II, §225(a), Nov. 29, 1990, 104 Stat. 4798; amended Pub. L. 103–322, title XXXIII, §§330010(6), (7), 330011(e), 330018(b), Sept. 13, 1994, 108 Stat. 2143, 2145, 2149; Pub. L. 104–294, title VI, §605(h), Oct. 11, 1996, 110 Stat. 3510; Pub. L. 109–248, title V, §§504, 507, July 27, 2006, 120 Stat. 629, 631; Pub. L. 111–16, §3(11), May 7, 2009, 123 Stat. 1608.)

References in Text

The Federal Rules of Evidence, referred to in subsec. (c)(1), are set out in the Appendix to Title 28, Judiciary and Judicial Procedure.

The Federal Rules of Criminal Procedure, referred to in subsecs. (f) and (m)(2)(A), are set out in the Appendix to this title.

Amendments

2009—Subsec. (b)(1)(A). Pub. L. 111–16 substituted “7 days” for “5 days”.

2006—Subsec. (h)(1). Pub. L. 109–248, §507, inserted “, and provide reasonable compensation and payment of expenses for,” after “The court may appoint”.

Subsec. (m). Pub. L. 109–248, §504, added subsec. (m).

1996—Subsec. (e). Pub. L. 104–294, §605(h)(1), substituted “serve the Government's” for “serve the government's”.

Subsec. (h)(3). Pub. L. 104–294, §605(h)(2), substituted “in paragraph (2)” for “in subpart (2)”.

1994—Pub. L. 103–322, §330011(e), made technical amendment to directory language of Pub. L. 101–647, §225(a), which enacted this section.

Pub. L. 103–322, §330010(7)(B), substituted “Government” for “government” in subsecs. (b)(1)(A), (D), (2)(A), and (c)(5)(B), in subsec. (d)(1)(B)(i) after “hired by the”, and in subsec. (g)(1).

Pub. L. 103–322, §330010(7)(A), substituted “subsection” for “subdivision” in subsecs. (b)(1)(A), (D)(i), (2)(A), (B)(iii)(III), (c)(1), (d)(4), and (f).

Subsec. (a)(11) to (13). Pub. L. 103–322, §330010(6), redesignated pars. (12) and (13) as (11) and (12), respectively, and struck out former par. (11) which read as follows: “the term ‘exploitation’ means child pornography or child prostitution;”.

Subsec. (k). Pub. L. 103–322, §330018(b), substituted heading for one which read “Extension of Child Statute of Limitations” and struck out first sentence which read as follows: “No statute of limitation that would otherwise preclude prosecution for an offense involving the sexual or physical abuse of a child under the age of 18 years shall preclude such prosecution before the child reaches the age of 25 years.”

Effective Date of 2009 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 111–16 effective Dec. 1, 2009, see section 7 of Pub. L. 111–16, set out as a note under section 109 of Title 11, Bankruptcy.

Effective Date of 1994 Amendment

Section 330011(e) of Pub. L. 103–322 provided that the amendment made by that section is effective as of the date on which section 225(a) of Pub. L. 101–647 took effect.

§3510. Rights of victims to attend and observe trial

(a) Non-Capital Cases.—Notwithstanding any statute, rule, or other provision of law, a United States district court shall not order any victim of an offense excluded from the trial of a defendant accused of that offense because such victim may, during the sentencing hearing, make a statement or present any information in relation to the sentence.

(b) Capital Cases.—Notwithstanding any statute, rule, or other provision of law, a United States district court shall not order any victim of an offense excluded from the trial of a defendant accused of that offense because such victim may, during the sentencing hearing, testify as to the effect of the offense on the victim and the victim's family or as to any other factor for which notice is required under section 3593(a).

(c) Definition.—As used in this section, the term “victim” includes all persons defined as victims in section 503(e)(2) of the Victims’ Rights and Restitution Act of 1990.

(Added Pub. L. 105–6, §2(a), Mar. 19, 1997, 111 Stat. 12.)

References in Text

Section 503(e)(2) of the Victims’ Rights and Restitution Act of 1990, referred to in subsec. (c), is classified to section 10607(e)(2) of Title 42, The Public Health and Welfare.

Effective Date

Section 2(d) of Pub. L. 105–6 provided that: “The amendments made by this section [enacting this section and amending section 3593 of this title] shall apply in cases pending on the date of the enactment of this Act [Mar. 19, 1997].”

