26 U.S.C.
United States Code, 2011 Edition
Title 26 - INTERNAL REVENUE CODE
Subtitle A - Income Taxes
CHAPTER 1 - NORMAL TAXES AND SURTAXES
Subchapter N - Tax Based on Income From Sources Within or Without the United States
PART III - INCOME FROM SOURCES WITHOUT THE UNITED STATES
From the U.S. Government Printing Office, www.gpo.gov

PART III—INCOME FROM SOURCES WITHOUT THE UNITED STATES

Subpart
A.
Foreign tax credit.
B.
Earned income of citizens or residents of United States.
[C.
Repealed.]
D.
Possessions of the United States.
[E.
Repealed.]
F.
Controlled foreign corporations.
[G.
Repealed.] 1

        

H.
Income of certain nonresident United States citizens subject to foreign community property laws.1
I.
Admissibility of documentation maintained in foreign countries.
J.
Foreign currency transactions.

        

Amendments

2004—Pub. L. 108–357, title I, §101(b)(2), Oct. 22, 2004, 118 Stat. 1423, struck out item for subpart E “Qualifying foreign trade income”.

2000—Pub. L. 106–519, §4(8), Nov. 15, 2000, 114 Stat. 2433, struck out item for subpart C “Taxation of foreign sales corporations”.

Pub. L. 106–519, §4(7), Nov. 15, 2000, 114 Stat. 2433, added item for subpart E and directed that former item for subpart E be struck out, which could not be executed because the item for subpart E had previously been struck out by Pub. L. 94–455, §1053(d)(5). See 1976 Amendment note below.

1986—Pub. L. 99–514, title XII, §1261(d), Oct. 22, 1986, 100 Stat. 2591, added item for subpart J.

1984—Pub. L. 98–369, div. A, title VIII, §802(c)(4), July 18, 1984, 98 Stat. 999, added item for subpart C.

1982—Pub. L. 97–248, title III, §337(b), Sept. 3, 1982, 96 Stat. 630, added item for subpart I.

1978—Pub. L. 95–615, §202(g)(4), formerly §202(f)(4), Nov. 8, 1978, 92 Stat. 3100, renumbered Pub. L. 96–222, title I, §108(a)(1)(A), Apr. 1, 1980, 94 Stat. 223, inserted in item for subpart B “or residents” after “citizens.”

1976—Pub. L. 94–455, title X, §1012(b)(3)(B), Oct. 4, 1976, 90 Stat. 1614, struck out item for subpart G “Export Trade Corporation” from analysis without a corresponding repeal of text in such subpart. The amendment probably should have struck out item for subpart H.

Pub. L. 94–455, title X, §§1052(c)(7), 1053(d)(5), Oct. 4, 1976, 90 Stat. 1648, 1649, struck out item for subpart C, relating to Western Hemisphere trade corporations, effective for taxable years beginning after Dec. 31, 1979, and item for subpart E, relating to China Trade Act corporations, effective for taxable years beginning after Dec. 31, 1977.

1966—Pub. L. 89–809, title I, §105(e)(2), Nov. 13, 1966, 80 Stat. 1567, added item for subpart H.

1962—Pub. L. 87–834, §12(b)(3), Oct. 16, 1962, 76 Stat. 1031, added items for subparts F and G.

1 See 1976 Amendment note below.

Subpart A—Foreign Tax Credit

Sec.
901.
Taxes of foreign countries and of possessions of United States.
902.
Deemed paid credit where domestic corporation owns 10 percent or more of voting stock of foreign corporation.
903.
Credit for taxes in lieu of income, etc., taxes.
904.
Limitation on credit.
905.
Applicable rules.
906.
Nonresident alien individuals and foreign corporations.
907.
Special rules in case of foreign oil and gas income.
908.
Reduction of credit for participation in or cooperation with an international boycott.
909.
Suspension of taxes and credits until related income taken into account.

        

Amendments

2010—Pub. L. 111–226, title II, §211(b), Aug. 10, 2010, 124 Stat. 2395, added item 909.

1986—Pub. L. 99–514, title XII, §1202(d), Oct. 22, 1986, 100 Stat. 2531, substituted “Deemed paid credit where domestic corporation owns 10 percent or more of voting stock of foreign corporation” for “Credit for corporate stockholder in foreign corporation” in item 902.

1976—Pub. L. 94–455, title X, §1061(b), Oct. 4, 1976, 90 Stat. 1650, added item 908.

1975—Pub. L. 94–12, title VI, §601(c), Mar. 29, 1975, 89 Stat. 57, added item 907.

1966—Pub. L. 89–809, title I, §106(a)(2), Nov. 13, 1966, 80 Stat. 1569, added item 906.

§901. Taxes of foreign countries and of possessions of United States

(a) Allowance of credit

If the taxpayer chooses to have the benefits of this subpart, the tax imposed by this chapter shall, subject to the limitation of section 904, be credited with the amounts provided in the applicable paragraph of subsection (b) plus, in the case of a corporation, the taxes deemed to have been paid under sections 902 and 960. Such choice for any taxable year may be made or changed at any time before the expiration of the period prescribed for making a claim for credit or refund of the tax imposed by this chapter for such taxable year. The credit shall not be allowed against any tax treated as a tax not imposed by this chapter under section 26(b).

(b) Amount allowed

Subject to the limitation of section 904, the following amounts shall be allowed as the credit under subsection (a):

(1) Citizens and domestic corporations

In the case of a citizen of the United States and of a domestic corporation, the amount of any income, war profits, and excess profits taxes paid or accrued during the taxable year to any foreign country or to any possession of the United States; and

(2) Resident of the United States or Puerto Rico

In the case of a resident of the United States and in the case of an individual who is a bona fide resident of Puerto Rico during the entire taxable year, the amount of any such taxes paid or accrued during the taxable year to any possession of the United States; and

(3) Alien resident of the United States or Puerto Rico

In the case of an alien resident of the United States and in the case of an alien individual who is a bona fide resident of Puerto Rico during the entire taxable year, the amount of any such taxes paid or accrued during the taxable year to any foreign country; and

(4) Nonresident alien individuals and foreign corporations

In the case of any nonresident alien individual not described in section 876 and in the case of any foreign corporation, the amount determined pursuant to section 906; and

(5) Partnerships and estates

In the case of any person described in paragraph (1), (2), (3), or (4), who is a member of a partnership or a beneficiary of an estate or trust, the amount of his proportionate share of the taxes (described in such paragraph) of the partnership or the estate or trust paid or accrued during the taxable year to a foreign country or to any possession of the United States, as the case may be. Under rules or regulations prescribed by the Secretary, in the case of any foreign trust of which the settlor or another person would be treated as owner of any portion of the trust under subpart E but for section 672(f), the allocable amount of any income, war profits, and excess profits taxes imposed by any foreign country or possession of the United States on the settlor or such other person in respect of trust income.

(c) Similar credit required for certain alien residents

Whenever the President finds that—

(1) a foreign country, in imposing income, war profits, and excess profits taxes, does not allow to citizens of the United States residing in such foreign country a credit for any such taxes paid or accrued to the United States or any foreign country, as the case may be, similar to the credit allowed under subsection (b)(3),

(2) such foreign country, when requested by the United States to do so, has not acted to provide such a similar credit to citizens of the United States residing in such foreign country, and

(3) it is in the public interest to allow the credit under subsection (b)(3) to citizens or subjects of such foreign country only if it allows such a similar credit to citizens of the United States residing in such foreign country,


the President shall proclaim that, for taxable years beginning while the proclamation remains in effect, the credit under subsection (b)(3) shall be allowed to citizens or subjects of such foreign country only if such foreign country, in imposing income, war profits, and excess profits taxes, allows to citizens of the United States residing in such foreign country such a similar credit.

(d) Treatment of dividends from a DISC or former DISC

For purposes of this subpart, dividends from a DISC or former DISC (as defined in section 992(a)) shall be treated as dividends from a foreign corporation to the extent such dividends are treated under part I as income from sources without the United States.

(e) Foreign taxes on mineral income

(1) Reduction in amount allowed

Notwithstanding subsection (b), the amount of any income, war profits, and excess profits taxes paid or accrued during the taxable year to any foreign country or possession of the United States with respect to foreign mineral income from sources within such country or possession which would (but for this paragraph) be allowed under such subsection shall be reduced by the amount (if any) by which—

(A) the amount of such taxes (or, if smaller, the amount of the tax which would be computed under this chapter with respect to such income determined without the deduction allowed under section 613), exceeds

(B) the amount of the tax computed under this chapter with respect to such income.

(2) Foreign mineral income defined

For purposes of paragraph (1), the term “foreign mineral income” means income derived from the extraction of minerals from mines, wells, or other natural deposits, the processing of such minerals into their primary products, and the transportation, distribution, or sale of such minerals or primary products. Such term includes, but is not limited to—

(A) dividends received from a foreign corporation in respect of which taxes are deemed paid by the taxpayer under section 902, to the extent such dividends are attributable to foreign mineral income, and

(B) that portion of the taxpayer's distributive share of the income of partnerships attributable to foreign mineral income.

(f) Certain payments for oil or gas not considered as taxes

Notwithstanding subsection (b) and sections 902 and 960, the amount of any income, or profits, and excess profits taxes paid or accrued during the taxable year to any foreign country in connection with the purchase and sale of oil or gas extracted in such country is not to be considered as tax for purposes of section 275(a) and this section if—

(1) the taxpayer has no economic interest in the oil or gas to which section 611(a) applies, and

(2) either such purchase or sale is at a price which differs from the fair market value for such oil or gas at the time of such purchase or sale.

(g) Certain taxes paid with respect to distributions from possessions corporations

(1) In general

For purposes of this chapter, any tax of a foreign country or possession of the United States which is paid or accrued with respect to any distribution from a corporation—

(A) to the extent that such distribution is attributable to periods during which such corporation is a possessions corporation, and

(B)(i) if a dividends received deduction is allowable with respect to such distribution under part VIII of subchapter B, or

(ii) to the extent that such distribution is received in connection with a liquidation or other transaction with respect to which gain or loss is not recognized,


shall not be treated as income, war profits, or excess profits taxes paid or accrued to a foreign country or possession of the United States, and no deduction shall be allowed under this title with respect to any amount so paid or accrued.

(2) Possessions corporation

For purposes of paragraph (1), a corporation shall be treated as a possessions corporation for any period during which an election under section 936 applied to such corporation, during which section 931 (as in effect on the day before the date of the enactment of the Tax Reform Act of 1976) applied to such corporation, or during which section 957(c) (as in effect on the day before the date of the enactment of the Tax Reform Act of 1986) applied to such corporation.

[(h) Repealed. Pub. L. 110–172, §11(g)(9), Dec. 29, 2007, 121 Stat. 2490]

(i) Taxes used to provide subsidies

Any income, war profits, or excess profits tax shall not be treated as a tax for purposes of this title to the extent—

(1) the amount of such tax is used (directly or indirectly) by the country imposing such tax to provide a subsidy by any means to the taxpayer, a related person (within the meaning of section 482), or any party to the transaction or to a related transaction, and

(2) such subsidy is determined (directly or indirectly) by reference to the amount of such tax, or the base used to compute the amount of such tax.

(j) Denial of foreign tax credit, etc., with respect to certain foreign countries

(1) In general

Notwithstanding any other provision of this part—

(A) no credit shall be allowed under subsection (a) for any income, war profits, or excess profits taxes paid or accrued (or deemed paid under section 902 or 960) to any country if such taxes are with respect to income attributable to a period during which this subsection applies to such country, and

(B) subsections (a), (b), and (c) of section 904 and sections 902 and 960 shall be applied separately with respect to income attributable to such a period from sources within such country.

(2) Countries to which subsection applies

(A) In general

This subsection shall apply to any foreign country—

(i) the government of which the United States does not recognize, unless such government is otherwise eligible to purchase defense articles or services under the Arms Export Control Act,

(ii) with respect to which the United States has severed diplomatic relations,

(iii) with respect to which the United States has not severed diplomatic relations but does not conduct such relations, or

(iv) which the Secretary of State has, pursuant to section 6(j) of the Export Administration Act of 1979, as amended, designated as a foreign country which repeatedly provides support for acts of international terrorisms.

(B) Period for which subsection applies

This subsection shall apply to any foreign country described in subparagraph (A) during the period—

(i) beginning on the later of—

(I) January 1, 1987, or

(II) 6 months after such country becomes a country described in subparagraph (A), and


(ii) ending on the date the Secretary of State certifies to the Secretary of the Treasury that such country is no longer described in subparagraph (A).

(3) Taxes allowed as a deduction, etc.

Sections 275 and 78 shall not apply to any tax which is not allowable as a credit under subsection (a) by reason of this subsection.

(4) Regulations

The Secretary shall prescribe such regulations as may be necessary or appropriate to carry out the purposes of this subsection, including regulations which treat income paid through 1 or more entities as derived from a foreign country to which this subsection applies if such income was, without regard to such entities, derived from such country.

(5) Waiver of denial

(A) In general

Paragraph (1) shall not apply with respect to taxes paid or accrued to a country if the President—

(i) determines that a waiver of the application of such paragraph is in the national interest of the United States and will expand trade and investment opportunities for United States companies in such country; and

(ii) reports such waiver under subparagraph (B).

(B) Report

Not less than 30 days before the date on which a waiver is granted under this paragraph, the President shall report to Congress—

(i) the intention to grant such waiver; and

(ii) the reason for the determination under subparagraph (A)(i).

(k) Minimum holding period for certain taxes on dividends

(1) Withholding taxes

(A) In general

In no event shall a credit be allowed under subsection (a) for any withholding tax on a dividend with respect to stock in a corporation if—

(i) such stock is held by the recipient of the dividend for 15 days or less during the 31-day period beginning on the date which is 15 days before the date on which such share becomes ex-dividend with respect to such dividend, or

(ii) to the extent that the recipient of the dividend is under an obligation (whether pursuant to a short sale or otherwise) to make related payments with respect to positions in substantially similar or related property.

(B) Withholding tax

For purposes of this paragraph, the term “withholding tax” includes any tax determined on a gross basis; but does not include any tax which is in the nature of a prepayment of a tax imposed on a net basis.

(2) Deemed paid taxes

In the case of income, war profits, or excess profits taxes deemed paid under section 853, 902, or 960 through a chain of ownership of stock in 1 or more corporations, no credit shall be allowed under subsection (a) for such taxes if—

(A) any stock of any corporation in such chain (the ownership of which is required to obtain credit under subsection (a) for such taxes) is held for less than the period described in paragraph (1)(A)(i), or

(B) the corporation holding the stock is under an obligation referred to in paragraph (1)(A)(ii).

(3) 45-day rule in the case of certain preference dividends

In the case of stock having preference in dividends and dividends with respect to such stock which are attributable to a period or periods aggregating in excess of 366 days, paragraph (1)(A)(i) shall be applied—

(A) by substituting “45 days” for “15 days” each place it appears, and

(B) by substituting “91-day period” for “31-day period”.

(4) Exception for certain taxes paid by securities dealers

(A) In general

Paragraphs (1) and (2) shall not apply to any qualified tax with respect to any security held in the active conduct in a foreign country of a business as a securities dealer of any person—

(i) who is registered as a securities broker or dealer under section 15(a) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934,

(ii) who is registered as a Government securities broker or dealer under section 15C(a) of such Act, or

(iii) who is licensed or authorized in such foreign country to conduct securities activities in such country and is subject to bona fide regulation by a securities regulating authority of such country.

(B) Qualified tax

For purposes of subparagraph (A), the term “qualified tax” means a tax paid to a foreign country (other than the foreign country referred to in subparagraph (A)) if—

(i) the dividend to which such tax is attributable is subject to taxation on a net basis by the country referred to in subparagraph (A), and

(ii) such country allows a credit against its net basis tax for the full amount of the tax paid to such other foreign country.

(C) Regulations

The Secretary may prescribe such regulations as may be appropriate to carry out this paragraph, including regulations to prevent the abuse of the exception provided by this paragraph and to treat other taxes as qualified taxes.

(5) Certain rules to apply

For purposes of this subsection, the rules of paragraphs (3) and (4) of section 246(c) shall apply.

(6) Treatment of bona fide sales

If a person's holding period is reduced by reason of the application of the rules of section 246(c)(4) to any contract for the bona fide sale of stock, the determination of whether such person's holding period meets the requirements of paragraph (2) with respect to taxes deemed paid under section 902 or 960 shall be made as of the date such contract is entered into.

(7) Taxes allowed as deduction, etc.

Sections 275 and 78 shall not apply to any tax which is not allowable as a credit under subsection (a) by reason of this subsection.

(l) Minimum holding period for withholding taxes on gain and income other than dividends etc.

(1) In general

In no event shall a credit be allowed under subsection (a) for any withholding tax (as defined in subsection (k)) on any item of income or gain with respect to any property if—

(A) such property is held by the recipient of the item for 15 days or less during the 31-day period beginning on the date which is 15 days before the date on which the right to receive payment of such item arises, or

(B) to the extent that the recipient of the item is under an obligation (whether pursuant to a short sale or otherwise) to make related payments with respect to positions in substantially similar or related property.


This paragraph shall not apply to any dividend to which subsection (k) applies.

(2) Exception for taxes paid by dealers

(A) In general

Paragraph (1) shall not apply to any qualified tax with respect to any property held in the active conduct in a foreign country of a business as a dealer in such property.

(B) Qualified tax

For purposes of subparagraph (A), the term “qualified tax” means a tax paid to a foreign country (other than the foreign country referred to in subparagraph (A)) if—

(i) the item to which such tax is attributable is subject to taxation on a net basis by the country referred to in subparagraph (A), and

(ii) such country allows a credit against its net basis tax for the full amount of the tax paid to such other foreign country.

(C) Dealer

For purposes of subparagraph (A), the term “dealer” means—

(i) with respect to a security, any person to whom paragraphs (1) and (2) of subsection (k) would not apply by reason of paragraph (4) thereof, and

(ii) with respect to any other property, any person with respect to whom such property is described in section 1221(a)(1).

(D) Regulations

The Secretary may prescribe such regulations as may be appropriate to carry out this paragraph, including regulations to prevent the abuse of the exception provided by this paragraph and to treat other taxes as qualified taxes.

(3) Exceptions

The Secretary may by regulation provide that paragraph (1) shall not apply to property where the Secretary determines that the application of paragraph (1) to such property is not necessary to carry out the purposes of this subsection.

(4) Certain rules to apply

Rules similar to the rules of paragraphs (5), (6), and (7) of subsection (k) shall apply for purposes of this subsection.

(5) Determination of holding period

Holding periods shall be determined for purposes of this subsection without regard to section 1235 or any similar rule.

(m) Denial of foreign tax credit with respect to foreign income not subject to United States taxation by reason of covered asset acquisitions

(1) In general

In the case of a covered asset acquisition, the disqualified portion of any foreign income tax determined with respect to the income or gain attributable to the relevant foreign assets—

(A) shall not be taken into account in determining the credit allowed under subsection (a), and

(B) in the case of a foreign income tax paid by a section 902 corporation (as defined in section 909(d)(5)), shall not be taken into account for purposes of section 902 or 960.

(2) Covered asset acquisition

For purposes of this section, the term “covered asset acquisition” means—

(A) a qualified stock purchase (as defined in section 338(d)(3)) to which section 338(a) applies,

(B) any transaction which—

(i) is treated as an acquisition of assets for purposes of this chapter, and

(ii) is treated as the acquisition of stock of a corporation (or is disregarded) for purposes of the foreign income taxes of the relevant jurisdiction,


(C) any acquisition of an interest in a partnership which has an election in effect under section 754, and

(D) to the extent provided by the Secretary, any other similar transaction.

(3) Disqualified portion

For purposes of this section—

(A) In general

The term “disqualified portion” means, with respect to any covered asset acquisition, for any taxable year, the ratio (expressed as a percentage) of—

(i) the aggregate basis differences (but not below zero) allocable to such taxable year under subparagraph (B) with respect to all relevant foreign assets, divided by

(ii) the income on which the foreign income tax referred to in paragraph (1) is determined (or, if the taxpayer fails to substantiate such income to the satisfaction of the Secretary, such income shall be determined by dividing the amount of such foreign income tax by the highest marginal tax rate applicable to such income in the relevant jurisdiction).

(B) Allocation of basis difference

For purposes of subparagraph (A)(i)—

(i) In general

The basis difference with respect to any relevant foreign asset shall be allocated to taxable years using the applicable cost recovery method under this chapter.

(ii) Special rule for disposition of assets

Except as otherwise provided by the Secretary, in the case of the disposition of any relevant foreign asset—

(I) the basis difference allocated to the taxable year which includes the date of such disposition shall be the excess of the basis difference with respect to such asset over the aggregate basis difference with respect to such asset which has been allocated under clause (i) to all prior taxable years, and

(II) no basis difference with respect to such asset shall be allocated under clause (i) to any taxable year thereafter.

(C) Basis difference

(i) In general

The term “basis difference” means, with respect to any relevant foreign asset, the excess of—

(I) the adjusted basis of such asset immediately after the covered asset acquisition, over

(II) the adjusted basis of such asset immediately before the covered asset acquisition.

(ii) Built-in loss assets

In the case of a relevant foreign asset with respect to which the amount described in clause (i)(II) exceeds the amount described in clause (i)(I), such excess shall be taken into account under this subsection as a basis difference of a negative amount.

(iii) Special rule for section 338 elections

In the case of a covered asset acquisition described in paragraph (2)(A), the covered asset acquisition shall be treated for purposes of this subparagraph as occurring at the close of the acquisition date (as defined in section 338(h)(2)).

(4) Relevant foreign assets

For purposes of this section, the term “relevant foreign asset” means, with respect to any covered asset acquisition, any asset (including any goodwill, going concern value, or other intangible) with respect to such acquisition if income, deduction, gain, or loss attributable to such asset is taken into account in determining the foreign income tax referred to in paragraph (1).

(5) Foreign income tax

For purposes of this section, the term “foreign income tax” means any income, war profits, or excess profits tax paid or accrued to any foreign country or to any possession of the United States.

(6) Taxes allowed as a deduction, etc.

Sections 275 and 78 shall not apply to any tax which is not allowable as a credit under subsection (a) by reason of this subsection.

(7) Regulations

The Secretary may issue such regulations or other guidance as is necessary or appropriate to carry out the purposes of this subsection, including to exempt from the application of this subsection certain covered asset acquisitions, and relevant foreign assets with respect to which the basis difference is de minimis.

(n) Cross reference

(1) For deductions of income, war profits, and excess profits taxes paid to a foreign country or a possession of the United States, see sections 164 and 275.

(2) For right of each partner to make election under this section, see section 703(b).

(3) For right of estate or trust to the credit for taxes imposed by foreign countries and possessions of the United States under this section, see section 642(a).

(4) For reduction of credit for failure of a United States person to furnish certain information with respect to a foreign corporation or partnership controlled by him, see section 6038.

(Aug. 16, 1954, ch. 736, 68A Stat. 285; Pub. L. 86–780, §3(a), (b), Sept. 14, 1960, 74 Stat. 1013; Pub. L. 87–834, §§9(d)(3), 12(b)(1), Oct. 16, 1962, 76 Stat. 1001, 1031; Pub. L. 88–272, title II, §207(b)(7), Feb. 26, 1964, 78 Stat. 42; Pub. L. 89–384, §1(c)(2), Apr. 8, 1966, 80 Stat. 102; Pub. L. 89–809, title I, §106(a)(4), (5), (b)(1), (2), Nov. 13, 1966, 80 Stat. 1569; Pub. L. 91–172, title III, §301(b)(9), title V, §506(a), Dec. 30, 1969, 83 Stat. 585, 634; Pub. L. 92–178, title V, §502(b)(1), Dec. 10, 1971, 85 Stat. 549; Pub. L. 93–406, title II, §§2001(g)(2)(C), 2002(g)(3), 2005(c)(5), Sept. 2, 1974, 88 Stat. 957, 968, 991; Pub. L. 94–12, title VI, §601(b), Mar. 29, 1975, 89 Stat. 57; Pub. L. 94–455, title X, §§1031(b)(1), 1051(d), title XIX, §1901(b)(1)(H)(iii), (37)(A), Oct. 4, 1976, 90 Stat. 1622, 1645, 1791, 1803; Pub. L. 95–600, title VII, §701(u)(1)(A), (B), Nov. 6, 1978, 92 Stat. 2912; Pub. L. 97–248, title II, §201(d)(8)(A), formerly §201(c)(8)(A), §265(b)(2)(A)(iv), Sept. 3, 1982, 96 Stat. 420, 547, renumbered §201(d)(8)(A), Pub. L. 97–448, title III, §306(a)(1)(A)(i), Jan. 12, 1983, 96 Stat. 2400; Pub. L. 98–369, div. A, title IV, §474(r)(20), title VI, §612(e)(1), title VII, §713(c)(1)(C), title VIII, §801(d)(1), July 18, 1984, 98 Stat. 843, 912, 957, 995; Pub. L. 99–509, title VIII, §8041(a), Oct. 21, 1986, 100 Stat. 1962; Pub. L. 99–514, title I, §112(b)(3), title XII, §1204(a), title XVIII, §1876(p)(2), Oct. 22, 1986, 100 Stat. 2109, 2532, 2902; Pub. L. 100–203, title X, §10231(a), (b), Dec. 22, 1987, 101 Stat. 1330–418, 1330–419; Pub. L. 100–647, title I, §1012(j), title II, §2003(c)(1), Nov. 10, 1988, 102 Stat. 3512, 3598; Pub. L. 103–149, §4(b)(8)(A), Nov. 23, 1993, 107 Stat. 1505; Pub. L. 104–188, title I, §1904(b)(2), Aug. 20, 1996, 110 Stat. 1912; Pub. L. 105–34, title X, §1053(a), title XI, §1142(e)(4), Aug. 5, 1997, 111 Stat. 941, 983; Pub. L. 105–206, title VI, §6010(k)(3), July 22, 1998, 112 Stat. 815; Pub. L. 106–200, title VI, §601(a), May 18, 2000, 114 Stat. 305; Pub. L. 108–311, title IV, §406(g), Oct. 4, 2004, 118 Stat. 1190; Pub. L. 108–357, title IV, §405(b), title VIII, §832(a), (b), Oct. 22, 2004, 118 Stat. 1498, 1587, 1588; Pub. L. 109–135, title IV, §403(aa)(2), Dec. 21, 2005, 119 Stat. 2630; Pub. L. 110–172, §11(g)(9), Dec. 29, 2007, 121 Stat. 2490; Pub. L. 111–226, title II, §212(a), Aug. 10, 2010, 124 Stat. 2396.)

References in Text

The date of the enactment of the Tax Reform Act of 1976, referred to in subsec. (g)(2), is the date of enactment of Pub. L. 94–455, which was approved Oct. 4, 1976.

The date of the enactment of the Tax Reform Act of 1986, referred to in subsec. (g)(2), is the date of enactment of Pub. L. 99–514, which was approved Oct. 22, 1986.

The Arms Export Control Act, referred to in subsec. (j)(2)(A)(i), is Pub. L. 90–269, Oct. 22, 1968, 82 Stat. 1320, as amended, which is classified principally to chapter 39 (§2751 et seq.) of Title 22, Foreign Relations and Intercourse. For complete classification of this Act to the Code, see Short Title note set out under section 2751 of Title 22 and Tables.

Section 6(j) of the Export Administration Act of 1979, referred to in subsec. (j)(2)(A)(iv), is classified to section 2405(j) of Title 50, Appendix, War and National Defense.

Sections 15(a) and 15C(a) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, referred to in subsec. (k)(4)(A)(i), (ii), are classified to sections 78o(a) and 78o–5(a), respectively, of Title 15, Commerce and Trade.

Amendments

2010—Subsecs. (m), (n). Pub. L. 111–226 added subsec. (m) and redesignated former subsec. (m) as (n).

2007—Subsec. (h). Pub. L. 110–172 struck out subsec. (h), which read as follows: “No credit shall be allowed under this section for any income, war profits, and excess profits taxes paid or accrued with respect to the foreign trade income (within the meaning of section 923(b)) of a FSC, other than section 923(a)(2) non-exempt income (within the meaning of section 927(d)(6)).”

2005—Subsec. (l)(2)(C)(i). Pub. L. 109–135 struck out “if such security were stock” after “paragraph (4) thereof”.

2004—Subsec. (b)(5). Pub. L. 108–357, §405(b), substituted “any person” for “any individual”.

Subsec. (k). Pub. L. 108–357, §832(b), inserted “on dividends” after “taxes” in heading.

Subsec. (k)(1)(A)(i). Pub. L. 108–311, §406(g)(1), substituted “31-day period” for “30-day period”.

Subsec. (k)(3)(B). Pub. L. 108–311, §406(g)(2), substituted “91-day period” for “90-day period” and “31-day period” for “30-day period”.

Subsecs. (l), (m). Pub. L. 108–357, §832(a), added subsec. (l) and redesignated former subsec. (l) as (m).

2000—Subsec. (j)(5). Pub. L. 106–200 added par. (5).

1998—Subsec. (k)(4)(A). Pub. L. 105–206 substituted “business as a securities dealer” for “securities business” in introductory provisions.

1997—Subsec. (k). Pub. L. 105–34, §1053(a), added subsec. (k). Former subsec. (k) redesignated (l).

Subsec. (l). Pub. L. 105–34, §1053(a), redesignated subsec. (k) as (l).

Subsec. (l)(4). Pub. L. 105–34, §1142(e)(4), which directed amendment of subsec. (k)(4) by substituting “foreign corporation or partnership” for “foreign corporation”, was executed to subsec. (l)(4) to reflect the probable intent of Congress and the redesignation of subsec. (k) as (l) by Pub. L. 105–34, §1053(a). See above.

1996—Subsec. (b)(5). Pub. L. 104–188 inserted at end “Under rules or regulations prescribed by the Secretary, in the case of any foreign trust of which the settlor or another person would be treated as owner of any portion of the trust under subpart E but for section 672(f), the allocable amount of any income, war profits, and excess profits taxes imposed by any foreign country or possession of the United States on the settlor or such other person in respect of trust income.”

1993—Subsec. (j)(2)(C). Pub. L. 103–149 struck out heading and text of subpar. (C). Text read as follows:

“(i) In general.—In addition to any period during which this subsection would otherwise apply to South Africa, this subsection shall apply to South Africa during the period—

“(I) beginning on January 1, 1988, and

“(II) ending on the date the Secretary of State certifies to the Secretary of the Treasury that South Africa meets the requirements of section 311(a) of the Comprehensive Anti-Apartheid Act of 1986 (as in effect on the date of the enactment of this subparagraph).

“(ii) South africa defined.—For purposes of clause (i), the term ‘South Africa’ has the meaning given to such term by paragraph (6) of section 3 of the Comprehensive Anti-Apartheid Act of 1986 (as so in effect).”

1988—Subsec. (g)(2). Pub. L. 100–647, §1012(j), inserted “(as in effect on the day before the date of the enactment of the Tax Reform Act of 1986)” after “section 957(c)”.

Subsec. (j)(3). Pub. L. 100–647, §2003(c)(1), inserted “, etc.” at end of heading and substituted “Sections 275 and 78” for “Section 275” in text.

1987—Subsec. (j)(1). Pub. L. 100–203, §10231(b), substituted “during which” for “to which” in subpar. (A) and “such country” for “any country so identified” in subpar. (B).

Subsec. (j)(2)(C). Pub. L. 100–203, §10231(a), added subpar. (C).

1986—Subsec. (h). Pub. L. 99–514, §1876(p)(2), inserted closing parenthesis after “section 927(d)(6)”.

Subsec. (i). Pub. L. 99–514, §1204(a), added subsec. (i). Former subsec. (i) redesignated (j).

Subsec. (i)(3). Pub. L. 99–514, §112(b)(3), substituted “section 642(a)” for “section 642(a)(1)”.

Subsec. (j). Pub. L. 99–509 added subsec. (j). Former subsec. (j) redesignated (k).

Pub. L. 99–514, §1204(a), redesignated former subsec. (i) as (j).

Subsec. (k). Pub. L. 99–509 redesignated former subsec. (j) as (k).

1984—Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 98–369, §612(e)(1), substituted “section 26(b)” for “section 25(b)”.

Pub. L. 98–369, §474(r)(20), substituted “The credit shall not be allowed against any tax treated as a tax not imposed by this chapter under section 25(b)” for “The credit shall not be allowed against the tax imposed by section 56 (relating to corporate minimum tax), against the tax imposed for the taxable year under section 72(m)(5)(B) (relating to 10 percent tax on premature distributions to owner-employees) section 72(q)(1) (relating to 5-percent tax on premature distributions under annuity contracts),, against the tax imposed by section 402(e) (relating to tax on lump sum distributions), against the tax imposed for the taxable year by section 408(f) (relating to additional tax on income from certain retirement accounts), against the tax imposed by section 531 (relating to the tax on accumulated earnings), against the additional tax imposed for the taxable year under section 1351 (relating to recoveries of foreign expropriation losses), or against the personal holding company tax imposed by section 541”.

Pub. L. 98–369, §713(c)(1)(C), substituted “premature distributions to key employees” for “premature distributions to owner-employees”.

Subsecs. (h), (i). Pub. L. 98–369, §801(d)(1), added subsec. (h) and redesignated former subsec. (h) as (i).

1982—Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 97–248 substituted “(relating to corporate minimum tax)” for “(relating to minimum tax for tax preferences)” after “section 56”, and inserted “section 72(q)(1) (relating to 5-percent tax on premature distributions under annuity contracts),” after “owner employees)”.

1978—Subsec. (g)(1). Pub. L. 95–600, §701(u)(1)(A), inserted provisions prohibiting a deduction for any tax of a foreign country or possession of the United States which is paid or accrued with respect to any distribution from a corporation if a dividends received deduction is allowable with respect to that distribution from a corporation under part VIII of subchapter B.

Subsec. (g)(2). Pub. L. 95–600, §701(u)(1)(B), inserted provision relating to application of section 957(c) of this title.

1976—Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 94–455, §§1031(b)(1), 1901(b)(37)(A), struck out “under section 1333 (relating to war loss recoveries) or” after “imposed for the taxable year” and “applicable” after “subject to the”.

Subsec. (b). Pub. L. 94–455, §1031(b)(1), struck out “applicable” after “Subject to the”.

Subsec. (d). Pub. L. 94–455, §1051(d)(1), struck out provisions relating to corporations receiving a large percentage of their gross receipts from sources within a possession of the United States and a corporation organized under the China Trade Act, 1922 (15 U.S.C. chapter 4).

Subsecs. (g), (h). Pub. L. 94–455, §§1051(d)(2), 1901(b)(1)(H)(iii), added subsec. (g), redesignated former subsec. (g) as (h), and, as redesignated, substituted “section 642(a)(1)” for “section 642(a)(2)” in par. (3).

1975—Subsecs. (f), (g). Pub. L. 94–12 added subsec. (f) and redesignated former subsec. (f) as (g).

1974—Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 93–460 inserted references to the tax imposed for the taxable year under section 72(m)(5)(B) (relating to 10 percent tax on premature distributions to owner-employees), the tax imposed for the taxable year by section 408(f) (relating to additional tax on income from certain retirement accounts), and the tax imposed by section 402(e) (relating to tax on lump sum distributions).

1971—Subsec. (d). Pub. L. 92–178 inserted provision for treatment of dividends from a DISC or former DISC as dividends from a foreign corporation to the extent such dividends are treated under part I as income from sources without the United States.

1969—Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 91–172, §301(b)(9), inserted “against the tax imposed by section 56 (relating to minimum tax for tax preferences),” after “not be allowed” in last sentence.

Subsecs. (e), (f). Pub. L. 91–172, §506(a), added subsec. (e) and redesignated former subsec. (e) as (f).

1966—Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 89–384 added the additional tax imposed under section 1351 (relating to recoveries of foreign expropriation losses) to the list of taxes against which the foreign tax credit may not be allowed.

Subsec. (b)(3). Pub. L. 89–809, §106(b)(1), struck out provisions which made the allowance of the credit dependent upon whether the foreign country of which the alien resident was a citizen or subject, in imposing such taxes, allowed a similar credit to citizens of the United States residing in such country.

Subsec. (b)(4), (5). Pub. L. 89–809, §106(a)(4), (5), added par. (4), redesignated former par. (4) as (5) and inserted reference to par. (4).

Subsecs. (c) to (e). Pub. L. 89–809, §106(b)(2), added subsec. (c) and redesignated former subsecs. (c) and (d) as (d) and (e), respectively.

1964—Subsec. (d)(1). Pub. L. 88–272 inserted reference to section 275.

1962—Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 87–834, §12(b)(1), substituted “sections 902 and 960” for “section 902”.

Subsec. (d)(4). Pub. L. 87–834, §9(d)(3), added par. (4).

1960—Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 86–780, §3(a), (b), inserted “applicable” before “limitation” and substituted “Such choice for any taxable year may be made or changed at any time before the expiration of the period prescribed for making a claim for credit or refund of the tax imposed by this chapter for such taxable year” for “Such choice may be made or changed at any time prior to the expiration of the period prescribed for making a claim for credit or refund of the tax against which the credit is allowable.”

Subsec. (b). Pub. L. 86–780, §3(b), inserted “applicable” before “limitation”.

Effective Date of 2010 Amendment

Pub. L. 111–226, title II, §212(b), Aug. 10, 2010, 124 Stat. 2398, provided that:

“(1) In general.—Except as provided in paragraph (2), the amendments made by this section [amending this section] shall apply to covered asset acquisitions (as defined in section 901(m)(2) of the Internal Revenue Code of 1986, as added by this section) after December 31, 2010.

“(2) Transition rule.—The amendments made by this section shall not apply to any covered asset acquisition (as so defined) with respect to which the transferor and the transferee are not related if such acquisition is—

“(A) made pursuant to a written agreement which was binding on January 1, 2011, and at all times thereafter,

“(B) described in a ruling request submitted to the Internal Revenue Service on or before July 29, 2010, or

“(C) described on or before January 1, 2011, in a public announcement or in a filing with the Securities and Exchange Commission.

“(3) Related persons.—For purposes of this subsection, a person shall be treated as related to another person if the relationship between such persons is described in section 267 or 707(b) of the Internal Revenue Code of 1986.”

Effective Date of 2005 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 109–135 effective as if included in the provision of the American Jobs Creation Act of 2004, Pub. L. 108–357, to which such amendment relates, see section 403(nn) of Pub. L. 109–135, set out as a note under section 26 of this title.

Effective Date of 2004 Amendments

Pub. L. 108–357, title IV, §405(c), Oct. 22, 2004, 118 Stat. 1498, provided that: “The amendments made by this section [amending this section and section 902 of this title] shall apply to taxes of foreign corporations for taxable years of such corporations beginning after the date of the enactment of this Act [Oct. 22, 2004].”

Pub. L. 108–357, title VIII, §832(c), Oct. 22, 2004, 118 Stat. 1588, provided that: “The amendments made by this section [amending this section] shall apply to amounts paid or accrued more than 30 days after the date of the enactment of this Act [Oct. 22, 2004].”

Amendment by Pub. L. 108–311 effective as if included in the provisions of the Taxpayer Relief Act of 1997, Pub. L. 105–34, to which such amendment relates, see section 406(h) of Pub. L. 108–311, set out as a note under section 55 of this title.

Effective Date of 2000 Amendment

Pub. L. 106–200, title VI, §601(b), May 18, 2000, 114 Stat. 305, provided that: “The amendment made by this section [amending this section] shall apply on or after February 1, 2001.”

Effective Date of 1998 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 105–206 effective, except as otherwise provided, as if included in the provisions of the Taxpayer Relief Act of 1997, Pub. L. 105–34, to which such amendment relates, see section 6024 of Pub. L. 105–206, set out as a note under section 1 of this title.

Effective Date of 1997 Amendment

Amendment by section 1053(a) of Pub. L. 105–34 applicable to dividends paid or accrued more than 30 days after Aug. 5, 1997, see section 1053(c) of Pub. L. 105–34, set out as a note under section 853 of this title.

Amendment by section 1142(e)(4) of Pub. L. 105–34 applicable to annual accounting periods beginning after Aug. 5, 1997, see section 1142(f) of Pub. L. 105–34, set out as a note under section 318 of this title.

Effective Date of 1996 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 104–188 effective Aug. 20, 1996, with exception for certain trusts, see section 1904(d) of Pub. L. 104–188, set out as a note under section 643 of this title.

Effective Date of 1988 Amendment

Amendment by section 1012(j) of Pub. L. 100–647 effective, except as otherwise provided, as if included in the provision of the Tax Reform Act of 1986, Pub. L. 99–514, to which such amendment relates, see section 1019(a) of Pub. L. 100–647, set out as a note under section 1 of this title.

Section 2003(c)(2) of Pub. L. 100–647 provided that: “The amendments made by paragraph (1) [amending this section] shall take effect on January 1, 1987.”

Effective Date of 1987 Amendment

Section 10231(c) of Pub. L. 100–203 provided that: “The amendments made by this section [amending this section] shall apply to taxable years beginning after December 31, 1987.”

Effective Date of 1986 Amendments

Amendment by section 112(b)(3) of Pub. L. 99–514 applicable to taxable years beginning after Dec. 31, 1986, see section 151(a) of Pub. L. 99–514, set out as a note under section 1 of this title.

Section 1204(b) of Pub. L. 99–514 provided that: “The amendment made by subsection (a) [amending this section] shall apply to foreign taxes paid or accrued in taxable years beginning after December 31, 1986.”

Amendment by section 1876(p)(2) of Pub. L. 99–514 effective, except as otherwise provided, as if included in the provisions of the Tax Reform Act of 1984, Pub. L. 98–369, div. A, to which such amendment relates, see section 1881 of Pub. L. 99–514, set out as a note under section 48 of this title.

Section 8041(c) of Pub. L. 99–509 provided that: “The amendments made by this section [amending this section and section 952 of this title] shall take effect on January 1, 1987.”

Effective Date of 1984 Amendment

Amendment by section 474(r)(20) of Pub. L. 98–369 applicable to taxable years beginning after Dec. 31, 1983, and to carrybacks from such years, see section 475(a) of Pub. L. 98–369, set out as a note under section 21 of this title.

Amendment by section 612(e)(1) of Pub. L. 98–369 applicable to interest paid or accrued after Dec. 31, 1984, on indebtedness incurred after Dec. 31, 1984, see section 612(g) of Pub. L. 98–369, set out as an Effective Date note under section 25 of this title.

Amendment by section 713(c)(1)(C) of Pub. L. 98–369 effective as if included in the provision of the Tax Equity and Fiscal Responsibility Act of 1982, Pub. L. 97–248, to which such amendment relates, see section 715 of Pub. L. 98–369, set out as a note under section 31 of this title.

Amendment by section 801(d)(1) of Pub. L. 98–369 applicable to transactions after Dec. 31, 1984, in taxable years ending after such date, see section 805(a)(1) of Pub. L. 98–369, as amended, set out as a note under section 245 of this title.

Effective Date of 1982 Amendment

Amendment by section 201(d)(8)(A) of Pub. L. 97–248 applicable to taxable years beginning after Dec. 31, 1982, see section 201(e)(1) of Pub. L. 97–248, set out as a note under section 5 of this title.

Amendment by section 265(b)(2)(A)(iv) of Pub. L. 97–248 applicable to distributions after Dec. 31, 1982, see section 265(c)(2) of Pub. L. 97–248, set out as a note under section 72 of this title.

Effective Date of 1978 Amendment

Section 701(u)(1)(C) of Pub. L. 95–600, as amended by Pub. L. 99–514, §2, Oct. 22, 1986, 100 Stat. 2095, provided that: “The amendment made by subparagraph (A) [amending this section] shall apply as if included in section 901(g) of the Internal Revenue Code of 1986 [formerly I.R.C. 1954] as added by section 1051(d)(2) of the Tax Reform Act of 1976 [section 1051(d)(2) of Pub. L. 94–455]. The amendments made by subparagraph (B) [amending this section] shall apply to distributions made after the date of the enactment of this Act [Nov. 6, 1978] in taxable years ending after such date.”

Effective Date of 1976 Amendment

Amendment by section 1031(b)(1) of Pub. L. 94–455 applicable to taxable years beginning after Dec. 31, 1975, with certain exceptions, see section 1031(c) of Pub. L. 94–455, set out as a note under section 904 of this title.

Amendment by section 1051(d)(1) of Pub. L. 94–455 applicable to taxable years beginning after Dec. 31, 1975, with certain exceptions, and the provisions of subsec. (g) not to apply to any tax imposed by a possession of the United States with respect to the complete liquidation occurring before Jan. 1, 1979, of a corporation to the extent that such tax is attributable to earnings and profits accumulated by such corporation during periods ending before Jan. 1, 1976, see section 1051(i) of Pub. L. 94–455, set out as a note under section 27 of this title.

Amendment by section 1901(b)(1)(H)(iii), (37)(A) of Pub. L. 94–455 applicable with respect to taxable years beginning after Dec. 31, 1976, see section 1901(d) of Pub. L. 94–455, set out as a note under section 2 of this title.

Effective Date of 1975 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 94–12 applicable to taxable years ending after Dec. 31, 1974, see section 601(d) of Pub. L. 94–12, set out as an Effective Date note under section 907 of this title.

Effective Date of 1974 Amendment

Amendment by section 2001(g)(2)(C) of Pub. L. 93–406, which inserted reference to the tax imposed for the taxable year under section 72(m)(5)(B) (relating to 10 percent tax on premature distributions to owner-employees), applicable to distributions made in taxable years beginning after Dec. 31, 1975, see section 2001(i)(4) of Pub. L. 93–406, set out as a note under section 72 of this title.

Amendment by section 2002(g)(3) of Pub. L. 93–406, which inserted reference to the tax imposed for the taxable year by section 408(f) (relating to additional tax on income from certain retirement accounts), effective on Jan. 1, 1975, see section 2002(i)(2) of Pub. L. 93–406, set out as an Effective Date note under section 4973 of this title.

Amendment by section 2005(c)(5) of Pub. L. 93–406, which inserted reference to the tax imposed for the taxable year under section 402(e) (relating to tax on lump sum distributions), applicable only with respect to distributions or payments made after Dec. 31, 1973, in taxable years beginning after Dec. 31, 1973, see section 2005(d) of Pub. L. 93–406, set out as a note under section 402 of this title.

Effective Date of 1971 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 92–178 applicable with respect to taxable years ending after Dec. 31, 1971, except that a corporation may not be a DISC for any taxable year beginning before Jan. 1, 1972, see section 507 of Pub. L. 92–178, set out as an Effective Date note under section 991 of this title.

Effective Date of 1969 Amendment

Amendment by section 301(b)(9) of Pub. L. 91–172 applicable to taxable years ending after Dec. 31, 1969, see section 301(c) of Pub. L. 91–172, set out as a note under section 5 of this title.

Section 506(c) of Pub. L. 91–172 provided that: “The amendments made by this section [amending this section and section 904 of this title] shall apply with respect to taxable years beginning after December 31, 1969.”

Effective Date of 1966 Amendments

Amendment by section 106(a)(4), (5) of Pub. L. 89–809 applicable with respect to taxable years beginning after Dec. 31, 1966, see section 106(a)(6) of Pub. L. 89–809, set out as a note under section 874 of this title.

Section 106(b)(4) of Pub. L. 89–809 provided that: “The amendments made by this subsection (other than paragraph (3)) [amending this section] shall apply with respect to taxable years beginning after December 31, 1966. The amendment made by paragraph (3) [amending section 2014 of this title] shall apply with respect to estates of decedents dying after the date of enactment of this Act [Nov. 13, 1966].”

Amendment by Pub. L. 89–384 applicable with respect to amounts received after December 31, 1964, in respect of foreign expropriation losses (as defined in section 1351(b) of this title) sustained after December 31, 1958, see section 2 of Pub. L. 89–384, set out as an Effective Date note under section 1351 of this title.

Effective Date of 1964 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 88–272 applicable to taxable years beginning after Dec. 31, 1963, see section 207(c) of Pub. L. 88–272, set out as a note under section 164 of this title.

Effective Date of 1962 Amendment

Amendment by section 12(b)(1) of Pub. L. 87–834 applicable with respect to taxable years of foreign corporations beginning after Dec. 31, 1962, and to taxable years of United States shareholders within which or with which such taxable years of such foreign corporations end, see section 12(c) of Pub. L. 87–834, set out as an Effective Date note under section 951 of this title.

Effective Date of 1960 Amendment

Amendment by section 3(a) of Pub. L. 86–780 applicable to taxable years beginning after Dec. 31, 1960, and amendment by section 3(b) of Pub. L. 86–780 applicable to taxable years beginning after Dec. 31, 1953, and ending after Aug. 16, 1954, see section 4 of Pub. L. 86–780, set out as a note under section 904 of this title.

Effect of Amendment by Pub. L. 103–149 on Revenue Ruling 92–62

Amendment by section 4(b)(8)(A) of Pub. L. 103–149 not to be construed as affecting any of the transitional rules contained in Revenue Ruling 92–62 which apply by reason of the termination of the period for which subsec. (j) of this section was applicable to South Africa, see section 4(b)(8)(B) of Pub. L. 103–149 set out in a Repeal of Chapter; South African Democratic Transition Support note under section 5001 of Title 22, Foreign Relations and Intercourse.

Plan Amendments Not Required Until January 1, 1989

For provisions directing that if any amendments made by subtitle A or subtitle C of title XI [§§1101–1147 and 1171–1177] or title XVIII [§§1800–1899A] of Pub. L. 99–514 require an amendment to any plan, such plan amendment shall not be required to be made before the first plan year beginning on or after Jan. 1, 1989, see section 1140 of Pub. L. 99–514, as amended, set out as a note under section 401 of this title.

§902. Deemed paid credit where domestic corporation owns 10 percent or more of voting stock of foreign corporation

(a) Taxes paid by foreign corporation treated as paid by domestic corporation

For purposes of this subpart, a domestic corporation which owns 10 percent or more of the voting stock of a foreign corporation from which it receives dividends in any taxable year shall be deemed to have paid the same proportion of such foreign corporation's post-1986 foreign income taxes as—

(1) the amount of such dividends (determined without regard to section 78), bears to

(2) such foreign corporation's post-1986 undistributed earnings.

(b) Deemed taxes increased in case of certain lower tier corporations

(1) In general

If—

(A) any foreign corporation is a member of a qualified group, and

(B) such foreign corporation owns 10 percent or more of the voting stock of another member of such group from which it receives dividends in any taxable year,


such foreign corporation shall be deemed to have paid the same proportion of such other member's post-1986 foreign income taxes as would be determined under subsection (a) if such foreign corporation were a domestic corporation.

(2) Qualified group

For purposes of paragraph (1), the term “qualified group” means—

(A) the foreign corporation described in subsection (a), and

(B) any other foreign corporation if—

(i) the domestic corporation owns at least 5 percent of the voting stock of such other foreign corporation indirectly through a chain of foreign corporations connected through stock ownership of at least 10 percent of their voting stock,

(ii) the foreign corporation described in subsection (a) is the first tier corporation in such chain, and

(iii) such other corporation is not below the sixth tier in such chain.


The term “qualified group” shall not include any foreign corporation below the third tier in the chain referred to in clause (i) unless such foreign corporation is a controlled foreign corporation (as defined in section 957) and the domestic corporation is a United States shareholder (as defined in section 951(b)) in such foreign corporation. Paragraph (1) shall apply to those taxes paid by a member of the qualified group below the third tier only with respect to periods during which it was a controlled foreign corporation.

(c) Definitions and special rules

For purposes of this section—

(1) Post-1986 undistributed earnings

The term “post-1986 undistributed earnings” means the amount of the earnings and profits of the foreign corporation (computed in accordance with sections 964(a) and 986) accumulated in taxable years beginning after December 31, 1986—

(A) as of the close of the taxable year of the foreign corporation in which the dividend is distributed, and

(B) without diminution by reason of dividends distributed during such taxable year.

(2) Post-1986 foreign income taxes

The term “post-1986 foreign income taxes” means the sum of—

(A) the foreign income taxes with respect to the taxable year of the foreign corporation in which the dividend is distributed, and

(B) the foreign income taxes with respect to prior taxable years beginning after December 31, 1986, to the extent such foreign taxes were not attributable to dividends distributed by the foreign corporation in prior taxable years.

(3) Special rule where foreign corporation first qualifies after December 31, 1986

(A) In general

If the 1st day on which the requirements of subparagraph (B) are met with respect to any foreign corporation is in a taxable year of such corporation beginning after December 31, 1986, the post-1986 undistributed earnings and the post-1986 foreign income taxes of such foreign corporation shall be determined by taking into account only periods beginning on and after the 1st day of the 1st taxable year in which such requirements are met.

(B) Ownership requirements

The requirements of this subparagraph are met with respect to any foreign corporation if—

(i) 10 percent or more of the voting stock of such foreign corporation is owned by a domestic corporation, or

(ii) the requirements of subsection (b)(2) are met with respect to such foreign corporation.

(4) Foreign income taxes

(A) In general

The term “foreign income taxes” means any income, war profits, or excess profits taxes paid by the foreign corporation to any foreign country or possession of the United States.

(B) Treatment of deemed taxes

Except for purposes of determining the amount of the post-1986 foreign income taxes of a sixth tier foreign corporation referred to in subsection (b)(2), the term “foreign income taxes” includes any such taxes deemed to be paid by the foreign corporation under this section.

(5) Accounting periods

In the case of a foreign corporation the income, war profits, and excess profits taxes of which are determined on the basis of an accounting period of less than 1 year, the word “year” as used in this subsection shall be construed to mean such accounting period.

(6) Treatment of distributions from earnings before 1987

(A) In general

In the case of any dividend paid by a foreign corporation out of accumulated profits (as defined in this section as in effect on the day before the date of the enactment of the Tax Reform Act of 1986) for taxable years beginning before the 1st taxable year taken into account in determining the post-1986 undistributed earnings of such corporation—

(i) this section (as amended by the Tax Reform Act of 1986) shall not apply, but

(ii) this section (as in effect on the day before the date of the enactment of such Act) shall apply.

(B) Dividends paid first out of post-1986 earnings

Any dividend in a taxable year beginning after December 31, 1986, shall be treated as made out of post-1986 undistributed earnings to the extent thereof.

(7) Constructive ownership through partnerships

Stock owned, directly or indirectly, by or for a partnership shall be considered as being owned proportionately by its partners. Stock considered to be owned by a person by reason of the preceding sentence shall, for purposes of applying such sentence, be treated as actually owned by such person. The Secretary may prescribe such regulations as may be necessary to carry out the purposes of this paragraph, including rules to account for special partnership allocations of dividends, credits, and other incidents of ownership of stock in determining proportionate ownership.

(8) Regulations

The Secretary shall provide such regulations as may be necessary or appropriate to carry out the provisions of this section and section 960, including provisions which provide for the separate application of this section and section 960 to reflect the separate application of section 904 to separate types of income and loss.

(d) Cross references

(1) For inclusion in gross income of an amount equal to taxes deemed paid under subsection (a), see section 78.

(2) For application of subsections (a) and (b) with respect to taxes deemed paid in a prior taxable year by a United States shareholder with respect to a controlled foreign corporation, see section 960.

(3) For reduction of credit with respect to dividends paid out of post-1986 undistributed earnings for years for which certain information is not furnished, see section 6038.

(Aug. 16, 1954, ch. 736, 68A Stat. 286; Pub. L. 86–780, §6(b)(2), Sept. 14, 1960, 74 Stat. 1016; Pub. L. 87–834, §9(a), Oct. 16, 1962, 76 Stat. 999; Pub. L. 91–684, §§1, 2, Jan. 12, 1971, 84 Stat. 2068, 2069; Pub. L. 94–12, title VI, §602(c)(6), Mar. 29, 1975, 89 Stat. 59; Pub. L. 94–455, title X, §1033(a), Oct. 4, 1976, 90 Stat. 1626; Pub. L. 99–514, title XII, §1202(a), Oct. 22, 1986, 100 Stat. 2528; Pub. L. 100–647, title I, §1012(b)(1), (2), Nov. 10, 1988, 102 Stat. 3496; Pub. L. 105–34, title XI, §§1113(a), 1163(a), Aug. 5, 1997, 111 Stat. 970, 987; Pub. L. 108–357, title IV, §405(a), Oct. 22, 2004, 118 Stat. 1498.)

References in Text

The date of the enactment of the Tax Reform Act of 1986, referred to in subsec. (c)(6)(A), is the date of enactment of Pub. L. 99–514, which was approved Oct. 22, 1986.

The Tax Reform Act of 1986, referred to in subsec. (c)(6)(A)(i), is Pub. L. 99–514, Oct. 22, 1986, 100 Stat. 2085. For complete classification of this Act to the Code, see Tables.

Amendments

2004—Subsec. (c)(7), (8). Pub. L. 108–357 added par. (7) and redesignated former par. (7) as (8).

1997—Subsec. (b). Pub. L. 105–34, §1113(a)(1), amended subsec. (b) generally. Prior to amendment, subsec. (b) consisted of pars. (1) to (3) relating to deemed taxes increased in case of certain 2nd and 3rd tier foreign corporations.

Subsec. (c)(2)(B). Pub. L. 105–34, §1163(a), substituted “attributable to” for “deemed paid with respect to”.

Subsec. (c)(3). Pub. L. 105–34, §1113(a)(2)(C), substituted “where foreign corporation first qualifies” for “where domestic corporation acquires 10 percent of foreign corporation” in heading.

Pub. L. 105–34, §1113(a)(2)(D), struck out “ownership” after “on which the” and “in which such” in subpar. (A) and before “requirements of this subparagraph” in introductory provisions of subpar. (B).

Subsec. (c)(3)(B). Pub. L. 105–34, §1113(a)(2)(A), inserted “or” at end of cl. (i), added cl. (ii), and struck out former cls. (ii) and (iii) which read as follows:

“(ii) the requirements of subsection (b)(3)(A) are met with respect to such foreign corporation and 10 percent or more of the voting stock of such foreign corporation is owned by another foreign corporation described in clause (i), or

“(iii) the requirements of subsection (b)(3)(B) are met with respect to such foreign corporation and 10 percent or more of the voting stock of such foreign corporation is owned by another foreign corporation described in clause (ii).”

Subsec. (c)(4)(B). Pub. L. 105–34, §1113(a)(2)(B), substituted “sixth tier foreign corporation” for “3rd foreign corporation”.

1988—Subsec. (c)(1). Pub. L. 100–647, §1012(b)(2), substituted “sections 964(a) and 986” for “sections 964 and 986”.

Subsec. (c)(7). Pub. L. 100–647, §1012(b)(1), substituted “section 960” for “secton 960” and “this section and section 960” for second reference to “this section”.

1986—Pub. L. 99–514 amended section generally, substituting “Deemed paid credit where domestic corporation owns 10 percent or more of voting stock of foreign corporation” for “Credit for corporate stockholder in foreign corporation” as section catchline and substituting present provisions generally relating to post-1986 earnings and taxes for former provisions which had provided in subsec. (a) for a general rule with respect to treatment of taxes paid by foreign corporations, in subsec. (b) for treatment of taxes by a foreign subsidiary of first and second foreign corporations, in subsec. (c) for rules defining accumulated profits and determining accounting periods, and in subsec. (d) for cross references.

1976—Pub. L. 94–455, §1033(a), struck out provisions by which dividends from less developed country corporations are not grossed-up by the amount of foreign taxes paid on the underlying income and the deemed-paid foreign tax credits attributable to those dividends are reduced proportionately, struck out subsec. (d) which defined less developed country corporations, and redesignated subsec. (e) as (d).

1975—Subsec. (d). Pub. L. 94–12 substituted “paragraph (3) or (4)”, “paragraph (3)”, “paragraph (3)(A)”, and “paragraph (3)(B)” for “section 955(c)(1) or (2)”, “section 955(c)(1)”, “section 955(c)(1)(A)”, and “section 955(c)(1)(B)”, respectively, in existing provisions and added pars. (3), (4), and (5) and provisions following par. (5).

1971—Subsec. (b). Pub. L. 91–684, §1, substituted “Foreign subsidiary of first and second foreign corporation” for “Foreign subsidiary of foreign corporation” in heading, designated existing provisions as par. (1) and inserted terminology denominating corporations involved as first foreign corporation and second foreign corporation, and reduced the ownership percentage requirement in voting stock from 50 percent to 10 percent between the first and second foreign corporations, and added pars. (2) and (3).

Subsec. (c)(1)(A). Pub. L. 91–684, §2(1), substituted “(b)(1)(A), and (b)(2)(A)” for “and (b)(1)”.

Subsec. (c)(1)(B). Pub. L. 91–684, §2(2), substituted “(b)(1)(B), and (b)(2)(B)” for “and (b)(2)”.

1962—Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 87–834 limited provisions which required a domestic corporation owning at least 10 per cent of the voting stock of a foreign corporation from which it receives dividends in any taxable year to be deemed to have paid the same proportion of any income, war profits, or excess profits taxes paid or deemed to be paid by such foreign corporation to any foreign country or to any possession of the United States which the amount of such dividends bears to the amount of accumulated profits to those cases where a foreign corporation paid such dividends out of accumulated profits of a year for which such foreign corporation is a less developed country corporation, and inserted provisions requiring, in the case of a domestic corporation which owns at least 10 percent of the voting stock of a foreign corporation from which it receives dividends in a taxable year, to the extent such dividends are paid by such foreign corporation out of accumulated profits of a year for which such foreign corporation is not a less developed country corporation, to be deemed to have paid the same proportion of any income, war profits, or excess profits taxes paid or deemed to be paid by such foreign corporation to any foreign country or to any possession of the United States on or with respect to such accumulated profits, which the amount of such dividends (determined without regard to section 78) bears to the amount of such accumulated profits in excess of such income, war profits, and excess profits taxes (other than those deemed paid).

Subsec. (b). Pub. L. 87–834 substituted “from which such dividends were paid which—

“(1) for purposes of applying subsection (a)(1), the amount of such dividends bears to the amount of the accumulated profits (as defined in subsection (c)(1)(A)) of such other foreign corporation from which such dividends were paid in excess of such income, war profits, and excess profits taxes, or

“(2) for purposes of applying subsection (a)(2), the amount of such dividends bears to the amount of the accumulated profits (as defined in subsection (c)(1)(B)) of such other foreign corporation from which such dividends were paid”

for “from which such dividends were paid, which the amount of such dividends bears to the amount of such accumulated profits”.

Subsec. (c). Pub. L. 87–834 defined “accumulated profits” for purposes of subsecs. (a)(1) and (b)(1) as meaning the amount of its gains, profits, or income computed without reduction by the amount of the income, war profits, and excess profits taxes imposed on or with respect to such profits or income by and foreign country or any possession of the United States, and limited provisions defining “accumulated profits” as the amount of its gains, profits, or income in excess of the income, war profits, and excess profits taxes imposed on or with respect to such profits or income to subsecs. (a)(2) and (b)(2).

Subsec. (d). Pub. L. 87–834 substituted provisions defining “less developed country corporation” for provisions which established special rules for certain wholly-owned foreign corporations.

Subsec. (e). Pub. L. 87–834 designated existing provisions as par. (3) and added pars. (1) and (2).

1960—Subsec. (e). Pub. L. 86–780 added subsec. (e).

Effective Date of 2004 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 108–357 applicable to taxes of foreign corporations for taxable years of such corporations beginning after Oct. 22, 2004, see section 405(c) of Pub. L. 108–357, set out as a note under section 901 of this title.

Effective Date of 1997 Amendment

Section 1113(c) of Pub. L. 105–34 provided that:

“(1) In general.—The amendments made by this section [amending this section and section 960 of this title] shall apply to taxes of foreign corporations for taxable years of such corporations beginning after the date of enactment of this Act [Aug. 5, 1997].

“(2) Special rule.—In the case of any chain of foreign corporations described in clauses (i) and (ii) of section 902(b)(2)(B) of the Internal Revenue Code of 1986 (as amended by this section), no liquidation, reorganization, or similar transaction in a taxable year beginning after the date of the enactment of this Act shall have the effect of permitting taxes to be taken into account under section 902 of the Internal Revenue Code of 1986 which could not have been taken into account under such section but for such transaction.”

Section 1163(c) of Pub. L. 105–34 provided that: “The amendments made by this section [amending this section and section 904 of this title] shall take effect on the date of the enactment of this Act [Aug. 5, 1997].”

Effective Date of 1988 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 100–647 effective, except as otherwise provided, as if included in the provision of the Tax Reform Act of 1986, Pub. L. 99–514, to which such amendment relates, see section 1019(a) of Pub. L. 100–647, set out as a note under section 1 of this title.

Effective Date of 1986 Amendment

Section 1202(e) of Pub. L. 99–514 provided that: “The amendments made by this section [amending this section and sections 960 and 6038 of this title] shall apply to distributions by foreign corporations out of, and to inclusions under section 951(a) of the Internal Revenue Code of 1986 attributable to, earnings and profits for taxable years beginning after December 31, 1986.”

Effective Date of 1976 Amendment

Section 1033(c) of Pub. L. 94–455, as amended by Pub. L. 99–514, §2, Oct. 22, 1986, 100 Stat. 2095, provided that: “The amendments made by this section [amending this section and sections 78, 535, 545, and 960 of this title] shall apply—

“(1) in respect of any distribution received by a domestic corporation after December 31, 1977, and

“(2) in respect of any distribution received by a domestic corporation before January 1, 1978, in a taxable year of such corporation beginning after December 31, 1975, but only to the extent that such distribution is made out of the accumulated profits of a foreign corporation for a taxable year (of such foreign corporation) beginning after December 31, 1975.

For purposes of paragraph (2), a distribution made by a foreign corporation out of its profits which are attributable to a distribution received from a foreign corporation to which section 902(b) of the Internal Revenue Code of 1986 [formerly I.R.C. 1954] applies shall be treated as made out of the accumulated profits of a foreign corporation for a taxable year beginning before January 1, 1976, to the extent that such distribution was paid out of the accumulated profits of such foreign corporation for a taxable year beginning before January 1, 1976.”

Effective Date of 1975 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 94–12 applicable to taxable years of foreign corporations beginning after Dec. 31, 1975, and to taxable years of United States shareholders (within the meaning of section 951(b) of this title) within which or with which such taxable years of such foreign corporations end, see section 602(f) of Pub. L. 94–12, set out as an Effective Date note under section 955 of this title.

Effective Date of 1971 Amendment

Section 3 of Pub. L. 91–684 provided that: “The amendments made by this Act [amending this section] shall apply with respect to all taxable years of domestic corporations, ending after the date of enactment of this Act [Jan. 12, 1971], but only in respect of dividends paid by one corporation to another corporation after the date of the enactment of this Act.”

Effective Date of 1962 Amendment

Section 9(e) of Pub. L. 87–834 provided that: “The amendments made by this section [enacting section 78 of this title and amending this section and sections 535, 545, 861, and 901 of this title] shall apply—

“(1) in respect of any distribution received by a domestic corporation after December 31, 1964, and

“(2) in respect of any distribution received by a domestic corporation before January 1, 1965, in a taxable year of such corporation beginning after December 31, 1962, but only to the extent that such distribution is made out of the accumulated profits of a foreign corporation for a taxable year (of such foreign corporation) beginning after December 31, 1962.

For purposes of paragraph (2), a distribution made by a foreign corporation out of its profits which are attributable to a distribution received from a foreign subsidiary to which section 902(b) applies shall be treated as made out of the accumulated profits of a foreign corporation for a taxable year beginning before January 1, 1963, to the extent that such distribution was paid out of the accumulated profits of such foreign subsidiary for a taxable year beginning before January 1, 1963.”

Effective Date of 1960 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 86–780 applicable to taxable years beginning after Dec. 31, 1960, see section 6(c) of Pub. L. 86–780), set out as an Effective Date note under section 6038 of this title.

Increase in Earnings and Profits of Foreign Corporations Under Section 1023(e)(3)(C) of Pub. L. 99–514

Section 1012(b)(3) of Pub. L. 100–647 provided that: “For purposes of sections 902 and 960 of the 1986 Code, the increase in earnings and profits of any foreign corporation under section 1023(e)(3)(C) of the Reform Act [Pub. L. 99–514, set out as an Effective Date note under section 846 of this title] shall be taken into account ratably over the 10-year period beginning with the corporation's first taxable year beginning after December 31, 1986.”

§903. Credit for taxes in lieu of income, etc., taxes

For purposes of this part and of sections 164(a) and 275(a), the term “income, war profits, and excess profits taxes” shall include a tax paid in lieu of a tax on income, war profits, or excess profits otherwise generally imposed by any foreign country or by any possession of the United States.

(Aug. 16, 1954, ch. 736, 68A Stat. 287; Pub. L. 88–272, title II, §207(b)(8), Feb. 26, 1964, 78 Stat. 42; Pub. L. 100–647, title I, §1012(v)(9), Nov. 10, 1988, 102 Stat. 3530; Pub. L. 106–519, §4(4), Nov. 15, 2000, 114 Stat. 2433; Pub. L. 108–357, title I, §101(b)(7), Oct. 22, 2004, 118 Stat. 1423.)

Amendments

2004—Pub. L. 108–357 substituted “164(a)” for “114, 164(a),”.

2000—Pub. L. 106–519 substituted “114, 164(a),” for “164(a)”.

1988—Pub. L. 100–647 substituted “this part” for “this subpart”.

1964—Pub. L. 88–272 substituted “sections 164(a) and 275(a)” for “section 164(b)”.

Effective Date of 2004 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 108–357 applicable to transactions after Dec. 31, 2004, see section 101(c) of Pub. L. 108–357, set out as a note under section 56 of this title.

Effective Date of 2000 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 106–519 applicable to transactions after Sept. 30, 2000, with special rules relating to existing foreign sales corporations, see section 5 of Pub. L. 106–519, set out as a note under section 56 of this title.

Effective Date of 1988 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 100–647 effective, except as otherwise provided, as if included in the provision of the Tax Reform Act of 1986, Pub. L. 99–514, to which such amendment relates, see section 1019(a) of Pub. L. 100–647, set out as a note under section 1 of this title.

Effective Date of 1964 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 88–272 applicable to taxable years beginning after Dec. 31, 1963, see section 207(c) of Pub. L. 88–272, set out as a note under section 164 of this title.

§904. Limitation on credit

(a) Limitation

The total amount of the credit taken under section 901(a) shall not exceed the same proportion of the tax against which such credit is taken which the taxpayer's taxable income from sources without the United States (but not in excess of the taxpayer's entire taxable income) bears to his entire taxable income for the same taxable year.

(b) Taxable income for purpose of computing limitation

(1) Personal exemptions

For purposes of subsection (a), the taxable income in the case of an individual, estate, or trust shall be computed without any deduction for personal exemptions under section 151 or 642(b).

(2) Capital gains

For purposes of this section—

(A) In general

Taxable income from sources outside the United States shall include gain from the sale or exchange of capital assets only to the extent of foreign source capital gain net income.

(B) Special rules where capital gain rate differential

In the case of any taxable year for which there is a capital gain rate differential—

(i) in lieu of applying subparagraph (A), the taxable income from sources outside the United States shall include gain from the sale or exchange of capital assets only in an amount equal to foreign source capital gain net income reduced by the rate differential portion of foreign source net capital gain,

(ii) the entire taxable income shall include gain from the sale or exchange of capital assets only in an amount equal to capital gain net income reduced by the rate differential portion of net capital gain, and

(iii) for purposes of determining taxable income from sources outside the United States, any net capital loss (and any amount which is a short-term capital loss under section 1212(a)) from sources outside the United States to the extent taken into account in determining capital gain net income for the taxable year shall be reduced by an amount equal to the rate differential portion of the excess of net capital gain from sources within the United States over net capital gain.

(C) Coordination with capital gains rates

The Secretary may by regulations modify the application of this paragraph and paragraph (3) to the extent necessary to properly reflect any capital gain rate differential under section 1(h) or 1201(a) and the computation of net capital gain.

(3) Definitions

For purposes of this subsection—

(A) Foreign source capital gain net income

The term “foreign source capital gain net income” means the lesser of—

(i) capital gain net income from sources without the United States, or

(ii) capital gain net income.

(B) Foreign source net capital gain

The term “foreign source net capital gain” means the lesser of—

(i) net capital gain from sources without the United States, or

(ii) net capital gain.

(C) Section 1231 gains

The term “gain from the sale or exchange of capital assets” includes any gain so treated under section 1231.

(D) Capital gain rate differential

There is a capital gain rate differential for any taxable year if—

(i) in the case of a taxpayer other than a corporation, subsection (h) of section 1 applies to such taxable year, or

(ii) in the case of a corporation, any rate of tax imposed by section 11, 511, or 831(a) or (b) (whichever applies) exceeds the alternative rate of tax under section 1201(a) (determined without regard to the last sentence of section 11(b)(1)).

(E) Rate differential portion

(i) In general

The rate differential portion of foreign source net capital gain, net capital gain, or the excess of net capital gain from sources within the United States over net capital gain, as the case may be, is the same proportion of such amount as—

(I) the excess of the highest applicable tax rate over the alternative tax rate, bears to

(II) the highest applicable tax rate.

(ii) Highest applicable tax rate

For purposes of clause (i), the term “highest applicable tax rate” means—

(I) in the case of a taxpayer other than a corporation, the highest rate of tax set forth in subsection (a), (b), (c), (d), or (e) of section 1 (whichever applies), or

(II) in the case of a corporation, the highest rate of tax specified in section 11(b).

(iii) Alternative tax rate

For purposes of clause (i), the term “alternative tax rate” means—

(I) in the case of a taxpayer other than a corporation, the alternative rate of tax determined under section 1(h), or

(II) in the case of a corporation, the alternative rate of tax under section 1201(a).

(4) Coordination with section 936

For purposes of subsection (a), in the case of a corporation, the taxable income shall not include any portion thereof taken into account for purposes of the credit (if any) allowed by section 936 (without regard to subsections (a)(4) and (i) thereof).

(c) Carryback and carryover of excess tax paid

Any amount by which all taxes paid or accrued to foreign countries or possessions of the United States for any taxable year for which the taxpayer chooses to have the benefits of this subpart exceed the limitation under subsection (a) shall be deemed taxes paid or accrued to foreign countries or possessions of the United States in the first preceding taxable year and in any of the first 10 succeeding taxable years, in that order and to the extent not deemed taxes paid or accrued in a prior taxable year, in the amount by which the limitation under subsection (a) for such preceding or succeeding taxable year exceeds the sum of the taxes paid or accrued to foreign countries or possessions of the United States for such preceding or succeeding taxable year and the amount of the taxes for any taxable year earlier than the current taxable year which shall be deemed to have been paid or accrued in such preceding or subsequent taxable year (whether or not the taxpayer chooses to have the benefits of this subpart with respect to such earlier taxable year). Such amount deemed paid or accrued in any year may be availed of only as a tax credit and not as a deduction and only if the taxpayer for such year chooses to have the benefits of this subpart as to taxes paid or accrued for that year to foreign countries or possessions of the United States.

(d) Separate application of section with respect to certain categories of income

(1) In general

The provisions of subsections (a), (b), and (c) and sections 902, 907, and 960 shall be applied separately with respect to—

(A) passive category income, and

(B) general category income.

(2) Definitions and special rules

For purposes of this subsection—

(A) Categories

(i) Passive category income

The term “passive category income” means passive income and specified passive category income.

(ii) General category income

The term “general category income” means income other than passive category income.

(B) Passive income

(i) In general

Except as otherwise provided in this subparagraph, the term “passive income” means any income received or accrued by any person which is of a kind which would be foreign personal holding company income (as defined in section 954(c)).

(ii) Certain amounts included

Except as provided in clause (iii), the term “passive income” includes, except as provided in subparagraph (E)(iii) 1 or paragraph (3)(I) 1, any amount includible in gross income under section 1293 (relating to certain passive foreign investment companies).

(iii) Exceptions

The term “passive income” shall not include—

(I) any export financing interest, and

(II) any high-taxed income.

(iv) Clarification of application of section 864(d)(6)

In determining whether any income is of a kind which would be foreign personal holding company income, the rules of section 864(d)(6) shall apply only in the case of income of a controlled foreign corporation.

(v) Specified passive category income

The term “specified passive category income” means—

(I) dividends from a DISC or former DISC (as defined in section 992(a)) to the extent such dividends are treated as income from sources without the United States, and

(II) distributions from a former FSC (as defined in section 922) out of earnings and profits attributable to foreign trade income (within the meaning of section 923(b)) or interest or carrying charges (as defined in section 927(d)(1)) derived from a transaction which results in foreign trade income (as defined in section 923(b)).


 Any reference in subclause (II) to section 922, 923, or 927 shall be treated as a reference to such section as in effect before its repeal by the FSC Repeal and Extraterritorial Income Exclusion Act of 2000.

(C) Treatment of financial services income and companies

(i) In general

Financial services income shall be treated as general category income in the case of—

(I) a member of a financial services group, and

(II) any other person if such person is predominantly engaged in the active conduct of a banking, insurance, financing, or similar business.

(ii) Financial services group

The term “financial services group” means any affiliated group (as defined in section 1504(a) without regard to paragraphs (2) and (3) of section 1504(b)) which is predominantly engaged in the active conduct of a banking, insurance, financing, or similar business. In determining whether such a group is so engaged, there shall be taken into account only the income of members of the group that are—

(I) United States corporations, or

(II) controlled foreign corporations in which such United States corporations own, directly or indirectly, at least 80 percent of the total voting power and value of the stock.

(iii) Pass-thru entities

The Secretary shall by regulation specify for purposes of this subparagraph the treatment of financial services income received or accrued by partnerships and by other pass-thru entities which are not members of a financial services group.

(D) Financial services income

(i) In general

Except as otherwise provided in this subparagraph, the term “financial services income” means any income which is received or accrued by any person predominantly engaged in the active conduct of a banking, insurance, financing, or similar business, and which is—

(I) described in clause (ii), or

(II) passive income (determined without regard to subparagraph (B)(iii)(II)).

(ii) General description of financial services income

Income is described in this clause if such income is—

(I) derived in the active conduct of a banking, financing, or similar business,

(II) derived from the investment by an insurance company of its unearned premiums or reserves ordinary and necessary for the proper conduct of its insurance business, or

(III) of a kind which would be insurance income as defined in section 953(a) determined without regard to those provisions of paragraph (1)(A) of such section which limit insurance income to income from countries other than the country in which the corporation was created or organized.

(E) Noncontrolled section 902 corporation

(i) In general

The term “noncontrolled section 902 corporation” means any foreign corporation with respect to which the taxpayer meets the stock ownership requirements of section 902(a) (or, for purposes of applying paragraph (3) or (4), the requirements of section 902(b)). A controlled foreign corporation shall not be treated as a noncontrolled section 902 corporation with respect to any distribution out of its earnings and profits for periods during which it was a controlled foreign corporation.

(ii) Treatment of inclusions under section 1293

If any foreign corporation is a non-controlled section 902 corporation with respect to the taxpayer, any inclusion under section 1293 with respect to such corporation shall be treated as a dividend from such corporation.

(F) High-taxed income

The term “high-taxed income” means any income which (but for this subparagraph) would be passive income if the sum of—

(i) the foreign income taxes paid or accrued by the taxpayer with respect to such income, and

(ii) the foreign income taxes deemed paid by the taxpayer with respect to such income under section 902 or 960,


exceeds the highest rate of tax specified in section 1 or 11 (whichever applies) multiplied by the amount of such income (determined with regard to section 78). For purposes of the preceding sentence, the term “foreign income taxes” means any income, war profits, or excess profits tax imposed by any foreign country or possession of the United States.

(G) Export financing interest

For purposes of this paragraph, the term “export financing interest” means any interest derived from financing the sale (or other disposition) for use or consumption outside the United States of any property—

(i) which is manufactured, produced, grown, or extracted in the United States by the taxpayer or a related person, and

(ii) not more than 50 percent of the fair market value of which is attributable to products imported into the United States.


For purposes of clause (ii), the fair market value of any property imported into the United States shall be its appraised value, as determined by the Secretary under section 402 of the Tariff Act of 1930 (19 U.S.C. 1401a) in connection with its importation.

(H) Treatment of income tax base differences

(i) In general

In the case of taxable years beginning after December 31, 2006, tax imposed under the law of a foreign country or possession of the United States on an amount which does not constitute income under United States tax principles shall be treated as imposed on income described in paragraph (1)(B).

(ii) Special rule for years before 2007

(I) In general

In the case of taxes paid or accrued in taxable years beginning after December 31, 2004, and before January 1, 2007, a taxpayer may elect to treat tax imposed under the law of a foreign country or possession of the United States on an amount which does not constitute income under United States tax principles as tax imposed on income described in subparagraph (C) or (I) of paragraph (1).

(II) Election irrevocable

Any such election shall apply to the taxable year for which made and all subsequent taxable years described in subclause (I) unless revoked with the consent of the Secretary.

(I) Related person

For purposes of this paragraph, the term “related person” has the meaning given such term by section 954(d)(3), except that such section shall be applied by substituting “the person with respect to whom the determination is being made” for “controlled foreign corporation” each place it appears.

(J) Transitional rule

For purposes of paragraph (1)—

(i) taxes paid or accrued in a taxable year beginning before January 1, 1987, with respect to income which was described in subparagraph (A) of paragraph (1) (as in effect on the day before the date of the enactment of the Tax Reform Act of 1986) shall be treated as taxes paid or accrued with respect to income described in subparagraph (A) of paragraph (1) (as in effect after such date),

(ii) taxes paid or accrued in a taxable year beginning before January 1, 1987, with respect to income which was described in subparagraph (E) of paragraph (1) (as in effect on the day before the date of the enactment of the Tax Reform Act of 1986) shall be treated as taxes paid or accrued with respect to income described in subparagraph (I) of paragraph (1) (as in effect after such date) except that—

(I) such taxes shall be treated as paid or accrued with respect to shipping income to the extent the taxpayer establishes to the satisfaction of the Secretary that such taxes were paid or accrued with respect to such income,

(II) in the case of a person described in subparagraph (C)(i), such taxes shall be treated as paid or accrued with respect to financial services income to the extent the taxpayer establishes to the satisfaction of the Secretary that such taxes were paid or accrued with respect to such income, and

(III) such taxes shall be treated as paid or accrued with respect to high withholding tax interest to the extent the taxpayer establishes to the satisfaction of the Secretary that such taxes were paid or accrued with respect to such income, and


(iii) taxes paid or accrued in a taxable year beginning before January 1, 1987, with respect to income described in any other subparagraph of paragraph (1) (as so in effect before such date) shall be treated as taxes paid or accrued with respect to income described in the corresponding subparagraph of paragraph (1) (as so in effect after such date).

(K) Transitional rules for 2007 changes

For purposes of paragraph (1)—

(i) taxes carried from any taxable year beginning before January 1, 2007, to any taxable year beginning on or after such date, with respect to any item of income, shall be treated as described in the subparagraph of paragraph (1) in which such income would be described were such taxes paid or accrued in a taxable year beginning on or after such date, and

(ii) the Secretary may by regulations provide for the allocation of any carryback of taxes with respect to income from a taxable year beginning on or after January 1, 2007, to a taxable year beginning before such date for purposes of allocating such income among the separate categories in effect for the taxable year to which carried.

(3) Look-thru in case of controlled foreign corporations

(A) In general

Except as otherwise provided in this paragraph, dividends, interest, rents, and royalties received or accrued by the taxpayer from a controlled foreign corporation in which the taxpayer is a United States shareholder shall not be treated as passive category income.

(B) Subpart F inclusions

Any amount included in gross income under section 951(a)(1)(A) shall be treated as passive category income to the extent the amount so included is attributable to passive category income.

(C) Interest, rents, and royalties

Any interest, rent, or royalty which is received or accrued from a controlled foreign corporation in which the taxpayer is a United States shareholder shall be treated as passive category income to the extent it is properly allocable (under regulations prescribed by the Secretary) to passive category income of the controlled foreign corporation.

