26 U.S.C.
United States Code, 2011 Edition
Title 26 - INTERNAL REVENUE CODE
Subtitle A - Income Taxes
CHAPTER 1 - NORMAL TAXES AND SURTAXES
Subchapter B - Computation of Taxable Income
From the U.S. Government Printing Office, www.gpo.gov

Subchapter B—Computation of Taxable Income

Part
I.
Definition of gross income, adjusted gross income, taxable income, etc.
II.
Items specifically included in gross income.
III.
Items specifically excluded from gross income.
IV.
Determination of marital status.1

        

V.
Deductions for personal exemptions.
VI.
Itemized deductions for individuals and corporations.
VII.
Additional itemized deductions for individuals.
VIII.
Special deductions for corporations.
IX.
Items not deductible.
X.
Terminal railroad corporations and their shareholders.
XI.
Special rules relating to corporate preference items.

        

Amendments

1982—Pub. L. 97–248, title II, §204(c)(2), Sept. 3, 1982, 96 Stat. 427, added item for part XI.

1977—Pub. L. 95–30, title I, §101(e)(3), May 23, 1977, 91 Stat. 135, substituted “Determination of marital status” for “Standard deduction for individuals” in item for part IV.

1976—Pub. L. 94–455, title XIX, §1901(b)(4)(C), Oct. 4, 1976, 90 Stat. 1793, substituted “taxable income, etc.” for “and taxable income.” in item for part I.

1962—Pub. L. 87–870, §1(b), Oct. 23, 1962, 76 Stat. 1160, added item for part X.

1 Part heading amended by Pub. L. 99–514 without corresponding amendment of analysis.

PART I—DEFINITION OF GROSS INCOME, ADJUSTED GROSS INCOME, TAXABLE INCOME, ETC.

Sec.
61.
Gross income defined.
62.
Adjusted gross income defined.
63.
Taxable income defined.
64.
Ordinary income defined.
65.
Ordinary loss defined.
66.
Treatment of community income.
67.
2-percent floor on miscellaneous itemized deductions.
68.
Overall limitation on itemized deductions.

        

Amendments

1990—Pub. L. 101–508, title XI, §11103(d), Nov. 5, 1990, 104 Stat. 1388–407, added item 68.

1986—Pub. L. 99–514, title I, §132(d), Oct. 22, 1986, 100 Stat. 2116, added item 67.

1984—Pub. L. 98–369, div. A, title IV, §424(b)(2)(C), July 18, 1984, 98 Stat. 803, struck out “where spouses live apart” in item 66.

1980—Pub. L. 96–605, title I, §101(b), Dec. 28, 1980, 94 Stat. 3522, added item 66.

1976—Pub. L. 94–455, title XIX, §1901(b)(4)(A), (B), Oct. 4, 1976, 90 Stat. 1793, substituted “TAXABLE INCOME, ETC.” for “AND TAXABLE INCOME” in part heading, and added items 64 and 65.

§61. Gross income defined

(a) General definition

Except as otherwise provided in this subtitle, gross income means all income from whatever source derived, including (but not limited to) the following items:

(1) Compensation for services, including fees, commissions, fringe benefits, and similar items;

(2) Gross income derived from business;

(3) Gains derived from dealings in property;

(4) Interest;

(5) Rents;

(6) Royalties;

(7) Dividends;

(8) Alimony and separate maintenance payments;

(9) Annuities;

(10) Income from life insurance and endowment contracts;

(11) Pensions;

(12) Income from discharge of indebtedness;

(13) Distributive share of partnership gross income;

(14) Income in respect of a decedent; and

(15) Income from an interest in an estate or trust.

(b) Cross references

For items specifically included in gross income, see part II (sec. 71 and following). For items specifically excluded from gross income, see part III (sec. 101 and following).

(Aug. 16, 1954, ch. 736, 68A Stat. 17; Pub. L. 98–369, div. A, title V, §531(c), July 18, 1984, 98 Stat. 884.)

Amendments

1984—Subsec. (a)(1). Pub. L. 98–369 inserted reference to fringe benefits.

Effective Date of 1984 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 98–369 effective Jan. 1, 1985, see section 531(h) of Pub. L. 98–369, set out as an Effective Date note under section 132 of this title.

Termination Date of 1978 Amendment

Pub. L. 95–615, §210(a), Nov. 8, 1978, 92 Stat. 3109, provided that: “Title I of this Act [probably means sections 1 to 8 of Pub. L. 95–615, see Short Title of 1978 Amendment note under section 1 of this title] (other than sections 4 and 5 thereof) [amending section 167 of this title, enacting provisions set out as notes under this section and sections 61 and 62 of this title, and amending provisions set out as notes under sections 117, 167, and 382 of this title] shall cease to have effect on the day after the date of the enactment of this Act [Nov. 8, 1978].”

Regulations

Pub. L. 95–427, §1, Oct. 7, 1978, 92 Stat. 996, as amended by Pub. L. 96–167, §1, Dec. 29, 1979, 93 Stat. 1275; Pub. L. 97–34, title VIII, §801, Aug. 13, 1981, 95 Stat. 349; Pub. L. 99–514, §2, Oct. 22, 1986, 100 Stat. 2095, provided that:

“(a) In General.—No fringe benefit regulation shall be issued—

“(1) in final form on or after May 1, 1978, and on or before December 31, 1983, or

“(2) in proposed or final form on or after May 1, 1978, if such regulation has an effective date on or before December 31, 1983.

“(b) Definition of Fringe Benefit Regulation.—For purposes of subsection (a), the term ‘fringe benefit regulation’ means a regulation providing for the inclusion of any fringe benefit in gross income by reason of section 61 of the Internal Revenue Code of 1986 [formerly I.R.C. 1954].”

Pub. L. 95–615, §3, Nov. 8, 1978, 92 Stat. 3097, as amended by Pub. L. 99–514, §2, Oct. 22, 1986, 100 Stat. 2095, provided that no regulations be issued in final form on or after Oct. 1, 1977, and before July 1, 1978, providing for inclusion of any fringe benefit in gross income by reason of section 61 of the Internal Revenue Code of 1986 [formerly I.R.C. 1954], ceased to have effect on the day after Nov. 8, 1978, pursuant to section 210(a) of that Act.

No Gain Recognized From Net Gifts Made Before March 4, 1981

Section 1026 of Pub. L. 98–369, as amended by Pub. L. 99–514, §2, Oct. 22, 1986, 100 Stat. 2095, provided that:

“(a) In General.—In the case of any transfer of property subject to gift tax made before March 4, 1981, for purposes of subtitle A of the Internal Revenue Code of 1986 [formerly I.R.C. 1954, 26 U.S.C. 1 et seq.], gross income of the donor shall not include any amount attributable to the donee's payment of (or agreement to pay) any gift tax imposed with respect to such gift.

“(b) Gift Tax Defined.—For purposes of subsection (a), the term ‘gift tax’ means—

“(1) the tax imposed by chapter 12 of such Code [26 U.S.C. 2501 et seq.], and

“(2) any tax imposed by a State (or the District of Columbia) on transfers by gifts.

“(c) Statute of Limitations.—If refund or credit of any overpayment of tax resulting from subsection (a) is prevented on the date of the enactment of this Act [July 18, 1984] (or at any time within 1 year after such date) by the operation of any law or rule of law (including res judicata), refund or credit of such overpayment (to the extent attributable to subsection (a)) may nevertheless be made or allowed if claim therefor is filed within 1 year after the date of the enactment of this Act.”

Payment-in-Kind Tax Treatment Act of 1983

Pub. L. 98–4, Mar. 11, 1983, 97 Stat. 7, as amended by Pub. L. 98–369, div. A, title X, §1061(a), July 18, 1984, 98 Stat. 1046; Pub. L. 99–514, §2, Oct. 22, 1986, 100 Stat. 2095; Pub. L. 100–647, title VI, §6252(a)(1), Nov. 10, 1988, 102 Stat. 3752, provided that:

“SECTION 1. SHORT TITLE.

“This Act may be cited as the ‘Payment-in-Kind Tax Treatment Act of 1983’.

“SEC. 2. INCOME TAX TREATMENT OF AGRICULTURAL COMMODITIES RECEIVED UNDER A 1983 PAYMENT-IN-KIND PROGRAM.

“(a) Income Tax Deferral, Etc.—Except as otherwise provided in this Act, for purposes of the Internal Revenue Code of 1986 [formerly I.R.C. 1954]—

“(1) a qualified taxpayer shall not be treated as having realized income when he receives a commodity under a 1983 payment-in-kind program,

“(2) such commodity shall be treated as if it were produced by such taxpayer, and

“(3) the unadjusted basis of such commodity in the hands of such taxpayer shall be zero.

“(b) Effective Date.—This section shall apply to taxable years ending after December 31, 1982, but only with respect to commodities received for the 1983 crop year.

“SEC. 3. LAND DIVERTED UNDER 1983 PAYMENT-IN-KIND PROGRAM TREATED AS USED IN FARMING BUSINESS, ETC.

“(a) General Rule.—For purposes of the provisions specified in subsection (b), in the case of any land diverted from the production of an agricultural commodity under a 1983 payment-in-kind program—

“(1) such land shall be treated as used during the 1983 crop year by the qualified taxpayer in the active conduct of the trade or business of farming, and

“(2) any qualified taxpayer who materially participates in the diversion and devotion to conservation uses required under a 1983 payment-in-kind program shall be treated as materially participating in the operation of such land during such crop year.

“(b) Provisions to Which Subsection (a) Applies.—The provisions specified in this subsection are—

“(1) section 2032A of the Internal Revenue Code of 1986 (relating to valuation of certain farm, etc., real property),

“(2) section 6166 of such Code (relating to extension of time for payment of estate tax where estate consists largely of interest in closely held business),

“(3) chapter 2 of such Code (relating to tax on self-employment income), and

“(4) title II of the Social Security Act [42 U.S.C. 401 et seq.] (relating to Federal old-age, survivors, and disability insurance benefits).

“SEC. 4. ANTIABUSE RULES.

“(a) General Rule.—In the case of any person, sections 2 and 3 of this Act shall not apply with respect to any land acquired by such person after February 23, 1983, unless such land was acquired in a qualified acquisition.

“(b) Qualified Acquisition.—For purposes of this section, the term ‘qualified acquisition’ means any acquisition—

“(1) by reason of the death of a qualified transferor,

“(2) by reason of a gift from a qualified transferor, or

“(3) from a qualified transferor who is a member of the family of the person acquiring the land.

“(c) Definitions and Special Rules.—For purposes of this section—

“(1) Qualified transferor.—The term ‘qualified transferor’ means any person—

“(A) who held the land on February 23, 1983, or

“(B) who acquired the land after February 23, 1983, in a qualified acquisition.

“(2) Member of family.—The term ‘member of the family’ has the meaning given such term by section 2032A(e)(2) of the Internal Revenue Code of 1986.

“(3) Mere change in form of business.—Subsection (a) shall not apply to any change in ownership by reason of a mere change in the form of conducting the trade or business so long as the land is retained in such trade or business and the person holding the land before such change retains a direct or indirect 80-percent interest in such land.

“(4) Treatment of certain acquisitions of right to the crop.—The acquisition of a direct or indirect interest in 80 percent or more of the crop from any land shall be treated as an acquisition of such land.

“SEC. 5. DEFINITIONS AND SPECIAL RULES.

“(a) General Rule.—For purposes of this Act—

“(1) 1983 payment-in-kind program.—The term ‘1983 payment-in-kind program’ means any program for the 1983 crop year—

“(A) under which the Secretary of Agriculture (or his delegate) makes payments in kind of any agricultural commodity to any person in return for—

“(i) the diversion of farm acreage from the production of an agricultural commodity, and

“(ii) the devotion of such acreage to conservation uses, and

“(B) which the Secretary of Agriculture certifies to the Secretary of the Treasury as being described in subparagraph (A).

“(2) Crop year.—The term ‘1983 crop year’ means the crop year for any crop the planting or harvesting period for which occurs during 1983. The term ‘1984 crop year’ means the crop year for wheat the planting and harvesting period for which occurs during 1984.

“(3) Qualified taxpayer.—The term ‘qualified taxpayer’ means any producer of agricultural commodities (within the meaning of the 1983 payment-in-kind programs) who receives any agricultural commodity in return for meeting the requirements of clauses (i) and (ii) of paragraph (1)(A).

“(4) Receipt includes right to receive, etc.—A right to receive (or other constructive receipt of) a commodity shall be treated the same as actual receipt of such commodity.

“(5) Amounts received by the taxpayer as reimbursement for storage.—A qualified taxpayer reporting on the cash receipts and disbursements method of accounting shall not be treated as being entitled to receive any amount as reimbursement for storage of commodities received under a 1983 payment-in-kind program until such amount is actually received by the taxpayer.

“(6) Commodity credit loans treated separately.—Subsection (a) of section 2 shall apply to the receipt of any commodity under a 1983 payment-in-kind program separately from, and without taking into account, any related transaction or series of transactions involving the satisfaction of loans from the Commodity Credit Corporation.

“(b) Extension to Wheat Planted and Harvested in 1984.—In the case of wheat—

“(1) any reference in this Act to the 1983 crop year shall include a reference to the 1984 crop year, and

“(2) any reference to the 1983 payment-in-kind program shall include a reference to any program for the 1984 year for wheat which meets the requirements of subparagraphs (A) and (B) of subsection (a)(1).

“(c) Regulations.—The Secretary of the Treasury or his delegate (after consultation with the Secretary of Agriculture) shall prescribe such regulations as may be necessary to carry out the purposes of this Act, including (but not limited to) such regulations as may be necessary to carry out the purposes of this Act where the commodity is received by a cooperative on behalf of the qualified taxpayer.”

[Section 1061(b) of Pub. L. 98–369 provided that: “The amendments made by this section [amending Pub. L. 98–4 set out above] shall apply with respect to commodities received for the 1984 crop year (as defined in section 5(a)(2) of the Payment-in-Kind Tax Treatment Act of 1983 [Pub. L. 98–4, set out above] as amended by subsection (a)).”]

Cancellation of Certain Student Loans

Pub. L. 94–455, title XXI, §2117, Oct. 4, 1976, 90 Stat. 1911, as amended by Pub. L. 95–600, title I, §162, Nov. 6, 1978, 92 Stat. 2810; Pub. L. 99–514, §2, Oct. 22, 1986, 100 Stat. 2095, provided that no amount be included in gross income of an individual for purposes of 26 U.S.C. 61 by reason of the discharge made before Jan. 1, 1983 of the indebtedness of the individual under a student loan if the discharge was pursuant to a provision of the loan under which the indebtedness of the individual would be discharged if the individual worked for a certain period of time in certain geographical areas or for certain classes of employers.

Regulations Relating to Tax Treatment of Certain Prepublication Expenditures of Publishers

Pub. L. 94–455, title XXI, §2119, Oct. 4, 1976, 90 Stat. 1912, as amended by Pub. L. 99–514, §2, Oct. 22, 1986, 100 Stat. 2095, provided that:

“(a) General Rule.—With respect to taxable years beginning on or before the date on which regulations dealing with prepublication expenditures are issued after the date of the enactment of this Act [Oct. 4, 1976], the application of sections 61 (as it relates to cost of goods sold), 162, 174, 263, and 471 of the Internal Revenue Code of 1986 [formerly I.R.C. 1954] to any prepublication expenditure shall be administered—

“(1) without regard to Revenue Ruling 73–395, and

“(2) in the manner in which such sections were applied consistently by the taxpayer to such expenditures before the date of the issuance of such revenue ruling.

“(b) Regulations To Be Prospective Only.—Any regulations issued after the date of the enactment of this Act [Oct. 4, 1976] which deal with the application of sections 61 (as it relates to cost of goods sold), 162, 174, 263, and 471 of the Internal Revenue Code of 1986 to prepublication expenditures shall apply only with respect to taxable years beginning after the date on which such regulations are issued.

“(c) Prepublication Expenditures Defined.—For purposes of this section, the term ‘prepublication expenditures’ means expenditures paid or incurred by the taxpayer (in connection with his trade or business of publishing) for the writing, editing, compiling, illustrating, designing, or other development or improvement of a book, teaching aid, or similar product.”

Reimbursement of Moving Expenses of Employees of Certain Corporations Excluded From Gross Income; Claim for Refund or Credit; Limitations; Interest

Pub. L. 86–780, §5, Sept. 14, 1960, 74 Stat. 1013, provided for the exclusion from gross income of any amount received after Dec. 31, 1949, and before Oct. 1, 1955, by employees of certain corporations as reimbursement for moving expenses, and the refund or credit of any overpayments.

§62. Adjusted gross income defined

(a) General rule

For purposes of this subtitle, the term “adjusted gross income” means, in the case of an individual, gross income minus the following deductions:

(1) Trade and business deductions

The deductions allowed by this chapter (other than by part VII of this subchapter) which are attributable to a trade or business carried on by the taxpayer, if such trade or business does not consist of the performance of services by the taxpayer as an employee.

(2) Certain trade and business deductions of employees

(A) Reimbursed expenses of employees

The deductions allowed by part VI (section 161 and following) which consist of expenses paid or incurred by the taxpayer, in connection with the performance by him of services as an employee, under a reimbursement or other expense allowance arrangement with his employer. The fact that the reimbursement may be provided by a third party shall not be determinative of whether or not the preceding sentence applies.

(B) Certain expenses of performing artists

The deductions allowed by section 162 which consist of expenses paid or incurred by a qualified performing artist in connection with the performances by him of services in the performing arts as an employee.

(C) Certain expenses of officials

The deductions allowed by section 162 which consist of expenses paid or incurred with respect to services performed by an official as an employee of a State or a political subdivision thereof in a position compensated in whole or in part on a fee basis.

(D) Certain expenses of elementary and secondary school teachers

In the case of taxable years beginning during 2002, 2003, 2004, 2005, 2006, 2007, 2008, 2009, 2010, or 2011, the deductions allowed by section 162 which consist of expenses, not in excess of $250, paid or incurred by an eligible educator in connection with books, supplies (other than nonathletic supplies for courses of instruction in health or physical education), computer equipment (including related software and services) and other equipment, and supplementary materials used by the eligible educator in the classroom.

(E) Certain expenses of members of reserve components of the Armed Forces of the United States

The deductions allowed by section 162 which consist of expenses, determined at a rate not in excess of the rates for travel expenses (including per diem in lieu of subsistence) authorized for employees of agencies under subchapter I of chapter 57 of title 5, United States Code, paid or incurred by the taxpayer in connection with the performance of services by such taxpayer as a member of a reserve component of the Armed Forces of the United States for any period during which such individual is more than 100 miles away from home in connection with such services.

(3) Losses from sale or exchange of property

The deductions allowed by part VI (sec. 161 and following) as losses from the sale or exchange of property.

(4) Deductions attributable to rents and royalties

The deductions allowed by part VI (sec. 161 and following), by section 212 (relating to expenses for production of income), and by section 611 (relating to depletion) which are attributable to property held for the production of rents or royalties.

(5) Certain deductions of life tenants and income beneficiaries of property

In the case of a life tenant of property, or an income beneficiary of property held in trust, or an heir, legatee, or devisee of an estate, the deduction for depreciation allowed by section 167 and the deduction allowed by section 611.

(6) Pension, profit-sharing, and annuity plans of self-employed individuals

In the case of an individual who is an employee within the meaning of section 401(c)(1), the deduction allowed by section 404.

(7) Retirement savings

The deduction allowed by section 219 (relating to deduction of certain retirement savings).

[(8) Repealed. Pub. L. 104–188, title I, §1401(b)(4), Aug. 20, 1996, 110 Stat. 1788]

(9) Penalties forfeited because of premature withdrawal of funds from time savings accounts or deposits

The deductions allowed by section 165 for losses incurred in any transaction entered into for profit, though not connected with a trade or business, to the extent that such losses include amounts forfeited to a bank, mutual savings bank, savings and loan association, building and loan association, cooperative bank or homestead association as a penalty for premature withdrawal of funds from a time savings account, certificate of deposit, or similar class of deposit.

(10) Alimony

The deduction allowed by section 215.

(11) Reforestation expenses

The deduction allowed by section 194.

(12) Certain required repayments of supplemental unemployment compensation benefits

The deduction allowed by section 165 for the repayment to a trust described in paragraph (9) or (17) of section 501(c) of supplemental unemployment compensation benefits received from such trust if such repayment is required because of the receipt of trade readjustment allowances under section 231 or 232 of the Trade Act of 1974 (19 U.S.C. 2291 and 2292).

(13) Jury duty pay remitted to employer

Any deduction allowable under this chapter by reason of an individual remitting any portion of any jury pay to such individual's employer in exchange for payment by the employer of compensation for the period such individual was performing jury duty. For purposes of the preceding sentence, the term “jury pay” means any payment received by the individual for the discharge of jury duty.

(14) Deduction for clean-fuel vehicles and certain refueling property

The deduction allowed by section 179A.

(15) Moving expenses

The deduction allowed by section 217.

(16) Archer MSAs

The deduction allowed by section 220.

(17) Interest on education loans

The deduction allowed by section 221.

(18) Higher education expenses

The deduction allowed by section 222.

(19) Health savings accounts

The deduction allowed by section 223.

(20) Costs involving discrimination suits, etc.

Any deduction allowable under this chapter for attorney fees and court costs paid by, or on behalf of, the taxpayer in connection with any action involving a claim of unlawful discrimination (as defined in subsection (e)) or a claim of a violation of subchapter III of chapter 37 of title 31, United States Code 1 or a claim made under section 1862(b)(3)(A) of the Social Security Act (42 U.S.C. 1395y(b)(3)(A)). The preceding sentence shall not apply to any deduction in excess of the amount includible in the taxpayer's gross income for the taxable year on account of a judgment or settlement (whether by suit or agreement and whether as lump sum or periodic payments) resulting from such claim.

(21) Attorneys fees relating to awards to whistleblowers

Any deduction allowable under this chapter for attorney fees and court costs paid by, or on behalf of, the taxpayer in connection with any award under section 7623(b) (relating to awards to whistleblowers). The preceding sentence shall not apply to any deduction in excess of the amount includible in the taxpayer's gross income for the taxable year on account of such award.


Nothing in this section shall permit the same item to be deducted more than once.

(b) Qualified performing artist

(1) In general

For purposes of subsection (a)(2)(B), the term “qualified performing artist” means, with respect to any taxable year, any individual if—

(A) such individual performed services in the performing arts as an employee during the taxable year for at least 2 employers,

(B) the aggregate amount allowable as a deduction under section 162 in connection with the performance of such services exceeds 10 percent of such individual's gross income attributable to the performance of such services, and

(C) the adjusted gross income of such individual for the taxable year (determined without regard to subsection (a)(2)(B)) does not exceed $16,000.

(2) Nominal employer not taken into account

An individual shall not be treated as performing services in the performing arts as an employee for any employer during any taxable year unless the amount received by such individual from such employer for the performance of such services during the taxable year equals or exceeds $200.

(3) Special rules for married couples

(A) In general

Except in the case of a husband and wife who lived apart at all times during the taxable year, if the taxpayer is married at the close of the taxable year, subsection (a)(2)(B) shall apply only if the taxpayer and his spouse file a joint return for the taxable year.

(B) Application of paragraph (1)

In the case of a joint return—

(i) paragraph (1) (other than subparagraph (C) thereof) shall be applied separately with respect to each spouse, but

(ii) paragraph (1)(C) shall be applied with respect to their combined adjusted gross income.

(C) Determination of marital status

For purposes of this subsection, marital status shall be determined under section 7703(a).

(D) Joint return

For purposes of this subsection, the term “joint return” means the joint return of a husband and wife made under section 6013.

(c) Certain arrangements not treated as reimbursement arrangements

For purposes of subsection (a)(2)(A), an arrangement shall in no event be treated as a reimbursement or other expense allowance arrangement if—

(1) such arrangement does not require the employee to substantiate the expenses covered by the arrangement to the person providing the reimbursement, or

(2) such arrangement provides the employee the right to retain any amount in excess of the substantiated expenses covered under the arrangement.


The substantiation requirements of the preceding sentence shall not apply to any expense to the extent that substantiation is not required under section 274(d) for such expense by reason of the regulations prescribed under the 2nd sentence thereof.

(d) Definition; special rules

(1) Eligible educator

(A) In general

For purposes of subsection (a)(2)(D), the term “eligible educator” means, with respect to any taxable year, an individual who is a kindergarten through grade 12 teacher, instructor, counselor, principal, or aide in a school for at least 900 hours during a school year.

(B) School

The term “school” means any school which provides elementary education or secondary education (kindergarten through grade 12), as determined under State law.

(2) Coordination with exclusions

A deduction shall be allowed under subsection (a)(2)(D) for expenses only to the extent the amount of such expenses exceeds the amount excludable under section 135, 529(c)(1), or 530(d)(2) for the taxable year.

(e) Unlawful discrimination defined

For purposes of subsection (a)(20), the term “unlawful discrimination” means an act that is unlawful under any of the following:

(1) Section 302 of the Civil Rights Act of 1991 (2 U.S.C. 1202).2

(2) Section 201, 202, 203, 204, 205, 206, or 207 of the Congressional Accountability Act of 1995 (2 U.S.C. 1311, 1312, 1313, 1314, 1315, 1316, or 1317).

(3) The National Labor Relations Act (29 U.S.C. 151 et seq.).

(4) The Fair Labor Standards Act of 1938 (29 U.S.C. 201 et seq.).

(5) Section 4 or 15 of the Age Discrimination in Employment Act of 1967 (29 U.S.C. 623 or 633a).

(6) Section 501 or 504 of the Rehabilitation Act of 1973 (29 U.S.C. 791 or 794).

(7) Section 510 of the Employee Retirement Income Security Act of 1974 (29 U.S.C. 1140).

(8) Title IX of the Education Amendments of 1972 (20 U.S.C. 1681 et seq.).

(9) The Employee Polygraph Protection Act of 1988 (29 U.S.C. 2001 et seq.).

(10) The Worker Adjustment and Retraining Notification Act (29 U.S.C. 2102 et seq.).

(11) Section 105 of the Family and Medical Leave Act of 1993 (29 U.S.C. 2615).

(12) Chapter 43 of title 38, United States Code (relating to employment and reemployment rights of members of the uniformed services).

(13) Section 1977, 1979, or 1980 of the Revised Statutes (42 U.S.C. 1981, 1983, or 1985).

(14) Section 703, 704, or 717 of the Civil Rights Act of 1964 (42 U.S.C. 2000e–2, 2000e–3, or 2000e–16).

(15) Section 804, 805, 806, 808, or 818 of the Fair Housing Act (42 U.S.C. 3604, 3605, 3606, 3608, or 3617).

(16) Section 102, 202, 302, or 503 of the Americans with Disabilities Act of 1990 (42 U.S.C. 12112, 12132, 12182, or 12203).

(17) Any provision of Federal law (popularly known as whistleblower protection provisions) prohibiting the discharge of an employee, the discrimination against an employee, or any other form of retaliation or reprisal against an employee for asserting rights or taking other actions permitted under Federal law.

(18) Any provision of Federal, State, or local law, or common law claims permitted under Federal, State, or local law—

(i) providing for the enforcement of civil rights, or

(ii) regulating any aspect of the employment relationship, including claims for wages, compensation, or benefits, or prohibiting the discharge of an employee, the discrimination against an employee, or any other form of retaliation or reprisal against an employee for asserting rights or taking other actions permitted by law.

(Aug. 16, 1954, ch. 736, 68A Stat. 17; Pub. L. 87–792, §7(b), Oct. 10, 1962, 76 Stat. 828; Pub. L. 88–272, title II, §213(b), Feb. 26, 1964, 78 Stat. 52; Pub. L. 91–172, title V, §531(b), Dec. 30, 1969, 83 Stat. 655; Pub. L. 93–406, title II, §§2002(a)(2), 2005(c)(9), Sept. 2, 1974, 88 Stat. 959, 992; Pub. L. 93–483, §6(a), Oct. 26, 1974, 88 Stat. 1458; Pub. L. 94–455, title V, §502(a), title XV, §1501(b)(1), title XIX, §1901(a)(8), (9), Oct. 4, 1976, 90 Stat. 1559, 1735, 1765; Pub. L. 95–615, §203(b), Nov. 8, 1978, 92 Stat. 3106; Pub. L. 96–451, title III, §301(b), Oct. 14, 1980, 94 Stat. 1990; Pub. L. 96–608, §3(a), Dec. 28, 1980, 94 Stat. 3551; Pub. L. 97–34, title I, §§103(b), 112(b)(2), title III, §311(h)(1), Aug. 13, 1981, 95 Stat. 187, 195, 282; Pub. L. 97–354, §5(a)(17), Oct. 19, 1982, 96 Stat. 1693; Pub. L. 98–369, div. A, title IV, §491(d)(2), July 18, 1984, 98 Stat. 849; Pub. L. 99–514, title I, §§131(b)(1), 132(b), (c), title III, §301(b)(1), title XVIII, §1875(c)(3), Oct. 22, 1986, 100 Stat. 2113, 2115, 2116, 2217, 2894; Pub. L. 100–485, title VII, §702(a), Oct. 13, 1988, 102 Stat. 2426; Pub. L. 100–647, title I, §1001(b)(3)(A), title VI, §6007(b), Nov. 10, 1988, 102 Stat. 3349, 3687; Pub. L. 101–508, title XI, §11802(e)(1), Nov. 5, 1990, 104 Stat. 1388–530; Pub. L. 102–318, title V, §521(b)(2), July 3, 1992, 106 Stat. 310; Pub. L. 102–486, title XIX, §1913(a)(2), Oct. 24, 1992, 106 Stat. 3019; Pub. L. 103–66, title XIII, §13213(c)(1), Aug. 10, 1993, 107 Stat. 474; Pub. L. 104–188, title I, §1401(b)(4), Aug. 20, 1996, 110 Stat. 1788; Pub. L. 104–191, title III, §301(b), Aug. 21, 1996, 110 Stat. 2048; Pub. L. 105–34, title II, §202(b), title IX, §975(a), Aug. 5, 1997, 111 Stat. 808, 898; Pub. L. 106–554, §1(a)(7) [title II, §202(b)(1)], Dec. 21, 2000, 114 Stat. 2763, 2763A–629; Pub. L. 107–16, title IV, §431(b), June 7, 2001, 115 Stat. 68; Pub. L. 107–147, title IV, §406(a), (b), Mar. 9, 2002, 116 Stat. 43; Pub. L. 108–121, title I, §109(b), Nov. 11, 2003, 117 Stat. 1341; Pub. L. 108–173, title XII, §1201(b), Dec. 8, 2003, 117 Stat. 2476; Pub. L. 108–311, title III, §307(a), Oct. 4, 2004, 118 Stat. 1179; Pub. L. 108–357, title VII, §703(a), (b), Oct. 22, 2004, 118 Stat. 1546, 1547; Pub. L. 109–135, title IV, §412(q), Dec. 21, 2005, 119 Stat. 2638; Pub. L. 109–432, div. A, title I, §108(a), title IV, §406(a)(3), Dec. 20, 2006, 120 Stat. 2939, 2959; Pub. L. 110–343, div. C, title II, §203(a), Oct. 3, 2008, 122 Stat. 3864; Pub. L. 111–312, title VII, §721(a), Dec. 17, 2010, 124 Stat. 3316.)

Amendment of Section

For termination of amendment by section 901 of Pub. L. 107–16, see Effective and Termination Dates of 2001 Amendment note below.

References in Text

Section 302 of the Civil Rights Act of 1991, referred to in subsec. (e)(1), was formerly classified to section 1202 of Title 2, The Congress, and was transferred to section 2000e–16b of Title 42, The Public Health and Welfare.

The National Labor Relations Act, referred to in subsec. (e)(3), is act July 5, 1935, ch. 372, 49 Stat. 449, as amended, which is classified generally to subchapter II (§151 et seq.) of chapter 7 of Title 29, Labor. For complete classification of this Act to the Code, see section 167 of Title 29 and Tables.

The Fair Labor Standards Act of 1938, referred to in subsec. (e)(4), is act June 25, 1938, ch. 676, 52 Stat. 1060, as amended, which is classified generally to chapter 8 (§201 et seq.) of Title 29, Labor. For complete classification of this Act to the Code, see section 201 of Title 29 and Tables.

The Education Amendments of 1972, referred to in subsec. (e)(8), is Pub. L. 92–318, June 23, 1972, 86 Stat. 235, as amended. Title IX of the Act, known as the Patsy Takemoto Mink Equal Opportunity in Education Act, is classified principally to chapter 38 (§1681 et seq.) of Title 20, Education. For complete classification of title IX to the Code, see Short Title note set out under section 1681 of Title 20 and Tables.

The Employee Polygraph Protection Act of 1988, referred to in subsec. (e)(9), is Pub. L. 100–347, June 27, 1988, 102 Stat. 646, as amended, which is classified generally to chapter 22 (§2001 et seq.) of Title 29, Labor. For complete classification of this Act to the Code, see Short Title note set out under section 2001 of Title 29 and Tables.

The Worker Adjustment and Retraining Notification Act, referred to in subsec. (e)(10), is Pub. L. 100–379, Aug. 4, 1988, 102 Stat. 890, as amended, which is classified generally to chapter 23 (§2101 et seq.) of Title 29, Labor. For complete classification of this Act to the Code, see Short Title note set out under section 2101 of Title 29 and Tables.

Amendments

2010—Subsec. (a)(2)(D). Pub. L. 111–312 substituted “2009, 2010, or 2011” for “or 2009”.

2008—Subsec. (a)(2)(D). Pub. L. 110–343 substituted “2007, 2008, or 2009” for “or 2007”.

2006—Subsec. (a)(2)(D). Pub. L. 109–432, §108(a), substituted “2005, 2006, or 2007” for “or 2005”.

Subsec. (a)(21). Pub. L. 109–432, §406(a)(3), added par. (21).

2005—Subsec. (a)(19), (20). Pub. L. 109–135, §412(q)(1), redesignated par. (19) relating to costs involving discrimination suits, etc., as par. (20) and moved to follow par. (19) relating to health savings accounts.

Subsec. (e). Pub. L. 109–135, §412(q)(2), substituted “subsection (a)(20)” for “subsection (a)(19)” in introductory provisions.

2004—Subsec. (a)(2)(D). Pub. L. 108–311 substituted “, 2003, 2004, or 2005” for “or 2003”.

Subsec. (a)(19). Pub. L. 108–357, §703(a), added par. (19) relating to costs involving discrimination suits, etc.

Subsec. (e). Pub. L. 108–357, §703(b), added subsec. (e).

2003—Subsec. (a)(2)(E). Pub. L. 108–121 added subpar. (E).

Subsec. (a)(19). Pub. L. 108–173 added par. (19).

2002—Subsec. (a)(2)(D). Pub. L. 107–147, §406(a), added subpar. (D).

Subsec. (d). Pub. L. 107–147, §406(b), added subsec. (d).

2001—Subsec. (a)(18). Pub. L. 107–16, §§431(b), 901, temporarily added par. (18). See Effective and Termination Dates of 2001 Amendment note below.

2000—Subsec. (a)(16). Pub. L. 106–554 amended heading and text of par. (16) generally. Prior to amendment, text read as follows: “The deduction allowed by section 220.”

1997—Subsec. (a)(2)(C). Pub. L. 105–34, §975(a), added subpar. (C).

Subsec. (a)(17). Pub. L. 105–34, §202(b), added par. (17).

1996—Subsec. (a)(8). Pub. L. 104–188 struck out par. (8) which read as follows: “Certain portion of lump-sum distributions from pension plans taxed under section 402(d).—The deduction allowed by section 402(d)(3).”

Subsec. (a)(16). Pub. L. 104–191 added par. (16).

1993—Subsec. (a)(15). Pub. L. 103–66 added par. (15).

1992—Subsec. (a)(8). Pub. L. 102–318 substituted “402(d)” for “402(e)” in heading and in text.

Subsec. (a)(14). Pub. L. 102–486 added par. (14).

1990—Subsec. (a)(13). Pub. L. 101–508, §11802(e)(1), amended par. (13) generally. Prior to amendment, par. (13) read as follows: “The deduction allowed by section 220.”

1988—Subsec. (a)(2)(A). Pub. L. 100–647, §1001(b)(3)(A), inserted at end “The fact that the reimbursement may be provided by a third party shall not be determinative of whether or not the preceding sentence applies.”

Subsec. (a)(13). Pub. L. 100–647, §6007(b), added par. (13).

Subsec. (c). Pub. L. 100–485 added subsec. (c).

1986—Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 99–514, §132(b)(2)(A), designated existing provisions as subsec. (a) and added heading.

Subsec. (a)(2). Pub. L. 99–514, §132(b)(1), amended par. (2) generally, substituting “Certain trade” for “Trade” in heading and inserting “of employees” in subpar. (A) heading, substituting provision relating to deduction of certain expenses of performing artists for provision relating to deduction of expenses for travel away from home in subpar. (B), and striking out subpar. (C) relating to deduction of travel expenses and subpar. (D) relating to deduction of expenses of outside salesmen.

Subsec. (a)(3) to (5). Pub. L. 99–514, §301(b)(1), redesignated pars. (4) to (6) as (3) to (5), respectively, and struck out former par. (3) which related to long-term capital gains and read as follows: “The deduction allowed by section 1202.”

Subsec. (a)(6). Pub. L. 99–514, §301(b)(1), redesignated par. (7) as (6). Former par. (6) redesignated (5).

Pub. L. 99–514, §1875(c)(3), struck out “to the extent attributable to contributions made on behalf of such individual” after “section 404”.

Subsec. (a)(7). Pub. L. 99–514, §301(b)(1), redesignated par. (10) as (7). Former par. (7) redesignated (6).

Subsec. (a)(8). Pub. L. 99–514, §301(b)(1), redesignated par. (11) as (8). Former par. (8) struck out.

Pub. L. 99–514, §132(c), struck out par. (8) which related to moving expense deduction and read as follows: “The deduction allowed by section 217.”

Subsec. (a)(9) to (15). Pub. L. 99–514, §301(b)(1), redesignated pars. (12) to (15) as (9) to (12), respectively. Former pars. (10) and (11) redesignated (7) and (8), respectively.

Subsec. (a)(16). Pub. L. 99–514, §131(b)(1), struck out par. (16) which related to deduction for two-earner married couples and read as follows: “The deduction allowed by section 221.”

Subsec. (b). Pub. L. 99–514, §132(b)(2)(B), added subsec. (b).

1984—Par. (7). Pub. L. 98–369, §491(d)(2), substituted “and annuity” for “annuity, and bond purchase” in heading, and substituted “the deduction allowed by section 404” for “the deductions allowed by section 404 and section 405(c)” in text.

1983—Par. (9). Pub. L. 97–354 repealed par. (9) relating to the deduction allowed by section 1379(b)(3).

1981—Par. (10). Pub. L. 97–34, §311(h)(1), struck out “and the deduction allowed by section 220 (relating to retirement savings for certain married individuals)” after “retirement savings”.

Par. (14). Pub. L. 97–34, §112(b)(2), redesignated par. (15) as (14). Former par. (14), relating to deduction for certain expenses of living abroad, was struck out.

Par. (15). Pub. L. 97–34, §112(b)(2), redesignated par. (16) as (15). Former par. (15) redesignated (14).

Par. (16). Pub. L. 97–34, §§103(b), 112(b)(2), added par. (16). Former par. (16) redesignated (15).

1980—Par. (15). Pub. L. 96–451 added par. (15).

Par. (16). Pub. L. 96–608 added par. (16).

1978—Par. (14). Pub. L. 95–615 added par. (14).

1976—Par. (10). Pub. L. 94–455, §1501(b)(1), inserted reference to the deduction allowed by section 220 (relating to retirement savings for certain married individuals).

Pars. (11), (12). Pub. L. 94–455, §1901(a)(8), (9), redesignated par. (11) relating to penalties forfeited because of premature withdrawal of funds from time savings accounts or deposits, as par. (12), and substituted “trade or business, to the extent” for “trade or business to the extent”.

Par. (13). Pub. L. 94–455, §502(a), added par. (13).

1974—Par. (10). Pub. L. 93–406, §2002(a)(2), added par. (10).

Par. (11). Pub. L. 93–483 added par. (11) relating to penalties forfeited because of premature withdrawal of funds from time savings accounts or deposits. Another par. (11) relating to certain portions of lump-sum distributions from pension plans taxed under section 402(e) of this title, was added by Pub. L. 93–406, §2005(c)(9).

1969—Par. (9). Pub. L. 91–172 added par. (9).

1964—Par. (8). Pub. L. 88–272 added par. (8).

1962—Par. (7). Pub. L. 87–792 added par. (7).

Effective Date of 2010 Amendment

Pub. L. 111–312, title VII, §721(b), Dec. 17, 2010, 124 Stat. 3316, provided that: “The amendment made by this section [amending this section] shall apply to taxable years beginning after December 31, 2009.”

Effective Date of 2008 Amendment

Pub. L. 110–343, div. C, title II, §203(b), Oct. 3, 2008, 122 Stat. 3864, provided that: “The amendment made by subsection (a) [amending this section] shall apply to taxable years beginning after December 31, 2007.”

Effective Date of 2006 Amendment

Pub. L. 109–432, div. A, title I, §108(b), Dec. 20, 2006, 120 Stat. 2939, provided that: “The amendment made by this section [amending this section] shall apply to taxable years beginning after December 31, 2005.”

Pub. L. 109–432, div. A, title IV, §406(d), Dec. 20, 2006, 120 Stat. 2960, provided that: “The amendments made by subsection (a) [amending this section and sections 7443A and 7623 of this title] shall apply to information provided on or after the date of the enactment of this Act [Dec. 20, 2006].”

Effective Date of 2004 Amendments

Pub. L. 108–357, title VII, §703(c), Oct. 22, 2004, 118 Stat. 1548, provided that: “The amendments made by this section [amending this section] shall apply to fees and costs paid after the date of the enactment of this Act [Oct. 22, 2004] with respect to any judgment or settlement occurring after such date.”

Pub. L. 108–311, title III, §307(b), Oct. 4, 2004, 118 Stat. 1179, provided that: “The amendment made by subsection (a) [amending this section] shall apply to expenses paid or incurred in taxable years beginning after December 31, 2003.”

Effective Date of 2003 Amendments

Pub. L. 108–173, title XII, §1201(k), Dec. 8, 2003, 117 Stat. 2479, provided that: “The amendments made by this section [enacting sections 223 and 4980G of this title, amending this section and sections 106, 125, 220, 848, 3231, 3306, 3401, 4973, 4975, 6051, and 6693 of this title, and renumbering former section 223 of this title as 224] shall apply to taxable years beginning after December 31, 2003.”

Pub. L. 108–121, title I, §109(c), Nov. 11, 2003, 117 Stat. 1342, provided that: “The amendments made by this section [amending this section and section 162 of this title] shall apply to amounts paid or incurred in taxable years beginning after December 31, 2002.”

Effective Date of 2002 Amendment

Pub. L. 107–147, title IV, §406(c), Mar. 9, 2002, 116 Stat. 44, provided that: “The amendments made by this section [amending this section] shall apply to taxable years beginning after December 31, 2001.”

Effective and Termination Dates of 2001 Amendment

Pub. L. 107–16, title IV, §431(d), June 7, 2001, 115 Stat. 69, provided that: “The amendments made by this section [enacting section 222 of this title, amending this section and sections 86, 135, 137, 219, 221, and 469 of this title, and renumbering former section 222 of this title as 223] shall apply to payments made in taxable years beginning after December 31, 2001.”

Amendment by Pub. L. 107–16 inapplicable to taxable, plan, or limitation years beginning after Dec. 31, 2012, and the Internal Revenue Code of 1986 to be applied and administered to such years as if such amendment had never been enacted, see section 901 of Pub. L. 107–16, set out as a note under section 1 of this title.

Effective Date of 1997 Amendment

Section 202(e) of Pub. L. 105–34 provided that: “The amendments made by this section [enacting section 221 of this title, amending this section and section 6050S of this title, and renumbering former section 221 of this title as section 222 of this title] shall apply to any qualified education loan (as defined in section 221(e)(1) of the Internal Revenue Code of 1986, as added by this section) incurred on, before, or after the date of the enactment of this Act [Aug. 5, 1997], but only with respect to—

“(1) any loan interest payment due and paid after December 31, 1997, and

“(2) the portion of the 60-month period referred to in section 221(d) of the Internal Revenue Code of 1986 (as added by this section) after December 31, 1997.”

Section 975(b) of Pub. L. 105–34 provided that: “The amendment made by this section [amending this section] shall apply to expenses paid or incurred in taxable years beginning after December 31, 1986.”

Effective Date of 1996 Amendments

Section 301(j) of Pub. L. 104–191 provided that: “The amendments made by this section [enacting sections 220 and 4980E of this title, amending this section and sections 106, 125, 848, 3231, 3306, 3401, 4973, 4975, 6051, and 6693 of this title, and renumbering section 220 of this title as section 221] shall apply to taxable years beginning after December 31, 1996.”

Amendment by Pub. L. 104–188 applicable to taxable years beginning after Dec. 31, 1999, with retention of certain transition rules, see section 1401(c) of Pub. L. 104–188, set out as a note under section 402 of this title.

Effective Date of 1993 Amendment

Section 13213(e) of Pub. L. 103–66 provided that: “The amendments made by this section [amending this section and sections 67, 82, 132, 217, 1001, 1016, and 4977 of this title] shall apply to expenses incurred after December 31, 1993; except that the amendments made by subsection (d) [amending sections 82, 132, and 4977 of this title] shall apply to reimbursements or other payments in respect of expenses incurred after such date.”

Effective Date of 1992 Amendments

Amendment by Pub. L. 102–486 applicable to property placed in service after June 30, 1993, see section 1913(c) of Pub. L. 102–486, set out as an Effective Date note under section 30 of this title.

Amendment by Pub. L. 102–318 applicable to distributions after Dec. 31, 1992, see section 521(e) of Pub. L. 102–318, set out as a note under section 402 of this title.

Effective Date of 1988 Amendments

Amendment by section 1001(b)(3)(A) of Pub. L. 100–647 effective, except as otherwise provided, as if included in the provision of the Tax Reform Act of 1986, Pub. L. 99–514, to which such amendment relates, see section 1019(a) of Pub. L. 100–647, set out as a note under section 1 of this title.

Section 6007(d) of Pub. L. 100–647 provided that: “The amendments made by this section [enacting section 220 of this title, amending this section, and renumbering former section 220 of this title as section 221 of this title] shall apply as if included in the amendments made by section 132 of the Tax Reform Act of 1986 [Pub. L. 99–514].”

Section 702(b) of Pub. L. 100–485 provided that: “The amendment made by subsection (a) [amending this section] shall apply to taxable years beginning after December 31, 1988.”

Effective Date of 1986 Amendment

Amendment by sections 131(b)(1) and 132(b), (c) of Pub. L. 99–514 applicable to taxable years beginning after Dec. 31, 1986, see section 151(a) of Pub. L. 99–514, set out as a note under section 1 of this title.

Section 301(c) of Pub. L. 99–514 provided that: “The amendments made by this section [amending this section and sections 170, 172, 219, 220, 223, 642, 643, 691, 871, 1211, 1212, and 1402 of this title and repealing section 1202 of this title] shall apply to taxable years beginning after December 31, 1986.”

Section 1875(c)(12) of Pub. L. 99–514 provided that: “The amendments made by paragraphs (3), (4), and (6) [amending this section and sections 219 and 408 of this title] shall take effect as if included in the amendments made by section 238 of the Tax Equity and Fiscal Responsibility Act of 1982 [section 238 of Pub. L. 97–248, see section 241 of Pub. L. 97–248, set out as an Effective Date note under section 416 of this title].”

Effective Date of 1984 Amendment

“Section 491(f)(1) of Pub. L. 98–369 provided that: “The amendments and repeals made by subsections (a), (b), and (d) [amending this section, sections 55, 72, 172, 219, 402, 403, 406, 407, 408, 412, 414, 415, 457, 2039, 2517, 3121, 3306, 3401, 4972, 4973, 4975, 6047, 6058, 6104, 6652, 7207, 7476, and 7701 of this title, section 3107 of Title 31, Money and Finance, and section 409 of Title 42, The Public Health and Welfare, and repealing sections 405 and 409 of this title] shall apply to obligations issued after December 31, 1983.”

Effective Date of 1983 Amendment

Par. (9) as in effect before date of repeal by Pub. L. 97–354 to remain in effect for years beginning before Jan. 1, 1984, see section 6(b)(1) of Pub. L. 97–354, set out as an Effective Date note under section 3761 of this title.

Effective Date of 1981 Amendment

Section 103(d) of Pub. L. 97–34 provided that: “The amendments made by this section [enacting section 219 of this title and amending this section and sections 85 and 105 of this title] shall apply to taxable years beginning after December 31, 1981.”

Amendment by sections 112(b)(2) and 311(h)(1) of Pub. L. 97–34 applicable to taxable years beginning after Dec. 31, 1981, see sections 115 and 311(i)(1) of Pub. L. 97–34, set out as notes under sections 911 and 219, respectively, of this title.

Effective Date of 1980 Amendments

Section 3(b) of Pub. L. 96–608 provided that: “The amendment made by subsection (a) [amending this section] shall apply to repayments made in taxable years beginning after the date of the enactment of this Act [Dec. 28, 1980].”

Amendment by Pub. L. 96–451 applicable with respect to additions to capital account made after Dec. 31, 1979, see section 301(d) of Pub. L. 96–451, set out as an Effective Date note under section 194 of this title.

Effective Date of 1978 Amendment; Election of Prior Law

Amendment by Pub. L. 95–615 applicable to taxable years beginning after Dec. 31, 1977, with provision for election of prior law, see section 209 of Pub. L. 95–615, set out as a note under section 911 of this title.

Effective Date of 1976 Amendment

Section 502(c) of Pub. L. 94–455 provided that: “The amendments made by this section [amending this section and section 3402 of this title] shall apply to taxable years beginning after December 31, 1976.”

Section 1501(d) of Pub. L. 94–455 provided that: “The amendments made by this section [enacting section 220 of this title, amending this section and sections 219, 408, 409, 3401, 4973, and 6047 of this title, and renumbering former section 220 as 221 of this title], other than the amendment made by subsection (b)(3), shall apply to taxable years beginning after December 31, 1976. The amendment made by subsection (b)(3) [amending section 415 of this title] shall apply to years beginning after December 31, 1976.”

Amendment by section 1901(a)(8), (9) of Pub. L. 94–455 applicable with respect to taxable years beginning after Dec. 31, 1976, see section 1901(d) of Pub. L. 94–455, set out as a note under section 2 of this title.

Effective Date of 1974 Amendments

Section 6(b) of Pub. L. 93–483 provided that: “The amendment made by this section [amending this section] applies to taxable years beginning after December 31, 1972.”

Amendment by section 2002(a)(2) of Pub. L. 93–406 applicable to taxable years beginning after Dec. 31, 1974, see section 2002(i)(1) of Pub. L. 93–406, set out as an Effective Date note under section 219 of this title.

Amendment by section 2005(c)(9) of Pub. L. 93–406 applicable only with respect to distributions or payments made after Dec. 31, 1973, in taxable years beginning after Dec. 31, 1973, see section 2005(d) of Pub. L. 93–406, set out as a note under section 402 of this title.

Effective Date of 1969 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 91–172 applicable with respect to taxable years of electing small business corporations beginning after Dec. 31, 1970, see section 531(d) of Pub. L. 91–172, set out as an Effective Date note under section 1379 of this title.

Effective Date of 1964 Amendment

Section 213(d) of Pub. L. 88–272 provided that: “The amendments made by subsections (a) [enacting section 217 and redesignating former section 217 as 218] and (b) [amending this section] shall apply to expenses incurred after December 31, 1963, in taxable years ending after such date. The amendment made by subsection (c) [amending section 3401 of this title] shall apply with respect to remuneration paid after the seventh day following the date of the enactment of this Act [Feb. 26, 1964].”

Effective Date of 1962 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 87–792 applicable to taxable years beginning after Dec. 31, 1962, see section 8 of Pub. L. 87–792, set out as a note under section 22 of this title.

Savings Provision

For provisions that nothing in amendment by Pub. L. 101–508 be construed to affect treatment of certain transactions occurring, property acquired, or items of income, loss, deduction, or credit taken into account prior to Nov. 5, 1990, for purposes of determining liability for tax for periods ending after Nov. 5, 1990, see section 11821(b) of Pub. L. 101–508, set out as a note under section 45K of this title.

Plan Amendments Not Required Until January 1, 1998

For provisions directing that if any amendments made by subtitle D [§§1401–1465] of title I of Pub. L. 104–188 require an amendment to any plan or annuity contract, such amendment shall not be required to be made before the first day of the first plan year beginning on or after Jan. 1, 1998, see section 1465 of Pub. L. 104–188, set out as a note under section 401 of this title.

Plan Amendments Not Required Until January 1, 1994

For provisions directing that if any amendments made by subtitle B [§§521–523] of title V of Pub. L. 102–318 require an amendment to any plan, such plan amendment shall not be required to be made before the first plan year beginning on or after Jan. 1, 1994, see section 523 of Pub. L. 102–318, set out as a note under section 401 of this title.

Plan Amendments Not Required Until January 1, 1989

For provisions directing that if any amendments made by subtitle A or subtitle C of title XI [§§1101–1147 and 1171–1177] or title XVIII [§§1800–1899A] of Pub. L. 99–514 require an amendment to any plan, such plan amendment shall not be required to be made before the first plan year beginning on or after Jan. 1, 1989, see section 1140 of Pub. L. 99–514, as amended, set out as a note under section 401 of this title.

Commuting Expenses

Pub. L. 95–427, §2, Oct. 7, 1978, 92 Stat. 996, as amended by Pub. L. 96–167, §2, Dec. 29, 1979, 93 Stat. 1275, provided that with respect to transportation costs paid or incurred after December 31, 1976, and on or before May 31, 1981, the application of sections 62, 162, and 262 and of chapters 21, 23, and 24 of the Internal Revenue Code of 1954 [now 1986] to transportation expenses in traveling between a taxpayer's residence and place of work be determined without regard to Revenue Ruling 76–453 or any other regulation, ruling, or decision reaching the same or similar result, and with full regard to the rules in effect before that Revenue Ruling.

Pub. L. 95–615, §2, Nov. 8, 1978, 92 Stat. 3097, provided that with respect to transportation costs paid or incurred after Dec. 31, 1976, and before Apr. 30, 1978, the application of sections 62, 162, and 262 and chapters 21, 23, and 24 of the Internal Revenue Code of 1954 [now 1986] to transportation expenses in traveling between a taxpayer's residence and place of work be determined without regard to Revenue Ruling 76–453 or any other regulation, ruling or decision reaching the same or similar result, and with full regard to the rules in effect before that Revenue Ruling, and ceased to have effect on the day after Nov. 8, 1978 pursuant to section 210(a) of that Act.

1 So in original. Probably should be followed by a comma.

2 See References in Text note below.

§63. Taxable income defined

(a) In general

Except as provided in subsection (b), for purposes of this subtitle, the term “taxable income” means gross income minus the deductions allowed by this chapter (other than the standard deduction).

(b) Individuals who do not itemize their deductions

In the case of an individual who does not elect to itemize his deductions for the taxable year, for purposes of this subtitle, the term “taxable income” means adjusted gross income, minus—

(1) the standard deduction, and

(2) the deduction for personal exemptions provided in section 151.

(c) Standard deduction

For purposes of this subtitle—

(1) In general

Except as otherwise provided in this subsection, the term “standard deduction” means the sum of—

(A) the basic standard deduction,

(B) the additional standard deduction,

(C) in the case of any taxable year beginning in 2008 or 2009, the real property tax deduction,

(D) the disaster loss deduction, and

(E) the motor vehicle sales tax deduction.

(2) Basic standard deduction

For purposes of paragraph (1), the basic standard deduction is—

(A) 200 percent of the dollar amount in effect under subparagraph (C) for the taxable year in the case of—

(i) a joint return, or

(ii) a surviving spouse (as defined in section 2(a)),


(B) $4,400 in the case of a head of household (as defined in section 2(b)), or

(C) $3,000 in any other case.

(3) Additional standard deduction for aged and blind

For purposes of paragraph (1), the additional standard deduction is the sum of each additional amount to which the taxpayer is entitled under subsection (f).

(4) Adjustments for inflation

In the case of any taxable year beginning in a calendar year after 1988, each dollar amount contained in paragraph (2)(B), (2)(C), or (5) or subsection (f) shall be increased by an amount equal to—

(A) such dollar amount, multiplied by

(B) the cost-of-living adjustment determined under section 1(f)(3) for the calendar year in which the taxable year begins, by substituting for “calendar year 1992” in subparagraph (B) thereof—

(i) “calendar year 1987” in the case of the dollar amounts contained in paragraph (2)(B), (2)(C), or (5)(A) or subsection (f), and

(ii) “calendar year 1997” in the case of the dollar amount contained in paragraph (5)(B).

(5) Limitation on basic standard deduction in the case of certain dependents

In the case of an individual with respect to whom a deduction under section 151 is allowable to another taxpayer for a taxable year beginning in the calendar year in which the individual's taxable year begins, the basic standard deduction applicable to such individual for such individual's taxable year shall not exceed the greater of—

(A) $500, or

(B) the sum of $250 and such individual's earned income.

(6) Certain individuals, etc., not eligible for standard deduction

In the case of—

(A) a married individual filing a separate return where either spouse itemizes deductions,

(B) a nonresident alien individual,

(C) an individual making a return under section 443(a)(1) for a period of less than 12 months on account of a change in his annual accounting period, or

(D) an estate or trust, common trust fund, or partnership,


the standard deduction shall be zero.

(7) Real property tax deduction

For purposes of paragraph (1), the real property tax deduction is the lesser of—

(A) the amount allowable as a deduction under this chapter for State and local taxes described in section 164(a)(1), or

(B) $500 ($1,000 in the case of a joint return).


Any taxes taken into account under section 62(a) shall not be taken into account under this paragraph.

(8) Disaster loss deduction

For the purposes of paragraph (1), the term “disaster loss deduction” means the net disaster loss (as defined in section 165(h)(3)(B)).

(9) Motor vehicle sales tax deduction

For purposes of paragraph (1), the term “motor vehicle sales tax deduction” means the amount allowable as a deduction under section 164(a)(6). Such term shall not include any amount taken into account under section 62(a).

(d) Itemized deductions

For purposes of this subtitle, the term “itemized deductions” means the deductions allowable under this chapter other than—

(1) the deductions allowable in arriving at adjusted gross income, and

(2) the deduction for personal exemptions provided by section 151.

(e) Election to itemize

(1) In general

Unless an individual makes an election under this subsection for the taxable year, no itemized deduction shall be allowed for the taxable year. For purposes of this subtitle, the determination of whether a deduction is allowable under this chapter shall be made without regard to the preceding sentence.

(2) Time and manner of election

Any election under this subsection shall be made on the taxpayer's return, and the Secretary shall prescribe the manner of signifying such election on the return.

(3) Change of election

Under regulations prescribed by the Secretary, a change of election with respect to itemized deductions for any taxable year may be made after the filing of the return for such year. If the spouse of the taxpayer filed a separate return for any taxable year corresponding to the taxable year of the taxpayer, the change shall not be allowed unless, in accordance with such regulations—

(A) the spouse makes a change of election with respect to itemized deductions, for the taxable year covered in such separate return, consistent with the change of treatment sought by the taxpayer, and

(B) the taxpayer and his spouse consent in writing to the assessment (within such period as may be agreed on with the Secretary) of any deficiency, to the extent attributable to such change of election, even though at the time of the filing of such consent the assessment of such deficiency would otherwise be prevented by the operation of any law or rule of law.


This paragraph shall not apply if the tax liability of the taxpayer's spouse for the taxable year corresponding to the taxable year of the taxpayer has been compromised under section 7122.

(f) Aged or blind additional amounts

(1) Additional amounts for the aged

The taxpayer shall be entitled to an additional amount of $600—

(A) for himself if he has attained age 65 before the close of his taxable year, and

(B) for the spouse of the taxpayer if the spouse has attained age 65 before the close of the taxable year and an additional exemption is allowable to the taxpayer for such spouse under section 151(b).

(2) Additional amount for blind

The taxpayer shall be entitled to an additional amount of $600—

(A) for himself if he is blind at the close of the taxable year, and

(B) for the spouse of the taxpayer if the spouse is blind as of the close of the taxable year and an additional exemption is allowable to the taxpayer for such spouse under section 151(b).


For purposes of subparagraph (B), if the spouse dies during the taxable year the determination of whether such spouse is blind shall be made as of the time of such death.

(3) Higher amount for certain unmarried individuals

In the case of an individual who is not married and is not a surviving spouse, paragraphs (1) and (2) shall be applied by substituting “$750” for “$600”.

(4) Blindness defined

For purposes of this subsection, an individual is blind only if his central visual acuity does not exceed 20/200 in the better eye with correcting lenses, or if his visual acuity is greater than 20/200 but is accompanied by a limitation in the fields of vision such that the widest diameter of the visual field subtends an angle no greater than 20 degrees.

(g) Marital status

For purposes of this section, marital status shall be determined under section 7703.

(Aug. 16, 1954, ch. 736, 68A Stat. 18; Pub. L. 95–30, title I, §102(a), May 23, 1977, 91 Stat. 135; Pub. L. 95–600, title I, §101(b), Nov. 6, 1978, 92 Stat. 2769; Pub. L. 97–34, title I, §§104(b), 111(b)(4), 121(b), (c)(2), Aug. 13, 1981, 95 Stat. 189, 194, 196, 197; Pub. L. 99–514, title I, §102(a), title XII, §1272(d)(6), Oct. 22, 1986, 100 Stat. 2099, 2594; Pub. L. 100–647, title I, §1001(b)(1), Nov. 10, 1988, 102 Stat. 3349; Pub. L. 101–508, title XI, §§11101(d)(1)(D), 11801(a)(4), Nov. 5, 1990, 104 Stat. 1388–405, 1388–520; Pub. L. 103–66, title XIII, §13201(b)(3)(D), Aug. 10, 1993, 107 Stat. 459; Pub. L. 105–34, title XII, §1201(a), Aug. 5, 1997, 111 Stat. 993; Pub. L. 107–16, title III, §301(a), (b), (c)(2), June 7, 2001, 115 Stat. 53, 54; Pub. L. 107–147, title IV, §411(e), Mar. 9, 2002, 116 Stat. 46; Pub. L. 108–27, title I, §103(a), May 28, 2003, 117 Stat. 754; Pub. L. 108–311, title I, §101(b), Oct. 4, 2004, 118 Stat. 1167; Pub. L. 110–289, div. C, title I, §3012(a), (b), July 30, 2008, 122 Stat. 2891, 2892; Pub. L. 110–343, div. C, title II, §204(a), title VII, §706(b)(1), (2), Oct. 3, 2008, 122 Stat. 3865, 3922; Pub. L. 111–5, div. B, title I, §1008(c), Feb. 17, 2009, 123 Stat. 318.)

Inflation Adjusted Items for Certain Years

For inflation adjustment of certain items in this section, see Revenue Procedures listed in a table under section 1 of this title.

Amendment of Section

For termination of amendment by section 105 of Pub. L. 108–311, see Effective and Termination Dates of 2004 Amendment note below.

For termination of amendment by section 107 of Pub. L. 108–27, see Effective and Termination Dates of 2003 Amendment note below.

For termination of amendment by section 901 of Pub. L. 107–16, see Effective and Termination Dates of 2001 Amendment note below.

Amendments

2009—Subsec. (c)(1)(E). Pub. L. 111–5, §1008(c)(1), added subpar. (E).

Subsec. (c)(9). Pub. L. 111–5, §1008(c)(2), added par. (9).

2008—Subsec. (c)(1)(C). Pub. L. 110–343, §204(a), inserted “or 2009” after “2008”.

Pub. L. 110–289, §3012(a), added subpar. (C).

Subsec. (c)(1)(D). Pub. L. 110–343, §706(b)(1), added subpar. (D).

Subsec. (c)(7). Pub. L. 110–289, §3012(b), added par. (7).

Subsec. (c)(8). Pub. L. 110–343, §706(b)(2), added par. (8).

2004—Subsec. (c)(2). Pub. L. 108–311, §§101(b)(1), 105, temporarily reenacted heading without change and amended text generally, substituting provisions relating to a specific percentage for provisions relating to applicable percentage in subpar. (A), redesignating subpar. (D) as (C), and deleting former subpar. (C) relating to married individuals filing separately. See Effective and Termination Dates of 2004 Amendment note below.

Subsec. (c)(4). Pub. L. 108–311, §§101(b)(2)(A), 105, temporarily substituted “(2)(C)” for “(2)(D)” in introductory provisions and in subpar. (B)(i). See Effective and Termination Dates of 2004 Amendment note below.

Subsec. (c)(7). Pub. L. 108–311, §§101(b)(2)(B), 105, temporarily struck out par. (7) which related to applicable percentage for purposes of par. (2). See Effective and Termination Dates of 2004 Amendment note below.

2003—Subsec. (c)(7). Pub. L. 108–27, §§103(a), 107, temporarily inserted table item relating to years 2003 and 2004. See Effective and Termination Dates of 2003 Amendment note below.

2002—Subsec. (c)(2). Pub. L. 107–147, §411(e)(1)(E), inserted “If any amount determined under subparagraph (A) is not a multiple of $50, such amount shall be rounded to the next lowest multiple of $50.” at end.

Subsec. (c)(2)(A). Pub. L. 107–147, §411(e)(1)(A), substituted “subparagraph (D)” for “subparagraph (C)”.

Subsec. (c)(2)(B). Pub. L. 107–147, §411(e)(1)(B), struck out “or” at end.

Subsec. (c)(2)(C), (D). Pub. L. 107–147, §411(e)(1)(C), (D), added subpar. (C) and redesignated former subpar. (C) as (D).

Subsec. (c)(4). Pub. L. 107–147, §411(e)(2)(C), which directed amendment by striking out the flush sentence at the end added by section 301(c)(2) of Public Law 107–17, was executed by striking out “The preceding sentence shall not apply to the amount referred to in paragraph (2)(A).”, which was inserted by section 301(c)(2) of Pub. L. 107–16, to reflect the probable intent of Congress. See 2001 Amendment note below.

Pub. L. 107–147, §411(e)(2)(A), substituted “paragraph (2)(B), (2)(D), or (5)” for “paragraph (2) or (5)” in introductory provisions.

Subsec. (c)(4)(B)(i). Pub. L. 107–147, §411(e)(2)(B), substituted “paragraph (2)(B), (2)(D),” for “paragraph (2)”.

2001—Subsec. (c)(2)(A). Pub. L. 107–16, §§301(a)(1), 901, temporarily substituted “the applicable percentage of the dollar amount in effect under subparagraph (C) for the taxable year” for “$5,000”. See Effective and Termination Dates of 2001 Amendment note below.

Subsec. (c)(2)(B). Pub. L. 107–16, §§301(a)(2), 901, temporarily inserted “or” at end. See Effective and Termination Dates of 2001 Amendment note below.

Subsec. (c)(2)(C). Pub. L. 107–16, §§301(a)(3), 901, temporarily substituted “in any other case.” for “in the case of an individual who is not married and who is not a surviving spouse or head of household, or”. See Effective and Termination Dates of 2001 Amendment note below.

Subsec. (c)(2)(D). Pub. L. 107–16, §§301(a)(4), 901, temporarily struck out subpar. (D) which read as follows: “$2,500 in the case of a married individual filing a separate return.” See Effective and Termination Dates of 2001 Amendment note below.

Subsec. (c)(4). Pub. L. 107–16, §§301(c)(2), 901, temporarily inserted at end “The preceding sentence shall not apply to the amount referred to in paragraph (2)(A).” See Effective and Termination Dates of 2001 Amendment note below.

Subsec. (c)(7). Pub. L. 107–16, §§301(b), 901, temporarily added par. (7). See Effective and Termination Dates of 2001 Amendment note below.

1997—Subsec. (c)(4). Pub. L. 105–34, §1201(a)(2), in introductory provisions, substituted “(5)” for “(5)(A)” and, in subpar. (B), substituted “by substituting for ‘calendar year 1992’ in subparagraph (B) thereof—” for “by substituting ‘calendar year 1987’ for ‘calendar year 1992’ in subparagraph (B) thereof” and added cls. (i) and (ii).

Subsec. (c)(5)(B). Pub. L. 105–34, §1201(a)(1), substituted “the sum of $250 and such individual's earned income” for “such individual's earned income”.

1993—Subsec. (c)(4)(B). Pub. L. 103–66 substituted “1992” for “1989”.

1990—Subsec. (c)(4)(B). Pub. L. 101–508, §11101(d)(1)(D), inserted before period at end “, by substituting ‘calendar year 1987’ for ‘calendar year 1989’ in subparagraph (B) thereof”.

Subsec. (h). Pub. L. 101–508, §11801(a)(4), struck out subsec. (h) “Transitional rule for taxable years beginning in 1987” which read as follows: “In the case of any taxable year beginning in 1987, paragraph (2) of subsection (c) shall be applied—

“(1) by substituting ‘$3,760’ for ‘$5,000’,

“(2) by substituting ‘$2,540’ for ‘$4,400’,

“(3) by substituting ‘$2,540’ for ‘$3,000’, and

“(4) by substituting ‘$1,880’ for ‘$2,500’.

The preceding sentence shall not apply if the taxpayer is entitled to an additional amount determined under subsection (f) (relating to additional amount for aged and blind) for the taxable year.”

1988—Subsec. (c)(5). Pub. L. 100–647 substituted “basic standard deduction” for “standard deduction” in heading and text.

1986—Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 99–514, §102(a), substituted “In general” for “Corporations” in heading and amended text generally. Prior to amendment, text read as follows: “For purposes of this subtitle, in the case of a corporation, the term ‘taxable income’ means gross income minus the deductions allowed by this chapter.”

Subsec. (b). Pub. L. 99–514, §102(a), substituted “Individuals who do not itemize their deductions” for “Individuals” in heading and amended text generally. Prior to amendment, text read as follows: “For purposes of this subtitle, in the case of an individual, the term ‘taxable income’ means adjusted gross income—

“(1) reduced by the sum of—

“(A) the excess itemized deductions,

“(B) the deductions for personal exemptions provided by section 151, and

“(C) the direct charitable deduction, and

“(2) increased (in the case of an individual for whom an unused zero bracket amount computation is provided by subsection (e)) by the unused zero bracket amount (if any).”

Subsec. (c). Pub. L. 99–514, §102(a), substituted “Standard deduction” for “Excess itemized deductions” in heading and amended text generally. Prior to amendment, text read as follows: “For purposes of this subtitle, the term ‘excess itemized deductions’ means the excess (if any) of—

“(1) the itemized deductions, over

“(2) the zero bracket amount.”

Subsec. (c)(6)(C) to (E). Pub. L. 99–514, §1272(d)(6), redesignated subpars. (D) and (E) as (C) and (D), respectively, and struck out former subpar. (C) which read as follows: “a citizen of the United States entitled to the benefits of section 931 (relating to income from sources within possessions of the United States),”.

Subsec. (d). Pub. L. 99–514, §102(a), substituted “Itemized deductions” for “Zero bracket amount” in heading and amended text generally. Prior to amendment, subsec. (d) read as follows: “For purposes of this subtitle, the term ‘zero bracket amount’ means—

“(1) in the case of an individual to whom subsection (a), (b), (c), or (d) of section 1 applies, the maximum amount of taxable income on which no tax is imposed by the applicable subsection of section 1, or

“(2) zero in any other case.”

Subsec. (e). Pub. L. 99–514, §102(a), substituted “Election to itemize” for “Unused zero bracket amount” in heading.

Subsec. (e)(1). Pub. L. 99–514, §102(a), substituted “In general” for “Individuals for whom computation must be made” in heading and amended text generally. Prior to amendment, text read as follows: “A computation for the taxable year shall be made under this subsection for the following individuals:

“(A) a married individual filing a separate return where either spouse itemized deductions,

“(B) a nonresident alien individual,

“(C) a citizen of the United States entitled to the benefits of section 931 (relating to income from sources within possessions of the United States), and

“(D) an individual with respect to whom a deduction under section 151(e) is allowable to another taxpayer for a taxable year beginning in the calendar year in which the individual's taxable year begins.”

Subsec. (e)(2). Pub. L. 99–514, §102(a), substituted “Time and manner of election” for “Computation” in heading and amended text generally. Prior to amendment, text read as follows: “For purposes of this subtitle, an individual's unused zero bracket amount for the taxable year is an amount equal to the excess (if any) of—

“(A) the zero bracket amount, over

“(B) the itemized deductions.

In the case of an individual referred to in paragraph (1)(D), if such individual's earned income (as defined in section 911(d)(2)) exceeds the itemized deductions, such earned income shall be substituted for the itemized deductions in subparagraph (B).”

Subsec. (e)(3). Pub. L. 99–514, §102(a), in amending subsec. (e) generally, added par. (3).

Subsec. (f). Pub. L. 99–514, §102(a), substituted “Aged or blind additional amounts” for “Itemized deductions” in heading and amended text generally. Prior to amendment, text read as follows: “For purposes of this subtitle, the term ‘itemized deductions’ means the deductions allowable by this chapter other than—

“(1) the deductions allowable in arriving at adjusted gross income,

“(2) the deductions for personal exemptions provided by section 151, and

“(3) the direct charitable deduction.”

Subsec. (g). Pub. L. 99–514, §102(a), amended subsec. (g) generally, substituting provision that marital status be determined under section 7703 for provisions relating to election to itemize. See subsec. (e).

Subsec. (h). Pub. L. 99–514, §102(a), substituted “Transitional rule for taxable years beginning in 1987” for “Marital status” in heading and amended text generally. Prior to amendment, text read as follows: “For purposes of this section, marital status shall be determined under section 143.”

Subsec. (i). Pub. L. 99–514, §102(a), in amending section generally, struck out subsec. (i), “Direct charitable deduction”, which read as follows: “For purposes of this section, the term ‘direct charitable deduction’ means that portion of the amount allowable under section 170(a) which is taken as a direct charitable deduction for the taxable year under section 170(i).”

1981—Subsec. (b)(1)(C). Pub. L. 97–34, §121(b)(1), added subpar. (C).

Subsec. (d). Pub. L. 97–34, §104(b), substituted a blanket reference to individuals to whom subsection (a), (b), (c), or (d) of section 1 applies and the maximum amount of taxable income on which no tax is imposed by the applicable subsection of section 1 for provisions specifically referring to amounts of $3,400 in the case of (A) a joint return under section 6013, or (B) a surviving spouse (as defined in section 2(a)), $2,300 in the case of an individual who is not married and who is not a surviving spouse (as so defined), and $1,700 in the case of a married individual filing a separate return.

Subsec. (e)(2). Pub. L. 97–34, §111(b)(4), substituted “section 911(d)(2)” for “section 911(b)” in provisions following subpar. (B).

Subsec. (f)(3). Pub. L. 97–34, §121(c)(2), added par. (3).

Subsec. (i). Pub. L. 97–34, §121(b)(2), added subsec. (i).

1978—Pub. L. 95–600 substituted “$3,400” for “$3,200” in par. (1), “$2,300” for “$2,200” in par. (2), and “$1,700” for “$1,600” in par. (3).

1977—Pub. L. 95–30 completely revised definition of taxable income from one using the concept of a standard deduction and consisting of subsecs. (a) and (b) entitled, respectively, “General rule” and “Individuals electing standard deduction” to definition using the concepts of zero bracket amounts and excess itemized deductions and consisting of subsecs. (a) to (h) entitled, respectively, “Corporations”, “Individuals”, “Excess itemized deductions”, “Zero bracket amount”, “Unused zero bracket amount”, “Itemized deductions”, “Election to itemize”, and “Marital status”.

Effective Date of 2009 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 111–5 applicable to purchases on or after Feb. 17, 2009, in taxable years ending after such date, see section 1008(e) of Pub. L. 111–5, set out as a note under section 56 of this title.

Effective Date of 2008 Amendment

Pub. L. 110–343, div. C, title II, §204(b), Oct. 3, 2008, 122 Stat. 3865, provided that: “The amendment made by this section [amending this section] shall apply to taxable years beginning after December 31, 2008.”

Amendment by section 706(b)(1), (2) of Pub. L. 110–343 applicable to disasters declared in taxable years beginning after Dec. 31, 2007, see section 706(d)(1) of Pub. L. 110–343, set out as a note under section 56 of this title.

Pub. L. 110–289, div. C, title I, §3012(c), July 30, 2008, 122 Stat. 2892, provided that: “The amendments made by this section [amending this section] shall apply to taxable years beginning after December 31, 2007.”

Effective and Termination Dates of 2004 Amendment

Amendment by section 101(b) of Pub. L. 108–311 applicable to taxable years beginning after Dec. 31, 2003, see section 101(e) of Pub. L. 108–311, set out as a note under section 1 of this title.

Amendment by section 101(b) of Pub. L. 108–311 subject to title IX of the Economic Growth and Tax Relief Reconciliation Act of 2001, Pub. L. 107–16, §901, to the same extent and in the same manner as the provisions of such Act to which such amendments relate, see section 105 of Pub. L. 108–311, set out as a note under section 1 of this title.

Effective and Termination Dates of 2003 Amendment

Pub. L. 108–27, title I, §103(c), May 28, 2003, 117 Stat. 754, provided that: “The amendments made by this section [amending this section and provisions set out as an Effective and Termination Dates of 2001 Amendment note under section 1 of this title] shall apply to taxable years beginning after December 31, 2002.”

Amendments by title I of Pub. L. 108–27 subject to title IX of the Economic Growth and Tax Relief Reconciliation Act of 2001, Pub. L. 107–16, §901, to the same extent and in the same manner as the provisions of such Act to which such amendments relate, see section 107 of Pub. L. 108–27, set out as a note under section 1 of this title.

Effective Date of 2002 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 107–147 effective as if included in the provisions of the Economic Growth and Tax Relief Reconciliation Act of 2001, Pub. L. 107–16, to which such amendment relates, see section 411(x) of Pub. L. 107–147, set out as a note under section 25B of this title.

Effective and Termination Dates of 2001 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 107–16 applicable to taxable years beginning after Dec. 31, 2002, see section 301(d) of Pub. L. 107–16, as amended, set out as a note under section 1 of this title.

Amendment by Pub. L. 107–16 inapplicable to taxable, plan, or limitation years beginning after Dec. 31, 2012, and the Internal Revenue Code of 1986 to be applied and administered to such years as if such amendment had never been enacted, see section 901 of Pub. L. 107–16, set out as a note under section 1 of this title.

Effective Date of 1997 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 105–34 applicable to taxable years beginning after Dec. 31, 1997, see section 1201(c) of Pub. L. 105–34, set out as a note under section 59 of this title.

Effective Date of 1993 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 103–66 applicable to taxable years beginning after Dec. 31, 1992, see section 13201(c) of Pub. L. 103–66, set out as a note under section 1 of this title.

Effective Date of 1990 Amendment

Amendment by section 11101(d)(1)(D) of Pub. L. 101–508 applicable to taxable years beginning after Dec. 31, 1990, see section 11101(e) of Pub. L. 101–508, set out as a note under section 1 of this title.

Effective Date of 1988 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 100–647 effective, except as otherwise provided, as if included in the provision of the Tax Reform Act of 1986, Pub. L. 99–514, to which such amendment relates, see section 1019(a) of Pub. L. 100–647, set out as a note under section 1 of this title.

Effective Date of 1986 Amendment

Amendment by section 102(a) of Pub. L. 99–514 applicable to taxable years beginning after Dec. 31, 1986, see section 151(a) of Pub. L. 99–514, set out as a note under section 1 of this title.

Amendment by section 1272(d)(6) of Pub. L. 99–514 applicable to taxable years beginning after Dec. 31, 1986, with certain exceptions and qualifications, see section 1277 of Pub. L. 99–514, set out as a note under section 931 of this title.

Effective Date of 1981 Amendment

Amendment by section 104(b) of Pub. L. 97–34 applicable to taxable years beginning after Dec. 31, 1984, see section 104(e) of Pub. L. 97–34, set out as a note under section 1 of this title.

Amendment by section 111(b)(4) of Pub. L. 97–34 applicable with respect to taxable years beginning after Dec. 31, 1981, see section 115 of Pub. L. 97–34, set out as a note under section 911 of this title.

Amendment by section 121(b), (c)(2) of Pub. L. 97–34 applicable to contributions made after Dec. 31, 1981, in taxable years beginning after such date, see section 121(d) of Pub. L. 97–34, set out as a note under section 170 of this title.

Effective Date of 1978 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 95–600 effective with respect to taxable years beginning after Dec. 31, 1978, see section 101(f)(1) of Pub. L. 95–600, set out as a note under section 1 of this title.

Effective Date of 1977 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 95–30 applicable to taxable years beginning after Dec. 31, 1976, see section 106(a) of Pub. L. 95–30, set out as a note under section 1 of this title.

Savings Provision

For provisions that nothing in amendment by section 11801 of Pub. L. 101–508 be construed to affect treatment of certain transactions occurring, property acquired, or items of income, loss, deduction, or credit taken into account prior to Nov. 5, 1990, for purposes of determining liability for tax for periods ending after Nov. 5, 1990, see section 11821(b) of Pub. L. 101–508, set out as a note under section 45K of this title.

§64. Ordinary income defined

For purposes of this subtitle, the term “ordinary income” includes any gain from the sale or exchange of property which is neither a capital asset nor property described in section 1231(b). Any gain from the sale or exchange of property which is treated or considered, under other provisions of this subtitle, as “ordinary income” shall be treated as gain from the sale or exchange of property which is neither a capital asset nor property described in section 1231(b).

(Added Pub. L. 94–455, title XIX, §1901(a)(10), Oct. 4, 1976, 90 Stat. 1765.)

§65. Ordinary loss defined

For purposes of this subtitle, the term “ordinary loss” includes any loss from the sale or exchange of property which is not a capital asset. Any loss from the sale or exchange of property which is treated or considered, under other provisions of this subtitle, as “ordinary loss” shall be treated as loss from the sale or exchange of property which is not a capital asset.

(Added Pub. L. 94–455, title XIX, §1901(a)(11), Oct. 4, 1976, 90 Stat. 1765.)

§66. Treatment of community income

(a) Treatment of community income where spouses live apart

If—

(1) 2 individuals are married to each other at any time during a calendar year;

(2) such individuals—

(A) live apart at all times during the calendar year, and

(B) do not file a joint return under section 6013 with each other for a taxable year beginning or ending in the calendar year;


(3) one or both of such individuals have earned income for the calendar year which is community income; and

(4) no portion of such earned income is transferred (directly or indirectly) between such individuals before the close of the calendar year,


then, for purposes of this title, any community income of such individuals for the calendar year shall be treated in accordance with the rules provided by section 879(a).

(b) Secretary may disregard community property laws where spouse not notified of community income

The Secretary may disallow the benefits of any community property law to any taxpayer with respect to any income if such taxpayer acted as if solely entitled to such income and failed to notify the taxpayer's spouse before the due date (including extensions) for filing the return for the taxable year in which the income was derived of the nature and amount of such income.

(c) Spouse relieved of liability in certain other cases

Under regulations prescribed by the Secretary, if—

(1) an individual does not file a joint return for any taxable year,

(2) such individual does not include in gross income for such taxable year an item of community income properly includible therein which, in accordance with the rules contained in section 879(a), would be treated as the income of the other spouse,

(3) the individual establishes that he or she did not know of, and had no reason to know of, such item of community income, and

(4) taking into account all facts and circumstances, it is inequitable to include such item of community income in such individual's gross income,


then, for purposes of this title, such item of community income shall be included in the gross income of the other spouse (and not in the gross income of the individual). Under procedures prescribed by the Secretary, if, taking into account all the facts and circumstances, it is inequitable to hold the individual liable for any unpaid tax or any deficiency (or any portion of either) attributable to any item for which relief is not available under the preceding sentence, the Secretary may relieve such individual of such liability.

(d) Definitions

For purposes of this section—

(1) Earned income

The term “earned income” has the meaning given to such term by section 911(d)(2).

(2) Community income

The term “community income” means income which, under applicable community property laws, is treated as community income.

(3) Community property laws

The term “community property laws” means the community property laws of a State, a foreign country, or a possession of the United States.

(Added Pub. L. 96–605, title I, §101(a), Dec. 28, 1980, 94 Stat. 3521; amended Pub. L. 98–369, div. A, title IV, §424(b)(1)–(2)(B), July 18, 1984, 98 Stat. 802, 803; Pub. L. 101–239, title VII, §7841(d)(8), Dec. 19, 1989, 103 Stat. 2428; Pub. L. 105–206, title III, §3201(b), July 22, 1998, 112 Stat. 739.)

Amendments

1998—Subsec. (c). Pub. L. 105–206 inserted at end “Under procedures prescribed by the Secretary, if, taking into account all the facts and circumstances, it is inequitable to hold the individual liable for any unpaid tax or any deficiency (or any portion of either) attributable to any item for which relief is not available under the preceding sentence, the Secretary may relieve such individual of such liability.”

1989—Subsec. (d)(1). Pub. L. 101–239 substituted “section 911(d)(2)” for “section 911(b)”.

1984—Pub. L. 98–369, §424(b)(2)(A), struck out “where spouses live apart” in section catchline.

Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 98–369, §424(b)(2)(B), substituted “Treatment of community income where spouses live apart” for “General rule” in heading.

Subsecs. (b) to (d). Pub. L. 98–369, §424(b)(1), added subsecs. (b) and (c) and redesignated former subsec. (b) as (d).

Effective Date of 1998 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 105–206 applicable to any liability for tax arising after July 22, 1998, and any liability for tax arising on or before such date but remaining unpaid as of such date, see section 3201(g)(1) of Pub. L. 105–206, set out as a note under section 6015 of this title.