§3511. Judicial review of requests for information

(a) The recipient of a request for records, a report, or other information under section 2709(b) of this title, section 626(a) or (b) or 627(a) of the Fair Credit Reporting Act, section 1114(a)(5)(A) of the Right to Financial Privacy Act, or section 802(a) of the National Security Act of 1947 may, in the United States district court for the district in which that person or entity does business or resides, petition for an order modifying or setting aside the request. The court may modify or set aside the request if compliance would be unreasonable, oppressive, or otherwise unlawful.

(b)(1) The recipient of a request for records, a report, or other information under section 2709(b) of this title, section 626(a) or (b) or 627(a) of the Fair Credit Reporting Act, section 1114(a)(5)(A) of the Right to Financial Privacy Act, or section 802(a) of the National Security Act of 1947, may petition any court described in subsection (a) for an order modifying or setting aside a nondisclosure requirement imposed in connection with such a request.

(2) If the petition is filed within one year of the request for records, a report, or other information under section 2709(b) of this title, section 626(a) or (b) or 627(a) of the Fair Credit Reporting Act, section 1114(a)(5)(A) of the Right to Financial Privacy Act, or section 802(a) of the National Security Act of 1947, the court may modify or set aside such a nondisclosure requirement if it finds that there is no reason to believe that disclosure may endanger the national security of the United States, interfere with a criminal, counterterrorism, or counterintelligence investigation, interfere with diplomatic relations, or endanger the life or physical safety of any person. If, at the time of the petition, the Attorney General, Deputy Attorney General, an Assistant Attorney General, or the Director of the Federal Bureau of Investigation, or in the case of a request by a department, agency, or instrumentality of the Federal Government other than the Department of Justice, the head or deputy head of such department, agency, or instrumentality, certifies that disclosure may endanger the national security of the United States or interfere with diplomatic relations, such certification shall be treated as conclusive unless the court finds that the certification was made in bad faith.

(3) If the petition is filed one year or more after the request for records, a report, or other information under section 2709(b) of this title, section 626(a) or (b) or 627(a) of the Fair Credit Reporting Act, section 1114(a)(5)(A) of the Right to Financial Privacy Act, or section 802(a) of the National Security Act of 1947, the Attorney General, Deputy Attorney General, an Assistant Attorney General, or the Director of the Federal Bureau of Investigation, or his designee in a position not lower than Deputy Assistant Director at Bureau headquarters or a Special Agent in Charge in a Bureau field office designated by the Director, or in the case of a request by a department, agency, or instrumentality of the Federal Government other than the Federal Bureau of Investigation, the head or deputy head of such department, agency, or instrumentality, within ninety days of the filing of the petition, shall either terminate the nondisclosure requirement or re-certify that disclosure may result in a danger to the national security of the United States, interference with a criminal, counterterrorism, or counterintelligence investigation, interference with diplomatic relations, or danger to the life or physical safety of any person. In the event of re-certification, the court may modify or set aside such a nondisclosure requirement if it finds that there is no reason to believe that disclosure may endanger the national security of the United States, interfere with a criminal, counterterrorism, or counterintelligence investigation, interfere with diplomatic relations, or endanger the life or physical safety of any person. If the recertification that disclosure may endanger the national security of the United States or interfere with diplomatic relations is made by the Attorney General, Deputy Attorney General, an Assistant Attorney General, or the Director of the Federal Bureau of Investigation, such certification shall be treated as conclusive unless the court finds that the recertification was made in bad faith. If the court denies a petition for an order modifying or setting aside a nondisclosure requirement under this paragraph, the recipient shall be precluded for a period of one year from filing another petition to modify or set aside such nondisclosure requirement.

(c) In the case of a failure to comply with a request for records, a report, or other information made to any person or entity under section 2709(b) of this title, section 626(a) or (b) or 627(a) of the Fair Credit Reporting Act, section 1114(a)(5)(A) of the Right to Financial Privacy Act, or section 802(a) of the National Security Act of 1947, the Attorney General may invoke the aid of any district court of the United States within the jurisdiction in which the investigation is carried on or the person or entity resides, carries on business, or may be found, to compel compliance with the request. The court may issue an order requiring the person or entity to comply with the request. Any failure to obey the order of the court may be punished by the court as contempt thereof. Any process under this section may be served in any judicial district in which the person or entity may be found.

