26 U.S.C.
United States Code, 2011 Edition
Title 26 - INTERNAL REVENUE CODE
Subtitle A - Income Taxes
CHAPTER 1 - NORMAL TAXES AND SURTAXES
Subchapter B - Computation of Taxable Income
PART I - DEFINITION OF GROSS INCOME, ADJUSTED GROSS INCOME, TAXABLE INCOME, ETC.
From the U.S. Government Printing Office, www.gpo.gov

PART I—DEFINITION OF GROSS INCOME, ADJUSTED GROSS INCOME, TAXABLE INCOME, ETC.

Sec.
61.
Gross income defined.
62.
Adjusted gross income defined.
63.
Taxable income defined.
64.
Ordinary income defined.
65.
Ordinary loss defined.
66.
Treatment of community income.
67.
2-percent floor on miscellaneous itemized deductions.
68.
Overall limitation on itemized deductions.

        

Amendments

1990—Pub. L. 101–508, title XI, §11103(d), Nov. 5, 1990, 104 Stat. 1388–407, added item 68.

1986—Pub. L. 99–514, title I, §132(d), Oct. 22, 1986, 100 Stat. 2116, added item 67.

1984—Pub. L. 98–369, div. A, title IV, §424(b)(2)(C), July 18, 1984, 98 Stat. 803, struck out “where spouses live apart” in item 66.

1980—Pub. L. 96–605, title I, §101(b), Dec. 28, 1980, 94 Stat. 3522, added item 66.

1976—Pub. L. 94–455, title XIX, §1901(b)(4)(A), (B), Oct. 4, 1976, 90 Stat. 1793, substituted “TAXABLE INCOME, ETC.” for “AND TAXABLE INCOME” in part heading, and added items 64 and 65.

§61. Gross income defined

(a) General definition

Except as otherwise provided in this subtitle, gross income means all income from whatever source derived, including (but not limited to) the following items:

(1) Compensation for services, including fees, commissions, fringe benefits, and similar items;

(2) Gross income derived from business;

(3) Gains derived from dealings in property;

(4) Interest;

(5) Rents;

(6) Royalties;

(7) Dividends;

(8) Alimony and separate maintenance payments;

(9) Annuities;

(10) Income from life insurance and endowment contracts;

(11) Pensions;

(12) Income from discharge of indebtedness;

(13) Distributive share of partnership gross income;

(14) Income in respect of a decedent; and

(15) Income from an interest in an estate or trust.

(b) Cross references

For items specifically included in gross income, see part II (sec. 71 and following). For items specifically excluded from gross income, see part III (sec. 101 and following).

(Aug. 16, 1954, ch. 736, 68A Stat. 17; Pub. L. 98–369, div. A, title V, §531(c), July 18, 1984, 98 Stat. 884.)

Amendments

1984—Subsec. (a)(1). Pub. L. 98–369 inserted reference to fringe benefits.

Effective Date of 1984 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 98–369 effective Jan. 1, 1985, see section 531(h) of Pub. L. 98–369, set out as an Effective Date note under section 132 of this title.

Termination Date of 1978 Amendment

Pub. L. 95–615, §210(a), Nov. 8, 1978, 92 Stat. 3109, provided that: “Title I of this Act [probably means sections 1 to 8 of Pub. L. 95–615, see Short Title of 1978 Amendment note under section 1 of this title] (other than sections 4 and 5 thereof) [amending section 167 of this title, enacting provisions set out as notes under this section and sections 61 and 62 of this title, and amending provisions set out as notes under sections 117, 167, and 382 of this title] shall cease to have effect on the day after the date of the enactment of this Act [Nov. 8, 1978].”

Regulations

Pub. L. 95–427, §1, Oct. 7, 1978, 92 Stat. 996, as amended by Pub. L. 96–167, §1, Dec. 29, 1979, 93 Stat. 1275; Pub. L. 97–34, title VIII, §801, Aug. 13, 1981, 95 Stat. 349; Pub. L. 99–514, §2, Oct. 22, 1986, 100 Stat. 2095, provided that:

“(a) In General.—No fringe benefit regulation shall be issued—

“(1) in final form on or after May 1, 1978, and on or before December 31, 1983, or

“(2) in proposed or final form on or after May 1, 1978, if such regulation has an effective date on or before December 31, 1983.

“(b) Definition of Fringe Benefit Regulation.—For purposes of subsection (a), the term ‘fringe benefit regulation’ means a regulation providing for the inclusion of any fringe benefit in gross income by reason of section 61 of the Internal Revenue Code of 1986 [formerly I.R.C. 1954].”

Pub. L. 95–615, §3, Nov. 8, 1978, 92 Stat. 3097, as amended by Pub. L. 99–514, §2, Oct. 22, 1986, 100 Stat. 2095, provided that no regulations be issued in final form on or after Oct. 1, 1977, and before July 1, 1978, providing for inclusion of any fringe benefit in gross income by reason of section 61 of the Internal Revenue Code of 1986 [formerly I.R.C. 1954], ceased to have effect on the day after Nov. 8, 1978, pursuant to section 210(a) of that Act.

No Gain Recognized From Net Gifts Made Before March 4, 1981

Section 1026 of Pub. L. 98–369, as amended by Pub. L. 99–514, §2, Oct. 22, 1986, 100 Stat. 2095, provided that:

“(a) In General.—In the case of any transfer of property subject to gift tax made before March 4, 1981, for purposes of subtitle A of the Internal Revenue Code of 1986 [formerly I.R.C. 1954, 26 U.S.C. 1 et seq.], gross income of the donor shall not include any amount attributable to the donee's payment of (or agreement to pay) any gift tax imposed with respect to such gift.

“(b) Gift Tax Defined.—For purposes of subsection (a), the term ‘gift tax’ means—

“(1) the tax imposed by chapter 12 of such Code [26 U.S.C. 2501 et seq.], and

“(2) any tax imposed by a State (or the District of Columbia) on transfers by gifts.

“(c) Statute of Limitations.—If refund or credit of any overpayment of tax resulting from subsection (a) is prevented on the date of the enactment of this Act [July 18, 1984] (or at any time within 1 year after such date) by the operation of any law or rule of law (including res judicata), refund or credit of such overpayment (to the extent attributable to subsection (a)) may nevertheless be made or allowed if claim therefor is filed within 1 year after the date of the enactment of this Act.”

Payment-in-Kind Tax Treatment Act of 1983

Pub. L. 98–4, Mar. 11, 1983, 97 Stat. 7, as amended by Pub. L. 98–369, div. A, title X, §1061(a), July 18, 1984, 98 Stat. 1046; Pub. L. 99–514, §2, Oct. 22, 1986, 100 Stat. 2095; Pub. L. 100–647, title VI, §6252(a)(1), Nov. 10, 1988, 102 Stat. 3752, provided that:

“SECTION 1. SHORT TITLE.

“This Act may be cited as the ‘Payment-in-Kind Tax Treatment Act of 1983’.

“SEC. 2. INCOME TAX TREATMENT OF AGRICULTURAL COMMODITIES RECEIVED UNDER A 1983 PAYMENT-IN-KIND PROGRAM.

“(a) Income Tax Deferral, Etc.—Except as otherwise provided in this Act, for purposes of the Internal Revenue Code of 1986 [formerly I.R.C. 1954]—

“(1) a qualified taxpayer shall not be treated as having realized income when he receives a commodity under a 1983 payment-in-kind program,

“(2) such commodity shall be treated as if it were produced by such taxpayer, and

“(3) the unadjusted basis of such commodity in the hands of such taxpayer shall be zero.

“(b) Effective Date.—This section shall apply to taxable years ending after December 31, 1982, but only with respect to commodities received for the 1983 crop year.

“SEC. 3. LAND DIVERTED UNDER 1983 PAYMENT-IN-KIND PROGRAM TREATED AS USED IN FARMING BUSINESS, ETC.

“(a) General Rule.—For purposes of the provisions specified in subsection (b), in the case of any land diverted from the production of an agricultural commodity under a 1983 payment-in-kind program—

“(1) such land shall be treated as used during the 1983 crop year by the qualified taxpayer in the active conduct of the trade or business of farming, and

“(2) any qualified taxpayer who materially participates in the diversion and devotion to conservation uses required under a 1983 payment-in-kind program shall be treated as materially participating in the operation of such land during such crop year.

“(b) Provisions to Which Subsection (a) Applies.—The provisions specified in this subsection are—

“(1) section 2032A of the Internal Revenue Code of 1986 (relating to valuation of certain farm, etc., real property),

“(2) section 6166 of such Code (relating to extension of time for payment of estate tax where estate consists largely of interest in closely held business),

“(3) chapter 2 of such Code (relating to tax on self-employment income), and

“(4) title II of the Social Security Act [42 U.S.C. 401 et seq.] (relating to Federal old-age, survivors, and disability insurance benefits).

“SEC. 4. ANTIABUSE RULES.

“(a) General Rule.—In the case of any person, sections 2 and 3 of this Act shall not apply with respect to any land acquired by such person after February 23, 1983, unless such land was acquired in a qualified acquisition.

“(b) Qualified Acquisition.—For purposes of this section, the term ‘qualified acquisition’ means any acquisition—

“(1) by reason of the death of a qualified transferor,

“(2) by reason of a gift from a qualified transferor, or

“(3) from a qualified transferor who is a member of the family of the person acquiring the land.

“(c) Definitions and Special Rules.—For purposes of this section—

“(1) Qualified transferor.—The term ‘qualified transferor’ means any person—

“(A) who held the land on February 23, 1983, or

“(B) who acquired the land after February 23, 1983, in a qualified acquisition.

“(2) Member of family.—The term ‘member of the family’ has the meaning given such term by section 2032A(e)(2) of the Internal Revenue Code of 1986.

“(3) Mere change in form of business.—Subsection (a) shall not apply to any change in ownership by reason of a mere change in the form of conducting the trade or business so long as the land is retained in such trade or business and the person holding the land before such change retains a direct or indirect 80-percent interest in such land.

“(4) Treatment of certain acquisitions of right to the crop.—The acquisition of a direct or indirect interest in 80 percent or more of the crop from any land shall be treated as an acquisition of such land.

“SEC. 5. DEFINITIONS AND SPECIAL RULES.

“(a) General Rule.—For purposes of this Act—

“(1) 1983 payment-in-kind program.—The term ‘1983 payment-in-kind program’ means any program for the 1983 crop year—

“(A) under which the Secretary of Agriculture (or his delegate) makes payments in kind of any agricultural commodity to any person in return for—

“(i) the diversion of farm acreage from the production of an agricultural commodity, and

“(ii) the devotion of such acreage to conservation uses, and

“(B) which the Secretary of Agriculture certifies to the Secretary of the Treasury as being described in subparagraph (A).

“(2) Crop year.—The term ‘1983 crop year’ means the crop year for any crop the planting or harvesting period for which occurs during 1983. The term ‘1984 crop year’ means the crop year for wheat the planting and harvesting period for which occurs during 1984.

“(3) Qualified taxpayer.—The term ‘qualified taxpayer’ means any producer of agricultural commodities (within the meaning of the 1983 payment-in-kind programs) who receives any agricultural commodity in return for meeting the requirements of clauses (i) and (ii) of paragraph (1)(A).

“(4) Receipt includes right to receive, etc.—A right to receive (or other constructive receipt of) a commodity shall be treated the same as actual receipt of such commodity.

“(5) Amounts received by the taxpayer as reimbursement for storage.—A qualified taxpayer reporting on the cash receipts and disbursements method of accounting shall not be treated as being entitled to receive any amount as reimbursement for storage of commodities received under a 1983 payment-in-kind program until such amount is actually received by the taxpayer.

“(6) Commodity credit loans treated separately.—Subsection (a) of section 2 shall apply to the receipt of any commodity under a 1983 payment-in-kind program separately from, and without taking into account, any related transaction or series of transactions involving the satisfaction of loans from the Commodity Credit Corporation.

“(b) Extension to Wheat Planted and Harvested in 1984.—In the case of wheat—

“(1) any reference in this Act to the 1983 crop year shall include a reference to the 1984 crop year, and

“(2) any reference to the 1983 payment-in-kind program shall include a reference to any program for the 1984 year for wheat which meets the requirements of subparagraphs (A) and (B) of subsection (a)(1).

“(c) Regulations.—The Secretary of the Treasury or his delegate (after consultation with the Secretary of Agriculture) shall prescribe such regulations as may be necessary to carry out the purposes of this Act, including (but not limited to) such regulations as may be necessary to carry out the purposes of this Act where the commodity is received by a cooperative on behalf of the qualified taxpayer.”

