26 U.S.C.
United States Code, 2011 Edition
Title 26 - INTERNAL REVENUE CODE
Subtitle F - Procedure and Administration
CHAPTER 61 - INFORMATION AND RETURNS
Subchapter A - Returns and Records
PART II - TAX RETURNS OR STATEMENTS
From the U.S. Government Printing Office, www.gpo.gov

PART II—TAX RETURNS OR STATEMENTS

Subpart
A.
General requirement.
B.
Income tax returns.
C.
Estate and gift tax returns.
D.
Miscellaneous provisions.

        

Amendment of Analysis

For termination of amendment by section 304 of Pub. L. 111–312, see Effective and Termination Dates of 2010 Amendment note set out under section 121 of this title.

For termination of amendment by section 901 of Pub. L. 107–16, see Effective and Termination Dates of 2001 Amendment note set out under section 1 of this title.

Amendments

2010—Pub. L. 111–312, title III, §§301(a), 304, Dec. 17, 2010, 124 Stat. 3300, 3304, temporarily amended analysis to read as if amendment by Pub. L. 107–16, §542(b)(5)(B), had never been enacted. See 2001 Amendment note below.

2001—Pub. L. 107–16, title V, §542(b)(5)(B), title IX, §901, June 7, 2001, 115 Stat. 84, 150, temporarily substituted “Returns relating to transfers during life or at death” for “Estate and gift tax returns” in item for subpart C.

Subpart A—General Requirement

Sec.
6011.
General requirement of return, statement, or list.

        

§6011. General requirement of return, statement, or list

(a) General rule

When required by regulations prescribed by the Secretary any person made liable for any tax imposed by this title, or with respect to the collection thereof, shall make a return or statement according to the forms and regulations prescribed by the Secretary. Every person required to make a return or statement shall include therein the information required by such forms or regulations.

(b) Identification of taxpayer

The Secretary is authorized to require such information with respect to persons subject to the taxes imposed by chapter 21 or chapter 24 as is necessary or helpful in securing proper identification of such persons.

(c) Returns, etc., of DISCS and former DISCS and former FSC's

(1) Records and information

A DISC, former DISC, or former FSC (as defined in section 922 as in effect before its repeal by the FSC Repeal and Extraterritorial Income Exclusion Act of 2000) shall for the taxable year—

(A) furnish such information to persons who were shareholders at any time during such taxable year, and to the Secretary, and

(B) keep such records, as may be required by regulations prescribed by the Secretary.

(2) Returns

A DISC shall file for the taxable year such returns as may be prescribed by the Secretary by forms or regulations.

(d) Authority to require information concerning section 912 allowances

The Secretary may by regulations require any individual who receives allowances which are excluded from gross income under section 912 for any taxable year to include on his return of the taxes imposed by subtitle A for such taxable year such information with respect to the amount and type of such allowances as the Secretary determines to be appropriate.

(e) Regulations requiring returns on magnetic media, etc.

(1) In general

The Secretary shall prescribe regulations providing standards for determining which returns must be filed on magnetic media or in other machine-readable form. Except as provided in paragraph (3), the Secretary may not require returns of any tax imposed by subtitle A on individuals, estates, and trusts to be other than on paper forms supplied by the Secretary.

(2) Requirements of regulations

In prescribing regulations under paragraph (1), the Secretary—

(A) shall not require any person to file returns on magnetic media unless such person is required to file at least 250 returns during the calendar year, and

(B) shall take into account (among other relevant factors) the ability of the taxpayer to comply at reasonable cost with the requirements of such regulations.


Notwithstanding the preceding sentence, the Secretary shall require partnerships having more than 100 partners to file returns on magnetic media.

(3) Special rule for tax return preparers

(A) In general

The Secretary shall require than 1 any individual income tax return prepared by a tax return preparer be filed on magnetic media if—

(i) such return is filed by such tax return preparer, and

(ii) such tax return preparer is a specified tax return preparer for the calendar year during which such return is filed.

(B) Specified tax return preparer

For purposes of this paragraph, the term “specified tax return preparer” means, with respect to any calendar year, any tax return preparer unless such preparer reasonably expects to file 10 or fewer individual income tax returns during such calendar year.

(C) Individual income tax return

For purposes of this paragraph, the term “individual income tax return” means any return of the tax imposed by subtitle A on individuals, estates, or trusts.

(4) Special rule for returns filed by financial institutions with respect to withholding on foreign transfers

The numerical limitation under paragraph (2)(A) shall not apply to any return filed by a financial institution (as defined in section 1471(d)(5)) with respect to tax for which such institution is made liable under section 1461 or 1474(a).

(f) Promotion of electronic filing

(1) In general

The Secretary is authorized to promote the benefits of and encourage the use of electronic tax administration programs, as they become available, through the use of mass communications and other means.

(2) Incentives

The Secretary may implement procedures to provide for the payment of appropriate incentives for electronically filed returns.

(g) Disclosure of reportable transaction to tax-exempt entity

Any taxable party to a prohibited tax shelter transaction (as defined in section 4965(e)(1)) shall by statement disclose to any tax-exempt entity (as defined in section 4965(c)) which is a party to such transaction that such transaction is such a prohibited tax shelter transaction.

(h) Income, estate, and gift taxes

For requirement that returns of income, estate, and gift taxes be made whether or not there is tax liability, see subparts B and C.

(Aug. 16, 1954, ch. 736, 68A Stat. 732; Pub. L. 85–859, title I, §161, Sept. 2, 1958, 72 Stat. 1305; Pub. L. 88–563, §3(a), Sept. 2, 1964, 78 Stat. 843; Pub. L. 89–44, title I, §101(b)(6), June 21, 1965, 79 Stat. 136; Pub. L. 90–59, §4(b), July 31, 1967, 81 Stat. 154; Pub. L. 91–128, §4 (f), (g), Nov. 26, 1969, 83 Stat. 267; Pub. L. 92–178, title V, §504(a), Dec. 10, 1971, 85 Stat. 550; Pub. L. 94–455, title XIX, §§1904(b)(10)(A)(ii), 1906(b)(13)(A), Oct. 4, 1976, 90 Stat. 1817, 1834; Pub. L. 95–615, §207(c), Nov. 8, 1978, 92 Stat. 3108; Pub. L. 97–248, title III, §319, Sept. 3, 1982, 96 Stat. 610; Pub. L. 98–67, title I, §109(a), Aug. 5, 1983, 97 Stat. 383; Pub. L. 98–369, div. A, title VIII, §801(d)(12), July 18, 1984, 98 Stat. 997; Pub. L. 99–514, title XVIII, §1899A(52), Oct. 22, 1986, 100 Stat. 2961; Pub. L. 100–647, title I, §1015(q)(1), Nov. 10, 1988, 102 Stat. 3572; Pub. L. 101–239, title VII, §7713(a), Dec. 19, 1989, 103 Stat. 2394; Pub. L. 105–34, title XII, §1224, Aug. 5, 1997, 111 Stat. 1019; Pub. L. 105–206, title II, §2001(c), July 22, 1998, 112 Stat. 723; Pub. L. 109–222, title V, §516(b)(2), May 17, 2006, 120 Stat. 371; Pub. L. 110–172, §11(g)(19), Dec. 29, 2007, 121 Stat. 2491; Pub. L. 111–92, §17(a), (b), Nov. 6, 2009, 123 Stat. 2996; Pub. L. 111–147, title V, §522(a), Mar. 18, 2010, 124 Stat. 112.)

References in Text

The FSC Repeal and Extraterritorial Income Exclusion Act of 2000, referred to in subsec. (c)(1), is Pub. L. 106–519, Nov. 15, 2000, 114 Stat. 2423. For complete classification of this Act to the Code, see Short Title of 2000 Amendments note set out under section 1 of this title and Tables.

Amendments

2010—Subsec. (e)(4). Pub. L. 111–147 added par. (4).

2009—Subsec. (e)(1). Pub. L. 111–92, §17(b), substituted “Except as provided in paragraph (3), the Secretary may not” for “The Secretary may not” in second sentence.

Subsec. (e)(3). Pub. L. 111–92, §17(a), added par. (3).

2007—Subsec. (c). Pub. L. 110–172, §11(g)(19)(B), struck out “and FSC's” after “former DISCS” in heading.

Subsec. (c)(1). Pub. L. 110–172, §11(g)(19)(A), in introductory provisions, substituted “, former DISC, or former FSC (as defined in section 922 as in effect before its repeal by the FSC Repeal and Extraterritorial Income Exclusion Act of 2000)” for “or former DISC or a FSC or former FSC”.

2006—Subsecs. (g), (h). Pub. L. 109–222 added subsec. (g) and redesignated former subsec. (g) as (h).

1998—Subsecs. (f), (g). Pub. L. 105–206 added subsec. (f) and redesignated former subsec. (f) as (g).

1997—Subsec. (e)(2). Pub. L. 105–34 inserted at end “Notwithstanding the preceding sentence, the Secretary shall require partnerships having more than 100 partners to file returns on magnetic media.”

1989—Subsec. (e). Pub. L. 101–239 substituted “magnetic media” for “magnetic tape” in heading and amended text generally, revising the content and structure of pars. (1) and (2).

1988—Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 100–647 substituted “or with respect to the collection thereof” for “or for the collection thereof”.

1986—Subsec. (f). Pub. L. 99–514 substituted “subparts B and C” for “sections 6012 to 6019, inclusive”.

1984—Subsec. (c). Pub. L. 98–369 inserted “and FSC's and former FSC's” in heading and “or a FSC or former FSC” in par. (1).

1983—Subsec. (e). Pub. L. 98–67 amended subsec. (e) generally, designating existing provisions as par. (1) and adding par. (2).

1982—Subsecs. (e), (f). Pub. L. 97–248 added subsec. (e) and redesignated former subsec. (e) as (f).

1978—Subsecs. (d), (e). Pub. L. 95–615 added subsec. (d) and redesignated former subsec. (d) as (e).

1976—Subsecs. (a), (b). Pub. L. 94–455, §1906(b)(13)(A), struck out “or his delegate” after “Secretary”.

Subsec. (c). Pub. L. 94–455, §§1904(b)(10)(A)(ii), 1906(b)(13)(A), redesignated subsec. (e) as (c) and struck out “or his delegate” after “Secretary” wherever appearing.

Subsec. (d). Pub. L. 94–455, §1904(b)(10)(A)(ii), redesignated subsec. (f) as (d). Former subsec. (d), which related to interest equalization tax returns, was struck out.

Subsecs. (e), (f). Pub. L. 94–455, §1904(b)(10)(A)(ii), redesignated subsecs. (e) and (f) as (c) and (d), respectively.

1971—Subsecs. (e), (f). Pub. L. 92–178 added subsec. (e) and redesignated former subsec. (e) as (f).

1969—Subsec. (d)(1)(B). Pub. L. 91–128, §4(f), inserted provisions excepting dispositions made under circumstances entitling the person to a credit under the provisions of section 4919 from the requirement that persons incurring liability for the tax imposed by section 4911 of this title, if he disposes of the stock or debt obligation with respect to which such liability was incurred prior to the filing of the return required by subparagraph (A), file a return of such tax.

Subsec. (d)(3). Pub. L. 91–128, §4(g), eased recordkeeping requirements by providing that nonparticipating be subject to the recordkeeping and reporting requirements prescribed by the Secretary or his delegate only insofar as they engage in sales or acquisitions in which the nonparticipating firm has received a validation certificate indicating the stock or debt obligation qualifies for the exemption or where the U.S. person acquiring the stock or debt obligation is subject to the interest equalization tax, including acquisitions where a broker's confirmation to the customer indicates, or should indicate that the particular acquisition is or may be subject to the tax.

1967—Subsec. (d)(1). Pub. L. 90–59 designated existing provisions as subpar. (A), substituted a copy of any return made during a quarter under subpar. (B) for a certificate of American ownership complying with section 4918(e) or a summary statement establishing exemption together with reasons for person's inability to establish prior American ownership as the document to accompany the list of acquisitions made during the calendar quarter for which an exemption is claimed under section 4918, struck out “a written confirmation, furnished in accordance with the requirements described in section 4918(c) or (d), is treated as conclusive proof of prior American ownership;” after “No return or accompanying evidence shall be required under this paragraph, in connection with any acquisition with respect to which”, and added clauses (i), (ii), and (iii) and subpar. (B).

1965—Subsec. (c). Pub. L. 89–44 repealed subsec. (c) which related to return of retailers excise taxes by suppliers.

1964—Subsecs. (d), (e). Pub. L. 88–563 added subsec. (d) and redesignated former subsec. (d) as (e).

1958—Subsecs. (c), (d). Pub. L. 85–859 added subsec. (c) and redesignated former subsec. (c) as (d).

Effective Date of 2010 Amendment

Pub. L. 111–147, title V, §522(c), Mar. 18, 2010, 124 Stat. 113, provided that: “The amendment made by this section [amending this section and section 6724 of this title] shall apply to returns the due date for which (determined without regard to extensions) is after the date of the enactment of this Act [Mar. 18, 2010].”

Effective Date of 2009 Amendment

Pub. L. 111–92, §17(c), Nov. 6, 2009, 123 Stat. 2996, provided that: “The amendments made by this section [amending this section] shall apply to returns filed after December 31, 2010.”

Effective Date of 2006 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 109–222 applicable to disclosures the due date for which are after May 17, 2006, see section 516(d)(2) of Pub. L. 109–222, set out as an Effective Date note under section 4965 of this title.

Effective Date of 1997 Amendment

Section 1226 of title XII of Pub. L. 105–34, as amended by Pub. L. 105–206, title VI, §6012(e), July 22, 1998, 112 Stat. 819, provided that: “The amendments made by this part [part I (§§1221–1226) of subtitle C of title XII of Pub. L. 105–34, enacting part IV of subchapter K of chapter 1 of this title and subchapter D of chapter 63 of this title, and amending this section and sections 6012, 6031, 6724, 7421, 7459, 7482, and 7485 of this title] shall apply to partnership taxable years beginning after December 31, 1997.”

Effective Date of 1989 Amendment

Section 7713(b) of Pub. L. 101–239 provided that: “The amendment made by subsection (a) [amending this section] shall apply to returns the due date for which (determined without regard to extensions) is after December 31, 1989.”

Effective Date of 1988 Amendment

Section 1015(q)(2) of Pub. L. 100–647 provided that: “The amendment made by paragraph (1) [amending this section] shall take effect on the date of the enactment of this Act [Nov. 10, 1988].”

Effective Date of 1984 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 98–369 applicable to transactions after Dec. 31, 1984, in taxable years ending after such date, see section 805(a)(1) of Pub. L. 98–369, as amended, set out as a note under section 245 of this title.

Effective Date of 1983 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 98–67 applicable with respect to payments made after Dec. 31, 1983, see section 110(a) of Pub. L. 98–67, set out as a note under section 31 of this title.

Effective Date of 1978 Amendment; Election of Prior Law

Amendment by Pub. L. 95–615 applicable to taxable years beginning after Dec. 31, 1977, with provision for election of prior law, see section 209 of Pub. L. 95–615, set out as an Effective Date of 1978 Amendment note under section 911 of this title.

Effective Date of 1976 Amendment

Amendment by section 1904(b)(10)(A)(ii) of Pub. L. 94–455 effective Feb. 1, 1977, see section 1904(d) of Pub. L. 94–455, set out as a note under section 4041 of this title.

Effective Date of 1971 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 92–178 applicable with respect to taxable years ending after Dec. 31, 1971, except that a corporation may not be a DISC for any taxable year beginning before Jan. 1, 1972, see section 507 of Pub. L. 92–178, set out as an Effective Date note under section 991 of this title.

Effective Date of 1969 Amendment

Section 4(i)(4) of Pub. L. 91–128 provided that: “The amendments made by this section [amending this section and sections 4912, 4914, 4915, 4919, 4920, and 6680 of this title] shall apply with respect to acquisitions of debt obligations made after the date of the enactment of this Act [Nov. 26, 1969].”

Effective Date of 1967 Amendment

Section 4(h) of Pub. L. 90–59 provided that: “The amendments made by this section [amending this section and sections 4918, 4920, and 6076 of this title] (other than by subsections (d) and (e)) shall apply with respect to acquisitions of stock and debt obligations made after July 14, 1967. The amendments made by subsections (d) and (e) [amending sections 6681 and 7241 of this title] shall take effect on the date of the enactment of this Act [July 31, 1967].”