Effective Date of 1984 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 98–369 applicable to all taxable years to which the Internal Revenue Code of 1986 [formerly I.R.C. 1954] applies with corresponding provisions deemed to be included in the Internal Revenue Code of 1939 and applicable to all taxable years to which such Code applies, except subsection (b) of this section is applicable to taxable years beginning after December 31, 1984, see section 424(c) of Pub. L. 98–369, set out as a note under section 6013 of this title.

Effective Date

Section 101(c) of Pub. L. 96–605 provided that: “The amendments made by this section [enacting this section] shall apply to calendar years beginning after December 31, 1980.”

§67. 2-percent floor on miscellaneous itemized deductions

(a) General rule

In the case of an individual, the miscellaneous itemized deductions for any taxable year shall be allowed only to the extent that the aggregate of such deductions exceeds 2 percent of adjusted gross income.

(b) Miscellaneous itemized deductions

For purposes of this section, the term “miscellaneous itemized deductions” means the itemized deductions other than—

(1) the deduction under section 163 (relating to interest),

(2) the deduction under section 164 (relating to taxes),

(3) the deduction under section 165(a) for casualty or theft losses described in paragraph (2) or (3) of section 165(c) or for losses described in section 165(d),

(4) the deductions under section 170 (relating to charitable, etc., contributions and gifts) and section 642(c) (relating to deduction for amounts paid or permanently set aside for a charitable purpose),

(5) the deduction under section 213 (relating to medical, dental, etc., expenses),

(6) any deduction allowable for impairment-related work expenses,

(7) the deduction under section 691(c) (relating to deduction for estate tax in case of income in respect of the decedent),

(8) any deduction allowable in connection with personal property used in a short sale,

(9) the deduction under section 1341 (relating to computation of tax where taxpayer restores substantial amount held under claim of right),

(10) the deduction under section 72(b)(3) (relating to deduction where annuity payments cease before investment recovered),

(11) the deduction under section 171 (relating to deduction for amortizable bond premium), and

(12) the deduction under section 216 (relating to deductions in connection with cooperative housing corporations).

(c) Disallowance of indirect deduction through pass-thru entity

(1) In general

The Secretary shall prescribe regulations which prohibit the indirect deduction through pass-thru entities of amounts which are not allowable as a deduction if paid or incurred directly by an individual and which contain such reporting requirements as may be necessary to carry out the purposes of this subsection.

(2) Treatment of publicly offered regulated investment companies

(A) In general

Paragraph (1) shall not apply with respect to any publicly offered regulated investment company.

(B) Publicly offered regulated investment companies

For purposes of this subsection—

(i) In general

The term “publicly offered regulated investment company” means a regulated investment company the shares of which are—

(I) continuously offered pursuant to a public offering (within the meaning of section 4 of the Securities Act of 1933, as amended (15 U.S.C. 77a to 77aa)),

(II) regularly traded on an established securities market, or

(III) held by or for no fewer than 500 persons at all times during the taxable year.

(ii) Secretary may reduce 500 person requirement

The Secretary may by regulation decrease the minimum shareholder requirement of clause (i)(III) in the case of regulated investment companies which experience a loss of shareholders through net redemptions of their shares.

(3) Treatment of certain other entities

Paragraph (1) shall not apply—

(A) with respect to cooperatives and real estate investment trusts, and

(B) except as provided in regulations, with respect to estates and trusts.

(d) Impairment-related work expenses

For purposes of this section, the term “impairment-related work expenses” means expenses—

(1) of a handicapped individual (as defined in section 190(b)(3)) for attendant care services at the individual's place of employment and other expenses in connection with such place of employment which are necessary for such individual to be able to work, and

(2) with respect to which a deduction is allowable under section 162 (determined without regard to this section).

(e) Determination of adjusted gross income in case of estates and trusts

For purposes of this section, the adjusted gross income of an estate or trust shall be computed in the same manner as in the case of an individual, except that—

(1) the deductions for costs which are paid or incurred in connection with the administration of the estate or trust and which would not have been incurred if the property were not held in such trust or estate, and

(2) the deductions allowable under sections 642(b), 651, and 661,


shall be treated as allowable in arriving at adjusted gross income. Under regulations, appropriate adjustments shall be made in the application of part I of subchapter J of this chapter to take into account the provisions of this section.

(f) Coordination with other limitation

This section shall be applied before the application of the dollar limitation of the second sentence of section 162(a) (relating to trade or business expenses).

(Added Pub. L. 99–514, title I, §132(a), Oct. 22, 1986, 100 Stat. 2113; amended Pub. L. 100–647, title I, §1001(f), title IV, §4011(a), Nov. 10, 1988, 102 Stat. 3351, 3655; Pub. L. 101–239, title VII, §7814(f), Dec. 19, 1989, 103 Stat. 2414; Pub. L. 103–66, title XIII, §13213(c)(2), Aug. 10, 1993, 107 Stat. 474; Pub. L. 105–277, div. J, title IV, §4004(b)(1), Oct. 21, 1998, 112 Stat. 2681–910; Pub. L. 106–554, §1(a)(7) [title III, §319(2)], Dec. 21, 2000, 114 Stat. 2763, 2763A–646.)

References in Text

Section 4 of the Securities Act of 1933, referred to in subsec. (c)(2)(B)(i)(I), is classified to section 77d of Title 15, Commerce and Trade.

Amendments

2000—Subsec. (f). Pub. L. 106–554 substituted “the second sentence” for “the last sentence”.

1998—Subsec. (b)(3). Pub. L. 105–277 substituted “for casualty or theft losses described in paragraph (2) or (3) of section 165(c) or for losses described in section 165(d)” for “for losses described in subsection (c)(3) or (d) of section 165”.

1993—Subsec. (b)(6) to (13). Pub. L. 103–66 redesignated pars. (7) to (13) as (6) to (12), respectively, and struck out former par. (6) which read as follows: “the deduction under section 217 (relating to moving expenses),”.

1989—Subsec. (c)(4). Pub. L. 101–239 struck out par. (4) which read as follows: “Termination.—This subsection shall not apply to any taxable year beginning after December 31, 1989.”

1988—Subsec. (b)(4). Pub. L. 100–647, §1001(f)(2), substituted “deductions” for “deduction” and inserted before comma at end “and section 642(c) (relating to deduction for amounts paid or permanently set aside for a charitable purpose)”.

Subsec. (c). Pub. L. 100–647, §4011(a), amended subsec. (c) generally. Prior to amendment subsec. (c) read as follows: “The Secretary shall prescribe regulations which prohibit the indirect deduction through pass-thru entities of amounts which are not allowable as a deduction if paid or incurred directly by an individual and which contain such reporting requirements as may be necessary to carry out the purposes of this subsection. The preceding sentence shall not apply—

“(1) with respect to cooperatives and real estate investment trusts, and

“(2) except as provided in regulations, with respect to estates and trusts.”

Pub. L. 100–647, §1001(f)(4), amended last sentence generally. Prior to amendment, last sentence read as follows: “The preceding sentence shall not apply with respect to estates, trusts, cooperatives, and real estate investment trusts.”

Subsec. (e). Pub. L. 100–647, §1001(f)(3), amended subsec. (e) generally. Prior to amendment, subsec. (e) read as follows: “For purposes of this section, the adjusted gross income of an estate or trust shall be computed in the same manner as in the case of an individual, except that the deductions for costs which are paid or incurred in connection with the administration of the estate or trust and would not have been incurred if the property were not held in such trust or estate shall be treated as allowable in arriving at adjusted gross income.”

Subsec. (f). Pub. L. 100–647, §1001(f)(1), added subsec. (f).

Effective Date of 1998 Amendment

Pub. L. 105–277, div. J, title IV, §4004(c)(2), Oct. 21, 1998, 112 Stat. 2681–911, provided that: “The amendment made by subsection (b)(1) [amending this section] shall apply to taxable years beginning after December 31, 1986.”

Effective Date of 1993 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 103–66 applicable to expenses incurred after Dec. 31, 1993, see section 13213(e) of Pub. L. 103–66 set out as a note under section 62 of this title.

Effective Date of 1989 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 101–239 effective, except as otherwise provided, as if included in the provision of the Technical and Miscellaneous Revenue Act of 1988, Pub. L. 100–647, to which such amendment relates, see section 7817 of Pub. L. 101–239, set out as a note under section 1 of this title.

Effective Date of 1988 Amendment

Amendment by section 1001(f) of Pub. L. 100–647 effective, except as otherwise provided, as if included in the provision of the Tax Reform Act of 1986, Pub. L. 99–514, to which such amendment relates, see section 1019(a) of Pub. L. 100–647, set out as a note under section 1 of this title.

Section 4011(b) of Pub. L. 100–647 provided that: “The amendment made by subsection (a) [amending this section] shall apply to taxable years beginning after December 31, 1987.”

Effective Date

Section applicable to taxable years beginning after Dec. 31, 1986, see section 151(a) of Pub. L. 99–514, set out as an Effective Date of 1986 Amendment note under section 1 of this title.

1-Year Delay in Treatment of Publicly Offered Regulated Investment Companies Under 2-Percent Floor

Pub. L. 100–203, title X, §10104(a), Dec. 22, 1987, 101 Stat. 1330–386, provided that:

“(1) General rule.—Section 67(c) of the Internal Revenue Code of 1986 to the extent it relates to indirect deductions through a publicly offered regulated investment company shall apply only to taxable years beginning after December 31, 1987.

“(2) Publicly offered regulated investment company defined.—For purposes of this subsection—

“(A) In general.—The term ‘publicly offered regulated investment company’ means a regulated investment company the shares of which are—

“(i) continuously offered pursuant to a public offering (within the meaning of section 4 of the Securities Act of 1933, as amended (15 U.S.C. 77a to 77aa) [15 U.S.C. 77d]),

“(ii) regularly traded on an established securities market, or

“(iii) held by or for no fewer than 500 persons at all times during the taxable year.

“(B) Secretary may reduce 500 person requirement.—The Secretary of the Treasury or his delegate may by regulation decrease the minimum shareholder requirement of subparagraph (A)(iii) in the case of regulated investment companies which experience a loss of shareholders through net redemptions of their shares.”

§68. Overall limitation on itemized deductions

(a) General rule

In the case of an individual whose adjusted gross income exceeds the applicable amount, the amount of the itemized deductions otherwise allowable for the taxable year shall be reduced by the lesser of—

(1) 3 percent of the excess of adjusted gross income over the applicable amount, or

(2) 80 percent of the amount of the itemized deductions otherwise allowable for such taxable year.

(b) Applicable amount

(1) In general

For purposes of this section, the term “applicable amount” means $100,000 ($50,000 in the case of a separate return by a married individual within the meaning of section 7703).

(2) Inflation adjustments

In the case of any taxable year beginning in a calendar year after 1991, each dollar amount contained in paragraph (1) shall be increased by an amount equal to—

(A) such dollar amount, multiplied by

(B) the cost-of-living adjustment determined under section 1(f)(3) for the calendar year in which the taxable year begins, by substituting “calendar year 1990” for “calendar year 1992” in subparagraph (B) thereof.

(c) Exception for certain itemized deductions

For purposes of this section, the term “itemized deductions” does not include—

(1) the deduction under section 213 (relating to medical, etc. expenses),

(2) any deduction for investment interest (as defined in section 163(d)), and

(3) the deduction under section 165(a) for casualty or theft losses described in paragraph (2) or (3) of section 165(c) or for losses described in section 165(d).

(d) Coordination with other limitations

This section shall be applied after the application of any other limitation on the allowance of any itemized deduction.

(e) Exception for estates and trusts

This section shall not apply to any estate or trust.

(f) Phaseout of limitation

(1) In general

In the case of taxable years beginning after December 31, 2005, and before January 1, 2010, the reduction under subsection (a) shall be equal to the applicable fraction of the amount which would (but for this subsection) be the amount of such reduction.

(2) Applicable fraction

For purposes of paragraph (1), the applicable fraction shall be determined in accordance with the following table:

 
For taxable years beginning

 in calendar year—
The applicable

 fraction is—
  2006 and 2007 2/3 
  2008 and 2009 1/3.

(g) Termination

This section shall not apply to any taxable year beginning after December 31, 2009.

(Added Pub. L. 101–508, title XI, §11103(a), Nov. 5, 1990, 104 Stat. 1388–406; amended Pub. L. 103–66, title XIII, §§13201(b)(3)(E), 13204, Aug. 10, 1993, 107 Stat. 459, 462; Pub. L. 105–277, div. J, title IV, §4004(b)(2), Oct. 21, 1998, 112 Stat. 2681–911; Pub. L. 107–16, title I, §103(a), June 7, 2001, 115 Stat. 44.)

Inflation Adjusted Items for Certain Years

For inflation adjustment of certain items in this section, see Revenue Procedures listed in a table under section 1 of this title.

Amendment of Section

For termination of amendment by section 901 of Pub. L. 107–16, see Effective and Termination Dates of 2001 Amendment note below.

Amendments

2001—Subsecs. (f), (g). Pub. L. 107—16, §§103(a), 901, temporarily added subsecs. (f) and (g). See Effective and Termination Dates of 2001 Amendment note below.

1998—Subsec. (c)(3). Pub. L. 105–277 substituted “for casualty or theft losses described in paragraph (2) or (3) of section 165(c) or for losses described in section 165(d)” for “for losses described in subsection (c)(3) or (d) of section 165”.

1993—Subsec. (b)(2)(B). Pub. L. 103–66, §13201(b)(3)(E), substituted “1992” for “1989”.

Subsec. (f). Pub. L. 103–66, §13204, struck out heading and text of subsec. (f). Text read as follows: “This section shall not apply to any taxable year beginning after December 31, 1995.”

Effective and Termination Dates of 2001 Amendment

Pub. L. 107–16, title I, §103(b), June 7, 2001, 115 Stat. 45, provided that: “The amendment made by this section [amending this section] shall apply to taxable years beginning after December 31, 2005.”

Amendment by Pub. L. 107–16 inapplicable to taxable, plan, or limitation years beginning after Dec. 31, 2012, and the Internal Revenue Code of 1986 to be applied and administered to such years as if such amendment had never been enacted, see section 901 of Pub. L. 107–16, set out as a note under section 1 of this title.

Effective Date of 1998 Amendment

Pub. L. 105–277, div. J, title IV, §4004(c)(3), Oct. 21, 1998, 112 Stat. 2681–911, provided that: “The amendment made by subsection (b)(2) [amending this section] shall apply to taxable years beginning after December 31, 1990.”

Effective Date of 1993 Amendment

Amendment by section 13201(b)(3)(E) of Pub. L. 103–66 applicable to taxable years beginning after Dec. 31, 1992, see section 13201(c) of Pub. L. 103–66, set out as a note under section 1 of this title.

Effective Date

Section applicable to taxable years beginning after Dec. 31, 1990, see section 11103(e) of Pub. L. 101–508, set out as an Effective Date of 1990 Amendment note under section 1 of this title.

PART II—ITEMS SPECIFICALLY INCLUDED IN GROSS INCOME

Sec.
71.
Alimony and separate maintenance payments.
72.
Annuities; certain proceeds of endowment and life insurance contracts.
73.
Services of child.
74.
Prizes and awards.
75.
Dealers in tax-exempt securities.
[76.
Repealed.]
77.
Commodity credit loans.
78.
Dividends received from certain foreign corporations by domestic corporations choosing foreign tax credit.
79.
Group-term life insurance purchased for employees.
80.
Restoration of value of certain securities.
[81.
Repealed.]
82.
Reimbursement of moving expenses.1
83.
Property transferred in connection with performance of services.
84.
Transfer of appreciated property to political organizations.1

        

85.
Unemployment compensation.
86.
Social security and tier 1 railroad retirement benefits.
87.
Alcohol and biodiesel fuels credits.
88.
Certain amounts with respect to nuclear decommissioning costs.
[89.
Repealed.]
90.
Illegal Federal irrigation subsidies.

        

Amendments

2004—Pub. L. 108–357, title III, §302(c)(1)(B), Oct. 22, 2004, 118 Stat. 1465, substituted “and biodiesel fuels credits” for “fuel credit” in item 87.

1989—Pub. L. 101–239, title VII, §7822(c), Dec. 19, 1989, 103 Stat. 2425, substituted “Illegal Federal irrigation” for “Federal irrigation” in item 90.

Pub. L. 101–140, title II, §202(b), Nov. 8, 1989, 103 Stat. 830, struck out item 89 “Benefits provided under certain employee benefit plans”.

1987—Pub. L. 100–203, title X, §§10201(b)(6), 10611(b), Dec. 22, 1987, 101 Stat. 1330–387, 1330–452, struck out item 81 “Increase in vacation pay suspense account” and added item 90.

1986—Pub. L. 99–514, title VIII, §805(c)(1)(B), title XI, §1151(j)(1), Oct. 22, 1986, 100 Stat. 2362, 2508, substituted “Increase in vacation pay suspense account” for “Certain increases in suspense accounts” in item 81, and added item 89.

1984—Pub. L. 98–369, div. A, title I, §91(f)(2), July 18, 1984, 98 Stat. 608, added item 88.

1983—Pub. L. 98–21, title I, §121(f)(3), Apr. 20, 1983, 97 Stat. 84, added item 86 and redesignated former item 86 as 87.

1980—Pub. L. 96–223, title II, §232(c)(3), Apr. 2, 1980, 94 Stat. 277, added item 86.

1978—Pub. L. 95–600, title I, §112(c)(1), Nov. 6, 1978, 92 Stat. 2778, added item 85.

1976—Pub. L. 94–455, title XIX, §1901(b)(5), Oct. 4, 1976, 90 Stat. 1793, struck out item 76 “Mortgages made or obligations issued by joint-stock land banks”.

1975—Pub. L. 93–625, §§4(c)(2), 13(a)(2), Jan. 3, 1975, 88 Stat. 2111, 2121, substituted “Certain increases in suspense accounts” for “Increases in suspense account under section 166(g)” in item 81, and added item 84.

1969—Pub. L. 91–172, title II, §231(c)(1), title III, §321(c), Dec. 30, 1969, 83 Stat. 579, 591, added items 82, 83.

1966—Pub. L. 89–722, §1(b)(2), Nov. 2, 1966, 80 Stat. 1152, added item 81.

Pub. L. 89–384, §1(b)(2), Apr. 8, 1966, 80 Stat. 102, added item 80.

1964—Pub. L. 88–272, title II, §204(a)(2), Feb. 26, 1964, 78 Stat. 36, added item 79.

1962—Pub. L. 87–834, §9(d)(1), Oct. 16, 1962, 76 Stat. 1001, added item 78.

1 So in original. Does not conform to section catchline.

§71. Alimony and separate maintenance payments

(a) General rule

Gross income includes amounts received as alimony or separate maintenance payments.

(b) Alimony or separate maintenance payments defined

For purposes of this section—

(1) In general

The term “alimony or separate maintenance payment” means any payment in cash if—

(A) such payment is received by (or on behalf of) a spouse under a divorce or separation instrument,

(B) the divorce or separation instrument does not designate such payment as a payment which is not includible in gross income under this section and not allowable as a deduction under section 215,

(C) in the case of an individual legally separated from his spouse under a decree of divorce or of separate maintenance, the payee spouse and the payor spouse are not members of the same household at the time such payment is made, and

(D) there is no liability to make any such payment for any period after the death of the payee spouse and there is no liability to make any payment (in cash or property) as a substitute for such payments after the death of the payee spouse.

(2) Divorce or separation instrument

The term “divorce or separation instrument” means—

(A) a decree of divorce or separate maintenance or a written instrument incident to such a decree,

(B) a written separation agreement, or

(C) a decree (not described in subparagraph (A)) requiring a spouse to make payments for the support or maintenance of the other spouse.

(c) Payments to support children

(1) In general

Subsection (a) shall not apply to that part of any payment which the terms of the divorce or separation instrument fix (in terms of an amount of money or a part of the payment) as a sum which is payable for the support of children of the payor spouse.

(2) Treatment of certain reductions related to contingencies involving child

For purposes of paragraph (1), if any amount specified in the instrument will be reduced—

(A) on the happening of a contingency specified in the instrument relating to a child (such as attaining a specified age, marrying, dying, leaving school, or a similar contingency), or

(B) at a time which can clearly be associated with a contingency of a kind specified in subparagraph (A),


an amount equal to the amount of such reduction will be treated as an amount fixed as payable for the support of children of the payor spouse.

(3) Special rule where payment is less than amount specified in instrument

For purposes of this subsection, if any payment is less than the amount specified in the instrument, then so much of such payment as does not exceed the sum payable for support shall be considered a payment for such support.

(d) Spouse

For purposes of this section, the term “spouse” includes a former spouse.

(e) Exception for joint returns

This section and section 215 shall not apply if the spouses make a joint return with each other.

(f) Recomputation where excess front-loading of alimony payments

(1) In general

If there are excess alimony payments—

(A) the payor spouse shall include the amount of such excess payments in gross income for the payor spouse's taxable year beginning in the 3rd post-separation year, and

(B) the payee spouse shall be allowed a deduction in computing adjusted gross income for the amount of such excess payments for the payee's taxable year beginning in the 3rd post-separation year.

(2) Excess alimony payments

For purposes of this subsection, the term “excess alimony payments” mean the sum of—

(A) the excess payments for the 1st post-separation year, and

(B) the excess payments for the 2nd post-separation year.

(3) Excess payments for 1st post-separation year

For purposes of this subsection, the amount of the excess payments for the 1st post-separation year is the excess (if any) of—

(A) the amount of the alimony or separate maintenance payments paid by the payor spouse during the 1st post-separation year, over

(B) the sum of—

(i) the average of—

(I) the alimony or separate maintenance payments paid by the payor spouse during the 2nd post-separation year, reduced by the excess payments for the 2nd post-separation year, and

(II) the alimony or separate maintenance payments paid by the payor spouse during the 3rd post-separation year, plus


(ii) $15,000.

(4) Excess payments for 2nd post-separation year

For purposes of this subsection, the amount of the excess payments for the 2nd post-separation year is the excess (if any) of—

(A) the amount of the alimony or separate maintenance payments paid by the payor spouse during the 2nd post-separation year, over

(B) the sum of—

(i) the amount of the alimony or separate maintenance payments paid by the payor spouse during the 3rd post-separation year, plus

(ii) $15,000.

(5) Exceptions

(A) Where payment ceases by reason of death or remarriage

Paragraph (1) shall not apply if—

(i) either spouse dies before the close of the 3rd post-separation year, or the payee spouse remarries before the close of the 3rd post-separation year, and

(ii) the alimony or separate maintenance payments cease by reason of such death or remarriage.

(B) Support payments

For purposes of this subsection, the term “alimony or separate maintenance payment” shall not include any payment received under a decree described in subsection (b)(2)(C).

(C) Fluctuating payments not within control of payor spouse

For purposes of this subsection, the term “alimony or separate maintenance payment” shall not include any payment to the extent it is made pursuant to a continuing liability (over a period of not less than 3 years) to pay a fixed portion or portions of the income from a business or property or from compensation for employment or self-employment.

(6) Post-separation years

For purposes of this subsection, the term “1st post-separation years” means the 1st calendar year in which the payor spouse paid to the payee spouse alimony or separate maintenance payments to which this section applies. The 2nd and 3rd post-separation years shall be the 1st and 2nd succeeding calendar years, respectively.

(g) Cross references

(1) For deduction of alimony or separate maintenance payments, see section 215.

(2) For taxable status of income of an estate or trust in the case of divorce, etc., see section 682.

(Aug. 16, 1954, ch. 736, 68A Stat. 19; Pub. L. 98–369, div. A, title IV, §422(a), July 18, 1984, 98 Stat. 795; Pub. L. 99–514, title XVIII, §1843(a)–(c)(1), (d), Oct. 22, 1986, 100 Stat. 2853, 2855.)

Amendments

1986—Subsec. (b)(1)(D). Pub. L. 99–514, §1843(b), struck out “(and the divorce or separation instrument states that there is no such liability)” after “for such payments after the death of the payee spouse”.

Subsec. (c)(2)(B). Pub. L. 99–514, §1843(d), substituted “specified in subparagraph (A)” for “specified in paragraph (1)”.

Subsec. (f). Pub. L. 99–514, §1843(c)(1), amended subsec. (f) generally, substituting provisions for the recomputation of liability where there has been excess front-loading of alimony payments for provisions setting forth special rules to prevent excess front-loading of alimony payments.

Subsec. (g). Pub. L. 99–514, §1843(a), added subsec. (g).

1984—Pub. L. 98–369 amended section generally, substituting present provisions for provisions which had declared in: subsec. (a), a general rule as to decree of divorce or separate maintenance in par. (1), written separation agreement in par. (2), and decree for support in par. (3); subsec. (b), payments to support minor children; subsec. (c), principal sum paid in installments, par. (1) stating a general rule and par. (2) the rule where period for payment is more than 10 years; subsec. (d), the rule for husband in case of transferred property; and subsec. (e), cross references to sections 7701(a)(17), 215, and 682.

Effective Date of 1986 Amendment; Transitional Rule

Section 1843(c)(2), (3) of Pub. L. 99–514 provided that:

“(2) Effective dates.—

“(A) In general.—The amendment made by paragraph (1) [amending this section] shall apply with respect to divorce or separation instruments (as defined in section 71(b)(2)) of the Internal Revenue Code of 1986 executed after December 31, 1986.

“(B) Modifications of instruments executed before january 1, 1987.—The amendments made by paragraph (1) [amending this section] shall also apply to any divorce or separation instrument (as so defined) executed before January 1, 1987, but modified on or after such date if the modification expressly provides that the amendments made by paragraph (1) shall apply to such modification.

“(3) Transitional rule.—In the case of any instrument to which the amendment made by paragraph (1) [amending this section] does not apply, paragraph (2) of section 71(f) of the Internal Revenue Code of 1954 [now 1986] (as in effect on the day before the date of the enactment of this Act [Oct. 22, 1986]) shall apply only with respect to the first 3 post-separation years.”

Effective Date of 1984 Amendment

Section 422(e) of Pub. L. 98–369, as amended by Pub. L. 99–514, §2, Oct. 22, 1986, 100 Stat. 2095, provided that:

“(1) In general.—Except as otherwise provided in this subsection, the amendments made by this section [amending this section and sections 215, 219, 682, 6676, and 7701 of this title] shall apply with respect to divorce or separation instruments (as defined in section 71(b)(2) of the Internal Revenue Code of 1986 [formerly I.R.C. 1954], as amended by this section) executed after December 31, 1984.

“(2) Modifications of instruments executed before january 1, 1985.—The amendments made by this section shall also apply to any divorce or separation instrument (as so defined) executed before January 1, 1985, but modified on or after such date if the modification expressly provides that the amendments made by this section shall apply to such modification.

“(3) Requirement of identification number.—Section 215(c) of the Internal Revenue Code of 1986 (as amended by subsection (b)) and the amendments made by subsection (c) [amending section 6676 of this title] shall apply to payments made after December 31, 1984.”

Plan Amendments Not Required Until January 1, 1989

For provisions directing that if any amendments made by subtitle A or subtitle C of title XI [§§1101–1147 and 1171–1177] or title XVIII [§§1800–1899A] of Pub. L. 99–514 require an amendment to any plan, such plan amendment shall not be required to be made before the first plan year beginning on or after Jan. 1, 1989, see section 1140 of Pub. L. 99–514, as amended, set out as a note under section 401 of this title.

§72. Annuities; certain proceeds of endowment and life insurance contracts

(a) General rules for annuities

(1) Income inclusion

Except as otherwise provided in this chapter, gross income includes any amount received as an annuity (whether for a period certain or during one or more lives) under an annuity, endowment, or life insurance contract.

(2) Partial annuitization

If any amount is received as an annuity for a period of 10 years or more or during one or more lives under any portion of an annuity, endowment, or life insurance contract—

(A) such portion shall be treated as a separate contract for purposes of this section,

(B) for purposes of applying subsections (b), (c), and (e), the investment in the contract shall be allocated pro rata between each portion of the contract from which amounts are received as an annuity and the portion of the contract from which amounts are not received as an annuity, and

(C) a separate annuity starting date under subsection (c)(4) shall be determined with respect to each portion of the contract from which amounts are received as an annuity.

(b) Exclusion ratio

(1) In general

Gross income does not include that part of any amount received as an annuity under an annuity, endowment, or life insurance contract which bears the same ratio to such amount as the investment in the contract (as of the annuity starting date) bears to the expected return under the contract (as of such date).

(2) Exclusion limited to investment

The portion of any amount received as an annuity which is excluded from gross income under paragraph (1) shall not exceed the unrecovered investment in the contract immediately before the receipt of such amount.

(3) Deduction where annuity payments cease before entire investment recovered

(A) In general

If—

(i) after the annuity starting date, payments as an annuity under the contract cease by reason of the death of an annuitant, and

(ii) as of the date of such cessation, there is unrecovered investment in the contract,


the amount of such unrecovered investment (in excess of any amount specified in subsection (e)(5) which was not included in gross income) shall be allowed as a deduction to the annuitant for his last taxable year.

(B) Payments to other persons

In the case of any contract which provides for payments meeting the requirements of subparagraphs (B) and (C) of subsection (c)(2), the deduction under subparagraph (A) shall be allowed to the person entitled to such payments for the taxable year in which such payments are received.

(C) Net operating loss deductions provided

For purposes of section 172, a deduction allowed under this paragraph shall be treated as if it were attributable to a trade or business of the taxpayer.

(4) Unrecovered investment

For purposes of this subsection, the unrecovered investment in the contract as of any date is—

(A) the investment in the contract (determined without regard to subsection (c)(2)) as of the annuity starting date, reduced by

(B) the aggregate amount received under the contract on or after such annuity starting date and before the date as of which the determination is being made, to the extent such amount was excludable from gross income under this subtitle.

(c) Definitions

(1) Investment in the contract

For purposes of subsection (b), the investment in the contract as of the annuity starting date is—

(A) the aggregate amount of premiums or other consideration paid for the contract, minus

(B) the aggregate amount received under the contract before such date, to the extent that such amount was excludable from gross income under this subtitle or prior income tax laws.

(2) Adjustment in investment where there is refund feature

If—

(A) the expected return under the contract depends in whole or in part on the life expectancy of one or more individuals;

(B) the contract provides for payments to be made to a beneficiary (or to the estate of an annuitant) on or after the death of the annuitant or annuitants; and

(C) such payments are in the nature of a refund of the consideration paid,


then the value (computed without discount for interest) of such payments on the annuity starting date shall be subtracted from the amount determined under paragraph (1). Such value shall be computed in accordance with actuarial tables prescribed by the Secretary. For purposes of this paragraph and of subsection (e)(2)(A), the term “refund of the consideration paid” includes amounts payable after the death of an annuitant by reason of a provision in the contract for a life annuity with minimum period of payments certain, but (if part of the consideration was contributed by an employer) does not include that part of any payment to a beneficiary (or to the estate of the annuitant) which is not attributable to the consideration paid by the employee for the contract as determined under paragraph (1)(A).

(3) Expected return

For purposes of subsection (b), the expected return under the contract shall be determined as follows:

(A) Life expectancy

If the expected return under the contract, for the period on and after the annuity starting date, depends in whole or in part on the life expectancy of one or more individuals, the expected return shall be computed with reference to actuarial tables prescribed by the Secretary.

(B) Installment payments

If subparagraph (A) does not apply, the expected return is the aggregate of the amounts receivable under the contract as an annuity.

(4) Annuity starting date

For purposes of this section, the annuity starting date in the case of any contract is the first day of the first period for which an amount is received as an annuity under the contract; except that if such date was before January 1, 1954, then the annuity starting date is January 1, 1954.

(d) Special rules for qualified employer retirement plans

(1) Simplified method of taxing annuity payments

(A) In general

In the case of any amount received as an annuity under a qualified employer retirement plan—

(i) subsection (b) shall not apply, and

(ii) the investment in the contract shall be recovered as provided in this paragraph.

(B) Method of recovering investment in contract

(i) In general

Gross income shall not include so much of any monthly annuity payment under a qualified employer retirement plan as does not exceed the amount obtained by dividing—

(I) the investment in the contract (as of the annuity starting date), by

(II) the number of anticipated payments determined under the table contained in clause (iii) (or, in the case of a contract to which subsection (c)(3)(B) applies, the number of monthly annuity payments under such contract).

(ii) Certain rules made applicable

Rules similar to the rules of paragraphs (2) and (3) of subsection (b) shall apply for purposes of this paragraph.

(iii) Number of anticipated payments

If the annuity is payable over the life of a single individual, the number of anticipated payments shall be determined as follows:

  If the age of the
   annuitant on
The number
   the annuity starting
of anticipated
   date is:
payments is:
Not more than 55
360  
More than 55 but not more than 60
310  
More than 60 but not more than 65
260  
More than 65 but not more than 70
210  
More than 70
160.

        

(iv) Number of anticipated payments where more than one life

If the annuity is payable over the lives of more than 1 individual, the number of anticipated payments shall be determined as follows:


  If the combined ages of
   annuitants are:
The number is:
   Not more than 110
410  
   More than 110 but not more than 120
360  
   More than 120 but not more than 130
310  
   More than 130 but not more than 140
260  
   More than 140
210.

        

(C) Adjustment for refund feature not applicable

For purposes of this paragraph, investment in the contract shall be determined under subsection (c)(1) without regard to subsection (c)(2).

(D) Special rule where lump sum paid in connection with commencement of annuity payments

If, in connection with the commencement of annuity payments under any qualified employer retirement plan, the taxpayer receives a lump-sum payment—

(i) such payment shall be taxable under subsection (e) as if received before the annuity starting date, and

(ii) the investment in the contract for purposes of this paragraph shall be determined as if such payment had been so received.

(E) Exception

This paragraph shall not apply in any case where the primary annuitant has attained age 75 on the annuity starting date unless there are fewer than 5 years of guaranteed payments under the annuity.

(F) Adjustment where annuity payments not on monthly basis

In any case where the annuity payments are not made on a monthly basis, appropriate adjustments in the application of this paragraph shall be made to take into account the period on the basis of which such payments are made.

(G) Qualified employer retirement plan

For purposes of this paragraph, the term “qualified employer retirement plan” means any plan or contract described in paragraph (1), (2), or (3) of section 4974(c).

(2) Treatment of employee contributions under defined contribution plans

For purposes of this section, employee contributions (and any income allocable thereto) under a defined contribution plan may be treated as a separate contract.

(e) Amounts not received as annuities

(1) Application of subsection

(A) In general

This subsection shall apply to any amount which—

(i) is received under an annuity, endowment, or life insurance contract, and

(ii) is not received as an annuity,


if no provision of this subtitle (other than this subsection) applies with respect to such amount.

(B) Dividends

For purposes of this section, any amount received which is in the nature of a dividend or similar distribution shall be treated as an amount not received as an annuity.

(2) General rule

Any amount to which this subsection applies—

(A) if received on or after the annuity starting date, shall be included in gross income, or

(B) if received before the annuity starting date—

(i) shall be included in gross income to the extent allocable to income on the contract, and

(ii) shall not be included in gross income to the extent allocable to the investment in the contract.

(3) Allocation of amounts to income and investment

For purposes of paragraph (2)(B)—

(A) Allocation to income

Any amount to which this subsection applies shall be treated as allocable to income on the contract to the extent that such amount does not exceed the excess (if any) of—

(i) the cash value of the contract (determined without regard to any surrender charge) immediately before the amount is received, over

(ii) the investment in the contract at such time.

(B) Allocation to investment

Any amount to which this subsection applies shall be treated as allocable to investment in the contract to the extent that such amount is not allocated to income under subparagraph (A).

(4) Special rules for application of paragraph (2)(B)

For purposes of paragraph (2)(B)—

(A) Loans treated as distributions

If, during any taxable year, an individual—

(i) receives (directly or indirectly) any amount as a loan under any contract to which this subsection applies, or

(ii) assigns or pledges (or agrees to assign or pledge) any portion of the value of any such contract,


such amount or portion shall be treated as received under the contract as an amount not received as an annuity. The preceding sentence shall not apply for purposes of determining investment in the contract, except that the investment in the contract shall be increased by any amount included in gross income by reason of the amount treated as received under the preceding sentence.

(B) Treatment of policyholder dividends

Any amount described in paragraph (1)(B) shall not be included in gross income under paragraph (2)(B)(i) to the extent such amount is retained by the insurer as a premium or other consideration paid for the contract.

(C) Treatment of transfers without adequate consideration

(i) In general

If an individual who holds an annuity contract transfers it without full and adequate consideration, such individual shall be treated as receiving an amount equal to the excess of—

(I) the cash surrender value of such contract at the time of transfer, over

(II) the investment in such contract at such time,


 under the contract as an amount not received as an annuity.

(ii) Exception for certain transfers between spouses or former spouses

Clause (i) shall not apply to any transfer to which section 1041(a) (relating to transfers of property between spouses or incident to divorce) applies.

(iii) Adjustment to investment in contract of transferee

If under clause (i) an amount is included in the gross income of the transferor of an annuity contract, the investment in the contract of the transferee in such contract shall be increased by the amount so included.

(5) Retention of existing rules in certain cases

(A) In general

In any case to which this paragraph applies—

(i) paragraphs (2)(B) and (4)(A) shall not apply, and

(ii) if paragraph (2)(A) does not apply,


the amount shall be included in gross income, but only to the extent it exceeds the investment in the contract.

(B) Existing contracts

This paragraph shall apply to contracts entered into before August 14, 1982. Any amount allocable to investment in the contract after August 13, 1982, shall be treated as from a contract entered into after such date.

(C) Certain life insurance and endowment contracts

Except as provided in paragraph (10) and except to the extent prescribed by the Secretary by regulations, this paragraph shall apply to any amount not received as an annuity which is received under a life insurance or endowment contract.

(D) Contracts under qualified plans

Except as provided in paragraph (8), this paragraph shall apply to any amount received—

(i) from a trust described in section 401(a) which is exempt from tax under section 501(a),

(ii) from a contract—

(I) purchased by a trust described in clause (i),

(II) purchased as part of a plan described in section 403(a),

(III) described in section 403(b), or

(IV) provided for employees of a life insurance company under a plan described in section 818(a)(3), or


(iii) from an individual retirement account or an individual retirement annuity.


Any dividend described in section 404(k) which is received by a participant or beneficiary shall, for purposes of this subparagraph, be treated as paid under a separate contract to which clause (ii)(I) applies.

(E) Full refunds, surrenders, redemptions, and maturities

This paragraph shall apply to—

(i) any amount received, whether in a single sum or otherwise, under a contract in full discharge of the obligation under the contract which is in the nature of a refund of the consideration paid for the contract, and

(ii) any amount received under a contract on its complete surrender, redemption, or maturity.


In the case of any amount to which the preceding sentence applies, the rule of paragraph (2)(A) shall not apply.

(6) Investment in the contract

For purposes of this subsection, the investment in the contract as of any date is—

(A) the aggregate amount of premiums or other consideration paid for the contract before such date, minus

(B) the aggregate amount received under the contract before such date, to the extent that such amount was excludable from gross income under this subtitle or prior income tax laws.

[(7) Repealed. Pub. L. 100–647, title I, §1011A(b)(9)(A), Nov. 10, 1988, 102 Stat. 3474]

(8) Extension of paragraph (2)(b) 1 to qualified plans

(A) In general

Notwithstanding any other provision of this subsection, in the case of any amount received before the annuity starting date from a trust or contract described in paragraph (5)(D), paragraph (2)(B) shall apply to such amounts.

(B) Allocation of amount received

For purposes of paragraph (2)(B), the amount allocated to the investment in the contract shall be the portion of the amount described in subparagraph (A) which bears the same ratio to such amount as the investment in the contract bears to the account balance. The determination under the preceding sentence shall be made as of the time of the distribution or at such other time as the Secretary may prescribe.

(C) Treatment of forfeitable rights

If an employee does not have a nonforfeitable right to any amount under any trust or contract to which subparagraph (A) applies, such amount shall not be treated as part of the account balance.

(D) Investment in the contract before 1987

In the case of a plan which on May 5, 1986, permitted withdrawal of any employee contributions before separation from service, subparagraph (A) shall apply only to the extent that amounts received before the annuity starting date (when increased by amounts previously received under the contract after December 31, 1986) exceed the investment in the contract as of December 31, 1986.

(9) Extension of paragraph (2)(B) to qualified tuition programs and Coverdell education savings accounts

Notwithstanding any other provision of this subsection, paragraph (2)(B) shall apply to amounts received under a qualified tuition program (as defined in section 529(b)) or under a Coverdell education savings account (as defined in section 530(b)). The rule of paragraph (8)(B) shall apply for purposes of this paragraph.

(10) Treatment of modified endowment contracts

(A) In general

Notwithstanding paragraph (5)(C), in the case of any modified endowment contract (as defined in section 7702A)—

(i) paragraphs (2)(B) and (4)(A) shall apply, and

(ii) in applying paragraph (4)(A), “any person” shall be substituted for “an individual”.

(B) Treatment of certain burial contracts

Notwithstanding subparagraph (A), paragraph (4)(A) shall not apply to any assignment (or pledge) of a modified endowment contract if such assignment (or pledge) is solely to cover the payment of expenses referred to in section 7702(e)(2)(C)(iii) and if the maximum death benefit under such contract does not exceed $25,000.

(11) Special rules for certain combination contracts providing long-term care insurance

Notwithstanding paragraphs (2), (5)(C), and (10), in the case of any charge against the cash value of an annuity contract or the cash surrender value of a life insurance contract made as payment for coverage under a qualified long-term care insurance contract which is part of or a rider on such annuity or life insurance contract—

(A) the investment in the contract shall be reduced (but not below zero) by such charge, and

(B) such charge shall not be includible in gross income.

(12) Anti-abuse rules

(A) In general

For purposes of determining the amount includible in gross income under this subsection—

(i) all modified endowment contracts issued by the same company to the same policyholder during any calendar year shall be treated as 1 modified endowment contract, and

(ii) all annuity contracts issued by the same company to the same policyholder during any calendar year shall be treated as 1 annuity contract.


The preceding sentence shall not apply to any contract described in paragraph (5)(D).

(B) Regulatory authority

The Secretary may by regulations prescribe such additional rules as may be necessary or appropriate to prevent avoidance of the purposes of this subsection through serial purchases of contracts or otherwise.

(f) Special rules for computing employees’ contributions

In computing, for purposes of subsection (c)(1)(A), the aggregate amount of premiums or other consideration paid for the contract, and for purposes of subsection (e)(6), the aggregate premiums or other consideration paid, amounts contributed by the employer shall be included, but only to the extent that—

(1) such amounts were includible in the gross income of the employee under this subtitle or prior income tax laws; or

(2) if such amounts had been paid directly to the employee at the time they were contributed, they would not have been includible in the gross income of the employee under the law applicable at the time of such contribution.


Paragraph (2) shall not apply to amounts which were contributed by the employer after December 31, 1962, and which would not have been includible in the gross income of the employee by reason of the application of section 911 if such amounts had been paid directly to the employee at the time of contribution. The preceding sentence shall not apply to amounts which were contributed by the employer, as determined under regulations prescribed by the Secretary, to provide pension or annuity credits, to the extent such credits are attributable to services performed before January 1, 1963, and are provided pursuant to pension or annuity plan provisions in existence on March 12, 1962, and on that date applicable to such services, or to the extent such credits are attributable to services performed as a foreign missionary (within the meaning of section 403(b)(2)(D)(iii), as in effect before the enactment of the Economic Growth and Tax Relief Reconciliation Act of 2001).

(g) Rules for transferee where transfer was for value

Where any contract (or any interest therein) is transferred (by assignment or otherwise) for a valuable consideration, to the extent that the contract (or interest therein) does not, in the hands of the transferee, have a basis which is determined by reference to the basis in the hands of the transferor, then—

(1) for purposes of this section, only the actual value of such consideration, plus the amount of the premiums and other consideration paid by the transferee after the transfer, shall be taken into account in computing the aggregate amount of the premiums or other consideration paid for the contract;

(2) for purposes of subsection (c)(1)(B), there shall be taken into account only the aggregate amount received under the contract by the transferee before the annuity starting date, to the extent that such amount was excludable from gross income under this subtitle or prior income tax laws; and

(3) the annuity starting date is January 1, 1954, or the first day of the first period for which the transferee received an amount under the contract as an annuity, whichever is the later.


For purposes of this subsection, the term “transferee” includes a beneficiary of, or the estate of, the transferee.

(h) Option to receive annuity in lieu of lump sum

If—

(1) a contract provides for payment of a lump sum in full discharge of an obligation under the contract, subject to an option to receive an annuity in lieu of such lump sum;

(2) the option is exercised within 60 days after the day on which such lump sum first became payable; and

(3) part or all of such lump sum would (but for this subsection) be includible in gross income by reason of subsection (e)(1),


then, for purposes of this subtitle, no part of such lump sum shall be considered as includible in gross income at the time such lump sum first became payable.

[(i) Repealed. Pub. L. 94–455, title XIX, §1951(b)(1)(A), Oct. 4, 1976, 90 Stat. 1836]

(j) Interest

Notwithstanding any other provision of this section, if any amount is held under an agreement to pay interest thereon, the interest payments shall be included in gross income.

[(k) Repealed. Pub. L. 98–369, div. A, title IV, §421(b)(1), July 18, 1984, 98 Stat. 794]

(l) Face-amount certificates

For purposes of this section, the term “endowment contract” includes a face-amount certificate, as defined in section 2(a)(15) of the Investment Company Act of 1940 (15 U.S.C., sec. 80a–2), issued after December 31, 1954.

(m) Special rules applicable to employee annuities and distributions under employee plans

[(1) Repealed. Pub. L. 93–406, title II, §2001(h)(2), Sept. 2, 1974, 88 Stat. 957]

(2) Computation of consideration paid by the employee

In computing—

(A) the aggregate amount of premiums or other consideration paid for the contract for purposes of subsection (c)(1)(A) (relating to the investment in the contract), and

(B) the aggregate premiums or other consideration paid for purposes of subsection (e)(6) (relating to certain amounts not received as an annuity),


any amount allowed as a deduction with respect to the contract under section 404 which was paid while the employee was an employee within the meaning of section 401(c)(1) shall be treated as consideration contributed by the employer, and there shall not be taken into account any portion of the premiums or other consideration for the contract paid while the employee was an owner-employee which is properly allocable (as determined under regulations prescribed by the Secretary) to the cost of life, accident, health, or other insurance.

(3) Life insurance contracts

(A) This paragraph shall apply to any life insurance contract—

(i) purchased as a part of a plan described in section 403(a), or

(ii) purchased by a trust described in section 401(a) which is exempt from tax under section 501(a) if the proceeds of such contract are payable directly or indirectly to a participant in such trust or to a beneficiary of such participant.


(B) Any contribution to a plan described in subparagraph (A)(i) or a trust described in subparagraph (A)(ii) which is allowed as a deduction under section 404, and any income of a trust described in subparagraph (A)(ii), which is determined in accordance with regulations prescribed by the Secretary to have been applied to purchase the life insurance protection under a contract described in subparagraph (A), is includible in the gross income of the participant for the taxable year when so applied.

(C) In the case of the death of an individual insured under a contract described in subparagraph (A), an amount equal to the cash surrender value of the contract immediately before the death of the insured shall be treated as a payment under such plan or a distribution by such trust, and the excess of the amount payable by reason of the death of the insured over such cash surrender value shall not be includible in gross income under this section and shall be treated as provided in section 101.

[(4) Repealed. Pub. L. 97–248, title II, §236(b)(1), Sept. 3, 1982, 96 Stat. 510]

(5) Penalties applicable to certain amounts received by 5-percent owners

(A) This paragraph applies to amounts which are received from a qualified trust described in section 401(a) or under a plan described in section 403(a) at any time by an individual who is, or has been, a 5-percent owner, or by a successor of such an individual, but only to the extent such amounts are determined, under regulations prescribed by the Secretary, to exceed the benefits provided for such individual under the plan formula.

(B) If a person receives an amount to which this paragraph applies, his tax under this chapter for the taxable year in which such amount is received shall be increased by an amount equal to 10 percent of the portion of the amount so received which is includible in his gross income for such taxable year.

(C) For purposes of this paragraph, the term “5-percent owner” means any individual who, at any time during the 5 plan years preceding the plan year ending in the taxable year in which the amount is received, is a 5-percent owner (as defined in section 416(i)(1)(B)).

(6) Owner-employee defined

For purposes of this subsection, the term “owner-employee” has the meaning assigned to it by section 401(c)(3) and includes an individual for whose benefit an individual retirement account or annuity described in section 408(a) or (b) is maintained. For purposes of the preceding sentence, the term “owner-employee” shall include an employee within the meaning of section 401(c)(1).

(7) Meaning of disabled

For purposes of this section, an individual shall be considered to be disabled if he is unable to engage in any substantial gainful activity by reason of any medically determinable physical or mental impairment which can be expected to result in death or to be of long-continued and indefinite duration. An individual shall not be considered to be disabled unless he furnishes proof of the existence thereof in such form and manner as the Secretary may require.

[(8) Repealed. Pub. L. 97–248, title II, §236(b)(1), Sept. 3, 1982, 96 Stat. 510]

[(9) Repealed. Pub. L. 98–369, div. A, title VII, §713(d)(1), July 18, 1984, 98 Stat. 957]

(10) Determination of investment in the contract in the case of qualified domestic relations orders

Under regulations prescribed by the Secretary, in the case of a distribution or payment made to an alternate payee who is the spouse or former spouse of the participant pursuant to a qualified domestic relations order (as defined in section 414(p)), the investment in the contract as of the date prescribed in such regulations shall be allocated on a pro rata basis between the present value of such distribution or payment and the present value of all other benefits payable with respect to the participant to which such order relates.

(n) Annuities under retired serviceman's family protection plan or survivor benefit plan

Subsection (b) shall not apply in the case of amounts received after December 31, 1965, as an annuity under chapter 73 of title 10 of the United States Code, but all such amounts shall be excluded from gross income until there has been so excluded (under section 122(b)(1) or this section, including amounts excluded before January 1, 1966) an amount equal to the consideration for the contract (as defined by section 122(b)(2)), plus any amount treated pursuant to section 101(b)(2)(D) (as in effect on the day before the date of the enactment of the Small Business Job Protection Act of 1996) as additional consideration paid by the employee. Thereafter all amounts so received shall be included in gross income.

(o) Special rules for distributions from qualified plans to which employee made deductible contributions

(1) Treatment of contributions

For purposes of this section and sections 402 and 403, notwithstanding section 414(h), any deductible employee contribution made to a qualified employer plan or government plan shall be treated as an amount contributed by the employer which is not includible in the gross income of the employee.

[(2) Repealed. Pub. L. 100–647, title I, §1011A(c)(8), Nov. 10, 1988, 102 Stat. 3476]

(3) Amounts constructively received

(A) In general

For purposes of this subsection, rules similar to the rules provided by subsection (p) (other than the exception contained in paragraph (2) thereof) shall apply.

(B) Purchase of life insurance

To the extent any amount of accumulated deductible employee contributions of an employee are applied to the purchase of life insurance contracts, such amount shall be treated as distributed to the employee in the year so applied.

(4) Special rule for treatment of rollover amounts

For purposes of sections 402(c), 403(a)(4), and 403(b)(8), 408(d)(3), and 457(e)(16), the Secretary shall prescribe regulations providing for such allocations of amounts attributable to accumulated deductible employee contributions, and for such other rules, as may be necessary to insure that such accumulated deductible employee contributions do not become eligible for additional tax benefits (or freed from limitations) through the use of rollovers.

(5) Definitions and special rules

For purposes of this subsection—

(A) Deductible employee contributions

The term “deductible employee contributions” means any qualified voluntary employee contribution (as defined in section 219(e)(2)) made after December 31, 1981, in a taxable year beginning after such date and made for a taxable year beginning before January 1, 1987, and allowable as a deduction under section 219(a) for such taxable year.

(B) Accumulated deductible employee contributions

The term “accumulated deductible employee contributions” means the deductible employee contributions—

(i) increased by the amount of income and gain allocable to such contributions, and

(ii) reduced by the sum of the amount of loss and expense allocable to such contributions and the amounts distributed with respect to the employee which are attributable to such contributions (or income or gain allocable to such contributions).

(C) Qualified employer plan

The term “qualified employer plan” has the meaning given to such term by subsection (p)(3)(A)(i).

(D) Government plan

The term “government plan” has the meaning given such term by subsection (p)(3)(B).

(6) Ordering rules

Unless the plan specifies otherwise, any distribution from such plan shall not be treated as being made from the accumulated deductible employee contributions, until all other amounts to the credit of the employee have been distributed.

(p) Loans treated as distributions

For purposes of this section—

(1) Treatment as distributions

(A) Loans

If during any taxable year a participant or beneficiary receives (directly or indirectly) any amount as a loan from a qualified employer plan, such amount shall be treated as having been received by such individual as a distribution under such plan.

(B) Assignments or pledges

If during any taxable year a participant or beneficiary assigns (or agrees to assign) or pledges (or agrees to pledge) any portion of his interest in a qualified employer plan, such portion shall be treated as having been received by such individual as a loan from such plan.

(2) Exception for certain loans

(A) General rule

Paragraph (1) shall not apply to any loan to the extent that such loan (when added to the outstanding balance of all other loans from such plan whether made on, before, or after August 13, 1982), does not exceed the lesser of—

(i) $50,000, reduced by the excess (if any) of—

(I) the highest outstanding balance of loans from the plan during the 1-year period ending on the day before the date on which such loan was made, over

(II) the outstanding balance of loans from the plan on the date on which such loan was made, or


(ii) the greater of (I) one-half of the present value of the nonforfeitable accrued benefit of the employee under the plan, or (II) $10,000.


For purposes of clause (ii), the present value of the nonforfeitable accrued benefit shall be determined without regard to any accumulated deductible employee contributions (as defined in subsection (o)(5)(B)).

(B) Requirement that loan be repayable within 5 years

(i) In general

Subparagraph (A) shall not apply to any loan unless such loan, by its terms, is required to be repaid within 5 years.

(ii) Exception for home loans

Clause (i) shall not apply to any loan used to acquire any dwelling unit which within a reasonable time is to be used (determined at the time the loan is made) as the principal residence of the participant.

(C) Requirement of level amortization

Except as provided in regulations, this paragraph shall not apply to any loan unless substantially level amortization of such loan (with payments not less frequently than quarterly) is required over the term of the loan.

(D) Related employers and related plans

For purposes of this paragraph—

(i) the rules of subsections (b), (c), and (m) of section 414 shall apply, and

(ii) all plans of an employer (determined after the application of such subsections) shall be treated as 1 plan.

(3) Denial of interest deductions in certain cases

(A) In general

No deduction otherwise allowable under this chapter shall be allowed under this chapter for any interest paid or accrued on any loan to which paragraph (1) does not apply by reason of paragraph (2) during the period described in subparagraph (B).

(B) Period to which subparagraph (A) applies

For purposes of subparagraph (A), the period described in this subparagraph is the period—

(i) on or after the 1st day on which the individual to whom the loan is made is a key employee (as defined in section 416(i)), or

(ii) such loan is secured by amounts attributable to elective deferrals described in subparagraph (A) or (C) of section 402(g)(3).

(4) Qualified employer plan, etc.

For purposes of this subsection—

(A) Qualified employer plan

(i) In general

The term “qualified employer plan” means—

(I) a plan described in section 401(a) which includes a trust exempt from tax under section 501(a),

(II) an annuity plan described in section 403(a), and

(III) a plan under which amounts are contributed by an individual's employer for an annuity contract described in section 403(b).

(ii) Special rule

The term “qualified employer plan” shall include any plan which was (or was determined to be) a qualified employer plan or a government plan.

(B) Government plan

The term “government plan” means any plan, whether or not qualified, established and maintained for its employees by the United States, by a State or political subdivision thereof, or by an agency or instrumentality of any of the foregoing.

(5) Special rules for loans, etc., from certain contracts

For purposes of this subsection, any amount received as a loan under a contract purchased under a qualified employer plan (and any assignment or pledge with respect to such a contract) shall be treated as a loan under such employer plan.

(q) 10-percent penalty for premature distributions from annuity contracts

(1) Imposition of penalty

If any taxpayer receives any amount under an annuity contract, the taxpayer's tax under this chapter for the taxable year in which such amount is received shall be increased by an amount equal to 10 percent of the portion of such amount which is includible in gross income.

(2) Subsection not to apply to certain distributions

Paragraph 1 shall not apply to any distribution—

(A) made on or after the date on which the taxpayer attains age 59½,

(B) made on or after the death of the holder (or, where the holder is not an individual, the death of the primary annuitant (as defined in subsection (s)(6)(B))),

(C) attributable to the taxpayer's becoming disabled within the meaning of subsection (m)(7),

(D) which is a part of a series of substantially equal periodic payments (not less frequently than annually) made for the life (or life expectancy) of the taxpayer or the joint lives (or joint life expectancies) of such taxpayer and his designated beneficiary,

(E) from a plan, contract, account, trust, or annuity described in subsection (e)(5)(D),

(F) allocable to investment in the contract before August 14, 1982, or 2

(G) under a qualified funding asset (within the meaning of section 130(d), but without regard to whether there is a qualified assignment),

(H) to which subsection (t) applies (without regard to paragraph (2) thereof),

(I) under an immediate annuity contract (within the meaning of section 72(u)(4)), or

(J) which is purchased by an employer upon the termination of a plan described in section 401(a) or 403(a) and which is held by the employer until such time as the employee separates from service.

(3) Change in substantially equal payments

If—

(A) paragraph (1) does not apply to a distribution by reason of paragraph (2)(D), and

(B) the series of payments under such paragraph are subsequently modified (other than by reason of death or disability)—

(i) before the close of the 5-year period beginning on the date of the first payment and after the taxpayer attains age 59½, or

(ii) before the taxpayer attains age 59½,


the taxpayer's tax for the 1st taxable year in which such modification occurs shall be increased by an amount, determined under regulations, equal to the tax which (but for paragraph (2)(D)) would have been imposed, plus interest for the deferral period (within the meaning of subsection (t)(4)(B)).

(r) Certain railroad retirement benefits treated as received under employer plans

(1) In general

Notwithstanding any other provision of law, any benefit provided under the Railroad Retirement Act of 1974 (other than a tier 1 railroad retirement benefit) shall be treated for purposes of this title as a benefit provided under an employer plan which meets the requirements of section 401(a).

(2) Tier 2 taxes treated as contributions

(A) In general

For purposes of paragraph (1)—

(i) the tier 2 portion of the tax imposed by section 3201 (relating to tax on employees) shall be treated as an employee contribution,

(ii) the tier 2 portion of the tax imposed by section 3211 (relating to tax on employee representatives) shall be treated as an employee contribution, and

(iii) the tier 2 portion of the tax imposed by section 3221 (relating to tax on employers) shall be treated as an employer contribution.

(B) Tier 2 portion

For purposes of subparagraph (A)—

(i) After 1984

With respect to compensation paid after 1984, the tier 2 portion shall be the taxes imposed by sections 3201(b), 3211(b), and 3221(b).

(ii) After September 30, 1981, and before 1985

With respect to compensation paid before 1985 for services rendered after September 30, 1981, the tier 2 portion shall be—

(I) so much of the tax imposed by section 3201 as is determined at the 2 percent rate, and

(II) so much of the taxes imposed by sections 3211 and 3221 as is determined at the 11.75 percent rate.


 With respect to compensation paid for services rendered after December 31, 1983, and before 1985, subclause (I) shall be applied by substituting “2.75 percent” for “2 percent”, and subclause (II) shall be applied by substituting “12.75 percent” for “11.75 percent”.

(iii) Before October 1, 1981

With respect to compensation paid for services rendered during any period before October 1, 1981, the tier 2 portion shall be the excess (if any) of—

(I) the tax imposed for such period by section 3201, 3211, or 3221, as the case may be (other than any tax imposed with respect to man-hours), over

(II) the tax which would have been imposed by such section for such period had the rates of the comparable taxes imposed by chapter 21 for such period applied under such section.

(C) Contributions not allocable to supplemental annuity or windfall benefits

For purposes of paragraph (1), no amount treated as an employee contribution under this paragraph shall be allocated to—

(i) any supplemental annuity paid under section 2(b) of the Railroad Retirement Act of 1974, or

(ii) any benefit paid under section 3(h), 4(e), or 4(h) of such Act.

(3) Tier 1 railroad retirement benefit

For purposes of paragraph (1), the term “tier 1 railroad retirement benefit” has the meaning given such term by section 86(d)(4).

(s) Required distributions where holder dies before entire interest is distributed

(1) In general

A contract shall not be treated as an annuity contract for purposes of this title unless it provides that—

(A) if any holder of such contract dies on or after the annuity starting date and before the entire interest in such contract has been distributed, the remaining portion of such interest will be distributed at least as rapidly as under the method of distributions being used as of the date of his death, and

(B) if any holder of such contract dies before the annuity starting date, the entire interest in such contract will be distributed within 5 years after the death of such holder.

(2) Exception for certain amounts payable over life of beneficiary

If—

(A) any portion of the holder's interest is payable to (or for the benefit of) a designated beneficiary,

(B) such portion will be distributed (in accordance with regulations) over the life of such designated beneficiary (or over a period not extending beyond the life expectancy of such beneficiary), and

(C) such distributions begin not later than 1 year after the date of the holder's death or such later date as the Secretary may by regulations prescribe,


then for purposes of paragraph (1), the portion referred to in subparagraph (A) shall be treated as distributed on the day on which such distributions begin.

(3) Special rule where surviving spouse beneficiary

If the designated beneficiary referred to in paragraph (2)(A) is the surviving spouse of the holder of the contract, paragraphs (1) and (2) shall be applied by treating such spouse as the holder of such contract.

(4) Designated beneficiary

For purposes of this subsection, the term “designated beneficiary” means any individual designated a beneficiary by the holder of the contract.

(5) Exception for certain annuity contracts

This subsection shall not apply to any annuity contract—

(A) which is provided—

(i) under a plan described in section 401(a) which includes a trust exempt from tax under section 501, or

(ii) under a plan described in section 403(a),


(B) which is described in section 403(b),

(C) which is an individual retirement annuity or provided under an individual retirement account or annuity, or

(D) which is a qualified funding asset (as defined in section 130(d), but without regard to whether there is a qualified assignment).

(6) Special rule where holder is corporation or other non-individual

(A) In general

For purposes of this subsection, if the holder of the contract is not an individual, the primary annuitant shall be treated as the holder of the contract.

(B) Primary annuitant

For purposes of subparagraph (A), the term “primary annuitant” means the individual, the events in the life of whom are of primary importance in affecting the timing or amount of the payout under the contract.

(7) Treatment of changes in primary annuitant where holder of contract is not an individual

For purposes of this subsection, in the case of a holder of an annuity contract which is not an individual, if there is a change in a primary annuitant (as defined in paragraph (6)(B)), such change shall be treated as the death of the holder.

(t) 10-percent additional tax on early distributions from qualified retirement plans

(1) Imposition of additional tax

If any taxpayer receives any amount from a qualified retirement plan (as defined in section 4974(c)), the taxpayer's tax under this chapter for the taxable year in which such amount is received shall be increased by an amount equal to 10 percent of the portion of such amount which is includible in gross income.

(2) Subsection not to apply to certain distributions

Except as provided in paragraphs (3) and (4), paragraph (1) shall not apply to any of the following distributions:

(A) In general

Distributions which are—

(i) made on or after the date on which the employee attains age 59½,

(ii) made to a beneficiary (or to the estate of the employee) on or after the death of the employee,

(iii) attributable to the employee's being disabled within the meaning of subsection (m)(7),

(iv) part of a series of substantially equal periodic payments (not less frequently than annually) made for the life (or life expectancy) of the employee or the joint lives (or joint life expectancies) of such employee and his designated beneficiary,

(v) made to an employee after separation from service after attainment of age 55,

(vi) dividends paid with respect to stock of a corporation which are described in section 404(k), or

(vii) made on account of a levy under section 6331 on the qualified retirement plan.

(B) Medical expenses

Distributions made to the employee (other than distributions described in subparagraph (A), (C), or (D)) to the extent such distributions do not exceed the amount allowable as a deduction under section 213 to the employee for amounts paid during the taxable year for medical care (determined without regard to whether the employee itemizes deductions for such taxable year).

(C) Payments to alternate payees pursuant to qualified domestic relations orders

Any distribution to an alternate payee pursuant to a qualified domestic relations order (within the meaning of section 414(p)(1)).

(D) Distributions to unemployed individuals for health insurance premiums

(i) In general

Distributions from an individual retirement plan to an individual after separation from employment—

(I) if such individual has received unemployment compensation for 12 consecutive weeks under any Federal or State unemployment compensation law by reason of such separation,

(II) if such distributions are made during any taxable year during which such unemployment compensation is paid or the succeeding taxable year, and

(III) to the extent such distributions do not exceed the amount paid during the taxable year for insurance described in section 213(d)(1)(D) with respect to the individual and the individual's spouse and dependents (as defined in section 152, determined without regard to subsections (b)(1), (b)(2), and (d)(1)(B) thereof).

(ii) Distributions after reemployment

Clause (i) shall not apply to any distribution made after the individual has been employed for at least 60 days after the separation from employment to which clause (i) applies.

(iii) Self-employed individuals

To the extent provided in regulations, a self-employed individual shall be treated as meeting the requirements of clause (i)(I) if, under Federal or State law, the individual would have received unemployment compensation but for the fact the individual was self-employed.

(E) Distributions from individual retirement plans for higher education expenses

Distributions to an individual from an individual retirement plan to the extent such distributions do not exceed the qualified higher education expenses (as defined in paragraph (7)) of the taxpayer for the taxable year. Distributions shall not be taken into account under the preceding sentence if such distributions are described in subparagraph (A), (C), or (D) or to the extent paragraph (1) does not apply to such distributions by reason of subparagraph (B).

(F) Distributions from certain plans for first home purchases

Distributions to an individual from an individual retirement plan which are qualified first-time homebuyer distributions (as defined in paragraph (8)). Distributions shall not be taken into account under the preceding sentence if such distributions are described in subparagraph (A), (C), (D), or (E) or to the extent paragraph (1) does not apply to such distributions by reason of subparagraph (B).

(G) Distributions from retirement plans to individuals called to active duty

(i) In general

Any qualified reservist distribution.

(ii) Amount distributed may be repaid

Any individual who receives a qualified reservist distribution may, at any time during the 2-year period beginning on the day after the end of the active duty period, make one or more contributions to an individual retirement plan of such individual in an aggregate amount not to exceed the amount of such distribution. The dollar limitations otherwise applicable to contributions to individual retirement plans shall not apply to any contribution made pursuant to the preceding sentence. No deduction shall be allowed for any contribution pursuant to this clause.

(iii) Qualified reservist distribution

For purposes of this subparagraph, the term “qualified reservist distribution” means any distribution to an individual if—

(I) such distribution is from an individual retirement plan, or from amounts attributable to employer contributions made pursuant to elective deferrals described in subparagraph (A) or (C) of section 402(g)(3) or section 501(c)(18)(D)(iii),

(II) such individual was (by reason of being a member of a reserve component (as defined in section 101 of title 37, United States Code)) ordered or called to active duty for a period in excess of 179 days or for an indefinite period, and

(III) such distribution is made during the period beginning on the date of such order or call and ending at the close of the active duty period.

(iv) Application of subparagraph

This subparagraph applies to individuals ordered or called to active duty after September 11, 2001. In no event shall the 2-year period referred to in clause (ii) end before the date which is 2 years after the date of the enactment of this subparagraph.

(3) Limitations

(A) Certain exceptions not to apply to individual retirement plans

Subparagraphs (A)(v) and (C) of paragraph (2) shall not apply to distributions from an individual retirement plan.

(B) Periodic payments under qualified plans must begin after separation

Paragraph (2)(A)(iv) shall not apply to any amount paid from a trust described in section 401(a) which is exempt from tax under section 501(a) or from a contract described in section 72(e)(5)(D)(ii) unless the series of payments begins after the employee separates from service.

(4) Change in substantially equal payments

(A) In general

If—

(i) paragraph (1) does not apply to a distribution by reason of paragraph (2)(A)(iv), and

(ii) the series of payments under such paragraph are subsequently modified (other than by reason of death or disability)—

(I) before the close of the 5-year period beginning with the date of the first payment and after the employee attains age 59½, or

(II) before the employee attains age 59½,


the taxpayer's tax for the 1st taxable year in which such modification occurs shall be increased by an amount, determined under regulations, equal to the tax which (but for paragraph (2)(A)(iv)) would have been imposed, plus interest for the deferral period.

(B) Deferral period

For purposes of this paragraph, the term “deferral period” means the period beginning with the taxable year in which (without regard to paragraph (2)(A)(iv)) the distribution would have been includible in gross income and ending with the taxable year in which the modification described in subparagraph (A) occurs.

(5) Employee

For purposes of this subsection, the term “employee” includes any participant, and in the case of an individual retirement plan, the individual for whose benefit such plan was established.

(6) Special rules for simple retirement accounts

In the case of any amount received from a simple retirement account (within the meaning of section 408(p)) during the 2-year period beginning on the date such individual first participated in any qualified salary reduction arrangement maintained by the individual's employer under section 408(p)(2), paragraph (1) shall be applied by substituting “25 percent” for “10 percent”.

(7) Qualified higher education expenses

For purposes of paragraph (2)(E)—

(A) In general

The term “qualified higher education expenses” means qualified higher education expenses (as defined in section 529(e)(3)) for education furnished to—

(i) the taxpayer,

(ii) the taxpayer's spouse, or

(iii) any child (as defined in section 152(f)(1)) or grandchild of the taxpayer or the taxpayer's spouse,


at an eligible educational institution (as defined in section 529(e)(5)).

(B) Coordination with other benefits

The amount of qualified higher education expenses for any taxable year shall be reduced as provided in section 25A(g)(2).

(8) Qualified first-time homebuyer distributions

For purposes of paragraph (2)(F)—

(A) In general

The term “qualified first-time homebuyer distribution” means any payment or distribution received by an individual to the extent such payment or distribution is used by the individual before the close of the 120th day after the day on which such payment or distribution is received to pay qualified acquisition costs with respect to a principal residence of a first-time homebuyer who is such individual, the spouse of such individual, or any child, grandchild, or ancestor of such individual or the individual's spouse.

(B) Lifetime dollar limitation

The aggregate amount of payments or distributions received by an individual which may be treated as qualified first-time homebuyer distributions for any taxable year shall not exceed the excess (if any) of—

(i) $10,000, over

(ii) the aggregate amounts treated as qualified first-time homebuyer distributions with respect to such individual for all prior taxable years.

(C) Qualified acquisition costs

For purposes of this paragraph, the term “qualified acquisition costs” means the costs of acquiring, constructing, or reconstructing a residence. Such term includes any usual or reasonable settlement, financing, or other closing costs.

(D) First-time homebuyer; other definitions

For purposes of this paragraph—

(i) First-time homebuyer

The term “first-time homebuyer” means any individual if—

(I) such individual (and if married, such individual's spouse) had no present ownership interest in a principal residence during the 2-year period ending on the date of acquisition of the principal residence to which this paragraph applies, and

(II) subsection (h) or (k) of section 1034 3 (as in effect on the day before the date of the enactment of this paragraph) did not suspend the running of any period of time specified in section 1034 3 (as so in effect) with respect to such individual on the day before the date the distribution is applied pursuant to subparagraph (A).

(ii) Principal residence

The term “principal residence” has the same meaning as when used in section 121.

(iii) Date of acquisition

The term “date of acquisition” means the date—

(I) on which a binding contract to acquire the principal residence to which subparagraph (A) applies is entered into, or

(II) on which construction or reconstruction of such a principal residence is commenced.

(E) Special rule where delay in acquisition

If any distribution from any individual retirement plan fails to meet the requirements of subparagraph (A) solely by reason of a delay or cancellation of the purchase or construction of the residence, the amount of the distribution may be contributed to an individual retirement plan as provided in section 408(d)(3)(A)(i) (determined by substituting “120th day” for “60th day” in such section), except that—

(i) section 408(d)(3)(B) shall not be applied to such contribution, and

(ii) such amount shall not be taken into account in determining whether section 408(d)(3)(B) applies to any other amount.

(9) Special rule for rollovers to section 457 plans

For purposes of this subsection, a distribution from an eligible deferred compensation plan (as defined in section 457(b)) of an eligible employer described in section 457(e)(1)(A) shall be treated as a distribution from a qualified retirement plan described in 4974(c)(1) to the extent that such distribution is attributable to an amount transferred to an eligible deferred compensation plan from a qualified retirement plan (as defined in section 4974(c)).

(10) Distributions to qualified public safety employees in governmental plans

(A) In general

In the case of a distribution to a qualified public safety employee from a governmental plan (within the meaning of section 414(d)) which is a defined benefit plan, paragraph (2)(A)(v) shall be applied by substituting “age 50” for “age 55”.

(B) Qualified public safety employee

For purposes of this paragraph, the term “qualified public safety employee” means any employee of a State or political subdivision of a State who provides police protection, firefighting services, or emergency medical services for any area within the jurisdiction of such State or political subdivision.

(u) Treatment of annuity contracts not held by natural persons

(1) In general

If any annuity contract is held by a person who is not a natural person—

(A) such contract shall not be treated as an annuity contract for purposes of this subtitle (other than subchapter L), and

(B) the income on the contract for any taxable year of the policyholder shall be treated as ordinary income received or accrued by the owner during such taxable year.


For purposes of this paragraph, holding by a trust or other entity as an agent for a natural person shall not be taken into account.

(2) Income on the contract

(A) In general

For purposes of paragraph (1), the term “income on the contract” means, with respect to any taxable year of the policyholder, the excess of—

(i) the sum of the net surrender value of the contract as of the close of the taxable year plus all distributions under the contract received during the taxable year or any prior taxable year, reduced by

(ii) the sum of the amount of net premiums under the contract for the taxable year and prior taxable years and amounts includible in gross income for prior taxable years with respect to such contract under this subsection.


Where necessary to prevent the avoidance of this subsection, the Secretary may substitute “fair market value of the contract” for “net surrender value of the contract” each place it appears in the preceding sentence.

(B) Net premiums

For purposes of this paragraph, the term “net premiums” means the amount of premiums paid under the contract reduced by any policyholder dividends.

(3) Exceptions

This subsection shall not apply to any annuity contract which—

(A) is acquired by the estate of a decedent by reason of the death of the decedent,

(B) is held under a plan described in section 401(a) or 403(a), under a program described in section 403(b), or under an individual retirement plan,

(C) is a qualified funding asset (as defined in section 130(d), but without regard to whether there is a qualified assignment),

(D) is purchased by an employer upon the termination of a plan described in section 401(a) or 403(a) and is held by the employer until all amounts under such contract are distributed to the employee for whom such contract was purchased or the employee's beneficiary, or

(E) is an immediate annuity.

(4) Immediate annuity

For purposes of this subsection, the term “immediate annuity” means an annuity—

(A) which is purchased with a single premium or annuity consideration,

(B) the annuity starting date (as defined in subsection (c)(4)) of which commences no later than 1 year from the date of the purchase of the annuity, and

(C) which provides for a series of substantially equal periodic payments (to be made not less frequently than annually) during the annuity period.

(v) 10-percent additional tax for taxable distributions from modified endowment contracts

(1) Imposition of additional tax

If any taxpayer receives any amount under a modified endowment contract (as defined in section 7702A), the taxpayer's tax under this chapter for the taxable year in which such amount is received shall be increased by an amount equal to 10 percent of the portion of such amount which is includible in gross income.

(2) Subsection not to apply to certain distributions

Paragraph (1) shall not apply to any distribution—

(A) made on or after the date on which the taxpayer attains age 59½,

(B) which is attributable to the taxpayer's becoming disabled (within the meaning of subsection (m)(7)), or

(C) which is part of a series of substantially equal periodic payments (not less frequently than annually) made for the life (or life expectancy) of the taxpayer or the joint lives (or joint life expectancies) of such taxpayer and his beneficiary.

(w) Application of basis rules to nonresident aliens

(1) In general

Notwithstanding any other provision of this section, for purposes of determining the portion of any distribution which is includible in gross income of a distributee who is a citizen or resident of the United States, the investment in the contract shall not include any applicable nontaxable contributions or applicable nontaxable earnings.

(2) Applicable nontaxable contribution

For purposes of this subsection, the term “applicable nontaxable contribution” means any employer or employee contribution—

(A) which was made with respect to compensation—

(i) for labor or personal services performed by an employee who, at the time the labor or services were performed, was a nonresident alien for purposes of the laws of the United States in effect at such time, and

(ii) which is treated as from sources without the United States, and


(B) which was not subject to income tax (and would have been subject to income tax if paid as cash compensation when the services were rendered) under the laws of the United States or any foreign country.

(3) Applicable nontaxable earnings

For purposes of this subsection, the term “applicable nontaxable earnings” means earnings—

(A) which are paid or accrued with respect to any employer or employee contribution which was made with respect to compensation for labor or personal services performed by an employee,

(B) with respect to which the employee was at the time the earnings were paid or accrued a nonresident alien for purposes of the laws of the United States, and

(C) which were not subject to income tax under the laws of the United States or any foreign country.

(4) Regulations

The Secretary shall prescribe such regulations as may be necessary to carry out the provisions of this subsection, including regulations treating contributions and earnings as not subject to tax under the laws of any foreign country where appropriate to carry out the purposes of this subsection.

(x) Cross reference

For limitation on adjustments to basis of annuity contracts sold, see section 1021.

(Aug. 16, 1954, ch. 736, 68A Stat. 20; Pub. L. 87–792, §4(a), (b), Oct. 10, 1962, 76 Stat. 821; Pub. L. 87–834, §11(b), Oct. 16, 1962, 76 Stat. 1005; Pub. L. 88–272, title II, §232(b), Feb. 26, 1964, 78 Stat. 110; Pub. L. 89–44, title VIII, §809(d)(2), June 21, 1965, 79 Stat. 167; Pub. L. 89–97, title I, §106(d)(2), July 30, 1965, 79 Stat. 337; Pub. L. 89–365, §1(b), Mar. 8, 1966, 80 Stat. 32; Pub. L. 91–172, title V, §515(b), Dec. 30, 1969, 83 Stat. 644; Pub. L. 93–406, title II, §§2001(e)(5), (g)(1), (2)(A), (h)(2), (3), 2002(g)(10), 2005(c)(3), 2007(b)(2), Sept. 2, 1974, 88 Stat. 955, 957, 970, 991, 994; Pub. L. 94–455, title XIX, §§1901(a)(12), (13), 1906(b)(13)(A), 1951(b)(1)(A), Oct. 4, 1976, 90 Stat. 1765, 1834, 1836; Pub. L. 97–34, title III, §§311(b)(1), 312(d), (e)(1), Aug. 13, 1981, 95 Stat. 278, 284; Pub. L. 97–248, title II, §§236(a), (b), 237(d), 265(a), (b)(1), Sept. 3, 1982, 96 Stat. 509–511, 544–546; Pub. L. 97–448, title I, §103(c)(3)(B)(i), (6), Jan. 12, 1983, 96 Stat. 2376; Pub. L. 98–76, title II, §224(a), Aug. 12, 1983, 97 Stat. 421; Pub. L. 98–369, div. A, title II, §§211(b)(1), 222(a), (b), title IV, §§421(b)(1), 491(d)(3), (4), title V, §§521(d), 523(a), (b), title VII, §713(b)(1)–(c)(1)(B), (d)(1), July 18, 1984, 98 Stat. 754, 774, 794, 849, 868, 871, 872, 956, 957; Pub. L. 98–397, title II, §204(c)(2), Aug. 23, 1984, 98 Stat. 1448; Pub. L. 99–514, title XI, §§1101(b)(2)(B), (C), 1122(c), 1123(a), (b), (d)(1), 1134(a)–(d), 1135(a), title XVIII, §§1826(a), (b)(1)–(3), (c), (d), 1852(a)(2), (c)(1)–(4), 1854(b)(1), 1898(c)(1)(B), Oct. 22, 1986, 100 Stat. 2413, 2414, 2467, 2472, 2474, 2475, 2483, 2484, 2848–2850, 2864, 2867, 2878, 2951; Pub. L. 100–647, title I, §§1011A(b)(1)(A), (B), (2), (9), (c)(1)–(8), (h), (i), 1018(k), (t)(1)(A), (B), (u)(8), title V, §5012(a), (b)(1), (d), Nov. 10, 1988, 102 Stat. 3472, 3474–3476, 3482, 3583, 3587, 3590, 3661, 3662, 3664; Pub. L. 101–239, title VII, §§7811(m)(4), 7815(a)(3), (5), Dec. 19, 1989, 103 Stat. 2412, 2414; Pub. L. 101–508, title XI, §11802(a), Nov. 5, 1990, 104 Stat. 1388–529; Pub. L. 102–318, title V, §521(b)(3), July 3, 1992, 106 Stat. 310; Pub. L. 104–188, title I, §§1403(a), 1421(b)(4)(A), 1463(a), 1704(l)(1), (t)(2), (77), Aug. 20, 1996, 110 Stat. 1790, 1796, 1824, 1882, 1887, 1891; Pub. L. 104–191, title III, §361(a)–(c), Aug. 21, 1996, 110 Stat. 2071, 2072; Pub. L. 105–34, title II, §203(a), (b), title III, §303(a), (b), title X, §1075(a), (b), Aug. 5, 1997, 111 Stat. 809, 829, 949; Pub. L. 105–206, title III, §3436(a), title VI, §§6004(d)(3)(B), 6005(c)(1), 6023(3), (4), July 22, 1998, 112 Stat. 761, 794, 800, 824; Pub. L. 107–16, title IV, §402(a)(4)(A), (B), title VI, §§632(a)(3)(A), 641(a)(2)(C), (e)(1), June 7, 2001, 115 Stat. 60, 61, 113, 120; Pub. L. 107–22, §1(b)(1)(A), (3)(A), July 26, 2001, 115 Stat. 196, 197; Pub. L. 107–90, title II, §204(e)(2), Dec. 21, 2001, 115 Stat. 893; Pub. L. 108–311, title II, §207(6), (7), title IV, §408(a)(4), (b)(3), Oct. 4, 2004, 118 Stat. 1177, 1191, 1192; Pub. L. 108–357, title VIII, §906(a), Oct. 22, 2004, 118 Stat. 1653; Pub. L. 109–280, title VIII, §§827(a), 828(a), 844(a), Aug. 17, 2006, 120 Stat. 999, 1001, 1010; Pub. L. 110–245, title I, §107(a), June 17, 2008, 122 Stat. 1631; Pub. L. 110–458, title I, §108(e), Dec. 23, 2008, 122 Stat. 5109; Pub. L. 111–240, title II, §2113(a), Sept. 27, 2010, 124 Stat. 2566.)

References in Text

The enactment of the Economic Growth and Tax Relief Reconciliation Act of 2001, referred to in subsec. (f), means the enactment of Pub. L. 107–16, which was approved June 7, 2001.

The date of the enactment of the Small Business Job Protection Act of 1996, referred to in subsec. (n), is the date of enactment of Pub. L. 104–188, which was approved Aug. 20, 1996.

The Railroad Retirement Act of 1974, referred to in subsec. (r)(1), (2)(C)(i), (ii), is act Aug. 29, 1935, ch. 812, as amended generally by Pub. L. 93–445, title I, §101, Oct. 16, 1974, 88 Stat. 1305, which is classified generally to subchapter IV (§231 et seq.) of chapter 9 of Title 45, Railroads. Sections 2(b), 3(h), and 4(e) and (h) of the Act are classified to sections 231a(b), 231b(h), and 231c(e) and (h), respectively, of Title 45. For further details and complete classification of this Act to the Code, see Codification note set out preceding section 231 of Title 45, section 231t of Title 45, and Tables.

The date of the enactment of this subparagraph, referred to in subsec. (t)(2)(G)(iv), is the date of enactment of Pub. L. 109–280, which was approved Aug. 17, 2006.

Section 1034 (as in effect on the day before the date of the enactment of this paragraph), referred to in subsec. (t)(8)(D)(i)(II), means section 1034 of this title as in effect on the day before Aug. 5, 1997. Section 1034 was repealed by Pub. L. 105–34, title III, §312(b), Aug. 5, 1997, 111 Stat. 839.

Amendments

2010—Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 111–240 amended subsec. (a) generally. Prior to amendment, text read as follows: “Except as otherwise provided in this chapter, gross income includes any amount received as an annuity (whether for a period certain or during one or more lives) under an annuity, endowment, or life insurance contract.”

2008—Subsec. (t)(2)(G)(iv). Pub. L. 110–245, which directed amendment by striking out “, and before December 31, 2007” after “September 11, 2001”, was executed by striking out “, and on or before December 31, 2007” after “September 11, 2001”, to reflect the probable intent of Congress and the intervening amendment by Pub. L. 110–458. See Amendment note and Effective Date of 2008 Amendment note below.

Pub. L. 110–458 inserted “on or” before “before” in first sentence.

2006—Subsec. (e)(11), (12). Pub. L. 109–280, §844(a), added par. (11) and redesignated former par. (11) as (12).

Subsec. (t)(2)(G). Pub. L. 109–280, §827(a), added subpar. (G).

Subsec. (t)(10). Pub. L. 109–280, §828(a), added par. (10).

2004—Subsec. (e)(9). Pub. L. 108–311, §408(b)(3), amended Pub. L. 107–22, §1(b)(3)(A). See 2001 Amendment note below.

Subsec. (f). Pub. L. 108–311, §408(a)(4), substituted “Economic Growth and Tax Relief Reconciliation Act of 2001)” for “Economic Growth and Tax Relief Reconciliation Act of 2001” in concluding provisions.

Subsec. (t)(2)(D)(i)(III). Pub. L. 108–311, §207(6), inserted “, determined without regard to subsections (b)(1), (b)(2), and (d)(1)(B) thereof” after “section 152”.