[Section 1061(b) of Pub. L. 98–369 provided that: “The amendments made by this section [amending Pub. L. 98–4 set out above] shall apply with respect to commodities received for the 1984 crop year (as defined in section 5(a)(2) of the Payment-in-Kind Tax Treatment Act of 1983 [Pub. L. 98–4, set out above] as amended by subsection (a)).”]

Cancellation of Certain Student Loans

Pub. L. 94–455, title XXI, §2117, Oct. 4, 1976, 90 Stat. 1911, as amended by Pub. L. 95–600, title I, §162, Nov. 6, 1978, 92 Stat. 2810; Pub. L. 99–514, §2, Oct. 22, 1986, 100 Stat. 2095, provided that no amount be included in gross income of an individual for purposes of 26 U.S.C. 61 by reason of the discharge made before Jan. 1, 1983 of the indebtedness of the individual under a student loan if the discharge was pursuant to a provision of the loan under which the indebtedness of the individual would be discharged if the individual worked for a certain period of time in certain geographical areas or for certain classes of employers.

Regulations Relating to Tax Treatment of Certain Prepublication Expenditures of Publishers

Pub. L. 94–455, title XXI, §2119, Oct. 4, 1976, 90 Stat. 1912, as amended by Pub. L. 99–514, §2, Oct. 22, 1986, 100 Stat. 2095, provided that:

“(a) General Rule.—With respect to taxable years beginning on or before the date on which regulations dealing with prepublication expenditures are issued after the date of the enactment of this Act [Oct. 4, 1976], the application of sections 61 (as it relates to cost of goods sold), 162, 174, 263, and 471 of the Internal Revenue Code of 1986 [formerly I.R.C. 1954] to any prepublication expenditure shall be administered—

“(1) without regard to Revenue Ruling 73–395, and

“(2) in the manner in which such sections were applied consistently by the taxpayer to such expenditures before the date of the issuance of such revenue ruling.

“(b) Regulations To Be Prospective Only.—Any regulations issued after the date of the enactment of this Act [Oct. 4, 1976] which deal with the application of sections 61 (as it relates to cost of goods sold), 162, 174, 263, and 471 of the Internal Revenue Code of 1986 to prepublication expenditures shall apply only with respect to taxable years beginning after the date on which such regulations are issued.

“(c) Prepublication Expenditures Defined.—For purposes of this section, the term ‘prepublication expenditures’ means expenditures paid or incurred by the taxpayer (in connection with his trade or business of publishing) for the writing, editing, compiling, illustrating, designing, or other development or improvement of a book, teaching aid, or similar product.”

Reimbursement of Moving Expenses of Employees of Certain Corporations Excluded From Gross Income; Claim for Refund or Credit; Limitations; Interest

Pub. L. 86–780, §5, Sept. 14, 1960, 74 Stat. 1013, provided for the exclusion from gross income of any amount received after Dec. 31, 1949, and before Oct. 1, 1955, by employees of certain corporations as reimbursement for moving expenses, and the refund or credit of any overpayments.

§62. Adjusted gross income defined

(a) General rule

For purposes of this subtitle, the term “adjusted gross income” means, in the case of an individual, gross income minus the following deductions:

(1) Trade and business deductions

The deductions allowed by this chapter (other than by part VII of this subchapter) which are attributable to a trade or business carried on by the taxpayer, if such trade or business does not consist of the performance of services by the taxpayer as an employee.

(2) Certain trade and business deductions of employees

(A) Reimbursed expenses of employees

The deductions allowed by part VI (section 161 and following) which consist of expenses paid or incurred by the taxpayer, in connection with the performance by him of services as an employee, under a reimbursement or other expense allowance arrangement with his employer. The fact that the reimbursement may be provided by a third party shall not be determinative of whether or not the preceding sentence applies.

(B) Certain expenses of performing artists

The deductions allowed by section 162 which consist of expenses paid or incurred by a qualified performing artist in connection with the performances by him of services in the performing arts as an employee.

(C) Certain expenses of officials

The deductions allowed by section 162 which consist of expenses paid or incurred with respect to services performed by an official as an employee of a State or a political subdivision thereof in a position compensated in whole or in part on a fee basis.

(D) Certain expenses of elementary and secondary school teachers

In the case of taxable years beginning during 2002, 2003, 2004, 2005, 2006, 2007, 2008, 2009, 2010, or 2011, the deductions allowed by section 162 which consist of expenses, not in excess of $250, paid or incurred by an eligible educator in connection with books, supplies (other than nonathletic supplies for courses of instruction in health or physical education), computer equipment (including related software and services) and other equipment, and supplementary materials used by the eligible educator in the classroom.

(E) Certain expenses of members of reserve components of the Armed Forces of the United States

The deductions allowed by section 162 which consist of expenses, determined at a rate not in excess of the rates for travel expenses (including per diem in lieu of subsistence) authorized for employees of agencies under subchapter I of chapter 57 of title 5, United States Code, paid or incurred by the taxpayer in connection with the performance of services by such taxpayer as a member of a reserve component of the Armed Forces of the United States for any period during which such individual is more than 100 miles away from home in connection with such services.

(3) Losses from sale or exchange of property

The deductions allowed by part VI (sec. 161 and following) as losses from the sale or exchange of property.

(4) Deductions attributable to rents and royalties

The deductions allowed by part VI (sec. 161 and following), by section 212 (relating to expenses for production of income), and by section 611 (relating to depletion) which are attributable to property held for the production of rents or royalties.

(5) Certain deductions of life tenants and income beneficiaries of property

In the case of a life tenant of property, or an income beneficiary of property held in trust, or an heir, legatee, or devisee of an estate, the deduction for depreciation allowed by section 167 and the deduction allowed by section 611.

(6) Pension, profit-sharing, and annuity plans of self-employed individuals

In the case of an individual who is an employee within the meaning of section 401(c)(1), the deduction allowed by section 404.

(7) Retirement savings

The deduction allowed by section 219 (relating to deduction of certain retirement savings).

[(8) Repealed. Pub. L. 104–188, title I, §1401(b)(4), Aug. 20, 1996, 110 Stat. 1788]

(9) Penalties forfeited because of premature withdrawal of funds from time savings accounts or deposits

The deductions allowed by section 165 for losses incurred in any transaction entered into for profit, though not connected with a trade or business, to the extent that such losses include amounts forfeited to a bank, mutual savings bank, savings and loan association, building and loan association, cooperative bank or homestead association as a penalty for premature withdrawal of funds from a time savings account, certificate of deposit, or similar class of deposit.

(10) Alimony

The deduction allowed by section 215.

(11) Reforestation expenses

The deduction allowed by section 194.

(12) Certain required repayments of supplemental unemployment compensation benefits

The deduction allowed by section 165 for the repayment to a trust described in paragraph (9) or (17) of section 501(c) of supplemental unemployment compensation benefits received from such trust if such repayment is required because of the receipt of trade readjustment allowances under section 231 or 232 of the Trade Act of 1974 (19 U.S.C. 2291 and 2292).

(13) Jury duty pay remitted to employer

Any deduction allowable under this chapter by reason of an individual remitting any portion of any jury pay to such individual's employer in exchange for payment by the employer of compensation for the period such individual was performing jury duty. For purposes of the preceding sentence, the term “jury pay” means any payment received by the individual for the discharge of jury duty.

(14) Deduction for clean-fuel vehicles and certain refueling property

The deduction allowed by section 179A.

(15) Moving expenses

The deduction allowed by section 217.

(16) Archer MSAs

The deduction allowed by section 220.

(17) Interest on education loans

The deduction allowed by section 221.

(18) Higher education expenses

The deduction allowed by section 222.

(19) Health savings accounts

The deduction allowed by section 223.

(20) Costs involving discrimination suits, etc.

Any deduction allowable under this chapter for attorney fees and court costs paid by, or on behalf of, the taxpayer in connection with any action involving a claim of unlawful discrimination (as defined in subsection (e)) or a claim of a violation of subchapter III of chapter 37 of title 31, United States Code 1 or a claim made under section 1862(b)(3)(A) of the Social Security Act (42 U.S.C. 1395y(b)(3)(A)). The preceding sentence shall not apply to any deduction in excess of the amount includible in the taxpayer's gross income for the taxable year on account of a judgment or settlement (whether by suit or agreement and whether as lump sum or periodic payments) resulting from such claim.

(21) Attorneys fees relating to awards to whistleblowers

Any deduction allowable under this chapter for attorney fees and court costs paid by, or on behalf of, the taxpayer in connection with any award under section 7623(b) (relating to awards to whistleblowers). The preceding sentence shall not apply to any deduction in excess of the amount includible in the taxpayer's gross income for the taxable year on account of such award.


Nothing in this section shall permit the same item to be deducted more than once.

(b) Qualified performing artist

(1) In general

For purposes of subsection (a)(2)(B), the term “qualified performing artist” means, with respect to any taxable year, any individual if—

(A) such individual performed services in the performing arts as an employee during the taxable year for at least 2 employers,

(B) the aggregate amount allowable as a deduction under section 162 in connection with the performance of such services exceeds 10 percent of such individual's gross income attributable to the performance of such services, and

(C) the adjusted gross income of such individual for the taxable year (determined without regard to subsection (a)(2)(B)) does not exceed $16,000.

(2) Nominal employer not taken into account

An individual shall not be treated as performing services in the performing arts as an employee for any employer during any taxable year unless the amount received by such individual from such employer for the performance of such services during the taxable year equals or exceeds $200.

(3) Special rules for married couples

(A) In general

Except in the case of a husband and wife who lived apart at all times during the taxable year, if the taxpayer is married at the close of the taxable year, subsection (a)(2)(B) shall apply only if the taxpayer and his spouse file a joint return for the taxable year.

(B) Application of paragraph (1)

In the case of a joint return—

(i) paragraph (1) (other than subparagraph (C) thereof) shall be applied separately with respect to each spouse, but

(ii) paragraph (1)(C) shall be applied with respect to their combined adjusted gross income.

(C) Determination of marital status

For purposes of this subsection, marital status shall be determined under section 7703(a).

(D) Joint return

For purposes of this subsection, the term “joint return” means the joint return of a husband and wife made under section 6013.

(c) Certain arrangements not treated as reimbursement arrangements

For purposes of subsection (a)(2)(A), an arrangement shall in no event be treated as a reimbursement or other expense allowance arrangement if—

(1) such arrangement does not require the employee to substantiate the expenses covered by the arrangement to the person providing the reimbursement, or

(2) such arrangement provides the employee the right to retain any amount in excess of the substantiated expenses covered under the arrangement.


The substantiation requirements of the preceding sentence shall not apply to any expense to the extent that substantiation is not required under section 274(d) for such expense by reason of the regulations prescribed under the 2nd sentence thereof.

(d) Definition; special rules

(1) Eligible educator

(A) In general

For purposes of subsection (a)(2)(D), the term “eligible educator” means, with respect to any taxable year, an individual who is a kindergarten through grade 12 teacher, instructor, counselor, principal, or aide in a school for at least 900 hours during a school year.

(B) School

The term “school” means any school which provides elementary education or secondary education (kindergarten through grade 12), as determined under State law.

(2) Coordination with exclusions

A deduction shall be allowed under subsection (a)(2)(D) for expenses only to the extent the amount of such expenses exceeds the amount excludable under section 135, 529(c)(1), or 530(d)(2) for the taxable year.

(e) Unlawful discrimination defined

For purposes of subsection (a)(20), the term “unlawful discrimination” means an act that is unlawful under any of the following:

(1) Section 302 of the Civil Rights Act of 1991 (2 U.S.C. 1202).2

(2) Section 201, 202, 203, 204, 205, 206, or 207 of the Congressional Accountability Act of 1995 (2 U.S.C. 1311, 1312, 1313, 1314, 1315, 1316, or 1317).

(3) The National Labor Relations Act (29 U.S.C. 151 et seq.).

(4) The Fair Labor Standards Act of 1938 (29 U.S.C. 201 et seq.).

(5) Section 4 or 15 of the Age Discrimination in Employment Act of 1967 (29 U.S.C. 623 or 633a).

(6) Section 501 or 504 of the Rehabilitation Act of 1973 (29 U.S.C. 791 or 794).

(7) Section 510 of the Employee Retirement Income Security Act of 1974 (29 U.S.C. 1140).

(8) Title IX of the Education Amendments of 1972 (20 U.S.C. 1681 et seq.).

(9) The Employee Polygraph Protection Act of 1988 (29 U.S.C. 2001 et seq.).

(10) The Worker Adjustment and Retraining Notification Act (29 U.S.C. 2102 et seq.).

(11) Section 105 of the Family and Medical Leave Act of 1993 (29 U.S.C. 2615).