(d) In all proceedings under this section, subject to any right to an open hearing in a contempt proceeding, the court must close any hearing to the extent necessary to prevent an unauthorized disclosure of a request for records, a report, or other information made to any person or entity under section 2709(b) of this title, section 626(a) or (b) or 627(a) of the Fair Credit Reporting Act, section 1114(a)(5)(A) of the Right to Financial Privacy Act, or section 802(a) of the National Security Act of 1947. Petitions, filings, records, orders, and subpoenas must also be kept under seal to the extent and as long as necessary to prevent the unauthorized disclosure of a request for records, a report, or other information made to any person or entity under section 2709(b) of this title, section 626(a) or (b) or 627(a) of the Fair Credit Reporting Act, section 1114(a)(5)(A) of the Right to Financial Privacy Act, or section 802(a) of the National Security Act of 1947.

(e) In all proceedings under this section, the court shall, upon request of the government, review ex parte and in camera any government submission or portions thereof, which may include classified information.

(Added Pub. L. 109–177, title I, §115(2), Mar. 9, 2006, 120 Stat. 211.)

References in Text

Sections 626(a), (b) and 627(a) of the Fair Credit Reporting Act, referred to in subsecs. (a) to (d), are classified to sections 1681u(a), (b) and 1681v(a), respectively, of Title 15, Commerce and Trade.

Section 1114(a)(5)(A) of the Right to Financial Privacy Act, referred to in subsecs. (a) to (d), probably means section 1114(a)(5)(A) of the Right to Financial Privacy Act of 1978, which is classified to section 3414(a)(5)(A) of Title 12, Banks and Banking.

Section 802(a) of the National Security Act of 1947, referred to in subsecs. (a) to (d), is classified to section 436(a) of Title 50, War and National Defense.

Reports on National Security Letters

Pub. L. 109–177, title I, §118, Mar. 9, 2006, 120 Stat. 217, provided that:

“(a) Existing Reports.—Any report made to a committee of Congress regarding national security letters under section 2709(c)(1) of title 18, United States Code, section 626(d) or 627(c) of the Fair Credit Reporting Act (15 U.S.C. 1681u(d) or 1681v(c)), section 1114(a)(3) or 1114(a)(5)(D) of the Right to Financial Privacy Act [of 1978] (12 U.S.C. 3414(a)(3) or 3414(a)(5)(D)), or section 802(b) of the National Security Act of 1947 (50 U.S.C. 436(b)) shall also be made to the Committees on the Judiciary of the House of Representatives and the Senate.

“(b) Enhanced Oversight of Fair Credit Reporting Act Counterterrorism National Security Letter.—[Amended section 1681v of Title 15, Commerce and Trade.]

“(c) Report on Requests for National Security Letters.—

“(1) In general.—In April of each year, the Attorney General shall submit to Congress an aggregate report setting forth with respect to the preceding year the total number of requests made by the Department of Justice for information concerning different United States persons under—

“(A) section 2709 of title 18, United States Code (to access certain communication service provider records), excluding the number of requests for subscriber information;

“(B) section 1114 of the Right to Financial Privacy Act [of 1978] (12 U.S.C. 3414) (to obtain financial institution customer records);

“(C) section 802 of the National Security Act of 1947 (50 U.S.C. 436) (to obtain financial information, records, and consumer reports);

“(D) section 626 of the Fair Credit Reporting Act (15 U.S.C. 1681u) (to obtain certain financial information and consumer reports); and

“(E) section 627 of the Fair Credit Reporting Act (15 U.S.C. 1681v) (to obtain credit agency consumer records for counterterrorism investigations).

“(2) Unclassified form.—The report under this section shall be submitted in unclassified form.

“(d) National Security Letter Defined.—In this section, the term ‘national security letter’ means a request for information under one of the following provisions of law:

“(1) Section 2709(a) of title 18, United States Code (to access certain communication service provider records).

“(2) Section 1114(a)(5)(A) of the Right to Financial Privacy Act [of 1978] (12 U.S.C. 3414(a)(5)(A)) (to obtain financial institution customer records).

“(3) Section 802 of the National Security Act of 1947 (50 U.S.C. 436) (to obtain financial information, records, and consumer reports).

“(4) Section 626 of the Fair Credit Reporting Act (15 U.S.C. 1681u) (to obtain certain financial information and consumer reports).

“(5) Section 627 of the Fair Credit Reporting Act (15 U.S.C. 1681v) (to obtain credit agency consumer records for counterterrorism investigations).”

§3512. Foreign requests for assistance in criminal investigations and prosecutions

(a) Execution of Request for Assistance.—

(1) In general.—Upon application, duly authorized by an appropriate official of the Department of Justice, of an attorney for the Government, a Federal judge may issue such orders as may be necessary to execute a request from a foreign authority for assistance in the investigation or prosecution of criminal offenses, or in proceedings related to the prosecution of criminal offenses, including proceedings regarding forfeiture, sentencing, and restitution.