(D) Dividends

Any dividend paid out of the earnings and profits of any controlled foreign corporation in which the taxpayer is a United States shareholder shall be treated as passive category income in proportion to the ratio of—

(i) the portion of the earnings and profits attributable to passive category income, to

(ii) the total amount of earnings and profits.

(E) Look-thru applies only where subpart F applies

If a controlled foreign corporation meets the requirements of section 954(b)(3)(A) (relating to de minimis rule) for any taxable year, for purposes of this paragraph, none of its foreign base company income (as defined in section 954(a) without regard to section 954(b)(5)) and none of its gross insurance income (as defined in section 954(b)(3)(C)) for such taxable year shall be treated as passive category income, except that this sentence shall not apply to any income which (without regard to this sentence) would be treated as financial services income. Solely for purposes of applying subparagraph (D), passive income of a controlled foreign corporation shall not be treated as passive category income if the requirements of section 954(b)(4) are met with respect to such income.

(F) Coordination with high-taxed income provisions

(i) In determining whether any income of a controlled foreign corporation is passive category income, subclause (II) of paragraph (2)(B)(iii) shall not apply.

(ii) Any income of the taxpayer which is treated as passive category income under this paragraph shall be so treated notwithstanding any provision of paragraph (2); except that the determination of whether any amount is high-taxed income shall be made after the application of this paragraph.

(G) Dividend

For purposes of this paragraph, the term “dividend” includes any amount included in gross income in section 951(a)(1)(B). Any amount included in gross income under section 78 to the extent attributable to amounts included in gross income in section 951(a)(1)(A) shall not be treated as a dividend but shall be treated as included in gross income under section 951(a)(1)(A).

(H) Look-thru applies to passive foreign investment company inclusion

If—

(i) a passive foreign investment company is a controlled foreign corporation, and

(ii) the taxpayer is a United States shareholder in such controlled foreign corporation,


any amount included in gross income under section 1293 shall be treated as income in a separate category to the extent such amount is attributable to income in such category.

(4) Look-thru applies to dividends from noncontrolled section 902 corporations

(A) In general

For purposes of this subsection, any dividend from a noncontrolled section 902 corporation with respect to the taxpayer shall be treated as income described in a subparagraph of paragraph (1) in proportion to the ratio of—

(i) the portion of earnings and profits attributable to income described in such subparagraph, to

(ii) the total amount of earnings and profits.

(B) Earnings and profits of controlled foreign corporations

In the case of any distribution from a controlled foreign corporation to a United States shareholder, rules similar to the rules of subparagraph (A) shall apply in determining the extent to which earnings and profits of the controlled foreign corporation which are attributable to dividends received from a noncontrolled section 902 corporation may be treated as income in a separate category.

(C) Special rules

For purposes of this paragraph—

(i) Earnings and profits

(I) In general

The rules of section 316 shall apply.

(II) Regulations

The Secretary may prescribe regulations regarding the treatment of distributions out of earnings and profits for periods before the taxpayer's acquisition of the stock to which the distributions relate.

(ii) Inadequate substantiation

If the Secretary determines that the proper subparagraph of paragraph (1) in which a dividend is described has not been substantiated, such dividend shall be treated as income described in paragraph (1)(A).

(iii) Coordination with high-taxed income provisions

Rules similar to the rules of paragraph (3)(F) shall apply for purposes of this paragraph.

(iv) Look-thru with respect to carryover of credit

Rules similar to subparagraph (A) also shall apply to any carryforward under subsection (c) from a taxable year beginning before January 1, 2003, of tax allocable to a dividend from a noncontrolled section 902 corporation with respect to the taxpayer. The Secretary may by regulations provide for the allocation of any carryback of tax allocable to a dividend from a noncontrolled section 902 corporation from a taxable year beginning on or after January 1, 2003, to a taxable year beginning before such date for purposes of allocating such dividend among the separate categories in effect for the taxable year to which carried.

(5) Controlled foreign corporation; United States shareholder

For purposes of this subsection—

(A) Controlled foreign corporation

The term “controlled foreign corporation” has the meaning given such term by section 957 (taking into account section 953(c)).

(B) United States shareholder

The term “United States shareholder” has the meaning given such term by section 951(b) (taking into account section 953(c)).

(6) Separate application to items resourced under treaties

(A) In general

If—

(i) without regard to any treaty obligation of the United States, any item of income would be treated as derived from sources within the United States,

(ii) under a treaty obligation of the United States, such item would be treated as arising from sources outside the United States, and

(iii) the taxpayer chooses the benefits of such treaty obligation,


subsections (a), (b), and (c) of this section and sections 902, 907, and 960 shall be applied separately with respect to each such item.

(B) Coordination with other provisions

This paragraph shall not apply to any item of income to which subsection (h)(10) or section 865(h) applies.

(C) Regulations

The Secretary may issue such regulations or other guidance as is necessary or appropriate to carry out the purposes of this paragraph, including regulations or other guidance which provides that related items of income may be aggregated for purposes of this paragraph.

(7) Regulations

The Secretary shall prescribe such regulations as may be necessary or appropriate for the purposes of this subsection, including regulations—

(A) for the application of paragraph (3) and subsection (f)(5) in the case of income paid (or loans made) through 1 or more entities or between 2 or more chains of entities,

(B) preventing the manipulation of the character of income the effect of which is to avoid the purposes of this subsection, and

(C) providing that rules similar to the rules of paragraph (3)(C) shall apply to interest, rents, and royalties received or accrued from entities which would be controlled foreign corporations if they were foreign corporations.

[(e) Repealed. Pub. L. 101–508, title XI, §11801(a)(31), Nov. 5, 1990, 104 Stat. 1388–521]

(f) Recapture of overall foreign loss

(1) General rule

For purposes of this subpart and section 936, in the case of any taxpayer who sustains an overall foreign loss for any taxable year, that portion of the taxpayer's taxable income from sources without the United States for each succeeding taxable year which is equal to the lesser of—

(A) the amount of such loss (to the extent not used under this paragraph in prior taxable years), or

(B) 50 percent (or such larger percent as the taxpayer may choose) of the taxpayer's taxable income from sources without the United States for such succeeding taxable year,


shall be treated as income from sources within the United States (and not as income from sources without the United States).

(2) Overall foreign loss defined

For purposes of this subsection, the term “overall foreign loss” means the amount by which the gross income for the taxable year from sources without the United States (whether or not the taxpayer chooses the benefits of this subpart for such taxable year) for such year is exceeded by the sum of the deductions properly apportioned or allocated thereto, except that there shall not be taken into account—

(A) any net operating loss deduction allowable for such year under section 172(a), and

(B) any—

(i) foreign expropriation loss for such year, as defined in section 172(h) (as in effect on the day before the date of the enactment of the Revenue Reconciliation Act of 1990), or

(ii) loss for such year which arises from fire, storm, shipwreck, or other casualty, or from theft,


to the extent such loss is not compensated for by insurance or otherwise.

(3) Dispositions

(A) In general

For purposes of this chapter, if property which has been used predominantly without the United States in a trade or business is disposed of during any taxable year—

(i) the taxpayer, notwithstanding any other provision of this chapter (other than paragraph (1)), shall be deemed to have received and recognized taxable income from sources without the United States in the taxable year of the disposition, by reason of such disposition, in an amount equal to the lesser of the excess of the fair market value of such property over the taxpayer's adjusted basis in such property or the remaining amount of the overall foreign losses which were not used under paragraph (1) for such taxable year or any prior taxable year, and

(ii) paragraph (1) shall be applied with respect to such income by substituting “100 percent” for “50 percent”.


In determining for purposes of this subparagraph whether the predominant use of any property has been without the United States, there shall be taken into account use during the 3-year period ending on the date of the disposition (or, if shorter, the period during which the property has been used in the trade or business).

(B) Disposition defined and special rules

(i) For purposes of this subsection, the term “disposition” includes a sale, exchange, distribution, or gift of property whether or not gain or loss is recognized on the transfer.

(ii) Any taxable income recognized solely by reason of subparagraph (A) shall have the same characterization it would have had if the taxpayer had sold or exchanged the property.

(iii) The Secretary shall prescribe such regulations as he may deem necessary to provide for adjustments to the basis of property to reflect taxable income recognized solely by reason of subparagraph (A).

(C) Exceptions

Notwithstanding subparagraph (B), the term “disposition” does not include—

(i) a disposition of property which is not a material factor in the realization of income by the taxpayer, or

(ii) a disposition of property to a domestic corporation in a distribution or transfer described in section 381(a).

(D) Application to certain dispositions of stock in controlled foreign corporation

(i) In general

This paragraph shall apply to an applicable disposition in the same manner as if it were a disposition of property described in subparagraph (A), except that the exception contained in subparagraph (C)(i) shall not apply.

(ii) Applicable disposition

For purposes of clause (i), the term “applicable disposition” means any disposition of any share of stock in a controlled foreign corporation in a transaction or series of transactions if, immediately before such transaction or series of transactions, the taxpayer owned more than 50 percent (by vote or value) of the stock of the controlled foreign corporation. Such term shall not include a disposition described in clause (iii) or (iv), except that clause (i) shall apply to any gain recognized on any such disposition.

(iii) Exception for certain exchanges where ownership percentage retained

A disposition shall not be treated as an applicable disposition under clause (ii) if it is part of a transaction or series of transactions—

(I) to which section 351 or 721 applies, or under which the transferor receives stock in a foreign corporation in exchange for the stock in the controlled foreign corporation and the stock received is exchanged basis property (as defined in section 7701(a)(44)), and

(II) immediately after which, the transferor owns (by vote or value) at least the same percentage of stock in the controlled foreign corporation (or, if the controlled foreign corporation is not in existence after such transaction or series of transactions, in another foreign corporation stock in 2 which was received by the transferor in exchange for stock in the controlled foreign corporation) as the percentage of stock in the controlled foreign corporation which the taxpayer owned immediately before such transaction or series of transactions.

(iv) Exception for certain asset acquisitions

A disposition shall not be treated as an applicable disposition under clause (ii) if it is part of a transaction or series of transactions in which the taxpayer (or any member of an affiliated group of corporations filing a consolidated return under section 1501 which includes the taxpayer) acquires the assets of a controlled foreign corporation in exchange for the shares of the controlled foreign corporation in a liquidation described in section 332 or a reorganization described in section 368(a)(1).

(v) Controlled foreign corporation

For purposes of this subparagraph, the term “controlled foreign corporation” has the meaning given such term by section 957.

(vi) Stock ownership

For purposes of this subparagraph, ownership of stock shall be determined under the rules of subsections (a) and (b) of section 958.

(4) Accumulation distributions of foreign trust

For purposes of this chapter, in the case of amounts of income from sources without the United States which are treated under section 666 (without regard to subsections (b) and (c) thereof if the taxpayer chose to take a deduction with respect to the amounts described in such subsections under section 667(d)(1)(B)) as having been distributed by a foreign trust in a preceding taxable year, that portion of such amounts equal to the amount of any overall foreign loss sustained by the beneficiary in a year prior to the taxable year of the beneficiary in which such distribution is received from the trust shall be treated as income from sources within the United States (and not income from sources without the United States) to the extent that such loss was not used under this subsection in prior taxable years, or in the current taxable year, against other income of the beneficiary.

(5) Treatment of separate limitation losses

(A) In general

The amount of the separate limitation losses for any taxable year shall reduce income from sources within the United States for such taxable year only to the extent the aggregate amount of such losses exceeds the aggregate amount of the separate limitation incomes for such taxable year.

(B) Allocation of losses

The separate limitation losses for any taxable year (to the extent such losses do not exceed the separate limitation incomes for such year) shall be allocated among (and operate to reduce) such incomes on a proportionate basis.

(C) Recharacterization of subsequent income

If—

(i) a separate limitation loss from any income category (hereinafter in this subparagraph referred to as “the loss category”) was allocated to income from any other category under subparagraph (B), and

(ii) the loss category has income for a subsequent taxable year,


such income (to the extent it does not exceed the aggregate separate limitation losses from the loss category not previously recharacterized under this subparagraph) shall be recharacterized as income from such other category in proportion to the prior reductions under subparagraph (B) in such other category not previously taken into account under this subparagraph. Nothing in the preceding sentence shall be construed as recharacterizing any tax.

(D) Special rules for losses from sources in the United States

Any loss from sources in the United States for any taxable year (to the extent such loss does not exceed the separate limitation incomes from such year) shall be allocated among (and operate to reduce) such incomes on a proportionate basis. This subparagraph shall be applied after subparagraph (B).

(E) Definitions

For purposes of this paragraph—

(i) Income category

The term “income category” means each separate category of income described in subsection (d)(1).

(ii) Separate limitation income

The term “separate limitation income” means, with respect to any income category, the taxable income from sources outside the United States, separately computed for such category.

(iii) Separate limitation loss

The term “separate limitation loss” means, with respect to any income category, the loss from such category determined under the principles of section 907(c)(4)(B).

(F) Dispositions

If any separate limitation loss for any taxable year is allocated against any separate limitation income for such taxable year, except to the extent provided in regulations, rules similar to the rules of paragraph (3) shall apply to any disposition of property if gain from such disposition would be in the income category with respect to which there was such separate limitation loss.

(g) Recharacterization of overall domestic loss

(1) General rule

For purposes of this subpart and section 936, in the case of any taxpayer who sustains an overall domestic loss for any taxable year beginning after December 31, 2006, that portion of the taxpayer's taxable income from sources within the United States for each succeeding taxable year which is equal to the lesser of—

(A) the amount of such loss (to the extent not used under this paragraph in prior taxable years), or

(B) 50 percent of the taxpayer's taxable income from sources within the United States for such succeeding taxable year,


shall be treated as income from sources without the United States (and not as income from sources within the United States).

(2) Overall domestic loss

For purposes of this subsection—

(A) In general

The term “overall domestic loss” means—

(i) with respect to any qualified taxable year, the domestic loss for such taxable year to the extent such loss offsets taxable income from sources without the United States for the taxable year or for any preceding qualified taxable year by reason of a carryback, and

(ii) with respect to any other taxable year, the domestic loss for such taxable year to the extent such loss offsets taxable income from sources without the United States for any preceding qualified taxable year by reason of a carryback.

(B) Domestic loss

For purposes of subparagraph (A), the term “domestic loss” means the amount by which the gross income for the taxable year from sources within the United States is exceeded by the sum of the deductions properly apportioned or allocated thereto (determined without regard to any carryback from a subsequent taxable year).

(C) Qualified taxable year

For purposes of subparagraph (A), the term “qualified taxable year” means any taxable year for which the taxpayer chose the benefits of this subpart.

(3) Characterization of subsequent income

(A) In general

Any income from sources within the United States that is treated as income from sources without the United States under paragraph (1) shall be allocated among and increase the income categories in proportion to the loss from sources within the United States previously allocated to those income categories.

(B) Income category

For purposes of this paragraph, the term “income category” has the meaning given such term by subsection (f)(5)(E)(i).

(4) Coordination with subsection (f)

The Secretary shall prescribe such regulations as may be necessary to coordinate the provisions of this subsection with the provisions of subsection (f).

(h) Source rules in case of United States-owned foreign corporations

(1) In general

The following amounts which are derived from a United States-owned foreign corporation and which would be treated as derived from sources outside the United States without regard to this subsection shall, for purposes of this section, be treated as derived from sources within the United States to the extent provided in this subsection:

(A) Any amount included in gross income under—

(i) section 951(a) (relating to amounts included in gross income of United States shareholders), or

(ii) section 1293 (relating to current taxation of income from qualified funds).


(B) Interest.

(C) Dividends.

(2) Subpart F and passive foreign investment company inclusions

Any amount described in subparagraph (A) of paragraph (1) shall be treated as derived from sources within the United States to the extent such amount is attributable to income of the United States-owned foreign corporation from sources within the United States.

(3) Certain interest allocable to United States source income

Any interest which—

(A) is paid or accrued by a United States-owned foreign corporation during any taxable year,

(B) is paid or accrued to a United States shareholder (as defined in section 951(b)) or a related person (within the meaning of section 267(b)) to such a shareholder, and

(C) is properly allocable (under regulations prescribed by the Secretary) to income of such foreign corporation for the taxable year from sources within the United States,


shall be treated as derived from sources within the United States.

(4) Dividends

(A) In general

The United States source ratio of any dividend paid or accrued by a United States-owned foreign corporation shall be treated as derived from sources within the United States.

(B) United States source ratio

For purposes of subparagraph (A), the term “United States source ratio” means, with respect to any dividend paid out of the earnings and profits for any taxable year, a fraction—

(i) the numerator of which is the portion of the earnings and profits for such taxable year from sources within the United States, and

(ii) the denominator of which is the total amount of earnings and profits for such taxable year.

(5) Exception where United States-owned foreign corporation has small amount of United States source income

Paragraph (3) shall not apply to interest paid or accrued during any taxable year (and paragraph (4) shall not apply to any dividends paid out of the earnings and profits for such taxable year) if—

(A) the United States-owned foreign corporation has earnings and profits for such taxable year, and

(B) less than 10 percent of such earnings and profits is attributable to sources within the United States.


For purposes of the preceding sentence, earnings and profits shall be determined without any reduction for interest described in paragraph (3) (determined without regard to subparagraph (C) thereof).

(6) United States-owned foreign corporation

For purposes of this subsection, the term “United States-owned foreign corporation” means any foreign corporation if 50 percent or more of—

(A) the total combined voting power of all classes of stock of such corporation entitled to vote, or

(B) the total value of the stock of such corporation,


is held directly (or indirectly through applying paragraphs (2) and (3) of section 958(a) and paragraph (4) of section 318(a)) by United States persons (as defined in section 7701(a)(30)).

(7) Dividend

For purposes of this subsection, the term “dividend” includes any gain treated as ordinary income under section 1246 3 or as a dividend under section 1248.

(8) Coordination with subsection (f)

This subsection shall be applied before subsection (f).

(9) Treatment of certain domestic corporations

In the case of any dividend treated as not from sources within the United States under section 861(a)(2)(A), the corporation paying such dividend shall be treated for purposes of this subsection as a United States-owned foreign corporation.

(10) Coordination with treaties

(A) In general

If—

(i) any amount derived from a United States-owned foreign corporation would be treated as derived from sources within the United States under this subsection by reason of an item of income of such United States-owned foreign corporation,

(ii) under a treaty obligation of the United States (applied without regard to this subsection and by treating any amount included in gross income under section 951(a)(1) as a dividend), such amount would be treated as arising from sources outside the United States, and

(iii) the taxpayer chooses the benefits of this paragraph,


this subsection shall not apply to such amount to the extent attributable to such item of income (but subsections (a), (b), and (c) of this section and sections 902, 907, and 960 shall be applied separately with respect to such amount to the extent so attributable).

(B) Special rule

Amounts included in gross income under section 951(a)(1) shall be treated as a dividend under subparagraph (A)(ii) only if dividends paid by each corporation (the stock in which is taken into account in determining whether the shareholder is a United States shareholder in the United States-owned foreign corporation), if paid to the United States shareholder, would be treated under a treaty obligation of the United States as arising from sources outside the United States (applied without regard to this subsection).

(11) Regulations

The Secretary shall prescribe such regulations as may be necessary or appropriate for purposes of this subsection, including—

(A) regulations for the application of this subsection in the case of interest or dividend payments through 1 or more entities, and

(B) regulations providing that this subsection shall apply to interest paid or accrued to any person (whether or not a United States shareholder).

(i) Coordination with nonrefundable personal credits

In the case of any taxable year of an individual to which section 26(a)(2) does not apply, for purposes of subsection (a), the tax against which the credit is taken is such tax reduced by the sum of the credits allowable under subpart A of part IV of subchapter A of this chapter (other than sections 23, 24, 25A(i), 25B, 30 30B,,2 and 30D).

(j) Limitation on use of deconsolidation to avoid foreign tax credit limitations

If 2 or more domestic corporations would be members of the same affiliated group if—

(1) section 1504(b) were applied without regard to the exceptions contained therein, and

(2) the constructive ownership rules of section 1563(e) applied for purposes of section 1504(a),


the Secretary may by regulations provide for resourcing the income of any of such corporations or for modifications to the consolidated return regulations to the extent that such resourcing or modifications are necessary to prevent the avoidance of the provisions of this subpart.

(k) Certain individuals exempt

(1) In general

In the case of an individual to whom this subsection applies for any taxable year—

(A) the limitation of subsection (a) shall not apply,

(B) no taxes paid or accrued by the individual during such taxable year may be deemed paid or accrued under subsection (c) in any other taxable year, and

(C) no taxes paid or accrued by the individual during any other taxable year may be deemed paid or accrued under subsection (c) in such taxable year.

(2) Individuals to whom subsection applies

This subsection shall apply to an individual for any taxable year if—

(A) the entire amount of such individual's gross income for the taxable year from sources without the United States consists of qualified passive income,

(B) the amount of the creditable foreign taxes paid or accrued by the individual during the taxable year does not exceed $300 ($600 in the case of a joint return), and

(C) such individual elects to have this subsection apply for the taxable year.

(3) Definitions

For purposes of this subsection—

(A) Qualified passive income

The term “qualified passive income” means any item of gross income if—

(i) such item of income is passive income (as defined in subsection (d)(2)(B) without regard to clause (iii) thereof), and

(ii) such item of income is shown on a payee statement furnished to the individual.

(B) Creditable foreign taxes

The term “creditable foreign taxes” means any taxes for which a credit is allowable under section 901; except that such term shall not include any tax unless such tax is shown on a payee statement furnished to such individual.

(C) Payee statement

The term “payee statement” has the meaning given to such term by section 6724(d)(2).

(D) Estates and trusts not eligible

This subsection shall not apply to any estate or trust.

(l) Cross reference

(1) For increase of limitation under subsection (a) for taxes paid with respect to amounts received which were included in the gross income of the taxpayer for a prior taxable year as a United States shareholder with respect to a controlled foreign corporation, see section 960(b).

(2) For modification of limitation under subsection (a) for purposes of determining the amount of credit which can be taken against the alternative minimum tax, see section 59(a).

(Aug. 16, 1954, ch. 736, 68A Stat. 287; Pub. L. 85–866, title I, §42(a), Sept. 2, 1958, 72 Stat. 1639; Pub. L. 86–780, §1, Sept. 14, 1960, 74 Stat. 1010; Pub. L. 87–834, §§10(a), 12(b)(2), Oct. 16, 1962, 76 Stat. 1002, 1031; Pub. L. 88–272, title II, §234(b)(6), Feb. 26, 1964, 78 Stat. 116; Pub. L. 89–809, title I, §106(c)(1), Nov. 13, 1966, 80 Stat. 1570; Pub. L. 91–172, title V, §506(b), Dec. 30, 1969, 83 Stat. 635; Pub. L. 92–178, title V, §502(b)(2)–(4), Dec. 10, 1971, 85 Stat. 549; Pub. L. 94–455, title V, §503(b)(1), title X, §§1031(a), 1032(a), 1034(a), 1051(e), title XIX, §1901(b)(10)(B), Oct. 4, 1976, 90 Stat. 1562, 1620, 1624, 1629, 1646, 1795; Pub. L. 95–30, title I, §102(b)(11), May 23, 1977, 91 Stat. 138; Pub. L. 95–600, title IV, §§403(c)(4), 421(e)(6), title VII, §701(q)(2), (u)(2)(A)–(C), (3)(A), (4)(A), (B), (8)(C), Nov. 6, 1978, 92 Stat. 2868, 2876, 2910, 2913, 2916; Pub. L. 96–222, title I, §104(a)(3)(D), Apr. 1, 1980, 94 Stat. 215; Pub. L. 97–248, title II, §211(c)(2), Sept. 3, 1982, 96 Stat. 449; Pub. L. 98–21, title I, §122(c)(1), Apr. 20, 1983, 97 Stat. 87; Pub. L. 98–369, div. A, title I, §§121(a), 122(a), title IV, §474(r)(21), title VIII, §801(d)(2), July 18, 1984, 98 Stat. 638, 643, 843, 995; Pub. L. 99–514, title I, §104(b)(13), title VII, §701(e)(4)(H), title XII, §§1201(a), (b), (d)(1)–(3), 1203(a), 1211(b)(3), 1235(f)(4), title XVIII, §§1810(a)(1)(A), (b)(1)–(4)(A), 1876(d)(2), 1899A(24), Oct. 22, 1986, 100 Stat. 2105, 2343, 2520, 2525, 2531, 2536, 2575, 2821, 2823, 2899, 2959; Pub. L. 100–647, title I, §§1003(b)(2), 1012(a)(1)(A), (2)–(4), (6)–(11), (c), (p)(11), (29), (q)(12), (bb)(4)(A), title II, §2004(l), Nov. 10, 1988, 102 Stat. 3383, 3493–3497, 3517, 3521, 3525, 3534, 3606; Pub. L. 101–239, title VII, §§7402(a), 7811(i)(1), Dec. 19, 1989, 103 Stat. 2357, 2409; Pub. L. 101–508, title XI, §§11101(d)(5), 11801(a)(31), Nov. 5, 1990, 104 Stat. 1388–405, 1388–521; Pub. L. 103–66, title XIII, §§13227(d), 13235(a)(2), Aug. 10, 1993, 107 Stat. 494, 504; Pub. L. 104–188, title I, §§1501(b)(1), (12), 1703(i)(1), 1704(t)(36), Aug. 20, 1996, 110 Stat. 1825, 1826, 1876, 1889; Pub. L. 105–34, title III, §311(c)(3), title XI, §§1101(a), 1105(a), (b), 1111(b), 1163(b), Aug. 5, 1997, 111 Stat. 835, 963, 967, 969, 987; Pub. L. 106–170, title V, §501(b)(2), Dec. 17, 1999, 113 Stat. 1919; Pub. L. 107–16, title II, §§201(b)(2)(G), 202(f)(2)(C), title VI, §618(b)(2)(D), June 7, 2001, 115 Stat. 46, 49, 108; Pub. L. 107–147, title IV, §417(23)(B), title VI, §601(b)(1), Mar. 9, 2002, 116 Stat. 57, 59; Pub. L. 108–311, title III, §312(b)(1), Oct. 4, 2004, 118 Stat. 1181; Pub. L. 108–357, title IV, §§402(a), 403(a)–(b)(5), 404(a)–(f), 413(c)(14), (15), 417(a), title VIII, §895(a), Oct. 22, 2004, 118 Stat. 1491–1495, 1508, 1512, 1647; Pub. L. 109–135, title IV, §§402(i)(3)(G), 403(k), (o), Dec. 21, 2005, 119 Stat. 2614, 2625, 2626; Pub. L. 110–172, §11(f)(3), (g)(10), Dec. 29, 2007, 121 Stat. 2489, 2490; Pub. L. 111–5, div. B, title I, §§1004(b)(5), 1142(b)(1)(E), 1144(b)(1)(E), Feb. 17, 2009, 123 Stat. 314, 330, 332; Pub. L. 111–148, title X, §10909(b)(2)(K), (c), Mar. 23, 2010, 124 Stat. 1023; Pub. L. 111–226, title II, §§213(a), 217(c)(2), Aug. 10, 2010, 124 Stat. 2398, 2402; Pub. L. 111–312, title I, §101(b)(1), Dec. 17, 2010, 124 Stat. 3298.)

Amendment of Section

For termination of amendment by section 10909(c) of Pub. L. 111–148, see Effective and Termination Dates of 2010 Amendment note below.

For termination of amendment by section 402(i)(3)(H) of Pub. L. 109–135, see Effective and Termination Dates of 2005 Amendment note below.

For termination of amendment by section 901 of Pub. L. 107–16, see Effective and Termination Dates of 2001 Amendment note below.

References in Text

Subparagraph (E)(iii) of subsection (d)(2) of this section, referred to in subsec. (d)(2)(B)(ii), was redesignated as subparagraph (E)(ii) by Pub. L. 108–357, title IV, §403(b)(4)(B), Oct. 22, 2004, 118 Stat. 1494.

Paragraph (3) of subsection (d) of this section, referred to in subsec. (d)(2)(B)(ii), was amended generally by Pub. L. 108–357, title IV, §404(f)(4), Oct. 22, 2004, 118 Stat. 1496, and as so amended, no longer contains a subpar. (I).

The FSC Repeal and Extraterritorial Income Exclusion Act of 2000, referred to in subsec. (d)(2)(B)(v), is Pub. L. 106–519, Nov. 15, 2000, 114 Stat. 2423. For complete classification of this Act to the Code, see Short Title of 2000 Amendments note set out under section 1 of this title and Tables.

The date of the enactment of the Tax Reform Act of 1986, referred to in subsec. (d)(2)(J), is the date of the enactment of Pub. L. 99–514, which was approved Oct. 22, 1986.

Section 172(h), referred to in subsec. (f)(2)(B)(i), was repealed by Pub. L. 101–508, title XI, §11811(b)(1), Nov. 5, 1990, 104 Stat. 1388–532.

The date of the enactment of the Revenue Reconciliation Act of 1990, referred to in subsec. (f)(2)(B)(i), is the date of enactment of Pub. L. 101–508, title XI, which was approved Nov. 5, 1990.

Section 1246, referred to in subsec. (h)(7), was repealed by Pub. L. 108–357, title IV, §413(a)(2), Oct. 22, 2004, 118 Stat. 1506.

Amendments

2010—Subsec. (d)(6), (7). Pub. L. 111–226, §213(a), added par. (6) and redesignated former par. (6) as (7).

Subsec. (h)(9). Pub. L. 111–226, §217(c)(2), amended par. (9) generally. Prior to amendment, text read as follows: “For purposes of this subsection—

“(A) in the case of interest treated as not from sources within the United States under section 861(a)(1)(A), the corporation paying such interest shall be treated as a United States-owned foreign corporation, and

“(B) in the case of any dividend treated as not from sources within the United States under section 861(a)(2)(A), the corporation paying such dividend shall be treated as a United States-owned foreign corporation.”

Subsec. (i). Pub. L. 111–148, §10909(b)(2)(K), (c), as amended by Pub. L. 111–312, temporarily struck out “23,” after “than sections”. See Effective and Termination Dates of 2010 Amendment note below.

2009—Subsec. (i). Pub. L. 111–5, §1144(b)(1)(E), inserted “30B,” after “30”.

Pub. L. 111–5, §1142(b)(1)(E), substituted “25B, 30, and 30D” for “and 25B”.

Pub. L. 111–5, §1004(b)(5), inserted “25A(i),” after “24,”.

2007—Subsec. (d)(2)(B)(v). Pub. L. 110–172, §11(g)(10), inserted “and” at end of subcl. (I), redesignated subcl. (III) as (II), substituted “a former FSC (as defined in section 922)” for “a FSC (or a former FSC)” in subcl. (II), struck out former subcl. (II), which read as follows: “taxable income attributable to foreign trade income (within the meaning of section 923(b)), and”, and added concluding provisions.

Subsec. (f)(3)(D)(iv). Pub. L. 110–172, §11(f)(3), substituted “an affiliated group” for “a controlled group”.

2005—Subsec. (d)(2)(D). Pub. L. 109–135, §403(o), inserted “as in effect before its repeal” after “section 954(f)”.

Subsec. (g)(2). Pub. L. 109–135, §403(k), amended heading and text of par. (2) generally. Prior to amendment, text read as follows: “For purposes of this subsection—

“(A) In general.—The term ‘overall domestic loss’ means any domestic loss to the extent such loss offsets taxable income from sources without the United States for the taxable year or for any preceding taxable year by reason of a carryback. For purposes of the preceding sentence, the term ‘domestic loss’ means the amount by which the gross income for the taxable year from sources within the United States is exceeded by the sum of the deductions properly apportioned or allocated thereto (determined without regard to any carryback from a subsequent taxable year).

“(B) Taxpayer must have elected foreign tax credit for year of loss.—The term ‘overall domestic loss’ shall not include any loss for any taxable year unless the taxpayer chose the benefits of this subpart for such taxable year.”

Subsec. (i). Pub. L. 109–135, §402(i)(3)(G), (H), temporarily reenacted heading without change and amended text generally. Prior to amendment, text read as follows: “In the case of an individual, for purposes of subsection (a), the tax against which the credit is taken is such tax reduced by the sum of the credits allowable under subpart A of part IV of subchapter A of this chapter (other than sections 23, 24, and 25B). This subsection shall not apply to taxable years beginning during 2000, 2001, 2002, 2003, 2004, or 2005.” See Effective and Termination Dates of 2005 Amendment note below.

2004—Subsec. (c). Pub. L. 108–357, §417(a), struck out “in the second preceding taxable year,” before “in the first preceding taxable year” and substituted “and in any of the first 10” for “, and in the first, second, third, fourth, or fifth”.

Subsec. (d)(1). Pub. L. 108–357, §404(a), reenacted heading without change and amended text of par. (1) generally, substituting provisions relating to applicability of subsecs. (a), (b), and (c) and sections 902, 907, and 960 to passive category income and general category income, for provisions relating to applicability of subsecs. (a), (b), and (c) and sections 902, 907, and 960 to passive income, high withholding tax interest, financial services income, shipping income, certain dividends from a DISC or former DISC, taxable income attributable to foreign trade income, certain distributions from a FSC or a former FSC, and income other than income previously described.

Subsec. (d)(1)(E). Pub. L. 108–357, §403(b)(1), struck out subpar. (E) which read as follows: “in the case of a corporation, dividends from noncontrolled section 902 corporations out of earnings and profits accumulated in taxable years beginning before January 1, 2003,”.

Subsec. (d)(2)(A). Pub. L. 108–357, §404(b), added subpar. (A). Former subpar. (A) redesignated (B).

Subsec. (d)(2)(A)(ii). Pub. L. 108–357, §413(c)(14), reenacted heading without change and amended text of cl. (ii) generally. Prior to amendment, text read as follows: “Except as provided in clause (iii), the term ‘passive income’ includes any amount includible in gross income under section 551 or, except as provided in subparagraph (E)(iii) or paragraph (3)(I), section 1293 (relating to certain passive foreign investment companies).”

Subsec. (d)(2)(B). Pub. L. 108–357, §404(b), redesignated subpar. (A) as (B) and struck out former subpar. (B), which defined the term “high withholding tax interest”.

Subsec. (d)(2)(B)(iii). Pub. L. 108–357, §404(f)(1), redesignated subcls. (II) and (III) as (I) and (II), respectively, and struck out former subcl. (I) which read as follows: “any income described in a subparagraph of paragraph (1) other than subparagraph (A),”.

Subsec. (d)(2)(B)(v). Pub. L. 108–357, §404(c), added cl. (v).

Subsec. (d)(2)(C). Pub. L. 108–357, §404(d), added subpar. (C). Former subpar. (C) redesignated (D).

Subsec. (d)(2)(C)(iii). Pub. L. 108–357, §403(b)(2), inserted “and” at end of subcl. (I), redesignated subcl. (III) as (II), and struck out former subcl. (II) which read as follows: “any dividend from a noncontrolled section 902 corporation out of earnings and profits accumulated in taxable years beginning before January 1, 2003, and”.

Subsec. (d)(2)(D). Pub. L. 108–357, §404(d), redesignated subpar. (C) as (D) and struck out heading and text of former subpar. (D). Text read as follows: “The term ‘shipping income’ means any income received or accrued by any person which is of a kind which would be foreign base company shipping income (as defined in section 954(f) as in effect before its repeal). Such term does not include any financial services income.”

Pub. L. 108–357, §403(b)(3), substituted “Such term does not include any financial services income” for “Such term does not include any dividend from a noncontrolled section 902 corporation out of earnings and profits accumulated in taxable years beginning before January 1, 2003 and does not include any financial services income”.

Subsec. (d)(2)(D)(i). Pub. L. 108–357, §404(f)(2), inserted “or” at end of subcl. (I), added subcl. (II), and struck out former subcls. (II) and (III) which read as follows:

“(II) passive income (determined without regard to subclauses (I) and (III) of subparagraph (A)(iii)), or

“(III) export financing interest which (but for subparagraph (B)(ii)) would be high withholding tax interest.”

Subsec. (d)(2)(D)(iii). Pub. L. 108–357, §404(f)(3), which directed striking out of cl. (iii) “as so redesignated and amended by section 404(b)(3)”, was executed by striking out heading and text of cl. (iii) as amended by section 403(b)(2) and redesignated by section 404(d), to reflect the probable intent of Congress. Text read as follows: “The term ‘financial services income’ does not include—

“(I) any high withholding tax interest, and

“(II) any export financing interest not described in clause (i)(III).”

Subsec. (d)(2)(E)(i). Pub. L. 108–357, §403(b)(4)(A), inserted “or (4)” after “paragraph (3)”.

Subsec. (d)(2)(E)(ii), (iii). Pub. L. 108–357, §403(b)(4)(B), redesignated cl. (iii) as (ii) and struck out heading and text of former cl. (ii). Text read as follows: “If a foreign corporation is a noncontrolled section 902 corporation with respect to the taxpayer, taxes on high withholding tax interest (to the extent imposed at a rate in excess of 5 percent) shall not be treated as foreign taxes for purposes of determining the amount of foreign taxes deemed paid by the taxpayer under section 902.”

Subsec. (d)(2)(E)(iv). Pub. L. 108–357, §403(b)(4)(B), struck out heading and text of cl. (iv). Text read as follows: “All noncontrolled section 902 corporations which are not passive foreign investment companies (as defined in section 1297) shall be treated as one noncontrolled section 902 corporation for purposes of paragraph (1).”

Subsec. (d)(2)(H) to (J). Pub. L. 108–357, §404(e), added subpar. (H) and redesignated former subpars. (H) and (I) as (I) and (J), respectively.

Subsec. (d)(2)(K). Pub. L. 108–357, §404(f)(5), added subpar. (K).

Subsec. (d)(3). Pub. L. 108–357, §404(f)(4), reenacted heading without change and amended text of par. (3) generally, substituting provisions consisting of subpars. (A) to (H) for former subpars. (A) to (I) which contained similar provisions.

Subsec. (d)(3)(F)(i). Pub. L. 108–357, §403(b)(5), substituted “or (D)” for “(D), or (E)”.

Subsec. (d)(4). Pub. L. 108–357, §403(a), reenacted heading without change and amended text of par. (4) generally, substituting provisions relating to dividends from noncontrolled section 902 corporations, earnings and profits of controlled foreign corporations, and setting forth special rules, for provisions relating to treatment of applicable dividends, defining the term “applicable dividend”, and setting forth special rules.

Subsec. (f)(3)(D). Pub. L. 108–357, §895(a), added subpar. (D).

Subsec. (g). Pub. L. 108–357, §402(a), added subsec. (g). Former subsec. (g) redesignated (h).

Subsec. (h). Pub. L. 108–357, §402(a), redesignated subsec. (g) as (h). Former subsec. (h) redesignated (i).

Pub. L. 108–311 substituted “2003, 2004, or 2005” for “or 2003”.

Subsec. (h)(1)(A). Pub. L. 108–357, §413(c)(15)(A), inserted “or” at end of cl. (i), redesignated cl. (iii) as (ii), and struck out former cl. (ii) which read as follows: “section 551 (relating to foreign personal holding company income taxed to United States shareholders), or”.

Subsec. (h)(2). Pub. L. 108–357, §413(c)(15)(B), struck out “foreign personal holding or” before “passive foreign investment” in heading.

Subsecs. (i), (j). Pub. L. 108–357, §402(a), redesignated subsecs. (h) and (i) as (i) and (j), respectively. Former subsec. (j) redesignated (k).

Subsec. (k). Pub. L. 108–357, §402(a), redesignated subsec. (j) as (k). Former subsec. (k) redesignated (l).

Subsec. (k)(3)(A)(i). Pub. L. 108–357, §404(f)(6), which directed amendment of subsec. (j)(3)(A)(i) by substituting “subsection (d)(2)(B)” for “subsection (d)(2)(A)”, was executed to subsec. (k)(3)(A)(i) to reflect the probable intent of Congress and the amendment by Pub. L. 108–357, §402(a). See above.

Subsec. (l). Pub. L. 108–357, §402(a), redesignated subsec. (k) as (l).

2002—Subsec. (h). Pub. L. 107–147, §601(b)(1), substituted “during 2000, 2001, 2002, or 2003” for “during 2000 or 2001”.

Pub. L. 107–147, §417(23)(B), amended directory language of Pub. L. 107–16, §618(b)(2)(D). See 2001 Amendment note below.

2001—Subsec. (h). Pub. L. 107–16, §618(b)(2)(D), as amended by Pub. L. 107–147, §417(23)(B), substituted “, 24, and 25B” for “and 24”.

Pub. L. 107–16, §§202(f)(2)(C), 901, temporarily substituted “sections 23 and 24” for “section 24”. See Effective and Termination Dates of 2001 Amendment note below.

Pub. L. 107–16, §§201(b)(2)(G), 901, inserted “(other than section 24)” after “chapter”. See Effective and Termination Dates of 2001 Amendment note below.

1999—Subsec. (h). Pub. L. 106–170 inserted at end “This subsection shall not apply to taxable years beginning during 2000 or 2001.”

1997—Subsec. (b)(2)(C). Pub. L. 105–34, §311(c)(3), added subpar. (C).

Subsec. (d)(1)(E). Pub. L. 105–34, §1105(a)(1), amended subpar. (E) generally. Prior to amendment, subpar. (E) read as follows: “in the case of a corporation, dividends from each noncontrolled section 902 corporation,”.

Subsec. (d)(2)(C)(i)(II). Pub. L. 105–34, §1163(b), substituted “subclauses (I) and (III)” for “subclause (I)”.

Subsec. (d)(2)(C)(iii)(II), (D). Pub. L. 105–34, §1105(a)(3), inserted “out of earnings and profits accumulated in taxable years beginning before January 1, 2003” after “corporation”.

Subsec. (d)(2)(E)(i). Pub. L. 105–34, §1111(b), struck out “and except as provided in regulations, the taxpayer was a United States shareholder in such corporation” after “was a controlled foreign corporation”.

Subsec. (d)(2)(E)(iv). Pub. L. 105–34, §1105(a)(2), added cl. (iv).

Subsec. (d)(4) to (6). Pub. L. 105–34, §1105(b), added par. (4) and redesignated former pars. (4) and (5) as (5) and (6), respectively.

Subsecs. (j), (k). Pub. L. 105–34, §1101(a), added subsec. (j) and redesignated former subsec. (j) as (k).

1996—Subsec. (d)(3)(G). Pub. L. 104–188, §1501(b)(1), (12), amended subpar. (G) identically, substituting “section 951(a)(1)(B)” for “subparagraph (B) or (C) of section 951(a)(1)”.

Pub. L. 104–188, §1703(i)(1), substituted “subparagraph (B) or (C) of section 951(a)(1)” for “section 951(a)(1)(B)”.

Subsec. (f)(2)(B)(i). Pub. L. 104–188, §1704(t)(36), inserted “(as in effect on the day before the date of the enactment of the Revenue Reconciliation Act of 1990)” after “section 172(h)”.

1993—Subsec. (b)(4). Pub. L. 103–66, §13227(d), inserted before period at end “(without regard to subsections (a)(4) and (i) thereof)”.

Subsec. (d)(2)(A)(iii)(II) to (IV). Pub. L. 103–66, §13235(a)(2), inserted “and” at end of subcl. II, substituted “income.” for “income, and” in subcl. III, and struck out subcl. (IV) which read as follows: “any foreign oil and gas extraction income (as defined in section 907(c)).”

1990—Subsec. (b)(3)(D)(i). Pub. L. 101–508, §11101(d)(5)(A), substituted “subsection (h)” for “subsection (j)”.

Subsec. (b)(3)(E)(iii)(I). Pub. L. 101–508, §11101(d)(5)(B), substituted “section 1(h)” for “section 1(j)”.

Subsec. (e). Pub. L. 101–508, §11801(a)(31), struck out subsec. (e) which related to transitional rules for carrybacks and carryovers for taxpayers on the per-country limitation.

1989—Subsec. (d)(1)(H). Pub. L. 101–239, §7811(i)(1), substituted “interest or carrying charges (as defined in section 927(d)(1)) derived from a transaction which results in foreign trade income (as defined in section 923(b))” for “qualified interest and carrying charges (as defined in section 245(c))”.

Subsecs. (i), (j). Pub. L. 101–239, §7402(a), added subsec. (i) and redesignated former subsec. (i) as (j).

1988—Subsec. (b)(2). Pub. L. 100–647, §1003(b)(2)(A), amended par. (2) generally, substituting general provisions and provisions setting special rules where there is a capital gain rate differential for provisions for corporations and for other taxpayers.

Subsec. (b)(3)(D). Pub. L. 100–647, §1003(b)(2)(B), added subpar. (D) and struck out former subpar. (D), Rate differential portion, which read as follows: “The ‘rate differential portion’ of foreign source net capital gain, net capital gain, or the excess of net capital gain from sources within the United States over net capital gain, as the case may be, is the same proportion of such amount as the excess of the highest rate of tax specified in section 11(b) over the alternative rate of tax under section 1201(a) bears to the highest rate of tax specified in section 11(b).”

Subsec. (b)(3)(D)(ii). Pub. L. 100–647, §2004(l), substituted “section 11(b)(1)” for “section 11(b)”.

Subsec. (b)(3)(E). Pub. L. 100–647, §1003(b)(2)(B), added subpar. (E).

Subsec. (d)(1)(E). Pub. L. 100–647, §1012(a)(11), inserted “in the case of a corporation,” before “dividends”.

Subsec. (d)(2)(A)(ii). Pub. L. 100–647, §1012(a)(6)(A), (p)(29)(A), substituted “Except as provided in clause (iii), the term” for “The term” and “or, except as provided in subparagraph (E)(iii) or paragraph (3)(I), section 1293” for “or section 1293”.

Subsec. (d)(2)(A)(iv). Pub. L. 100–647, §1012(a)(6)(B), added cl. (iv).

Subsec. (d)(2)(B)(iii). Pub. L. 100–647, §1012(a)(8), amended cl. (iii) generally. Prior to amendment, cl. (iii) read as follows: “The Secretary may by regulations provide that amounts (not otherwise high withholding tax interest) shall be treated as high withholding tax interest where necessary to prevent avoidance of the purposes of this subparagraph.”

Subsec. (d)(2(C). Pub. L. 100–647, §1012(a)(1)(A), amended subpar. (C) generally, revising and restating as cls. (i) to (iii) provisions of former cls. (i) to (iv).

Subsec. (d)(2)(D). Pub. L. 100–647, §1012(a)(2), provided for exclusion from term “shipping income” any dividend from a noncontrolled section 902 corporation and any financial services income.

Subsec. (d)(2)(E)(i). Pub. L. 100–647, §1012(a)(10), inserted “and except as provided in regulations, the taxpayer was a United States shareholder in such corporation” before period at end.

Subsec. (d)(2)(E)(iii). Pub. L. 100–647, §1012(p)(29)(B), added cl. (iii).

Subsec. (d)(2)(I)(ii). Pub. L. 100–647, §1012(a)(9), substituted “except that—” for “except to the extent that—”, added subcls. (I) to (III), and struck out former subcls. (I) and (II) which read as follows:

“(I) the taxpayer establishes to the satisfaction of the Secretary that such taxes were paid or accrued with respect to shipping income, or

“(II) in the case of an entity meeting the requirements of subparagraph (C)(ii), the taxpayer establishes to the satisfaction of the Secretary that such taxes were paid or accrued with respect to financial services income, and”.

Subsec. (d)(3)(E). Pub. L. 100–647, §1012(a)(4), inserted first sentence, struck out former first sentence which read “If a controlled foreign corporation meets the requirements of section 954(b)(3)(A) (relating to de minimis rule) for any taxable year, for purposes of this paragraph, none of its income for such taxable year shall be treated as income in a separate category.”, and in second sentence substituted “passive income” for “income (other than high withholding tax interest and dividends from a noncontrolled section 902 corporation)”.

Subsec. (d)(3)(F). Pub. L. 100–647, §1012(a)(7), amended subpar. (F) generally. Prior to amendment, subpar. (F) read as follows: “For purposes of this paragraph, the term ‘separate category’ means any category of income described in subparagraph (A), (B), (C), (D), or (E) of paragraph (1).”

Subsec. (d)(3)(H). Pub. L. 100–647, §1012(a)(3), added subpar. (H).

Subsec. (d)(3)(I). Pub. L. 100–647, §1012(p)(11), added subpar. (I).

Subsec. (f)(5)(F). Pub. L. 100–647, §1012(c), added subpar. (F).

Subsec. (g)(9)(A). Pub. L. 100–647, §1012(q)(12), substituted “861(a)(1)(A)” for “861(a)(1)(B)”.

Subsec. (g)(10), (11). Pub. L. 100–647, §1012(bb)(4)(A), added par. (10) and redesignated former par. (10) as (11).

1986—Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 99–514, §104(b)(13), struck out last sentence “For purposes of the preceding sentence, in the case of an individual the entire taxable income shall be reduced by an amount equal to the zero bracket amount.”

Subsec. (b)(3)(C). Pub. L. 99–514, §1211(b)(3), redesignated subpar. (E) as (C) and struck out former subpar. (C), exception for gain from the sale of certain personal property, which read as follows: “There shall be included as gain from sources within the United States any gain from sources without the United States from the sale or exchange of a capital asset which is personal property which—

“(i) in the case of an individual, is sold or exchanged outside of the country (or possession) of the individual's residence,

“(ii) in the case of a corporation, is stock in a second corporation sold or exchanged other than in a country (or possession) in which such second corporation derived more than 50 percent of its gross income for the 3-year period ending with the close of such second corporation's taxable year immediately preceding the year during which the sale or exchange occurred, or

“(iii) in the case of any taxpayer, is personal property (other than stock in a corporation) sold or exchanged other than in a country (or possession) in which such property is used in a trade or business of the taxpayer or in which such taxpayer derived more than 50 percent of its gross income for the 3-year period ending with the close of its taxable year immediately preceding the year during which the sale or exchange occurred,

unless such gain is subject to an income, war profits, or excess profits tax of a foreign country or possession of the United States, and the rate of tax applicable to such gain is 10 percent or more of the gain from the sale or exchange (computed under this chapter).”

Subsec. (b)(3)(D). Pub. L. 99–514, §1211(b)(3), redesignated subpar. (F) as (D) and struck out former subpar. (D), gain from liquidation of certain foreign corporations, which read as follows: “Subparagraph (C) shall not apply with respect to a distribution in liquidation of a foreign corporation to which part II of subchapter C applies if such corporation derived less than 50 percent of its gross income from sources within the United States for the 3-year period ending with the close of such corporation's taxable year immediately preceding the year during which the distribution occurred.”

Subsec. (b)(3)(E), (F). Pub. L. 99–514, §1211(b)(3), redesignated former subpars. (E) and (F) as (C) and (D), respectively.

Subsec. (d). Pub. L. 99–514, §1201(d)(1), substituted “certain categories of income” for “certain interest income and income from DISC, former DISC, FSC, or former FSC” in heading.

Subsec. (d)(1). Pub. L. 99–514, §1201(a), (d)(2), (3), inserted “and sections 902, 907, and 960” in introductory provisions, added subpars. (A) to (E), struck out former subpar. (A) which read “the interest income described in paragraph (2)”, redesignated former subpars. (B), (C), (D), and (E) as (F), (G), (H), and (I), respectively, and in subpar. (I), substituted “in any of the preceding subparagraphs” for “in subparagraph (A), (B), (C), or (D)”.

Pub. L. 99–514, §1899A(24), made technical correction clarifying heading. See 1984 Amendment note below.

Subsec. (d)(1)(D). Pub. L. 99–514, §1876(d)(2), amended subpar. (D) generally. Prior to amendment, subpar. (D) read as follows: “distributions from a FSC (or former FSC) out of earnings and profits attributable to foreign trade income (within the meaning of section 923(b)), and”.

Subsec. (d)(2). Pub. L. 99–514, §1201(b), added par. (2) and struck out former par. (2), interest income to which applicable, which read as follows: “For purposes of this subsection, the interest income described in this paragraph is interest other than interest—

“(A) derived from any transaction which is directly related to the active conduct by the taxpayer of a trade or business in a foreign country or a possession of the United States,

“(B) derived in the conduct by the taxpayer of a banking, financing, or similar business,

“(C) received from a corporation in which the taxpayer (or one or more includible corporations in an affiliated group, as defined in section 1504, of which the taxpayer is a member) owns, directly or indirectly, at least 10 percent of the voting stock, or

“(D) received on obligations acquired as a result of the disposition of a trade or business actively conducted by the taxpayer in a foreign country or possession of the United States or as a result of the disposition of stock or obligations of a corporation in which the taxpayer owned at least 10 percent of the voting stock.

For purposes of subparagraph (C), stock owned, directly or indirectly, by or for a foreign corporation, shall be considered as being proportionately owned by its shareholders. For purposes of this subsection, interest (after the operation of section 904(d)(3)) received from a designated payor corporation described in section 904(d)(3)(E)(iii) by a taxpayer which owns directly or indirectly less than 10 percent of the voting stock of such designated payor corporation shall be treated as interest described in subparagraph (A) to the extent such interest would have been so treated had such taxpayer received it from other than a designated payor corporation.”

Pub. L. 99–514, §1810(b)(3), inserted at end “For purposes of this subsection, interest (after the operation of section 904(d)(3)) received from a designated payor corporation described in section 904(d)(3)(E)(iii) by a taxpayer which owns directly or indirectly less than 10 percent of the voting stock of such designated payor corporation shall be treated as interest described in subparagraph (A) to the extent such interest would have been so treated had such taxpayer received it from other than a designated payor corporation.”

Subsec. (d)(3). Pub. L. 99–514, §1201(b), added par. (3) and struck out former par. (3) treating as interest certain amounts attributable to United States-owned foreign corporations, etc., subpars. thereof relating to following subject matter: (A) general provisions, (B) separate limitation interest, (C) exception where designated corporation has small amount of separate limitation interest, (D) treatment of certain interest, (E) designated payor corporation, (F) determination of year to which amount is attributable, (G) ordering rules, (H) dividend, (I) interest and dividends from members of same affiliated group, and (J) distributions through other entities.

Subsec. (d)(3)(C). Pub. L. 99–514, §1810(b)(1), inserted at end “The preceding sentence shall not apply to any amount includible in gross income under section 551 or 951.”

Subsec. (d)(3)(E). Pub. L. 99–514, §1810(b)(4)(A), inserted at end:

“(iv) any other corporation formed or availed of for purposes of avoiding the provisions of this paragraph.

For purposes of this paragraph, the rules of paragraph (9) of subsection (g) shall apply.”

Subsec. (d)(3)(I). Pub. L. 99–514, §1810(b)(2), redesignated subpar. (I) as (J) and added a new subpar. (I), interest and dividends from members of same affiliated group, which read as follows: “For purposes of this paragraph, dividends and interest received or accrued by the designated payor corporation from another member of the same affiliated group (determined under section 1504 without regard to subsection (b)(3) thereof) shall be treated as separate limitation interest if (and only if) such amounts are attributable (directly or indirectly) to separate limitation interest of any other member of such group.”

Subsec. (d)(3)(J). Pub. L. 99–514, §1810(b)(2), redesignated subpar. (I) as (J) and struck out former subpar. (J), interest from members of same affiliated group, which read as follows: “For purposes of this paragraph, interest received or accrued by the designated payor corporation from another member of the same affiliated group (determined under section 1504 without regard to subsection (b)(3) thereof) shall not be treated as separate limitation interest, unless such interest is attributable directly or indirectly to separate limitation interest of such other member.”

Subsec. (d)(4), (5). Pub. L. 99–514, §1201(b), added pars. (4) and (5).

Subsec. (f)(5). Pub. L. 99–514, §1203(a), added par. (5).

Subsec. (g)(1)(A)(iii). Pub. L. 99–514, §1235(f)(4)(A), added cl. (iii).

Subsec. (g)(2). Pub. L. 99–514, §1235(f)(4)(B), substituted “holding or passive foreign investment company” for “holding company” in heading.

Subsec. (g)(9), (10). Pub. L. 99–514, §1810(a)(1)(A), added par. (9) and redesignated former par. (9) as (10).

Subsec. (i)(2). Pub. L. 99–514, §701(e)(4)(H), struck out “by an individual” after “can be taken” and substituted “section 59(a)” for “section 55(c)”.

1984—Subsec. (d). Pub. L. 98–369, §801(d)(2)(C), which directed amendment of par. (1) heading by substituting “Separate application of section with respect to certain interest income and income from DISC, former DISC, FSC, or former FSC” for “Application of section in case of certain interest income and dividends from a DISC or former DISC” was executed to subsec. (d) heading to reflect the probable intent of Congress.

Subsec. (d)(1)(B) to (E). Pub. L. 98–369, §801(d)(2)(A), (B), struck out “and” after “United States,” at end of subpar. (B), substituted “taxable income attributable to foreign trade income (within the meaning of section 923(b)),” for “income other than the interest income described in paragraph (2) and dividends described in subparagraph (B),” in subpar. (C), and added subpars. (D) and (E).

Subsec. (d)(3). Pub. L. 98–369, §122(a), added par. (3).

Subsec. (g). Pub. L. 98–369, §121(a), added subsec. (g). Former subsec. (g) redesignated (h).

Pub. L. 98–369, §474(r)(21), amended subsec. (g) generally, substituting “Coordination with nonrefundable personal credits” for “Coordination with credit for the elderly” in heading and in text substituting “reduced by the sum of the credits allowable under subpart A of part IV of subchapter A of this chapter” for “reduced by the amount of the credit (if any) for the taxable year allowable under section 37 (relating to credit for the elderly and the permanently and totally disabled)”.

Subsecs. (h), (i). Pub. L. 98–369, §121(a), redesignated former subsecs. (g) and (h) as (h) and (i), respectively.

1983—Subsec. (g). Pub. L. 98–21 substituted “relating to credit for the elderly and the permanently and totally disabled” for “relating to credit for the elderly”.

1982—Subsec. (f)(4) to (6). Pub. L. 97–248 struck out par. (4) which provided for the determination of foreign oil related loss where section 907 was applicable, redesignated par. (5) as (4), and purported to redesignate par. (6) as (5). However, subsec. (f) did not contain a par. (6).

1980—Subsec. (b)(3)(F). Pub. L. 96–222, §104(a)(3)(D)(i), redesignated subpar. (E) “Rate differential portion”, added by Pub. L. 95–600, as (F).

1978—Subsec. (b)(2). Pub. L. 95–600, §§403(c)(4)(A), 701(u)(2)(A), (3)(A), in subpar. (A) substituted “this section” for “subsection (a)”, “the rate differential portion” for “three eighths” wherever appearing, and “for purposes of determining taxable income from sources without the United States, any net capital loss (and any amount which is a short term capital loss under section 1212(a))” for “any net capital loss”.

Subsec. (b)(3). Pub. L. 95–600, §§403(c)(4)(B), 701(u)(2)(B), (C), as amended by Pub. L. 96–222, §104(a)(3)(D)(ii), substituted “There” for “For purposes of this paragraph, there”, added subpar. (D), redesignated former subpar. (D), relating to section 1231 gains, as subpar. (E), and added another subpar. (E), relating to rate differential portion. See 1980 Amendment note above.

Subsec. (f)(2)(A). Pub. L. 95–600, §701(u)(4)(A), struck out provision relating to capital loss carrybacks and carryovers.

Subsec. (f)(4). Pub. L. 95–600, §701(u)(4)(B), (8)(C), substituted in introductory provisions “In making the separate computation under this subsection with respect to foreign oil related income which is required by section 907(b)” for “In the case of a corporation to which section 907(b)(1) applies” and in subpar. (A) struck out provision relating to capital loss carrybacks and carryovers.

Subsec. (f)(5). Pub. L. 95–600, §701(q)(2), added par. (5).

Subsec. (h). Pub. L. 95–600, §421(e)(6), designated existing provisions as par. (1) and added par. (2).

1977—Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 95–30 provided that, for purposes of determining the maximum total amount of the credit taken under section 901(a), in the case of an individual, the entire taxable income shall be reduced by an amount equal to the zero bracket amount.

1976—Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 94–455, §1031(a), struck out provisions allowing the per-country limitation, made the overall limitation applicable to all taxpayers to determine their foreign tax credit limitation, and inserted reference to section 901(a).

Subsec. (b). Pub. L. 94–455, §§1031(a), 1034(a), 1051(e), redesignated subsec. (c) as (b)(1), inserted provisions that the net United States capital losses would offset net foreign capital gains and, in the case of corporations, that only 30/48 of the net foreign source gain would be included in the foreign tax credit limitation, and that the gain from the sale or exchange of personal property outside the United States would be considered United States source income unless one of three exceptions applied, and added par. (4).

Subsec. (c). Pub. L. 94–455, §1031(a), redesignated subsec. (d) as (c), and amended the redesignated subsec. (c) generally to conform to the elimination of the per-country limitation in subsec. (a). Former subsec. (c) redesignated (b)(1).

Subsec. (d). Pub. L. 94–455, §1031(a), redesignated subsec. (f)(1), (2), as (d). Former subsec. (d) redesignated (c).

Subsec. (e). Pub. L. 94–455, §1031(a), added subsec. (e). Former subsec. (e) was eliminated in view of the amendment of subsec. (a).

Subsec. (f). Pub. L. 94–455, §§1031(a), 1032(a), 1901(b)(10)(B), added subsec. (f), and substituted “section 172(h)” for “section 172(k)(1)” in pars. (2)(B)(i) and (4)(B)(i). Former subsec. (f)(1), (2), was redesignated (d). Former subsecs. (f)(3), (4), (5) were omitted.

Subsec. (g). Pub. L. 94–455, §§1032(a), 503(b)(1), added subsec. (g). Former subsec. (f) redesignated (g), and further redesignated (h).

Subsec. (h). Pub. L. 94–455, §503(b)(1), redesignated former subsec. (g) as (h).

1971—Subsec. (f). Pub. L. 92–178, §502(b)(2), inserted “and dividends from a DISC or former DISC” after “interest income” in the heading.

Subsec. (f)(1). Pub. L. 92–178, §502(b)(2), inserted “each of the following items of income” in introductory text, added subpar. (B), and redesignated former subpar. (B) as (C), inserting therein provisions respecting dividends described in subparagraph (B).

Subsec. (f)(3). Pub. L. 92–178, §502(b)(3), provided that the limitation provided by subsec. (a)(2) shall not apply to dividends described in paragraph (1)(B) and substituted “limitation provided by subsection (a)(2) applies with respect to income described in paragraph (1)(B) and (C)” for “limitation provided by subsection (a)(2) applies with respect to income other than the interest income described in paragraph (2)”.

Subsec. (f)(5). Pub. L. 92–178, §502(b)(4), added par. (5).

1969—Subsec. (b)(1). Pub. L. 91–172, §506(b)(1), substituted “(A) with the consent of the Secretary or his delegate with respect to any taxable year or (B) for the taxpayer's first taxable year beginning after December 31, 1969” for “with the consent of the Secretary or his delegate with respect to any taxable year”.

Subsec. (b)(2). Pub. L. 91–172, §506(b)(2), substituted “Except in a case to which paragraph (1)(B) applies, if the taxpayer” for “If a taxpayer”.

1966—Subsec. (f)(2). Pub. L. 89–809 inserted reference to includible corporations in an affiliated group, as defined in section 1504, of which the taxpayer is a member and inserted reference to both direct and indirect ownership in subpar. (C) and inserted provision that, for purposes of subpar. (C), stock owned directly or indirectly by or for a foreign corporation shall be considered as being proportionately owned by its shareholders.

1964—Subsec. (g)(2). Pub. L. 88–272 substituted “section 1503(b)” for “section 1503(d)”.

1962—Subsec. (f). Pub. L. 87–834, §10(a), added subsec. (f). Former subsec. (f) redesignated (g).

Subsec. (g). Pub. L. 87–834, §§10(a), 12(b)(2), redesignated former subsec. (f) as (g), designated existing provisions as par. (2), and added par. (1).

1960—Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 86–780, §1(a), designated existing provisions as par. (1), inserted introductory clause “In the case of any taxpayer who elects the limitation provided by this paragraph” and inserted “foreign”, “or possession of the United States” and “or possession” therein and added par. (2).

Subsec. (b). Pub. L. 86–780, §1(a), added subsec. (b). Former subsec. (b) redesignated (c).

Subsec. (c). Pub. L. 86–780, §1(b), redesignated former subsec. (b) as (c) and inserted “applicable” before “limitation” therein. Former subsec. (c) redesignated (d).

Subsec. (d). Pub. L. 86–780, §1(c), redesignated former subsec. (c) as (d) and inserted “applicable” before “limitation” in two places.

Subsecs. (e), (f). Pub. L. 86–780, §1(d), added subsecs. (e) and (f).

1958—Subsec. (c). Pub. L. 85–866 added subsec. (c).

Effective and Termination Dates of 2010 Amendment

Pub. L. 111–226, title II, §213(b), Aug. 10, 2010, 124 Stat. 2399, provided that: “The amendments made by this section [amending this section] shall apply to taxable years beginning after the date of the enactment of this Act [Aug. 10, 2010].”

Amendment by section 217(c)(2) of Pub. L. 111–226 applicable to taxable years beginning after Dec. 31, 2010, with certain exceptions, see section 217(d) of Pub. L. 111–226, set out as an Effective Date of 2010 Amendment note under section 861 of this title.

Amendment by Pub. L. 111–148 terminated applicable to taxable years beginning after Dec. 31, 2011, and section is amended to read as if such amendment had never been enacted, see section 10909(c) of Pub. L. 111–148, set out as a note under section 1 of this title.

Amendment by Pub. L. 111–148 applicable to taxable years beginning after Dec. 31, 2009, see section 10909(d) of Pub. L. 111–148, set out as a note under section 1 of this title.

Effective Date of 2009 Amendment

Amendment by section 1004(b)(5) of Pub. L. 111–5 applicable to taxable years beginning after Dec. 31, 2008, see section 1004(d) of Pub. L. 111–5, set out as an Effective and Termination Dates of 2009 Amendment note under section 24 of this title.

Amendment by section 1142(b)(1)(E) of Pub. L. 111–5 applicable to vehicles acquired after Feb. 17, 2009, see section 1142(c) of Pub. L. 111–5, set out as an Effective and Termination Dates of 2009 Amendment note under section 24 of this title.

Amendment by section 1144(b)(1)(E) of Pub. L. 111–5 applicable to taxable years beginning after Dec. 31, 2008, see section 1144(c) of Pub. L. 111–5, set out as an Effective and Termination Dates of 2009 Amendment note under section 24 of this title.

Effective Date of 2007 Amendment

Pub. L. 110–172, §11(f)(4), Dec. 29, 2007, 121 Stat. 2489, provided that: “The amendments made by this subsection [amending this section and sections 1298 and 9502 of this title] shall take effect as if included in the provisions of the American Jobs Creation Act of 2004 [Pub. L. 108–357] to which they relate.”

Effective and Termination Dates of 2005 Amendment

Amendment by section 402(i)(3)(G) of Pub. L. 109–135 subject to title IX of the Economic Growth and Tax Relief Reconciliation Act of 2001, Pub. L. 107–16, §901, in the same manner as the provisions of such Act to which such amendment relates, see section 402(i)(3)(H) of Pub. L. 109–135, set out as a note under section 23 of this title.

Amendment by section 402(i)(3)(G) of Pub. L. 109–135 effective as if included in the provisions of the Energy Policy Act of 2005, Pub. L. 109–58, to which it relates and applicable to taxable years beginning after Dec. 31, 2005, see section 402(m) of Pub. L. 109–135, set out as a note under section 23 of this title.

Amendments by section 403(k), (o) of Pub. L. 109–135 effective as if included in the provisions of the American Jobs Creation Act of 2004, Pub. L. 108–357, to which they relate, see section 403(nn) of Pub. L. 109–135, set out as a note under section 26 of this title.

Effective Date of 2004 Amendments

Amendment by section 402(a) of Pub. L. 108–357 applicable to losses for taxable years beginning after Dec. 31, 2006, see section 402(c) of Pub. L. 108–357, set out as a note under section 535 of this title.

Amendment by section 403(a), (b)(1)–(5) of Pub. L. 108–357 applicable to taxable years beginning after Dec. 31, 2002, see section 403(c) of Pub. L. 108–357, set out as a note under section 864 of this title.

Amendment by section 403(a), (b)(1)–(5) of Pub. L. 108–357 not applicable to taxable years beginning after Dec. 31, 2002, and before Jan. 1, 2005, with a specific provision for application of subsec. (d)(4)(C)(iv) of this section, if taxpayer so elects, see section 403(d) of Pub. L. 108–357, set out as a note under section 864 of this title.

Pub. L. 108–357, title IV, §404(g), Oct. 22, 2004, 118 Stat. 1497, provided that:

“(1) In general.—The amendments made by this section [amending this section] shall apply to taxable years beginning after December 31, 2006.

“(2) Transitional rule relating to income tax base difference.—Section 904(d)(2)(H)(ii) of the Internal Revenue Code of 1986, as added by subsection (e), shall apply to taxable years beginning after December 31, 2004.”

Amendment by section 413(c)(14), (15) of Pub. L. 108–357 applicable to taxable years of foreign corporations beginning after Dec. 31, 2004, and to taxable years of United States shareholders with or within which such taxable years of foreign corporations end, see section 413(d)(1) of Pub. L. 108–357, set out as an Effective and Termination Dates of 2004 Amendments note under section 1 of this title.

Pub. L. 108–357, title IV, §417(c), Oct. 22, 2004, 118 Stat. 1512, provided that:

“(1) Carryback.—The amendments made by subsections (a)(1) and (b)(1) [amending this section and section 907 of this title] shall apply to excess foreign taxes arising in taxable years beginning after the date of the enactment of this Act [Oct. 22, 2004].

“(2) Carryover.—The amendments made by subsections (a)(2) and (b)(2) [amending this section and section 907 of this title] shall apply to excess foreign taxes which (without regard to the amendments made by this section [amending this section and section 907 of this title]) may be carried to any taxable year ending after the date of the enactment of this Act [Oct. 22, 2004].”

Pub. L. 108–357, title VIII, §895(b), Oct. 22, 2004, 118 Stat. 1648, provided that: “The amendment made by this section [amending this section] shall apply to dispositions after the date of the enactment of this Act [Oct. 22, 2004].”

Amendment by Pub. L. 108–311 applicable to taxable years beginning after Dec. 31, 2003, see section 312(c) of Pub. L. 108–311, set out as a note under section 26 of this title.

Effective Date of 2002 Amendment

Amendment by section 601(b)(1) of Pub. L. 107–147 applicable to taxable years beginning after Dec. 31, 2001, see section 601(c) of Pub. L. 107–147, set out as a note under section 26 of this title.

Effective and Termination Dates of 2001 Amendment

Amendment by sections 201(b), 202(f), and 618(b) of Pub. L. 107–16 inapplicable to taxable years beginning during 2004 or 2005, see section 312(b)(2) of Pub. L. 108–311, set out as a note under section 23 of this title.

Amendment by sections 201(b), 202(f), and 618(b) of Pub. L. 107–16 inapplicable to taxable years beginning during 2002 and 2003, see section 601(b)(2) of Pub. L. 107–147, set out as a note under section 23 of this title.

Amendment by section 201(b)(2)(G) of Pub. L. 107–16 applicable to taxable years beginning after Dec. 31, 2001, see section 201(e)(2) of Pub. L. 107–16, set out as a note under section 24 of this title.

Amendment by section 202(f)(2)(C) of Pub. L. 107–16 applicable to taxable years beginning after Dec. 31, 2001, see section 202(g)(1) of Pub. L. 107–16, set out as a note under section 23 of this title.

Amendment by section 618(b)(2)(D) of Pub. L. 107–16 applicable to taxable years beginning after Dec. 31, 2001, see section 618(d) of Pub. L. 107–16, set out as a note under section 24 of this title.

Amendment by sections 201(b)(2)(G) and 202(f)(2)(C) of Pub. L. 107–16 inapplicable to taxable, plan, or limitation years beginning after Dec. 31, 2012, and the Internal Revenue Code of 1986 to be applied and administered to such years as if such amendment had never been enacted, see section 901 of Pub. L. 107–16, set out as a note under section 1 of this title.

Effective Date of 1999 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 106–170 applicable to taxable years beginning after Dec. 31, 1998, see section 501(c) of Pub. L. 106–170, set out as a note under section 24 of this title.

Effective Date of 1997 Amendment

Amendment by section 311(c)(3) of Pub. L. 105–34 applicable to taxable years ending after May 6, 1997, see section 311(d) of Pub. L. 105–34, set out as a note under section 1 of this title.

Section 1101(b) of Pub. L. 105–34 provided that: “The amendment made by subsection (a) [amending this section] shall apply to taxable years beginning after December 31, 1997.”

Section 1105(c) of Pub. L. 105–34 provided that: “The amendments made by this section [amending this section] shall apply to taxable years beginning after December 31, 2002.”

Section 1111(c)(2) of Pub. L. 105–34 provided that: “The amendment made by subsection (b) [amending this section] shall apply to distributions after the date of the enactment of this Act [Aug. 5, 1997].”

Amendment by section 1163(b) of Pub. L. 105–34 effective Aug. 5, 1997, see section 1163(c) of Pub. L. 105–34, set out as a note under section 902 of this title.

Effective Date of 1996 Amendment

Section 1501(d) of Pub. L. 104–188 provided that: “The amendments made by this section [amending this section and sections 951, 956, 959, 989, and 1297 of this title and repealing section 956A of this title] shall apply to taxable years of foreign corporations beginning after December 31, 1996, and to taxable years of United States shareholders within which or with which such taxable years of foreign corporations end.”

Amendment by section 1703(i)(1) of Pub. L. 104–188 effective as if included in the provision of the Revenue Reconciliation Act of 1993, Pub. L. 103–66, §§13001–13444, to which such amendment relates, see section 1703(o) of Pub. L. 104–188, set out as a note under section 39 of this title.

Effective Date of 1993 Amendment

Amendment by section 13227(d) of Pub. L. 103–66 applicable to taxable years beginning after Dec. 31, 1993, see section 13227(f) of Pub. L. 103–66 set out as a note under section 56 of this title.

Section 13235(c) of Pub. L. 103–66 provided that: “The amendments made by this section [amending this section and sections 907 and 954 of this title] shall apply to taxable years beginning after December 31, 1992.”

Effective Date of 1990 Amendment

Amendment by section 11101(d)(5) of Pub. L. 101–508 applicable to taxable years beginning after Dec. 31, 1990, see section 11101(e) of Pub. L. 101–508, set out as a note under section 1 of this title.

Effective Date of 1989 Amendment

Section 7402(b) of Pub. L. 101–239 provided that: “The amendment made by subsection (a) [amending this section] shall apply to taxable years beginning after July 10, 1989.”

Amendment by section 7811(i)(1) of Pub. L. 101–239 effective, except as otherwise provided, as if included in the provision of the Technical and Miscellaneous Revenue Act of 1988, Pub. L. 100–647, to which such amendment relates, see section 7817 of Pub. L. 101–239, set out as a note under section 1 of this title.

Effective Date of 1988 Amendment

Section 1012(bb)(4)(B) of Pub. L. 100–647 provided that: “The amendment made by subparagraph (A) [amending this section] shall take effect as if included in the amendment made by section 121 of the Tax Reform Act of 1984 [Pub. L. 98–369].”

Amendment by sections 1003(b)(2) and 1012(a)(1)(A), (2)–(4), (6)–(11), (c), (p)(11), (29), (q)(12) of Pub. L. 100–647 effective, except as otherwise provided, as if included in the provision of the Tax Reform Act of 1986, Pub. L. 99–514, to which such amendment relates, see section 1019(a) of Pub. L. 100–647, set out as a note under section 1 of this title.

Amendment by section 2004(l) of Pub. L. 100–647 effective, except as otherwise provided, as if included in the provisions of the Revenue Act of 1987, Pub. L. 100–203, title X, to which such amendment relates, see section 2004(u) of Pub. L. 100–647, set out as a note under section 56 of this title.

Effective Date of 1986 Amendment

Amendment by section 104(b)(13) of Pub. L. 99–514 applicable to taxable years beginning after Dec. 31, 1986, see section 151(a) of Pub. L. 99–514, set out as a note under section 1 of this title.

Amendment by section 701(e)(4)(H) of Pub. L. 99–514 applicable to taxable years beginning after Dec. 31, 1986, with certain exceptions and qualifications, see section 701(f) of Pub. L. 99–514, set out as an Effective Date note under section 55 of this title.

Section 1201(e) of Pub. L. 99–514, as amended by Pub. L. 100–647, title I, §1012(a)(5), Nov. 10, 1988, 102 Stat. 3495; Pub. L. 101–239, title VII, §7404(a), Dec. 19, 1989, 103 Stat. 2361, provided that:

“(1) In general.—Except as provided in this subsection, the amendments made by this section [amending this section and sections 864 and 954 of this title] shall apply to taxable years beginning after December 31, 1986.

“[(2) Repealed. Pub. L. 101–239, title VII, §7404(a), Dec. 19, 1989, 103 Stat. 2361.]

“(3) Special rule for taxpayer with overall foreign loss.—

“(A) In general.—If a taxpayer incorporated on June 20, 1928, the principal headquarters of which is in Minneapolis, Minnesota, sustained an overall foreign loss (as defined in section 904(f)(2) of the Internal Revenue Code of 1954 [now 1986]) in taxable years beginning before January 1, 1986, in connection with 2 separate trades or businesses which the taxpayer had, during 1985, substantially disposed of in tax-free transactions pursuant to section 355 of such Code, then an amount, not to exceed $40,000,000 of foreign source income, which, but for this paragraph, would not be treated as overall limitation income, shall be so treated.

“(B) Substantial disposition.—For purposes of this paragraph, a taxpayer shall be treated as having substantially disposed of a trade or business if the retained portion of such business had sales of less than 10 percent of the annual sales of such business for taxable years ending in 1985.”

[Section 7404(b), (c) of Pub. L. 101–239 provided that:

[“(b) Effective Date.—The repeal made by subsection (a) [amending section 1201(e) of Pub. L. 99–514, set out above] shall apply to taxable years beginning after December 31, 1989.

[“(c) Exception for Certain Taxpayers With Substantial Loan Loss Reserves.—

[“(1) In general.—The repeal made by subsection (a) shall not apply to any taxpayer if, on any financial statement filed by such taxpayer for regulatory purposes with respect to any quarter ending during the period beginning on March 31, 1989, and ending on December 31, 1989, such taxpayer showed loss reserves against its qualified loans equal to at least 25 percent of the amount of such loans.

[“(2) Definitions and special rules.—For purposes of this subsection—

[“(A) Qualified loan.—The term ‘qualified loan’ has the meaning given such term by section 1201(e)(2)(H) of the Tax Reform Act of 1986 [Pub. L. 99–514, formerly set out above] (as in effect before its repeal by subsection (a)).

[“(B) Parent-subsidiary controlled groups.—In the case of any taxpayer which is a member of a parent-subsidiary controlled group (as defined in section 585(c)(5)(A) [26 U.S.C. 585(c)(5)(A)]), this subsection shall be applied by treating all members of such group as 1 taxpayer.”]

Section 1203(b) of Pub. L. 99–514 provided that: “The amendment made by subsection (a) [amending this section] shall apply to losses incurred in taxable years beginning after December 31, 1986.”

Amendment by section 1211(b)(3) of Pub. L. 99–514 applicable to taxable years beginning after Dec. 31, 1986, except as otherwise provided, see section 1211(c) of Pub. L. 99–514, set out as an Effective Date note under section 865 of this title.

Amendment by section 1235(f)(4) of Pub. L. 99–514 applicable to taxable years of foreign corporations beginning after Dec. 31, 1986, see section 1235(h) of Pub. L. 99–514, set out as an Effective Date note under section 1291 of this title.

Section 1810(a)(1)(B) of Pub. L. 99–514 provided that: “The amendment made by subparagraph (A) [amending this section] shall take effect on March 28, 1985. In the case of any taxable year ending after such date of any corporation treated as a United States-owned foreign corporation by reason of the amendment made by subparagraph (A)—

“(i) only income received or accrued by such corporation after such date shall be taken into account under section 904(g) of the Internal Revenue Code of 1954 [now 1986]; except that

“(ii) paragraph (5) of such section 904(g) shall be applied by taking into account all income received or accrued by such corporation during such taxable year.”

Section 1810(b)(4)(B) of Pub. L. 99–514 provided that:

“(i) The amendment made by subparagraph (A) [amending this section] insofar as it adds the last sentence to subparagraph (E) of section 905(d)(3) [904(d)(3)] shall take effect on March 28, 1985. In the case of any taxable year ending after such date of any corporation treated as a designated payor corporation by reason of the amendment made by subparagraph (A)—

“(I) only income received or accrued by such corporation after such date shall be taken into account under section 904(d)(3) of the Internal Revenue Code of 1954 [now 1986]; except that

“(II) subparagraph (C) of such section 904(d)(3) shall be applied by taking into account all income received or accrued by such corporation during such taxable year.

“(ii) The amendment made by subparagraph (A) insofar as it adds clause (iv) to subparagraph (E) of section 904(d)(3) shall take effect on December 31, 1985. For purposes of such amendment, the rule of the second sentence of clause (i) shall be applied by taking into account December 31, 1985, in lieu of March 28, 1985.”

Amendment by sections 1810(b)(1)–(3) and 1876(d)(2) of Pub. L. 99–514 effective, except as otherwise provided, as if included in the provisions of the Tax Reform Act of 1984, Pub. L. 98–369, div. A, to which such amendment relates, see section 1881 of Pub. L. 99–514, set out as a note under section 48 of this title.

Effective Date of 1984 Amendment

Section 121(b) of Pub. L. 98–369, as amended by Pub. L. 99–514, §2, title XVIII, §1810(a)(2), (3), Oct. 22, 1986, 100 Stat. 2095, 2822, provided that:

“(1) In general.—Except as otherwise provided in this subsection, the amendment made by subsection (a) [amending this section] shall take effect on the date of the enactment of this Act [July 18, 1984]. In the case of any taxable year of any United States-owned foreign corporation ending after the date of the enactment of this Act—

“(A) only income received or accrued by such foreign corporation after such date of enactment shall be taken into account under section 904(g) of the Internal Revenue Code of 1986 [formerly I.R.C. 1954] (as added by subsection (a)); except that

“(B) paragraph (5) of such section 904(g) (relating to exception where small amount of United States source income) shall be applied by taking into account all income received or accrued by such foreign corporation during such taxable year.

“(2) Special rule for applicable cfc.—

“(A) In general.—In the case of qualified interest received or accrued by an applicable CFC before January 1, 1992—

“(i) such interest shall not be taken into account under section 904(g) of the Internal Revenue Code of 1986 (as added by subsection (a)), except that

“(ii) such interest shall be taken into account for purposes of applying paragraph (5) of such section 904(g) (relating to exception where small amount of United States source income).

“(B) Qualified interest.—For purposes of subparagraph (A), the term ‘qualified interest’ means—

“(i) the aggregate amount of interest received or accrued during any taxable year by an applicable CFC on United States affiliate obligations held by such applicable CFC, multiplied by,

“(ii) a fraction (not in excess of 1)—

“(I) the numerator of which is the sum of the aggregate principal amount of United States affiliate obligations held by the applicable CFC on March 31, 1984, but not in excess of the applicable limit, and

“(II) the denominator of which is the average daily principal amount of United States affiliate obligations held by such applicable CFC during the taxable year.

Proper adjustments shall be made to the numerator described in clause (ii)(I) for original issue discount accruing after March 31, 1984, on CFC obligations and United States affiliate obligations.