(12) Chapter 43 of title 38, United States Code (relating to employment and reemployment rights of members of the uniformed services).

(13) Section 1977, 1979, or 1980 of the Revised Statutes (42 U.S.C. 1981, 1983, or 1985).

(14) Section 703, 704, or 717 of the Civil Rights Act of 1964 (42 U.S.C. 2000e–2, 2000e–3, or 2000e–16).

(15) Section 804, 805, 806, 808, or 818 of the Fair Housing Act (42 U.S.C. 3604, 3605, 3606, 3608, or 3617).

(16) Section 102, 202, 302, or 503 of the Americans with Disabilities Act of 1990 (42 U.S.C. 12112, 12132, 12182, or 12203).

(17) Any provision of Federal law (popularly known as whistleblower protection provisions) prohibiting the discharge of an employee, the discrimination against an employee, or any other form of retaliation or reprisal against an employee for asserting rights or taking other actions permitted under Federal law.

(18) Any provision of Federal, State, or local law, or common law claims permitted under Federal, State, or local law—

(i) providing for the enforcement of civil rights, or

(ii) regulating any aspect of the employment relationship, including claims for wages, compensation, or benefits, or prohibiting the discharge of an employee, the discrimination against an employee, or any other form of retaliation or reprisal against an employee for asserting rights or taking other actions permitted by law.

(Aug. 16, 1954, ch. 736, 68A Stat. 17; Pub. L. 87–792, §7(b), Oct. 10, 1962, 76 Stat. 828; Pub. L. 88–272, title II, §213(b), Feb. 26, 1964, 78 Stat. 52; Pub. L. 91–172, title V, §531(b), Dec. 30, 1969, 83 Stat. 655; Pub. L. 93–406, title II, §§2002(a)(2), 2005(c)(9), Sept. 2, 1974, 88 Stat. 959, 992; Pub. L. 93–483, §6(a), Oct. 26, 1974, 88 Stat. 1458; Pub. L. 94–455, title V, §502(a), title XV, §1501(b)(1), title XIX, §1901(a)(8), (9), Oct. 4, 1976, 90 Stat. 1559, 1735, 1765; Pub. L. 95–615, §203(b), Nov. 8, 1978, 92 Stat. 3106; Pub. L. 96–451, title III, §301(b), Oct. 14, 1980, 94 Stat. 1990; Pub. L. 96–608, §3(a), Dec. 28, 1980, 94 Stat. 3551; Pub. L. 97–34, title I, §§103(b), 112(b)(2), title III, §311(h)(1), Aug. 13, 1981, 95 Stat. 187, 195, 282; Pub. L. 97–354, §5(a)(17), Oct. 19, 1982, 96 Stat. 1693; Pub. L. 98–369, div. A, title IV, §491(d)(2), July 18, 1984, 98 Stat. 849; Pub. L. 99–514, title I, §§131(b)(1), 132(b), (c), title III, §301(b)(1), title XVIII, §1875(c)(3), Oct. 22, 1986, 100 Stat. 2113, 2115, 2116, 2217, 2894; Pub. L. 100–485, title VII, §702(a), Oct. 13, 1988, 102 Stat. 2426; Pub. L. 100–647, title I, §1001(b)(3)(A), title VI, §6007(b), Nov. 10, 1988, 102 Stat. 3349, 3687; Pub. L. 101–508, title XI, §11802(e)(1), Nov. 5, 1990, 104 Stat. 1388–530; Pub. L. 102–318, title V, §521(b)(2), July 3, 1992, 106 Stat. 310; Pub. L. 102–486, title XIX, §1913(a)(2), Oct. 24, 1992, 106 Stat. 3019; Pub. L. 103–66, title XIII, §13213(c)(1), Aug. 10, 1993, 107 Stat. 474; Pub. L. 104–188, title I, §1401(b)(4), Aug. 20, 1996, 110 Stat. 1788; Pub. L. 104–191, title III, §301(b), Aug. 21, 1996, 110 Stat. 2048; Pub. L. 105–34, title II, §202(b), title IX, §975(a), Aug. 5, 1997, 111 Stat. 808, 898; Pub. L. 106–554, §1(a)(7) [title II, §202(b)(1)], Dec. 21, 2000, 114 Stat. 2763, 2763A–629; Pub. L. 107–16, title IV, §431(b), June 7, 2001, 115 Stat. 68; Pub. L. 107–147, title IV, §406(a), (b), Mar. 9, 2002, 116 Stat. 43; Pub. L. 108–121, title I, §109(b), Nov. 11, 2003, 117 Stat. 1341; Pub. L. 108–173, title XII, §1201(b), Dec. 8, 2003, 117 Stat. 2476; Pub. L. 108–311, title III, §307(a), Oct. 4, 2004, 118 Stat. 1179; Pub. L. 108–357, title VII, §703(a), (b), Oct. 22, 2004, 118 Stat. 1546, 1547; Pub. L. 109–135, title IV, §412(q), Dec. 21, 2005, 119 Stat. 2638; Pub. L. 109–432, div. A, title I, §108(a), title IV, §406(a)(3), Dec. 20, 2006, 120 Stat. 2939, 2959; Pub. L. 110–343, div. C, title II, §203(a), Oct. 3, 2008, 122 Stat. 3864; Pub. L. 111–312, title VII, §721(a), Dec. 17, 2010, 124 Stat. 3316.)

Amendment of Section

For termination of amendment by section 901 of Pub. L. 107–16, see Effective and Termination Dates of 2001 Amendment note below.

References in Text

Section 302 of the Civil Rights Act of 1991, referred to in subsec. (e)(1), was formerly classified to section 1202 of Title 2, The Congress, and was transferred to section 2000e–16b of Title 42, The Public Health and Welfare.

The National Labor Relations Act, referred to in subsec. (e)(3), is act July 5, 1935, ch. 372, 49 Stat. 449, as amended, which is classified generally to subchapter II (§151 et seq.) of chapter 7 of Title 29, Labor. For complete classification of this Act to the Code, see section 167 of Title 29 and Tables.

The Fair Labor Standards Act of 1938, referred to in subsec. (e)(4), is act June 25, 1938, ch. 676, 52 Stat. 1060, as amended, which is classified generally to chapter 8 (§201 et seq.) of Title 29, Labor. For complete classification of this Act to the Code, see section 201 of Title 29 and Tables.

The Education Amendments of 1972, referred to in subsec. (e)(8), is Pub. L. 92–318, June 23, 1972, 86 Stat. 235, as amended. Title IX of the Act, known as the Patsy Takemoto Mink Equal Opportunity in Education Act, is classified principally to chapter 38 (§1681 et seq.) of Title 20, Education. For complete classification of title IX to the Code, see Short Title note set out under section 1681 of Title 20 and Tables.

The Employee Polygraph Protection Act of 1988, referred to in subsec. (e)(9), is Pub. L. 100–347, June 27, 1988, 102 Stat. 646, as amended, which is classified generally to chapter 22 (§2001 et seq.) of Title 29, Labor. For complete classification of this Act to the Code, see Short Title note set out under section 2001 of Title 29 and Tables.

The Worker Adjustment and Retraining Notification Act, referred to in subsec. (e)(10), is Pub. L. 100–379, Aug. 4, 1988, 102 Stat. 890, as amended, which is classified generally to chapter 23 (§2101 et seq.) of Title 29, Labor. For complete classification of this Act to the Code, see Short Title note set out under section 2101 of Title 29 and Tables.

Amendments

2010—Subsec. (a)(2)(D). Pub. L. 111–312 substituted “2009, 2010, or 2011” for “or 2009”.

2008—Subsec. (a)(2)(D). Pub. L. 110–343 substituted “2007, 2008, or 2009” for “or 2007”.

2006—Subsec. (a)(2)(D). Pub. L. 109–432, §108(a), substituted “2005, 2006, or 2007” for “or 2005”.

Subsec. (a)(21). Pub. L. 109–432, §406(a)(3), added par. (21).

2005—Subsec. (a)(19), (20). Pub. L. 109–135, §412(q)(1), redesignated par. (19) relating to costs involving discrimination suits, etc., as par. (20) and moved to follow par. (19) relating to health savings accounts.

Subsec. (e). Pub. L. 109–135, §412(q)(2), substituted “subsection (a)(20)” for “subsection (a)(19)” in introductory provisions.

2004—Subsec. (a)(2)(D). Pub. L. 108–311 substituted “, 2003, 2004, or 2005” for “or 2003”.

Subsec. (a)(19). Pub. L. 108–357, §703(a), added par. (19) relating to costs involving discrimination suits, etc.

Subsec. (e). Pub. L. 108–357, §703(b), added subsec. (e).

2003—Subsec. (a)(2)(E). Pub. L. 108–121 added subpar. (E).

Subsec. (a)(19). Pub. L. 108–173 added par. (19).

2002—Subsec. (a)(2)(D). Pub. L. 107–147, §406(a), added subpar. (D).

Subsec. (d). Pub. L. 107–147, §406(b), added subsec. (d).

2001—Subsec. (a)(18). Pub. L. 107–16, §§431(b), 901, temporarily added par. (18). See Effective and Termination Dates of 2001 Amendment note below.

2000—Subsec. (a)(16). Pub. L. 106–554 amended heading and text of par. (16) generally. Prior to amendment, text read as follows: “The deduction allowed by section 220.”

1997—Subsec. (a)(2)(C). Pub. L. 105–34, §975(a), added subpar. (C).

Subsec. (a)(17). Pub. L. 105–34, §202(b), added par. (17).

1996—Subsec. (a)(8). Pub. L. 104–188 struck out par. (8) which read as follows: “Certain portion of lump-sum distributions from pension plans taxed under section 402(d).—The deduction allowed by section 402(d)(3).”

Subsec. (a)(16). Pub. L. 104–191 added par. (16).

1993—Subsec. (a)(15). Pub. L. 103–66 added par. (15).

1992—Subsec. (a)(8). Pub. L. 102–318 substituted “402(d)” for “402(e)” in heading and in text.

Subsec. (a)(14). Pub. L. 102–486 added par. (14).

1990—Subsec. (a)(13). Pub. L. 101–508, §11802(e)(1), amended par. (13) generally. Prior to amendment, par. (13) read as follows: “The deduction allowed by section 220.”

1988—Subsec. (a)(2)(A). Pub. L. 100–647, §1001(b)(3)(A), inserted at end “The fact that the reimbursement may be provided by a third party shall not be determinative of whether or not the preceding sentence applies.”

Subsec. (a)(13). Pub. L. 100–647, §6007(b), added par. (13).

Subsec. (c). Pub. L. 100–485 added subsec. (c).

1986—Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 99–514, §132(b)(2)(A), designated existing provisions as subsec. (a) and added heading.

Subsec. (a)(2). Pub. L. 99–514, §132(b)(1), amended par. (2) generally, substituting “Certain trade” for “Trade” in heading and inserting “of employees” in subpar. (A) heading, substituting provision relating to deduction of certain expenses of performing artists for provision relating to deduction of expenses for travel away from home in subpar. (B), and striking out subpar. (C) relating to deduction of travel expenses and subpar. (D) relating to deduction of expenses of outside salesmen.

Subsec. (a)(3) to (5). Pub. L. 99–514, §301(b)(1), redesignated pars. (4) to (6) as (3) to (5), respectively, and struck out former par. (3) which related to long-term capital gains and read as follows: “The deduction allowed by section 1202.”

Subsec. (a)(6). Pub. L. 99–514, §301(b)(1), redesignated par. (7) as (6). Former par. (6) redesignated (5).

Pub. L. 99–514, §1875(c)(3), struck out “to the extent attributable to contributions made on behalf of such individual” after “section 404”.

Subsec. (a)(7). Pub. L. 99–514, §301(b)(1), redesignated par. (10) as (7). Former par. (7) redesignated (6).

Subsec. (a)(8). Pub. L. 99–514, §301(b)(1), redesignated par. (11) as (8). Former par. (8) struck out.

Pub. L. 99–514, §132(c), struck out par. (8) which related to moving expense deduction and read as follows: “The deduction allowed by section 217.”

Subsec. (a)(9) to (15). Pub. L. 99–514, §301(b)(1), redesignated pars. (12) to (15) as (9) to (12), respectively. Former pars. (10) and (11) redesignated (7) and (8), respectively.

Subsec. (a)(16). Pub. L. 99–514, §131(b)(1), struck out par. (16) which related to deduction for two-earner married couples and read as follows: “The deduction allowed by section 221.”

Subsec. (b). Pub. L. 99–514, §132(b)(2)(B), added subsec. (b).

1984—Par. (7). Pub. L. 98–369, §491(d)(2), substituted “and annuity” for “annuity, and bond purchase” in heading, and substituted “the deduction allowed by section 404” for “the deductions allowed by section 404 and section 405(c)” in text.