Effective Date of 1965 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 89–44 applicable with respect to articles sold on or after June 22, 1965, see section 701(a) of Pub. L. 89–44, set out as a note under section 4161 of this title.

Effective Date of 1958 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 85–859 effective on first day of first calendar quarter which begins more than 60 days after Sept. 2, 1958, see section 1(c) of Pub. L. 85–859.

Short Title of 1967 Amendment

Section 1(a) of Pub. L. 90–59 provided that: “This Act [amending this section and sections 4912, 4914 to 4920, 4931, 6076, 6681, and 7241 of this title] may be cited as the ‘Interest Equalization Tax Extension Act of 1967’.”

Electronic Filing of Tax and Information Returns

Pub. L. 105–206, title II, §2001(a), (b), (d), July 22, 1998, 112 Stat. 723, 725, provided that:

“(a) In General.—It is the policy of Congress that—

“(1) paperless filing should be the preferred and most convenient means of filing Federal tax and information returns;

“(2) it should be the goal of the Internal Revenue Service to have at least 80 percent of all such returns filed electronically by the year 2007; and

“(3) the Internal Revenue Service should cooperate with and encourage the private sector by encouraging competition to increase electronic filing of such returns.

“(b) Strategic Plan.—

“(1) In general.—Not later than 180 days after the date of the enactment of this Act [July 22, 1998], the Secretary of the Treasury or the Secretary's delegate (hereafter in this section referred to as the ‘Secretary’) shall establish a plan to eliminate barriers, provide incentives, and use competitive market forces to increase electronic filing gradually over the next 10 years while maintaining processing times for paper returns at 40 days. To the extent practicable, such plan shall provide that all returns prepared electronically for taxable years beginning after 2001 shall be filed electronically.

“(2) Electronic commerce advisory group.—To ensure that the Secretary receives input from the private sector in the development and implementation of the plan required by paragraph (1), the Secretary shall convene an electronic commerce advisory group to include representatives from the small business community and from the tax practitioner, preparer, and computerized tax processor communities and other representatives from the electronic filing industry.

“(d) Annual Reports.—Not later than June 30 of each calendar year after 1998, the Chairperson of the Internal Revenue Service Oversight Board, the Secretary of the Treasury, and the Chairperson of the electronic commerce advisory group established under subsection (b)(2) [set out as a note above] shall report to the Committees on Ways and Means, Appropriations, Government Reform and Oversight [now Committee on Oversight and Government Reform], and Small Business of the House of Representatives and the Committees on Finance, Appropriations, Governmental Affairs [now Committee on Homeland Security and Governmental Affairs], and Small Business [now Committee on Small Business and Entrepreneurship] of the Senate on—

“(1) the progress of the Internal Revenue Service in meeting the goal of receiving electronically 80 percent of tax and information returns by 2007;

“(2) the status of the plan required by subsection (b) [set out as a note above];

“(3) the legislative changes necessary to assist the Internal Revenue Service in meeting such goal; and

“(4) the effects on small businesses and the self-employed of electronically filing tax and information returns.”


Pub. L. 105–206, title II, §2003(c), July 22, 1998, 112 Stat. 725, provided that: “In the case of taxable periods beginning after December 31, 1999, the Secretary of the Treasury or the Secretary's delegate shall, to the extent practicable, establish procedures to accept, in electronic form, any other information, statements, elections, or schedules, from taxpayers filing returns electronically, so that such taxpayers will not be required to file any paper.”

Plan Amendments Not Required Until January 1, 1989

For provisions directing that if any amendments made by subtitle A or subtitle C of title XI [§§1101–1147 and 1171–1177] or title XVIII [§§1800–1899A] of Pub. L. 99–514 require an amendment to any plan, such plan amendment shall not be required to be made before the first plan year beginning on or after Jan. 1, 1989, see section 1140 of Pub. L. 99–514, as amended, set out as a note under section 401 of this title.

Study of Wage Returns on Magnetic Tape; Report to Congress Not Later Than July 1, 1984

Section 109(b) of Pub. L. 98–67 required Secretary of the Treasury, in consultation with Secretary of Health and Human Services, to conduct a study of feasibility of requiring persons to file, on magnetic media, returns under section 6011 of the Internal Revenue Code containing information described in section 6051(a) of such Code (relating to W–2s), and that not later than July 1, 1984, Secretary of the Treasury was to submit to Committee on Ways and Means of House of Representatives and Committee on Finance of Senate results of study.

Report on Forms

Section 353 of Pub. L. 97–248 required Secretary of the Treasury to study and report to Congress, not later than June 30, 1983, methods of modifying the design of the forms used by the Internal Revenue Service to achieve greater accuracy in the reporting of income and the matching of information reports and returns with the returns of tax imposed.

Study of Simplification of Tax Returns

Pub. L. 95–600, title V, §551, Nov. 6, 1978, 92 Stat. 2890, required a study and investigation by Secretary of the Treasury with respect to simplification of Federal income tax returns, establishment of a task force to assist in conduct of study, and a report by Secretary on study and investigation to Congressional committees not later than 2 years after Nov. 6, 1978.

First Return Period for Interest Equalization Tax Returns

Section 3(d)(1) of Pub. L. 89–243, Oct. 9, 1965, 79 Stat. 955, provided that the first period for which returns were to be made under subsec. (d)(1) of this section with respect to acquisitions made subject to tax by this section was the period commencing Feb. 11, 1965, and ending at the close of the calendar quarter in which the enactment of Pub. L. 89–243 [Oct. 9, 1965] occurred.

Section 3(e) of Pub. L. 88–563 provided that the first period for which returns were to be made under subsec. (d)(1) of this section was the period commencing July 19, 1963, and ending at the close of the calendar quarter in which the enactment of Pub. L. 88–563 [Sept. 2, 1964] occurred.

1 So in original. Probably should be “that”.

Subpart B—Income Tax Returns

Sec.
6012.
Persons required to make returns of income.
6013.
Joint returns of income tax by husband and wife.
6014.
Income tax return—tax not computed by taxpayer.
6015.
Relief from joint and several liability on joint return.
[6016.
Repealed.]
6017.
Self-employment tax returns.
[6017A.
Repealed.]

        

Amendments

1998—Pub. L. 105–206, title III, §3201(f), July 22, 1998, 112 Stat. 740, added item 6015.

1989—Pub. L. 101–239, title VII, §7711(b)(3), Dec. 19, 1989, 103 Stat. 2393, struck out item 6017A “Place of residence”.

1984—Pub. L. 98–369, div. A, title IV, §412(c)(1), July 18, 1984, 98 Stat. 792, struck out item 6015 “Declaration of estimated income tax by individuals.”

1972—Pub. L. 92–512, title I, §144(a)(2), Oct. 20, 1972, 86 Stat. 935, added item 6017A.

1968—Pub. L. 90–364, title I, §103(e)(7), June 28, 1968, 82 Stat. 264, struck out item 6016 “Declarations of estimated income tax by corporations.”

§6012. Persons required to make returns of income

(a) General rule

Returns with respect to income taxes under subtitle A shall be made by the following:

(1)(A) Every individual having for the taxable year gross income which equals or exceeds the exemption amount, except that a return shall not be required of an individual—

(i) who is not married (determined by applying section 7703), is not a surviving spouse (as defined in section 2(a)), is not a head of a household (as defined in section 2(b)), and for the taxable year has gross income of less than the sum of the exemption amount plus the basic standard deduction applicable to such an individual,

(ii) who is a head of a household (as so defined) and for the taxable year has gross income of less than the sum of the exemption amount plus the basic standard deduction applicable to such an individual,

(iii) who is a surviving spouse (as so defined) and for the taxable year has gross income of less than the sum of the exemption amount plus the basic standard deduction applicable to such an individual, or

(iv) who is entitled to make a joint return and whose gross income, when combined with the gross income of his spouse, is, for the taxable year, less than the sum of twice the exemption amount plus the basic standard deduction applicable to a joint return, but only if such individual and his spouse, at the close of the taxable year, had the same household as their home.


Clause (iv) shall not apply if for the taxable year such spouse makes a separate return or any other taxpayer is entitled to an exemption for such spouse under section 151(c).

(B) The amount specified in clause (i), (ii), or (iii) of subparagraph (A) shall be increased by the amount of 1 additional standard deduction (within the meaning of section 63(c)(3)) in the case of an individual entitled to such deduction by reason of section 63(f)(1)(A) (relating to individuals age 65 or more), and the amount specified in clause (iv) of subparagraph (A) shall be increased by the amount of the additional standard deduction for each additional standard deduction to which the individual or his spouse is entitled by reason of section 63(f)(1).

(C) The exception under subparagraph (A) shall not apply to any individual—

(i) who is described in section 63(c)(5) and who has—

(I) income (other than earned income) in excess of the sum of the amount in effect under section 63(c)(5)(A) plus the additional standard deduction (if any) to which the individual is entitled, or

(II) total gross income in excess of the standard deduction, or


(ii) for whom the standard deduction is zero under section 63(c)(6).


(D) For purposes of this subsection—

(i) The terms “standard deduction”, “basic standard deduction” and “additional standard deduction” have the respective meanings given such terms by section 63(c).

(ii) The term “exemption amount” has the meaning given such term by section 151(d). In the case of an individual described in section 151(d)(2), the exemption amount shall be zero.


(2) Every corporation subject to taxation under subtitle A;

(3) Every estate the gross income of which for the taxable year is $600 or more;

(4) Every trust having for the taxable year any taxable income, or having gross income of $600 or over, regardless of the amount of taxable income;

(5) Every estate or trust of which any beneficiary is a nonresident alien;

(6) Every political organization (within the meaning of section 527(e)(1)), and every fund treated under section 527(g) as if it constituted a political organization, which has political organization taxable income (within the meaning of section 527(c)(1)) for the taxable year; and 1

(7) Every homeowners association (within the meaning of section 528(c)(1)) which has homeowners association taxable income (within the meaning of section 528(d)) for the taxable year.1

(8) Every estate of an individual under chapter 7 or 11 of title 11 of the United States Code (relating to bankruptcy) the gross income of which for the taxable year is not less than the sum of the exemption amount plus the basic standard deduction under section 63(c)(2)(D).12


except that subject to such conditions, limitations, and exceptions and under such regulations as may be prescribed by the Secretary, nonresident alien individuals subject to the tax imposed by section 871 and foreign corporations subject to the tax imposed by section 881 may be exempted from the requirement of making returns under this section.

(b) Returns made by fiduciaries and receivers

(1) Returns of decedents

If an individual is deceased, the return of such individual required under subsection (a) shall be made by his executor, administrator, or other person charged with the property of such decedent.

(2) Persons under a disability

If an individual is unable to make a return required under subsection (a), the return of such individual shall be made by a duly authorized agent, his committee, guardian, fiduciary or other person charged with the care of the person or property of such individual. The preceding sentence shall not apply in the case of a receiver appointed by authority of law in possession of only a part of the property of an individual.

(3) Receivers, trustees and assignees for corporations

In a case where a receiver, trustee in a case under title 11 of the United States Code, or assignee, by order of a court of competent jurisdiction, by operation of law or otherwise, has possession of or holds title to all or substantially all the property or business of a corporation, whether or not such property or business is being operated, such receiver, trustee, or assignee shall make the return of income for such corporation in the same manner and form as corporations are required to make such returns.

(4) Returns of estates and trusts

Returns of an estate, a trust, or an estate of an individual under chapter 7 or 11 of title 11 of the United States Code shall be made by the fiduciary thereof.

(5) Joint fiduciaries

Under such regulations as the Secretary may prescribe, a return made by one of two or more joint fiduciaries shall be sufficient compliance with the requirements of this section. A return made pursuant to this paragraph shall contain a statement that the fiduciary has sufficient knowledge of the affairs of the person for whom the return is made to enable him to make the return, and that the return is, to the best of his knowledge and belief, true and correct.

(6) IRA share of partnership income

In the case of a trust which is exempt from taxation under section 408(e), for purposes of this section, the trust's distributive share of items of gross income and gain of any partnership to which subchapter C or D of chapter 63 applies shall be treated as equal to the trust's distributive share of the taxable income of such partnership.

(c) Certain income earned abroad or from sale of residence

For purposes of this section, gross income shall be computed without regard to the exclusion provided for in section 121 (relating to gain from sale of principal residence) and without regard to the exclusion provided for in section 911 (relating to citizens or residents of the United States living abroad).

(d) Tax-exempt interest required to be shown on return

Every person required to file a return under this section for the taxable year shall include on such return the amount of interest received or accrued during the taxable year which is exempt from the tax imposed by chapter 1.

(e) Consolidated returns

For provisions relating to consolidated returns by affiliated corporations, see chapter 6.

(Aug. 16, 1954, ch. 736, 68A Stat. 732; Pub. L. 85–866, title I, §72(a), Sept. 2, 1958, 72 Stat. 1660; Pub. L. 88–272, title II, §206(b)(1), Feb. 26, 1964, 78 Stat. 40; Pub. L. 91–172, title IX, §941(a), (d), Dec. 30, 1969, 83 Stat. 726; Pub. L. 92–178, title II, §204(a), Dec. 10, 1971, 85 Stat. 511; Pub. L. 93–443, title IV, §407, Oct. 15, 1974, 88 Stat. 1297; Pub. L. 93–625, §10(b), Jan. 3, 1975, 88 Stat. 2119; Pub. L. 94–12, title II, §201(b), Mar. 29, 1975, 89 Stat. 29; Pub. L. 94–164, §2(a)(2), Dec. 23, 1975, 89 Stat. 970; Pub. L. 94–455, title IV, §401(b)(3), title XIX, §1906(b)(13)(A), title XXI, §2101(c), Oct. 4, 1976, 90 Stat. 1556, 1834, 1899; Pub. L. 95–30, title I, §104, May 23, 1977, 91 Stat. 139; Pub. L. 95–600, title I, §§101(c), 102(b)(1), 105(d), title IV, §404(c)(8), Nov. 6, 1978, 92 Stat. 2770, 2771, 2776, 2870; Pub. L. 95–615, §202(g)(5), formerly §202(f)(5), Nov. 8, 1978, 92 Stat. 3100, renumbered §202(g)(5), Pub. L. 96–222, title I, §108(a)(1)(A), Apr. 1, 1980, 94 Stat. 223; Pub. L. 96–589, §§3(b), 6(i)(5), Dec. 24, 1980, 94 Stat. 3400, 3410; Pub. L. 97–34, title I, §§104(d)(1), 111(b)(3), Aug. 13, 1981, 95 Stat. 189, 194; Pub. L. 98–369, div. A, title IV, §412(b)(3), July 18, 1984, 98 Stat. 792; Pub. L. 99–514, title I, §104(a)(1), title XV, §1525(a), Oct. 22, 1986, 100 Stat. 2103, 2749; Pub. L. 100–647, title I, §1001(b)(2), Nov. 10, 1988, 102 Stat. 3349; Pub. L. 105–34, title III, §312(d)(11), title XII, §1225, Aug. 5, 1997, 111 Stat. 840, 1019; Pub. L. 106–230, §3(a)(1), July 1, 2000, 114 Stat. 482; Pub. L. 107–276, §3(a), Nov. 2, 2002, 116 Stat. 1931; Pub. L. 111–226, title II, §219(b)(1), Aug. 10, 2010, 124 Stat. 2403.)

References in Text

Section 63(c)(2)(D), referred to in subsec. (a)(8), was repealed by Pub. L. 107–16, title III, §301(a)(4), June 7, 2001, 115 Stat. 53. Subsequently, section 63(c)(2)(C) was redesignated as section 63(c)(2)(D) by Pub. L. 107–147, title IV, §411(e)(1)(C), Mar. 9, 2002, 116 Stat. 46.

Amendments

2010—Subsec. (a)(8), (9). Pub. L. 111–226 redesignated par. (9) as (8) and struck out former par. (8) which read as follows: “Every individual who receives payments during the calendar year in which the taxable year begins under section 3507 (relating to advance payment of earned income credit).”

2002—Subsec. (a)(6). Pub. L. 107–276 struck out “or which has gross receipts of $25,000 or more for the taxable year (other than an organization to which section 527 applies solely by reason of subsection (f)(1) of such section)” after “(within the meaning of section 527(c)(1)) for the taxable year”.

2000—Subsec. (a)(6). Pub. L. 106–230 inserted “or which has gross receipts of $25,000 or more for the taxable year (other than an organization to which section 527 applies solely by reason of subsection (f)(1) of such section)” after “taxable year”.