Subsec. (t)(7)(A)(iii). Pub. L. 108–311, §207(7), substituted “152(f)(1)” for “151(c)(3)”.

Subsecs. (w), (x). Pub. L. 108–357 added subsec. (w) and redesignated former subsec. (w) as (x).

2001—Subsec. (e)(9). Pub. L. 107–22, §1(b)(3)(A), as amended by Pub. L. 108–311, §408(b)(3), substituted “Coverdell education savings” for “educational individual retirement” in heading.

Pub. L. 107–22, §1(b)(1)(A), substituted “a Coverdell education savings” for “an education individual retirement”.

Pub. L. 107–16, §402(a)(4)(A), (B), substituted “qualified tuition” for “qualified State tuition” in heading and text.

Subsec. (f). Pub. L. 107–16, §632(a)(3)(A), substituted “section 403(b)(2)(D)(iii), as in effect before the enactment of the Economic Growth and Tax Relief Reconciliation Act of 2001” for “section 403(b)(2)(D)(iii))” in concluding provisions.

Subsec. (o)(4). Pub. L. 107–16, §641(e)(1), substituted “403(b)(8), 408(d)(3), and 457(e)(16)” for “and 408(d)(3)”.

Subsec. (r)(2)(B)(i). Pub. L. 107–90 substituted “3211(b)” for “3211(a)(2)”.

Subsec. (t)(9). Pub. L. 107–16, §641(a)(2)(C), added par. (9).

1998—Subsec. (e)(9). Pub. L. 105–206, §6004(d)(3)(B), added par. (9).

Subsec. (n). Pub. L. 105–206, §6023(3), inserted “(as in effect on the day before the date of the enactment of the Small Business Job Protection Act of 1996)” after “section 101(b)(2)(D)”.

Subsec. (t)(2)(A)(iv). Pub. L. 105–206, §3436(a), which directed amendment of cl. (iv) by striking out “or” at end, could not be executed because the word “or” did not appear at end.

Subsec. (t)(2)(A)(vii). Pub. L. 105–206, §3436(a), added cl. (vii).

Subsec. (t)(3)(A). Pub. L. 105–206, §6023(4), substituted “(A)(v)” for “(A)(v),”.

Subsec. (t)(8)(E). Pub. L. 105–206, §6005(c)(1), in introductory provisions, substituted “120th day” for “120 days” and “60th day” for “60 days”.

1997—Subsec. (d)(1)(B)(iii). Pub. L. 105–34, §1075(b), inserted “If the annuity is payable over the life of a single individual, the number of anticipated payments shall be determined as follows:” before table and struck out “primary” after “If the age of the” in table.

Subsec. (d)(1)(B)(iv). Pub. L. 105–34, §1075(a), added cl. (iv).

Subsec. (t)(2)(E). Pub. L. 105–34, §203(a), added subpar. (E).

Subsec. (t)(2)(F). Pub. L. 105–34, §303(a), added subpar. (F).

Subsec. (t)(7). Pub. L. 105–34, §203(b), added par. (7).

Subsec. (t)(8). Pub. L. 105–34, §303(b), added par. (8).

1996—Subsec. (b)(4)(A). Pub. L. 104–188, §1704(l)(1), inserted “(determined without regard to subsection (c)(2))” after “contract”.

Subsec. (d). Pub. L. 104–188, §1403(a), amended subsec. (d) generally. Prior to amendment, subsec. (d) read as follows: “Treatment of Employee Contributions Under Defined Contribution Plans as Separate Contracts.—For purposes of this section, employee contributions (and any income allocable thereto) under a defined contribution plan may be treated as a separate contract.”

Subsec. (f). Pub. L. 104–188, §1463(a), in closing provisions, inserted before period at end “, or to the extent such credits are attributable to services performed as a foreign missionary (within the meaning of section 403(b)(2)(D)(iii))”.

Subsec. (m)(2)(A) to (C). Pub. L. 104–188, §1704(t)(2), inserted “and” at end of subpar. (A), redesignated subpar. (C) as (B), and struck out former subpar. (B) which read as follows: “the consideration for the contract contributed by the employee for purposes of subsection (d)(1) (relating to employee's contributions recoverable in 3 years) and subsection (e)(7) (relating to plans where substantially all contributions are employee contributions), and”.

Subsec. (p)(4)(A)(ii). Pub. L. 104–188, §1704(t)(77), amended cl. (ii) generally. Prior to amendment, cl. (ii) read as follows: “Special rules.—The term ‘qualified employer plan’—

“(I) shall include any plan which was (or was determined to be) a qualified employer plan or a government plan, but

“(II) shall not include a plan described in subsection (e)(7).”

Subsec. (t)(2)(B). Pub. L. 104–191, §361(c), substituted “, (C), or (D)” for “or (C)”.

Subsec. (t)(2)(D). Pub. L. 104–191, §361(b), added subpar. (D).

Subsec. (t)(3)(A). Pub. L. 104–191, §361(a), struck out “(B),” after “Subparagraphs (A)(v),”.

Subsec. (t)(6). Pub. L. 104–188, §1421(b)(4)(A), added par. (6).

1992—Subsec. (o)(4). Pub. L. 102–318 substituted “402(c)” for “402(a)(5), 402(a)(7)”.

1990—Subsec. (t)(2)(C), (D). Pub. L. 101–508, §11802(a)(1), (2), redesignated subpar. (D) as (C) and struck out former subpar. (C) “Exceptions for distributions from employee stock ownership plans” which read as follows: “Any distribution made before January 1, 1990, to an employee from an employee stock ownership plan (as defined in section 4975(e)(7)) or a tax credit employee stock ownership plan (as defined in section 409) if—

“(i) such distribution is attributable to assets which have been invested in employer securities (within the meaning of section 409(l)) at all times during the 5-plan-year period preceding the plan year in which the distribution is made, and

“(ii) at all times during such period the requirements of sections 401(a)(28) and 409 (as in effect at such times) are met with respect to such employer securities.”

Subsec. (t)(3)(A). Pub. L. 101–508, §11802(a)(3), substituted “and (C)” for “(C), and (D)”.

1989—Subsec. (e)(11)(A). Pub. L. 101–239, §7815(a)(3), (5), substituted “calendar year” for “12-month period” in cls. (i) and (ii), and inserted at end “The preceding sentence shall not apply to any contract described in paragraph (5)(D).”

Subsec. (q)(2)(B). Pub. L. 101–239, §7811(m)(4), inserted an additional closing parenthesis after “subsection (s)(6)(B))”.

1988—Subsec. (d). Pub. L. 100–647, §1011A(b)(2)(A), added subsec. (d).

Subsec. (e)(4)(A). Pub. L. 100–647, §5012(d)(1), inserted at end “The preceding sentence shall not apply for purposes of determining investment in the contract, except that the investment in the contract shall be increased by any amount included in gross income by reason of the amount treated as received under the preceding sentence.”

Subsec. (e)(5)(C). Pub. L. 100–647, §5012(a)(2), substituted “Except as provided in paragraph (10) and except to the extent” for “Except to the extent”.

Subsec. (e)(5)(D). Pub. L. 100–647, §1011A(b)(9)(B), substituted “paragraph (8)” for “paragraphs (7) and (8)”.

Subsec. (e)(7). Pub. L. 100–647, §1011A(b)(9)(A), struck out par. (7) which related to special rules for plans where substantially all contributions are employee contributions.

Subsec. (e)(8)(A). Pub. L. 100–647, §1011A(b)(9)(C), struck out “(other than paragraph (7))” after “this subsection”.

Subsec. (e)(9). Pub. L. 100–647, §1011A(b)(2)(B), struck out par. (9) which related to treatment of employee contributions as separate contract.

Subsec. (e)(10). Pub. L. 100–647, §5012(a)(1), added par. (10).

Subsec. (e)(11). Pub. L. 100–647, §5012(d)(2), added par. (11).

Subsec. (f). Pub. L. 100–647, §1011A(b)(1)(A), struck out “for purposes of subsections (d)(1) and (e)(7), the consideration for the contract contributed by the employee,” after “contract,” in introductory provisions.

Subsec. (n). Pub. L. 100–647, §1011A(b)(1)(B), substituted “Subsection (b)” for “Subsections (b) and (d)”.

Subsec. (o)(2). Pub. L. 100–647, §1011A(c)(8), struck out par. (2) which related to additional tax if amount received before age 59½.

Subsec. (p)(3)(A). Pub. L. 100–647, §1011A(h)(1), inserted “to which paragraph (1) does not apply by reason of paragraph (2) during the period” after “loan”.

Subsec. (p)(3)(B). Pub. L. 100–647, §1011A(h)(2), substituted “Period” for “Loans” in heading and amended text generally. Prior to amendment, text read as follows: “For purposes of subparagraph (A), a loan is described in this subparagraph—

“(i) if paragraph (1) does not apply to such loan by reason of paragraph (2), and

“(ii) if—

“(I) such loan is made to a key employee (as defined in section 416(i)), or

“(II) such loan is secured by amounts attributable to elective 401(k) or 403(b) deferrals (as defined in section 402(g)(3)).”

Subsec. (q)(2)(B). Pub. L. 100–647, §1018(t)(1)(B), substituted “subsection (s)(6)(B))” for “subsection (s)(6)(B)))”.

Subsec. (q)(2)(D). Pub. L. 100–647, §1011A(c)(7), inserted “designated” before “beneficiary”.

Pub. L. 100–647, §§1011A(c)(4), 1018(u)(8), amended subpar. (D) identically, substituting a comma for period at end.

Subsec. (q)(2)(E). Pub. L. 100–647, §1011A(b)(9)(D), struck out “(determined without regard to subsection (e)(7))” after “subsection (e)(5)(D)”.

Subsec. (q)(2)(G). Pub. L. 100–647, §1011A(c)(4), substituted a comma for period at end.

Subsec. (q)(2)(H). Pub. L. 100–647, §1011A(c)(6), added subpar. (H).

Subsec. (q)(3)(B). Pub. L. 100–647, §1011A(c)(5), substituted “taxpayer” for “employee” in cls. (i) and (ii).

Subsec. (s)(5). Pub. L. 100–647, §1018(k)(2), substituted “certain annuity contracts” for “annuity contracts which are part of qualified plans” in heading.

Subsec. (s)(5)(D). Pub. L. 100–647, §1018(k)(1), added subpar. (D).

Subsec. (s)(7). Pub. L. 100–647, §1018(t)(1)(A), substituted “primary annuitant” for “primary annuity”.

Subsec. (t)(2)(A)(iv). Pub. L. 100–647, §1011A(c)(7), inserted “designated” before “beneficiary”.

Subsec. (t)(2)(A)(v). Pub. L. 100–647, §1011A(c)(1), struck out “on account of early retirement under the plan” after “separation from service”.

Subsec. (t)(2)(C). Pub. L. 100–647, §1011A(c)(2), substituted “Exceptions for distributions from employee stock ownership plans” for “Certain plans” in heading and amended text generally. Prior to amendment, text read as follows:

“(i) In general.—Except as provided in clause (ii), any distribution made before January 1, 1990, to an employee from an employee stock ownership plan defined in section 4975(e)(7) to the extent that, on average, a majority of assets in the plan have been invested in employer securities (as defined in section 409(l)) for the 5-plan-year period preceding the plan year in which the distribution is made.

“(ii) Benefits distributed must be invested in employer securities for 5 years.—Clause (i) shall not apply to any distribution which is attributable to assets which have not been invested in employer securities at all times during the period referred to in clause (i).”

Subsec. (t)(3)(A). Pub. L. 100–647, §1011A(c)(3), substituted “(C), and (D)” for “and (C)”.

Subsec. (u)(1)(A). Pub. L. 100–647, §1011A(i)(1), inserted “(other than subchapter L)” after “subtitle”.

Subsec. (u)(3)(D). Pub. L. 100–647, §1011A(i)(3), substituted “is purchased” for “which is purchased” and “is held” for “which is held”.

Pub. L. 100–647, §1011A(i)(2), substituted “until all amounts under such contract are distributed to the employee for whom such contract was purchased or the employee's beneficiary” for “until such time as the employee separates from service”.

Subsec. (u)(3)(E). Pub. L. 100–647, §1011A(i)(3), substituted “is” for “which is”.

Subsec. (u)(4)(C). Pub. L. 100–647, §1011A(i)(4), added subpar. (C).

Subsecs. (v), (w). Pub. L. 100–647, §5012(b)(1), added subsec. (v) and redesignated former subsec. (v) as (w).

1986—Subsec. (b). Pub. L. 99–514, §1122(c)(2), amended subsec. (b) generally. Prior to amendment, subsec. (b) read as follows: “Gross income does not include that part of any amount received as an annuity under an annuity, endowment, or life insurance contract which bears the same ratio to such amount as the investment in the contract (as of the annuity starting date) bears to the expected return under the contract (as of such date). This subsection shall not apply to any amount to which subsection (d)(1) (relating to certain employee annuities) applies.”

Subsec. (d). Pub. L. 99–514, §1122(c)(1), struck out subsec. (d) which related to employee's annuities where the employee's contributions were recoverable in 3 years.

Subsec. (e)(4)(C). Pub. L. 99–514, §1826(b)(3), added subpar. (C).

Subsec. (e)(5)(D). Pub. L. 99–514, §1122(c)(3)(B), substituted “paragraphs (7) and (8)” for “paragraph (7)” in introductory provisions.

Pub. L. 99–514, §1854(b)(1), inserted closing provisions which read as follows: “Any dividend described in section 404(k) which is received by a participant or beneficiary shall, for purposes of this subparagraph, be treated as paid under a separate contract to which clause (ii)(I) applies.”

Subsec. (e)(7)(B). Pub. L. 99–514, §1852(c)(1), in introductory provisions substituted “any plan or contract” for “any trust or contract”, in cl. (ii) substituted “85 percent or more of” for “85 percent of”, and inserted closing provision: “For purposes of clause (ii), deductible employee contributions (as defined in subsection (o)(5)(A)) shall not be taken into account.”

Subsec. (e)(8), (9). Pub. L. 99–514, §1122(c)(3)(A), added pars. (8) and (9).

Subsec. (f). Pub. L. 99–514, §1852(c)(3), in introductory provisions, substituted “subsections (d)(1) and (e)(7)” for “subsection (d)(1)” and “subsection (e)(6)” for “subsection (e)(1)(B)”.

Subsec. (m)(2)(B). Pub. L. 99–514, §1852(c)(4)(A), inserted “and subsection (e)(7) (relating to plans where substantially all contributions are employee contributions)”.

Subsec. (m)(2)(C). Pub. L. 99–514, §1852(c)(4)(B), substituted “subsection (e)(6)” for “subsection (e)(1)(B)”.

Subsec. (m)(5). Pub. L. 99–514, §1852(a)(2)(C), which directed that par. (5) be amended by substituting “5-percent owners” for “owner-employees” in heading, was executed by substituting “5-percent owners” for “key employees”, to reflect the probable intent of Congress and intervening amendment by section 713(c)(1)(B) of Pub. L. 98–369.

Subsec. (m)(5)(A). Pub. L. 99–514, §1123(d)(1), amended subpar. (A) generally. Prior to amendment, subpar. (A) read as follows: “This subparagraph shall apply—

“(i) to amounts which—

“(I) are received from a qualified trust described in section 401(a) or under a plan described in section 403(a), and

“(II) are received by a 5-percent owner before such owner attains the age of 59½ years, for any reason other than such owner becoming disabled (within the meaning of paragraph (7) of this section), and

“(ii) to amounts which are received from a qualified trust described in section 401(a) or under a plan described in section 403(a) at any time by a 5-percent owner, or by the successor of such owner, but only to the extent that such amounts are determined (under regulations prescribed by the Secretary) to exceed the benefits provided for such individual under the plan formula.

Clause (i) shall not apply to any amount received by an individual in his capacity as a policyholder of an annuity, endowment, or life insurance contract which is in the nature of a dividend or similar distribution and clause (i) shall not apply to amounts attributable to benefits accrued before January 1, 1985.”

Pub. L. 99–514, §1852(a)(2)(A), amended subpar. (A) generally. Prior to amendment, subpar. (A) read as follows: “This paragraph shall apply—

“(i) to amounts (other than any amount received by an individual in his capacity as a policyholder of an annuity, endowment, or life insurance contract which is in the nature of a dividend or similar distribution) which are received from a qualified trust described in section 401(a) or under a plan described in section 403(a) and which are received by an individual, who is, or has been, a 5-percent owner, before such individual attains the age of 59½ years, for any reason other than the individual's becoming disabled (within the meaning of paragraph (7) of this subsection), but only to the extent that such amounts are attributable to contributions paid on behalf of such individual (other than contributions made by him as a 5-percent owner) while he was a 5-percent owner, and

“(ii) to amounts which are received from a qualified trust described in section 401(a) or under a plan described in section 403(a) at any time by an individual who is, or has been, a 5-percent owner or by the successor of such individual, but only to the extent that such amounts are determined, under regulations prescribed by the Secretary, to exceed the benefits provided for such individual under the plan formula.”

Subsec. (m)(5)(C). Pub. L. 99–514, §1852(a)(2)(B), amended subpar. (C) generally. Prior to amendment, subpar. (C) read as follows: “For purposes of this paragraph, the term ‘5 percent owner’ have the same meanings as when used in section 416.”

Subsec. (m)(10). Pub. L. 99–514, §1898(c)(1)(B), inserted “who is the spouse or former spouse of the participant”.

Subsec. (o)(5). Pub. L. 99–514, §1101(b)(2)(C), inserted “and made for a taxable year beginning before January 1, 1987,” in subpar. (A), substituted “subsection (p)(3)(A)(i)” for “section 219(e)(3)” in subpar. (C), and substituted “subsection (p)(3)(B)” for “section 219(e)(4)” in subpar. (D).

Subsec. (p)(2)(A)(i). Pub. L. 99–514, §1134(a), amended cl. (i) generally. Prior to amendment, cl. (i) read as follows: “$50,000, or”.

Subsec. (p)(2)(B)(ii). Pub. L. 99–514, §1134(d), amended cl. (ii) generally. Prior to amendment, cl. (ii) read as follows: “Clause (i) shall not apply to any loan used to acquire, construct, reconstruct, or substantially rehabilitate any dwelling unit which within a reasonable time is to be used (determined at the time the loan is made) as a principal residence of the participant or a member of the family (within the meaning of section 267(c)(4)) of the participant.”

Subsec. (p)(2)(C), (D). Pub. L. 99–514, §1134(b), added subpar. (C) and redesignated former subpar. (C) as (D).

Subsec. (p)(3). Pub. L. 99–514, §1134(c), added par. (3) and redesignated former par. (3) as (4).

Pub. L. 99–514, §1101(b)(2)(B), amended par. (3) generally. Prior to amendment, par. (3) read as follows: “For purposes of this subsection, the term ‘qualified employer plan’ means any plan which was (or was determined to be) a qualified employer plan (as defined in section 219(e)(3) other than a plan described in subsection (e)(7)). For purposes of this subsection, such term includes any government plan (as defined in section 219(e)(4)).”

Subsec. (p)(4), (5). Pub. L. 99–514, §1134(c), redesignated former pars. (3) and (4) as (4) and 5, respectively.

Subsec. (q). Pub. L. 99–514, §1123(b)(1)(B), substituted “10-percent” for “5-percent” in heading.

Subsec. (q)(1). Pub. L. 99–514, §1123(b)(1)(A), substituted “10 percent” for “5 percent”.

Subsec. (q)(2). Pub. L. 99–514, §1123(b)(3), substituted “Paragraph (1)” for “This subsection” in introductory provisions.

Subsec. (q)(2)(B). Pub. L. 99–514, §1826(c), amended subpar. (B) generally. Prior to amendment, subpar. (B) read as follows: “made to a beneficiary (or to the estate of an annuitant) on or after the death of an annuitant,”.

Subsec. (q)(2)(D). Pub. L. 99–514, §1123(b)(2), amended subpar. (D) generally. Prior to amendment, subpar. (D) read as follows: “which is one of a series of substantially equal periodic payments made for the life of a taxpayer or over a period extending for at least 60 months after the annuity starting date,”.

Subsec. (q)(2)(E). Pub. L. 99–514, §1852(c)(2), inserted “(determined without regard to subsection (e)(7))”.

Subsec. (q)(2)(G). Pub. L. 99–514, §1826(d), added subpar. (G).

Subsec. (q)(2)(I), (J). Pub. L. 99–514, §1123(b)(4), which added subpars. (I) and (J) directed the amendment of subpar. (G) by striking out “or” at the end thereof, and of subpar. (H) by striking out the period at the end thereof, could not be executed to subpars. (G) and (H) because subpar. (G) does not contain “or”, and no subpar. (H) was enacted.

Subsec. (q)(3). Pub. L. 99–514, §1123(b)(3), added par. (3).

Subsec. (s)(1). Pub. L. 99–514, §1826(b)(2), substituted “any holder of such contract” for “the holder of such contract” in subpars. (A) and (B).

Subsec. (s)(5). Pub. L. 99–514, §1826(a), added par. (5).

Subsec. (s)(6), (7). Pub. L. 99–514, §1826(b)(1), added pars. (6) and (7).

Subsec. (t). Pub. L. 99–514, §1123(a), added subsec. (t) and redesignated former subsec. (t) as (u).

Subsecs. (u), (v). Pub. L. 99–514, §1135(a), added subsec. (u) and redesignated former subsec. (u) as (v).

1984—Subsec. (e)(5)(D). Pub. L. 98–369, §523(b)(1), substituted “Except as provided in paragraph (7), this” for “This”.

Subsec. (e)(5)(D)(ii)(IV). Pub. L. 98–369, §211(b)(1), which directed substitution of “section 818(a)(3)” for “805(d)(3)” in subpar. (D)(i)(IV), was executed to subpar. (D)(ii)(IV) to reflect the probable intent of Congress.

Subsec. (e)(7). Pub. L. 98–369, §523(a), added par. (7).

Subsec. (k). Pub. L. 98–369, §421(b)(1), repealed subsec. (k) relating to payments in discharge of alimony.

Subsec. (m)(5). Pub. L. 98–369, §713(c)(1)(B), substituted “key employees” for “owner-employees” in heading.

Subsec. (m)(5)(A). Pub. L. 98–369, §521(d)(1), (2), substituted “5-percent owner” for “key employee” wherever appearing and struck out “in a top-heavy plan” at end of cl. (i).

Pub. L. 98–369, §713(c)(1)(A), substituted “as a key employee” for “as an owner-employee” in cl. (i).

Subsec. (m)(5)(C). Pub. L. 98–369, §521(d)(3), substituted “the term ‘5 percent owner’ ” for “the terms ‘key employee’ and ‘top-heavy plan’ ”.

Subsec. (m)(9). Pub. L. 98–369, §713(d)(1), repealed par. (9) relating to return of excess contributions before due date of return.

Subsec. (m)(10). Pub. L. 98–397 added par. (10).

Subsec. (o)(1). Pub. L. 98–369, §491(d)(3), substituted “402 and 403” for “402, 403, and 405”.

Subsec. (o)(3)(A). Pub. L. 98–369, §713(b)(1)(A), inserted “(other than the exception contained in paragraph (2) thereof)”.

Subsec. (o)(4). Pub. L. 98–369, §491(d)(4), substituted “and 408(d)(3)” for “408(d)(3), and 409(b)(3)(C)”.

Subsec. (p)(2)(A). Pub. L. 98–369, §713(b)(1)(B), inserted at end “For purposes of clause (ii), the present value of the nonforfeitable accrued benefit shall be determined without regard to any accumulated deductible employee contributions (as defined in subsection (o)(5)(B)).”

Subsec. (p)(2)(A)(ii). Pub. L. 98–369, §713(b)(4), substituted as cl. (ii) “the greater of (I) one-half of the present value of the nonforfeitable accrued benefit of the employee under the plan, or (II) $10,000” for “½ of the present value of the nonforfeitable accrued benefit of the employee under the plan (but not less than $10,000)”.

Subsec. (p)(3). Pub. L. 98–369, §523(b)(2), inserted “other than a plan described in subsection (e)(7)”.

Subsec. (q)(1). Pub. L. 98–369, §222(a), amended par. (1) generally, striking out designation “(A) In general.—” preceding text, substituting “which is includible in gross income” for “includible in gross income which is properly allocable to any investment in the annuity contract made during the 10-year period ending on the date such amount was received by the taxpayer”, and striking out former subpar. (B), which had provided that for purposes of subpar. (A), the amount includible in gross income would be allocated to the earliest investment in the contract with respect to which amounts had not been previously fully allocated under this par.

Subsecs. (s), (t). Pub. L. 98–369, §222(b), added subsec. (s) and redesignated former subsec. (s) as (t).

1983—Subsec. (o)(2)(A). Pub. L. 97–448, §103(c)(6), struck out “to which the employee made one or more deductible employee contributions” after “from a qualified employer plan or government plan”.

Subsec. (p)(3). Pub. L. 97–448, §103(c)(3)(B)(i), struck out “without regard to subparagraph (D) thereof” after “as defined in section 219(e)(3)”.

Subsecs. (r), (s). Pub. L. 98–76 added subsec. (r) and redesignated former subsec. (r) as (s).

1982—Subsec. (e). Pub. L. 97–248, §265(a), in par. (1) substituted provisions relating to the application of this subsection to amounts received under annuity, endowment, or life insurance contracts which are not received as annuities and to amounts received as dividends for provisions which stated a general rule relating to the includability as gross income of amounts that were received under annuity, endowment, or life insurance contracts which were not received as annuities and also stated that for the purposes of this section amounts which were received as dividends would be treated as amounts not received as an annuity, in par. (2) substituted provisions stating a general rule as to the includability as gross income of amounts received before or after the annuity starting date for provisions which set out those amounts which would be treated as amounts not received as an annuity, and added pars. (3) to (6).

Subsec. (m)(4). Pub. L. 97–248, §236(b)(1), struck out par. (4) which related to amounts constructively received with respect to assignments or pledges, and loans on contracts.

Subsec. (m)(5). Pub. L. 97–248, §237(d)(1), (2), in subpar. (A) substituted applicability to key employees for applicability to owner-employees and added subpar. (C).

Subsec. (m)(6). Pub. L. 97–248, §237(d)(3), struck out “except in applying paragraph (5),” after “shall”.

Subsec. (m)(8). Pub. L. 97–248, §236(b)(1), struck out par. (8) which related to loans to owner-employees.

Subsec. (o)(3)(A). Pub. L. 97–248, §236(b)(2), substituted reference to subsec. (p) of this section for references to subsec. (m)(4) and (8) of this section.

Subsec. (p). Pub. L. 97–248, §236(a), added subsec. (p). Former subsec. (p) redesignated (q).

Subsec. (q). Pub. L. 97–248, §265(b)(1), added subsec. (q). Former subsec. (q) redesignated (r).

Pub. L. 97–248, §236(a), redesignated former subsec. (p) as (q).

Subsec. (r). Pub. L. 97–248, §§236(a), 265(b)(1), redesignated former subsec. (p) as (r).

1981—Subsec. (m)(6). Pub. L. 97–34, §312(d)(1), expanded definition of “owner-employee” to include an employee within the meaning of section 401(c)(1) except in applying paragraph (5).

Subsec. (m)(8). Pub. L. 97–34, §312(d)(2), added par. (8).

Subsec. (m)(9). Pub. L. 97–34, §312(e)(1), added par. (9).

Subsecs. (o), (p). Pub. L. 97–34, §311(b)(1), added subsec. (o) and redesignated former subsec. (o) as (p).

1976—Subsec. (c)(2), (3)(A). Pub. L. 94–455, §1906(b)(13)(A), struck out “or his delegate” after “Secretary”.

Subsec. (d)(1). Pub. L. 94–455, §1901(a)(12), struck out in subpar. (B) “(whether or not before January 1, 1954)” after “beginning on the date”, and in provisions following subpar. (B) struck out “(under this paragraph and prior income tax laws)” after “until there has been so excluded”.

Subsec. (f). Pub. L. 94–455, §1906(b)(13)(A), struck out “or his delegate” after “Secretary”.

Subsec. (i). Pub. L. 94–455, §1951(b)(1)(A), struck out subsec. (i) which related to joint annuities where first annuitant died in 1951, 1952, or 1953.

Subsec. (m)(2), (3). Pub. L. 94–455, §1906(b)(13)(A), struck out “or his delegate” after “Secretary”.

Subsec. (m)(4)(A). Pub. L. 94–455, §1901(a)(13), substituted “an individual retirement account” for “an individual retirement amount”.

Subsec. (m)(5)(A)(ii), (7). Pub. L. 94–455, §1906(b)(13)(A), struck out “or his delegate” after “Secretary”.

1974—Subsec. (m)(1). Pub. L. 93–406, §2001(h)(2), struck out par. (1) which related to certain amounts received before annuity starting date.

Subsec. (m)(4)(A). Pub. L. 93–406, §2002(g)(10)(A), inserted references to an individual retirement amount described in section 408(a) and an individual retirement annuity described in section 408(b).

Subsec. (m)(5)(A). Pub. L. 93–406, §2001(e)(5), (h)(3), substituted “(other than contributions made by him as an owner-employee)” for “(whether or not paid by him)” in cl. (i), and struck out cl. (iii) which had made reference to amounts which were received, by an individual who was or had been, an owner-employee, by reason of the distribution under the provisions of section 401(e)(2)(E) of his entire interest in all qualified trusts described in section 401(a) and in all plans described in section 403(a).

Subsec. (m)(5)(B). Pub. L. 93–406, §2001(g)(1), substituted provisions that if a person receives an amount to which subsec. (m)(5) applies, his tax under this chapter for the taxable year in which such amount is received shall be increased by an amount equal to 10 percent of the portion of the amount so received which is includible in his gross income for such taxable year for provisions that if the aggregate amounts to which subsec. (m)(5) applied received by any person in his taxable year equalled or exceeded $2,500, the increase in his tax for the taxable year in which such amounts were received and attributable to such amounts could not be less than 110 percent of the aggregate increase in taxes, for the taxable year and the 4 immediately preceding taxable years, which would have resulted if such amounts had been included in such person's gross income ratably over such taxable years, with provision for alternate computation if deductions had been allowed under section 404 for contributions paid for a number of prior taxable years less than 4.

Subsec. (m)(5)(C) to (E). Pub. L. 93–406, §2001(g)(2)(A), struck out subpars. (C) to (E) which contained special rules for the application of subsec. (m)(5).

Subsec. (m)(6). Pub. L. 93–406, §2002(g)(10)(B), inserted reference to an individual for whose benefit an individual retirement account or annuity described in section 408(a) or (b) is maintained.

Subsec. (n). Pub. L. 93–406, §§2005(c)(3), 2007(b)(2), redesignated former subsec. (o) as (n) and in heading of subsec. (n) as so redesignated inserted reference to survivor benefit plan. Former subsec. (n), which set out provisions covering the treatment to be accorded total distributions, was struck out.

Subsec. (o). Pub. L. 93–406, §2005(c)(3), redesignated former subsec. (p) as (o). Former subsec. (o) redesignated (n) and amended.

Subsec. (p). Pub. L. 93–406, §2005(c)(3), redesignated subsec. (p) as (o).

1969—Subsec. (n)(1). Pub. L. 91–172, §515(b)(1), altered section to accommodate the insertion into sections 402 and 403 of provisions under which employer contributions to qualified pension, profit sharing, stock bonus, and annuity plans for plan years beginning after 1969 are to be treated as ordinary income when received in a lump sum distribution, but with such amounts to be eligible for a special averaging procedure.

Subsec. (n)(4). Pub. L. 91–172, §515(b)(2), added par. (4).

1966—Subsecs. (o), (p). Pub. L. 89–365 added subsec. (o) and redesignated former subsec. (o) as (p).

1965—Subsec. (m)(5)(A)(i). Pub. L. 89–97, §106(d)(2)(A), substituted “paragraph (7) of this subsection” for “section 213(g)(3)”.

Subsec. (m)(7). Pub. L. 89–97, §106(d)(2)(B), added par. (7).

Subsec. (n)(1). Pub. L. 89–97, §106(d)(2)(C), substituted in subpars. (A)(iii) and (B)(iii) “subsection (m)(7)” for “section 213(g)(3)”.

Subsec. (n)(3). Pub. L. 89–44 substituted “sections 31 and 39” for “section 31” in sentence following subpar. (B).

1964—Subsec. (e)(3). Pub. L. 88–272 struck out par. (3) which provided for a limit on the tax attributable to the receipt of a lump sum.

1962—Subsec. (d)(2). Pub. L. 87–792, §4(a), designated existing provisions as cl. (A) and added cl. (B).

Subsec. (f). Pub. L. 87–834 inserted sentence providing that par. (2) shall not apply to amounts which were contributed by the employer after Dec. 31, 1962, and which would not have been includible in the gross income of the employee by reason of the application of Section 911 if such amounts had been paid directly to the employee at the time of contribution, and making such sentence inapplicable to amounts which were contributed by the employer, as determined under regulations, to provide pension or annuity credits, to the extent such credits are attributable to services performed before Jan. 1, 1963, and are provided pursuant to pension or annuity plan provisions in existence on Mar. 12, 1962, and on that date applicable to such services.

Subsecs. (m) to (o). Pub. L. 87–792, §4(b), added subsecs. (m) and (n) and redesignated former subsec. (m) as (o).

Effective Date of 2010 Amendment

Pub. L. 111–240, title II, §2113(b), Sept. 27, 2010, 124 Stat. 2567, provided that: “The amendment made by this section [amending this section] shall apply to amounts received in taxable years beginning after December 31, 2010.”

Effective Date of 2008 Amendment

Pub. L. 110–458, title I, §112, Dec. 23, 2008, 122 Stat. 5113, provided that: “Except as otherwise provided in this subtitle [subtitle A (§§101–112) of title I of Pub. L. 110–458, see Tables for classification], the amendments made by this subtitle shall take effect as if included in the provisions of the 2006 Act [Pub. L. 109–280] to which the amendments relate.”

Pub. L. 110–245, title I, §107(b), June 17, 2008, 122 Stat. 1631, provided that: “The amendment made by this section [amending this section] shall apply to individuals ordered or called to active duty on or after December 31, 2007.”

Effective Date of 2006 Amendment

Pub. L. 109–280, title VIII, §827(c), Aug. 17, 2006, 120 Stat. 1001, provided that:

“(1) Effective date.—The amendment made by this section [amending this section and sections 401 and 403 of this title] shall apply to distributions after September 11, 2001.

“(2) Waiver of limitations.—If refund or credit of any overpayment of tax resulting from the amendments made by this section is prevented at any time before the close of the 1-year period beginning on the date of the enactment of this Act [Aug. 17, 2006] by the operation of any law or rule of law (including res judicata), such refund or credit may nevertheless be made or allowed if claim therefor is filed before the close of such period.”

Pub. L. 109–280, title VIII, §828(b), Aug. 17, 2006, 120 Stat. 1001, provided that: “The amendment made by this section [amending this section] shall apply to distributions after the date of the enactment of this Act [Aug. 17, 2006].”

Pub. L. 109–280, title VIII, §844(g), Aug. 17, 2006, 120 Stat. 1013, provided that:

“(1) In general.—Except as otherwise provided in this subsection, the amendments made by this section [enacting section 6050U of this title and amending this section and sections 848, 1035, 6724, and 7702B of this title] shall apply to contracts issued after December 31, 1996, but only with respect to taxable years beginning after December 31, 2009.

“(2) Tax-free exchanges.—The amendments made by subsection (b) [amending section 1035 of this title] shall apply with respect to exchanges occurring after December 31, 2009.

“(3) Information reporting.—The amendments made by subsection (d) [enacting section 6050U of this title and amending section 6724 of this title] shall apply to charges made after December 31, 2009.

“(4) Policy acquisition expenses.—The amendment made by subsection (e) [amending section 848 of this title] shall apply to specified policy acquisition expenses determined for taxable years beginning after December 31, 2009.

“(5) Technical amendment.—The amendment made by subsection (f) [amending section 7702B of this title] shall take effect as if included in section 321(a) of the Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act of 1996 [Pub. L. 104–191].”

Effective Date of 2004 Amendments

Pub. L. 108–357, title VIII, §906(c), Oct. 22, 2004, 118 Stat. 1654, provided that: “The amendments made by this section [amending this section and section 83 of this title] shall apply to distributions on or after the date of the enactment of this Act [Oct. 22, 2004].”

Amendment by section 207(6), (7) of Pub. L. 108–311 applicable to taxable years beginning after Dec. 31, 2004, see section 208 of Pub. L. 108–311, set out as a note under section 2 of this title.

Effective Date of 2001 Amendments

Amendment by Pub. L. 107–90 applicable to calendar years beginning after Dec. 31, 2001, see section 204(f) of Pub. L. 107–90, set out as an Effective and Termination Dates of 2001 Amendment note under section 24 of this title.

Amendment by Pub. L. 107–22 effective July 26, 2001, see section 1(c) of Pub. L. 107–22, set out as an Effective and Termination Dates of 2001 Amendment note under section 26 of this title.

Pub. L. 107–16, title IV, §402(h), June 7, 2001, 115 Stat. 63, provided that: “The amendments made by this section [amending this section and sections 135, 221, 529, 530, 4973, and 6693 of this title] shall apply to taxable years beginning after December 31, 2001.”

Pub. L. 107–16, title VI, §632(a)(4), June 7, 2001, 115 Stat. 115, provided that: “The amendments made by this subsection [amending this section and sections 402, 403, 404, 415, and 664 of this title] shall apply to years beginning after December 31, 2001.”

Amendment by section 641(a)(2)(C), (e)(1) of Pub. L. 107–16 applicable to distributions after Dec. 31, 2001, see section 641(f)(1) of Pub. L. 107–16, set out as a note under section 402 of this title.

Effective Date of 1998 Amendment

Pub. L. 105–206, title III, §3436(b), July 22, 1998, 112 Stat. 761, provided that: “The amendments made by this section [amending this section] shall apply to distributions after December 31, 1999.”

Amendment by section 6023(3), (4) of Pub. L. 105–206 effective July 22, 1998, see section 6023(32) of Pub. L. 105–206, set out as a note under section 34 of this title.

Amendment by sections 6004(d)(3)(B) and 6005(c)(1) of Pub. L. 105–206 effective, except as otherwise provided, as if included in the provisions of the Taxpayer Relief Act of 1997, Pub. L. 105–34, to which such amendment relates, see section 6024 of Pub. L. 105–206, set out as a note under section 1 of this title.

Effective Date of 1997 Amendment

Section 203(c) of Pub. L. 105–34 provided that: “The amendments made by this section [amending this section] shall apply to distributions after December 31, 1997, with respect to expenses paid after such date (in taxable years ending after such date), for education furnished in academic periods beginning after such date.”

Section 303(c) of Pub. L. 105–34 provided that: “The amendments made by this section [amending this section] shall apply to payments and distributions in taxable years beginning after December 31, 1997.”

Section 1075(c) of Pub. L. 105–34 provided that: “The amendments made by this section [amending this section] shall apply with respect to annuity starting dates beginning after December 31, 1997.”

Effective Date of 1996 Amendments

Section 361(d) of Pub. L. 104–191 provided that: “The amendments made by this section [amending this section] shall apply to distributions after December 31, 1996.”

Section 1403(b) of Pub. L. 104–188 provided that: “The amendment made by this section [amending this section] shall apply in cases where the annuity starting date is after the 90th day after the date of the enactment of this Act [Aug. 20, 1996].”

Section 1421(e) of Pub. L. 104–188 provided that: “The amendments made by this section [amending this section, sections 219, 280G, 402, 404, 408, 414, 416, 457, 3121, 3306, 3401, 4972, and 6693 of this title, sections 1021 and 1104 of Title 29, Labor, and section 409 of Title 42, The Public Health and Welfare] shall apply to taxable years beginning after December 31, 1996.”

Section 1463(b) of Pub. L. 104–188 provided that: “The amendment made by this section [amending this section] shall apply to taxable years beginning after December 31, 1996.”

Section 1704(l)(2) of Pub. L. 104–188 provided that: “The amendment made by paragraph (1) [amending this section] shall take effect as if included in the amendments made by section 1122(c) of the Tax Reform Act of 1986 [Pub. L. 99–514].”

Effective Date of 1992 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 102–318 applicable to distributions after Dec. 31, 1992, see section 521(e) of Pub. L. 102–318, set out as a note under section 402 of this title.

Effective Date of 1989 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 101–239 effective, except as otherwise provided, as if included in the provision of the Technical and Miscellaneous Revenue Act of 1988, Pub. L. 100–647, to which such amendment relates, see section 7817 of Pub. L. 101–239, set out as a note under section 1 of this title.

Effective Date of 1988 Amendment

Amendment by sections 1011A(b)(1)(A), (B), (2), (9), (c)(1)–(8), (h), (i), and 1018(k), (t)(1)(A), (B), and (u)(8) of Pub. L. 100–647 effective, except as otherwise provided, as if included in the provision of the Tax Reform Act of 1986, Pub. L. 99–514, to which such amendment relates, see section 1019(a) of Pub. L. 100–647, set out as a note under section 1 of this title.

Amendment by section 5012(a), (b)(1), (d) of Pub. L. 100–647 applicable to contracts entered into on or after June 21, 1988, with special rule where death benefit increases by more than $150,000, certain other material changes taken into account, certain exchanges permitted, and special rule in the case of annuity contracts, see section 5012(e) of Pub. L. 100–647, set out as an Effective Date note under section 7702A of this title.

Effective Date of 1986 Amendment

Section 1101(c) of Pub. L. 99–514 provided that: “The amendments made by this section [amending this section and section 219 of this title] shall apply to contributions for taxable years beginning after December 31, 1986.”

Amendment by section 1122(c)(1) of Pub. L. 99–514 applicable to individuals whose annuity starting date is after July 1, 1986, amendment by section 1122(c)(2) of Pub. L. 99–514 applicable to individuals whose annuity starting date is after Dec. 31, 1986, and amendment by section 1122(c)(3) of Pub. L. 99–514 applicable to amounts received after July 1, 1986, in the case of any plan not described in section 72(e)(8)(D) of this title, see section 1122(h)(2) of Pub. L. 99–514, set out as a note under section 402 of this title.

Section 1123(e) of Pub. L. 99–514, as amended by Pub. L. 100–647, title I, §1011A(c)(11), (12), Nov. 10, 1988, 102 Stat. 3476, provided that:

“(1) In general.—Except as otherwise provided in this subsection, the amendments made by this section [amending this section and sections 403 and 408 of this title] shall apply to taxable years beginning after December 31, 1986.

“(2) Subsection (c).—The amendments made by subsection (c) [amending section 403 of this title] shall apply to years beginning after December 31, 1988, but only with respect to distributions from contracts described in section 403(b) of the Internal Revenue Code of 1986 which are attributable to assets other than assets held as of the close of the last year beginning before January 1, 1989.

“(3) Exception where distribution commences.—The amendments made by this section shall not apply to distributions to any employee from a plan maintained by any employer if—

“(A) as of March 1, 1986, the employee separated from service with the employer,

“(B) as of March 1, 1986, the accrued benefit of the employee was in pay status pursuant to a written election providing a specific schedule for the distribution of the entire accrued benefit of the employee, and

“(C) such distribution is made pursuant to such written election.

“(4) Transition rule.—The amendments made by this section shall not apply with respect to any benefits with respect to which a designation is in effect under section 242(b)(2) of the Tax Equity and Fiscal Responsibility Act of 1982 [section 242(b)(2) of Pub. L. 97–248, formerly set out as an Effective Date of 1982 Amendment note under section 401 of this title].

“(5) Special rule for distributions under an annuity contract.—The amendments made by paragraphs (1), (2), and (3) of subsection (b) [amending this section] shall not apply to any distribution under an annuity contract if—

“(A) as of March 1, 1986, payments were being made under such contract pursuant to a written election providing a specific schedule for the distribution of the taxpayer's interest in such contract, and

“(B) such distribution is made pursuant to such written election.”

Section 1134(e) of Pub. L. 99–514 provided that: “The amendments made by this section [amending this section] shall apply to loans made, renewed, renegotiated, modified, or extended after December 31, 1986.”

Section 1135(b) of Pub. L. 99–514 provided that: “The amendment made by subsection (a) [amending this section] shall apply to contributions to annuity contracts after February 28, 1986.”

Amendment by sections 1826(a), (d), 1852(a)(2), (c)(1)–(4), and 1854(b)(1) of Pub. L. 99–514 effective, except as otherwise provided, as if included in the provisions of the Tax Reform Act of 1984, Pub. L. 98–369, div. A, to which such amendment relates, see section 1881 of Pub. L. 99–514, set out as a note under section 48 of this title.

Section 1826(b)(4) of Pub. L. 99–514 provided that: “The amendments made by this subsection [amending this section] shall apply to contracts issued after the date which is 6 months after the date of the enactment of this Act [Oct. 22, 1986] in taxable years ending after such date.”

Section 1826(c) of Pub. L. 99–514, as amended by Pub. L. 100–647, title I, §1018(t)(1)(D), Nov. 10, 1988, 102 Stat. 3587, provided that the amendment made by section 1826(c) of Pub. L. 99–514 is effective with respect to distributions commencing after the date 6 months after Oct. 22, 1986.

Section 1854(b)(6) of Pub. L. 99–514 provided that: “The amendments made by paragraphs (1) and (2) [amending this section and section 404 of this title] shall not apply to dividends paid before January 1, 1986, if the taxpayer treated such dividends in a manner inconsistent with such amendments on a return filed with the Secretary before the date of the enactment of this Act [Oct. 22, 1986].”

Section 1898(c)(1)(C) of Pub. L. 99–514 provided that: “The amendments made by this paragraph [amending this section and section 402 of this title] shall apply to payments made after the date of the enactment of this Act [Oct. 22, 1986].”

Effective Date of 1984 Amendments

Amendment by Pub. L. 98–397 effective Jan. 1, 1985, except as otherwise provided, see section 303(d) of Pub. L. 98–397, set out as a note under section 1001 of Title 29, Labor.

Amendment by section 211(b)(1) of Pub. L. 98–369 applicable to taxable years beginning after Dec. 31, 1983, see section 215 of Pub. L. 98–369, set out as an Effective Date note under section 801 of this title.

Section 222(c) of Pub. L. 98–369, as amended by Pub. L. 99–514, §2, Oct. 22, 1986, 100 Stat. 2095, provided:

“(1) In general.—The amendments made by this section [amending this section] shall apply to contracts issued after the day which is 6 months after the date of the enactment of this Act [July 18, 1984] in taxable years ending after such date.

“(2) Transitional rules for contracts issued before effective date.—In the case of any contract (other than a single premium contract) which is issued on or before the day which is 6 months after the date of the enactment of this Act, for purposes of section 72(q)(1)(A) of the Internal Revenue Code of 1986 [formerly I.R.C. 1954] (as in effect on the day before the date of the enactment of this Act), any investment in such contract which is made during any calendar year shall be treated as having been made on January 1 of such calendar year.”

Amendment by section 421(b)(1) of Pub. L. 98–369 applicable to transfers after July 18, 1984, in taxable years ending after such date, subject to election to have repeal apply to transfers after 1983 or to transfers pursuant to existing decrees, see section 421(d) of Pub. L. 98–369, set out as an Effective Date note under section 1041 of this title.

Amendment by section 491(d)(3), (4) of Pub. L. 98–369 applicable to obligations issued after Dec. 31, 1983, see section 491(f)(1) of Pub. L. 98–369, set out as a note under section 62 of this title.

Amendment by section 521(d) of Pub. L. 98–369 applicable to years beginning after Dec. 31, 1984, see section 521(e) of Pub. L. 98–369, set out as a note under section 401 of this title.

Section 523(c) of Pub. L. 98–369 provided that: “The amendments made by this section [amending this section] shall apply to any amount received or loan made after the 90th day after the date of enactment of this Act [July 18, 1984].”

Amendment by section 713(b)(1), (4), (c)(1)(A), (B) of Pub. L. 98–369 effective as if included in the provision of the Tax Equity and Fiscal Responsibility Act of 1982, Pub. L. 97–248, to which such amendment relates, see section 715 of Pub. L. 98–369, set out as a note under section 31 of this title.

Section 713(d)(1) of Pub. L. 98–369, as amended by Pub. L. 99–514, title XVIII, §1875(c)(5), Oct. 22, 1986, 100 Stat. 2895, provided that the amendment made by section 713(d)(1) of Pub. L. 98–369 is effective with respect to contributions made in taxable years beginning after Dec. 31, 1983.

Effective Date of 1983 Amendments

Section 227(b) of Pub. L. 98–76, as amended by Pub. L. 99–514, §2, Oct. 22, 1986, 100 Stat. 2095, provided that:

“(1) In general.—Except as provided in paragraph (2), the amendments made by section 224 [enacting section 6050G of this title, amending this section and section 86 of this title, and enacting provisions set out as a note under section 231n of Title 45, Railroads] shall apply to benefits received after December 31, 1983, in taxable years ending after such date.

“(2) Treatment of certain lump-sum payments received after december 31, 1983.—The amendments made by section 224 shall not apply to any portion of a lump-sum payment received after December 31, 1983, if the generally applicable payment date for such portion was before January 1, 1984.

“(3) No fresh start.—For purposes of determining whether any benefit received after December 31, 1983, is includible in gross income by reason of section 72(r) of the Internal Revenue Code of 1986 [formerly I.R.C. 1954], as added by this Act, the amendments made by section 224 be treated as having been in effect during all periods before 1984.”

Section 103(c)(3)(B)(ii) of Pub. L. 97–448 provided that: “The amendment made by clause (i) [amending this section] shall take effect as if the matter struck out had never been included in such paragraph.”

Amendment by title I of Pub. L. 97–448 effective, except as otherwise provided, as if it had been included in the provision of the Economic Recovery Tax Act of 1981, Pub. L. 97–34, to which such amendment relates, see section 109 of Pub. L. 97–448, set out as a note under section 1 of this title.

Effective Date of 1982 Amendment

Section 236(c) of Pub. L. 97–248, as amended by Pub. L. 97–448, title III, §306(a)(11), Jan. 12, 1983, 96 Stat. 2404; Pub. L. 98–369, div. A, title V, §554, title VII, §713(b)(2), July 18, 1984, 98 Stat. 897, 957; Pub. L. 99–514, §2, Oct. 22, 1986, 100 Stat. 2095, provided that:

“(1) In general.—The amendments made by this section [amending this section] shall apply to loans, assignments, and pledges made after August 13, 1982. For purposes of the preceding sentence, the outstanding balance of any loan which is renegotiated, extended, renewed, or revised after such date shall be treated as an amount received as a loan on the date of such renegotiation, extension, renewal, or revision.

“(2) Exception for certain loans used to repay outstanding obligations.—

“(A) In general.—Any qualified refunding loan shall not be treated as a distribution by reason of the amendments made by this section to the extent such loan is repaid before August 14, 1983.

“(B) Qualified refunding loan.—For purposes of subparagraph (A), the term ‘qualified refunding loan’ means any loan made after August 13, 1982, and before August 14, 1983, to the extent such loan is used to make a required principal payment.

“(C) Required principal payment.—For purposes of subparagraph (B), the term ‘required principal payment’ means any principal repayment on a loan made under the plan which was outstanding on August 13, 1982, if such repayment is required to be made after August 13, 1982, and before August 14, 1983 or if such loan was payable on demand.

“(D) Special rule for non-key employees.—In the case of a non-key employee (within the meaning of section 416(i)(2) of the Internal Revenue Code of 1986 [formerly I.R.C. 1954]), this paragraph shall be applied by substituting ‘January 1, 1985’ for ‘August 14, 1983’ each place it appears.

“(3) Treatment of certain renegotiations.—If—

“(A) the taxpayer after August 13, 1982, and before September 4, 1982, borrows money from a government plan (as defined in section 219(e)(4) of the Internal Revenue Code of 1986),

“(B) under the applicable State law, such loan requires the renegotiation of all outstanding prior loans made to the taxpayer under such plan, and

“(C) the renegotiation described in subparagraph (B) does not change the interest rate on, or extend the duration of, any such outstanding prior loan,

then the renegotiation described in subparagraph (B) shall not be treated as a renegotiation, extension, renewal, or revision for purposes of paragraph (1). If the renegotiation described in subparagraph (B) does not meet the requirements of subparagraph (C) solely because it extends the duration of any such outstanding prior loan, the requirements of subparagraph (C) shall be treated as met with respect to such renegotiation if, before April 1, 1983, such extension is eliminated.”

Section 265(c) of Pub. L. 97–248 provided that:

“(1) Subsection (a).—The amendments made by subsection (a) [amending this section] shall take effect on August 13, 1982.

“(2) Subsection (b).—The amendments made by subsection (b) [amending this section and sections 46, 50A, 53, 901, 1302, and 1304 of this title] shall apply to distributions after December 31, 1982.”

Amendment by section 237(d) of Pub. L. 97–248 applicable to years beginning after Dec. 31, 1983, see section 241 of Pub. L. 97–248, set out as an Effective Date note under section 416 of this title.

Effective Date of 1981 Amendment

Section 312(f) of Pub. L. 97–34, as amended by Pub. L. 97–448, title I, §103(d)(3), 96 Stat. 2378, provided that:

“(1) In general.—Except as provided in paragraph (2), the amendments made by this section [amending this section and sections 219, 401, 404, 408, 1379, and 4972 of this title] shall apply to taxable years beginning after December 31, 1981.

“(2) Transitional rule.—The amendments made by subsection (d) [amending this section] shall not apply to any loan from a plan to a self-employed individual who is an employee within the meaning of section 401(c)(1) which is outstanding on December 31, 1981. For purposes of the preceding sentence, any loan which is renegotiated, extended, renewed, or revised after such date shall be treated as a new loan.”

Effective Date of 1976 Amendment

Amendment by section 1901(a)(12), (13) of Pub. L. 94–455 applicable with respect to taxable years beginning after Dec. 31, 1976, see section 1901(d) of Pub. L. 94–455, set out as a note under section 2 of this title.

Section 1951(d) of Pub. L. 94–455 provided that: “Except as otherwise expressly provided, the amendments made by this section [see Tables for classification of section 1951 of Pub. L. 94–455] shall apply with respect to taxable years beginning after December 31, 1976.”

Effective Date of 1974 Amendment

Amendment by section 2001(e)(5) of Pub. L. 93–406 applicable to contributions made in taxable years beginning after Dec. 31, 1975, see section 2001(i)(4) of Pub. L. 93–406, set out as a note under section 401 of this title.

Section 2001(i)(5), (6) of Pub. L. 93–406 provided that:

“(5) The amendments made by subsection (g) [amending this section and sections 46, 50A, 56, 404, and 901 of this title] apply to distributions made in taxable years beginning after December 31, 1975.

“(6) The amendments made by subsection (h) [amending this section and section 401 of this title] apply to taxable years ending after the date of enactment of this Act [Sept. 2, 1974].”

Amendment by section 2002(g)(10) of Pub. L. 93–406 effective on Jan. 1, 1975, see section 2002(i)(2) of Pub. L. 93–406, set out as an Effective Date note under section 4973 of this title.

Amendment by section 2005(c)(3) of Pub. L. 93–406, applicable only with respect to distributions or payments made after Dec. 31, 1973, in taxable years beginning after Dec. 31, 1973, see section 2005(d) of Pub. L. 93–406, set out as a note under section 402 of this title.

Amendment by section 2007(b)(2) of Pub. L. 93–406 applicable to taxable years ending on or after Sept. 21, 1972, see section 2007(c) of Pub. L. 93–406, set out as a note under section 122 of this title.

Effective Date of 1969 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 91–172 applicable to taxable years ending after Dec. 31, 1969, see section 515(d) of Pub. L. 91–172, set out as a note under section 402 of this title.

Effective Date of 1966 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 89–365 applicable with respect to taxable years ending after Dec. 31, 1965, see section 1(d) of Pub. L. 89–365, set out as an Effective Date note under section 122 of this title.

Effective Date of 1965 Amendments

Amendment by Pub. L. 89–97 applicable to taxable years beginning after Dec. 31, 1966, see section 106(e) of Pub. L. 89–97, set out as a note under section 213 of this title.

Amendment by Pub. L. 89–44 applicable to taxable years beginning on or after July 1, 1965, see section 809(f) of Pub. L. 89–44, set out as a note under section 6420 of this title.

Effective Date of 1964 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 88–272 applicable to taxable years beginning after Dec. 31, 1963, see section 232(g) of Pub. L. 88–272, set out as a note under section 5 of this title.

Effective Date of 1962 Amendments

Section 11(c)(2) of Pub. L. 87–834 provided that: “The amendment made by subsection (b) [amending this section] shall apply to taxable years ending after December 31, 1962.”

Amendment by Pub. L. 87–792 applicable to taxable years beginning after Dec. 31, 1962, see section 8 of Pub. L. 87–792, set out as a note under section 22 of this title.

Savings Provision

For provisions that nothing in amendment by Pub. L. 101–508 be construed to affect treatment of certain transactions occurring, property acquired, or items of income, loss, deduction, or credit taken into account prior to Nov. 5, 1990, for purposes of determining liability for tax for periods ending after Nov. 5, 1990, see section 11821(b) of Pub. L. 101–508, set out as a note under section 45K of this title.

Section 1951(b)(1)(B) of Pub. L. 94–455 provided that: “Notwithstanding subparagraph (A) [repealing subsec. (i) of this section], if the provisions of section 72(i) applied to amounts received in taxable years beginning before January 1, 1977, under an annuity contract, then amounts received under such contract on or after such date shall be treated as if such provisions were not repealed.”

Applicability of Subsection (t)

Section 1011A(c)(13) of Pub. L. 100–647 provided that: “Section 72(t) of the 1986 Code shall apply to any distribution without regard to whether such distribution is made without the consent of the participant pursuant to section 411(a)(11) or section 417(e) of the 1986 Code.”

Plan Amendments Not Required Until January 1, 1998

For provisions directing that if any amendments made by subtitle D [§§1401–1465] of title I of Pub. L. 104–188 require an amendment to any plan or annuity contract, such amendment shall not be required to be made before the first day of the first plan year beginning on or after Jan. 1, 1998, see section 1465 of Pub. L. 104–188, set out as a note under section 401 of this title.

Plan Amendments Not Required Until January 1, 1994

For provisions directing that if any amendments made by subtitle B [§§521–523] of title V of Pub. L. 102–318 require an amendment to any plan, such plan amendment shall not be required to be made before the first plan year beginning on or after Jan. 1, 1994, see section 523 of Pub. L. 102–318, set out as a note under section 401 of this title.

Plan Amendments Not Required Until January 1, 1989

For provisions directing that if any amendments made by subtitle A or subtitle C of title XI [§§1101–1147 and 1171–1177] or title XVIII [§§1800–1899A] of Pub. L. 99–514 require an amendment to any plan, such plan amendment shall not be required to be made before the first plan year beginning on or after Jan. 1, 1989, see section 1140 of Pub. L. 99–514, as amended, set out as a note under section 401 of this title.

Definition of Terms Used in Title I of Pub. L. 110–458

Pub. L. 110–458, title I, §100, Dec. 23, 2008, 122 Stat. 5093, provided that: “For purposes of this title [see Tables for classification]:

“(1) Amendment of 1986 code.—The term ‘1986 Code’ means the Internal Revenue Code of 1986.

“(2) Amendment of erisa.—The term ‘ERISA’ means the Employee Retirement Income Security Act of 1974 [Pub. L. 93–406; see Short Title note under section 1001 of Title 29, Labor].

“(3) 2006 act.—The term ‘2006 Act’ means the Pension Protection Act of 2006 [Pub. L. 109–280; see Short Title of 2006 Amendment note under section 1001 of Title 29, Labor].”

1 So in original. Probably should be paragraph “(2)(B)”.

2 So in original. The word “or” probably should not appear.

3 See References in Text note below.

§73. Services of child

(a) Treatment of amounts received

Amounts received in respect of the services of a child shall be included in his gross income and not in the gross income of the parent, even though such amounts are not received by the child.

(b) Treatment of expenditures

All expenditures by the parent or the child attributable to amounts which are includible in the gross income of the child (and not of the parent) solely by reason of subsection (a) shall be treated as paid or incurred by the child.

(c) Parent defined

For purposes of this section, the term “parent” includes an individual who is entitled to the services of a child by reason of having parental rights and duties in respect of the child.

(d) Cross reference

For assessment of tax against parent in certain cases, see section 6201(c).

(Aug. 16, 1954, ch. 736, 68A Stat. 24.)

§74. Prizes and awards

(a) General rule

Except as otherwise provided in this section or in section 117 (relating to qualified scholarships), gross income includes amounts received as prizes and awards.

(b) Exception for certain prizes and awards transferred to charities

Gross income does not include amounts received as prizes and awards made primarily in recognition of religious, charitable, scientific, educational, artistic, literary, or civic achievement, but only if—

(1) the recipient was selected without any action on his part to enter the contest or proceeding;

(2) the recipient is not required to render substantial future services as a condition to receiving the prize or award; and

(3) the prize or award is transferred by the payor to a governmental unit or organization described in paragraph (1) or (2) of section 170(c) pursuant to a designation made by the recipient.

(c) Exception for certain employee achievement awards

(1) In general

Gross income shall not include the value of an employee achievement award (as defined in section 274(j)) received by the taxpayer if the cost to the employer of the employee achievement award does not exceed the amount allowable as a deduction to the employer for the cost of the employee achievement award.

(2) Excess deduction award

If the cost to the employer of the employee achievement award received by the taxpayer exceeds the amount allowable as a deduction to the employer, then gross income includes the greater of—

(A) an amount equal to the portion of the cost to the employer of the award that is not allowable as a deduction to the employer (but not in excess of the value of the award), or

(B) the amount by which the value of the award exceeds the amount allowable as a deduction to the employer.


The remaining portion of the value of such award shall not be included in the gross income of the recipient.

(3) Treatment of tax-exempt employers

In the case of an employer exempt from taxation under this subtitle, any reference in this subsection to the amount allowable as a deduction to the employer shall be treated as a reference to the amount which would be allowable as a deduction to the employer if the employer were not exempt from taxation under this subtitle.

(4) Cross reference

For provisions excluding certain de minimis fringes from gross income, see section 132(e).

(Aug. 16, 1954, ch. 736, 68A Stat. 24; Pub. L. 99–514, title I, §§122(a)(1), 123(b)(1), Oct. 22, 1986, 100 Stat. 2109, 2113.)

Amendments

1986—Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 99–514, §123(b)(1), which directed that subsec. (a) be amended by substituting “(relating to qualified scholarships)” for “(relating to scholarship and fellowship grants)”, was executed by making the substitution for “(relating to scholarships and fellowship grants)” to reflect the probable intent of Congress.

Pub. L. 99–514, §122(a)(1)(A), substituted “Except as otherwise provided in this section or” for “Except as provided in subsection (b) and”.

Subsec. (b). Pub. L. 99–514, §122(a)(1)(B), (C), inserted “for certain prizes and awards transferred to charities” in heading and added par. (3).

Subsec. (c). Pub. L. 99–514, §122(a)(1)(D), added subsec. (c).

Effective Date of 1986 Amendment

Amendment by section 122(a)(1) of Pub. L. 99–514 applicable to prizes and awards granted after Dec. 31, 1986, see section 151(c) of Pub. L. 99–514, set out as a note under section 1 of this title.

Amendment by section 123(b)(1) of Pub. L. 99–514 applicable to taxable years beginning after Dec. 31, 1986, but only in the case of scholarships and fellowships granted after Aug. 16, 1986, see section 151(d) of Pub. L. 99–514, set out as a note under section 1 of this title.

Applicability of Certain Amendments by Public Law 99–514 in Relation to Treaty Obligations of United States

For nonapplication of amendment by section 123(b)(1) of Pub. L. 99–514 to the extent application of such amendment would be contrary to any treaty obligation of the United States in effect on Oct. 22, 1986, see section 1012(aa)(3) of Pub. L. 100–647, set out as a note under section 861 of this title.

§75. Dealers in tax-exempt securities

(a) Adjustment for bond premium

In computing the gross income of a taxpayer who holds during the taxable year a short-term municipal bond (as defined in subsection (b)(1) primarily for sale to customers in the ordinary course of his trade or business—

(1) if the gross income of the taxpayer from such trade or business is computed by the use of inventories and his inventories are valued on any basis other than cost, the cost of securities sold (as defined in subsection (b)(2) during such year shall be reduced by an amount equal to the amortizable bond premium which would be disallowed as a deduction for such year by section 171(a)(2) (relating to deduction for amortizable bond premium) if the definition in section 171(d) of the term “bond” did not exclude such municipal bond; or

(2) if the gross income of the taxpayer from such trade or business is computed without the use of inventories, or by use of inventories valued at cost, and the municipal bond is sold or otherwise disposed of during such year, the adjusted basis (computed without regard to this paragraph) of the municipal bond shall be reduced by the amount of the adjustment which would be required under section 1016(a)(5) (relating to adjustment to basis for amortizable bond premium) if the definition in section 171(d) of the term “bond” did not exclude such municipal bond.


Notwithstanding the provisions of paragraph (1), no reduction to the cost of securities sold during the taxable year shall be made in respect of any obligation described in subsection (b)(1)(A)(ii) which is held by the taxpayer at the close of the taxable year; but in the taxable year in which any such obligation is sold or otherwise disposed of, if such obligation is a municipal bond (as defined in subsection (b)(1)), the cost of securities sold during such year shall be reduced by an amount equal to the adjustment described in paragraph (2), without regard to the fact that the taxpayer values his inventories on any basis other than cost.

(b) Definitions

For purposes of subsection (a)—

(1) The term “municipal bond” means any obligation issued by a government or political subdivision thereof if the interest on such obligation is excludable from gross income; but such term does not include such an obligation if—

(A)(i) it is sold or otherwise disposed of by the taxpayer within 30 days after the date of its acquisition by him, or

(ii) its earliest maturity or call date is a date more than 5 years from the date on which it was acquired by the taxpayer; and

(B) when it is sold or otherwise disposed of by the taxpayer—

(i) in the case of a sale, the amount realized, or

(ii) in the case of any other disposition, its fair market value at the time of such disposition,


is higher than its adjusted basis (computed without regard to this section and section 1016(a)(6)).


Determinations under subparagraph (B) shall be exclusive of interest.

(2) The term “cost of securities sold” means the amount ascertained by subtracting the inventory value of the closing inventory of a taxable year from the sum of—

(A) the inventory value of the opening inventory for such year, and

(B) the cost of securities and other property purchased during such year which would properly be included in the inventory of the taxpayer if on hand at the close of the taxable year.

(Aug. 16, 1954, ch. 736, 68A Stat. 25; Pub. L. 85–866, title I, §2(a), Sept. 2, 1958, 72 Stat. 1606.)

Amendments

1958—Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 85–866, §2(a)(2), (3), struck out “short-term” each place it appeared, and inserted sentence to provide that no reduction to cost of securities sold during taxable year shall be made in respect of subsec. (b)(1)(A)(ii) obligations held at close of year, and to permit reduction in cost of securities sold in taxable year sold if obligation is municipal bond.

Subsec. (b)(1). Pub. L. 85–866, §2(a)(1), substituted “municipal bond” for “short-term municipal bond”, designated former subpars. (A) and (B) as (A)(i) and (ii), respectively, and added subpar. (B).

Effective Date of 1958 Amendment

Section 2(c) of Pub. L. 85–866 provided that: “The amendments made by subsections (a) and (b) [amending this section and section 1016 of this title] shall apply with respect to taxable years ending after December 31, 1957, but only with respect to obligations acquired after such date.”

[§76. Repealed. Pub. L. 94–455, title XIX, §1901(a)(14), Oct. 4, 1976, 90 Stat. 1765]

Section, act Aug. 16, 1954, ch. 736, 68A Stat. 25, related to inclusion in gross of all income derived from mortgages made, or obligations issued, by a joint-stock land bank.

§77. Commodity credit loans

(a) Election to include loans in income

Amounts received as loans from the Commodity Credit Corporation shall, at the election of the taxpayer, be considered as income and shall be included in gross income for the taxable year in which received.

(b) Effect of election on adjustments for subsequent years

If a taxpayer exercises the election provided for in subsection (a) for any taxable year, then the method of computing income so adopted shall be adhered to with respect to all subsequent taxable years unless with the approval of the Secretary a change to a different method is authorized.

(Aug. 16, 1954, ch. 736, 68A Stat. 25; Pub. L. 94–455, title XIX, §1906(b)(13)(A), Oct. 4, 1976, 90 Stat. 1834.)

Amendments

1976—Subsec. (b). Pub. L. 94–455 struck out “or his delegate” after “Secretary”.

§78. Dividends received from certain foreign corporations by domestic corporations choosing foreign tax credit

If a domestic corporation chooses to have the benefits of subpart A of part III of subchapter N (relating to foreign tax credit) for any taxable year, an amount equal to the taxes deemed to be paid by such corporation under section 902(a) (relating to credit for corporate stockholder in foreign corporation) or under section 960(a)(1) (relating to taxes paid by foreign corporation) for such taxable year shall be treated for purposes of this title (other than section 245) as a dividend received by such domestic corporation from the foreign corporation.

(Added Pub. L. 87–834, §9(b), Oct. 16, 1962, 76 Stat. 1001; amended Pub. L. 94–455, title X, §1033(b)(1), Oct. 4, 1976, 90 Stat. 1628.)

Amendments

1976—Pub. L. 94–455 substituted “section 902(a)” for “section 902(a)(1)” and “section 960(a)(1)” for “section 960(a)(1)(C)”.

Effective Date of 1976 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 94–455 applicable on different dates depending on the date the distributions were received, see section 1033(c) of Pub. L. 94–455, set out as a note under section 902 of this title.

Effective Date

Section applicable in respect of any distribution received by a domestic corporation after Dec. 31, 1964, and in respect of any distribution received by a domestic corporation before Jan. 1, 1965, in a taxable year of such corporation beginning after Dec. 31, 1962, but only to the extent that such distribution is made out of the accumulated profits of a foreign corporation for a taxable year (of such foreign corporation) beginning after Dec. 31, 1962, see section 9(e) of Pub. L. 87–834, set out as an Effective Date of 1962 Amendment note under section 902 of this title.

§79. Group-term life insurance purchased for employees

(a) General rule

There shall be included in the gross income of an employee for the taxable year an amount equal to the cost of group-term life insurance on his life provided for part or all of such year under a policy (or policies) carried directly or indirectly by his employer (or employers); but only to the extent that such cost exceeds the sum of—

(1) the cost of $50,000 of such insurance, and

(2) the amount (if any) paid by the employee toward the purchase of such insurance.

(b) Exceptions

Subsection (a) shall not apply to—

(1) the cost of group-term life insurance on the life of an individual which is provided under a policy carried directly or indirectly by an employer after such individual has terminated his employment with such employer and is disabled (within the meaning of section 72(m)(7)),

(2) the cost of any portion of the group-term life insurance on the life of an employee provided during part or all of the taxable year of the employee under which—

(A) the employer is directly or indirectly the beneficiary, or

(B) a person described in section 170(c) is the sole beneficiary,


for the entire period during such taxable year for which the employee receives such insurance, and

(3) the cost of any group-term life insurance which is provided under a contract to which section 72(m)(3) applies.

(c) Determination of cost of insurance

For purposes of this section and section 6052, the cost of group-term insurance on the life of an employee provided during any period shall be determined on the basis of uniform premiums (computed on the basis of 5-year age brackets) prescribed by regulations by the Secretary.

(d) Nondiscrimination requirements

(1) In general

In the case of a discriminatory group-term life insurance plan—

(A) subsection (a)(1) shall not apply with respect to any key employee, and

(B) the cost of group-term life insurance on the life of any key employee shall be the greater of—

(i) such cost determined without regard to subsection (c), or

(ii) such cost determined with regard to subsection (c).

(2) Discriminatory group-term life insurance plan

For purposes of this subsection, the term “discriminatory group-term life insurance plan” means any plan of an employer for providing group-term life insurance unless—

(A) the plan does not discriminate in favor of key employees as to eligibility to participate, and

(B) the type and amount of benefits available under the plan do not discriminate in favor of participants who are key employees.

(3) Nondiscriminatory eligibility classification

(A) In general

A plan does not meet requirements of subparagraph (A) of paragraph (2) unless—

(i) such plan benefits 70 percent or more of all employees of the employer,

(ii) at least 85 percent of all employees who are participants under the plan are not key employees,

(iii) such plan benefits such employees as qualify under a classification set up by the employer and found by the Secretary not to be discriminatory in favor of key employees, or

(iv) in the case of a plan which is part of a cafeteria plan, the requirements of section 125 are met.

(B) Exclusion of certain employees

For purposes of subparagraph (A), there may be excluded from consideration—

(i) employees who have not completed 3 years of service;

(ii) part-time or seasonal employees;

(iii) employees not included in the plan who are included in a unit of employees covered by an agreement between employee representatives and one or more employers which the Secretary finds to be a collective bargaining agreement, if the benefits provided under the plan were the subject of good faith bargaining between such employee representatives and such employer or employers; and

(iv) employees who are nonresident aliens and who receive no earned income (within the meaning of section 911(d)(2)) from the employer which constitutes income from sources within the United States (within the meaning of section 861(a)(3)).

(4) Nondiscriminatory benefits

A plan does not meet the requirements of paragraph (2)(B) unless all benefits available to participants who are key employees are available to all other participants.

(5) Special rule

A plan shall not fail to meet the requirements of paragraph (2)(B) merely because the amount of life insurance on behalf of the employees under the plan bears a uniform relationship to the total compensation or the basic or regular rate of compensation of such employees.

(6) Key employee defined

For purposes of this subsection, the term “key employee” has the meaning given to such term by paragraph (1) of section 416(i). Such term also includes any former employee if such employee when he retired or separated from service was a key employee.

(7) Exemption for church plans

(A) In general

This subsection shall not apply to a church plan maintained for church employees.

(B) Definitions

For purposes of subparagraph (A), the terms “church plan” and “church employee” have the meaning given such terms by paragraphs (1) and (3)(B) of section 414(e), respectively, except that—

(i) section 414(e) shall be applied by substituting “section 501(c)(3)” for “section 501” each place it appears, and

(ii) the term “church employee” shall not include an employee of—

(I) an organization described in section 170(b)(1)(A)(ii) above the secondary school level (other than a school for religious training),

(II) an organization described in section 170(b)(1)(A)(iii), and

(III) an organization described in section 501(c)(3), the basis of the exemption for which is substantially similar to the basis for exemption of an organization described in subclause (II).

(8) Treatment of former employees

To the extent provided in regulations, this subsection shall be applied separately with respect to former employees.

(e) Employee includes former employee

For purposes of this section, the term “employee” includes a former employee.

(Added Pub. L. 88–272, title II, §204(a)(1), Feb. 26, 1964, 78 Stat. 36; amended Pub. L. 89–97, title I, §106(d)(3), July 30, 1965, 79 Stat. 337; Pub. L. 94–455, title XIX, §1906(b)(13)(A), Oct. 4, 1976, 90 Stat. 1834; Pub. L. 97–248, title II, §244(a), Sept. 3, 1982, 96 Stat. 523; Pub. L. 98–369, div. A, title II, §223(a), (b), July 18, 1984, 98 Stat. 775; Pub. L. 99–514, title XI, §1151(c)(1), title XVIII, §1827(a)(1), (c), (d), Oct. 22, 1986, 100 Stat. 2503, 2850, 2851; Pub. L. 100–647, title V, §5013(a), Nov. 10, 1988, 102 Stat. 3666; Pub. L. 101–140, title II, §203(a)(1), (b)(1)(A), Nov. 8, 1989, 103 Stat. 830, 831; Pub. L. 101–508, title XI, §11703(e)(1), Nov. 5, 1990, 104 Stat. 1388–517.)

Amendments

1990—Subsec. (d)(6). Pub. L. 101–508 substituted “any former employee” for “any retired employee”.

1989—Subsec. (d). Pub. L. 101–140, §203(a)(1), amended subsec. (d) to read as if amendments by Pub. L. 99–514, §1151(c)(1), had not been enacted, see 1986 Amendment note below.

Subsec. (d)(7). Pub. L. 101–140, §203(b)(1)(A), amended par. (7) generally. Prior to amendment, par. (7) read as follows: “All employees who are treated as employed by a single employer under subsection (b), (c), or (m) of section 414 shall be treated as employed by a single employer for purposes of this section.”

1988—Subsec. (c). Pub. L. 100–647 struck out at end “In the case of an employee who has attained age 64, the cost prescribed shall not exceed the cost with respect to such individual if he were age 63.”

1986—Subsec. (d). Pub. L. 99–514, §1151(c)(1), amended subsec. (d) generally, substituting “In the case of a group-term life insurance plan which is a discriminatory employee benefit plan, subsection (a)(1) shall apply only to the extent provided in section 89.” for provisions formerly designated as pars. (1)(A) and (B) that in the case of a discriminatory group-term life insurance plan subsec. (a)(1) shall not apply with respect to any key employee and the cost of group-term life insurance on the life of any key employee shall be determined without regard to subsec. (c), and striking out pars. (2) to (7) relating to classifications and eligibility classifications of nondiscriminatory plans.

Subsec. (d)(1)(B). Pub. L. 99–514, §1827(a)(1), amended subpar. (B) generally. Prior to amendment, subpar. (B) read as follows: “the cost of group-term life insurance on the life of any key employee shall be determined without regard to subsection (c).”

Subsec. (d)(6). Pub. L. 99–514, §1827(c), struck out “, except that subparagraph (A)(iv) of such paragraph shall be applied by not taking into account employees described in paragraph (3)(B) who are not participants in the plan” from first sentence and inserted provision that such term also includes any retired employee if such employee when he retired or separated from service was a key employee.

Subsec. (d)(8). Pub. L. 99–514, §1827(d), added par. (8).

1984—Subsec. (b)(1). Pub. L. 98–369, §223(a)(2), struck out “either has reached the retirement age with respect to such employer or” before “is disabled”.

Subsec. (d)(1). Pub. L. 98–369, §223(b), designated existing provisions as subpar. (A) and added subpar. (B).

Subsec. (e). Pub. L. 98–369, §223(a)(1), added subsec. (e).

1982—Subsec. (d). Pub. L. 97–248 added subsec. (d).

1976—Subsec. (c). Pub. L. 94–455 struck out “or his delegate” after “Secretary”.

1965—Subsec. (b)(1). Pub. L. 89–97 substituted “section 72(m)(7)” for “paragraph (3) of section 213(g), determined without regard to paragraph (4) thereof”.

Effective Date of 1990 Amendment

Section 11703(e)(2) of Pub. L. 101–508 provided that: “The amendment made by paragraph (1) [amending this section] shall apply to employees separating from service after the date of the enactment of this Act [Nov. 5, 1990].”

Effective Date of 1989 Amendment

Section 203(c) of Pub. L. 101–140 provided that: “The amendments made by this section [amending this section and sections 105, 117, 120, 125, 127, 129, 132, 162, 401, 414, 505, 3121, 3231, 3306, 3401, 4976, and 6652 of this title, section 409 of title 42, The Public Health and Welfare, and provisions set out as notes under sections 89 and 3121 of this title] shall take effect as if included in section 1151 of the Tax Reform Act of 1986 [Pub. L. 99–514, see section 1151(k) set out below].”

Effective Date of 1988 Amendment

Section 5013(b) of Pub. L. 100–647 provided that: “The amendment made by subsection (a) [amending this section] shall apply to taxable years beginning after December 31, 1988.”

Effective Date of 1986 Amendment

Section 1151(k) of Pub. L. 99–514, as amended by Pub. L. 100–647, title I, §1011B(a)(25), (26), Nov. 10, 1988, 102 Stat. 3486, provided that:

“(1) In general.—The amendments made by this section [enacting section 89 of this title and amending this section and sections 105, 106, 117, 120, 125, 127, 129, 132, 414, 505, 6039D, and 6652 of this title] shall apply to years beginning after the later of—

“(A) December 31, 1987, or

“(B) the earlier of—

“(i) the date which is 3 months after the date on which the Secretary of the Treasury or his delegate issues such regulations as are necessary to carry out the provisions of section 89 of the Internal Revenue Code of 1986 (as added by this section), or

“(ii) December 31, 1988.

Notwithstanding the preceding sentence, the amendments made by subsections (e)(1) and (i)(3)(C) [amending section 414 of this title] shall, to the extent they relate to sections 106, 162(i)(2), and 162(k) of the Internal Revenue Code of 1986, apply to years beginning after 1986.

“(2) Special rule for collective bargaining plan.—In the case of a plan maintained pursuant to 1 or more collective bargaining agreements between employee representatives and 1 or more employers ratified before March 1, 1986, the amendments made by this section [enacting section 89 of this title and amending this section and sections 105, 106, 117, 120, 125, 127, 129, 132, 414, 505, 6039D, and 6652 of this title] shall not apply to employees covered by such an agreement in years beginning before the earlier of—

“(A) the date on which the last of such collective bargaining agreements terminates (determined without regard to any extension thereof after February 28, 1986), or

“(B) January 1, 1991.

A plan shall not be required to take into account employees to which the preceding sentence applies for purposes of applying section 89 of the Internal Revenue Code of 1986 (as added by this section) to employees to which the preceding sentence does not apply for any year preceding the year described in the preceding sentence.

“(3) Exception for certain group-term insurance plans.—In the case of a plan described in section 223(d)(2) of the Tax Reform Act of 1984 [section 232(d)(2) of Pub. L. 98–369, set out as an Effective Date of 1984 Amendment note below], such plan shall be treated as meeting the requirements of section 89 of the Internal Revenue Code of 1986 (as added by this section) with respect to individuals described in section 223(d)(2) of such Act. An employer may elect to disregard such individuals in applying section 89 of such Code (as so added) to other employees of the employer.

“(4) Special rule for church plans.—In the case of a church plan (within the meaning of section 414(e)(3) of the Internal Revenue Code of 1986) maintaining an insured accident and health plan, the amendments made by this section [enacting section 89 of this title and amending this section and sections 105, 106, 117, 120, 125, 127, 129, 132, 414, 505, 6039D, and 6652 of this title] shall apply to years beginning after December 31, 1988.

“(5) Cafeteria plans.—The amendments made by subsection (d)(2) [amending sections 3121 and 3306 of this title and section 409 of Title 42, The Public Health and Welfare] shall apply to taxable years beginning after December 31, 1983.

“(6) Certain plans maintained by educational institutions.—If an educational organization described in section 170(b)(1)(A)(ii) of the Internal Revenue Code of 1986 makes an election under this paragraph with respect to a plan described in section 125(c)(2)(C) of such Code, the amendments made by this section shall apply with respect to such plan for plan years beginning after the date of the enactment of this Act [Oct. 22, 1986].”

Section 1827(a)(2) of Pub. L. 99–514 provided that: “The amendment made by paragraph (1) [amending this section] shall apply to taxable years ending after the date of the enactment of this Act [Oct. 22, 1986].”

Amendment by section 1827(c), (d) of Pub. L. 99–514 effective, except as otherwise provided, as if included in the provisions of the Tax Reform Act of 1984, Pub. L. 98–369, div. A, to which such amendment relates, see section 1881 of Pub. L. 99–514, set out as a note under section 48 of this title.

Effective Date of 1984 Amendment

Section 223(d) of Pub. L. 98–369, as amended by Pub. L. 99–514, §2, title XVIII, §1827(b), Oct. 22, 1986, 100 Stat. 2095, 2850, provided that:

“(1) In general.—Except as provided in paragraph (2), the amendments made by this section [amending this section and section 83 of this title] shall apply to taxable years beginning after December 31, 1983.

“(2) Inclusion of former employees in the case of existing group-term insurance plans.—

“(A) In general.—The amendments made by subsection (a) [amending this section] shall not apply—

“(i) to any group-term life insurance plan of the employer in existence on January 1, 1984, or

“(ii) to any group-term life insurance plan of the employer (or a successor employer) which is a comparable successor to a plan described in clause (i),

but only with respect to an individual who attained age 55 on or before January 1, 1984, and was employed by such employer (or a predecessor employer) at any time during 1983. Such amendments also shall not apply to any employee who retired from employment on or before January 1, 1984, and who, when he retired, was covered by the plan (or a predecessor plan).

“(B) Special rule in the case of discriminatory group-term life insurance plan.—In the case of any plan which, after December 31, 1986, is a discriminatory group-term life insurance plan (as defined in section 79(d) of the Internal Revenue Code of 1986 [formerly I.R.C. 1954]), subparagraph (A) shall not apply in the case of any individual retiring under such plan after December 31, 1986.

“(C) Benefits to certain retired individuals not taken into account for purposes of determining whether plan is discriminatory.—For purposes of determining whether a plan described in subparagraph (A) meets the requirements of section 79(d) of the Internal Revenue Code of 1986 with respect to group-term life insurance for former employees, coverage provided to employees who retired on or before December 31, 1986, may, at the employer's election, be disregarded.

“(D) Comparable successor plans.—For purposes of subparagraph (A), a plan shall not fail to be treated as a comparable successor to a plan described in subparagraph (A)(i) with respect to any employee whose benefits do not increase under the successor plan.”

Effective Date of 1982 Amendment

Section 244(b) of Pub. L. 97–248 provided that: “The amendment made by subsection (a) [amending this section] shall apply to taxable years beginning after December 31, 1983.”

Effective Date of 1965 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 89–97 applicable to taxable years beginning after Dec. 31, 1966, see section 106(e) of Pub. L. 89–97, set out as a note under section 213 of this title.