(2) Scope of orders.—Any order issued by a Federal judge pursuant to paragraph (1) may include the issuance of—

(A) a search warrant, as provided under Rule 41 of the Federal Rules of Criminal Procedure;

(B) a warrant or order for contents of stored wire or electronic communications or for records related thereto, as provided under section 2703 of this title;

(C) an order for a pen register or trap and trace device as provided under section 3123 of this title; or

(D) an order requiring the appearance of a person for the purpose of providing testimony or a statement, or requiring the production of documents or other things, or both.


(b) Appointment of Persons To Take Testimony or Statements.—

(1) In general.—In response to an application for execution of a request from a foreign authority as described under subsection (a), a Federal judge may also issue an order appointing a person to direct the taking of testimony or statements or of the production of documents or other things, or both.

(2) Authority of appointed person.—Any person appointed under an order issued pursuant to paragraph (1) may—

(A) issue orders requiring the appearance of a person, or the production of documents or other things, or both;

(B) administer any necessary oath; and

(C) take testimony or statements and receive documents or other things.


(c) Filing of Requests.—Except as provided under subsection (d), an application for execution of a request from a foreign authority under this section may be filed—

(1) in the district in which a person who may be required to appear resides or is located or in which the documents or things to be produced are located;

(2) in cases in which the request seeks the appearance of persons or production of documents or things that may be located in multiple districts, in any one of the districts in which such a person, documents, or things may be located; or

(3) in any case, the district in which a related Federal criminal investigation or prosecution is being conducted, or in the District of Columbia.


(d) Search Warrant Limitation.—An application for execution of a request for a search warrant from a foreign authority under this section, other than an application for a warrant issued as provided under section 2703 of this title, shall be filed in the district in which the place or person to be searched is located.

(e) Search Warrant Standard.—A Federal judge may issue a search warrant under this section only if the foreign offense for which the evidence is sought involves conduct that, if committed in the United States, would be considered an offense punishable by imprisonment for more than one year under Federal or State law.

(f) Service of Order or Warrant.—Except as provided under subsection (d), an order or warrant issued pursuant to this section may be served or executed in any place in the United States.

(g) Rule of Construction.—Nothing in this section shall be construed to preclude any foreign authority or an interested person from obtaining assistance in a criminal investigation or prosecution pursuant to section 1782 of title 28, United States Code.

(h) Definitions.—As used in this section, the following definitions shall apply:

(1) Federal judge.—The terms “Federal judge” and “attorney for the Government” have the meaning given such terms for the purposes of the Federal Rules of Criminal Procedure.

(2) Foreign authority.—The term “foreign authority” means a foreign judicial authority, a foreign authority responsible for the investigation or prosecution of criminal offenses or for proceedings related to the prosecution of criminal offenses, or an authority designated as a competent authority or central authority for the purpose of making requests for assistance pursuant to an agreement or treaty with the United States regarding assistance in criminal matters.

(Added Pub. L. 111–79, §2(4), Oct. 19, 2009, 123 Stat. 2087.)

References in Text

The Federal Rules of Criminal Procedure, referred to in subsecs. (a)(2)(A) and (h)(1), are set out in the Appendix to this title.

CHAPTER 224—PROTECTION OF WITNESSES

Sec.
3521.
Witness relocation and protection.
3522.
Probationers and parolees.
3523.
Civil judgments.
3524.
Child custody arrangements.
3525.
Victims Compensation Fund.
3526.
Cooperation of other Federal agencies and State governments; reimbursement of expenses.
3527.
Additional authority of Attorney General.
3528.
Definition.

        

Amendments

1990—Pub. L. 101–647, title XXXV, §3581, Nov. 29, 1990, 104 Stat. 4929, substituted “State governments; reimbursement of expenses” for “State governments” in item 3526.

§3521. Witness relocation and protection

(a)(1) The Attorney General may provide for the relocation and other protection of a witness or a potential witness for the Federal Government or for a State government in an official proceeding concerning an organized criminal activity or other serious offense, if the Attorney General determines that an offense involving a crime of violence directed at the witness with respect to that proceeding, an offense set forth in chapter 73 of this title directed at the witness, or a State offense that is similar in nature to either such offense, is likely to be committed. The Attorney General may also provide for the relocation and other protection of the immediate family of, or a person otherwise closely associated with, such witness or potential witness if the family or person may also be endangered on account of the participation of the witness in the judicial proceeding.