1983—Par. (9). Pub. L. 97–354 repealed par. (9) relating to the deduction allowed by section 1379(b)(3).

1981—Par. (10). Pub. L. 97–34, §311(h)(1), struck out “and the deduction allowed by section 220 (relating to retirement savings for certain married individuals)” after “retirement savings”.

Par. (14). Pub. L. 97–34, §112(b)(2), redesignated par. (15) as (14). Former par. (14), relating to deduction for certain expenses of living abroad, was struck out.

Par. (15). Pub. L. 97–34, §112(b)(2), redesignated par. (16) as (15). Former par. (15) redesignated (14).

Par. (16). Pub. L. 97–34, §§103(b), 112(b)(2), added par. (16). Former par. (16) redesignated (15).

1980—Par. (15). Pub. L. 96–451 added par. (15).

Par. (16). Pub. L. 96–608 added par. (16).

1978—Par. (14). Pub. L. 95–615 added par. (14).

1976—Par. (10). Pub. L. 94–455, §1501(b)(1), inserted reference to the deduction allowed by section 220 (relating to retirement savings for certain married individuals).

Pars. (11), (12). Pub. L. 94–455, §1901(a)(8), (9), redesignated par. (11) relating to penalties forfeited because of premature withdrawal of funds from time savings accounts or deposits, as par. (12), and substituted “trade or business, to the extent” for “trade or business to the extent”.

Par. (13). Pub. L. 94–455, §502(a), added par. (13).

1974—Par. (10). Pub. L. 93–406, §2002(a)(2), added par. (10).

Par. (11). Pub. L. 93–483 added par. (11) relating to penalties forfeited because of premature withdrawal of funds from time savings accounts or deposits. Another par. (11) relating to certain portions of lump-sum distributions from pension plans taxed under section 402(e) of this title, was added by Pub. L. 93–406, §2005(c)(9).

1969—Par. (9). Pub. L. 91–172 added par. (9).

1964—Par. (8). Pub. L. 88–272 added par. (8).

1962—Par. (7). Pub. L. 87–792 added par. (7).

Effective Date of 2010 Amendment

Pub. L. 111–312, title VII, §721(b), Dec. 17, 2010, 124 Stat. 3316, provided that: “The amendment made by this section [amending this section] shall apply to taxable years beginning after December 31, 2009.”

Effective Date of 2008 Amendment

Pub. L. 110–343, div. C, title II, §203(b), Oct. 3, 2008, 122 Stat. 3864, provided that: “The amendment made by subsection (a) [amending this section] shall apply to taxable years beginning after December 31, 2007.”

Effective Date of 2006 Amendment

Pub. L. 109–432, div. A, title I, §108(b), Dec. 20, 2006, 120 Stat. 2939, provided that: “The amendment made by this section [amending this section] shall apply to taxable years beginning after December 31, 2005.”

Pub. L. 109–432, div. A, title IV, §406(d), Dec. 20, 2006, 120 Stat. 2960, provided that: “The amendments made by subsection (a) [amending this section and sections 7443A and 7623 of this title] shall apply to information provided on or after the date of the enactment of this Act [Dec. 20, 2006].”

Effective Date of 2004 Amendments

Pub. L. 108–357, title VII, §703(c), Oct. 22, 2004, 118 Stat. 1548, provided that: “The amendments made by this section [amending this section] shall apply to fees and costs paid after the date of the enactment of this Act [Oct. 22, 2004] with respect to any judgment or settlement occurring after such date.”

Pub. L. 108–311, title III, §307(b), Oct. 4, 2004, 118 Stat. 1179, provided that: “The amendment made by subsection (a) [amending this section] shall apply to expenses paid or incurred in taxable years beginning after December 31, 2003.”

Effective Date of 2003 Amendments

Pub. L. 108–173, title XII, §1201(k), Dec. 8, 2003, 117 Stat. 2479, provided that: “The amendments made by this section [enacting sections 223 and 4980G of this title, amending this section and sections 106, 125, 220, 848, 3231, 3306, 3401, 4973, 4975, 6051, and 6693 of this title, and renumbering former section 223 of this title as 224] shall apply to taxable years beginning after December 31, 2003.”

Pub. L. 108–121, title I, §109(c), Nov. 11, 2003, 117 Stat. 1342, provided that: “The amendments made by this section [amending this section and section 162 of this title] shall apply to amounts paid or incurred in taxable years beginning after December 31, 2002.”

Effective Date of 2002 Amendment

Pub. L. 107–147, title IV, §406(c), Mar. 9, 2002, 116 Stat. 44, provided that: “The amendments made by this section [amending this section] shall apply to taxable years beginning after December 31, 2001.”

Effective and Termination Dates of 2001 Amendment

Pub. L. 107–16, title IV, §431(d), June 7, 2001, 115 Stat. 69, provided that: “The amendments made by this section [enacting section 222 of this title, amending this section and sections 86, 135, 137, 219, 221, and 469 of this title, and renumbering former section 222 of this title as 223] shall apply to payments made in taxable years beginning after December 31, 2001.”

Amendment by Pub. L. 107–16 inapplicable to taxable, plan, or limitation years beginning after Dec. 31, 2012, and the Internal Revenue Code of 1986 to be applied and administered to such years as if such amendment had never been enacted, see section 901 of Pub. L. 107–16, set out as a note under section 1 of this title.

Effective Date of 1997 Amendment

Section 202(e) of Pub. L. 105–34 provided that: “The amendments made by this section [enacting section 221 of this title, amending this section and section 6050S of this title, and renumbering former section 221 of this title as section 222 of this title] shall apply to any qualified education loan (as defined in section 221(e)(1) of the Internal Revenue Code of 1986, as added by this section) incurred on, before, or after the date of the enactment of this Act [Aug. 5, 1997], but only with respect to—

“(1) any loan interest payment due and paid after December 31, 1997, and

“(2) the portion of the 60-month period referred to in section 221(d) of the Internal Revenue Code of 1986 (as added by this section) after December 31, 1997.”

Section 975(b) of Pub. L. 105–34 provided that: “The amendment made by this section [amending this section] shall apply to expenses paid or incurred in taxable years beginning after December 31, 1986.”

Effective Date of 1996 Amendments

Section 301(j) of Pub. L. 104–191 provided that: “The amendments made by this section [enacting sections 220 and 4980E of this title, amending this section and sections 106, 125, 848, 3231, 3306, 3401, 4973, 4975, 6051, and 6693 of this title, and renumbering section 220 of this title as section 221] shall apply to taxable years beginning after December 31, 1996.”

Amendment by Pub. L. 104–188 applicable to taxable years beginning after Dec. 31, 1999, with retention of certain transition rules, see section 1401(c) of Pub. L. 104–188, set out as a note under section 402 of this title.

Effective Date of 1993 Amendment

Section 13213(e) of Pub. L. 103–66 provided that: “The amendments made by this section [amending this section and sections 67, 82, 132, 217, 1001, 1016, and 4977 of this title] shall apply to expenses incurred after December 31, 1993; except that the amendments made by subsection (d) [amending sections 82, 132, and 4977 of this title] shall apply to reimbursements or other payments in respect of expenses incurred after such date.”

Effective Date of 1992 Amendments

Amendment by Pub. L. 102–486 applicable to property placed in service after June 30, 1993, see section 1913(c) of Pub. L. 102–486, set out as an Effective Date note under section 30 of this title.

Amendment by Pub. L. 102–318 applicable to distributions after Dec. 31, 1992, see section 521(e) of Pub. L. 102–318, set out as a note under section 402 of this title.

Effective Date of 1988 Amendments

Amendment by section 1001(b)(3)(A) of Pub. L. 100–647 effective, except as otherwise provided, as if included in the provision of the Tax Reform Act of 1986, Pub. L. 99–514, to which such amendment relates, see section 1019(a) of Pub. L. 100–647, set out as a note under section 1 of this title.

Section 6007(d) of Pub. L. 100–647 provided that: “The amendments made by this section [enacting section 220 of this title, amending this section, and renumbering former section 220 of this title as section 221 of this title] shall apply as if included in the amendments made by section 132 of the Tax Reform Act of 1986 [Pub. L. 99–514].”

Section 702(b) of Pub. L. 100–485 provided that: “The amendment made by subsection (a) [amending this section] shall apply to taxable years beginning after December 31, 1988.”

Effective Date of 1986 Amendment

Amendment by sections 131(b)(1) and 132(b), (c) of Pub. L. 99–514 applicable to taxable years beginning after Dec. 31, 1986, see section 151(a) of Pub. L. 99–514, set out as a note under section 1 of this title.

Section 301(c) of Pub. L. 99–514 provided that: “The amendments made by this section [amending this section and sections 170, 172, 219, 220, 223, 642, 643, 691, 871, 1211, 1212, and 1402 of this title and repealing section 1202 of this title] shall apply to taxable years beginning after December 31, 1986.”

Section 1875(c)(12) of Pub. L. 99–514 provided that: “The amendments made by paragraphs (3), (4), and (6) [amending this section and sections 219 and 408 of this title] shall take effect as if included in the amendments made by section 238 of the Tax Equity and Fiscal Responsibility Act of 1982 [section 238 of Pub. L. 97–248, see section 241 of Pub. L. 97–248, set out as an Effective Date note under section 416 of this title].”

Effective Date of 1984 Amendment

“Section 491(f)(1) of Pub. L. 98–369 provided that: “The amendments and repeals made by subsections (a), (b), and (d) [amending this section, sections 55, 72, 172, 219, 402, 403, 406, 407, 408, 412, 414, 415, 457, 2039, 2517, 3121, 3306, 3401, 4972, 4973, 4975, 6047, 6058, 6104, 6652, 7207, 7476, and 7701 of this title, section 3107 of Title 31, Money and Finance, and section 409 of Title 42, The Public Health and Welfare, and repealing sections 405 and 409 of this title] shall apply to obligations issued after December 31, 1983.”

Effective Date of 1983 Amendment

Par. (9) as in effect before date of repeal by Pub. L. 97–354 to remain in effect for years beginning before Jan. 1, 1984, see section 6(b)(1) of Pub. L. 97–354, set out as an Effective Date note under section 3761 of this title.

Effective Date of 1981 Amendment

Section 103(d) of Pub. L. 97–34 provided that: “The amendments made by this section [enacting section 219 of this title and amending this section and sections 85 and 105 of this title] shall apply to taxable years beginning after December 31, 1981.”

Amendment by sections 112(b)(2) and 311(h)(1) of Pub. L. 97–34 applicable to taxable years beginning after Dec. 31, 1981, see sections 115 and 311(i)(1) of Pub. L. 97–34, set out as notes under sections 911 and 219, respectively, of this title.

Effective Date of 1980 Amendments

Section 3(b) of Pub. L. 96–608 provided that: “The amendment made by subsection (a) [amending this section] shall apply to repayments made in taxable years beginning after the date of the enactment of this Act [Dec. 28, 1980].”

Amendment by Pub. L. 96–451 applicable with respect to additions to capital account made after Dec. 31, 1979, see section 301(d) of Pub. L. 96–451, set out as an Effective Date note under section 194 of this title.

Effective Date of 1978 Amendment; Election of Prior Law

Amendment by Pub. L. 95–615 applicable to taxable years beginning after Dec. 31, 1977, with provision for election of prior law, see section 209 of Pub. L. 95–615, set out as a note under section 911 of this title.

Effective Date of 1976 Amendment

Section 502(c) of Pub. L. 94–455 provided that: “The amendments made by this section [amending this section and section 3402 of this title] shall apply to taxable years beginning after December 31, 1976.”

Section 1501(d) of Pub. L. 94–455 provided that: “The amendments made by this section [enacting section 220 of this title, amending this section and sections 219, 408, 409, 3401, 4973, and 6047 of this title, and renumbering former section 220 as 221 of this title], other than the amendment made by subsection (b)(3), shall apply to taxable years beginning after December 31, 1976. The amendment made by subsection (b)(3) [amending section 415 of this title] shall apply to years beginning after December 31, 1976.”

Amendment by section 1901(a)(8), (9) of Pub. L. 94–455 applicable with respect to taxable years beginning after Dec. 31, 1976, see section 1901(d) of Pub. L. 94–455, set out as a note under section 2 of this title.

Effective Date of 1974 Amendments

Section 6(b) of Pub. L. 93–483 provided that: “The amendment made by this section [amending this section] applies to taxable years beginning after December 31, 1972.”

Amendment by section 2002(a)(2) of Pub. L. 93–406 applicable to taxable years beginning after Dec. 31, 1974, see section 2002(i)(1) of Pub. L. 93–406, set out as an Effective Date note under section 219 of this title.