Effective Date

Section 204(d) of Pub. L. 88–272, as amended by Pub. L. 99–514, §2, Oct. 22, 1986, 100 Stat. 2095, provided that: “The amendments made by subsections (a) [amending this section and section 7701 of this title] and (c) [amending sections 6052 and 6678 of this title] and paragraph (3) of section 6652(a) of the Internal Revenue Code of 1986 [formerly I.R.C. 1954] (as amended by section 221(b)(2) of this Act), shall apply with respect to group-term life insurance provided after December 31, 1963, in taxable years ending after such date. The amendments made by subsection (b) [amending section 3401 of this title] shall apply with respect to remuneration paid after December 31, 1963, in the form of group-term life insurance provided after such date. In applying section 79(b) of the Internal Revenue Code of 1986 (as added by subsection (a)(1) of this section) to a taxable year beginning before May 1, 1964, if paragraph (2)(B) of such section applies with respect to an employee for the period beginning May 1, 1964, and ending with the close of his first taxable year ending after April 30, 1964, such paragraph (2)(B) shall be treated as applying with respect to such employee for the period beginning January 1, 1964, and ending April 30, 1964.”

Nonenforcement of Amendment Made by Section 1151 of Pub. L. 99–514 for Fiscal Year 1990

No monies appropriated by Pub. L. 101–136 to be used to implement or enforce section 1151 of Pub. L. 99–514 or the amendments made by such section, see section 528 of Pub. L. 101–136, set out as a note under section 89 of this title.

Plan Amendments Not Required Until January 1, 1989

For provisions directing that if any amendments made by subtitle A or subtitle C of title XI [§§1101–1147 and 1171–1177] or title XVIII [§§1800–1899A] of Pub. L. 99–514 require an amendment to any plan, such plan amendment shall not be required to be made before the first plan year beginning on or after Jan. 1, 1989, see section 1140 of Pub. L. 99–514, as amended, set out as a note under section 401 of this title.

§80. Restoration of value of certain securities

(a) General rule

In the case of a domestic corporation subject to the tax imposed by section 11 or 801, if the value of any security (as defined in section 165(g)(2))—

(1) which became worthless by reason of the expropriation, intervention, seizure, or similar taking by the government of any foreign country, any political subdivision thereof, or any agency or instrumentality of the foregoing of property to which such security was related, and

(2) which was taken into account as a loss from the sale or exchange of a capital asset or with respect to which a deduction for a loss was allowed under section 165,


is restored in whole or in part during any taxable year by reason of any recovery of money or other property in respect of the property to which such security was related, the value so restored (to the extent that, when added to the value so restored during prior taxable years, it does not exceed the amount of the loss described in paragraph (2)) shall, except as provided in subsection (b), be included in gross income for the taxable year in which such restoration occurs.

(b) Reduction for failure to receive tax benefit

The amount otherwise includible in gross income under subsection (a) in respect of any security shall be reduced by an amount equal to the amount (if any) of the loss described in subsection (a)(2) which did not result in a reduction of the taxpayer's tax under this subtitle for any taxable year, determined under regulations prescribed by the Secretary.

(c) Character of income

For purposes of this subtitle—

(1) Except as provided in paragraph (2), the amount included in gross income under this section shall be treated as ordinary income.

(2) If the loss described in subsection (a)(2) was taken into account as a loss from the sale or exchange of a capital asset, the amount included in gross income under this section shall be treated as long-term capital gain.

(d) Treatment under foreign expropriation loss recovery provisions

This section shall not apply to any recovery of a foreign expropriation loss to which section 1351 applies.

(Added Pub. L. 89–384, §1(b)(1), Apr. 8, 1966, 80 Stat. 101; amended Pub. L. 94–455, title XIX, §§1901(b)(3)(K), 1906(b)(13)(A), Oct. 4, 1976, 90 Stat. 1793, 1834; Pub. L. 98–369, div. A, title II, §211(b)(2), July 18, 1984, 98 Stat. 754.)

Amendments

1984—Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 98–369 substituted “801” for “802”.

1976—Subsec. (b). Pub. L. 94–455, §1906(b)(13)(A), struck out “or his delegate” after “Secretary”.

Subsec. (c)(1). Pub. L. 94–455, §1901(b)(3)(K), substituted “ordinary income” for “gain from the sale or exchange of property which is neither a capital asset nor property described in section 1231”.

Effective Date of 1984 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 98–369 applicable to taxable years beginning after Dec. 31, 1983, see section 215 of Pub. L. 98–369, set out as an Effective Date note under section 801 of this title.

Effective Date of 1976 Amendment

Amendment by section 1901(b)(3)(K) of Pub. L. 94–455 applicable with respect to taxable years beginning after Dec. 31, 1976, see section 1901(d) of Pub. L. 94–455, set out as a note under section 2 of this title.

Effective Date

Section 1(b)(3) of Pub. L. 89–384, as amended by Pub. L. 99–514, §2, Oct. 22, 1986, 100 Stat. 2095, provided that: “The amendments made by this subsection [enacting this section] shall apply to taxable years beginning after December 31, 1965, but only with respect to losses described in section 80(a)(2) of the Internal Revenue Code of 1986 [formerly I.R.C. 1954] (as added by paragraph (1) of this subsection) which were sustained after December 31, 1958.”

[§81. Repealed. Pub. L. 100–203, title X, §10201(b)(1), Dec. 22, 1987, 101 Stat. 1330–387]

Section, added Pub. L. 89–722, §1(b)(1), Nov. 2, 1966, 80 Stat. 1152; amended Pub. L. 93–625, §4(c)(1), Jan. 3, 1975, 88 Stat. 2111; Pub. L. 94–455, title VI, §605(b), Oct. 4, 1976, 90 Stat. 1575; Pub. L. 99–514, title VIII, §805(c)(1)(A), Oct. 22, 1986, 100 Stat. 2362, included increase in vacation pay suspense account in gross income.

Effective Date of Repeal

Repeal applicable to taxable years beginning after Dec. 31, 1987, see section 10201(c)(1) of Pub. L. 100–203, set out as an Effective Date of 1987 Amendment note under section 404 of this title.

§82. Reimbursement for expenses of moving

Except as provided in section 132(a)(6), there shall be included in gross income (as compensation for services) any amount received or accrued, directly or indirectly, by an individual as a payment for or reimbursement of expenses of moving from one residence to another residence which is attributable to employment or self-employment.

(Added Pub. L. 91–172, title II, §231(b), Dec. 30, 1969, 83 Stat. 579; amended Pub. L. 103–66, title XIII, §13213(d)(3)(A), Aug. 10, 1993, 107 Stat. 474.)

Amendments

1993—Pub. L. 103–66 substituted “Except as provided in section 132(a)(6), there shall” for “There shall”.

Effective Date of 1993 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 103–66 applicable to reimbursements or other payments in respect of expenses incurred after Dec. 31, 1993, see section 13213(e) of Pub. L. 103–66, set out as a note under section 62 of this title.

Effective Date

Section applicable to taxable years beginning after December 31, 1969, except that it does not apply to moving expenses paid or incurred before July 1, 1970, in connection with the commencement of work by the taxpayer as an employee at a new principal place of work of which the taxpayer had been notified by his employer on or before December 19, 1969, see section 231(d) of Pub. L. 91–172, set out as an Effective Date of 1969 Amendment note under section 217 of this title.

Moving Expenses of Members of the Uniformed Services

Withholding, reporting, inclusion within adjusted gross income, and deduction for reimbursement for moving expenses of members of the uniformed services, see section 2 of Pub. L. 93–490, Oct. 26, 1974, 88 Stat. 1466, set out as a note under section 217 of this title.

§83. Property transferred in connection with performance of services

(a) General rule

If, in connection with the performance of services, property is transferred to any person other than the person for whom such services are performed, the excess of—

(1) the fair market value of such property (determined without regard to any restriction other than a restriction which by its terms will never lapse) at the first time the rights of the person having the beneficial interest in such property are transferable or are not subject to a substantial risk of forfeiture, whichever occurs earlier, over

(2) the amount (if any) paid for such property, shall be included in the gross income of the person who performed such services in the first taxable year in which the rights of the person having the beneficial interest in such property are transferable or are not subject to a substantial risk of forfeiture, whichever is applicable. The preceding sentence shall not apply if such person sells or otherwise disposes of such property in an arm's length transaction before his rights in such property become transferable or not subject to a substantial risk of forfeiture.

(b) Election to include in gross income in year of transfer

(1) In general

Any person who performs services in connection with which property is transferred to any person may elect to include in his gross income for the taxable year in which such property is transferred, the excess of—

(A) the fair market value of such property at the time of transfer (determined without regard to any restriction other than a restriction which by its terms will never lapse), over

(B) the amount (if any) paid for such property.


If such election is made, subsection (a) shall not apply with respect to the transfer of such property, and if such property is subsequently forfeited, no deduction shall be allowed in respect of such forfeiture.

(2) Election

An election under paragraph (1) with respect to any transfer of property shall be made in such manner as the Secretary prescribes and shall be made not later than 30 days after the date of such transfer. Such election may not be revoked except with the consent of the Secretary.

(c) Special rules

For purposes of this section—

(1) Substantial risk of forfeiture

The rights of a person in property are subject to a substantial risk of forfeiture if such person's rights to full enjoyment of such property are conditioned upon the future performance of substantial services by any individual.

(2) Transferability of property

The rights of a person in property are transferable only if the rights in such property of any transferee are not subject to a substantial risk of forfeiture.

(3) Sales which may give rise to suit under section 16(b) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934

So long as the sale of property at a profit could subject a person to suit under section 16(b) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, such person's rights in such property are—

(A) subject to a substantial risk of forfeiture, and

(B) not transferable.


(4) For purposes of determining an individual's basis in property transferred in connection with the performance of services, rules similar to the rules of section 72(w) shall apply.

(d) Certain restrictions which will never lapse

(1) Valuation

In the case of property subject to a restriction which by its terms will never lapse, and which allows the transferee to sell such property only at a price determined under a formula, the price so determined shall be deemed to be the fair market value of the property unless established to the contrary by the Secretary, and the burden of proof shall be on the Secretary with respect to such value.

(2) Cancellation

If, in the case of property subject to a restriction which by its terms will never lapse, the restriction is canceled, then, unless the taxpayer establishes—

(A) that such cancellation was not compensatory, and

(B) that the person, if any, who would be allowed a deduction if the cancellation were treated as compensatory, will treat the transaction as not compensatory, as evidenced in such manner as the Secretary shall prescribe by regulations,


the excess of the fair market value of the property (computed without regard to the restrictions) at the time of cancellation over the sum of—

(C) the fair market value of such property (computed by taking the restriction into account) immediately before the cancellation, and

(D) the amount, if any, paid for the cancellation,


shall be treated as compensation for the taxable year in which such cancellation occurs.

(e) Applicability of section

This section shall not apply to—

(1) a transaction to which section 421 applies,

(2) a transfer to or from a trust described in section 401(a) or a transfer under an annuity plan which meets the requirements of section 404(a)(2),

(3) the transfer of an option without a readily ascertainable fair market value,

(4) the transfer of property pursuant to the exercise of an option with a readily ascertainable fair market value at the date of grant, or

(5) group-term life insurance to which section 79 applies.

(f) Holding period

In determining the period for which the taxpayer has held property to which subsection (a) applies, there shall be included only the period beginning at the first time his rights in such property are transferable or are not subject to a substantial risk of forfeiture, whichever occurs earlier.

(g) Certain exchanges

If property to which subsection (a) applies is exchanged for property subject to restrictions and conditions substantially similar to those to which the property given in such exchange was subject, and if section 354, 355, 356, or 1036 (or so much of section 1031 as relates to section 1036) applied to such exchange, or if such exchange was pursuant to the exercise of a conversion privilege—

(1) such exchange shall be disregarded for purposes of subsection (a), and

(2) the property received shall be treated as property to which subsection (a) applies.

(h) Deduction by employer

In the case of a transfer of property to which this section applies or a cancellation of a restriction described in subsection (d), there shall be allowed as a deduction under section 162, to the person for whom were performed the services in connection with which such property was transferred, an amount equal to the amount included under subsection (a), (b), or (d)(2) in the gross income of the person who performed such services. Such deduction shall be allowed for the taxable year of such person in which or with which ends the taxable year in which such amount is included in the gross income of the person who performed such services.

(Added Pub. L. 91–172, title III, §321(a), Dec. 30, 1969, 83 Stat. 588; amended Pub. L. 94–455, title XIX, §§1901(a)(15), 1906(b)(13)(A), Oct. 4, 1976, 90 Stat. 1765, 1834; Pub. L. 97–34, title II, §252(a), Aug. 13, 1981, 95 Stat. 260; Pub. L. 97–448, title I, §102(k)(1), Jan. 12, 1983, 96 Stat. 2374; Pub. L. 98–369, div. A, title II, §223(c), July 18, 1984, 98 Stat. 775; Pub. L. 99–514, title XVIII, §1827(e), Oct. 22, 1986, 100 Stat. 2851; Pub. L. 101–508, title XI, §11801(a)(5), Nov. 5, 1990, 104 Stat. 1388–520; Pub. L. 108–357, title VIII, §906(b), Oct. 22, 2004, 118 Stat. 1654.)

References in Text

Section 16(b) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, referred to in subsec. (c)(3), is classified to section 78p(b) of Title 15, Commerce and Trade.

Amendments

2004—Subsec. (c)(4). Pub. L. 108–357 added par. (4).

1990—Subsec. (i). Pub. L. 101–508 struck out subsec. (i) “Transition rules” which read as follows: “This section shall apply to property transferred after June 30, 1969, except that this section shall not apply to property transferred—

“(1) pursuant to a binding written contract entered into before April 22, 1969,

“(2) upon the exercise of an option granted before April 22, 1969,

“(3) before May 1, 1970, pursuant to a written plan adopted and approved before July 1, 1969,

“(4) before January 1, 1973, upon the exercise of an option granted pursuant to a binding written contract entered into before April 22, 1969, between a corporation and the transferor requiring the transferor to grant options to employees of such corporation (or a subsidiary of such corporation) to purchase a determinable number of shares of stock of such corporation, but only if the transferee was an employee of such corporation (or a subsidiary of such corporation) on or before April 22, 1969, or

“(5) in exchange for (or pursuant to the exercise of a conversion privilege contained in) property transferred before July 1, 1969, or for property to which this section does not apply (by reason of paragraphs (1), (2), (3), or (4)), if section 354, 355, 356, or 1036 (or so much of section 1031 as relates to section 1036) applies, or if gain or loss is not otherwise required to be recognized upon the exercise of such conversion privilege, and if the property received in such exchange is subject to restrictions and conditions substantially similar to those to which the property given in such exchange was subject.”

1986—Subsec. (e)(5). Pub. L. 99–514 struck out “the cost of” before “group-life insurance”.

1984—Subsec. (e)(5). Pub. L. 98–369 added par. (5).

1983—Subsec. (c)(3). Pub. L. 97–448 substituted “Securities Exchange Act of 1934” for “Securities and Exchange Act of 1934” in heading and text.

1981—Subsec. (c)(3). Pub. L. 97–34 added par. (3).

1976—Subsec. (b)(2). Pub. L. 94–455, §1901(a)(15), struck out “(or, if later, 30 days after the date of the enactment of the Tax Reform Act of 1969)” after “after the date of such transfer”, and §1906(b)(13)(A), “or his delegate” after “Secretary” wherever appearing.

Subsec. (d)(1), (2)(B). Pub. L. 94–455, §1906(b)(13)(A), struck out “or his delegate” after “Secretary”.

Effective Date of 2004 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 108–357 applicable to distributions on or after Oct. 22, 2004, see section 906(c) of Pub. L. 108–357, set out as a note under section 72 of this title.

Effective Date of 1986 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 99–514 effective, except as otherwise provided, as if included in the provisions of the Tax Reform Act of 1984, Pub. L. 98–369, div. A, to which such amendment relates, see section 1881 of Pub. L. 99–514, set out as a note under section 48 of this title.

Effective Date of 1984 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 98–369 applicable to taxable years beginning after Dec. 31, 1983, see section 223(d)(1) of Pub. L. 98–369, set out as a note under section 79 of this title.

Effective Date of 1983 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 97–448 effective, except as otherwise provided, as if it had been included in the provision of the Economic Recovery Tax Act of 1981, Pub. L. 97–34, to which such amendment relates, see section 109 of Pub. L. 97–448, set out as a note under section 1 of this title.

Effective Date of 1981 Amendment

Section 252(c) of Pub. L. 97–34, as amended by Pub. L. 97–448, title I, §102(k)(2), 96 Stat. 2374, provided that: “The amendment made by subsection (a) [amending this section] and the provisions of subsection (b) [set out below] shall apply to transfers after December 31, 1981.”

Effective Date of 1976 Amendment

Amendment by section 1901(a)(15) of Pub. L. 94–455 applicable with respect to taxable years beginning after Dec. 31, 1976, see section 1901(d) of Pub. L. 94–455, set out as a note under section 2 of this title.

Effective Date

Section 321(d) of Pub. L. 91–172 provided that: “The amendments made by subsections (a) and (c) [amending sections 402, 403, and 404 of this title] shall apply to taxable years ending after June 30, 1969. The amendments made by subsection (b) [enacting this section] shall apply with respect to contributions made and premiums paid after August 1, 1969.”

Savings Provision

For provisions that nothing in amendment by Pub. L. 101–508 be construed to affect treatment of certain transactions occurring, property acquired, or items of income, loss, deduction, or credit taken into account prior to Nov. 5, 1990, for purposes of determining liability for tax for periods ending after Nov. 5, 1990, see section 11821(b) of Pub. L. 101–508, set out as a note under section 45K of this title.

Plan Amendments Not Required Until January 1, 1989

For provisions directing that if any amendments made by subtitle A or subtitle C of title XI [§§1101–1147 and 1171–1177] or title XVIII [§§1800–1899A] of Pub. L. 99–514 require an amendment to any plan, such plan amendment shall not be required to be made before the first plan year beginning on or after Jan. 1, 1989, see section 1140 of Pub. L. 99–514, as amended, set out as a note under section 401 of this title.

Application of Amendments Made by Section 252 of Pub. L. 97–34

Section 1879(p) of Pub. L. 99–514, as amended by Pub. L. 100–647, title I, §1018(q)(3), Nov. 10, 1988, 102 Stat. 3585, provided that:

“(1) Notwithstanding subsection (c) of section 252 of the Economic Recovery Tax Act of 1981 [section 252(c) of Pub. L. 97–34, set out above], the amendment made by subsection (a) of such section 252 [amending this section] (and the provisions of subsection (b) of such section 252 [set out below]) shall apply to any transfer of stock to any person if—

“(A) such transfer occurred in November or December of 1973 and was pursuant to the exercise of an option granted in November or December of 1971,

“(B) in December 1973 the corporation granting the option was acquired by another corporation in a transaction qualifying as a reorganization under section 368 of the Internal Revenue Code of 1954 [now 1986],

“(C) the fair market value (as of July 1, 1974) of the stock received by such person in the reorganization in exchange for the stock transferred to him pursuant to the exercise of such option was less than 50 percent of the fair market value of the stock so received (as of December 4, 1973),

“(D) in 1975 or 1976 such person sold substantially all of the stock received in such reorganization, and

“(E) such person makes an election under this section at such time and in such manner as the Secretary of the Treasury or his delegate shall prescribe.

“(2) Limitation on amount of benefit.—Paragraph (1) shall not apply to transfers with respect to any employee to the extent that the application of paragraph (1) with respect to such employee would (but for this paragraph) result in a reduction in liability for income tax with respect to such employee for all taxable years in excess of $100,000 (determined without regard to any interest).

“(3) Statute of limitations.—

“(A) Overpayments.—If refund or credit of any overpayment of tax resulting from the application of paragraph (1) is prevented on the date of the enactment of this Act [Oct. 22, 1986] (or at any time within 6 months after such date of enactment) by the operation of any law or rule of law, refund or credit of such overpayment (to the extent attributable to the application of paragraph (1)) may, nevertheless, be made or allowed if claim therefor is filed before the close of such 6-month period.

“(B) Deficiencies.—If the assessment of any deficiency of tax resulting from the application of paragraph (1) is prevented on the date of the enactment of this Act [Oct. 22, 1986] (or at any time within 6 months after such date of enactment) by the operation of any law or rule of law, assessment of such deficiency (to the extent attributable to the application of paragraph (1)) may, nevertheless, be made within such 6-month period.”

Time for Making Certain Section 83(b) Elections

Section 556 of Pub. L. 98–369, as amended by Pub. L. 99–514, §2, title XVIII, §1855(b), Oct. 22, 1986, 100 Stat. 2095, 2882, provided that: “In the case of any transfer of property in connection with the performance of services on or before November 18, 1982, the election permitted by section 83(b) of the Internal Revenue Code of 1986 [formerly I.R.C. 1954] may be made, notwithstanding paragraph (2) of such section 83(b), with the income tax return for any taxable year ending after July 18, 1984, and beginning before the date of the enactment of the Tax Reform Act of 1986 [Oct. 22, 1986 if—

“(1) the amount paid for such property was not less than its fair market value at the time of transfer (determined without regard to any restriction other than a restriction which by its terms will never lapse), and

“(2) the election is consented to by the person transferring such property.

The election shall contain that information required by the Secretary of the Treasury or his delegate for elections permitted by such section 83(b). The period for assessing any tax attributable to a transfer of property which is the subject of an election made pursuant to this section shall not expire before the date which is 3 years after the date such election was made.”

Property Subject to Transfer Restrictions To Comply With “Pooling-of-Interests Accounting” Rules

Section 252(b) of Pub. L. 97–34, as amended by Pub. L. 99–514, §2, Oct. 22, 1986, 100 Stat. 2095, provided, effective with respect to taxable years ending after Dec. 31, 1981, that: “For purposes of section 83 of the Internal Revenue Code of 1986 [formerly I.R.C. 1954], property is subject to substantial risk of forfeiture and is not transferable so long as such property is subject to a restriction on transfer to comply with the “Pooling-of-Interests Accounting” rules set forth in Accounting Series Release Numbered 130 ((10/5/72) 37 FR 20937; 17 CFR 211.130) and Accounting Series Release Numbered 135 ((1/18/73) 38 FR 1734; 17 CFR 211.135).”

§84. Transfer of appreciated property to political organization

(a) General rule

If—

(1) any person transfers property to a political organization, and

(2) the fair market value of such property exceeds its adjusted basis,


then for purposes of this chapter the transferor shall be treated as having sold such property to the political organization on the date of the transfer, and the transferor shall be treated as having realized an amount equal to the fair market value of such property on such date.

(b) Basis of property

In the case of a transfer of property to a political organization to which subsection (a) applies, the basis of such property in the hands of the political organization shall be the same as it would be in the hands of the transferor, increased by the amount of gain recognized to the transferor by reason of such transfer.

(c) Political organization defined

For purposes of this section, the term “political organization” has the meaning given to such term by section 527(e)(1).

(Added Pub. L. 93–625, §13(a)(1), Jan. 3, 1975, 88 Stat. 2120.)

Effective Date

Section 13(b) of Pub. L. 93–625 provided that: “The amendments made by subsection (a) [enacting this section] shall apply to transfers made after May 7, 1974, in taxable years ending after such date.”

Nonrecognition of Gain or Loss Where Organization Sold Contributed Property Before August 2, 1973

Section 13(c) of Pub. L. 93–625 provided that in the case of the sale or exchange of property before Aug. 2, 1973, which was acquired by the exempt political organization by contribution, no gain or loss shall be recognized by such organization.

§85. Unemployment compensation

(a) General rule

In the case of an individual, gross income includes unemployment compensation.

(b) Unemployment compensation defined

For purposes of this section, the term “unemployment compensation” means any amount received under a law of the United States or of a State which is in the nature of unemployment compensation.

(c) Special rule for 2009

In the case of any taxable year beginning in 2009, gross income shall not include so much of the unemployment compensation received by an individual as does not exceed $2,400.

(Added Pub. L. 95–600, title I, §112(a), Nov. 6, 1978, 92 Stat. 2777; amended Pub. L. 97–34, title I, §103(c)(1), Aug. 13, 1981, 95 Stat. 188; Pub. L. 97–248, title VI, §611(a), Sept. 3, 1982, 96 Stat. 706; Pub. L. 98–21, title I, §§121(f)(1), 122(c)(2), Apr. 20, 1983, 97 Stat. 84, 87; Pub. L. 99–514, title I, §121, Oct. 22, 1986, 100 Stat. 2109; Pub. L. 111–5, div. B, title I, §1007(a), Feb. 17, 2009, 123 Stat. 317.)

Amendments

2009—Subsec. (c). Pub. L. 111–5 added subsec. (c).

1986—Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 99–514 substituted “General rule” for “In general” in heading and amended text generally. Prior to amendment, text read as follows: “If the sum for the taxable year of the adjusted gross income of the taxpayer (determined without regard to this section, section 86 and section 221) and the unemployment compensation exceeds the base amount, gross income for the taxable year includes unemployment compensation in an amount equal to the lesser of—

“(1) one-half of the amount of the excess of such sum over the base amount, or

“(2) the amount of the unemployment compensation.”

Subsecs. (b), (c). Pub. L. 99–514, in amending section generally, redesignated former subsec. (c) as (b) and struck out former subsec. (b), “Base amount defined”, which read as follows: “For purposes of this section, the term ‘base amount’ means—

“(1) except as provided in paragraphs (2) and (3), $12,000,

“(2) $18,000, in the case of a joint return under section 6013, or

“(3) zero, in the case of a taxpayer who—

“(A) is married at the close of the taxable year (within the meaning of section 143) but does not file a joint return for such year, and

“(B) does not live apart from his spouse at all times during the taxable year.”

1983—Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 98–21, §122(c)(2), struck out “, section 105(d),” after “section 86”.

Pub. L. 98–21, §121(f)(1), inserted “section 86,” after “this section,”.

1982—Subsec. (b)(1). Pub. L. 97–248, §611(a)(1), substituted “$12,000” for “$20,000”.

Subsec. (b)(2). Pub. L. 97–248, §611(a)(2), substituted “$18,000” for “$25,000”.

1981—Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 97–34 substituted “this section, section 105(d), and section 221” for “this section and without regard to section 105(d)” in parenthetical provision preceding par. (1).

Effective Date of 2009 Amendment

Pub. L. 111–5, div. B, title I, §1007(b), Feb. 17, 2009, 123 Stat. 317, provided that: “The amendment made by this section [amending this section] shall apply to taxable years beginning after December 31, 2008.”

Effective Date of 1986 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 99–514 applicable to amounts received after Dec. 31, 1986, in taxable years ending after such date, see section 151(b) of Pub. L. 99–514, set out as a note under section 1 of this title.

Effective Date of 1983 Amendment

Amendment by section 121(f)(1) of Pub. L. 98–21 applicable to benefits received after Dec. 31, 1983, in taxable years ending after such date, except for any portion of a lump-sum payment of social security benefits received after Dec. 31, 1983, if the generally applicable payment date for such portion was before Jan. 1, 1984, see section 121(g) of Pub. L. 98–21, set out as an Effective Date note under section 86 of this title.

Amendment by section 122(c)(2) of Pub. L. 98–21 applicable to taxable years beginning after Dec. 31, 1983, except that if an individual's annuity starting date was deferred under section 105(d)(6) of this title as in effect on the day before Apr. 20, 1983, such deferral shall end on the first day of such individual's first taxable year beginning after Dec. 31, 1983, see section 122(d) of Pub. L. 98–21, set out as a note under section 22 of this title.

Effective Date of 1982 Amendment

Section 611(b) of Pub. L. 97–248, as amended by Pub. L. 99–514, §2, Oct. 22, 1986, 100 Stat. 2095, provided that:

“(1) Compensation paid after 1981.—The amendments made by this section [amending this section] shall apply to payments of unemployment compensation made after December 31, 1981, in taxable years ending after such date.

“(2) No addition to tax for underpayment of estimated tax attributable to application of amendments to compensation paid in 1982.—No addition to tax shall be made under section 6654 of the Internal Revenue Code of 1986 [formerly I.R.C. 1954] with respect to any underpayment to the extent such underpayment is attributable to unemployment compensation which is received during 1982 and which (but for the amendments made by subsection (a)) would not be includable in gross income.

“(3) Special rule for fiscal year taxpayers.—In the case of a taxable year (other than a calendar year) which includes January 1, 1982—

“(A) the amendments made by this section shall be applied by taking into account the entire amount of unemployment compensation received during such taxable year, but

“(B) the increase in gross income for such taxable year as a result of such amendments shall not exceed the amount of unemployment compensation paid after December 31, 1981.

“(4) Unemployment compensation defined.—For purposes of this subsection, the term ‘unemployment compensation’ has the meaning given to such term by section 85(c) of the Internal Revenue Code of 1986.”

Effective Date of 1981 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 97–34 applicable to taxable years beginning after Dec. 31, 1981, see section 103(d) of Pub. L. 97–34, set out as a note under section 62 of this title.

Effective Date

Section 112(d) of Pub. L. 95–600, as amended by Pub. L. 98–369, div. A, title X, §1075(a), July 18, 1984, 98 Stat. 1053, provided that: “The amendments made by this section [enacting this section and section 6050B of this title] shall apply to payments of unemployment compensation made after December 31, 1978, in taxable years ending after such date, except that such amendments shall not apply to payments made for weeks of unemployment ending before December 1, 1978.”

Waiver of Statute of Limitations

Pub. L. 98–369, div. A, title X, §1075(b), July 18, 1984, 98 Stat. 1053, provided that: “If credit or refund of any overpayment of tax resulting from the amendment made by subsection (a) [amending section 112(d) of Pub. L. 95–600, set out as an Effective Date note above] is barred on the date of the enactment of this Act [July 18, 1984] or at any time during the 1-year period beginning on the date of the enactment of this Act by the operation of any law or rule of law (including res judicata), refund or credit of such overpayment (to the extent attributable to the amendment made by subsection (a)) may, nevertheless, be made or allowed if claim therefor is filed before the close of such 1-year period.”

§86. Social security and tier 1 railroad retirement benefits

(a) In general

(1) In general

Except as provided in paragraph (2), gross income for the taxable year of any taxpayer described in subsection (b) (notwithstanding section 207 of the Social Security Act) includes social security benefits in an amount equal to the lesser of—

(A) one-half of the social security benefits received during the taxable year, or

(B) one-half of the excess described in subsection (b)(1).

(2) Additional amount

In the case of a taxpayer with respect to whom the amount determined under subsection (b)(1)(A) exceeds the adjusted base amount, the amount included in gross income under this section shall be equal to the lesser of—

(A) the sum of—

(i) 85 percent of such excess, plus

(ii) the lesser of the amount determined under paragraph (1) or an amount equal to one-half of the difference between the adjusted base amount and the base amount of the taxpayer, or


(B) 85 percent of the social security benefits received during the taxable year.

(b) Taxpayers to whom subsection (a) applies

(1) In general

A taxpayer is described in this subsection if—

(A) the sum of—

(i) the modified adjusted gross income of the taxpayer for the taxable year, plus

(ii) one-half of the social security benefits received during the taxable year, exceeds


(B) the base amount.

(2) Modified adjusted gross income

For purposes of this subsection, the term “modified adjusted gross income” means adjusted gross income—

(A) determined without regard to this section and sections 135, 137, 199, 221, 222, 911, 931, and 933, and

(B) increased by the amount of interest received or accrued by the taxpayer during the taxable year which is exempt from tax.

(c) Base amount and adjusted base amount

For purposes of this section—

(1) Base amount

The term “base amount” means—

(A) except as otherwise provided in this paragraph, $25,000,

(B) $32,000 in the case of a joint return, and

(C) zero in the case of a taxpayer who—

(i) is married as of the close of the taxable year (within the meaning of section 7703) but does not file a joint return for such year, and

(ii) does not live apart from his spouse at all times during the taxable year.

(2) Adjusted base amount

The term “adjusted base amount” means—

(A) except as otherwise provided in this paragraph, $34,000,

(B) $44,000 in the case of a joint return, and

(C) zero in the case of a taxpayer described in paragraph (1)(C).

(d) Social security benefit

(1) In general

For purposes of this section, the term “social security benefit” means any amount received by the taxpayer by reason of entitlement to—

(A) a monthly benefit under title II of the Social Security Act, or

(B) a tier 1 railroad retirement benefit.

(2) Adjustment for repayments during year

(A) In general

For purposes of this section, the amount of social security benefits received during any taxable year shall be reduced by any repayment made by the taxpayer during the taxable year of a social security benefit previously received by the taxpayer (whether or not such benefit was received during the taxable year).

(B) Denial of deduction

If (but for this subparagraph) any portion of the repayments referred to in subparagraph (A) would have been allowable as a deduction for the taxable year under section 165, such portion shall be allowable as a deduction only to the extent it exceeds the social security benefits received by the taxpayer during the taxable year (and not repaid during such taxable year).

(3) Workmen's compensation benefits substituted for social security benefits

For purposes of this section, if, by reason of section 224 of the Social Security Act (or by reason of section 3(a)(1) of the Railroad Retirement Act of 1974), any social security benefit is reduced by reason of the receipt of a benefit under a workmen's compensation act, the term “social security benefit” includes that portion of such benefit received under the workmen's compensation act which equals such reduction.

(4) Tier 1 railroad retirement benefit

For purposes of paragraph (1), the term “tier 1 railroad retirement benefit” means—

(A) the amount of the annuity under the Railroad Retirement Act of 1974 equal to the amount of the benefit to which the taxpayer would have been entitled under the Social Security Act if all of the service after December 31, 1936, of the employee (on whose employment record the annuity is being paid) had been included in the term “employment” as defined in the Social Security Act, and

(B) a monthly annuity amount under section 3(f)(3) of the Railroad Retirement Act of 1974.

(5) Effect of early delivery of benefit checks

For purposes of subsection (a), in any case where section 708 of the Social Security Act causes social security benefit checks to be delivered before the end of the calendar month for which they are issued, the benefits involved shall be deemed to have been received in the succeeding calendar month.

(e) Limitation on amount included where taxpayer receives lump-sum payment

(1) Limitation

If—

(A) any portion of a lump-sum payment of social security benefits received during the taxable year is attributable to prior taxable years, and

(B) the taxpayer makes an election under this subsection for the taxable year,


then the amount included in gross income under this section for the taxable year by reason of the receipt of such portion shall not exceed the sum of the increases in gross income under this chapter for prior taxable years which would result solely from taking into account such portion in the taxable years to which it is attributable.

(2) Special rules

(A) Year to which benefit attributable

For purposes of this subsection, a social security benefit is attributable to a taxable year if the generally applicable payment date for such benefit occurred during such taxable year.

(B) Election

An election under this subsection shall be made at such time and in such manner as the Secretary shall by regulations prescribe. Such election, once made, may be revoked only with the consent of the Secretary.

(f) Treatment as pension or annuity for certain purposes

For purposes of—

(1) section 22(c)(3)(A) (relating to reduction for amounts received as pension or annuity),

(2) section 32(c)(2) (defining earned income),

(3) section 219(f)(1) (defining compensation), and

(4) section 911(b)(1) (defining foreign earned income),


any social security benefit shall be treated as an amount received as a pension or annuity.

(Added and amended Pub. L. 98–21, title I, §121(a), title III, §335(b)(2)(A), Apr. 20, 1983, 97 Stat. 80, 130; Pub. L. 98–76, title II, §224(d), Aug. 12, 1983, 97 Stat. 424; Pub. L. 98–369, div. A, title IV, §474(r)(2), div. B, title VI, §2661(o)(1), July 18, 1984, 98 Stat. 839, 1158; Pub. L. 99–272, title XII, §12111(b), title XIII, §13204(a), Apr. 7, 1986, 100 Stat. 287, 313; Pub. L. 99–514, title I, §131(b)(2), title XIII, §1301(j)(8), title XVIII, §1847(b)(2), Oct. 22, 1986, 100 Stat. 2113, 2658, 2856; Pub. L. 100–647, title I, §1001(e), title VI, §6009(c)(1), Nov. 10, 1988, 102 Stat. 3351, 3690; Pub. L. 103–66, title XIII, §13215(a), (b), Aug. 10, 1993, 107 Stat. 475, 476; Pub. L. 103–296, title III, §309(d), Aug. 15, 1994, 108 Stat. 1523; Pub. L. 104–188, title I, §§1704(t)(3), 1807(c)(2), Aug. 20, 1996, 110 Stat. 1887, 1902; Pub. L. 105–277, div. J, title IV, §4003(a)(2)(B), Oct. 21, 1998, 112 Stat. 2681–908; Pub. L. 107–16, title IV, §431(c)(1), June 7, 2001, 115 Stat. 68; Pub. L. 108–357, title I, §102(d)(1), Oct. 22, 2004, 118 Stat. 1428.)

Amendment of Section

For termination of amendment by section 901 of Pub. L. 107–16, see Effective and Termination Dates of 2001 Amendment note below.

References in Text

The Social Security Act, referred to in subsecs. (a)(1) and (d)(1)(A), (3), (4)(A), (5), is act Aug. 14, 1935, ch. 531, 49 Stat. 620, as amended, which is classified generally to chapter 7 (§301 et seq.) of Title 42, The Public Health and Welfare. Title II of the Act is classified generally to subchapter II (§401 et seq.) of Title 42. Sections 207, 224, and 708 of the Act are classified to sections 407, 424a, and 909 of Title 42, respectively. For complete classification of this Act to the Code, see section 1305 of Title 42 and Tables.

The Railroad Retirement Act of 1974, referred to in subsec. (d)(3), (4), is act Aug. 29, 1935, ch. 812, as amended generally by Pub. L. 93–445, title I, §101, Oct. 16, 1974, 88 Stat. 1305, which is classified generally to subchapter IV (§231 et seq.) of chapter 9 of Title 45, Railroads. Section 3(a)(1), (f)(3) of the Act is classified to section 231b(a)(1), (f)(3) of Title 45. For further details and complete classification of this Act to the Code, see Codification note set out preceding section 231 of Title 45, section 231t of Title 45, and Tables.

Prior Provisions

A prior section 86 was renumbered section 87 of this title.

Amendments

2004—Subsec. (b)(2)(A). Pub. L. 108–357 inserted “199,” before “221”.

2001—Subsec. (b)(2)(A). Pub. L. 107–16, §§431(c)(1), 901, temporarily inserted “222,” after “221,”. See Effective and Termination Dates of 2001 Amendment note below.

1998—Subsec. (b)(2)(A). Pub. L. 105–277 inserted “221,” after “137,”.

1996—Subsec. (b)(2). Pub. L. 104–188, §1704(t)(3), substituted “means adjusted” for “means adusted” in introductory provisions.

Subsec. (b)(2)(A). Pub. L. 104–188, §1807(c)(2), inserted “137,” before “911”.

1994—Subsec. (d)(1). Pub. L. 103–296 struck out at end “For purposes of the preceding sentence, the amount received by any taxpayer shall be determined as if the Social Security Act did not contain section 203(i) thereof.”

1993—Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 103–66, §13215(a), designated existing provisions as par. (1), inserted par. (1) heading, substituted “Except as provided in paragraph (2), gross” for “Gross”, redesignated former pars. (1) and (2) as subpars. (A) and (B), respectively, and added par. (2).

Subsec. (c). Pub. L. 103–66, §13215(b), amended heading and text of subsec. (c) generally. Prior to amendment, text read as follows: “For purposes of this section, the term ‘base amount’ means—

“(1) except as otherwise provided in this subsection, $25,000,

“(2) $32,000, in the case of a joint return, and

“(3) zero, in the case of a taxpayer who—

“(A) is married at the close of the taxable year (within the meaning of section 7703) but does not file a joint return for such year, and

“(B) does not live apart from his spouse at all times during the taxable year.”

1988—Subsec. (b)(2)(A). Pub. L. 100–647, §6009(c)(1), inserted “135,” before “911”.

Subsec. (f)(4), (5). Pub. L. 100–647, §1001(e), redesignated par. (5) as (4) and struck out former par. (4) which read as follows: “section 221(b)(2) (defining earned income), and”.

1986—Subsec. (b)(2)(A). Pub. L. 99–514, §131(b)(2), substituted “sections” for “sections 221,”.

Subsec. (c)(3)(A). Pub. L. 99–514, §1301(j)(8), substituted “section 7703” for “section 143”.

Subsec. (d)(4). Pub. L. 99–272, §13204(a), in amending par. (4) generally, designated existing provisions as introductory clause of par. (4), struck out “a monthly benefit under section 3(a), 3(f)(3), 4(a), or 4(f) of the Railroad Retirement Act of 1974”, and added cls. (A) and (B).

Subsec. (d)(5). Pub. L. 99–272, §12111(b), added par. (5).

Subsec. (f)(1). Pub. L. 99–514, §1847(b)(2), substituted “section 22(c)(3)(A)” for “section 37(c)(3)(A)”.

1984—Subsec. (f)(1). Pub. L. 98–369, §2661(o)(1), added par. (1). Former par. (1) redesignated par. (2).

Pub. L. 98–369, §474(r)(2), substituted “section 32(c)(2)” for “section 43(c)(2)”.

Subsec. (f)(2)–(5). Pub. L. 98–369, §2661(o)(1), redesignated pars. (1) to (4) as (2) to (5), respectively.

1983—Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 98–21, §335(b)(2)(A), inserted “(notwithstanding section 207 of the Social Security Act)”.

Subsec. (d)(4). Pub. L. 98–76 inserted “3(f)(3),” after “3(a),”.

Effective Date of 2004 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 108–357 applicable to taxable years beginning after Dec. 31, 2004, see section 102(e) of Pub. L. 108–357, set out as a note under section 56 of this title.

Effective and Termination Dates of 2001 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 107–16 applicable to payments made in taxable years beginning after Dec. 31, 2001, see section 431(d) of Pub. L. 107–16, set out as a note under section 62 of this title.

Amendment by Pub. L. 107–16 inapplicable to taxable, plan, or limitation years beginning after Dec. 31, 2012, and the Internal Revenue Code of 1986 to be applied and administered to such years as if such amendment had never been enacted, see section 901 of Pub. L. 107–16, set out as a note under section 1 of this title.

Effective Date of 1998 Amendment

Pub. L. 105–277, div. J, title IV, §4003(l), Oct. 21, 1998, 112 Stat. 2681–910, provided that: “The amendments made by this section [amending this section and sections 135, 137, 163, 172, 219, 221, 264, 351, 368, 469, 954, 2001, 6311, 6404, and 9510 of this title and amending provisions set out as a note under section 7508A of this title] shall take effect as if included in the provisions of the 1997 Act [Pub. L. 105–34] to which they relate.”

Effective Date of 1996 Amendment

Amendment by section 1807(c)(2) of Pub. L. 104–188 applicable to taxable years beginning after Dec. 31, 1996, see section 1807(e) of Pub. L. 104–188, set out as an Effective Date note under section 23 of this title.

Effective Date of 1994 Amendment

Section 309(e)(2) of Pub. L. 103–296 provided that: “The amendment made by subsection (d) [amending this section] shall apply with respect to benefits received after December 31, 1995, in taxable years ending after such date.”

Effective Date of 1993 Amendment

Section 13215(d) of Pub. L. 103–66 provided that: “The amendments made by subsections (a) and (b) [amending this section] shall apply to taxable years beginning after December 31, 1993.”

Effective Date of 1988 Amendment

Amendment by section 1001(e) of Pub. L. 100–647 effective, except as otherwise provided, as if included in the provision of the Tax Reform Act of 1986, Pub. L. 99–514, to which such amendment relates, see section 1019(a) of Pub. L. 100–647, set out as a note under section 1 of this title.

Section 6009(d) of Pub. L. 100–647 provided that: “The amendments made by this section [enacting section 135 of this title, amending this section and sections 219 and 469 of this title, and renumbering former section 135 as section 136 of this title] shall apply to taxable years beginning after December 31, 1989.”

Effective Date of 1986 Amendments

Amendment by section 131(b)(2) of Pub. L. 99–514 applicable to taxable years beginning after Dec. 31, 1986, see section 151(a) of Pub. L. 99–514, set out as a note under section 1 of this title.

Amendment by section 1301(j)(8) of Pub. L. 99–514 applicable to bonds issued after Aug. 15, 1986, except as otherwise provided, see sections 1311–1318 of Pub. L. 99–514, set out as an Effective Date; Transitional Rules note under section 141 of this title.

Amendment by section 1847(b)(2) of Pub. L. 99–514 effective, except as otherwise provided, as if included in the provisions of the Tax Reform Act of 1984, Pub. L. 98–369, div. A, to which such amendment relates, see section 1881 of Pub. L. 99–514, set out as a note under section 48 of this title.

Amendment by section 12111(b) of Pub. L. 99–272 applicable with respect to benefit checks issued for months ending after Apr. 7, 1986, see section 12111(c) of Pub. L. 99–272, set out as a note under section 909 of Title 42, The Public Health and Welfare.

Section 13204(b) of Pub. L. 99–272 provided that: “The amendment made by subsection (a) [amending this section] shall apply to any monthly benefit for which the generally applicable payment date is after December 31, 1985.”

Effective Date of 1984 Amendment

Amendment by section 474(r)(2) of Pub. L. 98–369 applicable to taxable years beginning after Dec. 31, 1983, and to carrybacks from such years, see section 475(a) of Pub. L. 98–369, set out as a note under section 21 of this title.

Amendment by section 2661 of Pub. L. 98–369 effective as though included in the enactment of the Social Security Amendments of 1983, Pub. L. 98–21, see section 2664(a) of Pub. L. 98–369, set out as a note under section 401 of Title 42, The Public Health and Welfare.

Effective Date of 1983 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 98–76 applicable to benefits received after Dec. 31, 1983, in taxable years ending after such date, except for portions of lump-sum payments received after Dec. 31, 1983, if the generally applicable payment date for such portion was before Jan. 1, 1984, see section 227(b) of Pub. L. 98–76 set out as a note under section 72 of this title.

Effective Date

Section 121(g) of Pub. L. 98–21, as amended by Pub. L. 99–514, §2, Oct. 22, 1986, 100 Stat. 2095, provided that:

“(1) In general.—Except as provided in paragraph (2), the amendments made by this section [enacting this section and section 6050F of this title, amending sections 85, 128, 861, 871, 1441, and 6103 of this title and section 3413 of Title 12, Banks and Banking, and enacting provisions set out as a note under section 401 of Title 42, The Public Health and Welfare] shall apply to benefits received after December 31, 1983, in taxable years ending after such date.

“(2) Treatment of certain lump-sum payments received after december 31, 1983.—The amendments made by this section shall not apply to any portion of a lump-sum payment of social security benefits (as defined in section 86(d) of the Internal Revenue Code of 1986 [formerly I.R.C. 1954]) received after December 31, 1983, if the generally applicable payment date for such portion was before January 1, 1984.”

Plan Amendments Not Required Until January 1, 1989

For provisions directing that if any amendments made by subtitle A or subtitle C of title XI [§§1101–1147 and 1171–1177] or title XVIII [§§1800–1899A] of Pub. L. 99–514 require an amendment to any plan, such plan amendment shall not be required to be made before the first plan year beginning on or after Jan. 1, 1989, see section 1140 of Pub. L. 99–514, as amended, set out as a note under section 401 of this title.

§87. Alcohol and biodiesel fuels credits

Gross income includes—

(1) the amount of the alcohol fuel credit determined with respect to the taxpayer for the taxable year under section 40(a), and

(2) the biodiesel fuels credit determined with respect to the taxpayer for the taxable year under section 40A(a).

(Added Pub. L. 96–223, title II, §232(c)(1), Apr. 2, 1980, 94 Stat. 276, §86; renumbered §87, Pub. L. 98–21, title I, §121(a), Apr. 20, 1983, 97 Stat. 80; amended Pub. L. 98–369, div. A, title IV, §474(r)(3), July 18, 1984, 98 Stat. 839; Pub. L. 108–357, title III, §302(c)(1)(A), Oct. 22, 2004, 118 Stat. 1465.)

Amendments

2004—Pub. L. 108–357 amended section catchline and text generally. Prior to amendment, text read as follows: “Gross income includes the amount of the alcohol fuel credit determined with respect to the taxpayer for the taxable year under section 40(a).”

1984—Pub. L. 98–369 amended section generally, substituting “the amount of the alcohol fuel credit determined with respect to the taxpayer for the taxable year under section 40(a)” for “an amount equal to the amount of the credit allowable to the taxpayer under section 44E for the taxable year (determined without regard to subsection (e) thereof)”.

Effective Date of 2004 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 108–357 applicable to fuel produced, and sold or used, after Dec. 31, 2004, in taxable years ending after such date, see section 302(d) of Pub. L. 108–357, set out as a note under section 38 of this title.

Effective Date of 1984 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 98–369 applicable to taxable years beginning after Dec. 31, 1983, and to carrybacks from such years, see section 475(a) of Pub. L. 98–369, set out as a note under section 21 of this title.

Effective Date

Section applicable to sales or uses after Sept. 30, 1980, in taxable years ending after such date, see section 232(h)(1) of Pub. L. 96–223, set out as a note under section 40 of this title.

§88. Certain amounts with respect to nuclear decommissioning costs

In the case of any taxpayer who is required to include the amount of any nuclear decommissioning costs in the taxpayer's cost of service for ratemaking purposes, there shall be includible in the gross income of such taxpayer the amount so included for any taxable year.

(Added Pub. L. 98–369, div. A, title I, §91(f)(1), July 18, 1984, 98 Stat. 607; amended Pub. L. 99–514, title XVIII, §1807(a)(4)(E)(vii), Oct. 22, 1986, 100 Stat. 2813.)

Amendments

1986—Pub. L. 99–514 substituted “for ratemaking purposes” for “of ratemaking purposes”.

Effective Date of 1986 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 99–514 effective, except as otherwise provided, as if included in the provisions of the Tax Reform Act of 1984, Pub. L. 98–369, div. A, to which such amendment relates, see section 1881 of Pub. L. 99–514, set out as a note under section 48 of this title.

Effective Date

Section effective July 18, 1984, with respect to taxable years ending after such date, see section 91(g)(5) of Pub. L. 98–369, as amended, set out as an Effective Date of 1984 Amendment note under section 461 of this title.

Plan Amendments Not Required Until January 1, 1989

For provisions directing that if any amendments made by subtitle A or subtitle C of title XI [§§1101–1147 and 1171–1177] or title XVIII [§§1800–1899A] of Pub. L. 99–514 require an amendment to any plan, such plan amendment shall not be required to be made before the first plan year beginning on or after Jan. 1, 1989, see section 1140 of Pub. L. 99–514, as amended, set out as a note under section 401 of this title.

[§89. Repealed. Pub. L. 101–140, title II, §202(a), Nov. 8, 1989, 103 Stat. 830]

Section, added Pub. L. 99–514, title XI, §1151(a), Oct. 22, 1986, 100 Stat. 2494; amended Pub. L. 100–647, title I, §1011B(a)(1)–(9), (21), (28), (29), (34), title III, §3021(a)(1)(A), (B), (2)(A), (3)–(9), (11)–(13)(A), (b)(2)(B), (3), title VI, §6051(a), Nov. 10, 1988, 102 Stat. 3483–3485, 3487, 3488, 3625–3632, 3695, related to nondiscrimination rules regarding benefits provided under employee benefit plans.

Effective Date of Repeal

Section 202(c) of Pub. L. 101–140 provided that: “The amendments made by this section [repealing this section] shall take effect as if included in section 1151 of the Tax Reform Act of 1986 [Pub. L. 99–514, see section 1151(k) set out as a note under section 79 of this title].”

Nonenforcement of Section for Fiscal Year 1990

Pub. L. 101–136, title V, §528, Nov. 3, 1989, 103 Stat. 816, provided that: “No monies appropriated by this Act [see Tables for classification] may be used to implement or enforce section 1151 of the Tax Reform Act of 1986 or the amendments made by such section [section 1151 of Pub. L. 99–514, which enacted section 89 of this title, amended sections 79, 105, 106, 117, 120, 125, 127, 129, 132, 414, 505, 3121, 3306, 6039D, and 6652 of this title and section 409 of Title 42, The Public Health and Welfare, and enacted provisions set out as a note under section 89 of this title].”

Transitional Provisions

Section 3021(c) of Pub. L. 100–647 provided for the first issue of valuation rules, the interim impact on former employees, the meeting of the written requirement for covered plans in connection with implementation of section 89 of the Code, and the issuance by Nov. 15, 1988, of rules necessary to carry out section 89, prior to repeal by Pub. L. 101–140, title II, §203(a)(7), Nov. 8, 1989, 103 Stat. 831.

Part-Time Employee Defined for Purposes of Subsection (f)

Section 6070 of Pub. L. 100–647 increased the number of employees who would be excluded from consideration under this section during plan years 1989 and 1990, in the case of a plan maintained by an employer which employs fewer than 10 employees on a normal working day during a plan year, prior to repeal by Pub. L. 101–140, title II, §203(a)(7), Nov. 8, 1989, 103 Stat. 831.

§90. Illegal Federal irrigation subsidies

(a) General rule

Gross income shall include an amount equal to any illegal Federal irrigation subsidy received by the taxpayer during the taxable year.

(b) Illegal Federal irrigation subsidy

For purposes of this section—

(1) In general

The term “illegal Federal irrigation subsidy” means the excess (if any) of—

(A) the amount required to be paid for any Federal irrigation water delivered to the taxpayer during the taxpayer year, over

(B) the amount paid for such water.

(2) Federal irrigation water

The term “Federal irrigation water” means any water made available for agricultural purposes from the operation of any reclamation or irrigation project referred to in paragraph (8) of section 202 of the Reclamation Reform Act of 1982.

(c) Denial of deduction

No deduction shall be allowed under this subtitle by reason of any inclusion in gross income under subsection (a).

(Added Pub. L. 100–203, title X, §10611(a), Dec. 22, 1987, 101 Stat. 1330–451.)

References in Text

Section 202 of the Reclamation Reform Act of 1982, referred to in subsec. (b)(2), is classified to section 390bb of Title 43, Public Lands.

Effective Date

Section 10611(c) of Pub. L. 100–203 provided that: “The amendments made by this section [enacting this section] shall apply to water delivered to the taxpayer in months beginning after the date of the enactment of this Act [Dec. 22, 1987].”

PART III—ITEMS SPECIFICALLY EXCLUDED FROM GROSS INCOME

Sec.
101.
Certain death payments.1

        

102.
Gifts and inheritances.
103.
Interest on State and local bonds.
[103A.
Repealed.]
104.
Compensation for injuries or sickness.
105.
Amounts received under accident and health plans.
106.
Contributions by employer to accident and health plans.
107.
Rental value of parsonages.
108.
Income from discharge of indebtedness.
109.
Improvements by lessee on lessor's property.
110.
Qualified lessee construction allowances for short-term leases.
111.
Recovery of tax benefit items.
112.
Certain combat zone compensation of members of the Armed Forces.
[113, 114.
Repealed.]
115.
Income of States, municipalities, etc.
[116.
Repealed.]
117.
Qualified scholarships.
118.
Contributions to the capital of a corporation.
119.
Meals or lodging furnished for convenience of employer.1
120.
Amounts received under qualified group legal services plans.
121.
Exclusion of gain from sale of principal residence.
122.
Certain reduced uniformed services retirement pay.
123.
Amounts received under insurance contracts for certain living expenses.
[124.
Repealed.]
125.
Cafeteria plans.
126.
Certain cost-sharing payments.
127.
Educational assistance programs.
[128.
Repealed.]
129.
Dependent care assistance programs.2

        

130.
Certain personal injury liability assignments.
131.
Certain foster care payments.
132.
Certain fringe benefits.
[133.
Repealed.]
134.
Certain military benefits.
135.
Income from United States savings bonds used to pay higher education tuition and fees.
136.
Energy conservation subsidies provided by public utilities.
137.
Adoption assistance programs.
138.
Medicare Advantage MSA.
139.
Disaster relief payments.
139A.
Federal subsidies for prescription drug plans.
139B.
Benefits provided to volunteer firefighters and emergency medical responders.
139C.
COBRA premium assistance.
139D.
Indian health care benefits.
140.
Cross references to other Acts.

        

Amendments

2011—Pub. L. 112–10, div. B, title VIII, §1858(b)(2)(B), Apr. 15, 2011, 125 Stat. 168, struck out item 139D “Free choice vouchers”.

2010—Pub. L. 111–148, title X, §10108(f)(2), Mar. 23, 2010, 124 Stat. 913, added item 139D relating to free choice vouchers.

Pub. L. 111–148, title IX, §9021(b), Mar. 23, 2010, 124 Stat. 874, added item 139D relating to Indian health care benefits.

2009—Pub. L. 111–5, div. B, title III, §3001(a)(15)(B), Feb. 17, 2009, 123 Stat. 465, added item 139C.

2007—Pub. L. 110–142, §5(b), Dec. 20, 2007, 121 Stat. 1806, added item 139B.

2004—Pub. L. 108–357, title I, §101(b)(3), Oct. 22, 2004, 118 Stat. 1423, struck out item 114 “Extraterritorial income”.

Pub. L. 108–311, title IV, §408(a)(5)(G), Oct. 4, 2004, 118 Stat. 1191, substituted “Medicare Advantage MSA” for “Medicare+Choice MSA” in item 138.

2003—Pub. L. 108–173, title XII, §1202(c), Dec. 8, 2003, 117 Stat. 2480, added item 139A.

2002—Pub. L. 107–134, title I, §111(b), Jan. 23, 2002, 115 Stat. 2433, added item 139 and redesignated former item 139 as 140.

2000—Pub. L. 106–519, §4(6), Nov. 15, 2000, 114 Stat. 2433, added item 114.

1997—Pub. L. 105–34, title III, §312(d)(14), title XII, §1213(d), Aug. 5, 1997, 111 Stat. 841, 1001, added item 110 and substituted “Exclusion of gain from sale of principal residence” for “One-time exclusion of gain from sale of principal residence by individual who has attained age 55” in item 121.

Pub. L. 105–33, title IV, §4006(b)(3), Aug. 5, 1997, 111 Stat. 334, added items 138 and 139 and struck out former item 138 “Cross reference to other Acts”.

1996—Pub. L. 104–188, title I, §§1602(b)(8), 1704(t)(4)(B), 1807(c)(7), Aug. 20, 1996, 110 Stat. 1834, 1887, 1902, substituted “combat zone compensation” for “combat pay” in item 112, struck out item 133 “Interest on certain loans used to acquire employer securities”, added items 137 and 138, and struck out former item 137 “Cross reference to other Acts”.

1992—Pub. L. 102–486, title XIX, §1912(b), Oct. 24, 1992, 106 Stat. 3016, added items 136 and 137 and struck out former item 136 “Cross references to other Acts”.

1990—Pub. L. 101–508, title XI, §11801(b)(2), Nov. 5, 1990, 104 Stat. 1388–522, struck out item 110 “Income taxes paid by lessee corporation”, item 113 “Mustering-out payments for members of the Armed Forces”, item 114 “Sports programs conducted for the American National Red Cross”, item 124 “Qualified transportation provided by employer”, and item 128 “Interest on certain savings certificates”.

1988—Pub. L. 100–647, title I, §1013(a)(37), title VI, §6009(c)(4), Nov. 10, 1988, 102 Stat. 3544, 3690, substituted “Interest on State and local bonds” for “Interest on certain governmental obligations” in item 103, struck out item 103A “Mortgage subsidy bonds”, added item 135 and redesignated former item 135 “Cross references to other Acts” as item 136.

1986—Pub. L. 99–514, title I, §123(b)(4), title VI, §612(b)(8), title XI, §1168(b), Oct. 22, 1986, 100 Stat. 2113, 2251, 2512, struck out item 116 “Partial exclusion of dividends received by individuals”, substituted in item 117 “Qualified scholarships” for “Scholarships and fellowship grants”, added item 134, and redesignated former item 134 as 135.

1984—Pub. L. 98–369, div. A, title I, §171(b), title V, §§531(a)(2), 543(b), July 18, 1984, 98 Stat. 699, 881, 892, substituted “Recovery of tax benefit items” for “Recovery of bad debts, prior taxes, and delinquency amounts” in item 111, added items 132 (relating to certain fringe benefits) and 133 (relating to interest on certain loans used to acquire employer securities), and redesignated former item 132 (relating to cross references to other Acts) as item 134.

Pub. L. 98–369, div. A, title I, §16(a), July 18, 1984, 98 Stat. 505, repealed an amendment made by Pub. L. 97–34, §302(c). See 1981 Amendment note below.

1983—Pub. L. 97–473, title I, §101(b)(2), Jan. 14, 1983, 96 Stat. 2606, purported to strike out the item relating to section 130, and added items 130 (relating to certain personal injury liability assignments) and 131 (relating to cross references to other Acts).

Pub. L. 97–473, title I, §102(b), Jan. 14, 1983, 96 Stat. 2607, struck out item 131 (relating to cross references to other Acts) and added items 131 (relating to certain foster care payments) and 132 (relating to cross references to other Acts).

1981—Pub. L. 97–34, title III, §§301(b)(1), 302(c)(1), (d)(1), Aug. 13, 1981, 95 Stat. 270, 272, 274, effective with regard to taxable years beginning after Sept. 30, 1981, redesignated item 128 “Cross References to other Acts” as 129 and added item 128 “Interest on certain savings certificates” and, section 302(c)(1), with regard to taxable years beginning after Dec. 31, 1984, provided that “Partial exclusion of interest” is substituted for “Interest on certain savings certificates” in item 128. Section 16(a) of Pub. L. 98–369, repealed section 302(c) of Pub. L. 97–34, and provided that this title shall be applied and administered as if section 302(c), and the amendments made by section 302(c), had not been enacted.

1980—Pub. L. 96–499, title XI, §1102(b), Dec. 5, 1980, 94 Stat. 2669, added item 103A.

Pub. L. 96–223, title IV, §404(b)(1), Apr. 2, 1980, 94 Stat. 306, inserted “and interest” after “dividends” in item 116.

1978—Pub. L. 95–618, title II, §242(b), Nov. 9, 1978, 92 Stat. 3194, redesignated former item 124 as 125 and added item 124.

Pub. L. 95–600, title I, §§134(b), 164(c), title IV, §404(c)(3), title V, §543(b), Nov. 6, 1978, 92 Stat. 2785, 2814, 2870, 2890, in item 121 substituted “One-time exclusion of gain from sale of principal residence by individual who has attained age 55” for “Gain from sale of exchange of residence of individual who has attained age 65”, redesignated former item 124 as 128, and added items 125 to 127.

1976—Pub. L. 94–455, title XXI, §2134(c), Oct. 4, 1976, 90 Stat. 1928, added item 120.

1969—Pub. L. 91–172, title IX, §901(b), Dec. 30, 1969, 83 Stat. 709, redesignated former item 123 as 124, and added item 123.

1966—Pub. L. 89–365, §1(a)(2), Mar. 8, 1966, 80 Stat. 32, redesignated former item 122 as 123, and added item 122.

1964—Pub. L. 88–272, title II, §206(b)(2), Feb. 26, 1964, 78 Stat. 40, redesignated former item 121 as 122, and added item 121.

1958—Pub. L. 85–866, title I, §3(b), Sept. 2, 1958, 72 Stat. 1607, struck out item 120 “Statutory subsistence allowance received by police”.

No Federal Income Tax on Restitution Received by Victims of the Nazi Regime or Their Heirs or Estates

Pub. L. 107–16, title VIII, §803, June 7, 2001, 115 Stat. 149, provided that:

“(a) In General.—For purposes of the Internal Revenue Code of 1986, any excludable restitution payments received by an eligible individual (or the individual's heirs or estate) and any excludable interest—

“(1) shall not be included in gross income; and

“(2) shall not be taken into account for purposes of applying any provision of such Code which takes into account excludable income in computing adjusted gross income, including section 86 of such Code (relating to taxation of Social Security benefits).

For purposes of such Code, the basis of any property received by an eligible individual (or the individual's heirs or estate) as part of an excludable restitution payment shall be the fair market value of such property as of the time of the receipt.

“(b) Eligible Individual.—For purposes of this section, the term ‘eligible individual’ means a person who was persecuted on the basis of race, religion, physical or mental disability, or sexual orientation by Nazi Germany, any other Axis regime, or any other Nazi-controlled or Nazi-allied country.

“(c) Excludable Restitution Payment.—For purposes of this section, the term ‘excludable restitution payment’ means any payment or distribution to an individual (or the individual's heirs or estate) which—

“(1) is payable by reason of the individual's status as an eligible individual, including any amount payable by any foreign country, the United States of America, or any other foreign or domestic entity, or a fund established by any such country or entity, any amount payable as a result of a final resolution of a legal action, and any amount payable under a law providing for payments or restitution of property;

“(2) constitutes the direct or indirect return of, or compensation or reparation for, assets stolen or hidden from, or otherwise lost to, the individual before, during, or immediately after World War II by reason of the individual's status as an eligible individual, including any proceeds of insurance under policies issued on eligible individuals by European insurance companies immediately before and during World War II; or

“(3) consists of interest which is payable as part of any payment or distribution described in paragraph (1) or (2).

“(d) Excludable Interest.—For purposes of this section, the term ‘excludable interest’ means any interest earned by—

“(1) escrow accounts or settlement funds established pursuant to the settlement of the action entitled ‘In re: Holocaust Victim Assets Litigation,’ (E.D.N.Y.) C.A. No. 96–4849,

“(2) funds to benefit eligible individuals or their heirs created by the International Commission on Holocaust Insurance Claims as a result of the Agreement between the Government of the United States of America and the Government of the Federal Republic of Germany concerning the Foundation ‘Remembrance, Responsibility, and Future,’ dated July 17, 2000, or

“(3) similar funds subject to the administration of the United States courts created to provide excludable restitution payments to eligible individuals (or eligible individuals’ heirs or estates).

“(e) Effective Date.—

“(1) In general.—This section shall apply to any amount received on or after January 1, 2000.

“(2) No inference.—Nothing in this Act [see Tables for classification] shall be construed to create any inference with respect to the proper tax treatment of any amount received before January 1, 2000.”

1 So in original. Does not conform to section catchline.

2 Editorially supplied. Section 129 added by Pub. L. 97–34 without corresponding amendment of part analysis.

§101. Certain death benefits

(a) Proceeds of life insurance contracts payable by reason of death

(1) General rule

Except as otherwise provided in paragraph (2), subsection (d), subsection (f), and subsection (j), gross income does not include amounts received (whether in a single sum or otherwise) under a life insurance contract, if such amounts are paid by reason of the death of the insured.

(2) Transfer for valuable consideration

In the case of a transfer for a valuable consideration, by assignment or otherwise, of a life insurance contract or any interest therein, the amount excluded from gross income by paragraph (1) shall not exceed an amount equal to the sum of the actual value of such consideration and the premiums and other amounts subsequently paid by the transferee. The preceding sentence shall not apply in the case of such a transfer—

(A) if such contract or interest therein has a basis for determining gain or loss in the hands of a transferee determined in whole or in part by reference to such basis of such contract or interest therein in the hands of the transferor, or

(B) if such transfer is to the insured, to a partner of the insured, to a partnership in which the insured is a partner, or to a corporation in which the insured is a shareholder or officer.


The term “other amounts” in the first sentence of this paragraph includes interest paid or accrued by the transferee on indebtedness with respect to such contract or any interest therein if such interest paid or accrued is not allowable as a deduction by reason of section 264(a)(4).

[(b) Repealed. Pub. L. 104–188, title I, §1402(a), Aug. 20, 1996, 110 Stat. 1789]

(c) Interest

If any amount excluded from gross income by subsection (a) is held under an agreement to pay interest thereon, the interest payments shall be included in gross income.

(d) Payment of life insurance proceeds at a date later than death

(1) General rule

The amounts held by an insurer with respect to any beneficiary shall be prorated (in accordance with such regulations as may be prescribed by the Secretary) over the period or periods with respect to which such payments are to be made. There shall be excluded from the gross income of such beneficiary in the taxable year received any amount determined by such proration. Gross income includes, to the extent not excluded by the preceding sentence, amounts received under agreements to which this subsection applies.

(2) Amount held by an insurer

An amount held by an insurer with respect to any beneficiary shall mean an amount to which subsection (a) applies which is—

(A) held by any insurer under an agreement provided for in the life insurance contract, whether as an option or otherwise, to pay such amount on a date or dates later than the death of the insured, and

(B) equal to the value of such agreement to such beneficiary

(i) as of the date of death of the insured (as if any option exercised under the life insurance contract were exercised at such time), and

(ii) as discounted on the basis of the interest rate used by the insurer in calculating payments under the agreement and mortality tables prescribed by the Secretary.

(3) Application of subsection

This subsection shall not apply to any amount to which subsection (c) is applicable.

[(e) Repealed. Pub. L. 98–369, div. A, title IV, §421(b)(2), July 18, 1984, 98 Stat. 794]

(f) Proceeds of flexible premium contracts issued before January 1, 1985 payable by reason of death

(1) In general

Any amount paid by reason of the death of the insured under a flexible premium life insurance contract issued before January 1, 1985 shall be excluded from gross income only if—

(A) under such contract—

(i) the sum of the premiums paid under such contract does not at any time exceed the guideline premium limitation as of such time, and

(ii) any amount payable by reason of the death of the insured (determined without regard to any qualified additional benefit) is not at any time less than the applicable percentage of the cash value of such contract at such time, or


(B) by the terms of such contract, the cash value of such contract may not at any time exceed the net single premium with respect to the amount payable by reason of the death of the insured (determined without regard to any qualified additional benefit) at such time.

(2) Guideline premium limitation

For purposes of this subsection—

(A) Guideline premium limitation

The term “guideline premium limitation” means, as of any date, the greater of—

(i) the guideline single premium, or

(ii) the sum of the guideline level premiums to such date.

(B) Guideline single premium

The term “guideline single premium” means the premium at issue with respect to future benefits under the contract (without regard to any qualified additional benefit), and with respect to any charges for qualified additional benefits, at the time of a determination under subparagraph (A) or (E) and which is based on—

(i) the mortality and other charges guaranteed under the contract, and

(ii) interest at the greater of an annual effective rate of 6 percent or the minimum rate or rates guaranteed upon issue of the contract.

(C) Guideline level premium

The term “guideline level premium” means the level annual amount, payable over the longest period permitted under the contract (but ending not less than 20 years from date of issue or not later than age 95, if earlier), computed on the same basis as the guideline single premium, except that subparagraph (B)(ii) shall be applied by substituting “4 percent” for “6 percent”.

(D) Computational rules

In computing the guideline single premium or guideline level premium under subparagraph (B) or (C)—

(i) the excess of the amount payable by reason of the death of the insured (determined without regard to any qualified additional benefit) over the cash value of the contract shall be deemed to be not greater than such excess at the time the contract was issued,

(ii) the maturity date shall be the latest maturity date permitted under the contract, but not less than 20 years after the date of issue or (if earlier) age 95, and

(iii) the amount of any endowment benefit (or sum of endowment benefits) shall be deemed not to exceed the least amount payable by reason of the death of the insured (determined without regard to any qualified additional benefit) at any time under the contract.

(E) Adjustments

The guideline single premium and guideline level premium shall be adjusted in the event of a change in the future benefits or any qualified additional benefit under the contract which was not reflected in any guideline single premiums or guideline level premium previously determined.

(3) Other definitions and special rules

For purposes of this subsection—

(A) Flexible premium life insurance contract

The terms “flexible premium life insurance contract” and “contract” mean a life insurance contract (including any qualified additional benefits) which provides for the payment of one or more premiums which are not fixed by the insurer as to both timing and amount. Such terms do not include that portion of any contract which is treated under State law as providing any annuity benefits other than as a settlement option.

(B) Premiums paid

The term “premiums paid” means the premiums paid under the contract less any amounts (other than amounts includible in gross income) to which section 72(e) applies. If, in order to comply with the requirements of paragraph (1)(A), any portion of any premium paid during any contract year is returned by the insurance company (with interest) within 60 days after the end of a contract year—

(i) the amount so returned (excluding interest) shall be deemed to reduce the sum of the premiums paid under the contract during such year, and

(ii) notwithstanding the provisions of section 72(e), the amount of any interest so returned shall be includible in the gross income of the recipient.

(C) Applicable percentage

The term “applicable percentage” means—

(i) 140 percent in the case of an insured with an attained age at the beginning of the contract year of 40 or less, and

(ii) in the case of an insured with an attained age of more than 40 as of the beginning of the contract year, 140 percent reduced (but not below 105 percent) by one percent for each year in excess of 40.

(D) Cash value

The cash value of any contract shall be determined without regard to any deduction for any surrender charge or policy loan.

(E) Qualified additional benefits

The term “qualified additional benefits” means any—

(i) guaranteed insurability,

(ii) accidental death benefit,

(iii) family term coverage, or

(iv) waiver of premium.

(F) Premium payments not disqualifying contract

The payment of a premium which would result in the sum of the premiums paid exceeding the guideline premium limitation shall be disregarded for purposes of paragraph (1)(A)(i) if the amount of such premium does not exceed the amount necessary to prevent the termination of the contract without cash value on or before the end of the contract year.

(G) Net single premium

In computing the net single premium under paragraph (1)(B)—

(i) the mortality basis shall be that guaranteed under the contract (determined by reference to the most recent mortality table allowed under all State laws on the date of issuance),

(ii) interest shall be based on the greater of—

(I) an annual effective rate of 4 percent (3 percent for contracts issued before July 1, 1983), or

(II) the minimum rate or rates guaranteed upon issue of the contract, and


(iii) the computational rules of paragraph (2)(D) shall apply, except that the maturity date referred to in clause (ii) thereof shall not be earlier than age 95.

(H) Correction of errors

If the taxpayer establishes to the satisfaction of the Secretary that—

(i) the requirements described in paragraph (1) for any contract year was not satisfied due to reasonable error, and

(ii) reasonable steps are being taken to remedy the error,


the Secretary may waive the failure to satisfy such requirements.

(I) Regulations

The Secretary shall prescribe such regulations as may be necessary or appropriate to carry out the purposes of this subsection.

(g) Treatment of certain accelerated death benefits

(1) In general

For purposes of this section, the following amounts shall be treated as an amount paid by reason of the death of an insured:

(A) Any amount received under a life insurance contract on the life of an insured who is a terminally ill individual.

(B) Any amount received under a life insurance contract on the life of an insured who is a chronically ill individual.

(2) Treatment of viatical settlements

(A) In general

If any portion of the death benefit under a life insurance contract on the life of an insured described in paragraph (1) is sold or assigned to a viatical settlement provider, the amount paid for the sale or assignment of such portion shall be treated as an amount paid under the life insurance contract by reason of the death of such insured.

(B) Viatical settlement provider

(i) In general

The term “viatical settlement provider” means any person regularly engaged in the trade or business of purchasing, or taking assignments of, life insurance contracts on the lives of insureds described in paragraph (1) if—

(I) such person is licensed for such purposes (with respect to insureds described in the same subparagraph of paragraph (1) as the insured) in the State in which the insured resides, or

(II) in the case of an insured who resides in a State not requiring the licensing of such persons for such purposes with respect to such insured, such person meets the requirements of clause (ii) or (iii), whichever applies to such insured.

(ii) Terminally ill insureds

A person meets the requirements of this clause with respect to an insured who is a terminally ill individual if such person—

(I) meets the requirements of sections 8 and 9 of the Viatical Settlements Model Act of the National Association of Insurance Commissioners, and

(II) meets the requirements of the Model Regulations of the National Association of Insurance Commissioners (relating to standards for evaluation of reasonable payments) in determining amounts paid by such person in connection with such purchases or assignments.

(iii) Chronically ill insureds

A person meets the requirements of this clause with respect to an insured who is a chronically ill individual if such person—

(I) meets requirements similar to the requirements referred to in clause (ii)(I), and

(II) meets the standards (if any) of the National Association of Insurance Commissioners for evaluating the reasonableness of amounts paid by such person in connection with such purchases or assignments with respect to chronically ill individuals.

(3) Special rules for chronically ill insureds

In the case of an insured who is a chronically ill individual—

(A) In general

Paragraphs (1) and (2) shall not apply to any payment received for any period unless—

(i) such payment is for costs incurred by the payee (not compensated for by insurance or otherwise) for qualified long-term care services provided for the insured for such period, and

(ii) the terms of the contract giving rise to such payment satisfy—

(I) the requirements of section 7702B(b)(1)(B), and

(II) the requirements (if any) applicable under subparagraph (B).


For purposes of the preceding sentence, the rule of section 7702B(b)(2)(B) shall apply.

(B) Other requirements

The requirements applicable under this subparagraph are—

(i) those requirements of section 7702B(g) and section 4980C which the Secretary specifies as applying to such a purchase, assignment, or other arrangement,

(ii) standards adopted by the National Association of Insurance Commissioners which specifically apply to chronically ill individuals (and, if such standards are adopted, the analogous requirements specified under clause (i) shall cease to apply), and

(iii) standards adopted by the State in which the policyholder resides (and if such standards are adopted, the analogous requirements specified under clause (i) and (subject to section 4980C(f)) standards under clause (ii), shall cease to apply).

(C) Per diem payments

A payment shall not fail to be described in subparagraph (A) by reason of being made on a per diem or other periodic basis without regard to the expenses incurred during the period to which the payment relates.

(D) Limitation on exclusion for periodic payments

For limitation on amount of periodic payments which are treated as described in paragraph (1), see section 7702B(d).

(4) Definitions

For purposes of this subsection—

(A) Terminally ill individual

The term “terminally ill individual” means an individual who has been certified by a physician as having an illness or physical condition which can reasonably be expected to result in death in 24 months or less after the date of the certification.

(B) Chronically ill individual

The term “chronically ill individual” has the meaning given such term by section 7702B(c)(2); except that such term shall not include a terminally ill individual.

(C) Qualified long-term care services

The term “qualified long-term care services” has the meaning given such term by section 7702B(c).

(D) Physician

The term “physician” has the meaning given to such term by section 1861(r)(1) of the Social Security Act (42 U.S.C. 1395x(r)(1)).

(5) Exception for business-related policies

This subsection shall not apply in the case of any amount paid to any taxpayer other than the insured if such taxpayer has an insurable interest with respect to the life of the insured by reason of the insured being a director, officer, or employee of the taxpayer or by reason of the insured being financially interested in any trade or business carried on by the taxpayer.

(h) Survivor benefits attributable to service by a public safety officer who is killed in the line of duty

(1) In general

Gross income shall not include any amount paid as a survivor annuity on account of the death of a public safety officer (as such term is defined in section 1204 of the Omnibus Crime Control and Safe Streets Act of 1968) killed in the line of duty—

(A) if such annuity is provided, under a governmental plan which meets the requirements of section 401(a), to the spouse (or a former spouse) of the public safety officer or to a child of such officer; and

(B) to the extent such annuity is attributable to such officer's service as a public safety officer.

(2) Exceptions

Paragraph (1) shall not apply with respect to the death of any public safety officer if, as determined in accordance with the provisions of the Omnibus Crime Control and Safe Streets Act of 1968—

(A) the death was caused by the intentional misconduct of the officer or by such officer's intention to bring about such officer's death;

(B) the officer was voluntarily intoxicated (as defined in section 1204 of such Act) at the time of death;

(C) the officer was performing such officer's duties in a grossly negligent manner at the time of death; or

(D) the payment is to an individual whose actions were a substantial contributing factor to the death of the officer.

(i) Certain employee death benefits payable by reason of death of certain terrorist victims or astronauts

(1) In general

Gross income does not include amounts (whether in a single sum or otherwise) paid by an employer by reason of the death of an employee who is a specified terrorist victim (as defined in section 692(d)(4)).

(2) Limitation

(A) In general

Subject to such rules as the Secretary may prescribe, paragraph (1) shall not apply to amounts which would have been payable after death if the individual had died other than as a specified terrorist victim (as so defined).

(B) Exception

Subparagraph (A) shall not apply to incidental death benefits paid from a plan described in section 401(a) and exempt from tax under section 501(a).

(3) Treatment of self-employed individuals

For purposes of paragraph (1), the term “employee” includes a self-employed individual (as defined in section 401(c)(1)).

(4) Relief with respect to astronauts

The provisions of this subsection shall apply to any astronaut whose death occurs in the line of duty.

(j) Treatment of certain employer-owned life insurance contracts

(1) General rule

In the case of an employer-owned life insurance contract, the amount excluded from gross income of an applicable policyholder by reason of paragraph (1) of subsection (a) shall not exceed an amount equal to the sum of the premiums and other amounts paid by the policyholder for the contract.

(2) Exceptions

In the case of an employer-owned life insurance contract with respect to which the notice and consent requirements of paragraph (4) are met, paragraph (1) shall not apply to any of the following:

(A) Exceptions based on insured's status

Any amount received by reason of the death of an insured who, with respect to an applicable policyholder—

(i) was an employee at any time during the 12-month period before the insured's death, or

(ii) is, at the time the contract is issued—

(I) a director,

(II) a highly compensated employee within the meaning of section 414(q) (without regard to paragraph (1)(B)(ii) thereof), or

(III) a highly compensated individual within the meaning of section 105(h)(5), except that “35 percent” shall be substituted for “25 percent” in subparagraph (C) thereof.

(B) Exception for amounts paid to insured's heirs

Any amount received by reason of the death of an insured to the extent—

(i) the amount is paid to a member of the family (within the meaning of section 267(c)(4)) of the insured, any individual who is the designated beneficiary of the insured under the contract (other than the applicable policyholder), a trust established for the benefit of any such member of the family or designated beneficiary, or the estate of the insured, or

(ii) the amount is used to purchase an equity (or capital or profits) interest in the applicable policyholder from any person described in clause (i).

(3) Employer-owned life insurance contract

(A) In general

For purposes of this subsection, the term “employer-owned life insurance contract” means a life insurance contract which—

(i) is owned by a person engaged in a trade or business and under which such person (or a related person described in subparagraph (B)(ii)) is directly or indirectly a beneficiary under the contract, and

(ii) covers the life of an insured who is an employee with respect to the trade or business of the applicable policyholder on the date the contract is issued.


For purposes of the preceding sentence, if coverage for each insured under a master contract is treated as a separate contract for purposes of sections 817(h), 7702, and 7702A, coverage for each such insured shall be treated as a separate contract.

(B) Applicable policyholder

For purposes of this subsection—

(i) In general

The term “applicable policyholder” means, with respect to any employer-owned life insurance contract, the person described in subparagraph (A)(i) which owns the contract.

(ii) Related persons

The term “applicable policyholder” includes any person which—

(I) bears a relationship to the person described in clause (i) which is specified in section 267(b) or 707(b)(1), or

(II) is engaged in trades or businesses with such person which are under common control (within the meaning of subsection (a) or (b) of section 52).

(4) Notice and consent requirements

The notice and consent requirements of this paragraph are met if, before the issuance of the contract, the employee—

(A) is notified in writing that the applicable policyholder intends to insure the employee's life and the maximum face amount for which the employee could be insured at the time the contract was issued,

(B) provides written consent to being insured under the contract and that such coverage may continue after the insured terminates employment, and

(C) is informed in writing that an applicable policyholder will be a beneficiary of any proceeds payable upon the death of the employee.

(5) Definitions

For purposes of this subsection—

(A) Employee

The term “employee” includes an officer, director, and highly compensated employee (within the meaning of section 414(q)).

(B) Insured

The term “insured” means, with respect to an employer-owned life insurance contract, an individual covered by the contract who is a United States citizen or resident. In the case of a contract covering the joint lives of 2 individuals, references to an insured include both of the individuals.

(Aug. 16, 1954, ch. 736, 68A Stat. 26; Pub. L. 85–866, title I, §23(d), Sept. 2, 1958, 72 Stat. 1622; Pub. L. 87–792, §7(c), Oct. 10, 1962, 76 Stat. 829; Pub. L. 89–365, §1(c), Mar. 8, 1966, 80 Stat. 32; Pub. L. 91–172, title I, §101(j)(l), Dec. 30, 1969, 83 Stat. 526; Pub. L. 93–406, title II, §§2005(c)(15), 2007(b)(3), Sept. 2, 1974, 88 Stat. 992, 994; Pub. L. 94–455, title XIX, §§1901(a)(16), 1906(b)(13)(A), Oct. 4, 1976, 90 Stat. 1765, 1834; Pub. L. 97–248, title II, §§239, 266(a), (b), Sept. 3, 1982, 96 Stat. 514, 547, 550; Pub. L. 98–369, div. A, title II, §221(b)(2), title IV, §421(b)(2), title VII, §713(e), July 18, 1984, 98 Stat. 772, 794, 958; Pub. L. 99–514, title X, §1001(a)–(c), Oct. 22, 1986, 100 Stat. 2387; Pub. L. 104–188, title I, §1402(a), (b)(1), Aug. 20, 1996, 110 Stat. 1789; Pub. L. 104–191, title III, §331(a), Aug. 21, 1996, 110 Stat. 2067; Pub. L. 105–34, title X, §1084(b)(2), title XV, §1528(a), Aug. 5, 1997, 111 Stat. 952, 1074; Pub. L. 107–134, title I, §102(a), Jan. 23, 2002, 115 Stat. 2429; Pub. L. 108–121, title I, §110(b)(1), (2), Nov. 11, 2003, 117 Stat. 1342; Pub. L. 109–280, title VIII, §863(a), (c)(1), Aug. 17, 2006, 120 Stat. 1021, 1024.)

References in Text

The Omnibus Crime Control and Safe Streets Act of 1968, referred to in subsec. (h), is Pub. L. 90–351, June 19, 1968, 82 Stat. 197, as amended. Section 1204 of the Act is classified to section 3796b of Title 42, The Public Health and Welfare. For complete classification of this Act to the Code, see Short Title note set out under section 3711 of Title 42 and Tables.

Codification

Another section 1084(b) of Pub. L. 105–34 amended sections 805, 807, 812, and 832 of this title.

Amendments

2006—Subsec. (a)(1). Pub. L. 109–280, §863(c)(1), substituted “subsection (f), and subsection (j)” for “and subsection (f)”.

Subsec. (j). Pub. L. 109–280, §863(a), added subsec. (j).

2003—Subsec. (i). Pub. L. 108–121, §110(b)(2), inserted “or astronauts” after “victims” in heading.

Subsec. (i)(4). Pub. L. 108–121, §110(b)(1), added par. (4).

2002—Subsec. (i). Pub. L. 107–134 added subsec. (i).

