23 U.S.C.
United States Code, 2011 Edition
Title 23 - HIGHWAYS
CHAPTER 1 - FEDERAL-AID HIGHWAYS
Sec. 159 - Revocation or suspension of drivers’ licenses of individuals convicted of drug offenses
From the U.S. Government Printing Office, www.gpo.gov

§159. Revocation or suspension of drivers’ licenses of individuals convicted of drug offenses

(a) Withholding of Apportionments for Noncompliance.—

(1) Beginning in fiscal year 1994.—For each fiscal year the Secretary shall withhold 5 percent of the amount required to be apportioned to any State under each of paragraphs (1), (3), and (5) (as in effect on the day before the date of enactment of the Transportation Equity Act for the 21st Century) of section 104(b) on the first day of each fiscal year which begins after the second calendar year following the effective date of this section if the State does not meet the requirements of paragraph (3) on such date.

(2) Beginning in fiscal year 1996.—The Secretary shall withhold 10 percent (including any amounts withheld under paragraph (1)) of the amount required to be apportioned to any State under each of paragraphs (1), (3), and (5) (as in effect on the day before the date of enactment of the Transportation Equity Act for the 21st Century) of section 104(b) on the first day of each fiscal year which begins after the fourth calendar year following the effective date of this section if the State does not meet the requirements of paragraph (3) on the first day of such fiscal year.

(3) Requirements.—A State meets the requirements of this paragraph if—

(A) the State has enacted and is enforcing a law that requires in all circumstances, or requires in the absence of compelling circumstances warranting an exception—

(i) the revocation, or suspension for at least 6 months, of the driver's license of any individual who is convicted, after the enactment of such law, of—

(I) any violation of the Controlled Substances Act, or

(II) any drug offense; and


(ii) a delay in the issuance or reinstatement of a driver's license to such an individual for at least 6 months after the individual applies for the issuance or reinstatement of a driver's license if the individual does not have a driver's license, or the driver's license of the individual is suspended, at the time the individual is so convicted; or


(B) the Governor of the State—

(i) submits to the Secretary no earlier than the adjournment sine die of the first regularly scheduled session of the State's legislature which begins after the effective date of this section a written certification stating that the Governor is opposed to the enactment or enforcement in the State of a law described in subparagraph (A), relating to the revocation, suspension, issuance, or reinstatement of drivers’ licenses to convicted drug offenders; and

(ii) submits to the Secretary a written certification that the legislature (including both Houses where applicable) has adopted a resolution expressing its opposition to a law described in clause (i).


(b) Period of Availability; Effect of Compliance and Noncompliance.—

(1) Period of availability of withheld funds.—

(A) Funds withheld on or before september 30, 1995.—Any funds withheld under subsection (a) from apportionment to any State on or before September 30, 1995, shall remain available for apportionment to such State as follows:

(i) If such funds would have been apportioned under section 104(b)(5)(A) (as in effect on the day before the date of enactment of the Transportation Equity Act for the 21st Century) but for this section, such funds shall remain available until the end of the fiscal year for which such funds are authorized to be appropriated.

(ii) If such funds would have been apportioned under section 104(b)(5)(B) (as in effect on the day before the date of enactment of the Transportation Equity Act for the 21st Century) but for this section, such funds shall remain available until the end of the second fiscal year following the fiscal year for which such funds are authorized to be appropriated.

(iii) If such funds would have been apportioned under paragraph (1), (3), or (5) (as in effect on the day before the date of enactment of the Transportation Equity Act for the 21st Century) of section 104(b) but for this section, such funds shall remain available until the end of the third fiscal year following the fiscal year for which such funds are authorized to be appropriated.


(B) Funds withheld after september 30, 1995.—No funds withheld under this section from apportionment to any State after September 30, 1995, shall be available for apportionment to such State.


(2) Apportionment of withheld funds after compliance.—If, before the last day of the period for which funds withheld under subsection (a) from apportionment are to remain available for apportionment to a State under paragraph (1), the State meets the requirements of subsection (a)(3), the Secretary shall, on the first day on which the State meets the requirements of subsection (a)(3), apportion to the State the funds withheld under subsection (a) that remain available for apportionment to the State.

(3) Period of availability of subsequently apportioned funds.—Any funds apportioned pursuant to paragraph (2) shall remain available for expenditure as follows:

(A) Funds which would have been originally apportioned under section 104(b)(5)(A) (as in effect on the day before the date of enactment of the Transportation Equity Act for the 21st Century) shall remain available until the end of the fiscal year succeeding the fiscal year in which such funds are apportioned under paragraph (2).

(B) Funds which would have been originally apportioned under paragraph (1), (3), or (5)(B) (as in effect on the day before the date of enactment of the Transportation Equity Act for the 21st Century) of section 104(b) shall remain available until the end of the third fiscal year succeeding the fiscal year in which such funds are so apportioned.


Sums not obligated at the end of such period shall lapse or, in the case of funds apportioned under section 104(b)(5) (as in effect on the day before the date of enactment of the Transportation Equity Act for the 21st Century), shall lapse and be made available by the Secretary for projects in accordance with section 118(b).

(4) Effect of noncompliance.—If, at the end of the period for which funds withheld under subsection (a) from apportionment are available for apportionment to a State under paragraph (1), the State does not meet the requirements of subsection (a)(3), such funds shall lapse or, in the case of funds withheld from apportionment under section 104(b)(5) (as in effect on the day before the date of enactment of the Transportation Equity Act for the 21st Century), such funds shall lapse and be made available by the Secretary for projects in accordance with section 118(b).


(c) Definitions.—For purposes of this section—

(1) Driver's license.—The term “driver's license” means a license issued by a State to any individual that authorizes the individual to operate a motor vehicle on highways.