Amendment by section 2005(c)(9) of Pub. L. 93–406 applicable only with respect to distributions or payments made after Dec. 31, 1973, in taxable years beginning after Dec. 31, 1973, see section 2005(d) of Pub. L. 93–406, set out as a note under section 402 of this title.

Effective Date of 1969 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 91–172 applicable with respect to taxable years of electing small business corporations beginning after Dec. 31, 1970, see section 531(d) of Pub. L. 91–172, set out as an Effective Date note under section 1379 of this title.

Effective Date of 1964 Amendment

Section 213(d) of Pub. L. 88–272 provided that: “The amendments made by subsections (a) [enacting section 217 and redesignating former section 217 as 218] and (b) [amending this section] shall apply to expenses incurred after December 31, 1963, in taxable years ending after such date. The amendment made by subsection (c) [amending section 3401 of this title] shall apply with respect to remuneration paid after the seventh day following the date of the enactment of this Act [Feb. 26, 1964].”

Effective Date of 1962 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 87–792 applicable to taxable years beginning after Dec. 31, 1962, see section 8 of Pub. L. 87–792, set out as a note under section 22 of this title.

Savings Provision

For provisions that nothing in amendment by Pub. L. 101–508 be construed to affect treatment of certain transactions occurring, property acquired, or items of income, loss, deduction, or credit taken into account prior to Nov. 5, 1990, for purposes of determining liability for tax for periods ending after Nov. 5, 1990, see section 11821(b) of Pub. L. 101–508, set out as a note under section 45K of this title.

Plan Amendments Not Required Until January 1, 1998

For provisions directing that if any amendments made by subtitle D [§§1401–1465] of title I of Pub. L. 104–188 require an amendment to any plan or annuity contract, such amendment shall not be required to be made before the first day of the first plan year beginning on or after Jan. 1, 1998, see section 1465 of Pub. L. 104–188, set out as a note under section 401 of this title.

Plan Amendments Not Required Until January 1, 1994

For provisions directing that if any amendments made by subtitle B [§§521–523] of title V of Pub. L. 102–318 require an amendment to any plan, such plan amendment shall not be required to be made before the first plan year beginning on or after Jan. 1, 1994, see section 523 of Pub. L. 102–318, set out as a note under section 401 of this title.

Plan Amendments Not Required Until January 1, 1989

For provisions directing that if any amendments made by subtitle A or subtitle C of title XI [§§1101–1147 and 1171–1177] or title XVIII [§§1800–1899A] of Pub. L. 99–514 require an amendment to any plan, such plan amendment shall not be required to be made before the first plan year beginning on or after Jan. 1, 1989, see section 1140 of Pub. L. 99–514, as amended, set out as a note under section 401 of this title.

Commuting Expenses

Pub. L. 95–427, §2, Oct. 7, 1978, 92 Stat. 996, as amended by Pub. L. 96–167, §2, Dec. 29, 1979, 93 Stat. 1275, provided that with respect to transportation costs paid or incurred after December 31, 1976, and on or before May 31, 1981, the application of sections 62, 162, and 262 and of chapters 21, 23, and 24 of the Internal Revenue Code of 1954 [now 1986] to transportation expenses in traveling between a taxpayer's residence and place of work be determined without regard to Revenue Ruling 76–453 or any other regulation, ruling, or decision reaching the same or similar result, and with full regard to the rules in effect before that Revenue Ruling.

Pub. L. 95–615, §2, Nov. 8, 1978, 92 Stat. 3097, provided that with respect to transportation costs paid or incurred after Dec. 31, 1976, and before Apr. 30, 1978, the application of sections 62, 162, and 262 and chapters 21, 23, and 24 of the Internal Revenue Code of 1954 [now 1986] to transportation expenses in traveling between a taxpayer's residence and place of work be determined without regard to Revenue Ruling 76–453 or any other regulation, ruling or decision reaching the same or similar result, and with full regard to the rules in effect before that Revenue Ruling, and ceased to have effect on the day after Nov. 8, 1978 pursuant to section 210(a) of that Act.

1 So in original. Probably should be followed by a comma.

2 See References in Text note below.

§63. Taxable income defined

(a) In general

Except as provided in subsection (b), for purposes of this subtitle, the term “taxable income” means gross income minus the deductions allowed by this chapter (other than the standard deduction).

(b) Individuals who do not itemize their deductions

In the case of an individual who does not elect to itemize his deductions for the taxable year, for purposes of this subtitle, the term “taxable income” means adjusted gross income, minus—

(1) the standard deduction, and

(2) the deduction for personal exemptions provided in section 151.

(c) Standard deduction

For purposes of this subtitle—

(1) In general

Except as otherwise provided in this subsection, the term “standard deduction” means the sum of—

(A) the basic standard deduction,

(B) the additional standard deduction,

(C) in the case of any taxable year beginning in 2008 or 2009, the real property tax deduction,

(D) the disaster loss deduction, and

(E) the motor vehicle sales tax deduction.

(2) Basic standard deduction

For purposes of paragraph (1), the basic standard deduction is—

(A) 200 percent of the dollar amount in effect under subparagraph (C) for the taxable year in the case of—

(i) a joint return, or

(ii) a surviving spouse (as defined in section 2(a)),


(B) $4,400 in the case of a head of household (as defined in section 2(b)), or

(C) $3,000 in any other case.

(3) Additional standard deduction for aged and blind

For purposes of paragraph (1), the additional standard deduction is the sum of each additional amount to which the taxpayer is entitled under subsection (f).

(4) Adjustments for inflation

In the case of any taxable year beginning in a calendar year after 1988, each dollar amount contained in paragraph (2)(B), (2)(C), or (5) or subsection (f) shall be increased by an amount equal to—

(A) such dollar amount, multiplied by

(B) the cost-of-living adjustment determined under section 1(f)(3) for the calendar year in which the taxable year begins, by substituting for “calendar year 1992” in subparagraph (B) thereof—

(i) “calendar year 1987” in the case of the dollar amounts contained in paragraph (2)(B), (2)(C), or (5)(A) or subsection (f), and

(ii) “calendar year 1997” in the case of the dollar amount contained in paragraph (5)(B).

(5) Limitation on basic standard deduction in the case of certain dependents

In the case of an individual with respect to whom a deduction under section 151 is allowable to another taxpayer for a taxable year beginning in the calendar year in which the individual's taxable year begins, the basic standard deduction applicable to such individual for such individual's taxable year shall not exceed the greater of—

(A) $500, or

(B) the sum of $250 and such individual's earned income.

(6) Certain individuals, etc., not eligible for standard deduction

In the case of—

(A) a married individual filing a separate return where either spouse itemizes deductions,

(B) a nonresident alien individual,

(C) an individual making a return under section 443(a)(1) for a period of less than 12 months on account of a change in his annual accounting period, or

(D) an estate or trust, common trust fund, or partnership,


the standard deduction shall be zero.

(7) Real property tax deduction

For purposes of paragraph (1), the real property tax deduction is the lesser of—

(A) the amount allowable as a deduction under this chapter for State and local taxes described in section 164(a)(1), or

(B) $500 ($1,000 in the case of a joint return).


Any taxes taken into account under section 62(a) shall not be taken into account under this paragraph.

(8) Disaster loss deduction

For the purposes of paragraph (1), the term “disaster loss deduction” means the net disaster loss (as defined in section 165(h)(3)(B)).

(9) Motor vehicle sales tax deduction

For purposes of paragraph (1), the term “motor vehicle sales tax deduction” means the amount allowable as a deduction under section 164(a)(6). Such term shall not include any amount taken into account under section 62(a).

(d) Itemized deductions

For purposes of this subtitle, the term “itemized deductions” means the deductions allowable under this chapter other than—

(1) the deductions allowable in arriving at adjusted gross income, and

(2) the deduction for personal exemptions provided by section 151.

(e) Election to itemize

(1) In general

Unless an individual makes an election under this subsection for the taxable year, no itemized deduction shall be allowed for the taxable year. For purposes of this subtitle, the determination of whether a deduction is allowable under this chapter shall be made without regard to the preceding sentence.

(2) Time and manner of election

Any election under this subsection shall be made on the taxpayer's return, and the Secretary shall prescribe the manner of signifying such election on the return.

(3) Change of election

Under regulations prescribed by the Secretary, a change of election with respect to itemized deductions for any taxable year may be made after the filing of the return for such year. If the spouse of the taxpayer filed a separate return for any taxable year corresponding to the taxable year of the taxpayer, the change shall not be allowed unless, in accordance with such regulations—

(A) the spouse makes a change of election with respect to itemized deductions, for the taxable year covered in such separate return, consistent with the change of treatment sought by the taxpayer, and

(B) the taxpayer and his spouse consent in writing to the assessment (within such period as may be agreed on with the Secretary) of any deficiency, to the extent attributable to such change of election, even though at the time of the filing of such consent the assessment of such deficiency would otherwise be prevented by the operation of any law or rule of law.


This paragraph shall not apply if the tax liability of the taxpayer's spouse for the taxable year corresponding to the taxable year of the taxpayer has been compromised under section 7122.

(f) Aged or blind additional amounts

(1) Additional amounts for the aged

The taxpayer shall be entitled to an additional amount of $600—

(A) for himself if he has attained age 65 before the close of his taxable year, and

(B) for the spouse of the taxpayer if the spouse has attained age 65 before the close of the taxable year and an additional exemption is allowable to the taxpayer for such spouse under section 151(b).

(2) Additional amount for blind

The taxpayer shall be entitled to an additional amount of $600—

(A) for himself if he is blind at the close of the taxable year, and

(B) for the spouse of the taxpayer if the spouse is blind as of the close of the taxable year and an additional exemption is allowable to the taxpayer for such spouse under section 151(b).


For purposes of subparagraph (B), if the spouse dies during the taxable year the determination of whether such spouse is blind shall be made as of the time of such death.

(3) Higher amount for certain unmarried individuals

In the case of an individual who is not married and is not a surviving spouse, paragraphs (1) and (2) shall be applied by substituting “$750” for “$600”.

(4) Blindness defined

For purposes of this subsection, an individual is blind only if his central visual acuity does not exceed 20/200 in the better eye with correcting lenses, or if his visual acuity is greater than 20/200 but is accompanied by a limitation in the fields of vision such that the widest diameter of the visual field subtends an angle no greater than 20 degrees.

(g) Marital status

For purposes of this section, marital status shall be determined under section 7703.

(Aug. 16, 1954, ch. 736, 68A Stat. 18; Pub. L. 95–30, title I, §102(a), May 23, 1977, 91 Stat. 135; Pub. L. 95–600, title I, §101(b), Nov. 6, 1978, 92 Stat. 2769; Pub. L. 97–34, title I, §§104(b), 111(b)(4), 121(b), (c)(2), Aug. 13, 1981, 95 Stat. 189, 194, 196, 197; Pub. L. 99–514, title I, §102(a), title XII, §1272(d)(6), Oct. 22, 1986, 100 Stat. 2099, 2594; Pub. L. 100–647, title I, §1001(b)(1), Nov. 10, 1988, 102 Stat. 3349; Pub. L. 101–508, title XI, §§11101(d)(1)(D), 11801(a)(4), Nov. 5, 1990, 104 Stat. 1388–405, 1388–520; Pub. L. 103–66, title XIII, §13201(b)(3)(D), Aug. 10, 1993, 107 Stat. 459; Pub. L. 105–34, title XII, §1201(a), Aug. 5, 1997, 111 Stat. 993; Pub. L. 107–16, title III, §301(a), (b), (c)(2), June 7, 2001, 115 Stat. 53, 54; Pub. L. 107–147, title IV, §411(e), Mar. 9, 2002, 116 Stat. 46; Pub. L. 108–27, title I, §103(a), May 28, 2003, 117 Stat. 754; Pub. L. 108–311, title I, §101(b), Oct. 4, 2004, 118 Stat. 1167; Pub. L. 110–289, div. C, title I, §3012(a), (b), July 30, 2008, 122 Stat. 2891, 2892; Pub. L. 110–343, div. C, title II, §204(a), title VII, §706(b)(1), (2), Oct. 3, 2008, 122 Stat. 3865, 3922; Pub. L. 111–5, div. B, title I, §1008(c), Feb. 17, 2009, 123 Stat. 318.)

Inflation Adjusted Items for Certain Years

For inflation adjustment of certain items in this section, see Revenue Procedures listed in a table under section 1 of this title.

Amendment of Section

For termination of amendment by section 105 of Pub. L. 108–311, see Effective and Termination Dates of 2004 Amendment note below.