1997—Subsec. (a)(2). Pub. L. 105–34, §1084(b)(2), inserted at end “The term ‘other amounts’ in the first sentence of this paragraph includes interest paid or accrued by the transferee on indebtedness with respect to such contract or any interest therein if such interest paid or accrued is not allowable as a deduction by reason of section 264(a)(4).”

Subsec. (h). Pub. L. 105–34, §1528(a), added subsec. (h).

1996—Subsec. (b). Pub. L. 104–188, §1402(a), struck out subsec. (b) which related to employees’ death benefits.

Subsec. (c). Pub. L. 104–188, §1402(b)(1), substituted “subsection (a)” for “subsection (a) or (b)”.

Subsec. (g). Pub. L. 104–191 added subsec. (g).

1986—Subsec. (d)(1). Pub. L. 99–514, §1001(a), amended second sentence generally, which prior to amendment read as follows: “There shall be excluded from the gross income of such beneficiary in the taxable year received—

“(A) any amount determined by such proration, and

“(B) in the case of the surviving spouse of the insured, that portion of the excess of the amounts received under one or more agreements specified in paragraph (2)(A) (whether or not payment of any part of such amounts is guaranteed by the insurer) over the amount determined in subparagraph (A) of this paragraph which is not greater than $1,000 with respect to any insured.”

Subsec. (d)(2)(B). Pub. L. 99–514, §1001(c)(2), substituted “equal” for “is equal” in introductory provisions.

Subsec. (d)(2)(B)(ii). Pub. L. 99–514, §1001(b), amended cl. (ii) generally. Prior to amendment, cl. (ii) read as follows: “as discounted on the basis of the interest rate and mortality tables used by the insurer in calculating payments under the agreement.”

Subsec. (d)(3), (4). Pub. L. 99–514, §1001(c)(1), redesignated par. (4) as (3), and struck out former par. (3), “Surviving spouse”, which read as follows: “For purposes of this subsection, the term ‘surviving spouse’ means the spouse of the insured as of the date of death, including a spouse legally separated but not under a decree of absolute divorce.”

1984—Subsec. (b)(3)(B). Pub. L. 98–369, §713(e), amended subpar. (B) generally, substituting “certain distributions” for “certain lump sum distributions” in heading, substituting “amount paid or distributed” for “lump sum distribution described in the second sentence of paragraph (2)(B)” in introductory text and adding cls. (i) and (ii).

Subsec. (e). Pub. L. 98–369, §421(b)(2), repealed subsec. (e) relating to payments of alimony or of income of an estate or trust in case of divorce, etc.

Subsec. (f). Pub. L. 98–369, §221(b)(2)(B), inserted “issued before January 1, 1985” in heading.

Subsec. (f)(1). Pub. L. 98–369, §221(b)(2)(A), inserted “issued before January 1, 1985” in introductory text.

1982—Subsec. (a)(1). Pub. L. 97–248, §266(b), substituted “, subsection (d), and subsection (f)” for “and in subsection (d)”.

Subsec. (b)(3). Pub. L. 97–248, §239, amended par. (3) generally, substituting “Treatment of self-employed individuals” for “Self-employed individual not considered an employee” in heading, designating existing provisions as subparagraph (A) and, as so designated, adding heading and exception for subpar. (B), and adding subparagraph (B).

Subsec. (f). Pub. L. 97–248, §266(a), added subsec. (f).

1976—Subsec. (d)(1). Pub. L. 94–455, §1906(b)(13)(A), struck out “or his delegate” after “Secretary”.

Subsec. (f). Pub. L. 94–455, §1901(a)(16), struck out subsec. (f) relating to effective date of section.

1974—Subsec. (b)(2)(B). Pub. L. 93–406, §2005(c)(15), substituted “a lump sum distribution (as defined in section 402(e)(4)” for “total distributions payable (as defined in section 402(a)(3)) which are paid to a distributee within one taxable year of the distributee by reason of the employee's death”.

Subsec. (b)(2)(D). Pub. L. 93–406, §2007(b)(3), substituted “if the member or former member of the uniformed services by reason of whose death such annuity is payable” for “if the individual who made the election under such chapter”.

1969—Subsec. (b)(2)(B)(iii). Pub. L. 91–172 substituted references to section 170(b)(1)(A) (ii) and (vi), and to religious organizations, for references to section 503(b)(1), (2), or (3).

1966—Subsec. (b)(2)(D). Pub. L. 89–365 provided that par. (1) shall not apply in the case of an annuity under chapter 73 of title 10 if the individual who made the election under that chapter died after attaining retirement age.

1962—Subsec. (b)(2)(B)(ii). Pub. L. 87–792, §7(c)(1), substituted “described in section 403(a)” for “which meets the requirements of paragraphs (3), (4), (5), and (6) of section 401(a)”.

Subsec. (b)(3). Pub. L. 87–792, §7(c)(2), added par. (3).

1958—Subsec. (b)(2)(B). Pub. L. 85–866 substituted “This subparagraph shall not apply to total distributions payable (as defined in section 402(a)(3) which are paid to a distributee within one taxable year of the distributee by reason of the employee's death—” for “(other than total distributions payable, as defined in section 402(a)(3), which are paid to distributee, by a stock bonus, pension, or profit-sharing trust described in section 401(a) which is exempt from tax under section 501(a), or under an annuity contract under a plan which meets the requirements of paragraphs (3), (4), (5), and (6) of section 401(a), within one taxable year of the distributee by reason of the employee's death)”, and added cls. (i), (ii), and (iii).

Effective Date of 2006 Amendment

Pub. L. 109–280, title VIII, §863(d), Aug. 17, 2006, 120 Stat. 1024, provided that: “The amendments made by this section [enacting section 6039I of this title and amending this section] shall apply to life insurance contracts issued after the date of the enactment of this Act [Aug. 17, 2006], except for a contract issued after such date pursuant to an exchange described in section 1035 of the Internal Revenue Code of 1986 for a contract issued on or prior to that date. For purposes of the preceding sentence, any material increase in the death benefit or other material change shall cause the contract to be treated as a new contract except that, in the case of a master contract (within the meaning of section 264(f)(4)(E) of such Code), the addition of covered lives shall be treated as a new contract only with respect to such additional covered lives.”

Effective Date of 2003 Amendment

Pub. L. 108–121, title I, §110(b)(3), Nov. 11, 2003, 117 Stat. 1342, provided that: “The amendments made by this subsection [amending this section] shall apply to amounts paid after December 31, 2002, with respect to deaths occurring after such date.”

Effective Date of 2002 Amendment

Pub. L. 107–134, title I, §102(b), Jan. 23, 2002, 115 Stat. 2429, provided that:

“(1) Effective date.—The amendment made by this section [amending this section] shall apply to taxable years ending before, on, or after September 11, 2001.

“(2) Waiver of limitations.—If refund or credit of any overpayment of tax resulting from the amendments made by this section is prevented at any time before the close of the 1-year period beginning on the date of the enactment of this Act [Jan. 23, 2002] by the operation of any law or rule of law (including res judicata), such refund or credit may nevertheless be made or allowed if claim therefor is filed before the close of such period.”

Effective Date of 1997 Amendment

Section 1084(d) of Pub. L. 105–34, as amended by Pub. L. 105–206, title VI, §6010(o)(3)(B), July 22, 1998, 112 Stat. 816, provided that: “The amendments made by this section [amending this section and sections 264, 265, 805, 807, 812, and 832 of this title] shall apply to contracts issued after June 8, 1997, in taxable years ending after such date. For purposes of the preceding sentence, any material increase in the death benefit or other material change in the contract shall be treated as a new contract except that, in the case of a master contract (within the meaning of section 264(f)(4)(E) of the Internal Revenue Code of 1986), the addition of covered lives shall be treated as a new contract only with respect to such additional covered lives. For purposes of this subsection, an increase in the death benefit under a policy or contract issued in connection with a lapse described in section 501(d)(2) of the Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act of 1996 [Pub. L. 104–191, set out as a note under section 264 of this title] shall not be treated as a new contract.”

Section 1528(b) of Pub. L. 105–34, as amended by Pub. L. 107–15, §2, June 5, 2001, 115 Stat. 37, provided that: “The amendments made by this section [amending this section] shall apply to amounts received in taxable years beginning after December 31, 1996, with respect to individuals dying after such date, and to amounts received in taxable years beginning after December 31, 2001, with respect to individuals dying on or before December 31, 1996.”

Effective Date of 1996 Amendments

Section 331(b) of Pub. L. 104–191 provided that: “The amendment made by subsection (a) [amending this section] shall apply to amounts received after December 31, 1996.”

Section 1402(c) of Pub. L. 104–188 provided that: “The amendments made by this section [amending this section and sections 406, 407, and 7701 of this title] shall apply with respect to decedents dying after the date of the enactment of this Act [Aug. 20, 1996].”

Effective Date of 1986 Amendment

Section 1001(d) of Pub. L. 99–514 provided that: “The amendments made by this section [amending this section] shall apply to amounts received with respect to deaths occurring after the date of the enactment of this section [Oct. 22, 1986] in taxable years ending after such date.”

Effective Date of 1984 Amendment

Amendment by section 221(b)(2) of Pub. L. 98–369 effective Jan. 1, 1984, see section 221(d)(4) of Pub. L. 98–369, set out as an Effective Date note under section 7702 of this title.

Amendment by section 421(b)(2) of Pub. L. 98–369 applicable to transfers after July 18, 1984, in taxable years ending after such date, subject to election to have repeal apply to transfers after 1983 or to transfers pursuant to existing decrees, see section 421(d) of Pub. L. 98–369, set out as an Effective Date note under section 1041 of this title.

Amendment by section 713 of Pub. L. 98–369 effective as if included in the provision of the Tax Equity and Fiscal Responsibility Act of 1982, Pub. L. 97–248, to which such amendment relates, see section 715 of Pub. L. 98–369, set out as a note under section 31 of this title.

Effective Date of 1982 Amendments

Section 266(c)(1) of Pub. L. 97–248, as amended by Pub. L. 98–369, div. A, title II, §221(b)(1), July 18, 1984, 98 Stat. 772, provided that: “The amendments made by this section [amending this section] shall apply to contracts entered into before January 1, 1985.”

Amendment by section 239 of Pub. L. 97–248 applicable to decedents dying after Dec. 31, 1983, see section 241(b) of Pub. L. 97–248, set out as an Effective Date note under section 416 of this title. Such amendment is applicable, in the case of amounts received under the plan of an S corporation, with respect to decedents dying after Dec. 31, 1982, notwithstanding section 241(b) of Pub. L. 97–248, see section 6(b)(2) of Pub. L. 97–354, Oct. 19, 1982, 96 Stat. 1697, set out as a note under section 1361 of this title.

Effective Date of 1976 Amendment

Amendment by section 1901(a)(16) of Pub. L. 94–455 applicable with respect to taxable years beginning after Dec. 31, 1976, see section 1901(d) of Pub. L. 94–455, set out as a note under section 2 of this title.

Amendment by section 1906(b)(13)(A) of Pub. L. 94–455 effective Feb. 1, 1977, see section 1906(d)(1) of Pub. L. 94–455, set out as a note under section 6013 of this title.

Effective Date of 1974 Amendment

Amendment by section 2005(c)(15) of Pub. L. 93–406 applicable only with respect to distributions and payments made after Dec. 31, 1973, in taxable years beginning after Dec. 31, 1973, see section 2005(d) of Pub. L. 93–406, set out as a note under section 402 of this title.

Amendment by section 2007(b)(3) of Pub. L. 93–406 applicable to taxable years ending on or after Sept. 21, 1972, with respect to individuals dying on or after Sept. 21, 1972, see section 2007(c) of Pub. L. 93–406, set out as a note under section 122 of this title.

Effective Date of 1969 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 91–172 effective Jan. 1, 1970, see section 101(k)(1) of Pub. L. 91–172, set out as an Effective Date note under section 4940 of this title.

Effective Date of 1966 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 89–365 applicable with respect to individuals making an election under chapter 73 of Title 10 who died after Dec. 31, 1965, see section 1(d) of Pub. L. 89–365, set out as an Effective Date note under section 122 of this title.

Effective Date of 1962 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 87–792 applicable to taxable years beginning after Dec. 31, 1962, see section 8 of Pub. L. 87–792, set out as a note under section 22 of this title.

Effective Date of 1958 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 85–866 applicable to taxable years beginning after Dec. 31, 1957, see section 23(g) of Pub. L. 85–866, set out as a note under section 403 of this title.

Plan Amendments Not Required Until January 1, 1998

For provisions directing that if any amendments made by subtitle D [§§1401–1465] of title I of Pub. L. 104–188 require an amendment to any plan or annuity contract, such amendment shall not be required to be made before the first day of the first plan year beginning on or after Jan. 1, 1998, see section 1465 of Pub. L. 104–188, set out as a note under section 401 of this title.

Flexible Premium Contracts Issued During 1984 Which Meet Requirements of Section 7702 Treated as Meeting Requirements of Section 101(f)

Flexible premium contracts issued during 1984 which meet requirements of section 7702 of this title treated as meeting requirements of subsec. (f) of this section, see section 221(b)(3) of Pub. L. 98–369, as added by Pub. L. 99–514, set out as a note under section 7702 of this title.

Special Rules for Contracts Entered Into Before January 1, 1983

Section 266(c)(2), (3) of Pub. L. 97–248, as amended by Pub. L. 97–448, title III, §306(a)(13), Jan. 12, 1983, 96 Stat. 2405; Pub. L. 99–514, §2, Oct. 22, 1986, 100 Stat. 2095, provided that:

“(2) Special rule for contracts entered into before january 1, 1983.—Any contract entered into before January 1, 1983, which meets the requirements of section 101(f) of the Internal Revenue Code of 1986 [formerly I.R.C. 1954] on the date which is 1 year after the date of the enactment of this Act [Sept. 3, 1982] shall be treated as meeting the requirements of such section for any period before the date on which such contract meets such requirements. Any death benefits paid under a flexible premium life insurance contract (within the meaning of section 101(f)(3)(A) of such Code) before the date which is 1 year after such date of enactment [Sept. 3, 1982] shall be excluded from gross income.

“(3) Special rule for certain contracts.—Any contract entered into before January 1, 1983, shall be treated as meeting the requirements of subparagraph (A) of section 101(f)(1) of such Code if such contract would meet such requirements if section 101(f)(2)(C) of such Code were applied by substituting ‘3 percent’ for ‘4 percent’.”

§102. Gifts and inheritances

(a) General rule

Gross income does not include the value of property acquired by gift, bequest, devise, or inheritance.

(b) Income

Subsection (a) shall not exclude from gross income—

(1) the income from any property referred to in subsection (a); or

(2) where the gift, bequest, devise, or inheritance is of income from property, the amount of such income.


Where, under the terms of the gift, bequest, devise, or inheritance, the payment, crediting, or distribution thereof is to be made at intervals, then, to the extent that it is paid or credited or to be distributed out of income from property, it shall be treated for purposes of paragraph (2) as a gift, bequest, devise, or inheritance of income from property. Any amount included in the gross income of a beneficiary under subchapter J shall be treated for purposes of paragraph (2) as a gift, bequest, devise, or inheritance of income from property.

(c) Employee gifts

(1) In general

Subsection (a) shall not exclude from gross income any amount transferred by or for an employer to, or for the benefit of, an employee.

(2) Cross references

For provisions excluding certain employee achievement awards from gross income, see section 74(c).

For provisions excluding certain de minimis fringes from gross income, see section 132(e).

(Aug. 16, 1954, ch. 736, 68A Stat. 28; Pub. L. 99–514, title I, §122(b), Oct. 22, 1986, 100 Stat. 2110.)

Amendments

1986—Subsec. (c). Pub. L. 99–514 added subsec. (c).

Effective Date of 1986 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 99–514 applicable to prizes and awards granted after Dec. 31, 1986, see section 151(c) of Pub. L. 99–514, set out as a note under section 1 of this title.

§103. Interest on State and local bonds

(a) Exclusion

Except as provided in subsection (b), gross income does not include interest on any State or local bond.

(b) Exceptions

Subsection (a) shall not apply to—

(1) Private activity bond which is not a qualified bond

Any private activity bond which is not a qualified bond (within the meaning of section 141).

(2) Arbitrage bond

Any arbitrage bond (within the meaning of section 148).

(3) Bond not in registered form, etc.

Any bond unless such bond meets the applicable requirements of section 149.

(c) Definitions

For purposes of this section and part IV—

(1) State or local bond

The term “State or local bond” means an obligation of a State or political subdivision thereof.

(2) State

The term “State” includes the District of Columbia and any possession of the United States.

(Aug. 16, 1954, ch. 736, 68A Stat. 29; Pub. L. 90–364, title I, §107(a), June 28, 1968, 82 Stat. 266; Pub. L. 90–634, title IV, §401(a), Oct. 24, 1968, 82 Stat. 1349; Pub. L. 91–172, title VI, §601(a), Dec. 30, 1969, 83 Stat. 656; Pub. L. 92–178, title III, §315(a), (b), Dec. 10, 1971, 85 Stat. 529; Pub. L. 94–164, §7(a), Dec. 23, 1975, 89 Stat. 976; Pub. L. 94–182, title III, §301(a), Dec. 31, 1975, 89 Stat. 1056; Pub. L. 94–455, title XIX, §§1901(a)(17), (b)(8)(B), 1906(b)(13)(A), title XXI, §§2105(a)–(c), 2137(d), Oct. 4, 1976, 90 Stat. 1765, 1766, 1794, 1834, 1902, 1931; Pub. L. 95–339, title II, §201(a), Aug. 8, 1978, 92 Stat. 467; Pub. L. 95–600, title III, §§331(a), (b), 332(a), 333(a), 334(a), (b), title VII, §703(j)(1), (q)(1), Nov. 6, 1978, 92 Stat. 2839–2841, 2941, 2944; Pub. L. 96–222, title I, §107(a)(3)(C), Apr. 1, 1980, 94 Stat. 223; Pub. L. 96–223, title II, §§241(a), 242(a), 244(a), Apr. 2, 1980, 94 Stat. 281, 283, 286; Pub. L. 96–499, title XI, §1103, Dec. 5, 1980, 94 Stat. 2669; Pub. L. 97–34, title VIII, §§811(a), (b), 812(a), Aug. 13, 1981, 95 Stat. 349, 350; Pub. L. 97–248, title II, §§214(a)–(e), 215(a), (b), 217(a)–(d), 219(a), 221(a), (b), (c)(1), title III, §310(b)(1), (c)(1), (2), Sept. 3, 1982, 96 Stat. 466–469, 472–474, 477, 478, 596, 599; Pub. L. 97–424, title V, §547(a), Jan. 6, 1983, 96 Stat. 2199; Pub. L. 97–473, title II, §202(b)(2), Jan. 14, 1983, 96 Stat. 2609; Pub. L. 98–369, div. A, title IV, §474(r)(4), title VI, §§621–624(a), (b)(2), (3), 626(a), 627, 628(a), (c)–(e), (g), 630, July 18, 1984, 98 Stat. 839, 915–922, 924, 926, 928, 931–933; Pub. L. 99–272, title XIII, §13209(e), Apr. 7, 1986, 100 Stat. 323; Pub. L. 99–514, title XIII, §1301(a), title XVIII, §§1864(a)(1), (b)–(e), 1865(a), 1869(a), (b), 1870, 1871(a)(1), (b), 1899A(2)–(4), Oct. 22, 1986, 100 Stat. 2602, 2885, 2886, 2888, 2890, 2891, 2958; Pub. L. 100–647, title I, §1013(a)(34)(A), (c)(12)(A), Nov. 10, 1988, 102 Stat. 3544, 3547.)

Amendments

1988—Subsec. (b)(6)(N). Pub. L. 100–647, §1013(c)(12)(A), amended subpar. (N), as in effect on the day before the date of the enactment of Pub. L. 99–514 [Oct. 22, 1986], by redesignating cls. (ii) and (iii) as (iii) and (iv), respectively, and by striking out cl. (i) and inserting in lieu thereof the following new cls.:

“(i) In general.—Except as provided in clause (ii), this paragraph shall not apply to any obligation issued after December 31, 1986.

“(ii) Certain refundings.—This paragraph shall apply to any obligation (or series of obligations) issued to refund an obligation issued on or before December 31, 1986, if—

“(I) the average maturity date of the issue of which the refunding obligation is a part is not later than the average maturity date of the obligations to be refunded by such issue,

“(II) the amount of the refunding obligation does not exceed the outstanding amount of the refunded obligation, and

“(III) the proceeds of the refunding obligation are used to redeem the refunded obligation not later than 90 days after the date of the issuance of the refunding obligation.

For purposes of subclause (I), average maturity shall be determined in accordance with subsection (b)(14)(B)(i).”

Subsec. (c)(7). Pub. L. 100–647, §1013(a)(34)(A), amended par. (7), as in effect on the day before the date of the enactment of Pub. L. 99–514 [Oct. 22, 1986], by substituting “necessary” for “necessary”.

1986—Pub. L. 99–514, §1301(a), in amending section generally, substituted “Interest on State and local bonds” for “Interest on certain governmental obligations” in section catchline.

Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 99–514, §1301(a), substituted “Exclusion” for “General rule” in heading and amended text generally. Prior to amendment, text read as follows: “Gross income does not include interest on—

“(1) the obligations of a State, a Territory, or a possession of the United States, or any political subdivision of any of the foregoing, or of the District of Columbia; and

“(2) qualified scholarship funding bonds.”

Subsec. (b). Pub. L. 99–514, §1301(a), in amending section generally, substituted provision relating to exceptions for provision relating to industrial development bonds.

Subsec. (b)(11). Pub. L. 99–272 struck out par. (11) relating to pollution control facilities acquired by regional pollution control authorities.

Subsec. (b)(13), (14)(A). Pub. L. 99–514, §1871(b), substituted “and (6)” for “(6), and (7)”.

Subsec. (b)(16)(A). Pub. L. 99–514, §1870, substituted “clause (ii)” for “clause (i)”.

Subsec. (b)(17)(A). Pub. L. 99–514, §1871(b), substituted “and (6)” for “(6), and (7)”.

Subsec. (c). Pub. L. 99–514, §1301(a), in amending section generally, substituted provision relating to definitions for provision relating to arbitrage.

Subsecs. (d) to (g). Pub. L. 99–514, §1301(a), in amending section generally, struck out subsecs. (d) to (g) which related to certain irrigation dams, qualified scholarship funding bonds, certain federally guaranteed obligations, and qualified steam-generating or alcohol-producing facilities, respectively.

Subsec. (h). Pub. L. 99–514, §1301(a), in amending section generally, struck out subsec. (h) which provided that obligations must not be guaranteed.

Subsec. (h)(2)(A). Pub. L. 99–514, §1899A(2), substituted “guaranteed” for “guaranted”.

Subsec. (h)(5)(A). Pub. L. 99–514, §1865(a), struck out “the United States,” after “program of”.

Subsecs. (i) to (k). Pub. L. 99–514, §1301(a), in amending section generally, struck out subsecs. (i) to (k) which related to obligations of certain volunteer fire departments, provided that obligations must be in registered form to be tax-exempt, and required public approval for industrial development bonds, respectively.

Subsec. (l). Pub. L. 99–514, §1301(a), in amending section generally, struck out subsec. (l) which related to information reporting requirements for certain bonds.

Subsec. (l)(2)(F). Pub. L. 99–514, §1864(d), added subpar. (F) which read: “if such obligation is a private activity bond (as defined in subsection (n)(7)), such information as the Secretary may require for purposes of determining whether the requirements of subsection (n) are met with respect to such obligation.”

Subsec. (m). Pub. L. 99–514, §1301(a), in amending section generally, struck out subsec. (m) which related to obligations exempt other than under this title.

Subsec. (m)(1). Pub. L. 99–514, §1871(a)(1), substituted “(j), (k), (l), (n), and (o)” for “(k), (l), and (n)”.

Subsec. (m)(3)(B). Pub. L. 99–514, §1899A(3), substituted “608(a)(6)(A)” for “608(6)(A)”.

Subsec. (n). Pub. L. 99–514, §1301(a), in amending section generally, struck out subsec. (n) which related to limitation on aggregate amount of private activity bonds issued during any calendar year.

Subsec. (n)(6)(A), (B)(i). Pub. L. 99–514, §1864(b), substituted “governmental units or other authorities” for “governmental units”.

Subsec. (n)(7)(C)(i). Pub. L. 99–514, §1864(c), substituted “all of the property to be financed by the obligation” for “the property described in such paragraph”.

Subsec. (n)(10)(B). Pub. L. 99–514, §1864(e), substituted “identify project” for “specify project” in heading and “identify (with reasonable specificity) the project” for “specify the project” in text of subpar. (B)(i).

Subsec. (n)(10)(D). Pub. L. 99–514, §1864(e)(2), substituted “any identification or specification” for “any specification”.

Subsec. (n)(13). Pub. L. 99–514, §1864(a)(1), added par. (13).

Subsec. (o). Pub. L. 99–514, §1301(a), in amending section generally, struck out subsec. (o) relating to consumer loan bonds.

Pub. L. 99–514, §1869(a), (b)(1), substituted “Private loan bonds” for “Consumer loan bonds” in subsection and par. (2) headings, “private loan bond” for “consumer loan bond” in text of pars. (1), (2)(A) and (B), and “subsection (c)(6)(H)(i)” for “subsection (c)(6)(G)(i)” in par. (2)(C)(ii).

Pub. L. 99–514, §1869(b)(2), redesignated subsec. (o), relating to cross references, as (p).

Subsec. (p). Pub. L. 99–514, §1301(a), in amending section generally, struck out subsec. (p) which related to cross references.

Pub. L. 99–514, §1869(b)(2), redesignated former subsec. (o), relating to cross references, as (p).

Subsec. (p)(4). Pub. L. 99–514, §1899A(4), substituted “October 27, 1949 (48 U.S.C. 1403)” for “October 27, 1919 (48 U.S.C. 1403)”.

1984—Subsec. (b)(4). Pub. L. 98–369, §628(e), inserted “For purposes of subparagraph (A), any property shall not be treated as failing to be residential rental property merely because part of the building in which such property is located is used for purposes other than residential rental purposes.”

Subsec. (b)(6)(F)(iv). Pub. L. 98–369, §474(r)(4), substituted “section 30(b)(2)(A)” for “section 44F(b)(2)(A)”.

Subsec. (b)(6)(N). Pub. L. 98–369, §630, designated existing provisions as cl. (i) and added cls. (ii) and (iii).

Subsec. (b)(6)(P). Pub. L. 98–369, §628(c), added subpar. (P).

Subsec. (b)(7). Pub. L. 98–369, §628(g), repealed par. (7) which related to advance refunding of qualified public facilities.

Subsec. (b)(13). Pub. L. 98–369, §628(d), inserted “For purposes of this paragraph— (A) a partnership and each of its partners (and their spouses and minor children) shall be treated as related persons, and (B) an S corporation and each of its shareholders (and their spouses and minor children) shall be treated as related persons.”

Subsec. (b)(15). Pub. L. 98–369, §623, added par. (15).

Subsec. (b)(16) to (18). Pub. L. 98–369, §627, added pars. (16) to (18).

Subsec. (c). Pub. L. 98–369, §624(b)(2), struck out “bonds” after “Arbitrage” in heading.

Subsec. (c)(1). Pub. L. 98–369, §624(b)(3), inserted “to arbitrage bonds” in heading.

Subsec. (c)(6), (7). Pub. L. 98–369, §624(a), added par. (6) and redesignated former par. (6) as (7).

Subsec. (h). Pub. L. 98–369, §622, amended subsec. (h) generally, in par. (1) substituting provisions that obligations are not included in the section if they are federally guaranteed for provisions which excluded obligations guaranteed, in whole or part, by the U.S. under a program to conserve energy, or under other Federal or State programs, in par. (2) substituting provisions defining “federally guaranteed” for provisions setting forth obligations to which this subsection applies, and adding pars. (3) to (5).

Subsec. (m)(1). Pub. L. 98–369, §628(a)(1), inserted “In the case of an obligation issued after December 31, 1983, such obligation shall not be treated as described in this paragraph unless the appropriate requirements of subsections (b), (c), (h), (k), (l), and (n) of this section and section 103A are met with respect to such obligation. For purposes of applying such requirements, a possession of the United States shall be treated as a State; except that clause (ii) of subsection (n)(4)(A) shall not apply.”

Subsec. (m)(2)(B). Pub. L. 98–369, §628(a)(2), substituted “is exempt from tax under this title without regard to any provision of law which is not contained in this title and which is not contained in a revenue Act” for “is exempt from taxation under any provision of this title”.

Subsec. (m)(3). Pub. L. 98–369, §628(a)(3), added par. (3).

Subsec. (n). Pub. L. 98–369, §621, added subsec. (n). Former subsec. (n), relating to cross references, redesignated (o).

Subsec. (o). Pub. L. 98–369, §626(a), added subsec. (o) relating to consumer loan bonds.

Pub. L. 98–369, §621, redesignated subsec. (n), relating to cross references, as (o).

1983—Subsec. (m). Pub. L. 97–424, §547(a), added subsec. (m). Former subsec. (m) redesignated (n).

Pub. L. 97–473 amended subsec. (m) generally, adding pars. (1) and (2), redesignating former pars. (1) to (3) as (3) to (5), respectively, and striking out par. (24) which had provided reference regarding exempt-interest dividends to section 852(b)(5)(B.) See section 722(b) of Pub. L. 98–369, set out as a note below.

Subsec. (n). Pub. L. 97–424, §547(a), redesignated former subsec. (m), relating to cross references, as (n).

1982—Subsec. (b)(2). Pub. L. 97–248, §215(b)(2), substituted “For purposes of this section” for “For purposes of this subsection”.

Subsec. (b)(4). Pub. L. 97–248, §§217(a)(1), (b), 221(a), (c)(1), 310(c)(1), in subpar. (A) substituted “if at all times during the qualified project period” for “if each obligation issued pursuant to the issue is in registered form and if” after “residential rental property”, and struck out “(within the meaning of section 167(k)(3)(B))” after “low or moderate income”, added subpar. (J), struck out provision that for purposes of subpar. (A), “targeted area project” meant a project located in a qualified census tract (within the meaning of section 103A(k)(2)) or an area of chronic economic distress (within the meaning of section 103A(k)(3)) and, in last sentence, substituted “electric energy or gas from” for “electric energy from”.

Subsec. (b)(6)(C). Pub. L. 97–248, §217(a)(3), substituted “paragraph (13)” for “paragraph (7)”.

Subsec. (b)(6)(F)(iv). Pub. L. 97–248, §214(d), added cl. (iv).

Subsec. (b)(6)(K) to (O). Pub. L. 97–248, §214(a)–(c), (e), added subpars. (K) to (O).

Subsec. (b)(9)(A). Pub. L. 97–248, §217(c), inserted “ferry,” after “rail car” in provisions preceding cl. (i), and in cl. (ii), inserted “(or, in the case of a ferry, mass transportation services)” after “mass commuting services”.

Subsec. (b)(10). Pub. L. 97–248, §217(a)(2), added par. (10). Former par. (10) redesignated (13).

Subsec. (b)(11). Pub. L. 97–248, §217(d), added par. (11).

Subsec. (b)(12). Pub. L. 97–248, §221(b), added par. (12). [Provisions of par. (12)(A) were formerly contained, as undesignated provisions, in par. (4).]

Subsec. (b)(13). Pub. L. 97–248, §217(a)(2), redesignated former par. (10) as (13).

Subsec. (b)(14). Pub. L. 97–248, §219(a), added par. (14).

Subsec. (h). Pub. L. 97–248, §310(c)(2), substituted “must not be guaranteed or subsidized” for “must be in registered form and not guaranteed or subsidized” in heading, and in par. (1) struck out subpar. (A) reading “such obligation is not issued in registered form”, and redesignated subpars. (B) and (C) as (A) and (B), respectively.

Subsec. (j). Pub. L. 97–248, §310(b)(1), added subsec. (j). Former subsec. (j), relating to cross references, redesignated (m).

Subsec. (k). Pub. L. 97–248, §215(a), added subsec. (k).

Subsec. (l). Pub. L. 97–248, §215(b)(1), added subsec. (l).

Subsec. (m). Pub. L. 97–248, §§215(a), (b)(1), 310(b)(1), redesignated former subsec. (j), relating to cross references, as (m).

1981—Subsec. (b)(4)(I). Pub. L. 97–34, §811(a), added subpar. (I).

Subsec. (b)(9), (10). Pub. L. 97–34, §811(b), added par. (9) and redesignated former par. (9) as (10).

Subsecs. (i), (j). Pub. L. 97–34, §812(a), added subsec. (i) and redesignated former subsec. (i) as (j).

1980—Subsec. (b)(4). Pub. L. 96–499, §1103(b), inserted before last sentence provisions defining “targeted area project” for purposes of subpar. (A).

Subsec. (b)(4)(A). Pub. L. 96–499, §1103(a), substituted provisions relating to low or moderate income residential rental property for provisions relating to residential real property for family units.

Subsec. (b)(4)(H). Pub. L. 96–223, §242(a)(1), added subpar. (H).

Subsec. (b)(6)(J). Pub. L. 96–499, §1103(c), added subpar. (J).

Subsec. (b)(8), (9). Pub. L. 96–223, §242(a)(2), added par. (8) and redesignated former par. (8) as (9).

Subsec. (c)(5). Pub. L. 96–222, §107(a)(3)(C), amended the directory language of Pub. L. 96–500, §703(q)(1). See 1978 Amendment note below for subsec. (c)(5).

Subsec. (g). Pub. L. 96–223, §241(a), added subsec. (g). Former subsec. (g) redesignated (i).

Subsec. (h). Pub. L. 96–223, §244(a), added subsec. (h).

Subsec. (i). Pub. L. 96–223, §§241(a), 244(a), redesignated former subsec. (g) as (i).

1978—Subsec. (b)(1). Pub. L. 95–600, §703(j)(1)(A), substituted “subsection (a)(1) or (2)” for “subsection (a)(1)” in heading.

Subsec. (b)(4). Pub. L. 95–600, §§332(a), 333(a), in subpar. (G)(i) inserted reference to electric utility, industrial, agricultural, or commercial users and added subpar. (G)(ii) and provision following subpar. (G)(ii) relating to the local furnishing of electric energy.

Subsec. (b)(6)(D). Pub. L. 95–600, §331(a), substituted in heading and cl. (i) “$10,000,000” for “$5,000,000”.

Subsec. (b)(6)(I). Pub. L. 95–600, §331(b), added subpar. (I).

Subsec. (b)(7), (8). Pub. L. 95–600, §334(a), (b), added par. (7), redesignated former par. (7) as (8) and, as so redesignated, substituted “(6), and (7)” for “and (6)”.

Subsec. (c)(1). Pub. L. 95–600, §703(j)(1)(B), substituted in heading and text “(a)(1) or (2)” for “(a)(1) or (4)”.

Subsec. (c)(2)(A). Pub. L. 95–600, §703(j)(1)(C), substituted “subsection (a)(1) or (2)” for “subsection (a)(1) or (2) or (4)”.

Subsec. (c)(5). Pub. L. 95–600, §703(j)(1)(D), (q)(1), as amended by Pub. L. 96–222, §107(a)(3)(C), substituted “section 438 of the Higher Education Act of 1965” for “section 2 of the Emergency Insured Student Loan Act of 1969” and “paragraph (2)(A)” for “subsection (d)(2)(A)”.

Subsec. (d). Pub. L. 95–600, §703(j)(1)(E), substituted “subsection (b)(4)(G)” for “subsection (c)(4)(G)”.

Subsec. (e). Pub. L. 95–339 redesignated second subsec. (e), relating to cross references, as (g).

Subsec. (f). Pub. L. 95–339 added subsec. (f).

Subsec. (g). Pub. L. 95–339 redesignated second subsec. (e), relating to cross references, as (g).

1976—Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 94–455, §§1901(a)(17)(A), 2105(a), added par. (2) relating to qualified scholarship funding bonds. Former pars. (2) and (3), relating to obligations of the United States and to the obligations of corporations organized under an Act of Congress, were struck out.

Subsec. (b). Pub. L. 94–455, §1901(a)(17)(B), (C), redesignated subsec. (c) as (b) and in par. (1) of subsec. (b) as so redesignated substituted “subsection (a)(1) or (2)” for “subsection (a)(1)”. Former subsec. (b), which created an exception to the rule that gross income did not include interest on obligations of the United States, by providing that the exception did not apply to obligations of the United States (with specified exceptions) unless under the authorizing Acts such interest is wholly exempt from the taxes imposed by this subtitle, was struck out.

Subsec. (c). Pub. L. 94–455, §§1901(a)(17)(B), (D), (b)(8)(B), 1906(b)(13)(A), 2105(c), redesignated subsec. (d) as (c) and, in subsec. (c) as so redesignated, substituted “(a)(1) or (4)” for “(a)(1)” in par. (1) and “(a)(1) or (2) or (4)” for “(a)(1)” in par. (2)(A), substituted “educational organization described in section 170(b)(1)(A)(ii)” for “educational institution (within the meaning of section 151(e)(4))” in par. (3)(A), added par. (5), redesignated former par. (5) as (6), and in par. (6) as so redesignated substituted “Secretary” for “Secretary or his delegate”. Former subsec. (c) redesignated (b).

Subsec. (d). Pub. L. 94–455, §1901(a)(17)(B), redesignated subsec. (e) as (d). Former subsec. (d) redesignated (c).

Subsec. (e). Pub. L. 94–455, §§1901(a)(17)(B), (E), 2105(b), 2137(d), added subsec. (e) relating to qualified scholarship funding bonds, redesignated former subsec. (f) relating to cross references as a second subsec. (e), reduced the number of cross references in subsec. (e) as so redesignated from twenty-three (which made reference to various obligations of the United States and of corporations organized under Acts of Congress) to three, relating, respectively, to Puerto Rican bonds, Virgin Islands insular and municipal bonds, and certain obligations issued under title I of the Housing Act of 1949, and inserted a fourth cross reference, designated as par. (24) relating to the treatment of exempt-interest dividends. Former subsec. (e) redesignated (d).

Subsec. (f). Pub. L. 94–455, §1901(a)(17)(B), redesignated subsec. (f), relating to cross references, as (e).

1975—Subsecs. (e), (f). Pub. L. 94–182 and Pub. L. 94–164 made identical amendments, adding subsec. (e) and redesignating former subsec. (e) as (f).

1971—Subsec. (c)(4)(E). Pub. L. 92–178, §315(a)(1), substituted “energy or gas,” for “energy, gas, or water or”.

Subsec. (c)(4)(F). Pub. L. 92–178, §315(a)(2), substituted “, or” for a period.

Subsec. (c)(4)(G). Pub. L. 92–178, §315(a)(3), added subpar. (G).

Subsec. (c)(6)(F)(iii). Pub. L. 92–178, §315(b), substituted “$1,000,000” for “$250,000”.

1969—Subsecs. (d), (e). Pub. L. 91–172 added subsec. (d) and redesignated former subsec. (d) as (e).

1968—Subsec. (c). Pub. L. 90–364 added subsec. (c). Former subsec. (c) redesignated (d).

Subsec. (c)(6)(D) to (H). Pub. L. 90–634 added subpars. (D) to (H).

Subsec. (d). Pub. L. 90–364 redesignated former subsec. (c) as (d).

Effective Date of 1988 Amendment

Section 1013(a)(34)(B) of Pub. L. 100–647 provided that: “Subparagraph (A) [amending this section] shall apply to obligations sold after May 2, 1978, and to which Treasury regulation section 1.103–13 (1979) was provided to apply.”

Effective Date of 1986 Amendment

Amendment by section 1301(a) of Pub. L. 99–514 applicable to bonds issued after Aug. 15, 1986, except as otherwise provided, see sections 1311 to 1318 of Pub. L. 99–514, set out as an Effective Date; Transitional Rules note under section 141 of this title.

Amendment by sections 1864(b)–(e), 1865(a), 1869(a), (b), 1870, and 1871(b) of Pub. L. 99–514 effective, except as otherwise provided, as if included in the provisions of the Tax Reform Act of 1984, Pub. L. 98–369, div. A, to which such amendment relates, see section 1881 of Pub. L. 99–514, set out as a note under section 48 of this title.

Section 1864(a)(2) of Pub. L. 99–514 provided that:

“(A) Except as provided in subparagraph (B), the amendment made by paragraph (1) [amending this section] shall apply to obligations issued after the date of the enactment of this Act [Oct. 22, 1986] in taxable years ending after such date.

“(B) At the election of the issuer (made at such time and in such manner as the Secretary of the Treasury or his delegate shall prescribe), the amendment made by paragraph (1) shall apply to any obligation issued on or before the date of the enactment of this Act.”

Section 1871(a)(2) of Pub. L. 99–514 provided that: “The amendment made by paragraph (1) [amending this section] shall apply to obligations issued after March 28, 1985, in taxable years ending after such date.”

Effective Date of 1984 Amendment

Amendment by section 474(r)(4) of Pub. L. 98–369 applicable to taxable years beginning after Dec. 31, 1983, and to carrybacks from such years, see section 475(a) of Pub. L. 98–369, set out as a note under section 21 of this title.

Section 624(c) of Pub. L. 98–369, as amended by Pub. L. 99–514, title XVIII, §1867(a), Oct. 22, 1986, 100 Stat. 2888, provided that:

“(1) In general.—Except as otherwise provided in this subsection, the amendments made by this section [amending this section and section 103A of this title] shall apply with respect to bonds issued after December 31, 1984.

“(2) Exception.—The amendments made by this section shall not apply to obligations issued for the Essex County New Jersey Resource Recovery Project authorized by the Port Authority of New York and New Jersey on November 10, 1983, as part of an agreement approved by Essex County, New Jersey, on July 7, 1981, and approved by the State of New Jersey on December 31, 1981. The aggregate face amount of bonds to which this paragraph applies shall not exceed $350,000,000.”

Section 626(b) of Pub. L. 98–369, as amended by Pub. L. 99–514, §2, title XIII, §1317(22), title XVIII, §1869(c)(5), Oct. 22, 1986, 100 Stat. 2095, 2698, 2890; Pub. L. 100–647, title I, §1013(g)(24), Nov. 10, 1988, 102 Stat. 3554, provided that:

“(1) In general.—Except as otherwise provided in this subsection the amendment made by subsection (a) [amending this section] shall apply to obligations issued after the date of enactment of this Act [July 18, 1984].

“(2) Exceptions for certain student loan programs.—

“(A) In general.—The amendments made by this section [amending this section] shall not apply to obligations issued by a program described in the following table to the extent the aggregate face amount of such obligations does not exceed the amount of allowable obligations specified in the following table with respect to such program:

 
ProgramAmount of Allowable Obligations
Colorado Student Obligation Bond Authority $60 million
Connecticut Higher Education Supplementary Loan Authority $15.5 million
District of Columbia $50 million
Illinois Higher Education Authority $70 million
State of Iowa $16 million
Louisiana Public Facilities Authority $75 million
Maine Health and Higher Education Facilities Authority $5 million
Maryland Higher Education Supplemental Loan Program $24 million
Massachusetts College Student Loan Authority $90 million
Minnesota Higher Education Coordinating Board $60 million
New Hampshire Higher Education and Health Facilities Authority $39 million
New York Dormitory Authority $120 million
Pennsylvania Higher Education Assistance Agency $300 million
Georgia Private Colleges and University Authority $31 million
Wisconsin State Building Commission $60 million
South Dakota Health and Educational Facilities Authority $6 million

“(B) Pennsylvania higher education assistance agency.—Subparagraph (A) shall apply to obligations issued by the Pennsylvania Higher Education Assistance Agency only if such obligations are issued solely for the purpose of refunding student loan bonds outstanding on March 15, 1984.

“(3) Certain tax-exempt mortgage subsidy bonds.—For purposes of applying section 103(o) of the Internal Revenue Code of 1986 [formerly I.R.C. 1954], the term ‘consumer loan bond’ shall not include any mortgage subsidy bond (within the meaning of section 103A(b) of such Code) to which the amendments made by section 1102 of the Mortgage Subsidy Bond Tax Act of 1980 [enacting section 103A of this title] do not apply.

“(4) Refunding exception.—The amendments made by this section [amending this section] shall not apply to any obligation or series of obligations the proceeds of which are used exclusively to refund obligations issued before March 15, 1984, except that—

“(A) the amount of the refunding obligations may not exceed 101 percent of the aggregate face amount of the refunded obligations, and

“(B) the maturity date of any refunding obligation may not be later than the date which is 17 years after the date on which the refunded obligation was issued (or, in the case of a series of refundings, the date on which the original obligation was issued).

“(5) Exception for certain established programs.—The amendments made by this section [amending this section] shall not apply to any obligation substantially all of the proceeds of which are used to carry out a program established under State law which has been in effect in substantially the same form during the 30-year period ending on the date of enactment of this Act [July 18, 1984], but only if such proceeds are used to make loans or to fund similar obligations—

“(A) in the same manner in which,

“(B) in the same (or lesser) amount per participant, and

“(C) for the same purposes for which,

such program was operated on March 15, 1984. This subparagraph shall not apply to obligations issued on or after March 15, 1987.

“(6) Certain bonds for renewable energy property.—The amendments made by this section [amending this section] shall not apply to any obligations described in section 243 of the Crude Oil Windfall Profit Tax Act of 1980 [Pub. L. 96–223, set out as a note below].

“(7) Exception for certain downtown redevelopment project.—The amendments made by this section [amending this section] shall not apply to any obligation which is issued as part of an issue 95 percent or more of the proceeds of which are to be used to provide a project to acquire and redevelop a downtown area if—

“(A) on August 15, 1985, a downtown redevelopment authority adopted a resolution to issue obligations for such project,

“(B) before September 26, 1985, the city expended, or entered into binding contracts to expend, more than $10,000,000 in connection with such project, and

“(C) the State supreme court issued a ruling regarding the proposed financing structure for such project on December 11, 1985.

The aggregate face amount of obligations to which this paragraph applies shall not exceed $85,000,000 and such obligations must be issued before January 1, 1992.”

Section 631 of Pub. L. 98–369, as amended by Pub. L. 99–514, §2, title XIII, §§1316(j), 1317(43), title XVIII, §1872(a)–(c)(1), Oct. 22, 1986, 100 Stat. 2095, 2670, 2708, 2891, 2892; Pub. L. 100–647, title I, §1013(f)(8), (g)(40), Nov. 10, 1988, 102 Stat. 3549, 3557, provided that:

“(a) Private Activity Bond Cap.—

“(1) In general.—Except as otherwise provided in this subsection, the amendment made by section 621 [amending this section] shall apply to obligations issued after December 31, 1983.

“(2) Inducement resolution before june 19, 1984.—The amendment made by section 621 shall not apply to any issue of obligations if—

“(A) there was an inducement resolution (or other comparable preliminary approval) for the issue before June 19, 1984, and

“(B) the issue is issued before January 1, 1985.

“(3) Certain projects preliminarily approved before october 19, 1983, given approval.—If—

“(A) there was an inducement resolution (or other comparable preliminary approval) for a project before October 19, 1983, by any issuing authority,

“(B) a substantial user of such project notifies the issuing authority within 30 days after the date of the enactment of this Act [July 18, 1984] that it intends to claim its rights under this paragraph, and

“(C) construction of such project began before October 19, 1983, or the substantial user was under a binding contract on such date to incur significant expenditures with respect to such project,

such issuing authority shall allocate its share of the limitation under section 103(n) of such Code for the calendar year during which the obligations were to be issued pursuant to such resolution (or other approval) first to such project. If the amount of obligations required by all projects which meet the requirements of the preceding sentence exceeds the issuing authority's share of the limitation under section 103(n) of such Code, priority under the preceding sentence shall be provided first to those projects for which substantial expenditures were incurred before October 19, 1983. If any issuing authority fails to meet the requirements of this paragraph, the limitation under section 103(n) of such Code for the issuing authority for the calendar year following such failure shall be reduced by the amount of obligations with respect to which such failure occurred.

“(3) [(4)] Exception for certain bonds for a convention center and resource recovery project.—In the case of any city, if—

“(A) the city council of such city authorized a feasibility study for a convention center on June 10, 1982, and

“(B) on November 4, 1983, a municipal authority acting for such city accepted a proposal for the construction of a facility that is capable of generating steam and electricity through the combustion of municipal waste,

the amendment made by section 621 shall not apply to any issue, issued during 1984, 1985, 1986, or 1987 and substantially all of the proceeds of which are to be used to finance the convention center (or access ramps and parking facilities therefor) described in subparagraph (A) or the facility described in subparagraph (B).

“(b) Property Financed With Tax-Exempt Bonds Required To Be Depreciated on Straight-Line Basis.—

“(1) In general.—Except as otherwise provided in this section, the amendments made by section 628(b) [amending section 168 of this title] shall apply to property placed in service after December 31, 1983, to the extent such property is financed by the proceeds of an obligation (including a refunding obligation) issued after October 18, 1983.

“(2) Exceptions.—

“(A) Construction or binding agreement.—The amendments made by section 628(b) shall not apply with respect to facilities—

“(i) the original use of which commences with the taxpayer and the construction, reconstruction, or rehabilitation of which began before October 19, 1983, or

“(ii) with respect to which a binding contract to incur significant expenditures was entered into before October 19, 1983.

“(B) Refunding.—

“(i) In general.—Except as provided in clause (ii), in the case of property placed in service after December 31, 1983, which is financed by the proceeds of an obligation which is issued solely to refund another obligation which was issued before October 19, 1983, the amendments made by section 628(b) shall apply only with respect to an amount equal to the basis in such property which has not been recovered before the date such refunded obligation is issued.

“(ii) Significant expenditures.—In the case of facilities the original use of which commences with the taxpayer and with respect to which significant expenditures are made before January 1, 1984, the amendments made by section 628(b) shall not apply with respect to such facilities to the extent such facilities are financed by the proceeds of an obligation issued solely to refund another obligation which was issued before October 19, 1983.

“(C) Facilities.—In the case of an inducement resolution or other comparable preliminary approval adopted by an issuing authority before October 19, 1983, for purposes of applying subparagraphs (A)(i) and (B)(ii) with respect to obligations described in such resolution, the term ‘facilities’ means the facilities described in such resolution.

“(c) Other Provisions Relating to Tax-Exempt Bonds.—

“(1) In general.—Except as otherwise provided in this subtitle, the amendments made by sections 622, 623, 627, and 628(c), (d), and (e) (and the provisions of sections 625(c), 628(f), and 629(b)) [amending this section and enacting provisions set out as notes under this section] shall apply to obligations issued after December 31, 1983.

“(2) Obligations invested in federally insured deposits.—Notwithstanding any other provision of this section, clause (ii) of section 103(h)(2)(B) of the Internal Revenue Code of 1986 [formerly I.R.C. 1954] (as amended by this subtitle) shall apply to obligations issued after April 14, 1983; except that such clause shall not apply to any obligation issued pursuant to a binding contract in effect on March 4, 1983.

“(3) Exceptions.—

“(A) Construction or binding agreement.—The amendments (and provisions) referred to in paragraph (1) shall not apply to obligations with respect to facilities—

“(i) the original use of which commences with the taxpayer and the construction, reconstruction, or rehabilitation of which began before October 19, 1983, and was completed on or after such date,

“(ii) the original use of which commences with the taxpayer and with respect to which a binding contract to incur significant expenditures for construction, reconstruction, or rehabilitation was entered into before October 19, 1983, and some of such expenditures are incurred on or after such date, or

“(iii) acquired after October 19, 1983, pursuant to a binding contract entered into on or before such date.

“(B) Facilities.—Subparagraph (C) of subsection (b)(2) shall apply for purposes of subparagraph (A) of this paragraph.

“(C) Exception.—Subparagraph (A) shall not apply with respect to the amendment made by section 628(e) and the provisions of sections 628(f) and 629(b) [amending this section and enacting provisions set out as notes under this section].

“(4) Repeal of advance refunding of qualified public facilities.—The amendment made by section 628(g) [amending this section] shall apply to refunding obligations issued after the date of the enactment of this Act [July 18, 1984]; except that if substantially all the proceeds of the refunded issue were used to provide airports or docks, such amendment shall only apply to refunding obligations issued after December 31, 1984. In the case of refunding obligations not to exceed $100,000,000 issued after October 21, 1986, by Dade County, Florida, for the purpose of advance refunding its Aviation Revenue Bonds (Series J), the first sentence of this paragraph shall be applied by substituting ‘the date which is 1 year after the date of the enactment of the Technical and Miscellaneous Revenue Act of 1988 [Nov. 10, 1988]’ for ‘December 31, 1984’ and the amendments made by section 1301 of the Tax Reform Act of 1986 [section 1301 of Pub. L. 99–514, enacting sections 141 to 150 and 7703 of this title, amending this section and sections 2, 22, 25, 32, 86, 105, 152, 153, 163, 194, 269A, 414, 879, 1398, 3402, 4701, 4940, 4942, 4988, 6362, 6652, and 7871 of this title, repealing section 103A of this title, enacting provisions set out as notes under sections 141 and 148 of this title, and amending provisions set out as a note under section 103A of this title] shall not apply. In the case of refunding obligations not exceeding $100,000,000 issued by the Alabama State Docks Department, the first sentence of this paragraph shall be applied by substituting ‘December 31, 1987’ for ‘December 31, 1984’ and the Internal Revenue Code of 1986 shall be applied without regard to section 149(d)(2)..[sic]

“(5) Special rule for health club facilities.—In the case of any health club facility, with respect to the amendment made by section 627(c) [amending this section]—

“(A) paragraph (1) shall be applied by substituting ‘April 12, 1984’ for ‘December 31, 1983’, and

“(B) paragraph (3) shall be applied by substituting ‘April 13, 1984’ for ‘October 19, 1983’ each place it appears.

“(d) Provisions of This Subtitle Not To Apply to Certain Property.—The amendments made by this subtitle [sections 621–632 of Pub. L. 98–369, amending this section and sections 103A and 168 of this title and enacting provisions set out as notes under this section] shall not apply to any property (and shall not apply to obligations issued to finance such property) if such property is described in any of the following paragraphs:

“(1) Any property described in paragraph (5), (6), or (7) of section 31(g) of this Act [set out as an Effective Date of 1984 Amendment note under section 168 of this title].

“(2) Any property described in paragraph (4), (8), or (17) of section 31(g) of this Act [set out as an Effective Date of 1984 Amendment note under section 168 of this title] but only if the obligation is issued before January 1, 1985, and only if before June 19, 1984, the issuer had evidenced an intent to issue obligations exempt from taxation under the Internal Revenue Code of 1986 in connection with such property.

“(3) Any property described in paragraph (3) of section 216(b) of the Tax Equity and Fiscal Responsibility Act of 1982 [set out as an Effective Date of 1982 Amendment note under section 168 of this title].

“(4) Any solid waste disposal facility described in section 103(b)(4)(E) of the Internal Revenue Code of 1986 if—

“(A) a State public authority created pursuant to State legislation which took effect on June 18, 1973, took formal action before October 19, 1983, to commit development funds for such facility.

“(B) such authority issues obligations for any such facility before January 1, 1987, and

“(C) expenditures have been made for the development of any such facility before October 19, 1983.

“(5) Any solid waste disposal facility described in section 103(b)(4)(E) of the Internal Revenue Code of 1986 [formerly I.R.C. 1954] if—

“(A) a city government, by resolutions adopted on April 10, 1980, and December 27, 1982, took formal action to authorize the submission of a proposal for a feasibility study for such facility and to authorize the presentation to the Department of the Army (U.S. Army Missile Command) of a proposed agreement to jointly pursue construction and operation of such facility,

“(B) such city government (or a public authority on its behalf) issues obligations for such facility before January 1, 1988, and

“(C) expenditures have been made for the development of such facility before October 19, 1983. Notwithstanding the foregoing provisions of this subsection, the amendments made by section 624 [amending sections 103 and 103A of this title and enacting provisions set out as a note under this section] (relating to arbitrage) shall apply to obligations issued to finance property described in paragraph (5).

“(e) Determination of Significant Expenditure.—

“(1) In general.—For purposes of this section, the term ‘significant expenditures’ means expenditures which equal or exceed the lesser of—

“(A) $15,000,000, or

“(B) 20 percent of the estimated cost of the facilities.

“(2) Certain grants treated as expenditures.—For purposes of paragraph (1), the amount of any UDAG grant preliminarily approved on May 5, 1981, or April 4, 1983, shall be treated as an expenditure with respect to the facility for which such grant was so approved.

“(f) Exceptions for Certain Other Amendments.—If—

“(1) there was an inducement resolution (or other comparable preliminary approval) for an issue before June 19, 1984, by any issuing authority, and

“(2) such issue is issued before January 1, 1985, the following amendments shall not apply:

“(A) the amendments made by section 623 [amending this section],

“(B) the amendments made by subsections (a) and (b) of section 627 [amending this section] (except to the extent such amendments relate to farm land),

“(C) in the case of a race track, the amendment made by section 627(c) [amending this section], and

“(D) the amendments made by section 628(c) [amending this section].”

[Section 1872(a)(2)(B) of Pub. L. 99–514 provided that the amendment of section 631(c)(3) of Pub. L. 98–369, set out above, made by section 1872(a)(2)(B) of Pub. L. 99–514 is effective with respect to obligations issued after Mar. 28, 1985.]

Effective Date of 1983 Amendment

For effective date of amendment by Pub. L. 97–473, see section 204(2) of Pub. L. 97–473, set out as an Effective Date note under section 7871 of this title.

Effective Date of 1982 Amendment

Section 214(f) of Pub. L. 97–248 provided that:

“(1) Composite issues; small issue exemption.—The amendments made by subsections (a) and (b) [amending this section] shall apply to obligations issued after the date of the enactment of this Act [Sept. 3, 1982].

“(2) Termination.—The amendment made by subsection (c) [amending this section] shall take effect on the date of the enactment of this Act [Sept. 3, 1982].

“(3) Research expenditures.—The amendment made by subsection (d) [amending this section] shall apply with respect to expenditures made after the date of the enactment of this Act [Sept. 3, 1982].

“(4) Certain facilities.—The amendment made by subsection (e) [amending this section] shall apply to obligations issued after December 31, 1982.”

Section 215(c) of Pub. L. 97–248 provided that:

“(1) Public approval.—The amendment made by subsection (a) [amending this section] shall apply to obligations issued after December 31, 1982, other than obligations issued solely to refund any obligation which—

“(A) was issued before July 1, 1982, and

“(B) has a maturity which does not exceed 3 years.

“(2) Information reporting.—The amendments made by subsection (b) [amending this section] shall apply to obligations issued after December 31, 1982 (including any obligation issued to refund an obligation issued before such date).”

Section 217(e) of Pub. L. 97–248, as amended by Pub. L. 98–369, div. A, title VII, §712(h), July 18, 1984, 98 Stat. 947; Pub. L. 99–514, §2, Oct. 22, 1986, 100 Stat. 2095, provided that: “The amendments made by this section [amending this section] shall apply to obligations issued after the date of the enactment of this Act [Sept. 3, 1982]. For purposes of applying section 168(f)(8)(D)(v) of the Internal Revenue Code of 1986 [formerly I.R.C. 1954], the amendments made by subsection (c) [amending this section] shall apply to agreements entered into after the date of the enactment of this Act.”

Section 219(b) of Pub. L. 97–248 provided that: “The amendment made by subsection (a) [amending this section] shall apply to obligations issued after December 31, 1982.”

Section 221(d) of Pub. L. 97–248 provided that:

“(1) In general.—Except as provided in paragraph (2), the amendments made by this section [amending this section and section 1104 of Pub. L. 96–499, formerly set out as a note under section 103A of this title] shall apply to obligations issued after the date of the enactment of this Act [Sept. 3, 1982].

“(2) Exception.—The amendments made by this section shall not apply with respect to any obligation to which the amendments made by section 1103 of the Mortgage Subsidy Bond Tax Act of 1980 [section 1103 of Pub. L. 96–499, amending this section] do not apply by reason of section 1104 of such Act [section 1104 of Pub. L. 96–499, formerly set out as a note under section 103A of this title].”

Section 310(d) of Pub. L. 97–248, as amended by Pub. L. 97–448, title III, §306(b)(2), 96 Stat. 2405; Pub. L. 98–216, §6(b), Feb. 14, 1984, 98 Stat. 8; Pub. L. 99–514, §2, Oct. 22, 1986, 100 Stat. 2095, provided that:

“(1) In general.—Except as otherwise provided in this subsection, the amendments made by this section [enacting section 4701 of this title and section 757c–5 of former Title 31, Money and Finance, and amending this section and sections 103A, 163, 165, 312, and 1232 of this title] shall apply to obligations issued after December 31, 1982.

“(2) [Repealed. Pub. L. 98–216, §6(b), Feb. 14, 1984, 98 Stat. 8.]

“(3) Exception for certain warrants, etc.—The amendments made by subsection (b) [enacting section 4701 of this title and amending this section and sections 163, 165, 312, and 1232 of this title] shall not apply to any obligations issued after December 31, 1982, on the exercise of a warrant or the conversion of a convertible obligation if such warrant or obligation was offered or sold outside the United States without registration under the Securities Act of 1933 [15 U.S.C. 77a et seq.] and was issued before August 10, 1982. A rule similar to the rule of the preceding sentence shall also apply in the case of any regulations issued under section 163(f)(2)(C) of the Internal Revenue Code of 1986 [formerly I.R.C. 1954] (as added by this section) except that the date on which such regulations take effect shall be substituted for ‘August 10, 1982’.

“(4) [Repealed. Pub. L. 98–216, §6(b), Feb. 14, 1984, 98 Stat. 8.]”

Effective Date of 1981 Amendment

Section 811(c) of Pub. L. 97–34 provided that: “The amendments made by this section [amending this section] shall apply to obligations issued after the date of the enactment of this Act [Aug. 13, 1981].”

Section 812(b)(1) of Pub. L. 97–34 provided that: “The amendment made by subsection (a) [amending this section] shall apply to obligations issued after December 31, 1980.”

Effective Date of 1980 Amendments

For effective date of amendment by Pub. L. 96–499, see section 1104 of Pub. L. 96–499, set out as an Effective Date note under section 103A of this title.

Section 241(d) of Pub. L. 96–223 provided that: “The amendments made by subsection (a) [amending this section] and the provisions of subsections (b) and (c) [set out as notes under this section] shall apply with respect to obligations issued after October 18, 1979.”

Section 242(c) of Pub. L. 96–223 provided that: “The amendments made by subsection (a) [amending this section] and the provisions of subsection (b) [set out as a note under this section] shall apply with respect to obligations issued after October 18, 1979.”

Section 244(b) of Pub. L. 96–223 provided that: “The amendments made by subsection (a) [amending this section] shall apply to obligations issued on or after October 18, 1979.”

Effective Date of 1978 Amendments

Section 201(c) of Pub. L. 95–339 provided that: “The amendments made by subsection (a) [amending this section] shall apply to taxable years ending after the date of the enactment of this Act [Aug. 8, 1978].”

Section 331(c) of Pub. L. 95–600 provided that:

“(1) The amendments made by subsection (a) [amending this section] shall apply to—

“(A) obligations issued after December 31, 1978, in taxable years ending after such date, and

“(B) capital expenditures made after December 31, 1978, with respect to obligations issued before January 1, 1979.

“(2) The amendment made by subsection (b) [amending this section] shall apply to—

“(A) obligations issued after September 30, 1979, in taxable years ending after such date, and

“(B) capital expenditures made after September 30, 1979, with respect to obligations issued after such date.”

Section 332(b) of Pub. L. 95–600 provided that: “The amendment made by subsection (a) [amending this section] shall apply to taxable years ending after April 30, 1968, but only with respect to obligations issued after such date.”

Section 333(b) of Pub. L. 95–600 provided that: “The amendment made by subsection (a) [amending this section] shall apply to obligations issued after the date of the enactment of this Act [Nov. 6, 1978] in taxable years ending after such date.”

Section 334(c) of Pub. L. 95–600 provided that: “The amendments made by this section [amending this section] shall apply to obligations issued after the date of the enactment of this Act [Nov. 6, 1978].”

Section 703(q)(2) of Pub. L. 95–600 provided that: “The amendments made by paragraph (1) [amending this section] shall apply with respect to payments made by the Commissioner of Education after December 31, 1976.”

Amendment by section 703(j)(1) of Pub. L. 95–600 effective on Oct. 4, 1976, see section 703(r) of Pub. L. 95–600, set out as a note under section 46 of this title.

Effective Date of 1976 Amendment

Amendment by section 1901(a)(17), (b)(8)(B) of Pub. L. 94–455 applicable with respect to taxable years ending after Oct. 4, 1976, see section 1901(d) of Pub. L. 94–455, set out as a note under section 2 of this title.

Amendment by section 1906(b)(13)(A) of Pub. L. 94–455 effective Feb. 1, 1977, see section 1906(d)(1) of Pub. L. 94–455, set out as a note under section 6013 of this title.

Section 2105(d) of Pub. L. 94–455 provided that: “The amendments made by this section [amending this section] apply to obligations issued on or after the date of the enactment of this Act [Oct. 4, 1976].”

Amendment by section 2137(d) of Pub. L. 94–455 applicable to taxable years beginning after Dec. 31, 1975, see section 2137(e) of Pub. L. 94–455, set out as a note under section 852 of this title.

Effective Date of 1975 Amendments

Section 301(b) of Pub. L. 94–182 provided that: “The amendment made by subsection (a) [amending this section] shall apply to obligations issued after the date of the enactment of this Act [Dec. 31, 1975].”

Section 7(b) of Pub. L. 94–164 provided that: “The amendments made by this section [amending this section] shall apply to obligations issued after the date of enactment of this Act [Dec. 23, 1975].”

Effective Date of 1971 Amendment

Section 315(c) of Pub. L. 92–178 provided that: “The amendments made by subsection (a) [amending this section] shall apply with respect to obligations issued after January 1, 1969. The amendment made by subsection (b) [amending this section] shall apply with respect to expenditures incurred after the date of the enactment of this Act [Dec. 10, 1971].”

Effective Date of 1969 Amendment

Section 601(b) of Pub. L. 91–172 provided that: “The amendments made by subsection (a) [amending this section] shall apply with respect to obligations issued after October 9, 1969.”

Effective Date of 1968 Amendment

Section 401(b) of Pub. L. 90–634 provided that: “The amendment made by subsection (a) [amending this section] shall apply with respect to obligations issued after the date of the enactment of this Act [Oct. 24, 1968].”

Section 107(b)(1) of Pub. L. 90–364 provided that: “Except as provided by paragraph (2) [set out as a note below], the amendment made by subsection (a) [amending this section] shall apply to taxable years ending after April 30, 1968, but only with respect to obligations issued after such date.”

Transfer of Functions

Functions of Commissioner of Education transferred to Secretary of Education by section 3441(a)(1) of Title 20, Education.

Coordination of Certain Amendments Made by Pub. L. 97–424 and Pub. L. 97–473

Section 722(b) of Pub. L. 98–369 provided that: “For purposes of applying the amendments made by section 547 of the Highway Revenue Act of 1982 [Pub. L. 97–424, amending this section] and the amendment made by section 202(b)(2) of Public Law 97–473 [amending this section], Public Law 97–473 shall be deemed to have been enacted immediately before the Highway Revenue Act of 1982.”

Validation of Sinking Fund Regulations

Section 1013(a)(35) of Pub. L. 100–647 provided that:

“(A) Treasury Regulation section 1.103–13(g) (1979) is hereby enacted into positive law.

“(B)(i) Except as provided in clause (ii), subparagraph (A) shall apply to obligations sold after May 2, 1978, and to which such regulation was provided to apply.

“(ii) Treasury Regulation section 1.103–13(g) (1979) as enacted into positive law by subparagraph (A) shall cease to apply to the extent hereafter modified by the Secretary of the Treasury or his delegate by regulations.”

Bonds Issued To Refund Subsection (o)(3) Obligations

Section 1013(c)(15) of Pub. L. 100–647 provided that: “A bond issued to refund an obligation described in section 103(o)(3) of the Internal Revenue Code of 1954 (as in effect on the day before the date of the enactment of the Tax Reform Act of 1986 [Oct. 22, 1986]) shall not be treated as described in section 144(b) of the 1986 Code unless it is described in section 144(b)(1)(A) of the 1986 Code.”

Plan Amendments Not Required Until January 1, 1989

For provisions directing that if any amendments made by subtitle A or subtitle C of title XI [§§1101–1147 and 1171–1177] or title XVIII [§§1800–1899A] of Pub. L. 99–514 require an amendment to any plan, such plan amendment shall not be required to be made before the first plan year beginning on or after Jan. 1, 1989, see section 1140 of Pub. L. 99–514, as amended, set out as a note under section 401 of this title.

Treatment of Certain Guarantees by Farmers Home Administration

Section 1865(b) of Pub. L. 99–514 provided that: “An obligation shall not be treated as federally guaranteed for purposes of section 103(h) of the Internal Revenue Code of 1954 [now 1986] by reason of a guarantee by the Farmers Home Administration if—

“(1) such guarantee is pursuant to a commitment made by the Farmers Home Administration before July 1, 1984, and

“(2) such obligation is issued to finance a convention center project in Carbondale, Illinois.”

Treatment of Certain Obligations Used To Finance Solid Waste Disposal Facility

Section 1865(c) of Pub. L. 99–514 provided that:

“(1) In general.—Any obligation which is part of an issue a substantial portion of the proceeds of which is to be used to finance a solid waste disposal facility described in paragraph (2) shall not, for purposes of section 103(h) of the Internal Revenue Code of 1954 [now 1986], be treated as an obligation which is federally guaranteed by reason of the sale of fuel, steam, electricity, or other forms of usable energy to the Federal Government or any agency or instrumentality thereof.

“(2) Solid waste disposal facility.—A solid waste disposal facility is described in this paragraph if such facility is described in section 103(b)(4)(E) of such Code and—

“(A) if—

“(i) a public State authority created pursuant to State legislation which took effect on July 1, 1980, took formal action before October 19, 1983, to commit development funds for such facility,

“(ii) such authority issues obligations for such facility before January 1, 1988, and

“(iii) expenditures have been made for the development of such facility before October 19, 1983,

“(B) if—

“(i) such facility is operated by the South Eastern Public Service Authority of Virginia, and

“(ii) on December 20, 1984, the Internal Revenue Service issued a ruling concluding that a portion of the obligations with respect to such facility would not be treated as federally guaranteed under section 103(h) of such Code by reason of the transitional rule contained in section 631(c)(3)(A)(i) of the Tax Reform Act of 1984 [section 631(c)(3)(A)(i) of Pub. L. 98–369, set out as a note above],

“(C) if—

“(i) a political subdivision of a State took formal action on April 1, 1980, to commit development funds for such facility,

“(ii) such facility has a contract to sell steam to a naval base,

“(iii) such political subdivision issues obligations for such facility before January 1, 1988, and

“(iv) expenditures have been made for the development of such facility before October 19, 1983, or

“(D) if—

“(i) such facility is a thermal transfer facility,

“(ii) is to be built and operated by the Elk Regional Resource Authority, and

“(iii) is to be on land leased from the United States Air Force at Arnold Engineering Development Center near Tullahoma, Tennessee.

“(3) Limitations.—

“(A) In the case of a solid waste disposal facility described in paragraph (2)(A), the aggregate face amount of obligations to which paragraph (1) applies shall not exceed $65,000,000.

“(B) In the case of a solid waste disposal facility described in paragraph (2)(B), the aggregate face amount of obligations to which paragraph (1) applies shall not exceed $20,000,000. Such amount shall be in addition to the amount permitted under the Internal Revenue Service ruling referred to in paragraph (2)(B)(ii).

“(C) In the case of a solid waste disposal facility described in paragraph (2)(C), the aggregate face amount of obligations to which paragraph (1) applies shall not exceed $75,000,000.

“(D) In the case of a solid waste disposal facility described in paragraph (2)(D), the aggregate face amount of obligations to which paragraph (1) applies shall not exceed $25,000,000.”

Transitional Rule for Limit on Small Issue Exception

Section 1866 of Pub. L. 99–514, as amended by Pub. L. 100–647, title I, §1018(m)(1)–(4), Nov. 10, 1988, 102 Stat. 3584, provided that: “The amendment made by section 623 of the Tax Reform Act of 1984 [section 623 of Pub. L. 98–369, amending this section] shall not apply to any obligation (or series of obligations) issued to refund another tax-exempt IDB to which the amendment made by such section 623 did not apply if—

“(1) the average maturity of the issue of which the refunding obligation is a part does not exceed the average maturity of the obligations to be refunded by such issue,

“(2) the amount of the refunding obligation does not exceed the amount of the refunded obligation, and

“(3) the proceeds of the refunding obligation are used to redeem the refunded obligation not later than 90 days after the date of the issuance of the refunding obligation.

For purposes of the preceding sentence, the term ‘tax-exempt IDB’ means any industrial development bond (as defined in section 103(b) of the Internal Revenue Code of 1954 [now 1986]) the interest on which is exempt from tax under section 103(a) of such Code. For purposes of paragraph (1), average maturity shall be determined in accordance with subsection (b)(14)(B)(i) of such Code.”

[Section 1018(m)(5) of Pub. L. 100–647 provided that: “A refunding obligation issued before July 1, 1987, shall be treated as meeting the requirement of paragraph (1) of section 1866 of the Reform Act [Pub. L. 99–514, set out above] if such obligation met the requirement of such paragraph as enacted by the Reform Act [Pub. L. 99–514].”]

Exception From 1984 Amendment for Downtown Muskogee Revitalization Project

Section 1867(b) of Pub. L. 99–514 provided that: “The amendment made by section 624 of the Tax Reform Act of 1984 [amending sections 103 and 103A of this title and enacting provisions set out as a note under this section] shall not apply to obligations issued with respect to the Downtown Muskogee Revitalization Project for which a UDAG grant was preliminarily approved on May 5, 1981, if—

“(1) such obligation is issued before January 1, 1986, or

“(2) such obligation is issued after such date to provide additional financing for such project except that the aggregate amount of obligations to which this subsection applies shall not exceed $10,000,000.”

Transitional Rules

Section 1869(c)(1)–(4) of Pub. L. 99–514, as amended by Pub. L. 100–647, title I, §1018(n), Nov. 10, 1988, 102 Stat. 3584, provided that:

“(1) Treatment of certain obligations issued by the city of baltimore.—Obligations issued by the city of Baltimore, Maryland, after June 30, 1985, shall not be treated as private loan bonds for purposes of section 103(o) of the Internal Revenue Code of 1954 [now 1986] (or as private activity bonds for purposes of section 103 and part IV of subchapter A of chapter 1 of the Internal Revenue Code of 1986, as amended by title XIII of this Act [sections 1301 to 1318 of Pub. L. 99–514]) by reason of the use of a portion of the proceeds of such obligations to finance or refinance temporary advances made by the city of Baltimore in connection with loans to persons who are not exempt persons (within the meaning of section 103(b)(3) of such Code) if—

“(A) such obligations are not industrial development bonds (within the meaning of section 103(b)(2) of the Internal Revenue Code of 1954 [now 1986]),

“(B) the portion of the proceeds of such obligations so used is attributable to debt approved by voter referendum on or before November 2, 1982,

“(C) the loans to such nonexempt persons were approved by the Board of Estimates of the city of Baltimore on or before October 19, 1983, and

“(D) the aggregate amount of such temporary advances financed or refinanced by such obligations does not exceed $27,000,000.

“(2) White pine power project.—The amendment made by section 626(a) of the Tax Reform Act of 1984 [section 626(a) of Pub. L. 98–369, amending this section] shall not apply to any obligation issued during 1984 to provide financing for the White Pine Power Project in Nevada.

“(3) Tax increment bonds.—The amendment made by section 626(a) of the Tax Reform Act of 1984 shall not apply to any tax increment financing obligation issued before August 16, 1986, if—

“(A) substantially all of the proceeds of the issue are to be used to finance—

“(i) sewer, street, lighting, or other governmental improvements to real property,

“(ii) the acquisition of any interest in real property (by a governmental unit having the power to exercise eminent domain), the preparation of such property for new use, or the transfer of such interest to a private developer, or

“(iii) payments of reasonable relocation costs of prior users of such real property,

“(B) all of the activities described in subparagraph (A) are pursuant to a redevelopment plan adopted by the issuing authority before the issuance of such issue,

“(C) repayment of such issue is secured exclusively by pledges of that portion of any increase in real property tax revenues (or their equivalent) attributable to the redevelopment resulting from the issue (or similar issues), and

“(D) none of the property described in subparagraph (A) is subject to a real property or other tax based on a rate or valuation method which differs from the rate and valuation method applicable to any other similar property located within the jurisdiction of the issuing authority.

“(4) Eastern maine electric cooperative.—The amendment made by section 626(a) of the Tax Reform Act of 1984 shall not apply to obligations issued by Massachusetts Municipal Wholesale Electric Company Project No. 6 if—

“(A) such obligation is issued before January 1, 1986,

“(B) such obligation is issued after such date to refund a prior obligation for such project, except that the aggregate amount of obligations to which this subparagraph applies shall not exceed $100,000,000, or

“(C) such obligation is issued after such date to provide additional financing for such project except that the aggregate amount of obligations to which this subparagraph applies shall not exceed $45,000,000.

Subparagraph (B) shall not apply to any obligation issued for the advance refunding of any obligation.”

Treatment of Obligations To Finance St. Johns River Power Park

Section 1869(c)(6) of Pub. L. 99–514 provided that:

“(A) In general.—The amendment made by section 626(a) of the Tax Reform Act of 1984 [section 626(a) of Pub. L. 98–369, amending this section] shall not apply to any obligation issued to finance the project described in subparagraph (B) if—

“(i) such obligation is issued before September 27, 1985,

“(ii) such obligation is issued after such date to refund a prior tax exemption obligation for such project, the amount of such obligation does not exceed the outstanding amount of the refunded obligation, and such prior tax exempt obligation is retired not later than the date 30 days after the issuance of the refunding obligation, or

“(iii) such obligation is issued after such date to provide additional financing for such project except that the aggregate amount of obligations to which this clause applies shall not exceed $150,000,000.

Clause (ii) shall not apply to any obligation issued for the advance refunding of any obligation.

“(B) Description of project.—The project described in this subparagraph in the St. Johns River Power Park system in Florida which was authorized by legislation enacted by the Florida Legislature in February of 1982.”

Certain Public Utilities Treated as Exempted Persons Under Section 103(b); Special Rules for Certain Railroads

Section 629 of Pub. L. 98–369, as amended by Pub. L. 99–514, §2, title XIII, §1316(g)(8)(B), Oct. 22, 1986, 100 Stat. 2095, 2670, provided that:

“(a) Certain Public Utilities.—For purposes of applying section 103(b)(3) of the Internal Revenue Code [of 1986] with respect to—

“(1) any obligations issued after the date of enactment of this Act [July 18, 1984], and

“(2) any obligations issued after December 31, 1969, which were treated as obligations described in section 103(a) of such Code on the day on which such obligations were issued,

the term ‘exempt person’ shall include a regulated public utility having any customer service area within a State served by a public power authority which was required as a condition of a Federal Power Commission license specified by an Act of Congress enacted prior to the enactment of section 107 of the Revenue and Expenditure Control Act of 1968 (Public Law 90–364) [June 28, 1968] to contract to sell power to one such utility and which is authorized by State law to sell power to other such utilities, but only with respect to the purchase by any such utility and resale to its customers of any output of any electrical generation facility or any portion thereof or any use of any electrical transmission facility or any portion thereof financed by such power authority and owned by it or by such State, and provided that by agreement between such power authority and any such utility there shall be no markup in the resale price charged by such utility of that component of the resale price which represents the price paid by such utility for such output or use. The preceding sentence shall be applied by inserting ‘and a rural electric cooperative utility’ after ‘regulated public utility’ but only if not more than 1 percent of the load of the public power authority is sold to such rural electric cooperative utility.

“(b) Certain Railroads.—Section 103(b)(1) of the Internal Revenue Code of 1986 [formerly I.R.C. 1954] shall not apply to any obligation which is described in section 103(b)(6)(A) of such Code if—

“(1) substantially all of the proceeds of such obligation are used to acquire railroad track and right-of-way from a railroad involved in a title 11 or similar proceeding (within the meaning of section 368(a)(3)(A) of such Code), and

“(2) the Federal Railroad Administration provides joint financing for such acquisitions.

“(c) Special Rules for Subsection (a).—

“(1) Obligations subject to cap.—Any obligation described in subsection (a) shall be treated as a private activity bond for purposes of section 103(n) of the Internal Revenue Code of 1986.

“(2) Limitation on amount of obligations to which subsection (a)(1) applies—The aggregate amount of obligations to which subsection (a)(1) applies shall not exceed $911,000,000.

“(3) Limitation on purposes.—Subsection (a)(1) shall only apply to obligations issued as part of an issue substantially all the proceeds of which are used to provide 1 or more of the following:

“(A) Cable facilities.

“(B) Small hydroelectric facilities.

“(C) The acquisition of an interest in an electrical generating facility.

“(D) Improvements to existing generating facilities.

“(E) Transmission lines.

“(F) Electric generating facilities.”

Treatment of Certain Residential Real Property as Residential Rental Property

Treatment of Pub. L. 98–369, §631(d)(3), residential real property as residential rental property, see section 1809(a)(4)(C) of Pub. L. 99–514, set out as a note under section 168 of this title.

Public Approval Requirement in the Case of Public Airport

Section 628(f) of Pub. L. 98–369, as amended by Pub. L. 99–514, §2, Oct. 22, 1986, 100 Stat. 2095, provided that: “If—

“(1) the proceeds of any issue are to be used to finance a facility or facilities located on a public airport, and

“(2) the governmental unit issuing such obligations is the owner or operator of such airport,

such governmental unit shall be deemed to be the only governmental unit having jurisdiction over such airport for purposes of subsection (k) of section 103 of the Internal Revenue Code of 1986 [formerly I.R.C. 1954] (relating to public approval for industrial development bonds).”

Small Issue Limit in Case of Certain Urban Development Action Grants

Section 628(h) of Pub. L. 98–369, as amended by Pub. L. 99–514, §2, Oct. 22, 1986, 100 Stat. 2095, provided that: “In the case of any obligation issued on December 11, 1981, section 103(b)(6)(I) of the Internal Revenue Code of 1986 [formerly I.R.C. 1954] shall be applied by substituting ‘$15,000,000’ for ‘$10,000,000’ if—

“(1) such obligation is part of an issue,

“(2) substantially all of the proceeds of such issue are used to provide facilities with respect to which an urban development action grant under section 119 of the Housing and Community Development Act of 1974 [42 U.S.C. 5318] was preliminarily approved by the Secretary of Housing and Urban Development on January 10, 1980, and

“(3) the Secretary of Housing and Urban Development determines, at the time such grant is approved, that the amount of such grant will equal or exceed 5 percent of the total capital expenditures incurred with respect to such facilities.”

Student Loan Bonds

Pub. L. 98–369, div. A, title VI, §625, July 18, 1984, 98 Stat. 924, as amended by Pub. L. 99–514, §2, title XVIII, §1868, Oct. 22, 1986, 100 Stat. 2095, 2888, provided that:

“(a) Arbitrage Regulations.—

“(1) In general.—The Secretary shall prescribe regulations which specify the circumstances under which a qualified student loan bond shall be treated as an arbitrage bond for purposes of section 103 of the Internal Revenue Code of 1986 [formerly I.R.C. 1954]. Such regulations may provide that—

“(A) paragraphs (4) and (5) of section 103(c) of such Code shall not apply, and

“(B) rules similar to section 103(c)(6) shall apply,

to qualified student loan bonds.

“(2) Definitions.—For purposes of this subsection—

“(A) Qualified student loan bond.—The term ‘qualified student loan bond’ has the meaning given to such term by section 103(o)(3) of the Internal Revenue Code of 1986 (as amended by this Act).

“(B) Arbitrage bond.—The term ‘arbitrage bond’ has the meaning given to such term by section 103(c)(2).

“(3) Effective date.—

“(A) In general.—Except as otherwise provided in this paragraph, any regulations prescribed by the Secretary under paragraph (1) shall apply to obligations issued after the qualified date.

“(B) Qualified date.—

“(i) In general.—For purposes of this paragraph, the term ‘qualified date’ means the earlier of—

     “(I) the date on which the Higher Education Act of 1965 [20 U.S.C. 1001 et seq., 42 U.S.C. 2751 et seq.] expires, or

     “(II) the date, after the date of enactment of this Act [July 18, 1984], on which the Higher Education Act of 1965 is reauthorized.

“(ii) Publication of regulations.—Notwithstanding clause (i), the qualified date shall not be a date which is prior to the date that is 6 months after the date on which the regulations prescribed under paragraph (1) are published in the Federal Register.

“(C) Refunding obligations.—Regulations prescribed by the Secretary under paragraph (1) shall not apply to any obligation (or series of refunding obligations) issued exclusively to refund any qualified student loan bond which was issued before the qualified date, except that the requirements of subparagraphs (A) and (B) of section 626(b)(4) of this Act [set out in Effective Date of 1984 Amendment note above] must be met with respect to such refunding.

“(D) Fulfillment of commitments.—Regulations prescribed by the Secretary under paragraph (1) shall not apply to any obligations which are needed to fulfill written commitments to acquire or finance student loans which are originated after June 30, 1984, and before the qualified date, but only if—

“(i) such commitments are binding on the qualified date, and

“(ii) the amount of such commitments is consistent with practices of the issuer which were in effect on March 15, 1984, with respect to establishing secondary markets for student loans.

“(b) Arbitrage Limitation on Student Loan Bonds Which Are Not Qualified Student Loan Bonds.—Under regulations prescribed by the Secretary of the Treasury or his delegate, any student loan bond (other than a qualified student loan bond) issued after December 31, 1985, shall be treated as an obligation not described in subsection (a)(1) or (2) of section 103 of the Internal Revenue Code of 1986 unless the issue of which such obligation is a part meets requirements similar to those of sections 103(c)(6) and 103A(i) of such Code.