“(C) Adjustment for retirement of cfc obligations.—The amount described in subparagraph (B)(ii)(I) for any taxable year shall be reduced by the sum of—

“(i) the excess of (I) the aggregate principal amount of CFC obligations which are outstanding on March 31, 1984, but only with respect to obligations issued before March 8, 1984, or issued after March 7, 1984, by the applicable CFC pursuant to a binding commitment in effect on March 7, 1984, over (II) the average daily outstanding principal amount during the taxable year of the CFC obligations described in subclause (I), and

“(ii) the portion of the equity of such applicable CFC allocable to the excess described in clause (i) (determined on the basis of the debt-equity ratio of such applicable CFC on March 31, 1984).

“(D) Applicable cfc.—For purposes of this paragraph, the term ‘applicable CFC’ means any controlled foreign corporation (within the meaning of section 957)—

“(i) which was in existence on March 31, 1984, and

“(ii) the principal purpose of which on such date consisted of the issuing of CFC obligations (or short-term borrowing from nonaffiliated persons) and lending the proceeds of such obligations (or such borrowing) to affiliates.

“(E) Affiliates; united states affiliates.—For purposes of this paragraph—

“(i) Affiliate.—The term ‘affiliate’ means any person who is a related person (within the meaning of section 482 of the Internal Revenue Code of 1986) to the applicable CFC.

“(ii) United states affiliate.—The term ‘United States affiliate’ means any United States person which is an affiliate of the applicable CFC.

“(iii) Treatment of certain foreign corporations engaged in business in united states.—For purposes of clause (ii), a foreign corporation shall be treated as a United States person with respect to any interest payment made by such corporation if—

“(I) at least 50 percent of the gross income from all sources of such corporation for the 3-year period ending with the close of its last taxable year ending on or before March 31, 1984, was effectively connected with the conduct of a trade or business within the United States, and

“(II) at least 50 percent of the gross income from all sources of such corporation for the 3-year period ending with the close of its taxable year preceding the payment of such interest was effectively connected with the conduct of a trade or business within the United States.

“(F) United states affiliate obligations.—For purposes of this paragraph, the term ‘United States affiliate obligations’ means any obligation of (and payable by) a United States affiliate.

“(G) CFC obligation.—For purposes of this paragraph, the term ‘CFC obligation’ means any obligation of (and issued by) a CFC if—

“(i) the requirements of clause (i) of [former] section 163(f)(2)(B) of the Internal Revenue Code of 1986 are met with respect to such obligation, and

“(ii) in the case of an obligation issued after December 31, 1982, the requirements of clause (ii) of such [former] section 163(f)(2)(B) are met with respect to such obligation.

“(H) Treatment of obligations with original issue discount.—For purposes of this paragraph, in the case of any obligation with original issue discount, the principal amount of such obligation as of any day shall be treated as equal to the revised issue price as of such day (as defined in section 1278(a)(4) of the Internal Revenue Code of 1986).

“(I) Applicable limit.—For purposes of subparagraph (B)(ii)(I), the term ‘applicable limit’ means the sum of—

“(i) the equity of the applicable CFC on March 31, 1984, and

“(ii) the aggregate principal amount of CFC obligations outstanding on March 31, 1984, which were issued by an applicable CFC—

“(I) before March 8, 1984, or

“(II) after March 7, 1984, pursuant to a binding commitment in effect on March 7, 1984.

“(3) Exception for certain term obligations.—The amendments made by subsection (a) shall not apply to interest on any term obligations held by a foreign corporation on March 7, 1984. The preceding sentence shall not apply to any United States affiliate obligation (as defined in paragraph (2)(F)) held by an applicable CFC (as defined in paragraph (2)(D)).

“(4) Definitions.—Any term used in this subsection which is also used in section 904(g) of the Internal Revenue Code of 1986 (as added by subsection (a)) shall have the meaning given such term by such section 904(g).

“(5) Separate application of section 904 in case of income covered by transitional rules.—Subsections (a), (b), and (c) of section 904 of the Internal Revenue Code of 1986 shall be applied separately to any amount not treated as income derived from sources within the United States but which (but for the provisions of paragraph (2) or (3) of this subsection) would be so treated under the amendments made by subsection (a). Any such separate application shall be made before any separate application required under section 904(d) of such Code.

“(6) Application of paragraph (5) delayed in certain cases.—In the case of a foreign corporation—

“(A) which is a subsidiary of a domestic corporation which has been engaged in manufacturing for more than 50 years, and

“(B) which issued certificates with respect to obligations on—

“(i) September 24, 1979, denominated in French francs,

“(ii) September 10, 1981, denominated in Swiss francs,

“(iii) July 14, 1982, denominated in Swiss francs, and

“(iv) December 1, 1982, denominated in United States dollars,

with a total principal amount of less than 200,000,000 United States dollars.[,]

then paragraph (5) shall not apply to the proceeds from relending such obligations or related capital before January 1, 1986.”

Section 122(b) of Pub. L. 98–369 provided that:

“(1) In general.—The amendment made by subsection (a) [amending this section] shall take effect on the date of the enactment of this Act [July 18, 1984].

“(2) Special rules for interest income.—

“(A) In general.—Interest income received or accrued by a designated payor corporation shall be taken into account for purposes of the amendment made by subsection (a) only in taxable years beginning after the date of the enactment of this Act.

“(B) Exception for investment after june 22, 1984.—Notwithstanding subparagraph (A), the amendment made by subsection (a) shall apply to interest income received or accrued by a designated payor corporation after the date of enactment of this Act if it is attributable to investment in the designated payor corporation after June 22, 1984.

“(3) Term obligations of designated payor corporation which is not applicable cfc.—In the case of any designated payor corporation which is not an applicable CFC (as defined in section 121(b)(2)(D) [section 121(b)(2)(D) of Pub. L. 98–369, set out above]), any interest received or accrued by such corporation on a term obligation held by such corporation on March 7, 1984, shall not be taken into account.”

Amendment by section 474(r)(21) of Pub. L. 98–369 applicable to taxable years beginning after Dec. 31, 1983, and to carrybacks from such years, see section 475(a) of Pub. L. 98–369, set out as a note under section 21 of this title.

Amendment by section 801(d)(2) of Pub. L. 98–369 applicable to transactions after Dec. 31, 1984, in taxable years ending after such date, see section 805(a)(1) of Pub. L. 98–369, as amended, set out as a note under section 245 of this title.

Effective Date of 1983 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 98–21 applicable to taxable years beginning after Dec. 31, 1983, except that if an individual's annuity starting date was deferred under section 105(d)(6) of this title as in effect on the day before Apr. 20, 1983, such deferral shall end on the first day of such individual's first taxable year beginning after Dec. 31, 1983, see section 122(d) of Pub. L. 98–21, set out as a note under section 22 of this title.

Effective Date of 1982 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 97–248 applicable to taxable years beginning after Dec. 31, 1982, except that former subsec. (f)(4), which had provided for the determination of foreign oil related loss where section 907 of this title was applicable, shall continue to apply in certain instances where the taxpayer has had a foreign loss from an activity not related to oil and gas, see section 211(e) of Pub. L. 97–248, set out as a note under section 907 of this title.

Effective Date of 1980 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 96–222 effective, except as otherwise provided, as if it had been included in the provisions of the Revenue Act of 1978, Pub. L. 95–600, to which such amendment relates, see section 201 of Pub. L. 96–222, set out as a note under section 32 of this title.

Effective Date of 1978 Amendment

Amendment by section 403(c)(4) of Pub. L. 95–600 effective on Nov. 6, 1978, see section 403(d)(3) of Pub. L. 95–600, set out as a note under section 528 of this title.

Amendment by section 421(e)(6) of Pub. L. 95–600 applicable to taxable years beginning after Dec. 31, 1978, see section 421(g) of Pub. L. 95–600, set out as note under section 5 of this title.

Amendment by section 701(a)(8)(C) of Pub. L. 95–600 applicable, in the case of individuals, to taxable years ending after Dec. 31, 1974, and, in the case of corporations, to taxable years ending after Dec. 31, 1976, see section 701(u)(8)(D) of Pub. L. 95–600, set out as a note under section 907 of this title.

Section 701(q)(3)(B) of Pub. L. 95–600, as amended by Pub. L. 99–514, §2, Oct. 22, 1986, 100 Stat. 2095, provided that: “The amendments made by paragraph (2) [amending this section] shall take effect as if included in section 904(f) of the Internal Revenue Code of 1986 [formerly I.R.C. 1954], as such provision was added to such Code by section 1032(a) of the Tax Reform Act of 1976 [section 1032(a) of Pub. L. 94–455].”

Section 701(u)(2)(D) of Pub. L. 95–600 provided that: “The amendments made by this paragraph [amending this section] shall apply to taxable years beginning after December 31, 1975.”

Section 701(u)(3)(B) of Pub. L. 95–600 provided that: “The amendment made by subparagraph (A) [amending this section] shall apply to taxable years beginning after December 31, 1975.”

Section 701(u)(4)(C) of Pub. L. 95–600 provided that: “The amendments made by this paragraph [amending this section] shall apply—

“(i) to overall foreign losses sustained in taxable years beginning after December 31, 1975, and

“(ii) to foreign oil related losses sustained in taxable years ending after December 31, 1975.”

Effective Date of 1977 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 95–30 applicable to taxable years beginning after Dec. 31, 1976, see section 106(a) of Pub. L. 95–30, set out as a note under section 1 of this title.

Effective Date of 1976 Amendment

Amendment by section 503(b)(1) of Pub. L. 94–455 applicable to taxable years beginning after Dec. 31, 1975, see section 508 of Pub. L. 94–455, set out as a note under section 3 of this title.

Section 1031(c) of Pub. L. 94–455, as amended by Pub. L. 95–600, title VII, §701(u)(6), (7)(B)(ii), Nov. 6, 1978, 92 Stat. 2914, 2916; Pub. L. 99–514, §2, Oct. 22, 1986, 100 Stat. 2095, provided that:

“(1) In general.—Except as provided in paragraphs (2) and (3), the amendments made by this section [amending this section and sections 243, 383, 901, 907, 960, 1351, 1503, 6038, and 6501 of this title] shall apply to taxable years beginning after December 31, 1975.

“(2) Exception for certain mining operations.—In the case of a domestic corporation or includible corporation in an affiliated group (as defined in section 1504 of the Internal Revenue Code of 1986 [formerly I.R.C. 1954]) which has as of October 1, 1975—

“(A) been engaged in the active conduct of the trade or business of the extraction of minerals (of a character with respect to which a deduction for depletion is allowable under section 613 of such Code) outside the United States or its possessions for less than 5 years preceding the date of enactment of this Act [Oct. 4, 1976],

“(B) had deductions properly apportioned or allocated to its gross income from such trade or business in excess of such gross income in at least 2 taxable years,

“(C) 80 percent of its gross receipts are from the sale of such minerals, and

“(D) made commitments for substantial expansion of such mineral extraction activities,

the amendments made by this section [amending this section and sections 243, 383, 901, 907, 960, 1351, 1503, 6038, and 6501 of this title] shall apply to taxable years beginning after December 31, 1978. In the case of a loss sustained in a taxable year beginning before January 1, 1979, by any corporation to which this paragraph applies, if section 904(a)(1) of such Code (as in effect before the enactment of this Act [Oct. 4, 1976]) applies with respect to such taxable year, the provisions of section 904(f) of such Code shall be applied with respect to such loss under the principles of such section 904(a)(1).

“(3) Exception for income from possessions.—In the case of gross income from sources within a possession of the United States (and the deductions properly apportioned or allocated thereto), the amendments made by this section [amending this section and sections 243, 383, 901, 907, 960, 1351, 1503, 6038, and 6501 of this title] shall apply to taxable years beginning after December 31, 1978.

“(4) Carrybacks and carryovers in the case of mining operations and income from a possession.—In the case of a taxpayer to whom paragraph (2) or (3) of this subsection applies, section 904(e) of such Code [section 904(e) of this title] shall apply except that ‘January 1, 1979’ shall be substituted for ‘January 1, 1976’ each place it appears therein. If such a taxpayer elects the overall limitation for a taxable year beginning before January 1, 1979, such section 904(e) shall be applied by substituting ‘the January 1, of the last year for which such taxpayer is on the per-country limitation’ for ‘January 1, 1976’ each place it appears therein.”

Section 1032(c) of Pub. L. 94–455, as amended by Pub. L. 95–600, title VII, §701(u)(5), (7)(A), (B)(i), Nov. 6, 1978, 92 Stat. 2914; Pub. L. 99–514, §2, Oct. 22, 1986, 100 Stat. 2095, provided that:

“(1) In general.—Except as provided in paragraphs (2), (3), and (5), the amendment made by subsection (a) [amending this section] shall apply to losses sustained in taxable years beginning after December 31, 1975. The amendment made by subsection (b)(1) [amending section 907 of this title] shall apply to taxable years beginning after December 31, 1975. The amendment made by subsection (b)(2) [amending section 907 of this title] shall apply to losses sustained in taxable years ending after December 31, 1975.

“(2) Obligations of foreign governments.—The amendments made by subsection (a) [amending this section] shall not apply to losses on the sale, exchange, or other disposition of bonds, notes, or other evidences of indebtedness issued before May 14, 1976, by a foreign government or instrumentality thereof for the acquisition of property located in that country or stock of a corporation (created or organized in or under the laws of that foreign country) or indebtedness of such corporation.

“(3) Substantial worthlessness before enactment.—The amendments made by subsection (a) [amending this section] shall not apply to losses incurred on the loss from stock or indebtedness of a corporation in which the taxpayer owned at least 10 percent of the voting stock and which has sustained losses in 3 out of the last 5 taxable years beginning before January 1, 1976, which has sustained an overall loss for those 5 years, and with respect to which the taxpayer has terminated or will terminate all operations by reason of sale, liquidation, or other disposition before January 1, 1977, of such corporation or its assets.

“(4) Limitation based on deficit in earnings and profits.—If paragraph (3) would apply to a taxpayer but for the fact that the loss is sustained after December 31, 1976, and if the loss is sustained in a taxable year beginning before January 1, 1979, the amendments made by subsection (a) [amending this section] shall not apply to such loss to the extent that there was on December 31, 1975, a deficit in earnings and profits in the corporation from which the loss arose. For purposes of the preceding sentence, there shall be taken into account only earnings and profits of the corporation which (A) were accumulated in taxable years of the corporation beginning after December 31, 1962, and during the period in which the stock of such corporation from which the loss arose was held by the taxpayer and (B) are attributable to such stock.

“(5) Foreign oil related losses.—The amendment made by subsection (a) [amending this section] shall apply to foreign oil related losses sustained in taxable years ending after December 31, 1975.

“(6) Recapture of possession losses during transitional period where taxpayer is on a per-country basis.—

“(A) Application of paragraph.—This paragraph shall apply if—

“(i) the taxpayer sustained a loss in a possession of the United States in a taxable year beginning after December 31, 1975, and before January 1, 1979,

“(ii) such loss is attributable to a trade or business engaged in by the taxpayer in such possession on January 1, 1976, and

“(iii) the taxpayer chooses to have the benefits of subpart A of part III of subchapter N apply for such taxable year and section 904(a)(1) of the Internal Revenue Code of 1986 [formerly I.R.C. 1954] (as in effect before the enactment of this Act [Oct. 4, 1976]) applies with respect to such taxable year.

“(B) No recapture during transition period.—In any case to which this paragraph applies, for purposes of determining the liability for tax of the taxpayer for taxable years beginning before January 1, 1979, section 904(f) of the Internal Revenue Code of 1986 shall not apply with respect to the loss described in subparagraph (A)(i).

“(C) Recapture of loss after the transition period.—In any case to which this paragraph applies—

“(i) for purposes of determining the liability for tax of the taxpayer for taxable years beginning after December 31, 1978, section 904(f) of the Internal Revenue Code of 1986 [subsec. (f) of this section] shall be applied with respect to the loss described in subparagraph (A)(i) under the principles of section 904(a)(1) of such Code (as in effect before the enactment of this Act [Oct. 4, 1976]); but

“(ii) in the case of any taxpayer and any possession, the aggregate amount to which such section 904(f) applies by reason of clause (i) shall not exceed the sum of the net incomes of all affiliated corporations from such possession for taxable years of such affiliated corporations beginning after December 31, 1975, and before January 1, 1979.

“(D) Taxpayers not engaged in trade or business on january 1, 1976.—In any case to which this paragraph applies but for the fact that the taxpayer was not engaged in a trade or business in such possession on January 1, 1976, for purposes of determining the liability for tax of the taxpayer for taxable years beginning before January 1, 1979; if section 904(a)(1) of such Code (as in effect before the enactment of this Act [Oct. 4, 1976]) applies with respect to such taxable year, the provisions of section 904(f) of such Code shall be applied with respect to the loss described in subparagraph (A)(i) under the principles of such section 904(a)(1).

“(E) Affiliated corporation defined.—For purposes of subparagraph (C)(ii), the term ‘affiliated corporation’ means a corporation which, for the taxable year for which the net income is being determined, was not a member of the same affiliated group (within the meaning of section 1504 of the Internal Revenue Code of 1986) as the taxpayer but would have been a member of such group but for the application of subsection (b) of such section 1504.”

Section 1034(b) of Pub. L. 94–455 provided that: “The amendment made by this section [amending this section] shall apply to taxable years beginning after December 31, 1975, except that the provisions of section 904(b)(3)(C) shall only apply to sales or exchanges made after November 12, 1975.”

Amendment by section 1051(e) of Pub. L. 94–455 applicable to taxable years beginning after Dec. 31, 1975, with certain exceptions, see section 1051(i) of Pub. L. 94–455, set out as a note under section 27 of this title.

Amendment by section 1901(b)(10) of Pub. L. 94–455 applicable with respect to taxable years ending after Oct. 4, 1976, see section 1901(d) of Pub. L. 94–455, set out as a note under section 2 of this title.

Effective Date of 1971 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 92–178 applicable with respect to taxable years ending after Dec. 31, 1971, except that a corporation may not be a DISC for any taxable year beginning before Jan. 1, 1972, see section 507 of Pub. L. 92–178, set out as a note under section 991 of this title.

Effective Date of 1969 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 91–172 applicable with respect to taxable years beginning after Dec. 31, 1969, see section 506(c) of Pub. L. 91–172, set out as a note under section 901 of this title.

Effective Date of 1966 Amendment

Section 106(c)(2) of Pub. L. 89–809 provided that: “The amendments made by paragraph (1) [amending this section] shall apply to interest received after December 31, 1965, in taxable years ending after such date.”

Effective Date of 1964 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 88–272 applicable to taxable years beginning after Dec. 31, 1963, see section 234(c) of Pub. L. 88–272, set out as a note under section 1503 of this title.

Effective Date of 1962 Amendment

Section 10(b) of Pub. L. 87–834 provided that: “The amendments made by subsection (a) [amending this section] shall apply with respect to taxable years beginning after the date of the enactment of this Act [Oct. 16, 1962], but only with respect to interest resulting from transactions consummated after April 2, 1962.”

Effective Date of 1960 Amendment

Section 4 of Pub. L. 86–780 provided that: “The amendments made by the first section [amending this section], section 2 [amending section 1503 of this title], and subsection (a) of section 3 of this Act [amending section 901 of this title] shall apply with respect to taxable years beginning after December 31, 1960. The amendment made by subsection (b) of section 3 of this Act [amending section 901 of this title] shall apply with respect to taxable years beginning after December 31, 1953, and ending after August 16, 1954. The amendments made by subsection (c) of section 3 of this Act [enacting section 6501 of this title] shall apply with respect to taxable years beginning after December 31, 1957.”

Effective Date of 1958 Amendment

Section 42(c) of Pub. L. 85–866 provided that: “The amendments made by subsections (a) and (b) [amending this section and section 6611 of this title] shall apply only with respect to taxable years beginning after December 31, 1957.”

Savings Provision

For provisions that nothing in amendment by section 11801(a)(31) of Pub. L. 101–508 be construed to affect treatment of certain transactions occurring, property acquired, or items of income, loss, deduction, or credit taken into account prior to Nov. 5, 1990, for purposes of determining liability for tax for periods ending after Nov. 5, 1990, see section 11821(b) of Pub. L. 101–508, set out as a note under section 45K of this title.

Applicability of Certain Amendments by Pub. L. 99–514 in Relation to Treaty Obligations of United States

For applicability of amendments by sections 701(e)(4)(H) and 1201(a), (b), (d)(1)–(3) of Pub. L. 99–514 notwithstanding any treaty obligation of the United States in effect on Oct. 22, 1986, and for nonapplication of amendment by section 1211(b)(3) of Pub. L. 99–514 to the extent application of such amendment would be contrary to any treaty obligation of the United States in effect on Oct. 22, 1986, with provision that for such purposes any amendment by title I of Pub. L. 100–647 be treated as if it had been included in the provision of Pub. L. 99–514 to which such amendment relates, see section 1012(aa)(2)–(4) of Pub. L. 100–647, set out as a note under section 861 of this title.

Plan Amendments Not Required Until January 1, 1989

For provisions directing that if any amendments made by subtitle A or subtitle C of title XI [§§1101–1147 and 1171–1177] or title XVIII [§§1800–1899A] of Pub. L. 99–514 require an amendment to any plan, such plan amendment shall not be required to be made before the first plan year beginning on or after Jan. 1, 1989, see section 1140 of Pub. L. 99–514, as amended, set out as a note under section 401 of this title.

Limitation on Carryback of Foreign Tax Credits to Taxable Years Beginning Before 1987

Section 1205 of Pub. L. 99–514 provided that:

“(a) Determination of Excess Credits.—

“(1) In general.—Any taxes paid or accrued in a taxable year beginning after 1986 may be treated under section 904(c) of the Internal Revenue Code of 1954 as paid or accrued in a taxable year beginning before 1987 only to the extent such taxes would be so treated if the tax imposed by chapter 1 of such Code for the taxable year beginning after 1986 were determined by applying section 1 or 11 of such Code (as the case may be) as in effect on the day before the date of the enactment of this Act [Oct. 22, 1986].

“(2) Adjustments.—Under regulations prescribed by the Secretary of the Treasury or his delegate proper adjustments shall be made in the application of paragraph (1) to take into account—

“(A) the repeal of the zero bracket amount, and

“(B) the changes in the treatment of capital gains.

“(b) Coordination With Separate Baskets.—Any taxes paid or accrued in a taxable year beginning after 1986 which (after the application of subsection (a)) are treated as paid or accrued in a taxable year beginning before 1987 shall be treated as imposed on income described in section 904(d)(1)(E) of the Internal Revenue Code of 1954 (as in effect on the day before the date of the enactment of this Act [Oct. 22, 1986]). No taxes paid or accrued in a taxable year beginning after 1986 with respect to high withholding tax interest (as defined in section 904(d)(2)(B) of the Internal Revenue Code of 1986 as amended by this Act) may be treated as paid or accrued in a taxable year beginning before 1987.”

Coordination With Treaty Obligations

Section 1810(a)(4) of Pub. L. 99–514 provided that: “Section 904(g) of the Internal Revenue Code of 1954 shall apply notwithstanding any treaty obligation of the United States to the contrary (whether entered into on, before, or after the date of the enactment of this Act [Oct. 22, 1986]) unless (in the case of a treaty entered into after the date of the enactment of this Act) such treaty by specific reference to such section 904(g) clearly expresses the intent to override the provisions of such section.”

Separate Application of Section 904 In Case of Income Covered by Transitional Rules

Section 1810(a)(5) of Pub. L. 99–514, as amended by Pub. L. 100–647, title I, §1018(g)(1), Nov. 10, 1988, 102 Stat. 3582, provided that: “For purposes of section 121(b)(5) of the Tax Reform Act of 1984 [Pub. L. 98–369, set out above] (relating to separate application of section 904 [of the Internal Revenue Code of 1954 [now 1986]] in case of income covered by transitional rules), any carryover under section 904(c) of the Internal Revenue Code of 1954 [now 1986] allowed to a taxpayer which was incorporated on August 31, 1962, attributable to taxes paid or accrued in taxable years beginning in 1981, 1982, 1983, or 1984, with respect to amounts included in gross income under section 951 of such Code in respect of a controlled foreign corporation which was incorporated on May 27, 1977, shall be treated as taxes paid or accrued on income separately treated under such section 121(b)(5).”

1 See References in Text note below.

2 So in original.

3 See References in Text note below.

§905. Applicable rules

(a) Year in which credit taken

The credits provided in this subpart may, at the option of the taxpayer and irrespective of the method of accounting employed in keeping his books, be taken in the year in which the taxes of the foreign country or the possession of the United States accrued, subject, however, to the conditions prescribed in subsection (c). If the taxpayer elects to take such credits in the year in which the taxes of the foreign country or the possession of the United States accrued, the credits for all subsequent years shall be taken on the same basis, and no portion of any such taxes shall be allowed as a deduction in the same or any succeeding year.

(b) Proof of credits

The credits provided in this subpart shall be allowed only if the taxpayer establishes to the satisfaction of the Secretary—

(1) the total amount of income derived from sources without the United States, determined as provided in part I,

(2) the amount of income derived from each country, the tax paid or accrued to which is claimed as a credit under this subpart, such amount to be determined under regulations prescribed by the Secretary, and

(3) all other information necessary for the verification and computation of such credits.

(c) Adjustments to accrued taxes

(1) In general

If—

(A) accrued taxes when paid differ from the amounts claimed as credits by the taxpayer,

(B) accrued taxes are not paid before the date 2 years after the close of the taxable year to which such taxes relate, or

(C) any tax paid is refunded in whole or in part,


the taxpayer shall notify the Secretary, who shall redetermine the amount of the tax for the year or years affected. The Secretary may prescribe adjustments to the pools of post-1986 foreign income taxes and the pools of post-1986 undistributed earnings under sections 902 and 960 in lieu of the redetermination under the preceding sentence.

(2) Special rule for taxes not paid within 2 years

(A) In general

Except as provided in subparagraph (B), in making the redetermination under paragraph (1), no credit shall be allowed for accrued taxes not paid before the date referred to in subparagraph (B) of paragraph (1).

(B) Taxes subsequently paid

Any such taxes if subsequently paid—

(i) shall be taken into account—

(I) in the case of taxes deemed paid under section 902 or section 960, for the taxable year in which paid (and no redetermination shall be made under this section by reason of such payment), and

(II) in any other case, for the taxable year to which such taxes relate, and


(ii) shall be translated as provided in section 986(a)(2)(A).

(3) Adjustments

The amount of tax (if any) due on any redetermination under paragraph (1) shall be paid by the taxpayer on notice and demand by the Secretary, and the amount of tax overpaid (if any) shall be credited or refunded to the taxpayer in accordance with subchapter B of chapter 66 (section 6511 et seq.).

(4) Bond requirements

In the case of any tax accrued but not paid, the Secretary, as a condition precedent to the allowance of the credit provided in this subpart, may require the taxpayer to give a bond, with sureties satisfactory to and approved by the Secretary, in such sum as the Secretary may require, conditioned on the payment by the taxpayer of any amount of tax found due on any such redetermination. Any such bond shall contain such further conditions as the Secretary may require.

(5) Other special rules

In any redetermination under paragraph (1) by the Secretary of the amount of tax due from the taxpayer for the year or years affected by a refund, the amount of the taxes refunded for which credit has been allowed under this section shall be reduced by the amount of any tax described in section 901 imposed by the foreign country or possession of the United States with respect to such refund; but no credit under this subpart, or deduction under section 164, shall be allowed for any taxable year with respect to any such tax imposed on the refund. No interest shall be assessed or collected on any amount of tax due on any redetermination by the Secretary, resulting from a refund to the taxpayer, for any period before the receipt of such refund, except to the extent interest was paid by the foreign country or possession of the United States on such refund for such period.

(Aug. 16, 1954, ch. 736, 68A Stat. 288; Pub. L. 85–866, title I, §103(b), Sept. 2, 1958, 72 Stat. 1675; Pub. L. 94–455, title XIX, §§1901(a)(114), 1906(b)(13)(A), Oct. 4, 1976, 90 Stat. 1784, 1834; Pub. L. 96–603, §2(c)(1), Dec. 28, 1980, 94 Stat. 3509; Pub. L. 97–248, title III, §343(a), Sept. 3, 1982, 96 Stat. 635; Pub. L. 105–34, title XI, §1102(a)(2), Aug. 5, 1997, 111 Stat. 964.)

Amendments

1997—Subsec. (c). Pub. L. 105–34 amended heading and text of subsec. (c) generally. Prior to amendment, subsec. (c) read as follows: “If accrued taxes when paid differ from the amounts claimed as credits by the taxpayer, or if any tax paid is refunded in whole or in part, the taxpayer shall notify the Secretary, who shall redetermine the amount of the tax for the year or years affected. The amount of tax due on such redetermination, if any, shall be paid by the taxpayer on notice and demand by the Secretary, or the amount of tax overpaid, if any, shall be credited or refunded to the taxpayer in accordance with subchapter B of chapter 66 (sec. 6511 and following). In the case of such a tax accrued but not paid, the Secretary, as a condition precedent to the allowance of this credit, may require the taxpayer to give a bond, with sureties satisfactory to and to be approved by the Secretary, in such sum as the Secretary may require, conditioned on the payment by the taxpayer of any amount of tax found due on any such redetermination; and the bond herein prescribed shall contain such further conditions as the Secretary may require. In such redetermination by the Secretary of the amount of tax due from the taxpayer for the year or years affected by a refund, the amount of the taxes refunded for which credit has been allowed under this section shall be reduced by the amount of any tax described in section 901 imposed by the foreign country or possession of the United States with respect to such refund; but no credit under this subpart, and no deduction under section 164 (relating to deduction for taxes) shall be allowed for any taxable year with respect to such tax imposed on the refund. No interest shall be assessed or collected on any amount of tax due on any redetermination by the Secretary, resulting from a refund to the taxpayer, for any period before the receipt of such refund, except to the extent interest was paid by the foreign country or possession of the United States on such refund for such period.”

1982—Subsec. (c). Pub. L. 97–248, §343(a), struck out provision that, although no interest can be assessed or collected on any amount of tax due on any redetermination by the Secretary, resulting from a refund to the taxpayer, for any period before the receipt of such refund, except to the extent interest has been paid by the foreign country or possession of the United States on such refund for such period, that prohibition does not apply (with respect to any period after the refund or adjustment in the foreign taxes) if the taxpayer fails to notify the Secretary (on or before the date prescribed by regulations for giving such notice) unless it is shown that such failure is due to reasonable cause and not due to willful neglect.

1980—Subsec. (c). Pub. L. 96–603 inserted provision that the preceding sentence not apply, with respect to any period after the refund or adjustment in the foreign taxes, if the taxpayer fails to notify the Secretary, on or before the date prescribed by regulations for giving such notice, unless it is shown that such failure is due to reasonable cause and not due to willful neglect.

1976—Subsec. (b). Pub. L. 94–455, §§1901(a)(114), 1906(b)(13)(A), struck out provision allowing credits to be taken for tax on royalties paid, accrued and derived from sources within the United Kingdom of Britain and Northern Ireland and struck out “or his delegate” after “Secretary”, in two places.

Subsec. (c). Pub. L. 94–455, §1906(b)(13)(A), struck out “or his delegate” after “Secretary” in eight places.

1958—Subsec. (b). Pub. L. 85–866 inserted sentence deeming recipient of a royalty or other amount for use of copyright, patent, and other like property derived from sources within United Kingdom, to have paid or accrued taxes paid or accrued to United Kingdom with respect to royalty if recipient elects to include in its gross income the amount of such United Kingdom tax.

Effective Date of 1997 Amendment

Section 1102(c)(2) of Pub. L. 105–34 provided that: “The amendment made by subsection (a)(2) [amending this section] shall apply to taxes which relate to taxable years beginning after December 31, 1997.”

Effective Date of 1982 Amendment

Section 343(b) of Pub. L. 97–248 provided that: “The amendment made by subsection (a) [amending this section] shall have the same effect as if the last sentence of section 905(c) had never been enacted.”

Effective Date of 1980 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 96–603 applicable with respect to employer contributions or accruals for taxable years beginning after Dec. 31, 1979, election to apply amendments retroactively with respect to foreign subsidiaries, allowance or prior deductions in case of certain funded branch plans, and time and manner for making elections, see section 2(e) of Pub. L. 96–603, set out as an Effective Date note under section 404A of this title.

Effective Date of 1976 Amendment

Amendment by section 1901(a)(114) of Pub. L. 94–455 applicable with respect to taxable years beginning after Dec. 31, 1976, see section 1901(d) of Pub. L. 94–455, set out as a note under section 2 of this title.

Effective Date of 1958 Amendment

Section 103(c) of Pub. L. 85–866 provided that: “The amendment made by subsection (a) of this section [amending section 131(e) of Internal Revenue Code of 1939] shall apply for all taxable years beginning on or after January 1, 1950, as to which section 131 of the Internal Revenue Code of 1939 is the applicable provision. The amendment made by subsection (b) of this section [amending this section] shall apply with respect to taxable years beginning after December 31, 1953, and ending after August 16, 1954. No interest shall be allowed or paid on any overpayment resulting from the amendments made by subsections (a) and (b) of this section.”

§906. Nonresident alien individuals and foreign corporations

(a) Allowance of credit

A nonresident alien individual or a foreign corporation engaged in trade or business within the United States during the taxable year shall be allowed a credit under section 901 for the amount of any income, war profits, and excess profits taxes paid or accrued during the taxable year (or deemed, under section 902, paid or accrued during the taxable year) to any foreign country or possession of the United States with respect to income effectively connected with the conduct of a trade or business within the United States.

(b) Special rules

(1) For purposes of subsection (a) and for purposes of determining the deductions allowable under sections 873(a) and 882(c), in determining the amount of any tax paid or accrued to any foreign country or possession there shall not be taken into account any amount of tax to the extent the tax so paid or accrued is imposed with respect to income from sources within the United States which would not be taxed by such foreign country or possession but for the fact that—

(A) in the case of a nonresident alien individual, such individual is a citizen or resident of such foreign country or possession, or

(B) in the case of a foreign corporation, such corporation was created or organized under the law of such foreign country or possession or is domiciled for tax purposes in such country or possession.


(2) For purposes of subsection (a), in applying section 904 the taxpayer's taxable income shall be treated as consisting only of the taxable income effectively connected with the taxpayer's conduct of a trade or business within the United States.

(3) The credit allowed pursuant to subsection (a) shall not be allowed against any tax imposed by section 871(a) (relating to income of nonresident alien individual not connected with United States business) or 881 (relating to income of foreign corporations not connected with United States business).

(4) For purposes of sections 902(a) and 78, a foreign corporation choosing the benefits of this subpart which receives dividends shall, with respect to such dividends, be treated as a domestic corporation.

(5) For purposes of section 902, any income, war profits, and excess profits taxes paid or accrued (or deemed paid or accrued) to any foreign country or possession of the United States with respect to income effectively connected with the conduct of a trade or business within the United States shall not be taken into account, and any accumulated profits attributable to such income shall not be taken into account.

(6) No credit shall be allowed under this section against the tax imposed by section 884.

(Added Pub. L. 89–809, title I, §106(a)(1), Nov. 13, 1966, 80 Stat. 1568; amended Pub. L. 98–369, div. A, title VIII, §801(d)(3), July 18, 1984, 98 Stat. 996; Pub. L. 99–514, title XII, §1241(c), title XVIII, §1876(d)(3), Oct. 22, 1986, 100 Stat. 2580, 2899; Pub. L. 100–647, title I, §1012(q)(10), Nov. 10, 1988, 102 Stat. 3524; Pub. L. 110–172, §11(g)(11), Dec. 29, 2007, 121 Stat. 2490.)

Amendments

2007—Subsec. (b)(5) to (7). Pub. L. 110–172 redesignated pars. (6) and (7) as (5) and (6), respectively, and struck out former par. (5) which read as follows: “No credit shall be allowed under this section for any income, war profits, and excess profits taxes paid or accrued with respect to the foreign trade income (within the meaning of section 923(b)) of a FSC.”

1988—Subsec. (b)(6), (7). Pub. L. 100–647 redesignated par. (6), relating to credit against tax imposed by section 884, as (7).

1986—Subsec. (b)(6). Pub. L. 99–514, §1876(d)(3), added par. (6) relating to credit for income, war profits, and excess profits taxes paid or accrued to a foreign country or possession of the United States.

Pub. L. 99–514, §1241(c), added par. (6) relating to credit against tax imposed by section 884.

1984—Subsec. (b)(5). Pub. L. 98–369 added par. (5).

Effective Date of 1988 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 100–647 effective, except as otherwise provided, as if included in the provision of the Tax Reform Act of 1986, Pub. L. 99–514, to which such amendment relates, see section 1019(a) of Pub. L. 100–647, set out as a note under section 1 of this title.

Effective Date of 1986 Amendment

Amendment by section 1241(c) of Pub. L. 99–514 applicable to taxable years beginning after Dec. 31, 1986, see section 1241(e) of Pub. L. 99–514, set out as an Effective Date note under section 884 of this title.

Amendment by section 1876(d)(3) of Pub. L. 99–514 effective, except as otherwise provided, as if included in the provisions of the Tax Reform Act of 1984, Pub. L. 98–369, div. A, to which such amendment relates, see section 1881 of Pub. L. 99–514, set out as a note under section 48 of this title.

Effective Date of 1984 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 98–369 applicable to transactions after Dec. 31, 1984, in taxable years ending after such date, see section 805(a)(1) of Pub. L. 98–369, as amended, set out as a note under section 245 of this title.

Effective Date

Section applicable with respect to taxable years beginning after Dec. 31, 1966, and, in applying section 904 of this title with respect to this section, no amount to be carried from or to any taxable year beginning before Jan. 1, 1967, and no such year to be taken into account, see section 106(a)(6) of Pub. L. 89–809, set out as an Effective Date of 1966 Amendment note under section 874 of this title.

Plan Amendments Not Required Until January 1, 1989

For provisions directing that if any amendments made by subtitle A or subtitle C of title XI [§§1101–1147 and 1171–1177] or title XVIII [§§1800–1899A] of Pub. L. 99–514 require an amendment to any plan, such plan amendment shall not be required to be made before the first plan year beginning on or after Jan. 1, 1989, see section 1140 of Pub. L. 99–514, as amended, set out as a note under section 401 of this title.

§907. Special rules in case of foreign oil and gas income

(a) Reduction in amount allowed as foreign tax under section 901

In applying section 901, the amount of any foreign oil and gas taxes paid or accrued (or deemed to have been paid) during the taxable year which would (but for this subsection) be taken into account for purposes of section 901 shall be reduced by the amount (if any) by which the amount of such taxes exceeds the product of—

(1) the amount of the combined foreign oil and gas income for the taxable year,

(2) multiplied by—

(A) in the case of a corporation, the percentage which is equal to the highest rate of tax specified under section 11(b), or

(B) in the case of an individual, a fraction the numerator of which is the tax against which the credit under section 901(a) is taken and the denominator of which is the taxpayer's entire taxable income.

(b) Combined foreign oil and gas income; foreign oil and gas taxes

For purposes of this section—

(1) Combined foreign oil and gas income

The term “combined foreign oil and gas income” means, with respect to any taxable year, the sum of—

(A) foreign oil and gas extraction income, and

(B) foreign oil related income.

(2) Foreign oil and gas taxes

The term “foreign oil and gas taxes” means, with respect to any taxable year, the sum of—

(A) oil and gas extraction taxes, and

(B) any income, war profits, and excess profits taxes paid or accrued (or deemed to have been paid or accrued under section 902 or 960) during the taxable year with respect to foreign oil related income (determined without regard to subsection (c)(4)) or loss which would be taken into account for purposes of section 901 without regard to this section.

(c) Foreign income definitions and special rules

For purposes of this section—

(1) Foreign oil and gas extraction income

The term “foreign oil and gas extraction income” means the taxable income derived from sources without the United States and its possessions from—

(A) the extraction (by the taxpayer or any other person) of minerals from oil or gas wells, or

(B) the sale or exchange of assets used by the taxpayer in the trade or business described in subparagraph (A).


Such term does not include any dividend or interest income which is passive income (as defined in section 904(d)(2)(A)).

(2) Foreign oil related income

The term “foreign oil related income” means the taxable income derived from sources outside the United States and its possessions from—

(A) the processing of minerals extracted (by the taxpayer or by any other person) from oil or gas wells into their primary products,

(B) the transportation of such minerals or primary products,

(C) the distribution or sale of such minerals or primary products,

(D) the disposition of assets used by the taxpayer in the trade or business described in subparagraph (A), (B), or (C), or

(E) the performance of any other related service.


Such term does not include any dividend or interest income which is passive income (as defined in section 904(d)(2)(A)).

(3) Dividends, interest, partnership distribution, etc.

The term “foreign oil and gas extraction income” and the term “foreign oil related income” include—

(A) dividends and interest from a foreign corporation in respect of which taxes are deemed paid by the taxpayer under section 902,

(B) amounts with respect to which taxes are deemed paid under section 960(a), and

(C) the taxpayer's distributive share of the income of partnerships.1


to the extent such dividends, interest, amounts, or distributive share is attributable to foreign oil and gas extraction income, or to foreign oil related income, as the case may be; except that interest described in subparagraph (A) shall not be taken into account in computing foreign oil and gas extraction income but shall be taken into account in computing foreign oil-related income.

(4) Recapture of foreign oil and gas losses by recharacterizing later combined foreign oil and gas income

(A) In general

The combined foreign oil and gas income of a taxpayer for a taxable year (determined without regard to this paragraph) shall be reduced—

(i) first by the amount determined under subparagraph (B), and

(ii) then by the amount determined under subparagraph (C).


The aggregate amount of such reductions shall be treated as income (from sources without the United States) which is not combined foreign oil and gas income.

(B) Reduction for pre-2009 foreign oil extraction losses

The reduction under this paragraph shall be equal to the lesser of—

(i) the foreign oil and gas extraction income of the taxpayer for the taxable year (determined without regard to this paragraph), or

(ii) the excess of—

(I) the aggregate amount of foreign oil extraction losses for preceding taxable years beginning after December 31, 1982, and before January 1, 2009, over

(II) so much of such aggregate amount as was recharacterized under this paragraph (as in effect before and after the date of the enactment of the Energy Improvement and Extension Act of 2008) for preceding taxable years beginning after December 31, 1982.

(C) Reduction for post-2008 foreign oil and gas losses

The reduction under this paragraph shall be equal to the lesser of—

(i) the combined foreign oil and gas income of the taxpayer for the taxable year (determined without regard to this paragraph), reduced by an amount equal to the reduction under subparagraph (A) for the taxable year, or

(ii) the excess of—

(I) the aggregate amount of foreign oil and gas losses for preceding taxable years beginning after December 31, 2008, over

(II) so much of such aggregate amount as was recharacterized under this paragraph for preceding taxable years beginning after December 31, 2008.

(D) Foreign oil and gas loss defined

(i) In general

For purposes of this paragraph, the term “foreign oil and gas loss” means the amount by which—

(I) the gross income for the taxable year from sources without the United States and its possessions (whether or not the taxpayer chooses the benefits of this subpart for such taxable year) taken into account in determining the combined foreign oil and gas income for such year, is exceeded by

(II) the sum of the deductions properly apportioned or allocated thereto.

(ii) Net operating loss deduction not taken into account

For purposes of clause (i), the net operating loss deduction allowable for the taxable year under section 172(a) shall not be taken into account.

(iii) Expropriation and casualty losses not taken into account

For purposes of clause (i), there shall not be taken into account—

(I) any foreign expropriation loss (as defined in section 172(h) (as in effect on the day before the date of the enactment of the Revenue Reconciliation Act of 1990)) for the taxable year, or

(II) any loss for the taxable year which arises from fire, storm, shipwreck, or other casualty, or from theft,


 to the extent such loss is not compensated for by insurance or otherwise.

(iv) Foreign oil extraction loss

For purposes of subparagraph (B)(ii)(I), foreign oil extraction losses shall be determined under this paragraph as in effect on the day before the date of the enactment of the Energy Improvement and Extension Act of 2008.

(5) Oil and gas extraction taxes

The term “oil and gas extraction taxes” means any income, war profits, and excess profits tax paid or accrued (or deemed to have been paid under section 902 or 960) during the taxable year with respect to foreign oil and gas extraction income (determined without regard to paragraph (4)) or loss which would be taken into account for purposes of section 901 without regard to this section.

(d) Disregard of certain posted prices, etc.

For purposes of this chapter, in determining the amount of taxable income in the case of foreign oil and gas extraction income, if the oil or gas is disposed of, or is acquired other than from the government of a foreign country, at a posted price (or other pricing arrangement) which differs from the fair market value for such oil or gas, such fair market value shall be used in lieu of such posted price (or other pricing arrangement).

[(e) Repealed. Pub. L. 101–508, title XI, §11801(a)(32), Nov. 5, 1990, 104 Stat. 1388–521]

(f) Carryback and carryover of disallowed credits

(1) In general

If the amount of the foreign oil and gas taxes paid or accrued during any taxable year exceeds the limitation provided by subsection (a) for such taxable year (hereinafter in this subsection referred to as the “unused credit year”), such excess shall be deemed to be foreign oil and gas taxes paid or accrued in the first preceding taxable year and in any of the first 10 succeeding taxable year,2 in that order and to the extent not deemed tax paid or accrued in a prior taxable year by reason of the limitation imposed by paragraph (2). Such amount deemed paid or accrued in any taxable year may be availed of only as a tax credit and not as a deduction and only if the taxpayer for such year chooses to have the benefits of this subpart as to taxes paid or accrued for that year to foreign countries or possessions.

(2) Limitation

The amount of the unused foreign oil and gas taxes which under paragraph (1) may be deemed paid or accrued in any preceding or succeeding taxable year shall not exceed the lesser of—

(A) the amount by which the limitation provided by subsection (a) for such taxable year exceeds the sum of—

(i) the foreign oil and gas taxes paid or accrued during such taxable year, plus

(ii) the amounts of the foreign oil and gas taxes which by reason of this subsection are deemed paid or accrued in such taxable year and are attributable to taxable years preceding the unused credit year; or


(B) the amount by which the limitation provided by section 904 for such taxable year exceeds the sum of—

(i) the taxes paid or accrued (or deemed to have been paid under section 902 or 960) to all foreign countries and possessions of the United States during such taxable year,

(ii) the amount of such taxes which were deemed paid or accrued in such taxable year under section 904(c) and which are attributable to taxable years preceding the unused credit year, plus

(iii) the amount of the foreign oil and gas taxes which by reason of this subsection are deemed paid or accrued in such taxable year and are attributable to taxable years preceding the unused credit year.

(3) Special rules

(A) In the case of any taxable year which is an unused credit year under this subsection and which is an unused credit year under section 904(c), the provisions of this subsection shall be applied before section 904(c).

(B) For purposes of determining the amount of taxes paid or accrued in any taxable year which may be deemed paid or accrued in a preceding or succeeding taxable year under section 904(c), any tax deemed paid or accrued in such preceding or succeeding taxable year under this subsection shall be considered to be tax paid or accrued in such preceding or succeeding taxable year.

(4) Transition rules for pre-2009 and 2009 disallowed credits

(A) Pre-2009 credits

In the case of any unused credit year beginning before January 1, 2009, this subsection shall be applied to any unused oil and gas extraction taxes carried from such unused credit year to a year beginning after December 31, 2008—

(i) by substituting “oil and gas extraction taxes” for “foreign oil and gas taxes” each place it appears in paragraphs (1), (2), and (3), and

(ii) by computing, for purposes of paragraph (2)(A), the limitation under subparagraph (A) for the year to which such taxes are carried by substituting “foreign oil and gas extraction income” for “foreign oil and gas income” in subsection (a).

(B) 2009 credits

In the case of any unused credit year beginning in 2009, the amendments made to this subsection by the Energy Improvement and Extension Act of 2008 shall be treated as being in effect for any preceding year beginning before January 1, 2009, solely for purposes of determining how much of the unused foreign oil and gas taxes for such unused credit year may be deemed paid or accrued in such preceding year.

(Added Pub. L. 94–12, title VI, §601(a), Mar. 29, 1975, 89 Stat. 54; amended Pub. L. 94–455, title X, §§1031(b)(6), 1032(b), 1035(a), (b), (d)(1), (2), 1052(c)(4), Oct. 4, 1976, 90 Stat. 1623, 1626, 1630–1632, 1648; Pub. L. 95–600, title III, §301(b)(14), title VII, §701(u)(8)(A), (B), Nov. 6, 1978, 92 Stat. 2822, 2916; Pub. L. 97–248, title II, §211(a)–(c)(1), (d), Sept. 3, 1982, 96 Stat. 448–450; Pub. L. 100–647, title I, §1012(g)(6), Nov. 10, 1988, 102 Stat. 3501; Pub. L. 101–508, title XI, §11801(a)(32), Nov. 5, 1990, 104 Stat. 1388–521; Pub. L. 103–66, title XIII, §13235(a)(1), Aug. 10, 1993, 107 Stat. 504; Pub. L. 104–188, title I, §1704(t)(36), Aug. 20, 1996, 110 Stat. 1889; Pub. L. 108–357, title IV, §417(b), Oct. 22, 2004, 118 Stat. 1512; Pub. L. 110–343, div. B, title IV, §402(a)–(c), Oct. 3, 2008, 122 Stat. 3852, 3854.)

References in Text

The date of the enactment of the Energy Improvement and Extension Act of 2008, referred to in subsec. (c)(4)(B)(ii)(II), (D)(iv), is the date of enactment of div. B of Pub. L. 110–343, which was approved Oct. 3, 2008.

Section 172(h), referred to in subsec. (c)(4)(D)(iii)(I), was repealed by Pub. L. 101–508, title XI, §11811(b)(1), Nov. 5, 1990, 104 Stat. 1388–532.

The date of the enactment of the Revenue Reconciliation Act of 1990, referred to in subsec. (c)(4)(D)(iii)(I), is the date of enactment of Pub. L. 101–508, title XI, which was approved Nov. 5, 1990.

The Energy Improvement and Extension Act of 2008, referred to in subsec. (f)(4)(B), is div. B of Pub. L. 110–343, Oct. 3, 2008, 122 Stat. 3807. For the amendments made to subsec. (f) of this section by the Act, see 2008 Amendment notes below.

Amendments

2008—Subsecs. (a), (b). Pub. L. 110–343, §402(a), amended subsecs. (a) and (b) generally. Prior to amendment, subsec. (a) related to reduction in amount of oil and gas extraction taxes paid or accrued for purposes of section 901 and subsec. (b) excepted certain amounts of foreign oil related income taxes paid or accrued to any foreign country from the definition of “income, war profits, and excess profits taxes”.

Subsec. (c)(4). Pub. L. 110–343, §402(b), amended par. (4) generally. Prior to amendment, par. (4) provided for recapture of foreign oil and gas extraction losses by recharacterizing later extraction income.

Subsec. (f). Pub. L. 110–343, §402(c)(1), substituted “foreign oil and gas taxes” for “oil and gas extraction taxes” wherever appearing.

Subsec. (f)(4). Pub. L. 110–343, §402(c)(2), added par. (4).

2004—Subsec. (f)(1). Pub. L. 108–357, §417(b)(3), struck out at end “For purposes of this subsection, the terms ‘second preceding taxable year’, and ‘first preceding taxable year’ do not include any taxable year ending before January 1, 1975.”

Pub. L. 108–357, §417(b)(2), substituted “and in any of the first 10” for “, and in the first, second, third, fourth, or fifth”.

Pub. L. 108–357, §417(b)(1), struck out “in the second preceding taxable year,” before “in the first preceding taxable year”.

1996—Subsec. (c)(4)(B)(iii)(I). Pub. L. 104–188 inserted “(as in effect on the day before the date of the enactment of the Revenue Reconciliation Act of 1990)” after “section 172(h)”.

1993—Subsec. (c)(1), (2). Pub. L. 103–66 inserted concluding provisions.

1990—Subsec. (e). Pub. L. 101–508, §11801(a)(32), struck out subsec. (e) which read as follows:

“(1) Credits arising in taxable years beginning before january 1, 1983.—The amount of taxes paid or accrued in any taxable year beginning before January 1, 1983 (hereinafter in this paragraph referred to as the ‘excess credit year’) which under section 904(c) or 907(f) may be deemed paid or accrued in a taxable year beginning after December 31, 1982, shall not exceed the amount which could have been deemed paid or accrued if sections 907(b), 907(f), and 904(f)(4) (as in effect on the day before the date of the enactment of the Tax Equity and Fiscal Responsibility Act of 1982) remained in effect for taxable years beginning after December 31, 1982.

“(2) Carryback of credits arising in taxable years beginning after december 31, 1982.—The amount of the taxes paid or accrued in a taxable year beginning after December 31, 1982, which may be deemed paid or accrued under section 904(c) or 907(f) in a taxable year beginning before January 1, 1983, shall not exceed the amount which could have been deemed paid or accrued if sections 907(b), 907(f), and 904(f)(4) (as in effect on the day before the date of the enactment of the Tax Equity and Fiscal Responsibility Act of 1982) remained in effect for taxable years beginning after December 31, 1982.”

Subsec. (f)(3)(C). Pub. L. 101–508, §11801(a)(32), struck out subpar. (C) which read as follows: “For purposes of determining the amount of the unused oil and gas extraction taxes which under paragraph (1) may be deemed paid or accrued in any taxable year ending before January 1, 1977, subparagraph (A) of paragraph (2) shall be applied as if the amendment made by section 1035(a) of the Tax Reform Act of 1976 applied to such taxable year.”

1988—Subsec. (c)(3). Pub. L. 100–647, §1012(g)(6)(B), struck out “and dividends described in subparagraph (B)” after “described in subparagraph (A)” in closing provisions.

Subsec. (c)(3)(B) to (D). Pub. L. 100–647, §1012(g)(6)(A), redesignated subpars. (C) and (D) as (B) and (C), respectively, and struck out former subpar. (B) which read as follows: “dividends from a domestic corporation which are treated under section 861(a)(2)(A) as income from sources without the United States,”.

1982—Subsec. (b). Pub. L. 97–248, §211(c)(1), added subsec. (b). Former subsec. (b), which had provided that section 904 be applied separately with respect to foreign oil related income and other taxable income, was struck out.

Subsec. (c)(2). Pub. L. 97–248, §211(b), in subpar. (A) substituted “the processing of minerals extracted (by the taxpayer or by any other person) from oil or gas wells into their primary products” for “the extraction (by the taxpayer or any other person) of minerals from oil or gas wells”, deleted subpar. (B) which had provided that foreign oil related income meant the taxable income derived from sources outside the United States and its possessions from the processing of minerals from oil or gas wells into their primary products, redesignated subpar. (C) as (B), redesignated subpar. (D) as (C) and in subpar. (C) as so redesignated struck out “or” at the end, redesignated subpar. (E) as (D) and in subpar. (D) as so redesignated substituted “disposition” for “sale or exchange”, and “or (C), or” for “(C), or (D)”, struck out the period at the end, and added subpar. (E).

Subsec. (c)(4). Pub. L. 97–248, §211(a), substituted provisions regarding the recapture of foreign oil and gas extraction losses by recharacterization of later extraction income for provisions that if, for any foreign country for any taxable year, the taxpayer would have had a net operating loss if only items from sources within such country (including deductions properly apportioned or allocated thereto) which related to the extraction of minerals from oil or gas wells had been taken into account, such items would not be taken into account in computing foreign oil and gas extraction income for such year, but would be taken into account in computing foreign oil related income for such year.

Subsec. (e). Pub. L. 97–248, §211(d)(1), substituted rules regarding credits arising in taxable years beginning before Jan. 1, 1983, for rules regarding taxable years ending after Dec. 31, 1974, in par. (1), and in par. (2) substituted rules regarding carryback of credits arising in taxable years beginning after Dec. 31, 1982, for rules regarding taxable years ending after Dec. 31, 1975.

Subsec. (f)(1). Pub. L. 97–248, §211(d)(2)(A), substituted “such excess” for “so much of such excess as does not exceed 2 percent of foreign oil and gas extraction income for such taxable year” in first sentence, and struck out former provision that had directed that the above substitution be made regarding taxes deemed paid or accrued in any taxable year which ended in 1975, 1976, or 1977.

Subsec. (f)(2)(B). Pub. L. 97–248, §211(d)(2)(B)(i), substituted “provided by section 904 for such taxable year” for “provided by section 904 on taxes paid or accrued with respect to foreign oil-related income for such taxable year” in the introductory provisions, and in cl. (i) substituted “the United States during such taxable year” for “the United States with respect to such income during such taxable year”.

Subsec. (f)(3)(A). Pub. L. 97–248, §211(d)(2)(B)(ii), substituted “section 904(c)” for “section 904(c) with respect to oil-related income”.

Subsec. (f)(3)(B). Pub. L. 97–248, §211(d)(2)(B)(iii), struck out “oil-related” after “determining the amount of”.

1978—Subsec. (a)(2). Pub. L. 95–600, §§301(b)(14), 701(u)(8)(A), designated existing provisions as subpar. (A), inserted applicability to corporations and generally reworked applicable formula, and added subpar. (B).

Subsec. (b). Pub. L. 95–600, §701(u)(8)(B), substituted provisions relating to applicability of section 904 separately to foreign oil related income and other taxable income for provisions relating to applicability of section 904 to corporations and other taxpayers.

1976—Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 94–455, §1035(a), substituted “oil and gas extraction taxes” for “income, war profits, and excess profits taxes” after “the amount of any” and, in par. (2), substituted “the percentage which is the sum of the normal tax rate and the surtax rate for the taxable year specified in section 11” for provisions giving the percentage multiplier for years ending 1975, 1976, and after 1976.

Subsec. (b). Pub. L. 94–455, §§1032(b)(1), 1035(b), inserted provisions making a distinction between corporations and other taxpayers and rules applicable to each and, as amended, struck out provision requiring the overall limitation, rather than the per-country limitation, be applied in the case of a corporation to foreign oil-related income and, a taxpayer other than a corporation, to foreign oil and gas extraction income.

Subsec. (c)(5). Pub. L. 94–455, §1035(d)(2), added par. (5).

Subsec. (e)(1). Pub. L. 94–455, §1031(b)(6)(A), substituted “(d) and (e) of section 904 (as in effect on the day before the date of enactment of the Tax Reform Act of 1976)” for “(d) and (e) of section 904” after “In applying subsections”.

Subsec. (e)(2). Pub. L. 94–455, §1031(b)(6), substituted “(d) and (e) of section 904 (as in effect on the day before the date of enactment of the Tax Reform Act of 1976)” for “(d) and (e) of section 904” after “In applying subsections”, “section 904(a)(1) (as so in effect)” for “section 904(a)(1)” after “provided by section” and, in subpar. (A), “section 904(e)(2) (as so in effect)” for “section 904(e)(2)” after “sentence of section”.

Subsec. (f). Pub. L. 94–455, §§1032(b)(2), 1035(d)(1), added subsec. (f). Former subsec. (f), relating to recapture of foreign oil related loss, was struck out.

Subsec. (g). Pub. L. 94–455, §§1032(b)(2), 1035(d)(1), 1052(c)(4), struck out subsec. (g) relating to Western Hemisphere trade corporations which are members of an affiliated group.

Effective Date of 2008 Amendment

Pub. L. 110–343, div. B, title IV, §402(e), Oct. 3, 2008, 122 Stat. 3854, provided that: “The amendments made by this section [amending this section and section 6501 of this title] shall apply to taxable years beginning after December 31, 2008.”

Effective Date of 2004 Amendment

Amendment by section 417(b)(1) of Pub. L. 108–357 applicable to excess foreign taxes arising in taxable years beginning after Oct. 22, 2004, and amendment by section 417(b)(2) of Pub. L. 108–357 applicable to excess foreign taxes which may be carried to any taxable year ending after Oct. 22, 2004, see section 417(c) of Pub. L. 108–357, set out as a note under section 904 of this title.

Effective Date of 1993 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 103–66 applicable to taxable years beginning after Dec. 31, 1992, see section 13235(c) of Pub. L. 103–66, set out as a note under section 904 of this title.

Effective Date of 1988 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 100–647 effective, except as otherwise provided, as if included in the provision of the Tax Reform Act of 1986, Pub. L. 99–514, to which such amendment relates, see section 1019(a) of Pub. L. 100–647, set out as a note under section 1 of this title.

Effective Date of 1982 Amendment

Section 211(e) of Pub. L. 97–248, as amended by Pub. L. 97–448, title III, §306(a)(5), 96 Stat. 2401; Pub. L. 98–369, div. A, title VII, §712(e), July 18, 1984, 98 Stat. 947, provided that:

“(1) In general.—Except as provided in paragraph (2), the amendments made by this section [amending this section and section 904 of this title] shall apply to taxable years beginning after December 31, 1982.

“(2) Retention of old sections 907(b) and 904(f)(4) where taxpayer had separate basket foreign loss.—

“(A) In general.—If, after applying old sections 907(b) and 904(f)(4) to a taxable year beginning before January 1, 1983, the taxpayer had a separate basket foreign loss, such loss shall not be recaptured from income of a kind not taken into account in computing the amount of such separate basket foreign loss more rapidly than ratably over the 8-year period (or such shorter period as the taxpayer may select) beginning with the first taxable year beginning after December 31, 1982.

“(B) Definitions.—For purposes of this paragraph—

“(i) The term ‘separate basket foreign loss’ means any foreign loss attributable to activities taken into account (or not taken into account) in determining foreign oil related income (as defined in old section 907(c)(2)).

“(ii) An ‘old’ section is such section as in effect on the day before the date of the enactment of this Act [Sept. 3, 1982].”

Effective Date of 1978 Amendment

Amendment by section 301(b)(14) of Pub. L. 95–600 applicable to taxable years beginning after Dec. 31, 1978, see section 301(c) of Pub. L. 95–600, set out as a note under section 11 of this title.

Section 701(u)(8)(D) of Pub. L. 95–600, as amended by Pub. L. 99–514, §2, Oct. 22, 1986, 100 Stat. 2095, provided that:

“(i) The amendments made by this paragraph [amending this section and section 904 of this title] shall apply, in the case of individuals, to taxable years ending after December 31, 1974, and, in the case of corporations, to taxable years ending after December 31, 1976.

“(ii) In the case of any taxable year ending after December 31, 1975, with respect to foreign oil related income (within the meaning of section 907(c) of the Internal Revenue Code of 1986 [formerly I.R.C. 1954]), the overall limitation provided by section 904(a)(2) of such Code shall apply and the per-country limitation provided by section 904(a)(1) of such Code shall not apply.”

Effective Date of 1976 Amendment

Amendment by section 1031(b)(6)(A) of Pub. L. 94–455 applicable to taxable years beginning after Dec. 31, 1975, with exceptions for certain mining operations, income from possessions, and carryback and carryover in the case of mining operations and income from a possession, see section 1031(c) of Pub. L. 94–455, set out as a note under section 904 of this title.

Amendment by section 1032(b)(1) of Pub. L. 94–455 applicable to taxable years beginning after Dec. 31, 1975, and amendment by section 1032(b)(2) of Pub. L. 94–455 applicable to losses sustained in taxable years beginning after Dec. 31, 1975, see section 1032(c) of Pub. L. 94–455, set out as a note under section 904 of this title.

Section 1035(e) of Pub. L. 94–455, as amended by Pub. L. 99–514, §2, Oct. 22, 1986, 100 Stat. 2095, provided that:

“(1) The amendment made by subsection (a) [amending this section] shall apply to taxable years ending after December 31, 1976.

“(2) The amendment made by subsection (b) [amending this section] shall apply to taxable years ending after December 31, 1974; except that the last sentence of section 907(b) of the Internal Revenue Code of 1986 [formerly I.R.C. 1954] shall only apply to taxable years ending after December 31, 1975.

“(3) The amendment made by subsection (c) [enacting provisions set out below] shall apply to taxable years beginning after June 29, 1976.

“(4) The amendments made by subsection (d) [amending this section] shall apply to taxes paid or accrued during taxable years ending after the date of the enactment of this Act [Oct. 4, 1976].”

Amendment by section 1052(c)(4) of Pub. L. 94–455 effective with respect to taxable years beginning after December 31, 1979, see section 1052(d) of Pub. L. 94–455, set out as a note under section 170 of this title.

Effective Date

Section 601(d) of Pub. L. 94–12 provided that: “The amendments made by this section [enacting this section and amending section 901 of this title] shall apply to taxable years ending after December 31, 1974; except that—

“(1) the second sentence of section 907(b) shall apply to taxable years ending after December 31, 1975, and

“(2) the provisions of section 907(f) shall apply to losses sustained in taxable years ending after December 31, 1975.”

Savings Provision

For provisions that nothing in amendment by Pub. L. 101–508 be construed to affect treatment of certain transactions occurring, property acquired, or items of income, loss, deduction, or credit taken into account prior to Nov. 5, 1990, for purposes of determining liability for tax for periods ending after Nov. 5, 1990, see section 11821(b) of Pub. L. 101–508, set out as a note under section 45K of this title.

Tax Credit for Production-Sharing Contracts

Section 1035(c) of Pub. L. 94–455, as amended by Pub. L. 95–600, title VII, §§701(u)(9), 703(h)(1), Nov. 6, 1978, 92 Stat. 2916, 2940; Pub. L. 99–514, §2, Oct. 22, 1986, 100 Stat. 2095, provided that:

“(1) For purposes of section 901 of the Internal Revenue Code of 1986 [formerly I.R.C. 1954], there shall be treated as income, war profits, and excess profits taxes to be taken into account under section 907(a) of such Code amounts designated as income taxes of a foreign government by such government (which otherwise would not be treated as taxes for purposes of section 901 of such Code) with respect to production-sharing contracts for the extraction of foreign oil or gas.

“(2) The amounts specified in paragraph (1) shall not exceed the lessor of—

“(A) the product of the foreign oil and gas extraction income (as defined in section 907(c) of such Code) with respect to all such production-sharing contracts multiplied by the sum of the normal tax rate and the surtax rate for the taxable year specified in section 11 of such Code, or

“(B) the excess of the total amount of foreign oil and gas extraction income (as so defined) for the taxable year multiplied by the sum of the normal tax rate and the surtax rate for the taxable year specified in section 11 of such Code over the amount of any income, war profits, and excess profits taxes paid or accrued (or deemed to have been paid) without regard to paragraph (1) during the taxable year with respect to foreign oil and gas extraction income.

“(3) The production-sharing contracts taken into account for purposes of paragraph (1) shall be those contracts which were entered into before April 8, 1976, for the sharing of foreign oil and gas production with a foreign government (or an entity owned by such government) with respect to which amounts claimed as taxes paid or accrued to such foreign government for taxable years beginning before June 30, 1976, will not be disallowed as taxes. A contract described in the preceding sentence shall be taken into account under paragraph (1) only with respect to amounts (A) paid or accrued to the foreign government before January 1, 1978, and (B) attributable to income earned before such date.”

1 So in original. The period probably should be a comma.

2 So in original. Probably should be “years,”.

§908. Reduction of credit for participation in or cooperation with an international boycott

(a) In general

If a person, or a member of a controlled group (within the meaning of section 993(a)(3)) which includes such person, participates in or cooperates with an international boycott during the taxable year (within the meaning of section 999(b)), the amount of the credit allowable under section 901 to such person, or under section 902 or 960 to United States shareholders of such person, for foreign taxes paid during the taxable year shall be reduced by an amount equal to the product of—

(1) the amount of the credit which, but for this section, would be allowed under section 901 for the taxable year, multiplied by

(2) the international boycott factor (determined under section 999).

(b) Application with sections 275(a)(4) and 78

Section 275(a)(4) and section 78 shall not apply to any amount of taxes denied credit under subsection (a).

(Added Pub. L. 94–455, title X, §1061(a), Oct. 4, 1976, 90 Stat. 1649.)

Effective Date

Section 1066(a) of Pub. L. 94–455 provided that:

“(1) General rule.—The amendments made by this part (other than by section 1065) [enacting this section and section 999 of this title and amending sections 952 and 995 of this title] apply to participation in or cooperation with an international boycott more than 30 days after the date of enactment of this Act [Oct. 4, 1976].

“(2) Existing contracts.—In the case of operations which constitute participation in or cooperation with an international boycott and which are carried out in accordance with the terms of a binding contract entered into before September 2, 1976, the amendments made by this part (other than by section 1065) apply to such participation or cooperation after December 31, 1977.”

§909. Suspension of taxes and credits until related income taken into account

(a) In general

If there is a foreign tax credit splitting event with respect to a foreign income tax paid or accrued by the taxpayer, such tax shall not be taken into account for purposes of this title before the taxable year in which the related income is taken into account under this chapter by the taxpayer.

(b) Special rules with respect to section 902 corporations

If there is a foreign tax credit splitting event with respect to a foreign income tax paid or accrued by a section 902 corporation, such tax shall not be taken into account—

(1) for purposes of section 902 or 960, or

(2) for purposes of determining earnings and profits under section 964(a),

before the taxable year in which the related income is taken into account under this chapter by such section 902 corporation or a domestic corporation which meets the ownership requirements of subsection (a) or (b) of section 902 with respect to such section 902 corporation.

(c) Special rules

For purposes of this section—

(1) Application to partnerships, etc.

In the case of a partnership, subsections (a) and (b) shall be applied at the partner level. Except as otherwise provided by the Secretary, a rule similar to the rule of the preceding sentence shall apply in the case of any S corporation or trust.

(2) Treatment of foreign taxes after suspension

In the case of any foreign income tax not taken into account by reason of subsection (a) or (b), except as otherwise provided by the Secretary, such tax shall be so taken into account in the taxable year referred to in such subsection (other than for purposes of section 986(a)) as a foreign income tax paid or accrued in such taxable year.

(d) Definitions

For purposes of this section—

(1) Foreign tax credit splitting event

There is a foreign tax credit splitting event with respect to a foreign income tax if the related income is (or will be) taken into account under this chapter by a covered person.

(2) Foreign income tax

The term “foreign income tax” means any income, war profits, or excess profits tax paid or accrued to any foreign country or to any possession of the United States.

(3) Related income

The term “related income” means, with respect to any portion of any foreign income tax, the income (or, as appropriate, earnings and profits) to which such portion of foreign income tax relates.

(4) Covered person

The term “covered person” means, with respect to any person who pays or accrues a foreign income tax (hereafter in this paragraph referred to as the “payor”)—

(A) any entity in which the payor holds, directly or indirectly, at least a 10 percent ownership interest (determined by vote or value),

(B) any person which holds, directly or indirectly, at least a 10 percent ownership interest (determined by vote or value) in the payor,

(C) any person which bears a relationship to the payor described in section 267(b) or 707(b), and

(D) any other person specified by the Secretary for purposes of this paragraph.

(5) Section 902 corporation

The term “section 902 corporation” means any foreign corporation with respect to which one or more domestic corporations meets the ownership requirements of subsection (a) or (b) of section 902.

(e) Regulations

The Secretary may issue such regulations or other guidance as is necessary or appropriate to carry out the purposes of this section, including regulations or other guidance which provides—

(1) appropriate exceptions from the provisions of this section, and

(2) for the proper application of this section with respect to hybrid instruments.

(Added Pub. L. 111–226, title II, §211(a), Aug. 10, 2010, 124 Stat. 2394.)

Effective Date

Pub. L. 111–226, title II, §211(c), Aug. 10, 2010, 124 Stat. 2395, provided that: “The amendments made by this section [enacting this section] shall apply to—

“(1) foreign income taxes (as defined in section 909(d) of the Internal Revenue Code of 1986, as added by this section) paid or accrued in taxable years beginning after December 31, 2010; and

“(2) foreign income taxes (as so defined) paid or accrued by a section 902 corporation (as so defined) in taxable years beginning on or before such date (and not deemed paid under section 902(a) or 960 of such Code on or before such date), but only for purposes of applying sections 902 and 960 with respect to periods after such date.

Section 909(b)(2) of the Internal Revenue Code of 1986, as added by this section, shall not apply to foreign income taxes described in paragraph (2).”

Subpart B—Earned Income of Citizens or Residents of United States

Sec.
911.
Citizens or residents of the United States living abroad.
912.
Exemption for certain allowances.
[913.
Repealed.]

        

Amendments

1981—Pub. L. 97–34, title I, §§111(b)(1), 112(b)(1), Aug. 13, 1981, 95 Stat. 194, 195, substituted “Citizens or residents of the United States living abroad” for “Income earned by individuals in certain camps or from charitable services” in item 911 and struck out item 913 “Deduction for certain expenses of living abroad”.

1980—Pub. L. 96–595, §4(c)(2), Dec. 24, 1980, 94 Stat. 3467, inserted “or from charitable services” after “camps” in item 911.

1978—Pub. L. 95–615, §§202(g)(2), (3), 203(c), formerly §§202(f)(2), (3), 203(c), Nov. 8, 1978, 92 Stat. 3100, 3106, renumbered Pub. L. 96–222, title I, §108(a)(1)(A), Apr. 1, 1980, 94 Stat. 223, inserted in subpart heading “or Residents” after “Citizens”, substituted in item 911 “Income earned by individuals in certain camps” for “Earned income from sources without the United States”, and added item 913.

§911. Citizens or residents of the United States living abroad

(a) Exclusion from gross income

At the election of a qualified individual (made separately with respect to paragraphs (1) and (2)), there shall be excluded from the gross income of such individual, and exempt from taxation under this subtitle, for any taxable year—

(1) the foreign earned income of such individual, and

(2) the housing cost amount of such individual.

(b) Foreign earned income

(1) Definition

For purposes of this section—

(A) In general

The term “foreign earned income” with respect to any individual means the amount received by such individual from sources within a foreign country or countries which constitute earned income attributable to services performed by such individual during the period described in subparagraph (A) or (B) of subsection (d)(1), whichever is applicable.

(B) Certain amounts not included in foreign earned income

The foreign earned income for an individual shall not include amounts—

(i) received as a pension or annuity,

(ii) paid by the United States or an agency thereof to an employee of the United States or an agency thereof,

(iii) included in gross income by reason of section 402(b) (relating to taxability of beneficiary of nonexempt trust) or section 403(c) (relating to taxability of beneficiary under a nonqualified annuity), or

(iv) received after the close of the taxable year following the taxable year in which the services to which the amounts are attributable are performed.

(2) Limitation on foreign earned income

(A) In general

The foreign earned income of an individual which may be excluded under subsection (a)(1) for any taxable year shall not exceed the amount of foreign earned income computed on a daily basis at an annual rate equal to the exclusion amount for the calendar year in which such taxable year begins.

(B) Attribution to year in which services are performed

For purposes of applying subparagraph (A), amounts received shall be considered received in the taxable year in which the services to which the amounts are attributable are performed.

(C) Treatment of community income

In applying subparagraph (A) with respect to amounts received from services performed by a husband or wife which are community income under community property laws applicable to such income, the aggregate amount which may be excludable from the gross income of such husband and wife under subsection (a)(1) for any taxable year shall equal the amount which would be so excludable if such amounts did not constitute community income.

(D) Exclusion amount

(i) In general

The exclusion amount for any calendar year is the exclusion amount determined in accordance with the following table (as adjusted by clause (ii)):

 
For calendar year—The exclusion amount is—
  1998 $72,000  
  1999 74,000  
  2000 76,000  
  2001 78,000  
  2002 and thereafter 80,000.

(ii) Inflation adjustment

In the case of any taxable year beginning in a calendar year after 2005, the $80,000 amount in clause (i) shall be increased by an amount equal to the product of—

(I) such dollar amount, and

(II) the cost-of-living adjustment determined under section 1(f)(3) for the calendar year in which the taxable year begins, determined by substituting “2004” for “1992” in subparagraph (B) thereof.


 If any increase determined under the preceding sentence is not a multiple of $100, such increase shall be rounded to the next lowest multiple of $100.

(c) Housing cost amount

For purposes of this section—

(1) In general

The term “housing cost amount” means an amount equal to the excess of—

(A) the housing expenses of an individual for the taxable year to the extent such expenses do not exceed the amount determined under paragraph (2), over

(B) an amount equal to the product of—

(i) 16 percent of the amount (computed on a daily basis) in effect under subsection (b)(2)(D) for the calendar year in which such taxable year begins, multiplied by

(ii) the number of days of such taxable year within the applicable period described in subparagraph (A) or (B) of subsection (d)(1).

(2) Limitation

(A) In general

The amount determined under this paragraph is an amount equal to the product of—

(i) 30 percent (adjusted as may be provided under subparagraph (B)) of the amount (computed on a daily basis) in effect under subsection (b)(2)(D) for the calendar year in which the taxable year of the individual begins, multiplied by

(ii) the number of days of such taxable year within the applicable period described in subparagraph (A) or (B) of subsection (d)(1).

(B) Regulations

The Secretary may issue regulations or other guidance providing for the adjustment of the percentage under subparagraph (A)(i) on the basis of geographic differences in housing costs relative to housing costs in the United States.

(3) Housing expenses

(A) In general

The term “housing expenses” means the reasonable expenses paid or incurred during the taxable year by or on behalf of an individual for housing for the individual (and, if they reside with him, for his spouse and dependents) in a foreign country. The term—

(i) includes expenses attributable to the housing (such as utilities and insurance), but

(ii) does not include interest and taxes of the kind deductible under section 163 or 164 or any amount allowable as a deduction under section 216(a).


Housing expenses shall not be treated as reasonable to the extent such expenses are lavish or extravagant under the circumstances.

(B) Second foreign household

(i) In general

Except as provided in clause (ii), only housing expenses incurred with respect to that abode which bears the closest relationship to the tax home of the individual shall be taken into account under paragraph (1).

(ii) Separate household for spouse and dependents

If an individual maintains a separate abode outside the United States for his spouse and dependents and they do not reside with him because of living conditions which are dangerous, unhealthful, or otherwise adverse, then—

(I) the words “if they reside with him” in subparagraph (A) shall be disregarded, and

(II) the housing expenses incurred with respect to such abode shall be taken into account under paragraph (1).

(4) Special rules where housing expenses not provided by employer

(A) In general

To the extent the housing cost amount of any individual for any taxable year is not attributable to employer provided amounts, such amount shall be treated as a deduction allowable in computing adjusted gross income to the extent of the limitation of subparagraph (B).

(B) Limitation

For purposes of subparagraph (A), the limitation of this subparagraph is the excess of—

(i) the foreign earned income of the individual for the taxable year, over

(ii) the amount of such income excluded from gross income under subsection (a) for the taxable year.

(C) 1-year carryover of housing amounts not allowed by reason of subparagraph (B)

(i) In general

The amount not allowable as a deduction for any taxable year under subparagraph (A) by reason of the limitation of subparagraph (B) shall be treated as a deduction allowable in computing adjusted gross income for the succeeding taxable year (and only for the succeeding taxable year) to the extent of the limitation of clause (ii) for such succeeding taxable year.

(ii) Limitation

For purposes of clause (i), the limitation of this clause for any taxable year is the excess of—

(I) the limitation of subparagraph (B) for such taxable year, over

(II) amounts treated as a deduction under subparagraph (A) for such taxable year.

(D) Employer provided amounts

For purposes of this paragraph, the term “employer provided amounts” means any amount paid or incurred on behalf of the individual by the individual's employer which is foreign earned income included in the individual's gross income for the taxable year (without regard to this section).

(E) Foreign earned income

For purposes of this paragraph, an individual's foreign earned income for any taxable year shall be determined without regard to the limitation of subparagraph (A) of subsection (b)(2).

(d) Definitions and special rules

For purposes of this section—

(1) Qualified individual

The term “qualified individual” means an individual whose tax home is in a foreign country and who is—

(A) a citizen of the United States and establishes to the satisfaction of the Secretary that he has been a bona fide resident of a foreign country or countries for an uninterrupted period which includes an entire taxable year, or

(B) a citizen or resident of the United States and who, during any period of 12 consecutive months, is present in a foreign country or countries during at least 330 full days in such period.

(2) Earned income

(A) In general

The term “earned income” means wages, salaries, or professional fees, and other amounts received as compensation for personal services actually rendered, but does not include that part of the compensation derived by the taxpayer for personal services rendered by him to a corporation which represents a distribution of earnings or profits rather than a reasonable allowance as compensation for the personal services actually rendered.

(B) Taxpayer engaged in trade or business

In the case of a taxpayer engaged in a trade or business in which both personal services and capital are material income-producing factors, under regulations prescribed by the Secretary, a reasonable allowance as compensation for the personal services rendered by the taxpayer, not in excess of 30 percent of his share of the net profits of such trade or business, shall be considered as earned income.

(3) Tax home

The term “tax home” means, with respect to any individual, such individual's home for purposes of section 162(a)(2) (relating to traveling expenses while away from home). An individual shall not be treated as having a tax home in a foreign country for any period for which his abode is within the United States.

(4) Waiver of period of stay in foreign country

Notwithstanding paragraph (1), an individual who—

(A) is a bona fide resident of, or is present in, a foreign country for any period,

(B) leaves such foreign country after August 31, 1978—

(i) during any period during which the Secretary determines, after consultation with the Secretary of State or his delegate, that individuals were required to leave such foreign country because of war, civil unrest, or similar adverse conditions in such foreign country which precluded the normal conduct of business by such individuals, and

(ii) before meeting the requirements of such paragraph (1), and


(C) establishes to the satisfaction of the Secretary that such individual could reasonably have been expected to have met such requirements but for the conditions referred to in clause (i) of subparagraph (B),


shall be treated as a qualified individual with respect to the period described in subparagraph (A) during which he was a bona fide resident of, or was present in, the foreign country, and in applying subsections (b)(2)(A), (c)(1)(B)(ii), and (c)(2)(A)(ii) with respect to such individual, only the days within such period shall be taken into account.

(5) Test of bona fide residence

If—

(A) an individual who has earned income from sources within a foreign country submits a statement to the authorities of that country that he is not a resident of that country, and

(B) such individual is held not subject as a resident of that country to the income tax of that country by its authorities with respect to such earnings,


then such individual shall not be considered a bona fide resident of that country for purposes of paragraph (1)(A).

(6) Denial of double benefits

No deduction or exclusion from gross income under this subtitle or credit against the tax imposed by this chapter (including any credit or deduction for the amount of taxes paid or accrued to a foreign country or possession of the United States) shall be allowed to the extent such deduction, exclusion, or credit is properly allocable to or chargeable against amounts excluded from gross income under subsection (a).

(7) Aggregate benefit cannot exceed foreign earned income

The sum of the amount excluded under subsection (a) and the amount deducted under subsection (c)(4)(A) for the taxable year shall not exceed the individual's foreign earned income for such year.

(8) Limitation on income earned in restricted country

(A) In general

If travel (or any transaction in connection with such travel) with respect to any foreign country is subject to the regulations described in subparagraph (B) during any period—

(i) the term “foreign earned income” shall not include any income from sources within such country attributable to services performed during such period,

(ii) the term “housing expenses” shall not include any expenses allocable to such period for housing in such country or for housing of the spouse or dependents of the taxpayer in another country while the taxpayer is present in such country, and

(iii) an individual shall not be treated as a bona fide resident of, or as present in, a foreign country for any day during which such individual was present in such country during such period.

(B) Regulations

For purposes of this paragraph, regulations are described in this subparagraph if such regulations—

(i) have been adopted pursuant to the Trading With the Enemy Act (50 U.S.C. App. 1 et seq.), or the International Emergency Economic Powers Act (50 U.S.C. 1701 et seq.), and

(ii) include provisions generally prohibiting citizens and residents of the United States from engaging in transactions related to travel to, from, or within a foreign country.

(C) Exception

Subparagraph (A) shall not apply to any individual during any period in which such individual's activities are not in violation of the regulations described in subparagraph (B).

(9) Regulations

The Secretary shall prescribe such regulations as may be necessary or appropriate to carry out the purposes of this section, including regulations providing rules—

(A) for cases where a husband and wife each have earned income from sources outside the United States, and

(B) for married individuals filing separate returns.

(e) Election

(1) In general

An election under subsection (a) shall apply to the taxable year for which made and to all subsequent taxable years unless revoked under paragraph (2).

(2) Revocation

A taxpayer may revoke an election made under paragraph (1) for any taxable year after the taxable year for which such election was made. Except with the consent of the Secretary, any taxpayer who makes such a revocation for any taxable year may not make another election under this section for any subsequent taxable year before the 6th taxable year after the taxable year for which such revocation was made.