1997—Subsec. (b)(6). Pub. L. 105–34, §1225, added par. (6).

Subsec. (c). Pub. L. 105–34, §312(d)(11), substituted “(relating to gain from sale of principal residence)” for “(relating to one-time exclusion of gain from sale of principal residence by individual who has attained age 55)”.

1988—Subsec. (a)(1)(C)(i). Pub. L. 100–647 amended subcl. (I) generally, substituting “the sum of the amount in effect under section 63(c)(5)(A) plus the additional standard deduction (if any) to which the individual is entitled” for “the amount in effect under section 63(c)(5)(A) (relating to limitation on standard deduction in the case of certain dependents)”.

1986—Subsec. (a)(1). Pub. L. 99–514, §104(a)(1)(A), amended par. (1) generally. Prior to amendment, par. (1) read as follows:

“(1)(A) Every individual having for the taxable year a gross income of the exemption amount or more, except that a return shall not be required of an individual (other than an individual described in subparagraph (C))—

“(i) who is not married (determined by applying section 143), is not a surviving spouse (as defined in section 2(a)), and for the taxable year has a gross income of less than the sum of the exemption amount plus the zero bracket amount applicable to such an individual,

“(ii) who is a surviving spouse (as so defined) and for the taxable year has a gross income of less than the sum of the exemption amount plus the zero bracket amount applicable to such an individual, or

“(iii) who is entitled to make a joint return under section 6013 and whose gross income, when combined with the gross income of his spouse, is, for the taxable year, less than the sum of twice the exemption amount plus the zero bracket amount applicable to a joint return, but only if such individual and his spouse, at the close of the taxable year, had the same household as their home.

Clause (iii) shall not apply if for the taxable year such spouse makes a separate return or any other taxpayer is entitled to an exemption for such spouse under section 151(e).

“(B) The amount specified in clause (i) or (ii) of subparagraph (A) shall be increased by the exemption amount in the case of an individual entitled to an additional personal exemption under section 151(c)(1), and the amount specified in clause (iii) of subparagraph (A) shall be increased by the exemption amount for each additional personal exemption to which the individual or his spouse is entitled under section 151(c).

“(C) The exception under subparagraph (A) shall not apply to—

“(i) a nonresident alien individual;

“(ii) a citizen of the United States entitled to the benefits of section 931;

“(iii) an individual making a return under section 443(a)(1) for a period of less than 12 months on account of a change in his annual accounting period;

“(iv) an individual who has income (other than earned income) of the exemption amount or more and who is described in section 63(e)(1)(D); or

“(v) an estate or trust.

“(D) For purposes of this paragraph—

“(i) The term ‘zero bracket amount’ has the meaning given to such term by section 63(d).

“(ii) The term ‘exemption amount’ has the meaning given to such term by section 151(f).”

Subsec. (a)(9). Pub. L. 99–514, §104(a)(1)(B), substituted “not less than the sum of the exemption amount plus the basic standard deduction under section 63(c)(2)(D)” for “$2,700 or more”.

Subsecs. (d), (e). Pub. L. 99–514, §1525(a), added subsec. (d) and redesignated former subsec. (d) as (e).

1984—Subsec. (b)(2). Pub. L. 98–369 struck out “or section 6015(a)” after “subsection (a)”.

1981—Subsec. (a)(1). Pub. L. 97–34, §104(d)(1)(D), substituted “the exemption amount” for “$1,000”, wherever appearing, substituted “the sum of the exemption amount plus the zero bracket amount applicable to such an individual” for “$3,300” in subpar. (A)(i) and for “$4,400” in subpar. (A)(ii), substituted “the sum of twice the exemption amount plus the zero bracket amount applicable to a joint return” for “$5,400” in subpar. (A)(iii), and added subpar. (D).

Subsec. (c). Pub. L. 97–34, §111(b)(3), substituted “relating to citizens or residents of the United States living abroad” for “relating to income earned by employees in certain camps”.

1980—Subsec. (a)(9). Pub. L. 96–589, §3(b)(1), added par. (9).

Subsec. (b)(3). Pub. L. 96–589, §6(i)(5), substituted “trustee in a case under title 11 of the United States Code” for “trustee in bankruptcy”.

Subsec. (b)(4). Pub. L. 96–589, §3(b)(2), inserted reference to estate of an individual under chapter 7 or 11 of title 11 of the United States Code.

1978—Subsec. (a)(1)(A). Pub. L. 95–600, §§101(c), 102(b)(1), substituted in provision preceding cl. (i), “$1,000” for “$750”, in cl. (i), “$3,050” for “$2,950” and “$3,300” for “$3,050”, in cl. (ii), “$4,150” for “$3,950” and “$4,400” for “$4,150”, and in cl. (iii), “$4,900” for “$4,700” and “$5,400” for “$4,900”.

Subsec. (a)(8). Pub. L. 95–600, §105(d), added par. (8).

Subsec. (c). Pub. L. 95–615 substituted “(relating to income earned by employees in certain camps)” for “(relating to earned income from sources without the United States)”.

Pub. L. 95–600, §404(c)(8), inserted provisions relating to a one-time exclusion and principal residence, and substituted “55” for “65”.

1977—Subsec. (a)(1)(A). Pub. L. 95–30 substituted “(other than an individual described in subparagraph (C))” for “(other than an individual referred to in section 142(b))” in provisions preceding cl. (i), “$2,950” for “$2,450” in cl. (i), “$3,950” for “$2,850” in cl. (ii), and “$4,700” for “$3,600” in cl. (iii).

Subsec. (a)(1)(B). Pub. L. 95–30 reenacted subpar. (B) without change.

Subsec. (a)(1)(C). Pub. L. 95–30 substituted provisions that the exception under subparagraph (A) shall not apply to a nonresident alien individual, a citizen of the United States entitled to the benefits of section 931, an individual making a return under section 443(a)(1) for a period of less than 12 months on account of a change in his annual accounting period, an individual who has income (other than earned income) of $750 or more and who is described in section 63(e)(1)(D), or an estate or trust, for provisions requiring that a return with respect to income taxes under subtitle A be made by every individual having for the taxable year a gross income of $750 or more and to whom section 141(e) (relating to limitations in case of certain dependent taxpayers) applied.

1976—Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 94–455, §1906(b)(13)(A), struck out in provisions following par. (7) “or his delegate” after “Secretary”.

Subsec. (a)(1)(A), (B). Pub. L. 94–455, §401(b)(3), reenacted subpars. (A) and (B) without change.

Subsec. (a)(7). Pub. L. 94–455, §2101(c), added par. (7).

Subsec. (b)(5). Pub. L. 94–455, §1906(b)(13)(A), struck out “or his delegate” after “Secretary”.

1975—Subsec. (a)(1)(A). Pub. L. 94–164 substituted “$2,450” for “$2,350” in cl. (i), “$2,850” for “$2,650” in cl. (ii), and “$3,600” for “$3,400” in cl. (iii).

Pub. L. 94–12 substituted “(determined by applying section 143), is not a surviving spouse (as defined in section 2(a)), and for the taxable year has a gross income of less than $2,350” for “determined by applying section 143(a)) and for the taxable year has a gross income of less than $2,050, or” in cl. (i), added cl. (ii), redesignated existing cl. (ii) as (iii), in cl. (iii) as so redesignated substituted “$3,400” for “$2,800”, and in provisions following cl. (iii) substituted “Clause (iii)” for “Clause (ii)”.

Subsec. (a)(1)(B). Pub. L. 94–12 substituted “The amount specified in clause (i) or (ii) of subparagraph (A) shall be increased by $750” for “The $2,050 amount specified in subparagraph (A)(i) shall be increased to $2,800” and “the amount specified in clause (iii) of subparagraph (A) shall be increased by $750” for “the $2,800 amount specified in subparagraph (A)(ii) shall be increased by $750”.

Subsec. (a)(6). Pub. L. 93–625 added par. (6) and struck out provision that Secretary or his delegate shall, by regulation, exempt from requirement of making returns under this section any political committee (as defined in section 301(d) of Federal Election Campaign Act of 1971) having no gross income for taxable year.

1974—Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 93–443 provided for exemption from tax returns requirement of political committees having no gross income for taxable year.

1971—Subsec. (a)(1). Pub. L. 92–178 substituted “$750” for “$600” in subpars. (A) and (B); “$2,050” for “1,700” in subpars. (A)(i) and (B); and “2,800” for “2,300” in subpars. (A)(ii) and (B), twice; and added subpar. (C), respectively.

1969—Subsec. (a)(1). Pub. L. 91–172, §941(a), (d), struck out after “$600 or more”, “(except that any individual who has attained the age of 65 before the close of his taxable year shall be required to make a return only if he has for the taxable year a gross income of $1,200 or more)”, designated remaining introductory text as subpar. (A), inserted remainder of subpars. (A) and (B), applicable to taxable years beginning after Dec. 31, 1969; and substituted “$750”, “$1,750”, and “$2,500” for “$600”, “$1,700”, and “$2,300” wherever appearing, effective with respect to taxable years beginning after Dec. 31, 1972.

1964—Subsec. (c). Pub. L. 88–272 inserted provisions relating to sale of residence.

1958—Subsecs. (c), (d). Pub. L. 85–866 added subsec. (c) and redesignated former subsec. (c) as (d).

Effective Date of 2010 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 111–226 applicable to taxable years beginning after Dec. 31, 2010, see section 219(c) of Pub. L. 111–226, set out as a note under section 32 of this title.

Effective Date of 2002 Amendment

Pub. L. 107–276, §3(d), Nov. 2, 2002, 116 Stat. 1932, provided that: “The amendments made by this section [amending this section and sections 6033 and 6104 of this title] shall take effect as if included in the amendments made by Public Law 106–230.”

Effective Date of 2000 Amendment

Pub. L. 106–230, §3(d), July 1, 2000, 114 Stat. 483, provided that: “The amendments made by this section [amending this section and sections 6033, 6104, and 6652 of this title] shall apply to returns for taxable years beginning after June 30, 2000.”

Effective Date of 1997 Amendment

Amendment by section 312(d)(11) of Pub. L. 105–34 applicable to sales and exchanges after May 6, 1997, with certain exceptions, see section 312(d)[(e)] of Pub. L. 105–34, set out as a note under section 121 of this title.

Amendment by section 1225 of Pub. L. 105–34 applicable to partnership taxable years beginning after Dec. 31, 1997, see section 1226 of Pub. L. 105–34, as amended, set out as a note under section 6011 of this title.

Effective Date of 1988 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 100–647 effective, except as otherwise provided, as if included in the provision of the Tax Reform Act of 1986, Pub. L. 99–514, to which such amendment relates, see section 1019(a) of Pub. L. 100–647, set out as a note under section 1 of this title.

Effective Date of 1986 Amendment

Amendment by section 104(a)(1) of Pub. L. 99–514 applicable to taxable years beginning after Dec. 31, 1986, see section 151(a) of Pub. L. 99–514, set out as a note under section 1 of this title.

Section 1525(b) of Pub. L. 99–514 provided that: “The amendment made by subsection (a) [amending this section] shall apply to taxable years beginning after December 31, 1986.”

Effective Date of 1984 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 98–369 applicable with respect to taxable years beginning after Dec. 31, 1984, see section 414(a) of Pub. L. 98–369, set out as a note under section 6654 of this title.

Effective Date of 1981 Amendment

Amendment by section 104(d)(1) of Pub. L. 97–34 applicable to taxable years beginning after Dec. 31, 1984, see section 104(e) of Pub. L. 97–34, set out as a note under section 1 of this title.

Amendment by section 111(b)(3) of Pub. L. 97–34 applicable with respect to taxable years beginning after Dec. 31, 1981, see section 115 of Pub. L. 97–34, set out as a note under section 911 of this title.

Effective Date of 1980 Amendment

Amendment by section 6(i)(5) of Pub. L. 96–589 effective Oct. 1, 1979, but not applicable to proceedings under title 11 commenced before Oct. 1, 1979, and amendment by section 3(b) of Pub. L. 96–589 applicable to bankruptcy cases commencing more than 90 days after Dec. 24, 1980, see section 7(b), (e) of Pub. L. 96–589, set out as a note under section 108 of this title.

Effective Date of 1978 Amendment

Amendment by section 101(c) of Pub. L. 95–600 effective with respect to taxable years beginning after Dec. 31, 1978, see section 101(f)(1) of Pub. L. 95–600, set out as a note under section 1 of this title.

Amendment by section 102(b)(1) of Pub. L. 95–600 effective with respect to taxable years beginning after Dec. 31, 1978, see section 102(d)(1) of Pub. L. 95–600, set out as a note under section 151 of this title.

Amendment by section 105(d) of Pub. L. 95–600 effective with respect to taxable years beginning after Dec. 31, 1978, see section 105(g)(1) of Pub. L. 95–600, set out as a note under section 32 of this title.

Amendment by section 404(c)(8) of Pub. L. 95–600 applicable to sales or exchanges after July 26, 1978, in taxable years ending after such date, see section 404(d)(1) of Pub. L. 95–600, set out as a note under section 121 of this title.

Effective Date of 1978 Amendment; Election of Prior Law

Amendment by Pub. L. 95–615 applicable to taxable years beginning after Dec. 31, 1977, with provision for election of prior law, see section 209 of Pub. L. 95–615, set out as a note under section 911 of this title.

Effective Date of 1977 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 95–30 applicable to taxable years beginning after Dec. 31, 1976, see section 106(a) of Pub. L. 95–30, set out as a note under section 1 of this title.

Effective Date of 1976 Amendment

Amendment by section 401(b)(3) of Pub. L. 94–455 applicable to taxable years ending after Dec. 31, 1975, see section 401(e) of Pub. L. 94–455, set out as a note under section 32 of this title.

Effective and Termination Dates of 1975 Amendments

Amendment by Pub. L. 94–164 applicable to taxable years ending after Dec. 31, 1975 and before Jan. 1, 1977, see section 2(g) of Pub. L. 94–164, set out as a note under section 32 of this title.

Amendment by Pub. L. 94–12 applicable to taxable years ending after Dec. 31, 1974, and to cease to apply to taxable years ending after Dec. 31, 1976, see section 209(a) of Pub. L. 94–12, as amended, set out as a note under section 3 of this title.

Effective Date of 1974 Amendments

Amendment by Pub. L. 93–625 applicable to taxable years beginning after Dec. 31, 1974, see section 10(e) of Pub. L. 93–625, set out as an Effective Date note under section 527 of this title.

Amendment by Pub. L. 93–443 applicable with respect to taxable years beginning after Dec. 31, 1971, see section 410(c)(2) of Pub. L. 93–443, set out as a note under section 431 of Title 2, The Congress.

Effective Date of 1971 Amendment

Section 204(a) of Pub. L. 92–178 provided that the amendment made by that section is effective with respect to taxable years beginning after Dec. 31, 1971.

Effective Date of 1969 Amendment

Amendment by section 941(a) of Pub. L. 91–172 applicable to taxable years beginning after Dec. 31, 1969, see section 941(c) of Pub. L. 91–172, set out as a note under section 151 of this title.

Amendment by section 941(d) of Pub. L. 91–172, which substituted “$750”, “$1,750”, and “$2,500” for “$600”, “$1,700” and “$2,300” wherever appearing, effective with respect to taxable years beginning after Dec. 31, 1972, was repealed by Pub. L. 92–178, title II, §204(b), Dec. 10, 1971, 85 Stat. 511.

Effective Date of 1964 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 88–272 applicable to dispositions after Dec. 31, 1963, in taxable years ending after such date, see section 206(c) of Pub. L. 88–272, set out as an Effective Date note under section 121 of this title.

Effective Date of 1958 Amendment

Section 72(c) of Pub. L. 85–866 provided that: “The amendments [amending this section and section 911 of this title] made by this section shall apply to taxable years beginning after December 31, 1957.”

Return-Free Tax System

Pub. L. 105–206, title II, §2004, July 22, 1998, 112 Stat. 726, provided that:

“(a) In General.—The Secretary of the Treasury or the Secretary's delegate shall develop procedures for the implementation of a return-free tax system under which appropriate individuals would be permitted to comply with the Internal Revenue Code of 1986 without making the return required under section 6012 of such Code for taxable years beginning after 2007.