(2) The Attorney General shall issue guidelines defining the types of cases for which the exercise of the authority of the Attorney General contained in paragraph (1) would be appropriate.

(3) The United States and its officers and employees shall not be subject to any civil liability on account of any decision to provide or not to provide protection under this chapter.

(b)(1) In connection with the protection under this chapter of a witness, a potential witness, or an immediate family member or close associate of a witness or potential witness, the Attorney General shall take such action as the Attorney General determines to be necessary to protect the person involved from bodily injury and otherwise to assure the health, safety, and welfare of that person, including the psychological well-being and social adjustment of that person, for as long as, in the judgment of the Attorney General, the danger to that person exists. The Attorney General may, by regulation—

(A) provide suitable documents to enable the person to establish a new identity or otherwise protect the person;

(B) provide housing for the person;

(C) provide for the transportation of household furniture and other personal property to a new residence of the person;

(D) provide to the person a payment to meet basic living expenses, in a sum established in accordance with regulations issued by the Attorney General, for such times as the Attorney General determines to be warranted;

(E) assist the person in obtaining employment;

(F) provide other services necessary to assist the person in becoming self-sustaining;

(G) disclose or refuse to disclose the identity or location of the person relocated or protected, or any other matter concerning the person or the program after weighing the danger such a disclosure would pose to the person, the detriment it would cause to the general effectiveness of the program, and the benefit it would afford to the public or to the person seeking the disclosure, except that the Attorney General shall, upon the request of State or local law enforcement officials or pursuant to a court order, without undue delay, disclose to such officials the identity, location, criminal records, and fingerprints relating to the person relocated or protected when the Attorney General knows or the request indicates that the person is under investigation for or has been arrested for or charged with an offense that is punishable by more than one year in prison or that is a crime of violence;

(H) protect the confidentiality of the identity and location of persons subject to registration requirements as convicted offenders under Federal or State law, including prescribing alternative procedures to those otherwise provided by Federal or State law for registration and tracking of such persons; and

(I) exempt procurement for services, materials, and supplies, and the renovation and construction of safe sites within existing buildings from other provisions of law as may be required to maintain the security of protective witnesses and the integrity of the Witness Security Program.


The Attorney General shall establish an accurate, efficient, and effective system of records concerning the criminal history of persons provided protection under this chapter in order to provide the information described in subparagraph (G).

(2) Deductions shall be made from any payment made to a person pursuant to paragraph (1)(D) to satisfy obligations of that person for family support payments pursuant to a State court order.

(3) Any person who, without the authorization of the Attorney General, knowingly discloses any information received from the Attorney General under paragraph (1)(G) shall be fined $5,000 or imprisoned five years, or both.

(c) Before providing protection to any person under this chapter, the Attorney General shall, to the extent practicable, obtain information relating to the suitability of the person for inclusion in the program, including the criminal history, if any, and a psychological evaluation of, the person. The Attorney General shall also make a written assessment in each case of the seriousness of the investigation or case in which the person's information or testimony has been or will be provided and the possible risk of danger to other persons and property in the community where the person is to be relocated and shall determine whether the need for that person's testimony outweighs the risk of danger to the public. In assessing whether a person should be provided protection under this chapter, the Attorney General shall consider the person's criminal record, alternatives to providing protection under this chapter, the possibility of securing similar testimony from other sources, the need for protecting the person, the relative importance of the person's testimony, results of psychological examinations, whether providing such protection will substantially infringe upon the relationship between a child who would be relocated in connection with such protection and that child's parent who would not be so relocated, and such other factors as the Attorney General considers appropriate. The Attorney General shall not provide protection to any person under this chapter if the risk of danger to the public, including the potential harm to innocent victims, outweighs the need for that person's testimony. This subsection shall not be construed to authorize the disclosure of the written assessment made pursuant to this subsection.

(d)(1) Before providing protection to any person under this chapter, the Attorney General shall enter into a memorandum of understanding with that person. Each such memorandum of understanding shall set forth the responsibilities of that person, including—

(A) the agreement of the person, if a witness or potential witness, to testify in and provide information to all appropriate law enforcement officials concerning all appropriate proceedings;

(B) the agreement of the person not to commit any crime;

(C) the agreement of the person to take all necessary steps to avoid detection by others of the facts concerning the protection provided to that person under this chapter;

(D) the agreement of the person to comply with legal obligations and civil judgments against that person;

(E) the agreement of the person to cooperate with all reasonable requests of officers and employees of the Government who are providing protection under this chapter;

(F) the agreement of the person to designate another person to act as agent for the service of process;

(G) the agreement of the person to make a sworn statement of all outstanding legal obligations, including obligations concerning child custody and visitation;

(H) the agreement of the person to disclose any probation or parole responsibilities, and if the person is on probation or parole under State law, to consent to Federal supervision in accordance with section 3522 of this title; and

(I) the agreement of the person to regularly inform the appropriate program official of the activities and current address of such person.