(f) Determination of tax liability

(1) In general

If, for any taxable year, any amount is excluded from gross income of a taxpayer under subsection (a), then, notwithstanding sections 1 and 55—

(A) if such taxpayer has taxable income for such taxable year, the tax imposed by section 1 for such taxable year shall be equal to the excess (if any) of—

(i) the tax which would be imposed by section 1 for such taxable year if the taxpayer's taxable income were increased by the amount excluded under subsection (a) for such taxable year, over

(ii) the tax which would be imposed by section 1 for such taxable year if the taxpayer's taxable income were equal to the amount excluded under subsection (a) for such taxable year, and


(B) if such taxpayer has a taxable excess (as defined in section 55(b)(1)(A)(ii)) for such taxable year, the amount determined under the first sentence of section 55(b)(1)(A)(i) for such taxable year shall be equal to the excess (if any) of—

(i) the amount which would be determined under such sentence for such taxable year (subject to the limitation of section 55(b)(3)) if the taxpayer's taxable excess (as so defined) were increased by the amount excluded under subsection (a) for such taxable year, over

(ii) the amount which would be determined under such sentence for such taxable year if the taxpayer's taxable excess (as so defined) were equal to the amount excluded under subsection (a) for such taxable year.

(2) Special rules

(A) Regular tax

In applying section 1(h) for purposes of determining the tax under paragraph (1)(A)(i) for any taxable year in which, without regard to this subsection, the taxpayer's net capital gain exceeds taxable income (hereafter in this subparagraph referred to as the capital gain excess)—

(i) the taxpayer's net capital gain (determined without regard to section 1(h)(11)) shall be reduced (but not below zero) by such capital gain excess,

(ii) the taxpayer's qualified dividend income shall be reduced by so much of such capital gain excess as exceeds the taxpayer's net capital gain (determined without regard to section 1(h)(11) and the reduction under clause (i)), and

(iii) adjusted net capital gain, unrecaptured section 1250 gain, and 28-percent rate gain shall each be determined after increasing the amount described in section 1(h)(4)(B) by such capital gain excess.

(B) Alternative minimum tax

In applying section 55(b)(3) for purposes of determining the tax under paragraph (1)(B)(i) for any taxable year in which, without regard to this subsection, the taxpayer's net capital gain exceeds the taxable excess (as defined in section 55(b)(1)(A)(ii))—

(i) the rules of subparagraph (A) shall apply, except that such subparagraph shall be applied by substituting “the taxable excess (as defined in section 55(b)(1)(A)(ii))” for “taxable income”, and

(ii) the reference in section 55(b)(3)(B) to the excess described in section 1(h)(1)(B) shall be treated as a reference to such excess as determined under the rules of subparagraph (A) for purposes of determining the tax under paragraph (1)(A)(i).

(C) Definitions

Terms used in this paragraph which are also used in section 1(h) shall have the respective meanings given such terms by section 1(h), except that in applying subparagraph (B) the adjustments under part VI of subchapter A shall be taken into account.

(g) Cross references

For administrative and penal provisions relating to the exclusions provided for in this section, see sections 6001, 6011, 6012(c), and the other provisions of subtitle F.

(Aug. 16, 1954, ch. 736, 68A Stat. 289; Pub. L. 85–866, title I, §72(b), Sept. 2, 1958, 72 Stat. 1660; Pub. L. 87–834, §11(a), Oct. 16, 1962, 76 Stat. 1003; Pub. L. 88–272, title II, §237(a), Feb. 26, 1964, 78 Stat. 128; Pub. L. 89–809, title I, §105(e)(3), Nov. 13, 1966, 80 Stat. 1567; Pub. L. 94–455, title X, §1011(a), (b), title XIX, §§1901(a)(115), 1906(b)(13)(A), Oct. 4, 1976, 90 Stat. 1610, 1784, 1834; Pub. L. 95–30, title I, §102(b)(12), May 23, 1977, 91 Stat. 138; Pub. L. 95–600, title IV, §401(b)(4), title VII, §§701(u)(10)(A), 703(e), Nov. 6, 1978, 92 Stat. 2867, 2917, 2939; Pub. L. 95–615, title II, §202(a)–(e), (g)(1), formerly §202(a)–(f)(1), Nov. 8, 1978, 92 Stat. 3098–3100, renumbered §202(a)–(e), (g)(1), and amended Pub. L. 96–222, title I, §§107(a)(3)(B), 108(a)(1)(A), (C), (D), Apr. 1, 1980, 94 Stat. 223, 224; Pub. L. 96–595, §4(a)–(c)(1), Dec. 24, 1980, 94 Stat. 3466, 3467; Pub. L. 97–34, title I, §111(a), Aug. 13, 1981, 95 Stat. 190; Pub. L. 97–448, title I, §101(c), Jan. 12, 1983, 96 Stat. 2366; Pub. L. 98–369, div. A, title I, §17, July 18, 1984, 98 Stat. 505; Pub. L. 99–514, title XII, §1233(a), (b), Oct. 22, 1986, 100 Stat. 2564; Pub. L. 105–34, title XI, §1172(a), Aug. 5, 1997, 111 Stat. 988; Pub. L. 109–222, title V, §515(a)–(c), May 17, 2006, 120 Stat. 367; Pub. L. 110–172, §4(c), Dec. 29, 2007, 121 Stat. 2476.)

Inflation Adjusted Items for Certain Years

For inflation adjustment of certain items in this section, see Revenue Procedures listed in a table under section 1 of this title.

References in Text

The Trading With the Enemy Act, referred to in subsec. (d)(8)(B)(i), is act Oct. 6, 1917, ch. 106, 40 Stat. 411, as amended, which is classified to sections 1 to 6, 7 to 39, and 41 to 44 of Title 50, Appendix, War and National Defense. For complete classification of this Act to the Code, see Tables.

The International Emergency Economic Powers Act, referred to in subsec. (d)(8)(B)(i), is Pub. L. 95–223, title II, Dec. 28, 1977, 91 Stat. 1626, which is classified generally to chapter 35 (§1701 et seq.) of Title 50, War and National Defense. For complete classification of this Act to the Code, see Short Title note set out under section 1701 of Title 50 and Tables.

Amendments

2007—Subsec. (f). Pub. L. 110–172 amended heading and text generally, substituting provisions relating to determination of tax liability, special rules for determining regular tax and alternative minimum tax, and definitions for former provisions relating to determination of tax liability and tentative minimum tax.

2006—Subsec. (b)(2)(D)(ii). Pub. L. 109–222, §515(a)(1), substituted “2005” for “2007” in introductory provisions.

Subsec. (b)(2)(D)(ii)(II). Pub. L. 109–222, §515(a)(2), substituted “2004” for “2006”.

Subsec. (c)(1)(A). Pub. L. 109–222, §515(b)(2)(A), inserted “to the extent such expenses do not exceed the amount determined under paragraph (2)” after “the taxable year”.

Subsec. (c)(1)(B)(i). Pub. L. 109–222, §515(b)(1), amended cl. (i) generally. Prior to amendment, cl. (i) read as follows: “16 percent of the salary (computed on a daily basis) of an employee of the United States who is compensated at a rate equal to the annual rate paid for step 1 of grade GS–14, multiplied by”.

Subsec. (c)(2) to (4). Pub. L. 109–222, §515(b)(2)(B), added par. (2) and redesignated former pars. (2) and (3) as (3) and (4), respectively.

Subsec. (d)(4). Pub. L. 109–222, §515(b)(2)(C)(i), substituted “, (c)(1)(B)(ii), and (c)(2)(A)(ii)” for “and (c)(1)(B)(ii)” in concluding provisions.

Subsec. (d)(7). Pub. L. 109–222, §515(b)(2)(C)(ii), which directed substitution of “subsection (c)(4)” for “subsection (c)(3)”, was executed by substituting “subsection (c)(4)(A)” for “subsection (c)(3)(A)” to reflect the probable intent of Congress.

Subsecs. (f), (g). Pub. L. 109–222, §515(c), added subsec. (f) and redesignated former subsec. (f) as (g).

1997—Subsec. (b)(2)(A). Pub. L. 105–34, §1172(a)(1), substituted “equal to the exclusion amount for the calendar year in which such taxable year begins” for “of $70,000”.

Subsec. (b)(2)(D). Pub. L. 105–34, §1172(a)(2), added subpar. (D).

1986—Subsec. (b)(2)(A). Pub. L. 99–514, §1233(a), in amending subpar. (A) generally, substituted “an annual rate of $70,000” for “the annual rate set forth in the following table for each day of the taxable year within the applicable period described in subparagraph (A) or (B) of subsection (d)(1):


“In the case of taxable years
 
  beginning in:
The annual rate is:
1983, 1984, 1985, 1986, or 1987
$80,000  
1988
85,000  
1989
90,000  
1990 and thereafter
95,000.”

        

Subsec. (d)(8), (9). Pub. L. 99–514, §1233(b), added par. (8) and redesignated former par. (8) as (9).

1984—Subsec. (b)(2)(A). Pub. L. 98–369 amended table by striking out item which set the annual rate at $75,000 for taxable years beginning in 1982, substituted item setting the annual rate at $80,000 for taxable years beginning in 1983, 1984, 1985, 1986, or 1987 for items which had set annual rates of $80,000 for taxable years beginning in 1983, $85,000 for taxable years beginning in 1984, $90,000 for taxable years beginning in 1985, and $95,000 for taxable years beginning in 1986 and thereafter, and added items setting annual rates of $85,000 for taxable years beginning in 1988, $90,000 for taxable years beginning in 1989, and $95,000 for taxable years beginning in 1990 and thereafter.

1983—Subsec. (c)(3)(B)(ii). Pub. L. 97–448, §101(c)(2), substituted “subsection (a)” for “subsection (a)(1)”.

Subsec. (d)(7), (8). Pub. L. 97–448, §101(c)(1), added par. (7) and redesignated former par. (7) as (8).

1981—Pub. L. 97–34 amended section generally, modifying the eligibility standards of existing law, replacing the existing system of deduction for excess living costs with an exclusion of a portion of foreign earned income, and providing for an individual's election to exclude a portion of his income or to deduct an amount for housing, based on his housing expenses.

1980—Pub. L. 96–595 §4(c)(1), inserted “or from charitable services” after “camps” in section catchline.

Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 96–595, §4(a), inserted “or who performs qualified charitable services in a lesser developed country,” after “hardship area”.

Pub. L. 96–222, §108(a)(1)(C), (D), substituted “a foreign country or” for “qualified foreign” in par. (2) and, in provisions following par. (2), substituted “his gross income any deduction,” for “his gross income” and “other than the deduction allowed by section 217” for “other than the deductions allowed by sections 217”.

Subsec. (c)(1)(A). Pub. L. 96–595, §4(b)(1), substituted “Dollar limitations” for “In general” in heading, redesignated existing provisions as cl. (i), and in cl. (i) as so redesignated, inserted “Camp residents—In the case of an individual who resides in a camp located in a hardship area” before “the amount excluded”, and added cls. (ii) and (iii).

Subsec. (c)(1)(D), (E). Pub. L. 96–595, §4(b)(2), added subpars. (D) and (E).

1978—Pub. L. 95–615, §202(f)(1), substituted “Income earned by individuals in certain camps” for “Earned income from sources without the United States” in section catchline.

Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 95–615, §202(a), in introductory provisions inserted reference to an individual described in section 913(a) who, because of his employment, resides in a camp located in a hardship area, in par. (1) substituted reference to amounts received from sources within a foreign country or countries for reference to amounts received from sources without the United States, in par. (2) substituted reference to amounts received from sources within qualified foreign countries for reference to amounts received from sources without the United States, and in provisions following par. (2) struck out “any deductions (other than those allowed by section 151, relating to personal exemptions),” after “deduction from his gross income” and inserted “, other than the deductions allowed by sections 217 (relating to moving expenses)” after “subsection”.

Pub. L. 95–600, §701(u)(10)(A), inserted provisions setting forth formula for determining amount of reduction of taxes, and struck out provisions relating to the credit against taxes.

Subsec. (c)(1)(A). Pub. L. 95–615, §202(b), substituted “The amount excluded” for “Except as provided in subparagraphs (B) and (C), the amount excluded” and “an annual rate of $20,000 for days during which he resides in a camp” for “an annual rate of $15,000”.

Subsec. (c)(1)(B). Pub. L. 95–615, §202(b), substituted provisions relating to conditions upon which an individual will be considered to reside in a camp because of his employment for provisions which related to the amount excluded from the gross income of an individual performing qualified charitable services.

Subsec. (c)(1)(C). Pub. L. 95–615, §202(b), substituted provisions relating to definition of “hardship area” for provisions which related to the amount excluded from the gross income of an individual performing both qualified charitable services and other services.

Subsec. (c)(1)(D). Pub. L. 95–615, §202(b), struck out subpar. (D) which defined “qualified charitable services”.

Subsec. (c)(7). Pub. L. 95–615, §202(c), added par. (7).

Pub. L. 95–600, §703(e), redesignated former par. (8) as (7). Such par. (8) was subsequently repealed by section 202(e) of Pub. L. 95–615 without taking into account the redesignation of par. (8) as (7) by Pub. L. 95–600. See 1978 Amendment note for subsec. (c)(8) below.

Subsec. (c)(8). Pub. L. 95–615, §202(e), struck out par. (8) which related to the nonexclusion under subsec. (a) of any amount attributable to services performed in a foreign country or countries if such amount was received outside of the foreign country or countries where such services were performed and if one of the purposes was the avoidance of any tax imposed by such foreign country or countries on such amount.

Subsec. (d). Pub. L. 95–615, §202(d)(1), redesignated subsec. (e) as (d), inserted “for the taxable year” after “section apply”, and struck out provision that an election was applicable to the taxable year for which made and to all subsequent taxable years. Former subsec. (d), which related to the computation of tax imposed by section 1 or section 1201 if an individual earned income which was excluded from gross income under subsec. (a) and which defined “net taxable income” and “net excluded earned income”, was struck out.

Subsec. (d)(1). Pub. L. 95–600, §401(b)(4), struck out provisions respecting applicability of section 1201 of this title.

Subsecs. (e), (f). Pub. L. 95–615, §202(d)(1), (2), redesignated subsec. (f) as (e). Former subsec. (e) redesignated (d).

1977—Subsec. (d)(1)(B). Pub. L. 95–30 substituted “on the sum of (i) the amount of net excluded earned income, and (ii) the zero bracket amount” for “on the amount of net excluded earned income”.

1976—Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 94–455, §§1011(b)(1), 1906(b)(13)(A), struck out “or his delegate” after “Secretary” in par. (1), and in provisions following par. (2), inserted “or as a credit against the tax imposed by this chapter any credit for the amount of taxes paid or accrued to a foreign country or possession of the United States, to the extent that such deductions or credit is” after “personal exemptions)”.

Subsec. (b). Pub. L. 94–455, §1906(b)(13)(A), struck out “or his delegate” after “Secretary”.

Subsec. (c)(1). Pub. L. 94–455, §1011(a), reduced the amount excludable from individual's gross income from $20,000 to $15,000 and $20,000 for employees of charitable organizations, added special rule to be applied to income from charitable sources and other sources combined, inserted definition of “qualified charitable services”, and struck out provisions relating to $25,000 exclusion for individual who has been a bona fide resident in a foreign country for an uninterrupted period of 3 years.

Subsec. (c)(7). Pub. L. 94–455, §1901(a)(115), struck out par. (7) relating to certain noncash remuneration from sources outside the United States.

Subsec. (c)(8). Pub. L. 94–455, §1011(b)(2), added par. (8).

Subsecs. (d) to (f). Pub. L. 94–455, §1011(b)(3), added subsecs. (d) and (e) and redesignated former subsec. (d) as (f).

1966—Subsec. (d). Pub. L. 89–809 designated existing text as par. (1) and added par. (2).

1964—Subsec. (c)(1)(B). Pub. L. 88–272 substituted “$25,000” for “$35,000”.

1962—Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 87–834 substituted “which constitute earned income attributable to services performed during such uninterrupted period” for “if such amounts constitute earned income (as defined in subsection (b)) attributable to such period” in par. (1), and “which constitute earned income attributable to services performed during such 18-month period” for “if such amounts constitute earned income (as defined in subsection (b)) attributable to such period” in par. (2), inserted provisions in pars. (1) and (2) requiring the amount excluded under such paragraphs to be computed by applying the special rules contained in subsec. (c), and eliminated provisions from par. (2) which limited the amount excluded under such paragraph to not more than $20,000 if the 18-month period includes the entire taxable year, and to not more than an amount which bears the same ratio to $20,000 as the number of days in the part of the taxable year within the 18-month period bears to the total number of days in such year if the 18-month period does not include the entire taxable year.

Subsecs. (c) and (d). Pub. L. 87–834 added subsec. (c) and redesignated former subsec. (c) as (d).

1958—Subsec. (c). Pub. L. 85–866 added subsec. (c).

Effective Date of 2007 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 110–172 effective as if included in the provisions of the Tax Increase Prevention and Reconciliation Act of 2005, Pub. L. 109–222, to which such amendment relates, with certain exceptions, see section 4(d) of Pub. L. 110–172, set out as a note under section 355 of this title.

Effective Date of 2006 Amendment

Pub. L. 109–222, title V, §515(d), May 17, 2006, 120 Stat. 368, provided that: “The amendments made by this section [amending this section] shall apply to taxable years beginning after December 31, 2005.”

Effective Date of 1997 Amendment

Section 1172(b) of Pub. L. 105–34 provided that: “The amendment made by this section [amending this section] shall apply to taxable years beginning after December 31, 1997.”

Effective Date of 1986 Amendment

Section 1233(c) of Pub. L. 99–514 provided that: “The amendments made by this section [amending this section] shall apply to taxable years beginning after December 31, 1986.”

Effective Date of 1984 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 98–369 applicable to taxable years ending after Dec. 31, 1983, see section 18(a) of Pub. L. 98–369, set out as a note under section 48 of this title.

Effective Date of 1983 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 97–448 effective, except as otherwise provided, as if it had been included in the provision of the Economic Recovery Tax Act of 1981, Pub. L. 97–34, to which such amendment relates, see section 109 of Pub. L. 97–448, set out as a note under section 1 of this title.

Effective Date of 1981 Amendment

Section 115 of subtitle B (§§111–115) of title I of Pub. L. 97–34 provided that: “The amendments made by this subtitle [amending this section and sections 37, 43, 62, 63, 105, 119, 410, 879, 1034, 1302, 1303, 1304, 1402, 3401, 6012, and 6091 of this title and repealing section 913 of this title] (other than section 114 [amending section 208 of Pub. L. 95–615, set out below]) shall apply with respect to taxable years beginning after December 31, 1981.”

Effective Date of 1980 Amendments

Section 4(d) of Pub. L. 96–595 provided that: “The amendments made by this section [amending this section] shall apply to taxable years beginning after December 31, 1978.”

Amendment by section 107(a)(3)(B) of Pub. L. 96–222 effective, except as otherwise provided, as if it had been included in the provisions of the Revenue Act of 1978, Pub. L. 95–600, to which such amendment relates, see section 201 of Pub. L. 96–222, set out as a note under section 32 of this title.

Amendment by section 108(a)(1)(A), (C), (D) of Pub. L. 96–222 effective as if included in the Foreign Earned Income Act of 1978, Pub. L. 95–615, see section 108(a)(2)(A) of Pub. L. 96–222, set out as a note under section 3 of this title.

Effective Date of 1978 Amendment

Amendment by section 401(b)(4) of Pub. L. 95–600 applicable to taxable years beginning after Dec. 31, 1978, see section 401(c) of Pub. L. 95–600, set out as a note under section 1201 of this title.

Section 701(u)(10)(B) of Pub. L. 95–600, as amended by Pub. L. 96–222, title I, §107(a)(1)(B), Apr. 1, 1980, 94 Stat. 222, provided that: “The amendment made by subparagraph (A) [amending this section] shall apply to taxable years beginning in calendar year 1978 but only in the case of taxpayers who make an election under section 209(c) of the Foreign Earned Income Act of 1978 [section 209(c) of Pub. L. 95–615, set out below].”

Amendment by section 703(e) of Pub. L. 95–600 effective on Oct. 4, 1976, see section 703(r) of Pub. L. 95–600, set out as a note under section 46 of this title.

Effective Date of 1978 Amendment; Election of Prior Law

Section 209 of Pub. L. 95–615 provided that:

“(a) General Rule.—Except as provided in subsections (b) and (c), the amendments made by this title [see section 201(a) of Pub. L. 95–615, set out as a Short Title of 1978 Amendment note under section 1 of this title] shall apply to taxable years beginning after December 31, 1977.

“(b) Wage Withholding.—The amendment made by section 207(a) [amending section 3401 of this title] shall apply to remuneration paid after the date of the enactment of this Act. [Nov. 8, 1978].

“(c) Election of Prior Law.—

“(1) A taxpayer may elect not to have the amendments made by this title [see section 201(a) of Pub. L. 95–615, set out as a Short Title of 1978 Amendment note under section 1 of this title] apply with respect to any taxable year beginning after December 31, 1977, and before January 1, 1979.

“(2) An election under this subsection shall be filed with a taxpayer's timely filed return for the first taxable year beginning after December 31, 1977.”

Effective Date of 1977 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 95–30 applicable to taxable years beginning after Dec. 31, 1976, see section 106(a) of Pub. L. 95–30, set out as a note under section 1 of this title.

Effective Date of 1976 Amendment

Section 1011(d) of Pub. L. 94–455, as amended by Pub. L. 95–30, title III, §302, May 23, 1977, 91 Stat. 152; Pub. L. 95–615, §4(a), Nov. 8, 1978, 92 Stat. 3097, provided that: “The amendments made by this section [amending this section and section 36 of this title] shall apply to taxable years beginning after December 31, 1977.”

Amendment by section 1901(a)(115) of Pub. L. 94–455 applicable with respect to taxable years beginning after Dec. 31, 1976, see section 1901(d) of Pub. L. 94–455, set out as a note under section 2 of this title.

Effective Date of 1964 Amendment

Section 237(b) of Pub. L. 88–272 provided that: “The amendment made by subsection (a) [amending this section] shall apply to taxable years beginning after December 31, 1964.”

Effective Date of 1962 Amendment

Section 11(c)(1) of Pub. L. 87–834 provided that: “The amendment made by subsection (a) [amending this section] shall apply to taxable years ending after September 4, 1962, but only with respect to amounts—

“(A) received after March 12, 1962, which are attributable to services performed after December 31, 1962, or

“(B) received after December 31, 1962, which are attributable to services performed on or before December 31, 1962, unless on March 12, 1962, there existed a right (whether forfeitable or nonforfeitable) to receive such amounts.”

Effective Date of 1958 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 85–866 applicable to taxable years beginning after Dec. 31, 1957, see section 72(c) of Pub. L. 85–866 set out as a note under section 6012 of this title.

Repeals

Section 703(e) of Pub. L. 95–600, cited as a credit to this section, was repealed by Pub. L. 96–222, title I, §107(a)(3)(B), Apr. 1, 1980, 94 Stat. 223. See 1978 Amendment note for subsec. (c)(7) of this section set out above.

Treatment of Certain Persons in Panama

Section 1232(a) of Pub. L. 99–514 provided that: “Nothing in the Panama Canal Treaty (or in any agreement implementing such Treaty) shall be construed as exempting (in whole or in part) any citizen or resident of the United States from any tax under the Internal Revenue Code of 1954 or 1986. The preceding sentence shall apply to all taxable years whether beginning before, on, or after the date of the enactment of this Act [Oct. 22, 1986] (or in the case of any tax not imposed with respect to a taxable year, to taxable events after the date of enactment of this Act.)”

Taxable Years Beginning in 1977 or 1978; Individuals Who Leave Foreign Country After August 31, 1978

Rules similar to the rules of section 913(j)(4) of this title to apply for the purposes of applying this section for taxable years beginning in 1977 or 1978 in the case of an individual who leaves a foreign country after Aug. 31, 1978, see section 1(b) of Pub. L. 96–608, set out as an Effective Date of 1980 Amendment note under section 913 of this title.

Individuals for Whom Unused Zero Bracket Amount Computation Is Provided for Taxable Years Beginning in 1977

Section 4(b) of Pub. L. 95–615, as amended by Pub. L. 99–514, §2, Oct. 22, 1986, 100 Stat. 2095, provided that: “If for any taxable year beginning in 1977—

“(1) an individual is entitled to the benefits of section 911 of the Internal Revenue Code of 1986 [formerly I.R.C. 1954], and

“(2) such individual chooses to take to any extent the benefits of section 901 of such Code,

then such individual shall be treated for such taxable year as an individual for whom an unused zero bracket amount computation is provided by section 63(e) of such Code.”

Reports to Congressional Committees; Information From Federal Agencies

Section 208 of Pub. L. 95–615, as amended by Pub. L. 97–34, title I, §114, Aug. 13, 1981, 95 Stat. 195; Pub. L. 99–514, §2, Oct. 22, 1986, 100 Stat. 2095; Pub. L. 101–508, title XI, §11833, Nov. 5, 1990, 104 Stat. 1388–560, provided that:

“(a) General Rule.—As soon as practicable after December 31, 1993, and as soon as practicable after the close of each fifth calendar year thereafter, the Secretary of the Treasury shall transmit a report to the Committee on Ways and Means of the House of Representatives and to the Committee on Finance of the Senate on the operation and effects of sections 911 and 912 of the Internal Revenue Code of 1986 [formerly I.R.C. 1954].

“(b) Information From Federal Agencies.—Each agency of the Federal Government which pays allowances excludable from gross income under section 912 of such Code shall keep such records and furnish to the Secretary of the Treasury such information as he determines to be necessary to carry out his responsibility under subsection (a).”

§912. Exemption for certain allowances

The following items shall not be included in gross income, and shall be exempt from taxation under this subtitle:

(1) Foreign areas allowances

In the case of civilian officers and employees of the Government of the United States, amounts received as allowances or otherwise (but not amounts received as post differentials) under—

(A) chapter 9 of title I of the Foreign Service Act of 1980,

(B) section 4 of the Central Intelligence Agency Act of 1949, as amended (50 U.S.C., sec. 403e),

(C) title II of the Overseas Differentials and Allowances Act, or

(D) subsection (e) or (f) of the first section of the Administrative Expenses Act of 1946, as amended, or section 22 of such Act.

(2) Cost-of-living allowances

In the case of civilian officers or employees of the Government of the United States stationed outside the continental United States (other than Alaska), amounts (other than amounts received under title II of the Overseas Differentials and Allowances Act) received as cost-of-living allowances in accordance with regulations approved by the President (or in the case of judicial officers or employees of the United States, in accordance with rules similar to such regulations).

(3) Peace Corps allowances

In the case of an individual who is a volunteer or volunteer leader within the meaning of the Peace Corps Act and members of his family, amounts received as allowances under section 5 or 6 of the Peace Corps Act other than amounts received as—

(A) termination payments under section 5(c) or section 6(1) of such Act,

(B) leave allowances,

(C) if such individual is a volunteer leader training in the United States, allowances to members of his family, and

(D) such portion of living allowances as the President may determine under the Peace Corps Act as constituting basic compensation.

(Aug. 16, 1954, ch. 736, 68A Stat. 290; Pub. L. 86–707, title V, §523(a), Sept. 6, 1960, 74 Stat. 802; Pub. L. 87–293, title II, §201(a), Sept. 22, 1961, 75 Stat. 625; Pub. L. 96–465, title II, §2206(e)(3), Oct. 17, 1980, 94 Stat. 2163; Pub. L. 100–647, title VI, §6137(a), Nov. 10, 1988, 102 Stat. 3723.)

References in Text

The Foreign Service Act of 1980, referred to in par. (1)(A), is Pub. L. 96–465, Oct. 17, 1980, 94 Stat. 2071, as amended. Chapter 9 of title I of the Foreign Service Act of 1980 is classified generally to subchapter IX (§4081 et seq.) of chapter 52 of Title 22, Foreign Relations and Intercourse. For complete classification of this Act to the Code, see Short Title note set out under section 3901 of Title 22 and Tables.

Title II of the Overseas Differentials and Allowances Act, referred to in pars. (1)(C) and (2), was title II of Pub. L. 86–707, Sept. 6, 1960, 74 Stat. 793, which was repealed and reenacted as sections 5922 to 5925 of Title 5, Government Organization and Employees, by Pub. L. 89–554, Sept. 6, 1966, 80 Stat. 378.

Sections 1(e) and (f) and 22 of the Administrative Expenses Act of 1946, referred to in par. (1)(D), were repealed and the provisions thereof reenacted as sections 5726(b), 5727(b) to (e), and 5913 of Title 5, by Pub. L. 89–554, Sept. 6, 1966, 80 Stat. 378.

The Peace Corps Act, referred to in par. (3), is Pub. L. 87–293, Sept. 22, 1961, 75 Stat. 612, as amended, which is classified principally to chapter 34 (§2501 et seq.) of Title 22, Foreign Relations and Intercourse. Sections 5 and 6 of that act are classified to sections 2504 and 2505 of Title 22. For complete classification of this act to the Code, see Short Title note set out under section 2501 of Title 22 and Tables.

Amendments

1988—Par. (2). Pub. L. 100–647 inserted “(or in the case of judicial officers or employees of the United States, in accordance with rules similar to such regulations)” after “President”.

1980—Par. (1)(A). Pub. L. 96–465 substituted reference to chapter 9 of title I of the Foreign Service Act of 1980 for reference to title IX of the Foreign Service Act of 1946.

1961—Par. (3). Pub. L. 87–293 added par. (3).

1960—Pub. L. 86–707 exempted foreign areas allowances received under section 4 of the Central Intelligence Agency Act of 1949, title II of the Overseas Differentials and Allowances Act, subsection (e) or (f) of the first section of the Administrative Expenses Act of 1946, or section 22 of such Act, provided that amounts received as post differentials shall not be exempt and in provisions relating to cost-of-living allowances excluded Alaska from term “continental United States” and amounts received under title II of the Overseas Differentials and Allowances Act.

Effective Date of 1988 Amendment

Section 6137(b) of Pub. L. 100–647 provided that: “The amendment made by subsection (a) [amending this section] shall apply to allowances received after October 12, 1987, in taxable years ending after such date.”

Effective Date of 1980 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 96–465 effective Feb. 15, 1981, except as otherwise provided, see section 2403 of Pub. L. 96–465, set out as an Effective Date note under section 3901 of Title 22, Foreign Relations and Intercourse.

Effective Date of 1961 Amendments

Section 201(d) of Pub. L. 87–293 provided that: “The amendments made by subsections (a) and (b) of this section [amending this section and section 1303 of this title] shall apply with respect to taxable years ending after March 1, 1961. The amendment made by subsection (c) [amending section 3401 of this title] shall apply with respect to remuneration paid after the date of the enactment of this Act [Sept. 22, 1961].”

[Section 201(d) of Pub. L. 87–293 was repealed by Pub. L. 89–572, §5(a), Sept. 13, 1966, 80 Stat. 765. Such repeal not deemed to affect amendments contained in such provisions, see sections 5(b) of Pub. L. 89–572, set out as a note under former section 2515 of Title 22, Foreign Relations and Intercourse.]

Effective Date of 1960 Amendment

Section 523(b) of Pub. L. 86–707, as amended by Pub. L. 99–514, §2, Oct. 22, 1986, 100 Stat. 2095, provided that: “Paragraphs (1) and (2) of section 912 of the Internal Revenue Code of 1986 [formerly I.R.C. 1954], as amended by subsection (a) of this section, shall apply only with respect to amounts received on or after the date of the enactment of this Act [Sept. 6, 1960] in taxable years ending on or after such date.”

Repeals; Amendments and Application of Amendments Unaffected

Section 201(a) of Pub. L. 87–293, cited as a credit to this section, was repealed by Pub. L. 89–572, §5(a), Sept. 13, 1966, 80 Stat. 765. Such repeal not deemed to affect amendments to this section contained in such provisions, and continuation in full force and effect until modified by appropriate authority of all determinations, authorization, regulations, orders, contracts, agreements, and other actions issued undertaken, or entered into under authority of the repealed provisions, see section 5(b) of Pub. L. 89–572, set out as a note under former section 2515 of Title 22, Foreign Relations and Intercourse.

Delegation of Functions

Function of determining the portion of living allowances constituting basic compensation for Peace Corps volunteers or volunteer leaders under par. (3) of this section delegated by President to Director of Peace Corps to be performed in consultation with the Secretary of the Treasury, see section 1–104 of Ex. Ord. No. 12137, May 16, 1979, 44 F.R. 29023, set out as a note under section 2501 of Title 22, Foreign Relations and Intercourse.

Authority of President under par. (2) of this section delegated to Secretary of Defense with respect to military departments, and to Secretary of Transportation with respect to Coast Guard when it is not operating as a service in the Navy, concerning civilian employees of nonappropriated fund instrumentalities of the armed forces, see section 201 of Ex. Ord. No. 11137, Jan. 7, 1964, as amended, set out as a note under section 5921 of Title 5, Government Organization and Employees.

Treatment of Employees of Panama Canal Commission and Department of Defense

Pub. L. 99–514, title XII, §1232(b), Oct. 22, 1986, 100 Stat. 2564, provided that: “Employees of the Panama Canal Commission and civilian employees of the Defense Department of the United States stationed in Panama may exclude from gross income allowances which are comparable to the allowances excludable under section 912(1) of the Internal Revenue Code of 1986 by employees of the State Department of the United States stationed in Panama. The preceding sentence shall apply to taxable years beginning after December 31, 1986.”

[§913. Repealed. Pub. L. 97–34, title I, §112(a), Aug. 13, 1981, 95 Stat. 194]

Section, added Pub. L. 95–615, title II, §203(a), Nov. 8, 1978, 92 Stat. 3100; amended Pub. L. 96–222, title I, §108(a)(1)(B), (F), Apr. 1, 1980. 94 Stat. 223, 225; Pub. L. 96–608, §1(a), Dec. 28, 1980, 94 Stat. 3550, related to a deduction for certain expenses of living abroad.

Effective Date of Repeal

Repeal applicable with respect to taxable years beginning after Dec. 31, 1981, see section 115 of Pub. L. 97–34, set out as an Effective Date of 1981 Amendment note under section 911 of this title.

[Subpart C—Repealed]

[§§921 to 927. Repealed. Pub. L. 106–519, §2, Nov. 15, 2000, 114 Stat. 2423]

Section 921, added Pub. L. 98–369, div. A, title VIII, §801(a), July 18, 1984, 98 Stat. 985, provided for exclusion from gross income of exempt foreign trade income.

A prior section 921, acts Aug. 16, 1954, ch. 736, 68A Stat. 290; Oct. 4, 1976, Pub. L. 94–455, title XIX, §1901(a)(116), 90 Stat. 1784, defined Western Hemisphere trade corporation, prior to repeal by Pub. L. 94–455, title X, §1052(b), Oct. 4, 1976, 90 Stat. 1648, effective with respect to taxable years beginning after Dec. 31, 1979.

Section 922, added Pub. L. 98–369, div. A, title VIII, §801(a), July 18, 1984, 98 Stat. 986, defined FSC's.

A prior section 922, acts Aug. 16, 1954, ch. 736, 68A Stat. 291; Dec. 10, 1971, Pub. L. 92–178, title V, §502(c), 85 Stat. 550; Oct. 4, 1976, Pub. L. 94–455, title X, §1052(a), (c)(1), 90 Stat. 1647, 1648; Nov. 6, 1978, Pub. L. 95–600, title III, §301(b)(15), 92 Stat. 2822, related to a special deduction for a Western Hemisphere trade corporation, prior to repeal by Pub. L. 94–455, title X, §1052(b), Oct. 4, 1976, 90 Stat. 1648, effective with respect to taxable years beginning after Dec. 31, 1979.

Section 923, added Pub. L. 98–369, div. A, title VIII, §801(a), July 18, 1984, 98 Stat. 986; amended Pub. L. 99–514, title XVIII, §1876(b)(3), Oct. 22, 1986, 100 Stat. 2898, related to exempt foreign trade income.

Section 924, added Pub. L. 98–369, div. A, title VIII, §801(a), July 18, 1984, 98 Stat. 987; amended Pub. L. 99–514, title XVIII, §1876(e)(2), (l), Oct. 22, 1986, 100 Stat. 2899, 2901, related to foreign trading gross receipts.

Section 925, added Pub. L. 98–369, div. A, title VIII, §801(a), July 18, 1984, 98 Stat. 990, related to transfer pricing rules.

Section 926, added Pub. L. 98–369, div. A, title VIII, §801(a), July 18, 1984, 98 Stat. 991, related to distributions to shareholders.

Section 927, added Pub. L. 98–369, div. A, title VIII, §801(a), July 18, 1984, 98 Stat. 991; amended Pub. L. 99–514, title XVIII, §1876(a)(1), (e)(1), (f)(1), (p)(5), Oct. 22, 1986, 100 Stat. 2897, 2899, 2902; Pub. L. 100–647, title I, §1012(bb)(8)(A), Nov. 10, 1988, 102 Stat. 3536; Pub. L. 101–508, title XI, §11704(a)(10), Nov. 5, 1990, 104 Stat. 1388–518; Pub. L. 103–66, title XIII, §13239(a), Aug. 10, 1993, 107 Stat. 509; Pub. L. 105–34, title XI, §1171(a), Aug. 5, 1997, 111 Stat. 987, related to other definitions and special rules.

Effective Date of Repeal

Repeal applicable to transactions after Sept. 30, 2000, with special rules relating to existing foreign sales corporations, see section 5 of Pub. L. 106–519, set out as an Effective Date of 2000 Amendments note under section 56 of this title.

Subpart D—Possessions of the United States

Sec.
931.
Income from sources within Guam, American Samoa, or the Northern Mariana Islands.
932.
Coordination of United States and Virgin Islands income taxes.
933.
Income from sources within Puerto Rico.
934.
Limitation on reduction in income tax liability incurred to the Virgin Islands.
[934A, 935. Repealed.]
936.
Puerto Rico and possession tax credit.1

        

937.
Residence and source rules involving possessions.

        

Amendments

2004—Pub. L. 108–357, title VIII, §908(c)(6), Oct. 22, 2004, 118 Stat. 1657, added item 937.

1986—Pub. L. 99–514, title XII, §§1272(d)(12), 1274(d), 1275(c)(8), Oct. 22, 1986, 100 Stat. 2595, 2598, 2599, substituted “Guam, American Samoa, or the Northern Mariana Islands” for “possessions of the United States” in item 931, added item 932, and struck out former item 932 “Citizens of possessions of the United States”, item 934A “Income tax rate on Virgin Islands source income” and item 935 “Coordination of United States and Guam individual income taxes”.

1983—Pub. L. 97–455, §1(d)(1), Jan. 12, 1983, 96 Stat. 2498, added item 934A.

1972—Pub. L. 92–606, §1(f)(5), Oct. 31, 1972, 86 Stat. 1497, added item 935.

1960—Pub. L. 86–779, §4(a)(2), Sept. 14, 1960, 74 Stat. 999, added item 934.

1 Editorially supplied. Section 936 added by Pub. L. 94–455 without corresponding amendment of subpart analysis.

§931. Income from sources within Guam, American Samoa, or the Northern Mariana Islands

(a) General rule

In the case of an individual who is a bona fide resident of a specified possession during the entire taxable year, gross income shall not include—

(1) income derived from sources within any specified possession, and

(2) income effectively connected with the conduct of a trade or business by such individual within any specified possession.

(b) Deductions, etc. allocable to excluded amounts not allowable

An individual shall not be allowed—

(1) as a deduction from gross income any deductions (other than the deduction under section 151, relating to personal exemptions), or

(2) any credit,


properly allocable or chargeable against amounts excluded from gross income under this section.

(c) Specified possession

For purposes of this section, the term “specified possession” means Guam, American Samoa, and the Northern Mariana Islands.

(d) Employees of the United States

Amounts paid for services performed as an employee of the United States (or any agency thereof) shall be treated as not described in paragraph (1) or (2) of subsection (a).

(Aug. 16, 1954, ch. 736, 68A Stat. 291; Pub. L. 89–809, title I, §107(a), Nov. 13, 1966, 80 Stat. 1571; Pub. L. 92–178, title V, §502(d), Dec. 10, 1971, 85 Stat. 550; Pub. L. 92–606, §1(f)(1), Oct. 31, 1972, 86 Stat. 1497; Pub. L. 94–455, title X, §1051(c), title XIX, §§1901(a)(117), 1906(b)(13)(A), Oct. 4, 1976, 90 Stat. 1645, 1784, 1834; Pub. L. 95–30, title I, §101(d)(12), May 23, 1977, 91 Stat. 134; Pub. L. 98–369, div. A, title VII, §711(c)(2)(A)(iv), July 18, 1984, 98 Stat. 945; Pub. L. 99–514, title XII, §1272(a), Oct. 22, 1986, 100 Stat. 2593; Pub. L. 108–357, title VIII, §908(c)(1), Oct. 22, 2004, 118 Stat. 1656.)

Amendments

2004—Subsec. (d). Pub. L. 108–357 amended heading and text of subsec. (d) generally, substituting provisions relating to employees of the United States for provisions consisting of pars. (1) to (3) relating to special rules concerning employees of the United States, determination of source of income, and determination of residency.

1986—Pub. L. 99–514 amended section generally, substituting provisions relating to income from sources within Guam, American Samoa, or the Northern Mariana Islands, for former provisions relating to income from sources within possessions of the United States, which had declared in: subsec. (a), general rule as to gross income, including requirements relating to 3-year period and trade or business; subsec. (b), rule as to amounts received in United States; subsec. (c), definition of “possession of the United States”; subsec. (d), general rule allowing deductions only to extent connected with income from sources within United States, and specific exceptions to limitations of general rule; subsec. (e), deduction for personal exemption; subsec. (f), allowance of deductions and credits; subsec. (g), foreign tax credit; subsec. (h), provisions relating to employees of United States.

1984—Subsec. (d)(2)(B). Pub. L. 98–369 substituted “for losses” for “, for losses of property not connected with the trade or business if arising from certain casualties or theft,”.

1977—Subsec. (d)(3). Pub. L. 95–30 struck out par. (3) which made a cross reference to section 142(b)(2) for disallowance of the standard deduction.

1976—Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 94–455, §1051(c)(1), struck out all references to domestic corporations and made subsection applicable only to individual citizens.

Subsec. (c). Pub. L. 94–455, §1051(c)(2), substituted “Commonwealth of Puerto Rico, the Virgin Islands of the United States, or Guam” for “Virgin Islands of the United States, and such term when used with respect to citizens of the United States does not include Puerto Rico or Guam” after “does not include the”.

Subsec. (d)(1). Pub. L. 94–455, §§1051(c)(3), 1906(b)(13)(A), substituted “a citizen of the United States” for “persons” after “in the case of” and struck out “or his delegate” after “Secretary”.

Subsec. (f). Pub. L. 94–455, §§1051(c)(3), 1906(b)(13)(A), substituted “A citizen of the United States” for “Persons” after “Allowance of deductions and credits” and struck out in two places “or his delegate” after “Secretary”.

Subsecs. (h), (i). Pub. L. 94–455, §1901(a)(117), redesignated subsec. (i) as (h). Former subsec. (h), relating to the status of a citizen of the United States who has been interned by the enemy, was struck out.

1972—Subsec. (c). Pub. L. 92–606 substituted “Puerto Rico or Guam” for “Puerto Rico”.

1971—Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 92–178 provided for non-application of section in the case of a corporation for a taxable year for which it is a DISC or in which it owns at any time stock in a DISC or former DISC.

1966—Subsec (d). Pub. L. 89–809 made applicable to United States citizens and domestic corporations engaged in trade or business in possessions, who qualify for the special tax treatment of income qualifying for the exclusion relating to income from United States possessions, provisions which allow deductions to nonresident aliens or foreign corporations engaged in trade or business in the United States by allowing deductions only where they are allocable to income effectively connected with the trade or business in the United States and by spelling out the exceptions allowing deductions whether or not connected with income from sources within the United States in the case of losses not connected with the trade or business but incurred in transactions entered into for profit, casualty losses, and charitable contributions.

Effective Date of 2004 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 108–357 applicable to taxable years ending after Oct. 22, 2004, see section 908(d)(1) of Pub. L. 108–357, set out as an Effective Date note under section 937 of this title.

Effective Date of 1986 Amendment

Section 1277 of subtitle G (§§1271–1277) of title XII of Pub. L. 99–514, as amended by Pub. L. 100–647, title I, §1012(z), Nov. 10, 1988, 102 Stat. 3530, provided that:

“(a) In General.—Except as otherwise provided in this section, the amendments made by this subtitle [enacting section 932 of this title, amending this section and sections 28, 32, 48, 63, 153, 246, 338, 864, 876, 881, 933, 934, 936, 957, 1402, 1442, 3401, 6091, 7651, 7654, and 7655 of this title, repealing sections 932, 934A, and 935 of this title, and enacting provisions set out as notes under this section and section 932 of this title] shall apply to taxable years beginning after December 31, 1986.

“(b) Special Rule for Guam, American Samoa, and the Northern Mariana Islands.—The amendments made by this subtitle shall apply with respect to Guam, American Samoa, or the Northern Mariana Islands (and to residents thereof and corporations created or organized therein) only if (and so long as) an implementing agreement under section 1271 [set out below] is in effect between the United States and such possession.

“(c) Special Rules for the Virgin Islands.—

“(1) In general.—The amendments made by section 1275(c) [amending sections 28, 48, 338, 864, and 934 of this title and repealing section 934A of this title] shall apply with respect to the Virgin Islands (and residents thereof and corporations created or organized therein) only if (and so long as) an implementing agreement is in effect between the United States and the Virgin Islands with respect to the establishment of rules under which the evasion or avoidance of United States income tax shall not be permitted or facilitated by such possession. Any such implementing agreement shall be executed on behalf of the United States by the Secretary of the Treasury, after consultation with the Secretary of the Interior.

“(2) Section 1275(b).—

“(A) In general.—The amendment made by section 1275(b) [amending section 7651 of this title] shall apply with respect to—

“(i) any taxable year beginning after December 31, 1986, and

“(ii) any pre-1987 open year.

“(B) Special rules.—In the case of any pre-1987 open year—

“(i) the amendment made by section 1275(b) shall not apply to income from sources in the Virgin Islands or income effectively connected with the conduct of a trade or business in the Virgin Islands, and

“(ii) the taxpayer shall be allowed a credit—

     “(I) against any additional tax imposed by subtitle A of the Internal Revenue Code of 1954 [now 1986] (by reason of the amendment made by section 1275(b)) on income not described in clause (i),

     “(II) for any tax paid to the Virgin Islands before the date of the enactment of this Act [Oct. 22, 1986] and attributable to such income.

 For purposes of clause (ii)(II), any tax paid before January 1, 1987, pursuant to a process in effect before August 16, 1986, shall be treated as paid before the date of the enactment of this Act.

“(C) Pre-1987 open year.—For purposes of this paragraph, the term ‘pre-1987 open year’ means any taxable year beginning before January 1, 1987, if on the date of the enactment of this Act [Oct. 22, 1986] the assessment of a deficiency of income tax for such taxable year is not barred by any law or rule of law.

“(D) Exception.—In the case of any pre-1987 open year, the amendment made by section 1275(b) shall not apply to any domestic corporation if—

“(i) during the fiscal year which ended May 31, 1986, such corporation was actively engaged directly or through a subsidiary in the conduct of a trade or business in the Virgin Islands and such trade or business consists of business related to marine activities, and

“(ii) such corporation was incorporated on March 31, 1983, in Delaware.

“(E) Exception for certain transactions.—

“(i) In general.—In the case of any pre-1987 open year, the amendment made by section 1275(b) shall not apply to any income derived from transactions described in clause (ii) by 1 or more corporations which were formed in Delaware on or about March 6, 1981, and which have owned 1 or more office buildings in St. Thomas, United States Virgin Islands, for at least 5 years before the date of the enactment of this Act [Oct. 22, 1986].

“(ii) Description of transactions.—The transactions described in this clause are—

     “(I) the redemptions of limited partnership interests for cash and property described in an agreement (as amended) dated March 12, 1981,

     “(II) the subsequent disposition of the properties distributed in such redemptions, and

     “(III) interest earned before January 1, 1987, on bank deposits of proceeds received from such redemptions to the extent such deposits are located in the United States Virgin Islands.

“(iii) Limitation.—The aggregate reduction in tax by reason of this subparagraph shall not exceed $8,312,000. If the taxes which would be payable as the result of the application of the amendment made by section 1275(b) to pre-1987 open years exceeds the limitation of the preceding sentence, such excess shall be treated as attributable to income received in taxable years in reverse chronological order.

“(d) Report on Implementing Agreements.—If, during the 1-year period beginning on the date of the enactment of this Act [Oct. 22, 1986], any implementing agreement described in subsection (b) or (c) is not executed, the Secretary of the Treasury or his delegate shall report to the Committee on Finance of the United States Senate, the Committee on Ways and Means, and the Committee on Interior and Insular Affairs [now Committee on Natural Resources] of the House of Representatives with respect to—

“(1) the status of such negotiations, and

“(2) the reason why such agreement has not been executed.

“(e) Treatment of Certain United States Persons.—Except as otherwise provided in regulations prescribed by the Secretary of the Treasury or his delegate, if a United States person becomes a resident of Guam, American Samoa, or the Northern Mariana Islands, the rules of section 877(c) of the Internal Revenue Code of 1954 [now 1986] shall apply to such person during the 10-year period beginning when such person became such a resident. Notwithstanding subsection (b), the preceding sentence shall apply to dispositions after December 31, 1985, in taxable years ending after such date.

“(f) Exemption From Withholding.—Notwithstanding subsection (b), the modification of section 884 of the Internal Revenue Code of 1986 by reason of the amendment to section 881 of such Code by section 1273(b)(1) of this Act shall apply to taxable years beginning after December 31, 1986.”

Effective Date of 1984 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 98–369 applicable to taxable years beginning after Dec. 31, 1983, see section 711(c)(2)(A)(v) of Pub. L. 98–369, set out as a note under section 165 of this title.

Effective Date of 1977 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 95–30 applicable to taxable years beginning after Dec. 31, 1976, see section 106(a) of Pub. L. 95–30, set out as a note under section 1 of this title.

Effective Date of 1976 Amendment

Amendment by section 1051(c) of Pub. L. 94–455 applicable with respect to taxable years beginning after Dec. 31, 1975, with certain exceptions, see section 1051(i) of Pub. L. 94–455, set out as a note under section 27 of this title.

Amendment by section 1901(a)(117) of Pub. L. 94–455 applicable with respect to taxable years beginning after Dec. 31, 1976, see section 1901(d) of Pub. L. 94–455, set out as a note under section 2 of this title.

Effective Date of 1972 Amendment

Section 2 of Pub. L. 92–606 provided in part that: “The amendments made by section 1 [enacting sections 935 and 6688 of this title, amending this section, sections 932, 7654, and 7701 of this title, and section 1421i of Title 48, Territories and Insular Possessions, and enacting provisions set out as notes under sections 881 and 1442 of this title] (other than section 1(e)) [amending sections 881 and 1442 of this title] shall apply with respect to taxable years beginning after December 31, 1972.”

Effective Date of 1971 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 92–178 applicable with respect to taxable years ending after Dec. 31, 1971, except that a corporation may not be a DISC for any taxable year beginning before Jan. 1, 1972, see section 507 of Pub. L. 92–178, set out as an Effective Date note under section 991 of this title.

Effective Date of 1966 Amendment

Section 107(b) of Pub. L. 89–809 provided that: “The amendment made by this section [amending this section] shall apply with respect to taxable years beginning after December 31, 1966.”

Authority of Guam, American Samoa, and the Northern Mariana Islands To Enact Revenue Laws

Section 1271 of Pub. L. 99–514 provided that:

“(a) In General.—Except as provided in subsection (b), nothing in the laws of the United States shall prevent Guam, American Samoa, or the Northern Mariana Islands from enacting tax laws (which shall apply in lieu of the mirror system) with respect to income—

“(1) from sources within, or effectively connected with the conduct of a trade or business within, any such possession, or

“(2) received or accrued by any resident of such possession.

“(b) Agreements To Alleviate Certain Problems Relating to Tax Administration.—Subsection (a) shall apply to Guam, American Samoa, or the Northern Mariana Islands only if (and so long as) an implementing agreement is in effect between the United States and such possession with respect to—

“(1) the elimination of double taxation involving taxation by such possession and taxation by the United States,

“(2) the establishment of rules under which the evasion or avoidance of United States income tax shall not be permitted or facilitated by such possession,

“(3) the exchange of information between such possession and the United States for purposes of tax administration, and

“(4) the resolution of other problems arising in connection with the administration of the tax laws of such possession or the United States.

Any such implementing agreement shall be executed on behalf of the United States by the Secretary of the Treasury after consultation with the Secretary of the Interior.

“(c) Revenues Not To Decrease.—The total amount of the revenue received by any possession referred to in subsection (a) pursuant to its tax laws during the implementation year and each of the 4 fiscal years thereafter shall not be less than the revenue (adjusted for inflation) which was received by such possession pursuant to tax laws for its last fiscal year before the implementation year.

“(d) Nondiscriminatory Treatment Required.—Nothing in any tax law of a possession referred to in subsection (a) may discriminate against any United States person or any resident (corporate or otherwise) of any other possession.

“(e) Enforcement.—

“(1) In general.—If the Secretary of the Treasury (after consultation with the Secretary of the Interior) determines that any possession has failed to comply with subsection (c) or (d), the Secretary of the Treasury shall so notify the Governor of such possession in writing. If such possession does not comply with subsection (c) or (d) (as the case may be) within 90 days of such notification, the Secretary of the Treasury shall notify the Congress of such noncompliance. Unless the Congress by law provides otherwise, the mirror system of taxation shall be reinstated in such possession and shall be in full force and effect for taxable years beginning after such notification to the Congress.

“(2) Special rule for revenue requirements.—If the failure to comply with subsection (c) is for good cause and does not jeopardize the fiscal integrity of the possession, the Secretary may waive the requirements of subsection (c) for such period as he determines appropriate.

“(f) Definitions and Special Rules.—

“(1) Implementation year.—For purposes of this section, the term “implementation year” means the 1st fiscal year of the possession in which the tax laws authorized by subsection (a) take effect.

“(2) Mirror system.—For purposes of this section, the mirror system of taxation consists of the provisions of law (in effect on the day before the date of the enactment of this Act [Oct. 22, 1986]) which make the provisions of the income tax laws of the United States (as in effect from time to time) in effect in a possession of the United States.

“(3) Special rule for northern mariana islands.—Notwithstanding the provisions of the last clause of section 601(a) of Public Law 94–241 [48 U.S.C. 1801 note], the Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands may elect to continue its mirror system of taxation without regard to whether Guam enacts tax laws under the authority provided in subsection (a).”

§932. Coordination of United States and Virgin Islands income taxes

(a) Treatment of United States residents

(1) Application of subsection

This subsection shall apply to an individual for the taxable year if—

(A) such individual—

(i) is a citizen or resident of the United States (other than a bona fide resident of the Virgin Islands during the entire taxable year), and

(ii) has income derived from sources within the Virgin Islands, or effectively connected with the conduct of a trade or business within such possession, for the taxable year, or


(B) such individual files a joint return for the taxable year with an individual described in subparagraph (A).

(2) Filing requirement

Each individual to whom this subsection applies for the taxable year shall file his income tax return for the taxable year with both the United States and the Virgin Islands.

(3) Extent of income tax liability

In the case of an individual to whom this subsection applies in a taxable year for purposes of so much of this title (other than this section and section 7654) as relates to the taxes imposed by this chapter, the United States shall be treated as including the Virgin Islands.

(b) Portion of United States tax liability payable to the Virgin Islands

(1) In general

Each individual to whom subsection (a) applies for the taxable year shall pay the applicable percentage of the taxes imposed by this chapter for such taxable year (determined without regard to paragraph (3)) to the Virgin Islands.

(2) Applicable percentage

(A) In general

For purposes of paragraph (1), the term “applicable percentage” means the percentage which Virgin Islands adjusted gross income bears to adjusted gross income.

(B) Virgin Islands adjusted gross income

For purposes of subparagraph (A), the term “Virgin Islands adjusted gross income” means adjusted gross income determined by taking into account only income derived from sources within the Virgin Islands and deductions properly apportioned or allocable thereto.

(3) Amounts paid allowed as credit

There shall be allowed as a credit against the tax imposed by this chapter for the taxable year an amount equal to the taxes required to be paid to the Virgin Islands under paragraph (1) which are so paid.

(c) Treatment of Virgin Islands residents

(1) Application of subsection

This subsection shall apply to an individual for the taxable year if—

(A) such individual is a bona fide resident of the Virgin Islands during the entire taxable year, or

(B) such individual files a joint return for the taxable year with an individual described in subparagraph (A).

(2) Filing requirement

Each individual to whom this subsection applies for the taxable year shall file an income tax return for the taxable year with the Virgin Islands.

(3) Extent of income tax liability

In the case of an individual to whom this subsection applies in a taxable year for purposes of so much of this title (other than this section and section 7654) as relates to the taxes imposed by this chapter, the Virgin Islands shall be treated as including the United States.

(4) Residents of the Virgin Islands

In the case of an individual—

(A) who is a bona fide resident of the Virgin Islands during the entire taxable year,

(B) who, on his return of income tax to the Virgin Islands, reports income from all sources and identifies the source of each item shown on such return, and

(C) who fully pays his tax liability referred to in section 934(a) to the Virgin Islands with respect to such income,


for purposes of calculating income tax liability to the United States, gross income shall not include any amount included in gross income on such return, and allocable deductions and credits shall not be taken into account.

(d) Special rule for joint returns

In the case of a joint return, this section shall be applied on the basis of the residence of the spouse who has the greater adjusted gross income (determined without regard to community property laws) for the taxable year.

(e) Special rule for applying section to tax imposed in Virgin Islands

In applying this section for purposes of determining income tax liability incurred to the Virgin Islands, the provisions of this section shall not be affected by the provisions of Federal law referred to in section 934(a).

(Added Pub. L. 99–514, title XII, §1274(a), Oct. 22, 1986, 100 Stat. 2596; amended Pub. L. 100–647, title I, §1012(w)(1)–(3), Nov. 10, 1988, 102 Stat. 3530; Pub. L. 108–357, title VIII, §908(c)(2), Oct. 22, 2004, 118 Stat. 1656.)

Prior Provisions

A prior section 932, acts Aug. 16, 1954, ch. 736, 68A Stat. 292; Nov. 13, 1966, Pub. L. 89–809, title I, §103(m), 80 Stat. 1554; Oct. 31, 1972, Pub. L. 92–606, §1(f)(2), (3), 86 Stat. 1497; Apr. 7, 1986, Pub. L. 99–272, title XII, §12103(a), 100 Stat. 285, related to income taxation of citizens of possessions of the United States, prior to repeal by Pub. L. 99–514, title XII, §1272(d)(1), Oct. 22, 1986, 100 Stat. 2594.

Amendments

2004—Subsecs. (a)(1)(A)(i), (c)(1)(A), (4)(A). Pub. L. 108–357 substituted “during the entire taxable year” for “at the close of the taxable year”.

1988—Subsec. (c)(2). Pub. L. 100–647, §1012(w)(3), substituted “an income tax return” for “his income tax return”.

Subsec. (c)(4). Pub. L. 100–647, §1012(w)(2), amended par. (4) generally. Prior to amendment, par. (4) read as follows: “In the case of an individual who is a bona fide resident of the Virgin Islands at the close of the taxable year and who, on his return of income tax to the Virgin Islands, reports income from all sources and identifies the source of each item shown on such return, for purposes of calculating income tax liability to the United States gross income shall not include any amount included in gross income on such return.”

Subsec. (e). Pub. L. 100–647, §1012(w)(1), substituted current heading for “Section not to apply to tax imposed in Virgin Islands” and amended text generally. Prior to amendment, text read as follows: “This section shall not apply for purposes of determining income tax liability incurred to the Virgin Islands.”

Effective Date of 2004 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 108–357 applicable to taxable years ending after Oct. 22, 2004, see section 908(d)(1) of Pub. L. 108–357, set out as an Effective Date note under section 937 of this title.

Effective Date of 1988 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 100–647 effective, except as otherwise provided, as if included in the provision of the Tax Reform Act of 1986, Pub. L. 99–514, to which such amendment relates, see section 1019(a) of Pub. L. 100–647, set out as a note under section 1 of this title.

Effective Date

Enactment of section 932 and repeal of prior section 932 applicable to taxable years beginning after Dec. 31, 1986, with certain exceptions and qualifications, see section 1277 of Pub. L. 99–514, set out as an Effective Date of 1986 Amendment note under section 931 of this title.

Regulations

Section 1274(c) of Pub. L. 99–514, as amended by Pub. L. 100–647, title I, §1012(w)(4), Nov. 10, 1988, 102 Stat. 3530, provided that: “The Secretary of the Treasury or his delegate shall prescribe such regulations as may be necessary or appropriate for applying the Internal Revenue Code of 1986 [this title] for purposes of determining tax liability incurred to the Virgin Islands.”

Authority To Impose Nondiscriminatory Local Income Taxes

Section 1274(b) of Pub. L. 99–514 provided that: “Nothing in any provision of Federal law shall prevent the Virgin Islands from imposing on any person nondiscriminatory local income taxes. Any taxes so imposed shall be treated in the same manner as State and local income taxes under section 164 of the Internal Revenue Code of 1954 [now 1986] and shall not be treated as taxes to which section 901 of such Code applies.”

§933. Income from sources within Puerto Rico

The following items shall not be included in gross income and shall be exempt from taxation under this subtitle:

(1) Resident of Puerto Rico for entire taxable year

In the case of an individual who is a bona fide resident of Puerto Rico during the entire taxable year, income derived from sources within Puerto Rico (except amounts received for services performed as an employee of the United States or any agency thereof); but such individual shall not be allowed as a deduction from his gross income any deductions (other than the deduction under section 151, relating to personal exemptions), or any credit, properly allocable to or chargeable against amounts excluded from gross income under this paragraph.

(2) Taxable year of change of residence from Puerto Rico

In the case of an individual citizen of the United States who has been a bona fide resident of Puerto Rico for a period of at least 2 years before the date on which he changes his residence from Puerto Rico, income derived from sources therein (except amounts received for services performed as an employee of the United States or any agency thereof) which is attributable to that part of such period of Puerto Rican residence before such date; but such individual shall not be allowed as a deduction from his gross income any deductions (other than the deduction for personal exemptions under section 151), or any credit, properly allocable to or chargeable against amounts excluded from gross income under this paragraph.

(Aug. 16, 1954, ch. 736, 68A Stat. 293; Pub. L. 99–514, title XII, §1272(d)(3), Oct. 22, 1986, 100 Stat. 2594.)

Amendments

1986—Pub. L. 99–514 inserted “, or any credit,” in pars. (1) and (2).

Effective Date of 1986 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 99–514 applicable to taxable years beginning after Dec. 31, 1986, with certain exceptions and qualifications, see section 1277 of Pub. L. 99–514, set out as a note under section 931 of this title.

§934. Limitation on reduction in income tax liability incurred to the Virgin Islands

(a) General rule

Tax liability incurred to the Virgin Islands pursuant to this subtitle, as made applicable in the Virgin Islands by the Act entitled “An Act making appropriations for the naval service for the fiscal year ending June 30, 1922, and for other purposes”, approved July 12, 1921 (48 U.S.C. 1397), or pursuant to section 28(a) of the Revised Organic Act of the Virgin Islands, approved July 22, 1954 (48 U.S.C. 1642), shall not be reduced or remitted in any way, directly or indirectly, whether by grant, subsidy, or other similar payment, by any law enacted in the Virgin Islands, except to the extent provided in subsection (b).

(b) Reductions permitted with respect to certain income

(1) In general

Except as provided in paragraph (2), subsection (a) shall not apply with respect to so much of the tax liability referred to in subsection (a) as is attributable to income derived from sources within the Virgin Islands or income effectively connected with the conduct of a trade or business within the Virgin Islands.

(2) Exception for liability paid by citizens or residents of the United States

Paragraph (1) shall not apply to any liability payable to the Virgin Islands under section 932(b).

(3) Special rule for non-United States income of certain foreign corporations

(A) In general

In the case of a qualified foreign corporation, subsection (a) shall not apply with respect to so much of the tax liability referred to in subsection (a) as is attributable to income which is derived from sources outside the United States and which is not effectively connected with the conduct of a trade or business within the United States.

(B) Qualified foreign corporation

For purposes of subparagraph (A), the term “qualified foreign corporation” means any foreign corporation if less than 10 percent of—

(i) the total voting power of the stock of such corporation, and

(ii) the total value of the stock of such corporation, is owned or treated as owned (within the meaning of section 958) by 1 or more United States persons.

(4) Determination of income source, etc.

The determination as to whether income is derived from sources within the United States or is effectively connected with the conduct of a trade or business within the United States shall be made under regulations prescribed by the Secretary.

(Added Pub. L. 86–779, §4(a)(1), Sept. 14, 1960, 74 Stat. 998; amended Pub. L. 94–455, title XIX, §§1901(a)(118), 1906(b)(13)(A), Oct. 4, 1976, 90 Stat. 1784, 1834; Pub. L. 97–248, title II, §213(b), Sept. 3, 1982, 96 Stat. 463; Pub. L. 97–455, §1(c), Jan. 12, 1983, 96 Stat. 2498; Pub. L. 98–369, div. A, title VIII, §801(d)(7), July 18, 1984, 98 Stat. 996; Pub. L. 99–514, title XII, §1275(a)(2)(A), (c)(1), (2), title XVIII, §1876(f)(2), Oct. 22, 1986, 100 Stat. 2598, 2900; Pub. L. 108–357, title VIII, §908(c)(3), Oct. 22, 2004, 118 Stat. 1656.)

Amendments

2004—Subsec. (b)(4). Pub. L. 108–357 struck out “the Virgin Islands or” before “the United States” in two places.

1986—Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 99–514, §1275(c)(2)(A), struck out “or (c) or in section 934A” after “subsection (b)”.

Subsec. (b). Pub. L. 99–514, §1275(c)(1), (2)(B), added subsec. (b) and struck out former subsec. (b) which excepted from subsec. (a) domestic or Virgin Islands corporations to the extent they derived income from sources without the United States under certain conditions.

Subsec. (c). Pub. L. 99–514, §1275(c)(1), struck out subsec. (c) which provided an exception to subsec. (a) of this section for individual citizens of the United States residing in the Virgin Islands to the extent their income is derived from sources within the Virgin Islands.

Subsec. (d). Pub. L. 99–514, §1275(c)(1), struck out subsec. (d) which related to requirement to supply information.

Subsec. (e). Pub. L. 99–514, §1275(a)(2)(A), struck out subsec. (e) which provided for tax treatment of intangible property income of certain domestic corporations.

Subsec. (f). Pub. L. 99–514, §1275(a)(2)(A), struck out subsec. (f) which provided a transitional rule for applying subsec. (b)(2) of this section with respect to taxable years beginning after Dec. 31, 1982, and before Jan. 1, 1985.

Pub. L. 99–514, §1876(f)(2), struck out subsec. (f) which provided that subsec. (a) of this section not apply in the case of a Virgin Islands corporation which is a FSC.

1984—Subsec. (f). Pub. L. 98–369 added subsec. (f) relating to FSC.

1983—Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 97–455 inserted “or in section 934A” after “subsection (b) or (c)”.

1982—Subsec. (b)(2). Pub. L. 97–248, §213(b)(1), substituted “65 percent” for “50 percent”.

Subsec. (e). Pub. L. 97–248, §213(b)(2), added subsec. (e).

Subsec. (f). Pub. L. 97–248, §213(b)(2), added a temporary subsec. (f) which provided that in applying subsec. (b)(2) with respect to taxable years beginning after December 31, 1982, and before January 1, 1985, “55 percent” shall be substituted for “65 percent” for taxable years beginning in calendar year 1983 and “60 percent” shall be substituted for “65 percent” for taxable years beginning in calendar year 1984.

1976—Subsec. (b). Pub. L. 94–455, §1901(a)(118), struck out “For the purposes of this subsection, all amounts received by such corporation within the United States, whether derived from sources within or without the United States, shall be considered as being derived from sources within the United States”.

Subsec. (d). Pub. L. 94–455, §1906(b)(13)(A), struck out “or his delegate” after “Secretary” in two places.

Effective Date of 2004 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 108–357 applicable to taxable years ending after Oct. 22, 2004, see section 908(d)(1) of Pub. L. 108–357, set out as an Effective Date note under section 937 of this title.

Effective Date of 1986 Amendment

Amendment by section 1275(a)(2)(A), (c)(1), (2) of Pub. L. 99–514 applicable to taxable years beginning after Dec. 31, 1986, with certain exceptions and qualifications, see section 1277 of Pub. L. 99–514, set out as a note under section 931 of this title.

Amendment by section 1876(f)(2) of Pub. L. 99–514 effective, except as otherwise provided, as if included in the provisions of the Tax Reform Act of 1984, Pub. L. 98–369, div. A, to which such amendment relates, see section 1881 of Pub. L. 99–514, set out as a note under section 48 of this title.

Effective Date of 1984 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 98–369 applicable to transactions after Dec. 31, 1984, in taxable years ending after such date, see section 805(a)(1) of Pub. L. 98–369, as amended, set out as a note under section 245 of this title.

Effective Date of 1983 Amendment

Section 1(e) of Pub. L. 97–455 provided that:

“(1) In general.—Except as provided in paragraph (2), the amendments made by this section [enacting section 934A and amending this section] shall apply to amounts received after the date of the enactment of this Act [Jan. 12, 1983] in taxable years ending after such date.

“(2) Withholding.—The amendment made by subsection (b) [enacting section 1444 of this title] shall apply to payments made after the date of the enactment of this Act.”

Effective Date of 1982 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 97–248 applicable to taxable years beginning after Dec. 31, 1982, except that so much of this section to which section 936(h)(6) applies by reason of subsec. (e)(4) of this section is applicable to taxable years ending after July 1, 1982, see section 213(e)(1), (2) of Pub. L. 97–248 set out as a note under section 936 of this title.

Effective Date of 1976 Amendment

Amendment by section 1901(a)(118) of Pub. L. 94–455 applicable with respect to taxable years beginning after Dec. 31, 1976, see section 1901(d) of Pub. L. 94–455, set out as a note under section 2 of this title.

Effective Date

Section 4(e)(1) of Pub. L. 86–779 provided that: “The amendments made by subsection (a) [enacting this section] shall apply to tax liability incurred with respect to taxable years beginning on or after January 1, 1960.”

Plan Amendments Not Required Until January 1, 1989

For provisions directing that if any amendments made by subtitle A or subtitle C of title XI [§§1101–1147 and 1171–1177] or title XVIII [§§1800–1899A] of Pub. L. 99–514 require an amendment to any plan, such plan amendment shall not be required to be made before the first plan year beginning on or after Jan. 1, 1989, see section 1140 of Pub. L. 99–514, as amended, set out as a note under section 401 of this title.

Report on Possessions Corporations

For provisions requiring the Secretary of the Treasury to submit a report to Congress respecting the operation and effect of subsec. (b) of this section for the year 1981 and each second calendar year thereafter, see section 441(a) of Pub. L. 98–369, set out as a note under section 936 of this title.

[§934A. Repealed. Pub. L. 99–514, title XII, §1275(c)(3), Oct. 22, 1986, 100 Stat. 2599]

Section, added Pub. L. 97–455, §1(a), Jan. 12, 1983, 96 Stat. 2497, related to income tax rate on Virgin Islands source income.

Effective Date of Repeal

Repeal applicable to taxable years beginning after Dec. 31, 1986, with certain exceptions and qualifications, see section 1277 of Pub. L. 99–514, set out as an Effective Date of 1986 Amendment note under section 931 of this title.

[§935. Repealed. Pub. L. 99–514, title XII, §1272(d)(2), Oct. 22, 1986, 100 Stat. 2594]

Section, added Pub. L. 92–606, §1(a), Oct. 31, 1972, 86 Stat. 1494; amended Pub. L. 108–357, title VIII, §908(c)(4), Oct. 22, 2004, 118 Stat. 1656, related to coordination of United States and Guam individual income taxes.

Amendment Subsequent to Repeal

Pub. L. 108–357, title IX, §908(c)(4), (d), Oct. 22, 2004, 118 Stat. 1656, 1657, applicable to taxable years ending after Oct. 22, 2004, amended section, as in effect before the effective date of its repeal, in introductory provisions of subsec. (a), by substituting “who, during the entire taxable year” for “for the taxable year who”, in subsecs. (a)(1) and (b)(1)(B), by inserting “bona fide” before “resident”, in subsec. (b)(1)(A), by inserting “(other a bona fide resident of Guam during the entire taxable year)” after “United States”, and, in subsection (b)(2), by striking out “residence and” before “citizenship”.

Effective Date of Repeal

Repeal applicable to taxable years beginning after Dec. 31, 1986, with certain exceptions and qualifications, see section 1277 of Pub. L. 99–514, set out as an Effective Date of 1986 Amendment note under section 931 of this title.

§936. Puerto Rico and possession tax credit

(a) Allowance of credit

(1) In general

Except as otherwise provided in this section, if a domestic corporation elects the application of this section and if the conditions of both subparagraph (A) and subparagraph (B) of paragraph (2) are satisfied, there shall be allowed as a credit against the tax imposed by this chapter an amount equal to the portion of the tax which is attributable to the sum of—

(A) the taxable income, from sources without the United States, from—

(i) the active conduct of a trade or business within a possession of the United States, or

(ii) the sale or exchange of substantially all of the assets used by the taxpayer in the active conduct of such trade or business, and


(B) the qualified possession source investment income.

(2) Conditions which must be satisfied

The conditions referred to in paragraph (1) are:

(A) 3-year period

If 80 percent or more of the gross income of such domestic corporation for the 3-year period immediately preceding the close of the taxable year (or for such part of such period immediately preceding the close of such taxable year as may be applicable) was derived from sources within a possession of the United States (determined without regard to subsections (f) and (g) of section 904); and

(B) Trade or business

If 75 percent or more of the gross income of such domestic corporation for such period or such part thereof was derived from the active conduct of a trade or business within a possession of the United States.

(3) Credit not allowed against certain taxes

The credit provided by paragraph (1) shall not be allowed against the tax imposed by—

(A) section 59A (relating to environmental tax),

(B) section 531 (relating to the tax on accumulated earnings),

(C) section 541 (relating to personal holding company tax), or

(D) section 1351 (relating to recoveries of foreign expropriation losses).

(4) Limitations on credit for active business income

(A) In general

The amount of the credit determined under paragraph (1) for any taxable year with respect to income referred to in subparagraph (A) thereof shall not exceed the sum of the following amounts:

(i) 60 percent of the sum of—

(I) the aggregate amount of the possession corporation's qualified possession wages for such taxable year, plus

(II) the allocable employee fringe benefit expenses of the possession corporation for the taxable year.


(ii) The sum of—

(I) 15 percent of the depreciation allowances for the taxable year with respect to short-life qualified tangible property,

(II) 40 percent of the depreciation allowances for the taxable year with respect to medium-life qualified tangible property, and

(III) 65 percent of the depreciation allowances for the taxable year with respect to long-life qualified tangible property.


(iii) If the possession corporation does not have an election to use the method described in subsection (h)(5)(C)(ii) (relating to profit split) in effect for the taxable year, the amount of qualified possession income taxes for the taxable year allocable to nonsheltered income.

(B) Election to take reduced credit

(i) In general

If an election under this subparagraph applies to a possession corporation for any taxable year—

(I) subparagraph (A), and the provisions of subsection (i), shall not apply to such possession corporation for such taxable year, and

(II) the credit determined under paragraph (1) for such taxable year with respect to income referred to in subparagraph (A) thereof shall be the applicable percentage of the credit which would otherwise have been determined under such paragraph with respect to such income.


 Notwithstanding subclause (I), a possession corporation to which an election under this subparagraph applies shall be entitled to the benefits of subsection (i)(3)(B) for taxes allocable (on a pro rata basis) to taxable income the tax on which is not offset by reason of this subparagraph.

(ii) Applicable percentage

The term “applicable percentage” means the percentage determined in accordance with the following table:


 In the case of taxable
The   
  years beginning in:
percentage is:
 1994
60  
 1995
55  
 1996
50  
 1997
45  
 1998 and thereafter
40.   

        

(iii) Election

(I) In general

An election under this subparagraph by any possession corporation may be made only for the corporation's first taxable year beginning after December 31, 1993, for which it is a possession corporation.

(II) Period of election

An election under this subparagraph shall apply to the taxable year for which made and all subsequent taxable years unless revoked.

(III) Affiliated groups

If, for any taxable year, an election is not in effect for any possession corporation which is a member of an affiliated group, any election under this subparagraph for any other member of such group is revoked for such taxable year and all subsequent taxable years. For purposes of this subclause, members of an affiliated group shall be determined without regard to the exceptions contained in section 1504(b) and as if the constructive ownership rules of section 1563(e) applied for purposes of section 1504(a). The Secretary may prescribe regulations to prevent the avoidance of this subclause through deconsolidation or otherwise.

(C) Cross reference

For definitions and special rules applicable to this paragraph, see subsection (i).

(b) Amounts received in United States

In determining taxable income for purposes of subsection (a), there shall not be taken into account as income from sources without the United States any gross income which was received by such domestic corporation within the United States, whether derived from sources within or without the United States. This subsection shall not apply to any amount described in subsection (a)(1)(A)(i) received from a person who is not a related person (within the meaning of subsection (h)(3) but without regard to subparagraphs (D)(ii) and (E)(i) thereof) with respect to the domestic corporation.

(c) Treatment of certain foreign taxes

For purposes of this title, any tax of a foreign country or a possession of the United States which is paid or accrued with respect to taxable income which is taken into account in computing the credit under subsection (a) shall not be treated as income, war profits, or excess profits taxes paid or accrued to a foreign country or possession of the United States, and no deduction shall be allowed under this title with respect to any amounts so paid or accrued.

(d) Definitions and special rules

For purposes of this section—

(1) Possession

The term “possession of the United States” includes the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico and the Virgin Islands.

(2) Qualified possession source investment income

The term “qualified possession source investment income” means gross income which—

(A) is from sources within a possession of the United States in which a trade or business is actively conducted, and

(B) the taxpayer establishes to the satisfaction of the Secretary is attributable to the investment in such possession (for use therein) of funds derived from the active conduct of a trade or business in such possession, or from such investment,


less the deductions properly apportioned or allocated thereto.

(3) Carryover basis property

(A) In general

Income from the sale or exchange of any asset the basis of which is determined in whole or in part by reference to its basis in the hands of another person shall not be treated as income described in subparagraph (A) or (B) of subsection (a)(1).

(B) Exception for possessions corporations, etc.

For purposes of subparagraph (A), the holding of any asset by another person shall not be taken into account if throughout the period for which such asset was held by such person section 931, this section, or section 957(c) (as in effect on the day before the date of the enactment of the Tax Reform Act of 1986) applied to such person.

(4) Investment in qualified Caribbean Basin countries

(A) In general

For purposes of paragraph (2)(B), an investment in a financial institution shall, subject to such conditions as the Secretary may prescribe by regulations, be treated as for use in Puerto Rico to the extent used by such financial institution (or by the Government Development Bank for Puerto Rico or the Puerto Rico Economic Development Bank)—

(i) for investment, consistent with the goals and purposes of the Caribbean Basin Economic Recovery Act, in—

(I) active business assets in a qualified Caribbean Basin country, or

(II) development projects in a qualified Caribbean Basin country, and


(ii) in accordance with a specific authorization granted by the Commissioner of Financial Institutions of Puerto Rico pursuant to regulations issued by such Commissioner.


A similar rule shall apply in the case of a direct investment in the Government Development Bank for Puerto Rico or the Puerto Rico Economic Development Bank.

(B) Qualified Caribbean Basin country

For purposes of this subsection, the term “qualified Caribbean Basin country” means any beneficiary country (within the meaning of section 212(a)(1)(A) of the Caribbean Basin Economic Recovery Act) which meets the requirements of clauses (i) and (ii) of section 274(h)(6)(A) and the Virgin Islands.

(C) Additional requirements

Subparagraph (A) shall not apply to any investment made by a financial institution (or by the Government Development Bank for Puerto Rico or the Puerto Rico Economic Development Bank) unless—

(i) the person in whose trade or business such investment is made (or such other recipient of the investment) and the financial institution or such Bank certify to the Secretary and the Commissioner of Financial Institutions of Puerto Rico that the proceeds of the loan will be promptly used to acquire active business assets or to make other authorized expenditures, and

(ii) the financial institution (or the Government Development Bank for Puerto Rico or the Puerto Rico Economic Development Bank) and the recipient of the investment funds agree to permit the Secretary and the Commissioner of Financial Institutions of Puerto Rico to examine such of their books and records as may be necessary to ensure that the requirements of this paragraph are met.

(D) Requirement for investment in Caribbean Basin countries

(i) In general

For each calendar year, the government of Puerto Rico shall take such steps as may be necessary to ensure that at least $100,000,000 of qualified Caribbean Basin country investments are made during such calendar year.

(ii) Qualified Caribbean Basin country investment

For purposes of clause (i), the term “qualified Caribbean Basin country investment” means any investment if—

(I) the income from such investment is treated as qualified possession source investment income by reason of subparagraph (A), and

(II) such investment is not (directly or indirectly) a refinancing of a prior investment (whether or not such prior investment was a qualified Caribbean Basin country investment).

(e) Election

(1) Period of election

The election provided in subsection (a) shall be made at such time and in such manner as the Secretary may by regulations prescribe. Any such election shall apply to the first taxable year for which such election was made and for which the domestic corporation satisfied the conditions of subparagraphs (A) and (B) of subsection (a)(2) and for each taxable year thereafter until such election is revoked by the domestic corporation under paragraph (2). If any such election is revoked by the domestic corporation under paragraph (2), such domestic corporation may make a subsequent election under subsection (a) for any taxable year thereafter for which such domestic corporation satisfies the conditions of subparagraphs (A) and (B) of subsection (a)(2) and any such subsequent election shall remain in effect until revoked by such domestic corporation under paragraph (2).

(2) Revocation

An election under subsection (a)—

(A) may be revoked for any taxable year beginning before the expiration of the 9th taxable year following the taxable year for which such election first applies only with the consent of the Secretary; and

(B) may be revoked for any taxable year beginning after the expiration of such 9th taxable year without the consent of the Secretary.

(f) Limitation on credit for DISC's and FSC's

No credit shall be allowed under this section to a corporation for any taxable year—

(1) for which it is a DISC or former DISC, or

(2) in which it owns at any time stock in a—

(A) DISC or former DISC, or

(B) former FSC.

(g) Exception to accumulated earnings tax

(1) For purposes of section 535, the term “accumulated taxable income” shall not include taxable income entitled to the credit under subsection (a).

(2) For purposes of section 537, the term “reasonable needs of the business” includes assets which produce income eligible for the credit under subsection (a).

(h) Tax treatment of intangible property income

(1) In general

(A) Income attributable to shareholders

The intangible property income of a corporation electing the application of this section for any taxable year shall be included on a pro rata basis in the gross income of all shareholders of such electing corporation at the close of the taxable year of such electing corporation as income from sources within the United States for the taxable year of such shareholder in which or with which the taxable year of such electing corporation ends.

(B) Exclusion from the income of an electing corporation

Any intangible property income of a corporation electing the application of this section which is included in the gross income of a shareholder of such corporation by reason of subparagraph (A) shall be excluded from the gross income of such corporation.

(2) Foreign shareholders; shareholders not subject to tax

(A) In general

Paragraph (1)(A) shall not apply with respect to any shareholder—

(i) who is not a United States person, or

(ii) who is not subject to tax under this title on intangible property income which would be allocated to such shareholder (but for this subparagraph).

