2 U.S.C.
United States Code, 2011 Edition
Title 2 - THE CONGRESS
CHAPTER 14 - FEDERAL ELECTION CAMPAIGNS
SUBCHAPTER I - DISCLOSURE OF FEDERAL CAMPAIGN FUNDS
Sec. 441b - Contributions or expenditures by national banks, corporations, or labor organizations
From the U.S. Government Printing Office, www.gpo.gov

§441b. Contributions or expenditures by national banks, corporations, or labor organizations

(a) In general

It is unlawful for any national bank, or any corporation organized by authority of any law of Congress, to make a contribution or expenditure in connection with any election to any political office, or in connection with any primary election or political convention or caucus held to select candidates for any political office, or for any corporation whatever, or any labor organization, to make a contribution or expenditure in connection with any election at which presidential and vice presidential electors or a Senator or Representative in, or a Delegate or Resident Commissioner to, Congress are to be voted for, or in connection with any primary election or political convention or caucus held to select candidates for any of the foregoing offices, or for any candidate, political committee, or other person knowingly to accept or receive any contribution prohibited by this section, or any officer or any director of any corporation or any national bank or any officer of any labor organization to consent to any contribution or expenditure by the corporation, national bank, or labor organization, as the case may be, prohibited by this section.

(b) Definitions; particular activities prohibited or allowed

(1) For the purposes of this section the term “labor organization” means any organization of any kind, or any agency or employee representation committee or plan, in which employees participate and which exists for the purpose, in whole or in part, of dealing with employers concerning grievances, labor disputes, wages, rates of pay, hours of employment, or conditions of work.

(2) For purposes of this section and section 79l(h) of title 15,1 the term “contribution or expenditure” includes a contribution or expenditure, as those terms are defined in section 431 of this title, and also includes any direct or indirect payment, distribution, loan, advance, deposit, or gift of money, or any services, or anything of value (except a loan of money by a national or State bank made in accordance with the applicable banking laws and regulations and in the ordinary course of business) to any candidate, campaign committee, or political party or organization, in connection with any election to any of the offices referred to in this section or for any applicable electioneering communication, but shall not include (A) communications by a corporation to its stockholders and executive or administrative personnel and their families or by a labor organization to its members and their families on any subject; (B) nonpartisan registration and get-out-the-vote campaigns by a corporation aimed at its stockholders and executive or administrative personnel and their families, or by a labor organization aimed at its members and their families; and (C) the establishment, administration, and solicitation of contributions to a separate segregated fund to be utilized for political purposes by a corporation, labor organization, membership organization, cooperative, or corporation without capital stock.

(3) It shall be unlawful—

(A) for such a fund to make a contribution or expenditure by utilizing money or anything of value secured by physical force, job discrimination, financial reprisals, or the threat of force, job discrimination, or financial reprisal; or by dues, fees, or other moneys required as a condition of membership in a labor organization or as a condition of employment, or by moneys obtained in any commercial transaction;

(B) for any person soliciting an employee for a contribution to such a fund to fail to inform such employee of the political purposes of such fund at the time of such solicitation; and

(C) for any person soliciting an employee for a contribution to such a fund to fail to inform such employee, at the time of such solicitation, of his right to refuse to so contribute without any reprisal.


(4)(A) Except as provided in subparagraphs (B), (C), and (D), it shall be unlawful—

(i) for a corporation, or a separate segregated fund established by a corporation, to solicit contributions to such a fund from any person other than its stockholders and their families and its executive or administrative personnel and their families, and

(ii) for a labor organization, or a separate segregated fund established by a labor organization, to solicit contributions to such a fund from any person other than its members and their families.


(B) It shall not be unlawful under this section for a corporation, a labor organization, or a separate segregated fund established by such corporation or such labor organization, to make 2 written solicitations for contributions during the calendar year from any stockholder, executive or administrative personnel, or employee of a corporation or the families of such persons. A solicitation under this subparagraph may be made only by mail addressed to stockholders, executive or administrative personnel, or employees at their residence and shall be so designed that the corporation, labor organization, or separate segregated fund conducting such solicitation cannot determine who makes a contribution of $50 or less as a result of such solicitation and who does not make such a contribution.

(C) This paragraph shall not prevent a membership organization, cooperative, or corporation without capital stock, or a separate segregated fund established by a membership organization, cooperative, or corporation without capital stock, from soliciting contributions to such a fund from members of such organization, cooperative, or corporation without capital stock.

(D) This paragraph shall not prevent a trade association or a separate segregated fund established by a trade association from soliciting contributions from the stockholders and executive or administrative personnel of the member corporations of such trade association and the families of such stockholders or personnel to the extent that such solicitation of such stockholders and personnel, and their families, has been separately and specifically approved by the member corporation involved, and such member corporation does not approve any such solicitation by more than one such trade association in any calendar year.

(5) Notwithstanding any other law, any method of soliciting voluntary contributions or of facilitating the making of voluntary contributions to a separate segregated fund established by a corporation, permitted by law to corporations with regard to stockholders and executive or administrative personnel, shall also be permitted to labor organizations with regard to their members.