“(b) Report.—Not later than June 30 of each calendar year after 1999, the Secretary shall report to the Committee on Ways and Means of the House of Representatives and the Committee on Finance of the Senate on—

“(1) what additional resources the Internal Revenue Service would need to implement such a system;

“(2) the changes to the Internal Revenue Code of 1986 that could enhance the use of such a system;

“(3) the procedures developed pursuant to subsection (a); and

“(4) the number and classes of taxpayers that would be permitted to use the procedures developed pursuant to subsection (a).”

No Return Required of Individual Whose Only Gross Income Is Grant of $1,000 From State

Pub. L. 97–424, title V, §542, Jan. 6, 1983, 96 Stat. 2195, as amended by Pub. L. 99–514, §2, Oct. 22, 1986, 100 Stat. 2095, provided that:

“(a) In General.—Nothing in section 6012(a) of the Internal Revenue Code of 1986 [formerly I.R.C. 1954] shall be construed to require the filing of a return with respect to income taxes under subtitle A of such code by an individual whose only gross income for the taxable year is a grant of $1,000 received from a State which made such grants generally to residents of such State.

“(b) Effective Date.—Subsection (a) shall apply to taxable years beginning after December 31, 1981.”

Exemption From Filing Requirement for Prior Years Where Income of Political Party was $100 or Less

Section 10(f) of Pub. L. 93–625 provided for exemption from filing requirement for a taxable year beginning after Dec. 31, 1971, and before Jan. 1, 1975, of any section 527(e)(1) organization where income of political organization was $100 or less.

1 So in original.

2 See References in Text note below.

§6013. Joint returns of income tax by husband and wife

(a) Joint returns

A husband and wife may make a single return jointly of income taxes under subtitle A, even though one of the spouses has neither gross income nor deductions, except as provided below:

(1) no joint return shall be made if either the husband or wife at any time during the taxable year is a nonresident alien;

(2) no joint return shall be made if the husband and wife have different taxable years; except that if such taxable years begin on the same day and end on different days because of the death of either or both, then the joint return may be made with respect to the taxable year of each. The above exception shall not apply if the surviving spouse remarries before the close of his taxable year, nor if the taxable year of either spouse is a fractional part of a year under section 443(a)(1);

(3) in the case of death of one spouse or both spouses the joint return with respect to the decedent may be made only by his executor or administrator; except that in the case of the death of one spouse the joint return may be made by the surviving spouse with respect to both himself and the decedent if no return for the taxable year has been made by the decedent, no executor or administrator has been appointed, and no executor or administrator is appointed before the last day prescribed by law for filing the return of the surviving spouse. If an executor or administrator of the decedent is appointed after the making of the joint return by the surviving spouse, the executor or administrator may disaffirm such joint return by making, within 1 year after the last day prescribed by law for filing the return of the surviving spouse, a separate return for the taxable year of the decedent with respect to which the joint return was made, in which case the return made by the survivor shall constitute his separate return.

(b) Joint return after filing separate return

(1) In general

Except as provided in paragraph (2), if an individual has filed a separate return for a taxable year for which a joint return could have been made by him and his spouse under subsection (a) and the time prescribed by law for filing the return for such taxable year has expired, such individual and his spouse may nevertheless make a joint return for such taxable year. A joint return filed by the husband and wife under this subsection shall constitute the return of the husband and wife for such taxable year, and all payments, credits, refunds, or other repayments made or allowed with respect to the separate return of either spouse for such taxable year shall be taken into account in determining the extent to which the tax based upon the joint return has been paid. If a joint return is made under this subsection, any election (other than the election to file a separate return) made by either spouse in his separate return for such taxable year with respect to the treatment of any income, deduction, or credit of such spouse shall not be changed in the making of the joint return where such election would have been irrevocable if the joint return had not been made. If a joint return is made under this subsection after the death of either spouse, such return with respect to the decedent can be made only by his executor or administrator.

(2) Limitations for making of election

The election provided for in paragraph (1) may not be made—

(A) after the expiration of 3 years from the last date prescribed by law for filing the return for such taxable year (determined without regard to any extension of time granted to either spouse); or

(B) after there has been mailed to either spouse, with respect to such taxable year, a notice of deficiency under section 6212, if the spouse, as to such notice, files a petition with the Tax Court within the time prescribed in section 6213; or

(C) after either spouse has commenced a suit in any court for the recovery of any part of the tax for such taxable year; or

(D) after either spouse has entered into a closing agreement under section 7121 with respect to such taxable year, or after any civil or criminal case arising against either spouse with respect to such taxable year has been compromised under section 7122.

(3) When return deemed filed

(A) Assessment and collection

For purposes of section 6501 (relating to periods of limitations on assessment and collection), and for purposes of section 6651 (relating to delinquent returns), a joint return made under this subsection shall be deemed to have been filed—

(i) Where both spouses filed separate returns prior to making the joint return—on the date the last separate return was filed (but not earlier than the last date prescribed by law for filing the return of either spouse);

(ii) Where only one spouse filed a separate return prior to the making of the joint return, and the other spouse had less than the exemption amount of gross income for such taxable year—on the date of the filing of such separate return (but not earlier than the last date prescribed by law for the filing of such separate return); or

(iii) Where only one spouse filed a separate return prior to the making of the joint return, and the other spouse had gross income of the exemption amount or more for such taxable year—on the date of the filing of such joint return.


For purposes of this subparagraph, the term “exemption amount” has the meaning given to such term by section 151(d). For purposes of clauses (ii) and (iii), if the spouse whose gross income is being compared to the exemption amount is 65 or over, such clauses shall be applied by substituting “the sum of the exemption amount and the additional standard deduction under section 63(c)(2) by reason of section 63(f)(1)(A)” for “the exemption amount”.

(B) Credit or refund

For purposes of section 6511, a joint return made under this subsection shall be deemed to have been filed on the last date prescribed by law for filing the return for such taxable year (determined without regard to any extension of time granted to either spouse).

(4) Additional time for assessment

If a joint return is made under this subsection, the periods of limitations provided in sections 6501 and 6502 on the making of assessments and the beginning of levy or a proceeding in court for collection shall with respect to such return include one year immediately after the date of the filing of such joint return (computed without regard to the provisions of paragraph (3)).

(5) Additions to the tax and penalties

(A) Coordination with part II of subchapter A of chapter 68

For purposes of part II of subchapter A of chapter 68, where the sum of the amounts shown as tax on the separate returns of each spouse is less than the amount shown as tax on the joint return made under this subsection—

(i) such sum shall be treated as the amount shown on the joint return,

(ii) any negligence (or disregard of rules or regulations) on either separate return shall be treated as negligence (or such disregard) on the joint return, and

(iii) any fraud on either separate return shall be treated as fraud on the joint return.

(B) Criminal penalty

For purposes of section 7206(1) and (2) and section 7207 (relating to criminal penalties in the case of fraudulent returns) the term “return” includes a separate return filed by a spouse with respect to a taxable year for which a joint return is made under this subsection after the filing of such separate return.

(c) Treatment of joint return after death of either spouse

For purposes of sections 15, 443, and 7851(a)(1)(A), where the husband and wife have different taxable years because of the death of either spouse, the joint return shall be treated as if the taxable years of both spouses ended on the date of the closing of the surviving spouse's taxable year.

(d) Special rules

For purposes of this section—

(1) the status as husband and wife of two individuals having taxable years beginning on the same day shall be determined—

(A) if both have the same taxable year—as of the close of such year; or

(B) if one dies before the close of the taxable year of the other—as of the time of such death;


(2) an individual who is legally separated from his spouse under a decree of divorce or of separate maintenance shall not be considered as married; and

(3) if a joint return is made, the tax shall be computed on the aggregate income and the liability with respect to the tax shall be joint and several.

[(e) Repealed. Pub. L. 105–206, title III, §3201(e)(1), July 22, 1998, 112 Stat. 740]

(f) Joint return where individual is in missing status

For purposes of this section and subtitle A—

(1) Election by spouse

If—

(A) an individual is in a missing status (within the meaning of paragraph (3)) as a result of service in a combat zone (as determined for purposes of section 112), and

(B) the spouse of such individual is otherwise entitled to file a joint return for any taxable year which begins on or before the day which is 2 years after the date designated under section 112 as the date of termination of combatant activities in such zone,


then such spouse may elect under subsection (a) to file a joint return for such taxable year. With respect to service in the combat zone designated for purposes of the Vietnam conflict, such election may be made for any taxable year while an individual is in missing status.

(2) Effect of election

If the spouse of an individual described in paragraph (1)(A) elects to file a joint return under subsection (a) for a taxable year, then, until such election is revoked—

(A) such election shall be valid even if such individual died before the beginning of such year, and

(B) except for purposes of section 692 (relating to income taxes of members of the Armed Forces, astronauts, and victims of certain terrorist attacks on death), the income tax liability of such individual, his spouse, and his estate shall be determined as if he were alive throughout the taxable year.

(3) Missing status

For purposes of this subsection—

(A) Uniformed services

A member of a uniformed service (within the meaning of section 101(3) of title 37 of the United States Code) is in a missing status for any period for which he is entitled to pay and allowances under section 552 of such title 37.

(B) Civilian employees

An employee (within the meaning of section 5561(2) of title 5 of the United States Code) is in a missing status for any period for which he is entitled to pay and allowances under section 5562 of such title 5.

(4) Making of election; revocation

An election described in this subsection with respect to any taxable year may be made by filing a joint return in accordance with subsection (a) and under such regulations as may be prescribed by the Secretary. Such an election may be revoked by either spouse on or before the due date (including extensions) for such taxable year, and, in the case of an executor or administrator, may be revoked by disaffirming as provided in the last sentence of subsection (a)(3).

(g) Election to treat nonresident alien individual as resident of the United States

(1) In general

A nonresident alien individual with respect to whom this subsection is in effect for the taxable year shall be treated as a resident of the United States—

(A) for purposes of chapter 1 for all of such taxable year, and

(B) for purposes of chapter 24 (relating to wage withholding) for payments of wages made during such taxable year.

(2) Individuals with respect to whom this subsection is in effect

This subsection shall be in effect with respect to any individual who, at the close of the taxable year for which an election under this subsection was made, was a nonresident alien individual married to a citizen or resident of the United States, if both of them made such election to have the benefits of this subsection apply to them.

(3) Duration of election

An election under this subsection shall apply to the taxable year for which made and to all subsequent taxable years until terminated under paragraph (4) or (5); except that any such election shall not apply for any taxable year if neither spouse is a citizen or resident of the United States at any time during such year.

(4) Termination of election

An election under this subsection shall terminate at the earliest of the following times:

(A) Revocation by taxpayers

If either taxpayer revokes the election, as of the first taxable year for which the last day prescribed by law for filing the return of tax under chapter 1 has not yet occurred.

(B) Death

In the case of the death of either spouse, as of the beginning of the first taxable year of the spouse who survives following the taxable year in which such death occurred; except that if the spouse who survives is a citizen or resident of the United States who is a surviving spouse entitled to the benefits of section 2, the time provided by this subparagraph shall be as of the close of the last taxable year for which such individual is entitled to the benefits of section 2.

(C) Legal separation

In the case of the legal separation of the couple under a decree of divorce or of separate maintenance, as of the beginning of the taxable year in which such legal separation occurs.

(D) Termination by Secretary

At the time provided in paragraph (5).

(5) Termination by Secretary

The Secretary may terminate any election under this subsection for any taxable year if he determines that either spouse has failed—

(A) to keep such books and records,

(B) to grant such access to such books and records, or

(C) to supply such other information,


as may be reasonably necessary to ascertain the amount of liability for taxes under chapter 1 of either spouse for such taxable year.

(6) Only one election

If any election under this subsection for any two individuals is terminated under paragraph (4) or (5) for any taxable year, such two individuals shall be ineligible to make an election under this subsection for any subsequent taxable year.

(h) Joint return, etc., for year in which nonresident alien becomes resident of United States

(1) In general

If—

(A) any individual is a nonresident alien individual at the beginning of any taxable year but is a resident of the United States at the close of such taxable year,

(B) at the close of such taxable year, such individual is married to a citizen or resident of the United States, and

(C) both individuals elect the benefits of this subsection at the time and in the manner prescribed by the Secretary by regulation,


then the individual referred to in subparagraph (A) shall be treated as a resident of the United States for purposes of chapter 1 for all of such taxable year, and for purposes of chapter 24 (relating to wage withholding) for payments of wages made during such taxable year.

(2) Only one election

If any election under this subsection applies for any 2 individuals for any taxable year, such 2 individuals shall be ineligible to make an election under this subsection for any subsequent taxable year.

(Aug. 16, 1954, ch. 736, 68A Stat. 733; Pub. L. 85–866, title I, §73, Sept. 2, 1958, 72 Stat. 1660; Pub. L. 91–172, title VIII, §801(a)(2), (b)(2), (c)(2), (d)(2), Dec. 30, 1969, 83 Stat. 675, 676; Pub. L. 91–679, §1, Jan. 12, 1971, 84 Stat. 2063; Pub. L. 92–178, title II, §201(a)(2), (b)(2), (c), Dec. 10, 1971, 85 Stat. 510, 511; Pub. L. 93–597, §3(a), Jan. 2, 1975, 88 Stat. 1950; Pub. L. 94–455, title X, §1012(a)(1), title XIX, §1906(a)(1), (b)(13)(A), Oct. 4, 1976, 90 Stat. 1612, 1824, 1834; Pub. L. 94–569, §3(d), Oct. 20, 1976, 90 Stat. 2699; Pub. L. 95–600, title I, §102(b)(2), title VII, §701(u)(15)(A)–(C), (16)(A), Nov. 6, 1978, 92 Stat. 2771, 2919, 2920; Pub. L. 97–34, title I, §104(d)(2), Aug. 13, 1981, 95 Stat. 189; Pub. L. 97–248, title III, §§307(a)(4), (5), 308(a), Sept. 3, 1982, 96 Stat. 589, 591; Pub. L. 97–448, title III, §307(c), Jan. 12, 1983, 96 Stat. 2407; Pub. L. 98–67, title I, §102(a), Aug. 5, 1983, 97 Stat. 369; Pub. L. 98–369, div. A, title IV, §§424(a), 474(b)(2), July 18, 1984, 98 Stat. 801, 830; Pub. L. 99–514, title I, §104(a)(2), title XVII, §1708(a)(3), Oct. 22, 1986, 100 Stat. 2104, 2782; Pub. L. 100–647, title I, §1015(b)(1), Nov. 10, 1988, 102 Stat. 3568; Pub. L. 101–239, title VII, §7721(c)(6), Dec. 19, 1989, 103 Stat. 2399; Pub. L. 101–508, title XI, §11704(a)(22), Nov. 5, 1990, 104 Stat. 1388–519; Pub. L. 104–168, title IV, §402(a), July 30, 1996, 110 Stat. 1459; Pub. L. 105–206, title III, §3201(e)(1), title VI, §6011(e)(2), July 22, 1998, 112 Stat. 740, 818; Pub. L. 107–134, title I, §101(b)(2), Jan. 23, 2002, 115 Stat. 2428; Pub. L. 108–121, title I, §110(a)(2)(B), Nov. 11, 2003, 117 Stat. 1342.)

Amendments

2003—Subsec. (f)(2)(B). Pub. L. 108–121 inserted “, astronauts,” after “Forces”.

2002—Subsec. (f)(2)(B). Pub. L. 107–134 inserted “and victims of certain terrorist attacks” before “on death”.

1998—Subsec. (e). Pub. L. 105–206, §3201(e)(1), struck out subsec. (e), which had: in par. (1), declared that spouse was relieved of liability for tax where joint return had been made, there was substantial understatement of tax attributable to grossly erroneous items of one spouse, other spouse established that he or she did not know that there was such substantial understatement, and it would be inequitable to hold other spouse liable; in pars. (2) and (3), defined terms “grossly erroneous items” and “substantial understatement”, respectively; in par. (4), directed that understatement had to exceed specified percentage of spouse's income; and in par. (5) declared that determination of spouse, to whom items of gross income were attributable would be made without regard to community property laws.

Subsecs. (g)(1)(A), (5), (h)(1). Pub. L. 105–206, §6011(e)(2), substituted “chapter 1” for “chapters 1 and 5”.

1996—Subsec. (b)(2). Pub. L. 104–168 redesignated subpars. (B) to (E) as (A) to (D), respectively, and struck out former subpar. (A) which read as follows: “unless there is paid in full at or before the time of the filing of the joint return the amount shown as tax upon such joint return; or”.