(2) Drug offense.—The term “drug offense” means any criminal offense which proscribes—

(A) the possession, distribution, manufacture, cultivation, sale, transfer, or the attempt or conspiracy to possess, distribute, manufacture, cultivate, sell, or transfer any substance the possession of which is prohibited under the Controlled Substances Act; or

(B) the operation of a motor vehicle under the influence of such a substance.


(3) Convicted.—The term “convicted” includes adjudicated under juvenile proceedings.

(Added Pub. L. 102–143, title III, §333(a), Oct. 28, 1991, 105 Stat. 944; amended Pub. L. 102–388, title III, §327(a), Oct. 6, 1992, 106 Stat. 1547; Pub. L. 105–178, title I, §1103(l)(3)(E), June 9, 1998, 112 Stat. 126.)

References in Text

The date of enactment of the Transportation Equity Act for the 21st Century, referred to in subsecs. (a)(1), (2) and (b)(1)(A), (3), (4), is the date of enactment of Pub. L. 105–178, which was approved June 9, 1998.

The effective date of this section, referred to in subsec. (a)(1), (2), (3)(B)(i), is Nov. 5, 1990. See section 333(e) of Pub. L. 102–143, set out as a note below.

The Controlled Substances Act, referred to in subsecs. (a)(3)(A)(i)(I) and (c)(2)(A), is title II of Pub. L. 91–513, Oct. 27, 1970, 84 Stat. 1242, as amended, which is classified principally to subchapter I (§801 et seq.) of chapter 13 of Title 21, Food and Drugs. For complete classification of this Act to the Code, see Short Title note set out under section 801 of Title 21 and Tables.

Amendments

1998—Subsec. (a)(1), (2). Pub. L. 105–178, §1103(l)(3)(E)(i), substituted “(5) (as in effect on the day before the date of enactment of the Transportation Equity Act for the 21st Century) of” for “(5) of” before “section 104(b)”.

Subsec. (b)(1)(A)(i). Pub. L. 105–178, §1103(l)(3)(E)(ii)(I), substituted “section 104(b)(5)(A) (as in effect on the day before the date of enactment of the Transportation Equity Act for the 21st Century)” for “section 104(b)(5)(A)”.

Subsec. (b)(1)(A)(ii). Pub. L. 105–178, §1103(l)(3)(E)(ii)(II), substituted “section 104(b)(5)(B) (as in effect on the day before the date of enactment of the Transportation Equity Act for the 21st Century)” for “section 104(b)(5)(B)”.

Subsec. (b)(1)(A)(iii). Pub. L. 105–178, §1103(l)(3)(E)(i), substituted “(5) (as in effect on the day before the date of enactment of the Transportation Equity Act for the 21st Century) of” for “(5) of” before “section 104(b)”.

Subsec. (b)(3). Pub. L. 105–178, §1103(l)(3)(E)(ii)(IV), substituted “section 104(b)(5) (as in effect on the day before the date of enactment of the Transportation Equity Act for the 21st Century)” for “section 104(b)(5)” in concluding provisions.

Subsec. (b)(3)(A). Pub. L. 105–178, §1103(l)(3)(E)(ii)(I), substituted “section 104(b)(5)(A) (as in effect on the day before the date of enactment of the Transportation Equity Act for the 21st Century)” for “section 104(b)(5)(A)”.

Subsec. (b)(3)(B). Pub. L. 105–178, §1103(l)(3)(E)(ii)(III), substituted “(5)(B) (as in effect on the day before the date of enactment of the Transportation Equity Act for the 21st Century)” for “(5)(B)”.

Subsec. (b)(4). Pub. L. 105–178, §1103(l)(3)(E)(ii)(IV), substituted “section 104(b)(5) (as in effect on the day before the date of enactment of the Transportation Equity Act for the 21st Century)” for “section 104(b)(5)”.

1992—Pub. L. 102–388 amended section generally, substituting “Beginning in fiscal year 1994” for “After second calendar year” as subsec. (a)(1) heading, “paragraphs (1), (3), and (5)” for “paragraphs (1), (2), (5), and (6)” in subsec. (a)(1) and (2), “Beginning in fiscal year 1996” for “After fourth calendar year” as subsec. (a)(2) heading, “paragraph (1), (3), or (5)” for “paragraph (1), (2), or (6)” in subsec. (b)(1)(A)(iii), and “paragraph (1), (3), or (5)(B)” for “paragraph (1), (2), (5)(B), or (6)” in subsec. (b)(3)(B).

Effective Date of 1992 Amendment

Section 327(b) of Pub. L. 102–388 provided that: “The amendments made by subsection (a) of this section [amending this section] shall take effect November 5, 1990.”

Effective Date

Section 333(e) of Pub. L. 102–143 provided that: “The amendments made by subsection (a) of this section [enacting this section] shall take effect November 5, 1990.”

Study on State Compliance With Requirements for Revocation and Suspension of Drivers’ Licenses

Pub. L. 102–240, title I, §1094, Dec. 18, 1991, 105 Stat. 2025, provided that:

“(a) Study.—The Secretary shall conduct a study of State efforts to comply with the provisions of section 333 of the Department of Transportation and Related Agencies Appropriations Acts, 1991 and 1992 [section 333 of Pub. L. 102–143 (1992 Act) enacted this section and provisions set out as a note above and repealed section 333 of Pub. L. 101–516 (1991 Act) which amended section 104 of this title and enacted provisions set out as a note thereunder], relating to revocation and suspension of drivers’ licenses.

“(b) Report.—Not later than December 31, 1992, the Secretary shall transmit to Congress a report on the results of the study conducted under this section.”