“(c) Issuance of Student Loan Bonds Which Are Not Tax-Exempt.—Any issuer who may issue obligations described in section 103(a) of the Internal Revenue Code of 1986 may elect to issue student loan bonds which are not described in such section 103(a) of such Code without prejudice to—

“(1) the status of any other obligations issued, or to be issued, by such issuer as obligations described in section 103(a) of such Code, or

“(2) the status of the issuer as an organization exempt from taxation under such Code.

“(d) Federal Executive Branch Jurisdiction Over Tax-Exempt Status.—For purposes of Federal law, any determination by the executive branch of the Federal Government of whether interest on any obligation is exempt from taxation under the Internal Revenue Code of 1986 shall be exclusively within the jurisdiction of the Department of the Treasury.

“(e) Study on Tax-Exempt Student Loan Bonds.—

“(1) In general.—The Comptroller General of the United States and the Director of the Congressional Budget Office, shall conduct studies of—

“(A) the appropriate role of tax-exempt bonds which are issued in connection with the guaranteed student loan program and the PLUS program established under the Higher Education Act of 1965 [20 U.S.C. 1001 et seq., 42 U.S.C. 2751 et seq.], and

“(B) the appropriate arbitrage rules for such bonds.

“(2) Report.—The Comptroller General of the United States and the Director of the Congressional Budget Office, shall submit to the Committee on Finance and the Committee on Labor and Human Resources [now Committee on Health, Education, Labor, and Pensions] of the Senate and the Committee on Ways and Means and the Committee on Education and Labor [now Committee on Education and the Workforce] of the House of Representatives reports on the studies conducted under paragraph (1) by no later than 9 months after the date of enactment of this Act [July 18, 1984].”

Obligations Issued To Provide Solid Waste-Energy Producing Facilities

Section 241(b) of Pub. L. 96–223, as amended by Pub. L. 99–514, §2, Oct. 22, 1986, 100 Stat. 2095, provided that:

“(1) General rule.—For purposes of section 103 of the Internal Revenue Code of 1986 [formerly I.R.C. 1954], any obligation issued by an authority for 2 or more political subdivisions of a State which is part of an issue substantially all of the proceeds of which are to be used to provide solid waste-energy producing facilities shall be treated as an obligation of a political subdivision of a State which meets the requirements of section 103(b)(4)(E) of such Code (relating to solid waste disposal, etc., facilities). Nothing in the preceding sentence shall be construed to override the limitations of section 103(c) of such Code (relating to arbitrage bonds).

“(2) Solid waste-energy producing facilities.—For purposes of paragraph (1), the term ‘solid waste-energy producing facilities’ means any solid waste disposal facility and any facility for the production of steam and electrical energy if—

“(A) substantially all of the fuel for the facility producing steam and electrical energy is derived from solid waste from such solid waste disposal facility,

“(B) both such solid waste disposal facility and the facility producing steam and electrical energy are owned and operated by the authority referred to in paragraph (1), and

“(C) all of the electrical energy and steam produced by the facility for producing steam and electricity which is not used by such facility is sold, for purposes other than resale, to an agency or instrumentality of the United States.

“(3) Solid waste disposal facility.—For purposes of paragraph (2), the term ‘solid waste disposal facility’ means any solid waste disposal facility within the meaning of section 103(b)(4)(E) of the Internal Revenue Code of 1986 (determined without regard to section 103(g) of such Code).

“(4) Obligations must be in registered form.—This subsection shall not apply to any obligation which is not issued in registered form.”

Alcohol-Producing Facilities

Section 241(c) of Pub. L. 96–223, as amended by Pub. L. 99–514, §2, Oct. 22, 1986, 100 Stat. 2095, provided that:

“(1) In general.—Subparagraph (C) of section 103(g)(3) of the Internal Revenue Code of 1986 [formerly I.R.C. 1954] (as added by subsection (a)) shall not apply to any facility for the production of alcohol from solid waste if—

“(A) substantially all of the solid waste derived feedstock for such facility is produced at a facility which—

“(i) went into full production in 1977,

“(ii) is located within the limits of a city, and

“(iii) is located in the same metropolitan area as the alcohol-producing facility, and

“(B) before March 1, 1980, there were negotiations between a governmental body and an organization described in section 501(c)(3) of the Internal Revenue Code of 1986 with respect to the utilization of a special process for the production of alcohol at such alcohol-producing facility.

“(2) Limitation.—The aggregate amount of obligations which may be issued by reason of paragraph (1) with respect to any project shall not exceed $30,000,000.

“(3) Termination.—This subsection shall not apply to obligations issued after December 31, 1985.”

Hydroelectric Generating Facilities

Section 242(b) of Pub. L. 96–223, as amended by Pub. L. 99–514, §2, Oct. 22, 1986, 100 Stat. 2095, provided that:

“(1) In general.—For purposes of section 103(b)(4)(H) of the Internal Revenue Code of 1986 [formerly I.R.C. 1954] (relating to qualified hydroelectric generating facilities), in the case of a hydroelectric generating facility described in paragraph (2)—

“(A) the facility shall be treated as a qualified hydroelectric generating facility (as defined in section 103(b)(8)(A) of such Code) without regard to clause (ii) of section 48(l)(13)(B) of such Code (relating to maximum generating capacity), and

“(B) the fraction referred to in subparagraph (C) of section 103(b)(8) of such Code shall be deemed to be 1.

“(2) Facilities to which paragraph (1) applies.—A facility is described in this paragraph if—

“(A) it would be a qualified hydroelectric generating facility (as defined in section 103(b)(8)(A) of such Code) if clause (ii) of section 48(l)(13)(B) did not apply,

“(B) it constitutes an expansion of generating capacity at an existing hydroelectric generating facility,

“(C) such facility is located at 1 of 2 dams located in the same county where—

“(i) the rated capacity of the hydroelectric generating facilities at each such dam on October 18, 1979, was more than 750 megawatts,

“(ii) the construction of the first such dam began in 1956, power at such first dam was first generated in 1959, and full power production at such first dam began in 1961, and

“(iii) the construction of the second such dam began in 1959, power at such second dam was first generated in 1963, and full power production at such second dam began in 1964,

“(D) acquisition or construction of the existing facility referred to in subparagraph (B) was financed with the proceeds of an obligation described in section 103(a)(1) of such Code,

“(E) the existing facility is owned and operated by a State, political subdivision of a State, or agency or instrumentality of any of the foregoing,

“(F) no more than 60 percent of the electric power and energy produced by such existing facility and of the qualified hydroelectric generating facility is to be sold to anyone other than an exempt person (within the meaning of section 103(b)(3) of such Code), and

“(G) the agency of the State in which the facility is located which has jurisdiction over water rights had granted, before October 18, 1979, a water right under which expanded power and energy generating capacity for the facility was contemplated.”

State Obligations for Renewable Energy Property

Section 243 of Pub. L. 96–223, as amended by Pub. L. 99–514, §2, Oct. 22, 1986, 100 Stat. 2095, provided that:

“(a) Certain State Obligations for Renewable Energy Property.—

“(1) In general.—Paragraph (1) of subsection (b) of section 103 of the Internal Revenue Code of 1986 [formerly I.R.C. 1954] shall not apply to any obligation issued as part of an issue substantially all of the proceeds of which are to be used to provide renewable energy property, if—

“(A) the obligations are general obligations of a State,

“(B) the authority for the issuance of the obligations requires that taxes be levied in sufficient amount to provide for the payment of principal and interest on such obligations,

“(C) the amount of such obligations, when added to the sum of the amounts of all such obligations previously issued by the State which are outstanding, does not exceed the smaller of—

“(i) $500,000,000 or

“(ii) one-half of 1 percent of the value of all property in the State,

“(D) such obligations are issued pursuant to a program to provide financing for small scale energy projects which was established by a State the legislature of which, before October 18, 1979, approved a constitutional amendment to provide for such a program, and

“(E) such obligations meet the requirements of paragraph (1) of section 103(h) of the Internal Revenue Code of 1986.

“(2) Renewable energy property.—For purposes of this subsection, the term ‘renewable energy property’ means property used to produce energy (including heat, electricity, and substitute fuels) from renewable energy sources (including wind, solar, and geothermal energy, waste heat, biomass, and water).

“(b) Effective Date.—Subsection (a) shall apply with respect to obligations issued after the date of enactment of this Act [Apr. 2, 1980].”

Disposition of Amounts Generated by Advance Refunding of Certain Governmental Obligations

Section 337 of Pub. L. 95–600, as amended by Pub. L. 96–222, title I, §103(a)(8), Apr. 1, 1980, 94 Stat. 212; Pub. L. 99–514, §2, Oct. 22, 1986, 100 Stat. 2095, provided that:

“(a) General Rule.—The payment to a charitable organization of a refund profit held in a trust fund or escrow arrangement, or held by an underwriter or other person under a qualified agreement in accordance with that agreement—

“(1) shall not cause the refunding obligations out of which the refund profit arose to be treated as arbitrage bonds (within the meaning of section 103(c) of the Internal Revenue Code of 1986 [formerly I.R.C. 1954]) and

“(2) may be paid without penalty imposed on the issuer of such obligations.

“(b) Rule for Governments Which Have Already Paid Arbitrage Profits to the United States.—In the case of a State or local government which, before January 1, 1977—

“(1) requested in writing a rule by the Internal Revenue Service with respect to the tax consequences of paying refund profit to charitable organizations,

“(2) failed to receive a favorable ruling and did not pay the refund profit to a charitable organization, and

which accounted to the United States for refund profit by direct payment to the United States, or by the purchase of low-interest United States obligations, the Secretary of the Treasury shall pay, out of any amounts in the Treasury not otherwise appropriated, an amount equal to the refund profit for which the State or local government has accounted to the United States. Amounts paid to a State or local government under this subsection shall be distributed to such charitable organizations within 90 days after the date on which the payment is received by the State or local government in the same manner as if the refund profit had not been paid to the United States and met the requirements of subsection (a).

“(c) Definitions.—For purposes of this section—

“(1) Refund profit.—The term ‘Refund profit’ means interest, profit, or other amounts generated by, or arising out of, the advance refunding, before September 24, 1976, of an obligation of a State or local government described in section 103 of such Code.

“(2) Charitable organization.—The term ‘charitable organization’ means an organization described in section 501(c)(3) of such Code and exempt from taxation under section 501(a) of such Code other than an organization described in section 509(a) of such Code.

“(3) Qualified agreement.—The term ‘qualified agreement’ means an agreement (whether or not enforceable) which provides for, or contemplates, the payment of refund profit to one or more charitable organizations.

“(4) Low-interest united states obligations.—The term ‘low-interest United States obligations’ means United States obligations which bear an interest rate lower than the highest rate of interest borne by public debt securities generally available for purchase at the time such obligations were purchased.”

Transitional Provisions for Industrial Development Bonds Issued Before January 1, 1969

Section 107(b)(2) of Pub. L. 90–364, as amended by Pub. L. 99–514, §2, Oct. 22, 1986, 100 Stat. 2095, provided that: “Section 103(c)(1) of the Internal Revenue Code of 1986 [formerly I.R.C. 1954], as amended by subsection (a) [subsec. (b)(1), formerly subsec. (c)(1) of this section], shall not apply with respect to any obligation issued before January 1, 1969, if before May 1, 1968—

“(A) the issuance of the obligation (or the project in connection with which the proceeds of the obligations are to be used) was authorized or approved by the governing body of the governmental unit issuing the obligation or by the voters of such governmental unit;

“(B) in connection with the issuance of such obligation or with the use of the proceeds to be derived from the sale of such obligation or the property to be acquired or improved with such proceeds, a governmental unit has made a significant financial commitment;

“(C) any person (other than a governmental unit) who will use the proceeds to be derived from the sale of such obligation or the property to be acquired or improved with such proceeds has expended (or has entered into a binding contract to expend) for purposes which are related to the use of such proceeds or property, an amount equal to or in excess of 20 percent of such proceeds; or

“(D) in the case of an obligation issued in conjunction with a project where financial assistance will be provided by a governmental agency concerned with economic development, such agency has approved the project or an application for financial assistance is pending.”

[§103A. Repealed. Pub. L. 99–514, title XIII, §1301(j)(1), Oct. 22, 1986, 100 Stat. 2657]

Section, added Pub. L. 96–499, title XI, §1102(a), Dec. 5, 1980, 94 Stat. 2660; amended Pub. L. 96–595, §5(a), (b), Dec. 24, 1980, 94 Stat. 3467; Pub. L. 97–248, title II, §220(a)–(e), title III, §310(c)(3), (4), Sept. 3, 1982, 96 Stat. 475, 476, 599; Pub. L. 98–369, div. A, title I, §42(a)(2), title VI, §§611(a)–(c), 612(b), 624(b)(1), July 18, 1984, 98 Stat. 556, 901–903, 911, 924; Pub. L. 99–514, title XVIII, §1861, Oct. 22, 1986, 100 Stat. 2883, related to mortgage subsidy bonds. See section 143 of this title.

Effective Date of Repeal

Repeal applicable to bonds issued after Aug. 15, 1986, except as otherwise provided, see sections 1311 to 1318 of Pub. L. 99–514, set out as an Effective Date; Transitional Rules note under section 141 of this title.

§104. Compensation for injuries or sickness

(a) In general

Except in the case of amounts attributable to (and not in excess of) deductions allowed under section 213 (relating to medical, etc., expenses) for any prior taxable year, gross income does not include—

(1) amounts received under workmen's compensation acts as compensation for personal injuries or sickness;

(2) the amount of any damages (other than punitive damages) received (whether by suit or agreement and whether as lump sums or as periodic payments) on account of personal physical injuries or physical sickness;

(3) amounts received through accident or health insurance (or through an arrangement having the effect of accident or health insurance) for personal injuries or sickness (other than amounts received by an employee, to the extent such amounts (A) are attributable to contributions by the employer which were not includible in the gross income of the employee, or (B) are paid by the employer);

(4) amounts received as a pension, annuity, or similar allowance for personal injuries or sickness resulting from active service in the armed forces of any country or in the Coast and Geodetic Survey or the Public Health Service, or as a disability annuity payable under the provisions of section 808 of the Foreign Service Act of 1980; and

(5) amounts received by an individual as disability income attributable to injuries incurred as a direct result of a terroristic or military action (as defined in section 692(c)(2)).


For purposes of paragraph (3), in the case of an individual who is, or has been, an employee within the meaning of section 401(c)(1) (relating to self-employed individuals), contributions made on behalf of such individual while he was such an employee to a trust described in section 401(a) which is exempt from tax under section 501(a), or under a plan described in section 403(a), shall, to the extent allowed as deductions under section 404, be treated as contributions by the employer which were not includible in the gross income of the employee. For purposes of paragraph (2), emotional distress shall not be treated as a physical injury or physical sickness. The preceding sentence shall not apply to an amount of damages not in excess of the amount paid for medical care (described in subparagraph (A) or (B) of section 213(d)(1)) attributable to emotional distress.

(b) Termination of application of subsection (a)(4) in certain cases

(1) In general

Subsection (a)(4) shall not apply in the case of any individual who is not described in paragraph (2).

(2) Individuals to whom subsection (a)(4) continues to apply

An individual is described in this paragraph if—

(A) on or before September 24, 1975, he was entitled to receive any amount described in subsection (a)(4),

(B) on September 24, 1975, he was a member of any organization (or reserve component thereof) referred to in subsection (a)(4) or under a binding written commitment to become such a member,

(C) he receives an amount described in subsection (a)(4) by reason of a combat-related injury, or

(D) on application therefor, he would be entitled to receive disability compensation from the Veterans’ Administration.

(3) Special rules for combat-related injuries

For purposes of this subsection, the term “combat-related injury” means personal injury or sickness—

(A) which is incurred—

(i) as a direct result of armed conflict,

(ii) while engaged in extrahazardous service, or

(iii) under conditions simulating war; or


(B) which is caused by an instrumentality of war.


In the case of an individual who is not described in subparagraph (A) or (B) of paragraph (2), except as provided in paragraph (4), the only amounts taken into account under subsection (a)(4) shall be the amounts which he receives by reason of a combat-related injury.

(4) Amount excluded to be not less than veterans’ disability compensation

In the case of any individual described in paragraph (2), the amounts excludable under subsection (a)(4) for any period with respect to any individual shall not be less than the maximum amount which such individual, on application therefor, would be entitled to receive as disability compensation from the Veterans’ Administration.

(c) Application of prior law in certain cases

The phrase “(other than punitive damages)” shall not apply to punitive damages awarded in a civil action—

(1) which is a wrongful death action, and

(2) with respect to which applicable State law (as in effect on September 13, 1995 and without regard to any modification after such date) provides, or has been construed to provide by a court of competent jurisdiction pursuant to a decision issued on or before September 13, 1995, that only punitive damages may be awarded in such an action.


This subsection shall cease to apply to any civil action filed on or after the first date on which the applicable State law ceases to provide (or is no longer construed to provide) the treatment described in paragraph (2).

(d) Cross references

(1) For exclusion from employee's gross income of employer contributions to accident and health plans, see section 106.

(2) For exclusion of part of disability retirement pay from the application of subsection (a)(4) of this section, see section 1403 of title 10, United States Code (relating to career compensation laws).

(Aug. 16, 1954, ch. 736, 68A Stat. 30; Pub. L. 86–723, §51, Sept. 8, 1960, 74 Stat. 847; Pub. L. 87–792, §7(d), Oct. 10, 1962, 76 Stat. 829; Pub. L. 94–455, title V, §505(b), (e)(1), title XIX, §1901(a)(18), Oct. 4, 1976, 90 Stat. 1567, 1568, 1766; Pub. L. 96–465, title II, §2206(e)(1), Oct. 17, 1980, 94 Stat. 2162; Pub. L. 97–473, title I, §101(a), Jan. 14, 1983, 96 Stat. 2605; Pub. L. 101–239, title VII, §7641(a), Dec. 19, 1989, 103 Stat. 2379; Pub. L. 104–188, title I, §1605(a)–(c), Aug. 20, 1996, 110 Stat. 1838; Pub. L. 104–191, title III, §311(b), Aug. 21, 1996, 110 Stat. 2053; Pub. L. 107–134, title I, §113(a), Jan. 23, 2002, 115 Stat. 2435.)

References in Text

Section 808 of the Foreign Service Act of 1980, referred to in subsec. (a)(4), is Pub. L. 96–465, title I, §808, Oct. 17, 1980, 94 Stat. 2110, which is classified to section 4048 of Title 22, Foreign Relations and Intercourse.

Amendments

2002—Subsec. (a)(5). Pub. L. 107–134 substituted “a terroristic or military action (as defined in section 692(c)(2)).” for “a violent attack which the Secretary of State determines to be a terrorist attack and which occurred while such individual was an employee of the United States engaged in the performance of his official duties outside the United States.”

1996—Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 104–188, §1605(b), in closing provisions, substituted “For purposes of paragraph (2), emotional distress shall not be treated as a physical injury or physical sickness. The preceding sentence shall not apply to an amount of damages not in excess of the amount paid for medical care (described in subparagraph (A) or (B) of section 213(d)(1)) attributable to emotional distress.” for “Paragraph (2) shall not apply to any punitive damages in connection with a case not involving physical injury or physical sickness.”

Subsec. (a)(2). Pub. L. 104–188, §1605(a), amended par. (2) generally. Prior to amendment, par. (2) read as follows: “the amount of any damages received (whether by suit or agreement and whether as lump sums or as periodic payments) on account of personal injuries or sickness;”.

Subsec. (a)(3). Pub. L. 104–191 inserted “(or through an arrangement having the effect of accident or health insurance)” after “accident or health insurance”.

Subsecs. (c), (d). Pub. L. 104–188, §1605(c), added subsec. (c) and redesignated former subsec. (c) as (d).

1989—Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 101–239 inserted at end “Paragraph (2) shall not apply to any punitive damages in connection with a case not involving physical injury or physical sickness.”

1983—Subsec. (a)(2). Pub. L. 97–473 substituted “whether by suit or agreement and whether as lump sums or as periodic payments” for “whether by suit or agreement”.

1980—Subsec. (a)(4). Pub. L. 96–465 substituted reference to section 808 of the Foreign Service Act of 1980 for reference to section 831 of the Foreign Service Act of 1946.

1976—Subsec. (a)(4). Pub. L. 94–455, §1901(a)(18)(A), struck out “; 60 Stat. 1021” after “(22 U.S.C. 1081”.

Subsec. (a)(5). Pub. L. 94–455, §505(e)(1), added par. (5).

Subsecs. (b), (c). Pub. L. 94–455, §505(b), added subsec. (b), redesignated former subsec. (b) as (c) and, as so redesignated, §1901(a)(18)(B), substituted “1403 of title 10, United States Code (relating to career compensation laws)” for “402(h) of the Career Compensation Act of 1949 (37 U.S.C. 272(h))”.

1962—Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 87–792 inserted sentence requiring contributions made on behalf of an individual who is, or has been, an employee within the meaning of section 401(c)(1), while he was such an employee to a trust which is exempt from tax, or under a plan described in section 403(a), to be treated as contributions by the employer which were not includible in the gross income of the employee.

1960—Subsec. (a)(4). Pub. L. 86–723 provided for exclusion from gross income of amounts received as a disability annuity payable under the provisions of section 831 of the Foreign Service Act of 1946, as amended.

Change of Name

Reference to Veterans’ Administration deemed to refer to Department of Veterans Affairs pursuant to section 10 of Pub. L. 100–527, set out as a Department of Veterans Affairs Act note under section 301 of Title 38, Veterans’ Benefits.

Coast and Geodetic Survey consolidated with National Weather Bureau in 1965 to form Environmental Science Services Administration by Reorg. Plan No. 2 of 1965, eff. July 13, 1965, 30 FR 8819, 79 Stat. 1318. Environmental Science Services Administration abolished in 1970 and its personnel, property, records, etc., transferred to National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration by Reorg. Plan No. 4 of 1970, eff. Oct. 3, 1970, 35 FR 15627, 84 Stat. 2090. By order of Acting Associate Administrator of National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, 35 FR 19249, Dec. 19, 1970, Coast and Geodetic Survey redesignated National Ocean Survey. See notes under section 311 of Title 15, Commerce and Trade.

Effective Date of 2002 Amendment

Pub. L. 107–134, title I, §113(c), Jan. 23, 2002, 115 Stat. 2435, provided that: “The amendments made by this section [amending this section and section 692 of this title] shall apply to taxable years ending on or after September 11, 2001.”

Effective Date of 1996 Amendments

Section 311(c) of Pub. L. 104–191 provided that: “The amendments made by this section [amending this section and section 162 of this title] shall apply to taxable years beginning after December 31, 1996.”

Section 1605(d) of Pub. L. 104–188 provided that:

“(1) In general.—Except as provided in paragraph (2), the amendments made by this section [amending this section] shall apply to amounts received after the date of the enactment of this Act [Aug. 20, 1996], in taxable years ending after such date.

“(2) Exception.—The amendments made by this section shall not apply to any amount received under a written binding agreement, court decree, or mediation award in effect on (or issued on or before) September 13, 1995.”

Effective Date of 1989 Amendment

Section 7641(b) of Pub. L. 101–239 provided that:

“(1) In general.—Except as provided in paragraph (2), the amendment made by subsection (a) [amending this section] shall apply to amounts received after July 10, 1989, in taxable years ending after such date.

“(2) Exception.—The amendment made by subsection (a) shall not apply to any amount received—

“(A) under any written binding agreement, court decree, or mediation award in effect on (or issued on or before) July 10, 1989, or

“(B) pursuant to any suit filed on or before July 10, 1989.”

Effective Date of 1980 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 96–465 effective Feb. 15, 1981, except as otherwise provided, see section 2403 of Pub. L. 96–465, set out as an Effective Date note under section 3901 of Title 22, Foreign Relations and Intercourse.

Effective Date of 1976 Amendment

Amendment by section 505(b) of Pub. L. 94–455 applicable to taxable years beginning after Dec. 31, 1975, see section 508 of Pub. L. 94–455, set out as a note under section 3 of this title.

Section 505(e)(2) of Pub. L. 94–455 provided that: “The amendments made by this subsection [amending this section] shall apply to taxable years beginning after December 31, 1976.”

Amendment by section 1901(a)(18)(A) of Pub. L. 94–455 applicable with respect to taxable years beginning after Dec. 31, 1976, see section 1901(d) of Pub. L. 94–455, set out as a note under section 2 of this title.

Effective Date of 1962 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 87–792 applicable to taxable years beginning after Dec. 31, 1962, see section 8 of Pub. L. 87–792, set out as a note under section 22 of this title.

Effective Date of 1960 Amendment

Section 56(e) of Pub. L. 86–723 provided that: “The amendment made by section 51 of this Act [amending this section] shall be effective with respect to taxable years ending after the date of enactment of this Act [Sept. 8, 1960].”

Transfer of Functions

Secretary of Health, Education, and Welfare redesignated Secretary of Health and Human Services by section 3508 of Title 20, Education.

Functions of Public Health Service, Surgeon General of Public Health Service, and all other officers and employees of Public Health Service, and functions of all agencies of or in Public Health Service transferred to Secretary of Health, Education, and Welfare by 1966 Reorg. Plan No. 3, 31 F.R. 8855, 80 Stat. 1610, effective June 25, 1966, set out in the Appendix to Title 5, Government Organization and Employees.

§105. Amounts received under accident and health plans

(a) Amounts attributable to employer contributions

Except as otherwise provided in this section, amounts received by an employee through accident or health insurance for personal injuries or sickness shall be included in gross income to the extent such amounts (1) are attributable to contributions by the employer which were not includible in the gross income of the employee, or (2) are paid by the employer.

(b) Amounts expended for medical care

Except in the case of amounts attributable to (and not in excess of) deductions allowed under section 213 (relating to medical, etc., expenses) for any prior taxable year, gross income does not include amounts referred to in subsection (a) if such amounts are paid, directly or indirectly, to the taxpayer to reimburse the taxpayer for expenses incurred by him for the medical care (as defined in section 213(d)) of the taxpayer, his spouse, his dependents (as defined in section 152, determined without regard to subsections (b)(1), (b)(2), and (d)(1)(B) thereof), and any child (as defined in section 152(f)(1)) of the taxpayer who as of the end of the taxable year has not attained age 27. Any child to whom section 152(e) applies shall be treated as a dependent of both parents for purposes of this subsection.

(c) Payments unrelated to absence from work

Gross income does not include amounts referred to in subsection (a) to the extent such amounts—

(1) constitute payment for the permanent loss or loss of use of a member or function of the body, or the permanent disfigurement, of the taxpayer, his spouse, or a dependent (as defined in section 152, determined without regard to subsections (b)(1), (b)(2), and (d)(1)(B) thereof), and

(2) are computed with reference to the nature of the injury without regard to the period the employee is absent from work.

[(d) Repealed. Pub. L. 98–21, title I, §122(b), Apr. 20, 1983, 97 Stat. 87]

(e) Accident and health plans

For purposes of this section and section 104—

(1) amounts received under an accident or health plan for employees, and

(2) amounts received from a sickness and disability fund for employees maintained under the law of a State or the District of Columbia,


shall be treated as amounts received through accident or health insurance.

(f) Rules for application of section 213

For purposes of section 213(a) (relating to medical, dental, etc., expenses) amounts excluded from gross income under subsection (c) or (d) shall not be considered as compensation (by insurance or otherwise) for expenses paid for medical care.

(g) Self-employed individual not considered an employee

For purposes of this section, the term “employee” does not include an individual who is an employee within the meaning of section 401(c)(1) (relating to self-employed individuals).

(h) Amount paid to highly compensated individuals under a discriminatory self-insured medical expense reimbursement plan

(1) In general

In the case of amounts paid to a highly compensated individual under a self-insured medical reimbursement plan which does not satisfy the requirements of paragraph (2) for a plan year, subsection (b) shall not apply to such amounts to the extent they constitute an excess reimbursement of such highly compensated individual.

(2) Prohibition of discrimination

A self-insured medical reimbursement plan satisfies the requirements of this paragraph only if—

(A) the plan does not discriminate in favor of highly compensated individuals as to eligibility to participate; and

(B) the benefits provided under the plan do not discriminate in favor of participants who are highly compensated individuals.

(3) Nondiscriminatory eligibility classifications

(A) In general

A self-insured medical reimbursement plan does not satisfy the requirements of subparagraph (A) of paragraph (2) unless such plan benefits—

(i) 70 percent or more of all employees, or 80 percent or more of all the employees who are eligible to benefit under the plan if 70 percent or more of all employees are eligible to benefit under the plan; or

(ii) such employees as qualify under a classification set up by the employer and found by the Secretary not to be discriminatory in favor of highly compensated individuals.

(B) Exclusion of certain employees

For purposes of subparagraph (A), there may be excluded from consideration—

(i) employees who have not completed 3 years of service;

(ii) employees who have not attained age 25;

(iii) part-time or seasonal employees;

(iv) employees not included in the plan who are included in a unit of employees covered by an agreement between employee representatives and one or more employers which the Secretary finds to be a collective bargaining agreement, if accident and health benefits were the subject of good faith bargaining between such employee representatives and such employer or employers; and

(v) employees who are nonresident aliens and who receive no earned income (within the meaning of section 911(d)(2)) from the employer which constitutes income from sources within the United States (within the meaning of section 861(a)(3)).

(4) Nondiscriminatory benefits

A self-insured medical reimbursement plan does not meet the requirements of subparagraph (B) of paragraph (2) unless all benefits provided for participants who are highly compensated individuals are provided for all other participants.

(5) Highly compensated individual defined

For purposes of this subsection, the term “highly compensated individual” means an individual who is—

(A) one of the 5 highest paid officers,

(B) a shareholder who owns (with the application of section 318) more than 10 percent in value of the stock of the employer, or

(C) among the highest paid 25 percent of all employees (other than employees described in paragraph (3)(B) who are not participants).

(6) Self-insured medical reimbursement plan

The term “self-insured medical reimbursement plan” means a plan of an employer to reimburse employees for expenses referred to in subsection (b) for which reimbursement is not provided under a policy of accident and health insurance.

(7) Excess reimbursement of highly compensated individual

For purposes of this section, the excess reimbursement of a highly compensated individual which is attributable to a self-insured medical reimbursement plan is—

(A) in the case of a benefit available to highly compensated individuals but not to all other participants (or which otherwise fails to satisfy the requirements of paragraph (2)(B)), the amount reimbursed under the plan to the employee with respect to such benefit, and

(B) in the case of benefits (other than benefits described in subparagraph (A) 1 paid to a highly compensated individual by a plan which fails to satisfy the requirements of paragraph (2), the total amount reimbursed to the highly compensated individual for the plan year multiplied by a fraction—

(i) the numerator of which is the total amount reimbursed to all participants who are highly compensated individuals under the plan for the plan year, and

(ii) the denominator of which is the total amount reimbursed to all employees under the plan for such plan year.


In determining the fraction under subparagraph (B), there shall not be taken into account any reimbursement which is attributable to a benefit described in subparagraph (A).

(8) Certain controlled groups, etc.

All employees who are treated as employed by a single employer under subsection (b), (c), or (m) of section 414 shall be treated as employed by a single employer for purposes of this section.

(9) Regulations

The Secretary shall prescribe such regulations as may be necessary to carry out the provisions of this section.

(10) Time of inclusion

Any amount paid for a plan year that is included in income by reason of this subsection shall be treated as received or accrued in the taxable year of the participant in which the plan year ends.

(i) Sick pay under Railroad Unemployment Insurance Act

Notwithstanding any other provision of law, gross income includes benefits paid under section 2(a) of the Railroad Unemployment Insurance Act for days of sickness; except to the extent such sickness (as determined in accordance with standards prescribed by the Railroad Retirement Board) is the result of on-the-job injury.

(j) Special rule for certain governmental plans

(1) In general

For purposes of subsection (b), amounts paid (directly or indirectly) to the taxpayer from an accident or health plan described in paragraph (2) shall not fail to be excluded from gross income solely because such plan, on or before January 1, 2008, provides for reimbursements of health care expenses of a deceased plan participant's beneficiary.

(2) Plan described

An accident or health plan is described in this paragraph if such plan is funded by a medical trust that is established in connection with a public retirement system and that—

(A) has been authorized by a State legislature, or

(B) has received a favorable ruling from the Internal Revenue Service that the trust's income is not includible in gross income under section 115.

(Aug. 16, 1954, ch. 736, 68A Stat. 30; Pub. L. 87–792, §7(e), Oct. 10, 1962, 76 Stat. 829; Pub. L. 88–272, title II, §205(a), Feb. 26, 1964, 78 Stat. 38; Pub. L. 94–455, title V, §505(a), title XIX, §1901(c)(2), Oct. 4, 1976, 90 Stat. 1566, 1803; Pub. L. 95–600, title III, §366(a), title VII, §701(c)(1), Nov. 6, 1978, 92 Stat. 2855, 2899; Pub. L. 96–222, title I, §103(a)(13)(B), (C), Apr. 1, 1980, 94 Stat. 213; Pub. L. 96–605, title II, §201(b)(1), Dec. 28, 1980, 94 Stat. 3527; Pub. L. 96–613, §5(b)(1), Dec. 28, 1980, 94 Stat. 3581; Pub. L. 97–34, title I, §§103(c)(2), 111(b)(4), Aug. 13, 1981, 95 Stat. 188, 194; Pub. L. 97–248, title II, §202(b)(3)(C), Sept. 3, 1982, 96 Stat. 421; Pub. L. 98–21, title I, §122(b), Apr. 20, 1983, 97 Stat. 87; Pub. L. 98–76, title II, §241(a), Aug. 12, 1983, 97 Stat. 430; Pub. L. 98–369, div. A, title IV, §423(b)(2), July 18, 1984, 98 Stat. 800; Pub. L. 99–514, title XI, §1151(c)(2), title XIII, §1301(j)(9), Oct. 22, 1986, 100 Stat. 2503, 2658; Pub. L. 101–140, title II, §203(a)(1), Nov. 8, 1989, 103 Stat. 830; Pub. L. 108–311, title II, §207(9), Oct. 4, 2004, 118 Stat. 1177; Pub. L. 110–458, title I, §124(a), Dec. 23, 2008, 122 Stat. 5114; Pub. L. 111–152, title I, §1004(d)(1), Mar. 30, 2010, 124 Stat. 1035.)

References in Text

Section 2(a) of the Railroad Unemployment Insurance Act, referred to in subsec. (i), is classified to section 352(a) of Title 45, Railroads.

Amendments

2010—Subsec. (b). Pub. L. 111–152 substituted “his dependents” for “and his dependents” and inserted “, and any child (as defined in section 152(f)(1)) of the taxpayer who as of the end of the taxable year has not attained age 27” after “thereof)”.

2008—Subsec. (j). Pub. L. 110–458 added subsec. (j).

2004—Subsecs. (b), (c)(1). Pub. L. 108–311 inserted “, determined without regard to subsections (b)(1), (b)(2), and (d)(1)(B) thereof” after “section 152”.

1989—Subsecs. (h), (i). Pub. L. 101–140 amended subsecs. (h) and (i) to read as if amendments by Pub. L. 99–514, §1151(c)(2), had not been enacted, see 1986 Amendment note below.

1986—Subsec. (d)(5)(C). Pub. L. 99–514, §1301(j)(9), which directed that subpar. (C) be amended by substituting “section 7703(a)” for “section 143(a)”, could not be executed because subsec. (d) was previously repealed by Pub. L. 98–21. See 1983 Amendment note below.

Subsecs. (h), (i). Pub. L. 99–514, §1151(c)(2), redesignated subsec. (i) as (h) and struck out former subsec. (h) which related to amount paid to highly compensated individuals under a discriminatory self-insured medical expense reimbursement plan.

1984—Subsec. (b). Pub. L. 98–369 inserted “Any child to whom section 152(e) applies shall be treated as a dependent of both parents for purposes of this subsection.”

1983—Subsec. (d). Pub. L. 98–21 struck out subsec. (d) which provided that no deduction or credit would be allowed with respect to any expenditure which is properly associated with any amount excluded from gross income under subsec. (a).

Subsec. (i). Pub. L. 98–76 added subsec. (i).

1982—Subsec. (b). Pub. L. 97–248 substituted “section 213(d)” for “section 213(e)”.

1981—Subsec. (d)(3). Pub. L. 97–34, §103(c)(2), substituted “this subsection and section 221” for “this subsection” in parenthetical provision.

Subsec. (h)(3)(B)(v). Pub. L. 97–34, §111(b)(4), substituted “section 911(d)(2)” for “section 911(b)”.

1980—Subsec. (h)(3)(A). Pub. L. 96–222, §103(a)(13)(B), substituted “highly compensated individuals” for “highly compensated participants”.

Subsec. (h)(7)(A). Pub. L. 96–222, §103(a)(13)(C), substituted “highly compensated individuals but not to all other participants (or which otherwise fails to satisfy the requirements of paragraph (2)(B))” for “a highly compensated individual but not to a broad cross-section of employees”.

Subsec. (h)(8). Pub. L. 96–613 and Pub. L. 96–605 made identical amendments by substituting in heading “controlled groups, etc.” for “controlled groups”, and by substituting in text “subsection (b), (c), or (m) of section 414” for “subsection (b) or (c) of section 414”.

1978—Subsec. (d)(4). Pub. L. 95–600, §701 (c)(1), redesignated par. (5) as (4). Former par. (4) redesignated (5)(A) and (C).

Subsec. (d)(5). Pub. L. 95–600, §701(c)(1), added heading and subpar. (B), redesignated former par. (4) as subpars. (A) and (C), adding subpar. (C) heading and substituting “section 143(a)” for “section 143”; and redesignated former par. (6) as subpar. (D), inserting “defined” in heading.

Subsec. (d)(6), (7). Pub. L. 95–600, §701(c)(1), redesignated par. (7) as (6). Former par. (6) redesignated (5)(D).

Subsec. (h). Pub. L. 95–600, §366(a), added subsec. (h).

1976—Subsec. (d). Pub. L. 94–455, §505(a), substituted provisions relating to an exclusion of up to $5,200 a year for taxpayers retiring on disability prior to age 65; dollar-for-dollar phase out of exclusion for adjusted annual gross income (including disability income) in excess of $15,000; requirement that married couple must file joint return; defined “permanent and total disability” and “joint return”; and inserted special rule for coordination with section 72 of this title for provisions relating to wage continuation plans.

Subsec. (e)(2). Pub. L. 94–455, §1901(c)(2), struck out “a territory” after “of a State”.

1964—Subsec. (d). Pub. L. 88–272 substituted provisions stating that “The preceding sentence shall not apply to amounts attributable to the first 30” days if the amounts exceed 75 percent of regular weekly wages, and if they do not exceed said 75 percent, the first sentence of this subsection shall not apply to the extent the amounts exceed $75 weekly and shall not apply to amounts attributable to the first 7 calendar days unless the employee is hospitalized for injury or sickness for at least 1 day in such period, for provisions stating that said “preceding sentence” did not apply in cases of sickness, to amounts attributable to the first 7 days unless the employee was hospitalized for sickness for at least 1 day during such period.

1962—Subsec. (g). Pub. L. 87–792 added subsec. (g).

Effective Date of 2008 Amendment

Pub. L. 110–458, title I, §124(b), Dec. 23, 2008, 122 Stat. 5115, provided that: “The amendment made by subsection (a) [amending this section] shall apply to payments before, on, or after the date of the enactment of this Act [Dec. 23, 2008].”

Effective Date of 2004 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 108–311 applicable to taxable years beginning after Dec. 31, 2004, see section 208 of Pub. L. 108–311, set out as a note under section 2 of this title.

Effective Date of 1989 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 101–140 effective as if included in section 1151 of Pub. L. 99–514, see section 203(c) of Pub. L. 101–140, set out as a note under section 79 of this title.

Effective Date of 1986 Amendment

Amendment by section 1151(c)(2) of Pub. L. 99–514 applicable, with certain qualifications and exceptions, to years beginning after Dec. 31, 1988, see section 1151(k) of Pub. L. 99–514, as amended, set out as a note under section 79 of this title.

Amendment by section 1301(j)(9) of Pub. L. 99–514 applicable to bonds issued after Aug. 15, 1986, except as otherwise provided, see sections 1311 to 1318 of Pub. L. 99–514, set out as an Effective Date; Transitional Rules note under section 141 of this title.

Effective Date of 1984 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 98–369 applicable to taxable years beginning after Dec. 31, 1984, see section 423(d) of Pub. L. 98–369, set out as a note under section 2 of this title.

Effective Date of 1983 Amendments

Section 241(b) of Pub. L. 98–76 provided that: “The amendment made by subsection (a) [amending this section] shall apply to amounts received after December 31, 1983, in taxable years ending after such date.”

Amendment by Pub. L. 98–21 applicable to taxable years beginning after Dec. 31, 1983, except that if an individual's annuity starting date was deferred under subsec. (d)(6) as in effect the day before Apr. 20, 1983, such deferral shall end on the first day of such individual's first taxable year beginning after Dec. 31, 1983, see section 122(d) of Pub. L. 98–21 set out as a note under section 22 of this title.

Effective Date of 1982 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 97–248 applicable to taxable years beginning after Dec. 31, 1983, see section 202(c) of Pub. L. 97–248, set out as a note under section 213 of this title.

Effective Date of 1981 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 97–34 applicable to taxable years beginning after Dec. 31, 1981, see sections 103(d) and 115 of Pub. L. 97–34, set out as notes under sections 62 and 911, respectively, of this title.

Effective Date of 1980 Amendments

Amendments by Pub. L. 96–605 and 96–613 applicable to years ending after Nov. 30, 1980, except in the case of a plan in existence on Nov. 30, 1980, where amendments applicable to plan years beginning after Nov. 30, 1980, see section 201(c) of Pub. L. 96–605 and section 5(c) of Pub. L. 96–613, set out as a note under section 414 of this title.

Amendment by Pub. L. 96–222 effective, except as otherwise provided, as if it had been included in the provisions of the Revenue Act of 1978, Pub. L. 95–600, to which such amendment relates, see section 201 of Pub. L. 96–222, set out as a note under section 32 of this title.

Effective Date of 1978 Amendment

Section 366(b) of Pub. L. 95–600, as amended by Pub. L. 96–222, title I, §103(a)(13)(D), Apr. 1, 1980, 94 Stat. 213, provided that: “The amendment made by this section [amending this section] shall apply to amounts reimbursed after December 31, 1979. For purposes of applying such amendment, there shall not be taken into account any amount reimbursed before January 1, 1980.”

Section 701(c)(3) of Pub. L. 95–600, as amended by Pub. L. 99–514, §2, Oct. 22, 1986, 100 Stat. 2095, provided that:

“(A) The amendments made by paragraphs (1) and (2)(A) [amending this section and provisions set out as a note under this section] shall take effect as if included in section 105(d) of the Internal Revenue Code of 1986 [formerly I.R.C. 1954] as such section was amended by section 505(a) of the Tax Reform Act of 1976.

“(B) The amendments made by paragraph (2)(B) [amending provisions set out as notes under this section] shall take effect as if included in section 301 of the Tax Reduction and Simplification Act of 1977 [Pub. L. 95–30, title III, §301, May 23, 1977, 91 Stat. 152].”

Effective Date of 1976 Amendment

Section 505(f) of Pub. L. 94–455, as added by Pub. L. 95–30, title III, §301(a), May 23, 1977, 91 Stat. 151, provided that: “The amendment made by subsection (a) [amending this section] shall apply to taxable years beginning after December 31, 1976.”

Amendment by section 1901(c)(2) of Pub. L. 94–455 applicable with respect to taxable years beginning after Dec. 31, 1976, see section 1901(d) of Pub. L. 94–455, set out as a note under section 2 of this title.

Effective Date of 1964 Amendment

Section 205(b) of Pub. L. 88–272 provided that: “The amendment made by subsection (a) [amending this section] shall apply to amounts attributable to periods of absence commencing after December 31, 1963.”

Effective Date of 1962 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 87–792 applicable to taxable years beginning after Dec. 31, 1962, see section 8 of Pub. L. 87–792, set out as a note under section 22 of this title.

Nonenforcement of Amendment Made by Section 1151 of Pub. L. 99–514 for Fiscal Year 1990

No monies appropriated by Pub. L. 101–136 to be used to implement or enforce section 1151 of Pub. L. 99–514 or the amendments made by such section, see section 528 of Pub. L. 101–136, set out as a note under section 89 of this title.

Revocation of Election

Pub. L. 95–30, title III, §301(c), May 23, 1977, 91 Stat. 151, as amended by Pub. L. 95–600, title VII, §701(c)(2)(B), Nov. 6, 1978, 92 Stat. 2900; Pub. L. 99–514, §2, Oct. 22, 1986, 100 Stat. 2095, provided that: “Any election made under section 105(d)(6) of the Internal Revenue Code of 1986 [formerly I.R.C. 1954] or under section 505(d) of the Tax Reform Act of 1976 [set out below] for a taxable year beginning in 1976 may be revoked (in such manner as may be prescribed by regulations) at any time before the expiration of the period for assessing a deficiency with respect to such taxable year (determined without regard to subsection (d) of this section) [set out below].”

Period for Assessing Deficiency

Pub. L. 95–30, title III, §301(d), May 23, 1977, 91 Stat. 152, provided that: “In the case of any revocation made under subsection (c) [set out above], the period for assessing a deficiency with respect to any taxable year affected by the revocation shall not expire before the date which is 1 year after the date of the making of the revocation, and, notwithstanding any law or rule of law, such deficiency, to the extent attributable to such revocation, may be assessed at any time during such 1-year period.”

Effective Date of Changes in Exclusion for Sick Pay

Pub. L. 95–30, title III, §301(e), May 23, 1977, 91 Stat. 152, as amended by Pub. L. 95–600, title VII, §701(c)(2)(B), Nov. 6, 1978, 92 Stat. 2900; Pub. L. 99–514, §2, Oct. 22, 1986, 100 Stat. 2095, provided that: “The amendments made by this section [enacting and amending provisions set out as notes under this section] shall take effect on October 4, 1976, but shall not apply—

“(1) with respect to any taxpayer who makes or has made an election under section 105(d)(6) of the Internal Revenue Code of 1986 [formerly I.R.C. 1954] or under section 505(d) of the Tax Reform Act of 1976 [set out below] (as such sections were in effect before the enactment of this Act [May 23, 1977]) for a taxable year beginning in 1976, if such election is not revoked under subsection (c) of this section [set out above], and

“(2) with respect to any taxpayer (other than a taxpayer described in paragraph (1)) who has an annuity starting date at the beginning of a taxable year beginning in 1976 by reason of the amendments made by section 505 of the Tax Reform Act of 1976 [amending this section and section 104 of this title and enacting provisions set out as notes under this section] (as in effect before the enactment of this Act [May 23, 1977]), unless such person elects (in such manner as the Secretary of the Treasury or his delegate may by regulations prescribe) to have such amendments apply.”

Special Rule for Existing Permanent and Total Disability Cases

Section 505(c) of Pub. L. 94–455, as amended by Pub. L. 95–30, title III, §301(b)(1), (2), May 23, 1977, 91 Stat. 151; Pub. L. 95–600, title VII, §701(c)(2)(A), Nov. 6, 1978, 92 Stat. 2900; Pub. L. 99–514, §2, Oct. 22, 1986, 100 Stat. 2095, provided that: “In the case of any individual who—

“(1) retired before January 1, 1977,

“(2) either retired on disability or was entitled to retire on disability, and

“(3) on January 1, 1976, or January 1, 1977, was permanently and totally disabled (within the meaning of section 105(d)(4) of the Internal Revenue Code of 1986 [formerly I.R.C. 1954]),

such individual shall be deemed to have met the requirements of section 105(d)(1)(B) of such Code (as amended by subsection (a) of this section).”

Special Rule for Coordination With Section 72 of This Title

Section 505(d) of Pub. L. 94–455, as amended by Pub. L. 95–30, title III, §301(b)(3)–(5), May 23, 1977, 91 Stat. 151; Pub. L. 99–514, §2, Oct. 22, 1986, 100 Stat. 2095, provided that: “In the case of an individual who—

“(1) retired on disability before January 1, 1977, and

“(2) on December 31, 1975, or December 31, 1976, was entitled to exclude any amount with respect to such retirement disability from gross income under section 105(d) of the Internal Revenue Code of 1986 [formerly I.R.C. 1954],

for purposes of section 72 the annuity starting date shall not be deemed to occur before the beginning of the taxable year in which the taxpayer attains age 65, or before the beginning of an earlier taxable year for which the taxpayer makes an irrevocable election not to seek the benefits of such section 105(d) for such year and all subsequent years.”

1 So in original. Probably should be followed by a closing parenthesis.

§106. Contributions by employer to accident and health plans

(a) General rule

Except as otherwise provided in this section, gross income of an employee does not include employer-provided coverage under an accident or health plan.

(b) Contributions to Archer MSAs

(1) In general

In the case of an employee who is an eligible individual, amounts contributed by such employee's employer to any Archer MSA of such employee shall be treated as employer-provided coverage for medical expenses under an accident or health plan to the extent such amounts do not exceed the limitation under section 220(b)(1) (determined without regard to this subsection) which is applicable to such employee for such taxable year.

(2) No constructive receipt

No amount shall be included in the gross income of any employee solely because the employee may choose between the contributions referred to in paragraph (1) and employer contributions to another health plan of the employer.

(3) Special rule for deduction of employer contributions

Any employer contribution to an Archer MSA, if otherwise allowable as a deduction under this chapter, shall be allowed only for the taxable year in which paid.

(4) Employer MSA contributions required to be shown on return

Every individual required to file a return under section 6012 for the taxable year shall include on such return the aggregate amount contributed by employers to the Archer MSAs of such individual or such individual's spouse for such taxable year.

(5) MSA contributions not part of COBRA coverage

Paragraph (1) shall not apply for purposes of section 4980B.

(6) Definitions

For purposes of this subsection, the terms “eligible individual” and “Archer MSA” have the respective meanings given to such terms by section 220.

(7) Cross reference

For penalty on failure by employer to make comparable contributions to the Archer MSAs of comparable employees, see section 4980E.

(c) Inclusion of long-term care benefits provided through flexible spending arrangements

(1) In general

Effective on and after January 1, 1997, gross income of an employee shall include employer-provided coverage for qualified long-term care services (as defined in section 7702B(c)) to the extent that such coverage is provided through a flexible spending or similar arrangement.

(2) Flexible spending arrangement

For purposes of this subsection, a flexible spending arrangement is a benefit program which provides employees with coverage under which—

(A) specified incurred expenses may be reimbursed (subject to reimbursement maximums and other reasonable conditions), and

(B) the maximum amount of reimbursement which is reasonably available to a participant for such coverage is less than 500 percent of the value of such coverage.


In the case of an insured plan, the maximum amount reasonably available shall be determined on the basis of the underlying coverage.

(d) Contributions to health savings accounts

(1) In general

In the case of an employee who is an eligible individual (as defined in section 223(c)(1)), amounts contributed by such employee's employer to any health savings account (as defined in section 223(d)) of such employee shall be treated as employer-provided coverage for medical expenses under an accident or health plan to the extent such amounts do not exceed the limitation under section 223(b) (determined without regard to this subsection) which is applicable to such employee for such taxable year.

(2) Special rules

Rules similar to the rules of paragraphs (2), (3), (4), and (5) of subsection (b) shall apply for purposes of this subsection.

(3) Cross reference

For penalty on failure by employer to make comparable contributions to the health savings accounts of comparable employees, see section 4980G.

(e) FSA and HRA terminations to fund HSAs

(1) In general

A plan shall not fail to be treated as a health flexible spending arrangement or health reimbursement arrangement under this section or section 105 merely because such plan provides for a qualified HSA distribution.

(2) Qualified HSA distribution

The term “qualified HSA distribution” means a distribution from a health flexible spending arrangement or health reimbursement arrangement to the extent that such distribution—

(A) does not exceed the lesser of the balance in such arrangement on September 21, 2006, or as of the date of such distribution, and

(B) is contributed by the employer directly to the health savings account of the employee before January 1, 2012.


Such term shall not include more than 1 distribution with respect to any arrangement.

(3) Additional tax for failure to maintain high deductible health plan coverage

(A) In general

If, at any time during the testing period, the employee is not an eligible individual, then the amount of the qualified HSA distribution—

(i) shall be includible in the gross income of the employee for the taxable year in which occurs the first month in the testing period for which such employee is not an eligible individual, and

(ii) the tax imposed by this chapter for such taxable year on the employee shall be increased by 10 percent of the amount which is so includible.

(B) Exception for disability or death

Clauses (i) and (ii) of subparagraph (A) shall not apply if the employee ceases to be an eligible individual by reason of the death of the employee or the employee becoming disabled (within the meaning of section 72(m)(7)).

(4) Definitions and special rules

For purposes of this subsection—

(A) Testing period

The term “testing period” means the period beginning with the month in which the qualified HSA distribution is contributed to the health savings account and ending on the last day of the 12th month following such month.

(B) Eligible individual

The term “eligible individual” has the meaning given such term by section 223(c)(1).

(C) Treatment as rollover contribution

A qualified HSA distribution shall be treated as a rollover contribution described in section 223(f)(5).

(5) Tax treatment relating to distributions

For purposes of this title—

(A) In general

A qualified HSA distribution shall be treated as a payment described in subsection (d).

(B) Comparability excise tax

(i) In general

Except as provided in clause (ii), section 4980G shall not apply to qualified HSA distributions.

(ii) Failure to offer to all employees

In the case of a qualified HSA distribution to any employee, the failure to offer such distribution to any eligible individual covered under a high deductible health plan of the employer shall (notwithstanding section 4980G(d)) be treated for purposes of section 4980G as a failure to meet the requirements of section 4980G(b).

(f) Reimbursements for medicine restricted to prescribed drugs and insulin

For purposes of this section and section 105, reimbursement for expenses incurred for a medicine or a drug shall be treated as a reimbursement for medical expenses only if such medicine or drug is a prescribed drug (determined without regard to whether such drug is available without a prescription) or is insulin.

(Aug. 16, 1954, ch. 736, 68A Stat. 32; Pub. L. 99–272, title X, §10001(b), Apr. 7, 1986, 100 Stat. 223; Pub. L. 99–514, title XI, §§1114(b)(1), 1151(j)(2), Oct. 22, 1986, 100 Stat. 2450, 2508; Pub. L. 100–647, title I, §1018(t)(7)(A), title III, §3011(b)(1), Nov. 10, 1988, 102 Stat. 3589, 3624; Pub. L. 101–239, title VII, §7862(c)(1)(A), Dec. 19, 1989, 103 Stat. 2432; Pub. L. 104–191, title III, §§301(c)(1), 321(c)(2), Aug. 21, 1996, 110 Stat. 2048, 2058; Pub. L. 106–554, §1(a)(7) [title II, §202(a)(2), (b)(2)(A), (6), (10)], Dec. 21, 2000, 114 Stat. 2763, 2763A–628, 2763A–629; Pub. L. 108–173, title XII, §1201(d)(1), Dec. 8, 2003, 117 Stat. 2476; Pub. L. 109–432, div. A, title III, §302(a), Dec. 20, 2006, 120 Stat. 2948; Pub. L. 111–148, title IX, §9003(c), Mar. 23, 2010, 124 Stat. 854.)

References in Text

COBRA, referred to in the heading for subsec. (b)(5), probably means the Consolidated Omnibus Budget Reconciliation Act of 1985, Pub. L. 99–272, Apr. 7, 1986, 100 Stat. 82, as amended. For complete classification of this Act to the Code, see Tables.

Amendments

2010—Subsec. (f). Pub. L. 111–148 added subsec. (f).

2006—Subsec. (e). Pub. L. 109–432 added subsec. (e).

2003—Subsec. (d). Pub. L. 108–173 added subsec. (d).

2000—Subsec. (b). Pub. L. 106–554 §1(a)(7) [title II, §202(b)(6)], substituted “Archer MSAs” for “medical savings accounts” in heading.

Subsec. (b)(1). Pub. L. 106–554 §1(a)(7) [title II, §202(a)(2)], substituted “Archer MSA” for “medical savings account”.

Subsec. (b)(3). Pub. L. 106–554 §1(a)(7) [title II, §202(b)(10)], substituted “an Archer MSA” for “a Archer MSA”.

Pub. L. 106–554 §1(a)(7) [title II, §202(a)(2)], substituted “Archer MSA” for “medical savings account”.

Subsec. (b)(4). Pub. L. 106–554, §1(a)(7) [title II, §202(b)(2)(A)], substituted “Archer MSAs” for “medical savings accounts”.

Subsec. (b)(6). Pub. L. 106–554 §1(a)(7) [title II, §202(a)(2)], substituted “Archer MSA” for “medical savings account”.

Subsec. (b)(7). Pub. L. 106–554, §1(a)(7) [title II, §202(b)(2)(A)], substituted “Archer MSAs” for “medical savings accounts”.

1996—Pub. L. 104–191, §301(c)(1), amended text generally. Prior to amendment, text read as follows: “Gross income of an employee does not include employer-provided coverage under an accident or health plan.”

Subsec. (c). Pub. L. 104–191, §321(c)(2), added subsec. (c).

1989—Subsec. (b)(2). Pub. L. 101–239 amended subsec. (b)(2) as it existed prior to general amendment by Pub. L. 100–647 by striking out the last sentence which read as follows: “Under regulations, rules similar to the rules of subsections (a) and (b) of section 52 (relating to employers under common control) shall apply for purposes of subparagraph (A).” See Effective Date of 1989 Amendment note below.

1988—Pub. L. 100–647, §3011(b)(1), amended section generally, substituting a single undesignated par. for former subsec. (a) providing that gross income does not include employer-provided coverage under an accident or health plan and subsec. (b) providing for an exception for highly compensated individuals where a plan fails to provide certain continuation coverage.

Subsec. (b)(1). Pub. L. 100–647, §1018(t)(7)(A), substituted “any employer-provided coverage” for “any amount contributed by an employer” and “under a group” for “to a group”.

1986—Pub. L. 99–272 designated existing provisions as subsec. (a) and added subsec. (a) heading and subsec. (b).

Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 99–514, §1151(j)(2), amended subsec. (a) generally. Prior to amendment, subsec. (a) read as follows: “Gross income does not include contributions by the employer to accident or health plans for compensation (through insurance or otherwise) to his employees for personal injuries or sickness.”

Subsec. (b)(1). Pub. L. 99–514, §1114(b)(1), substituted “highly compensated employee (within the meaning of section 414(q))” for “highly compensated individual (within the meaning of section 105(h)(5))”.

Effective Date of 2010 Amendment

Pub. L. 111–148, title IX, §9003(d)(2), Mar. 23, 2010, 124 Stat. 854, provided that: “The amendment made by subsection (c) [amending this section] shall apply to expenses incurred with respect to taxable years beginning after December 31, 2010.”

Effective Date of 2006 Amendment

Pub. L. 109–432, div. A, title III, §302(c)(1), Dec. 20, 2006, 120 Stat. 2949, provided that: “The amendment made by subsection (a) [amending this section] shall apply to distributions on or after the date of the enactment of this Act [Dec. 20, 2006].”

Effective Date of 2003 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 108–173 applicable to taxable years beginning after Dec. 31, 2003, see section 1201(k) of Pub. L. 108–173, set out as a note under section 62 of this title.

Effective Date of 1996 Amendment

Amendment by section 301(c)(1) of Pub. L. 104–191 applicable to taxable years beginning after Dec. 31, 1996, see section 301(j) of Pub. L. 104–191, set out as a note under section 62 of this title.

Amendment by section 321(c)(2) of Pub. L. 104–191 applicable to contracts issued after Dec. 31, 1996, see section 321(f) of Pub. L. 104–191, set out as an Effective Date note under section 7702B of this title.

Effective Date of 1989 Amendment

Section 7862(c)(1)(C) of Pub. L. 101–239 provided that: “The amendments made by this paragraph [amending this section and section 1161 of Title 29, Labor] shall apply to years beginning after December 31, 1986.”

Section 7863 of Pub. L. 101–239 provided that: “Except as otherwise provided in this subpart any amendment made by this subpart [subpart A (§§7861–7863) of part V of title VII of Pub. L. 101–239, amending this section and sections 162, 411, 417, and 4980B of this title and sections 1052 to 1055, 1161, 1162, 1167, 1398, and 1461 of Title 29, Labor, enacting provisions set out as notes under this section and sections 162, 417, 1167, 4980, and 4980B of this title, and amending provisions set out as notes under sections 401 and 411 of this title and sections 1001 and 1054 of Title 29], shall take effect as if included in the provision of the Reform Act [Pub. L. 99–514] to which such amendment relates.”

Effective Date of 1988 Amendment

Amendment by section 1018(t)(7)(A) of Pub. L. 100–647 effective, except as otherwise provided, as if included in the provision of the Tax Reform Act of 1986, Pub. L. 99–514, to which such amendment relates, see section 1019(a) of Pub. L. 100–647, set out as a note under section 1 of this title.

Amendment by section 3011(b)(1) of Pub. L. 100–647 applicable to taxable years beginning after Dec. 31, 1988, but not applicable to any plan for any plan year to which section 162(k) of this title (as in effect on the day before Nov. 10, 1988) did not apply by reason of section 10001(e)(2) of Pub. L. 99–272, see section 3011(d) of Pub. L. 100–647, set out as a note under section 162 of this title.

Effective Date of 1986 Amendments

Amendment by section 1114(b)(1) of Pub. L. 99–514 applicable to years beginning after Dec. 31, 1986, see section 1114(c)(1) of Pub. L. 99–514, set out as a note under section 414 of this title.

Amendment by section 1151(j)(2) of Pub. L. 99–514 applicable, with certain qualifications and exceptions, to years beginning after Dec. 31, 1988, see section 1151(k) of Pub. L. 99–514, as amended, set out as a note under section 79 of this title.

Section 10001(e) of Pub. L. 99–272 provided that:

“(1) General rule.—The amendments made by this section [amending this section and section 162 of this title] shall apply to plan years beginning on or after July 1, 1986.

“(2) Special rule for collective bargaining agreements.—In the case of a group health plan maintained pursuant to one or more collective bargaining agreements between employee representatives and one or more employers ratified before the date of the enactment of this Act [Apr. 7, 1986], the amendments made by this section shall not apply to plan years beginning before the later of—

“(A) the date on which the last of the collective bargaining agreements relating to the plan terminates (determined without regard to any extension thereof agreed to after the date of the enactment of this Act), or

“(B) January 1, 1987.

For purposes of subparagraph (A), any plan amendment made pursuant to a collective bargaining agreement relating to the plan which amends the plan solely to conform to any requirement added by this section shall not be treated as a termination of such collective bargaining agreement.”

Regulations

Secretary of the Treasury or his delegate to issue before Feb. 1, 1988, final regulations to carry out amendments made by section 1114 of Pub. L. 99–514, see section 1141 of Pub. L. 99–514, set out as a note under section 401 of this title.

Nonenforcement of Amendment Made by Section 1151 of Pub. L. 99–514 for Fiscal Year 1990

No monies appropriated by Pub. L. 101–136 to be used to implement or enforce section 1151 of Pub. L. 99–514 or the amendments made by such section, see section 528 of Pub. L. 101–136, set out as a note under section 89 of this title.

Plan Amendments Not Required Until January 1, 1989

For provisions directing that if any amendments made by subtitle A or subtitle C of title XI [§§1101–1147 and 1171–1177] or title XVIII [§§1800–1899A] of Pub. L. 99–514 require an amendment to any plan, such plan amendment shall not be required to be made before the first plan year beginning on or after Jan. 1, 1989, see section 1140 of Pub. L. 99–514, as amended, set out as a note under section 401 of this title.

§107. Rental value of parsonages

In the case of a minister of the gospel, gross income does not include—

(1) the rental value of a home furnished to him as part of his compensation; or

(2) the rental allowance paid to him as part of his compensation, to the extent used by him to rent or provide a home and to the extent such allowance does not exceed the fair rental value of the home, including furnishings and appurtenances such as a garage, plus the cost of utilities.

(Aug. 16, 1954, ch. 736, 68A Stat. 32; Pub. L. 107–181, §2(a), May 20, 2002, 116 Stat. 583.)

Amendments

2002—Par. (2). Pub. L. 107–181 inserted “and to the extent such allowance does not exceed the fair rental value of the home, including furnishings and appurtenances such as a garage, plus the cost of utilities” before period at end.

Effective Date of 2002 Amendment

Pub. L. 107–181, §2(b), May 20, 2002, 116 Stat. 583, provided that:

“(1) In general.—The amendment made by this section [amending this section] shall apply to taxable years beginning after December 31, 2001.

“(2) Returns positions.—The amendment made by this section also shall apply to any taxable year beginning before January 1, 2002, for which the taxpayer—

“(A) on a return filed before April 17, 2002, limited the exclusion under section 107 of the Internal Revenue Code of 1986 as provided in such amendment, or

“(B) filed a return after April 16, 2002.

“(3) Other years before 2002.—Except as provided in paragraph (2), notwithstanding any prior regulation, revenue ruling, or other guidance issued by the Internal Revenue Service, no person shall be subject to the limitations added to section 107 of such Code by this Act for any taxable year beginning before January 1, 2002.”

§108. Income from discharge of indebtedness

(a) Exclusion from gross income

(1) In general

Gross income does not include any amount which (but for this subsection) would be includible in gross income by reason of the discharge (in whole or in part) of indebtedness of the taxpayer if—

(A) the discharge occurs in a title 11 case,

(B) the discharge occurs when the taxpayer is insolvent,

(C) the indebtedness discharged is qualified farm indebtedness,

(D) in the case of a taxpayer other than a C corporation, the indebtedness discharged is qualified real property business indebtedness, or

(E) the indebtedness discharged is qualified principal residence indebtedness which is discharged before January 1, 2013.

(2) Coordination of exclusions

(A) Title 11 exclusion takes precedence

Subparagraphs (B), (C), (D), and (E) of paragraph (1) shall not apply to a discharge which occurs in a title 11 case.

(B) Insolvency exclusion takes precedence over qualified farm exclusion and qualified real property business exclusion

Subparagraphs (C) and (D) of paragraph (1) shall not apply to a discharge to the extent the taxpayer is insolvent.

(C) Principal residence exclusion takes precedence over insolvency exclusion unless elected otherwise

Paragraph (1)(B) shall not apply to a discharge to which paragraph (1)(E) applies unless the taxpayer elects to apply paragraph (1)(B) in lieu of paragraph (1)(E).

(3) Insolvency exclusion limited to amount of insolvency

In the case of a discharge to which paragraph (1)(B) applies, the amount excluded under paragraph (1)(B) shall not exceed the amount by which the taxpayer is insolvent.

(b) Reduction of tax attributes

(1) In general

The amount excluded from gross income under subparagraph (A), (B), or (C) of subsection (a)(1) shall be applied to reduce the tax attributes of the taxpayer as provided in paragraph (2).

(2) Tax attributes affected; order of reduction

Except as provided in paragraph (5), the reduction referred to in paragraph (1) shall be made in the following tax attributes in the following order:

(A) NOL

Any net operating loss for the taxable year of the discharge, and any net operating loss carryover to such taxable year.

(B) General business credit

Any carryover to or from the taxable year of a discharge of an amount for purposes for determining the amount allowable as a credit under section 38 (relating to general business credit).

(C) Minimum tax credit

The amount of the minimum tax credit available under section 53(b) as of the beginning of the taxable year immediately following the taxable year of the discharge.

(D) Capital loss carryovers

Any net capital loss for the taxable year of the discharge, and any capital loss carryover to such taxable year under section 1212.

(E) Basis reduction

(i) In general

The basis of the property of the taxpayer.

(ii) Cross reference

For provisions for making the reduction described in clause (i), see section 1017.

(F) Passive activity loss and credit carryovers

Any passive activity loss or credit carryover of the taxpayer under section 469(b) from the taxable year of the discharge.

(G) Foreign tax credit carryovers

Any carryover to or from the taxable year of the discharge for purposes of determining the amount of the credit allowable under section 27.

(3) Amount of reduction

(A) In general

Except as provided in subparagraph (B), the reductions described in paragraph (2) shall be one dollar for each dollar excluded by subsection (a).

(B) Credit carryover reduction

The reductions described in subparagraphs (B), (C), and (G) shall be 331/3 cents for each dollar excluded by subsection (a). The reduction described in subparagraph (F) in any passive activity credit carryover shall be 331/3 cents for each dollar excluded by subsection (a).

(4) Ordering rules

(A) Reductions made after determination of tax for year

The reductions described in paragraph (2) shall be made after the determination of the tax imposed by this chapter for the taxable year of the discharge.

(B) Reductions under subparagraph (A) or (D) of paragraph (2)

The reductions described in subparagraph (A) or (D) of paragraph (2) (as the case may be) shall be made first in the loss for the taxable year of the discharge and then in the carryovers to such taxable year in the order of the taxable years from which each such carryover arose.

(C) Reductions under subparagraphs (B) and (G) of paragraph (2)

The reductions described in subparagraphs (B) and (G) of paragraph (2) shall be made in the order in which carryovers are taken into account under this chapter for the taxable year of the discharge.

(5) Election to apply reduction first against depreciable property

(A) In general

The taxpayer may elect to apply any portion of the reduction referred to in paragraph (1) to the reduction under section 1017 of the basis of the depreciable property of the taxpayer.

(B) Limitation

The amount to which an election under subparagraph (A) applies shall not exceed the aggregate adjusted bases of the depreciable property held by the taxpayer as of the beginning of the taxable year following the taxable year in which the discharge occurs.

(C) Other tax attributes not reduced

Paragraph (2) shall not apply to any amount to which an election under this paragraph applies.

(c) Treatment of discharge of qualified real property business indebtedness

(1) Basis reduction

(A) In general

The amount excluded from gross income under subparagraph (D) of subsection (a)(1) shall be applied to reduce the basis of the depreciable real property of the taxpayer.

(B) Cross reference

For provisions making the reduction described in subparagraph (A), see section 1017.

(2) Limitations

(A) Indebtedness in excess of value

The amount excluded under subparagraph (D) of subsection (a)(1) with respect to any qualified real property business indebtedness shall not exceed the excess (if any) of—

(i) the outstanding principal amount of such indebtedness (immediately before the discharge), over

(ii) the fair market value of the real property described in paragraph (3)(A) (as of such time), reduced by the outstanding principal amount of any other qualified real property business indebtedness secured by such property (as of such time).

(B) Overall limitation

The amount excluded under subparagraph (D) of subsection (a)(1) shall not exceed the aggregate adjusted bases of depreciable real property (determined after any reductions under subsections (b) and (g)) held by the taxpayer immediately before the discharge (other than depreciable real property acquired in contemplation of such discharge).

(3) Qualified real property business indebtedness

The term “qualified real property business indebtedness” means indebtedness which—

(A) was incurred or assumed by the taxpayer in connection with real property used in a trade or business and is secured by such real property,

(B) was incurred or assumed before January 1, 1993, or if incurred or assumed on or after such date, is qualified acquisition indebtedness, and

(C) with respect to which such taxpayer makes an election to have this paragraph apply.


Such term shall not include qualified farm indebtedness. Indebtedness under subparagraph (B) shall include indebtedness resulting from the refinancing of indebtedness under subparagraph (B) (or this sentence), but only to the extent it does not exceed the amount of the indebtedness being refinanced.

(4) Qualified acquisition indebtedness

For purposes of paragraph (3)(B), the term “qualified acquisition indebtedness” means, with respect to any real property described in paragraph (3)(A), indebtedness incurred or assumed to acquire, construct, reconstruct, or substantially improve such property.

(5) Regulations

The Secretary shall issue such regulations as are necessary to carry out this subsection, including regulations preventing the abuse of this subsection through cross-collateralization or other means.

(d) Meaning of terms; special rules relating to certain provisions

(1) Indebtedness of taxpayer

For purposes of this section, the term “indebtedness of the taxpayer” means any indebtedness—

(A) for which the taxpayer is liable, or

(B) subject to which the taxpayer holds property.

(2) Title 11 case

For purposes of this section, the term “title 11 case” means a case under title 11 of the United States Code (relating to bankruptcy), but only if the taxpayer is under the jurisdiction of the court in such case and the discharge of indebtedness is granted by the court or is pursuant to a plan approved by the court.

(3) Insolvent

For purposes of this section, the term “insolvent” means the excess of liabilities over the fair market value of assets. With respect to any discharge, whether or not the taxpayer is insolvent, and the amount by which the taxpayer is insolvent, shall be determined on the basis of the taxpayer's assets and liabilities immediately before the discharge.

[(4) Repealed. Pub. L. 99–514, title VIII, §822(b)(3)(A), Oct. 22, 1986, 100 Stat. 2373]

(5) Depreciable property

The term “depreciable property” has the same meaning as when used in section 1017.

(6) Certain provisions to be applied at partner level

In the case of a partnership, subsections (a), (b), (c), and (g) shall be applied at the partner level.

(7) Special rules for S corporation

(A) Certain provisions to be applied at corporate level

In the case of an S corporation, subsections (a), (b), (c), and (g) shall be applied at the corporate level, including by not taking into account under section 1366(a) any amount excluded under subsection (a) of this section.

(B) Reduction in carryover of disallowed losses and deductions

In the case of an S corporation, for purposes of subparagraph (A) of subsection (b)(2), any loss or deduction which is disallowed for the taxable year of the discharge under section 1366(d)(1) shall be treated as a net operating loss for such taxable year. The preceding sentence shall not apply to any discharge to the extent that subsection (a)(1)(D) applies to such discharge.

(C) Coordination with basis adjustments under section 1367(b)(2)

For purposes of subsection (e)(6), a shareholder's adjusted basis in indebtedness of an S corporation shall be determined without regard to any adjustments made under section 1367(b)(2).

(8) Reductions of tax attributes in title 11 cases of individuals to be made by estate

In any case under chapter 7 or 11 of title 11 of the United States Code to which section 1398 applies, for purposes of paragraphs (1) and (5) of subsection (b) the estate (and not the individual) shall be treated as the taxpayer. The preceding sentence shall not apply for purposes of applying section 1017 to property transferred by the estate to the individual.

(9) Time for making election, etc.

(A) Time

An election under paragraph (5) of subsection (b) or under paragraph (3)(C) of subsection (c) shall be made on the taxpayer's return for the taxable year in which the discharge occurs or at such other time as may be permitted in regulations prescribed by the Secretary.

(B) Revocation only with consent

An election referred to in subparagraph (A), once made, may be revoked only with the consent of the Secretary.

(C) Manner

An election referred to in subparagraph (A) shall be made in such manner as the Secretary may by regulations prescribe.

(10) Cross reference

For provision that no reduction is to be made in the basis of exempt property of an individual debtor, see section 1017(c)(1).

(e) General rules for discharge of indebtedness (including discharges not in title 11 cases or insolvency)

For purposes of this title—

(1) No other insolvency exception

Except as otherwise provided in this section, there shall be no insolvency exception from the general rule that gross income includes income from the discharge of indebtedness.

(2) Income not realized to extent of lost deductions

No income shall be realized from the discharge of indebtedness to the extent that payment of the liability would have given rise to a deduction.

(3) Adjustments for unamortized premium and discount

The amount taken into account with respect to any discharge shall be properly adjusted for unamortized premium and unamortized discount with respect to the indebtedness discharged.

(4) Acquisition of indebtedness by person related to debtor

(A) Treated as acquisition by debtor

For purposes of determining income of the debtor from discharge of indebtedness, to the extent provided in regulations prescribed by the Secretary, the acquisition of outstanding indebtedness by a person bearing a relationship to the debtor specified in section 267(b) or 707(b)(1) from a person who does not bear such a relationship to the debtor shall be treated as the acquisition of such indebtedness by the debtor. Such regulations shall provide for such adjustments in the treatment of any subsequent transactions involving the indebtedness as may be appropriate by reason of the application of the preceding sentence.

(B) Members of family

For purposes of this paragraph, sections 267(b) and 707(b)(1) shall be applied as if section 267(c)(4) provided that the family of an individual consists of the individual's spouse, the individual's children, grandchildren, and parents, and any spouse of the individual's children or grandchildren.

(C) Entities under common control treated as related

For purposes of this paragraph, two entities which are treated as a single employer under subsection (b) or (c) of section 414 shall be treated as bearing a relationship to each other which is described in section 267(b).

(5) Purchase-money debt reduction for solvent debtor treated as price reduction

If—

(A) the debt of a purchaser of property to the seller of such property which arose out of the purchase of such property is reduced,

(B) such reduction does not occur—

(i) in a title 11 case, or

(ii) when the purchaser is insolvent, and


(C) but for this paragraph, such reduction would be treated as income to the purchaser from the discharge of indebtedness,


then such reduction shall be treated as a purchase price adjustment.

(6) Indebtedness contributed to capital

Except as provided in regulations, for purposes of determining income of the debtor from discharge of indebtedness, if a debtor corporation acquires its indebtedness from a shareholder as a contribution to capital—

(A) section 118 shall not apply, but

(B) such corporation shall be treated as having satisfied the indebtedness with an amount of money equal to the shareholder's adjusted basis in the indebtedness.

(7) Recapture of gain on subsequent sale of stock

(A) In general

If a creditor acquires stock of a debtor corporation in satisfaction of such corporation's indebtedness, for purposes of section 1245—

(i) such stock (and any other property the basis of which is determined in whole or in part by reference to the adjusted basis of such stock) shall be treated as section 1245 property,

(ii) the aggregate amount allowed to the creditor—

(I) as deductions under subsection (a) or (b) of section 166 (by reason of the worthlessness or partial worthlessness of the indebtedness), or

(II) as an ordinary loss on the exchange,


 shall be treated as an amount allowed as a deduction for depreciation, and

(iii) an exchange of such stock qualifying under section 354(a), 355(a), or 356(a) shall be treated as an exchange to which section 1245(b)(3) applies.


The amount determined under clause (ii) shall be reduced by the amount (if any) included in the creditor's gross income on the exchange.

(B) Special rule for cash basis taxpayers

In the case of any creditor who computes his taxable income under the cash receipts and disbursements method, proper adjustment shall be made in the amount taken into account under clause (ii) of subparagraph (A) for any amount which was not included in the creditor's gross income but which would have been included in such gross income if such indebtedness had been satisfied in full.

(C) Stock of parent corporation

For purposes of this paragraph, stock of a corporation in control (within the meaning of section 368(c)) of the debtor corporation shall be treated as stock of the debtor corporation.

(D) Treatment of successor corporation

For purposes of this paragraph, the term “debtor corporation” includes a successor corporation.

(E) Partnership rule

Under regulations prescribed by the Secretary, rules similar to the rules of the foregoing subparagraphs of this paragraph shall apply with respect to the indebtedness of a partnership.

(8) Indebtedness satisfied by corporate stock or partnership interest

For purposes of determining income of a debtor from discharge of indebtedness, if—

(A) a debtor corporation transfers stock, or

(B) a debtor partnership transfers a capital or profits interest in such partnership,


to a creditor in satisfaction of its recourse or nonrecourse indebtedness, such corporation or partnership shall be treated as having satisfied the indebtedness with an amount of money equal to the fair market value of the stock or interest. In the case of any partnership, any discharge of indebtedness income recognized under this paragraph shall be included in the distributive shares of taxpayers which were the partners in the partnership immediately before such discharge.

(9) Discharge of indebtedness income not taken into account in determining whether entity meets REIT qualifications

Any amount included in gross income by reason of the discharge of indebtedness shall not be taken into account for purposes of paragraphs (2) and (3) of section 856(c).

(10) Indebtedness satisfied by issuance of debt instrument

(A) In general

For purposes of determining income of a debtor from discharge of indebtedness, if a debtor issues a debt instrument in satisfaction of indebtedness, such debtor shall be treated as having satisfied the indebtedness with an amount of money equal to the issue price of such debt instrument.

(B) Issue price

For purposes of subparagraph (A), the issue price of any debt instrument shall be determined under sections 1273 and 1274. For purposes of the preceding sentence, section 1273(b)(4) shall be applied by reducing the stated redemption price of any instrument by the portion of such stated redemption price which is treated as interest for purposes of this chapter.

(f) Student loans

(1) In general

In the case of an individual, gross income does not include any amount which (but for this subsection) would be includible in gross income by reason of the discharge (in whole or in part) of any student loan if such discharge was pursuant to a provision of such loan under which all or part of the indebtedness of the individual would be discharged if the individual worked for a certain period of time in certain professions for any of a broad class of employers.

(2) Student loan

For purposes of this subsection, the term “student loan” means any loan to an individual to assist the individual in attending an educational organization described in section 170(b)(1)(A)(ii) made by—

(A) the United States, or an instrumentality or agency thereof,

(B) a State, territory, or possession of the United States, or the District of Columbia, or any political subdivision thereof,

(C) a public benefit corporation—

(i) which is exempt from taxation under section 501(c)(3),

(ii) which has assumed control over a State, county, or municipal hospital, and

(iii) whose employees have been deemed to be public employees under State law, or


(D) any educational organization described in section 170(b)(1)(A)(ii) if such loan is made—

(i) pursuant to an agreement with any entity described in subparagraph (A), (B), or (C) under which the funds from which the loan was made were provided to such educational organization, or

(ii) pursuant to a program of such educational organization which is designed to encourage its students to serve in occupations with unmet needs or in areas with unmet needs and under which the services provided by the students (or former students) are for or under the direction of a governmental unit or an organization described in section 501(c)(3) and exempt from tax under section 501(a).


The term “student loan” includes any loan made by an educational organization described in section 170(b)(1)(A)(ii) or by an organization exempt from tax under section 501(a) to refinance a loan to an individual to assist the individual in attending any such educational organization but only if the refinancing loan is pursuant to a program of the refinancing organization which is designed as described in subparagraph (D)(ii).

(3) Exception for discharges on account of services performed for certain lenders

Paragraph (1) shall not apply to the discharge of a loan made by an organization described in paragraph (2)(D) if the discharge is on account of services performed for either such organization.

(4) Payments under national health service corps loan repayment program and certain state loan repayment programs

In the case of an individual, gross income shall not include any amount received under section 338B(g) of the Public Health Service Act, under a State program described in section 338I of such Act, or under any other State loan repayment or loan forgiveness program that is intended to provide for the increased availability of health care services in underserved or health professional shortage areas (as determined by such State).

(g) Special rules for discharge of qualified farm indebtedness

(1) Discharge must be by qualified person

(A) In general

Subparagraph (C) of subsection (a)(1) shall apply only if the discharge is by a qualified person.

(B) Qualified person

For purposes of subparagraph (A), the term “qualified person” has the meaning given to such term by section 49(a)(1)(D)(iv); except that such term shall include any Federal, State, or local government or agency or instrumentality thereof.

(2) Qualified farm indebtedness

For purposes of this section, indebtedness of a taxpayer shall be treated as qualified farm indebtedness if—

(A) such indebtedness was incurred directly in connection with the operation by the taxpayer of the trade or business of farming, and

(B) 50 percent or more of the aggregate gross receipts of the taxpayer for the 3 taxable years preceding the taxable year in which the discharge of such indebtedness occurs is attributable to the trade or business of farming.

(3) Amount excluded cannot exceed sum of tax attributes and business and investment assets

(A) In general

The amount excluded under subparagraph (C) of subsection (a)(1) shall not exceed the sum of—

(i) the adjusted tax attributes of the taxpayer, and

(ii) the aggregate adjusted bases of qualified property held by the taxpayer as of the beginning of the taxable year following the taxable year in which the discharge occurs.

(B) Adjusted tax attributes

For purposes of subparagraph (A), the term “adjusted tax attributes” means the sum of the tax attributes described in subparagraphs (A), (B), (C), (D), (F), and (G) of subsection (b)(2) determined by taking into account $3 for each $1 of the attributes described in subparagraphs (B), (C), and (G) of subsection (b)(2) and the attribute described in subparagraph (F) of subsection (b)(2) to the extent attributable to any passive activity credit carryover.

(C) Qualified property

For purposes of this paragraph, the term “qualified property” means any property which is used or is held for use in a trade or business or for the production of income.

(D) Coordination with insolvency exclusion

For purposes of this paragraph, the adjusted basis of any qualified property and the amount of the adjusted tax attributes shall be determined after any reduction under subsection (b) by reason of amounts excluded from gross income under subsection (a)(1)(B).

(h) Special rules relating to qualified principal residence indebtedness

(1) Basis reduction

The amount excluded from gross income by reason of subsection (a)(1)(E) shall be applied to reduce (but not below zero) the basis of the principal residence of the taxpayer.

(2) Qualified principal residence indebtedness

For purposes of this section, the term “qualified principal residence indebtedness” means acquisition indebtedness (within the meaning of section 163(h)(3)(B), applied by substituting “$2,000,000 ($1,000,000” for “$1,000,000 ($500,000” in clause (ii) thereof) with respect to the principal residence of the taxpayer.

(3) Exception for certain discharges not related to taxpayer's financial condition

Subsection (a)(1)(E) shall not apply to the discharge of a loan if the discharge is on account of services performed for the lender or any other factor not directly related to a decline in the value of the residence or to the financial condition of the taxpayer.

(4) Ordering rule

If any loan is discharged, in whole or in part, and only a portion of such loan is qualified principal residence indebtedness, subsection (a)(1)(E) shall apply only to so much of the amount discharged as exceeds the amount of the loan (as determined immediately before such discharge) which is not qualified principal residence indebtedness.

(5) Principal residence

For purposes of this subsection, the term “principal residence” has the same meaning as when used in section 121.

(i) Deferral and ratable inclusion of income arising from business indebtedness discharged by the reacquisition of a debt instrument

(1) In general

At the election of the taxpayer, income from the discharge of indebtedness in connection with the reacquisition after December 31, 2008, and before January 1, 2011, of an applicable debt instrument shall be includible in gross income ratably over the 5-taxable-year period beginning with—

(A) in the case of a reacquisition occurring in 2009, the fifth taxable year following the taxable year in which the reacquisition occurs, and

(B) in the case of a reacquisition occurring in 2010, the fourth taxable year following the taxable year in which the reacquisition occurs.