1990—Subsec. (e)(3). Pub. L. 101–508 substituted “section 6662(d)(2)(A)” for “section 6661(b)(2)(A)”.

1989—Subsec. (b)(5)(A). Pub. L. 101–239 substituted “part II of subchapter A of chapter 68” for “section 6653” in heading and in text.

1988—Subsec. (b)(5)(A). Pub. L. 100–647 amended subpar. (A) generally. Prior to amendment, subpar. (A) related to additions to tax when amount shown as tax by husband and wife on joint return exceeds aggregate of amounts shown as tax on separate return of each spouse.

1986—Subsec. (b)(3)(A). Pub. L. 99–514, §104(a)(2), struck out “(twice the exemption amount in case such spouse was 65 or over)” before “for such taxable year” in cls. (ii) and (iii), substituted “section 151(d)” for “section 151(f)” in concluding provisions, and inserted last sentence.

Subsec. (f)(1). Pub. L. 99–514, §1708(a)(3), substituted “such election may be made for any taxable year while an individual is in missing status” for “no such election may be made for any taxable year beginning after December 31, 1982”.

1984—Subsec. (c). Pub. L. 98–369, §474(b)(2), substituted “15” for “21”.

Subsec. (e). Pub. L. 98–369, §424(a), in amending subsec. (e) generally, reenacted as par. (1)(A) part of former par. (1)(A); incorporated in par. (1)(B) part of former par. (1)(A), substituting “there is a substantial understatement of tax attributable to grossly erroneous items of one spouse” for “there was omitted from gross income an amount properly includable therein which is attributable to one spouse and which is in excess of 25 percent of the amount of gross income stated in the return”; redesignated as par. (1)(C) former par. (1)(B), substituting “had no reason to know, that there was such substantial understatement” for “had no reason to know of, such omission”; reenacted as par. (1)(D) former par. (1)(C), substituting preceding “, it is inequitable” the words “all the facts and circumstances” for “whether or not the other spouse significantly benefited directly or indirectly from the items omitted from gross income and taking into account all other facts and circumstances” and “attributable to such substantial understatement” for “attributable to such omission”; substituted in concluding text “attributable to such substantial understatement” for “attributable to such omission from gross income”; added pars. (2) to (4); and incorporated in provisions designated par. (5) similar provisions of former par. (2)(A), substituting as par. heading “Special rule for community property income” for “Special rules” and deleting former par. (2)(B) respecting determination as provided in section 6501(e)(1)(A) of amount omitted from gross income.

1983—Pub. L. 98–67 repealed amendments made by Pub. L. 97–248. See 1982 Amendment note below.

Subsec. (f)(1). Pub. L. 97–448 substituted “December 31, 1982” for “January 2, 1978”.

1982—Subsecs. (g)(1)(B). (h)(1). Pub. L. 97–248 provided that, applicable to payments of interest, dividends, and patronage dividends paid or credited after June 30, 1983, subsec. (g)(1)(B) is amended by substituting “(relating to withholding on wages, interest, dividends, and patronage dividends)” for “(relating to wage withholding)” and by striking out “of wages”, and subsec. (h)(1) is amended by substituting “(relating to withholding on wages, interest, dividends, and patronage dividends)” for “(relating to wage withholding)” and by striking out “of wages”. Section 102(a), (b) of Pub. L. 98–67, title I, Aug. 5, 1983, 97 Stat. 369, repealed subtitle A (§§301–308) of title III of Pub. L. 97–248 as of the close of June 30, 1983, and provided that the Internal Revenue Code of 1954 [now 1986] [this title] shall be applied and administered (subject to certain exceptions) as if such subtitle A (and the amendments made by such subtitle A) had not been enacted.

1981—Subsec. (b)(3)(A). Pub. L. 97–34 substituted “the exemption amount” for “$1,000” and “twice the exemption amount” for “$2,000” in cls. (ii) and (iii) and inserted provision following cl. (iii) defining “exemption amount”.

1978—Subsec. (b)(3)(A). Pub. L. 95–600, §102(b)(2), increased the exemptions wherever appearing from $750 and $1500 to $1,000 and $2,000, respectively, with respect to taxable years beginning after Dec. 31, 1978.

Subsec. (g)(1). Pub. L. 95–600, §701(u)(15)(A), amended par. (1) generally, designating existing provisions as introductory material and par. (A), and in such par. (A) inserting reference to chapter 5, and adding par. (2).

Subsec. (g)(2). Pub. L. 95–600, §701(u)(16)(A), substituted “who, at the close of the taxable year for which an election under this subsection was made,” for “who, at the time an election was made under this subsection,”.

Subsec. (g)(5). Pub. L. 95–600, §701(u)(15)(B), substituted “chapters 1 and 5” for “chapter 1”.

Subsec. (h)(1). Pub. L. 95–600, §701(u)(15)(C), substituted “chapters 1 and 5” for “chapter 1” and inserted provision relating to chapter 24 of this title.

1976—Subsec. (b)(2)(C). Pub. L. 94–455, §1906(a)(1)(A), struck out “of the United States” after “Tax Court”.

Subsec. (d). Pub. L. 94–455, §1906(a)(1)(B), (C), substituted in heading “Special rules” for “Definitions”, in par. (1)(A) “of such year; or” for “of such year; and”, and in par. (1)(B) “of such death;” for “of such death; and”.

Subsec. (e)(1). Pub. L. 94–455, §1906(b)(13)(A), struck out “or his delegate” after “Secretary”.

Subsec. (f)(1). Pub. L. 94–569 substituted “after January 2, 1978” for “more than 2 years after the date of the enactment of this sentence” after “With respect to service in the combat zone designated for purposes of the Vietnam conflict, no such election may be made for any taxable year beginning”.

Subsec. (f)(4). Pub. L. 94–455, §1906(b)(13)(A), struck out “or his delegate” after “Secretary”.

Subsecs. (g), (h). Pub. L. 94–455, §1012(a)(1), added subsecs. (g) and (h).

1975—Subsec. (f). Pub. L. 93–597 added subsec. (f).

1971—Subsec. (b)(3)(A). Pub. L. 92–178 increased the exemptions wherever appearing from $650 and $1,300 to $675 and $1,350, respectively, with respect to taxable years beginning after Dec. 1970, and before Jan. 1, 1972, and to $750 and $1,500, respectively, with respect to taxable years beginning after Dec. 31, 1971.

Subsec. (e). Pub. L. 91–679 added subsec. (e).

1969—Subsec. (b)(3)(A). Pub. L. 91–172, §801(a)(2), (b)(2), (c)(2), (d)(2), increased the exemptions wherever appearing from $600 and $1,200 to $625 and $1,250, respectively with respect to taxable years ending Dec. 31, 1970, and to $650 and $1,300, respectively, with respect to taxable years beginning after Dec. 31, 1970, and before Jan. 1, 1972, to $700 and $1,400, respectively, with respect to taxable years beginning after Dec. 31, 1971, and before Jan. 1, 1973, and to $750 and $1,500, respectively, with respect to taxable years beginning after Dec. 31, 1972.

1958—Subsec. (b)(2)(C). Pub. L. 85–866 substituted “section 6213” for “such section”.

Effective Date of 2003 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 108–121 applicable with respect to any astronaut whose death occurs after Dec. 31, 2002, see section 110(a)(4) of Pub. L. 108–121, set out as a note under section 5 of this title.

Effective Date of 2002 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 107–134 applicable to taxable years ending before, on, or after Sept. 11, 2001, with provisions relating to waiver of limitations, see section 101(d) of Pub. L. 107–134, set out as a note under section 692 of this title.

Effective Date of 1998 Amendment

Amendment by section 3201 of Pub. L. 105–206 applicable to any liability for tax arising after July 22, 1998, and any liability for tax arising on or before such date but remaining unpaid as of such date, see section 3201(g)(1) of Pub. L. 105–206, set out as a note under section 6015 of this title.

Amendment by section 6011(e)(2) of Pub. L. 105–206 effective, except as otherwise provided, as if included in the provisions of the Taxpayer Relief Act of 1997, Pub. L. 105–34, to which such amendment relates (see section 1131 of Pub. L. 105–34), see section 6024 of Pub. L. 105–206, set out as a note under section 1 of this title.

Effective Date of 1996 Amendment

Section 402(b) of Pub. L. 104–168 provided that: “The amendment made by subsection (a) [amending this section] shall apply to taxable years beginning after the date of the enactment of this Act [July 30, 1996].”

Effective Date of 1989 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 101–239 applicable to returns the due date for which (determined without regard to extensions) is after Dec. 31, 1989, see section 7721(d) of Pub. L. 101–239, set out as a note under section 461 of this title.

Effective Date of 1988 Amendment

Section 1015(b)(4) of Pub. L. 100–647 provided that: “The amendments made by this subsection (other than paragraph (3)) [amending this section and sections 6601 and 6653 of this title] shall apply to returns the due date for which (determined without regard to extensions) is after December 31, 1988.”

Effective Date of 1986 Amendment

Amendment by section 104(a)(2) of Pub. L. 99–514 applicable to taxable years beginning after Dec. 31, 1986, see section 151(a) of Pub. L. 99–514, set out as a note under section 1 of this title.

Amendment by section 1708(a)(3) of Pub. L. 99–514 applicable to taxable years beginning after Dec. 31, 1982, see section 1708(b) of Pub. L. 99–514, set out as a note under section 2 of this title.

Effective Date of 1984 Amendment

Section 424(c) of Pub. L. 98–369, as amended by Pub. L. 99–514, §2, Oct. 22, 1986, 100 Stat. 2095; Pub. L. 100–647, title VI, §6004, Nov. 10, 1988, 102 Stat. 3685, provided that:

“(1) In general.—Except as provided in paragraph (2), the amendments made by subsections (a) and (b) [amending this section and section 66 of this title] shall apply to all taxable years to which the Internal Revenue Code of 1986 [formerly I.R.C. 1954] applies. Corresponding provisions shall be deemed to be included in the Internal Revenue Code of 1939 and shall apply to all taxable years to which such Code applies.

“(2) Authority to disregard community property laws.—Subsection (b) of section 66 of the Internal Revenue Code of 1986, as added by subsection (b), shall apply to taxable years beginning after December 31, 1984.

“(3) Transitional rule.—If—

“(A) a joint return under section 6013 of the Internal Revenue Code of 1954 was filed before January 1, 1985,

“(B) on such return there is an understatement (as defined in section 6661(b)(2)(A) of such Code) which is attributable to disallowed deductions attributable to activities of one spouse,

“(C) the amount of such disallowed deductions exceeds the taxable income shown on such return,

“(D) without regard to any determination before October 21, 1988, the other spouse establishes that in signing the return he or she did not know, and had no reason to know, that there was such an understatement, and

“(E) the marriage between such spouses terminated and immediately after such termination the net worth of the other spouse was less than $10,000,

notwithstanding any law or rule of law (including res judicata), the other spouse shall be relieved of liability for tax (including interest, penalties, and other amounts) for such taxable year to the extent such liability is attributable to such understatement, and, to the extent the liability so attributable has been collected from such other spouse, it shall be refunded or credited to such other spouse. No credit or refund shall be made under the preceding sentence unless claim therefor has been submitted to the Secretary of the Treasury or his delegate before the date 1 year after the date of the enactment of this paragraph [Nov. 10, 1988], and no interest on such credit or refund shall be allowed for any period before such date of enactment.”

Amendment by section 474(b)(2) of Pub. L. 98–369 applicable to taxable years beginning after Dec. 31, 1983, and to carrybacks from such years, see section 475(a) of Pub. L. 98–369, set out as a note under section 21 of this title.

Effective Date of 1981 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 97–34 applicable to taxable years beginning after Dec. 31, 1984, see section 104(e) of Pub. L. 97–34, set out as a note under section 1 of this title.

Effective Date of 1978 Amendment

Amendment by section 102(b)(2) of Pub. L. 95–600 effective with respect to taxable years beginning after Dec. 31, 1978, see section 102(d)(1) of Pub. L. 95–600, set out as a note under section 151 of this title.

Section 701(u)(15)(E) of Pub. L. 95–600, as amended by Pub. L. 99–514, §2, Oct. 22, 1986, 100 Stat. 2095, provided that: “The amendments made by this paragraph [amending this section and section 6401 of this title]—

“(i) to the extent that they relate to chapter 1 or 5 of the Internal Revenue Code of 1986 [formerly I.R.C. 1954, sections 1 et seq. and 1491 et seq. of this title, respectively], shall apply to taxable years ending on or after December 31, 1975, and

“(ii) to the extent that they relate to wage withholding under chapter 24 of such Code [section 3401 et seq. of this title], shall apply to remuneration paid on or after the first day of the first month which begins more than 90 days after the date of the enactment of this Act [Nov. 6, 1978].”

Section 701(u)(16)(B) of Pub. L. 95–600 provided that: “The amendment made by subparagraph (A) [amending this section] shall apply to taxable years beginning after December 31, 1975.”

Effective Date of 1976 Amendment

Section 1012(d) of Pub. L. 94–455 provided that: “The amendments made by subsection (a) [enacting this section and section 871 of this title] shall apply to taxable years ending on or after December 31, 1975. The amendments made by subsections (b) and (c) [enacting section 879 of this title, amending section 6073 of this title, and repealing section 981 of this title] shall apply to taxable years beginning after December 31, 1976.”

Section 1906(d) of Pub. L. 94–455, as amended by Pub. L. 99–514, §2, Oct. 22, 1986, 100 Stat. 2095, provided that:

“(1) General rule.—Except as otherwise expressly provided in this section, the amendments made by this section [see Tables for classification] shall take effect on the first day of the first month which begins more than 90 days after the date of the enactment of this Act [Oct. 4, 1976].

“(2) Amendments relating to income tax.—The amendments made by this section, when relating to a tax imposed by chapter 1 or chapter 2 of the Internal Revenue Code of 1986 [formerly I.R.C. 1954], shall take effect with respect to taxable years beginning after December 31, 1976.”

Section 2114(b) of Pub. L. 94–455 provided that: “The application permitted under the amendment made by subsection (a) of this section [amending section 3 of Pub. L. 91–679, set out as an Effective Date of 1971 Amendment note below] must be filed with the Secretary of the Treasury during the first calendar year beginning after the date of the enactment of this Act [Oct. 4, 1976].”

Effective Date of 1975 Amendment

Section 3(c) of Pub. L. 93–597 provided that: “The amendments made by this section [amending this section and section 2 of this title] shall apply to taxable years ending on or after February 28, 1961.”

Effective Date of 1971 Amendments

Section 201(a), (b) of Pub. L. 92–178 provided in part that the increases in exemptions from $650 to $675 and from $1,300 to $1,350, respectively, were effective with respect to taxable years beginning after Dec. 31, 1970, and before Jan. 1, 1972, and to $750 and $1,500, respectively, with respect to taxable years beginning after Dec. 31, 1971.

Section 3 of Pub. L. 91–679, as amended by section 2114(a) of Pub. L. 94–455; Pub. L. 99–514, §2, Oct. 22, 1986, 100 Stat. 2095, provided that: “The amendments made by the first two sections of this Act [amending this section and section 6653 of this title] shall apply to all taxable years to which the Internal Revenue Code of 1986 [formerly I.R.C. 1954] applies. Corresponding provisions shall be deemed to be included in the Internal Revenue Code of 1939 and shall apply to all taxable years to which such Code applies. Upon application by a taxpayer, the Secretary of the Treasury shall redetermine the liability for tax (including interest, penalties, and other amounts) of such taxpayer for taxable years beginning after December 31, 1961, and ending before January 13, 1971. The preceding sentence shall apply solely to a taxpayer to whom the application of the provisions of section 6013(e) of the Internal Revenue Code of 1986, as added by this Act, for such taxable years is prevented by the operation of res judicata, and such redetermination shall be made without regard to such rule of law. Any overpayment of tax by such taxpayer for such taxable years resulting from the redetermination made under this Act shall be refunded to such taxpayer.”

Effective Date of 1969 Amendment

Section 801(a)(2), (b)(2) of Pub. L. 91–172 provided in part that the increases in exemptions from $600 and $1,200 to $625 and $1,250, respectively, were effective with respect to taxable years beginning after Dec. 31, 1969, and before Jan. 1, 1971; and to $650 and $1,300, respectively, with respect to taxable years beginning after Dec. 31, 1970, and before Jan. 1, 1972. Section 801(c)(2), (d)(2) of Pub. L. 91–172, which provided for increases in exemptions to $700 and $1,400, respectively, with respect to taxable years beginning after Dec. 31, 1971, and before Jan. 1, 1973, and to $750 and $1,500, respectively, with respect to taxable years beginning after Dec. 31, 1972, was repealed by Pub. L. 92–178, title II, §201(c), Dec. 10, 1971, 85 Stat. 511.