For termination of amendment by section 107 of Pub. L. 108–27, see Effective and Termination Dates of 2003 Amendment note below.

For termination of amendment by section 901 of Pub. L. 107–16, see Effective and Termination Dates of 2001 Amendment note below.

Amendments

2009—Subsec. (c)(1)(E). Pub. L. 111–5, §1008(c)(1), added subpar. (E).

Subsec. (c)(9). Pub. L. 111–5, §1008(c)(2), added par. (9).

2008—Subsec. (c)(1)(C). Pub. L. 110–343, §204(a), inserted “or 2009” after “2008”.

Pub. L. 110–289, §3012(a), added subpar. (C).

Subsec. (c)(1)(D). Pub. L. 110–343, §706(b)(1), added subpar. (D).

Subsec. (c)(7). Pub. L. 110–289, §3012(b), added par. (7).

Subsec. (c)(8). Pub. L. 110–343, §706(b)(2), added par. (8).

2004—Subsec. (c)(2). Pub. L. 108–311, §§101(b)(1), 105, temporarily reenacted heading without change and amended text generally, substituting provisions relating to a specific percentage for provisions relating to applicable percentage in subpar. (A), redesignating subpar. (D) as (C), and deleting former subpar. (C) relating to married individuals filing separately. See Effective and Termination Dates of 2004 Amendment note below.

Subsec. (c)(4). Pub. L. 108–311, §§101(b)(2)(A), 105, temporarily substituted “(2)(C)” for “(2)(D)” in introductory provisions and in subpar. (B)(i). See Effective and Termination Dates of 2004 Amendment note below.

Subsec. (c)(7). Pub. L. 108–311, §§101(b)(2)(B), 105, temporarily struck out par. (7) which related to applicable percentage for purposes of par. (2). See Effective and Termination Dates of 2004 Amendment note below.

2003—Subsec. (c)(7). Pub. L. 108–27, §§103(a), 107, temporarily inserted table item relating to years 2003 and 2004. See Effective and Termination Dates of 2003 Amendment note below.

2002—Subsec. (c)(2). Pub. L. 107–147, §411(e)(1)(E), inserted “If any amount determined under subparagraph (A) is not a multiple of $50, such amount shall be rounded to the next lowest multiple of $50.” at end.

Subsec. (c)(2)(A). Pub. L. 107–147, §411(e)(1)(A), substituted “subparagraph (D)” for “subparagraph (C)”.

Subsec. (c)(2)(B). Pub. L. 107–147, §411(e)(1)(B), struck out “or” at end.

Subsec. (c)(2)(C), (D). Pub. L. 107–147, §411(e)(1)(C), (D), added subpar. (C) and redesignated former subpar. (C) as (D).

Subsec. (c)(4). Pub. L. 107–147, §411(e)(2)(C), which directed amendment by striking out the flush sentence at the end added by section 301(c)(2) of Public Law 107–17, was executed by striking out “The preceding sentence shall not apply to the amount referred to in paragraph (2)(A).”, which was inserted by section 301(c)(2) of Pub. L. 107–16, to reflect the probable intent of Congress. See 2001 Amendment note below.

Pub. L. 107–147, §411(e)(2)(A), substituted “paragraph (2)(B), (2)(D), or (5)” for “paragraph (2) or (5)” in introductory provisions.

Subsec. (c)(4)(B)(i). Pub. L. 107–147, §411(e)(2)(B), substituted “paragraph (2)(B), (2)(D),” for “paragraph (2)”.

2001—Subsec. (c)(2)(A). Pub. L. 107–16, §§301(a)(1), 901, temporarily substituted “the applicable percentage of the dollar amount in effect under subparagraph (C) for the taxable year” for “$5,000”. See Effective and Termination Dates of 2001 Amendment note below.

Subsec. (c)(2)(B). Pub. L. 107–16, §§301(a)(2), 901, temporarily inserted “or” at end. See Effective and Termination Dates of 2001 Amendment note below.

Subsec. (c)(2)(C). Pub. L. 107–16, §§301(a)(3), 901, temporarily substituted “in any other case.” for “in the case of an individual who is not married and who is not a surviving spouse or head of household, or”. See Effective and Termination Dates of 2001 Amendment note below.

Subsec. (c)(2)(D). Pub. L. 107–16, §§301(a)(4), 901, temporarily struck out subpar. (D) which read as follows: “$2,500 in the case of a married individual filing a separate return.” See Effective and Termination Dates of 2001 Amendment note below.

Subsec. (c)(4). Pub. L. 107–16, §§301(c)(2), 901, temporarily inserted at end “The preceding sentence shall not apply to the amount referred to in paragraph (2)(A).” See Effective and Termination Dates of 2001 Amendment note below.

Subsec. (c)(7). Pub. L. 107–16, §§301(b), 901, temporarily added par. (7). See Effective and Termination Dates of 2001 Amendment note below.

1997—Subsec. (c)(4). Pub. L. 105–34, §1201(a)(2), in introductory provisions, substituted “(5)” for “(5)(A)” and, in subpar. (B), substituted “by substituting for ‘calendar year 1992’ in subparagraph (B) thereof—” for “by substituting ‘calendar year 1987’ for ‘calendar year 1992’ in subparagraph (B) thereof” and added cls. (i) and (ii).

Subsec. (c)(5)(B). Pub. L. 105–34, §1201(a)(1), substituted “the sum of $250 and such individual's earned income” for “such individual's earned income”.

1993—Subsec. (c)(4)(B). Pub. L. 103–66 substituted “1992” for “1989”.

1990—Subsec. (c)(4)(B). Pub. L. 101–508, §11101(d)(1)(D), inserted before period at end “, by substituting ‘calendar year 1987’ for ‘calendar year 1989’ in subparagraph (B) thereof”.

Subsec. (h). Pub. L. 101–508, §11801(a)(4), struck out subsec. (h) “Transitional rule for taxable years beginning in 1987” which read as follows: “In the case of any taxable year beginning in 1987, paragraph (2) of subsection (c) shall be applied—

“(1) by substituting ‘$3,760’ for ‘$5,000’,

“(2) by substituting ‘$2,540’ for ‘$4,400’,

“(3) by substituting ‘$2,540’ for ‘$3,000’, and

“(4) by substituting ‘$1,880’ for ‘$2,500’.

The preceding sentence shall not apply if the taxpayer is entitled to an additional amount determined under subsection (f) (relating to additional amount for aged and blind) for the taxable year.”

1988—Subsec. (c)(5). Pub. L. 100–647 substituted “basic standard deduction” for “standard deduction” in heading and text.

1986—Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 99–514, §102(a), substituted “In general” for “Corporations” in heading and amended text generally. Prior to amendment, text read as follows: “For purposes of this subtitle, in the case of a corporation, the term ‘taxable income’ means gross income minus the deductions allowed by this chapter.”

Subsec. (b). Pub. L. 99–514, §102(a), substituted “Individuals who do not itemize their deductions” for “Individuals” in heading and amended text generally. Prior to amendment, text read as follows: “For purposes of this subtitle, in the case of an individual, the term ‘taxable income’ means adjusted gross income—

“(1) reduced by the sum of—

“(A) the excess itemized deductions,

“(B) the deductions for personal exemptions provided by section 151, and

“(C) the direct charitable deduction, and

“(2) increased (in the case of an individual for whom an unused zero bracket amount computation is provided by subsection (e)) by the unused zero bracket amount (if any).”

Subsec. (c). Pub. L. 99–514, §102(a), substituted “Standard deduction” for “Excess itemized deductions” in heading and amended text generally. Prior to amendment, text read as follows: “For purposes of this subtitle, the term ‘excess itemized deductions’ means the excess (if any) of—

“(1) the itemized deductions, over

“(2) the zero bracket amount.”

Subsec. (c)(6)(C) to (E). Pub. L. 99–514, §1272(d)(6), redesignated subpars. (D) and (E) as (C) and (D), respectively, and struck out former subpar. (C) which read as follows: “a citizen of the United States entitled to the benefits of section 931 (relating to income from sources within possessions of the United States),”.

Subsec. (d). Pub. L. 99–514, §102(a), substituted “Itemized deductions” for “Zero bracket amount” in heading and amended text generally. Prior to amendment, subsec. (d) read as follows: “For purposes of this subtitle, the term ‘zero bracket amount’ means—

“(1) in the case of an individual to whom subsection (a), (b), (c), or (d) of section 1 applies, the maximum amount of taxable income on which no tax is imposed by the applicable subsection of section 1, or

“(2) zero in any other case.”

Subsec. (e). Pub. L. 99–514, §102(a), substituted “Election to itemize” for “Unused zero bracket amount” in heading.

Subsec. (e)(1). Pub. L. 99–514, §102(a), substituted “In general” for “Individuals for whom computation must be made” in heading and amended text generally. Prior to amendment, text read as follows: “A computation for the taxable year shall be made under this subsection for the following individuals:

“(A) a married individual filing a separate return where either spouse itemized deductions,

“(B) a nonresident alien individual,

“(C) a citizen of the United States entitled to the benefits of section 931 (relating to income from sources within possessions of the United States), and

“(D) an individual with respect to whom a deduction under section 151(e) is allowable to another taxpayer for a taxable year beginning in the calendar year in which the individual's taxable year begins.”

Subsec. (e)(2). Pub. L. 99–514, §102(a), substituted “Time and manner of election” for “Computation” in heading and amended text generally. Prior to amendment, text read as follows: “For purposes of this subtitle, an individual's unused zero bracket amount for the taxable year is an amount equal to the excess (if any) of—

“(A) the zero bracket amount, over

“(B) the itemized deductions.

In the case of an individual referred to in paragraph (1)(D), if such individual's earned income (as defined in section 911(d)(2)) exceeds the itemized deductions, such earned income shall be substituted for the itemized deductions in subparagraph (B).”

Subsec. (e)(3). Pub. L. 99–514, §102(a), in amending subsec. (e) generally, added par. (3).

Subsec. (f). Pub. L. 99–514, §102(a), substituted “Aged or blind additional amounts” for “Itemized deductions” in heading and amended text generally. Prior to amendment, text read as follows: “For purposes of this subtitle, the term ‘itemized deductions’ means the deductions allowable by this chapter other than—

“(1) the deductions allowable in arriving at adjusted gross income,

“(2) the deductions for personal exemptions provided by section 151, and

“(3) the direct charitable deduction.”

Subsec. (g). Pub. L. 99–514, §102(a), amended subsec. (g) generally, substituting provision that marital status be determined under section 7703 for provisions relating to election to itemize. See subsec. (e).

Subsec. (h). Pub. L. 99–514, §102(a), substituted “Transitional rule for taxable years beginning in 1987” for “Marital status” in heading and amended text generally. Prior to amendment, text read as follows: “For purposes of this section, marital status shall be determined under section 143.”

Subsec. (i). Pub. L. 99–514, §102(a), in amending section generally, struck out subsec. (i), “Direct charitable deduction”, which read as follows: “For purposes of this section, the term ‘direct charitable deduction’ means that portion of the amount allowable under section 170(a) which is taken as a direct charitable deduction for the taxable year under section 170(i).”

1981—Subsec. (b)(1)(C). Pub. L. 97–34, §121(b)(1), added subpar. (C).

Subsec. (d). Pub. L. 97–34, §104(b), substituted a blanket reference to individuals to whom subsection (a), (b), (c), or (d) of section 1 applies and the maximum amount of taxable income on which no tax is imposed by the applicable subsection of section 1 for provisions specifically referring to amounts of $3,400 in the case of (A) a joint return under section 6013, or (B) a surviving spouse (as defined in section 2(a)), $2,300 in the case of an individual who is not married and who is not a surviving spouse (as so defined), and $1,700 in the case of a married individual filing a separate return.

Subsec. (e)(2). Pub. L. 97–34, §111(b)(4), substituted “section 911(d)(2)” for “section 911(b)” in provisions following subpar. (B).

Subsec. (f)(3). Pub. L. 97–34, §121(c)(2), added par. (3).

Subsec. (i). Pub. L. 97–34, §121(b)(2), added subsec. (i).

1978—Pub. L. 95–600 substituted “$3,400” for “$3,200” in par. (1), “$2,300” for “$2,200” in par. (2), and “$1,700” for “$1,600” in par. (3).

1977—Pub. L. 95–30 completely revised definition of taxable income from one using the concept of a standard deduction and consisting of subsecs. (a) and (b) entitled, respectively, “General rule” and “Individuals electing standard deduction” to definition using the concepts of zero bracket amounts and excess itemized deductions and consisting of subsecs. (a) to (h) entitled, respectively, “Corporations”, “Individuals”, “Excess itemized deductions”, “Zero bracket amount”, “Unused zero bracket amount”, “Itemized deductions”, “Election to itemize”, and “Marital status”.