(B) Treatment of nonallocated intangible property income

For purposes of this subtitle, intangible property income of a corporation electing the application of this section which is not included in the gross income of a shareholder of such corporation by reason of subparagraph (A)—

(i) shall be treated as income from sources within the United States, and

(ii) shall not be taken into account under subsection (a)(2).

(3) Intangible property income

For purposes of this subsection—

(A) In general

The term “intangible property income” means the gross income of a corporation attributable to any intangible property other than intangible property which has been licensed to such corporation since prior to 1948 and is in use by such corporation on the date of the enactment of this subparagraph.

(B) Intangible property

The term “intangible property” means any—

(i) patent, invention, formula, process, design, pattern, or know-how;

(ii) copyright, literary, musical, or artistic composition;

(iii) trademark, trade name, or brand name;

(iv) franchise, license, or contract;

(v) method, program, system, procedure, campaign, survey, study, forecast, estimate, customer list, or technical data; or

(vi) any similar item,


which has substantial value independent of the services of any individual.

(C) Exclusion of reasonable profit

The term “intangible property income” shall not include any portion of the income from the sale, exchange or other disposition of any product, or from the rendering of services, by a corporation electing the application of this section which is determined by the Secretary to be a reasonable profit on the direct and indirect costs incurred by such electing corporation which are attributable to such income.

(D) Related person

(i) In general

A person (hereinafter referred to as the “related person”) is related to any person if—

(I) the related person bears a relationship to such person specified in section 267(b) or section 707(b)(1), or

(II) the related person and such person are members of the same controlled group of corporations.

(ii) Special rule

For purposes of clause (i), section 267(b) and section 707(b)(1) shall be applied by substituting “10 percent” for “50 percent”.

(E) Controlled group of corporations

The term “controlled group of corporations” has the meaning given to such term by section 1563(a), except that—

(i) “more than 10 percent” shall be substituted for “at least 80 percent” and “more than 50 percent” each place either appears in section 1563(a), and

(ii) the determination shall be made without regard to subsections (a)(4), (b)(2), and (e)(3)(C) of section 1563.

(4) Distributions to meet qualification requirements

(A) In general

If the Secretary determines that a corporation does not satisfy a condition specified in subparagraph (A) or (B) of subsection (a)(2) for any taxable year by reason of the exclusion from gross income under paragraph (1)(B), such corporation shall nevertheless be treated as satisfying such condition for such year if it makes a pro rata distribution of property after the close of such taxable year to its shareholders (designated at the time of such distribution as a distribution to meet qualification requirements) with respect to their stock in an amount which is equal to—

(i) if the condition of subsection (a)(2)(A) is not satisfied, that portion of the gross income for the period described in subsection (a)(2)(A)—

(I) which was not derived from sources within a possession, and

(II) which exceeds the amount of such income for such period which would enable such corporation to satisfy the condition of subsection (a)(2)(A),


(ii) if the condition of subsection (a)(2)(B) is not satisfied, that portion of the gross income for such period—

(I) which was not derived from the active conduct of a trade or business within a possession, and

(II) which exceeds the amount of such income for such period which would enable such corporation to satisfy the conditions of subsection (a)(2)(B), or


(iii) if neither of such conditions is satisfied, that portion of the gross income which exceeds the amount of gross income for such period which would enable such corporation to satisfy the conditions of subparagraphs (A) and (B) of subsection (a)(2).

(B) Effectively connected income

In the case of a shareholder who is a nonresident alien individual or a foreign corporation, trust, or estate, any distribution described in subparagraph (A) shall be treated as income which is effectively connected with the conduct of a trade or business conducted through a permanent establishment of such shareholder within the United States.

(C) Distribution denied in case of fraud or willful neglect

Subparagraph (A) shall not apply to a corporation if the determination of the Secretary described in subparagraph (A) contains a finding that the failure of such corporation to satisfy the conditions in subsection (a)(2) was due in whole or in part to fraud with intent to evade tax or willful neglect on the part of such corporation.

(5) Election out

(A) In general

The rules contained in paragraphs (1) through (4) do not apply for any taxable year if an election pursuant to subparagraph (F) is in effect to use one of the methods specified in subparagraph (C).

(B) Eligibility

(i) Requirement of significant business presence

An election may be made to use one of the methods specified in subparagraph (C) with respect to a product or type of service only if an electing corporation has a significant business presence in a possession with respect to such product or type of service. An election may remain in effect with respect to such product or type of service for any subsequent taxable year only if such electing corporation maintains a significant business presence in a possession with respect to such product or type of service in such subsequent taxable year. If an election is not in effect for a taxable year because of the preceding sentence, the electing corporation shall be deemed to have revoked the election on the first day of such taxable year.

(ii) Definition

For purposes of this subparagraph, an electing corporation has a “significant business presence” in a possession for a taxable year with respect to a product or type of service if:

(I) the total production costs (other than direct material costs and other than interest excluded by regulations prescribed by the Secretary) incurred by the electing corporation in the possession in producing units of that product sold or otherwise disposed of during the taxable year by the affiliated group to persons who are not members of the affiliated group are not less than 25 percent of the difference between (a) the gross receipts from sales or other dispositions during the taxable year by the affiliated group to persons who are not members of the affiliated group of such units of the product produced, in whole or in part, by the electing corporation in the possession, and (b) the direct material costs of the purchase of materials for such units of that product by all members of the affiliated group from persons who are not members of the affiliated group; or

(II) no less than 65 percent of the direct labor costs of the affiliated group for units of the product produced during the taxable year in whole or in part by the electing corporation or for the type of service rendered by the electing corporation during the taxable year, is incurred by the electing corporation and is compensation for services performed in the possession; or

(III) with respect to purchases and sales by an electing corporation of all goods not produced in whole or in part by any member of the affiliated group and sold by the electing corporation to persons other than members of the affiliated group, no less than 65 percent of the total direct labor costs of the affiliated group in connection with all purchases and sales of such goods sold during the taxable year by such electing corporation is incurred by such electing corporation and is compensation for services performed in the possession.


 Notwithstanding satisfaction of one of the foregoing tests, an electing corporation shall not be treated as having a significant business presence in a possession with respect to a product produced in whole or in part by the electing corporation in the possession, for purposes of an election to use the method specified in subparagraph (C)(ii), unless such product is manufactured or produced in the possession by the electing corporation within the meaning of subsection (d)(1)(A) of section 954.

(iii) Special rules

(I) An electing corporation which produces a product or renders a type of service in a possession on the date of the enactment of this clause is not required to meet the significant business presence test in a possession with respect to such product or type of service for its taxable years beginning before January 1, 1986.

(II) For purposes of this subparagraph, the costs incurred by an electing corporation or any other member of the affiliated group in connection with contract manufacturing by a person other than a member of the affiliated group, or in connection with a similar arrangement thereto, shall be treated as direct labor costs of the affiliated group and shall not be treated as production costs incurred by the electing corporation in the possession or as direct material costs or as compensation for services performed in the possession, except to the extent as may be otherwise provided in regulations prescribed by the Secretary.

(iv) Regulations

The Secretary may prescribe regulations setting forth:

(I) an appropriate transitional (but not in excess of three taxable years) significant business presence test for commencement in a possession of operations with respect to products or types of service after the date of the enactment of this clause and not described in subparagraph (B)(iii)(I),

(II) a significant business presence test for other appropriate cases, consistent with the tests specified in subparagraph (B)(ii),

(III) rules for the definition of a product or type of service, and

(IV) rules for treating components produced in whole or in part by a related person as materials, and the costs (including direct labor costs) related thereto as a cost of materials, where there is an independent resale price for such components or where otherwise consistent with the intent of the substantial business presence tests.

(C) Methods of computation of taxable income

If an election of one of the following methods is in effect pursuant to subparagraph (F) with respect to a product or type of service, an electing corporation shall compute its income derived from the active conduct of a trade or business in a possession with respect to such product or type of service in accordance with the method which is elected.

(i) Cost sharing

(I) Payment of cost sharing

If an election of this method is in effect, the electing corporation must make a payment for its share of the cost (if any) of product area research which is paid or accrued by the affiliated group during that taxable year. Such share shall not be less than the same proportion of 110 percent of the cost of such product area research which the amount of “possession sales” bears to the amount of “total sales” of the affiliated group. The cost of product area research paid or accrued solely by the electing corporation in a taxable year (excluding amounts paid directly or indirectly to or on behalf of related persons and excluding amounts paid under any cost sharing agreements with related persons) will reduce (but not below zero) the amount of the electing corporation's cost sharing payment under this method for that year. In the case of intangible property described in subsection (h)(3)(B)(i) which the electing corporation is treated as owning under subclause (II), in no event shall the payment required under this subclause be less than the inclusion or payment which would be required under section 367(d)(2)(A)(ii) or section 482 if the electing corporation were a foreign corporation.

(a) Product area research

For purposes of this section, the term “product area research” includes (notwithstanding any provision to the contrary) the research, development and experimental costs, losses, expenses and other related deductions—including amounts paid or accrued for the performance of research or similar activities by another person; qualified research expenses within the meaning of section 41(b); amounts paid or accrued for the use of, or the right to use, research or any of the items specified in subsection (h)(3)(B)(i); and a proper allowance for amounts incurred for the acquisition of any of the items specified in subsection (h)(3)(B)(i)—which are properly apportioned or allocated to the same product area as that in which the electing corporation conducts its activities, and a ratable part of any such costs, losses, expenses and other deductions which cannot definitely be allocated to a particular product area.

(b) Affiliated group

For purposes of this subsection, the term “affiliated group” shall mean the electing corporation and all other organizations, trades or businesses (whether or not incorporated, whether or not organized in the United States, and whether or not affiliated) owned or controlled directly or indirectly by the same interests, within the meaning of section 482.

(c) Possession sales

For purposes of this section, the term “possession sales” means the aggregate sales or other dispositions for the taxable year to persons who are not members of the affiliated group by members of the affiliated group of products produced, in whole or in part, by the electing corporation in the possession which are in the same product area as is used for determining the amount of product area research, and of services rendered, in whole or in part, in the possession in such product area to persons who are not members of the affiliated group.

(d) Total sales

For purposes of this section, the term “total sales” means the aggregate sales or other dispositions for the taxable year to persons who are not members of the affiliated group by members of the affiliated group of all products in the same product area as is used for determining the amount of product area research, and of services rendered in such product area to persons who are not members of the affiliated group.

(e) Product area

For purposes of this section, the term “product area” shall be defined by reference to the three-digit classification of the Standard Industrial Classification code. The Secretary may provide for the aggregation of two or more three-digit classifications where appropriate, and for a classification system other than the Standard Industrial Classification code in appropriate cases.

(II) Effect of election

For purposes of determining the amount of its gross income derived from the active conduct of a trade or business in a possession with respect to a product produced by, or type of service rendered by, the electing corporation for a taxable year, if an election of this method is in effect, the electing corporation shall be treated as the owner (for purposes of obtaining a return thereon) of intangible property described in subsection (h)(3)(B)(i) which is related to the units of the product produced, or type of service rendered, by the electing corporation. Such electing corporation shall not be treated as the owner (for purposes of obtaining a return thereon) of any intangible property described in subsection (h)(3)(B)(ii) through (v) (to the extent not described in subsection (h)(3)(B)(i)) or of any other nonmanufacturing intangible. Notwithstanding the preceding sentence, an electing corporation shall be treated as the owner (for purposes of obtaining a return thereon) of (a) intangible property which was developed solely by such corporation in a possession and is owned by such corporation, (b) intangible property described in subsection (h)(3)(B)(i) acquired by such corporation from a person who was not related to such corporation (or to any person related to such corporation) at the time of, or in connection with, such acquisition, and (c) any intangible property described in subsection (h)(3)(B)(ii) through (v) (to the extent not described in subsection (h)(3)(B)(i)) and other nonmanufacturing intangibles which relate to sales of units of products, or services rendered, to unrelated persons for ultimate consumption or use in the possession in which the electing corporation conducts its trade or business.

(III) Payment provisions

(a) The cost sharing payment determined under subparagraph (C)(i)(I) for any taxable year shall be made to the person or persons specified in subparagraph (C)(i)(IV)(a) not later than the time prescribed by law for filing the electing corporation's return for such taxable year (including any extensions thereof). If all or part of such payment is not timely made, the amount of the cost sharing payment required to be paid shall be increased by the amount of interest that would have been due under section 6601(a) had the portion of the cost sharing payment that is not timely made been an amount of tax imposed by this title and had the last date prescribed for payment been the due date of the electing corporations 1 return (determined without regard to any extension thereof). The amount by which a cost sharing payment determined under subparagraph (C)(i)(I) is increased by reason of the preceding sentence shall not be treated as a cost sharing payment or as interest. If failure to make timely payment is due in whole or in part to fraud or willful neglect, the electing corporation shall be deemed to have revoked the election made under subparagraph (A) on the first day of the taxable year for which the cost sharing payment was required.

(b) For purposes of this title, any tax of a foreign country or possession of the United States which is paid or accrued with respect to the payment or receipt of a cost sharing payment determined under subparagraph (C)(i)(I) or of an amount of increase referred to in subparagraph (C)(i)(III)(a) shall not be treated as income, war profits, or excess profits taxes paid or accrued to a foreign country or possession of the United States, and no deduction shall be allowed under this title with respect to any amounts of such tax so paid or accrued.

(IV) Special rules

(a) The amount of the cost sharing payment determined under subparagraph (C)(i)(I), and any increase in the amount thereof in accordance with subparagraph (C)(i)(III)(a), shall not be treated as income of the recipient, but shall reduce the amount of the deductions (and the amount of reductions in earnings and profits) otherwise allowable to the appropriate domestic member or members (other than an electing corporation) of the affiliated group, or, if there is no such domestic member, to the foreign member or members of such affiliated group as the Secretary may provide under regulations.

(b) If an election of this method is in effect, the electing corporation shall determine its intercompany pricing under the appropriate section 482 method, provided, however, that an electing corporation shall not be denied use of the resale price method for purposes of such intercompany pricing merely because the reseller adds more than an insubstantial amount to the value of the product by the use of intangible property.

(c) The amount of qualified research expenses, within the meaning of section 41, of any member of the controlled group of corporations (as defined in section 41(f)) of which the electing corporation is a member shall not be affected by the cost sharing payment required under this method.

(ii) Profit split

(I) General rule

If an election of this method is in effect, the electing corporation's taxable income derived from the active conduct of a trade or business in a possession with respect to units of a product produced or type of service rendered, in whole or in part, by the electing corporation shall be equal to 50 percent of the combined taxable income of the affiliated group (other than foreign affiliates) derived from covered sales of units of the product produced or type of service rendered, in whole or in part, by the electing corporation in a possession.

(II) Computation of combined taxable income

Combined taxable income shall be computed separately for each product produced or type of service rendered, in whole or in part, by the electing corporation in a possession. Combined taxable income shall be computed (notwithstanding any provision to the contrary) for each such product or type of service rendered by deducting from the gross income of the affiliated group (other than foreign affiliates) derived from covered sales of such product or type of service all expenses, losses, and other deductions properly apportioned or allocated to gross income from such sales or services, and a ratable part of all expenses, losses, or other deductions which cannot definitely be allocated to some item or class of gross income, which are incurred by the affiliated group (other than foreign affiliates). Notwithstanding any other provision to the contrary, in computing the combined taxable income for each such product or type of service rendered, the research, development, and experimental costs, expenses and related deductions for the taxable year which would otherwise be apportioned or allocated to the gross income of the affiliated group (other than foreign affiliates) derived from covered sales of such product produced or type of service rendered, in whole or in part, by the electing corporation in a possession, shall not be less than the same proportion of the amount of the share of product area research determined under subparagraph (C)(i)(I) (without regard to the third and fourth sentences thereof, but substituting “120 percent” for “110 percent” in the second sentence thereof) in the product area which includes such product or type of service, that such gross income from the product or type of service bears to such gross income from all products and types of services, within such product area, produced or rendered, in whole or part, by the electing corporation in a possession.

(III) Division of combined taxable income

50 percent of the combined taxable income computed as provided in subparagraph (C)(ii)(II) shall be allocated to the electing corporation. Combined taxable income, computed without regard to the last sentence of subparagraph (C)(ii)(II), less the amount allocated to the electing corporation under the preceding sentence, shall be allocated to the appropriate domestic member or members (other than any electing corporation) of the affiliated group and shall be treated as income from sources within the United States, or, if there is no such domestic member, to a foreign member or members of such affiliated group as the Secretary may provide under regulations.

(IV) Covered sales

For purposes of this paragraph, the term “covered sales” means sales by members of the affiliated group (other than foreign affiliates) to persons who are not members of the affiliated group or to foreign affiliates.

(D) Unrelated person

For purposes of this paragraph, the term “unrelated person” means any person other than a person related within the meaning of paragraph (3)(D) to the electing corporation.

(E) Electing corporation

For purposes of this subsection, the term “electing corporation” means a domestic corporation for which an election under this section is in effect.

(F) Time and manner of election; revocation

(i) In general

An election under subparagraph (A) to use one of the methods under subparagraph (C) shall be made only on or before the due date prescribed by law (including extensions) for filing the tax return of the electing corporation for its first taxable year beginning after December 31, 1982. If an election of one of such methods is made, such election shall be binding on the electing corporation and such method must be used for each taxable year thereafter until such election is revoked by the electing corporation under subparagraph (F)(iii). If any such election is revoked by the electing corporation under subparagraph (F)(iii), such electing corporation may make a subsequent election under subparagraph (A) only with the consent of the Secretary.

(ii) Manner of making election

An election under subparagraph (A) to use one of the methods under subparagraph (C) shall be made by filing a statement to such effect with the return referred to in subparagraph (F)(i) or in such other manner as the Secretary may prescribe by regulations.

(iii) Revocation

(I) Except as provided in subparagraph (F)(iii)(II), an election may be revoked for any taxable year only with the consent of the Secretary.

(II) An election shall be deemed revoked for the year in which the electing corporation is deemed to have revoked such election under subparagraph (B)(i) or (C)(i)(III)(a).

(iv) Aggregation

(I) Where more than one electing corporation in the affiliated group produces any product or renders any services in the same product area, all such electing corporations must elect to compute their taxable income under the same method under subparagraph (C).

(II) All electing corporations in the same affiliated group that produce any products or render any services in the same product area may elect, subject to such terms and conditions as the Secretary may prescribe by regulations, to compute their taxable income from export sales under a different method from that used for all other sales and services. For this purpose, export sales means all sales by the electing corporation of products to foreign persons for use or consumption outside the United States and its possessions, provided such products are manufactured or produced in the possession within the meaning of subsection (d)(1)(A) of section 954, and further provided (except to the extent otherwise provided by regulations) the income derived by such foreign person on resale of such products (in the same state or in an altered state) is not included in foreign base company income for purposes of section 954(a).

(III) All members of an affiliated group must consent to an election under this subsection at such time and in such manner as shall be prescribed by the Secretary by regulations.

(6) Treatment of certain sales made after July 1, 1982

(A) In general

For purposes of this section, in the case of a disposition of intangible property made by a corporation after July 1, 1982, any gain or loss from such disposition shall be treated as gain or loss from sources within the United States to which paragraph (5) does not apply.

(B) Exception

Subparagraph (A) shall not apply to any disposition by a corporation of intangible property if such disposition is to a person who is not a related person to such corporation.

(C) Paragraph does not affect eligibility

This paragraph shall not apply for purposes of determining whether the corporation meets the requirements of subsection (a)(2).

(7) Section 864(e)(1) not to apply

This subsection shall be applied as if section 864(e)(1) (relating to treatment of affiliated groups) had not been enacted.

(8) Regulations

The Secretary shall prescribe such regulations as may be necessary or appropriate to carry out the purposes of this subsection, including rules for the application of this subsection to income from leasing of products to unrelated persons.

(i) Definitions and special rules relating to limitations of subsection (a)(4)

(1) Qualified possession wages

For purposes of this section—

(A) In general

The term “qualified possession wages” means wages paid or incurred by the possession corporation during the taxable year in connection with the active conduct of a trade or business within a possession of the United States to any employee for services performed in such possession, but only if such services are performed while the principal place of employment of such employee is within such possession.

(B) Limitation on amount of wages taken into account

(i) In general

The amount of wages which may be taken into account under subparagraph (A) with respect to any employee for any taxable year shall not exceed 85 percent of the contribution and benefit base determined under section 230 of the Social Security Act for the calendar year in which such taxable year begins.

(ii) Treatment of part-time employees, etc.

If—

(I) any employee is not employed by the possession corporation on a substantially full-time basis at all times during the taxable year, or

(II) the principal place of employment of any employee with the possession corporation is not within a possession at all times during the taxable year,


 the limitation applicable under clause (i) with respect to such employee shall be the appropriate portion (as determined by the Secretary) of the limitation which would otherwise be in effect under clause (i).

(C) Treatment of certain employees

The term “qualified possession wages” shall not include any wages paid to employees who are assigned by the employer to perform services for another person, unless the principal trade or business of the employer is to make employees available for temporary periods to other persons in return for compensation. All possession corporations treated as 1 corporation under paragraph (5) shall be treated as 1 employer for purposes of the preceding sentence.

(D) Wages

(i) In general

Except as provided in clause (ii), the term “wages” has the meaning given to such term by subsection (b) of section 3306 (determined without regard to any dollar limitation contained in such section). For purposes of the preceding sentence, such subsection (b) shall be applied as if the term “United States” included all possessions of the United States.

(ii) Special rule for agricultural labor and railway labor

In any case to which subparagraph (A) or (B) of paragraph (1) of section 51(h) applies, the term “wages” has the meaning given to such term by section 51(h)(2).

(2) Allocable employee fringe benefit expenses

(A) In general

The allocable employee fringe benefit expenses of any possession corporation for any taxable year is an amount which bears the same ratio to the amount determined under subparagraph (B) for such taxable year as—

(i) the aggregate amount of the possession corporation's qualified possession wages for such taxable year, bears to

(ii) the aggregate amount of the wages paid or incurred by such possession corporation during such taxable year.


In no event shall the amount determined under the preceding sentence exceed 15 percent of the amount referred to in clause (i).

(B) Expenses taken into account

For purposes of subparagraph (A), the amount determined under this subparagraph for any taxable year is the aggregate amount allowable as a deduction under this chapter to the possession corporation for such taxable year with respect to—

(i) employer contributions under a stock bonus, pension, profit-sharing, or annuity plan,

(ii) employer-provided coverage under any accident or health plan for employees, and

(iii) the cost of life or disability insurance provided to employees.


Any amount treated as wages under paragraph (1)(D) shall not be taken into account under this subparagraph.

(3) Treatment of possession taxes

(A) Amount of credit for possession corporations not using profit split

(i) In general

For purposes of subsection (a)(4)(A)(iii), the amount of the qualified possession income taxes for any taxable year allocable to nonsheltered income shall be an amount which bears the same ratio to the possession income taxes for such taxable year as—

(I) the increase in the tax liability of the possession corporation under this chapter for the taxable year by reason of subsection (a)(4)(A) (without regard to clause (iii) thereof), bears to

(II) the tax liability of the possession corporation under this chapter for the taxable year determined without regard to the credit allowable under this section.

(ii) Limitation on amount of taxes taken into account

Possession income taxes shall not be taken into account under clause (i) for any taxable year to the extent that the amount of such taxes exceeds 9 percent of the amount of the taxable income for such taxable year.

(B) Deduction for possession corporations using profit split

Notwithstanding subsection (c), if a possession corporation is not described in subsection (a)(4)(A)(iii) for the taxable year, such possession corporation shall be allowed a deduction for such taxable year in an amount which bears the same ratio to the possession income taxes for such taxable year as—

(i) the increase in the tax liability of the possession corporation under this chapter for the taxable year by reason of subsection (a)(4)(A), bears to

(ii) the tax liability of the possession corporation under this chapter for the taxable year determined without regard to the credit allowable under this section.


In determining the credit under subsection (a) and in applying the preceding sentence, taxable income shall be determined without regard to the preceding sentence.

(C) Possession income taxes

For purposes of this paragraph, the term “possession income taxes” means any taxes of a possession of the United States which are treated as not being income, war profits, or excess profits taxes paid or accrued to a possession of the United States by reason of subsection (c).

(4) Depreciation rules

For purposes of this section—

(A) Depreciation allowances

The term “depreciation allowances” means the depreciation deductions allowable under section 167 to the possession corporation.

(B) Categories of property

(i) Qualified tangible property

The term “qualified tangible property” means any tangible property used by the possession corporation in a possession of the United States in the active conduct of a trade or business within such possession.

(ii) Short-life qualified tangible property

The term “short-life qualified tangible property” means any qualified tangible property to which section 168 applies and which is 3-year property or 5-year property for purposes of such section.

(iii) Medium-life qualified tangible property

The term “medium-life qualified tangible property” means any qualified tangible property to which section 168 applies and which is 7-year property or 10-year property for purposes of such section.

(iv) Long-life qualified tangible property

The term “long-life qualified tangible property” means any qualified tangible property to which section 168 applies and which is not described in clause (ii) or (iii).

(v) Transitional rule

In the case of any qualified tangible property to which section 168 (as in effect on the day before the date of the enactment of the Tax Reform Act of 1986) applies, any reference in this paragraph to section 168 shall be treated as a reference to such section as so in effect.

(5) Election to compute credit on consolidated basis

(A) In general

Any affiliated group may elect to treat all possession corporations which would be members of such group but for section 1504(b)(3) or (4) as 1 corporation for purposes of this section. The credit determined under this section with respect to such 1 corporation shall be allocated among such possession corporations in such manner as the Secretary may prescribe.

(B) Election

An election under subparagraph (A) shall apply to the taxable year for which made and all succeeding taxable years unless revoked with the consent of the Secretary.

(6) Possession corporation

The term “possession corporation” means a domestic corporation for which the election provided in subsection (a) is in effect.

(j) Termination

(1) In general

Except as otherwise provided in this subsection, this section shall not apply to any taxable year beginning after December 31, 1995.

(2) Transition rules for active business income credit

Except as provided in paragraph (3)—

(A) Economic activity credit

In the case of an existing credit claimant—

(i) with respect to a possession other than Puerto Rico, and

(ii) to which subsection (a)(4)(B) does not apply,


the credit determined under subsection (a)(1)(A) shall be allowed for taxable years beginning after December 31, 1995, and before January 1, 2002.

(B) Special rule for reduced credit

(i) In general

In the case of an existing credit claimant to which subsection (a)(4)(B) applies, the credit determined under subsection (a)(1)(A) shall be allowed for taxable years beginning after December 31, 1995, and before January 1, 1998.

(ii) Election irrevocable after 1997

An election under subsection (a)(4)(B)(iii) which is in effect for the taxpayer's last taxable year beginning before 1997 may not be revoked unless it is revoked for the taxpayer's first taxable year beginning in 1997 and all subsequent taxable years.

(C) Economic activity credit for Puerto Rico

For economic activity credit for Puerto Rico, see section 30A.

(3) Additional restricted credit

(A) In general

In the case of an existing credit claimant—

(i) the credit under subsection (a)(1)(A) shall be allowed for the period beginning with the first taxable year after the last taxable year to which subparagraph (A) or (B) of paragraph (2), whichever is appropriate, applied and ending with the last taxable year beginning before January 1, 2006, except that

(ii) the aggregate amount of taxable income taken into account under subsection (a)(1)(A) for any such taxable year shall not exceed the adjusted base period income of such claimant.

(B) Coordination with subsection (a)(4)

The amount of income described in subsection (a)(1)(A) which is taken into account in applying subsection (a)(4) shall be such income as reduced under this paragraph.

(4) Adjusted base period income

For purposes of paragraph (3)—

(A) In general

The term “adjusted base period income” means the average of the inflation-adjusted possession incomes of the corporation for each base period year.

(B) Inflation-adjusted possession income

For purposes of subparagraph (A), the inflation-adjusted possession income of any corporation for any base period year shall be an amount equal to the sum of—

(i) the possession income of such corporation for such base period year, plus

(ii) such possession income multiplied by the inflation adjustment percentage for such base period year.

(C) Inflation adjustment percentage

For purposes of subparagraph (B), the inflation adjustment percentage for any base period year means the percentage (if any) by which—

(i) the CPI for 1995, exceeds

(ii) the CPI for the calendar year in which the base period year for which the determination is being made ends.


For purposes of the preceding sentence, the CPI for any calendar year is the CPI (as defined in section 1(f)(5)) for such year under section 1(f)(4).

(D) Increase in inflation adjustment percentage for growth during base years

The inflation adjustment percentage (determined under subparagraph (C) without regard to this subparagraph) for each of the 5 taxable years referred to in paragraph (5)(A) shall be increased by—

(i) 5 percentage points in the case of a taxable year ending during the 1-year period ending on October 13, 1995;

(ii) 10.25 percentage points in the case of a taxable year ending during the 1-year period ending on October 13, 1994;

(iii) 15.76 percentage points in the case of a taxable year ending during the 1-year period ending on October 13, 1993;

(iv) 21.55 percentage points in the case of a taxable year ending during the 1-year period ending on October 13, 1992; and

(v) 27.63 percentage points in the case of a taxable year ending during the 1-year period ending on October 13, 1991.

(5) Base period year

For purposes of this subsection—

(A) In general

The term “base period year” means each of 3 taxable years which are among the 5 most recent taxable years of the corporation ending before October 14, 1995, determined by disregarding—

(i) one taxable year for which the corporation had the largest inflation-adjusted possession income, and

(ii) one taxable year for which the corporation had the smallest inflation-adjusted possession income.

(B) Corporations not having significant possession income throughout 5-year period

(i) In general

If a corporation does not have significant possession income for each of the most recent 5 taxable years ending before October 14, 1995, then, in lieu of applying subparagraph (A), the term “base period year” means only those taxable years (of such 5 taxable years) for which the corporation has significant possession income; except that, if such corporation has significant possession income for 4 of such 5 taxable years, the rule of subparagraph (A)(ii) shall apply.

(ii) Special rule

If there is no year (of such 5 taxable years) for which a corporation has significant possession income—

(I) the term “base period year” means the first taxable year ending on or after October 14, 1995, but

(II) the amount of possession income for such year which is taken into account under paragraph (4) shall be the amount which would be determined if such year were a short taxable year ending on September 30, 1995.

(iii) Significant possession income

For purposes of this subparagraph, the term “significant possession income” means possession income which exceeds 2 percent of the possession income of the taxpayer for the taxable year (of the period of 6 taxable years ending with the first taxable year ending on or after October 14, 1995) having the greatest possession income.

(C) Election to use one base period year

(i) In general

At the election of the taxpayer, the term “base period year” means—

(I) only the last taxable year of the corporation ending in calendar year 1992, or

(II) a deemed taxable year which includes the first ten months of calendar year 1995.

(ii) Base period income for 1995

In determining the adjusted base period income of the corporation for the deemed taxable year under clause (i)(II), the possession income shall be annualized and shall be determined without regard to any extraordinary item.

(iii) Election

An election under this subparagraph by any possession corporation may be made only for the corporation's first taxable year beginning after December 31, 1995, for which it is a possession corporation. The rules of subclauses (II) and (III) of subsection (a)(4)(B)(iii) shall apply to the election under this subparagraph.

(D) Acquisitions and dispositions

Rules similar to the rules of subparagraphs (A) and (B) of section 41(f)(3) shall apply for purposes of this subsection.

(6) Possession income

For purposes of this subsection, the term “possession income” means, with respect to any possession, the income referred to in subsection (a)(1)(A) determined with respect to that possession. In no event shall possession income be treated as being less than zero.

(7) Short years

If the current year or a base period year is a short taxable year, the application of this subsection shall be made with such annualizations as the Secretary shall prescribe.

(8) Special rules for certain possessions

(A) In general

In the case of an existing credit claimant with respect to an applicable possession, this section (other than the preceding paragraphs of this subsection) shall apply to such claimant with respect to such applicable possession for taxable years beginning after December 31, 1995, and before January 1, 2006.

(B) Applicable possession

For purposes of this paragraph, the term “applicable possession” means Guam, American Samoa, and the Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands.

(9) Existing credit claimant

For purposes of this subsection—

(A) In general

The term “existing credit claimant” means a corporation—

(i)(I) which was actively conducting a trade or business in a possession on October 13, 1995, and

(II) with respect to which an election under this section is in effect for the corporation's taxable year which includes October 13, 1995, or

(ii) which acquired all of the assets of a trade or business of a corporation which—

(I) satisfied the requirements of subclause (I) of clause (i) with respect to such trade or business, and

(II) satisfied the requirements of subclause (II) of clause (i).

(B) New lines of business prohibited

If, after October 13, 1995, a corporation which would (but for this subparagraph) be an existing credit claimant adds a substantial new line of business (other than in an acquisition described in subparagraph (A)(ii)), such corporation shall cease to be treated as an existing credit claimant as of the close of the taxable year ending before the date of such addition.

(C) Binding contract exception

If, on October 13, 1995, and at all times thereafter, there is in effect with respect to a corporation a binding contract for the acquisition of assets to be used in, or for the sale of assets to be produced from, a trade or business, the corporation shall be treated for purposes of this paragraph as actively conducting such trade or business on October 13, 1995. The preceding sentence shall not apply if such trade or business is not actively conducted before January 1, 1996.

(10) Separate application to each possession

For purposes of determining—

(A) whether a taxpayer is an existing credit claimant, and

(B) the amount of the credit allowed under this section,


this subsection (and so much of this section as relates to this subsection) shall be applied separately with respect to each possession.

(Added Pub. L. 94–455, title X, §1051(b), Oct. 4, 1976, 90 Stat. 1643; amended Pub. L. 94–455, title XIX, §1901(b)(37)(B), Oct. 4, 1976, 90 Stat. 1803; Pub. L. 95–600, title VII, §701(u)(11)(A), (B), Nov. 6, 1978, 92 Stat. 2917; Pub. L. 97–248, title II, §201(d)(8)(B), formerly §201(c)(8)(B), §213(a), Sept. 3, 1982, 96 Stat. 420, 452, renumbered §201(d)(8)(B), Pub. L. 97–448, title III, §306(a)(1)(A)(i), Jan. 12, 1983, 96 Stat. 2400; Pub. L. 98–369, div. A, title IV, §474(r)(22), title VII, §712(g), title VIII, §801(d)(11), July 18, 1984, 98 Stat. 843, 947, 997; Pub. L. 99–499, title V, §516(b)(1)(B), Oct. 17, 1986, 100 Stat. 1770; Pub. L. 99–514, title II, §231(d)(3)(G), title VII, §701(e)(4)(I), title XII, §§1231(a)–(d), (f), 1275(a)(1), title XVIII, §1812(c)(4)(C), Oct. 22, 1986, 100 Stat. 2179, 2343, 2561–2563, 2598, 2835; Pub. L. 100–647, title I, §§1002(h)(3), 1012(h)(2)(B), (j), (n)(4), (5), title VI, §6132(a), Nov. 10, 1988, 102 Stat. 3370, 3502, 3512, 3515, 3721; Pub. L. 101–382, title II, §227(a), Aug. 20, 1990, 104 Stat. 661; Pub. L. 101–508, title XI, §11704(a)(11), Nov. 5, 1990, 104 Stat. 1388–518; Pub. L. 103–66, title XIII, §13227(a), (b), Aug. 10, 1993, 107 Stat. 489, 490; Pub. L. 104–188, title I, §§1601(a), 1704(t)(37), (80), Aug. 20, 1996, 110 Stat. 1827, 1889, 1891; Pub. L. 108–357, title IV, §402(b)(2), Oct. 22, 2004, 118 Stat. 1492; Pub. L. 110–172, §11(g)(12), Dec. 29, 2007, 121 Stat. 2490.)

References in Text

The date of the enactment of the Tax Reform Act of 1986, referred to in subsecs. (d)(3)(B) and (i)(4)(B)(v), is the date of enactment of Pub. L. 99–514, which was approved Oct. 22, 1986.

The Caribbean Basin Economic Recovery Act, referred to in subsec. (d)(4)(A)(i), (B), is title II of Pub. L. 98–67, Aug. 5, 1983, 97 Stat. 384, which is classified principally to chapter 15 (§2701 et seq.) of Title 19, Customs Duties. Section 212 of that Act is classified to section 2702 of Title 19. For complete classification of this Act to the Code, see Short Title note set out under section 2701 of Title 19 and Tables.

The date of the enactment of this subparagraph, referred to in subsec. (h)(3)(A), means the date of enactment of Pub. L. 97–248, which was approved Sept. 3, 1982.

The date of the enactment of this clause, referred to in subsec. (h)(5)(B)(iii)(I), (iv), means the date of enactment of Pub. L. 97–248, which was approved Sept. 3, 1982.

Section 230 of the Social Security Act, referred to in subsec. (i)(1)(B)(i), is classified to section 430 of Title 42, The Public Health and Welfare.

Amendments

2007—Subsec. (f)(2)(B). Pub. L. 110–172 struck out “FSC or” before “former FSC”.

2004—Subsec. (a)(2)(A). Pub. L. 108–357 substituted “subsections (f) and (g) of section 904” for “section 904(f)”.

1996—Subsec. (a)(4)(A)(ii)(I). Pub. L. 104–188, §1704(t)(80), which directed that subcl. (I) be amended by substituting “depreciation” for “deprecation”, could not be executed, because the word “deprecation” did not appear in text.

Subsec. (b). Pub. L. 104–188, §1704(t)(37), substituted “subparagraphs (D)(ii)” for “subparagraphs (D)(ii)(I)”.

Subsec. (j). Pub. L. 104–188, §1601(a), added subsec. (j).

1993—Subsec. (a)(1). Pub. L. 103–66, §13227(a)(1), substituted “Except as otherwise provided in this section” for “Except as provided in paragraph (3)”.

Subsec. (a)(4). Pub. L. 103–66, §13227(a)(2), added par. (4).

Subsec. (i). Pub. L. 103–66, §13227(b), added subsec. (i).

1990—Subsec. (d)(4)(D). Pub. L. 101–382 added subpar. (D).

Subsec. (e)(1). Pub. L. 101–508 substituted “subsection (a)(2)” for “subsection (a)(1)” wherever appearing.

1988—Subsec. (d)(3)(B). Pub. L. 100–647, §1012(j), inserted “(as in effect on the day before the date of the enactment of the Tax Reform Act of 1986)” after “section 957(c)”.

Subsec. (d)(4)(A)(ii). Pub. L. 100–647, §1012(n)(5)(A), amended cl. (ii) generally. Prior to amendment, cl. (ii) read as follows: “in accordance with a specific authorization granted by the Government Development Bank for Puerto Rico pursuant to regulations issued by the Secretary of the Treasury of Puerto Rico.”

Subsec. (d)(4)(B). Pub. L. 100–647, §6132(a), inserted “and the Virgin Islands” after “274(h)(6)(A)”.

Subsec. (d)(4)(C)(i), (ii). Pub. L. 100–647, §1012(n)(5)(B), substituted “Commissioner of Financial Institutions of Puerto Rico” for “Secretary of the Treasury of Puerto Rico”.

Subsec. (h)(5)(C)(i)(I). Pub. L. 100–647, §1012(n)(4), amended directory language of Pub. L. 99–514, §1231(a)(1), see 1986 Amendment note below.

Subsec. (h)(5)(C)(i)(IV)(c). Pub. L. 100–647, §1002(h)(3), substituted “section 41” and “section 41(f)” for “section 30” and “section 30(f)”, respectively.

Subsec. (h)(7), (8). Pub. L. 100–647, §1012(h)(2)(B), added par. (7) and redesignated former par. (7) as (8).

1986—Subsec. (a)(2)(B). Pub. L. 99–514, §1231(d)(1), substituted “75 percent” for “65 percent”.

Subsec. (a)(2)(C). Pub. L. 99–514, §1231(d)(2), struck out subpar. (C), transitional rule, which read as follows: “In applying subparagraph (B) with respect to taxable years beginning after December 31, 1982, and before January 1, 1985, the following percentage shall be substituted for ‘65 percent’:


“For taxable years beginning
 
 in calendar year:
The percentage is:
1983
55  
1984
60.”

        

Subsec. (a)(3). Pub. L. 99–499 in par. (3), as amended by Pub. L. 99–514, added subpar. (A) and redesignated former subpars. (A) to (C) as (B) to (D), respectively.

Pub. L. 99–514, §701(e)(4)(I), struck out subpar. (A) which read “section 56 (relating to corporate minimum tax),”, and redesignated subpars. (B), (C), and (E) as (A), (B), and (C), respectively.

Subsec. (b). Pub. L. 99–514, §1231(b), inserted at end “This subsection shall not apply to any amount described in subsection (a)(1)(A)(i) received from a person who is not a related person (within the meaning of subsection (h)(3) but without regard to subparagraphs (D)(ii)(I) and (E)(i) thereof) with respect to the domestic corporation.”

Subsec. (d)(1). Pub. L. 99–514, §1275(a)(1), substituted “and the Virgin Islands” for “, but does not include the Virgin Islands of the United States”.

Subsec. (d)(4). Pub. L. 99–514, §1231(c), added par. (4).

Subsec. (h)(3)(D)(ii). Pub. L. 99–514, §1812(c)(4)(C), amended cl. (ii) generally. Prior to amendment, cl. (ii), special rules, read as follows: “For purposes of clause (i)—

“(I) section 267(b) and section 707(b)(1) shall be applied by substituting ‘10 percent’ for ‘50 percent’, and

“(II) section 267(b)(3) shall be applied without regard to whether a person was a personal holding company or a foreign personal holding company.”

Subsec. (h)(5)(C)(i)(I). Pub. L. 99–514, §1231(a)(1), as amended by Pub. L. 100–647, §1012(n)(4), in introductory provisions, substituted “the same proportion of 110 percent of the cost” for “the same proportion of the cost”, and inserted at end of material relating to payment of cost sharing “In the case of intangible property described in subsection (h)(3)(B)(i) which the electing corporation is treated as owning under subclause (II), in no event shall the payment required under this subclause be less than the inclusion or payment which would be required under section 367(d)(2)(A)(ii) or section 482 if the electing corporation were a foreign corporation.”

Subsec. (h)(5)(C)(i)(I)(a). Pub. L. 99–514, §231(d)(3)(G), substituted “section 41(b)” for “section 30(b)”.

Subsec. (h)(5)(C)(ii)(II). Pub. L. 99–514, §1231(f), substituted “all products and types of services, within such product area, produced or rendered” for “all products produced and types of service rendered”.

Pub. L. 99–514, §1231(a)(2), substituted “the third and fourth sentences thereof, but substituting ‘120 percent’ for ‘110 percent’ in the second sentence thereof)” for “the third sentence thereof)”.

1984—Subsec. (a)(2)(C). Pub. L. 98–369, §712(g), substituted in table heading “The percentage is” for “The percentage tax is”.

Subsec. (f). Pub. L. 98–369, §801(d)(11), amended subsec. (f) generally, substituting in heading “Limitation on credit for DISC's and FSC's” for “DISC or former DISC corporation ineligible for credit”, and in text striking out reference to section 992(a) and inserting provision disallowing a credit to a corporation for a taxable year in which it owns at any time stock in a FSC or former FSC.

Subsec. (h)(5)(C)(i)(I)(a). Pub. L. 98–369, §474(r)(22)(A), substituted “section 30(b)” for “section 44F(b)”.

Subsec. (h)(5)(C)(i)(IV)(c). Pub. L. 98–369, §474(r)(22)(B), substituted “section 30” for “section 44F” and “section 30(f)” for “section 44F(f)”.

1982—Subsec. (a)(2)(B). Pub. L. 97–248, §213(a)(1)(A), substituted “65 percent” for “50 percent”.

Subsec. (a)(2)(C). Pub. L. 97–248, §213(a)(1)(B), added subpar. (C).

Subsec. (a)(3)(A). Pub. L. 97–248, §201(d)(8)(B), formerly §201(c)(8)(B), substituted “(relating to corporate minimum tax)” for “(relating to minimum tax)”.

Subsec. (h). Pub. L. 97–248, §213(a)(2), added subsec. (h).

1978—Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 95–600, §701(u)(11)(A), reworked provisions of par. (1) into introductory text, substituting reference to par. (3) for reference to par. (2), and subpars. (A) and (B), inserted introductory text of par. (2), redesignated former subpars. (A) and (B) of par. (1) as subpars. (A) and (B) of par. (2), and redesignated former par. (2) as (3).

Subsec. (d). Pub. L. 95–600, §701(u)(11)(B), substituted in heading “Definitions and special rules” for “Definitions” and added par. (3).

1976—Subsec. (a)(2)(D). Pub. L. 94–455, §1901(b)(37)(B), struck out subpar. (D) relating to war loss recoveries.

Effective Date of 2004 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 108–357 applicable to losses for taxable years beginning after Dec. 31, 2006, see section 402(c) of Pub. L. 108–357, set out as a note under section 535 of this title.

Effective Date of 1996 Amendment

Amendment by section 1601(a) of Pub. L. 104–188 applicable to taxable years beginning after Dec. 31, 1995, except as otherwise provided, see section 1601(c) of Pub. L. 104–188, set out as an Effective Date note under section 30A of this title.

Effective Date of 1993 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 103–66 applicable to taxable years beginning after Dec. 31, 1993, see section 13227(f) of Pub. L. 103–66, set out as a note under section 56 of this title.

Effective Date of 1990 Amendment

Section 227(b) of Pub. L. 101–382 provided that: “The amendment made by subsection (a) [amending this section] shall apply to calendar years after 1989.”

Effective Date of 1988 Amendment

Amendment by sections 1002(h)(3) and 1012(h)(2)(B), (j), (n)(4), (5) of Pub. L. 100–647 effective, except as otherwise provided, as if included in the provision of the Tax Reform Act of 1986, Pub. L. 99–514, to which such amendment relates, see section 1019(a) of Pub. L. 100–647, set out as a note under section 1 of this title.

Section 6132(b) of Pub. L. 100–647 provided that: “The amendment made by this section [amending this section] shall apply to investments made after the date of the enactment of this Act [Nov. 10, 1988].”

Effective Date of 1986 Amendments

Amendment by section 231(d)(3)(G) of Pub. L. 99–514 applicable to taxable years beginning after Dec. 31, 1985, see section 231(g) of Pub. L. 99–514, set out as a note under section 41 of this title.

Amendment by section 701(e)(4)(I) of Pub. L. 99–514 applicable to taxable years beginning after Dec. 31, 1986, with certain exceptions and qualifications, see section 701(f) of Pub. L. 99–514, set out as an Effective Date note under section 55 of this title.

Section 1231(g) of Pub. L. 99–514, as amended by Pub. L. 100–647, title I, §1012(n)(1)–(3), Nov. 10, 1988, 102 Stat. 3514, provided that:

“(1) In general.—Except as provided in paragraphs (2) and (3), the amendments made by this section [amending this section and sections 367 and 482 of this title] shall apply to taxable years beginning after December 31, 1986.

“(2) Special rule for transfer of intangibles.—

“(A) In general.—The amendments made by subsection (e) [amending sections 367 and 482 of this title] shall apply to taxable years beginning after December 31, 1986, but only with respect to transfers after November 16, 1985, or licenses granted after such date (or before such date with respect to property not in existence or owned by the taxpayer on such date). In the case of any transfer (or license) which is not to a foreign person, the preceding sentence shall be applied by substituting ‘August 16, 1986’ for ‘November 16, 1985’.

“(B) Special rule for section 936.—For purposes of section 936(h)(5)(C) of the Internal Revenue Code of 1986 the amendments made by subsection (e) shall apply to taxable years beginning after December 31, 1986, without regard to when the transfer (or license), if any, was made.

“(3) Subsection (f).—The amendment made by subsection (f) [amending this section] shall apply to taxable years beginning after December 31, 1982.

“(4) Transitional rule.—In the case of a corporation—

“(A) with respect to which an election under section 936 of the Internal Revenue Code of 1986 (relating to possessions tax credit) is in effect,

“(B) which produced an end-product form in Puerto Rico on or before September 3, 1982,

“(C) which began manufacturing a component of such product in Puerto Rico in its taxable year beginning in 1983, and

“(D) with respect to which a Puerto Rican tax exemption was granted on June 27, 1983,

such corporation shall treat such component as a separate product for such taxable year for purposes of determining whether such corporation had a significant business presence in Puerto Rico with respect to such product and its income with respect to such product.

“(5) Transitional rule for increase in gross income test.—

“(A) In general.—If—

“(i) a corporation fails to meet the requirements of subparagraph (B) of section 936(a)(2) of the Internal Revenue Code of 1986 (as amended by subsection (d)(1)) for any taxable year beginning in 1987 or 1988,

“(ii) such corporation would have met the requirements of such subparagraph (B) if such subparagraph had been applied without regard to the amendment made by subsection (d)(1), and

“(iii) 75 percent or more of the gross income of such corporation for such taxable year (or, in the case of a taxable year beginning in 1988, for the period consisting of such taxable year and the preceding taxable year) was derived from the active conduct of a trade or business within a possession of the United States, such corporation shall nevertheless be treated as meeting the requirements of such subparagraph (B) for such taxable year if it elects to reduce the amount of the qualified possession source investment income for the taxable year by the amount of the shortfall determined under subparagraph (B) of this paragraph.

“(B) Determination of shortfall.—The shortfall determined under this subparagraph for any taxable year is an amount equal to the excess of—

“(i) 75 percent of the gross income of the corporation for the 3-year period (or part thereof) referred to in section 936(a)(2)(A) of such Code, over

“(ii) the amount of the gross income of such corporation for such period (or part thereof) which was derived from the active conduct of a trade or business within a possession of the United States.

“(C) Special rule.—Any income attributable to the investment of the amount not treated as qualified possession source investment income under subparagraph (A) shall not be treated as qualified possession source investment income for any taxable year.”

Amendment by section 1275(a)(1) of Pub. L. 99–514 applicable to taxable years beginning after Dec. 31, 1986, with certain exceptions and qualifications, see section 1277 of Pub. L. 99–514, set out as a note under section 931 of this title.

Amendment by section 1812(c)(4)(C) of Pub. L. 99–514 effective, except as otherwise provided, as if included in the provisions of the Tax Reform Act of 1984, Pub. L. 98–369, div. A, to which such amendment relates, see section 1881 of Pub. L. 99–514, set out as a note under section 48 of this title.

Amendment by Pub. L. 99–499 applicable to taxable years beginning after Dec. 31, 1986, see section 516(c) of Pub. L. 99–499, set out as a note under section 26 of this title.

Effective Date of 1984 Amendment

Amendment by section 474(r)(22) of Pub. L. 98–369 applicable to taxable years beginning after Dec. 31, 1983, and to carrybacks from such years, see section 475(a) of Pub. L. 98–369, set out as a note under section 21 of this title.

Amendment by section 712(g) of Pub. L. 98–369 effective as if included in the provision of the Tax Equity and Fiscal Responsibility Act of 1982, Pub. L. 97–248, to which such amendment relates, see section 715 of Pub. L. 98–369, set out as a note under section 31 of this title.

Amendment by section 801(d)(11) of Pub. L. 98–369 applicable to transactions after Dec. 31, 1984, in taxable years ending after such date, see section 805(a)(1) of Pub. L. 98–369, as amended, set out as a note under section 245 of this title.

Effective Date of 1982 Amendment

Amendment by section 201(d)(8)(B) of Pub. L. 97–248 applicable to taxable years beginning after Dec. 31, 1982, see section 201(e)(1) of Pub. L. 97–248, set out as a note under section 5 of this title.

Section 213(e) of Pub. L. 97–248, as amended by Pub. L. 99–514, §2, Oct. 22, 1986, 100 Stat. 2095, provided that:

“(1) In general.—Except as provided in paragraphs (2) and (3), the amendments made by this section [amending this section and sections 246, 367, and 934 of this title] shall apply to taxable years beginning after December 31, 1982.

“(2) Certain sales made after july 1, 1982.—Paragraph (6) of section 936(h) of the Internal Revenue Code of 1986 [formerly I.R.C. 1954], and so much of section 934 to which such paragraph applies by reason of section 934(e)(4) of such Code, shall apply to taxable years ending after July 1, 1982.

“(3) Certain transfers of intangibles made after august 14, 1982.—Subsection (d) [amending section 367 of this title] shall apply to taxable years ending after August 14, 1982.”

Effective Date of 1978 Amendment

Section 701(u)(11)(C) of Pub. L. 95–600, as amended by Pub. L. 99–514, §2, Oct. 22, 1986, 100 Stat. 2095, provided that: “The amendments made by this paragraph [amending this section] shall apply as if included in section 936 of the Internal Revenue Code of 1986 [formerly I.R.C. 1954] at the time of its addition by section 1051(b) of the Tax Reform Act of 1976 [Oct. 4, 1976].”

Effective Date of 1976 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 94–455 applicable with respect to taxable years beginning after Dec. 31, 1976, see section 1901(d) of Pub. L. 94–455, set out as a note under section 2 of this title.

Effective Date

Section applicable to taxable years beginning after Dec. 31, 1975, except that qualified possession source investment income as defined in subsec. (d)(2) of this section shall include income from any source outside the United States if the taxpayer establishes to the satisfaction of the Secretary of the Treasury or his delegate that the income from such sources was earned before Oct. 1, 1976, see section 1051(i) of Pub. L. 94–455, set out as an Effective Date of 1976 Amendment note under section 27 of this title.

Applicability of Certain Amendments by Pub. L. 99–514 in Relation to Treaty Obligations of United States

For applicability of amendment by section 701(e)(4)(I) of Pub. L. 99–514 notwithstanding any treaty obligation of the United States in effect on Oct. 22, 1986, with provision that for such purposes any amendment by title I of Pub. L. 100–647 be treated as if it had been included in the provision of Pub. L. 99–514 to which such amendment relates, see section 1012(aa)(2), (4) of Pub. L. 100–647, set out as a note under section 861 of this title.

Plan Amendments Not Required Until January 1, 1989

For provisions directing that if any amendments made by subtitle A or subtitle C of title XI [§§1101–1147 and 1171–1177] or title XVIII [§§1800–1899A] of Pub. L. 99–514 require an amendment to any plan, such plan amendment shall not be required to be made before the first plan year beginning on or after Jan. 1, 1989, see section 1140 of Pub. L. 99–514, as amended, set out as a note under section 401 of this title.

Report on Possessions Corporations

Section 441(a) of Pub. L. 98–369, as amended by Pub. L. 99–514, §2, Oct. 22, 1986, 100 Stat. 2095; Pub. L. 100–647, title VI, §6252(b)(1), Nov. 10, 1988, 102 Stat. 3752, which directed Secretary of the Treasury to submit a report to Congress each fourth calendar year on the operation and effect of sections 936 and 934(b) of this title, terminated, effective May 15, 2000, pursuant to section 3003 of Pub. L. 104–66, as amended, set out as a note under section 1113 of Title 31, Money and Finance. See, also, page 142 of House Document No. 103–7.

1 So in original. Probably should be “corporation's”.

§937. Residence and source rules involving possessions

(a) Bona fide resident

For purposes of this subpart, section 865(g)(3), section 876, section 881(b), paragraphs (2) and (3) of section 901(b), section 957(c), section 3401(a)(8)(C), and section 7654(a), except as provided in regulations, the term “bona fide resident” means a person—

(1) who is present for at least 183 days during the taxable year in Guam, American Samoa, the Northern Mariana Islands, Puerto Rico, or the Virgin Islands, as the case may be, and

(2) who does not have a tax home (determined under the principles of section 911(d)(3) without regard to the second sentence thereof) outside such specified possession during the taxable year and does not have a closer connection (determined under the principles of section 7701(b)(3)(B)(ii)) to the United States or a foreign country than to such specified possession.


For purposes of paragraph (1), the determination as to whether a person is present for any day shall be made under the principles of section 7701(b).

(b) Source rules

Except as provided in regulations, for purposes of this title—

(1) except as provided in paragraph (2), rules similar to the rules for determining whether income is income from sources within the United States or is effectively connected with the conduct of a trade or business within the United States shall apply for purposes of determining whether income is from sources within a possession specified in subsection (a)(1) or effectively connected with the conduct of a trade or business within any such possession, and

(2) any income treated as income from sources within the United States or as effectively connected with the conduct of a trade or business within the United States shall not be treated as income from sources within any such possession or as effectively connected with the conduct of a trade or business within any such possession.

(c) Reporting requirement

(1) In general

If, for any taxable year, an individual takes the position for United States income tax reporting purposes that the individual became, or ceases to be, a bona fide resident of a possession specified in subsection (a)(1), such individual shall file with the Secretary, at such time and in such manner as the Secretary may prescribe, notice of such position.

(2) Transition rule

If, for any of an individual's 3 taxable years ending before the individual's first taxable year ending after the date of the enactment of this subsection, the individual took a position described in paragraph (1), the individual shall file with the Secretary, at such time and in such manner as the Secretary may prescribe, notice of such position.

(Added Pub. L. 108–357, title VIII, §908(a), Oct. 22, 2004, 118 Stat. 1655.)

References in Text

The date of the enactment of this subsection, referred to in subsec. (c)(2), is the date of enactment of Pub. L. 108–357, which was approved Oct. 22, 2004.

Effective Date

Pub. L. 108–357, title VIII, §908(d), Oct. 22, 2004, 118 Stat. 1657, provided that:

“(1) In general.—Except as otherwise provided in this subsection, the amendments made by this section [enacting this section and amending sections 931, 932, 934, 935, 957, and 6688 of this title] shall apply to taxable years ending after the date of the enactment of this Act [Oct. 22, 2004].

“(2) 183-day rule.—Section 937(a)(1) of the Internal Revenue Code of 1986 (as added by this section) shall apply to taxable years beginning after the date of the enactment of this Act.

“(3) Sourcing.—Section 937(b)(2) of such Code (as so added) shall apply to income earned after the date of the enactment of this Act.”

[Subpart E—Repealed]

[§§941 to 943. Repealed. Pub. L. 108–357, title I, §101(b)(1), Oct. 22, 2004, 118 Stat. 1423]

Section 941, added Pub. L. 106–519, §3(b), Nov. 15, 2000, 114 Stat. 2424, related to qualifying foreign trade income.

A prior section 941, acts Aug. 16, 1954, ch. 736, 68A Stat. 293; Oct. 4, 1976, Pub. L. 94–455, title X, §1053(a), title XIX, §1906(b)(1)(A), 90 Stat. 1648, 1834, set forth provisions authorizing special deduction for China Trade Act corporations, prior to repeal by Pub. L. 94–455, title X, §1053(c), (e), Oct. 4, 1976, 90 Stat. 1649, effective with respect to taxable years beginning after Dec. 31, 1977.

Section 942, added Pub. L. 106–519, §3(b), Nov. 15, 2000, 114 Stat. 2426, defined “foreign trading gross receipts” and set forth economic process requirements.

A prior section 942, act Aug. 16, 1954, ch. 736, 68A Stat. 294, disallowed foreign tax credit authorized by section 901 to any corporation organized under the China Trade Act, prior to repeal by Pub. L. 94–455, title X, §1053(c), (e), Oct. 4, 1976, 90 Stat. 1649, effective with respect to taxable years beginning after Dec. 31, 1977.

Section 943, added Pub. L. 106–519, §3(b), Nov. 15, 2000, 114 Stat. 2428; amended Pub. L. 107–147, title IV, §417(14), Mar. 9, 2002, 116 Stat. 56, set forth other definitions and special rules for purposes of this subpart.

A prior section 943, acts Aug. 16, 1954, ch. 736, 68A Stat. 294; Oct. 4, 1976, Pub. L. 94–455, title X, §1053(b), 90 Stat. 1648, set forth provisions relating to exclusion from gross income of residents of Formosa or Hong Kong of amounts distributed as dividends by China Trade Act corporations, prior to repeal by Pub. L. 94–455, title X, §1053(c), (e), Oct. 4, 1976, 90 Stat. 1649, effective with respect to taxable years beginning after Dec. 31, 1977.

Effective Date of Repeal

Repeal applicable to transactions after Dec. 31, 2004, see section 101(c) of Pub. L. 108–357, set out as an Effective Date of 2004 Amendments note under section 56 of this title.

Subpart F—Controlled Foreign Corporations

Sec.
951.
Amounts included in gross income of United States shareholders.
952.
Subpart F income defined.
953.
Insurance income.
954.
Foreign base company income.
955.
Withdrawal of previously excluded subpart F income from qualified investment.
956.
Investment of earnings in United States property.
[956A.
Repealed.]
957.
Controlled foreign corporations; United States persons.
958.
Rules for determining stock ownership.
959.
Exclusion from gross income of previously taxed earnings and profits.
960.
Special rules for foreign tax credit.
961.
Adjustments to basis of stock in controlled foreign corporations and of other property.
962.
Election by individuals to be subject to tax at corporate rates.
[963.
Repealed.]
964.
Miscellaneous provisions.
965.
Temporary dividends received deduction.

        

Amendments

2004—Pub. L. 108–357, title IV, §422(c), Oct. 22, 2004, 118 Stat. 1519, added item 965.

1996—Pub. L. 104–188, title I, §1501(c), Aug. 20, 1996, 110 Stat. 1826, which directed that the analysis for subpart F be amended by striking item 956A, could not be executed, because item 956A “Earnings invested in excess passive assets” had been editorially supplied.

1986—Pub. L. 99–514, title XII, §1221(b)(3)(E), Oct. 22, 1986, 100 Stat. 2553, substituted “Insurance income” for “Income from insurance of United States risks” in item 953.

1975—Pub. L. 94–12, title VI, §602(a)(3)(A), (c)(7), (d)(3)(B), Mar. 29, 1975, 89 Stat. 58, 60, 64, struck out existing item 955 and replaced it with an identical item 955 and struck out item 963 “Receipt of minimum distributions by domestic corporations”.

1962—Pub. L. 87–834, §12(a), Oct. 16, 1962, 76 Stat. 1006, added heading of subpart F, and items 951–964.

§951. Amounts included in gross income of United States shareholders

(a) Amounts included

(1) In general

If a foreign corporation is a controlled foreign corporation for an uninterrupted period of 30 days or more during any taxable year, every person who is a United States shareholder (as defined in subsection (b)) of such corporation and who owns (within the meaning of section 958(a)) stock in such corporation on the last day, in such year, on which such corporation is a controlled foreign corporation shall include in his gross income, for his taxable year in which or with which such taxable year of the corporation ends—

(A) the sum of—

(i) his pro rata share (determined under paragraph (2)) of the corporation's subpart F income for such year,

(ii) his pro rata share (determined under section 955(a)(3) as in effect before the enactment of the Tax Reduction Act of 1975) of the corporation's previously excluded subpart F income withdrawn from investment in less developed countries for such year, and

(iii) his pro rata share (determined under section 955(a)(3)) of the corporation's previously excluded subpart F income withdrawn from foreign base company shipping operations for such year; and


(B) the amount determined under section 956 with respect to such shareholder for such year (but only to the extent not excluded from gross income under section 959(a)(2)).

(2) Pro rata share of subpart F income

The pro rata share referred to in paragraph (1)(A)(i) in the case of any United States shareholder is the amount—

(A) which would have been distributed with respect to the stock which such shareholder owns (within the meaning of section 958(a)) in such corporation if on the last day, in its taxable year, on which the corporation is a controlled foreign corporation it had distributed pro rata to its shareholders an amount (i) which bears the same ratio to its subpart F income for the taxable year, as (ii) the part of such year during which the corporation is a controlled foreign corporation bears to the entire year, reduced by

(B) the amount of distributions received by any other person during such year as a dividend with respect to such stock, but only to the extent of the dividend which would have been received if the distribution by the corporation had been the amount (i) which bears the same ratio to the subpart F income of such corporation for the taxable year, as (ii) the part of such year during which such shareholder did not own (within the meaning of section 958(a)) such stock bears to the entire year.


For purposes of subparagraph (B), any gain included in the gross income of any person as a dividend under section 1248 shall be treated as a distribution received by such person with respect to the stock involved.

(3) Limitation on pro rata share of previously excluded subpart F income withdrawn from investment

For purposes of paragraph (1)(A)(iii), the pro rata share of any United States shareholder of the previously excluded subpart F income of a controlled foreign corporation withdrawn from investment in foreign base company shipping operations shall not exceed an amount—

(A) which bears the same ratio to his pro rata share of such income withdrawn (as determined under section 955(a)(3)) for the taxable year, as

(B) the part of such year during which the corporation is a controlled foreign corporation bears to the entire year.

(b) United States shareholder defined

For purposes of this subpart, the term “United States shareholder” means, with respect to any foreign corporation, a United States person (as defined in section 957(c)) who owns (within the meaning of section 958(a)), or is considered as owning by applying the rules of ownership of section 958(b), 10 percent or more of the total combined voting power of all classes of stock entitled to vote of such foreign corporation.

(c) Coordination with passive foreign investment company provisions

If, but for this subsection, an amount would be included in the gross income of a United States shareholder for any taxable year both under subsection (a)(1)(A)(i) and under section 1293 (relating to current taxation of income from certain passive foreign investment companies), such amount shall be included in the gross income of such shareholder only under subsection (a)(1)(A).

(Added Pub. L. 87–834, §12(a), Oct. 16, 1962, 76 Stat. 1006; amended Pub. L. 94–12, title VI, §602(a)(3)(B), (c)(3), (4), (d)(2), Mar. 29, 1975, 89 Stat. 58, 62; Pub. L. 94–455, title XIX, §1901(a)(119), Oct. 4, 1976, 90 Stat. 1784; Pub. L. 98–369, div. A, title I, §132(c)(1), title VIII, §801(d)(4), July 18, 1984, 98 Stat. 666, 996; Pub. L. 99–514, title XII, §1235(c), title XVIII, §1876(c)(2), Oct. 22, 1986, 100 Stat. 2574, 2898; Pub. L. 100–647, title I, §1012(i)(15), Nov. 10, 1988, 102 Stat. 3510; Pub. L. 103–66, title XIII, §§13231(a), 13232(c), Aug. 10, 1993, 107 Stat. 495, 502; Pub. L. 104–188, title I, §1501(a)(1), Aug. 20, 1996, 110 Stat. 1825; Pub. L. 105–34, title XI, §1112(a)(1), Aug. 5, 1997, 111 Stat. 969; Pub. L. 108–357, title IV, §413(c)(16), Oct. 22, 2004, 118 Stat. 1508; Pub. L. 110–172, §11(g)(13), Dec. 29, 2007, 121 Stat. 2490.)

References in Text

The Tax Reduction Act of 1975, referred to in subsec. (a)(1)(A)(ii), is Pub. L. 94–12, Mar. 29, 1975, 89 Stat. 26, as amended, which was enacted Mar. 29, 1975. For complete classification of this Act to the Code, see Short Title of 1975 Amendment note set out under section 1 of this title and Tables.

Amendments

2007—Subsecs. (c), (d). Pub. L. 110–172 redesignated subsec. (d) as (c) and struck out heading and text of former subsec. (c). Text read as follows:

“(1) In general.—The foreign trade income of a FSC and any deductions which are apportioned or allocated to such income shall not be taken into account under this subpart.

“(2) Foreign trade income.—For purposes of this subsection, the term ‘foreign trade income’ has the meaning given such term by section 923(b), but does not include section 923(a)(2) non-exempt income (within the meaning of section 927(d)(6)).”

2004—Subsecs. (c) to (f). Pub. L. 108–357 redesignated subsecs. (e) and (f) as (c) and (d), respectively, and struck out former subsecs. (c) and (d), which related to coordination of provisions with election of a foreign investment company to distribute income and coordination with foreign personal holding company provisions, respectively.

1997—Subsec. (a)(2). Pub. L. 105–34 inserted concluding provisions “For purposes of subparagraph (B), any gain included in the gross income of any person as a dividend under section 1248 shall be treated as a distribution received by such person with respect to the stock involved.”

1996—Subsec. (a)(1)(A) to (C). Pub. L. 104–188 inserted “and” at end of subpar. (A), substituted period for “; and” at end of subpar. (B), and struck out subpar. (C) which read as follows: “the amount determined under section 956A with respect to such shareholder for such year (but only to the extent not excluded from gross income under section 959(a)(3)).”

1993—Subsec. (a)(1)(B). Pub. L. 103–66, §13232(c)(1), substituted “the amount determined under section 956 with respect to such shareholder for such year (but only to the extent not excluded from gross income under section 959(a)(2)); and” for “his pro rata share (determined under section 956(a)(2)) of the corporation's increase in earnings invested in United States property for such year (but only to the extent not excluded from gross income under section 959(a)(2)); and”.

Subsec. (a)(1)(C). Pub. L. 103–66, §13231(a), added subpar. (C).

Subsec. (a)(4). Pub. L. 103–66, §13232(c)(2), struck out heading and text of par. (4). Text read as follows: “For purposes of paragraph (1)(B), the pro rata share of any United States shareholder in the increase of the earnings of a controlled foreign corporation invested in United States property shall not exceed an amount (A) which bears the same ratio to his pro rata share of such increase (as determined under section 956(a)(2)) for the taxable year, as (B) the part of such year during which the corporation is a controlled foreign corporation bears to the entire year.”

1988—Subsec. (b). Pub. L. 100–647 substituted “section 957(c)” for “section 957(d)”.

1986—Subsec. (e)(1). Pub. L. 99–514, §1876(c)(2), struck out last sentence which read as follows: “For purposes of the preceding sentence, income described in paragraph (2) or (3) of section 921(d) shall be treated as derived from sources within the United States.”

Subsec. (f). Pub. L. 99–514, §1235(c), added subsec. (f).

1984—Subsec. (d). Pub. L. 98–369, §132(c)(1), amended subsec. (d) generally, substituting provision that, if a United States shareholder is required to include in gross income an amount under both subsec. (a)(1)(A)(ii) of this section and section 551(b) of this title, such amount be included only under subsec. (a)(1)(A)(ii) of this section for provision that, if a United States shareholder is subject to tax under section 551(b) of this title, such shareholder not be required to include as gross income any amount under subsec. (a) of this section.

Subsec. (e). Pub. L. 98–369, §801(d)(4), added subsec. (e).

1976—Subsec. (a)(1). Pub. L. 94–455 struck out “beginning after December 31, 1962” after “during any taxable year”.

1975—Subsec. (a)(1)(A)(i). Pub. L. 94–12, §602(a)(3)(B), struck out “except as provided in section 963,” before “his pro rata share”.

Subsec. (a)(1)(A)(ii). Pub. L. 94–12, §602(c)(3), substituted “(determined under section 955(a)(3) as in effect before the enactment of the Tax Reduction Act of 1975)” for “(determined under section 955(a)(3))”.

Subsec. (a)(1)(A)(iii). Pub. L. 94–12, §602(d)(2)(A), added cl. (iii).

Subsec. (a)(3). Pub. L. 94–12, §602(c)(4), (d)(2)(B), substituted “paragraph (i)(A)(iii)” for “paragraph (1)(A)(ii)” and “foreign base company shipping operations” for “less developed countries”.

Effective Date of 2004 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 108–357 applicable to taxable years of foreign corporations beginning after Dec. 31, 2004, and to taxable years of United States shareholders with or within which such taxable years of foreign corporations end, see section 413(d)(1) of Pub. L. 108–357, set out as an Effective and Termination Dates of 2004 Amendments note under section 1 of this title.

Effective Date of 1997 Amendment

Section 1112(a)(2) of Pub. L. 105–34 provided that: “The amendment made by paragraph (1) [amending this section] shall apply to dispositions after the date of the enactment of this Act [Aug. 5, 1997].”

Effective Date of 1996 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 104–188 applicable to taxable years of foreign corporations beginning after Dec. 31, 1996, and to taxable years of United States shareholders within which or with which such taxable years of foreign corporations end, see section 1501(d) of Pub. L. 104–188, set out as a note under section 904 of this title.

Effective Date of 1993 Amendment

Section 13231(e) of Pub. L. 103–66 provided that: “The amendments made by this section [enacting section 956A of this title and amending this section and sections 959, 989, 1293, 1296, and 1297 of this title] shall apply to taxable years of foreign corporations beginning after September 30, 1993, and to taxable years of United States shareholders in which or with which such taxable years of foreign corporations end.”

Section 13232(d) of Pub. L. 103–66 provided that: “The amendments made by this section [amending this section and section 956 of this title] shall apply to taxable years of controlled foreign corporations beginning after September 30, 1993, and to taxable years of United States shareholders in which or with which such taxable years of controlled foreign corporations end.”

Effective Date of 1988 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 100–647 effective, except as otherwise provided, as if included in the provision of the Tax Reform Act of 1986, Pub. L. 99–514, to which such amendment relates, see section 1019(a) of Pub. L. 100–647, set out as a note under section 1 of this title.

Effective Date of 1986 Amendment

Amendment by section 1235(c) of Pub. L. 99–514 applicable to taxable years of foreign corporations beginning after Dec. 31, 1986, see section 1235(h) of Pub. L. 99–514, set out as an Effective Date note under section 1291 of this title.

Amendment by section 1876(c)(2) of Pub. L. 99–514 effective, except as otherwise provided, as if included in the provisions of the Tax Reform Act of 1984, Pub. L. 98–369, div. A, to which such amendment relates, see section 1881 of Pub. L. 99–514, set out as a note under section 48 of this title.

Effective Date of 1984 Amendment

Section 132(d)(2)(A) of Pub. L. 98–369 provided that: “The amendment made by paragraph (1) of subsection (c) [amending this section] shall apply to taxable years of United States shareholders beginning after the date of the enactment of this Act [July 18, 1984].”

Amendment by section 801(d)(4) of Pub. L. 98–369 applicable to transactions after Dec. 31, 1984, in taxable years ending after such date, see section 805(a)(1) of Pub. L. 98–369, as amended, set out as a note under section 245 of this title.

Effective Date of 1975 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 94–12 applicable to taxable years of foreign corporations beginning after Dec. 31, 1975, and to taxable years of United States shareholders (within the meaning of 951(b) of this title) within which or with which such taxable years of such foreign corporations end, see section 602(f) of Pub. L. 94–12, set out as an Effective Date note under section 955 of this title.

Effective Date

Section 12(c) of Pub. L. 87–834 provided that: “The amendments made by this section [enacting this section and sections 952 to 964 and 970 to 972 of this title and amending sections 901, 904, and 1016 of this title] shall apply with respect to taxable years of foreign corporations beginning after December 31, 1962, and to taxable year of United States shareholders within which or with which such taxable years of such foreign corporations end.”

Plan Amendments Not Required Until January 1, 1989

For provisions directing that if any amendments made by subtitle A or subtitle C of title XI [§§1101–1147 and 1171–1177] or title XVIII [§§1800–1899A] of Pub. L. 99–514 require an amendment to any plan, such plan amendment shall not be required to be made before the first plan year beginning on or after Jan. 1, 1989, see section 1140 of Pub. L. 99–514, as amended, set out as a note under section 401 of this title.

§952. Subpart F income defined

(a) In general

For purposes of this subpart, the term “subpart F income” means, in the case of any controlled foreign corporation, the sum of—

(1) insurance income (as defined under section 953),

(2) the foreign base company income (as determined under section 954),

(3) an amount equal to the product of—

(A) the income of such corporation other than income which—

(i) is attributable to earnings and profits of the foreign corporation included in the gross income of a United States person under section 951 (other than by reason of this paragraph), or

(ii) is described in subsection (b),


multiplied by

(B) the international boycott factor (as determined under section 999),


(4) the sum of the amounts of any illegal bribes, kickbacks, or other payments (within the meaning of section 162(c)) paid by or on behalf of the corporation during the taxable year of the corporation directly or indirectly to an official, employee, or agent in fact of a government, and

(5) the income of such corporation derived from any foreign country during any period during which section 901(j) applies to such foreign country.


The payments referred to in paragraph (4) are payments which would be unlawful under the Foreign Corrupt Practices Act of 1977 if the payor were a United States person. For purposes of paragraph (5), the income described therein shall be reduced, under regulations prescribed by the Secretary, so as to take into account deductions (including taxes) properly allocable to such income.

(b) Exclusion of United States income

In the case of a controlled foreign corporation, subpart F income does not include any item of income from sources within the United States which is effectively connected with the conduct by such corporation of a trade or business within the United States unless such item is exempt from taxation (or is subject to a reduced rate of tax) pursuant to a treaty obligation of the United States. For purposes of this subsection, any exemption (or reduction) with respect to the tax imposed by section 884 shall not be taken into account.

(c) Limitation

(1) In general

(A) Subpart F income limited to current earnings and profits

For purposes of subsection (a), the subpart F income of any controlled foreign corporation for any taxable year shall not exceed the earnings and profits of such corporation for such taxable year.

(B) Certain prior year deficits may be taken into account

(i) In general

The amount included in the gross income of any United States shareholder under section 951(a)(1)(A)(i) for any taxable year and attributable to a qualified activity shall be reduced by the amount of such shareholder's pro rata share of any qualified deficit.

(ii) Qualified deficit

The term “qualified deficit” means any deficit in earnings and profits of the controlled foreign corporation for any prior taxable year which began after December 31, 1986, and for which the controlled foreign corporation was a controlled foreign corporation; but only to the extent such deficit—

(I) is attributable to the same qualified activity as the activity giving rise to the income being offset, and

(II) has not previously been taken into account under this subparagraph.


 In determining the deficit attributable to qualified activities described in subclause (II) or (III) of clause (iii), deficits in earnings and profits (to the extent not previously taken into account under this section) for taxable years beginning after 1962 and before 1987 also shall be taken into account. In the case of the qualified activity described in clause (iii)(I), the rule of the preceding sentence shall apply, except that “1982” shall be substituted for “1962”.

(iii) Qualified activity

For purposes of this paragraph, the term “qualified activity” means any activity giving rise to—

(I) foreign base company oil related income,

(II) foreign base company sales income,

(III) foreign base company services income,

(IV) in the case of a qualified insurance company, insurance income or foreign personal holding company income, or

(V) in the case of a qualified financial institution, foreign personal holding company income.

(iv) Pro rata share

For purposes of this paragraph, the shareholder's pro rata share of any deficit for any prior taxable year shall be determined under rules similar to rules under section 951(a)(2) for whichever of the following yields the smaller share:

(I) the close of the taxable year, or

(II) the close of the taxable year in which the deficit arose.

(v) Qualified insurance company

For purposes of this subparagraph, the term “qualified insurance company” means any controlled foreign corporation predominantly engaged in the active conduct of an insurance business in the taxable year and in the prior taxable years in which the deficit arose.

(vi) Qualified financial institution

For purposes of this paragraph, the term “qualified financial institution” means any controlled foreign corporation predominantly engaged in the active conduct of a banking, financing, or similar business in the taxable year and in the prior taxable year in which the deficit arose.

(vii) Special rules for insurance income

(I) In general

An election may be made under this clause to have section 953(a) applied for purposes of this title without regard to the same country exception under paragraph (1)(A) thereof. Such election, once made, may be revoked only with the consent of the Secretary.

(II) Special rules for affiliated groups

In the case of an affiliated group of corporations (within the meaning of section 1504 but without regard to section 1504(b)(3) and by substituting “more than 50 percent” for “at least 80 percent” each place it appears), no election may be made under subclause (I) for any controlled foreign corporation unless such election is made for all other controlled foreign corporations who are members of such group and who were created or organized under the laws of the same country as such controlled foreign corporation. For purposes of clause (v), in determining whether any controlled corporation described in the preceding sentence is a qualified insurance company, all such corporations shall be treated as 1 corporation.

(C) Certain deficits of member of the same chain of corporations may be taken into account

(i) In general

A controlled foreign corporation may elect to reduce the amount of its subpart F income for any taxable year which is attributable to any qualified activity by the amount of any deficit in earnings and profits of a qualified chain member for a taxable year ending with (or within) the taxable year of such controlled foreign corporation to the extent such deficit is attributable to such activity. To the extent any deficit reduces subpart F income under the preceding sentence, such deficit shall not be taken into account under subparagraph (B).

(ii) Qualified chain member

For purposes of this subparagraph, the term “qualified chain member” means, with respect to any controlled foreign corporation, any other corporation which is created or organized under the laws of the same foreign country as the controlled foreign corporation but only if—

(I) all the stock of such other corporation (other than directors’ qualifying shares) is owned at all times during the taxable year in which the deficit arose (directly or through 1 or more corporations other than the common parent) by such controlled foreign corporation, or

(II) all the stock of such controlled foreign corporation (other than directors’ qualifying shares) is owned at all times during the taxable year in which the deficit arose (directly or through 1 or more corporations other than the common parent) by such other corporation.

(iii) Coordination

This subparagraph shall be applied after subparagraphs (A) and (B).

(2) Recharacterization in subsequent taxable years

If the subpart F income of any controlled foreign corporation for any taxable year was reduced by reason of paragraph (1)(A), any excess of the earnings and profits of such corporation for any subsequent taxable year over the subpart F income of such foreign corporation for such taxable year shall be recharacterized as subpart F income under rules similar to the rules applicable under section 904(f)(5).

(3) Special rule for determining earnings and profits

For purposes of this subsection, earnings and profits of any controlled foreign corporation shall be determined without regard to paragraphs (4), (5), and (6) of section 312(n). Under regulations, the preceding sentence shall not apply to the extent it would increase earnings and profits by an amount which was previously distributed by the controlled foreign corporation.

(d) Income derived from foreign country

The Secretary shall prescribe such regulations as may be necessary or appropriate to carry out the purposes of subsection (a)(5), including regulations which treat income paid through 1 or more entities as derived from a foreign country to which section 901(j) applies if such income was, without regard to such entities, derived from such country.

(Added Pub. L. 87–834, §12(a), Oct. 16, 1962, 76 Stat. 1008; amended Pub. L. 89–809, title I, §104(j), Nov. 13, 1966, 80 Stat. 1562; Pub. L. 94–455, title X, §§1062, 1065(a)(1), title XIX, §1906(b)(13)(A), Oct. 4, 1976, 90 Stat. 1650, 1653, 1834; Pub. L. 97–248, title II, §288(b)(1), Sept. 3, 1982, 96 Stat. 571; Pub. L. 99–509, title VIII, §8041(b), Oct. 21, 1986, 100 Stat. 1963; Pub. L. 99–514, title XII, §1221(b)(3)(A), (f), title XVIII, §1876(c)(1), Oct. 22, 1986, 100 Stat. 2552, 2554, 2898; Pub. L. 100–647, title I, §1012(i)(16), (22)–(25)(A), title VI, §6131(a), Nov. 10, 1988, 102 Stat. 3510–3512, 3720; Pub. L. 105–34, title XI, §1112(c)(1), Aug. 5, 1997, 111 Stat. 969; Pub. L. 108–357, title IV, §415(c)(1), Oct. 22, 2004, 118 Stat. 1511; Pub. L. 109–135, title IV, §412(kk), Dec. 21, 2005, 119 Stat. 2639; Pub. L. 110–172, §11(g)(14), Dec. 29, 2007, 121 Stat. 2490.)

References in Text

The Foreign Corrupt Practices Act of 1977, referred to in subsec. (a), is title I of Pub. L. 95–213, Dec. 19, 1977, 91 Stat. 1494, as amended, which enacted sections 78dd–1 to 78dd–3 of Title 15, Commerce and Trade, and amended sections 78m and 78ff of Title 15. For complete classification of this Act to the Code, see Short Title of 1977 Amendment note set out under section 78a of Title 15 and Tables.

Amendments

2007—Subsec. (b). Pub. L. 110–172 struck out second sentence which read as follows: “For purposes of the preceding sentence, income described in paragraph (2) or (3) of section 921(d) shall be treated as derived from sources within the United States.”

2005—Subsec. (c)(1)(B)(ii). Pub. L. 109–135 substituted “subclause (II) or (III) of clause (iii)” for “clause (iii)(III) or (IV)” and “clause (iii)(I)” for “clause (iii)(II)” in concluding provisions.