Effective Date of 1958 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 85–866 effective Aug. 17, 1954, see section 1(c)(2) of Pub. L. 85–866, set out as a note under section 165 of this title.

Separate Notice to Each Filer

Pub. L. 105–206, title III, §3201(d), July 22, 1998, 112 Stat. 740, provided that: “The Secretary of the Treasury shall, wherever practicable, send any notice relating to a joint return under section 6013 of the Internal Revenue Code of 1986 separately to each individual filing the joint return.”

§6014. Income tax return—tax not computed by taxpayer

(a) Election by taxpayer

An individual who does not itemize his deductions and who is not described in section 6012(a)(1)(C)(i), whose gross income is less than $10,000 and includes no income other than remuneration for services performed by him as an employee, dividends or interest, and whose gross income other than wages, as defined in section 3401(a), does not exceed $100, shall at his election not be required to show on the return the tax imposed by section 1. Such election shall be made by using the form prescribed for purposes of this section. In such case the tax shall be computed by the Secretary who shall mail to the taxpayer a notice stating the amount determined as payable.

(b) Regulations

The Secretary shall prescribe regulations for carrying out this section, and such regulations may provide for the application of the rules of this section—

(1) to cases where the gross income includes items other than those enumerated by subsection (a),

(2) to cases where the gross income from sources other than wages on which the tax has been withheld at the source is more than $100,

(3) to cases where the gross income is $10,000 or more, or

(4) to cases where the taxpayer itemizes his deductions or where the taxpayer claims a reduced standard deduction by reason of section 63(c)(5).


Such regulations shall provide for the application of this section in the case of husband and wife, including provisions determining when a joint return under this section may be permitted or required, whether the liability shall be joint and several, and whether one spouse may make return under this section and the other without regard to this section.

(Aug. 16, 1954, ch. 736, 68A Stat. 736; Pub. L. 88–272, title II, §201(d)(14), title III, §301(b)(2), Feb. 26, 1964, 78 Stat. 32, 140; Pub. L. 91–172, title VIII, §803(d)(1), title IX, §942(a), Dec. 30, 1969, 83 Stat. 684, 726; Pub. L. 94–455, title V, §§501(b)(8), (9), 503(b)(2), (3), title XIX, §1906(b)(13)(A), Oct. 4, 1976, 90 Stat. 1559, 1562, 1834; Pub. L. 95–30, title I, §101(d)(13), (14), May 23, 1977, 91 Stat. 134; Pub. L. 99–514, title I, §104(b)(16), Oct. 22, 1986, 100 Stat. 2106.)

Amendments

1986—Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 99–514, §104(b)(16)(A), substituted “who is not described in section 6012(a)(1)(C)(i)” for “who does not have an unused zero bracket amount (determined under section 63(e))”.

Subsec. (b)(4). Pub. L. 99–514, §104(b)(16)(B), amended par. (4) generally, substituting “where the taxpayer claims a reduced standard deduction by reason of section 63(c)(5)” for “has an unused zero bracket amount”.

1977—Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 95–30, §101(d)(13), substituted “An individual who does not itemize his deductions and who does not have an unused zero bracket amount (determined under section 63(e)), whose gross income” for “An individual entitled to take the standard deduction provided by section 141 (other than an individual described in section 141(e)) whose gross income” and struck out “and shall constitute an election to take the standard deduction” after “Such election shall be made by using the form prescribed for purposes of this section”.

Subsec. (b)(4). Pub. L. 95–30, §101(d)(14), substituted “itemizes his deductions or has an unused zero bracket amount” for “does not elect the standard deduction or where the taxpayer elects the standard deduction but is subject to the provision of section 141(e) (relating to limitations in case of certain dependent taxpayers)”.

1976—Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 94–455, §§501(b)(8), 503(b)(2), 1906(b)(13(A), substituted “entitled to take the standard deduction provided by section 141 (other than an individual described in section 141(e))” for “entitled to elect to pay the tax imposed by section 3” and “take the standard deduction” for “pay the tax imposed by section 3” and struck out provision relating to disallowance of section 37 credit in determination of tax imposed by section 3 of this title, and struck out “or his delegate” after “Secretary”.

Subsec. (b). Pub. L. 94–455, §§501(b)(9), 503(b)(3), 1906(b)(13)(A), struck out an introductory provision, “or his delegate” after “Secretary”, redesignated former par. (5) as (4), and as so redesignated, inserted reference to where the taxpayer elects the standard deduction but is subject to the provisions of section 141(e) (relating to limitations in case of certain dependent taxpayers). Former par. (4), which related to cases where the taxpayer is entitled to credit provided by section 37 of this title, was struck out.

1969—Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 91–172, §803(d)(1), raised the individual gross income limit of $5,000 to $10,000 for exercising the option to pay the tax under section 3 of this title, and struck out provisions relating to heads of household, surviving spouses and married individuals filing separate returns.

Subsec. (b). Pub. L. 91–172, §942(a), substituted provisions authorizing the Secretary to promulgate regulations to compute the tax in cases where the gross income is $10,000 or more, where the gross income from sources other than wages on which the tax has been withheld at the source is more than $100, where the taxpayer is entitled to a credit under section 37 of this title, or where the taxpayer does not elect the standard deduction, for provisions authorizing the computation of the tax in cases where the gross income is $5,000 but not more than $5,200, or where the gross income from sources other than wages on which the tax has been withheld at the source is more than $100, but not more than $200.

1964—Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 88–272 struck out “34 or” before “37 shall not be allowed”, and inserted provision that in case of a married individual filing a separate return and electing benefits of this subsection, neither Table V in section 3(a) nor Table V in section 3(b) shall apply.

Effective Date of 1986 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 99–514 applicable to taxable years beginning after Dec. 31, 1986, see section 151(a) of Pub. L. 99–514, set out as a note under section 1 of this title.

Effective Date of 1977 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 95–30 applicable to taxable years beginning after Dec. 31, 1976, see section 106(a) of Pub. L. 95–30, set out as a note under section 1 of this title.

Effective Date of 1969 Amendment

Amendment by section 803(d)(1) of Pub. L. 91–172 applicable to taxable years beginning after Dec. 31, 1969, see section 803(f) of Pub. L. 91–172, set out as a note under section 1 of this title.

Section 942(b) of Pub. L. 91–172 provided that: “The amendment made by subsection (a) [amending this section] shall apply to taxable years beginning after December 31, 1969.”

Effective Date of 1964 Amendment

Amendment by section 201(d)(14) of Pub. L. 88–272 applicable with respect to dividends received after Dec. 31, 1964, in taxable years ending after such date, see section 201(e) of Pub. L. 88–272, set out as a note under section 22 of this title.

Amendment by section 301(b)(2) of Pub. L. 88–272 applicable to taxable years beginning after Dec. 31, 1963, except for purpose of section 21, see section 301(c) of Pub. L. 88–272, set out as a note under section 3 of this title.

§6015. Relief from joint and several liability on joint return

(a) In general

Notwithstanding section 6013(d)(3)—

(1) an individual who has made a joint return may elect to seek relief under the procedures prescribed under subsection (b); and

(2) if such individual is eligible to elect the application of subsection (c), such individual may, in addition to any election under paragraph (1), elect to limit such individual's liability for any deficiency with respect to such joint return in the manner prescribed under subsection (c).


Any determination under this section shall be made without regard to community property laws.

(b) Procedures for relief from liability applicable to all joint filers

(1) In general

Under procedures prescribed by the Secretary, if—

(A) a joint return has been made for a taxable year;

(B) on such return there is an understatement of tax attributable to erroneous items of one individual filing the joint return;

(C) the other individual filing the joint return establishes that in signing the return he or she did not know, and had no reason to know, that there was such understatement;

(D) taking into account all the facts and circumstances, it is inequitable to hold the other individual liable for the deficiency in tax for such taxable year attributable to such understatement; and

(E) the other individual elects (in such form as the Secretary may prescribe) the benefits of this subsection not later than the date which is 2 years after the date the Secretary has begun collection activities with respect to the individual making the election,


then the other individual shall be relieved of liability for tax (including interest, penalties, and other amounts) for such taxable year to the extent such liability is attributable to such understatement.

(2) Apportionment of relief

If an individual who, but for paragraph (1)(C), would be relieved of liability under paragraph (1), establishes that in signing the return such individual did not know, and had no reason to know, the extent of such understatement, then such individual shall be relieved of liability for tax (including interest, penalties, and other amounts) for such taxable year to the extent that such liability is attributable to the portion of such understatement of which such individual did not know and had no reason to know.

(3) Understatement

For purposes of this subsection, the term “understatement” has the meaning given to such term by section 6662(d)(2)(A).

(c) Procedures to limit liability for taxpayers no longer married or taxpayers legally separated or not living together

(1) In general

Except as provided in this subsection, if an individual who has made a joint return for any taxable year elects the application of this subsection, the individual's liability for any deficiency which is assessed with respect to the return shall not exceed the portion of such deficiency properly allocable to the individual under subsection (d).

(2) Burden of proof

Except as provided in subparagraph (A)(ii) or (C) of paragraph (3), each individual who elects the application of this subsection shall have the burden of proof with respect to establishing the portion of any deficiency allocable to such individual.

(3) Election

(A) Individuals eligible to make election

(i) In general

An individual shall only be eligible to elect the application of this subsection if—

(I) at the time such election is filed, such individual is no longer married to, or is legally separated from, the individual with whom such individual filed the joint return to which the election relates; or

(II) such individual was not a member of the same household as the individual with whom such joint return was filed at any time during the 12-month period ending on the date such election is filed.

(ii) Certain taxpayers ineligible to elect

If the Secretary demonstrates that assets were transferred between individuals filing a joint return as part of a fraudulent scheme by such individuals, an election under this subsection by either individual shall be invalid (and section 6013(d)(3) shall apply to the joint return).

(B) Time for election

An election under this subsection for any taxable year may be made at any time after a deficiency for such year is asserted but not later than 2 years after the date on which the Secretary has begun collection activities with respect to the individual making the election.

(C) Election not valid with respect to certain deficiencies

If the Secretary demonstrates that an individual making an election under this subsection had actual knowledge, at the time such individual signed the return, of any item giving rise to a deficiency (or portion thereof) which is not allocable to such individual under subsection (d), such election shall not apply to such deficiency (or portion). This subparagraph shall not apply where the individual with actual knowledge establishes that such individual signed the return under duress.

(4) Liability increased by reason of transfers of property to avoid tax

(A) In general

Notwithstanding any other provision of this subsection, the portion of the deficiency for which the individual electing the application of this subsection is liable (without regard to this paragraph) shall be increased by the value of any disqualified asset transferred to the individual.

(B) Disqualified asset

For purposes of this paragraph—

(i) In general

The term “disqualified asset” means any property or right to property transferred to an individual making the election under this subsection with respect to a joint return by the other individual filing such joint return if the principal purpose of the transfer was the avoidance of tax or payment of tax.

(ii) Presumption

(I) In general

For purposes of clause (i), except as provided in subclause (II), any transfer which is made after the date which is 1 year before the date on which the first letter of proposed deficiency which allows the taxpayer an opportunity for administrative review in the Internal Revenue Service Office of Appeals is sent shall be presumed to have as its principal purpose the avoidance of tax or payment of tax.

(II) Exceptions

Subclause (I) shall not apply to any transfer pursuant to a decree of divorce or separate maintenance or a written instrument incident to such a decree or to any transfer which an individual establishes did not have as its principal purpose the avoidance of tax or payment of tax.

(d) Allocation of deficiency

For purposes of subsection (c)—

(1) In general

The portion of any deficiency on a joint return allocated to an individual shall be the amount which bears the same ratio to such deficiency as the net amount of items taken into account in computing the deficiency and allocable to the individual under paragraph (3) bears to the net amount of all items taken into account in computing the deficiency.

(2) Separate treatment of certain items

If a deficiency (or portion thereof) is attributable to—

(A) the disallowance of a credit; or

(B) any tax (other than tax imposed by section 1 or 55) required to be included with the joint return;


and such item is allocated to one individual under paragraph (3), such deficiency (or portion) shall be allocated to such individual. Any such item shall not be taken into account under paragraph (1).

(3) Allocation of items giving rise to the deficiency

For purposes of this subsection—

(A) In general

Except as provided in paragraphs (4) and (5), any item giving rise to a deficiency on a joint return shall be allocated to individuals filing the return in the same manner as it would have been allocated if the individuals had filed separate returns for the taxable year.

(B) Exception where other spouse benefits

Under rules prescribed by the Secretary, an item otherwise allocable to an individual under subparagraph (A) shall be allocated to the other individual filing the joint return to the extent the item gave rise to a tax benefit on the joint return to the other individual.

(C) Exception for fraud

The Secretary may provide for an allocation of any item in a manner not prescribed by subparagraph (A) if the Secretary establishes that such allocation is appropriate due to fraud of one or both individuals.

(4) Limitations on separate returns disregarded

If an item of deduction or credit is disallowed in its entirety solely because a separate return is filed, such disallowance shall be disregarded and the item shall be computed as if a joint return had been filed and then allocated between the spouses appropriately. A similar rule shall apply for purposes of section 86.

(5) Child's liability

If the liability of a child of a taxpayer is included on a joint return, such liability shall be disregarded in computing the separate liability of either spouse and such liability shall be allocated appropriately between the spouses.

(e) Petition for review by Tax Court

(1) In general

In the case of an individual against whom a deficiency has been asserted and who elects to have subsection (b) or (c) apply, or in the case of an individual who requests equitable relief under subsection (f)—

(A) In general

In addition to any other remedy provided by law, the individual may petition the Tax Court (and the Tax Court shall have jurisdiction) to determine the appropriate relief available to the individual under this section if such petition is filed—

(i) at any time after the earlier of—

(I) the date the Secretary mails, by certified or registered mail to the taxpayer's last known address, notice of the Secretary's final determination of relief available to the individual, or

(II) the date which is 6 months after the date such election is filed or request is made with the Secretary, and


(ii) not later than the close of the 90th day after the date described in clause (i)(I).

(B) Restrictions applicable to collection of assessment

(i) In general

Except as otherwise provided in section 6851 or 6861, no levy or proceeding in court shall be made, begun, or prosecuted against the individual making an election under subsection (b) or (c) or requesting equitable relief under subsection (f) for collection of any assessment to which such election or request relates until the close of the 90th day referred to in subparagraph (A)(ii), or, if a petition has been filed with the Tax Court under subparagraph (A), until the decision of the Tax Court has become final. Rules similar to the rules of section 7485 shall apply with respect to the collection of such assessment.

(ii) Authority to enjoin collection actions

Notwithstanding the provisions of section 7421(a), the beginning of such levy or proceeding during the time the prohibition under clause (i) is in force may be enjoined by a proceeding in the proper court, including the Tax Court. The Tax Court shall have no jurisdiction under this subparagraph to enjoin any action or proceeding unless a timely petition has been filed under subparagraph (A) and then only in respect of the amount of the assessment to which the election under subsection (b) or (c) relates or to which the request under subsection (f) relates.

(2) Suspension of running of period of limitations

The running of the period of limitations in section 6502 on the collection of the assessment to which the petition under paragraph (1)(A) relates shall be suspended—

(A) for the period during which the Secretary is prohibited by paragraph (1)(B) from collecting by levy or a proceeding in court and for 60 days thereafter, and

(B) if a waiver under paragraph (5) is made, from the date the claim for relief was filed until 60 days after the waiver is filed with the Secretary.

(3) Limitation on Tax Court jurisdiction

If a suit for refund is begun by either individual filing the joint return pursuant to section 6532—

(A) the Tax Court shall lose jurisdiction of the individual's action under this section to whatever extent jurisdiction is acquired by the district court or the United States Court of Federal Claims over the taxable years that are the subject of the suit for refund, and

(B) the court acquiring jurisdiction shall have jurisdiction over the petition filed under this subsection.

(4) Notice to other spouse

The Tax Court shall establish rules which provide the individual filing a joint return but not making the election under subsection (b) or (c) or the request for equitable relief under subsection (f) with adequate notice and an opportunity to become a party to a proceeding under either such subsection.