Effective Date of 2009 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 111–5 applicable to purchases on or after Feb. 17, 2009, in taxable years ending after such date, see section 1008(e) of Pub. L. 111–5, set out as a note under section 56 of this title.

Effective Date of 2008 Amendment

Pub. L. 110–343, div. C, title II, §204(b), Oct. 3, 2008, 122 Stat. 3865, provided that: “The amendment made by this section [amending this section] shall apply to taxable years beginning after December 31, 2008.”

Amendment by section 706(b)(1), (2) of Pub. L. 110–343 applicable to disasters declared in taxable years beginning after Dec. 31, 2007, see section 706(d)(1) of Pub. L. 110–343, set out as a note under section 56 of this title.

Pub. L. 110–289, div. C, title I, §3012(c), July 30, 2008, 122 Stat. 2892, provided that: “The amendments made by this section [amending this section] shall apply to taxable years beginning after December 31, 2007.”

Effective and Termination Dates of 2004 Amendment

Amendment by section 101(b) of Pub. L. 108–311 applicable to taxable years beginning after Dec. 31, 2003, see section 101(e) of Pub. L. 108–311, set out as a note under section 1 of this title.

Amendment by section 101(b) of Pub. L. 108–311 subject to title IX of the Economic Growth and Tax Relief Reconciliation Act of 2001, Pub. L. 107–16, §901, to the same extent and in the same manner as the provisions of such Act to which such amendments relate, see section 105 of Pub. L. 108–311, set out as a note under section 1 of this title.

Effective and Termination Dates of 2003 Amendment

Pub. L. 108–27, title I, §103(c), May 28, 2003, 117 Stat. 754, provided that: “The amendments made by this section [amending this section and provisions set out as an Effective and Termination Dates of 2001 Amendment note under section 1 of this title] shall apply to taxable years beginning after December 31, 2002.”

Amendments by title I of Pub. L. 108–27 subject to title IX of the Economic Growth and Tax Relief Reconciliation Act of 2001, Pub. L. 107–16, §901, to the same extent and in the same manner as the provisions of such Act to which such amendments relate, see section 107 of Pub. L. 108–27, set out as a note under section 1 of this title.

Effective Date of 2002 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 107–147 effective as if included in the provisions of the Economic Growth and Tax Relief Reconciliation Act of 2001, Pub. L. 107–16, to which such amendment relates, see section 411(x) of Pub. L. 107–147, set out as a note under section 25B of this title.

Effective and Termination Dates of 2001 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 107–16 applicable to taxable years beginning after Dec. 31, 2002, see section 301(d) of Pub. L. 107–16, as amended, set out as a note under section 1 of this title.

Amendment by Pub. L. 107–16 inapplicable to taxable, plan, or limitation years beginning after Dec. 31, 2012, and the Internal Revenue Code of 1986 to be applied and administered to such years as if such amendment had never been enacted, see section 901 of Pub. L. 107–16, set out as a note under section 1 of this title.

Effective Date of 1997 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 105–34 applicable to taxable years beginning after Dec. 31, 1997, see section 1201(c) of Pub. L. 105–34, set out as a note under section 59 of this title.

Effective Date of 1993 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 103–66 applicable to taxable years beginning after Dec. 31, 1992, see section 13201(c) of Pub. L. 103–66, set out as a note under section 1 of this title.

Effective Date of 1990 Amendment

Amendment by section 11101(d)(1)(D) of Pub. L. 101–508 applicable to taxable years beginning after Dec. 31, 1990, see section 11101(e) of Pub. L. 101–508, set out as a note under section 1 of this title.

Effective Date of 1988 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 100–647 effective, except as otherwise provided, as if included in the provision of the Tax Reform Act of 1986, Pub. L. 99–514, to which such amendment relates, see section 1019(a) of Pub. L. 100–647, set out as a note under section 1 of this title.

Effective Date of 1986 Amendment

Amendment by section 102(a) of Pub. L. 99–514 applicable to taxable years beginning after Dec. 31, 1986, see section 151(a) of Pub. L. 99–514, set out as a note under section 1 of this title.

Amendment by section 1272(d)(6) of Pub. L. 99–514 applicable to taxable years beginning after Dec. 31, 1986, with certain exceptions and qualifications, see section 1277 of Pub. L. 99–514, set out as a note under section 931 of this title.

Effective Date of 1981 Amendment

Amendment by section 104(b) of Pub. L. 97–34 applicable to taxable years beginning after Dec. 31, 1984, see section 104(e) of Pub. L. 97–34, set out as a note under section 1 of this title.

Amendment by section 111(b)(4) of Pub. L. 97–34 applicable with respect to taxable years beginning after Dec. 31, 1981, see section 115 of Pub. L. 97–34, set out as a note under section 911 of this title.

Amendment by section 121(b), (c)(2) of Pub. L. 97–34 applicable to contributions made after Dec. 31, 1981, in taxable years beginning after such date, see section 121(d) of Pub. L. 97–34, set out as a note under section 170 of this title.

Effective Date of 1978 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 95–600 effective with respect to taxable years beginning after Dec. 31, 1978, see section 101(f)(1) of Pub. L. 95–600, set out as a note under section 1 of this title.

Effective Date of 1977 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 95–30 applicable to taxable years beginning after Dec. 31, 1976, see section 106(a) of Pub. L. 95–30, set out as a note under section 1 of this title.

Savings Provision

For provisions that nothing in amendment by section 11801 of Pub. L. 101–508 be construed to affect treatment of certain transactions occurring, property acquired, or items of income, loss, deduction, or credit taken into account prior to Nov. 5, 1990, for purposes of determining liability for tax for periods ending after Nov. 5, 1990, see section 11821(b) of Pub. L. 101–508, set out as a note under section 45K of this title.

§64. Ordinary income defined

For purposes of this subtitle, the term “ordinary income” includes any gain from the sale or exchange of property which is neither a capital asset nor property described in section 1231(b). Any gain from the sale or exchange of property which is treated or considered, under other provisions of this subtitle, as “ordinary income” shall be treated as gain from the sale or exchange of property which is neither a capital asset nor property described in section 1231(b).

(Added Pub. L. 94–455, title XIX, §1901(a)(10), Oct. 4, 1976, 90 Stat. 1765.)

§65. Ordinary loss defined

For purposes of this subtitle, the term “ordinary loss” includes any loss from the sale or exchange of property which is not a capital asset. Any loss from the sale or exchange of property which is treated or considered, under other provisions of this subtitle, as “ordinary loss” shall be treated as loss from the sale or exchange of property which is not a capital asset.

(Added Pub. L. 94–455, title XIX, §1901(a)(11), Oct. 4, 1976, 90 Stat. 1765.)

§66. Treatment of community income

(a) Treatment of community income where spouses live apart

If—

(1) 2 individuals are married to each other at any time during a calendar year;

(2) such individuals—

(A) live apart at all times during the calendar year, and

(B) do not file a joint return under section 6013 with each other for a taxable year beginning or ending in the calendar year;


(3) one or both of such individuals have earned income for the calendar year which is community income; and

(4) no portion of such earned income is transferred (directly or indirectly) between such individuals before the close of the calendar year,


then, for purposes of this title, any community income of such individuals for the calendar year shall be treated in accordance with the rules provided by section 879(a).

(b) Secretary may disregard community property laws where spouse not notified of community income

The Secretary may disallow the benefits of any community property law to any taxpayer with respect to any income if such taxpayer acted as if solely entitled to such income and failed to notify the taxpayer's spouse before the due date (including extensions) for filing the return for the taxable year in which the income was derived of the nature and amount of such income.

(c) Spouse relieved of liability in certain other cases

Under regulations prescribed by the Secretary, if—

(1) an individual does not file a joint return for any taxable year,

(2) such individual does not include in gross income for such taxable year an item of community income properly includible therein which, in accordance with the rules contained in section 879(a), would be treated as the income of the other spouse,

(3) the individual establishes that he or she did not know of, and had no reason to know of, such item of community income, and

(4) taking into account all facts and circumstances, it is inequitable to include such item of community income in such individual's gross income,


then, for purposes of this title, such item of community income shall be included in the gross income of the other spouse (and not in the gross income of the individual). Under procedures prescribed by the Secretary, if, taking into account all the facts and circumstances, it is inequitable to hold the individual liable for any unpaid tax or any deficiency (or any portion of either) attributable to any item for which relief is not available under the preceding sentence, the Secretary may relieve such individual of such liability.

(d) Definitions

For purposes of this section—

(1) Earned income

The term “earned income” has the meaning given to such term by section 911(d)(2).

(2) Community income

The term “community income” means income which, under applicable community property laws, is treated as community income.

(3) Community property laws

The term “community property laws” means the community property laws of a State, a foreign country, or a possession of the United States.

(Added Pub. L. 96–605, title I, §101(a), Dec. 28, 1980, 94 Stat. 3521; amended Pub. L. 98–369, div. A, title IV, §424(b)(1)–(2)(B), July 18, 1984, 98 Stat. 802, 803; Pub. L. 101–239, title VII, §7841(d)(8), Dec. 19, 1989, 103 Stat. 2428; Pub. L. 105–206, title III, §3201(b), July 22, 1998, 112 Stat. 739.)

Amendments

1998—Subsec. (c). Pub. L. 105–206 inserted at end “Under procedures prescribed by the Secretary, if, taking into account all the facts and circumstances, it is inequitable to hold the individual liable for any unpaid tax or any deficiency (or any portion of either) attributable to any item for which relief is not available under the preceding sentence, the Secretary may relieve such individual of such liability.”

1989—Subsec. (d)(1). Pub. L. 101–239 substituted “section 911(d)(2)” for “section 911(b)”.

1984—Pub. L. 98–369, §424(b)(2)(A), struck out “where spouses live apart” in section catchline.

Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 98–369, §424(b)(2)(B), substituted “Treatment of community income where spouses live apart” for “General rule” in heading.

Subsecs. (b) to (d). Pub. L. 98–369, §424(b)(1), added subsecs. (b) and (c) and redesignated former subsec. (b) as (d).

Effective Date of 1998 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 105–206 applicable to any liability for tax arising after July 22, 1998, and any liability for tax arising on or before such date but remaining unpaid as of such date, see section 3201(g)(1) of Pub. L. 105–206, set out as a note under section 6015 of this title.

Effective Date of 1984 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 98–369 applicable to all taxable years to which the Internal Revenue Code of 1986 [formerly I.R.C. 1954] applies with corresponding provisions deemed to be included in the Internal Revenue Code of 1939 and applicable to all taxable years to which such Code applies, except subsection (b) of this section is applicable to taxable years beginning after December 31, 1984, see section 424(c) of Pub. L. 98–369, set out as a note under section 6013 of this title.

Effective Date

Section 101(c) of Pub. L. 96–605 provided that: “The amendments made by this section [enacting this section] shall apply to calendar years beginning after December 31, 1980.”

§67. 2-percent floor on miscellaneous itemized deductions

(a) General rule

In the case of an individual, the miscellaneous itemized deductions for any taxable year shall be allowed only to the extent that the aggregate of such deductions exceeds 2 percent of adjusted gross income.

(b) Miscellaneous itemized deductions

For purposes of this section, the term “miscellaneous itemized deductions” means the itemized deductions other than—

(1) the deduction under section 163 (relating to interest),

(2) the deduction under section 164 (relating to taxes),

(3) the deduction under section 165(a) for casualty or theft losses described in paragraph (2) or (3) of section 165(c) or for losses described in section 165(d),

(4) the deductions under section 170 (relating to charitable, etc., contributions and gifts) and section 642(c) (relating to deduction for amounts paid or permanently set aside for a charitable purpose),

(5) the deduction under section 213 (relating to medical, dental, etc., expenses),

(6) any deduction allowable for impairment-related work expenses,

(7) the deduction under section 691(c) (relating to deduction for estate tax in case of income in respect of the decedent),

(8) any deduction allowable in connection with personal property used in a short sale,

(9) the deduction under section 1341 (relating to computation of tax where taxpayer restores substantial amount held under claim of right),

(10) the deduction under section 72(b)(3) (relating to deduction where annuity payments cease before investment recovered),

(11) the deduction under section 171 (relating to deduction for amortizable bond premium), and

(12) the deduction under section 216 (relating to deductions in connection with cooperative housing corporations).

(c) Disallowance of indirect deduction through pass-thru entity

(1) In general

The Secretary shall prescribe regulations which prohibit the indirect deduction through pass-thru entities of amounts which are not allowable as a deduction if paid or incurred directly by an individual and which contain such reporting requirements as may be necessary to carry out the purposes of this subsection.