Each such memorandum of understanding shall also set forth the protection which the Attorney General has determined will be provided to the person under this chapter, and the procedures to be followed in the case of a breach of the memorandum of understanding, as such procedures are established by the Attorney General. Such procedures shall include a procedure for filing and resolution of grievances of persons provided protection under this chapter regarding the administration of the program. This procedure shall include the opportunity for resolution of a grievance by a person who was not involved in the case.

(2) The Attorney General shall enter into a separate memorandum of understanding pursuant to this subsection with each person protected under this chapter who is eighteen years of age or older. The memorandum of understanding shall be signed by the Attorney General and the person protected.

(3) The Attorney General may delegate the responsibility initially to authorize protection under this chapter only to the Deputy Attorney General, to the Associate Attorney General, to any Assistant Attorney General in charge of the Criminal Division or National Security Division of the Department of Justice, to the Assistant Attorney General in charge of the Civil Rights Division of the Department of Justice (insofar as the delegation relates to a criminal civil rights case), and to one other officer or employee of the Department of Justice.

(e) If the Attorney General determines that harm to a person for whom protection may be provided under section 3521 of this title is imminent or that failure to provide immediate protection would otherwise seriously jeopardize an ongoing investigation, the Attorney General may provide temporary protection to such person under this chapter before making the written assessment and determination required by subsection (c) of this section or entering into the memorandum of understanding required by subsection (d) of this section. In such a case the Attorney General shall make such assessment and determination and enter into such memorandum of understanding without undue delay after the protection is initiated.

(f) The Attorney General may terminate the protection provided under this chapter to any person who substantially breaches the memorandum of understanding entered into between the Attorney General and that person pursuant to subsection (d), or who provides false information concerning the memorandum of understanding or the circumstances pursuant to which the person was provided protection under this chapter, including information with respect to the nature and circumstances concerning child custody and visitation. Before terminating such protection, the Attorney General shall send notice to the person involved of the termination of the protection provided under this chapter and the reasons for the termination. The decision of the Attorney General to terminate such protection shall not be subject to judicial review.

(Added Pub. L. 98–473, title II, §1208, Oct. 12, 1984, 98 Stat. 2153; amended Pub. L. 101–647, title XXXV, §3582, Nov. 29, 1990, 104 Stat. 4929; Pub. L. 105–119, title I, §115(a)(9), Nov. 26, 1997, 111 Stat. 2467; Pub. L. 109–177, title V, §506(a)(7), Mar. 9, 2006, 120 Stat. 248.)

Amendments

2006—Subsec. (d)(3). Pub. L. 109–177 substituted “to any Assistant Attorney General in charge of the Criminal Division or National Security Division of the Department of Justice” for “to the Assistant Attorney General in charge of the Criminal Division of the Department of Justice”.

1997—Subsec. (b)(1)(H), (I). Pub. L. 105–119 added subpar. (H) and redesignated former subpar. (H) as (I).

1990—Subsec. (b)(1). Pub. L. 101–647, §3582(1), inserted “(G)” after “subparagraph” in last sentence.

Subsec. (d)(3). Pub. L. 101–647, §3582(2), inserted “the” before “Civil Rights Division”.

Effective Date of 1997 Amendment

Pub. L. 105–119, title I, §115(c), Nov. 26, 1997, 111 Stat. 2467, provided that: “This section [amending this section, sections 3563, 3583, 4042, and 4209 of this title, and sections 14071 and 14072 of Title 42, The Public Health and Welfare, enacting provisions set out as notes under section 951 of Title 10, Armed Forces, and section 14039 of Title 42, and amending provisions set out as a note under section 14071 of Title 42] shall take effect on the date of the enactment of this Act [Nov. 26, 1997], except that—

“(1) subparagraphs (A), (B), and (C) of subsection (a)(8) [amending sections 3563, 3583, 4042, and 4209 of this title and enacting provisions set out as a note under section 951 of Title 10] shall take effect 1 year after the date of the enactment of this Act; and

“(2) States shall have 3 years from such date of enactment to implement amendments made by this Act [probably should be “this section”] which impose new requirements under the [former] Jacob Wetterling Crimes Against Children and Sexually Violent Offender Registration Act [42 U.S.C. 14071 et seq.], and the Attorney General may grant an additional 2 years to a State that is making good faith efforts to implement these amendments.”