(5) Waiver

An individual who elects the application of subsection (b) or (c) or who requests equitable relief under subsection (f) (and who agrees with the Secretary's determination of relief) may waive in writing at any time the restrictions in paragraph (1)(B) with respect to collection of the outstanding assessment (whether or not a notice of the Secretary's final determination of relief has been mailed).

(f) Equitable relief

Under procedures prescribed by the Secretary, if—

(1) taking into account all the facts and circumstances, it is inequitable to hold the individual liable for any unpaid tax or any deficiency (or any portion of either); and

(2) relief is not available to such individual under subsection (b) or (c),


the Secretary may relieve such individual of such liability.

(g) Credits and refunds

(1) In general

Except as provided in paragraphs (2) and (3), notwithstanding any other law or rule of law (other than section 6511, 6512(b), 7121, or 7122), credit or refund shall be allowed or made to the extent attributable to the application of this section.

(2) Res judicata

In the case of any election under subsection (b) or (c) or of any request for equitable relief under subsection (f), if a decision of a court in any prior proceeding for the same taxable year has become final, such decision shall be conclusive except with respect to the qualification of the individual for relief which was not an issue in such proceeding. The exception contained in the preceding sentence shall not apply if the court determines that the individual participated meaningfully in such prior proceeding.

(3) Credit and refund not allowed under subsection (c)

No credit or refund shall be allowed as a result of an election under subsection (c).

(h) Regulations

The Secretary shall prescribe such regulations as are necessary to carry out the provisions of this section, including—

(1) regulations providing methods for allocation of items other than the methods under subsection (d)(3); and

(2) regulations providing the opportunity for an individual to have notice of, and an opportunity to participate in, any administrative proceeding with respect to an election made under subsection (b) or (c) or a request for equitable relief made under subsection (f) by the other individual filing the joint return.

(Added Pub. L. 105–206, title III, §3201(a), July 22, 1998, 112 Stat. 734; amended Pub. L. 105–277, div. J, title IV, §4002(c)(2), Oct. 21, 1998, 112 Stat. 2681–906; Pub. L. 106–554, §1(a)(7) [title III, §313(a)], Dec. 21, 2000, 114 Stat. 2763, 2763A–640; Pub. L. 109–432, div. C, title IV, §408(a), (b), Dec. 20, 2006, 120 Stat. 3061, 3062.)

Prior Provisions

A prior section 6015, acts Aug. 16, 1954, ch. 736, 68A Stat. 737; Sept. 2, 1958, Pub. L. 85–866, title I, §74, 72 Stat. 1660; Sept. 14, 1960, Pub. L. 86–779, §5(a), 74 Stat. 1000; Sept. 25, 1962, Pub. L. 87–682, §1(a)(1), 76 Stat. 575; Mar. 15, 1966, Pub. L. 89–368, title I, §102(a), 80 Stat. 62; Nov. 13, 1966, Pub. L. 89–809, title I, §103(j), 80 Stat. 1554; Dec. 30, 1969, Pub. L. 91–172, title III, §301(b)(12), title VIII, §803(d)(7), title IX, §944(a), 83 Stat. 586, 684, 729; Dec. 10, 1971, Pub. L. 92–178, title II, §209(a), 85 Stat. 517; Oct. 4, 1976, Pub. L. 94–455, title XIX, §1906(a)(2), (b)(13)(A), 90 Stat. 1824, 1834; Nov. 6, 1978, Pub. L. 95–600, title IV, §421(e)(7), 92 Stat. 2876; Aug. 13, 1981, Pub. L. 97–34, title VII, §725(a), (c)(2), 95 Stat. 345, 346; Sept. 3, 1982, Pub. L. 97–248, title II, §201(d)(7), formerly §201(c)(7), title III, §§307(a)(6), 308(a), 328(b)(1), 96 Stat. 420, 589, 591, 618, redesignated and amended Jan. 12, 1983, Pub. L. 97–448, title I, §107(c)(2), title II, §201(j)(1), title III, §306(a)(1)(A)(i), 96 Stat. 2391, 2395, 2400; Aug. 5, 1983, Pub. L. 98–67, title I, §102(a), 97 Stat. 369, related to declaration of estimated income tax by individuals, prior to repeal by Pub. L. 98–369, div. A, title IV, §§412(a)(1), 414(a)(1), July 18, 1984, 98 Stat. 792, 793, applicable with respect to taxable years beginning after Dec. 31, 1984.

Amendments

2006—Subsec. (e)(1). Pub. L. 109–432, §408(a), inserted “, or in the case of an individual who requests equitable relief under subsection (f)” after “apply” in introductory provisions.

Subsec. (e)(1)(A)(i)(II). Pub. L. 109–432, §408(b)(1), inserted “or request is made” after “filed”.

Subsec. (e)(1)(B)(i). Pub. L. 109–432, §408(b)(2), inserted “or requesting equitable relief under subsection (f)” after “subsection (b) or (c)” and “or request” after “such election”.

Subsec. (e)(1)(B)(ii). Pub. L. 109–432, §408(b)(3), inserted “or to which the request under subsection (f) relates” before period at end.

Subsec. (e)(4). Pub. L. 109–432, §408(b)(4), inserted “or the request for equitable relief under subsection (f)” after “subsection (b) or (c)”.

Subsec. (e)(5). Pub. L. 109–432, §408(b)(5), inserted “or who requests equitable relief under subsection (f)” after “subsection (b) or (c)”.

Subsec. (g)(2). Pub. L. 109–432, §408(b)(6), inserted “or of any request for equitable relief under subsection (f)” after “subsection (b) or (c)”.

Subsec. (h)(2). Pub. L. 109–432, §408(b)(7), inserted “or a request for equitable relief made under subsection (f)” after “subsection (b) or (c)”.

2000—Subsec. (c)(3)(B). Pub. L. 106–554, §1(a)(7) [title III, §313(a)(1)], substituted “may be made at any time after a deficiency for such year is asserted but” for “shall be made”.

Subsec. (e)(1). Pub. L. 106–554, §1(a)(7) [title III, §313(a)(3)(A)], inserted “against whom a deficiency has been asserted and” after “individual” in introductory provisions.

Subsec. (e)(1)(A). Pub. L. 106–554, §1(a)(7) [title III, §313(a)(3)(B)], amended heading and text of subpar. (A) generally. Prior to amendment, text read as follows: “The individual may petition the Tax Court (and the Tax Court shall have jurisdiction) to determine the appropriate relief available to the individual under this section if such petition is filed during the 90-day period beginning on the date on which the Secretary mails by certified or registered mail a notice to such individual of the Secretary's determination of relief available to the individual. Notwithstanding the preceding sentence, an individual may file such petition at any time after the date which is 6 months after the date such election is filed with the Secretary and before the close of such 90-day period.”

Subsec. (e)(1)(B)(i). Pub. L. 106–554, §1(a)(7) [title III, §313(a)(3)(C)], substituted “until the close of the 90th day referred to in subparagraph (A)(ii)” for “until the expiration of the 90-day period described in subparagraph (A)” and inserted “under subparagraph (A)” after “filed with the Tax Court”.

Subsec. (e)(2). Pub. L. 106–554, §1(a)(7) [title III, §313(a)(3)(D)(ii)], amended heading and text of par. (2) generally. Prior to amendment, text read as follows: “The running of the period of limitations in section 6502 on the collection of the assessment to which the petition under paragraph (1)(A) relates shall be suspended for the period during which the Secretary is prohibited by paragraph (1)(B) from collecting by levy or a proceeding in court and for 60 days thereafter.”

Subsec. (e)(3). Pub. L. 106–554, §1(a)(7) [title III, §313(a)(2)(B)], amended par. (3) generally, substituting “Limitation on Tax Court jurisdiction” for “Applicable rules” in heading and restating provisions relating to limitations on the Tax Court's jurisdiction and eliminating provisions relating to res judicata and allowance of credits or refunds in text.

Subsec. (e)(5). Pub. L. 106–554, §1(a)(7) [title III, §313(a)(3)(D)(i)], added par. (5).

Subsecs. (g), (h). Pub. L. 106–554, §1(a)(7) [title III, §313(a)(2)(A)], added subsec. (g) and redesignated former subsec. (g) as (h).

1998—Subsec. (e)(3)(A). Pub. L. 105–277 substituted “of subsection (b) or (f)” for “of this section”.

Effective Date of 2006 Amendment

Pub. L. 109–432, div. C, title IV, §408(c), Dec. 20, 2006, 120 Stat. 3062, provided that: “The amendments made by this section [amending this section] shall apply with respect to liability for taxes arising or remaining unpaid on or after the date of the enactment of this Act [Dec. 20, 2006].”

Effective Date of 2000 Amendment

Pub. L. 106–554, §1(a)(7) [title III, §313(f)], Dec. 21, 2000, 114 Stat. 2763, 2763A–643, provided that: “The amendments made by subsections (a) and (b) [amending this section and sections 6330, 6331, 7421, and 7463 of this title] shall take effect on the date of the enactment of this Act [Dec. 21, 2000]. The amendments made by subsections (c), (d), and (e) [amending sections 6103, 6110, and 6330 of this title] shall take effect as if included in the provisions of the Internal Revenue Service Restructuring and Reform Act of 1998 [Pub. L. 105–206] to which they relate.”

Effective Date of 1998 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 105–277 effective as if included in the provision of the Internal Revenue Service Restructuring and Reform Act of 1998, Pub. L. 105–206, to which such amendment relates, see section 4002(k) of Pub. L. 105–277, set out as a note under section 1 of this title.

Effective Date

Pub. L. 105–206, title III, §3201(g), July 22, 1998, 112 Stat. 740, provided that:

“(1) In general.—Except as provided in paragraph (2), the amendments made by this section [enacting this section, amending sections 66, 6013, 6230, and 7421 of this title, and enacting provisions set out as notes under this section and section 6013 of this title] shall apply to any liability for tax arising after the date of the enactment of this Act [July 22, 1998] and any liability for tax arising on or before such date but remaining unpaid as of such date.

“(2) 2-year period.—The 2-year period under subsection (b)(1)(E) or (c)(3)(B) of section 6015 of the Internal Revenue Code of 1986 shall not expire before the date which is 2 years after the date of the first collection activity after the date of the enactment of this Act [July 22, 1998].”

Separate Form for Applying for Spousal Relief

Pub. L. 105–206, title III, §3201(c), July 22, 1998, 112 Stat. 740, provided that: “Not later than 180 days after the date of the enactment of this Act [July 22, 1998], the Secretary of the Treasury shall develop a separate form with instructions for use by taxpayers in applying for relief under section 6015(a) of the Internal Revenue Code of 1986, as added by this section.”

[§6016. Repealed. Pub. L. 90–364, title I, §103(a), June 28, 1968, 82 Stat. 260]

Section, acts Aug. 16, 1954, ch. 736, 68A Stat. 738; Feb. 26, 1964, Pub. L. 88–272, title I, §122(d), 78 Stat. 29, Nov. 13, 1966, Pub. L. 89–809, title I, §104(l), 80 Stat. 1563, provided for the declaration of estimated income tax by corporations.

Effective Date of Repeal

Repeal effective with respect to taxable years beginning after Dec. 31, 1967, except as provided by section 104 of Pub. L. 90–364, see section 103(f) of Pub. L. 90–364, set out as an Effective Date of 1968 Amendment note under section 243 of this title.

§6017. Self-employment tax returns

Every individual (other than a nonresident alien individual) having net earnings from self-employment of $400 or more for the taxable year shall make a return with respect to the self-employment tax imposed by chapter 2. In the case of a husband and wife filing a joint return under section 6013, the tax imposed by chapter 2 shall not be computed on the aggregate income but shall be the sum of the taxes computed under such chapter on the separate self-employment income of each spouse.

(Aug. 16, 1954, ch. 736, 68A Stat. 739.)

[§6017A. Repealed. Pub. L. 101–239, title VII, §7711(b)(1), Dec. 19, 1989, 103 Stat. 2393]

Section, added Pub. L. 92–512, title I, §144(a)(1), Oct. 20, 1972, 86 Stat. 935; amended Pub. L. 94–455, title XIX, §1906(b)(13)(A), Oct. 4, 1976, 90 Stat. 1834, related to place of residence.

Effective Date of Repeal

Repeal applicable to returns and statements the due date for which (determined without regard to extensions) is after Dec. 31, 1989, see section 7711(c) of Pub. L. 101–239, set out as an Effective Date of 1989 Amendment note under section 6721 of this title.

Subpart C—Estate and Gift Tax Returns

Sec.
6018.
Estate tax returns.
6019.
Gift tax returns.

        

Amendment of Analysis

For termination of amendment by section 304 of Pub. L. 111–312, see Effective and Termination Dates of 2010 Amendment note set out under section 121 of this title.

For termination of amendment by section 901 of Pub. L. 107–16, see Effective and Termination Dates of 2001 Amendment note set out under section 1 of this title.

Amendments

2010—Pub. L. 111–312, title III, §§301(a), 304, Dec. 17, 2010, 124 Stat. 3300, 3304, temporarily amended analysis to read as if amendment by Pub. L. 107–16, §542(b)(1), had never been enacted. See 2001 Amendment note below.

2001—Pub. L. 107–16, title V, §542(b)(1), title IX, §901, June 7, 2001, 115 Stat. 81, 150, temporarily substituted “Returns Relating to Transfers During Life or at Death” for “Estate and Gift Tax Returns” in subpart heading and “Returns relating to large transfers at death” for “Estate tax returns” in item 6018.

§6018. Estate tax returns

(a) Returns by executor

(1) Citizens or residents

In all cases where the gross estate at the death of a citizen or resident exceeds the basic exclusion amount in effect under section 2010(c) for the calendar year which includes the date of death, the executor shall make a return with respect to the estate tax imposed by subtitle B.

(2) Nonresidents not citizens of the United States

In the case of the estate of every nonresident not a citizen of the United States if that part of the gross estate which is situated in the United States exceeds $60,000, the executor shall make a return with respect to the estate tax imposed by subtitle B.

(3) Adjustment for certain gifts

The amount applicable under paragraph (1) and the amount set forth in paragraph (2) shall each be reduced (but not below zero) by the sum of—

(A) the amount of the adjusted taxable gifts (within the meaning of section 2001(b)) made by the decedent after December 31, 1976, plus

(B) the aggregate amount allowed as a specific exemption under section 2521 (as in effect before its repeal by the Tax Reform Act of 1976) with respect to gifts made by the decedent after September 8, 1976.

(b) Returns by beneficiaries

If the executor is unable to make a complete return as to any part of the gross estate of the decedent, he shall include in his return a description of such part and the name of every person holding a legal or beneficial interest therein. Upon notice from the Secretary such person shall in like manner make a return as to such part of the gross estate.

(Aug. 16, 1954, ch. 736, 68A Stat. 739; Pub. L. 89–809, title I, §108(g), Nov. 13, 1966, 80 Stat. 1574; Pub. L. 94–455, title XIX, §1906(b)(13)(A), title XX, §2001(c)(1)(J), Oct. 4, 1976, 90 Stat. 1834, 1852; Pub. L. 97–34, title IV, §401(a)(2)(B), Aug. 13, 1981, 95 Stat. 299; Pub. L. 98–369, div. A, title V, §544(b)(3), July 18, 1984, 98 Stat. 894; Pub. L. 100–647, title I, §1011A(g)(12), Nov. 10, 1988, 102 Stat. 3482; Pub. L. 101–239, title VII, §7304(b)(2)(B), Dec. 19, 1989, 103 Stat. 2353; Pub. L. 101–508, title XI, §11801(a)(43), (c)(19)(C), Nov. 5, 1990, 104 Stat. 1388–521, 1388–528; Pub. L. 105–34, title V, §501(a)(1)(C), title X, §1073(b)(4), Aug. 5, 1997, 111 Stat. 845, 948; Pub. L. 107–16, title V, §542(b)(1), June 7, 2001, 115 Stat. 81; Pub. L. 111–312, title III, §§301(a), 303(b)(3), Dec. 17, 2010, 124 Stat. 3300, 3303.)

Amendment of Section

For termination of amendment by section 304 of Pub. L. 111–312, see Effective and Termination Dates of 2010 Amendment note below.

For termination of amendment by section 901 of Pub. L. 107–16, see Effective and Termination Dates of 2001 Amendment note below.