(6) Any corporation, including its subsidiaries, branches, divisions, and affiliates, that utilizes a method of soliciting voluntary contributions or facilitating the making of voluntary contributions, shall make available such method, on written request and at a cost sufficient only to reimburse the corporation for the expenses incurred thereby, to a labor organization representing any members working for such corporation, its subsidiaries, branches, divisions, and affiliates.

(7) For purposes of this section, the term “executive or administrative personnel” means individuals employed by a corporation who are paid on a salary, rather than hourly, basis and who have policymaking, managerial, professional, or supervisory responsibilities.

(c) Rules relating to electioneering communications

(1) Applicable electioneering communication

For purposes of this section, the term “applicable electioneering communication” means an electioneering communication (within the meaning of section 434(f)(3) of this title) which is made by any entity described in subsection (a) of this section or by any other person using funds donated by an entity described in subsection (a) of this section.

(2) Exception

Notwithstanding paragraph (1), the term “applicable electioneering communication” does not include a communication by a section 501(c)(4) organization or a political organization (as defined in section 527(e)(1) of title 26) made under section 434(f)(2)(E) or (F) of this title if the communication is paid for exclusively by funds provided directly by individuals who are United States citizens or nationals or lawfully admitted for permanent residence (as defined in section 1101(a)(20) of title 8). For purposes of the preceding sentence, the term “provided directly by individuals” does not include funds the source of which is an entity described in subsection (a) of this section.

(3) Special operating rules

(A) Definition under paragraph (1)

An electioneering communication shall be treated as made by an entity described in subsection (a) of this section if an entity described in subsection (a) of this section directly or indirectly disburses any amount for any of the costs of the communication.

(B) Exception under paragraph (2)

A section 501(c)(4) organization that derives amounts from business activities or receives funds from any entity described in subsection (a) of this section shall be considered to have paid for any communication out of such amounts unless such organization paid for the communication out of a segregated account to which only individuals can contribute, as described in section 434(f)(2)(E) of this title.

(4) Definitions and rules

For purposes of this subsection—

(A) the term “section 501(c)(4) organization” means—

(i) an organization described in section 501(c)(4) of title 26 and exempt from taxation under section 501(a) of such title; or

(ii) an organization which has submitted an application to the Internal Revenue Service for determination of its status as an organization described in clause (i); and


(B) a person shall be treated as having made a disbursement if the person has executed a contract to make the disbursement.

(5) Coordination with title 26

Nothing in this subsection shall be construed to authorize an organization exempt from taxation under section 501(a) of title 26 to carry out any activity which is prohibited under such title.

(6) Special rules for targeted communications

(A) Exception does not apply

Paragraph (2) shall not apply in the case of a targeted communication that is made by an organization described in such paragraph.

(B) Targeted communication

For purposes of subparagraph (A), the term “targeted communication” means an electioneering communication (as defined in section 434(f)(3) of this title) that is distributed from a television or radio broadcast station or provider of cable or satellite television service and, in the case of a communication which refers to a candidate for an office other than President or Vice President, is targeted to the relevant electorate.

(C) Definition

For purposes of this paragraph, a communication is “targeted to the relevant electorate” if it meets the requirements described in section 434(f)(3)(C) of this title.

(Pub. L. 92–225, title III, §316, formerly §321, as added Pub. L. 94–283, title I, §112(2), May 11, 1976, 90 Stat. 490; renumbered §316 and amended Pub. L. 96–187, title I, §§105(5), 112(d), Jan. 8, 1980, 93 Stat. 1354, 1366; Pub. L. 107–155, title II, §§203, 204, 214(d), Mar. 27, 2002, 116 Stat. 91, 92, 95.)

References in Text

Section 79l of title 15, referred to in subsec. (b)(2), was repealed by Pub. L. 109–58, title XII, §1263, Aug. 8, 2005, 119 Stat. 974.

Prior Provisions

A prior section 316 of Pub. L. 92–225 was renumbered section 312, and is classified to section 439 of this title.

Another prior section 316 of Pub. L. 92–225 was renumbered section 311, and is classified to section 438 of this title.

Amendments

2002—Subsec. (b)(2). Pub. L. 107–155, §§203(a), 214(d), substituted “ ‘contribution or expenditure’ includes a contribution or expenditure, as those terms are defined in section 431 of this title, and also includes” for “ ‘contribution or expenditure’ shall include” and inserted “or for any applicable electioneering communication” before “, but shall not include (A)”.

Subsec. (c). Pub. L. 107–155, §203(b), added subsec. (c).

Subsec. (c)(6). Pub. L. 107–155, §204, added par. (6).

1980—Subsec. (b)(4)(B). Pub. L. 96–187, §112(d), substituted “It” for “it”.

Effective Date of 2002 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 107–155 effective Nov. 6, 2002, but not applicable with respect to runoff elections, recounts, or election contests resulting from elections held prior to Nov. 6, 2002, see section 402 of Pub. L. 107–155, set out as an Effective Date of 2002 Amendment; Regulations note under section 431 of this title.

Effective Date of 1980 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 96–187 effective Jan. 8, 1980, see section 301(a) of Pub. L. 96–187, set out as a note under section 431 of this title.

1 See References in Text note below.