Effective Date

Section 1210 of subpart A (§§1207–1210) of part F of chapter XII of title II of Pub. L. 98–473 provided that: “This subpart and the amendments made by this subpart [see Short Title note below] shall take effect on October 1, 1984.”

Short Title

Section 1207 of subpart A (§§1207–1210) of part F of chapter XII of title II of Pub. L. 98–473 provided that: “This subpart [enacting this chapter, repealing provisions set out as a note preceding section 3481 of this title, and enacting provisions set out as a note under this section] may be cited as the ‘Witness Security Reform Act of 1984’.”

§3522. Probationers and parolees

(a) A probation officer may, upon the request of the Attorney General, supervise any person provided protection under this chapter who is on probation or parole under State law, if the State involved consents to such supervision. Any person so supervised shall be under Federal jurisdiction during the period of supervision and shall, during that period be subject to all laws of the United States which pertain to probationers or parolees, as the case may be.

(b) The failure by any person provided protection under this chapter who is supervised under subsection (a) to comply with the memorandum of understanding entered into by that person pursuant to section 3521(d) of this title shall be grounds for the revocation of probation or parole, as the case may be.

(c) The United States Parole Commission and the Chairman of the Commission shall have the same powers and duties with respect to a probationer or parolee transferred from State supervision pursuant to this section as they have with respect to an offender convicted in a court of the United States and paroled under chapter 311 1 of this title. The provisions of sections 4201 through 4204, 4205(a), (e), and (h), 4206 through 4215, and 4218 1 of this title shall apply following a revocation of probation or parole under this section.

(d) If a person provided protection under this chapter who is on probation or parole and is supervised under subsection (a) of this section has been ordered by the State court which imposed sentence on the person to pay a sum of money to the victim of the offense involved for damage caused by the offense, that penalty or award of damages may be enforced as though it were a civil judgment rendered by a United States district court. Proceedings to collect the moneys ordered to be paid may be instituted by the Attorney General in any United States district court. Moneys recovered pursuant to such proceedings shall be distributed to the victim.

(Added Pub. L. 98–473, title II, §1208, Oct. 12, 1984, 98 Stat. 2157; amended Pub. L. 99–646, §75, Nov. 10, 1986, 100 Stat. 3618; Pub. L. 100–690, title VII, §7072(b), Nov. 18, 1988, 102 Stat. 4405.)

References in Text

Chapter 311 of this title, referred to in subsec. (c), which consisted of sections 4201 to 4218 of this title, was repealed effective Nov. 1, 1987, by Pub. L. 98–473, title II, §§218(a)(5), 235(a)(1), (b)(1), Oct. 12, 1984, 98 Stat. 2027, 2031, 2032, subject to remaining effective for five years after Nov. 1, 1987, in certain circumstances.

Amendments

1988—Subsec. (c). Pub. L. 100–690 substituted “4215” for “4216”.

1986—Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 99–646 substituted “probationers or parolees, as the case may be” for “parolees”.

1 See References in Text note below.

§3523. Civil judgments

(a) If a person provided protection under this chapter is named as a defendant in a civil cause of action arising prior to or during the period in which the protection is provided, process in the civil proceeding may be served upon that person or an agent designated by that person for that purpose. The Attorney General shall make reasonable efforts to serve a copy of the process upon the person protected at the person's last known address. The Attorney General shall notify the plaintiff in the action whether such process has been served. If a judgment in such action is entered against that person the Attorney General shall determine whether the person has made reasonable efforts to comply with the judgment. The Attorney General shall take appropriate steps to urge the person to comply with the judgment. If the Attorney General determines that the person has not made reasonable efforts to comply with the judgment, the Attorney General may, after considering the danger to the person and upon the request of the person holding the judgment disclose the identity and location of the person to the plaintiff entitled to recovery pursuant to the judgment. Any such disclosure of the identity and location of the person shall be made upon the express condition that further disclosure by the plaintiff of such identity or location may be made only if essential to the plaintiff's efforts to recover under the judgment, and only to such additional persons as is necessary to effect the recovery. Any such disclosure or nondisclosure by the Attorney General shall not subject the United States and its officers or employees to any civil liability.