References in Text

Section 2521 of this title, referred to in subsec. (a)(3)(B), was repealed by section 2001(b)(3) of Pub. L. 94–455, applicable to gifts made after Dec. 31, 1976.

The Tax Reform Act of 1976, referred to in subsec. (a)(3)(B), is Pub. L. 94–455, Oct. 4, 1976, 90 Stat. 1520. For complete classification of this Act to the Code, see Short Title of 1976 Amendments note set out under section 1 of this title and Tables.

Amendments

2010—Pub. L. 111–312, §§301(a), 304, temporarily amended section to read as if amendment by Pub. L. 107–16, §542(b)(1), had never been enacted. See 2001 Amendment note and Effective and Termination Dates of 2010 Amendment note below.

Subsec. (a)(1). Pub. L. 111–312, §§303(b)(3), 304, temporarily substituted “basic exclusion amount” for “applicable exclusion amount”. See Effective and Termination Dates of 2010 Amendment note below.

2001—Pub. L. 107–16, §§542(b)(1), 901, temporarily amended section generally. Prior to amendment, text read as follows:

“(a) Returns by Executor.—

“(1) Citizens or residents.—In all cases where the gross estate at the death of a citizen or resident exceeds the applicable exclusion amount in effect under section 2010(c) for the calendar year which includes the date of death, the executor shall make a return with respect to the estate tax imposed by subtitle B.

“(2) Nonresidents not citizens of the united states.—In the case of the estate of every nonresident not a citizen of the United States if that part of the gross estate which is situated in the United States exceeds $60,000, the executor shall make a return with respect to the estate tax imposed by subtitle B.

“(3) Adjustment for certain gifts.—The amount applicable under paragraph (1) and the amount set forth in paragraph (2) shall each be reduced (but not below zero) by the sum of—

“(A) the amount of the adjusted taxable gifts (within the meaning of section 2001(b)) made by the decedent after December 31, 1976, plus

“(B) the aggregate amount allowed as a specific exemption under section 2521 (as in effect before its repeal by the Tax Reform Act of 1976) with respect to gifts made by the decedent after September 8, 1976.

“(b) Returns by Beneficiaries.—If the executor is unable to make a complete return as to any part of the gross estate of the decedent, he shall include in his return a description of such part and the name of every person holding a legal or beneficial interest therein. Upon notice from the Secretary such person shall in like manner make a return as to such part of the gross estate.”

See Effective and Termination Dates of 2001 Amendment note below.

1997—Subsec. (a)(1). Pub. L. 105–34, §501(a)(1)(C), substituted “the applicable exclusion amount in effect under section 2010(c) for the calendar year which includes the date of death” for “$600,000”.

Subsec. (a)(4). Pub. L. 105–34, §1073(b)(4), struck out par. (4) which read as follows:

“(4) Return required if excess retirement accumulation tax.—The executor shall make a return with respect to the estate tax imposed by subtitle B in any case where such tax is increased by reason of section 4980A(d).”

1990—Subsec. (a)(3) to (5). Pub. L. 101–508 redesignated pars. (4) and (5) as (3) and (4), respectively, and struck out former par. (3) which provided for phase-in of estate tax return filing requirement amount.

1989—Subsec. (c). Pub. L. 101–239 struck out subsec. (c) which read as follows:

Election Under Section 2210.—In all cases in which subsection (a) requires the filing of a return, if an executor elects the applications of section 2210—

“(1) Return by executor.—The return which the executor is required to file under the provisions of subsection (a) shall be made with respect to that portion of estate tax imposed by subtitle B which the executor is required to pay.

“(2) Return by plan administrator.—The plan administrator of an employee stock ownership plan or the eligible worker-owned cooperative, as the case may be, shall make a return with respect to that portion of the tax imposed by section 2001 which such plan or cooperative is required to pay under section 2210(b).”

1988—Subsec. (a)(5). Pub. L. 100–647 added par. (5).

1984—Subsec. (c). Pub. L. 98–369 added subsec. (c).

1981—Subsec. (a)(1). Pub. L. 97–34, §401(a)(2)(B)(i), substituted “$600,000” for “$175,000”.

Subsec. (a)(3). Pub. L. 97–34, §401(a)(2)(B)(ii), set forth par. (1) substitutions for “$600,000” amount of “$225,000”, “$275,000”, “$325,000”, “$400,000”, and “$500,000” in the case of decedents dying in 1982, 1983, 1984, 1985, and 1986, respectively, and struck out par. (1) substitutions for “$175,000” amount of “$120,000”, “$134,000”, “$147,000”, and “$161,000” in the case of decedents dying during 1977, 1978, 1979, and 1980, respectively.

1976—Subsec. (a)(1). Pub. L. 94–455, §2001(c)(1)(J)(i), substituted “$175,000” for “$60,000”.

Subsec. (a)(2). Pub. L. 94–455, §2001(c)(1)(J)(ii), substituted “$60,000” for “$30,000”.

Subsec. (a)(3), (4). Pub. L. 94–455, §2001(c)(1)(J)(iii), added pars. (3) and (4).

Subsec. (b). Pub. L. 94–455, §1906(b)(13)(A), struck out “or his delegate” after “Secretary”.

1966—Subsec. (a)(2). Pub. L. 89–809 substituted “$30,000” for “$2,000”.

Effective and Termination Dates of 2010 Amendment

Amendment by section 301(a) of Pub. L. 111–312 applicable to estates of decedents dying, and transfers made after Dec. 31, 2009, except as otherwise provided, see section 301(e) of Pub. L. 111–312, set out as a note under section 121 of this title.

Amendment by section 303(b)(3) of Pub. L. 111–312 applicable to estates of decedents dying and gifts made after Dec. 31, 2010, see section 303(c)(1) of Pub. L. 111–312, set out as an Effective Date of 2010 Amendment note under section 2010 of this title.

Section 901 of Pub. L. 107–16 applicable to amendments by sections 301(a) and 303(b)(3) of Pub. L. 111–312, see section 304 of Pub. L. 111–312, set out as a note under section 121 of this title.

Effective and Termination Dates of 2001 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 107–16 applicable to estates of decedents dying after Dec. 31, 2009, see section 542(f)(1) of Pub. L. 107–16, set out as a note under section 121 of this title.

Amendment by Pub. L. 107–16 inapplicable to estates of decedents dying, gifts made, or generation skipping transfers, after Dec. 31, 2012, and the Internal Revenue Code of 1986 to be applied and administered to such estates, gifts, and transfers as if such amendment had never been enacted, see section 901 of Pub. L. 107–16, set out as a note under section 1 of this title.

Effective Date of 1997 Amendment

Amendment by section 501(a)(1)(C) of Pub. L. 105–34 applicable to estates of decedents dying, and gifts made, after Dec. 31, 1997, see section 501(f) of Pub. L. 105–34, set out as a note under section 2001 of this title.

Amendment by section 1073(b)(4) of Pub. L. 105–34 applicable to estates of decedents dying after Dec. 31, 1996, see section 1073(c) of Pub. L. 105–34, set out as an Effective Date of Repeal note under section 4980A of this title.

Effective Date of 1989 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 101–239 applicable to estates of decedents dying after July 12, 1989, see section 7304(b)(3) of Pub. L. 101–239, set out as a note under section 2002 of this title.

Effective Date of 1988 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 100–647 effective, except as otherwise provided, as if included in the provision of the Tax Reform Act of 1986, Pub. L. 99–514, to which such amendment relates, see section 1019(a) of Pub. L. 100–647, set out as a note under section 1 of this title.

Effective Date of 1984 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 98–369 applicable to estates of decedents which are required to file returns on a date (including any extensions) after July 18, 1984, see section 544(d) of Pub. L. 98–369, set out as a note under section 2002 of this title.

Effective Date of 1981 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 97–34 applicable to estates of decedents dying after Dec. 31, 1981, see section 401(c)(1) of Pub. L. 97–34, set out as a note under section 2010 of this title.

Effective Date of 1976 Amendment

Amendment by section 2001(c)(1)(J) of Pub. L. 94–455 applicable to estates of decedents dying after Dec. 31, 1976, see section 2001(d)(1) of Pub. L. 94–455, set out as a note under section 2001 of this title.

Effective Date of 1966 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 89–809 applicable with respect to estates of decedents dying after Nov. 13, 1966, see section 108(i) of Pub. L. 89–809, set out as a note under section 2101 of this title.

Savings Provision

For provisions that nothing in amendment by Pub. L. 101–508 be construed to affect treatment of certain transactions occurring, property acquired, or items of income, loss, deduction, or credit taken into account prior to Nov. 5, 1990, for purposes of determining liability for tax for periods ending after Nov. 5, 1990, see section 11821(b) of Pub. L. 101–508, set out as a note under section 45K of this title.

§6019. Gift tax returns

Any individual who in any calendar year makes any transfer by gift other than—

(1) a transfer which under subsection (b) or (e) of section 2503 is not to be included in the total amount of gifts for such year,

(2) a transfer of an interest with respect to which a deduction is allowed under section 2523, or

(3) a transfer with respect to which a deduction is allowed under section 2522 but only if—

(A)(i) such transfer is of the donor's entire interest in the property transferred, and

(ii) no other interest in such property is or has been transferred (for less than adequate and full consideration in money or money's worth) from the donor to a person, or for a use, not described in subsection (a) or (b) of section 2522, or

(B) such transfer is described in section 2522(d),


shall make a return for such year with respect to the gift tax imposed by subtitle B.

(Aug. 16, 1954, ch. 736, 68A Stat. 739; Pub. L. 91–614, title I, §102(d)(3), Dec. 31, 1970, 84 Stat. 1841; Pub. L. 97–34, title IV, §§403(b)(3)(A), (c)(3)(B), 442(d)(2), Aug. 13, 1981, 95 Stat. 301, 302, 322; Pub. L. 105–34, title XIII, §1301(a), Aug. 5, 1997, 111 Stat. 1039; Pub. L. 107–16, title V, §542(b)(2), June 7, 2001, 115 Stat. 82; Pub. L. 111–312, title III, §301(a), Dec. 17, 2010, 124 Stat. 3300.)

Amendment of Section

For termination of amendment by section 304 of Pub. L. 111–312, see Effective and Termination Dates of 2010 Amendment note below.

For termination of amendment by section 901 of Pub. L. 107–16, see Effective and Termination Dates of 2001 Amendment note below.

Amendments

2010—Pub. L. 111–312, §§301(a), 304, temporarily amended section to read as if amendment by Pub. L. 107–16, §542(b)(2), had never been enacted. See 2001 Amendment note and Effective and Termination Dates of 2010 Amendment note below.

2001—Pub. L. 107–16, §§542(b)(2), 901, temporarily inserted subsec. (a) designation and heading and added subsec. (b), which related to statements to be furnished to certain persons. See Effective and Termination Dates of 2001 Amendment note below.

1997—Par. (3). Pub. L. 105–34 added par. (3).

1981—Pub. L. 97–34 struck out subsec. “(a) In general” designation, substituted “calendar year” for “calendar quarter” and “year” for “quarter” wherever appearing, inserted in provision designated par. (1) reference to subsec. (e) of section 2503, added par. (2), and deleted provision respecting transfers by gift other than qualified charitable transfers, repealed subsec. (b) setting forth return requirement and definition of qualified charitable transfer, and repealed subsec. (c) setting forth cross reference to section 2515(c) relating to tenancy by the entirety.

1970—Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 91–614 substituted “Any individual who in any calendar quarter makes any transfers by gift (other than transfers which under section 2503(b) are not to be included in the total amount of gifts for such quarter and other than qualified charitable transfers) shall make a return for such quarter with respect to the gift tax imposed by subtitle B” for “Any individual who in any calendar year makes any transfers by gift (except those which under section 2503(b) are not to be included in the total amount of gifts for such year) shall make a return with respect to the gift tax imposed by subtitle B”.

Subsecs. (b), (c). Pub. L. 91–614 added subsec. (b) and redesignated former subsec. (b) as (c).

Effective and Termination Dates of 2010 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 111–312 applicable to estates of decedents dying, and transfers made after Dec. 31, 2009, except as otherwise provided, see section 301(e) of Pub. L. 111–312, set out as a note under section 121 of this title.

Section 901 of Pub. L. 107–16 applicable to amendments by section 301(a) of Pub. L. 111–312, see section 304 of Pub. L. 111–312, set out as a note under section 121 of this title.

Effective and Termination Dates of 2001 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 107–16 applicable to estates of decedents dying after Dec. 31, 2009, see section 542(f)(1) of Pub. L. 107–16, set out as a note under section 121 of this title.

Amendment by Pub. L. 107–16 inapplicable to estates of decedents dying, gifts made, or generation skipping transfers, after Dec. 31, 2012, and the Internal Revenue Code of 1986 to be applied and administered to such estates, gifts, and transfers as if such amendment had never been enacted, see section 901 of Pub. L. 107–16, set out as a note under section 1 of this title.

Effective Date of 1997 Amendment

Section 1301(b) of Pub. L. 105–34 provided that: “The amendment made by this section [amending this section] shall apply to gifts made after the date of the enactment of this Act [Aug. 5, 1997].”

Effective Date of 1981 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 97–34 applicable to gifts made after Dec. 31, 1981, see sections 403(e)(2) and 442(e) of Pub. L. 97–34, set out as a note under sections 2056 and 2501 of this title, respectively.

Effective Date of 1970 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 91–614 applicable with respect to gifts made after Dec. 31, 1970, see section 102(e) of Pub. L. 91–614, set out as a note under section 2501 of this title.

Subpart D—Miscellaneous Provisions

Sec.
6020.
Returns prepared for or executed by Secretary.
6021.
Listing by Secretary of taxable objects owned by nonresidents of internal revenue districts.

        

§6020. Returns prepared for or executed by Secretary

(a) Preparation of return by Secretary

If any person shall fail to make a return required by this title or by regulations prescribed thereunder, but shall consent to disclose all information necessary for the preparation thereof, then, and in that case, the Secretary may prepare such return, which, being signed by such person, may be received by the Secretary as the return of such person.

(b) Execution of return by Secretary

(1) Authority of Secretary to execute return

If any person fails to make any return required by any internal revenue law or regulation made thereunder at the time prescribed therefor, or makes, willfully or otherwise, a false or fraudulent return, the Secretary shall make such return from his own knowledge and from such information as he can obtain through testimony or otherwise.

(2) Status of returns

Any return so made and subscribed by the Secretary shall be prima facie good and sufficient for all legal purposes.

(Aug. 16, 1954, ch. 736, 68A Stat. 740; Pub. L. 90–364, title I, §103(e)(3), June 28, 1968, 82 Stat. 264; Pub. L. 94–455, title XIX, §1906(b)(13)(A), Oct. 4, 1976, 90 Stat. 1834; Pub. L. 98–369, div. A, title IV, §412(b)(4), July 18, 1984, 98 Stat. 792.)

Amendments

1984—Subsec. (b)(1). Pub. L. 98–369 struck out “(other than a declaration of estimated tax required under section 6015)” after “make any return”.

1976—Pub. L. 94–455 struck out “or his delegate” after “Secretary” wherever appearing.

1968—Subsec. (b)(1). Pub. L. 90–364 struck out reference to section 6016.

Effective Date of 1984 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 98–369 applicable with respect to taxable years beginning after Dec. 31, 1984, see section 414(a)(1) of Pub. L. 98–369, set out as a note under section 6654 of this title.

Effective Date of 1968 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 90–364 applicable with respect to taxable years beginning after Dec. 31, 1967, except as provided by section 104 of Pub. L. 90–364, see section 103(f) of Pub. L. 90–364, set out as a note under section 243 of this title.

§6021. Listing by Secretary of taxable objects owned by nonresidents of internal revenue districts

Whenever there are in any internal revenue district any articles subject to tax, which are not owned or possessed by or under the care or control of any person within such district, and of which no list has been transmitted to the Secretary, as required by law or by regulations prescribed pursuant to law, the Secretary shall enter the premises where such articles are situated, shall make such inspection of the articles as may be necessary and make lists of the same, according to the forms prescribed. Such lists, being subscribed by the Secretary, shall be sufficient lists of such articles for all purposes.

(Aug. 16, 1954, ch. 736, 68A Stat. 740; Pub. L. 94–455, title XIX, §1906(b)(13)(A), Oct. 4, 1976, 90 Stat. 1834.)

Amendments

1976—Pub. L. 94–455 struck out “or his delegate” after “Secretary” wherever appearing.