(2) Deferral of deduction for original issue discount in debt for debt exchanges

(A) In general

If, as part of a reacquisition to which paragraph (1) applies, any debt instrument is issued for the applicable debt instrument being reacquired (or is treated as so issued under subsection (e)(4) and the regulations thereunder) and there is any original issue discount determined under subpart A of part V of subchapter P of this chapter with respect to the debt instrument so issued—

(i) except as provided in clause (ii), no deduction otherwise allowable under this chapter shall be allowed to the issuer of such debt instrument with respect to the portion of such original issue discount which—

(I) accrues before the 1st taxable year in the 5-taxable-year period in which income from the discharge of indebtedness attributable to the reacquisition of the debt instrument is includible under paragraph (1), and

(II) does not exceed the income from the discharge of indebtedness with respect to the debt instrument being reacquired, and


(ii) the aggregate amount of deductions disallowed under clause (i) shall be allowed as a deduction ratably over the 5-taxable-year period described in clause (i)(I).


If the amount of the original issue discount accruing before such 1st taxable year exceeds the income from the discharge of indebtedness with respect to the applicable debt instrument being reacquired, the deductions shall be disallowed in the order in which the original issue discount is accrued.

(B) Deemed debt for debt exchanges

For purposes of subparagraph (A), if any debt instrument is issued by an issuer and the proceeds of such debt instrument are used directly or indirectly by the issuer to reacquire an applicable debt instrument of the issuer, the debt instrument so issued shall be treated as issued for the debt instrument being reacquired. If only a portion of the proceeds from a debt instrument are so used, the rules of subparagraph (A) shall apply to the portion of any original issue discount on the newly issued debt instrument which is equal to the portion of the proceeds from such instrument used to reacquire the outstanding instrument.

(3) Applicable debt instrument

For purposes of this subsection—

(A) Applicable debt instrument

The term “applicable debt instrument” means any debt instrument which was issued by—

(i) a C corporation, or

(ii) any other person in connection with the conduct of a trade or business by such person.

(B) Debt instrument

The term “debt instrument” means a bond, debenture, note, certificate, or any other instrument or contractual arrangement constituting indebtedness (within the meaning of section 1275(a)(1)).

(4) Reacquisition

For purposes of this subsection—

(A) In general

The term “reacquisition” means, with respect to any applicable debt instrument, any acquisition of the debt instrument by—

(i) the debtor which issued (or is otherwise the obligor under) the debt instrument, or

(ii) a related person to such debtor.

(B) Acquisition

The term “acquisition” shall, with respect to any applicable debt instrument, include an acquisition of the debt instrument for cash, the exchange of the debt instrument for another debt instrument (including an exchange resulting from a modification of the debt instrument), the exchange of the debt instrument for corporate stock or a partnership interest, and the contribution of the debt instrument to capital. Such term shall also include the complete forgiveness of the indebtedness by the holder of the debt instrument.

(5) Other definitions and rules

For purposes of this subsection—

(A) Related person

The determination of whether a person is related to another person shall be made in the same manner as under subsection (e)(4).

(B) Election

(i) In general

An election under this subsection with respect to any applicable debt instrument shall be made by including with the return of tax imposed by chapter 1 for the taxable year in which the reacquisition of the debt instrument occurs a statement which—

(I) clearly identifies such instrument, and

(II) includes the amount of income to which paragraph (1) applies and such other information as the Secretary may prescribe.

(ii) Election irrevocable

Such election, once made, is irrevocable.

(iii) Pass-thru entities

In the case of a partnership, S corporation, or other pass-thru entity, the election under this subsection shall be made by the partnership, the S corporation, or other entity involved.

(C) Coordination with other exclusions

If a taxpayer elects to have this subsection apply to an applicable debt instrument, subparagraphs (A), (B), (C), and (D) of subsection (a)(1) shall not apply to the income from the discharge of such indebtedness for the taxable year of the election or any subsequent taxable year.

(D) Acceleration of deferred items

(i) In general

In the case of the death of the taxpayer, the liquidation or sale of substantially all the assets of the taxpayer (including in a title 11 or similar case), the cessation of business by the taxpayer, or similar circumstances, any item of income or deduction which is deferred under this subsection (and has not previously been taken into account) shall be taken into account in the taxable year in which such event occurs (or in the case of a title 11 or similar case, the day before the petition is filed).

(ii) Special rule for pass-thru entities

The rule of clause (i) shall also apply in the case of the sale or exchange or redemption of an interest in a partnership, S corporation, or other pass-thru entity by a partner, shareholder, or other person holding an ownership interest in such entity.

(6) Special rule for partnerships

In the case of a partnership, any income deferred under this subsection shall be allocated to the partners in the partnership immediately before the discharge in the manner such amounts would have been included in the distributive shares of such partners under section 704 if such income were recognized at such time. Any decrease in a partner's share of partnership liabilities as a result of such discharge shall not be taken into account for purposes of section 752 at the time of the discharge to the extent it would cause the partner to recognize gain under section 731. Any decrease in partnership liabilities deferred under the preceding sentence shall be taken into account by such partner at the same time, and to the extent remaining in the same amount, as income deferred under this subsection is recognized.

(7) Secretarial authority

The Secretary may prescribe such regulations, rules, or other guidance as may be necessary or appropriate for purposes of applying this subsection, including—

(A) extending the application of the rules of paragraph (5)(D) to other circumstances where appropriate,

(B) requiring reporting of the election (and such other information as the Secretary may require) on returns of tax for subsequent taxable years, and

(C) rules for the application of this subsection to partnerships, S corporations, and other pass-thru entities, including for the allocation of deferred deductions.

(Aug. 16, 1954, ch. 736, 68A Stat. 32; June 29, 1956, ch. 463, §5, 70 Stat. 403; Pub. L. 88–496, §1(a), June 8, 1960, 74 Stat. 164; Pub. L. 94–455, title XIX, §§1906(b)(13)(A), 1951(b)(2)(A), Oct. 4, 1976, 90 Stat. 1834, 1836; Pub. L. 96–589, §2(a), Dec. 24, 1980, 94 Stat. 3389; Pub. L. 97–354, §3(e), Oct. 19, 1982, 96 Stat. 1689; Pub. L. 97–448, title I, §102(h)(1), title III, §304(d), Jan. 12, 1983, 96 Stat. 2372, 2398; Pub. L. 98–369, div. A, title I, §59(a), (b)(1), title IV, §474(r)(5), title VII, §721(b)(2), title X, §1076(a), July 18, 1984, 98 Stat. 576, 839, 966, 1053; Pub. L. 99–514, title I, §104(b)(2), title II, §231(d)(3)(D), title IV, §405(a), title VI, §621(e)(1), title VIII, §§805(c)(2)–(4), 822(a), (b)(1)–(3), title XI, §1171(b)(4), title XVIII, §1847(b)(7), Oct. 22, 1986, 100 Stat. 2105, 2179, 2224, 2266, 2362, 2373, 2513, 2856; Pub. L. 100–647, title I, §1004(a)(1)–(4), (6), Nov. 10, 1988, 102 Stat. 3385, 3387; Pub. L. 101–508, title XI, §§11325(a)(1), (b), 11813(b)(6), Nov. 5, 1990, 104 Stat. 1388–466, 1388–551; Pub. L. 103–66, title XIII, §§13150(a)–(c)(5), 13226(a)(1), (2)(B), (b)(1)–(3), Aug. 10, 1993, 107 Stat. 446–448, 487, 488; Pub. L. 104–188, title I, §1703(n)(2), Aug. 20, 1996, 110 Stat. 1877; Pub. L. 105–34, title II, §225(a), Aug. 5, 1997, 111 Stat. 820; Pub. L. 105–206, title VI, §6004(f), July 22, 1998, 112 Stat. 795; Pub. L. 107–147, title IV, §402(a), Mar. 9, 2002, 116 Stat. 40; Pub. L. 108–357, title III, §320(a), title VIII, §896(a), Oct. 22, 2004, 118 Stat. 1473, 1648; Pub. L. 110–142, §2(a)–(c), Dec. 20, 2007, 121 Stat. 1803, 1804; Pub. L. 110–343, div. A, title III, §303(a), Oct. 3, 2008, 122 Stat. 3807; Pub. L. 111–5, div. B, title I, §1231(a), Feb. 17, 2009, 123 Stat. 338; Pub. L. 111–148, title X, §10908(a), Mar. 23, 2010, 124 Stat. 1021.)

References in Text

Sections 338B(g) and 338I of the Public Health Service Act, referred to in subsec. (f)(4), are classified to sections 254l–1(g) and 254q–1, respectively, of Title 42, The Public Health and Welfare.

Amendments

2010—Subsec. (f)(4). Pub. L. 111–148 amended par. (4) generally. Prior to amendment, text read as follows: “In the case of an individual, gross income shall not include any amount received under section 338B(g) of the Public Health Service Act or under a State program described in section 338I of such Act.”

2009—Subsec. (i). Pub. L. 111–5 added subsec. (i).

2008—Subsec. (a)(1)(E). Pub. L. 110–343 substituted “January 1, 2013” for “January 1, 2010”.

2007—Subsec. (a)(1)(E). Pub. L. 110–142, §2(a), added subpar. (E).

Subsec. (a)(2)(A). Pub. L. 110–142, §2(c)(1), substituted “(D), and (E)” for “and (D)”.

Subsec. (a)(2)(C). Pub. L. 110–142, §2(c)(2), added subpar. (C).

Subsec. (h). Pub. L. 110–142, §2(b), added subsec. (h).

2004—Subsec. (e)(8). Pub. L. 108–357, §896(a), amended heading and text of par. (8) generally. Prior to amendment, text read as follows: “For purposes of determining income of a debtor from discharge of indebtedness, if a debtor corporation transfers stock to a creditor in satisfaction of its indebtedness, such corporation shall be treated as having satisfied the indebtedness with an amount of money equal to the fair market value of the stock.”

Subsec. (f)(4). Pub. L. 108–357, §320(a), added par. (4).

2002—Subsec. (d)(7)(A). Pub. L. 107–147 inserted “, including by not taking into account under section 1366(a) any amount excluded under subsection (a) of this section” before period at end.

1998—Subsec. (f)(2). Pub. L. 105–206, §6004(f)(1), amended concluding provisions generally. Prior to amendment, concluding provisions read as follows: “The term ‘student loan’ includes any loan made by an educational organization so described or by an organization exempt from tax under section 501(a) to refinance a loan meeting the requirements of the preceding sentence.”

Subsec. (f)(3). Pub. L. 105–206, §6004(f)(2), struck out “(or by an organization described in paragraph (2)(E) from funds provided by an organization described in paragraph (2)(D))” after “paragraph (2)(D)”.

1997—Subsec. (f)(2). Pub. L. 105–34, §225(a)(1), added subpar. (D) and concluding provisions and struck out former subpar. (D) which read as follows: “any educational organization so described pursuant to an agreement with any entity described in subparagraph (A), (B), or (C) under which the funds from which the loan was made were provided to such educational organization.”

Subsec. (f)(2)(B). Pub. L. 105–34, §225(a)(1), struck out “or” at end.

Subsec. (f)(3). Pub. L. 105–34, §225(a)(2), added par. (3).

1996—Subsec. (d)(9)(A). Pub. L. 104–188 substituted “paragraph (3)(C)” for “paragraph (3)(B)”.

1993—Subsec. (a)(1)(D). Pub. L. 103–66, §13150(a), added subpar. (D).

Subsec. (a)(2)(A). Pub. L. 103–66, §13150(c)(1), substituted “, (C), and (D)” for “and (C)”.

Subsec. (a)(2)(B). Pub. L. 103–66, §13150(c)(2), amended heading and text of subpar. (B) generally. Prior to amendment, text read as follows: “Subparagraph (C) of paragraph (1) shall not apply to a discharge to the extent the taxpayer is insolvent.”

Subsec. (b)(2)(C) to (E). Pub. L. 103–66, §13226(b)(1), added subpar. (C) and redesignated former subpars. (C) and (D) as (D) and (E), respectively. Former subpar. (E) redesignated (F).

Subsec. (b)(2)(F). Pub. L. 103–66, §13226(b)(2), added subpar. (F). Former subpar. (F) redesignated (G).

Pub. L. 103–66, §13226(b)(1), redesignated subpar. (E) as (F).

Subsec. (b)(2)(G). Pub. L. 103–66, §13226(b)(2), redesignated subpar. (F) as (G).

Subsec. (b)(3)(B). Pub. L. 103–66, §13226(b)(3)(A), amended heading and text of subpar. (B) generally. Prior to amendment, text read as follows: “The reductions described in subparagraphs (B) and (E) of paragraph (2) shall be 331/3 cents for each dollar excluded by subsection (a).”

Subsec. (b)(4)(B). Pub. L. 103–66, §13226(b)(3)(B), substituted “(D)” for “(C)” in heading and text.

Subsec. (b)(4)(C). Pub. L. 103–66, §13226(b)(3)(C), substituted “(G)” for “(E)” in heading and text.

Subsec. (c). Pub. L. 103–66, §13150(b), added subsec. (c).

Subsec. (d). Pub. L. 103–66, §13150(c)(3)(B), substituted “certain provisions” for “subsections (a), (b) and (g)” in heading.

Subsec. (d)(6), (7)(A). Pub. L. 103–66, §13150(c)(3)(A), (C), substituted “Certain provisions” for “Subsections (a), (b) and (g)” in heading and “subsections (a), (b), (c), and (g)” for “subsections (a), (b), and (g)” in text.

Subsec. (d)(7)(B). Pub. L. 103–66, §13150(c)(4), inserted at end “The preceding sentence shall not apply to any discharge to the extent that subsection (a)(1)(D) applies to such discharge.”

Subsec. (d)(9)(A). Pub. L. 103–66, §13150(c)(5), inserted “or under paragraph (3)(B) of subsection (c)” after “subsection (b)”.

Subsec. (e)(6). Pub. L. 103–66, §13226(a)(2)(B), substituted “Except as provided in regulations, for” for “For”.

Subsec. (e)(8). Pub. L. 103–66, §13226(a)(1)(B), amended heading and text of par. (8) generally. Prior to amendment, text read as follows: “For purposes of determining income of the debtor from discharge of indebtedness, the stock for debt exception shall not apply—

“(A) to the issuance of nominal or token shares, or

“(B) with respect to an unsecured creditor, where the ratio of the value of the stock received by such unsecured creditor to the amount of his indebtedness cancelled or exchanged for stock in the workout is less than 50 percent of a similar ratio computed for all unsecured creditors participating in the workout.

Any stock which is disqualified stock (as defined in paragraph (10)(B)(ii)) shall not be treated as stock for purposes of this paragraph.”

Subsec. (e)(10), (11). Pub. L. 103–66, §13226(a)(1)(A), redesignated par. (11) as (10) and struck out former par. (10) which related to satisfaction of indebtedness by transfer of corporation's stock.

Subsec. (g)(3)(B). Pub. L. 103–66, §13226(b)(3)(D), substituted “subparagraphs (A), (B), (C), (D), (F), and (G)” for “subparagraphs (A), (B), (C), and (E)” and “subparagraphs (B), (C), and (G)” for “subparagraphs (B) and (E)” and inserted before period at end “and the attribute described in subparagraph (F) of subsection (b)(2) to the extent attributable to any passive activity credit carryover”.

1990—Subsec. (e)(8). Pub. L. 101–508, §11325(b)(2), inserted provision at end that any stock which is a disqualified stock, as so defined, not be treated as stock for purposes of this paragraph.

Subsec. (e)(10)(B). Pub. L. 101–508, §11325(b)(1), substituted heading for one which read: “Exception for title 11 cases and insolvent debtors” and amended text generally. Prior to amendment, text read as follows: “Subparagraph (A) shall not apply in the case of a debtor in a title 11 case or to the extent the debtor is insolvent.”

Subsec. (e)(11). Pub. L. 101–508, §11325(a)(1), added par. (11).

Subsec. (g)(1)(B). Pub. L. 101–508, §11813(b)(6), substituted “section 49(a)(1)(D)(iv)” for “section 46(c)(8)(D)(iv)”.

1988—Subsec. (a)(1)(C). Pub. L. 100–647, §1004(a)(1), added subpar. (C).

Subsec. (a)(2). Pub. L. 100–647, §1004(a)(2), amended par. (2) generally. Prior to amendment, par. (2) read as follows: “Subparagraph (B) of paragraph (1) shall not apply to a discharge which occurs in a title 11 case.”

Subsec. (b). Pub. L. 100–647, §1004(a)(3), struck out “in title 11 case or insolvency” after “Reduction of tax attributes” in heading and substituted “subparagraph (A), (B), or (C)” for “subparagraph (A) or (B)” in text of par. (1).

Subsec. (d). Pub. L. 100–647, §1004(a)(6)(B), which directed amendment of subsec. (d) heading by substituting “subsections (a), (b), and (g)” for “subsections (a), and (b)”, was executed by making the substitution for “subsections (a) and (b)” as the probable intent of Congress.

Subsec. (d)(6). Pub. L. 100–647, §1004(a)(6)(A), (C), substituted “Subsections (a), (b), and (g)” for “Subsections (a) and (b)” in heading and “subsections (a), (b), and (g)” for “subsections (a) and (b)” in text.

Subsec. (d)(7)(A). Pub. L. 100–647, §1004(a)(6)(A), (C), substituted “Subsections (a), (b), and (g)” for “Subsections (a) and (b)” in heading and “subsections (a), (b), and (g)” for “subsections (a) and (b)” in text.

Subsec. (g). Pub. L. 100–647, §1004(a)(4), substituted “indebtedness” for “indebtedness of solvent farmers” in heading and amended text generally. Prior to amendment, text read as follows:

“(1) In general.—For purposes of this section and section 1017, the discharge by a qualified person of qualified farm indebtedness of a taxpayer who is not insolvent at the time of the discharge shall be treated in the same manner as if the discharge had occurred when the taxpayer was insolvent.

“(2) Qualified farm indebtedness.—For purposes of this subsection, indebtedness of a taxpayer shall be treated as qualified farm indebtedness if—

“(A) such indebtedness was incurred directly in connection with the operation by the taxpayer of the trade or business of farming, and

“(B) 50 percent or more of the average annual gross receipts of the taxpayer for the 3 taxable years preceding the taxable year in which the discharge of such indebtedness occurs is attributable to the trade or business of farming.

“(3) Qualified person.—For purposes of this subsection, the term ‘qualified person’ means a person described in section 46(c)(8)(D)(iv).”

1986—Subsec. (a)(1)(C). Pub. L. 99–514, §822(a), struck out subpar. (C) relating to exclusion from gross income if the indebtedness discharged is qualified business indebtedness.

Subsec. (a)(2). Pub. L. 99–514, §822(b)(1), substituted “Subparagraph (B) of paragraph (1)” for “Subparagraphs (B) and (C) of paragraph (1)” in subpar. (A), struck out subpar. (A) designation and heading, and struck out subpar. (B) providing that insolvency exclusion takes precedence over qualified business exclusion.

Subsec. (b)(2)(B). Pub. L. 99–514, §231(d)(3)(D), substituted “General business credit” for “Research credit and general business credit” in heading and amended text, as amended by this Act (Pub. L. 99–514, §1171(b)(4) (see below)), generally. Prior to amendment, text read as follows: “Any carryover to or from the taxable year of a discharge of an amount for purposes of determining the amount allowable as a credit under—

“(i) section 30 (relating to credit for increasing research activities), or

“(ii) section 38 (relating to general business credit).

For purposes of this subparagraph, there shall not be taken into account any portion of a carryover which is attributable to the employee stock ownership credit determined under section 41.”

Pub. L. 99–514, §1171(b)(4), struck out last sentence which had been eliminated by the general amendment of subpar. (B) by Pub. L. 99–514, §231(d)(3)(D). See above.

Subsec. (b)(2)(E). Pub. L. 99–514, §1847(b)(7), substituted “section 27” for “section 33”.

Subsec. (b)(3). Pub. L. 99–514, §104(b)(2), substituted “331/3 cents” for “50 cents”.

Subsec. (c). Pub. L. 99–514, §822(b)(2), struck out subsec. (c) relating to tax treatment of discharge of qualified business indebtedness.

Subsec. (d). Pub. L. 99–514, §822(b)(3)(B), struck out reference to subsec. (c) in heading.

Subsec. (d)(4). Pub. L. 99–514, §822(b)(3)(A), struck out par. (4) relating to treatment of indebtedness as qualified business indebtedness.

Subsec. (d)(6), (7)(A). Pub. L. 99–514, §822(b)(3)(B), struck out reference to subsec. (c) in heading and text.

Subsec. (d)(7)(B). Pub. L. 99–514, §822(b)(3)(C), struck out “The preceding sentence shall not apply to any discharge to the extent that subsection (a)(1)(C) applies to such discharge.”

Subsec. (d)(9)(A). Pub. L. 99–514, §822(b)(3)(D), struck out “under paragraph (4) of this subsection or” after “An election”.

Subsec. (e)(7)(A)(ii)(I). Pub. L. 99–514, §805(c)(2), substituted “subsection (a) or (b) of section 166” for “subsection (a), (b), or (c) of section 166”.

Subsec. (e)(7)(B) to (D). Pub. L. 99–514, §805(c)(3), redesignated subpars. (C) to (E) as (B) to (D), respectively, and struck out former subpar. (B) which related to taxpayers on reserve method.

Subsec. (e)(7)(E), (F). Pub. L. 99–514, §805(c)(3), (4), redesignated subpar. (F) as (E) and substituted “the foregoing subparagraphs” for “subparagraphs (A), (B), (C), (D), and (E)”. Former subpar. (E) redesignated (D).

Subsec. (e)(10)(C). Pub. L. 99–514, §621(e), repealed the amendment by Pub. L. 98–369, §59(b)(1), which had added subpar. (C) creating an exception for transfers in certain workouts of the satisfaction of indebtedness by corporation's stock. See 1984 Amendment note below.

Subsec. (g). Pub. L. 99–514, §405(a), added subsec. (g).

1984—Subsec. (b)(2)(B). Pub. L. 98–369, §474(r)(5), substituted provisions relating to research credits and general business credits covering carryovers to or from the taxable year of a discharge of an amount for purposes of determining the amount allowable as a credit under section 30 (relating to credit for increasing research activities), or section 38 (relating to general business credit), and directing that there shall not be taken into account any portion of a carryover which is attributable to the employee stock ownership credit determined under section 41 for former provisions covering carryovers to or from the taxable year of the discharge of an amount for purposes of determining the amount of a credit allowable under section 38 (relating to investment in certain depreciable property), section 40 (relating to expenses of work incentive programs), section 44B (relating to credit for employment of certain new employees), section 44E (relating to alcohol used as a fuel), or section 44F (relating to credit for increasing research activities), and directing that, for purposes of clause (i), there could not be taken into account any portion of a carryover which was attributable to the employee plan credit (within the meaning of section 48(o)(3)).

Subsec. (d)(6). Pub. L. 98–369, §721(b)(2), struck out “or S corporation shareholder level” in heading and second sentence which provided that “In the case of an S corporation, subsections (a), (b), and (c) shall apply at the shareholder level.”. See par. (7)(A).

Subsec. (d)(7) to (10). Pub. L. 98–369, §721(b)(2), added par. (7) and redesignated former pars. (7) to (9) as (8) to (10), respectively.

Subsec. (e)(10). Pub. L. 98–369, §59(a), added par. (10).

Subsec. (e)(10)(C). Pub. L. 98–369, §59(b)(1), which added subpar. (C), effective as if included in the amendments made by section 806(e) and (f) of Pub. L. 94–455, was repealed by Pub. L. 99–514, §621(e), (f)(2), eff. Jan. 1, 1986, with certain exceptions, see Effective Date of 1986 Amendment note below.

Subsec. (f). Pub. L. 98–369, §1076(a), added subsec. (f).

1983—Subsec. (b)(2)(B)(v). Pub. L. 97–448, §102(h)(1), added cl. (v).

Subsec. (e)(7)(A)(iii). Pub. L. 97–448, §304(d), added cl. (iii).

1982—Subsec. (d)(6). Pub. L. 97–354 inserted “or S corporation shareholder level” in heading and inserted “In the case of an S corporation, subsections (a), (b), and (c) shall be applied at the shareholder level.”

1980—Pub. L. 96–589 completely revised and expanded provisions by specifying the types of indebtedness and by setting out priorities among the exclusions, to reflect the revision of Title 11, Bankruptcy, in 1978.

1976—Pub. L. 94–455, §1951(b)(2)(A), struck out “(a) Special rule of exclusion.—” after “Income from discharge of indebtedness” and struck out subsec. (b) which related to discharge, cancellation, or modification of indebtedness of certain railroad corporations.

Pub. L. 94–455, §1906(b)(13)(A), struck out “or his delegate” after “Secretary”.

1960—Subsec. (b). Pub. L. 86–496 provided that if the discharge, cancellation, or modification of any indebtedness is effected pursuant to a court order in a receivership proceeding or in a proceeding under section 77 of the Bankruptcy Act, commenced before Jan. 1, 1960, then no amount is to be included in gross income with respect to it, and struck out provisions which made subsection inapplicable to discharges occurring in a taxable year beginning after Dec. 31, 1957.

1956—Subsec. (b). Act June 29, 1956, substituted “December 31, 1957” for “December 31, 1955”.

Effective Date of 2010 Amendment

Pub. L. 111–148, title X, §10908(b), Mar. 23, 2010, 124 Stat. 1021, provided that: “The amendment made by this section [amending this section] shall apply to amounts received by an individual in taxable years beginning after December 31, 2008.”

Effective Date of 2009 Amendment

Pub. L. 111–5, div. B, title I, §1231(b), Feb. 17, 2009, 123 Stat. 341, provided that: “The amendments made by this section [amending this section] shall apply to discharges in taxable years ending after December 31, 2008.”

Effective Date of 2008 Amendment

Pub. L. 110–343, div. A, title III, §303(b), Oct. 3, 2008, 122 Stat. 3807, provided that: “The amendment made by this section [amending this section] shall apply to discharges of indebtedness occurring on or after January 1, 2010.”

Effective Date of 2007 Amendment

Pub. L. 110–142, §2(d), Dec. 20, 2007, 121 Stat. 1804, provided that: “The amendments made by this section [amending this section] shall apply to discharges of indebtedness on or after January 1, 2007.”

Effective Date of 2004 Amendment

Pub. L. 108–357, title III, §320(c), Oct. 22, 2004, 118 Stat. 1473, provided that: “The amendments made by this section [amending this section, sections 3121, 3231, 3306, and 3401 of this title, and section 409 of Title 42, The Public Health and Welfare] shall apply to amounts received by an individual in taxable years beginning after December 31, 2003.”

Pub. L. 108–357, title VIII, §896(b), Oct. 22, 2004, 118 Stat. 1649, provided that: “The amendment made by this section [amending this section] shall apply with respect to cancellations of indebtedness occurring on or after the date of the enactment of this Act [Oct. 22, 2004].”

Effective Date of 2002 Amendment

Pub. L. 107–147, title IV, §402(b), Mar. 9, 2002, 116 Stat. 40, provided that:

“(1) In general.—Except as provided in paragraph (2), the amendment made by this section [amending this section] shall apply to discharges of indebtedness after October 11, 2001, in taxable years ending after such date.

“(2) Exception.—The amendment made by this section shall not apply to any discharge of indebtedness before March 1, 2002, pursuant to a plan of reorganization filed with a bankruptcy court on or before October 11, 2001.”

Effective Date of 1998 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 105–206 effective, except as otherwise provided, as if included in the provisions of the Taxpayer Relief Act of 1997, Pub. L. 105–34, to which such amendment relates, see section 6024 of Pub. L. 105–206, set out as a note under section 1 of this title.

Effective Date of 1997 Amendment

Section 225(b) of Pub. L. 105–34 provided that: “The amendments made by this section [amending this section] shall apply to discharges of indebtedness after the date of the enactment of this Act [Aug. 5, 1997].”

Effective Date of 1996 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 104–188 effective as if included in the provision of the Revenue Reconciliation Act of 1993, Pub. L. 103–66, §§13001–13444, to which such amendment relates, see section 1703(o) of Pub. L. 104–188, set out as a note under section 39 of this title.

Effective Date of 1993 Amendment

Section 13150(d) of Pub. L. 103–66 provided that: “The amendments made by this section [amending this section and sections 703 and 1017 of this title] shall apply to discharges after December 31, 1992, in taxable years ending after such date.”

Section 13226(a)(3) of Pub. L. 103–66 provided that:

“(A) In general.—Except as otherwise provided in this paragraph, the amendments made by this subsection [amending this section and section 382 of this title] shall apply to stock transferred after December 31, 1994, in satisfaction of any indebtedness.

“(B) Exception for title 11 cases.—The amendments made by this subsection shall not apply to stock transferred in satisfaction of any indebtedness if such transfer is in a title 11 or similar case (as defined in section 368(a)(3)(A) of the Internal Revenue Code of 1986) which was filed on or before December 31, 1993.”

Section 13226(b)(4) of Pub. L. 103–66 provided that: “The amendments made by this subsection [amending this section] shall apply to discharges of indebtedness in taxable years beginning after December 31, 1993.”

Effective Date of 1990 Amendment

Section 11325(c) of Pub. L. 101–508 provided that:

“(1) In general.—Except as provided in paragraph (2), the amendments made by this section [amending this section and section 1275 of this title] shall apply to debt instruments issued, and stock transferred, after October 9, 1990, in satisfaction of any indebtedness.

“(2) Exceptions.—The amendments made by this section shall not apply to any debt instrument issued, or stock transferred, in satisfaction of any indebtedness if such issuance or transfer (as the case may be)—

“(A) is in a title 11 or similar case (as defined in section 368(a)(3)(A) of the Internal Revenue Code of 1986) which was filed on or before October 9, 1990,

“(B) is pursuant to a written binding contract in effect on October 9, 1990, and at all times thereafter before such issuance or transfer,

“(C) is pursuant to a transaction which was described in documents filed with the Securities and Exchange Commission on or before October 9, 1990, or

“(D) is pursuant to a transaction—

“(i) the material terms of which were described in a written public announcement on or before October 9, 1990,

“(ii) which was the subject of a prior filing with the Securities and Exchange Commission, and

“(iii) which is the subject of a subsequent filing with the Securities and Exchange Commission before January 1, 1991.”

Amendment by section 11813(b)(6) of Pub. L. 101–508 applicable to property placed in service after Dec. 31, 1990, but not applicable to any transition property (as defined in section 49(e) of this title), any property with respect to which qualified progress expenditures were previously taken into account under section 46(d) of this title, and any property described in section 46(b)(2)(C) of this title, as such sections were in effect on Nov. 4, 1990, see section 11813(c) of Pub. L. 101–508, set out as a note under section 45K of this title.

Effective Date of 1988 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 100–647 effective, except as otherwise provided, as if included in the provision of the Tax Reform Act of 1986, Pub. L. 99–514, to which such amendment relates, see section 1019(a) of Pub. L. 100–647, set out as a note under section 1 of this title.

Effective Date of 1986 Amendment

Amendment by section 104(b)(2) of Pub. L. 99–514 applicable to taxable years beginning after Dec. 31, 1986, see section 151(a) of Pub. L. 99–514, set out as a note under section 1 of this title.

Amendment by section 231(d)(3)(D) of Pub. L. 99–514 applicable to taxable years beginning after Dec. 31, 1985, see section 231(g) of Pub. L. 99–514, set out as a note under section 41 of this title.

Section 405(c) of Pub. L. 99–514 provided that: “The amendments made by this section [amending this section and section 1017 of this title] shall apply to discharges of indebtedness occurring after April 9, 1986, in taxable years ending after such date.”

Repeal by section 621(e)(1) of Pub. L. 99–514 of amendment by section 59(b)(1) of Pub. L. 99–369, which was effective as if included in the amendments made by section 806(e) and (f) of Pub. L. 94–455, effective Jan. 1, 1986, with certain exceptions, see section 621(f)(2) of Pub. L. 99–514, set out as a note under section 382 of this title.

Amendment by section 805(c)(2), (4) of Pub. L. 99–514 applicable to taxable years beginning after Dec. 31, 1986, with certain changes required in method of accounting, see section 805(d) of Pub. L. 99–514, set out as a note under section 166 of this title.

Section 822(c) of Pub. L. 99–514 provided that: “The amendments made by this section [amending this section and section 1017 of this title] shall apply to discharges after December 31, 1986.”

Amendment by section 1171(b)(4) of Pub. L. 99–514 applicable to compensation paid or accrued after Dec. 31, 1986, in taxable years ending after such date, except as otherwise provided, see section 1171(c) of Pub. L. 99–514, set out as a note under section 38 of this title.

Amendment by section 1847(b)(7) of Pub. L. 99–514 effective, except as otherwise provided, as if included in the provisions of the Tax Reform Act of 1984, Pub. L. 98–369, div. A, to which such amendment relates, see section 1881 of Pub. L. 99–514, set out as a note under section 48 of this title.

Effective Date of 1984 Amendment

Section 59(b)(2) of Pub. L. 98–369 provided that: “The amendment made by paragraph (1) [amending this section] shall take effect as if it had been included in the amendments made by subsections (e) and (f) of section 806 of the Tax Reform Act of 1976 [Pub. L. 94–455].” See Effective Date of 1976 Amendment note set out under section 382 of this title.

Section 59(b)[(c)] of Pub. L. 98–369 provided that:

“(1) In general.—Except as otherwise provided in this subsection, the amendment made by subsection (a) [amending this section] shall apply to transfers after the date of the enactment of this Act [July 18, 1984] in taxable years ending after such date.

“(2) Transitional rule.—The amendment made by subsection (a) shall not apply to the transfer by a corporation of its stock in exchange for debt of the corporation after the date of the enactment of this Act if such transfer is—

“(A) pursuant to a written contract requiring such transfer which was binding on the corporation at all times on June 7, 1984, and at all times after such date but only if the transfer takes place before January 1, 1985, and only if the transferee held the debt at all times on June 7, 1984, or

“(B) pursuant to the exercise of an option to exchange debt for stock but only if such option was in effect at all times on June 7, 1984, and at all times after such date and only if at all times on June 7, 1984, the option and the debt were held by the same person.

“(3) Certain transfers to controlling shareholder.—The amendment made by subsection (a) shall not apply to any transfer before January 1, 1985, by a corporation of its stock in exchange for debt of such corporation if—

“(A) such transfer is to another corporation which at all times on June 7, 1984, owned 75 percent or more of the total value of the stock of the corporation making such transfer, and

“(B) immediately after such transfer, the transferee corporation owns 80 percent or more of the total value of the stock of the transferor corporation.

“(4) Certain transfers pursuant to debt restructure agreement.—The amendment made by subsection (a) shall not apply to the transfer by a corporation of its stock in exchange for debt of the corporation after the date of the enactment of this Act and before January 1, 1985, if—

“(A) such transfer is covered by a debt restructure agreement entered into by the corporation during November 1983, and

“(B) such agreement was specified in a registration statement filed with the Securities and Exchange Commission by the corporation on March 7, 1984.”

Amendment by section 474(r)(5) of Pub. L. 98–369 applicable to taxable years beginning after Dec. 31, 1983, and to carrybacks from such years, see section 475(a) of Pub. L. 98–369, set out as a note under section 21 of this title.

Amendment by section 721(b) of Pub. L. 98–369 applicable to contributions to capital after Dec. 31, 1980, in taxable years ending after such date, see section 721(y)(2) of Pub. L. 98–369, set out as a note under section 1361 of this title.

Section 1076(b) of Pub. L. 98–369 provided that: “The amendments made by this section [amending this section] shall apply to discharges of indebtedness made on or after January 1, 1983.”

Effective Date of 1983 Amendment

Amendment by title I of Pub. L. 97–448 effective, except as otherwise provided, as if it had been included in the provision of the Economic Recovery Tax Act of 1981, Pub. L. 97–34, to which such amendment relates, see section 109 of Pub. L. 97–448, set out as a note under section 1 of this title.

Effective Date of 1982 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 97–354 applicable to taxable years beginning after Dec. 31, 1982, see section 6(a) of Pub. L. 97–354, set out as an Effective Date note under section 1361 of this title.

Effective Date of 1980 Amendment

Section 7 of Pub. L. 96–589, as amended by Pub. L. 99–514, §2, Oct. 22, 1986, 100 Stat. 2095, provided that:

“(a) For Section 2 (Relating to Tax Treatment of Discharge of Indebtedness).—

“(1) In general.—Except as provided in paragraph (2), the amendments made by section 2 [amending this section and sections 111, 118, 382, 703 and 1017 of this title] shall apply to any transaction which occurs after December 31, 1980, other than a transaction which occurs in a proceeding in a bankruptcy case or similar judicial proceeding (or in a proceeding under the Bankruptcy Act) [Title 11, Bankruptcy] commencing on or before December 31, 1980.

“(2) Transitional rule.—In the case of any discharge of indebtedness to which subparagraph (A) or (B) of section 108(a)(1) of the Internal Revenue Code of 1986 [formerly I.R.C. 1954] (relating to exclusion from gross income), as amended by section 2, applies and which occurs before January 1, 1982, or which occurs in a proceeding in a bankruptcy case or similar judicial proceedings commencing before January 1, 1982, then—

“(A) section 108(b)(2) of the such Code (relating to reduction of tax attributes), as so amended, shall be applied without regard to subparagraphs (A), (B), (C), and (E) thereof, and

“(B) the basis of any property shall not be reduced under section 1017 of such Code (relating to reduction in basis in connection with discharges of indebtedness), as so amended, below the fair market value of such property on the date the debt is discharged.

“(b) For Section 3 (Relating to Rules Relating to Title 11 Cases for Individuals).—The amendments made by section 3 [enacting sections 1398 and 1399 of this title and amending sections 443, 6012 and 6103 of this title] shall apply to any bankruptcy case commencing more than 90 days after the date of the enactment of this Act [Dec. 24, 1980].

“(c) For Section 4 (Relating to Corporate Reorganization Provisions).—

“(1) In general.—The amendments made by section 4 [enacting section 370 of this title and amending sections 354, 355, 357, 368 and 381 of this title] shall apply to any bankruptcy case or similar judicial proceeding commencing after December 31, 1980.

“(2) Exchanges of property for accrued interest.—The amendments made by subsection (e) of section 4 [amending sections 354 and 355 of this title] (relating to treatment of property attributable to accrued interest) shall also apply to any exchange—

“(A) which occurs after December 31, 1980, and

“(B) which does not occur in a bankruptcy case or similar judicial proceeding (or in a proceeding under the Bankruptcy Act) commenced on or before December 31, 1980.

“(d) For Section 5 (Relating to Miscellaneous Corporate Amendments).—

“(1) For subsection (a) (relating to exemption from personal holding company tax).—The amendments made by subsection (a) of section 5 [amending section 542 of this title] shall apply to any bankruptcy case or similar judicial proceeding commenced after December 31, 1980.

“(2) For subsection (b) (relating to repeal of special treatment for certain railroad redemptions).—The amendments made by subsection (b) of section 5 [amending section 302 of this title] shall apply to stock which is issued after December 31, 1980 (other than stock issued pursuant to a plan of reorganization approved on or before that date).

“(3) For subsection (c) (relating to application of 12-month liquidation rule).—The amendment made by subsection (c) of section 5 [amending section 337 of this title] shall apply to any bankruptcy case or similar judicial proceeding commenced after December 31, 1980.

“(4) For subsection (d) (relating to permitting bankruptcy estate to be subchapter s shareholder).—The amendment made by subsection (d) of section 5 [amending section 1371 of this title] shall apply to any bankruptcy case commenced on or after October 1, 1979.

“(5) For subsection (e) (relating to certain transfers to controlled corporations).—The amendments made by subsection (e) of section 5 [amending section 351 of this title] shall apply as provided in subsection (a) of this section.

“(6) For subsection (f) (relating to effect of debt discharge on earnings and profits).—The amendment made by subsection (f) of section 5 [amending section 312 of this title] shall apply as provided in subsection (a) of this section.

“(e) For Section 6 (Relating to Changes in Tax Procedures).—The amendments made by section 6 [enacting sections 6658 and 7464 of this title, amending sections 128, 354, 422, 1023, 3302, 6012, 6036, 6155, 6161, 6212, 6213, 6216, 6326 [now 6327], 6404, 6503, 6512, 6532, 6871, 6872, 6873, 7430, and 7508 of this title, repealing section 1018 of this title, and redesignating former section 7464 of this title as 7465] shall take effect on October 1, 1979, but shall not apply to any proceeding under the Bankruptcy Act [Title 11] commenced before October 1, 1979.

“(f) Election To Substitute September 30, 1979, for December 31, 1980.—

“(1) In general.—The debtor (or debtors) in a bankruptcy case or similar judicial proceeding may (with the approval of the court) elect to apply subsections (a), (c), and (d) by substituting ‘September 30, 1979’ for ‘December 31, 1980’ each place it appears in such subsections.

“(2) Effect of election.—Any election made under paragraph (1) with respect to any proceeding shall apply to all parties to the proceeding.

“(3) Revocation only with consent.—Any election under this subsection may be revoked only with the consent of the Secretary of the Treasury or his delegate.

“(4) Time and manner of election.—Any election under this subsection shall be made at such time, and in such manner, as the Secretary of the Treasury or his delegate may by regulations prescribe.

“(g) Definitions.—For purposes of this section—

“(1) Bankruptcy case.—The term ‘bankruptcy case’ means any case under title 11 of the United States Code (as recodified by Public Law 95–598).

“(2) Similar judicial proceeding.—The term ‘similar judicial proceeding’ means a receivership, foreclosure, or similar proceeding in a Federal or State court (as modified by section 368(a)(3)(D) of the Internal Revenue Code of 1986).”

Effective Date of 1976 Amendment

Amendment by section 1951(b)(2)(A) of Pub. L. 94–455 applicable with respect to taxable years beginning after Dec. 31, 1976, see section 1951(d) of Pub. L. 94–455, set out as a note under section 72 of this title.

Effective Date of 1960 Amendment

Section 1(b) of Pub. L. 86–496 provided that: “The amendment made by subsection (a) [amending this section] shall apply to taxable years ending after December 31, 1959, but only with respect to discharges occurring after such date.”

Savings Provision

For provisions that nothing in amendment by section 11813 of Pub. L. 101–508 be construed to affect treatment of certain transactions occurring, property acquired, or items of income, loss, deduction, or credit taken into account prior to Nov. 5, 1990, for purposes of determining liability for tax for periods ending after Nov. 5, 1990, see section 11821(b) of Pub. L. 101–508, set out as a note under section 45K of this title.

Section 1951(b)(2)(B) of Pub. L. 94–455 provided that: “If any discharge, cancellation, or modification of indebtedness of a railroad corporation occurs in a taxable year beginning after December 31, 1976, pursuant to an order of a court in a proceeding referred to in section 108(b)(A) or (B) which commenced before January 1, 1960, then, notwithstanding the amendments made by subparagraph (A) [amending this section] the provisions of subsection (b) of section 108 shall be considered as not repealed with respect to such discharge, cancellation, or modification of indebtedness.”

Exclusion of Certain Cancellations of Indebtedness

Pub. L. 107–134, title I, §105, Jan. 23, 2002, 115 Stat. 2432, provided that:

“(a) In General.—For purposes of the Internal Revenue Code of 1986—

“(1) gross income shall not include any amount which (but for this section) would be includible in gross income by reason of the discharge (in whole or in part) of indebtedness of any taxpayer if the discharge is by reason of the death of an individual incurred as the result of the terrorist attacks against the United States on September 11, 2001, or as the result of illness incurred as a result of an attack involving anthrax occurring on or after September 11, 2001, and before January 1, 2002; and

“(2) return requirements under section 6050P of such Code shall not apply to any discharge described in paragraph (1).

“(b) Effective Date.—This section shall apply to discharges made on or after September 11, 2001, and before January 1, 2002.”

Plan Amendments Not Required Until January 1, 1989

For provisions directing that if any amendments made by subtitle A or subtitle C of title XI [§§1101–1147 and 1171–1177] or title XVIII [§§1800–1899A] of Pub. L. 99–514 require an amendment to any plan, such plan amendment shall not be required to be made before the first plan year beginning on or after Jan. 1, 1989, see section 1140 of Pub. L. 99–514, as amended, set out as a note under section 401 of this title.

§109. Improvements by lessee on lessor's property

Gross income does not include income (other than rent) derived by a lessor of real property on the termination of a lease, representing the value of such property attributable to buildings erected or other improvements made by the lessee.

(Aug. 16, 1954, ch. 736, 68A Stat. 33.)

§110. Qualified lessee construction allowances for short-term leases

(a) In general

Gross income of a lessee does not include any amount received in cash (or treated as a rent reduction) by a lessee from a lessor—

(1) under a short-term lease of retail space, and

(2) for the purpose of such lessee's constructing or improving qualified long-term real property for use in such lessee's trade or business at such retail space,


but only to the extent that such amount does not exceed the amount expended by the lessee for such construction or improvement.

(b) Consistent treatment by lessor

Qualified long-term real property constructed or improved in connection with any amount excluded from a lessee's income by reason of subsection (a) shall be treated as nonresidential real property of the lessor (including for purposes of section 168(i)(8)(B)).

(c) Definitions

For purposes of this section—

(1) Qualified long-term real property

The term “qualified long-term real property” means nonresidential real property which is part of, or otherwise present at, the retail space referred to in subsection (a) and which reverts to the lessor at the termination of the lease.

(2) Short-term lease

The term “short-term lease” means a lease (or other agreement for occupancy or use) of retail space for 15 years or less (as determined under the rules of section 168(i)(3)).

(3) Retail space

The term “retail space” means real property leased, occupied, or otherwise used by a lessee in its trade or business of selling tangible personal property or services to the general public.

(d) Information required to be furnished to Secretary

Under regulations, the lessee and lessor described in subsection (a) shall, at such times and in such manner as may be provided in such regulations, furnish to the Secretary—

(1) information concerning the amounts received (or treated as a rent reduction) and expended as described in subsection (a), and

(2) any other information which the Secretary deems necessary to carry out the provisions of this section.

(Added Pub. L. 105–34, title XII, §1213(a), Aug. 5, 1997, 111 Stat. 1000.)

Prior Provisions

A prior section 110, act Aug. 16, 1954, ch. 736, 68A Stat. 33, related to income taxes paid by lessee corporations, prior to repeal by Pub. L. 101–508, title XI, §11801(a)(6), Nov. 5, 1990, 104 Stat. 1388–520.

Effective Date

Section 1213(e) of Pub. L. 105–34 provided that: “The amendments made by this section [enacting this section and amending sections 168 and 6724 of this title] shall apply to leases entered into after the date of the enactment of this Act [Aug. 5, 1997].”

§111. Recovery of tax benefit items

(a) Deductions

Gross income does not include income attributable to the recovery during the taxable year of any amount deducted in any prior taxable year to the extent such amount did not reduce the amount of tax imposed by this chapter.

(b) Credits

(1) In general

If—

(A) a credit was allowable with respect to any amount for any prior taxable year, and

(B) during the taxable year there is a downward price adjustment or similar adjustment,


the tax imposed by this chapter for the taxable year shall be increased by the amount of the credit attributable to the adjustment.

(2) Exception where credit did not reduce tax

Paragraph (1) shall not apply to the extent that the credit allowable for the recovered amount did not reduce the amount of tax imposed by this chapter.

(3) Exception for investment tax credit and foreign tax credit

This subsection shall not apply with respect to the credit determined under section 46 and the foreign tax credit.

(c) Treatment of carryovers

For purposes of this section, an increase in a carryover which has not expired before the beginning of the taxable year in which the recovery or adjustment takes place shall be treated as reducing tax imposed by this chapter.

(d) Special rules for accumulated earnings tax and for personal holding company tax

In applying subsection (a) for the purpose of determining the accumulated earnings tax under section 531 or the tax under section 541 (relating to personal holding companies)—

(1) any excluded amount under subsection (a) allowed for the purposes of this subtitle (other than section 531 or section 541) shall be allowed whether or not such amount resulted in a reduction of the tax under section 531 or the tax under section 541 for the prior taxable year; and

(2) where any excluded amount under subsection (a) was not allowable as a deduction for the prior taxable year for purposes of this subtitle other than of section 531 or section 541 but was allowable for the same taxable year under section 531 or section 541, then such excluded amount shall be allowable if it did not result in a reduction of the tax under section 531 or the tax under section 541.

(Aug. 16, 1954, ch. 736, 68A Stat. 33; Pub. L. 94–455, title XIX, §1906(b)(13)(A), Oct. 4, 1976, 90 Stat. 1834; Pub. L. 96–589, §2(c), Dec. 24, 1980, 94 Stat. 3396; Pub. L. 98–369, div. A, title I, §171(a), July 18, 1984, 98 Stat. 698; Pub. L. 99–514, title XVIII, §1812(a)(1), (2), Oct. 22, 1986, 100 Stat. 2833.)

Amendments

1986—Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 99–514, §1812(a)(1), substituted “did not reduce the amount of tax imposed by this chapter” for “did not reduce income subject to tax”.

Subsec. (c). Pub. L. 99–514, §1812(a)(2), substituted “reducing tax imposed by this chapter” for “reducing income subject to tax or reducing tax imposed by this chapter, as the case may be”.

1984—Pub. L. 98–369 amended section generally, substituting provisions relating to recovery of tax benefit items for provisions relating to recovery of bad debts, prior taxes, and delinquency amounts.

1980—Subsec. (d). Pub. L. 96–589 added subsec. (d).

1976—Subsec. (b)(4). Pub. L. 94–455 struck out “or his delegate” after “Secretary”.

Effective Date of 1986 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 99–514 effective, except as otherwise provided, as if included in the provisions of the Tax Reform Act of 1984, Pub. L. 98–369, div. A, to which such amendment relates, see section 1881 of Pub. L. 99–514, set out as a note under section 48 of this title.

Effective Date of 1984 Amendment

Section 171(c) of Pub. L. 98–369 provided that: “The amendments made by this section [amending this section] shall apply to amounts recovered after December 31, 1983, in taxable years ending after such date.”

Effective Date of 1980 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 96–589 applicable to transactions which occur after Dec. 31, 1980, other than transactions which occur in a proceeding in a bankruptcy case or similar judicial proceeding or in a proceeding under Title 11 commencing on or after Dec. 31, 1980, with an exception permitting the debtor to make the amendment applicable to transactions occurring after Sept. 30, 1979, in a specified manner, see section 7(a)(1), (f) of Pub. L. 96–589, set out as a note under section 108 of this title.

Plan Amendments Not Required Until January 1, 1989

For provisions directing that if any amendments made by subtitle A or subtitle C of title XI [§§1101–1147 and 1171–1177] or title XVIII [§§1800–1899A] of Pub. L. 99–514 require an amendment to any plan, such plan amendment shall not be required to be made before the first plan year beginning on or after Jan. 1, 1989, see section 1140 of Pub. L. 99–514, as amended, set out as a note under section 401 of this title.

§112. Certain combat zone compensation of members of the Armed Forces

(a) Enlisted personnel

Gross income does not include compensation received for active service as a member below the grade of commissioned officer in the Armed Forces of the United States for any month during any part of which such member—

(1) served in a combat zone, or

(2) was hospitalized as a result of wounds, disease, or injury incurred while serving in a combat zone; but this paragraph shall not apply for any month beginning more than 2 years after the date of the termination of combatant activities in such zone.


With respect to service in the combat zone designated for purposes of the Vietnam conflict, paragraph (2) shall not apply to any month after January 1978.

(b) Commissioned officers

Gross income does not include so much of the compensation as does not exceed the maximum enlisted amount received for active service as a commissioned officer in the Armed Forces of the United States for any month during any part of which such officer—

(1) served in a combat zone, or

(2) was hospitalized as a result of wounds, disease, or injury incurred while serving in a combat zone; but this paragraph shall not apply for any month beginning more than 2 years after the date of the termination of combatant activities in such zone.


With respect to service in the combat zone designated for purposes of the Vietnam conflict, paragraph (2) shall not apply to any month after January 1978.

(c) Definitions

For purposes of this section—

(1) The term “commissioned officer” does not include a commissioned warrant officer.

(2) The term “combat zone” means any area which the President of the United States by Executive Order designates, for purposes of this section or corresponding provisions of prior income tax laws, as an area in which Armed Forces of the United States are or have (after June 24, 1950) engaged in combat.

(3) Service is performed in a combat zone only if performed on or after the date designated by the President by Executive Order as the date of the commencing of combatant activities in such zone, and on or before the date designated by the President by Executive Order as the date of the termination of combatant activities in such zone; except that June 25, 1950, shall be considered the date of the commencing of combatant activities in the combat zone designated in Executive Order 10195.

(4) The term “compensation” does not include pensions and retirement pay.

(5) The term “maximum enlisted amount” means, for any month, the sum of—

(A) the highest rate of basic pay payable for such month to any enlisted member of the Armed Forces of the United States at the highest pay grade applicable to enlisted members, and

(B) in the case of an officer entitled to special pay under section 310 of title 37, United States Code, for such month, the amount of such special pay payable to such officer for such month.

(d) Prisoners of war, etc.

(1) Members of the Armed Forces

Gross income does not include compensation received for active service as a member of the Armed Forces of the United States for any month during any part of which such member is in a missing status (as defined in section 551(2) of title 37, United States Code) during the Vietnam conflict as a result of such conflict, other than a period with respect to which it is officially determined under section 552(c) of such title 37 that he is officially absent from his post of duty without authority.

(2) Civilian employees

Gross income does not include compensation received for active service as an employee for any month during any part of which such employee is in a missing status during the Vietnam conflict as a result of such conflict. For purposes of this paragraph, the terms “active service”, “employee”, and “missing status” have the respective meanings given to such terms by section 5561 of title 5 of the United States Code.

(3) Period of conflict

For purposes of this subsection, the Vietnam conflict began February 28, 1961, and ends on the date designated by the President by Executive order as the date of the termination of combatant activities in Vietnam. For purposes of this subsection, an individual is in a missing status as a result of the Vietnam conflict if immediately before such status began he was performing service in Vietnam or was performing service in Southeast Asia in direct support of military operations in Vietnam.

(Aug. 16, 1954, ch. 736, 68A Stat. 34; Pub. L. 89–739, §1, Nov. 2, 1966, 80 Stat. 1165; Pub. L. 92–279, §1, Apr. 26, 1972, 86 Stat. 124; Pub. L. 93–597, §2(a), (b), Jan. 2, 1975, 88 Stat. 1950; Pub. L. 94–569, §3(b), Oct. 20, 1976, 90 Stat. 2699; Pub. L. 104–117, §1(d), Mar. 20, 1996, 110 Stat. 828; Pub. L. 104–188, title I, §1704(t)(4)(A), Aug. 20, 1996, 110 Stat. 1887.)

Amendments

1996—Pub. L. 104–188 substituted “combat zone compensation” for “combat pay” in section catchline.

Subsec. (b). Pub. L. 104–117, §1(d)(1), substituted “the maximum enlisted amount” for “$500” in introductory provisions.

Subsec. (c)(5). Pub. L. 104–117, §1(d)(2), added par. (5).

1976—Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 94–569 substituted “after January 1978” for “beginning more than 2 years after the date of the enactment of this sentence” after “With respect to service in the combat zone designated for purposes of the Vietnam conflict, paragraph (2) shall not apply to any month”.

Subsec. (b). Pub. L. 94–569 substituted “after January 1978” for “beginning more than 2 years after the date of enactment of this sentence” after “With respect to service in the combat zone designated for purposes of the Vietnam conflict, paragraph (2) shall not apply to any month”.

1975—Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 93–597, §2(a)(3), inserted provision relating to the applicability of par. (2) with respect to service in the combat zone designated for purposes of the Vietnam conflict.

Subsec. (a)(1). Pub. L. 93–597, §2(a)(1), struck out “during an induction period” after “served in a combat zone”.

Subsec. (a)(2). Pub. L. 93–597, §2(a)(2), substituted “; but this paragraph shall not apply for any month beginning more than 2 years after the date of the termination of combatant activities in such zone” for “during an induction period; but this paragraph shall not apply for any month during any part of which there are no combatant activities in any combat zone as determined under subsection (c)(3) of this section”.

Subsec. (b). Pub. L. 93–597, §2(a)(3), inserted provision relating to applicability of par. (2) with respect to service in the combat zone designated for purposes of the Vietnam conflict.

Subsec. (b)(1). Pub. L. 93–597, §2(a)(1), struck out “during an induction period” after “served in a combat zone”.

Subsec. (b)(2). Pub. L. 93–597, §2(a)(2), substituted “; but this paragraph shall not apply for any month beginning more than 2 years after the date of the termination of combatant activities in such zone” for “during an induction period; but this paragraph shall not apply for any month during any part of which there are no combatant activities in any combat zone as determined under subsection (c)(3) of this section”.

Subsec. (c)(5). Pub. L. 93–597, §2(b), struck out par. (5) which defined “induction period”.

1972—Subsec. (d). Pub. L. 92–279 added subsec. (d).

1966—Subsec. (b). Pub. L. 89–739 substituted “$500” for “$200”.

Effective Date of 1975 Amendment

Section 2(c) of Pub. L. 93–597 provided that: “The amendments made by this section [amending this section] shall take effect on July 1, 1973.”

Effective Date of 1972 Amendment

Section 3(a)(1) of Pub. L. 92–279 provided that: “The amendment made by the first section of this Act [amending this section] shall apply to taxable years ending on or after February 28, 1961.”

Effective Date of 1966 Amendment

Section 2 of Pub. L. 89–739 provided that: “The amendment made by the first section of this Act [amending this section] shall apply with respect to compensation received in taxable years ending after December 31, 1965, for periods of active service after such date.”

Sense of Congress Regarding Tax Treatment of Members Receiving Special Pay for Duty Subject to Hostile Fire or Imminent Danger

Pub. L. 106–398, §1 [[div. A], title X, §1089], Oct. 30, 2000, 114 Stat. 1654, 1654A–294, provided that: “It is the sense of Congress that members of the Armed Forces who receive special pay under section 310 of title 37, United States Code, for duty subject to hostile fire or imminent danger should receive the same treatment under Federal income tax laws as members serving in combat zones.”

Sense of Congress Regarding Treatment Under Internal Revenue Code of Members Receiving Hostile Fire or Imminent Danger Special Pay During Contingency Operations

Pub. L. 106–65, div. A, title VI, §677, Oct. 5, 1999, 113 Stat. 676, provided that: “It is the sense of Congress that a member of the Armed Forces who is receiving special pay under section 310 of title 37, United States Code, while assigned to duty in support of a contingency operation should be treated under the Internal Revenue Code of 1986 in the same manner as a member of the Armed Forces serving in a combat zone (as defined in section 112 of the Internal Revenue Code of 1986).”

Availability of Certain Tax Benefits for Services as Part of Operation Allied Force

Pub. L. 106–21, §1, Apr. 19, 1999, 113 Stat. 34, provided that:

“(a) General Rule.—For purposes of the following provisions of the Internal Revenue Code of 1986, a qualified hazardous duty area shall be treated in the same manner as if it were a combat zone (as determined under section 112 of such Code):

“(1) Section 2(a)(3) (relating to special rule where deceased spouse was in missing status).

“(2) Section 112 (relating to the exclusion of certain combat pay of members of the Armed Forces).

“(3) Section 692 (relating to income taxes of members of Armed Forces on death).

“(4) Section 2201 (relating to members of the Armed Forces dying in combat zone or by reason of combat-zone-incurred wounds, etc.).

“(5) Section 3401(a)(1) (defining wages relating to combat pay for members of the Armed Forces).

“(6) Section 4253(d) (relating to the taxation of phone service originating from a combat zone from members of the Armed Forces).

“(7) Section 6013(f)(1) (relating to joint return where individual is in missing status).

“(8) Section 7508 (relating to time for performing certain acts postponed by reason of service in combat zone).

“(b) Qualified Hazardous Duty Area.—For purposes of this section, the term ‘qualified hazardous duty area’ means any area of the Federal Republic of Yugoslavia (Serbia/Montenegro), Albania, the Adriatic Sea, and the northern Ionian Sea (above the 39th parallel) during the period (which includes the date of the enactment of this Act [Apr. 19, 1999]) that any member of the Armed Forces of the United States is entitled to special pay under section 310 of title 37, United States Code (relating to special pay: duty subject to hostile fire or imminent danger) for services performed in such area.

“(c) Special Rule for Section 7508.—Solely for purposes of applying section 7508 of the Internal Revenue Code of 1986, in the case of an individual who is performing services as part of Operation Allied Force outside the United States while deployed away from such individual's permanent duty station, the term ‘qualified hazardous duty area’ includes, during the period for which the entitlement referred to in subsection (b) is in effect, any area in which such services are performed.

“(d) Effective Dates.—

“(1) In general.—Except as provided in paragraph (2), this section shall take effect on March 24, 1999.

“(2) Withholding.—Subsection (a)(5) shall apply to remuneration paid after the date of the enactment of this Act [Apr. 19, 1999].”

Treatment of Certain Individuals Performing Services in Certain Hazardous Duty Areas; Effective Date

Section 1 of Pub. L. 104–117 provided that:

“(a) General Rule.—For purposes of the following provisions of the Internal Revenue Code of 1986, a qualified hazardous duty area shall be treated in the same manner as if it were a combat zone (as determined under section 112 of such Code):

“(1) Section 2(a)(3) (relating to special rule where deceased spouse was in missing status).

“(2) Section 112 (relating to the exclusion of certain combat pay of members of the Armed Forces).

“(3) Section 692 (relating to income taxes of members of Armed Forces on death).

“(4) Section 2201 (relating to members of the Armed Forces dying in combat zone or by reason of combat-zone-incurred wounds, etc.).

“(5) Section 3401(a)(1) (defining wages relating to combat pay for members of the Armed Forces).

“(6) Section 4253(d) (relating to the taxation of phone service originating from a combat zone from members of the Armed Forces).

“(7) Section 6013(f)(1) (relating to joint return where individual is in missing status).

“(8) Section 7508 (relating to time for performing certain acts postponed by reason of service in combat zone).

“(b) Qualified Hazardous Duty Area.—For purposes of this section, the term ‘qualified hazardous duty area’ means Bosnia and Herzegovina, Croatia, or Macedonia, if as of the date of the enactment of this section [Mar. 20, 1996] any member of the Armed Forces of the United States is entitled to special pay under section 310 of title 37, United States Code (relating to special pay; duty subject to hostile fire or imminent danger) for services performed in such country. Such term includes any such country only during the period such entitlement is in effect. Solely for purposes of applying section 7508 of the Internal Revenue Code of 1986, in the case of an individual who is performing services as part of Operation Joint Endeavor outside the United States while deployed away from such individual's permanent duty station, the term ‘qualified hazardous duty area’ includes, during the period for which such entitlement is in effect, any area in which such services are performed.

“(c) Exclusion of Combat Pay From Withholding Limited to Amount Excludable From Gross Income.—[Amended section 3401 of this title.]

“(d) Increase in Combat Pay Exclusion for Officers to Highest Amount Applicable to Enlisted Personnel.—

“(1) In general.—[Amended this section.]

“(2) Maximum enlisted amount.—[Amended this section.]

“(e) Effective Date.—

“(1) In general.—Except as provided in paragraph (2), the provisions of and amendments made by this section shall take effect on November 21, 1995.

“(2) Withholding.—Subsection (a)(5) and the amendment made by subsection (c) shall apply to remuneration paid after the date of the enactment of this Act [Mar. 20, 1996].”

Refund or Credit of Overpayment; Applicable Period

Section 3(a)(2), (3) of Pub. L. 92–279, as amended by Pub. L. 99–514, §2, Oct. 22, 1986, 100 Stat. 2095, provided that:

“(2) If refund or credit of any overpayment for any taxable year resulting from the application of the amendment made by the first section of this Act [amending this section] (including interest, additions to the tax, and additional amounts) is prevented at any time before the expiration of the applicable period specified in paragraph (3) by the operation of any law or rule of law, such refund or credit of such overpayment may, nevertheless, be made or allowed if claim therefor is filed before the expiration of such applicable period.

“(3) For purposes of paragraph (2), the applicable period for any individual with respect to any compensation is the period ending on whichever of the following days is the later:

“(A) the day which is one year after the date of the enactment of this Act [Apr. 26, 1972], or

“(B) the day which is 2 years after the date on which it is determined that the individual's missing status (within the meaning of section 112(d) of the Internal Revenue Code of 1986 [formerly I.R.C. 1954]) has terminated for purposes of such section 112.”

Ex. Ord. No. 10585. Termination of Combatant Activities in Korea

Ex. Ord. No. 10585, Jan. 1, 1955, 20 F.R. 17, provided:

By virtue of the authority vested in me by section 112(c)(3) of the Internal Revenue Code of 1954 [now I.R.C. 1986], January 31, 1955, as of midnight thereof, is hereby designated as the date of termination of combatant activities in the zone comprised of the area described in Executive Order No. 10195 of December 20, 1950 (15 F.R. 9177).

Dwight D. Eisenhower.      

Ex. Ord. No. 11216. Designation of Vietnam and Adjacent Waters as Combat Zone

Ex. Ord. No. 11216, Apr. 24, 1965, 30 F.R. 5817, provided:

Pursuant to the authority vested in me by section 112 of the Internal Revenue Code of 1954 [now I.R.C. 1986], I hereby designate, for the purposes of that section, as an area in which Armed Forces of the United States are and have been engaged in combat:

Vietnam, including the waters adjacent thereto within the following-described limits: From a point on the East Coast of Vietnam at the juncture of Vietnam with China southeastward to 21° N Lat., 108°15′ E Long.; thence southward to 18° N Lat., 108°15′ E Long.; thence southeastward to 17°30 N Lat., 111° E Long.; thence southward to 11° N Lat., 111° E Long.; thence southwestward to 7° N Lat., 105° E Long.; thence westward to 7° N Lat., 103° E Long.; thence northward to 9°30′ N Lat., 103° E Long.; thence northeastward to 10°15′ N Lat., 104°27′ E Long.; thence northward to a point on the West Coast of Vietnam at the juncture of Vietnam with Cambodia.

The date of the commencing of combatant activities in such area is hereby designated as January 1, 1964.

Lyndon B. Johnson.      

Ex. Ord. No. 12744. Designation of Arabian Peninsula Areas, Airspace, and Adjacent Waters as Combat Zone

Ex. Ord. No. 12744, Jan. 21, 1991, 56 F.R. 2663, provided:

By the authority vested in me as President by the Constitution and the laws of the United States of America, including section 112 of the Internal Revenue Code of 1986 (26 U.S.C. 112), I hereby designate, for purposes of that section, the following locations, including the airspace above such locations, as an area in which Armed Forces of the United States are and have been engaged in combat:

—the Persian Gulf

—the Red Sea

—the Gulf of Oman

—that portion of the Arabian Sea that lies north of 10 degrees north latitude and west of 68 degrees east longitude

—the Gulf of Aden

—the total land areas of Iraq, Kuwait, Saudi Arabia, Oman, Bahrain, Qatar, and the United Arab Emirates.

For the purposes of this order, the date of the commencing of combatant activities in such zone is hereby designated as January 17, 1991.

George Bush.      

Ex. Ord. No. 13002. Termination of Combat Zone Designation in Vietnam and Waters Adjacent Thereto

Ex. Ord. No. 13002, May 13, 1996, 61 F.R. 24665, provided:

By the authority vested in me as President by the Constitution and the laws of the United States of America, including section 112(c)(3) of the Internal Revenue Code of 1986 (26 U.S.C. 112(c)(3)), June 30, 1996, as of midnight thereof, is hereby designated as the date of termination of combatant activities in the zone comprised of the area described in Executive Order No. 11216 of April 24, 1965 [set out above].

William J. Clinton.      

Ex. Ord. No. 13119. Designation of Federal Republic of Yugoslavia (Serbia/Montenegro), Albania, the Airspace Above, and Adjacent Waters as a Combat Zone

Ex. Ord. No. 13119, April 13, 1999, 64 F.R. 18797, provided:

Pursuant to the authority vested in me as President by the Constitution and laws of the United States of America, including section 112 of the Internal Revenue Code of 1986 (26 U.S.C. 112), I designate, for the purposes of that section, the following locations, including the airspace above such locations, as an area in which Armed Forces of the United States are and have been engaged in combat:

—The Federal Republic of Yugoslavia (Serbia/Montenegro);

—Albania;

—the Adriatic Sea;

—the Ionian Sea north of the 39th parallel.

For the purposes of this order, I designate March 24, 1999, as the date of the commencement of combatant activities in such zone.

William J. Clinton.      

Ex. Ord. No. 13239. Designation of Afghanistan and the Airspace Above as a Combat Zone

Ex. Ord. No. 13239, Dec. 12, 2001, 66 F.R. 64907, provided:

Pursuant to the authority vested in me as President by the Constitution and the laws of the United States of America, including section 112 of the Internal Revenue Code of 1986 (26 U.S.C. 112), I designate, for purposes of that section, Afghanistan, including the airspace above, as an area in which Armed Forces of the United States are and have been engaged in combat.

For purposes of this order, I designate September 19, 2001, as the date of the commencement of combatant activities in such zone.

George W. Bush.      

[§113. Repealed. Pub. L. 101–508, title XI, §11801(a)(7), Nov. 5, 1990, 104 Stat. 1388–520]

Section, act Aug. 16, 1954, ch. 736, 68A Stat. 35, related to mustering-out payments for members of Armed Forces.

Savings Provision

For provisions that nothing in repeal by Pub. L. 101–508 be construed to affect treatment of certain transactions occurring, property acquired, or items of income, loss, deduction, or credit taken into account prior to Nov. 5, 1990, for purposes of determining liability for tax for periods ending after Nov. 5, 1990, see section 11821(b) of Pub. L. 101–508, set out as a note under section 45K of this title.

[§114. Repealed. Pub. L. 108–357, title I, §101(a), Oct. 22, 2004, 118 Stat. 1423]

Section, added Pub. L. 106–519, §3(a), Nov. 15, 2000, 114 Stat. 2423, related to exclusion of extraterritorial income from gross income.

A prior section 114, act Aug. 16, 1954, ch. 736, 68A Stat. 35, related to sports programs conducted for American National Red Cross, prior to repeal by Pub. L. 101–508, title XI, §11801(a)(8), Nov. 5, 1990, 104 Stat. 1388–520.

Effective Date of Repeal

Repeal applicable to transactions after Dec. 31, 2004, see section 101(c) of Pub. L. 108–357, set out as an Effective Date of 2004 Amendments note under section 56 of this title.

Transition Provisions

Pub. L. 108–357, title I, §101(d)–(f), Oct. 22, 2004, 118 Stat. 1423, 1424, as amended by Pub. L. 109–222, title V, §513(b), May 17, 2006, 120 Stat. 366, provided that:

“(d) Transitional Rule for 2005 and 2006.—

“(1) In general.—In the case of transactions during 2005 or 2006, the amount includible in gross income by reason of the amendments made by this section [amending sections 56, 275, 864, 903, and 999 of this title and repealing this section and sections 941 to 943 of this title] shall not exceed the applicable percentage of the amount which would have been so included but for this subsection.

“(2) Applicable percentage.—For purposes of paragraph (1), the applicable percentage shall be as follows:

“(A) For 2005, the applicable percentage shall be 20 percent.

“(B) For 2006, the applicable percentage shall be 40 percent.

“(e) Revocation of Election To Be Treated as Domestic Corporation.—If, during the 1-year period beginning on the date of the enactment of this Act [Oct. 22, 2004], a corporation for which an election is in effect under section 943(e) of the Internal Revenue Code of 1986 revokes such election, no gain or loss shall be recognized with respect to property treated as transferred under clause (ii) of section 943(e)(4)(B) of such Code to the extent such property—

“(1) was treated as transferred under clause (i) thereof, or

“(2) was acquired during a taxable year to which such election applies and before May 1, 2003, in the ordinary course of its trade or business.

The Secretary of the Treasury (or such Secretary's delegate) may prescribe such regulations as may be necessary to prevent the abuse of the purposes of this subsection.

“[(f) Repealed. Pub. L. 109–222, title V, §513(b), May 17, 2006, 120 Stat. 366.]”

§115. Income of States, municipalities, etc.

Gross income does not include—

(1) income derived from any public utility or the exercise of any essential governmental function and accruing to a State or any political subdivision thereof, or the District of Columbia; or

(2) income accruing to the government of any possession of the United States, or any political subdivision thereof.

(Aug. 16, 1954, ch. 736, 68A Stat. 35; Pub. L. 94–455, title XIX, §1901(a)(19), Oct. 4, 1976, 90 Stat. 1766.)

Amendments

1976—Pub. L. 94–455 struck out “(a) General rule” before “Gross income does not include”, struck out subsecs. (b) and (c) which related to contracts concerning public utilities made before Sept. 8, 1916, and contracts concerning bridge acquisition made before May 29, 1928, respectively, and in par. (1) of former subsec. (a), struck out “or territory” after “accruing to a State”.

Effective Date of 1976 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 94–455 applicable with respect to taxable years beginning after Dec. 31, 1976, see section 1901(d) of Pub. L. 94–455, set out as a note under section 2 of this title.

Tax Treatment of State Ownership of Railroad Real Estate Investment Trust

Pub. L. 109–59, title XI, §11146, Aug. 10, 2005, 119 Stat. 1966, provided that:

“(a) In General.—If a State owns all of the outstanding stock of a corporation—

“(1) which is a real estate investment trust on the date of the enactment of this Act [Aug. 10, 2005],

“(2) which is a non-operating class III railroad, and

“(3) substantially all of the activities of which consist of the ownership, leasing, and operation by such corporation of facilities, equipment, and other property used by the corporation or other persons for railroad transportation and for economic development purposes for the benefit of the State and its citizens, then, to the extent such activities are of a type which are an essential governmental function within the meaning of section 115 of the Internal Revenue Code of 1986, income derived from such activities by the corporation shall be treated as accruing to the State for purposes of section 115 of such Code.

“(b) Gain or Loss not Recognized on Conversion.—Notwithstanding section 337(d) of the Internal Revenue Code of 1986—

“(1) no gain or loss shall be recognized under section 336 or 337 of such Code, and

“(2) no change in basis of the property of such corporation shall occur, because of any change of status of a corporation to a tax-exempt entity by reason of the application of subsection (a).

“(c) Tax-Exempt Financing.—

“(1) In general.—Any obligation issued by a corporation described in subsection (a) at least 95 percent of the net proceeds (as defined in section 150(a) of the Internal Revenue Code of 1986) of which are to be used to provide for the acquisition, construction, or improvement of railroad transportation infrastructure (including railroad terminal facilities)—

“(A) shall be treated as a State or local bond (within the meaning of section 103(c) of such Code), and

“(B) shall not be treated as a private activity bond (within the meaning of section 103(b)(1) of such Code) solely by reason of the ownership or use of such railroad transportation infrastructure by the corporation.

“(2) No inference.—Except as provided in paragraph (1), nothing in this subsection shall be construed to affect the treatment of the private use of proceeds or property financed with obligations issued by the corporation for purposes of section 103 of the Internal Revenue Code of 1986 and part IV of subchapter B [probably means part IV of subchapter B of chapter 1] of such Code.

“(d) Definitions.—For purposes of this section:

“(1) Real estate investment trust.—The term ‘real estate investment trust’ has the meaning given such term by section 856(a) of the Internal Revenue Code of 1986.

“(2) Non-operating class iii railroad.—The term ‘non-operating class III railroad’ has the meaning given such term by part A of subtitle IV of title 49, United States Code (49 U.S.C. 10101 et seq.), and the regulations thereunder.

“(3) State.—The term ‘State’ includes—

“(A) the District of Columbia and any possession of the United States, and

“(B) any authority, agency, or public corporation of a State.

“(e) Applicability.—

“(1) In general.—Except as provided in paragraph (2), this section shall apply on and after the date on which a State becomes the owner of all of the outstanding stock of a corporation described in subsection (a) through action of such corporation's board of directors.

“(2) Exception.—This section shall not apply to any State which—

“(A) becomes the owner of all of the voting stock of a corporation described in subsection (a) after December 31, 2003, or

“(B) becomes the owner of all of the outstanding stock of a corporation described in subsection (a) after December 31, 2006.”

[§116. Repealed. Pub. L. 99–514, title VI, §612(a), Oct. 22, 1986, 100 Stat. 2250]

Section, acts Aug. 16, 1954, ch. 736, 68A Stat. 37; June 25, 1959, Pub. L. 86–69, §3(a)(2), 73 Stat. 139; Sept. 14, 1960, Pub. L. 86–779, §10(f), 74 Stat. 1009; Feb. 26, 1964, Pub. L. 88–272, title II, §201(c), (d)(6)(C), 78 Stat. 32; Nov. 13, 1966, Pub. L. 89–809, title I, §103(g), 80 Stat. 1552; Oct. 4, 1976, Pub. L. 94–455, title X, §§1051(h)(2), 1053(d)(1), title XIX, §1901(a)(20), 90 Stat. 1647, 1649, 1766; Apr. 2, 1980, Pub. L. 96–223, title IV, §404(a), 94 Stat. 305; Aug. 13, 1981, Pub. L. 97–34, title III, §302(b)(2), 95 Stat. 272; July 18, 1984, Pub. L. 98–369, div. A, title V, §542(b), 98 Stat. 891, authorized partial exclusion of dividends received by individuals.

Effective Date of Repeal

Repeal applicable to taxable years beginning after Dec. 31, 1986, see section 612(c) of Pub. L. 99–514, set out as an Effective Date of 1986 Amendment note under section 301 of this title.

§117. Qualified scholarships

(a) General rule

Gross income does not include any amount received as a qualified scholarship by an individual who is a candidate for a degree at an educational organization described in section 170(b)(1)(A)(ii).

(b) Qualified scholarship

For purposes of this section—

(1) In general

The term “qualified scholarship” means any amount received by an individual as a scholarship or fellowship grant to the extent the individual establishes that, in accordance with the conditions of the grant, such amount was used for qualified tuition and related expenses.

(2) Qualified tuition and related expenses

For purposes of paragraph (1), the term “qualified tuition and related expenses” means—

(A) tuition and fees required for the enrollment or attendance of a student at an educational organization described in section 170(b)(1)(A)(ii), and

(B) fees, books, supplies, and equipment required for courses of instruction at such an educational organization.

(c) Limitation

(1) In general

Except as provided in paragraph (2), subsections (a) and (d) shall not apply to that portion of any amount received which represents payment for teaching, research, or other services by the student required as a condition for receiving the qualified scholarship or qualified tuition reduction.

(2) Exceptions

Paragraph (1) shall not apply to any amount received by an individual under—

(A) the National Health Service Corps Scholarship Program under section 338A(g)(1)(A) of the Public Health Service Act, or

(B) the Armed Forces Health Professions Scholarship and Financial Assistance program under subchapter I of chapter 105 of title 10, United States Code.

(d) Qualified tuition reduction

(1) In general

Gross income shall not include any qualified tuition reduction.

(2) Qualified tuition reduction

For purposes of this subsection, the term “qualified tuition reduction” means the amount of any reduction in tuition provided to an employee of an organization described in section 170(b)(1)(A)(ii) for the education (below the graduate level) at such organization (or another organization described in section 170(b)(1)(A)(ii)) of—

(A) such employee, or

(B) any person treated as an employee (or whose use is treated as an employee use) under the rules of section 132(h).

(3) Reduction must not discriminate in favor of highly compensated, etc.

Paragraph (1) shall apply with respect to any qualified tuition reduction provided with respect to any highly compensated employee only if such reduction is available on substantially the same terms to each member of a group of employees which is defined under a reasonable classification set up by the employer which does not discriminate in favor of highly compensated employees (within the meaning of section 414(q)). For purposes of this paragraph, the term “highly compensated employee” has the meaning given such term by section 414(q).

[(4) Repealed. Pub. L. 101–140, title II, §203(a)(1), (2), Nov. 8, 1989, 103 Stat. 830]

(5) Special rules for teaching and research assistants

In the case of the education of an individual who is a graduate student at an educational organization described in section 170(b)(1)(A)(ii) and who is engaged in teaching or research activities for such organization, paragraph (2) shall be applied as if it did not contain the phrase “(below the graduate level)”.

(Aug. 16, 1954, ch. 736, 68A Stat. 38; Pub. L. 87–256, §110(a), Sept. 21, 1961, 75 Stat. 535; Pub. L. 94–455, title XIX, §1901(b)(8)(A), (c)(3), Oct. 4, 1976, 90 Stat. 1794, 1803; Pub. L. 96–541, §5(a)(1), Dec. 17, 1980, 94 Stat. 3205; Pub. L. 98–369, div. A, title V, §532(a), July 18, 1984, 98 Stat. 887; Pub. L. 99–514, title I, §123(a), title XI, §§1114(b)(2), 1151(g)(2), Oct. 22, 1986, 100 Stat. 2112, 2450, 2506; Pub. L. 100–647, title I, §1011B(a)(31)(B), title IV, §4001(b)(2), Nov. 10, 1988, 102 Stat. 3488, 3643; Pub. L. 101–140, title II, §203(a)(1), (2), Nov. 8, 1989, 103 Stat. 830; Pub. L. 104–188, title I, §1703(n)(14), Aug. 20, 1996, 110 Stat. 1878; Pub. L. 107–16, title IV, §413(a), June 7, 2001, 115 Stat. 64.)

Amendment of Section

For termination of amendment by section 901 of Pub. L. 107–16, see Effective and Termination Dates of 2001 Amendment note below.

References in Text

Section 338A(g)(1)(A) of the Public Health Service Act, referred to in subsec. (c)(2)(A), is classified to section 254l(g)(1)(A) of Title 42, The Public Health and Welfare.

Amendments

2001—Subsec. (c). Pub. L. 107–16, §§413(a), 901, temporarily designated existing provisions as par. (1), inserted par. heading, substituted “Except as provided in paragraph (2), subsections (a)” for “Subsections (a)”, and added par. (2). See Effective and Termination Dates of 2001 Amendment note below.

1996—Subsec. (d)(2)(B). Pub. L. 104–188 substituted “section 132(h)” for “section 132(f)”.

1989—Subsec. (d)(4). Pub. L. 101–140, §203(a)(2), amended par. (4) to read as if amendments by Pub. L. 100–647, §1011B(a)(31)(B), had not been enacted, see 1988 Amendment note below.

Pub. L. 101–140, §203(a)(1), amended subsec. (d) to read as if amendments by Pub. L. 99–514, §1151(g)(2), which added par. (4), had not been enacted, see 1986 Amendment note below.

1988—Subsec. (d)(4). Pub. L. 100–647, §1011B(a)(31)(B), substituted “there shall” for “there may” and “who are” for “who may be”.

Subsec. (d)(5). Pub. L. 100–647, §4001(b)(2), added par. (5).

1986—Pub. L. 99–514, §123(a), in amending section generally, substituted “Qualified scholarships” for “Scholarships and fellowship grants” in section catchline.

Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 99–514, §123(a), amended subsec. (a) generally. Prior to amendment, subsec. (a) read as follows: “In the case of an individual, gross income does not include—

“(1) any amount received—

“(A) as a scholarship at an educational organization described in section 170(b)(1)(A)(ii), or

“(B) as a fellowship grant, including the value of contributed services and accommodations; and

“(2) any amount received to cover expenses for—

“(A) travel,

“(B) research,

“(C) clerical help, or

“(D) equipment,

which are incident to such a scholarship or to a fellowship grant, but only to the extent that the amount is so expended by the recipient.”

Subsec. (b). Pub. L. 99–514, §123(a), in amending subsec. (b) generally, substituted qualified scholarship provision for former limitations provision, which related in par. (1) to individuals who were candidates for degrees, and in par. (2) to individuals who were not candidates for degrees, describing in subpar. (A) conditions for exclusion and in subpar. (B) extent of exclusion, such detailed provision now covered in subsec. (c).

Subsec. (c). Pub. L. 99–514, §123(a), in amending subsec. (c) generally, substituted limitation provision for former provision relating to Federal grants for tuition and related expenses not includable merely because there was requirement of future service as Federal employee.

Subsec. (d). Pub. L. 99–514, §123(a), in amending subsec. (d) generally, substituted “reduction” for “reductions” in heading and inserted “(within the meaning of section 414(q))” after “highly compensated employees” in par. (3).

Subsec. (d)(3). Pub. L. 99–514, §1114(b)(2), struck out “officer, owner, or” after “with respect to any” and “officers, owners, or” after “in favor of” and inserted at end “For purposes of this paragraph, the term ‘highly compensated employee’ has the meaning given such term by section 414(q).”

Subsec. (d)(4). Pub. L. 99–514, §1151(g)(2), added par. (4).

1984—Subsec. (d). Pub. L. 98–369 added subsec. (d).

1980—Subsec. (c). Pub. L. 96–541 added subsec. (c).

1976—Subsecs. (a)(1)(A), (b)(1), (2). Pub. L. 94–455, §1901(b)(8)(A), substituted “educational organization described in section 170(b)(1)(A)(ii)” for “educational institution (as defined in section 151(e)(4))” after “scholarship at an”.

Subsec. (b)(2)(A)(iv). Pub. L. 94–455, §1901(c)(3), struck out “a territory” after “or a State”.

Subsec. (b)(2)(B). Pub. L. 94–455, §1901(b)(8)(A), substituted “educational organization described in section 170(b)(1)(A)(ii)” for “educational institution (as defined in section 151(e)(4))” after “degree at an”.

1961—Subsec. (b)(2)(A). Pub. L. 87–256 included cases where the grantor of the scholarship or fellowship grant is a foreign government, an international organization, or a binational or multinational educational and cultural foundation or commission created or continued pursuant to the Mutual Educational and Cultural Exchange Act of 1961.