(2) Treatment of publicly offered regulated investment companies

(A) In general

Paragraph (1) shall not apply with respect to any publicly offered regulated investment company.

(B) Publicly offered regulated investment companies

For purposes of this subsection—

(i) In general

The term “publicly offered regulated investment company” means a regulated investment company the shares of which are—

(I) continuously offered pursuant to a public offering (within the meaning of section 4 of the Securities Act of 1933, as amended (15 U.S.C. 77a to 77aa)),

(II) regularly traded on an established securities market, or

(III) held by or for no fewer than 500 persons at all times during the taxable year.

(ii) Secretary may reduce 500 person requirement

The Secretary may by regulation decrease the minimum shareholder requirement of clause (i)(III) in the case of regulated investment companies which experience a loss of shareholders through net redemptions of their shares.

(3) Treatment of certain other entities

Paragraph (1) shall not apply—

(A) with respect to cooperatives and real estate investment trusts, and

(B) except as provided in regulations, with respect to estates and trusts.

(d) Impairment-related work expenses

For purposes of this section, the term “impairment-related work expenses” means expenses—

(1) of a handicapped individual (as defined in section 190(b)(3)) for attendant care services at the individual's place of employment and other expenses in connection with such place of employment which are necessary for such individual to be able to work, and

(2) with respect to which a deduction is allowable under section 162 (determined without regard to this section).

(e) Determination of adjusted gross income in case of estates and trusts

For purposes of this section, the adjusted gross income of an estate or trust shall be computed in the same manner as in the case of an individual, except that—

(1) the deductions for costs which are paid or incurred in connection with the administration of the estate or trust and which would not have been incurred if the property were not held in such trust or estate, and

(2) the deductions allowable under sections 642(b), 651, and 661,


shall be treated as allowable in arriving at adjusted gross income. Under regulations, appropriate adjustments shall be made in the application of part I of subchapter J of this chapter to take into account the provisions of this section.

(f) Coordination with other limitation

This section shall be applied before the application of the dollar limitation of the second sentence of section 162(a) (relating to trade or business expenses).

(Added Pub. L. 99–514, title I, §132(a), Oct. 22, 1986, 100 Stat. 2113; amended Pub. L. 100–647, title I, §1001(f), title IV, §4011(a), Nov. 10, 1988, 102 Stat. 3351, 3655; Pub. L. 101–239, title VII, §7814(f), Dec. 19, 1989, 103 Stat. 2414; Pub. L. 103–66, title XIII, §13213(c)(2), Aug. 10, 1993, 107 Stat. 474; Pub. L. 105–277, div. J, title IV, §4004(b)(1), Oct. 21, 1998, 112 Stat. 2681–910; Pub. L. 106–554, §1(a)(7) [title III, §319(2)], Dec. 21, 2000, 114 Stat. 2763, 2763A–646.)

References in Text

Section 4 of the Securities Act of 1933, referred to in subsec. (c)(2)(B)(i)(I), is classified to section 77d of Title 15, Commerce and Trade.

Amendments

2000—Subsec. (f). Pub. L. 106–554 substituted “the second sentence” for “the last sentence”.

1998—Subsec. (b)(3). Pub. L. 105–277 substituted “for casualty or theft losses described in paragraph (2) or (3) of section 165(c) or for losses described in section 165(d)” for “for losses described in subsection (c)(3) or (d) of section 165”.

1993—Subsec. (b)(6) to (13). Pub. L. 103–66 redesignated pars. (7) to (13) as (6) to (12), respectively, and struck out former par. (6) which read as follows: “the deduction under section 217 (relating to moving expenses),”.

1989—Subsec. (c)(4). Pub. L. 101–239 struck out par. (4) which read as follows: “Termination.—This subsection shall not apply to any taxable year beginning after December 31, 1989.”

1988—Subsec. (b)(4). Pub. L. 100–647, §1001(f)(2), substituted “deductions” for “deduction” and inserted before comma at end “and section 642(c) (relating to deduction for amounts paid or permanently set aside for a charitable purpose)”.

Subsec. (c). Pub. L. 100–647, §4011(a), amended subsec. (c) generally. Prior to amendment subsec. (c) read as follows: “The Secretary shall prescribe regulations which prohibit the indirect deduction through pass-thru entities of amounts which are not allowable as a deduction if paid or incurred directly by an individual and which contain such reporting requirements as may be necessary to carry out the purposes of this subsection. The preceding sentence shall not apply—

“(1) with respect to cooperatives and real estate investment trusts, and

“(2) except as provided in regulations, with respect to estates and trusts.”

Pub. L. 100–647, §1001(f)(4), amended last sentence generally. Prior to amendment, last sentence read as follows: “The preceding sentence shall not apply with respect to estates, trusts, cooperatives, and real estate investment trusts.”

Subsec. (e). Pub. L. 100–647, §1001(f)(3), amended subsec. (e) generally. Prior to amendment, subsec. (e) read as follows: “For purposes of this section, the adjusted gross income of an estate or trust shall be computed in the same manner as in the case of an individual, except that the deductions for costs which are paid or incurred in connection with the administration of the estate or trust and would not have been incurred if the property were not held in such trust or estate shall be treated as allowable in arriving at adjusted gross income.”

Subsec. (f). Pub. L. 100–647, §1001(f)(1), added subsec. (f).

Effective Date of 1998 Amendment

Pub. L. 105–277, div. J, title IV, §4004(c)(2), Oct. 21, 1998, 112 Stat. 2681–911, provided that: “The amendment made by subsection (b)(1) [amending this section] shall apply to taxable years beginning after December 31, 1986.”

Effective Date of 1993 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 103–66 applicable to expenses incurred after Dec. 31, 1993, see section 13213(e) of Pub. L. 103–66 set out as a note under section 62 of this title.

Effective Date of 1989 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 101–239 effective, except as otherwise provided, as if included in the provision of the Technical and Miscellaneous Revenue Act of 1988, Pub. L. 100–647, to which such amendment relates, see section 7817 of Pub. L. 101–239, set out as a note under section 1 of this title.

Effective Date of 1988 Amendment

Amendment by section 1001(f) of Pub. L. 100–647 effective, except as otherwise provided, as if included in the provision of the Tax Reform Act of 1986, Pub. L. 99–514, to which such amendment relates, see section 1019(a) of Pub. L. 100–647, set out as a note under section 1 of this title.

Section 4011(b) of Pub. L. 100–647 provided that: “The amendment made by subsection (a) [amending this section] shall apply to taxable years beginning after December 31, 1987.”

Effective Date

Section applicable to taxable years beginning after Dec. 31, 1986, see section 151(a) of Pub. L. 99–514, set out as an Effective Date of 1986 Amendment note under section 1 of this title.

1-Year Delay in Treatment of Publicly Offered Regulated Investment Companies Under 2-Percent Floor

Pub. L. 100–203, title X, §10104(a), Dec. 22, 1987, 101 Stat. 1330–386, provided that:

“(1) General rule.—Section 67(c) of the Internal Revenue Code of 1986 to the extent it relates to indirect deductions through a publicly offered regulated investment company shall apply only to taxable years beginning after December 31, 1987.

“(2) Publicly offered regulated investment company defined.—For purposes of this subsection—

“(A) In general.—The term ‘publicly offered regulated investment company’ means a regulated investment company the shares of which are—

“(i) continuously offered pursuant to a public offering (within the meaning of section 4 of the Securities Act of 1933, as amended (15 U.S.C. 77a to 77aa) [15 U.S.C. 77d]),

“(ii) regularly traded on an established securities market, or

“(iii) held by or for no fewer than 500 persons at all times during the taxable year.

“(B) Secretary may reduce 500 person requirement.—The Secretary of the Treasury or his delegate may by regulation decrease the minimum shareholder requirement of subparagraph (A)(iii) in the case of regulated investment companies which experience a loss of shareholders through net redemptions of their shares.”

§68. Overall limitation on itemized deductions

(a) General rule

In the case of an individual whose adjusted gross income exceeds the applicable amount, the amount of the itemized deductions otherwise allowable for the taxable year shall be reduced by the lesser of—

(1) 3 percent of the excess of adjusted gross income over the applicable amount, or

(2) 80 percent of the amount of the itemized deductions otherwise allowable for such taxable year.

(b) Applicable amount

(1) In general

For purposes of this section, the term “applicable amount” means $100,000 ($50,000 in the case of a separate return by a married individual within the meaning of section 7703).

(2) Inflation adjustments

In the case of any taxable year beginning in a calendar year after 1991, each dollar amount contained in paragraph (1) shall be increased by an amount equal to—

(A) such dollar amount, multiplied by

(B) the cost-of-living adjustment determined under section 1(f)(3) for the calendar year in which the taxable year begins, by substituting “calendar year 1990” for “calendar year 1992” in subparagraph (B) thereof.

(c) Exception for certain itemized deductions

For purposes of this section, the term “itemized deductions” does not include—

(1) the deduction under section 213 (relating to medical, etc. expenses),

(2) any deduction for investment interest (as defined in section 163(d)), and

(3) the deduction under section 165(a) for casualty or theft losses described in paragraph (2) or (3) of section 165(c) or for losses described in section 165(d).

(d) Coordination with other limitations

This section shall be applied after the application of any other limitation on the allowance of any itemized deduction.

(e) Exception for estates and trusts

This section shall not apply to any estate or trust.

(f) Phaseout of limitation

(1) In general

In the case of taxable years beginning after December 31, 2005, and before January 1, 2010, the reduction under subsection (a) shall be equal to the applicable fraction of the amount which would (but for this subsection) be the amount of such reduction.

(2) Applicable fraction

For purposes of paragraph (1), the applicable fraction shall be determined in accordance with the following table:

 
For taxable years beginning

 in calendar year—
The applicable

 fraction is—
  2006 and 2007 2/3 
  2008 and 2009 1/3.

(g) Termination

This section shall not apply to any taxable year beginning after December 31, 2009.

(Added Pub. L. 101–508, title XI, §11103(a), Nov. 5, 1990, 104 Stat. 1388–406; amended Pub. L. 103–66, title XIII, §§13201(b)(3)(E), 13204, Aug. 10, 1993, 107 Stat. 459, 462; Pub. L. 105–277, div. J, title IV, §4004(b)(2), Oct. 21, 1998, 112 Stat. 2681–911; Pub. L. 107–16, title I, §103(a), June 7, 2001, 115 Stat. 44.)

Inflation Adjusted Items for Certain Years

For inflation adjustment of certain items in this section, see Revenue Procedures listed in a table under section 1 of this title.

Amendment of Section

For termination of amendment by section 901 of Pub. L. 107–16, see Effective and Termination Dates of 2001 Amendment note below.

Amendments

2001—Subsecs. (f), (g). Pub. L. 107—16, §§103(a), 901, temporarily added subsecs. (f) and (g). See Effective and Termination Dates of 2001 Amendment note below.

1998—Subsec. (c)(3). Pub. L. 105–277 substituted “for casualty or theft losses described in paragraph (2) or (3) of section 165(c) or for losses described in section 165(d)” for “for losses described in subsection (c)(3) or (d) of section 165”.

1993—Subsec. (b)(2)(B). Pub. L. 103–66, §13201(b)(3)(E), substituted “1992” for “1989”.

Subsec. (f). Pub. L. 103–66, §13204, struck out heading and text of subsec. (f). Text read as follows: “This section shall not apply to any taxable year beginning after December 31, 1995.”

Effective and Termination Dates of 2001 Amendment

Pub. L. 107–16, title I, §103(b), June 7, 2001, 115 Stat. 45, provided that: “The amendment made by this section [amending this section] shall apply to taxable years beginning after December 31, 2005.”

Amendment by Pub. L. 107–16 inapplicable to taxable, plan, or limitation years beginning after Dec. 31, 2012, and the Internal Revenue Code of 1986 to be applied and administered to such years as if such amendment had never been enacted, see section 901 of Pub. L. 107–16, set out as a note under section 1 of this title.

Effective Date of 1998 Amendment

Pub. L. 105–277, div. J, title IV, §4004(c)(3), Oct. 21, 1998, 112 Stat. 2681–911, provided that: “The amendment made by subsection (b)(2) [amending this section] shall apply to taxable years beginning after December 31, 1990.”

Effective Date of 1993 Amendment

Amendment by section 13201(b)(3)(E) of Pub. L. 103–66 applicable to taxable years beginning after Dec. 31, 1992, see section 13201(c) of Pub. L. 103–66, set out as a note under section 1 of this title.

Effective Date

Section applicable to taxable years beginning after Dec. 31, 1990, see section 11103(e) of Pub. L. 101–508, set out as an Effective Date of 1990 Amendment note under section 1 of this title.