2 U.S.C.
United States Code, 2011 Edition
Title 2 - THE CONGRESS
CHAPTER 14 - FEDERAL ELECTION CAMPAIGNS
SUBCHAPTER I - DISCLOSURE OF FEDERAL CAMPAIGN FUNDS
Sec. 441d - Publication and distribution of statements and solicitations
From the U.S. Government Printing Office, www.gpo.gov

§441d. Publication and distribution of statements and solicitations

(a) Identification of funding and authorizing sources

Whenever a political committee makes a disbursement for the purpose of financing any communication through any broadcasting station, newspaper, magazine, outdoor advertising facility, mailing, or any other type of general public political advertising, or whenever any person makes a disbursement for the purpose of financing communications expressly advocating the election or defeat of a clearly identified candidate, or solicits any contribution through any broadcasting station, newspaper, magazine, outdoor advertising facility, mailing, or any other type of general public political advertising or makes a disbursement for an electioneering communication (as defined in section 434(f)(3) of this title), such communication—

(1) if paid for and authorized by a candidate, an authorized political committee of a candidate, or its agents, shall clearly state that the communication has been paid for by such authorized political committee, or 1

(2) if paid for by other persons but authorized by a candidate, an authorized political committee of a candidate, or its agents, shall clearly state that the communication is paid for by such other persons and authorized by such authorized political committee; 1

(3) if not authorized by a candidate, an authorized political committee of a candidate, or its agents, shall clearly state the name and permanent street address, telephone number, or World Wide Web address of the person who paid for the communication and state that the communication is not authorized by any candidate or candidate's committee.

(b) Charge for newspaper or magazine space

No person who sells space in a newspaper or magazine to a candidate or to the agent of a candidate, for use in connection with such candidate's campaign, may charge any amount for such space which exceeds the amount charged for comparable use of such space for other purposes.

(c) Specification

Any printed communication described in subsection (a) of this section shall—

(1) be of sufficient type size to be clearly readable by the recipient of the communication;

(2) be contained in a printed box set apart from the other contents of the communication; and

(3) be printed with a reasonable degree of color contrast between the background and the printed statement.

(d) Additional requirements

(1) Communications by candidates or authorized persons

(A) By radio

Any communication described in paragraph (1) or (2) of subsection (a) of this section which is transmitted through radio shall include, in addition to the requirements of that paragraph, an audio statement by the candidate that identifies the candidate and states that the candidate has approved the communication.

(B) By television

Any communication described in paragraph (1) or (2) of subsection (a) of this section which is transmitted through television shall include, in addition to the requirements of that paragraph, a statement that identifies the candidate and states that the candidate has approved the communication. Such statement—

(i) shall be conveyed by—

(I) an unobscured, full-screen view of the candidate making the statement, or

(II) the candidate in voice-over, accompanied by a clearly identifiable photographic or similar image of the candidate; and


(ii) shall also appear in writing at the end of the communication in a clearly readable manner with a reasonable degree of color contrast between the background and the printed statement, for a period of at least 4 seconds.

(2) Communications by others

Any communication described in paragraph (3) of subsection (a) of this section which is transmitted through radio or television shall include, in addition to the requirements of that paragraph, in a clearly spoken manner, the following audio statement: “__________ is responsible for the content of this advertising.” (with the blank to be filled in with the name of the political committee or other person paying for the communication and the name of any connected organization of the payor). If transmitted through television, the statement shall be conveyed by an unobscured, full-screen view of a representative of the political committee or other person making the statement, or by a representative of such political committee or other person in voice-over, and shall also appear in a clearly readable manner with a reasonable degree of color contrast between the background and the printed statement, for a period of at least 4 seconds.

(Pub. L. 92–225, title III, §318, formerly §323, as added Pub. L. 94–283, title I, §112(2), May 11, 1976, 90 Stat. 493; renumbered §318 and amended Pub. L. 96–187, title I, §§105(5), 111, Jan. 8, 1980, 93 Stat. 1354, 1365; Pub. L. 107–155, title III, §311, Mar. 27, 2002, 116 Stat. 105.)

Prior Provisions

A prior section 318 of Pub. L. 92–225 was classified to section 439b of this title, prior to repeal by Pub. L. 96–187.

Another prior section 318 of Pub. L. 92–225 was renumbered section 313, and is classified to section 439a of this title.

Amendments

2002—Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 107–155, §311(1)(A)(iv), which directed insertion of “or makes a disbursement for an electioneering communication (as defined in section 434(f)(3) of this title)” after “public political advertising” in introductory provisions, was executed by making the insertion after those words the second time appearing, to reflect the probable intent of Congress.

Pub. L. 107–155, §311(1)(A)(i)–(iii), in introductory provisions, substituted “Whenever a political committee makes a disbursement for the purpose of financing any communication through any broadcasting station, newspaper, magazine, outdoor advertising facility, mailing, or any other type of general public political advertising, or whenever any person makes a disbursement” for “Whenever any person makes an expenditure” and struck out “direct” before “mailing,” the second time appearing.

Subsec. (a)(3). Pub. L. 107–155, §311(1)(B), inserted “and permanent street address, telephone number, or World Wide Web address” after “name”.

Subsecs. (c), (d). Pub. L. 107–155, §311(2), added subsecs. (c) and (d).

1980—Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 96–187, §111, designated existing provisions as subsec. (a), and in revising text, provided for solicitation of contributions; prescribed three categories of communications: (1) paid for and authorized by the candidate, (2) paid for by others but authorized by the candidate, and (3) not authorized by the candidate for prior two categories where (1) authorized and (2) not authorized by the candidate; struck out requirement for statement in accordance with regulations of Commission and in a conspicuous manner; and struck out from the communication not authorized by the candidate statement of name of affiliated or connected organization required to be disclosed under section 433 (b)(2) of this title.

Subsec. (b). Pub. L. 96–187, §111, added subsec. (b).

Effective Date of 2002 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 107–155 effective Nov. 6, 2002, but not applicable with respect to runoff elections, recounts, or election contests resulting from elections held prior to Nov. 6, 2002, see section 402 of Pub. L. 107–155, set out as an Effective Date of 2002 Amendment; Regulations note under section 431 of this title.

Effective Date of 1980 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 96–187 effective Jan. 8, 1980, see section 301(a) of Pub. L. 96–187, set out as a note under section 431 of this title.

1 So in original. The word “or” probably should appear at the end of par. (2).