2004—Subsec. (c)(1)(B)(iii). Pub. L. 108–357 redesignated subcls. (II) to (VI) as (I) to (V), respectively, and struck out former subcl. (I) which read as follows: “foreign base company shipping income,”.

1997—Subsec. (b). Pub. L. 105–34 inserted at end “For purposes of this subsection, any exemption (or reduction) with respect to the tax imposed by section 884 shall not be taken into account.”

1988—Subsec. (c)(1)(B)(ii). Pub. L. 100–647, §1012(i)(24), inserted at end “In determining the deficit attributable to qualified activities described in clause (iii)(III) or (IV), deficits in earnings and profits (to the extent not previously taken into account under this section) for taxable years beginning after 1962 and before 1987 also shall be taken into account. In the case of the qualified activity described in clause (iii)(II), the rule of the preceding sentence shall apply, except that ‘1982’ shall be substituted for ‘1962’.”

Subsec. (c)(1)(B)(iii)(III) to (VI). Pub. L. 100–647, §1012(i)(22), (23), added subcls. (III) and (IV), redesignated former subcl. (III) as (V) and substituted “insurance income or foreign personal holding company income,” for “insurance income”, and redesignated former subcl. (IV) as (VI).

Subsec. (c)(1)(B)(vii). Pub. L. 100–647, §6131(a), added cl. (vii).

Subsec. (c)(1)(C). Pub. L. 100–647, §1012(i)(25)(A), added subpar. (C).

Subsec. (c)(3). Pub. L. 100–647, §1012(i)(16), added par. (3).

1986—Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 99–509, §8041(b)(1), added par. (5) and last sentence.

Subsec. (a)(1). Pub. L. 99–514, §1221(b)(3)(A), amended par. (1) generally. Prior to amendment, par. (1) read as follows: “the income derived from the insurance of United States risks (as determined under section 953), and”.

Subsec. (b). Pub. L. 99–514, §1876(c)(1), inserted last sentence.

Subsec. (c). Pub. L. 99–514, §1221(f), added subsec. (c) and struck out former subsec. (c) which read as follows: “For purposes of subsection (a), the subpart F income of any controlled foreign corporation for any taxable year shall not exceed the earnings and profits of such corporation for such year reduced by the amount (if any) by which—

“(1) an amount equal to—

“(A) the sum of the deficits in earnings and profits for prior taxable years beginning after December 31, 1962, plus

“(B) the sum of the deficits in earnings and profits for taxable years beginning after December 31, 1959, and before January 1, 1963 (reduced by the sum of the earnings and profits for such taxable years); exceeds

“(2) an amount equal to the sum of the earnings and profits for prior taxable years beginning after December 31, 1962, allocated to other earnings and profits under section 959(c)(3).

For purposes of the preceding sentence, any deficit in earnings and profits for any prior taxable year shall be taken into account under paragraph (1) for any taxable year only to the extent it has not been taken into account under such paragraph for any preceding taxable year to reduce earnings and profits of such preceding year.”

Subsec. (d). Pub. L. 99–509, §8041(b)(2), added subsec. (d).

Pub. L. 99–514, §1221(f), struck out subsec. (d), special rule in case of indirect ownership, which read as follows: “For purposes of subsection (c), if—

“(1) a United States shareholder owns (within the meaning of section 958(a)) stock of a foreign corporation, and by reason of such ownership owns (within the meaning of such section) stock of any other foreign corporation, and

“(2) any of such foreign corporations has a deficit in earnings and profits for the taxable year,

then the earnings and profits for the taxable year of each such foreign corporation which is a controlled foreign corporation shall, with respect to such United States shareholder, be properly reduced to take into account any deficit described in paragraph (2) in such manner as the Secretary shall prescribe by regulations.”

1982—Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 97–248 inserted provision that the payments referred to in par. (4) are payments which would be unlawful under the Foreign Corrupt Practices Act of 1977 if the payor were a United States person.

1976—Subsec. (a)(3). Pub. L. 94–455, §1062(a), added par. (3).

Subsec. (a)(4). Pub. L. 94–455, §1065(a)(1), added par. (4).

Subsec. (d). Pub. L. 94–455, §1906(b)(13)(A), struck out “or his delegate” after “Secretary”.

1966—Subsec. (b). Pub. L. 89–809 substituted “In the case of a controlled foreign corporation, subpart F income does not include any item of income from sources within the United States which is effectively connected with the conduct by such corporation of a trade or business within the United States unless such item is exempt from taxation (or is subject to a reduced rate of tax) pursuant to a treaty obligation of the United States” for “Subpart F income does not include any item includible in gross income under this chapter (other than this subpart) as income derived from sources within the United States of a foreign corporation engaged in trade or business in the United States”.

Effective Date of 2004 Amendment

Pub. L. 108–357, title IV, §415(d), Oct. 22, 2004, 118 Stat. 1511, provided that: “The amendments made by this section [amending this section and section 954 of this title] shall apply to taxable years of foreign corporations beginning after December 31, 2004, and to taxable years of United States shareholders with or within which such taxable years of foreign corporations end.”

Effective Date of 1997 Amendment

Section 1112(c)(2) of Pub. L. 105–34 provided that: “The amendment made by paragraph (1) [amending this section] shall apply to taxable years beginning after December 31, 1986.”

Effective Date of 1988 Amendment

Amendment by section 1012(i)(16), (22)–(25)(A) of Pub. L. 100–647 effective, except as otherwise provided, as if included in the provision of the Tax Reform Act of 1986, Pub. L. 99–514, to which such amendment relates, see section 1019(a) of Pub. L. 100–647, set out as a note under section 1 of this title.

Section 6131(b) of Pub. L. 100–647 provided that: “The amendment made by this section [amending this section] shall take effect as if included in the amendments made by section 1221(f) of the Reform Act [Pub. L. 99–514].”

Effective Date of 1986 Amendments

Amendment by section 1221(b)(3)(A), (f) of Pub. L. 99–514 applicable to taxable years of foreign corporations beginning after Dec. 31, 1986, except as otherwise provided, see section 1221(g) of Pub. L. 99–514, set out as a note under section 954 of this title.

Amendment by section 1876(c)(1) of Pub. L. 99–514 effective, except as otherwise provided, as if included in the provisions of the Tax Reform Act of 1984, Pub. L. 98–369, div. A, to which such amendment relates, see section 1881 of Pub. L. 99–514, set out as a note under section 48 of this title.

Amendment by Pub. L. 99–509 effective Jan. 1, 1987, see section 8041(c) of Pub. L. 99–509, set out as a note under section 901 of this title.

Effective Date of 1982 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 97–248 applicable to payments made after Sept. 3, 1982, see section 288(c) of Pub. L. 97–248, set out as a note under section 162 of this title.

Effective Date of 1976 Amendment

Amendment by section 1062 of Pub. L. 94–455 applicable to participation in or cooperation with an international boycott more than 30 days after Oct. 4, 1976, see section 1066(a) of Pub. L. 94–455, set out as a note under section 908 of this title.

Section 1066(b) of Pub. L. 94–455, as amended by Pub. L. 99–514, §2, Oct. 22, 1986, 100 Stat. 2095, provided that: “The amendments made by section 1065 [amending this section and sections 995 and 964 of this title] apply to payments described in section 162(c) of the Internal Revenue Code of 1986 [formerly I.R.C. 1954] made more than 30 days after the date of enactment of this Act [Oct. 4, 1976].”

Effective Date of 1966 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 89–809 applicable with respect to taxable years beginning after Dec. 31, 1966, see section 104(n) of Pub. L. 89–809, set out as a note under section 11 of this title.

Determination of Corporate Earnings and Profits for Purposes of Applying Subsection (c)(1)(A)

Section 1012(i)(6) of Pub. L. 100–647 provided that: “For purposes of applying section 952(c)(1)(A) of the 1986 Code, the earnings and profits of any corporation shall be determined without regard to any increase in earnings and profits under section 1023(e)(3)(C) of the Reform Act [Pub. L. 99–514, set out as an Effective Date note under section 846 of this title].”

Plan Amendments Not Required Until January 1, 1989

For provisions directing that if any amendments made by subtitle A or subtitle C of title XI [§§1101–1147 and 1171–1177] or title XVIII [§§1800–1899A] of Pub. L. 99–514 require an amendment to any plan, such plan amendment shall not be required to be made before the first plan year beginning on or after Jan. 1, 1989, see section 1140 of Pub. L. 99–514, as amended, set out as a note under section 401 of this title.

§953. Insurance income

(a) Insurance income

(1) In general

For purposes of section 952(a)(1), the term “insurance income” means any income which—

(A) is attributable to the issuing (or reinsuring) of an insurance or annuity contract, and

(B) would (subject to the modifications provided by subsection (b)) be taxed under subchapter L of this chapter if such income were the income of a domestic insurance company.

(2) Exception

Such term shall not include any exempt insurance income (as defined in subsection (e)).

(b) Special rules

For purposes of subsection (a)—

(1) The following provisions of subchapter L shall not apply:

(A) The small life insurance company deduction.

(B) Section 805(a)(5) (relating to operations loss deduction).

(C) Section 832(c)(5) (relating to certain capital losses).


(2) The items referred to in—

(A) section 803(a)(1) (relating to gross amount of premiums and other considerations),

(B) section 803(a)(2) (relating to net decrease in reserves),

(C) section 805(a)(2) (relating to net increase in reserves), and

(D) section 832(b)(4) (relating to premiums earned on insurance contracts),


shall be taken into account only to the extent they are in respect of any reinsurance or the issuing of any insurance or annuity contract described in subsection (a)(1).

(3) Reserves for any insurance or annuity contract shall be determined in the same manner as under section 954(i).

(4) All items of income, expenses, losses, and deductions shall be properly allocated or apportioned under regulations prescribed by the Secretary.

(c) Special rule for certain captive insurance companies

(1) In general

For purposes only of taking into account related person insurance income—

(A) the term “United States shareholder” means, with respect to any foreign corporation, a United States person (as defined in section 957(c)) who owns (within the meaning of section 958(a)) any stock of the foreign corporation,

(B) the term “controlled foreign corporation” has the meaning given to such term by section 957(a) determined by substituting “25 percent or more” for “more than 50 percent”, and

(C) the pro rata share referred to in section 951(a)(1)(A)(i) shall be determined under paragraph (5) of this subsection.

(2) Related person insurance income

For purposes of this subsection, the term “related person insurance income” means any insurance income (within the meaning of subsection (a)) attributable to a policy of insurance or reinsurance with respect to which the person (directly or indirectly) insured is a United States shareholder in the foreign corporation or a related person to such a shareholder.

(3) Exceptions

(A) Corporations not held by insureds

Paragraph (1) shall not apply to any foreign corporation if at all times during the taxable year of such foreign corporation—

(i) less than 20 percent of the total combined voting power of all classes of stock of such corporation entitled to vote, and

(ii) less than 20 percent of the total value of such corporation,


is owned (directly or indirectly under the principles of section 883(c)(4)) by persons who are (directly or indirectly) insured under any policy of insurance or reinsurance issued by such corporation or who are related persons to any such person.

(B) De minimis exception

Paragraph (1) shall not apply to any foreign corporation for a taxable year of such corporation if the related person insurance income (determined on a gross basis) of such corporation for such taxable year is less than 20 percent of its insurance income (as so determined) for such taxable year determined without regard to those provisions of subsection (a)(1) which limit insurance income to income from countries other than the country in which the corporation was created or organized.

(C) Election to treat income as effectively connected

Paragraph (1) shall not apply to any foreign corporation for any taxable year if—

(i) such corporation elects (at such time and in such manner as the Secretary may prescribe)—

(I) to treat its related person insurance income for such taxable year as income effectively connected with the conduct of a trade or business in the United States, and

(II) to waive all benefits (other than with respect to section 884) with respect to related person insurance income granted by the United States under any treaty between the United States and any foreign country, and


(ii) such corporation meets such requirements as the Secretary shall prescribe to ensure that the tax imposed by this chapter on such income is paid.


An election under this subparagraph made for any taxable year shall not be effective if the corporation (or any predecessor thereof) was a disqualified corporation for the taxable year for which the election was made or for any prior taxable year beginning after 1986.

(D) Special rules for subparagraph (C)

(i) Period during which election in effect

(I) In general

Except as provided in subclause (II), any election under subparagraph (C) shall apply to the taxable year for which made and all subsequent taxable years unless revoked with the consent of the Secretary.

(II) Termination

If a foreign corporation which made an election under subparagraph (C) for any taxable year is a disqualified corporation for any subsequent taxable year, such election shall not apply to any taxable year beginning after such subsequent taxable year.

(ii) Exemption from tax imposed by section 4371

The tax imposed by section 4371 shall not apply with respect to any related person insurance income treated as effectively connected with the conduct of a trade or business within the United States under subparagraph (C).

(E) Disqualified corporation

For purposes of this paragraph the term “disqualified corporation” means, with respect to any taxable year, any foreign corporation which is a controlled foreign corporation for an uninterrupted period of 30 days or more during such taxable year (determined without regard to this subsection) but only if a United States shareholder (determined without regard to this subsection) owns (within the meaning of section 958(a)) stock in such corporation at some time during such taxable year.

(4) Treatment of mutual insurance companies

In the case of a mutual insurance company—

(A) this subsection shall apply,

(B) policyholders of such company shall be treated as shareholders, and

(C) appropriate adjustments in the application of this subpart shall be made under regulations prescribed by the Secretary.

(5) Determination of pro rata share

(A) In general

The pro rata share determined under this paragraph for any United States shareholder is the lesser of—

(i) the amount which would be determined under paragraph (2) of section 951(a) if—

(I) only related person insurance income were taken into account,

(II) stock owned (within the meaning of section 958(a)) by United States shareholders on the last day of the taxable year were the only stock in the foreign corporation, and

(III) only distributions received by United States shareholders were taken into account under subparagraph (B) of such paragraph (2), or


(ii) the amount which would be determined under paragraph (2) of section 951(a) if the entire earnings and profits of the foreign corporation for the taxable year were subpart F income.

(B) Coordination with other provisions

The Secretary shall prescribe regulations providing for such modifications to the provisions of this subpart as may be necessary or appropriate by reason of subparagraph (A).

(6) Related person

For purposes of this subsection—

(A) In general

Except as provided in subparagraph (B), the term “related person” has the meaning given such term by section 954(d)(3).

(B) Treatment of certain liability insurance policies

In the case of any policy of insurance covering liability arising from services performed as a director, officer, or employee of a corporation or as a partner or employee of a partnership, the person performing such services and the entity for which such services are performed shall be treated as related persons.

(7) Coordination with section 1248

For purposes of section 1248, if any person is (or would be but for paragraph (3)) treated under paragraph (1) as a United States shareholder with respect to any foreign corporation which would be taxed under subchapter L if it were a domestic corporation and which is (or would be but for paragraph (3)) treated under paragraph (1) as a controlled foreign corporation—

(A) such person shall be treated as meeting the stock ownership requirements of section 1248(a)(2) with respect to such foreign corporation, and

(B) such foreign corporation shall be treated as a controlled foreign corporation.

(8) Regulations

The Secretary shall prescribe such regulations as may be necessary to carry out the purposes of this subsection, including—

(A) regulations preventing the avoidance of this subsection through cross insurance arrangements or otherwise, and

(B) regulations which may provide that a person will not be treated as a United States shareholder under paragraph (1) with respect to any foreign corporation if neither such person (nor any related person to such person) is (directly or indirectly) insured under any policy of insurance or reinsurance issued by such foreign corporation.

(d) Election by foreign insurance company to be treated as domestic corporation

(1) In general

If—

(A) a foreign corporation is a controlled foreign corporation (as defined in section 957(a) by substituting “25 percent or more” for “more than 50 percent” and by using the definition of United States shareholder under 953(c)(1)(A)),

(B) such foreign corporation would qualify under part I or II of subchapter L for the taxable year if it were a domestic corporation,

(C) such foreign corporation meets such requirements as the Secretary shall prescribe to ensure that the taxes imposed by this chapter on such foreign corporation are paid, and

(D) such foreign corporation makes an election to have this paragraph apply and waives all benefits to such corporation granted by the United States under any treaty,


for purposes of this title, such corporation shall be treated as a domestic corporation.

(2) Period during which election is in effect

(A) In general

Except as provided in subparagraph (B), an election under paragraph (1) shall apply to the taxable year for which made and all subsequent taxable years unless revoked with the consent of the Secretary.

(B) Termination

If a corporation which made an election under paragraph (1) for any taxable year fails to meet the requirements of subparagraphs (A), (B), and (C), of paragraph (1) for any subsequent taxable year, such election shall not apply to any taxable year beginning after such subsequent taxable year.

(3) Treatment of losses

If any corporation treated as a domestic corporation under this subsection is treated as a member of an affiliated group for purposes of chapter 6 (relating to consolidated returns), any loss of such corporation shall be treated as a dual consolidated loss for purposes of section 1503(d) without regard to paragraph (2)(B) thereof.

(4) Effect of election

(A) In general

For purposes of section 367, any foreign corporation making an election under paragraph (1) shall be treated as transferring (as of the 1st day of the 1st taxable year to which such election applies) all of its assets to a domestic corporation in connection with an exchange to which section 354 applies.

(B) Exception for pre-1988 earnings and profit

(i) In general

Earnings and profits of the foreign corporation accumulated in taxable years beginning before January 1, 1988, shall not be included in the gross income of the persons holding stock in such corporation by reason of subparagraph (A).

(ii) Treatment of distributions

For purposes of this title, any distribution made by a corporation to which an election under paragraph (1) applies out of earnings and profits accumulated in taxable years beginning before January 1, 1988, shall be treated as a distribution made by a foreign corporation.

(iii) Certain rules to continue to apply to pre-1988 earnings

The provisions specified in clause (iv) shall be applied without regard to paragraph (1), except that, in the case of a corporation to which an election under paragraph (1) applies, only earnings and profits accumulated in taxable years beginning before January 1, 1988, shall be taken into account.

(iv) Specified provisions

The provisions specified in this clause are:

(I) Section 1248 (relating to gain from certain sales or exchanges of stock in certain foreign corporations).

(II) Subpart F of part III of subchapter N to the extent such subpart relates to earnings invested in United States property or amounts referred to in clause (ii) or (iii) of section 951(a)(1)(A).

(III) Section 884 to the extent the foreign corporation reinvested 1987 earnings and profits in United States assets.

(5) Effect of termination

For purposes of section 367, if—

(A) an election is made by a corporation under paragraph (1) for any taxable year, and

(B) such election ceases to apply for any subsequent taxable year,


such corporation shall be treated as a domestic corporation transferring (as of the 1st day of such subsequent taxable year) all of its property to a foreign corporation in connection with an exchange to which section 354 applies.

(6) Additional tax on corporation making election

(A) In general

If a corporation makes an election under paragraph (1), the amount of tax imposed by this chapter for the 1st taxable year to which such election applies shall be increased by the amount determined under subparagraph (B).

(B) Amount of tax

The amount of tax determined under this paragraph shall be equal to the lesser of—

(i) ¾ of 1 percent of the aggregate amount of capital and accumulated surplus of the corporation as of December 31, 1987, or

(ii) $1,500,000.

(e) Exempt insurance income

For purposes of this section—

(1) Exempt insurance income defined

(A) In general

The term “exempt insurance income” means income derived by a qualifying insurance company which—

(i) is attributable to the issuing (or reinsuring) of an exempt contract by such company or a qualifying insurance company branch of such company, and

(ii) is treated as earned by such company or branch in its home country for purposes of such country's tax laws.

(B) Exception for certain arrangements

Such term shall not include income attributable to the issuing (or reinsuring) of an exempt contract as the result of any arrangement whereby another corporation receives a substantially equal amount of premiums or other consideration in respect of issuing (or reinsuring) a contract which is not an exempt contract.

(C) Determinations made separately

For purposes of this subsection and section 954(i), the exempt insurance income and exempt contracts of a qualifying insurance company or any qualifying insurance company branch of such company shall be determined separately for such company and each such branch by taking into account—

(i) in the case of the qualifying insurance company, only items of income, deduction, gain, or loss, and activities of such company not properly allocable or attributable to any qualifying insurance company branch of such company, and

(ii) in the case of a qualifying insurance company branch, only items of income, deduction, gain, or loss and activities properly allocable or attributable to such branch.

(2) Exempt contract

(A) In general

The term “exempt contract” means an insurance or annuity contract issued or reinsured by a qualifying insurance company or qualifying insurance company branch in connection with property in, liability arising out of activity in, or the lives or health of residents of, a country other than the United States.

(B) Minimum home country income required

(i) In general

No contract of a qualifying insurance company or of a qualifying insurance company branch shall be treated as an exempt contract unless such company or branch derives more than 30 percent of its net written premiums from exempt contracts (determined without regard to this subparagraph)—

(I) which cover applicable home country risks, and

(II) with respect to which no policyholder, insured, annuitant, or beneficiary is a related person (as defined in section 954(d)(3)).

(ii) Applicable home country risks

The term “applicable home country risks” means risks in connection with property in, liability arising out of activity in, or the lives or health of residents of, the home country of the qualifying insurance company or qualifying insurance company branch, as the case may be, issuing or reinsuring the contract covering the risks.

(C) Substantial activity requirements for cross border risks

A contract issued by a qualifying insurance company or qualifying insurance company branch which covers risks other than applicable home country risks (as defined in subparagraph (B)(ii)) shall not be treated as an exempt contract unless such company or branch, as the case may be—

(i) conducts substantial activity with respect to an insurance business in its home country, and

(ii) performs in its home country substantially all of the activities necessary to give rise to the income generated by such contract.

(3) Qualifying insurance company

The term “qualifying insurance company” means any controlled foreign corporation which—

(A) is subject to regulation as an insurance (or reinsurance) company by its home country, and is licensed, authorized, or regulated by the applicable insurance regulatory body for its home country to sell insurance, reinsurance, or annuity contracts to persons other than related persons (within the meaning of section 954(d)(3)) in such home country,

(B) derives more than 50 percent of its aggregate net written premiums from the issuance or reinsurance by such controlled foreign corporation and each of its qualifying insurance company branches of contracts—

(i) covering applicable home country risks (as defined in paragraph (2)) of such corporation or branch, as the case may be, and

(ii) with respect to which no policyholder, insured, annuitant, or beneficiary is a related person (as defined in section 954(d)(3)),


except that in the case of a branch, such premiums shall only be taken into account to the extent such premiums are treated as earned by such branch in its home country for purposes of such country's tax laws, and

(C) is engaged in the insurance business and would be subject to tax under subchapter L if it were a domestic corporation.

(4) Qualifying insurance company branch

The term “qualifying insurance company branch” means a qualified business unit (within the meaning of section 989(a)) of a controlled foreign corporation if—

(A) such unit is licensed, authorized, or regulated by the applicable insurance regulatory body for its home country to sell insurance, reinsurance, or annuity contracts to persons other than related persons (within the meaning of section 954(d)(3)) in such home country, and

(B) such controlled foreign corporation is a qualifying insurance company, determined under paragraph (3) as if such unit were a qualifying insurance company branch.

(5) Life insurance or annuity contract

For purposes of this section and section 954, the determination of whether a contract issued by a controlled foreign corporation or a qualified business unit (within the meaning of section 989(a)) is a life insurance contract or an annuity contract shall be made without regard to sections 72(s), 101(f), 817(h), and 7702 if—

(A) such contract is regulated as a life insurance or annuity contract by the corporation's or unit's home country, and

(B) no policyholder, insured, annuitant, or beneficiary with respect to the contract is a United States person.

(6) Home country

For purposes of this subsection, except as provided in regulations—

(A) Controlled foreign corporation

The term “home country” means, with respect to a controlled foreign corporation, the country in which such corporation is created or organized.

(B) Qualified business unit

The term “home country” means, with respect to a qualified business unit (as defined in section 989(a)), the country in which the principal office of such unit is located and in which such unit is licensed, authorized, or regulated by the applicable insurance regulatory body to sell insurance, reinsurance, or annuity contracts to persons other than related persons (as defined in section 954(d)(3)) in such country.

(7) Anti-abuse rules

For purposes of applying this subsection and section 954(i)—

(A) the rules of section 954(h)(7) (other than subparagraph (B) thereof) shall apply,

(B) there shall be disregarded any item of income, gain, loss, or deduction of, or derived from, an entity which is not engaged in regular and continuous transactions with persons which are not related persons,

(C) there shall be disregarded any change in the method of computing reserves a principal purpose of which is the acceleration or deferral of any item in order to claim the benefits of this subsection or section 954(i),

(D) a contract of insurance or reinsurance shall not be treated as an exempt contract (and premiums from such contract shall not be taken into account for purposes of paragraph (2)(B) or (3)) if—

(i) any policyholder, insured, annuitant, or beneficiary is a resident of the United States and such contract was marketed to such resident and was written to cover a risk outside the United States, or

(ii) the contract covers risks located within and without the United States and the qualifying insurance company or qualifying insurance company branch does not maintain such contemporaneous records, and file such reports, with respect to such contract as the Secretary may require,


(E) the Secretary may prescribe rules for the allocation of contracts (and income from contracts) among 2 or more qualifying insurance company branches of a qualifying insurance company in order to clearly reflect the income of such branches, and

(F) premiums from a contract shall not be taken into account for purposes of paragraph (2)(B) or (3) if such contract reinsures a contract issued or reinsured by a related person (as defined in section 954(d)(3)).


For purposes of subparagraph (D), the determination of where risks are located shall be made under the principles of section 953.

(8) Coordination with subsection (c)

In determining insurance income for purposes of subsection (c), exempt insurance income shall not include income derived from exempt contracts which cover risks other than applicable home country risks.

(9) Regulations

The Secretary shall prescribe such regulations as may be necessary or appropriate to carry out the purposes of this subsection and section 954(i).

(10) Application

This subsection and section 954(i) shall apply only to taxable years of a foreign corporation beginning after December 31, 1998, and before January 1, 2012, and to taxable years of United States shareholders with or within which any such taxable year of such foreign corporation ends. If this subsection does not apply to a taxable year of a foreign corporation beginning after December 31, 2011 (and taxable years of United States shareholders ending with or within such taxable year), then, notwithstanding the preceding sentence, subsection (a) shall be applied to such taxable years in the same manner as it would if the taxable year of the foreign corporation began in 1998.

(11) Cross reference

For income exempt from foreign personal holding company income, see section 954(i).

(Added Pub. L. 87–834, §12(a), Oct. 16, 1962, 76 Stat. 1008; amended Pub. L. 89–809, title I, §104(m)(2), Nov. 13, 1966, 80 Stat. 1563; Pub. L. 94–455, title XIX, §1906(b)(13)(A), Oct. 4, 1976, 90 Stat. 1834; Pub. L. 98–369, div. A, title II, §211(b)(13), July 18, 1984, 98 Stat. 755; Pub. L. 99–514, title XII, §1221(b)(1), (2), (3)(D), Oct. 22, 1986, 100 Stat. 2551, 2553; Pub. L. 100–647, title I, §1012(i)(1)–(3)(B), (4), (5), (7)–(9), (21), title VI, §6135(a), Nov. 10, 1988, 102 Stat. 3507–3509, 3511, 3721; Pub. L. 101–239, title VII, §7816(p), Dec. 19, 1989, 103 Stat. 2423; Pub. L. 105–277, div. J, title I, §1005(b)(1), (3), Oct. 21, 1998, 112 Stat. 2681–893, 2681–899; Pub. L. 106–170, title V, §503(a), (b), Dec. 17, 1999, 113 Stat. 1921; Pub. L. 107–147, title VI, §614(a)(1), Mar. 9, 2002, 116 Stat. 61; Pub. L. 109–222, title I, §103(a)(1), May 17, 2006, 120 Stat. 346; Pub. L. 110–343, div. C, title III, §303(a), Oct. 3, 2008, 122 Stat. 3866; Pub. L. 111–312, title VII, §750(a), (b), Dec. 17, 2010, 124 Stat. 3320.)

Amendments

2010—Subsec. (e)(10). Pub. L. 111–312 substituted “January 1, 2012” for “January 1, 2010” and “December 31, 2011” for “December 31, 2009”.

2008—Subsec. (e)(10). Pub. L. 110–343 substituted “January 1, 2010” for “January 1, 2009” and “December 31, 2009” for “December 31, 2008”.

2006—Subsec. (e)(10). Pub. L. 109–222 substituted “January 1, 2009” for “January 1, 2007” and “December 31, 2008” for “December 31, 2006”.

2002—Subsec. (e)(10). Pub. L. 107–147 substituted “January 1, 2007” for “January 1, 2002” and “December 31, 2006” for “December 31, 2001”.

1999—Subsec. (e)(10). Pub. L. 106–170 substituted “taxable years” for “the first taxable year”, “January 1, 2002” for “January 1, 2000”, and “within which any such” for “within which such”, and inserted at end “If this subsection does not apply to a taxable year of a foreign corporation beginning after December 31, 2001 (and taxable years of United States shareholders ending with or within such taxable year), then, notwithstanding the preceding sentence, subsection (a) shall be applied to such taxable years in the same manner as it would if the taxable year of the foreign corporation began in 1998.”

1998—Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 105–277, §1005(b)(1)(A), amended heading and text of subsec. (a) generally. Prior to amendment, text read as follows: “For purposes of section 952(a)(1), the term ‘insurance income’ means any income which—

“(1) is attributable to the issuing (or reinsuring) of any insurance or annuity contract—

“(A) in connection with property in, liability arising out of activity in, or in connection with the lives or health of residents of, a country other than the country under the laws of which the controlled foreign corporation is created or organized, or

“(B) in connection with risks not described in subparagraph (A) as the result of any arrangement whereby another corporation receives a substantially equal amount of premiums or other consideration in respect of issuing (or reinsuring) a contract described in subparagraph (A), and

“(2) would (subject to the modifications provided by paragraphs (1) and (2) of subsection (b)) be taxed under subchapter L of this chapter if such income were the income of a domestic insurance company.”

Subsec. (b)(3), (4). Pub. L. 105–277, §1005(b)(3), added par. (3) and redesignated former par. (3) as (4).

Subsec. (e). Pub. L. 105–277, §1005(b)(1)(B), added subsec. (e).

1989—Subsec. (d)(3). Pub. L. 101–239 substituted “for purposes of section 1503(d) without regard to paragraph (2)(B) thereof” for “(as defined in section 1503(d))”.

1988—Subsec. (b)(1). Pub. L. 100–647, §1012(i)(7)(A), redesignated par. (2) as (1) and struck out former par. (1) which read as follows: “A corporation which would, if it were a domestic insurance corporation, be taxable under part II of subchapter L shall apply subsection (a) as if it were taxable under part III of subchapter L.”

Subsec. (b)(1)(A). Pub. L. 100–647, §1012(i)(7)(B), added subpar. (A) and struck out former subpar. (A) which read as follows: “The special life insurance company deduction and the small life insurance company deduction.”

Subsec. (b)(2) to (4). Pub. L. 100–647, §1012(i)(7)(A), (C), redesignated pars. (3) and (4) as (2) and (3), respectively, and struck out “(other than those taken into account under paragraph (3))” after “and deductions” in par. (3). Former par. (2) redesignated (1).

Subsec. (c)(1)(C). Pub. L. 100–647, §1012(i)(2)(A), added subpar. (C).

Subsec. (c)(2). Pub. L. 100–647, §1012(i)(3)(A), (4)(B), (5), substituted “insurance income (within the meaning of subsection (a)) attributable” for “insurance income attributable”, “with respect to which the person (directly or indirectly) insured is” for “with respect to which the primary insured is”, and “related person” for “related person (within the meaning of section 954(d)(3))”.

Subsec. (c)(3)(A). Pub. L. 100–647, §1012(i)(3)(B), (4)(B), substituted “persons who are (directly or indirectly) insured” for “persons who are the primary insured” and “to any such person” for “(within the meaning of section 954(d)(3)) to any such primary insured”.

Subsec. (c)(3)(B). Pub. L. 100–647, §1012(i)(8), substituted “related person insurance income (determined on a gross basis)” for “related person insurance income” and “its insurance income (as so determined)” for “its insurance income”.

Subsec. (c)(3)(C). Pub. L. 100–647, §1012(i)(1)(A), (9), substituted “all benefits (other than with respect to section 884)” for “all benefits” and “granted by the United States under any treaty” for “under any income tax treaty” in cl. (i)(II) and inserted at end “An election under this subparagraph made for any taxable year shall not be effective if the corporation (or any predecessor thereof) was a disqualified corporation for the taxable year for which the election was made or for any prior taxable year beginning after 1986.”

Subsec. (c)(3)(D)(i). Pub. L. 100–647, §1012(i)(1)(B), substituted “Period during which election in effect” for “Election irrevocable” in heading and amended text generally. Prior to amendment, text read as follows: “Any election under subparagraph (C) shall apply to the taxable year for which made and all subsequent taxable years unless revoked with the consent of the Secretary.”

Subsec. (c)(3)(E). Pub. L. 100–647, §1012(i)(1)(C), added subpar. (E).

Subsec. (c)(5). Pub. L. 100–647, §1012(i)(2)(B), added par. (5) and redesignated former par. (5) as (6).

Subsec. (c)(6). Pub. L. 100–647, §1012(i)(4)(A), added par. (6) and redesignated former par. (6) as (7).

Pub. L. 100–647, §1012(i)(2)(B), redesignated former par. (5) as (6).

Subsec. (c)(7). Pub. L. 100–647, §1012(i)(21), added par. (7) and struck out former par. (7) “Regulations”, which read as follows: “The Secretary shall prescribe such regulations as may be necessary to carry out the purposes of this subsection, including regulations preventing the avoidance of this subsection through cross insurance arrangements or otherwise.”

Pub. L. 100–647, §1012(i)(4)(A), redesignated former par. (6) as (7).

Subsec. (c)(8). Pub. L. 100–647, §1012(i)(21), added par. (8).

Subsec. (d). Pub. L. 100–647, §6135(a), added subsec. (d).

1986—Pub. L. 99–514, §1221(b)(3)(D), substituted “Insurance income” for “Income from insurance of United States risks” in section catchline.

Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 99–514, §1221(b)(1), amended subsec. (a) generally, substituting provisions defining “insurance income” for former provisions defining “income derived from the insurance of United States risks”.

Subsec. (c). Pub. L. 99–514, §1221(b)(2), added subsec. (c).

1984—Subsec. (a)(2). Pub. L. 98–369, §211(b)(13)(D), substituted “and (2)” for “, (2), and (3)”.

Subsec. (b)(1). Pub. L. 98–369, §211(b)(13)(A), redesignated par. (2) as (1). Former par. (1), which provided that the application of part I of subchapter L of this chapter, life insurance company taxable income was the gain from operations as defined in section 809(b), was struck out.

Subsec. (b)(2). Pub. L. 98–369, §211(b)(13)(B), in amending par. (2) generally, substituted

“(A) The special life insurance company deduction and the small life insurance company deduction.

“(B) Section 805(a)(5) (relating to operations loss deduction).

“(C) Section 832(c)(5) (relating to certain capital losses).”

for

“(A) Section 809(d)(4) (operations loss deduction).

“(B) Section 809(d)(5) (certain nonparticipating contracts).

“(C) Section 809(d)(6) (group life, accident, and health insurance).”

and struck out

“(D) Section 809(d)(10) (small business deduction).

“(E) Section 817(b) (gain on property held on December 31, 1958, and certain substituted property acquired after 1958).

“(F) Section 832(c)(5) (certain capital losses).”

Pub. L. 98–369, §211(b)(13)(A), redesignated par. (3) as (2). Former par. (2) redesignated (1).

Subsec. (b)(3). Pub. L. 98–369, §211(b)(13)(A), redesignated par. (4) as (3). Former par. (3) redesignated (2).

Subsec. (b)(3)(A). Pub. L. 98–369, §211(b)(13)(C)(i), substituted “section 803(a)(1)” for “section 809(c)(1)”.

Subsec. (b)(3)(B). Pub. L. 98–369, §211(b)(13)(C)(ii), substituted “section 803(a)(2)” for “section 809(c)(2)”.

Subsec. (b)(3)(C). Pub. L. 98–369, §211(b)(13)(C)(iii), substituted “section 805(a)(2)” for “section 809(d)(2)”.

Subsec. (b)(4), (5). Pub. L. 98–369, §211(b)(13)(A), (E), redesignated par. (5) as (4) and substituted “paragraph (3)” for “paragraph (4)”. Former par. (4) redesignated (3).

1976—Subsec. (b)(5). Pub. L. 94–455 struck out “or his delegate” after “Secretary”.

1966—Subsec. (b)(3)(F). Pub. L. 89–809 substituted “832(c)(5)” for “832(b)(5)”.

Effective Date of 2010 Amendment

Pub. L. 111–312, title VII, §750(c), Dec. 17, 2010, 124 Stat. 3320, provided that: “The amendments made by this section [amending this section and section 954 of this title] shall apply to taxable years of foreign corporations beginning after December 31, 2009, and to taxable years of United States shareholders with or within which any such taxable year of such foreign corporation ends.”

Effective Date of 2002 Amendment

Pub. L. 107–147, title VI, §614(c), Mar. 9, 2002, 116 Stat. 62, provided that: “The amendments made by this section [amending this section and section 954 of this title] shall apply to taxable years beginning after December 31, 2001.”

Effective Date of 1999 Amendment

Pub. L. 106–170, title V, §503(c), Dec. 17, 1999, 113 Stat. 1921, provided that: “The amendments made by this section [amending this section and section 954 of this title] shall apply to taxable years beginning after December 31, 1999.”

Effective Date of 1989 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 101–239 effective, except as otherwise provided, as if included in the provision of the Technical and Miscellaneous Revenue Act of 1988, Pub. L. 100–647, to which such amendment relates, see section 7817 of Pub. L. 101–239, set out as a note under section 1 of this title.

Effective Date of 1988 Amendment

Section 1012(i)(3)(C) of Pub. L. 100–647 provided that: “The amendments made by this paragraph [amending this section] to the extent such amendments add the phrase ‘(directly or indirectly)’ shall apply only to taxable years beginning after December 31, 1987.”

Amendment by section 1012(i)(1), (2), (4), (5), (7)–(9), (21) of Pub. L. 100–647 effective, except as otherwise provided, as if included in the provision of the Tax Reform Act of 1986, Pub. L. 99–514, to which such amendment relates, see section 1019(a) of Pub. L. 100–647, set out as a note under section 1 of this title.

Section 6135(b) of Pub. L. 100–647 provided that: “The amendment made by subsection (a) [amending this section] shall apply to taxable years beginning after December 31, 1987.”

Effective Date of 1986 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 99–514 applicable to taxable years of foreign corporations beginning after Dec. 31, 1986, except as otherwise provided, see section 1221(g) of Pub. L. 99–514, set out as a note under section 954 of this title.

Effective Date of 1984 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 98–369 applicable to taxable years beginning after Dec. 31, 1983, see section 215 of Pub. L. 98–369, set out as an Effective Date note under section 801 of this title.

Effective Date of 1966 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 89–809 applicable with respect to taxable years beginning after Dec. 31, 1966, see section 104(n) of Pub. L. 89–809, set out as a note under section 11 of this title.

§954. Foreign base company income

(a) Foreign base company income

For purposes of section 952(a)(2), the term “foreign base company income” means for any taxable year the sum of—

(1) the foreign personal holding company income for the taxable year (determined under subsection (c) and reduced as provided in subsection (b)(5)),

(2) the foreign base company sales income for the taxable year (determined under subsection (d) and reduced as provided in subsection (b)(5)),

(3) the foreign base company services income for the taxable year (determined under subsection (e) and reduced as provided in subsection (b)(5)),

[(4) Repealed. Pub. L. 108–357, title IV, §415(a)(1), Oct. 22, 2004, 118 Stat. 1511]

(5) the foreign base company oil related income for the taxable year (determined under subsection (g) and reduced as provided in subsection (b)(5)).

(b) Exclusion and special rules

[(1) Repealed. Pub. L. 94–12, title VI, §602(c)(1), Mar. 29, 1975, 89 Stat. 58]

[(2) Repealed. Pub. L. 99–514, title XII, §1221(c)(1), Oct. 22, 1986, 100 Stat. 2553]

(3) De minimis, etc., rules

For purposes of subsection (a) and section 953—

(A) De minimis rule

If the sum of foreign base company income (determined without regard to paragraph (5)) and the gross insurance income for the taxable year is less than the lesser of—

(i) 5 percent of gross income, or

(ii) $1,000,000,


no part of the gross income for the taxable year shall be treated as foreign base company income or insurance income.

(B) Foreign base company income and insurance income in excess of 70 percent of gross income

If the sum of the foreign base company income (determined without regard to paragraph (5)) and the gross insurance income for the taxable year exceeds 70 percent of gross income, the entire gross income for the taxable year shall, subject to the provisions of paragraphs (4) and (5), be treated as foreign base company income or insurance income (whichever is appropriate).

(C) Gross insurance income

For purposes of subparagraphs (A) and (B), the term “gross insurance income” means any item of gross income taken into account in determining insurance income under section 953.

(4) Exception for certain income subject to high foreign taxes

For purposes of subsection (a) and section 953, foreign base company income and insurance income shall not include any item of income received by a controlled foreign corporation if the taxpayer establishes to the satisfaction of the Secretary that such income was subject to an effective rate of income tax imposed by a foreign country greater than 90 percent of the maximum rate of tax specified in section 11. The preceding sentence shall not apply to foreign base company oil-related income described in subsection (a)(5).

(5) Deductions to be taken into account

For purposes of subsection (a), the foreign personal holding company income, the foreign base company sales income, the foreign base company services income,,1 and the foreign base company oil related income shall be reduced, under regulations prescribed by the Secretary so as to take into account deductions (including taxes) properly allocable to such income. Except to the extent provided in regulations prescribed by the Secretary, any interest which is paid or accrued by the controlled foreign corporation to any United States shareholder in such corporation (or any controlled foreign corporation related to such a shareholder) shall be allocated first to foreign personal holding company income which is passive income (within the meaning of section 904(d)(2)) of such corporation to the extent thereof. The Secretary may, by regulations, provide that the preceding sentence shall apply also to interest paid or accrued to other persons.

(6) Foreign base company oil related income not treated as another kind of base company income

Income of a corporation which is foreign base company oil related income shall not be considered foreign base company income of such corporation under paragraph (2),2 or (3) of subsection (a).

(c) Foreign personal holding company income

(1) In general

For purposes of subsection (a)(1), the term “foreign personal holding company income” means the portion of the gross income which consists of:

(A) Dividends, etc.

Dividends, interest, royalties, rents, and annuities.

(B) Certain property transactions

The excess of gains over losses from the sale or exchange of property—

(i) which gives rise to income described in subparagraph (A) (after application of paragraph (2)(A)) other than property which gives rise to income not treated as foreign personal holding company income by reason of subsection (h) or (i) for the taxable year,

(ii) which is an interest in a trust, partnership, or REMIC, or

(iii) which does not give rise to any income.


Gains and losses from the sale or exchange of any property which, in the hands of the controlled foreign corporation, is property described in section 1221(a)(1) shall not be taken into account under this subparagraph.

(C) Commodities transactions

The excess of gains over losses from transactions (including futures, forward, and similar transactions) in any commodities. This subparagraph shall not apply to gains or losses which—

(i) arise out of commodity hedging transactions (as defined in paragraph (5)(A)),

(ii) are active business gains or losses from the sale of commodities, but only if substantially all of the controlled foreign corporation's commodities are property described in paragraph (1), (2), or (8) of section 1221(a), or

(iii) are foreign currency gains or losses (as defined in section 988(b)) attributable to any section 988 transactions.

(D) Foreign currency gains

The excess of foreign currency gains over foreign currency losses (as defined in section 988(b)) attributable to any section 988 transactions. This subparagraph shall not apply in the case of any transaction directly related to the business needs of the controlled foreign corporation.

(E) Income equivalent to interest

Any income equivalent to interest, including income from commitment fees (or similar amounts) for loans actually made.

(F) Income from notional principal contracts

(i) In general

Net income from notional principal contracts.

(ii) Coordination with other categories of foreign personal holding company income

Any item of income, gain, deduction, or loss from a notional principal contract entered into for purposes of hedging any item described in any preceding subparagraph shall not be taken into account for purposes of this subparagraph but shall be taken into account under such other subparagraph.

(G) Payments in lieu of dividends

Payments in lieu of dividends which are made pursuant to an agreement to which section 1058 applies.

(H) Personal service contracts

(i) Amounts received under a contract under which the corporation is to furnish personal services if—

(I) some person other than the corporation has the right to designate (by name or by description) the individual who is to perform the services, or

(II) the individual who is to perform the services is designated (by name or by description) in the contract, and


(ii) amounts received from the sale or other disposition of such a contract.


This subparagraph shall apply with respect to amounts received for services under a particular contract only if at some time during the taxable year 25 percent or more in value of the outstanding stock of the corporation is owned, directly or indirectly, by or for the individual who has performed, is to perform, or may be designated (by name or by description) as the one to perform, such services.

(2) Exception for certain amounts

(A) Rents and royalties derived in active business

Foreign personal holding company income shall not include rents and royalties which are derived in the active conduct of a trade or business and which are received from a person other than a related person (within the meaning of subsection (d)(3)). For purposes of the preceding sentence, rents derived from leasing an aircraft or vessel in foreign commerce shall not fail to be treated as derived in the active conduct of a trade or business if, as determined under regulations prescribed by the Secretary, the active leasing expenses are not less than 10 percent of the profit on the lease.

(B) Certain export financing

Foreign personal holding company income shall not include any interest which is derived in the conduct of a banking business and which is export financing interest (as defined in section 904(d)(2)(G)).

(C) Exception for dealers

Except as provided by regulations, in the case of a regular dealer in property which is property described in paragraph (1)(B), forward contracts, option contracts, or similar financial instruments (including notional principal contracts and all instruments referenced to commodities), there shall not be taken into account in computing foreign personal holding company income—

(i) any item of income, gain, deduction, or loss (other than any item described in subparagraph (A), (E), or (G) of paragraph (1)) from any transaction (including hedging transactions and transactions involving physical settlement) entered into in the ordinary course of such dealer's trade or business as such a dealer, and

(ii) if such dealer is a dealer in securities (within the meaning of section 475), any interest or dividend or equivalent amount described in subparagraph (E) or (G) of paragraph (1) from any transaction (including any hedging transaction or transaction described in section 956(c)(2)(I)) entered into in the ordinary course of such dealer's trade or business as such a dealer in securities, but only if the income from the transaction is attributable to activities of the dealer in the country under the laws of which the dealer is created or organized (or in the case of a qualified business unit described in section 989(a), is attributable to activities of the unit in the country in which the unit both maintains its principal office and conducts substantial business activity).

(3) Certain income received from related persons

(A) In general

Except as provided in subparagraph (B), the term “foreign personal holding company income” does not include—

(i) dividends and interest received from a related person which (I) is a corporation created or organized under the laws of the same foreign country under the laws of which the controlled foreign corporation is created or organized, and (II) has a substantial part of its assets used in its trade or business located in such same foreign country, and

(ii) rents and royalties received from a corporation which is a related person for the use of, or the privilege of using, property within the country under the laws of which the controlled foreign corporation is created or organized.


To the extent provided in regulations, payments made by a partnership with 1 or more corporate partners shall be treated as made by such corporate partners in proportion to their respective interests in the partnership.

(B) Exception not to apply to items which reduce subpart F income

Subparagraph (A) shall not apply in the case of any interest, rent, or royalty to the extent such interest, rent, or royalty reduces the payor's subpart F income or creates (or increases) a deficit which under section 952(c) may reduce the subpart F income of the payor or another controlled foreign corporation.

(C) Exception for certain dividends

Subparagraph (A)(i) shall not apply to any dividend with respect to any stock which is attributable to earnings and profits of the distributing corporation accumulated during any period during which the person receiving such dividend did not hold such stock either directly, or indirectly through a chain of one or more subsidiaries each of which meets the requirements of subparagraph (A)(i).

(4) Look-thru rule for certain partnership sales

(A) In general

In the case of any sale by a controlled foreign corporation of an interest in a partnership with respect to which such corporation is a 25-percent owner, such corporation shall be treated for purposes of this subsection as selling the proportionate share of the assets of the partnership attributable to such interest. The Secretary shall prescribe such regulations as may be appropriate to prevent abuse of the purposes of this paragraph, including regulations providing for coordination of this paragraph with the provisions of subchapter K.

(B) 25-percent owner

For purposes of this paragraph, the term “25-percent owner” means a controlled foreign corporation which owns directly 25 percent or more of the capital or profits interest in a partnership. For purposes of the preceding sentence, if a controlled foreign corporation is a shareholder or partner of a corporation or partnership, the controlled foreign corporation shall be treated as owning directly its proportionate share of any such capital or profits interest held directly or indirectly by such corporation or partnership. If a controlled foreign corporation is treated as owning a capital or profits interest in a partnership under constructive ownership rules similar to the rules of section 958(b), the controlled foreign corporation shall be treated as owning such interest directly for purposes of this subparagraph.

(5) Definition and special rules relating to commodity transactions

(A) Commodity hedging transactions

For purposes of paragraph (1)(C)(i), the term “commodity hedging transaction” means any transaction with respect to a commodity if such transaction—

(i) is a hedging transaction as defined in section 1221(b)(2), determined—

(I) without regard to subparagraph (A)(ii) thereof,

(II) by applying subparagraph (A)(i) thereof by substituting “ordinary property or property described in section 1231(b)” for “ordinary property”, and

(III) by substituting “controlled foreign corporation” for “taxpayer” each place it appears, and


(ii) is clearly identified as such in accordance with section 1221(a)(7).

(B) Treatment of dealer activities under paragraph (1)(C)

Commodities with respect to which gains and losses are not taken into account under paragraph (2)(C) in computing a controlled foreign corporation's foreign personal holding company income shall not be taken into account in applying the substantially all test under paragraph (1)(C)(ii) to such corporation.

(C) Regulations

The Secretary shall prescribe such regulations as are appropriate to carry out the purposes of paragraph (1)(C) in the case of transactions involving related parties.

(6) Look-thru rule for related controlled foreign corporations

(A) In general

For purposes of this subsection, dividends, interest, rents, and royalties received or accrued from a controlled foreign corporation which is a related person shall not be treated as foreign personal holding company income to the extent attributable or properly allocable (determined under rules similar to the rules of subparagraphs (C) and (D) of section 904(d)(3)) to income of the related person which is neither subpart F income nor income treated as effectively connected with the conduct of a trade or business in the United States. For purposes of this subparagraph, interest shall include factoring income which is treated as income equivalent to interest for purposes of paragraph (1)(E). The Secretary shall prescribe such regulations as may be necessary or appropriate to carry out this paragraph, including such regulations as may be necessary or appropriate to prevent the abuse of the purposes of this paragraph.

(B) Exception

Subparagraph (A) shall not apply in the case of any interest, rent, or royalty to the extent such interest, rent, or royalty creates (or increases) a deficit which under section 952(c) may reduce the subpart F income of the payor or another controlled foreign corporation.

(C) Application

Subparagraph (A) shall apply to taxable years of foreign corporations beginning after December 31, 2005, and before January 1, 2012, and to taxable years of United States shareholders with or within which such taxable years of foreign corporations end.

(d) Foreign base company sales income

(1) In general

For purposes of subsection (a)(2), the term “foreign base company sales income” means income (whether in the form of profits, commissions, fees, or otherwise) derived in connection with the purchase of personal property from a related person and its sale to any person, the sale of personal property to any person on behalf of a related person, the purchase of personal property from any person and its sale to a related person, or the purchase of personal property from any person on behalf of a related person where—

(A) the property which is purchased (or in the case of property sold on behalf of a related person, the property which is sold) is manufactured, produced, grown, or extracted outside the country under the laws of which the controlled foreign corporation is created or organized, and

(B) the property is sold for use, consumption, or disposition outside such foreign country, or, in the case of property purchased on behalf of a related person, is purchased for use, consumption, or disposition outside such foreign country.


For purposes of this subsection, personal property does not include agricultural commodities which are not grown in the United States in commercially marketable quantities.

(2) Certain branch income

For purposes of determining foreign base company sales income in situations in which the carrying on of activities by a controlled foreign corporation through a branch or similar establishment outside the country of incorporation of the controlled foreign corporation has substantially the same effect as if such branch or similar establishment were a wholly owned subsidiary corporation deriving such income, under regulations prescribed by the Secretary the income attributable to the carrying on of such activities of such branch or similar establishment shall be treated as income derived by a wholly owned subsidiary of the controlled foreign corporation and shall constitute foreign base company sales income of the controlled foreign corporation.

(3) Related person defined

For purposes of this section, a person is a related person with respect to a controlled foreign corporation, if—

(A) such person is an individual, corporation, partnership, trust, or estate which controls, or is controlled by, the controlled foreign corporation, or

(B) such person is a corporation, partnership, trust, or estate which is controlled by the same person or persons which control the controlled foreign corporation.


For purposes of the preceding sentence, control means, with respect to a corporation, the ownership, directly or indirectly, of stock possessing more than 50 percent of the total voting power of all classes of stock entitled to vote or of the total value of stock of such corporation. In the case of a partnership, trust, or estate, control means the ownership, directly or indirectly, of more than 50 percent (by value) of the beneficial interests in such partnership, trust, or estate. For purposes of this paragraph, rules similar to the rules of section 958 shall apply.

(4) Special rule for certain timber products

For purposes of subsection (a)(2), the term “foreign base company sales income” includes any income (whether in the form of profits, commissions, fees, or otherwise) derived in connection with—

(A) the sale of any unprocessed timber referred to in section 865(b), or

(B) the milling of any such timber outside the United States.


Subpart G shall not apply to any amount treated as subpart F income by reason of this paragraph.

(e) Foreign base company services income

(1) In general

For purposes of subsection (a)(3), the term “foreign base company services income” means income (whether in the form of compensation, commissions, fees, or otherwise) derived in connection with the performance of technical, managerial, engineering, architectural, scientific, skilled, industrial, commercial, or like services which—

(A) are performed for or on behalf of any related person (within the meaning of subsection (d)(3)), and

(B) are performed outside the country under the laws of which the controlled foreign corporation is created or organized.

(2) Exception

Paragraph (1) shall not apply to income derived in connection with the performance of services which are directly related to—

(A) the sale or exchange by the controlled foreign corporation of property manufactured, produced, grown, or extracted by it and which are performed before the time of the sale or exchange, or

(B) an offer or effort to sell or exchange such property.


Paragraph (1) shall also not apply to income which is exempt insurance income (as defined in section 953(e)) or which is not treated as foreign personal holding income by reason of subsection (c)(2)(C)(ii), (h), or (i).

[(f) Repealed. Pub. L. 108–357, title IV, §415(a)(2), Oct. 22, 2004, 118 Stat. 1511]

(g) Foreign base company oil related income

For purposes of this section—

(1) In general

Except as otherwise provided in this subsection, the term “foreign base company oil related income” means foreign oil related income (within the meaning of paragraphs (2) and (3) of section 907(c)) other than income derived from a source within a foreign country in connection with—

(A) oil or gas which was extracted from an oil or gas well located in such foreign country, or

(B) oil, gas, or a primary product of oil or gas which is sold by the foreign corporation or a related person for use or consumption within such country or is loaded in such country on a vessel or aircraft as fuel for such vessel or aircraft.


Such term shall not include any foreign personal holding company income (as defined in subsection (c)).

(2) Paragraph (1) applies only where corporation has produced 1,000 barrels per day or more

(A) In general

The term “foreign base company oil related income” shall not include any income of a foreign corporation if such corporation is not a large oil producer for the taxable year.

(B) Large oil producer

For purposes of subparagraph (A), the term “large oil producer” means any corporation if, for the taxable year or for the preceding taxable year, the average daily production of foreign crude oil and natural gas of the related group which includes such corporation equaled or exceeded 1,000 barrels.

(C) Related group

The term “related group” means a group consisting of the foreign corporation and any other person who is a related person with respect to such corporation.

(D) Average daily production of foreign crude oil and natural gas

For purposes of this paragraph, the average daily production of foreign crude oil or natural gas of any related group for any taxable year (and the conversion of cubic feet of natural gas into barrels) shall be determined under rules similar to the rules of section 613A except that only crude oil or natural gas from a well located outside the United States shall be taken into account.

(h) Special rule for income derived in the active conduct of banking, financing, or similar businesses

(1) In general

For purposes of subsection (c)(1), foreign personal holding company income shall not include qualified banking or financing income of an eligible controlled foreign corporation.

(2) Eligible controlled foreign corporation

For purposes of this subsection—

(A) In general

The term “eligible controlled foreign corporation” means a controlled foreign corporation which—

(i) is predominantly engaged in the active conduct of a banking, financing, or similar business, and

(ii) conducts substantial activity with respect to such business.

(B) Predominantly engaged

A controlled foreign corporation shall be treated as predominantly engaged in the active conduct of a banking, financing, or similar business if—

(i) more than 70 percent of the gross income of the controlled foreign corporation is derived directly from the active and regular conduct of a lending or finance business from transactions with customers which are not related persons,

(ii) it is engaged in the active conduct of a banking business and is an institution licensed to do business as a bank in the United States (or is any other corporation not so licensed which is specified by the Secretary in regulations), or

(iii) it is engaged in the active conduct of a securities business and is registered as a securities broker or dealer under section 15(a) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 or is registered as a Government securities broker or dealer under section 15C(a) of such Act (or is any other corporation not so registered which is specified by the Secretary in regulations).

(3) Qualified banking or financing income

For purposes of this subsection—

(A) In general

The term “qualified banking or financing income” means income of an eligible controlled foreign corporation which—

(i) is derived in the active conduct of a banking, financing, or similar business by—

(I) such eligible controlled foreign corporation, or

(II) a qualified business unit of such eligible controlled foreign corporation,


(ii) is derived from one or more transactions—

(I) with customers located in a country other than the United States, and

(II) substantially all of the activities in connection with which are conducted directly by the corporation or unit in its home country, and


(iii) is treated as earned by such corporation or unit in its home country for purposes of such country's tax laws.

(B) Limitation on nonbanking and nonsecurities businesses

No income of an eligible controlled foreign corporation not described in clause (ii) or (iii) of paragraph (2)(B) (or of a qualified business unit of such corporation) shall be treated as qualified banking or financing income unless more than 30 percent of such corporation's or unit's gross income is derived directly from the active and regular conduct of a lending or finance business from transactions with customers which are not related persons and which are located within such corporation's or unit's home country.

(C) Substantial activity requirement for cross border income

The term “qualified banking or financing income” shall not include income derived from 1 or more transactions with customers located in a country other than the home country of the eligible controlled foreign corporation or a qualified business unit of such corporation unless such corporation or unit conducts substantial activity with respect to a banking, financing, or similar business in its home country.

(D) Determinations made separately

For purposes of this paragraph, the qualified banking or financing income of an eligible controlled foreign corporation and each qualified business unit of such corporation shall be determined separately for such corporation and each such unit by taking into account—

(i) in the case of the eligible controlled foreign corporation, only items of income, deduction, gain, or loss and activities of such corporation not properly allocable or attributable to any qualified business unit of such corporation, and

(ii) in the case of a qualified business unit, only items of income, deduction, gain, or loss and activities properly allocable or attributable to such unit.

(E) Direct conduct of activities

For purposes of subparagraph (A)(ii)(II), an activity shall be treated as conducted directly by an eligible controlled foreign corporation or qualified business unit in its home country if the activity is performed by employees of a related person and—

(i) the related person is an eligible controlled foreign corporation the home country of which is the same as the home country of the corporation or unit to which subparagraph (A)(ii)(II) is being applied,

(ii) the activity is performed in the home country of the related person, and

(iii) the related person is compensated on an arm's-length basis for the performance of the activity by its employees and such compensation is treated as earned by such person in its home country for purposes of the home country's tax laws.

(4) Lending or finance business

For purposes of this subsection, the term “lending or finance business” means the business of—

(A) making loans,

(B) purchasing or discounting accounts receivable, notes, or installment obligations,

(C) engaging in leasing (including entering into leases and purchasing, servicing, and disposing of leases and leased assets),

(D) issuing letters of credit or providing guarantees,

(E) providing charge and credit card services, or

(F) rendering services or making facilities available in connection with activities described in subparagraphs (A) through (E) carried on by—

(i) the corporation (or qualified business unit) rendering services or making facilities available, or

(ii) another corporation (or qualified business unit of a corporation) which is a member of the same affiliated group (as defined in section 1504, but determined without regard to section 1504(b)(3)).

(5) Other definitions

For purposes of this subsection—

(A) Customer

The term “customer” means, with respect to any controlled foreign corporation or qualified business unit, any person which has a customer relationship with such corporation or unit and which is acting in its capacity as such.

(B) Home country

Except as provided in regulations—

(i) Controlled foreign corporation

The term “home country” means, with respect to any controlled foreign corporation, the country under the laws of which the corporation was created or organized.

(ii) Qualified business unit

The term “home country” means, with respect to any qualified business unit, the country in which such unit maintains its principal office.

(C) Located

The determination of where a customer is located shall be made under rules prescribed by the Secretary.

(D) Qualified business unit

The term “qualified business unit” has the meaning given such term by section 989(a).

(E) Related person

The term “related person” has the meaning given such term by subsection (d)(3).

(6) Coordination with exception for dealers

Paragraph (1) shall not apply to income described in subsection (c)(2)(C)(ii) of a dealer in securities (within the meaning of section 475) which is an eligible controlled foreign corporation described in paragraph (2)(B)(iii).

(7) Anti-abuse rules

For purposes of applying this subsection and subsection (c)(2)(C)(ii)—

(A) there shall be disregarded any item of income, gain, loss, or deduction with respect to any transaction or series of transactions one of the principal purposes of which is qualifying income or gain for the exclusion under this section, including any transaction or series of transactions a principal purpose of which is the acceleration or deferral of any item in order to claim the benefits of such exclusion through the application of this subsection,

(B) there shall be disregarded any item of income, gain, loss, or deduction of an entity which is not engaged in regular and continuous transactions with customers which are not related persons,

(C) there shall be disregarded any item of income, gain, loss, or deduction with respect to any transaction or series of transactions utilizing, or doing business with—

(i) one or more entities in order to satisfy any home country requirement under this subsection, or

(ii) a special purpose entity or arrangement, including a securitization, financing, or similar entity or arrangement,


if one of the principal purposes of such transaction or series of transactions is qualifying income or gain for the exclusion under this subsection, and

(D) a related person, an officer, a director, or an employee with respect to any controlled foreign corporation (or qualified business unit) which would otherwise be treated as a customer of such corporation or unit with respect to any transaction shall not be so treated if a principal purpose of such transaction is to satisfy any requirement of this subsection.

(8) Regulations

The Secretary shall prescribe such regulations as may be necessary or appropriate to carry out the purposes of this subsection, subsection (c)(1)(B)(i), subsection (c)(2)(C)(ii), and the last sentence of subsection (e)(2).

(9) Application

This subsection, subsection (c)(2)(C)(ii), and the last sentence of subsection (e)(2) shall apply only to taxable years of a foreign corporation beginning after December 31, 1998, and before January 1, 2012, and to taxable years of United States shareholders with or within which any such taxable year of such foreign corporation ends.

(i) Special rule for income derived in the active conduct of insurance business

(1) In general

For purposes of subsection (c)(1), foreign personal holding company income shall not include qualified insurance income of a qualifying insurance company.

(2) Qualified insurance income

The term “qualified insurance income” means income of a qualifying insurance company which is—

(A) received from a person other than a related person (within the meaning of subsection (d)(3)) and derived from the investments made by a qualifying insurance company or a qualifying insurance company branch of its reserves allocable to exempt contracts or of 80 percent of its unearned premiums from exempt contracts (as both are determined in the manner prescribed under paragraph (4)), or

(B) received from a person other than a related person (within the meaning of subsection (d)(3)) and derived from investments made by a qualifying insurance company or a qualifying insurance company branch of an amount of its assets allocable to exempt contracts equal to—

(i) in the case of property, casualty, or health insurance contracts, one-third of its premiums earned on such insurance contracts during the taxable year (as defined in section 832(b)(4)), and

(ii) in the case of life insurance or annuity contracts, 10 percent of the reserves described in subparagraph (A) for such contracts.

(3) Principles for determining insurance income

Except as provided by the Secretary, for purposes of subparagraphs (A) and (B) of paragraph (2)—

(A) in the case of any contract which is a separate account-type contract (including any variable contract not meeting the requirements of section 817), income credited under such contract shall be allocable only to such contract, and

(B) income not allocable under subparagraph (A) shall be allocated ratably among contracts not described in subparagraph (A).

(4) Methods for determining unearned premiums and reserves

For purposes of paragraph (2)(A)—

(A) Property and casualty contracts

The unearned premiums and reserves of a qualifying insurance company or a qualifying insurance company branch with respect to property, casualty, or health insurance contracts shall be determined using the same methods and interest rates which would be used if such company or branch were subject to tax under subchapter L, except that—

(i) the interest rate determined for the functional currency of the company or branch, and which, except as provided by the Secretary, is calculated in the same manner as the Federal mid-term rate under section 1274(d), shall be substituted for the applicable Federal interest rate, and

(ii) such company or branch shall use the appropriate foreign loss payment pattern.

(B) Life insurance and annuity contracts

(i) In general

Except as provided in clause (ii), the amount of the reserve of a qualifying insurance company or qualifying insurance company branch for any life insurance or annuity contract shall be equal to the greater of—

(I) the net surrender value of such contract (as defined in section 807(e)(1)(A)), or

(II) the reserve determined under paragraph (5).

(ii) Ruling request, etc.

The amount of the reserve under clause (i) shall be the foreign statement reserve for the contract (less any catastrophe, deficiency, equalization, or similar reserves), if, pursuant to a ruling request submitted by the taxpayer or as provided in published guidance, the Secretary determines that the factors taken into account in determining the foreign statement reserve provide an appropriate means of measuring income.

(C) Limitation on reserves

In no event shall the reserve determined under this paragraph for any contract as of any time exceed the amount which would be taken into account with respect to such contract as of such time in determining foreign statement reserves (less any catastrophe, deficiency, equalization, or similar reserves).

(5) Amount of reserve

The amount of the reserve determined under this paragraph with respect to any contract shall be determined in the same manner as it would be determined if the qualifying insurance company or qualifying insurance company branch were subject to tax under subchapter L, except that in applying such subchapter—

(A) the interest rate determined for the functional currency of the company or branch, and which, except as provided by the Secretary, is calculated in the same manner as the Federal mid-term rate under section 1274(d), shall be substituted for the applicable Federal interest rate,

(B) the highest assumed interest rate permitted to be used in determining foreign statement reserves shall be substituted for the prevailing State assumed interest rate, and

(C) tables for mortality and morbidity which reasonably reflect the current mortality and morbidity risks in the company's or branch's home country shall be substituted for the mortality and morbidity tables otherwise used for such subchapter.


The Secretary may provide that the interest rate and mortality and morbidity tables of a qualifying insurance company may be used for 1 or more of its qualifying insurance company branches when appropriate.

(6) Definitions

For purposes of this subsection, any term used in this subsection which is also used in section 953(e) shall have the meaning given such term by section 953.

(Added Pub. L. 87–834, §12(a), Oct. 16, 1962, 76 Stat. 1009; amended Pub. L. 91–172, title IX, §909(a), Dec. 30, 1969, 83 Stat. 718; Pub. L. 94–12, title VI, §602(b), (c)(1), (2), (d)(1), (e), Mar. 29, 1975, 89 Stat. 58, 60, 64; Pub. L. 94–455, title X, §§1023(a), 1024(a), title XIX, §1906(b)(13)(A), Oct. 4, 1976, 90 Stat. 1620, 1834; Pub. L. 97–248, title II, §212(a)–(e), Sept. 3, 1982, 96 Stat. 451, 452; Pub. L. 98–369, div. A, title I, §137(a), title VII, §712(f), July 18, 1984, 98 Stat. 672, 947; Pub. L. 99–514, title XII, §§1201(c), 1221(a)(1), (b)(3)(B), (c)(1)–(3)(A), (d), (e), 1223(a), title XVIII, §1810(k), Oct. 22, 1986, 100 Stat. 2525, 2549, 2553, 2557, 2830; Pub. L. 100–647, title I, §§1012(i)(12), (14)(A), (18), (20), (25)(B), 1018(u)(38), Nov. 10, 1988, 102 Stat. 3509–3512, 3592; Pub. L. 101–239, title VII, §7811(i)(3), Dec. 19, 1989, 103 Stat. 2409; Pub. L. 103–66, title XIII, §§13233(a)(1), 13235(a)(3), (b), 13239(d), Aug. 10, 1993, 107 Stat. 502, 504, 505, 509; Pub. L. 104–188, title I, §1704(t)(25), Aug. 20, 1996, 110 Stat. 1888; Pub. L. 105–34, title X, §1051(a), (b), title XI, §1175(a), (b), Aug. 5, 1997, 111 Stat. 940, 990, 993; Pub. L. 105–277, div. J, title I, §1005(a), (b)(2), (c)–(e), title IV, §4003(j), Oct. 21, 1998, 112 Stat. 2681–890, 2681–897, 2681–899, 2681–900, 2681–910; Pub. L. 106–170, title V, §§503(a), 532(c)(2)(Q), Dec. 17, 1999, 113 Stat. 1921, 1931; Pub. L. 107–147, title IV, §417(24)(B)(ii), title VI, §614(a)(2), (b)(1), Mar. 9, 2002, 116 Stat. 57, 61; Pub. L. 108–357, title IV, §§412(a), 413(b)(2), 414(a)–(c), 415(a), (b), (c)(2), 416(a), Oct. 22, 2004, 118 Stat. 1505, 1506, 1510, 1511; Pub. L. 109–135, title IV, §§403(m), 412(ll), (mm), Dec. 21, 2005, 119 Stat. 2626, 2639; Pub. L. 109–222, title I, §103(a)(2), (b)(1), May 17, 2006, 120 Stat. 346; Pub. L. 109–432, div. A, title IV, §426(a)(1), Dec. 20, 2006, 120 Stat. 2974; Pub. L. 110–172, §§4(a), 11(a)(19), (20), (g)(15)(B), Dec. 29, 2007, 121 Stat. 2475, 2486, 2491; Pub. L. 110–343, div. C, title III, §§303(b), 304(a), Oct. 3, 2008, 122 Stat. 3866, 3867; Pub. L. 111–312, title VII, §§750(a), 751(a), Dec. 17, 2010, 124 Stat. 3320, 3321.)

References in Text

Sections 15(a) and 15C(a) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, referred to in subsec. (h)(2)(B)(iii), are classified to sections 78o(a) and 78o–5(a), respectively, of Title 15, Commerce and Trade.

Amendments

2010—Subsec. (c)(6)(C). Pub. L. 111–312, §751(a), substituted “January 1, 2012” for “January 1, 2010”.

Subsec. (h)(9). Pub. L. 111–312, §750(a), substituted “January 1, 2012” for “January 1, 2010”.

2008—Subsec. (c)(6)(C). Pub. L. 110–343, §304(a), substituted “January 1, 2010” for “January 1, 2009”.

Subsec. (h)(9). Pub. L. 110–343, §303(b), substituted “January 1, 2010” for “January 1, 2009”.

2007—Subsec. (c)(1)(F). Pub. L. 110–172, §11(a)(19), reenacted heading without change and amended text generally. Prior to amendment, text read as follows: “Any item of income, gain, deduction, or loss from a notional principal contract entered into for purposes of hedging any item described in any preceding subparagraph shall not be taken into account for purposes of this subparagraph but shall be taken into account under such other subparagraph.”

Subsec. (c)(1)(H), (I). Pub. L. 110–172, §11(a)(20), redesignated subpar. (I) as (H).

Subsec. (c)(2)(C)(ii). Pub. L. 110–172, §11(g)(15)(B), substituted “section 956(c)(2)(I)” for “section 956(c)(2)(J)”.

Subsec. (c)(6)(B), (C). Pub. L. 110–172, §4(a), added subpar. (B) and redesignated former subpar. (B) as (C).

2006—Subsec. (c)(6). Pub. L. 109–222, §103(b)(1), added par.(6).

Subsec. (c)(6)(A). Pub. L. 109–432, in first sentence, substituted “which is neither subpart F income nor income treated as effectively connected with the conduct of a trade or business in the United States” for “which is not subpart F income” and, in last sentence, substituted “The Secretary shall prescribe such regulations as may be necessary or appropriate to carry out this paragraph, including such regulations as may be necessary or appropriate to prevent the abuse of the purposes of this paragraph” for “The Secretary shall prescribe such regulations as may be appropriate to prevent the abuse of the purposes of this paragraph”.

Subsec. (h)(9). Pub. L. 109–222, §103(a)(2), substituted “January 1, 2009” for “January 1, 2007”.

2005—Subsec. (c)(1)(C)(i). Pub. L. 109–135, §412(ll), substituted “paragraph (5)(A)” for “paragraph (4)(A)”.

Subsec. (c)(1)(F). Pub. L. 109–135, §412(mm), struck out “Net income from notional principal contracts.” before “Any item of income”.

Subsec. (c)(4)(B). Pub. L. 109–135, §403(m), inserted at end “If a controlled foreign corporation is treated as owning a capital or profits interest in a partnership under constructive ownership rules similar to the rules of section 958(b), the controlled foreign corporation shall be treated as owning such interest directly for purposes of this subparagraph.”

2004—Subsec. (a)(4). Pub. L. 108–357, §415(a)(1), struck out par. (4) which read as follows: “the foreign base company shipping income for the taxable year (determined under subsection (f) and reduced as provided in subsection (b)(5)), and”.

Subsec. (b)(5). Pub. L. 108–357, §415(c)(2)(A), struck out “the foreign base company shipping income,” after “the foreign base company services income,,”.

Subsec. (b)(6) to (8). Pub. L. 108–357, §415(c)(2)(B), (C), redesignated par. (8) as (6) and struck out former pars. (6) and (7) which set forth special rules and special exclusion for foreign base company shipping income.

Subsec. (c)(1)(C)(i), (ii). Pub. L. 108–357, §414(a), amended cls. (i) and (ii) generally. Prior to amendment, cls. (i) and (ii) read as follows:

“(i) arise out of bona fide hedging transactions reasonably necessary to the conduct of any business by a producer, processor, merchant, or handler of a commodity in the manner in which such business is customarily and usually conducted by others,

“(ii) are active business gains or losses from the sale of commodities, but only if substantially all of the controlled foreign corporation's business is as an active producer, processor, merchant, or handler of commodities, or”.

Subsec. (c)(1)(I). Pub. L. 108–357, §413(b)(2), added subpar. (I).

Subsec. (c)(2)(A). Pub. L. 108–357, §415(b), inserted at end “For purposes of the preceding sentence, rents derived from leasing an aircraft or vessel in foreign commerce shall not fail to be treated as derived in the active conduct of a trade or business if, as determined under regulations prescribed by the Secretary, the active leasing expenses are not less than 10 percent of the profit on the lease.”

Subsec. (c)(2)(C)(i). Pub. L. 108–357, §414(c), inserted “and transactions involving physical settlement” after “(including hedging transactions”.

Subsec. (c)(4). Pub. L. 108–357, §412(a), added par. (4).

Subsec. (c)(5). Pub. L. 108–357, §414(b), added par. (5).

Subsec. (f). Pub. L. 108–357, §415(a)(2), struck out subsec. (f) which defined “foreign base company shipping income” for purposes of subsec. (a)(4).

Subsec. (h)(3)(E). Pub. L. 108–357, §416(a), added subpar. (E).

2002—Subsec. (c)(1)(B). Pub. L. 107–147, §417(24)(B)(ii), which directed the amendment of Pub. L. 106–170, §532(c)(2)(Q), was executed to that section as if the amendment were retroactive to the effective date of the amendment by Pub. L. 106–170 to reflect the probable intent of Congress. See 1999 Amendment note below.

Subsec. (h)(9). Pub. L. 107–147, §614(a)(2), substituted “January 1, 2007” for “January 1, 2002”.

Subsec. (i)(4)(B). Pub. L. 107–147, §614(b)(1), reenacted heading without change and amended text generally. Prior to amendment, text read as follows: “The amount of the reserve of a qualifying insurance company or qualifying insurance company branch for any life insurance or annuity contract shall be equal to the greater of—

“(i) the net surrender value of such contract (as defined in section 807(e)(1)(A)), or

“(ii) the reserve determined under paragraph (5).”

1999—Subsec. (c)(1)(B). Pub. L. 106–170, §532(c)(2)(Q), as amended by Pub. L. 107–147, §417(24)(B)(ii), substituted “section 1221(a)(1)” for “section 1221(1)” in concluding provisions.

Subsec. (h)(9). Pub. L. 106–170, §503(a), substituted “taxable years” for “the first taxable year”, “January 1, 2002” for “January 1, 2000”, and “within which any such” for “within which such”.

1998—Subsec. (c)(1)(B)(i). Pub. L. 105–277, §1005(e), inserted “other than property which gives rise to income not treated as foreign personal holding company income by reason of subsection (h) or (i) for the taxable year” before comma at end.

Subsec. (c)(2)(C). Pub. L. 105–277, §1005(c), amended heading and text of subpar. (C), generally. Prior to amendment, text read as follows: “Except as provided in subparagraph (A), (E), or (G) of paragraph (1) or by regulations, in the case of a regular dealer in property (within the meaning of paragraph (1)(B)), forward contracts, option contracts, or similar financial instruments (including notional principal contracts and all instruments referenced to commodities), there shall not be taken into account in computing foreign personal holding income any item of income, gain, deduction, or loss from any transaction (including hedging transactions) entered into in the ordinary course of such dealer's trade or business as such a dealer.”

Subsec. (e)(2). Pub. L. 105–277, §1005(d), inserted “or” at end of subpar. (A), substituted a period for “, or” at end of subpar. (B), and inserted concluding provisions.

Subsec. (e)(2)(C). Pub. L. 105–277, §4003(j), substituted “(h)(9)” for “(h)(8)”.

Pub. L. 105–277, §1005(d), struck out subpar. (C) which read as follows: “in the case of taxable years described in subsection (h)(9), the active conduct by a controlled foreign corporation of a banking, financing, insurance, or similar business, but only if the corporation is predominantly engaged in the active conduct of such business (within the meaning of subsection (h)(3)) or is a qualifying insurance company.”

Subsec. (h). Pub. L. 105–277, §1005(a), amended heading and text of subsec. (h) generally. Prior to amendment, text consisted of pars. (1) to (9) relating to special rule for income derived in active conduct of banking, financing, or similar businesses, principles for determining applicable income, meaning of “predominantly engaged” for purposes of the special rule, methods of determining unearned premiums and reserves, definitions of certain terms for purposes of subsec. (h), anti-abuse rules, coordination with section 953 of this title, and taxable year applicability of subsec. (h).

Subsec. (i). Pub. L. 105–277, §1005(b)(2), added subsec. (i).

1997—Subsec. (c)(1)(B). Pub. L. 105–34, §1051(a)(2), in concluding provisions, struck out “In the case of any regular dealer in property, gains and losses from the sale or exchange of any such property or arising out of bona fide hedging transactions reasonably necessary to the conduct of the business of being a dealer in such property shall not be taken into account under this subparagraph.” before “Gains and losses” and “also” after “section 1221(1)”.

Subsec. (c)(1)(F), (G). Pub. L. 105–34, §1051(a)(1), added subpars. (F) and (G).

Subsec. (c)(2)(C). Pub. L. 105–34, §1051(b), added subpar. (C).

Subsec. (e)(2)(C). Pub. L. 105–34, §1175(b), added subpar. (C).

Subsec. (h). Pub. L. 105–34, §1175(a), added subsec. (h).

1996—Subsec. (c)(3)(A)(i). Pub. L. 104–188 amended directory language of Pub. L. 101–239, §7811(i)(3)(A). See 1989 Amendment note below.

1993—Subsec. (b)(8). Pub. L. 103–66, §13235(a)(3)(B), struck out “(1),” after “such corporation under paragraph”.

Subsec. (c)(3)(C). Pub. L. 103–66, §13233(a)(1), added subpar. (C).

Subsec. (d)(4). Pub. L. 103–66, §13239(d), added par. (4).

Subsec. (f). Pub. L. 103–66, §13235(b), inserted at end of concluding provisions “Except as provided in paragraph (1), such term shall not include any dividend or interest income which is foreign personal holding company income (as defined in subsection (c)).”

Subsec. (g)(1). Pub. L. 103–66, §13235(a)(3)(A), inserted at end “Such term shall not include any foreign personal holding company income (as defined in subsection (c)).”

1989—Subsec. (c)(3)(A). Pub. L. 101–239, §7811(i)(3)(C), inserted at end “To the extent provided in regulations, payments made by a partnership with 1 or more corporate partners shall be treated as made by such corporate partners in proportion to their respective interests in the partnership.”

Subsec. (c)(3)(A)(i). Pub. L. 101–239, §7811(i)(3)(A), as amended by Pub. L. 104–188, substituted “is a corporation created” for “is created” after “person which (I)”.

Subsec. (c)(3)(A)(ii). Pub. L. 101–239, §7811(i)(3)(B), substituted “from a corporation which is a related person” for “from a related person”.

1988—Subsec. (b)(6), (7). Pub. L. 100–647, §1012(i)(12), struck out “(determined without regard to the exclusion under paragraph (2) of this subsection)” after “paragraph (4) of subsection (a)”.

Subsec. (c)(1)(B). Pub. L. 100–647, §1012(i)(18), (20), added cl. (ii), redesignated former cl. (ii) as (iii), added closing provisions, and struck out former closing provisions which read as follows: “This subparagraph shall not apply to gain from the sale or exchange of any property which, in the hands of the taxpayer, is property described in section 1221(1) or to gain from the sale or exchange of any property by a regular dealer in such property.”

Subsec. (c)(3)(B). Pub. L. 100–647, §1012(i)(25)(B), inserted before period at end “or creates (or increases) a deficit which under section 952(c) may reduce the subpart F income of the payor or another controlled foreign corporation”.

Subsec. (d)(3). Pub. L. 100–647, §1012(i)(14)(A), substituted “more than 50 percent” for “50 percent or more” in last two sentences.

Subsec. (e)(3). Pub. L. 100–647, §1018(u)(38), related to execution of amendment by Pub. L. 99–514, §1221(b)(3)(B), see 1986 Amendment note below.

1986—Subsec. (a)(5). Pub. L. 99–514, §1221(c)(3)(A)(ii), substituted “determined under subsection (g)” for “determined under subsection (h)”.

Subsec. (b)(2). Pub. L. 99–514, §1221(c)(1), struck out par. (2), exclusion for reinvested shipping income, which read as follows: “For purposes of subsection (a), foreign base company income does not include foreign base company shipping income to the extent that the amount of such income does not exceed the increase for the taxable year in qualified investments in foreign base company shipping operations of the controlled foreign corporation (as determined under subsection (g)).”

Subsec. (b)(3). Pub. L. 99–514, §1223(a), amended par. (3) generally. Prior to amendment, par. (3), special rule where foreign base company income is less than 10 percent or more than 70 percent of gross income, read as follows: “For purposes of subsection (a)—

“(A) If the foreign base company income (determined without regard to paragraphs (2) and (5)) is less than 10 percent of gross income, no part of the gross income of the taxable year shall be treated as foreign base company income.

“(B) If the foreign base company income (determined without regard to paragraphs (2) and (5)) exceeds 70 percent of gross income, the entire gross income of the taxable year shall, subject to the provisions of paragraphs (2), (4), and (5), be treated as foreign base company income.”