(b)(1) Any person who holds a judgment entered by a Federal or State court in his or her favor against a person provided protection under this chapter may, upon a decision by the Attorney General to deny disclosure of the current identity and location of such protected person, bring an action against the protected person in the United States district court in the district where the person holding the judgment (hereinafter in this subsection referred to as the “petitioner”) resides. Such action shall be brought within one hundred and twenty days after the petitioner requested the Attorney General to disclose the identity and location of the protected person. The complaint in such action shall contain statements that the petitioner holds a valid judgment of a Federal or State court against a person provided protection under this chapter and that the petitioner sought to enforce the judgment by requesting the Attorney General to disclose the identity and location of the protected person.

(2) The petitioner in an action described in paragraph (1) shall notify the Attorney General of the action at the same time the action is brought. The Attorney General shall appear in the action and shall affirm or deny the statements in the complaint that the person against whom the judgment is allegedly held is provided protection under this chapter and that the petitioner requested the Attorney General to disclose the identity and location of the protected person for the purpose of enforcing the judgment.

(3) Upon a determination (A) that the petitioner holds a judgment entered by a Federal or State court and (B) that the Attorney General has declined to disclose to the petitioner the current identity and location of the protected person against whom the judgment was entered, the court shall appoint a guardian to act on behalf of the petitioner to enforce the judgment. The clerk of the court shall forthwith furnish the guardian with a copy of the order of appointment. The Attorney General shall disclose to the guardian the current identity and location of the protected person and any other information necessary to enable the guardian to carry out his or her duties under this subsection.

(4) It is the duty of the guardian to proceed with all reasonable diligence and dispatch to enforce the rights of the petitioner under the judgment. The guardian shall, however, endeavor to carry out such enforcement duties in a manner that maximizes, to the extent practicable, the safety and security of the protected person. In no event shall the guardian disclose the new identity or location of the protected person without the permission of the Attorney General, except that such disclosure may be made to a Federal or State court in order to enforce the judgment. Any good faith disclosure made by the guardian in the performance of his or her duties under this subsection shall not create any civil liability against the United States or any of its officers or employees.

(5) Upon appointment, the guardian shall have the power to perform any act with respect to the judgment which the petitioner could perform, including the initiation of judicial enforcement actions in any Federal or State court or the assignment of such enforcement actions to a third party under applicable Federal or State law. The Federal Rules of Civil Procedure shall apply in any action brought under this subsection to enforce a Federal or State court judgment.

(6) The costs of any action brought under this subsection with respect to a judgment, including any enforcement action described in paragraph (5), and the compensation to be allowed to a guardian appointed in any such action shall be fixed by the court and shall be apportioned among the parties as follows: the petitioner shall be assessed in the amount the petitioner would have paid to collect on the judgment in an action not arising under the provisions of this subsection; the protected person shall be assessed the costs which are normally charged to debtors in similar actions and any other costs which are incurred as a result of an action brought under this subsection. In the event that the costs and compensation to the guardian are not met by the petitioner or by the protected person, the court may, in its discretion, enter judgment against the United States for costs and fees reasonably incurred as a result of the action brought under this subsection.

(7) No officer or employee of the Department of Justice shall in any way impede the efforts of a guardian appointed under this subsection to enforce the judgment with respect to which the guardian was appointed.

(c) The provisions of this section shall not apply to a court order to which section 3524 of this title applies.

(Added Pub. L. 98–473, title II, §1208, Oct. 12, 1984, 98 Stat. 2157.)

References in Text

The Federal Rules of Civil Procedure, referred to in subsec. (b)(5), are set out in the Appendix to Title 28, Judiciary and Judicial Procedure.

§3524. Child custody arrangements

(a) The Attorney General may not relocate any child in connection with protection provided to a person under this chapter if it appears that a person other than that protected person has legal custody of that child.

(b) Before protection is provided under this chapter to any person (1) who is a parent of a child of whom that person has custody, and (2) who has obligations to another parent of that child with respect to custody or visitation of that child under a court order, the Attorney General shall obtain and examine a copy of such order for the purpose of assuring that compliance with the order can be achieved. If compliance with a visitation order cannot be achieved, the Attorney General may provide protection under this chapter to the person only if the parent being relocated initiates legal action to modify the existing court order under subsection (e)(1) of this section. The parent being relocated must agree in writing before being provided protection to abide by any ensuing court orders issued as a result of an action to modify.

(c) With respect to any person provided protection under this chapter (1) who is the parent of a child who is relocated in connection with such protection and (2) who has obligations to another parent of that child with respect to custody or visitation of that child under a State court order, the Attorney General shall, as soon as practicable after the person and child are so relocated, no