Effective and Termination Dates of 2001 Amendment

Pub. L. 107–16, title IV, §413(b), June 7, 2001, 115 Stat. 64, provided that: “The amendments made by subsection (a) [amending this section] shall apply to amounts received in taxable years beginning after December 31, 2001.”

Amendment by Pub. L. 107–16 inapplicable to taxable, plan, or limitation years beginning after Dec. 31, 2012, and the Internal Revenue Code of 1986 to be applied and administered to such years as if such amendment had never been enacted, see section 901 of Pub. L. 107–16, set out as a note under section 1 of this title.

Effective Date of 1996 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 104–188 effective as if included in the provision of the Revenue Reconciliation Act of 1993, Pub. L. 103–66, §§13001–13444, to which such amendment relates, see section 1703(o) of Pub. L. 104–188, set out as a note under section 39 of this title.

Effective Date of 1989 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 101–140 effective as if included in section 1151 of Pub. L. 99–514, see section 203(c) of Pub. L. 101–140, set out as a note under section 79 of this title.

Effective Date of 1988 Amendment

Amendment by section 1011B(a)(31)(B) of Pub. L. 100–647 effective, except as otherwise provided, as if included in the provision of the Tax Reform Act of 1986, Pub. L. 99–514, to which such amendment relates, see section 1019(a) of Pub. L. 100–647, set out as a note under section 1 of this title.

Section 4001(c) of Pub. L. 100–647 provided that: “The amendments made by this section [amending this section and section 127 of this title] shall apply to taxable years beginning after December 31, 1987.”

Effective Date of 1986 Amendment

Amendment by section 123(a) of Pub. L. 99–514 applicable to taxable years beginning after Dec. 31, 1986, but only in the case of scholarships and fellowships granted after Aug. 16, 1986, see section 151(d) of Pub. L. 99–514, set out as a note under section 1 of this title.

Amendment by section 1114(b)(2) of Pub. L. 99–514 applicable to years beginning after Dec. 31, 1987, see section 1114(c)(2) of Pub. L. 99–514, set out as a note under section 414 of this title.

Amendment by section 1151(g)(2) of Pub. L. 99–514 applicable, with certain qualifications and exceptions, to years beginning after Dec. 31, 1988, see section 1151(k) of Pub. L. 99–514, as amended, set out as a note under section 79 of this title.

Effective Date of 1984 Amendments

Section 532(b) of Pub. L. 98–369, as amended by Pub. L. 99–514, §2, Oct. 22, 1986, 100 Stat. 2095, provided that: “The amendment made by this section [amending this section] shall apply to qualified tuition reductions (as defined in section 117(d)(2) of the Internal Revenue Code of 1986 [formerly I.R.C. 1954]) for education furnished after June 30, 1985, in taxable years ending after such date.”

Provisions of subsec. (d) treated as in effect on and after Jan. 1, 1984, in case of education described in section 127(c)(8) of this title, see section 1(g)(5) of Pub. L. 98–611, set out as a note under section 127 of this title.

Effective Date of 1980 Amendment

Section 5(a)(2) of Pub. L. 96–541 provided: “The amendment made by paragraph (1) [amending this section] shall apply to taxable years beginning after December 31, 1980.”

Effective Date of 1976 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 94–455 applicable with respect to taxable years beginning after Dec. 31, 1976, see section 1901(d) of Pub. L. 94–455, set out as a note under section 2 of this title.

Effective Date of 1961 Amendment

Section 110(h)(1) of Pub. L. 87–256 provided that: “The amendments made by subsections (a), (b), and (c) of this section [amending this section and sections 871 and 872 of this title] shall apply to taxable years beginning after December 31, 1961.”

Regulations

Secretary of the Treasury or his delegate to issue before Feb. 1, 1988, final regulations to carry out amendments made by section 1114 of Pub. L. 99–514, see section 1141 of Pub. L. 99–514, set out as a note under section 401 of this title.

Nonenforcement of Amendment Made by Section 1151 of Pub. L. 99–514 for Fiscal Year 1990

No monies appropriated by Pub. L. 101–136 to be used to implement or enforce section 1151 of Pub. L. 99–514 or the amendments made by such section, see section 528 of Pub. L. 101–136, set out as a note under section 89 of this title.

Applicability of Certain Amendments by Public Law 99–514 in Relation to Treaty Obligations of United States

For nonapplication of amendment by section 123(a) of Pub. L. 99–514 to the extent application of such amendment would be contrary to any treaty obligation of the United States in effect on Oct. 22, 1986, with provision that for such purposes any amendment by title I of Pub. L. 100–647 be treated as if it had been included in the provision of Pub. L. 99–514 to which such amendment relates, see section 1012(aa)(3), (4) of Pub. L. 100–647, set out as a note under section 861 of this title.

Plan Amendments Not Required Until January 1, 1989

For provisions directing that if any amendments made by subtitle A or subtitle C of title XI [§§1101–1147 and 1171–1177] or title XVIII [§§1800–1899A] of Pub. L. 99–514 require an amendment to any plan, such plan amendment shall not be required to be made before the first plan year beginning on or after Jan. 1, 1989, see section 1140 of Pub. L. 99–514, as amended, set out as a note under section 401 of this title.

Transitional Rules for Treatment of Certain Reductions in Tuition

Section 1853(f) of Pub. L. 99–514 provided that:

“(1) A tuition reduction plan shall be treated as meeting the requirements of section 117(d)(3) of the Internal Revenue Code of 1954 [now 1986] if—

“(A) such plan would have met the requirements of such section (as amended by this section but without regard to the lack of evidence that benefits under such plan were the subject of good faith bargaining) on the day on which eligibility to participate in the plan was closed,

“(B) at all times thereafter, the tuition reductions available under such plan are available on substantially the same terms to all employees eligible to participate in such plan, and

“(C) the eligibility to participate in such plan closed on June 30, 1972, June 30, 1974, or December 31, 1975.

“(2) For purposes of applying section 117(d)(3) of the Internal Revenue Code of 1954 [now 1986] to all tuition reduction plans of an employer with at least 1 such plan described in paragraph (1) of this subsection, there shall be excluded from consideration employees not included in the plan who are included in a unit of employees covered by an agreement that the Secretary of the Treasury or his delegate finds to be a collective bargaining agreement between employee representatives and 1 or more employers, if, with respect to plans other than plans described in paragraph (1), there is evidence that such benefits were the subject of good faith bargaining.

“(3) Any reduction in tuition provided with respect to a full-time course of education furnished at the graduate level before July 1, 1988, shall not be included in gross income if—

“(A) such reduction would not be included in gross income under the Internal Revenue Service regulations in effect on the date of the enactment of the Tax Reform Act of 1984 [July 18, 1984], and

“(B) such reduction is provided with respect to a student who was accepted for admission to such course of education before July 1, 1984, and began such course of education before June 30, 1985.”

National Research Service Awards

Pub. L. 95–600, title I, §161(b), Nov. 6, 1978, 92 Stat. 2810, as amended by Pub. L. 96–167, §9(b), Dec. 29, 1979, 93 Stat. 1278; Pub. L. 96–541, §5(b), Dec. 17, 1980, 94 Stat. 3206; Pub. L. 97–248, title II, §285, Sept. 3, 1982, 96 Stat. 569; Pub. L. 99–514, §2, Oct. 22, 1986, 100 Stat. 2095, provided that any amount paid to, or on behalf of, an individual as a national research service award under former section 289l–1 of title 42 during calendar years 1974 through 1983 was to be treated as a scholarship or fellowship grant under this section.

Scholarship Programs for Members of the Uniformed Services

Pub. L. 93–483, §4, Oct. 26, 1974, 88 Stat. 1458, as amended Pub. L. 94–455, title XXI, §2130, Oct. 4, 1976, 90 Stat. 1922; Pub. L. 95–171, §5, Nov. 12, 1977, 91 Stat. 1355; Pub. L. 95–600, title I, §161(a), Nov. 6, 1978, 92 Stat. 2810; Pub. L. 95–615, title I, §6, Nov. 8, 1978, 92 Stat. 3098; Pub. L. 96–167, §9(a), Dec. 29, 1979, 93 Stat. 1278; Pub. L. 99–514, §2, Oct. 22, 1986, 100 Stat. 2095, provided that:

“(a) In General.—Any amount received from appropriated funds as a scholarship, including the value of contributed services and accommodations, by a member of a uniformed service who is receiving training under the Armed Forces Health Professions Scholarship Program (or any other program determined by the Secretary of the Treasury or his delegate to have substantially similar objectives) from an educational institution (as defined in section 151(e)(4) of the Internal Revenue Code of 1986 [formerly I.R.C. 1954]) [see section 170(b)(1)(A)(ii) of this title] shall be treated as a scholarship under section 117 of such Code [this section], whether that member is receiving training while on active duty or in an off-duty or inactive status, and without regard to whether a period of active duty is required of the member as a condition of receiving those payments.

“(b) Definition of Uniformed Services.—For purposes of this section, the term ‘uniformed service’ has the meaning given it by section 101(3) of title 37, United States Code.

“(c) Effective Date.—The provisions of this section shall apply with respect to amounts received during calendar years 1973, 1974, and 1975, and, in the case of a member of a uniformed service receiving training after 1975 and before 1981 in programs described in subsection (a), with respect to amounts received after 1975 and before 1985.”

[Section 6 of Pub. L. 95–615, which reenacted §4(c) of Pub. L. 93–483 without change, to cease to have effect on the day after Nov. 8, 1978, see section 210(a) of Pub. L. 95–615, set out as a note under section 61 of this title.]

§118. Contributions to the capital of a corporation

(a) General rule

In the case of a corporation, gross income does not include any contribution to the capital of the taxpayer.

(b) Contributions in aid of construction, etc.

For purposes of subsection (a), except as provided in subsection (c), the term “contribution to the capital of the taxpayer” does not include any contribution in aid of construction or any other contribution as a customer or potential customer.

(c) Special rules for water and sewerage disposal utilities

(1) General rule

For purposes of this section, the term “contribution to the capital of the taxpayer” includes any amount of money or other property received from any person (whether or not a shareholder) by a regulated public utility which provides water or sewerage disposal services if—

(A) such amount is a contribution in aid of construction,

(B) in the case of contribution of property other than water or sewerage disposal facilities, such amount meets the requirements of the expenditure rule of paragraph (2), and

(C) such amount (or any property acquired or constructed with such amount) is not included in the taxpayer's rate base for ratemaking purposes.

(2) Expenditure rule

An amount meets the requirements of this paragraph if—

(A) an amount equal to such amount is expended for the acquisition or construction of tangible property described in section 1231(b)—

(i) which is the property for which the contribution was made or is of the same type as such property, and

(ii) which is used predominantly in the trade or business of furnishing water or sewerage disposal services,


(B) the expenditure referred to in subparagraph (A) occurs before the end of the second taxable year after the year in which such amount was received, and

(C) accurate records are kept of the amounts contributed and expenditures made, the expenditures to which contributions are allocated, and the year in which the contributions and expenditures are received and made.

(3) Definitions

For purposes of this subsection—

(A) Contribution in aid of construction

The term “contribution in aid of construction” shall be defined by regulations prescribed by the Secretary, except that such term shall not include amounts paid as service charges for starting or stopping services.

(B) Predominantly

The term “predominantly” means 80 percent or more.

(C) Regulated public utility

The term “regulated public utility” has the meaning given such term by section 7701(a)(33), except that such term shall not include any utility which is not required to provide water or sewerage disposal services to members of the general public in its service area.

(4) Disallowance of deductions and credits; adjusted basis

Notwithstanding any other provision of this subtitle, no deduction or credit shall be allowed for, or by reason of, any expenditure which constitutes a contribution in aid of construction to which this subsection applies. The adjusted basis of any property acquired with contributions in aid of construction to which this subsection applies shall be zero.

(d) Statute of limitations

If the taxpayer for any taxable year treats an amount as a contribution to the capital of the taxpayer described in subsection (c), then—

(1) the statutory period for the assessment of any deficiency attributable to any part of such amount shall not expire before the expiration of 3 years from the date the Secretary is notified by the taxpayer (in such manner as the Secretary may prescribe) of—

(A) the amount of the expenditure referred to in subparagraph (A) of subsection (c)(2),

(B) the taxpayer's intention not to make the expenditures referred to in such subparagraph, or

(C) a failure to make such expenditure within the period described in subparagraph (B) of subsection (c)(2), and


(2) such deficiency may be assessed before the expiration of such 3-year period notwithstanding the provisions of any other law or rule of law which would otherwise prevent such assessment.

(e) Cross references

(1) For basis of property acquired by a corporation through a contribution to its capital, see section 362.

(2) For special rules in the case of contributions of indebtedness, see section 108(e)(6).

(Aug. 16, 1954, ch. 736, 68A Stat. 39; Pub. L. 94–455, title XXI, §2120(a), Oct. 4, 1976, 90 Stat. 1912; Pub. L. 95–600, title III, §364(a), Nov. 6, 1978, 92 Stat. 2854; Pub. L. 96–589, §2(e)(2), Dec. 24, 1980, 94 Stat. 3396; Pub. L. 98–369, div. A, title I, §163(a), July 18, 1984, 98 Stat. 697; Pub. L. 99–514, title VIII, §824(a), Oct. 22, 1986, 100 Stat. 2374; Pub. L. 104–188, title I, §1613(a)(1), (2), Aug. 20, 1996, 110 Stat. 1848–1850.)

Amendments

1996—Subsec. (b). Pub. L. 104–188, §1613(a)(2), inserted “except as provided in subsection (c),” before “the term”.

Subsecs. (c) to (e). Pub. L. 104–188, §1613(a)(1), added subsecs. (c) and (d) and redesignated former subsec. (c) as (e).

1986—Subsec. (b). Pub. L. 99–514, §824(a), added subsec. (b) and struck out former subsec. (b) relating to contributions in aid of construction, containing par. (1) general rule, par. (2) expenditure rule, par. (3) definitions, and par. (4) disallowance of deductions and investment credit; adjusted basis.

Subsecs. (c), (d). Pub. L. 99–514, §824(a), redesignated former subsec. (d) as (c) and struck out former subsec. (c), statute of limitations, which read as follows: “If the taxpayer for any taxable year treats an amount as a contribution to the capital of the taxpayer described in subsection (b), then—

“(1) the statutory period for the assessment of any deficiency attributable to any part of such amount shall not expire before the expiration of 3 years from the date the Secretary is notified by the taxpayer (in such manner as the Secretary may prescribe) of—

“(A) the amount of the expenditure referred to in subparagraph (A) of subsection (b)(2),

“(B) the taxpayer's intention not to make the expenditures referred to in such subparagraph, or

“(C) a failure to make such expenditure within the period described in subparagraph (B) of subsection (b)(2); and

“(2) such deficiency may be assessed before the expiration of such 3-year period notwithstanding the provisions of any other law or rule of law which would otherwise prevent such assessment.”

1984—Subsecs. (c), (d). Pub. L. 98–369 added subsec. (c) and redesignated former subsec. (c) as (d).

1980—Subsec. (c). Pub. L. 96–589 designated existing provisions as par. (1) and added par. (2).

1978—Subsec. (b)(1). Pub. L. 95–600, §364(a)(1), (2), substituted in provisions preceding subpar. (A) “electric energy, gas (through a local distribution system or transportation by pipeline), water,” for “water” and in subpar. (B) “electric energy, gas, steam, water,” for “water”.

Subsec. (b)(2)(A)(ii). Pub. L. 95–600, §364(a)(3), substituted “electric energy, gas, steam, water,” for “water”.

Subsec. (b)(3)(A). Pub. L. 95–600, §364(a)(4), substituted “line to an electric line, a gas main, a steam line, or a main water or sewer line” for “property to a main water or sewer line”.

Subsec. (b)(3)(C). Pub. L. 95–600, §364(a)(5), substituted “electric energy, gas, water,” for “water” and inserted “(including in the case of a gas transmission utility, the provision of gas services by sale for resale to the general public)” after “members of the general public”.

1976—Subsecs. (b), (c). Pub. L. 94–455, §2120(a), added subsec. (b) and redesignated former subsec. (b) as (c).

Effective Date of 1996 Amendment

Section 1613(a)(3) of Pub. L. 104–188 provided that: “The amendments made by this subsection [amending this section] shall apply to amounts received after June 12, 1996.”

Effective Date of 1986 Amendment

Section 824(c) of Pub. L. 99–514, as amended by Pub. L. 100–647, title I, §1008(j)(2), Nov. 10, 1988, 102 Stat. 3445, provided that:

“(1) In general.—Except as otherwise provided in this subsection, the amendments made by this section [amending this section and section 362 of this title] shall apply to amounts received after December 31, 1986, in taxable years ending after such date.

“(2) Treatment of certain water supply projects.—The amendments made by this section shall not apply to amounts which are paid by the New Jersey Department of Environmental Protection for construction of alternative water supply projects in zones of drinking water contamination and which are designated by such department as being taken into account under this paragraph. Not more than $4,631,000 of such amounts may be designated under the preceding sentence.

“(3) Treatment of certain contributions by transportation authority.—The amendments made by this section shall not apply to contributions in aid of construction by a qualified transportation authority which were clearly identified in a master plan in existence on September 13, 1984, and which are designated by such authority as being taken into account under this paragraph. Not more than $68,000,000 of such contributions may be designated under the preceding sentence. For purposes of this paragraph, a qualified transportation authority is an entity which was created on February 20, 1967, and which was established by an interstate compact and consented to by Congress in Public Law 89–774, 80 Stat. 1324 (1966).

“(4) Treatment of certain partnerships.—In the case of a partnership with a taxable year beginning May 1, 1986, if such partnership realized net capital gain during the period beginning on the 1st day of such taxable year and ending on May 29, 1986, pursuant to an underwriting agreement dated May 6, 1986, then such partnership may elect to treat each asset to which such net capital gain relates as having been distributed to the partners of such partnership in proportion to their distributive share of the capital gain or loss realized by the partnership with respect to such asset and to treat each such asset as having been sold by each partner on the date of the sale of the asset by the partnership. If such an election is made, the consideration received by the partnership in connection with the sale of such assets shall be treated as having been received by the partners in connection with the deemed sale of such assets. In the case of a tiered partnership, for purposes of this paragraph each partnership shall be treated as having realized net capital gain equal to its proportionate share of the net capital gain of each partnership in which it is a partner, and the election provided by this paragraph shall apply to each tier.”

Effective Date of 1984 Amendment

Section 163(c) of Pub. L. 98–369, as amended by Pub. L. 99–514, §2, Oct. 22, 1986, 100 Stat. 2095, provided that: “The amendments made by this section [amending this section and sections 6501 and 6511 of this title] shall apply to expenditures with respect to which the second taxable year described in section 118(b)(2)(B) of the Internal Revenue Code of 1986 [formerly I.R.C. 1954] ends after December 31, 1984.”

Effective Date of 1980 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 96–589 applicable to transactions which occur after Dec. 31, 1980, other than transactions which occur in a proceeding in a bankruptcy case or similar judicial proceeding or in a proceeding under Title 11 commencing on or after Dec. 31, 1980, with an exception permitting the debtor to make the amendment applicable to transactions occurring after Sept. 30, 1979, in a specified manner, see section 7(a)(1), (f) of Pub. L. 96–589, set out as a note under section 108 of this title.

Effective Date of 1978 Amendment

Section 364(b) of Pub. L. 95–600 provided that: “The amendments made by this section [amending this section] shall apply to contributions made after January 31, 1976.”

Effective Date of 1976 Amendment

Section 2120(c) of Pub. L. 94–455 provided that: “The amendments made by this section [amending this section and section 362 of this title] apply to contributions made after January 31, 1976.”

§119. Meals or lodging furnished for the convenience of the employer

(a) Meals and lodging furnished to employee, his spouse, and his dependents, pursuant to employment

There shall be excluded from gross income of an employee the value of any meals or lodging furnished to him, his spouse, or any of his dependents by or on behalf of his employer for the convenience of the employer, but only if—

(1) in the case of meals, the meals are furnished on the business premises of the employer, or

(2) in the case of lodging, the employee is required to accept such lodging on the business premises of his employer as a condition of his employment.

(b) Special rules

For purposes of subsection (a)—

(1) Provisions of employment contract or State statute not to be determinative

In determining whether meals or lodging are furnished for the convenience of the employer, the provisions of an employment contract or of a State statute fixing terms of employment shall not be determinative of whether the meals or lodging are intended as compensation.

(2) Certain factors not taken into account with respect to meals

In determining whether meals are furnished for the convenience of the employer, the fact that a charge is made for such meals, and the fact that the employee may accept or decline such meals, shall not be taken into account.

(3) Certain fixed charges for meals

(A) In general

If—

(i) an employee is required to pay on a periodic basis a fixed charge for his meals, and

(ii) such meals are furnished by the employer for the convenience of the employer,


there shall be excluded from the employee's gross income an amount equal to such fixed charge.

(B) Application of subparagraph (A)

Subparagraph (A) shall apply—

(i) whether the employee pays the fixed charge out of his stated compensation or out of his own funds, and

(ii) only if the employee is required to make the payment whether he accepts or declines the meals.

(4) Meals furnished to employees on business premises where meals of most employees are otherwise excludable

All meals furnished on the business premises of an employer to such employer's employees shall be treated as furnished for the convenience of the employer if, without regard to this paragraph, more than half of the employees to whom such meals are furnished on such premises are furnished such meals for the convenience of the employer.

(c) Employees living in certain camps

(1) In general

In the case of an individual who is furnished lodging in a camp located in a foreign country by or on behalf of his employer, such camp shall be considered to be part of the business premises of the employer.

(2) Camp

For purposes of this section, a camp constitutes lodging which is—

(A) provided by or on behalf of the employer for the convenience of the employer because the place at which such individual renders services is in a remote area where satisfactory housing is not available on the open market,

(B) located, as near as practicable, in the vicinity of the place at which such individual renders services, and

(C) furnished in a common area (or enclave) which is not available to the public and which normally accommodates 10 or more employees.

(d) Lodging furnished by certain educational institutions to employees

(1) In general

In the case of an employee of an educational institution, gross income shall not include the value of qualified campus lodging furnished to such employee during the taxable year.

(2) Exception in cases of inadequate rent

Paragraph (1) shall not apply to the extent of the excess of—

(A) the lesser of—

(i) 5 percent of the appraised value of the qualified campus lodging, or

(ii) the average of the rentals paid by individuals (other than employees or students of the educational institution) during such calendar year for lodging provided by the educational institution which is comparable to the qualified campus lodging provided to the employee, over


(B) the rent paid by the employee for the qualified campus lodging during such calendar year.


The appraised value under subparagraph (A)(i) shall be determined as of the close of the calendar year in which the taxable year begins, or, in the case of a rental period not greater than 1 year, at any time during the calendar year in which such period begins.

(3) Qualified campus lodging

For purposes of this subsection, the term “qualified campus lodging” means lodging to which subsection (a) does not apply and which is—

(A) located on, or in the proximity of, a campus of the educational institution, and

(B) furnished to the employee, his spouse, and any of his dependents by or on behalf of such institution for use as a residence.

(4) Educational institution, etc.

For purposes of this subsection—

(A) In general

The term “educational institution” means—

(i) an institution described in section 170(b)(1)(A)(ii) (or an entity organized under State law and composed of public institutions so described), or

(ii) an academic health center.

(B) Academic health center

For purposes of subparagraph (A), the term “academic health center” means an entity—

(i) which is described in section 170(b)(1)(A)(iii),

(ii) which receives (during the calendar year in which the taxable year of the taxpayer begins) payments under subsection (d)(5)(B) or (h) of section 1886 of the Social Security Act (relating to graduate medical education), and

(iii) which has as one of its principal purposes or functions the providing and teaching of basic and clinical medical science and research with the entity's own faculty.

(Aug. 16, 1954, ch. 736, 68A Stat. 39; Pub. L. 95–427, §4(a), Oct. 7, 1978, 92 Stat. 997; Pub. L. 95–615, title II, §205, Nov. 8, 1978, 92 Stat. 3107; Pub. L. 96–222, title I, §108(a)(1)(G), Apr. 1, 1980, 94 Stat. 225; Pub. L. 97–34, title I, §113, Aug. 13, 1981, 95 Stat. 195; Pub. L. 99–514, title XI, §1164(a), Oct. 22, 1986, 100 Stat. 2511; Pub. L. 100–647, title I, §1011B(d), Nov. 10, 1988, 102 Stat. 3489; Pub. L. 104–188, title I, §1123(a), Aug. 20, 1996, 110 Stat. 1768; Pub. L. 105–206, title V, §5002(a), July 22, 1998, 112 Stat. 788.)

References in Text

Section 1886(d)(5)(B) or (h) of the Social Security Act, referred to in subsec. (d)(4)(B)(ii), is classified to section 1395ww(d)(5)(B) or (h) of Title 42, The Public Health and Welfare.

Amendments

1998—Subsec. (b)(4). Pub. L. 105–206 added par. (4).

1996—Subsec. (d)(4). Pub. L. 104–188 amended par. (4) generally. Prior to amendment, par. (4) read as follows: Educational institution.—For purposes of this paragraph, the term ‘educational institution’ means an institution described in section 170(b)(1)(A)(ii).”

1988—Subsec. (d). Pub. L. 100–647 struck out “(as of the close of the calendar year in which the taxable year begins)” after “appraised value” in par. (2)(A)(i) and inserted at end “The appraised value under subparagraph (A)(i) shall be determined as of the close of the calendar year in which the taxable year begins, or, in the case of a rental period not greater than 1 year, at any time during the calendar year in which such period begins.” as concluding provision.

1986—Subsec. (d). Pub. L. 99–514 added subsec. (d).

1981—Subsec. (c). Pub. L. 97–34 added subsec. (c).

1980—Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 96–222 struck out “General rule” in subsec. (a) as in effect on the day before the date of enactment of the Foreign Earned Income Act of 1978 to correct a legislative oversight in the amendment of subsec. (a) of this section by section 205 of Pub. L. 95–615. The amendment by Pub. L. 95–615, however, was executed without reference to “General rule” as the probable intent of Congress, thereby requiring no change in text.

1978—Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 95–615 designated existing provisions as subsec. (a), added subsec. (a) heading, and substituted “furnished to him, his spouse, or any of his dependents by or on behalf of his employer for the convenience of the employer” for “furnished to him by his employer for the convenience of the employer”.

Pub. L. 95–427 inserted provisions relating to factors not taken into account with respect to meals and certain fixed charges for meals.

Effective Date of 1998 Amendment

Pub. L. 105–206, title v, §5002(b), July 22, 1998, 112 Stat. 789, provided that: “The amendment made by subsection (a) [amending this section] shall apply to taxable years beginning before, on, or after the date of the enactment of this Act [July 22, 1998].”

Effective Date of 1996 Amendment

Section 1123(b) of Pub. L. 104–188 provided that: “The amendment made by this section [amending this section] shall apply to taxable years beginning after December 31, 1995.”

Effective Date of 1988 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 100–647 effective, except as otherwise provided, as if included in the provision of the Tax Reform Act of 1986, Pub. L. 99–514, to which such amendment relates, see section 1019(a) of Pub. L. 100–647, set out as a note under section 1 of this title.

Effective Date of 1986 Amendment

Section 1164(b) of Pub. L. 99–514 provided that: “The amendment made by subsection (a) [amending this section] shall apply to taxable years beginning after December 31, 1985.”

Effective Date of 1981 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 97–34 applicable with respect to taxable years beginning after Dec. 31, 1981, see section 115 of Pub. L. 97–34, set out as a note under section 911 of this title.

Effective Date of 1980 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 96–222 effective as if included in the Foreign Earned Income Act of 1978, Pub. L. 95–615, see section 108(a)(2)(A) of Pub. L. 96–222, set out as a note under section 3 of this title.

Effective Date of 1978 Amendment

Section 4(b) of Pub. L. 95–427 provided that: “The amendment made by subsection (a) [amending this section] shall apply with respect to taxable years beginning after December 31, 1953, and ending after August 16, 1954.”

Effective Date of 1978 Amendment; Election of Prior Law

Amendment by Pub. L. 95–615 applicable to taxable years beginning after Dec. 31, 1977, with provision for election of prior law, see section 209 of Pub. L. 95–615, set out as a note under section 911 of this title.

Statute of Limitations

Pub. L. 96–605, title I, §107(b), Dec. 28, 1980, 94 Stat. 3524, provided that: “In the case of any allowance received during calendar year 1974, 1975, 1976, or 1977, subsections (a)(2) and (e) of such section 3 [section 3 of Pub. L. 95–427, set out below] shall be applied by substituting the date one year after the date of the enactment of this Act [Dec. 28, 1980] for ‘April 15, 1979’ each place it appears.”

Treatment of Certain Statutory Subsistence Allowances or Subsistence Allowances Negotiated in Accordance With State Law Received by State Police Officers Before January 1, 1978

Section 3 of Pub. L. 95–427, as amended by Pub. L. 96–605, title I, §107(a), Dec. 28, 1980, 94 Stat. 3524; Pub. L. 99–514, §2, Oct. 22, 1986, 100 Stat. 2095, provided that:

“(a) General Rule.—If—

“(1) an individual who was employed as a State police officer received a statutory subsistence allowance or a subsistence allowance negotiated in accordance with State law while so employed,

“(2) such individual elects, on or before April 15, 1979, and in such manner and form as the Secretary of the Treasury may prescribe, to have this section apply to such allowance, and

“(3) this section applies to such allowance,

then, for purposes of the Internal Revenue Code of 1986 [formerly I.R.C. 1954], such allowance shall not be included in such individual's gross income.

“(b) Allowances to Which Section Applies.—For purposes of this section, this section applies to any statutory subsistence allowance or subsistence allowance negotiated in accordance with State law which was received—

“(1) after December 31, 1969, and before January 1, 1974, to the extent such individual did not include such allowance in gross income on his income tax return for the taxable year in which such allowance was received, or

“(2) during the calendar year 1974, 1975, 1976, or 1977.

“(c) Other Definitions.—For purposes of this section—

“(1) State police officer.—The term ‘State police officer’ means any police officer (including a highway patrolman) employed by a State (or the District of Columbia) on a full-time basis with the power to arrest.

“(2) Income tax return.—The term ‘income tax return’ means the return of the taxes imposed by subtitle A of the Internal Revenue Code of 1986. If an individual filed before November 29, 1977, an amended return for any taxable year, such amended return shall be treated as the return for such taxable year.

“(d) Limitation on Deduction.—If any individual receives a subsistence allowance which is excluded from gross income under subsection (a), no deduction shall be allowed under any provision of chapter 1 of the Internal Revenue Code of 1986 for expenses in respect of which he has received such allowance, except to the extent that such expenses exceed the amount excludable from gross income under subsection (a) and the excess is otherwise allowed as a deduction under such chapter 1.

“(e) Statute of Limitations.—If refund or credit of any overpayment of tax resulting from the application of this section is prevented at any time on or before April 15, 1979, by the operation of any law or rule of law (including res judicata), refund or credit of such overpayment (to the extent attributable to the application of this section) may, nevertheless, be made or allowed if claim therefor is filed on or before April 15, 1979.”

§120. Amounts received under qualified group legal services plans

(a) Exclusion by employee for contributions and legal services provided by employer

Gross income of an employee, his spouse, or his dependents, does not include—

(1) amounts contributed by an employer on behalf of an employee, his spouse, or his dependents under a qualified group legal services plan (as defined in subsection (b)); or

(2) the value of legal services provided, or amounts paid for legal services, under a qualified group legal services plan (as defined in subsection (b)) to, or with respect to, an employee, his spouse, or his dependents.


No exclusion shall be allowed under this section with respect to an individual for any taxable year to the extent that the value of insurance (whether through an insurer or self-insurance) against legal costs incurred by the individual (or his spouse or dependents) provided under a qualified group legal services plan exceeds $70.

(b) Qualified group legal services plan

For purposes of this section, a qualified group legal services plan is a separate written plan of an employer for the exclusive benefit of his employees or their spouses or dependents to provide such employees, spouses, or dependents with specified benefits consisting of personal legal services through prepayment of, or provision in advance for, legal fees in whole or in part by the employer, if the plan meets the requirements of subsection (c).

(c) Requirements

(1) Discrimination

The contributions or benefits provided under the plan shall not discriminate in favor of employees who are highly compensated employees (within the meaning of section 414(q)).

(2) Eligibility

The plan shall benefit employees who qualify under a classification set up by the employer and found by the Secretary not to be discriminatory in favor of employees who are described in paragraph (1). For purposes of this paragraph, there shall be excluded from consideration employees not included in the plan who are included in a unit of employees covered by an agreement which the Secretary of Labor finds to be a collective bargaining agreement between employee representatives and one or more employers, if there is evidence that group legal services plan benefits were the subject of good faith bargaining between such employee representatives and such employer or employers.

(3) Contribution limitation

Not more than 25 percent of the amounts contributed under the plan during the year may be provided for the class of individuals who are shareholders or owners (or their spouses or dependents), each of whom (on any day of the year) owns more than 5 percent of the stock or of the capital or profits interest in the employer.

(4) Notification

The plan shall give notice to the Secretary, in such manner as the Secretary may by regulations prescribe, that it is applying for recognition of the status of a qualified group legal services plan.

(5) Contributions

Amounts contributed under the plan shall be paid only (A) to insurance companies, or to organizations or persons that provide personal legal services, or indemnification against the cost of personal legal services, in exchange for a prepayment or payment of a premium, (B) to organizations or trusts described in section 501(c)(20), (C) to organizations described in section 501(c) which are permitted by that section to receive payments from an employer for support of one or more qualified group legal services plan or plans, except that such organizations shall pay or credit the contribution to an organization or trust described in section 501(c)(20), (D) as prepayments to providers of legal services under the plan, or (E) a combination of the above.

(d) Other definitions and special rules

For purposes of this section—

(1) Employee

The term “employee” includes, for any year, an individual who is an employee within the meaning of section 401(c)(1) (relating to self-employed individuals).

(2) Employer

An individual who owns the entire interest in an unincorporated trade or business shall be treated as his own employer. A partnership shall be treated as the employer of each partner who is an employee within the meaning of paragraph (1).

(3) Allocations

Allocations of amounts contributed under the plan shall be made in accordance with regulations prescribed by the Secretary and shall take into account the expected relative utilization of benefits to be provided from such contributions or plan assets and the manner in which any premium or other charge was developed.

(4) Dependent

The term “dependent” has the meaning given to it by section 152 (determined without regard to subsections (b)(1), (b)(2), and (d)(1)(B) thereof).

(5) Exclusive benefit

In the case of a plan to which contributions are made by more than one employer, in determining whether the plan is for the exclusive benefit of an employer's employees or their spouses or dependents, the employees of any employer who maintains the plan shall be considered to be the employees of each employer who maintains the plan.

(6) Attribution rules

For purposes of this section—

(A) ownership of stock in a corporation shall be determined in accordance with the rules provided under subsections (d) and (e) of section 1563 (without regard to section 1563(e)(3)(C)), and

(B) the interest of an employee in a trade or business which is not incorporated shall be determined in accordance with regulations prescribed by the Secretary, which shall be based on principles similar to the principles which apply in the case of subparagraph (A).

(7) Time of notice to Secretary

A plan shall not be a qualified group legal services plan for any period prior to the time notification was provided to the Secretary in accordance with subsection (c)(4), if such notice is given after the time prescribed by the Secretary by regulations for giving such notice.

(e) Termination

This section and section 501(c)(20) shall not apply to taxable years beginning after June 30, 1992.

(f) Cross reference

For reporting and recordkeeping requirements, see section 6039D.

(Added Pub. L. 94–455, title XXI, §2134(a), Oct. 4, 1976, 90 Stat. 1926; amended Pub. L. 97–34, title VIII, §802(a), Aug. 13, 1981, 95 Stat. 349; Pub. L. 97–448, title I, §108(a), Jan. 12, 1983, 96 Stat. 2391; Pub. L. 98–612, §1(a), (b)(3)(A), Oct. 31, 1984, 98 Stat. 3180, 3181; Pub. L. 99–514, title XI, §§1114(b)(3), 1151(c)(3), (g)(1), 1162(b), Oct. 22, 1986, 100 Stat. 2450, 2503, 2506, 2510; Pub. L. 100–647, title I, §1011B(a)(31)(B), title IV, §4002(a), (b)(1), Nov. 10, 1988, 102 Stat. 3488, 3643; Pub. L. 101–140, title II, §203(a)(1), (2), Nov. 8, 1989, 103 Stat. 830; Pub. L. 101–239, title VII, §7102(a)(1), Dec. 19, 1989, 103 Stat. 2305; Pub. L. 101–508, title XI, §11404(a), Nov. 5, 1990, 104 Stat. 1388–473; Pub. L. 102–227, title I, §104(a)(1), Dec. 11, 1991, 105 Stat. 1687; Pub. L. 108–311, title II, §207(10), Oct. 4, 2004, 118 Stat. 1177.)

Prior Provisions

A prior section 120, act Aug. 16, 1954, ch. 736, 68A Stat. 39, related to statutory subsistence allowance received by police, prior to repeal by Pub. L. 85–866, title I, §3(a), (c), Sept. 2, 1958, 72 Stat. 1607, effective with respect to taxable years ending after Sept. 30, 1958, but only with respect to amounts received as a statutory subsistence allowance for any day after Sept. 30, 1958.

Amendments

2004—Subsec. (d)(4). Pub. L. 108–311 inserted “(determined without regard to subsections (b)(1), (b)(2), and (d)(1)(B) thereof)” after “section 152”.

1991—Subsec. (e). Pub. L. 102–227 substituted “June 30, 1992” for “December 31, 1991”.

1990—Subsec. (e). Pub. L. 101–508 substituted “December 31, 1991” for “September 30, 1990”.

1989—Subsec. (b). Pub. L. 101–140, §203(a)(1), amended subsec. (b) to read as if amendments by Pub. L. 99–514, §1151(c)(3), had not been enacted, see 1986 Amendment note below.

Subsec. (c)(2). Pub. L. 101–140, §203(a)(2), amended par. (2) to read as if amendments by Pub. L. 100–647, §1011B(a)(31)(B), had not been enacted, see 1988 Amendment note below.

Pub. L. 101–140, §203(a)(1), amended par. (2) to read as if amendments by Pub. L. 99–514, §1151(g)(1), had not been enacted, see 1986 Amendment note below.

Subsec. (e). Pub. L. 101–239 substituted “taxable years beginning after September 30, 1990” for “taxable years ending after December 31, 1988”.

1988—Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 100–647, §4002(b)(1), inserted at end “No exclusion shall be allowed under this section with respect to an individual for any taxable year to the extent that the value of insurance (whether through an insurer or self-insurance) against legal costs incurred by the individual (or his spouse or dependents) provided under a qualified group legal services plan exceeds $70.”

Subsec. (c)(2). Pub. L. 100–647, §1011B(a)(31)(B), substituted “there shall” for “there may” and “who are” for “who may be”.

Subsec. (e). Pub. L. 100–647, §4002(a), substituted “1988” for “1987”.

1986—Subsec. (b). Pub. L. 99–514, §1151(c)(3), amended subsec. (b) generally. Prior to amendment, subsec. (b) read as follows: “For purposes of this section, a qualified group legal services plan is a separate written plan of an employer for the exclusive benefit of his employees or their spouses or dependents to provide such employees, spouses, or dependents with specified benefits consisting of personal legal services through prepayment of, or provision in advance for, legal fees in whole or in part by the employer, if the plan meets the requirements of subsection (c).”

Subsec. (c)(1). Pub. L. 99–514, §1114(b)(3)(A), substituted “highly compensated employees (within the meaning of section 414(q))” for “officers, shareholders, self-employed individuals, or highly compensated”.

Subsec. (c)(2). Pub. L. 99–514, §1151(g)(1), substituted “For purposes of this paragraph, there may be excluded from consideration employees who may be excluded from consideration under section 89(h).” for “For purposes of this paragraph, there shall be excluded from consideration employees not included in the plan who are included in a unit of employees covered by an agreement which the Secretary of Labor finds to be a collective bargaining agreement between employee representatives and one or more employers, if there is evidence that group legal services plan benefits were the subject of good faith bargaining between such employee representatives and such employer or employers.”

Subsec. (d)(1). Pub. L. 99–514, §1114(b)(3)(B), struck out reference to self-employed individuals in heading, and substituted “The” for “The term ‘self-employed individual’ means, and the” in text.

Subsec. (e). Pub. L. 99–514, §1162(b), substituted “December 31, 1987” for “December 31, 1985”.

1984—Subsec. (e). Pub. L. 98–612, §1(a), substituted “December 31, 1985” for “December 31, 1984”.

Subsec. (f). Pub. L. 98–612, §1(b)(3)(A), added subsec. (f).

1983—Subsec. (e). Pub. L. 97–448 substituted “This section and section 501(c)(20) shall not apply” for “This section shall not apply”.

1981—Subsec. (e). Pub. L. 97–34 added subsec. (e).

Effective Date of 2004 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 108–311 applicable to taxable years beginning after Dec. 31, 2004, see section 208 of Pub. L. 108–311, set out as a note under section 2 of this title.

Effective Date of 1991 Amendment

Section 104(b) of Pub. L. 102–227 provided that: “The amendment made by this section [amending this section] shall apply to taxable years beginning after December 31, 1991.”

Effective Date of 1990 Amendment

Section 11404(c) of Pub. L. 101–508 provided that: “The amendments made by this section [amending this section and repealing provisions set out below] shall apply to taxable years beginning after December 31, 1989.”

Effective Date of 1989 Amendments

Section 7102(b) of Pub. L. 101–239 provided that: “The amendment made by subsection (a) [amending this section] shall apply to taxable years ending after December 31, 1988.”

Amendment by Pub. L. 101–140 effective as if included in section 1151 of Pub. L. 99–514, see section 203(c) of Pub. L. 101–140, set out as a note under section 79 of this title.

Effective Date of 1988 Amendment

Amendment by section 1011B(a)(31)(B) of Pub. L. 100–647 effective, except as otherwise provided, as if included in the provision of the Tax Reform Act of 1986, Pub. L. 99–514, to which such amendment relates, see section 1019(a) of Pub. L. 100–647, set out as a note under section 1 of this title.

Section 4002(c) of Pub. L. 100–647 provided that: “The amendments made by this section [amending this section and section 125 of this title] shall apply to taxable years ending after December 31, 1987.”

Effective Date of 1986 Amendment

Amendment by section 1114(b)(3) of Pub. L. 99–514 applicable to years beginning after Dec. 31, 1987, see section 1114(c)(2) of Pub. L. 99–514, set out as a note under section 414 of this title.

Amendment by section 1151(c)(3), (g)(1) of Pub. L. 99–514 applicable, with certain qualifications and exceptions, to years beginning after Dec. 31, 1988, see section 1151(k) of Pub. L. 99–514, as amended, set out as a note under section 79 of this title.

Section 1162(c) of Pub. L. 99–514 provided that:

“(1) Subsection (a).—The amendments made by subsection (a) [amending section 127 of this title] shall apply to taxable years beginning after December 31, 1985.

“(2) Subsection (b).—The amendment made by subsection (b) [amending this section] shall apply to years ending after December 31, 1985.

“(3) Cafeteria plan with group legal benefits.—If, within 60 days after the date of the enactment of this Act [Oct. 22, 1986], an employee elects under a cafeteria plan under section 125 of the Internal Revenue Code of 1986 coverage for group legal benefits to which section 120 of such Code applies, such election may, at the election of the taxpayer, apply to all legal services provided during 1986. The preceding sentence shall not apply to any plan which on August 16, 1986, offered such group legal benefits under such plan.”

Effective Date of 1984 Amendment

Section 1(d)(1) of Pub. L. 98–612 provided that: “The amendment made by subsection (a) [amending this section] shall apply to taxable years ending after December 31, 1984.”

Amendment by section 1(b)(3)(A) of Pub. L. 98–612 effective Jan. 1, 1985, see section 1(d)(2) of Pub. L. 98–612.

Effective Date of 1983 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 97–448 effective, except as otherwise provided, as if it had been included in the provision of the Economic Recovery Tax Act of 1981, Pub. L. 97–34, to which such amendment relates, see section 109 of Pub. L. 97–448, set out as a note under section 1 of this title.

Effective Date

Section 2134(e) of Pub. L. 94–455, as amended by Pub. L. 95–600, title VII, §703(b)(1), Nov. 6, 1978, 92 Stat. 2939; Pub. L. 97–34, title VIII, §802(b), Aug. 13, 1981, 95 Stat. 349; Pub. L. 99–514, §2, Oct. 22, 1986, 100 Stat. 2095, provided that:

“(1) In general.—Except as provided in paragraph (2), the amendments made by this section [enacting this section and section 501 of this title] shall apply to taxable years beginning after December 31, 1976.

“(2) Notice requirement.—For purposes of section 120(d)(7) of the Internal Revenue Code of 1986 [formerly I.R.C. 1954] the time prescribed by the Secretary of the Treasury by regulations for giving the notice required by section 120(c)(4) of such Code shall not expire before the 90th day after the day on which regulations prescribed under such section 120(c)(4) first become final.

“(3) Existing plans.—

“(A) For purposes of section 120 of the Internal Revenue Code of 1986, a written group legal services plan which was in existence on June 4, 1976, shall be considered as satisfying the requirements of subsections (b) and (c) of such section 120 for the period ending with the compliance date (determined under subparagraph (B)).

“(B) Compliance date.—For purposes of this paragraph, the term ‘compliance date’ means—

“(i) the date occurring 180 days after the date of the enactment of this Act [Oct. 4, 1976], or

“(ii) if later, in the case of a plan which is maintained pursuant to one or more agreements which the Secretary of Labor finds to be collective bargaining agreements, the earlier of December 31, 1981, or the date on which the last of the collective bargaining agreements relating to the plan terminates (determined without regard to any extension thereof agreed to after the date of the enactment of this Act [Oct. 4, 1976]).”

Regulations

Secretary of the Treasury or his delegate to issue before Feb. 1, 1988, final regulations to carry out amendments made by section 1114 of Pub. L. 99–514, see section 1141 of Pub. L. 99–514, set out as a note under section 401 of this title.

Extension of Employer-Provided Group Legal Services

Section 104(a)(2) of Pub. L. 102–227 provided that: “In the case of any taxable year beginning in 1992, only amounts paid before July 1, 1992, by the employer for coverage for the employee, his spouse, or his dependents, under a qualified group legal services plan for periods before July 1, 1992, shall be taken into account in determining the amount excluded under section 120 of the Internal Revenue Code of 1986 with respect to such employee for such taxable year.”

Special Rule for Taxable Years Beginning in 1990

Section 7102(a)(2) of Pub. L. 101–239 provided that in the case of any taxable year beginning in 1990, only amounts paid before October 1, 1990, by the employer for coverage for the employee, his spouse, or his dependents under a qualified group legal services plan for periods before October 1, 1990, would be taken into account in determining the amount excluded under this section with respect to such employee for such taxable year, prior to repeal by Pub. L. 101–508, title XI, §11404(b), Nov. 5, 1990, 104 Stat. 1388–473.

Nonenforcement of Amendment Made by Section 1151 of Pub. L. 99–514 for Fiscal Year 1990

No monies appropriated by Pub. L. 101–136 to be used to implement or enforce section 1151 of Pub. L. 99–514 or the amendments made by such section, see section 528 of Pub. L. 101–136, set out as a note under section 89 of this title.

Plan Amendments Not Required Until January 1, 1989

For provisions directing that if any amendments made by subtitle A or subtitle C of title XI [§§1101–1147 and 1171–1177] or title XVIII [§§1800–1899A] of Pub. L. 99–514 require an amendment to any plan, such plan amendment shall not be required to be made before the first plan year beginning on or after Jan. 1, 1989, see section 1140 of Pub. L. 99–514, as amended, set out as a note under section 401 of this title.

Study and Report

Section 2134(d) of Pub. L. 94–455 provided that a complete study and investigation with respect to the desirability and feasibility of continuing the exclusion from income of certain prepaid group legal services benefits under section 120 of the Internal Revenue Code of 1954 be made by the Secretary of Labor and the Secretary of the Treasury, with a report to the President and the Congress not later than Dec. 31, 1980.

§121. Exclusion of gain from sale of principal residence

(a) Exclusion

Gross income shall not include gain from the sale or exchange of property if, during the 5-year period ending on the date of the sale or exchange, such property has been owned and used by the taxpayer as the taxpayer's principal residence for periods aggregating 2 years or more.

(b) Limitations

(1) In general

The amount of gain excluded from gross income under subsection (a) with respect to any sale or exchange shall not exceed $250,000.

(2) Special rules for joint returns

In the case of a husband and wife who make a joint return for the taxable year of the sale or exchange of the property—

(A) $500,000 Limitation for certain joint returns

Paragraph (1) shall be applied by substituting “$500,000” for “$250,000” if—

(i) either spouse meets the ownership requirements of subsection (a) with respect to such property;

(ii) both spouses meet the use requirements of subsection (a) with respect to such property; and

(iii) neither spouse is ineligible for the benefits of subsection (a) with respect to such property by reason of paragraph (3).

(B) Other joint returns

If such spouses do not meet the requirements of subparagraph (A), the limitation under paragraph (1) shall be the sum of the limitations under paragraph (1) to which each spouse would be entitled if such spouses had not been married. For purposes of the preceding sentence, each spouse shall be treated as owning the property during the period that either spouse owned the property.

(3) Application to only 1 sale or exchange every 2 years

(A) In general

Subsection (a) shall not apply to any sale or exchange by the taxpayer if, during the 2-year period ending on the date of such sale or exchange, there was any other sale or exchange by the taxpayer to which subsection (a) applied.

(B) Pre-May 7, 1997, sales not taken into account

Subparagraph (A) shall be applied without regard to any sale or exchange before May 7, 1997.

(4) 1 Special rule for certain sales by surviving spouses

In the case of a sale or exchange of property by an unmarried individual whose spouse is deceased on the date of such sale, paragraph (1) shall be applied by substituting “$500,000” for “$250,000” if such sale occurs not later than 2 years after the date of death of such spouse and the requirements of paragraph (2)(A) were met immediately before such date of death.

(4) 1 Exclusion of gain allocated to nonqualified use

(A) In general

Subsection (a) shall not apply to so much of the gain from the sale or exchange of property as is allocated to periods of nonqualified use.

(B) Gain allocated to periods of nonqualified use

For purposes of subparagraph (A), gain shall be allocated to periods of nonqualified use based on the ratio which—

(i) the aggregate periods of nonqualified use during the period such property was owned by the taxpayer, bears to

(ii) the period such property was owned by the taxpayer.

(C) Period of nonqualified use

For purposes of this paragraph—

(i) In general

The term “period of nonqualified use” means any period (other than the portion of any period preceding January 1, 2009) during which the property is not used as the principal residence of the taxpayer or the taxpayer's spouse or former spouse.

(ii) Exceptions

The term “period of nonqualified use” does not include—

(I) any portion of the 5-year period described in subsection (a) which is after the last date that such property is used as the principal residence of the taxpayer or the taxpayer's spouse,

(II) any period (not to exceed an aggregate period of 10 years) during which the taxpayer or the taxpayer's spouse is serving on qualified official extended duty (as defined in subsection (d)(9)(C)) described in clause (i), (ii), or (iii) of subsection (d)(9)(A), and

(III) any other period of temporary absence (not to exceed an aggregate period of 2 years) due to change of employment, health conditions, or such other unforeseen circumstances as may be specified by the Secretary.

(D) Coordination with recognition of gain attributable to depreciation

For purposes of this paragraph—

(i) subparagraph (A) shall be applied after the application of subsection (d)(6), and

(ii) subparagraph (B) shall be applied without regard to any gain to which subsection (d)(6) applies.

(c) Exclusion for taxpayers failing to meet certain requirements

(1) In general

In the case of a sale or exchange to which this subsection applies, the ownership and use requirements of subsection (a), and subsection (b)(3), shall not apply; but the dollar limitation under paragraph (1) or (2) of subsection (b), whichever is applicable, shall be equal to—

(A) the amount which bears the same ratio to such limitation (determined without regard to this paragraph) as

(B)(i) the shorter of—

(I) the aggregate periods, during the 5-year period ending on the date of such sale or exchange, such property has been owned and used by the taxpayer as the taxpayer's principal residence; or

(II) the period after the date of the most recent prior sale or exchange by the taxpayer to which subsection (a) applied and before the date of such sale or exchange, bears to


(ii) 2 years.

(2) Sales and exchanges to which subsection applies

This subsection shall apply to any sale or exchange if—

(A) subsection (a) would not (but for this subsection) apply to such sale or exchange by reason of—

(i) a failure to meet the ownership and use requirements of subsection (a), or

(ii) subsection (b)(3), and


(B) such sale or exchange is by reason of a change in place of employment, health, or, to the extent provided in regulations, unforeseen circumstances.

(d) Special rules

(1) Joint returns

If a husband and wife make a joint return for the taxable year of the sale or exchange of the property, subsections (a) and (c) shall apply if either spouse meets the ownership and use requirements of subsection (a) with respect to such property.

(2) Property of deceased spouse

For purposes of this section, in the case of an unmarried individual whose spouse is deceased on the date of the sale or exchange of property, the period such unmarried individual owned and used such property shall include the period such deceased spouse owned and used such property before death.

(3) Property owned by spouse or former spouse

For purposes of this section—

(A) Property transferred to individual from spouse or former spouse

In the case of an individual holding property transferred to such individual in a transaction described in section 1041(a), the period such individual owns such property shall include the period the transferor owned the property.

(B) Property used by former spouse pursuant to divorce decree, etc.

Solely for purposes of this section, an individual shall be treated as using property as such individual's principal residence during any period of ownership while such individual's spouse or former spouse is granted use of the property under a divorce or separation instrument (as defined in section 71(b)(2)).

(4) Tenant-stockholder in cooperative housing corporation

For purposes of this section, if the taxpayer holds stock as a tenant-stockholder (as defined in section 216) in a cooperative housing corporation (as defined in such section), then—

(A) the holding requirements of subsection (a) shall be applied to the holding of such stock, and

(B) the use requirements of subsection (a) shall be applied to the house or apartment which the taxpayer was entitled to occupy as such stockholder.

(5) Involuntary conversions

(A) In general

For purposes of this section, the destruction, theft, seizure, requisition, or condemnation of property shall be treated as the sale of such property.

(B) Application of section 1033

In applying section 1033 (relating to involuntary conversions), the amount realized from the sale or exchange of property shall be treated as being the amount determined without regard to this section, reduced by the amount of gain not included in gross income pursuant to this section.

(C) Property acquired after involuntary conversion

If the basis of the property sold or exchanged is determined (in whole or in part) under section 1033(b) (relating to basis of property acquired through involuntary conversion), then the holding and use by the taxpayer of the converted property shall be treated as holding and use by the taxpayer of the property sold or exchanged.

(6) Recognition of gain attributable to depreciation

Subsection (a) shall not apply to so much of the gain from the sale of any property as does not exceed the portion of the depreciation adjustments (as defined in section 1250(b)(3)) attributable to periods after May 6, 1997, in respect of such property.

(7) Determination of use during periods of out-of-residence care

In the case of a taxpayer who—

(A) becomes physically or mentally incapable of self-care, and

(B) owns property and uses such property as the taxpayer's principal residence during the 5-year period described in subsection (a) for periods aggregating at least 1 year,


then the taxpayer shall be treated as using such property as the taxpayer's principal residence during any time during such 5-year period in which the taxpayer owns the property and resides in any facility (including a nursing home) licensed by a State or political subdivision to care for an individual in the taxpayer's condition.

(8) Sales of remainder interests

For purposes of this section—

(A) In general

At the election of the taxpayer, this section shall not fail to apply to the sale or exchange of an interest in a principal residence by reason of such interest being a remainder interest in such residence, but this section shall not apply to any other interest in such residence which is sold or exchanged separately.

(B) Exception for sales to related parties

Subparagraph (A) shall not apply to any sale to, or exchange with, any person who bears a relationship to the taxpayer which is described in section 267(b) or 707(b).

(9) Uniformed services, Foreign Service, and intelligence community

(A) In general

At the election of an individual with respect to a property, the running of the 5-year period described in subsections (a) and (c)(1)(B) and paragraph (7) of this subsection with respect to such property shall be suspended during any period that such individual or such individual's spouse is serving on qualified official extended duty—

(i) as a member of the uniformed services,

(ii) as a member of the Foreign Service of the United States, or

(iii) as an employee of the intelligence community.

(B) Maximum period of suspension

The 5-year period described in subsection (a) shall not be extended more than 10 years by reason of subparagraph (A).

(C) Qualified official extended duty

For purposes of this paragraph—

(i) In general

The term “qualified official extended duty” means any extended duty while serving at a duty station which is at least 50 miles from such property or while residing under Government orders in Government quarters.

(ii) Uniformed services

The term “uniformed services” has the meaning given such term by section 101(a)(5) of title 10, United States Code, as in effect on the date of the enactment of this paragraph.

(iii) Foreign Service of the United States

The term “member of the Foreign Service of the United States” has the meaning given the term “member of the Service” by paragraph (1), (2), (3), (4), or (5) of section 103 of the Foreign Service Act of 1980, as in effect on the date of the enactment of this paragraph.

(iv) Employee of intelligence community

The term “employee of the intelligence community” means an employee (as defined by section 2105 of title 5, United States Code) of—

(I) the Office of the Director of National Intelligence,

(II) the Central Intelligence Agency,

(III) the National Security Agency,

(IV) the Defense Intelligence Agency,

(V) the National Geospatial-Intelligence Agency,

(VI) the National Reconnaissance Office,

(VII) any other office within the Department of Defense for the collection of specialized national intelligence through reconnaissance programs,

(VIII) any of the intelligence elements of the Army, the Navy, the Air Force, the Marine Corps, the Federal Bureau of Investigation, the Department of Treasury, the Department of Energy, and the Coast Guard,

(IX) the Bureau of Intelligence and Research of the Department of State, or

(X) any of the elements of the Department of Homeland Security concerned with the analyses of foreign intelligence information.

(v) Extended duty

The term “extended duty” means any period of active duty pursuant to a call or order to such duty for a period in excess of 90 days or for an indefinite period.

(D) Special rules relating to election

(i) Election limited to 1 property at a time

An election under subparagraph (A) with respect to any property may not be made if such an election is in effect with respect to any other property.

(ii) Revocation of election

An election under subparagraph (A) may be revoked at any time.

(10) Property acquired in like-kind exchange

If a taxpayer acquires property in an exchange with respect to which gain is not recognized (in whole or in part) to the taxpayer under subsection (a) or (b) of section 1031, subsection (a) shall not apply to the sale or exchange of such property by such taxpayer (or by any person whose basis in such property is determined, in whole or in part, by reference to the basis in the hands of such taxpayer) during the 5-year period beginning with the date of such acquisition.

[(11) Repealed. Pub. L. 111–312, title III, §301(a), Dec. 17, 2010, 124 Stat. 3300]

(12) Peace Corps

(A) In general

At the election of an individual with respect to a property, the running of the 5-year period described in subsections (a) and (c)(1)(B) and paragraph (7) of this subsection with respect to such property shall be suspended during any period that such individual or such individual's spouse is serving outside the United States—

(i) on qualified official extended duty (as defined in paragraph (9)(C)) as an employee of the Peace Corps, or

(ii) as an enrolled volunteer or volunteer leader under section 5 or 6 (as the case may be) of the Peace Corps Act (22 U.S.C. 2504, 2505).

(B) Applicable rules

For purposes of subparagraph (A), rules similar to the rules of subparagraphs (B) and (D) 2 shall apply.

(e) Denial of exclusion for expatriates

This section shall not apply to any sale or exchange by an individual if the treatment provided by section 877(a)(1) applies to such individual.

(f) Election to have section not apply

This section shall not apply to any sale or exchange with respect to which the taxpayer elects not to have this section apply.

(g) Residences acquired in rollovers under section 1034

For purposes of this section, in the case of property the acquisition of which by the taxpayer resulted under section 1034 3 (as in effect on the day before the date of the enactment of this section) in the nonrecognition of any part of the gain realized on the sale or exchange of another residence, in determining the period for which the taxpayer has owned and used such property as the taxpayer's principal residence, there shall be included the aggregate periods for which such other residence (and each prior residence taken into account under section 1223(6) in determining the holding period of such property) had been so owned and used.

(Added Pub. L. 88–272, title II, §206(a), Feb. 26, 1964, 78 Stat. 38; amended Pub. L. 94–455, title XIV, §1404(a), title XIX, §1906(b)(13)(A), Oct. 4, 1976, 90 Stat. 1733, 1834; Pub. L. 95–600, title IV, §404(a)–(c)(2), Nov. 6, 1978, 92 Stat. 2869, 2870; Pub. L. 97–34, title I, §123(a), Aug. 13, 1981, 95 Stat. 197; Pub. L. 100–647, title VI, §6011(a), Nov. 10, 1988, 102 Stat. 3691; Pub. L. 105–34, title III, §312(a), Aug. 5, 1997, 111 Stat. 836; Pub. L. 105–206, title VI, §6005(e)(1), (2), July 22, 1998, 112 Stat. 805; Pub. L. 107–16, title V, §542(c), June 7, 2001, 115 Stat. 84; Pub. L. 108–121, title I, §101(a), Nov. 11, 2003, 117 Stat. 1336; Pub. L. 108–357, title VIII, §840(a), Oct. 22, 2004, 118 Stat. 1597; Pub. L. 109–135, title IV, §§402(a)(3), 403(ee), Dec. 21, 2005, 119 Stat. 2610, 2631; Pub. L. 109–432, div. A, title IV, §417(a)–(d), Dec. 20, 2006, 120 Stat. 2965, 2966; Pub. L. 110–142, §7(a), Dec. 20, 2007, 121 Stat. 1806; Pub. L. 110–172, §11(a)(11)(A), Dec. 29, 2007, 121 Stat. 2485; Pub. L. 110–245, title I, §§110(a), 113(a), (b), June 17, 2008, 122 Stat. 1633, 1635; Pub. L. 110–289, div. C, title III, §3092(a), July 30, 2008, 122 Stat. 2911; Pub. L. 111–312, title III, §301(a), Dec. 17, 2010, 124 Stat. 3300.)

Amendment of Section

For termination of amendment by section 304 of Pub. L. 111–312, see Effective and Termination Dates of 2010 Amendment note below.

For termination of amendment by section 901 of Pub. L. 107–16, see Effective and Termination Dates of 2001 Amendment note below.

References in Text

The date of the enactment of this paragraph, referred to in subsec. (d)(9)(C)(ii), (iii), is the date of enactment of Pub. L. 108–121, which was approved Nov. 11, 2003.

Section 103 of the Foreign Service Act of 1980, referred to in subsec. (d)(9)(C)(iii), is classified to section 3903 of Title 22, Foreign Relations and Intercourse.

Section 1034 (as in effect on the day before the date of the enactment of this section), referred to in subsec. (g), probably means section 1034 of this title as in effect on the day before the date of enactment of Pub. L. 105–34 which amended this section generally and was approved Aug. 5, 1997. Section 1034 was repealed by Pub. L. 105–34, title III, §312(b), Aug. 5, 1997, 111 Stat. 839.

Codification

Pub. L. 109–135, title IV, §403(ee)(1), (nn), Dec. 21, 2005, 119 Stat. 2631, 2632, which directed that subsec. (d) of this section be amended by redesignating the paragraph (10) relating to property acquired from a decedent as paragraph (11), effective as if included in the provisions to which such amendment relates of the American Jobs Creation Act of 2004, Pub. L. 108–357, was executed as the probable intent of Congress by redesignating as paragraph (11) the paragraph (10) directed to be added to subsec. (d) of this section by Pub. L. 107–16, §542(c), (f)(1), applicable to estates of decedents dying after Dec. 31, 2009. See Codification note, 2001, 2003, and 2005 Amendment notes, and Effective Date of 2005 Amendment note below.

Pub. L. 108–121, title I, §101(a), (b)(1), Nov. 11, 2003, 117 Stat. 1336, which directed that subsec. (d) of this section be amended by redesignating paragraph (9) as (10) and adding a new paragraph (9), effective as if included in the amendments made by section 312 of the Taxpayer Relief Act of 1997, Pub. L. 105–34, could not literally be executed insofar as it directed the redesignation because subsec. (d), as amended by Pub. L. 105–34, did not contain a paragraph (9). However, to reflect the probable intent of Congress, the amendment was executed by redesignating as paragraph (10) the paragraph (9) directed to be added to subsec. (d) of this section by Pub. L. 107–16, §542(c), (f)(1), applicable to estates of decedents dying after Dec. 31, 2009. See Codification note above and 2001, 2003, and 2005 Amendment notes and Effective Date of 2003 Amendment note below.

Prior Provisions

A prior section 121 was renumbered section 140 of this title.

Amendments

2010—Subsec. (d)(11). Pub. L. 111–312, §§301(a), 304, temporarily amended subsec. (d) to read as if amendment by Pub. L. 107–16, §542(c), which originally added par. (9), had never been enacted. See Codification notes above and 2001 Amendment note and Effective and Termination Dates of 2010 Amendment note below. Prior to amendment, par. (11) read as follows: “Property acquired from a decedent.—The exclusion under this section shall apply to property sold by—

“(A) the estate of a decedent,

“(B) any individual who acquired such property from the decedent (within the meaning of section 1022), and

“(C) a trust which, immediately before the death of the decedent, was a qualified revocable trust (as defined in section 645(b)(1)) established by the decedent,

determined by taking into account the ownership and use by the decedent.”

2008—Subsec. (b)(4). Pub. L. 110–289 added par. (4) relating to exclusion of gain allocated to nonqualified use.

Subsec. (d)(9)(C)(vi). Pub. L. 110–245, §113(b), struck out heading and text of cl. (vi). Text read as follows: “An employee of the intelligence community shall not be treated as serving on qualified extended duty unless such duty is at a duty station located outside the United States.”

Subsec. (d)(9)(E). Pub. L. 110–245, §113(a), struck out heading and text of subpar. (E). Text read as follows: “Clause (iii) of subparagraph (A) shall not apply with respect to any sale or exchange after December 31, 2010.”

Subsec. (d)(12). Pub. L. 110–245, §110(a), added par. (12).

2007—Subsec. (b)(4). Pub. L. 110–142 added par. (4) relating to special rule for certain sales by surviving spouses.

Subsec. (d)(9)(E). Pub. L. 110–172 added subpar. (E).

2006—Subsec. (d)(9). Pub. L. 109–432, §417(d), substituted “Uniformed services, Foreign Service, and intelligence community” for “Members of uniformed services and Foreign Service” in heading.

Subsec. (d)(9)(A). Pub. L. 109–432, §417(a), substituted “duty—

“(i) as a member of the uniformed services,

“(ii) as a member of the Foreign Service of the United States, or

“(iii) as an employee of the intelligence community.”

for “duty as a member of the uniformed services or of the Foreign Service of the United States.”

Subsec. (d)(9)(C)(iv), (v). Pub. L. 109–432, §417(b), added cl. (iv) and redesignated former cl. (iv) as (v).

Subsec. (d)(9)(C)(vi). Pub. L. 109–432, §417(c), added cl. (vi).

2005—Subsec. (d)(10). Pub. L. 109–135, §403(ee)(2), amended heading and text of par. (10) relating to property acquired in like-kind exchange generally. Prior to amendment, text read as follows: “If a taxpayer acquired property in an exchange to which section 1031 applied, subsection (a) shall not apply to the sale or exchange of such property if it occurs during the 5-year period beginning with the date of the acquisition of such property.”

Subsec. (d)(11). Pub. L. 109–135, §403(ee)(1), redesignated par. (10), formerly par. (9), as temporarily added by Pub. L. 107–16, as (11). See Codification notes above and 2001 and 2003 Amendment notes and Effective and Termination Dates of 2001 Amendment note below.

Subsec. (g). Pub. L. 109–135, §402(a)(3), substituted “section 1223(6)” for “section 1223(7)”.

2004—Subsec. (d)(10). Pub. L. 108–357 added par. (10) relating to property acquired in like-kind exchange.

2003—Subsec. (d)(9), (10). Pub. L. 108–121 added par. (9) and redesignated former par. (9), as temporarily added by Pub. L. 107–16, as (10). See Codification notes above and 2001 Amendment note and Effective and Termination Dates of 2001 Amendment note below.

2001—Subsec. (d)(9). Pub. L. 107–16, §§542(c), 901, temporarily added par. (9). See Codification notes above and Effective and Termination Dates of 2001 Amendment note below.

1998—Subsec. (b)(2). Pub. L. 105–206, §6005(e)(1), substituted “Special rules for joint returns” for “$500,000 limitation for certain joint returns” in heading and amended text generally. Prior to amendment, text read as follows: “Paragraph (1) shall be applied by substituting ‘$500,000’ for ‘$250,000’ if—

“(A) a husband and wife make a joint return for the taxable year of the sale or exchange of the property,

“(B) either spouse meets the ownership requirements of subsection (a) with respect to such property,

“(C) both spouses meet the use requirements of subsection (a) with respect to such property, and

“(D) neither spouse is ineligible for the benefits of subsection (a) with respect to such property by reason of paragraph (3).”

Subsec. (c)(1). Pub. L. 105–206, §6005(e)(2), reenacted heading without change and amended text generally. Prior to amendment, text read as follows: “In the case of a sale or exchange to which this subsection applies, the ownership and use requirements of subsection (a) shall not apply and subsection (b)(3) shall not apply; but the amount of gain excluded from gross income under subsection (a) with respect to such sale or exchange shall not exceed—

“(A) the amount which bears the same ratio to the amount which would be so excluded under this section if such requirements had been met, as

“(B) the shorter of—

“(i) the aggregate periods, during the 5-year period ending on the date of such sale or exchange, such property has been owned and used by the taxpayer as the taxpayer's principal residence, or

“(ii) the period after the date of the most recent prior sale or exchange by the taxpayer to which subsection (a) applied and before the date of such sale or exchange,

bears to 2 years.”

1997—Pub. L. 105–34 amended section catchline and text generally. Prior to amendment, section related to one-time exclusion of gain from sale of principal residence by individual who had attained age 55.

1988—Subsec. (d)(9). Pub. L. 100–647 added par. (9).

1981—Subsec. (b)(1). Pub. L. 97–34 substituted “$125,000 ($62,500” for “$100,000 ($50,000”.

1978—Pub. L. 95–600, §404(a), substituted “One-time exclusion of gain from sale of principal residence by individual who has attained age 55” for “Gain from sale or exchange of residence of individual who has attained age 65” in section catchline.

Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 95–600, §404(a), substituted “55” for “65”, “5-year” for “8-year”, and “3 years” for “5 years”.

Subsec. (b). Pub. L. 95–600, §404(a), in par. (1) substituted provisions respecting dollar limitations for amount of gain for provisions setting forth applicable limitations where the adjusted sales price exceeds $35,000 and added par. (3).

Subsec. (d)(2). Pub. L. 95–600, §404(c)(1), substituted “5-year period” for “8-year period”.

Subsec. (d)(5). Pub. L. 95–600, §404(c)(2), substituted “5-year period” for “8-year period” and “3 years” for “5 years”.

Subsec. (d)(8). Pub. L. 95–600, §404(b), added par. (8).

1976—Subsec. (b)(1). Pub. L. 94–455, §1404(a), substituted “$35,000” for “$20,000” in three places.

Subsecs. (c), (d)(5). Pub. L. 94–455, §1906(b)(13)(A), struck out “or his delegate” after “Secretary”.

Effective and Termination Dates of 2010 Amendment

Pub. L. 111–312, title III, §301(e), Dec. 17, 2010, 124 Stat. 3301, provided that: “Except as otherwise provided in this section, the amendments made by this section [amending this section and sections 170, 684, 1014, 1040, 1221, 1246, 1291, 1296, 2505, 4947, 6018, 6019, 6075, and 7701 of this title and repealing sections 1022, 2210, 2664, and 6716 of this title] shall apply to estates of decedents dying, and transfers made, after December 31, 2009.”

Pub. L. 111–312, title III, §304, Dec. 17, 2010, 124 Stat. 3304, provided that: “Section 901 of the Economic Growth and Tax Relief Reconciliation Act of 2001 [Pub. L. 107–16, set out as a note under section 1 of this title] shall apply to the amendments made by this title [amending this section and sections 170, 684, 1014, 1040, 1221, 1246, 1291, 1296, 2001, 2010, 2502, 2505, 2511, 2631, 4947, 6018, 6019, 6075, and 7701 of this title and repealing sections 1022, 2210, 2664, and 6716 of this title].”

Effective Date of 2008 Amendment

Pub. L. 110–289, div. C, title III, §3092(b), July 30, 2008, 122 Stat. 2912, provided that: “The amendment made by this section [amending this section] shall apply to sales and exchanges after December 31, 2008.”

Pub. L. 110–245, title I, §110(b), June 17, 2008, 122 Stat. 1634, provided that: “The amendment made by subsection (a) [amending this section] shall apply to taxable years beginning after December 31, 2007.”

Pub. L. 110–245, title I, §113(c), June 17, 2008, 122 Stat. 1635, provided that: “The amendments made by this section [amending this section] shall apply to sales or exchanges after the date of the enactment of this Act [June 17, 2008].”

Effective Date of 2007 Amendment

Pub. L. 110–142, §7(b), Dec. 20, 2007, 121 Stat. 1806, provided that: “The amendment made by this section [amending this section] shall apply to sales or exchanges after December 31, 2007.”

Effective Date of 2006 Amendment

Pub. L. 109–432, div. A, title IV, §417(e), Dec. 20, 2006, 120 Stat. 2966, as amended by Pub. L. 110–172, §11(a)(11)(B), Dec. 29, 2007, 121 Stat. 2485, provided that: “The amendments made by this section [amending this section] shall apply to sales or exchanges after the date of the enactment of this Act [Dec. 20, 2006].”

Effective Date of 2005 Amendment

Amendment by section 402(a)(3) of Pub. L. 109–135 effective as if included in the provisions of the Energy Policy Act of 2005, Pub. L. 109–58, to which it relates, but not applicable with respect to any transaction ordered in compliance with the Public Utility Holding Company Act of 1935 (15 U.S.C. 79 et seq.) before its repeal, see section 402(m) of Pub. L. 109–135, set out as an Effective and Termination Dates of 2005 Amendments note under section 23 of this title.

Amendment by section 403(ee) of Pub. L. 109–135 effective as if included in the provision of the American Jobs Creation Act of 2004, Pub. L. 108–357, to which such amendment relates, see section 403(nn) of Pub. L. 109–135, set out as a note under section 26 of this title.

Effective Date of 2004 Amendment

Pub. L. 108–357, title VIII, §840(b), Oct. 22, 2004, 118 Stat. 1597, provided that: “The amendment made by this section [amending this section] shall apply to sales or exchanges after the date of the enactment of this Act [Oct. 22, 2004].”

Effective Date of 2003 Amendment

Pub. L. 108–121, title I, §101(b), Nov. 11, 2003, 117 Stat. 1336, provided that:

“(1) Effective date.—The amendments made by this section [amending this section] shall take effect as if included in the amendments made by section 312 of the Taxpayer Relief Act of 1997 [Pub. L. 105–34].

“(2) Waiver of limitations.—If refund or credit of any overpayment of tax resulting from the amendments made by this section [amending this section] is prevented at any time before the close of the 1-year period beginning on the date of the enactment of this Act [Nov. 11, 2003] by the operation of any law or rule of law (including res judicata), such refund or credit may nevertheless be made or allowed if claim therefor is filed before the close of such period.”

Effective and Termination Dates of 2001 Amendment

Pub. L. 107–16, title V, §542(f), June 7, 2001, 115 Stat. 86, provided that:

“(1) In general.—Except as provided in paragraph (2), the amendments made by this section [enacting sections 1022 and 6716 of this title and amending this section and sections 170, 684, 1040, 1221, 1246, 1291, 1296, 4947, 6018, 6019, 6075, and 7701 of this title] shall apply to estates of decedents dying after December 31, 2009.

“(2) Transfers to nonresidents.—The amendments made by subsection (e)(1) [amending section 684 of this title] shall apply to transfers after December 31, 2009.

“(3) Section 4947.—The amendment made by subsection (e)(4) [amending section 4947 of this title] shall apply to deductions for taxable years beginning after December 31, 2009.”

Amendment by Pub. L. 107–16 inapplicable to estates of decedents dying, gifts made, or generation skipping transfers, after Dec. 31, 2012, and the Internal Revenue Code of 1986 to be applied and administered to such estates, gifts, and transfers as if such amendment had never been enacted, see section 901 of Pub. L. 107–16, set out as a note under section 1 of this title.

Effective Date of 1998 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 105–206 effective, except as otherwise provided, as if included in the provisions of the Taxpayer Relief Act of 1997, Pub. L. 105–34, to which such amendment relates, see section 6024 of Pub. L. 105–206, set out as a note under section 1 of this title.

Effective Date of 1997 Amendment

Section 312(d) of Pub. L. 105–34, as amended by Pub. L. 105–206, title VI, §6005(e)(3), July 22, 1998, 112 Stat. 806, provided that:

“(1) In general.—The amendments made by this section [amending this section and sections 25, 32, 56, 143, 163, 215, 280A, 464, 512, 1016, 1033, 1038, 1223, 1250, 1274, 6012, 6045, 6212, 6334, 6504, and 7872 of this title and repealing section 1034 of this title] shall apply to sales and exchanges after May 6, 1997.

“(2) Sales on or before date of enactment.—At the election of the taxpayer, the amendments made by this section shall not apply to any sale or exchange on or before the date of the enactment of this Act [Aug. 5, 1997].

“(3) Certain sales within 2 years after date of enactment.—Section 121 of the Internal Revenue Code of 1986 (as amended by this section) shall be applied without regard to subsection (c)(2)(B) thereof in the case of any sale or exchange of property during the 2-year period beginning on the date of the enactment of this Act if the taxpayer held such property on the date of the enactment of this Act and fails to meet the ownership and use requirements of subsection (a) thereof with respect to such property.

“(4) Binding contracts.—At the election of the taxpayer, the amendments made by this section shall not apply to a sale or exchange after the date of the enactment of this Act, if—

“(A) such sale or exchange is pursuant to a contract which was binding on such date, or

“(B) without regard to such amendments, gain would not be recognized under section 1034 of the Internal Revenue Code of 1986 (as in effect on the day before the date of the enactment of this Act) on such sale or exchange by reason of a new residence acquired on or before such date or with respect to the acquisition of which by the taxpayer a binding contract was in effect on such date.

This paragraph shall not apply to any sale or exchange by an individual if the treatment provided by section 877(a)(1) of the Internal Revenue Code of 1986 applies to such individual.”

Effective Date of 1988 Amendment

Section 6011(b) of Pub. L. 100–647 provided that: “The amendment made by subsection (a) [amending this section] shall apply with respect to any sale or exchange after September 30, 1988, in taxable years ending after such date.”

Effective Date of 1981 Amendment

Section 123(b) of Pub. L. 97–34 provided that: “The amendment made by this section [amending this section] shall apply to residences sold or exchanged after July 20, 1981.”

Effective Date of 1978 Amendment

Section 404(d)(1) of Pub. L. 95–600 provided that: “The amendments made by this section [amending this section and sections 1033, 1034, 1038, 1250, and 6012 of this title] shall apply to sales or exchanges after July 26, 1978, in taxable years ending after such date.”

Effective Date of 1976 Amendment

Section 1404(b) of Pub. L. 94–455 provided that: “The amendment made by subsection (a) [amending this section] shall apply to taxable years beginning after December 31, 1976.”

Effective Date

Section 206(c) of Pub. L. 88–272 provided that: “The amendments made by this section [enacting this section, redesignating former section 121 as 122, and amending sections 1033, 1034, and 6012 of this title] shall apply to dispositions after Dec. 31, 1963, in taxable years ending after such date.”

Sense of Congress Concerning Tax Treatment of Principal Residence of Members of Armed Forces While Away From Home on Active Duty

Pub. L. 105–261, div. A, title X, §1074, Oct. 17, 1998, 112 Stat. 2138, provided that: “It is the sense of Congress that a member of the Armed Forces should be treated for purposes of section 121 of the Internal Revenue Code of 1986 as using property as a principal residence during any continuous period that the member is serving on active duty for 180 days or more with the Armed Forces, but only if the member used the property as a principal residence for any period during or immediately before that period of active duty.”

Transitional Rule in Case of Sale or Exchange of Residence Before July 26, 1981

Section 404(d)(2) of Pub. L. 95–600, as amended by Pub. L. 99–514, §2, Oct. 22, 1986, 100 Stat. 2095, provided that: “In the case of a sale or exchange of a residence before July 26, 1981, a taxpayer who has attained age 65 on the date of such sale or exchange may elect to have section 121 of the Internal Revenue Code of 1986 [formerly I.R.C. 1954] applied by substituting ‘8-year period’ for ‘5-year period’ and ‘5 years’ for ‘3 years’ in subsections (a), (d)(2), and (d)(5) of such section.”

1 So in original. Two pars. (4) have been enacted.

2 So in original.

3 See References in Text note below.

§122. Certain reduced uniformed services retirement pay

(a) General rule

In the case of a member or former member of the uniformed services of the United States, gross income does not include the amount of any reduction in his retired or retainer pay pursuant to the provisions of chapter 73 of title 10, United States Code.

(b) Special rule

(1) Amount excluded from gross income

In the case of any individual referred to in subsection (a), all amounts received after December 31, 1965, as retired or retainer pay shall be excluded from gross income until there has been so excluded an amount equal to the consideration for the contract. The preceding sentence shall apply only to the extent that the amounts received would, but for such sentence, be includible in gross income.

(2) Consideration for the contract

For purposes of paragraph (1) and section 72(n), the term “consideration for the contract” means, in respect of any individual, the sum of—

(A) the total amount of the reductions before January 1, 1966, in his retired or retainer pay by reason of an election under chapter 73 of title 10 of the United States Code, and

(B) any amounts deposited at any time by him pursuant to section 1438 or 1452(d) of such title 10.

(Added Pub. L. 89–365, §1(a)(1), Mar. 8, 1966, 80 Stat. 32; amended Pub. L. 93–406, title II, §§2005(c)(10), 2007(a), (b)(1), Sept. 2, 1974, 88 Stat. 992, 994.)

Prior Provisions

A prior section 122 was renumbered section 140 of this title.

Amendments

1974—Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 93–406, §2007(a), substituted “United States, gross income does not include the amount of any reduction in his retired or retainer pay pursuant to the provisions of chapter 73 of title 10, United States Code” for “United States who has made an election under chapter 73 of title 10 of the United States Code to receive a reduced amount of retired or retainer pay, gross income does not include the amount of any reduction after December 31, 1965, in his retired or retainer pay by reason of such election”.

Subsec. (b)(2). Pub. L. 93–406, §2005(c)(10), substituted “72(n)” for “72(o)”.

Subsec. (b)(2)(B). Pub. L. 93–406, §2007(b)(1), inserted reference to section 1452(d) of title 10.

Effective Date of 1974 Amendment

Amendment by section 2005(c)(10) of Pub. L. 93–406 applicable only with respect to distributions or payments made after Dec. 31, 1973, in taxable years beginning after Dec. 31, 1973, see section 2005(d) of Pub. L. 93–406, set out as a note under section 402 of this title.

Section 2007(c) of Pub. L. 93–406 provided that: “The amendments made by this section [amending this section and sections 72, 101, and 2039 of this title] apply to taxable years ending on or after September 21, 1972. The amendments made by paragraphs (3) and (4) of subsection (b) [amending sections 101 and 2039 of this title] apply with respect to individuals dying on or after such date”.

Effective Date

Section 1(d) of Pub. L. 89–365 provided that: “The amendments made by subsections (a) and (b) [enacting this section and amending section 72 of this title] shall apply with respect to taxable years ending after December 31, 1965. The amendment made by subsection (c) [amending section 101 of this title] shall apply with respect to individuals making an election under chapter 73 of title 10 of the United States Code who die after December 31, 1965.”

§123. Amounts received under insurance contracts for certain living expenses

(a) General rule

In the case of an individual whose principal residence is damaged or destroyed by fire, storm, or other casualty, or who is denied access to his principal residence by governmental authorities because of the occurrence or threat of occurrence of such a casualty, gross income does not include amounts received by such individual under an insurance contract which are paid to compensate or reimburse such individual for living expenses incurred for himself and members of his household resulting from the loss of use or occupancy of such residence.

(b) Limitation

Subsection (a) shall apply to amounts received by the taxpayer for living expenses incurred during any period only to the extent the amounts received do not exceed the amount by which—

(1) the actual living expenses incurred during such period for himself and members of his household resulting from the loss of use or occupancy of their residence, exceed

(2) the normal living expenses which would have been incurred for himself and members of his household during such period.

(Added Pub. L. 91–172, title IX, §901(a), Dec. 30, 1969, 83 Stat. 709.)

Prior Provisions

A prior section 123 was renumbered section 140 of this title.

Effective Date

Section 901(c) of Pub. L. 91–172 provided that: “The amendments made by this section [enacting this section] shall apply with respect to amounts received on or after January 1, 1969.”

[§124. Repealed. Pub. L. 101–508, title XI, §11801(a)(9), Nov. 5, 1990, 104 Stat. 1388–520]

Section, added Pub. L. 95–618, title II, §242(a), Nov. 9, 1978, 92 Stat. 3193, related to qualified transportation provided by employers.

A prior section 124 was renumbered section 140 of this title.

Savings Provision

For provisions that nothing in repeal by Pub. L. 101–508 be construed to affect treatment of certain transactions occurring, property acquired, or items of income, loss, deduction, or credit taken into account prior to Nov. 5, 1990, for purposes of determining liability for tax for periods ending after Nov. 5, 1990, see section 11821(b) of Pub. L. 101–508, set out as a note under section 45K of this title.

§125. Cafeteria plans

(a) General rule

Except as provided in subsection (b), no amount shall be included in the gross income of a participant in a cafeteria plan solely because, under the plan, the participant may choos