Subsec. (b)(4). Pub. L. 99–514, §1221(d), amended par. (4) generally. Prior to amendment, par. (4), exception for foreign corporations not availed of to reduce taxes, read as follows: “For purposes of subsection (a), foreign base company income does not include any item of income received by a controlled foreign corporation if it is established to the satisfaction of the Secretary that neither—

“(A) the creation or organization of such controlled foreign corporation under the laws of the foreign country in which it is incorporated (or, in the case of a controlled foreign corporation which is an acquired corporation, the acquisition of such corporation created or organized under the laws of the foreign country in which it is incorporated), nor

“(B) the effecting of the transaction giving rise to such income through the controlled foreign corporation,

has as one of its significant purposes a substantial reduction of income, war profits, or excess profits or similar taxes. The preceding sentence shall not apply to foreign base company oil related income described in subsection (a)(5).”

Subsec. (b)(5). Pub. L. 99–514, §1201(c), inserted at end “Except to the extent provided in regulations prescribed by the Secretary, any interest which is paid or accrued by the controlled foreign corporation to any United States shareholder in such corporation (or any controlled foreign corporation related to such a shareholder) shall be allocated first to foreign personal holding company income which is passive income (within the meaning of section 904(d)(2)) of such corporation to the extent thereof. The Secretary may, by regulations, provide that the preceding sentence shall apply also to interest paid or accrued to other persons.”

Subsec. (c). Pub. L. 99–514, §1221(a)(1), amended subsec. (c) generally, substituting pars. (1) to (3) for former provisions which had provided: in par. (1), a reference to definition of “foreign personal holding company income” contained in section 553; in par. (2), that all rents would be included in “foreign personal holding company income” without regard to whether or not such rents constituted 50 percent or more of gross income; in par. (3), for exclusion of certain income derived in active conduct of a trade or business; and in par. (4), exclusion of certain income received from related persons from being included in “foreign personal holding company income”. See subsec. (c)(3).

Subsec. (d)(3). Pub. L. 99–514, §1221(e), added subpars. (A) and (B) and concluding provisions and struck out former subpars. (A) to (C) and concluding provisions which read as follows:

“(A) such person is an individual, partnership, trust, or estate which controls the controlled foreign corporation;

“(B) such person is a corporation which controls, or is controlled by, the controlled foreign corporation; or

“(C) such person is a corporation which is controlled by the same person or persons which control the controlled foreign corporation.

For purposes of the preceding sentence, control means the ownership, directly or indirectly, of stock possessing more than 50 percent of the total combined voting power of all classes of stock entitled to vote. For purposes of this paragraph, the rules for determining ownership of stock prescribed by section 958 shall apply.”

Subsec. (e). Pub. L. 99–514, §1810(k), in amending subsec. (e) generally, designated existing provisions as par. (1), added par. heading, and substituted subpar. (A) and (B) designations for prior par. (1) and (2) designations, struck out provisions relating to nonapplicability of preceding sentence to services performed in connection with manufactured or grown or extracted property, and provisions determining the place of performance of services for purposes of paragraph (2) with respect to any policy of insurance and reinsurance, and added pars. (2) and (3).

Subsec. (e)(3). Pub. L. 99–514, §1221(b)(3)(B), and Pub. L. 100–647, §1018(u)(38), struck out par. (3) as enacted by section 1810(k) of Pub. L. 99–514, which read as follows: “For purposes of paragraph (1), in the case of any services performed with respect to any policy of insurance or reinsurance with respect to which the primary insured is a related person (within the meaning of section 864(d)(4))—

“(A) such primary insured shall be treated as a related person for purposes of paragraph (1)(A) (whether or not the requirements of subsection (d)(3) are met),

“(B) such services shall be treated as performed in the country within which the insured hazards, risks, losses, or liabilities occur, and

“(C) except as otherwise provided in regulations by the Secretary, rules similar to the rules of section 953(b) shall be applied in determining the income from such services.”

Subsec. (f). Pub. L. 99–514, §1221(c)(2), inserted last sentence.

Subsecs. (g), (h). Pub. L. 99–514, §1221(c)(3)(A)(i), redesignated subsec. (h) as (g) and struck out former subsec. (g), increase in qualified investments in foreign base company shipping operations, which read as follows: “For purposes of subsection (b)(2), the increase for any taxable year in qualified investments in foreign base company shipping operations of any controlled foreign corporation is the amount by which—

“(1) the qualified investments in foreign base company shipping operations (as defined in section 955(b)) of the controlled foreign corporation at the close of the taxable year, exceed

“(2) the qualified investments in foreign base company shipping operations (as so defined) of the controlled foreign corporation at the close of the preceding taxable year.”

1984—Subsec. (e). Pub. L. 98–369, §137(a), inserted provision that for purposes of par. (2) services performed with respect to any insurance or reinsurance policy be treated as performed in the country of risk.

Subsec. (h)(1). Pub. L. 98–369, §712(f), substituted “paragraphs (2) and (3) of section 907(c)” for “section 907(c)(2)”.

1982—Subsec. (a)(5). Pub. L. 97–248, §212(a), (e), added par. (5).

Subsec. (b)(4). Pub. L. 97–248, §212(d), inserted at end “The preceding sentence shall not apply to foreign base company oil related income described in subsection (a)(5).”

Subsec. (b)(5). Pub. L. 97–248, §212(b)(1), substituted “, the foreign base company shipping income, and the foreign base company oil related income” for “and the foreign base company shipping income”.

Subsec. (b)(8). Pub. L. 97–248, §212(b)(2), added par. (8).

Subsec. (h). Pub. L. 97–248, §212(c), added subsec. (h).

1976—Subsecs. (b)(4), (5). Pub. L. 94–455, §1906(b)(13)(A), struck out “or his delegate” after “Secretary”.

Subsec. (b)(7). Pub. L. 94–455, §1024(a), added par. (7).

Subsec. (c)(3)(C). Pub. L. 94–455, §1023(a), added subpar. (C).

1975—Subsec. (a)(4). Pub. L. 94–12, §602(d)(1)(A), added par. (4).

Subsec. (b)(1). Pub. L. 94–12, §602(c)(1), struck out subsec. (b)(1) which related to the exclusion of certain dividends, interest, and gains from qualified investments in less developed countries.

Subsec. (b)(2). Pub. L. 94–12, §602(d)(1)(B), substituted “foreign base company shipping income to the extent that the amount of such income does not exceed the increase for the taxable year in qualified investments in foreign base company shipping operations of the controlled foreign corporation (as determined under subsection (g))” for “income derived from, or in connection with, the use (or hiring or leasing for use) of any aircraft or vessel in foreign commerce, or the performance of services directly related to the use of any such aircraft or vessel” in text and “Exclusion for reinvested shipping income” for “Exclusion of certain shipping income” in heading.

Subsec. (b)(3). Pub. L. 94–12, §602(d)(1)(C), (D), (e), substituted “10 percent” for “30 percent” in heading, substituted “paragraphs (2) and (5)” for “paragraphs (1) and (5)” and “10 percent” for “30 percent” in subpar. (A), and substituted “paragraphs (2) and (5)” for “paragraphs (1) and (5)” and “paragraphs (2), (4), and (5)” for “paragraphs (1), (2), (4), and (5)” in subpar. (B).

Subsec. (b)(5). Pub. L. 94–12, §602(d)(1)(E), substituted “the foreign base company services income, and the foreign base company shipping income” for “and the foreign base company services income”.

Subsec. (b)(6). Pub. L. 94–12, §602(d)(1)(F), added par. (6).

Subsec. (d)(1). Pub. L. 94–12, §602(b), provided that for purposes of subsec. (d) personal property does not include agricultural commodities which are not grown in the United States in commercially marketable quantities.

Subsecs. (f), (g). Pub. L. 94–12, §602(c)(2), (d)(1)(G), added subsecs. (f) and (g).

1969—Subsec. (b)(4). Pub. L. 91–172 inserted reference to a foreign corporation which is an acquired corporation, and made the effecting of a transaction giving rise to foreign base income through the controlled foreign corporation subject to the Secretary's power to disallow inclusion of any item of such income where such inclusion will have one of the effects prescribed by this section.

Effective Date of 2010 Amendment

Amendment by section 750(a) of Pub. L. 111–312 applicable to taxable years of foreign corporations beginning after Dec. 31, 2009, and to taxable years of United States shareholders with or within which any such taxable year of such foreign corporation ends, see section 750(c) of Pub. L. 111–312, set out as a note under section 953 of this title.

Pub. L. 111–312, title VII, §751(b), Dec. 17, 2010, 124 Stat. 3321, provided that: “The amendment made by this section [amending this section] shall apply to taxable years of foreign corporations beginning after December 31, 2009, and to taxable years of United States shareholders with or within which any such taxable year of such foreign corporation ends.”

Effective Date of 2008 Amendment

Pub. L. 110–343, div. C, title III, §304(b), Oct. 3, 2008, 122 Stat. 3867, provided that: “The amendment made by this section [amending this section] shall apply to taxable years of foreign corporations beginning after December 31, 2007, and to taxable years of United States shareholders with or within which such taxable years of foreign corporations end.”

Effective Date of 2007 Amendment

Amendment by section 4(a) of Pub. L. 110–172 effective as if included in the provisions of the Tax Increase Prevention and Reconciliation Act of 2005, Pub. L. 109–222, to which such amendment relates, with certain exceptions, see section 4(d) of Pub. L. 110–172, set out as a note under section 355 of this title.

Effective Date of 2006 Amendment

Pub. L. 109–432, div. A, title IV, §426(a)(2), Dec. 20, 2006, 120 Stat. 2974, provided that: “The amendments made by this subsection [amending this section] shall take effect as if included in section 103(b) of the Tax Increase Prevention and Reconciliation Act of 2005 [Pub. L. 109–222].”

Pub. L. 109–222, title I, §103(b)(2), May 17, 2006, 120 Stat. 347, provided that: “The amendment made by this subsection [amending this section] shall apply to taxable years of foreign corporations beginning after December 31, 2005, and to taxable years of United States shareholders with or within which such taxable years of foreign corporations end.”

Effective Date of 2005 Amendment

Amendment by section 403(m) of Pub. L. 109–135 effective as if included in the provision of the American Jobs Creation Act of 2004, Pub. L. 108–357, to which such amendment relates, see section 403(nn) of Pub. L. 109–135, set out as a note under section 26 of this title.

Effective Date of 2004 Amendment

Pub. L. 108–357, title IV, §412(b), Oct. 22, 2004, 118 Stat. 1506, provided that: “The amendment made by this section [amending this section] shall apply to taxable years of foreign corporations beginning after December 31, 2004, and to taxable years of United States shareholders with or within which such taxable years of foreign corporations end.”

Amendment by section 413(b)(2) of Pub. L. 108–357 applicable to taxable years of foreign corporations beginning after Dec. 31, 2004, and to taxable years of United States shareholders with or within which such taxable years of foreign corporations end, see section 413(d)(1) of Pub. L. 108–357, set out as an Effective and Termination Dates of 2004 Amendments note under section 1 of this title.

Pub. L. 108–357, title IV, §414(d), Oct. 22, 2004, 118 Stat. 1511, provided that: “The amendments made by this section [amending this section] shall apply to transactions entered into after December 31, 2004.”

Amendment by section 415(a), (b), (c)(2) of Pub. L. 108–357 applicable to taxable years of foreign corporations beginning after Dec. 31, 2004, and to taxable years of United States shareholders with or within which such taxable years of foreign corporations end, see section 415(d) of Pub. L. 108–357, set out as a note under section 952 of this title.

Pub. L. 108–357, title IV, §416(b), Oct. 22, 2004, 118 Stat. 1512, provided that: “The amendment made by this section [amending this section] shall apply to taxable years of such foreign corporations beginning after December 31, 2004, and to taxable years of United States shareholders with or within which such taxable years of such foreign corporations end.”

Effective Date of 2002 Amendment

Amendment by section 614(a)(2), (b)(1) of Pub. L. 107–147 applicable to taxable years beginning after Dec. 31, 2001, see section 614(c) of Pub. L. 107–147, set out as a note under section 953 of this title.

Effective Date of 1999 Amendment

Amendment by section 503(a) of Pub. L. 106–170 applicable to taxable years beginning after Dec. 31, 1999, see section 503(c) of Pub. L. 106–170, set out as a note under section 953 of this title.

Amendment by section 532(c)(2)(Q) of Pub. L. 106–170 applicable to any instrument held, acquired, or entered into, any transaction entered into, and supplies held or acquired on or after Dec. 17, 1999, see section 532(d) of Pub. L. 106–170, set out as a note under section 170 of this title.

Effective Date of 1998 Amendment

Amendment by section 4003(j) of Pub. L. 105–277 effective as if included in the provision of the Taxpayer Relief Act of 1997, Pub. L. 105–34, to which such amendment relates, see section 4003(l) of Pub. L. 105–277, set out as a note under section 86 of this title.

Effective Date of 1997 Amendment

Section 1051(c) of Pub. L. 105–34 provided that: “The amendments made by this section [amending this section] shall apply to taxable years beginning after the date of the enactment of this Act [Aug. 5, 1997].”

Section 1175(c) of Pub. L. 105–34 provided that: “The amendments made by this section [amending this section] shall apply to the first full taxable year of a foreign corporation beginning after December 31, 1997, and before January 1, 1999, and to taxable years of United States shareholders with or within which such taxable year of such foreign corporation ends.”

Effective Date of 1993 Amendment

Section 13233(a)(2) of Pub. L. 103–66 provided that: “The amendment made by paragraph (1) [amending this section] shall apply to taxable years of controlled foreign corporations beginning after September 30, 1993, and to taxable years of United States shareholders in which or with which such taxable years of controlled foreign corporations end.”

Amendment by section 13235(a)(3) and (b) of Pub. L. 103–66 applicable to taxable years beginning after Dec. 31, 1992, see section 13235(c) of Pub. L. 103–66, set out as a note under section 904 of this title.

Amendment by section 13239(d) of Pub. L. 103–66 applicable to sales, exchanges, or other dispositions after Aug. 10, 1993, see section 13239(e) of Pub. L. 103–66, set out as a note under section 865 of this title.

Effective Date of 1989 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 101–239 effective, except as otherwise provided, as if included in the provision of the Technical and Miscellaneous Revenue Act of 1988, Pub. L. 100–647, to which such amendment relates, see section 7817 of Pub. L. 101–239, set out as a note under section 1 of this title.

Effective Date of 1988 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 100–647 effective, except as otherwise provided, as if included in the provision of the Tax Reform Act of 1986, Pub. L. 99–514, to which such amendment relates, see section 1019(a) of Pub. L. 100–647, set out as a note under section 1 of this title.

Effective Date of 1986 Amendment

Amendment by section 1201(c) of Pub. L. 99–514 applicable to taxable years beginning after Dec. 31, 1986, except as otherwise provided, see section 1201(e) of Pub. L. 99–514, set out as a note under section 904 of this title.

Section 1221(g) of Pub. L. 99–514, as amended by Pub. L. 100–647, title I, §1012(i)(13), Nov. 10, 1988, 102 Stat. 3509, provided that:

“(1) In general.—Except as otherwise provided in this subsection, the amendments made by this section [amending this section and sections 864, 952, 953, 955, and 957 of this title] shall apply to taxable years of foreign corporations beginning after December 31, 1986.

“(2) Special rule for repeal of exclusion for reinvestment shipping income.—

“(A) In general.—In the case of any qualified controlled foreign corporation—

“(i) the amendments made by subsection (c) [amending this section and section 955 of this title] shall apply to taxable years ending on or after January 1, 1992, and

“(ii) sections 955(a)(1)(A) and 955(a)(2)(A) of the Internal Revenue Code of 1986 (as amended by subsection (c)(3)) shall be applied by substituting ‘ending before 1992’ for ‘beginning before 1987’.

“(B) Qualified controlled foreign corporation.—For purposes of subparagraph (A), the term ‘qualified controlled foreign corporation’ means any controlled foreign corporation (as defined in section 957 of such Code)—

“(i) if the United States agent of such corporation is a domestic corporation incorporated on March 13, 1951, and

“(ii) if—

“(I) the certificate of incorporation of such corporation is dated November 23, 1963, and

“(II) such corporation has a wholly owned subsidiary and its certificate of incorporation is dated November 2, 1965.

“(3) Exception for certain reinsurance contracts.—

“(A) In general.—In the case of the 1st 3 taxable years of a qualified controlled foreign insurer beginning after December 31, 1986, the amendments made by this section shall not apply to the phase-in percentage of any qualified reinsurance income.

“(B) Phase-in percentage.—For purposes of subparagraph (A):

 
  
 “In the case of taxable The phase-in
  years beginning in: percentage is:
1987 75  
1988 50  
1989 25.

“(C) Qualified controlled foreign insurer.—For purposes of this paragraph, the term ‘qualified controlled foreign insurer’ means—

“(i) any controlled foreign corporation which on August 16, 1986, was a member of an affiliated group (as defined in section 1504(a) of the Internal Revenue Code of 1986 without regard to subsection (b)(3) thereof) which had as its common parent a corporation incorporated in Delaware on June 9, 1967, with executive offices in New York, New York, or

“(ii) any controlled foreign corporation which on August 16, 1986, was a member of an affiliated group (as so defined) which had as its common parent a corporation incorporated in Delaware on November 3, 1981, with executive offices in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania.

“(D) Qualified reinsurance income.—For purposes of this paragraph, the term ‘qualified reinsurance income’ means any insurance income attributable to risks (other than risks described in section 953(a) or 954(e) of such Code as in effect on the day before the date of the enactment of this Act [Oct. 22, 1986]) assumed under a reinsurance contract. For purposes of this subparagraph, insurance income shall mean the underwriting income (as defined in section 832(b)(3) of such Code) and investment income derived from an amount of assets (to be segregated and separately identified) equivalent to the ordinary and necessary insurance reserves and necessary surplus equal to 1/3 of earned premium attributable to such contracts. For purposes of this paragraph, the amount of qualified reinsurance income shall not exceed the amount of insurance income from reinsurance contracts for calendar year 1985. In the case of controlled foreign corporations described in subparagraph (C)(ii), the preceding sentence shall not apply and the qualified reinsurance income of any such corporation shall not exceed such corporation's proportionate share of $27,000,000 (determined on the basis of respective amounts of qualified reinsurance income determined without regard to this subparagraph).”

Amendment by section 1223(a) of Pub. L. 99–514 applicable to taxable years beginning after Dec. 31, 1986, see section 1223(c) of Pub. L. 99–514, set out as a note under section 864 of this title.

Amendment by section 1810(k) of Pub. L. 99–514 effective, except as otherwise provided, as if included in the provisions of the Tax Reform Act of 1984, Pub. L. 98–369, div. A, to which such amendment relates, see section 1881 of Pub. L. 99–514, set out as a note under section 48 of this title.

Effective Date of 1984 Amendment

Section 137(b) of Pub. L. 98–369 provided that: “The amendments made by subsection (a) [amending this section] shall apply to taxable years of controlled foreign corporations beginning after the date of the enactment of this Act [July 18, 1984].”

Amendment by section 712(f) of Pub. L. 98–369 effective as if included in the provision of the Tax Equity and Fiscal Responsibility Act of 1982, Pub. L. 97–248, to which such amendment relates, see section 715 of Pub. L. 98–369, set out as a note under section 31 of this title.

Effective Date of 1982 Amendment

Section 212(f) of Pub. L. 97–248 provided that: “The amendments made by this section [amending this section] shall apply to taxable years of foreign corporations beginning after December 31, 1982, and to taxable years of United States shareholders in which, or with which, such taxable years of foreign corporations end.”

Effective Date of 1976 Amendment

Section 1023(b) of Pub. L. 94–455, as amended by Pub. L. 99–514, §2, Oct. 22, 1986, 100 Stat. 2095, provided that: “The amendment made by this section [amending this section] shall apply to taxable years of foreign corporations beginning after December 31, 1975, and to taxable years of United States shareholders (within the meaning of section 951(b) of the Internal Revenue Code of 1986 [formerly I.R.C. 1954]) within which or with which such taxable years of such foreign corporations end.”

Section 1024(b) of Pub. L. 94–455, as amended by Pub. L. 99–514, §2, Oct. 22, 1986, 100 Stat. 2095, provided that: “The amendment made by this section [amending this section] shall apply to taxable years of foreign corporations beginning after December 31, 1975, and to taxable years of United States shareholders (within the meaning of section 951(b) of the Internal Revenue Code of 1986 [formerly I.R.C. 1954]) within which or with which such taxable years of such foreign corporations end.”

Effective Date of 1975 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 94–12 applicable to taxable years of foreign corporations beginning after Dec. 31, 1975, and to taxable years of United States shareholders (within the meaning of section 951(b) of this title) within which or with which such taxable years of such foreign corporations end, see section 602(f) of Pub. L. 94–12, set out as an Effective Date note under section 955 of this title.

Effective Date of 1969 Amendment

Section 909(b) of Pub. L. 91–172 provided that: “The amendment made by subsection (a) [amending this section] shall apply to taxable years ending after October 9, 1969.”

Line Item Veto

Section 1175 of Pub. L. 105–34, amending this section and enacting provisions set out as a note above, was subject to line item veto by the President, Cancellation No. 97–1, signed Aug. 11, 1997, 62 F.R. 43266, Aug. 12, 1997. For decision holding line item veto unconstitutional, see Clinton v. City of New York, 524 U.S. 417, 118 S.Ct. 2091, 141 L.Ed.2d 393 (1998).

Applicability of Certain Amendments by Pub. L. 99–514 in Relation to Treaty Obligations of United States

For applicability of amendment by section 1201(c) of Pub. L. 99–514 notwithstanding any treaty obligation of the United States in effect on Oct. 22, 1986, with provision that for such purposes any amendment by title I of Pub. L. 100–647 be treated as if it had been included in the provision of Pub. L. 99–514 to which such amendment relates, see section 1012(aa)(2), (4) of Pub. L. 100–647, set out as a note under section 861 of this title.

Plan Amendments Not Required Until January 1, 1989

For provisions directing that if any amendments made by subtitle A or subtitle C of title XI [§§1101–1147 and 1171–1177] or title XVIII [§§1800–1899A] of Pub. L. 99–514 require an amendment to any plan, such plan amendment shall not be required to be made before the first plan year beginning on or after Jan. 1, 1989, see section 1140 of Pub. L. 99–514, as amended, set out as a note under section 401 of this title.

Special Rule for Application of Section 954 to Certain Dividends

Section 1227 of Pub. L. 99–514 provided that:

“(a) In General.—For purposes of section 954(c)(3)(A) of the Internal Revenue Code of 1986, any dividends received by a qualified controlled foreign corporation (within the meaning of section 951 of such Code) during any of its 1st 5 taxable years beginning after December 31, 1986, with respect to its 32.7 percent interest in a Brazilian corporation shall be treated as if such Brazilian corporation were a related person to the qualified controlled foreign corporation to the extent the Brazilian corporation's income is attributable to its interest in the trade or business of mining in Brazil.

“(b) Qualified Controlled Foreign Corporation.—For purposes of this section, a qualified controlled foreign corporation is a corporation the greater than 99 percent shareholder of which is a company originally incorporated in Montana on July 9, 1951 (the name of which was changed on August 10, 1966).

“(c) Effective Date.—The amendment made by this section shall apply to dividends received after December 31, 1986.”

1 So in original.

2 So in original. The comma probably should not appear.

§955. Withdrawal of previously excluded subpart F income from qualified investment

(a) General rules

(1) Amount withdrawn

For purposes of this subpart, the amount of previously excluded subpart F income of any controlled foreign corporation withdrawn from investment in foreign base company shipping operations for any taxable year is an amount equal to the decrease in the amount of qualified investments in foreign base company shipping operations of the controlled foreign corporation for such year, but only to the extent that the amount of such decrease does not exceed an amount equal to—

(A) the sum of the amounts excluded under section 954(b)(2) from the foreign base company income of such corporation for all prior taxable years beginning before 1987, reduced by

(B) the sum of the amounts of previously excluded subpart F income withdrawn from investment in foreign base company shipping operations of such corporation determined under this subsection for all prior taxable years.

(2) Decrease in qualified investments

For purposes of paragraph (1), the amount of the decrease in qualified investments in foreign base company shipping operations of any controlled foreign corporation for any taxable year is the amount by which—

(A) the amount of qualified investments in foreign base company shipping operations of the controlled foreign corporation as of the close of the last taxable year beginning before 1987 (to the extent such amount exceeds the sum of the decreases in qualified investments determined under this paragraph for prior taxable years beginning after 1986), exceeds

(B) the amount of qualified investments in foreign base company shipping operations of the controlled foreign corporation at the close of the taxable year,


to the extent that the amount of such decrease does not exceed the sum of the earnings and profits for the taxable year and the earnings and profits accumulated for prior taxable years beginning after December 31, 1975, and the amount of previously excluded subpart F income invested in less developed country corporations described in section 955(c)(2) (as in effect before the enactment of the Tax Reduction Act of 1975) to the extent attributable to earnings and profits accumulated for taxable years beginning after December 31, 1962. For purposes of this paragraph, if qualified investments in foreign base company shipping operations are disposed of by the controlled foreign corporation during the taxable year, the amount of the decrease in qualified investments in foreign base company shipping operations of such controlled foreign corporations for such year shall be reduced by an amount equal to the amount (if any) by which the losses on such dispositions during such year exceed the gains on such dispositions during such year.

(3) Pro rata share of amount withdrawn

In the case of any United States shareholder, the pro rata share of the amount of previously excluded subpart F income of any controlled foreign corporation withdrawn from investment in foreign base company shipping operations for any taxable year is his pro rata share of the amount determined under paragraph (1).

(b) Qualified investments in foreign base company shipping operations

(1) In general

For purposes of this subpart, the term “qualified investments in foreign base company shipping operations” means investments in—

(A) any aircraft or vessel used in foreign commerce, and

(B) other assets which are used in connection with the performance of services directly related to the use of any such aircraft or vessel.


Such term includes, but is not limited to, investments by a controlled foreign corporation in stock or obligations of another controlled foreign corporation which is a related person (within the meaning of section 954(d)(3)) and which holds assets described in the preceding sentence, but only to the extent that such assets are so used.

(2) Qualified investments by related persons

For purposes of determining the amount of qualified investments in foreign based company shipping operations, an investment (or a decrease in investment) in such operations by one or more controlled foreign corporations may, under regulations prescribed by the Secretary, be treated as an investment (or a decrease in investment) by another corporation which is a controlled foreign corporation and is a related person (as defined in section 954(d)(3) with respect to the corporation actually making or withdrawing the investment.

(3) Special rule

For purposes of this subpart, a United States shareholder of a controlled foreign corporation may, under regulations prescribed by the Secretary, elect to make the determinations under subsection (a)(2) of this section and under subsection (g) of section 954 as of the close of the years following the years referred to in such subsections, or as of the close of such longer period of time as such regulations may permit, in lieu of on the last day of such years. Any election under this paragraph made with respect to any taxable year shall apply to such year and to all succeeding taxable years unless the Secretary consents to the revocation of such election.

(4) Amount attributable to property

The amount taken into account under this subpart with respect to any property described in paragraph (1) shall be its adjusted basis, reduced by any liability to which such property is subject.

(5) Income excluded under prior law

Amounts invested in less developed country corporations described in section 955(c)(2) (as in effect before the enactment of the Tax Reduction Act of 1975) shall be treated as qualified investments in foreign base company shipping operations and shall not be treated as investments in less developed countries for purposes of section 951(a)(1)(A)(ii).

(Added Pub. L. 94–12, title VI, §602(d)(3)(A), Mar. 29, 1975, 89 Stat. 62; amended Pub. L. 94–455, title XIX, §1906(b)(13)(A), Oct. 4, 1976, 90 Stat. 1834; Pub. L. 99–514, title XII, §1221(c)(3)(B), (C), Oct. 22, 1986, 100 Stat. 2553; Pub. L. 100–647, title I, §1012(i)(11), Nov. 10, 1988, 102 Stat. 3509.)

References in Text

Section 955(c)(2) (as in effect before the enactment of the Tax Reduction Act of 1975), referred to in subsecs. (a)(2) and (b)(5), refers to section 955(c)(2) as added by Pub. L. 87–834, §12(a), Oct. 16, 1962, 76 Stat. 1013, and as in effect from 1962 until the repeal of that section and the enactment of this section by Pub. L. 94–12.

The Tax Reduction Act of 1975, referred to in subsecs. (a)(2) and (b)(5), is Pub. L. 94–12, Mar. 29, 1975, 89 Stat. 26, as amended, which was enacted Mar. 29, 1975. For complete classification of this Act to the Code, see Short Title of 1975 Amendment note set out under section 1 of this title and Tables.

Prior Provisions

A prior section 955, added Pub. L. 87–834, §12(a), Oct. 16, 1962, 76 Stat. 1013, related to investments in less developed countries and dealing with less developed country corporations, prior to repeal by Pub. L. 94–12, title VI, §602(c)(5), Mar. 29, 1975, 89 Stat. 59.

Amendments

1988—Subsec. (a)(2)(A). Pub. L. 100–647 inserted “(to the extent such amount exceeds the sum of the decreases in qualified investments determined under this paragraph for prior taxable years beginning after 1986)” after “beginning before 1987”.

1986—Subsec. (a)(1)(A). Pub. L. 99–514, §1221(c)(3)(B), inserted “beginning before 1987” after “all prior taxable years”.

Subsec. (a)(2)(A). Pub. L. 99–514, §1221(c)(3)(C), substituted “as of the close of the last taxable year beginning before 1987” for “at the close of the preceding taxable year”.

1976—Subsec. (b)(2), (3). Pub. L. 94–455 struck out “or his delegate” after “Secretary” wherever appearing.

Effective Date of 1988 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 100–647 effective, except as otherwise provided, as if included in the provision of the Tax Reform Act of 1986, Pub. L. 99–514, to which such amendment relates, see section 1019(a) of Pub. L. 100–647, set out as a note under section 1 of this title.

Effective Date of 1986 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 99–514 applicable to taxable years of foreign corporations beginning after Dec. 31, 1986, except as otherwise provided, see section 1221(g) of Pub. L. 99–514, set out as a note under section 954 of this title.

Effective Date

Section 602(f) of Pub. L. 94–12, as amended by Pub. L. 99–514, §2, Oct. 22, 1986, 100 Stat. 2095, provided that: “The amendments made by this section [enacting this section, amending sections 851, 902, 951, and 954 of this title, and repealing section 963 and former section 955 of this title] shall apply to taxable years of foreign corporations beginning after December 31, 1975, and to taxable years of United States shareholders (within the meaning of 951(b) of the Internal Revenue Code of 1986 [formerly I.R.C. 1954]) within which or with which such taxable years of such foreign corporations end.”

§956. Investment of earnings in United States property

(a) General rule

In the case of any controlled foreign corporation, the amount determined under this section with respect to any United States shareholder for any taxable year is the lesser of—

(1) the excess (if any) of—

(A) such shareholder's pro rata share of the average of the amounts of United States property held (directly or indirectly) by the controlled foreign corporation as of the close of each quarter of such taxable year, over

(B) the amount of earnings and profits described in section 959(c)(1)(A) with respect to such shareholder, or


(2) such shareholder's pro rata share of the applicable earnings of such controlled foreign corporation.


The amount taken into account under paragraph (1) with respect to any property shall be its adjusted basis as determined for purposes of computing earnings and profits, reduced by any liability to which the property is subject.

(b) Special rules

(1) Applicable earnings

For purposes of this section, the term “applicable earnings” means, with respect to any controlled foreign corporation, the sum of—

(A) the amount (not including a deficit) referred to in section 316(a)(1) to the extent such amount was accumulated in prior taxable years, and

(B) the amount referred to in section 316(a)(2),


but reduced by distributions made during the taxable year and by earnings and profits described in section 959(c)(1).

(2) Special rule for U.S. property acquired before corporation is a controlled foreign corporation

In applying subsection (a) to any taxable year, there shall be disregarded any item of United States property which was acquired by the controlled foreign corporation before the first day on which such corporation was treated as a controlled foreign corporation. The aggregate amount of property disregarded under the preceding sentence shall not exceed the portion of the applicable earnings of such controlled foreign corporation which were accumulated during periods before such first day.

(3) Special rule where corporation ceases to be controlled foreign corporation

If any foreign corporation ceases to be a controlled foreign corporation during any taxable year—

(A) the determination of any United States shareholder's pro rata share shall be made on the basis of stock owned (within the meaning of section 958(a)) by such shareholder on the last day during the taxable year on which the foreign corporation is a controlled foreign corporation,

(B) the average referred to in subsection (a)(1)(A) for such taxable year shall be determined by only taking into account quarters ending on or before such last day, and

(C) in determining applicable earnings, the amount taken into account by reason of being described in paragraph (2) of section 316(a) shall be the portion of the amount so described which is allocable (on a pro rata basis) to the part of such year during which the corporation is a controlled foreign corporation.

(c) United States property defined

(1) In general

For purposes of subsection (a), the term “United States property” means any property acquired after December 31, 1962, which is—

(A) tangible property located in the United States;

(B) stock of a domestic corporation;

(C) an obligation of a United States person; or

(D) any right to the use in the United States of—

(i) a patent or copyright,

(ii) an invention, model, or design (whether or not patented),

(iii) a secret formula or process, or

(iv) any other similar right,


which is acquired or developed by the controlled foreign corporation for use in the United States.

(2) Exceptions

For purposes of subsection (a), the term “United States property” does not include—

(A) obligations of the United States, money, or deposits with—

(i) any bank (as defined by section 2(c) of the Bank Holding Company Act of 1956 (12 U.S.C. 1841(c)), without regard to subparagraphs (C) and (G) of paragraph (2) of such section), or

(ii) any corporation not described in clause (i) with respect to which a bank holding company (as defined by section 2(a) of such Act) or financial holding company (as defined by section 2(p) of such Act) owns directly or indirectly more than 80 percent by vote or value of the stock of such corporation;


(B) property located in the United States which is purchased in the United States for export to, or use in, foreign countries;

(C) any obligation of a United States person arising in connection with the sale or processing of property if the amount of such obligation outstanding at no time during the taxable year exceeds the amount which would be ordinary and necessary to carry on the trade or business of both the other party to the sale or processing transaction and the United States person had the sale or processing transaction been made between unrelated persons;

(D) any aircraft, railroad rolling stock, vessel, motor vehicle, or container used in the transportation of persons or property in foreign commerce and used predominantly outside the United States;

(E) an amount of assets of an insurance company equivalent to the unearned premiums or reserves ordinary and necessary for the proper conduct of its insurance business attributable to contracts which are not contracts described in section 953(a)(1); 1

(F) the stock or obligations of a domestic corporation which is neither a United States shareholder (as defined in section 951(b)) of the controlled foreign corporation, nor a domestic corporation, 25 percent or more of the total combined voting power of which, immediately after the acquisition of any stock in such domestic corporation by the controlled foreign corporation, is owned, or is considered as being owned, by such United States shareholders in the aggregate;

(G) any movable property (other than a vessel or aircraft) which is used for the purpose of exploring for, developing, removing, or transporting resources from ocean waters or under such waters when used on the Continental Shelf of the United States;

(H) an amount of assets of the controlled foreign corporation equal to the earnings and profits accumulated after December 31, 1962, and excluded from subpart F income under section 952(b);

(I) deposits of cash or securities made or received on commercial terms in the ordinary course of a United States or foreign person's business as a dealer in securities or in commodities, but only to the extent such deposits are made or received as collateral or margin for (i) a securities loan, notional principal contract, options contract, forward contract, or futures contract, or (ii) any other financial transaction in which the Secretary determines that it is customary to post collateral or margin;

(J) an obligation of a United States person to the extent the principal amount of the obligation does not exceed the fair market value of readily marketable securities sold or purchased pursuant to a sale and repurchase agreement or otherwise posted or received as collateral for the obligation in the ordinary course of its business by a United States or foreign person which is a dealer in securities or commodities;

(K) securities acquired and held by a controlled foreign corporation in the ordinary course of its business as a dealer in securities if—

(i) the dealer accounts for the securities as securities held primarily for sale to customers in the ordinary course of business, and

(ii) the dealer disposes of the securities (or such securities mature while held by the dealer) within a period consistent with the holding of securities for sale to customers in the ordinary course of business; and


(L) an obligation of a United States person which—

(i) is not a domestic corporation, and

(ii) is not—

(I) a United States shareholder (as defined in section 951(b)) of the controlled foreign corporation, or

(II) a partnership, estate, or trust in which the controlled foreign corporation, or any related person (as defined in section 954(d)(3)), is a partner, beneficiary, or trustee immediately after the acquisition of any obligation of such partnership, estate, or trust by the controlled foreign corporation.


For purposes of subparagraphs (I), (J), and (K), the term “dealer in securities” has the meaning given such term by section 475(c)(1), and the term “dealer in commodities” has the meaning given such term by section 475(e), except that such term shall include a futures commission merchant.

(3) Certain trade or service receivables acquired from related United States persons

(A) In general

Notwithstanding paragraph (2) (other than subparagraph (H) thereof), the term “United States property” includes any trade or service receivable if—

(i) such trade or service receivable is acquired (directly or indirectly) from a related person who is a United States person, and

(ii) the obligor under such receivable is a United States person.

(B) Definitions

For purposes of this paragraph, the term “trade or service receivable” and “related person” have the respective meanings given to such terms by section 864(d).

(d) Pledges and guarantees

For purposes of subsection (a), a controlled foreign corporation shall, under regulations prescribed by the Secretary, be considered as holding an obligation of a United States person if such controlled foreign corporation is a pledgor or guarantor of such obligations.

(e) Regulations

The Secretary shall prescribe such regulations as may be necessary to carry out the purposes of this section, including regulations to prevent the avoidance of the provisons 2 of this section through reorganizations or otherwise.

(Added Pub. L. 87–834, §12(a), Oct. 16, 1962, 76 Stat. 1015; amended Pub. L. 94–455, title X, §1021(a), title XIX, §1906(b)(13)(A), Oct. 4, 1976, 90 Stat. 1618, 1834; Pub. L. 98–369, div. A, title I, §123(b), title VIII, §801(d)(8), July 18, 1984, 98 Stat. 646, 996; Pub. L. 99–514, title XVIII, §1810(c)(1), Oct. 22, 1986, 100 Stat. 2824; Pub. L. 103–66, title XIII, §13232(a), (b), Aug. 10, 1993, 107 Stat. 501; Pub. L. 104–188, title I, §1501(b)(2), (3), Aug. 20, 1996, 110 Stat. 1825; Pub. L. 105–34, title XI, §1173(a), title XVI, §1601(e), Aug. 5, 1997, 111 Stat. 988, 1090; Pub. L. 108–357, title IV, §407(a), (b), title VIII, §837(a), Oct. 22, 2004, 118 Stat. 1498, 1499, 1596; Pub. L. 110–172, §11(g)(15)(A), Dec. 29, 2007, 121 Stat. 2490.)

References in Text

Section 953(a)(1), referred to in subsec. (c)(2)(E), was subsequently amended, and section 953(a)(1) no longer describes contracts. However, contracts are described elsewhere in that section.

Amendments

2007—Subsec. (c)(2). Pub. L. 110–172, §11(g)(15)(A)(ii), substituted “subparagraphs (I), (J), and (K)” for “subparagraphs (J), (K), and (L)” in concluding provisions.

Subsec. (c)(2)(I) to (M). Pub. L. 110–172, §11(g)(15)(A)(i), redesignated subpars. (J) to (M) as (I) to (L), respectively, and struck out former subpar. (I) which read as follows: “to the extent provided in regulations prescribed by the Secretary, property which is otherwise United States property which is held by a FSC and which is related to the export activities of such FSC;”.

2004—Subsec. (c)(2). Pub. L. 108–357, §407(b), substituted “, (K), and (L)” for “and (K)” in concluding provisions.

Subsec. (c)(2)(A). Pub. L. 108–357, §837(a), amended subpar. (A) generally. Prior to amendment, subpar. (A) read as follows: “obligations of the United States, money, or deposits with persons carrying on the banking business;”.

Subsec. (c)(2)(L), (M). Pub. L. 108–357, §407(a), added subpars. (L) and (M).

1997—Subsec. (b)(1)(A). Pub. L. 105–34, §1601(e), inserted “to the extent such amount was accumulated in prior taxable years” after “section 316(a)(1)”.

Subsec. (c)(2). Pub. L. 105–34, §1173(a), added subpars. (J) and (K) and concluding provisions.

1996—Subsec. (b)(1). Pub. L. 104–188, §1501(b)(2), reenacted heading without change and amended text generally. Prior to amendment, text read as follows: “For purposes of this section, the term ‘applicable earnings’ has the meaning given to such term by section 956A(b), except that the provisions of such section excluding earnings and profits accumulated in taxable years beginning before October 1, 1993, shall be disregarded.”

Subsec. (b)(3). Pub. L. 104–188, §1501(b)(3), reenacted heading without change and amended text generally. Prior to amendment, text read as follows: “Rules similar to the rules of section 956A(e) shall apply for purposes of this section.”

1993—Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 103–66, §13232(a)(2), added subsec. (a) and struck out former subsec. (a) which consisted of introductory provisions and pars. (1) to (3) setting out general rules for calculating amount of earnings of a controlled foreign corporation invested in United States and pro rata share of the increase for any taxable year in earnings of such a corporation invested in United States property.

Subsecs. (b) to (d). Pub. L. 103–66, §13232(a), added subsec. (b) and redesignated former subsecs. (b) and (c) as (c) and (d), respectively.

Subsec. (e). Pub. L. 103–66, §13232(b), added subsec. (e).

1986—Subsec. (b)(3)(A). Pub. L. 99–514 inserted “(other than subparagraph (H) thereof)”.

1984—Subsec. (b)(2)(I). Pub. L. 98–369, §801(d)(8), added subpar. (I).

Subsec. (b)(3). Pub. L. 98–369, §123(b), added par. (3).

1976—Subsec. (b)(2)(F) to (H). Pub. L. 94–455, §1021(a), added subpars. (F) and (G) and redesignated former subpar. (F) as (H).

Subsec. (c). Pub. L. 94–455, §1906(b)(13)(A), struck out “or his delegate” after “Secretary”.

Effective Date of 2004 Amendment

Pub. L. 108–357, title IV, §407(c), Oct. 22, 2004, 118 Stat. 1499, provided that: “The amendments made by this section [amending this section] shall apply to taxable years of foreign corporations beginning after December 31, 2004, and to taxable years of United States shareholders with or within which such taxable years of foreign corporations end.”

Pub. L. 108–357, title VIII, §837(b), Oct. 22, 2004, 118 Stat. 1596, provided that: “The amendment made by this section [amending this section] shall take effect on the date of the enactment of this Act [Oct. 22, 2004].”

Effective Date of 1997 Amendment

Section 1173(b) of Pub. L. 105–34 provided that: “The amendments made by this section [amending this section] shall apply to taxable years of foreign corporations beginning after December 31, 1997, and to taxable years of United States shareholders with or within which such taxable years of foreign corporations end.”

Amendment by section 1601(e) of Pub. L. 105–34 effective as if included in the provisions of the Small Business Job Protection Act of 1996, Pub. L. 104–188, to which it relates, see section 1601(j) of Pub. L. 105–34, set out as a note under section 23 of this title.

Effective Date of 1996 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 104–188 applicable to taxable years of foreign corporations beginning after Dec. 31, 1996, and to taxable years of United States shareholders within which or with which such taxable years of foreign corporations end, see section 1501(d) of Pub. L. 104–188, set out as a note under section 904 of this title.

Effective Date of 1993 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 103–66 applicable to taxable years of controlled foreign corporations beginning after Sept. 30, 1993, and to taxable years of United States shareholders in which or with which such taxable years of controlled foreign corporations end, see section 13232(d) of Pub. L. 103–66, set out as a note under section 951 of this title.

Effective Date of 1986 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 99–514 effective, except as otherwise provided, as if included in the provisions of the Tax Reform Act of 1984, Pub. L. 98–369, div. A, to which such amendment relates, see section 1881 of Pub. L. 99–514, set out as a note under section 48 of this title.

Effective Date of 1984 Amendment

Amendment by section 123(b) of Pub. L. 98–369 applicable to accounts receivable and evidences of indebtedness transferred after Mar. 1, 1984, in taxable years ending after such date, with an exception, see section 123(c) of Pub. L. 98–369, set out as a note under section 864 of this title.

Amendment by section 801(d)(8) of Pub. L. 98–369 applicable to transactions after Dec. 31, 1984, in taxable years ending after such date, see section 805(a)(1) of Pub. L. 98–369, as amended, set out as a note under section 245 of this title.

Effective Date of 1976 Amendment

Section 1021(c) of Pub. L. 94–455, as amended by Pub. L. 99–514, §2, Oct. 22, 1986, 100 Stat. 2095, provided that: “The amendments made by this section [amending this section and section 958 of this title] shall apply to taxable years of foreign corporations beginning after December 31, 1975, and to taxable years of United States shareholders (within the meaning of section 951(b) of the Internal Revenue Code of 1986 [formerly I.R.C. 1954]) within which or with which such taxable years of such foreign corporations end. In determining for purposes of any taxable year referred to in the preceding sentence the amount referred to in section 956(a)(2)(A) of the Internal Revenue Code of 1986 for the last taxable year of a corporation beginning before January 1, 1976, the amendments made by this section shall be deemed also to apply to such last taxable year.”

Plan Amendments Not Required Until January 1, 1989

For provisions directing that if any amendments made by subtitle A or subtitle C of title XI [§§1101–1147 and 1171–1177] or title XVIII [§§1800–1899A] of Pub. L. 99–514 require an amendment to any plan, such plan amendment shall not be required to be made before the first plan year beginning on or after Jan. 1, 1989, see section 1140 of Pub. L. 99–514, as amended, set out as a note under section 401 of this title.

1 See References in Text note below.

2 So in original. Probably should be “provisions”.

[§956A. Repealed. Pub. L. 104–188, title I, §1501(a)(2), Aug. 20, 1996, 110 Stat. 1825]

Section, added Pub. L. 103–66, title XIII, §13231(b), Aug. 10, 1993, 107 Stat. 496; amended Pub. L. 104–188, title I, §1703(i)(2), (3), Aug. 20, 1996, 110 Stat. 1876, related to earnings invested in excess passive assets.

Effective Date of Repeal

Repeal by Pub. L. 104–188 applicable to taxable years of foreign corporations beginning after Dec. 31, 1996, and to taxable years of United States shareholders within which or with which such taxable years of foreign corporations end, see section 1501(d) of Pub. L. 104–188, set out as an Effective Date of 1996 Amendment note under section 904 of this title.

§957. Controlled foreign corporations; United States persons

(a) General rule

For purposes of this subpart, the term “controlled foreign corporation” means any foreign corporation if more than 50 percent of—

(1) the total combined voting power of all classes of stock of such corporation entitled to vote, or

(2) the total value of the stock of such corporation,


is owned (within the meaning of section 958(a)), or is considered as owned by applying the rules of ownership of section 958(b), by United States shareholders on any day during the taxable year of such foreign corporation.

(b) Special rule for insurance

For purposes only of taking into account income described in section 953(a) (relating to insurance income), the term “controlled foreign corporation” includes not only a foreign corporation as defined by subsection (a) but also one of which more than 25 percent of the total combined voting power of all classes of stock (or more than 25 percent of the total value of stock) is owned (within the meaning of section 958(a)), or is considered as owned by applying the rules of ownership of section 958(b), by United States shareholders on any day during the taxable year of such corporation, if the gross amount of premiums or other consideration in respect of the reinsurance or the issuing of insurance or annuity contracts described in section 953(a)(1) 1 exceeds 75 percent of the gross amount of all premiums or other consideration in respect of all risks.

(c) United States person

For purposes of this subpart, the term “United States person” has the meaning assigned to it by section 7701(a)(30) except that—

(1) with respect to a corporation organized under the laws of the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico, such term does not include an individual who is a bona fide resident of Puerto Rico, if a dividend received by such individual during the taxable year from such corporation would, for purposes of section 933(1), be treated as income derived from sources within Puerto Rico, and

(2) with respect to a corporation organized under the laws of Guam, American Samoa, or the Northern Mariana Islands—

(A) 80 percent or more of the gross income of which for the 3-year period ending at the close of the taxable year (or for such part of such period as such corporation or any predecessor has been in existence) was derived from sources within such a possession or was effectively connected with the conduct of a trade or business in such a possession, and

(B) 50 percent or more of the gross income of which for such period (or part) was derived from the active conduct of a trade or business within such a possession,


such term does not include an individual who is a bona fide resident of Guam, American Samoa, or the Northern Mariana Islands.


For purposes of subparagraphs (A) and (B) of paragraph (2), the determination as to whether income was derived from the active conduct of a trade or business within a possession shall be made under regulations prescribed by the Secretary.

(Added Pub. L. 87–834, §12(a), Oct. 16, 1962, 76 Stat. 1017; amended Pub. L. 94–455, title XIX, §1906(b)(13)(A), Oct. 4, 1976, 90 Stat. 1834; Pub. L. 99–514, title XII, §§1221(b)(3)(C), 1222(a), 1224(a), 1273(a), Oct. 22, 1986, 100 Stat. 2553, 2556, 2558, 2595; Pub. L. 108–357, title VIII, §908(c)(5), Oct. 22, 2004, 118 Stat. 1656.)

References in Text

Section 953(a)(1), referred to in subsec. (b), was subsequently amended, and section 953(a)(1) no longer describes insurance or annuity contracts. However, insurance or annuity contracts are described elsewhere in that section.

Amendments

2004—Subsec. (c). Pub. L. 108–357, §908(c)(5)(B), struck out “derived from sources within a possession, was effectively connected with the conduct of a trade or business within a possession, or” after “whether income was” in concluding provisions.

Subsec. (c)(2)(B). Pub. L. 108–357, §908(c)(5)(A), substituted “active conduct of a” for “conduct of an active”.

1986—Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 99–514, §1222(a)(1), amended subsec. (a) generally. Prior to amendment, subsec. (a) read as follows: “For purposes of this subpart, the term ‘controlled foreign corporation’ means any foreign corporation of which more than 50 percent of the total combined voting power of all classes of stock entitled to vote is owned (within the meaning of section 958(a)), or is considered as owned by applying the rules of ownership of section 958(b), by United States shareholders on any day during the taxable year of such foreign corporation.”

Subsec. (b). Pub. L. 99–514, §1222(a)(2), inserted “(or more than 25 percent of the total value of stock)”.

Pub. L. 99–514, §1221(b)(3)(C), substituted “insurance income” for “income derived from insurance of United States risks”.

Subsec. (c). Pub. L. 99–514, §1273(a), added par. (2) and concluding provisions and struck out former pars. (2) and (3) which read as follows:

“(2) with respect to a corporation organized under the laws of the Virgin Islands, such term does not include an individual who is a bona fide resident of the Virgin Islands and whose income tax obligation under this subtitle for the taxable year is satisfied pursuant to section 28(a) of the Revised Organic Act of the Virgin Islands, approved July 22, 1954 (48 U.S.C. 1642), by paying tax on income derived from all sources both within and outside the Virgin Islands into the treasury of the Virgin Islands, and

“(3) with respect to a corporation organized under the laws of any other possession of the United States, such term does not include an individual who is a bona fide resident of any such other possession and whose income derived from sources within possessions of the United States is not, by reason of section 931(a), includible in gross income under this subtitle for the taxable year.”

Pub. L. 99–514, §1224(a), redesignated subsec. (d) as (c) and struck out former subsec. (c) which provided circumstances under which for purposes of this subpart, the term “controlled foreign corporation” would not include certain corporations created or organized in Puerto Rico or a possession of the United States or under the laws of Puerto Rico or a possession of the United States.

Subsec. (d). Pub. L. 99–514, §1224(a), redesignated subsec. (d) as (c).

1976—Subsec. (c) Pub. L. 94–455 struck out “or his delegate” after “Secretary”.

Effective Date of 2004 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 108–357 applicable to taxable years ending after Oct. 22, 2004, see section 908(d)(1) of Pub. L. 108–357, set out as an Effective Date note under section 937 of this title.

Effective Date of 1986 Amendment

Amendment by section 1221(b)(3)(C) of Pub. L. 99–514 applicable to taxable years of foreign corporations beginning after Dec. 31, 1986, except as otherwise provided, see section 1221(g) of Pub. L. 99–514, set out as a note under section 954 of this title.

Pub. L. 99–514, title XII, §1222(c), Oct. 22, 1986, 100 Stat. 2557, provided that:

“(1) In general.—The amendments made by this section [amending this section and section 552 of this title] shall apply to taxable years of foreign corporations beginning after December 31, 1986; except that for purposes of applying sections 951(a)(1)(B) and 956 of the Internal Revenue Code of 1986, such amendments shall take effect on August 16, 1986.

“(2) Transitional rule.—In the case of any corporation treated as a controlled foreign corporation by reason of the amendments made by this section, property acquired before August 16, 1986, shall not be taken into account under section 956(b) of the Internal Revenue Code of 1986.

“(3) Special rule for beneficiary of trust.—In the case of an individual—

“(A) who is a beneficiary of a trust which was established on December 7, 1979, under the laws of a foreign jurisdiction, and

“(B) who was not a citizen or resident of the United States on the date the trust was established,

amounts which are included in the gross income of such beneficiary under section 951(a) of the Internal Revenue Code of 1986 with respect to stock held by the trust (and treated as distributed to the trust) shall be treated as the first amounts which are distributed by the trust to such beneficiary and as amounts to which section 959(a) of such Code applies.”

Section 1224(b) of Pub. L. 99–514 provided that:

“(1) In general.—The amendment made by subsection (a) [amending this section] shall apply to taxable years of foreign corporations beginning after December 31, 1986; except that for purposes of applying sections 951(a)(1)(B) and 956 of the Internal Revenue Code of 1986, such amendments shall take effect on August 16, 1986.

“(2) Transitional rule.—In the case of any corporation treated as a controlled foreign corporation by reason of the amendment made by subsection (a), property acquired before August 16, 1986, shall not be taken into account under section 956(b) of the Internal Revenue Code of 1986.”

Amendment by section 1273(a) of Pub. L. 99–514 applicable to taxable years beginning after Dec. 31, 1986, with certain exceptions and qualifications, see section 1277 of Pub. L. 99–514, set out as a note under section 931 of this title.

1 See References in Text note below.

§958. Rules for determining stock ownership

(a) Direct and indirect ownership

(1) General rule

For purposes of this subpart (other than section 960(a)(1)), stock owned means—

(A) stock owned directly, and

(B) stock owned with the application of paragraph (2).

(2) Stock ownership through foreign entities

For purposes of subparagraph (B) of paragraph (1), stock owned, directly or indirectly, by or for a foreign corporation, foreign partnership, or foreign trust or foreign estate (within the meaning of section 7701(a)(31)) shall be considered as being owned proportionately by its shareholders, partners, or beneficiaries. Stock considered to be owned by a person by reason of the application of the preceding sentence shall, for purposes of applying such sentence, be treated as actually owned by such person.

(3) Special rule for mutual insurance companies

For purposes of applying paragraph (1) in the case of a foreign mutual insurance company, the term “stock” shall include any certificate entitling the holder to voting power in the corporation.

(b) Constructive ownership

For purposes of sections 951(b), 954(d)(3), 956(c)(2), and 957, section 318(a) (relating to constructive ownership of stock) shall apply to the extent that the effect is to treat any United States person as a United States shareholder within the meaning of section 951(b), to treat a person as a related person within the meaning of section 954(d)(3), to treat the stock of a domestic corporation as owned by a United States shareholder of the controlled foreign corporation for purposes of section 956(c)(2), or to treat a foreign corporation as a controlled foreign corporation under section 957, except that—

(1) In applying paragraph (1)(A) of section 318(a), stock owned by a nonresident alien individual (other than a foreign trust or foreign estate) shall not be considered as owned by a citizen or by a resident alien individual.

(2) In applying subparagraphs (A), (B), and (C) of section 318(a)(2), if a partnership, estate, trust, or corporation owns, directly or indirectly, more than 50 percent of the total combined voting power of all classes of stock entitled to vote of a corporation, it shall be considered as owning all the stock entitled to vote.

(3) In applying subparagraph (C) of section 318(a)(2), the phrase “10 percent” shall be substituted for the phrase “50 percent” used in subparagraph (C).

(4) Subparagraph (A), (B), and (C) of section 318(a)(3) shall not be applied so as to consider a United States person as owning stock which is owned by a person who is not a United States person.


Paragraphs (1) and (4) shall not apply for purposes of section 956(c)(2) to treat stock of a domestic corporation as not owned by a United States shareholder.

(Added Pub. L. 87–834, §12(a), Oct. 16, 1962, 76 Stat. 1018; amended Pub. L. 88–554, §4(b)(5), Aug. 31, 1964, 78 Stat. 763; Pub. L. 94–455, title X, §1021(b), Oct. 4, 1976, 90 Stat. 1619; Pub. L. 104–188, title I, §§1703(i)(4), 1704(t)(7), Aug. 20, 1996, 110 Stat. 1876, 1887.)

Amendments

1996—Subsec. (a)(1). Pub. L. 104–188, §1704(t)(7), substituted “section 960(a)(1)” for “sections 955(b)(1)(A) and (B), 955(c)(2)(A)(ii), and 960(a)(1)” in introductory provisions.

Subsec. (b). Pub. L. 104–188, §1703(i)(4), substituted “956(c)(2)” for “956(b)(2)” wherever appearing in introductory and closing provisions.

1976—Subsec. (b). Pub. L. 94–455 inserted “956(b)(2)” after “purposes of sections 951(b), 954(d)(3),”, “to treat the stock of a domestic corporation as owned by a United States shareholder of the controlled foreign corporation for purposes of section 956(b)(2)” after “meaning of section 954(d)(3)” and “Paragraphs (1) and (4) shall not apply for purposes of section 956(b)(2) to treat stock of a domestic corporation as not owned by a United States shareholder” following subpar. (4).

1964—Subsec. (b). Pub. L. 88–554 redesignated pars. (4) and (5) as (3) and (4), respectively, struck out former par. (3) which related to ownership of stock by a partnership, estate, trust, or corporation for purposes of applying first sentence of subpars. (A) and (B), and subpar. (C)(i) of section 318(a)(2) of this title, and made amendments throughout subsec. (b) to conform to changes made in section 318 of this title by Pub. L. 88–554.

Effective Date of 1996 Amendment

Amendment by section 1703(i)(4) of Pub. L. 104–188 effective as if included in the provision of the Revenue Reconciliation Act of 1993, Pub. L. 103–66, §§13001–13444, to which such amendment relates, see section 1703(o) of Pub. L. 104–188, set out as a note under section 39 of this title.

Effective Date of 1976 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 94–455 applicable to taxable years of foreign corporations beginning after Dec. 31, 1975, and to taxable years of United States shareholders within which or with which such taxable years of such corporations end, see section 1021(c) of Pub. L. 94–455, set out as a note under section 956 of this title.

Effective Date of 1964 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 88–554 effective Aug. 31, 1964, except that for purposes of sections 302 and 304 of this title, such amendments shall not apply to distributions in payment for stock acquisitions or redemptions, if such acquisitions or redemptions occurred before Aug. 31, 1964, see section 4(c) of Pub. L. 88–554, set out as a note under section 318 of this title.

§959. Exclusion from gross income of previously taxed earnings and profits

(a) Exclusion from gross income of United States persons

For purposes of this chapter, the earnings and profits of a foreign corporation attributable to amounts which are, or have been, included in the gross income of a United States shareholder under section 951(a) shall not, when—

(1) such amounts are distributed to, or

(2) such amounts would, but for this subsection, be included under section 951(a)(1)(B) in the gross income of,


such shareholder (or any other United States person who acquires from any person any portion of the interest of such United States shareholder in such foreign corporation, but only to the extent of such portion, and subject to such proof of the identity of such interest as the Secretary may by regulations prescribe) directly or indirectly through a chain of ownership described under section 958(a), be again included in the gross income of such United States shareholder (or of such other United States person). The rules of subsection (c) shall apply for purposes of paragraph (1) of this subsection and the rules of subsection (f) shall apply for purposes of paragraph (2) of this subsection.

(b) Exclusion from gross income of certain foreign subsidiaries

For purposes of section 951(a), the earnings and profits of a controlled foreign corporation attributable to amounts which are, or have been, included in the gross income of a United States shareholder under section 951(a), shall not, when distributed through a chain of ownership described under section 958(a), be also included in the gross income of another controlled foreign corporation in such chain for purposes of the application of section 951(a) to such other controlled foreign corporation with respect to such United States shareholder (or to any other United States shareholder who acquires from any person any portion of the interest of such United States shareholder in the controlled foreign corporation, but only to the extent of such portion, and subject to such proof of identity of such interest as the Secretary may prescribe by regulations).

(c) Allocation of distributions

For purposes of subsections (a) and (b), section 316(a) shall be applied by applying paragraph (2) thereof, and then paragraph (1) thereof—

(1) first to the aggregate of—

(A) earnings and profits attributable to amounts included in gross income under section 951(a)(1)(B) (or which would have been included except for subsection (a)(2) of this section), and

(B) earnings and profits attributable to amounts included in gross income under section 951(a)(1)(C) (or which would have been included except for subsection (a)(3) of this section),


with any distribution being allocated between earnings and profits described in subparagraph (A) and earnings and profits described in subparagraph (B) proportionately on the basis of the respective amounts of such earnings and profits,

(2) then to earnings and profits attributable to amounts included in gross income under section 951(a)(1)(A) (but reduced by amounts not included under subparagraph (B) or (C) of section 951(a)(1) because of the exclusions in paragraphs (2) and (3) of subsection (a) of this section), and

(3) then to other earnings and profits.


References in this subsection to section 951(a)(1)(C) and subsection (a)(3) shall be treated as references to such provisions as in effect on the day before the date of the enactment of the Small Business Job Protection Act of 1996.

(d) Distributions excluded from gross income not to be treated as dividends

Except as provided in section 960(a)(3), any distribution excluded from gross income under subsection (a) shall be treated, for purposes of this chapter, as a distribution which is not a dividend; except that such distributions shall immediately reduce earnings and profits.

(e) Coordination with amounts previously taxed under section 1248

For purposes of this section and section 960(b), any amount included in the gross income of any person as a dividend by reason of subsection (a) or (f) of section 1248 shall be treated as an amount included in the gross income of such person (or, in any case to which section 1248(e) applies, of the domestic corporation referred to in section 1248(e)(2)) under section 951(a)(1)(A).

(f) Allocation rules for certain inclusions

(1) In general

For purposes of this section, amounts that would be included under subparagraph (B) of section 951(a)(1) (determined without regard to this section) shall be treated as attributable first to earnings described in subsection (c)(2), and then to earnings described in subsection (c)(3).

(2) Treatment of distributions

In applying this section, actual distributions shall be taken into account before amounts that would be included under section 951(a)(1)(B) (determined without regard to this section).

(Added Pub. L. 87–834, §12(a), Oct. 16, 1962, 76 Stat. 1019; amended Pub. L. 94–455, title XIX, §1906(b)(13)(A), Oct. 4, 1976, 90 Stat. 1834; Pub. L. 98–369, div. A, title I, §133(b)(1), July 18, 1984, 98 Stat. 668; Pub. L. 99–514, title XII, §1226(b), Oct. 22, 1986, 100 Stat. 2560; Pub. L. 100–647, title I, §1012(bb)(7)(A), Nov. 10, 1988, 102 Stat. 3536; Pub. L. 103–66, title XIII, §13231(c)(1), (2), (4)(A), (B), Aug. 10, 1993, 107 Stat. 497, 498; Pub. L. 104–188, title I, §1501(b)(4)–(8), Aug. 20, 1996, 110 Stat. 1826.)

References in Text

The date of the enactment of the Small Business Job Protection Act of 1996, referred to in subsec. (c), is the date of enactment of Pub. L. 104–188, which was approved Aug. 20, 1996.

Amendments

1996—Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 104–188, §1501(b)(4), (5), substituted “paragraph (2)” for “paragraphs (2) and (3)” in closing provisions, inserted “or” at end of par. (1), struck out “or” at end of par. (2), and struck out par. (3) which read as follows: “such amounts would, but for this subsection, be included under section 951(a)(1)(C) in the gross income of,”.

Subsec. (c). Pub. L. 104–188, §1501(b)(6), inserted at end “References in this subsection to section 951(a)(1)(C) and subsection (a)(3) shall be treated as references to such provisions as in effect on the day before the date of the enactment of the Small Business Job Protection Act of 1996.”

Subsec. (f)(1). Pub. L. 104–188, §1501(b)(7), reenacted heading without change and amended text generally. Prior to amendment, text read as follows: “For purposes of this section—

“(A) amounts that would be included under subparagraph (B) of section 951(a)(1) (determined without regard to this section) shall be treated as attributable first to earnings described in subsection (c)(2), and then to earnings described in subsection (c)(3), and

“(B) amounts that would be included under subparagraph (C) of section 951(a)(1) (determined without regard to this section) shall be treated as attributable first to earnings described in subsection (c)(2) to the extent the earnings so described were accumulated in taxable years beginning after September 30, 1993, and then to earnings described in subsection (c)(3).”

Subsec. (f)(2). Pub. L. 104–188, §1501(b)(8), substituted “section 951(a)(1)(B)” for “subparagraphs (B) and (C) of section 951(a)(1)”.

1993—Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 103–66, §13231(c)(2)(A), (4)(A), substituted in introductory provisions “earnings and profits” for “earnings and profits for taxable year” and inserted at end of closing provisions “The rules of subsection (c) shall apply for purposes of paragraph (1) of this subsection and the rules of subsection (f) shall apply for purposes of paragraphs (2) and (3) of this subsection.”

Subsec. (a)(3). Pub. L. 103–66, §13231(c)(1), added par. (3).

Subsec. (b). Pub. L. 103–66, §13231(c)(4)(A), substituted “earnings and profits” for “earnings and profits for a taxable year”.

Subsec. (c)(1). Pub. L. 103–66, §13231(c)(2)(C), amended par. (1) generally. Prior to amendment, par. (1) read as follows: “first to earnings and profits attributable to amounts included in gross income under section 951(a)(1)(B) (or which would have been included except for subsection (a)(2) of this section),”.

Subsec. (c)(2). Pub. L. 103–66, §13231(c)(4)(B), amended par. (2) generally. Prior to amendment, par. (2) read as follows: “then to earnings and profits attributable to amounts included in gross income under section 951(a)(1)(A) (but reduced by amounts not included under section 951(a)(1)(B) because of the exclusion in subsection (a)(2) of this section), and”.

Subsec. (f). Pub. L. 103–66, §13231(c)(2)(B), added subsec. (f).

1988—Subsec. (e). Pub. L. 100–647 substituted “such person (or, in any case to which section 1248(e) applies, of the domestic corporation referred to in section 1248(e)(2)) under” for “such person under”.

1986—Subsec. (d). Pub. L. 99–514 inserted “; except that such distributions shall immediately reduce earnings and profits”.

1984—Subsec. (e). Pub. L. 98–369 added subsec. (e).

1976—Subsecs. (a), (b). Pub. L. 94–455 struck out “or his delegate” after “Secretary”.

Effective Date of 1996 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 104–188 applicable to taxable years of foreign corporations beginning after Dec. 31, 1996, and to taxable years of United States shareholders within which or with which such taxable years of foreign corporations end, see section 1501(d) of Pub. L. 104–188, set out as a note under section 904 of this title.

Effective Date of 1993 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 103–66 applicable to taxable years of foreign corporations beginning after Sept. 30, 1993, and to taxable years of United States shareholders in which or with which such taxable years of foreign corporations end, see section 13231(e) of Pub. L. 103–66, set out as a note under section 951 of this title.

Effective Date of 1988 Amendment

Section 1012(bb)(7)(B) of Pub. L. 100–647 provided that: “The amendment made by subparagraph (A) [amending this section] shall apply in the case of transactions to which section 1248(e) of the 1986 Code applies and which occur after December 31, 1986.”

Effective Date of 1986 Amendment

Section 1226(c)(2) of Pub. L. 99–514 provided that: “The amendment made by subsection (b) [amending this section] shall apply to distributions after the date of the enactment of this Act [Oct. 22, 1986].”

Effective Date of 1984 Amendment

Section 133(d)(2), (3) of Pub. L. 98–369, as amended by Pub. L. 99–514, §2, title XVIII, §1810(i)(2), Oct. 22, 1986, 100 Stat. 2095, 2829; Pub. L. 100–647, title I, §1018(g)(2), Nov. 10, 1988, 102 Stat. 3582, provided that:

“(2) Subsections (b) and (c).—Except as provided in paragraph (3), the amendments made by subsections (b) and (c) [amending this section and section 1248 of this title] shall apply with respect to transactions to which subsection (a) or (f) of section 1248 of the Internal Revenue Code of 1986 [formerly I.R.C. 1954] applies occurring after the date of the enactment of this Act [July 18, 1984].

“(3) Election of earlier date for certain transactions.—

“(A) In general.—If the appropriate election is made under subparagraph (B), the amendments made by subsection (b) [amending this section and section 1248 of this title] shall apply with respect to transactions to which subsection (a) or (f) of section 1248 of such Code applies occurring after October 9, 1975.

“(B) Election.—

“(i) Subparagraph (A) shall apply with respect to transactions to which subsection (a) of section 1248 of such Code applies if the foreign corporation described in such subsection (or its successor in interest) so elects.

“(ii) Subparagraph (A) shall apply with respect to transactions to which subsection (f) of section 1248 of such Code applies if the domestic corporation described in section 1248(f)(1) of such Code (or its successor) so elects.

“(iii) Any election under clause (i) or (ii) shall be made not later than the date which is 1 year after the date of the enactment of the Tax Reform Act of 1986 [Oct. 22, 1986] and shall be made in such manner as the Secretary of the Treasury or his delegate shall prescribe.”

§960. Special rules for foreign tax credit

(a) Taxes paid by a foreign corporation

(1) Deemed paid credit

For purposes of subpart A of this part, if there is included under section 951(a) in the gross income of a domestic corporation any amount attributable to earnings and profits of a foreign corporation which is a member of a qualified group (as defined in section 902(b)) with respect to the domestic corporation, then, except to the extent provided in regulations, section 902 shall be applied as if the amount so included were a dividend paid by such foreign corporation (determined by applying section 902(c) in accordance with section 904(d)(3)(B)).

(2) Taxes previously deemed paid by domestic corporation

If a domestic corporation receives a distribution from a foreign corporation, any portion of which is excluded from gross income under section 959, the income, war profits, and excess profits taxes paid or deemed paid by such foreign corporation to any foreign country or to any possession of the United States in connection with the earnings and profits of such foreign corporation from which such distribution is made shall not be taken into account for purposes of section 902, to the extent such taxes were deemed paid by a domestic corporation under paragraph (1) for any prior taxable year.

(3) Taxes paid by foreign corporation and not previously deemed paid by domestic corporation

Any portion of a distribution from a foreign corporation received by a domestic corporation which is excluded from gross income under section 959(a) shall be treated by the domestic corporation as a dividend, solely for purposes of taking into account under section 902 any income, war profits, or excess profits taxes paid to any foreign country or to any possession of the United States, on or with respect to the accumulated profits of such foreign corporation from which such distribution is made, which were not deemed paid by the domestic corporation under paragraph (1) for any prior taxable year.

(b) Special rules for foreign tax credit in year of receipt of previously taxed earnings and profits

(1) Increase in section 904 limitation

In the case of any taxpayer who—

(A) either (i) chose to have the benefits of subpart A of this part for a taxable year beginning after September 30, 1993, in which he was required under section 951(a) to include any amount in his gross income, or (ii) did not pay or accrue for such taxable year any income, war profits, or excess profits taxes to any foreign country or to any possession of the United States,

(B) chooses to have the benefits of subpart A of this part for any taxable year in which he receives 1 or more distributions or amounts which are excludable from gross income under section 959(a) and which are attributable to amounts included in his gross income for taxable years referred to in subparagraph (A), and

(C) for the taxable year in which such distributions or amounts are received, pays, or is deemed to have paid, or accrues income, war profits, or excess profits taxes to a foreign country or to any possession of the United States with respect to such distributions or amounts,


the limitation under section 904 for the taxable year in which such distributions or amounts are received shall be increased by the lesser of the amount of such taxes paid, or deemed paid, or accrued with respect to such distributions or amounts or the amount in the excess limitation account as of the beginning of such taxable year.

(2) Excess limitation account

(A) Establishment of account

Each taxpayer meeting the requirements of paragraph (1)(A) shall establish an excess limitation account. The opening balance of such account shall be zero.

(B) Increases in account

For each taxable year beginning after September 30, 1993, the taxpayer shall increase the amount in the excess limitation account by the excess (if any) of—

(i) the amount by which the limitation under section 904(a) for such taxable year was increased by reason of the total amount of the inclusions in gross income under section 951(a) for such taxable year, over

(ii) the amount of any income, war profits, and excess profits taxes paid, or deemed paid, or accrued to any foreign country or possession of the United States which were allowable as a credit under section 901 for such taxable year and which would not have been allowable but for the inclusions in gross income described in clause (i).


Proper reductions in the amount added to the account under the preceding sentence for any taxable year shall be made for any increase in the credit allowable under section 901 for such taxable year by reason of a carryback if such increase would not have been allowable but for the inclusions in gross income described in clause (i).

(C) Decreases in account

For each taxable year beginning after September 30, 1993, for which the limitation under section 904 was increased under paragraph (1), the taxpayer shall reduce the amount in the excess limitation account by the amount of such increase.

(3) Distributions of income previously taxed in years beginning before October 1, 1993

If the taxpayer receives a distribution or amount in a taxable year beginning after September 30, 1993, which is excluded from gross income under section 959(a) and is attributable to any amount included in gross income under section 951(a) for a taxable year beginning before October 1, 1993, the limitation under section 904 for the taxable year in which such amount or distribution is received shall be increased by the amount determined under this subsection as in effect on the day before the date of the enactment of the Revenue Reconcilation 1 Act of 1993.

(4) Cases in which taxes not to be allowed as deduction

In the case of any taxpayer who—

(A) chose to have the benefits of subpart A of this part for a taxable year in which he was required under section 951(a) to include in his gross income an amount in respect of a controlled foreign corporation, and

(B) does not choose to have the benefits of subpart A of this part for the taxable year in which he receives a distribution or amount which is excluded from gross income under section 959(a) and which is attributable to earnings and profits of the controlled foreign corporation which was included in his gross income for the taxable year referred to in subparagraph (A),


no deduction shall be allowed under section 164 for the taxable year in which such distribution or amount is received for any income, war profits, or excess profits taxes paid or accrued to any foreign country or to any possession of the United States on or with respect to such distribution or amount.

(5) Insufficient taxable income

If an increase in the limitation under this subsection exceeds the tax imposed by this chapter for such year, the amount of such excess shall be deemed an overpayment of tax for such year.

(c) Limitation with respect to section 956 inclusions

(1) In general

If there is included under section 951(a)(1)(B) in the gross income of a domestic corporation any amount attributable to the earnings and profits of a foreign corporation which is a member of a qualified group (as defined in section 902(b)) with respect to the domestic corporation, the amount of any foreign income taxes deemed to have been paid during the taxable year by such domestic corporation under section 902 by reason of subsection (a) with respect to such inclusion in gross income shall not exceed the amount of the foreign income taxes which would have been deemed to have been paid during the taxable year by such domestic corporation if cash in an amount equal to the amount of such inclusion in gross income were distributed as a series of distributions (determined without regard to any foreign taxes which would be imposed on an actual distribution) through the chain of ownership which begins with such foreign corporation and ends with such domestic corporation.

(2) Authority to prevent abuse

The Secretary shall issue such regulations or other guidance as is necessary or appropriate to carry out the purposes of this subsection, including regulations or other guidance which prevent the inappropriate use of the foreign corporation's foreign income taxes not deemed paid by reason of paragraph (1).

(Added Pub. L. 87–834, §12(a), Oct. 16, 1962, 76 Stat. 1020; amended Pub. L. 94–455, title X, §§1031(b)(1), 1033(b)(2), 1037(a), Oct. 4, 1976, 90 Stat. 1622, 1628, 1633; Pub. L. 99–514, title XII, §1202(b), Oct. 22, 1986, 100 Stat. 2530; Pub. L. 103–66, title XIII, §13233(b)(1), Aug. 10, 1993, 107 Stat. 502; Pub. L. 105–34, title XI, §1113(b), Aug. 5, 1997, 111 Stat. 971; Pub. L. 111–226, title II, §214(a), Aug. 10, 2010, 124 Stat. 2399.)

References in Text

The date of the enactment of the Revenue Reconciliation Act of 1993, referred to in subsec. (b)(3), is the date of enactment of Pub. L. 103–66, which was approved Aug. 10, 1993.

Amendments

2010—Subsec. (c). Pub. L. 111–226 added subsec. (c).

1997—Subsec. (a)(1). Pub. L. 105–34 amended heading and text of par. (1) generally. Prior to amendment, text read as follows: “For purposes of subpart A of this part, if there is included, under section 951(a), in the gross income of a domestic corporation any amount attributable to earnings and profits—

“(A) of a foreign corporation (hereafter in this subsection referred to as the ‘first foreign corporation’) at least 10 percent of the voting stock of which is owned by such domestic corporation, or

“(B) of a second foreign corporation (hereinafter in this subsection referred to as the ‘second foreign corporation’) at least 10 percent of the voting stock of which is owned by the first foreign corporation, or

“(C) of a third foreign corporation (hereinafter in this subsection referred to as the ‘third foreign corporation’) at least 10 percent of the voting stock of which is owned by the second foreign corporation,

then, except to the extent provided in regulations, such domestic corporation shall be deemed to have paid a portion of such foreign corporation's post-1986 foreign income taxes determined under section 902 in the same manner as if the amount so included were a dividend paid by such foreign corporation (determined by applying section 902(c) in accordance with section 904(d)(3)(B)). This paragraph shall not apply with respect to any amount included in the gross income of such domestic corporation attributable to earnings and profits of the second foreign corporation or of the third foreign corporation unless, in the case of the second foreign corporation, the percentage-of-voting-stock requirement of section 902(b)(3)(A) is satisfied, and in the case of the third foreign corporation, the percentage-of-voting-stock requirement of section 902(b)(3)(B) is satisfied.”

1993—Subsec. (b). Pub. L. 103–66 added pars. (1) to (3), redesignated former pars. (3) and (4) as (4) and (5), respectively, and struck out former par. (1) relating to increase in section 904 limitation and former par. (2) relating to the amount of increase.

1986—Subsec. (a)(1). Pub. L. 99–514 substituted “then, except to the extent provided in regulations, such domestic corporation shall be deemed to have paid a portion of such foreign corporation's post-1986 foreign income taxes determined under section 902 in the same manner as if the amount so included were a dividend paid by such foreign corporation (determined by applying section 902(c) in accordance with section 904(d)(3)(B))” for “then, under regulations prescribed by the Secretary, such domestic corporation shall be deemed to have paid the same proportion of the total income, war profits, and excess profits taxes paid (or deemed paid) by such foreign corporation to a foreign country or possession of the United States for the taxable year on or with respect to the earnings and profits of such foreign corporation which the amount of earnings and profits of such foreign corporation so included in gross income of the domestic corporation bears to the entire amount of the earnings and profits of such corporation for such taxable year”.

1976—Subsec. (a)(1). Pub. L. 94–455, §§1033(b)(2), 1037(a), substituted “bears to the entire amount of the earnings and profits of such foreign corporation for such taxable year” for “bears to–” after “gross income of the domestic corporation”, struck out subpars. (C) and (D) relating to corporations which are and are not less developed country corporations, inserted in subpar. (A) “(hereafter in this subsection referred to as the ‘first foreign corporation’)” after “foreign corporation”, substituted in subpar. (B) “of a second foreign corporation (hereinafter in this subsection referred to as the ‘second foreign corporation’) at least 10 percent of the voting stock of which is owned by the first foreign corporation, or” for “of a foreign corporation at least 50 percent of the voting stock of which is owned by a foreign corporation at least 10 percent of the voting stock of which in turn owned by such domestic corporation” after “(B)”, added subpar. (C), and inserted at end “This paragraph shall not apply with respect to any amount included in the gross income of such domestic corporation attributable to earning and profits of the second foreign corporation or of the third foreign corporation unless, in the case of the second foreign corporation, the percentage-of-voting-stock requirement of section 902(b)(3)(A) is satisfied, and in the case of the third foreign corporation, the percentage-of-voting-stock requirement of section 902(b)(3)(B) is satisfied.”

Subsec. (b). Pub. L. 94–455, §1031(b)(1), struck out “applicable” in par. (1) after “amount, the”, in par. (2) after “increase of the”, and in subpar. (A) of par. (2) after “by which the”.

Effective Date of 2010 Amendment

Pub. L. 111–226, title II, §214(b), Aug. 10, 2010, 124 Stat. 2399, provided that: “The amendment made by this section [amending this section] shall apply to acquisitions of United States property (as defined in section 956(c) of the Internal Revenue Code of 1986) after December 31, 2010.”

Effective Date of 1997 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 105–34 applicable, with special rule, to taxes of foreign corporations for taxable years of such corporations beginning after Aug. 5, 1997, see section 1113(c) of Pub. L. 105–34, set out as a note under section 902 of this title.

Effective Date of 1993 Amendment

Section 13233(b)(2) of Pub. L. 103–66 provided that: “The amendment made by paragraph (1) [amending this section] shall apply to taxable years beginning after September 30, 1993.”

Effective Date of 1986 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 99–514 applicable to distributions by foreign corporations out of, and to inclusions under section 951(a) of this title attributable to, earnings and profits for taxable years beginning after Dec. 31, 1986, see section 1202(e) of Pub. L. 99–514, set out as a note under section 902 of this title.

Effective Date of 1976 Amendment

Amendment by section 1031(b)(1) of Pub. L. 94–455 applicable to taxable years beginning after Dec. 31, 1975, see section 1031(c) of Pub. L. 94–455, set out as a note under section 904 of this title.

Amendment by section 1033(b)(2) of Pub. L. 94–455 applicable in respect of any distribution received by a domestic corporation after Dec. 31, 1977, and in respect of any distribution received by a domestic corporation before Jan. 1, 1978, in a taxable year of such corporation beginning after Dec. 31, 1975, but only to the extent that such distribution is made out of the accumulated profits of a foreign corporation for a taxable year beginning after Dec. 31, 1975, see section 1033(c) of Pub. L. 94–455, set out as a note under section 902 of this title.

Section 1037(b) of Pub. L. 94–455, as amended by Pub. L. 99–514, §2, Oct. 22, 1986, 100 Stat. 2095, provided that: “The amendment made by this section [amending this section] shall apply with respect to earnings and profits of a foreign corporation, included, under section 951(a) of the Internal Revenue Code of 1986 [formerly I.R.C. 1954], in the gross income of a domestic corporation in taxable years beginning after December 31, 1976.”

1 So in original. Probably should be “Reconciliation”.

§961. Adjustments to basis of stock in controlled foreign corporations and of other property

(a) Increase in basis

Under regulations prescribed by the Secretary, the basis of a United States shareholder's stock in a controlled foreign corporation, and the basis of property of a United States shareholder by reason of which he is considered under section 958(a)(2) as owning stock of a controlled foreign corporation, shall be increased by the amount required to be included in his gross income under section 951(a) with respect to such stock or with respect to such property, as the case may be, but only to the extent to which such amount was included in the gross income of such United States shareholder. In the case of a United States shareholder who has made an election under section 962 for the taxable year, the increase in basis provided by this subsection shall not exceed an amount equal to the amount of tax paid under this chapter with respect to the amounts required to be included in his gross income under section 951(a).

(b) Reduction in basis

(1) In general

Under regulations prescribed by the Secretary, the adjusted basis of stock or other property with respect to which a United States shareholder or a United States person receives an amount which is excluded from gross income under section 959(a) shall be reduced by the amount so excluded. In the case of a United States shareholder who has made an election under section 962 for any prior taxable year, the reduction in basis provided by this paragraph shall not exceed an amount equal to the amount received which is excluded from gross income under section 959(a) after the application of section 962(d).

(2) Amount in excess of basis

To the extent that an amount excluded from gross income under section 959(a) exceeds the adjusted basis of the stock or other property with respect to which it is received, the amount shall be treated as gain from the sale or exchange of property.

(c) Basis adjustments in stock held by foreign corporations

Under regulations prescribed by the Secretary, if a United States shareholder is treated under section 958(a)(2) as owning stock in a controlled foreign corporation which is owned by another controlled foreign corporation, then adjustments similar to the adjustments provided by subsections (a) and (b) shall be made to—

(1) the basis of such stock, and

(2) the basis of stock in any other controlled foreign corporation by reason of which the United States shareholder is considered under section 958(a)(2) as owning the stock described in paragraph (1),


but only for the purposes of determining the amount included under section 951 in the gross income of such United States shareholder (or any other United States shareholder who acquires from any person any portion of the interest of such United States shareholder by reason of which such shareholder was treated as owning such stock, but only to the extent of such portion, and subject to such proof of identity of such interest as the Secretary may prescribe by regulations). The preceding sentence shall not apply with respect to any stock to which a basis adjustment applies under subsection (a) or (b).

(Added Pub. L. 87–834, §12(a), Oct. 16, 1962, 76 Stat. 1022; amended Pub. L. 94–455, title XIX, §1906(b)(13)(A), Oct. 4, 1976, 90 Stat. 1834; Pub. L. 105–34, title XI, §1112(b)(1), Aug. 5, 1997, 111 Stat. 969; Pub. L. 109–135, title IV, §409(b), Dec. 21, 2005, 119 Stat. 2635.)

Amendments

2005—Subsec. (c). Pub. L. 109–135 amended heading and text of subsec. (c) generally. Prior to amendment, text read as follows: “Under regulations prescribed by the Secretary, if a United States shareholder is treated under section 958(a)(2) as owning any stock in a controlled foreign corporation which is actually owned by another controlled foreign corporation, adjustments similar to the adjustments provided by subsections (a) and (b) shall be made to the basis of such stock in the hands of such other controlled foreign corporation, but only for the purposes of determining the amount included under section 951 in the gross income of such United States shareholder (or any other United States shareholder who acquires from any person any portion of the interest of such United States shareholder by reason of which such shareholder was treated as owning such stock, but only to the extent of such portion, and subject to such proof of identity of such interest as the Secretary may prescribe by regulations).”

1997—Subsec. (c). Pub. L. 105–34 added subsec. (c).

1976—Subsecs. (a), (b)(1). Pub. L. 94–455 struck out “or his delegate” after “Secretary”.

Effective Date of 2005 Amendment

Pub. L. 109–135, title IV, §409(d), Dec. 21, 2005, 119 Stat. 2636, provided that: “The amendments made by this section [amending this section and sections 6038B, 6411, and 6601 of this title] shall take effect as if included in the provisions of the Taxpayer Relief Act of 1997 [Pub. L. 105–34] to which they relate.”

Effective Date of 1997 Amendment

Section 1112(b)(2) of Pub. L. 105–34 provided that: “The amendment made by paragraph (1) [amending this section] shall apply for purposes of determining inclusions for taxable years of United States shareholders beginning after December 31, 1997.”

Dual Resident Companies

Basis adjustments of this section not applicable in certain circumstances involving dual resident companies, see section 6126 of Pub. L. 100–647, set out as a note under section 1502 of this title.

§962. Election by individuals to be subject to tax at corporate rates

(a) General rule

Under regulations prescribed by the Secretary, in the case of a United States shareholder who is an individual and who elects to have the provisions of this section apply for the taxable year—

(1) the tax imposed under this chapter on amounts which are included in his gross income under section 951(a) shall (in lieu of the tax determined under sections 1 and 55) be an amount equal to the tax which would be imposed under sections 11 and 55 if such amounts were received by a domestic corporation, and

(2) for purposes of applying the provisions of section 960 (relating to foreign tax credit) such amounts shall be treated as if they were received by a domestic corporation.

(b) Election

An election to have the provisions of this section apply for any taxable year shall be made by a United States shareholder at such time and in such manner as the Secretary shall prescribe by regulations. An election made for any taxable year may not be revoked except with the consent of the Secretary.

(c) Pro ration of each section 11 bracket amount

For purposes of applying subsection (a)(1), the amount in each taxable income bracket in the tax table in section 11(b) shall not exceed an amount which bears the same ratio to such bracket amount as the amount included in the gross income of the United States shareholder under section 951(a) for the taxable year bears to such shareholder's pro rata share of the earnings and profits for the taxable year of all controlled foreign corporations with respect to which such shareholder includes any amount in gross income under section 951(a).

(d) Special rule for actual distributions

The earnings and profits of a foreign corporation attributable to amounts which were included in the gross income of a United States shareholder under section 951(a) and with respect to which an election under this section applied shall, when such earnings and profits are distributed, notwithstanding the provisions of section 959(a)(1), be included in gross income to the extent that such earnings and profits so distributed exceed the amount of tax paid under this chapter on the amounts to which such election applied.

(Added Pub. L. 87–834, §12(a), Oct. 16, 1962, 76 Stat. 1023; amended Pub. L. 94–12, title III, §303(c)(3), Mar. 29, 1975, 89 Stat. 45; Pub. L. 94–164, §4(d)(1), Dec. 23, 1975, 89 Stat. 975; Pub. L. 94–455, title XIX, §1906(b)(13)(A), Oct. 4, 1976, 90 Stat. 1834; Pub. L. 95–600, title III, §301(b)(16), Nov. 6, 1978, 92 Stat. 2822; Pub. L. 100–647, title I, §1007(g)(11), Nov. 10, 1988, 102 Stat. 3435.)

Amendments

1988—Subsec. (a)(1). Pub. L. 100–647 substituted “sections 1 and 55” and “sections 11 and 55” for “section 1” and “section 11”, respectively.

1978—Subsec. (c). Pub. L. 95–600 substituted provisions relating to the pro ration of each section 11 bracket amount for provisions relating to the surtax exemption.

1976—Subsecs. (a), (b). Pub. L. 94–455 struck out “or his delegate” after “Secretary” wherever appearing.

1975—Subsec. (c). Pub. L. 94–164 substituted “same ratio to the surtax exemption” for “same ratio to $25,000” in subsec. (c) as such subsec. (c) is in effect for taxable years ending after Dec. 31, 1975.

Pub. L. 94–12 substituted “$50,000” for “$25,000”.

Effective Date of 1988 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 100–647 effective, except as otherwise provided, as if included in the provision of the Tax Reform Act of 1986, Pub. L. 99–514, to which such amendment relates, see section 1019(a) of Pub. L. 100–647, set out as a note under section 1 of this title.

Effective Date of 1978 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 95–600 applicable to taxable years beginning after Dec. 31, 1978, see section 301(c) of Pub. L. 95–600, set out as a note under section 11 of this title.

Effective and Termination Dates of 1975 Amendments

Amendment by Pub. L. 94–164 applicable to taxable years beginning after Dec. 31, 1975, see section 4(e) of Pub. L. 94–164, set out as a note under section 11 of this title.

Amendment by Pub. L. 94–12 applicable to taxable years ending after Dec. 31, 1974, but to cease to apply for taxable years ending after Dec. 31, 1975, see section 305(b)(1) of Pub. L. 94–12, set out as a note under section 11 of this title.

[§963. Repealed. Pub. L. 94–12, title VI, §602(a)(1), Mar. 29, 1975, 89 Stat. 58]

Section, added Pub. L. 87–834, §12(a), Oct. 16, 1962, 76 Stat. 1023; amended Pub. L. 88–272, title I, §123(b), Feb. 26, 1964, 78 Stat. 29; Pub. L. 90–364, title I, §102(b), June 28, 1968, 82 Stat. 255; Pub. L. 91–53, §5(b), Aug. 7, 1969, 83 Stat. 95; Pub. L. 91–172, title VII, §701(b), Dec. 30, 1969, 83 Stat. 659, dealt with the receipt of minimum distributions by domestic corporations.

Effective Date of Repeal

Repeal effective with respect to taxable years for foreign corporations beginning after Dec. 31, 1975, and to taxable years of United States shareholders (within the meaning of section 951(b) of this title) within which or with which such taxable years of such foreign corporations end, see section 602(f) of Pub. L. 94–12, set out as an Effective Date note under section 955 of this title.

§964. Miscellaneous provisions

(a) Earnings and profits

Except as provided in section 312(k)(4), for purposes of this subpart, the earnings and profits of any foreign corporation, and the deficit in earnings and profits of any foreign corporation, for any taxable year shall be determined according to rules substantially similar to those applicable to domestic corporations, under regulations prescribed by the Secretary. In determining such earnings and profits, or the deficit in such earnings and profits, the amount of any illegal bribe, kickback, or other payment (within the meaning of section 162(c)) shall not be taken into account to decrease such earnings and profits or to increase such deficit. The payments referred to in the preceding sentence are payments which would be unlawful under the Foreign Corrupt Practices Act of 1977 if the payor were a United States person.

(b) Blocked foreign income

Under regulations prescribed by the Secretary, no part of the earnings and profits of a controlled foreign corporation for any taxable year shall be included in earnings and profits for purposes of sections 952, 955, and 956, if it is established to the satisfaction of the Secretary that such part could not have been distributed by the controlled foreign corporation to United States shareholders who own (within the meaning of section 958(a)) stock of such controlled foreign corporation because of currency or other restrictions or limitations imposed under the laws of any foreign country.

(c) Records and accounts of United States shareholders

(1) Records and accounts to be maintained

The Secretary may by regulations require each person who is, or has been, a United States shareholder of a controlled foreign corporation to maintain such records and accounts as may be prescribed by such regulations as necessary to carry out the provisions of this subpart and subpart G.

(2) Two or more persons required to maintain or furnish the same records and accounts with respect to the same foreign corporation

Where, but for this paragraph, two or more United States persons would be required to maintain or furnish the same records and accounts as may by regulations be required under paragraph (1) with respect to the same controlled foreign corporation for the same period, the Secretary may by regulations provide that the maintenance or furnishing of such records and accounts by only one such person shall satisfy the requirements of paragraph (1) for such other persons.

(d) Treatment of certain branches

(1) In general

For purposes of this chapter, section 6038, section 6046, and such other provisions as may be specified in regulations—

(A) a qualified insurance branch of a controlled foreign corporation shall be treated as a separate foreign corporation created under the laws of the foreign country with respect to which such branch qualifies under paragraph (2), and

(B) except as provided in regulations, any amount directly or indirectly transferred or credited from such branch to one or more other accounts of such controlled foreign corporation shall be treated as a dividend paid to such controlled foreign corporation.

(2) Qualified insurance branch

For purposes of paragraph (1), the term “qualified insurance branch” means any branch of a controlled foreign corporation which is licensed and predominantly engaged on a permanent basis in the active conduct of an insurance business in a foreign country if—

(A) separate books and accounts are maintained for such branch,

(B) the principal place of business of such branch is in such foreign country,

(C) such branch would be taxable under subchapter L if it were a separate domestic corporation, and

(D) an election under this paragraph applies to such branch.


An election under this paragraph shall apply to the taxable year for which made and all subsequent taxable years unless revoked with the consent of the Secretary.

(3) Regulations

The Secretary shall prescribe such regulations as may be necessary or appropriate to carry out the purposes of this subsection.

(e) Gain on certain stock sales by controlled foreign corporations treated as dividends

(1) In general

If a controlled foreign corporation sells or exchanges stock in any other foreign corporation, gain recognized on such sale or exchange shall be included in the gross income of such controlled foreign corporation as a dividend to the same extent that it would have been so included under section 1248(a) if such controlled foreign corporation were a United States person. For purposes of determining the amount which would have been so includible, the determination of whether such other foreign corporation was a controlled foreign corporation shall be made without regard to the preceding sentence.

(2) Same country exception not applicable

Clause (i) of section 954(c)(3)(A) shall not apply to any amount treated as a dividend by reason of paragraph (1).

(3) Clarification of deemed sales

For purposes of this subsection, a controlled foreign corporation shall be treated as having sold or exchanged any stock if, under any provision of this subtitle, such controlled foreign corporation is treated as having gain from the sale or exchange of such stock.

(Added Pub. L. 87–834, §12(a), Oct. 16, 1962, 76 Stat. 1027; amended Pub. L. 91–172, title IV, §442(b)(1), Dec. 30, 1969, 83 Stat. 628; Pub. L. 94–455, title X, §1065(b), title XIX, §§1901(b)(32)(B)(iii), 1906(b)(13)(A), Oct. 4, 1976, 90 Stat. 1654, 1800, 1834; Pub. L. 97–34, title II, §206(c), Aug. 13, 1981, 95 Stat. 225; Pub. L. 97–248, title II, §288(b)(2), Sept. 3, 1982, 96 Stat. 571; Pub. L. 100–647, title VI, §6129(a), Nov. 10, 1988, 102 Stat. 3716; Pub. L. 105–34, title XI, §1111(a), Aug. 5, 1997, 111 Stat. 968.)

References in Text

The Foreign Corrupt Practices Act of 1977, referred to in subsec. (a), is title I of Pub. L. 95–213, Dec. 19, 1977, 91 Stat. 1494, as amended, which enacted sections 78dd–1 to 78dd–3 of Title 15, Commerce and Trade, and amended sections 78m and 78ff of Title 15. For complete classification of this Act to the Code, see Short Title of 1977 Amendment note set out under section 78a of Title 15 and Tables.

Amendments

1997—Subsec. (e). Pub. L. 105–34 added subsec. (e).

1988—Subsec. (d). Pub. L. 100–647 added subsec. (d).

1982—Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 97–248 inserted provision that payments referred to in sentence beginning “In determining such earnings and profits” are payments which would be unlawful under the Foreign Corrupt Practices Act of 1977 if the payor were a United States person.

1981—Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 97–34 substituted “section 312(k)(4)” for “section 312(k)(3)”.

1976—Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 94–455, §§1065(b), 1901(b)(32)(B)(ii), 1906(b)(13)(A), struck out “or his delegate” after “Secretary”, inserted second sentence, and substituted “312(k)(3)” for “312(m)(3)” after “provided in section”.

Subsecs. (b), (c)(1), (2). Pub. L. 94–455, §1906(b)(13)(A), struck out “or his delegate” after “Secretary” whenever appearing.

1969—Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 91–172 inserted reference to the exception provided for in section 312(m)(3).

Effective Date of 1997 Amendment

Section 1111(c)(1) of Pub. L. 105–34 provided that: “The amendment made by subsection (a) [amending this section] shall apply to gain recognized on transactions occurring after the date of the enactment of this Act [Aug. 5, 1997].”

Effective Date of 1988 Amendment

Section 6129(b) of Pub. L. 100–647 provided that: “The amendment made by subsection (a) [amending this section] shall apply to taxable years of foreign corporations beginning after December 31, 1988.”

Effective Date of 1982 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 97–248 applicable to payments made after Sept. 3, 1982, see section 288(c) of Pub. L. 97–248, set out as a note under section 162 of this title.

Effective Date of 1981 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 97–34 applicable to property placed in service after Dec. 31, 1980, in taxable years ending after that date, see section 209(a) of Pub. L. 97–34, set out as an Effective Date note under section 168 of this title.

Effective Date of 1976 Amendment

Amendment by section 1065(b) of Pub. L. 94–455 applicable to payments described in section 162(c) of this title made more than 30 days after Oct. 4, 1976, see section 1066(b) of Pub. L. 94–455, set out as a note under section 952 of this title.

§965. Temporary dividends received deduction

(a) Deduction

(1) In general

In the case of a corporation which is a United States shareholder and for which the election under this section is in effect for the taxable year, there shall be allowed as a deduction an amount equal to 85 percent of the cash dividends which are received during such taxable year by such shareholder from controlled foreign corporations.

(2) Dividends paid indirectly from controlled foreign corporations

If, within the taxable year for which the election under this section is in effect, a United States shareholder receives a cash distribution from a controlled foreign corporation which is excluded from gross income under section 959(a), such distribution shall be treated for purposes of this section as a cash dividend to the extent of any amount included in income by such United States shareholder under section 951(a)(1)(A) as a result of any cash dividend during such taxable year to—

(A) such controlled foreign corporation from another controlled foreign corporation that is in a chain of ownership described in section 958(a), or

(B) any other controlled foreign corporation in such chain of ownership from another controlled foreign corporation in such chain of ownership, but only to the extent of cash distributions described in section 959(b) which are made during such taxable year to the controlled foreign corporation from which such United States shareholder received such distribution.

(b) Limitations

(1) In general

The amount of dividends taken into account under subsection (a) shall not exceed the greater of—

(A) $500,000,000,

(B) the amount shown on the applicable financial statement as earnings permanently reinvested outside the United States, or

(C) in the case of an applicable financial statement which fails to show a specific amount of earnings permanently reinvested outside the United States and which shows a specific amount of tax liability attributable to such earnings, the amount equal to the amount of such liability divided by 0.35.


The amounts described in subparagraphs (B) and (C) shall be treated as being zero if there is no such statement or such statement fails to show a specific amount of such earnings or liability, as the case may be.

(2) Dividends must be extraordinary

The amount of dividends taken into account under subsection (a) shall not exceed the excess (if any) of—

(A) the cash dividends received during the taxable year by such shareholder from controlled foreign corporations, over

(B) the annual average for the base period years of—

(i) the dividends received during each base period year by such shareholder from controlled foreign corporations,

(ii) the amounts includible in such shareholder's gross income for each base period year under section 951(a)(1)(B) with respect to controlled foreign corporations, and

(iii) the amounts that would have been included for each base period year but for section 959(a) with respect to controlled foreign corporations.


The amount taken into account under clause (iii) for any base period year shall not include any amount which is not includible in gross income by reason of an amount described in clause (ii) with respect to a prior taxable year. Amounts described in subparagraph (B) for any base period year shall be such amounts as shown on the most recent return filed for such year; except that amended returns filed after June 30, 2003, shall not be taken into account.

(3) Reduction of benefit if increase in related party indebtedness

The amount of dividends which would (but for this paragraph) be taken into account under subsection (a) shall be reduced by the excess (if any) of—

(A) the amount of indebtedness of the controlled foreign corporation to any related person (as defined in section 954(d)(3)) as of the close of the taxable year for which the election under this section is in effect, over

(B) the amount of indebtedness of the controlled foreign corporation to any related person (as so defined) as of the close of October 3, 2004.


All controlled foreign corporations with respect to which the taxpayer is a United States shareholder shall be treated as 1 controlled foreign corporation for purposes of this paragraph. The Secretary may prescribe such regulations as may be necessary or appropriate to prevent the avoidance of the purposes of this paragraph, including regulations which provide that cash dividends shall not be taken into account under subsection (a) to the extent such dividends are attributable to the direct or indirect transfer (including through the use of intervening entities or capital contributions) of cash or other property from a related person (as so defined) to a controlled foreign corporation.

(4) Requirement to invest in United States

Subsection (a) shall not apply to any dividend received by a United States shareholder unless the amount of the dividend is invested in the United States pursuant to a domestic reinvestment plan which—

(A) is approved by the taxpayer's president, chief executive officer, or comparable official before the payment of such dividend and subsequently approved by the taxpayer's board of directors, management committee, executive committee, or similar body, and

(B) provides for the reinvestment of such dividend in the United States (other than as payment for executive compensation), including as a source for the funding of worker hiring and training, infrastructure, research and development, capital investments, or the financial stabilization of the corporation for the purposes of job retention or creation.

(c) Definitions and special rules

For purposes of this section—

(1) Applicable financial statement

The term “applicable financial statement” means—

(A) with respect to a United States shareholder which is required to file a financial statement with the Securities and Exchange Commission (or which is included in such a statement so filed by another person), the most recent audited annual financial statement (including the notes which form an integral part of such statement) of such shareholder (or which includes such shareholder)—

(i) which was so filed on or before June 30, 2003, and

(ii) which was certified on or before June 30, 2003, as being prepared in accordance with generally accepted accounting principles, and


(B) with respect to any other United States shareholder, the most recent audited financial statement (including the notes which form an integral part of such statement) of such shareholder (or which includes such shareholder)—

(i) which was certified on or before June 30, 2003, as being prepared in accordance with generally accepted accounting principles, and

(ii) which is used for the purposes of a statement or report—

(I) to creditors,

(II) to shareholders, or

(III) for any other substantial nontax purpose.

(2) Base period years

(A) In general

The base period years are the 3 taxable years—

(i) which are among the 5 most recent taxable years ending on or before June 30, 2003, and

(ii) which are determined by disregarding—

(I) 1 taxable year for which the sum of the amounts described in clauses (i), (ii), and (iii) of subsection (b)(2)(B) is the largest, and

(II) 1 taxable year for which such sum is the smallest.

(B) Shorter period

If the taxpayer has fewer than 5 taxable years ending on or before June 30, 2003, then in lieu of applying subparagraph (A), the base period years shall include all the taxable years of the taxpayer ending on or before June 30, 2003.

(C) Mergers, acquisitions, etc.

(i) In general

Rules similar to the rules of subparagraphs (A) and (B) of section 41(f)(3) shall apply for purposes of this paragraph.

(ii) Spin-offs, etc.

If there is a distribution to which section 355 (or so much of section 356 as relates to section 355) applies during the 5-year period referred to in subparagraph (A)(i) and the controlled corporation (within the meaning of section 355) is a United States shareholder—

(I) the controlled corporation shall be treated as being in existence during the period that the distributing corporation (within the meaning of section 355) is in existence, and

(II) for purposes of applying subsection (b)(2) to the controlled corporation and the distributing corporation, amounts described in subsection (b)(2)(B) which are received or includible by the distributing corporation or controlled corporation (as the case may be) before the distribution referred to in subclause (I) from a controlled foreign corporation shall be allocated between such corporations in proportion to their respective interests as United States shareholders of such controlled foreign corporation immediately after such distribution.


 Subclause (II) shall not apply if neither the controlled corporation nor the distributing corporation is a United States shareholder of such controlled foreign corporation immediately after such distribution.

(3) Dividend

The term “dividend” shall not include amounts includible in gross income as a dividend under section 78, 367, or 1248. In the case of a liquidation under section 332 to which section 367(b) applies, the preceding sentence shall not apply to the extent the United States shareholder actually receives cash as part of the liquidation.

(4) Coordination with dividends received deduction

No deduction shall be allowed under section 243 or 245 for any dividend for which a deduction is allowed under this section.

(5) Controlled groups

(A) In general

All United States shareholders which are members of an affiliated group filing a consolidated return under section 1501 shall be treated as one United States shareholder.

(B) Application of $500,000,000 limit

All corporations which are treated as a single employer under section 52(a) shall be limited to one $500,000,000 amount in subsection (b)(1)(A), and such amount shall be divided among such corporations under regulations prescribed by the Secretary.

(C) Permanently reinvested earnings

If a financial statement is an applicable financial statement for more than 1 United States shareholder, the amount applicable under subparagraph (B) or (C) of subsection (b)(1) shall be divided among such shareholders under regulations prescribed by the Secretary.

(d) Denial of foreign tax credit; denial of certain expenses

(1) Foreign tax credit

No credit shall be allowed under section 901 for any taxes paid or accrued (or treated as paid or accrued) with respect to the deductible portion of—

(A) any dividend, or

(B) any amount described in subsection (a)(2) which is included in income under section 951(a)(1)(A).


No deduction shall be allowed under this chapter for any tax for which credit is not allowable by reason of the preceding sentence.

(2) Expenses

No deduction shall be allowed for expenses directly allocable to the deductible portion described in paragraph (1).

(3) Deductible portion

For purposes of paragraph (1), unless the taxpayer otherwise specifies, the deductible portion of any dividend or other amount is the amount which bears the same ratio to the amount of such dividend or other amount as the amount allowed as a deduction under subsection (a) for the taxable year bears to the amount described in subsection (b)(2)(A) for such year.

(4) Coordination with section 78

Section 78 shall not apply to any tax which is not allowable as a credit under section 901 by reason of this subsection.

(e) Increase in tax on included amounts not reduced by credits, etc.

(1) In general

Any tax under this chapter by reason of nondeductible CFC dividends shall not be treated as tax imposed by this chapter for purposes of determining—

(A) the amount of any credit allowable under this chapter, or

(B) the amount of the tax imposed by section 55.


Subparagraph (A) shall not apply to the credit under section 53 or to the credit under section 27(a) with respect to taxes which are imposed by foreign countries and possessions of the United States and are attributable to such dividends.

(2) Limitation on reduction in taxable income, etc.

(A) In general

The taxable income of any United States shareholder for any taxable year shall in no event be less than the amount of nondeductible CFC dividends received during such year.

(B) Coordination with section 172

The nondeductible CFC dividends for any taxable year shall not be taken into account—

(i) in determining under section 172 the amount of any net operating loss for such taxable year, and

(ii) in determining taxable income for such taxable year for purposes of the 2nd sentence of section 172(b)(2).

(3) Nondeductible CFC dividends

For purposes of this subsection, the term “nondeductible CFC dividends” means the excess of the amount of dividends taken into account under subsection (a) over the deduction allowed under subsection (a) for such dividends.

(f) Election

The taxpayer may elect to apply this section to—

(1) the taxpayer's last taxable year which begins before the date of the enactment of this section, or

(2) the taxpayer's first taxable year which begins during the 1-year period beginning on such date.


Such election may be made for a taxable year only if made on or before the due date (including extensions) for filing the return of tax for such taxable year.

(Added Pub. L. 108–357, title IV, §422(a), Oct. 22, 2004, 118 Stat. 1514; amended Pub. L. 109–135, title IV, §403(q), Dec. 21, 2005, 119 Stat. 2627.)

References in Text

The date of the enactment of this section, referred to in subsec. (f), is the date of enactment of Pub. L. 108–357, which was approved Oct. 22, 2004.

Amendments

2005—Subsec. (a)(2)(B). Pub. L. 109–135, §403(q)(1), inserted “from another controlled foreign corporation in such chain of ownership” before “, but only to the extent”.

Subsec. (b)(2)(A). Pub. L. 109–135, §403(q)(2), inserted “cash” before “dividends”.

Subsec. (b)(3). Pub. L. 109–135, §403(q)(3), inserted at end “The Secretary may prescribe such regulations as may be necessary or appropriate to prevent the avoidance of the purposes of this paragraph, including regulations which provide that cash dividends shall not be taken into account under subsection (a) to the extent such dividends are attributable to the direct or indirect transfer (including through the use of intervening entities or capital contributions) of cash or other property from a related person (as so defined) to a controlled foreign corporation.”

Subsec. (c)(1). Pub. L. 109–135, §403(q)(4), reenacted heading without change and amended text generally. Prior to amendment, text read as follows: “The term ‘applicable financial statement’ means, with respect to a United States shareholder, the most recently audited financial statement (including notes and other documents which accompany such statement) which includes such shareholder—

“(A) which is certified on or before June 30, 2003, as being prepared in accordance with generally accepted accounting principles, and

“(B) which is used for the purposes of a statement or report—

“(i) to creditors,

“(ii) to shareholders, or

“(iii) for any other substantial nontax purpose.

In the case of a corporation required to file a financial statement with the Securities and Exchange Commission, such term means the most recent such statement filed on or before June 30, 2003.”

Subsec. (d)(2). Pub. L. 109–135, §403(q)(5), substituted “directly allocable” for “properly allocated and apportioned”.

Subsec. (d)(4). Pub. L. 109–135, §403(q)(6), added par. (4).

Subsec. (e)(1). Pub. L. 109–135, §403(q)(7), inserted “which are imposed by foreign countries and possessions of the United States and are” after “taxes” in concluding provisions.

Subsec. (f). Pub. L. 109–135, §403(q)(8), inserted “on or” before “before the due date” in concluding provisions.

Effective Date of 2005 Amendment

Amendments by Pub. L. 109–135 effective as if included in the provisions of the American Jobs Creation Act of 2004, Pub. L. 108–357, to which they relate, see section 403(nn) of Pub. L. 109–135, set out as a note under section 26 of this title.

Effective Date

Section applicable to taxable years ending on or after Oct. 22, 2004, see section 422(d) of Pub. L. 108–357, set out as an Effective Date of 2004 Amendments note under section 56 of this title.

Subpart G—Export Trade Corporations

Sec.
970.
Reduction of subpart F income of export trade corporations.
971.
Definitions.
[972.
Repealed.]

        

Amendments

1976—Pub. L. 94–455, title XIX, §1901(b)(27)(B), Oct. 4, 1976, 90 Stat. 1799, struck out item 972 “Consolidation of group of export trade corporations”.

1962—Pub. L. 87–834, §12(a), Oct. 16, 1962, 76 Stat. 1027, added heading of subpart G, and items 970 to 972.

§970. Reduction of subpart F income of export trade corporations

(a) Export trade income constituting foreign base company income

(1) In general

In the case of a controlled foreign corporation (as defined in section 957) which for the taxable year is an export trade corporation, the subpart F income (determined without regard to this subpart) of such corporation for such year shall be reduced by an amount equal to so much of the export trade income (as defined in section 971(b)) of such corporation for such year as constitutes foreign base company income (as defined in section 954), but only to the extent that such amount does not exceed whichever of the following amounts is the lesser:

(A) an amount equal to 1½ times so much of the export promotion expenses (as defined in section 971(d)) of such corporation for such year as is probably allocable to the export trade income which constitutes foreign base company income of such corporation for such year, or

(B) an amount equal to 10 percent of so much of the gross receipts for such year (or, in the case of gross receipts arising from commissions, fees, or other compensation for its services, so much of the gross amount upon the basis of which such commissions, fees, or other compensation is computed) accruing to such export trade corporation from the sale, installation, operation, maintenance, or use of property in respect of which such corporation derives export trade income as is properly allocable to the export trade income which constitutes foreign base company income of such corporation for such year.


The allocations with respect to export trade income which constitutes foreign base company income under subparagraphs (A) and (B) shall be made under regulations prescribed by the Secretary.

(2) Overall limitation

The reduction under paragraph (1) for any taxable year shall not exceed an amount which bears the same ratio to the increase in the investments in export trade assets (as defined in section 971(c)) of such corporation for such year as the export trade income which constitutes foreign base company income of such corporation for such year bears to the entire export trade income of such corporation for such year.

(b) Inclusion of certain previously excluded amounts

Each United States shareholder of a controlled foreign corporation which for any prior taxable year was an export trade corporation shall include in his gross income under section 951(a)(1)(A)(ii), as an amount to which section 955 (relating to withdrawal of previously excluded subpart F income from qualified investment) applies, his pro rata share of the amount of decrease in the investments in export trade assets of such corporation for such year, but only to the extent that his pro rata share of such amount does not exceed an amount equal to—

(1) his pro rata share of the sum of (A) the amounts by which the subpart F income of such corporation was reduced for all prior taxable years under subsection (a), and (B) the amounts not included in subpart F income (determined without regard to this subpart) for all prior taxable years by reason of the treatment (under section 972 as in effect before the date of the enactment of the Tax Reform Act of 1976) of two or more controlled foreign corporations which are export trade corporations as a single controlled foreign corporation, reduced by

(2) the sum of the amounts which were included in his gross income under section 951(a)(1)(A)(ii) under the provisions of this subsection for all prior taxable years.

(c) Investments in export trade assets

(1) Amount of investments

For purposes of this section, the amount taken into account with respect to any export trade asset shall be its adjusted basis, reduced by any liability to which the asset is subject.

(2) Increase in investments in export trade assets

For purposes of subsection (a), the amount of increase in investments in export trade assets of any controlled foreign corporation for any taxable year is the amount by which—

(A) the amount of such investments at the close of the taxable year, exceeds

(B) the amount of such investments at the close of the preceding taxable year.

(3) Decrease in investments in export trade assets

For purposes of subsection (b), the amount of decrease in investments in export trade assets of any controlled foreign corporation for any taxable year is the amount by which—

(A) the amount of such investments at the close of the preceding taxable year (reduced by an amount equal to the amount of net loss sustained during the taxable year with respect to export trade assets), exceeds

(B) the amount of such investments at the close of the taxable year.

(4) Special rule

A United States shareholder of an export trade corporation may, under regulations prescribed by the Secretary, make the determinations under paragraphs (2) and (3) as of the close of the 75th day after the close of the years referred to in such paragraphs in lieu of on the last day of such years. A United States shareholder of an export trade corporation may, under regulations prescribed by the Secretary, make the determinations under paragraphs (2) and (3) with respect to export trade assets described in section 971(c)(3) as of the close of the years following the years referred to in such paragraphs, or as of the close of such longer period of time as such regulations may permit, in lieu of on the last day of such years and in lieu of on the day prescribed in the preceding sentence. Any election under this paragraph made with respect to any taxable year shall apply to such year and to all succeeding taxable years unless the Secretary consents to the revocation of such election.

(Added Pub. L. 87–834, §12(a), Oct. 16, 1972, 76 Stat. 1027; amended Pub. L. 94–455, title XIX, §§1901(b)(27)(A), 1906(b)(13)(A), Oct. 4, 1976, 90 Stat. 1799, 1834.)

References in Text

The Tax Reform Act of 1976, referred to in subsec. (b)(1), is Pub. L. 94–455, Oct. 4, 1976, 90 Stat. 1250, as amended, which was enacted Oct. 4, 1976. Section 972 of this title was repealed by Pub. L. 94–455, title XIX, §1901(a)(120), Oct. 4, 1976, 90 Stat. 1784. For complete classification of this Act to the Code, see Tables.

Amendments

1976—Subsec. (a)(1). Pub. L. 94–455, §1906(b)(13)(A), struck out “or his delegate” after “Secretary”.

Subsec. (b)(1). Pub. L. 94–455, §1901(b)(27)(A), substituted “treatment (under section 972 as in effect before the date of enactment of the Tax Reform Act of 1976) of two or more controlled foreign corporations which are export trade corporations as a single controlled corporation” for “application of section 972” after “reason of the”.

Subsec. (c)(4). Pub. L. 94–455, §1906(b)(13)(A), struck out “or his delegate” after “Secretary” in three places.

Effective Date of 1976 Amendment

Amendment by section 1901(b)(27)(A) of Pub. L. 94–455 applicable with respect to taxable years beginning after Dec. 31, 1976, see section 1901(d) of Pub. L. 94–455, set out as a note under section 2 of this title.

Export Trade Corporations

Section 505(a), (b) of Pub. L. 92–178, title V, Dec. 10, 1971, 85 Stat. 551, provided as follows:

“(a) Use of Terms.—Except as otherwise expressly provided, whenever in this section a reference is made to a section, chapter, or other provision, the reference shall be considered to be made to a section, chapter, or other provision of the Internal Revenue Code of 1954, and terms used in this section shall have the same meaning as when used in such Code.

“(b) Transfer to a DISC of Assets of Export Trade Corporation.—

“(1) In general.—If a corporation (hereinafter in this section called ‘parent’) owns all of the outstanding stock of an export trade corporation (as defined in section 971), and the export trade corporation, during a taxable year beginning before January 1, 1976, transfers property, without receiving consideration, to a DISC (as defined in section 992(a)) all of whose outstanding stock is owned by the parent, and if the amount transferred by the export trade corporation is not less than the amount of its untaxed subpart F income (as defined in paragraph (2) of this subsection) at the time of such transfer, then—

“(A) notwithstanding section 367 or any other provision of chapter 1, no gain or loss to the export trade corporation, the parent, or the DISC shall be recognized by reason of such transfer;

“(B) the earnings and profits of the DISC shall be increased by the amount transferred to it by the export trade corporation and such amount shall be included in the accumulated DISC income, and for purposes of section 861(a)(2)(D) shall be considered to be qualified export receipts;

“(C) the adjusted basis of the assets transferred to the DISC shall be the same in the hands of the DISC as in the hands of the export trade corporation;

“(D) the earnings and profits of the export trade corporation shall be reduced by the amount transferred to the DISC, to the extent thereof, with the reduction being applied first to the untaxed subpart F income and then to the other earnings and profits in the order in which they were most recently accumulated;

“(E) the basis of the parent's stock in the export trade corporation shall be decreased by the amount obtained by multiplying its basis in such stock by a fraction the numerator of which is the amount transferred to the DISC and the denominator of which is the aggregate adjusted basis of all the assets of the export trade corporation immediately before such transfer;

“(F) the basis of the parent's stock in the DISC shall be increased by the amount of the reduction under subparagraph (E) of its basis in the stock of the export trade corporation;

“(G) the property transferred to the DISC shall not be considered to reduce the investments of the export trade corporation in export trade assets for purposes of applying section 970(b); and

“(H) any foreign income taxes which would have been deemed under section 902 to have been paid by the parent if the transfer had been made to the parent shall be treated as foreign income taxes paid by the DISC.

For purposes of this section, the amount transferred by the export trade corporation to the DISC shall be the aggregate of the adjusted basis of the properties transferred, with proper adjustment for any indebtedness secured by such property or assumed by the DISC in connection with the transfer. For purposes of this section, a foreign corporation which qualified as an export trade corporation for any 3 taxable years beginning before November 1, 1971, shall be treated as an export trade corporation.

“(2) Definition of untaxed subpart f income.—For purposes of this section, the term ‘untaxed subpart F income’ means with respect to an export trade corporation the amount by which—

“(A) the sum of the amount by which the subpart F income of such corporation was reduced for the taxable year and all prior taxable years under section 970(a) and the amounts not included in subpart F income (determined without regard to subpart G of subchapter N of chapter 1) for all prior taxable years by reason of the application of section 972, exceeds

“(B) the sum of the amounts which were included in the gross income of the shareholders of such corporation under section 951(a)(1)(A)(ii) and under the provision of section 970(b) for all prior taxable years,

determined without regard to the transfer of property described in paragraph (1) of this subsection.

“(3) Special cases.—If the provisions of paragraph (1) of this subsection are not applicable solely because the export trade corporation or the DISC, or both, are not owned in the manner prescribed in such paragraph, the provisions shall nevertheless be applicable in such cases to the extent, and in accordance with such rules, as may be prescribed by the Secretary or his delegate.

“(4) Treatment of export trade assets.—If the provisions of this subsection are applicable, accounts receivable held by an export trade corporation and transferred to a DISC, to the extent such receivables were export trade assets in the hands of the export trade corporation, shall be treated as qualified export assets for purposes of section 993(b).”

§971. Definitions

(a) Export trade corporations

For purposes of this subpart, the term “export trade corporation” means—

(1) In general

A controlled foreign corporation (as defined in section 957) which satisfies the following conditions:

(A) 90 percent or more of the gross income of such corporation for the 3–year period immediately preceding the close of the taxable year (or such part of such period subsequent to the effective date of this subpart during which the corporation was in existence) was derived from sources without the United States, and

(B) 75 percent or more of the gross income of such corporation for such period constituted gross income in respect of which such corporation derived export trade income.

(2) Special rule

If 50 percent or more of the gross income of a controlled foreign corporation in the period specified in subsection (a)(1)(A) is gross income in respect of which such corporation derived export trade income in respect of agricultural products grown in the United States, it may qualify as an export trade corporation although it does not meet the requirements of subsection (a)(1)(B).

(3) Limitation

No controlled foreign corporation may qualify as an export trade corporation for any taxable year beginning after October 31, 1971, unless it qualified as an export trade corporation for any taxable year beginning before such date. If a corporation fails to qualify as an export trade corporation for a period of any 3 consecutive taxable years beginning after such date, it may not qualify as an export trade corporation for any taxable year beginning after such period.

(b) Export trade income

For the purposes of this subpart, the term “export trade income” means net income from—

(1) the sale to an unrelated person for use, consumption, or disposition outside the United States of export property (as defined in subsection (e)), or from commissions, fees, compensation, or other income from the performance of commercial, industrial, financial, technical, scientific, managerial, engineering, architectural, skilled, or other services in respect to such sales or in respect of the installation or maintenance of such export property;

(2) commissions, fees, compensation, or other income from commercial, industrial, financial, technical, scientific, managerial, engineering, architectural, skilled, or other services performed in connection with the use by an unrelated person outside the United States of patents, copyrights, secret processes and formulas, goodwill, trademarks, trade brands, franchises, and other like property acquired or developed and owned by the manufacturer, producer, grower, or extractor of export property in respect of which the export trade corporation earns export trade income under paragraph (1);

(3) commissions, fees, rentals, or other compensation or income attributable to the use of export property by an unrelated person or attributable to the use of export property in the rendition of technical, scientific, or engineering services to an unrelated person; and

(4) interest from export trade assets described in subsection (c)(4).


For purposes of paragraph (3), if a controlled foreign corporation receives income from an unrelated person attributable to the use of export property in the rendition of services to such unrelated person together with income attributable to the rendition of other services to such unrelated person, including personal services, the amount of such aggregate income which shall be considered to be attributable to the use of the export property shall (if such amount cannot be established by reference to transactions between unrelated persons) be that part of such aggregate income which the cost of the export property consumed in the rendition of such services (including a reasonable allowance for depreciation) bears to the total cost and expenses attributable to such aggregate income.

(c) Export trade assets

For purposes of this subpart, the term “export trade assets” means—

(1) working capital reasonably necessary for the production of export trade income,

(2) inventory of export property held for use, consumption, or disposition outside the United States,

(3) facilities located outside the United States for the storage, handling, transportation, packaging, or servicing of export property, and

(4) evidences of indebtedness executed by persons, other than related persons, in connection with payment for purchases of export property for use, consumption, or disposition outside the United States, or in connection with the payment for services described in subsections (b)(2) and (3).

(d) Export promotion expenses

For purposes of this subpart, the term “export promotion expenses” means the following expenses paid or incurred in the receipt or production of export trade income—

(1) a reasonable allowance for salaries or other compensation for personal services actually rendered for such purpose,

(2) rentals or other payments for the use of property actually used for such purpose,

(3) a reasonable allowance for the exhaustion, wear and tear, or obsolescence of property actually used for such purpose, and

(4) any other ordinary and necessary expenses of the corporation to the extent reasonably allocable to the receipt or production of export trade income.


No expense incurred within the United States shall be treated as an export promotion expense within the meaning of the preceding sentence, unless at least 90 percent of each category of expenses described in such sentence is incurred outside the United States.

(e) Export property

For purposes of this subpart, the term “export property” means any property or any interest in property manufactured, produced, grown, or extracted in the United States.

(f) Unrelated person

For purposes of this subpart, the term “unrelated person” means a person other than a related person as defined in section 954(d)(3).

(Added Pub. L. 87–834, §12(a), Oct. 16, 1962, 76 Stat. 1029; amended Pub. L. 92–178, title V, §505(c), Dec. 10, 1971, 85 Stat. 553.)

Amendments

1971—Subsec. (a)(3). Pub. L. 92–178 added par. (3).

Treatment of Certain Former Export Trade Corporations

Pub. L. 99–514, title XVIII, §1876(m), Oct. 22, 1986, 100 Stat. 2901, provided that: “If—

“(1) a corporation which is not an export trading corporation for its most recent taxable year ending before the date of the enactment of the Tax Reform Act of 1984 [July 18, 1984] but was an export trading corporation for any prior taxable year, and

“(2)(A) such corporation may not qualify as an export trade corporation for any taxable year beginning after December 31, 1984, by reason of section 971(a)(3) of the Internal Revenue Code of 1954 [now 1986], or (B) such corporation makes an election, before the date 6 months after the date of the enactment of this Act [Oct. 22, 1986], not to be treated as an export trade corporation with respect to taxable years beginning after December 31, 1984,

rules similar to the rules of paragraphs (2) and (4) of section 805(b) of the Tax Reform Act of 1984 [set out as a note under section 991 of this title] shall apply to such corporation. For purposes of the preceding sentence, the term ‘export trade corporation’ has the meaning given such term by section 971 of such Code.”

[§972. Repealed. Pub. L. 94–455, title XIX, §1901(a)(120), Oct. 4, 1976, 90 Stat. 1784]

Section, Pub. L. 87–834, §12(a), Oct. 16, 1962, 76 Stat. 1031, related to the consolidation of a group of export trade corporations for treatment as a single controlled foreign corporation for tax purposes.

[Subpart H—Repealed]

[§981. Repealed. Pub. L. 94–455, title X, §1012(b)(2), Oct. 4, 1976, 90 Stat. 1614]

Section, Pub. L. 89–809, title I, §105(e)(1), Nov. 13, 1966, 80 Stat. 1565, related to income of certain nonresident United States citizens subject to foreign community property laws.

Subpart I—Admissibility of Documentation Maintained in Foreign Countries

Sec.
982.
Admissibility of documentation maintained in foreign countries.

        

Amendments

1982—Pub. L. 97–248, title III, §337(a), Sept. 3, 1982, 96 Stat. 629, added subpart I and item 982.

§982. Admissibility of documentation maintained in foreign countries

(a) General rule

If the taxpayer fails to substantially comply with any formal document request arising out of the examination of the tax treatment of any item (hereinafter in this section referred to as the “examined item”) before the 90th day after the date of the mailing of such request on motion by the Secretary, any court having jurisdiction of a civil proceeding in which the tax treatment of the examined item is an issue shall prohibit the introduction by the taxpayer of any foreign-based documentation covered by such request.

(b) Reasonable cause exception

(1) In general

Subsection (a) shall not apply with respect to any documentation if the taxpayer establishes that the failure to provide the documentation as requested by the Secretary is due to reasonable cause.

(2) Foreign nondisclosure law not reasonable cause

For purposes of paragraph (1), the fact that a foreign jurisdiction would impose a civil or criminal penalty on the taxpayer (or any other person) for disclosing the requested documentation is not reasonable cause.

(c) Formal document request

For purposes of this section—

(1) Formal document request

The term “formal document request” means any request (made after the normal request procedures have failed to produce the requested documentation) for the production of foreign-based documentation which is mailed by registered or certified mail to the taxpayer at his last known address and which sets forth—

(A) the time and place for the production of the documentation,

(B) a statement of the reason the documentation previously produced (if any) is not sufficient,

(C) a description of the documentation being sought, and

(D) the consequences to the taxpayer of the failure to produce the documentation described in subparagraph (C).

(2) Proceeding to quash

(A) In general

Notwithstanding any other law or rule of law, any person to whom a formal document request is mailed shall have the right to begin a proceeding to quash such request not later than the 90th day after the day such request was mailed. In any such proceeding, the Secretary may seek to compel compliance with such request.

(B) Jurisdiction

The United States district court for the district in which the person (to whom the formal document request is mailed) resides or is found shall have jurisdiction to hear any proceeding brought under subparagraph (A). An order denying the petition shall be deemed a final order which may be appealed.

(C) Suspension of 90-day period

The running of the 90-day period referred to in subsection (a) shall be suspended during any period during which a proceeding brought under subparagraph (A) is pending.

(d) Definitions and special rules

For purposes of this section—

(1) Foreign-based documentation

The term “foreign-based documentation” means any documentation which is outside the United States and which may be relevant or material to the tax treatment of the examined item.

(2) Documentation

The term “documentation” includes books and records.

(3) Authority to extend 90-day period

The Secretary, and any court having jurisdiction over a proceeding under subsection (c)(2), may extend the 90-day period referred to in subsection (a).

(e) Suspension of statute of limitations

If any person takes any action as provided in subsection (c)(2), the running of any period of limitations under section 6501 (relating to the assessment and collection of tax) or under section 6531 (relating to criminal prosecutions) with respect to such person shall be suspended for the period during which the proceeding under such subsection, and appeals therein, are pending.

(Added Pub. L. 97–248, title III, §337(a), Sept. 3, 1982, 96 Stat. 629; amended Pub. L. 98–369, div. A, title VII, §714(k), July 18, 1984, 98 Stat. 963.)

Amendments

1984—Subsec. (d)(3), (4). Pub. L. 98–369 redesignated par. (4) as (3) and struck out former par. (3) which provided that an item was to be treated as foreign connected if directly or indirectly from a source outside the United States, or the item (in whole or in part) purported to arise outside the United States, or was otherwise dependent on transactions occurring outside the United States.

Effective Date of 1984 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 98–369 effective as if included in the provision of the Tax Equity and Fiscal Responsibility Act of 1982, Pub. L. 97–248, to which such amendment relates, see section 715 of Pub. L. 98–369, set out as a note under section 31 of this title.

Effective Date

Section 337(c) of Pub. L. 97–248, as amended by Pub. L. 99–514, §2, Oct. 22, 1986, 100 Stat. 2095, provided that: “The amendments made by this section [enacting this section] shall apply with respect to formal document requests (as defined in section 982(c)(1) of the Internal Revenue Code of 1986 [formerly I.R.C. 1954], as added by this section) mailed after the date of the enactment of this Act [Sept. 3, 1982].”

Subpart J—Foreign Currency Transactions

Sec.
985.
Functional currency.
986.
Determination of foreign taxes and foreign corporation's earnings and profits.
987.
Branch transactions.
988.
Treatment of certain foreign currency transactions.
989.
Other definitions and special rules.

        

Amendments

1988—Pub. L. 100–647, title I, §1012(v)(1)(C), Nov. 10, 1988, 102 Stat. 3529, added item 986 and struck out former item 986 “Determination of foreign corporation's earnings and profits and foreign taxes”.

§985. Functional currency

(a) In general

Unless otherwise provided in regulations, all determinations under this subtitle shall be made in the taxpayer's functional currency.

(b) Functional currency

(1) In general

For purposes of this subtitle, the term “functional currency” means—

(A) except as provided in subparagraph (B), the dollar, or

(B) in the case of a qualified business unit, the currency of the economic environment in which a significant part of such unit's activities are conducted and which is used by such unit in keeping its books and records.

(2) Functional currency where activities primarily conducted in dollars

The functional currency of any qualified business unit shall be the dollar if activities of such unit are primarily conducted in dollars.

(3) Election

To the extent provided in regulations, the taxpayer may elect to use the dollar as the functional currency for any qualified business unit if—

(A) such unit keeps its books and records in dollars, or

(B) the taxpayer uses a method of accounting that approximates a separate transactions method.


Any such election shall apply to the taxable year for which made and all subsequent taxable years unless revoked with the consent of the Secretary.

(4) Change in functional currency treated as a change in method of accounting

Any change in the functional currency shall be treated as a change in the taxpayer's method of accounting for purposes of section 481 under procedures to be established by the Secretary.

(Added Pub. L. 99–514, title XII, §1261(a), Oct. 22, 1986, 100 Stat. 2585.)

Effective Date

Section 1261(e) of Pub. L. 99–514 provided that:

“(1) In general.—Except as provided in paragraph (2), the amendments made by this section [enacting this subpart and amending sections 1092 and 1256 of this title] shall apply to taxable years beginning after December 31, 1986.

“(2) Special rules for purposes of sections 902 and 960.—For purposes of applying sections 902 and 960 of the Internal Revenue Code of 1986, the amendments made by this section shall apply to—

“(A) earnings and profits of the foreign corporation for taxable years beginning after December 31, 1986, and

“(B) foreign taxes paid or accrued by the foreign corporation with respect to such earnings and profits.”

§986. Determination of foreign taxes and foreign corporation's earnings and profits

(a) Foreign income taxes

(1) Translation of accrued taxes

(A) In general

For purposes of determining the amount of the foreign tax credit, in the case of a taxpayer who takes foreign income taxes into account when accrued, the amount of any foreign income taxes (and any adjustment thereto) shall be translated into dollars by using the average exchange rate for the taxable year to which such taxes relate.

(B) Exception for certain taxes

Subparagraph (A) shall not apply to any foreign income taxes—

(i) paid after the date 2 years after the close of the taxable year to which such taxes relate, or

(ii) paid before the beginning of the taxable year to which such taxes relate.

(C) Exception for inflationary currencies

Subparagraph (A) shall not apply to any foreign income taxes the liability for which is denominated in any inflationary currency (as determined under regulations).

(D) Elective exception for taxes paid other than in functional currency

(i) In general

At the election of the taxpayer, subparagraph (A) shall not apply to any foreign income taxes the liability for which is denominated in any currency other than in the taxpayer's functional currency.

(ii) Application to qualified business units

An election under this subparagraph may apply to foreign income taxes attributable to a qualified business unit in accordance with regulations prescribed by the Secretary.

(iii) Election

Any such election shall apply to the taxable year for which made and all subsequent taxable years unless revoked with the consent of the Secretary.

(E) Special rule for regulated investment companies

In the case of a regulated investment company which takes into account income on an accrual basis, subparagraphs (A) through (D) shall not apply and foreign income taxes paid or accrued with respect to such income shall be translated into dollars using the exchange rate as of the date the income accrues.

(F) Cross reference

For adjustments where tax is not paid within 2 years, see section 905(c).

(2) Translation of taxes to which paragraph (1) does not apply

For purposes of determining the amount of the foreign tax credit, in the case of any foreign income taxes to which subparagraph (A) or (E) of paragraph (1) does not apply—

(A) such taxes shall be translated into dollars using the exchange rates as of the time such taxes were paid to the foreign country or possession of the United States, and

(B) any adjustment to the amount of such taxes shall be translated into dollars using—

(i) except as provided in clause (ii), the exchange rate as of the time when such adjustment is paid to the foreign country or possession, or

(ii) in the case of any refund or credit of foreign income taxes, using the exchange rate as of the time of the original payment of such foreign income taxes.

(3) Authority to permit use of average rates

To the extent prescribed in regulations, the average exchange rate for the period (specified in such regulations) during which the taxes or adjustment is paid may be used instead of the exchange rate as of the time of such payment.

(4) Foreign income taxes

For purposes of this subsection, the term “foreign income taxes” means any income, war profits, or excess profits taxes paid or accrued to any foreign country or to any possession of the United States.

(b) Earnings and profits and distributions

For purposes of determining the tax under this subtitle—

(1) of any shareholder of any foreign corporation, the earnings and profits of such corporation shall be determined in the corporation's functional currency, and

(2) in the case of any United States person, the earnings and profits determined under paragraph (1) (when distributed, deemed distributed, or otherwise taken into account under this subtitle) shall (if necessary) be translated into dollars using the appropriate exchange rate.

(c) Previously taxed earnings and profits

(1) In general

Foreign currency gain or loss with respect to distributions of previously taxed earnings and profits (as described in section 959 or 1293(c)) attributable to movements in exchange rates between the times of deemed and actual distribution shall be recognized and treated as ordinary income or loss from the same source as the associated income inclusion.

(2) Distributions through tiers

The Secretary shall prescribe regulations with respect to the treatment of distributions of previously taxed earnings and profits through tiers of foreign corporations.

(Added Pub. L. 99–514, title XII, §1261(a), Oct. 22, 1986, 100 Stat. 2586; amended Pub. L. 100–647, title I, §1012(v)(1)(A), Nov. 10, 1988, 102 Stat. 3528; Pub. L. 105–34, title XI, §1102(a)(1), (b)(1), Aug. 5, 1997, 111 Stat. 963, 965; Pub. L. 108–357, title IV, §408(a), (b), Oct. 22, 2004, 118 Stat. 1499.)

Amendments

2004—Subsec. (a)(1)(D). Pub. L. 108–357, §408(a), added subpar. (D). Former subpar. (D) redesignated (E).

Subsec. (a)(1)(E). Pub. L. 108–357, §408(b)(1), added subpar. (E). Former subpar. (E) redesignated (F).

Pub. L. 108–357, §408(a), redesignated subpar. (D) as (E).

Subsec. (a)(1)(F). Pub. L. 108–357, §408(b)(1), redesignated subpar. (E) as (F).

Subsec. (a)(2). Pub. L. 108–357, §408(b)(2), inserted “or (E)” after “subparagraph (A)” in introductory provisions.

1997—Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 105–34, §1102(a)(1), amended subsec. (a) generally. Prior to amendment, subsec. (a) read as follows:

“(a) Foreign Taxes.—

“(1) In general.—For purposes of determining the amount of the foreign tax credit—

“(A) any foreign income taxes shall be translated into dollars using the exchange rates as of the time such taxes were paid to the foreign country or possession of the United States, and

“(B) any adjustment to the amount of foreign income taxes shall be translated into dollars using—

“(i) except as provided in clause (ii), the exchange rate as of the time when such adjustment is paid to the foreign country or possession, or

“(ii) in the case of any refund or credit of foreign income taxes, using the exchange rate as of the time of original payment of such foreign income taxes.

“(2) Foreign income taxes.—For purposes of paragraph (1), ‘foreign income taxes’ means any income, war profits, or excess profits taxes paid to any foreign country or to any possession of the United States.”

Subsec. (a)(3), (4). Pub. L. 105–34, §1102(b)(1), added par. (3) and redesignated former par. (3) as (4).

1988—Pub. L. 100–647 substituted “foreign taxes and foreign corporation's earnings and profits” for “foreign corporation's earnings and profits and foreign taxes” in heading, and revised and restructured the provisions of subsecs. (a) and (b).

Effective Date of 2004 Amendment

Pub. L. 108–357, title IV, §408(c), Oct. 22, 2004, 118 Stat. 1500, provided that: “The amendments made by this section [amending this section] shall apply to taxable years beginning after December 31, 2004.”

Effective Date of 1997 Amendment

Section 1102(c)(1) of Pub. L. 105–34 provided that: “The amendments made by subsections (a)(1) and (b) [amending this section and section 989 of this title] shall apply to taxes paid or accrued in taxable years beginning after December 31, 1997.”

Effective Date of 1988 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 100–647 effective, except as otherwise provided, as if included in the provision of the Tax Reform Act of 1986, Pub. L. 99–514, to which such amendment relates, see section 1019(a) of Pub. L. 100–647, set out as a note under section 1 of this title.

Effective Date

Section applicable to taxable years beginning after Dec. 31, 1986, with certain exceptions and qualifications, see section 1261(e) of Pub. L. 99–514, set out as a note under section 985 of this title.

§987. Branch transactions

In the case of any taxpayer having 1 or more qualified business units with a functional currency other than the dollar, taxable income of such taxpayer shall be determined—

(1) by computing the taxable income or loss separately for each such unit in its functional currency,

(2) by translating the income or loss separately computed under paragraph (1) at the appropriate exchange rate, and

(3) by making proper adjustments (as prescribed by the Secretary) for transfers of property between qualified business units of the taxpayer having different functional currencies, including—

(A) treating post-1986 remittances from each such unit as made on a pro rata basis out of post-1986 accumulated earnings, and

(B) treating gain or loss determined under this paragraph as ordinary income or loss, respectively, and sourcing such gain or loss by reference to the source of the income giving rise to post-1986 accumulated earnings.

(Added Pub. L. 99–514, title XII, §1261(a), Oct. 22, 1986, 100 Stat. 2586; amended Pub. L. 100–647, title I, §1012(v)(1)(B), Nov. 10, 1988, 102 Stat. 3528.)

Amendments

1988—Par. (4). Pub. L. 100–647 struck out par. (4) which provided for translation of foreign income taxes paid by each qualified business unit of the taxpayer in the same manner as provided under section 986(b).

Effective Date of 1988 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 100–647 effective, except as otherwise provided, as if included in the provision of the Tax Reform Act of 1986, Pub. L. 99–514, to which such amendment relates, see section 1019(a) of Pub. L. 100–647, set out as a note under section 1 of this title.

Effective Date

Section applicable to taxable years beginning after Dec. 31, 1986, with certain exceptions and qualifications, see section 1261(e) of Pub. L. 99–514, set out as a note under section 985 of this title.

§988. Treatment of certain foreign currency transactions

(a) General rule

Notwithstanding any other provision of this chapter—

(1) Treatment as ordinary income or loss

(A) In general

Except as otherwise provided in this section, any foreign currency gain or loss attributable to a section 988 transaction shall be computed separately and treated as ordinary income or loss (as the case may be).

(B) Special rule for forward contracts, etc.

Except as provided in regulations, a taxpayer may elect to treat any foreign currency gain or loss attributable to a forward contract, a futures contract, or option described in subsection (c)(1)(B)(iii) which is a capital asset in the hands of the taxpayer and which is not a part of a straddle (within the meaning of section 1092(c), without regard to paragraph (4) thereof) as capital gain or loss (as the case may be) if the taxpayer makes such election and identifies such transaction before the close of the day on which such transaction is entered into (or such earlier time as the Secretary may prescribe).

(2) Gain or loss treated as interest for certain purposes

To the extent provided in regulations, any amount treated as ordinary income or loss under paragraph (1) shall be treated as interest income or expense (as the case may be).

(3) Source

(A) In general

Except as otherwise provided in regulations, in the case of any amount treated as ordinary income or loss under paragraph (1) (without regard to paragraph (1)(B)), the source of such amount shall be determined by reference to the residence of the taxpayer or the qualified business unit of the taxpayer on whose books the asset, liability, or item of income or expense is properly reflected.

(B) Residence

For purposes of this subpart—

(i) In general

The residence of any person shall be—

(I) in the case of an individual, the country in which such individual's tax home (as defined in section 911(d)(3)) is located,

(II) in the case of any corporation, partnership, trust, or estate which is a United States person (as defined in section 7701(a)(30)), the United States, and

(III) in the case of any corporation, partnership, trust, or estate which is not a United States person, a country other than the United States.


 If an individual does not have a tax home (as so defined), the residence of such individual shall be the United States if such individual is a United States citizen or a resident alien and shall be a country other than the United States if such individual is not a United States citizen or a resident alien.

(ii) Exception

In the case of a qualified business unit of any taxpayer (including an individual), the residence of such unit shall be the country in which the principal place of business of such qualified business unit is located.

(iii) Special rule for partnerships

To the extent provided in regulations, in the case of a partnership, the determination of residence shall be made at the partner level.

(C) Special rule for certain related party loans

Except to the extent provided in regulations, in the case of a loan by a United States person or a related person to a 10-percent owned foreign corporation which is denominated in a currency other than the dollar and bears interest at a rate at least 10 percentage points higher than the Federal mid-term rate (determined under section 1274(d)) at the time such loan is entered into, the following rules shall apply:

(i) For purposes of section 904 only, such loan shall be marked to market on an annual basis.

(ii) Any interest income earned with respect to such loan for the taxable year shall be treated as income from sources within the United States to the extent of any loss attributable to clause (i).


For purposes of this subparagraph, the term “related person” has the meaning given such term by section 954(d)(3), except that such section shall be applied by substituting “United States person” for “controlled foreign corporation” each place such term appears.

(D) 10-percent owned foreign corporation

The term “10-percent owned foreign corporation” means any foreign corporation in which the United States person owns directly or indirectly at least 10 percent of the voting stock.

(b) Foreign currency gain or loss

For purposes of this section—

(1) Foreign currency gain

The term “foreign currency gain” means any gain from a section 988 transaction to the extent such gain does not exceed gain realized by reason of changes in exchange rates on or after the booking date and before the payment date.

(2) Foreign currency loss

The term “foreign currency loss” means any loss from a section 988 transaction to the extent such loss does not exceed the loss realized by reason of changes in exchange rates on or after the booking date and before the payment date.

(3) Special rule for certain contracts, etc.

In the case of any section 988 transaction described in subsection (c)(1)(B)(iii), any gain or loss from such transaction shall be treated as foreign currency gain or loss (as the case may be).

(c) Other definitions

For purposes of this section—

(1) Section 988 transaction

(A) In general

The term “section 988 transaction” means any transaction described in subparagraph (B) if the amount which the taxpayer is entitled to receive (or is required to pay) by reason of such transaction—

(i) is denominated in terms of a nonfunctional currency, or

(ii) is determined by reference to the value of 1 or more nonfunctional currencies.

(B) Description of transactions

For purposes of subparagraph (A), the following transactions are described in this subparagraph:

(i) The acquisition of a debt instrument or becoming the obligor under a debt instrument.

(ii) Accruing (or otherwise taking into account) for purposes of this subtitle any item of expense or gross income or receipts which is to be paid or received after the date on which so accrued or taken into account.

(iii) Entering into or acquiring any forward contract, futures contract, option, or similar financial instrument.


The Secretary may prescribe regulations excluding from the application of clause (ii) any class of items the taking into account of which is not necessary to carry out the purposes of this section by reason of the small amounts or short periods involved, or otherwise.

(C) Special rules for disposition of nonfunctional currency

(i) In general

In the case of any disposition of any nonfunctional currency—

(I) such disposition shall be treated as a section 988 transaction, and

(II) any gain or loss from such transaction shall be treated as foreign currency gain or loss (as the case may be).

(ii) Nonfunctional currency

For purposes of this section, the term “nonfunctional currency” includes coin or currency, and nonfunctional currency denominated demand or time deposits or similar instruments issued by a bank or other financial institution.

(D) Exception for certain instruments marked to market

(i) In general

Clause (iii) of subparagraph (B) shall not apply to any regulated futures contract or nonequity option which would be marked to market under section 1256 if held on the last day of the taxable year.

(ii) Election out

(I) In general

The taxpayer may elect to have clause (i) not apply to such taxpayer. Such an election shall apply to contracts held at any time during the taxable year for which such election is made or any succeeding taxable year unless such election is revoked with the consent of the Secretary.

(II) Time for making election

Except as provided in regulations, an election under subclause (I) for any taxable year shall be made on or before the 1st day of such taxable year (or, if later, on or before the 1st day during such year on which the taxpayer holds a contract described in clause (i)).

(III) Special rule for partnerships, etc.

In the case of a partnership, an election under subclause (I) shall be made by each partner separately. A similar rule shall apply in the case of an S corporation.

(iii) Treatment of certain partnerships

This subparagraph shall not apply to any income or loss of a partnership for any taxable year if such partnership made an election under subparagraph (E)(iii)(V) for such year or any preceding year.

(E) Special rules for certain funds

(i) In general

In the case of a qualified fund, clause (iii) of subparagraph (B) shall not apply to any instrument which would be marked to market under section 1256 if held on the last day of the taxable year (determined after the application of clause (iv)).

(ii) Special rule where electing partnership does not qualify

If any partnership made an election under clause (iii)(V) for any taxable year and such partnership has a net loss for such year or any succeeding year from instruments referred to in clause (i), the rules of clauses (i) and (iv) shall apply to any such loss year whether or not such partnership is a qualified fund for such year.

(iii) Qualified fund defined

For purposes of this subparagraph, the term “qualified fund” means any partnership if—

(I) at all times during the taxable year (and during each preceding taxable year to which an election under subclause (V) applied), such partnership has at least 20 partners and no single partner owns more than 20 percent of the interests in the capital or profits of the partnership,

(II) the principal activity of such partnership for such taxable year (and each such preceding taxable year) consists of buying and selling options, futures, or forwards with respect to commodities,

(III) at least 90 percent of the gross income of the partnership for the taxable year (and for each such preceding taxable year) consisted of income or gains described in subparagraph (A), (B), or (G) of section 7704(d)(1) or gain from the sale or disposition of capital assets held for the production of interest or dividends,

(IV) no more than a de minimis amount of the gross income of the partnership for the taxable year (and each such preceding taxable year) was derived from buying and selling commodities, and

(V) an election under this subclause applies to the taxable year.


 An election under subclause (V) for any taxable year shall be made on or before the 1st day of such taxable year (or, if later, on or before the 1st day during such year on which the partnership holds an instrument referred to in clause (i)). Any such election shall apply to the taxable year for which made and all succeeding taxable years unless revoked with the consent of the Secretary.

(iv) Treatment of certain currency contracts

(I) In general

Except as provided in regulations, in the case of a qualified fund, any bank forward contract, any foreign currency futures contract traded on a foreign exchange, or to the extent provided in regulations any similar instrument, which is not otherwise a section 1256 contract shall be treated as a section 1256 contract for purposes of section 1256.

(II) Gains and losses treated as short-term

In the case of any instrument treated as a section 1256 contract under subclause (I), subparagraph (A) of section 1256(a)(3) shall be applied by substituting “100 percent” for “40 percent” (and subparagraph (B) of such section shall not apply).

(v) Special rules for clause (iii)(I)

(I) Certain general partners

The interest of a general partner in the partnership shall not be treated as failing to meet the 20-percent ownership requirements of clause (iii)(I) for any taxable year of the partnership if, for the taxable year of the partner in which such partnership taxable year ends, such partner (and each corporation filing a consolidated return with such partner) had no ordinary income or loss from a section 988 transaction which is foreign currency gain or loss (as the case may be).

(II) Treatment of incentive compensation

For purposes of clause (iii)(I), any income allocable to a general partner as incentive compensation based on profits rather than capital shall not be taken into account in determining such partner's interest in the profits of the partnership.

(III) Treatment of tax-exempt partners

Except as provided in regulations, the interest of a partner in the partnership shall not be treated as failing to meet the 20-percent ownership requirements of clause (iii)(I) if none of the income of such partner from such partnership is subject to tax under this chapter (whether directly or through 1 or more pass-thru entities).

(IV) Look-thru rule

In determining whether the requirements of clause (iii)(I) are met with respect to any partnership, except to the extent provided in regulations, any interest in such partnership held by another partnership shall be treated as held proportionately by the partners in such other partnership.

(vi) Other special rules

For purposes of this subparagraph—

(I) Related persons

Interests in the partnership held by persons related to each other (within the meaning of sections 267(b) and 707(b)) shall be treated as held by 1 person.

(II) Predecessors

References to any partnership shall include a reference to any predecessor thereof.

(III) Inadvertent terminations

Rules similar to the rules of section 7704(e) shall apply.

(IV) Treatment of certain debt instruments

For purposes of clause (iii)(IV), any debt instrument which is a section 988 transaction shall be treated as a commodity.

(2) Booking date

The term “booking date” means—

(A) in the case of a transaction described in paragraph (1)(B)(i), the date of acquisition or on which the taxpayer becomes the obligor, or

(B) in the case of a transaction described in paragraph (1)(B)(ii), the date on which accrued or otherwise taken into account.

(3) Payment date

The term “payment date” means the date on which the payment is made or received.

(4) Debt instrument

The term “debt instrument” means a bond, debenture, note, or certificate or other evidence of indebtedness. To the extent provided in regulations, such term shall include preferred stock.

(5) Special rules where taxpayer takes or makes delivery

If the taxpayer takes or makes delivery in connection with any section 988 transaction described in paragraph (1)(B)(iii), any gain or loss (determined as if the taxpayer sold the contract, option, or instrument on the date on which he took or made delivery for its fair market value on such date) shall be recognized in the same manner as if such contract, option, or instrument were so sold.

(d) Treatment of 988 hedging transactions

(1) In general

To the extent provided in regulations, if any section 988 transaction is part of a 988 hedging transaction, all transactions which are part of such 988 hedging transaction shall be integrated and treated as a single transaction or otherwise treated consistently for purposes of this subtitle. For purposes of the preceding sentence, the determination of whether any transaction is a section 988 transaction shall be determined without regard to whether such transaction would otherwise be marked-to-market under section 475 or 1256 and such term shall not include any transaction with respect to which an election is made under subsection (a)(1)(B). Sections 475, 1092, and 1256 shall not apply to a transaction covered by this subsection.

(2) 988 hedging transaction

For purposes of paragraph (1), the term “988 hedging transaction” means any transaction—

(A) entered into by the taxpayer primarily—

(i) to manage risk of currency fluctuations with respect to property which is held or to be held by the taxpayer, or

(ii) to manage risk of currency fluctuations with respect to borrowings made or to be made, or obligations incurred or to be incurred, by the taxpayer, and


(B) identified by the Secretary or the taxpayer as being a 988 hedging transaction.

(e) Application to individuals

(1) In general

The preceding provisions of this section shall not apply to any section 988 transaction entered into by an individual which is a personal transaction.

(2) Exclusion for certain personal transactions

If—

(A) nonfunctional currency is disposed of by an individual in any transaction, and

(B) such transaction is a personal transaction,


no gain shall be recognized for purposes of this subtitle by reason of changes in exchange rates after such currency was acquired by such individual and before such disposition. The preceding sentence shall not apply if the gain which would otherwise be recognized on the transaction exceeds $200.

(3) Personal transactions

For purposes of this subsection, the term “personal transaction” means any transaction entered into by an individual, except that such term shall not include any transaction to the extent that expenses properly allocable to such transaction meet the requirements of—

(A) section 162 (other than traveling expenses described in subsection (a)(2) thereof), or

(B) section 212 (other than that part of section 212 dealing with expenses incurred in connection with taxes).

(Added Pub. L. 99–514, title XII, §1261(a), Oct. 22, 1986, 100 Stat. 2587; amended Pub. L. 100–647, title I, §1012(v)(2)(A), (3), (4), (6)–(8), title VI, §6130(a), (b), Nov. 10, 1988, 102 Stat. 3529, 3530, 3717; Pub. L. 101–239, title VII, §7811(i)(7), Dec. 19, 1989, 103 Stat. 2410; Pub. L. 103–66, title XIII, §13223(b)(1), Aug. 10, 1993, 107 Stat. 484; Pub. L. 105–34, title XI, §1104(a), Aug. 5, 1997, 111 Stat. 967; Pub. L. 106–170, title V, §532(b)(3), Dec. 17, 1999, 113 Stat. 1930.)

Amendments

1999—Subsec. (d)(2)(A)(i), (ii). Pub. L. 106–170 substituted “to manage” for “to reduce”.

1997—Subsec. (e). Pub. L. 105–34 amended heading and text of subsec. (e) generally. Prior to amendment, text read as follows: “This section shall apply to section 988 transactions entered into by an individual only to the extent expenses properly allocable to such transactions meet the requirements of section 162 or 212 (other than that part of section 212 dealing with expenses incurred in connection with taxes).”

1993—Subsec. (d)(1). Pub. L. 103–66 substituted “section 475 or 1256” for “section 1256” and “Sections 475, 1092, and 1256” for “Sections 1092 and 1256”.

1989—Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 101–239 inserted introductory provision “Notwithstanding any other provision of this chapter—”.

1988—Subsec. (a)(3)(B)(i). Pub. L. 100–647, §1012(v)(8), inserted at end “If an individual does not have a tax home (as so defined), the residence of such individual shall be the United States if such individual is a United States citizen or a resident alien and shall be a country other than the United States if such individual is not a United States citizen or a resident alien.”

Subsec. (a)(3)(B)(iii). Pub. L. 100–647, §1012(v)(7), added cl. (iii).

Subsec. (b)(3). Pub. L. 100–647, §1012(v)(3)(A), added par. (3).

Subsec. (c)(1)(B)(iii). Pub. L. 100–647, §6130(a), struck out “unless such instrument would be marked to market under section 1256 if held on the last day of the taxable year” after “similar financial instrument”.

Pub. L. 100–647, §1012(v)(6), amended cl. (iii) generally. Prior to amendment, cl. (iii) read as follows: “Entering into or acquiring any forward contract, futures contract, option, or similar financial instrument if such instrument is not marked to market at the close of the taxable year under section 1256.”

Subsec. (c)(1)(C)(i)(II). Pub. L. 100–647, §1012(v)(3)(B), amended subcl. (II) generally. Prior to amendment, subcl. (II) read as follows: “for purposes of determining the foreign currency gain or loss from such transaction, paragraphs (1) and (2) of subsection (b) shall be applied by substituting ‘acquisition date’ for ‘booking date’ and ‘disposition’ for ‘payment date’.”

Subsec. (c)(1)(D), (E). Pub. L. 100–647, §6130(b), added subpars. (D) and (E).

Subsec. (c)(2)(C). Pub. L. 100–647, §1012(v)(3)(C), struck out subpar. (C) which defined “booking date” in the case of a transaction described in par. (1)(B)(iii) as the date on which the position is entered into or acquired.

Subsec. (c)(3). Pub. L. 100–647, §1012(v)(3)(D), amended par. (3) generally. Prior to amendment, par. (3) read as follows: “The term ‘payment date’ means—

“(A) in the case of a transaction described in paragraph (1)(B)(i) or (ii), the date on which payment is made or received, or

“(B) in the case of a transaction described in paragraph (1)(B)(iii), the date payment is made or received or the date the taxpayer's rights with respect to the position are terminated.”

Subsec. (c)(5). Pub. L. 100–647, §1012(v)(2)(A), added par. (5).

Subsec. (d)(1). Pub. L. 100–647, §1012(v)(4), substituted “this subtitle” for “this section”.

Effective Date of 1999 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 106–170 applicable to any instrument held, acquired, or entered into, any transaction entered into, and supplies held or acquired on or after Dec. 17, 1999, see section 532(d) of Pub. L. 106–170, set out as a note under section 170 of this title.

Effective Date of 1997 Amendment

Section 1104(b) of Pub. L. 105–34 provided that: “The amendments made by this section [amending this section] shall apply to taxable years beginning after December 31, 1997.”

Effective Date of 1993 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 103–66 applicable to all taxable years ending on or after Dec. 31, 1993, with special rules for taxpayers required to change accounting methods and for floor specialists and market makers, see section 13223(c) of Pub. L. 103–66, set out as an Effective Date note under section 475 of this title.

Effective Date of 1989 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 101–239 effective, except as otherwise provided, as if included in the provision of the Technical and Miscellaneous Revenue Act of 1988, Pub. L. 100–647, to which such amendment relates, see section 7817 of Pub. L. 101–239, set out as a note under section 1 of this title.

Effective Date of 1988 Amendment

Section 1012(v)(2)(B) of Pub. L. 100–647 provided that: “The amendment made by subparagraph (A) [amending this section] shall not apply in any case in which the taxpayer takes or makes delivery before June 11, 1987.”

Amendment by section 1012(v)(3), (4), (6)–(8) of Pub. L. 100–647 effective, except as otherwise provided, as if included in the provision of the Tax Reform Act of 1986, Pub. L. 99–514, to which such amendment relates, see section 1019(a) of Pub. L. 100–647, set out as a note under section 1 of this title.

Section 6130(d) of Pub. L. 100–647 provided that:

“(1) In general.—The amendments made by this section [amending this section and section 1092 of this title] shall apply with respect to forward contracts, future contracts, options, and similar instruments entered into or acquired after October 21, 1988.

“(2) Time for making election.—The time for making any election under subparagraph (D) or (E) of section 988(c)(1) of the 1986 Code shall not expire before the date 30 days after the date of the enactment of this Act [Nov. 10, 1988].

“(3) Transitional rules.—

“(A) The requirements of subclause (IV) of section 988(c)(1)(E)(iii) of the 1986 Code (as added by subsection (b)) shall not apply to periods before the date of the enactment of this Act.

“(B) In the case of any partner in an existing partnership, the 20-percent ownership requirements of subclause (I) of such section 988(c)(1)(E)(iii) shall be treated as met during any period during which such partner does not own a percentage interest in the capital or profits of such partnership greater than 331/3 percent (or, if lower, the lowest such percentage interest of such partner during any prior period after October 21, 1988, during which such partnership is in existence). For purposes of the preceding sentence, the term ‘existing partnership’ means any partnership if—

“(i) such partnership was in existence on October 21, 1988, and principally engaged on such date in buying and selling options, futures, or forwards with respect to commodities, or

“(ii) a registration statement was filed with respect to such partnership with the Securities and Exchange Commission on or before such date and such registration statement indicated that the principal activity of such partnership will consist of buying and selling instruments referred to in clause (i).”

Effective Date

Section applicable to taxable years beginning after Dec. 31, 1986, with certain exceptions and qualifications, see section 1261(e) of Pub. L. 99–514, set out as a note under section 985 of this title.

§989. Other definitions and special rules

(a) Qualified business unit

For purposes of this subpart, the term “qualified business unit” means any separate and clearly identified unit of a trade or business of a taxpayer which maintains separate books and records.

(b) Appropriate exchange rate

Except as provided in regulations, for purposes of this subpart, the term “appropriate exchange rate” means—

(1) in the case of an actual distribution of earnings and profits, the spot rate on the date such distribution is included in income,

(2) in the case of an actual or deemed sale or exchange of stock in a foreign corporation treated as a dividend under section 1248, the spot rate on the date the deemed dividend is included in income,

(3) in the case of any amounts included in income under section 951(a)(1)(A) or 1293(a), the average exchange rate for the taxable year of the foreign corporation, or

(4) in the case of any other qualified business unit of a taxpayer, the average exchange rate for the taxable year of such qualified business unit.


For purposes of the preceding sentence, any amount included in income under section 951(a)(1)(B) shall be treated as an actual distribution made on the last day of the taxable year for which such amount was so included.

(c) Regulations

The Secretary shall prescribe such regulations as may be necessary or appropriate to carry out the purposes of this subpart, including regulations—

(1) setting forth procedures to be followed by taxpayers with qualified business units using a net worth method of accounting before the enactment of this subpart,

(2) limiting the recognition of foreign currency loss on certain remittances from qualified business units,

(3) providing for the recharacterization of interest and principal payments with respect to obligations denominated in certain hyperinflationary currencies,

(4) providing for alternative adjustments to the application of section 905(c),

(5) providing for the appropriate treatment of related party transactions (including transactions between qualified business units of the same taxpayer), and

(6) setting forth procedures for determining the average exchange rate for any period.

(Added Pub. L. 99–514, title XII, §1261(a), Oct. 22, 1986, 100 Stat. 2590; amended Pub. L. 100–647, title I, §1012(v)(5), Nov. 10, 1988, 102 Stat. 3529; Pub. L. 103–66, title XIII, §13231(c)(4)(C), Aug. 10, 1993, 107 Stat. 499; Pub. L. 104–188, title I, §1501(b)(9), Aug. 20, 1996, 110 Stat. 1826; Pub. L. 105–34, title XI, §1102(b)(2), (3), Aug. 5, 1997, 111 Stat. 966; Pub. L. 108–357, title IV, §413(c)(17), Oct. 22, 2004, 118 Stat. 1508.)

References in Text

The enactment of this subpart, referred to in subsec. (c)(1), probably means the date of enactment of Pub. L. 99–514, which was approved Oct. 22, 1986.

Amendments

2004—Subsec. (b)(3). Pub. L. 108–357 struck out “, 551(a),” after “section 951(a)(1)(A)”.

1997—Subsec. (b)(3), (4). Pub. L. 105–34, §1102(b)(3), struck out “weighted” before “average exchange rate”.

Subsec. (c)(6). Pub. L. 105–34, §1102(b)(2), added par. (6).

1996—Subsec. (b). Pub. L. 104–188 substituted “section 951(a)(1)(B)” for “subparagraph (B) or (C) of section 951(a)(1)” in closing provisions.

1993—Subsec. (b). Pub. L. 103–66 substituted “subparagraph (B) or (C) of section 951(a)(1)” for “section 951(a)(1)(B)” in last sentence.

1988—Subsec. (b). Pub. L. 100–647 substituted in par. (3) “section 951(a)(1)(A)” for “section 951(a)” and inserted at end “For purposes of the preceding sentence, any amount included in income under section 951(a)(1)(B) shall be treated as an actual distribution made on the last day of the taxable year for which such amount was so included.”

Effective Date of 2004 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 108–357 applicable to taxable years of foreign corporations beginning after Dec. 31, 2004, and to taxable years of United States shareholders with or within which such taxable years of foreign corporations end, see section 413(d)(1) of Pub. L. 108–357, set out as an Effective and Termination Dates of 2004 Amendments note under section 1 of this title.

Effective Date of 1997 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 105–34 applicable to taxes paid or accrued in taxable years beginning after Dec. 31, 1997, see section 1102(c)(1) of Pub. L. 105–34, set out as a note under section 986 of this title.

Effective Date of 1996 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 104–188 applicable to taxable years of foreign corporations beginning after Dec. 31, 1996, and to taxable years of United States shareholders within which or with which such taxable years of foreign corporations end, see section 1501(d) of Pub. L. 104–188, set out as a note under section 904 of this title.

Effective Date of 1993 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 103–66 applicable to taxable years of foreign corporations beginning after Sept. 30, 1993, and to taxable years of United States shareholders in which or with which such taxable years of foreign corporations end, see section 13231(e) of Pub. L. 103–66, set out as a note under section 951 of this title.

Effective Date of 1988 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 100–647 effective, except as otherwise provided, as if included in the provision of the Tax Reform Act of 1986, Pub. L. 99–514, to which such amendment relates, see section 1019(a) of Pub. L. 100–647, set out as a note under section 1 of this title.

Effective Date

Section applicable to taxable years beginning after Dec. 31, 1986, with certain exceptions and qualifications, see section 1261(e) of Pub. L. 99–514, set out as a note under section 985 of this title.