26 U.S.C.
United States Code, 2011 Edition
Title 26 - INTERNAL REVENUE CODE
Subtitle F - Procedure and Administration
CHAPTER 70 - JEOPARDY, RECEIVERSHIPS, ETC.
From the U.S. Government Printing Office, www.gpo.gov

CHAPTER 70—JEOPARDY, RECEIVERSHIPS, ETC.

Subchapter
Sec.1
A.
Jeopardy
6851

        

B.
Receiverships, etc
6871

        

Amendments

1980—Pub. L. 96–589, §6(g)(3)(C), (D), Dec. 24, 1980, 94 Stat. 3410, substituted “JEOPARDY, RECEIVERSHIPS ETC.” for “JEOPARDY, BANKRUPTCY AND RECEIVERSHIPS” in chapter heading, and “Receiverships, etc.” for “Bankruptcy and receiverships” in item for subchapter B.

1 Section numbers editorially supplied.

Subchapter A—Jeopardy

Part
I.
Termination of taxable year.
II.
Jeopardy assessments.
III.
Special rules with respect to certain cash.

        

Amendments

1982—Pub. L. 97–248, title III, §330(b), Sept. 3, 1982, 96 Stat. 620, added item for part III.

PART I—TERMINATION OF TAXABLE YEAR

Sec.
6851.
Termination assessments of income tax.
6852.
Termination assessments in case of flagrant political expenditures of section 501(c)(3) organizations.

        

Amendments

1987—Pub. L. 100–203, title X, §10713(b)(2)(H), Dec. 22, 1987, 101 Stat. 1330–470, added item 6852.

1976—Pub. L. 94–455, title XII, §1204(c)(12), Oct. 4, 1976, 90 Stat. 1699, substituted “assessments of income tax” for “of taxable year” in item 6851.

§6851. Termination assessments of income tax

(a) Authority for making

(1) In general

If the Secretary finds that a taxpayer designs quickly to depart from the United States or to remove his property therefrom, or to conceal himself or his property therein, or to do any other act (including in the case of a corporation distributing all or a part of its assets in liquidation or otherwise) tending to prejudice or to render wholly or partially ineffectual proceedings to collect the income tax for the current or the immediately preceding taxable year unless such proceeding be brought without delay, the Secretary shall immediately make a determination of tax for the current taxable year or for the preceding taxable year, or both, as the case may be, and notwithstanding any other provision of law, such tax shall become immediately due and payable. The Secretary shall immediately assess the amount of the tax so determined (together with all interest, additional amounts, and additions to the tax provided by law) for the current taxable year or such preceding taxable year, or both, as the case may be, and shall cause notice of such determination and assessment to be given the taxpayer, together with a demand for immediate payment of such tax.

(2) Computation of tax

In the case of a current taxable year, the Secretary shall determine the tax for the period beginning on the first day of such current taxable year and ending on the date of the determination under paragraph (1) as though such period were a taxable year of the taxpayer, and shall take into account any prior determination made under this subsection with respect to such current taxable year.

(3) Treatment of amounts collected

Any amounts collected as a result of any assessments under this subsection shall, to the extent thereof, be treated as a payment of tax for such taxable year.

(4) This section inapplicable where section 6861 applies

This section shall not authorize any assessment of tax for the preceding taxable year which is made after the due date of the taxpayer's return for such taxable year (determined with regard to any extensions).

(b) Notice of deficiency

If an assessment of tax is made under the authority of subsection (a), the Secretary shall mail a notice under section 6212(a) for the taxpayer's full taxable year (determined without regard to any action taken under subsection (a)) with respect to which such assessment was made within 60 days after the later of (i) the due date of the taxpayer's return for such taxable year (determined with regard to any extensions), or (ii) the date such taxpayer files such return. Such deficiency may be in an amount greater or less than the amount assessed under subsection (a).

(c) Citizens

In the case of a citizen of the United States or of a possession of the United States about to depart from the United States, the Secretary may, at his discretion, waive any or all of the requirements placed on the taxpayer by this section.

(d) Departure of alien

Subject to such exceptions as may, by regulations, be prescribed by the Secretary—

(1) No alien shall depart from the United States unless he first procures from the Secretary a certificate that he has complied with all the obligations imposed upon him by the income tax laws.

(2) Payment of taxes shall not be enforced by any proceedings under the provisions of this section prior to the expiration of the time otherwise allowed for paying such taxes if, in the case of an alien about to depart from the United States, the Secretary determines that the collection of the tax will not be jeopardized by the departure of the alien.

(e) Sections 6861(f) and (g) to apply

The provisions of section 6861(f) (relating to collection of unpaid amounts) and 6861(g) (relating to abatement if jeopardy does not exist) shall apply with respect to any assessment made under subsection (a).

(f) Cross references

(1) For provisions permitting immediate levy in case of jeopardy, see section 6331(a).

(2) For provisions relating to the review of jeopardy, see section 7429.

(Aug. 16, 1954, ch. 736, 68A Stat. 833; Pub. L. 85–866, title I, §87, Sept. 2, 1958, 72 Stat. 1665; Pub. L. 94–455, title XII, §1204(b), title XIX, §1906(b)(13)(A), Oct. 4, 1976, 90 Stat. 1696, 1834.)

Amendments

1976—Pub. L. 94–455, §1204(b)(1), substituted “assessments of income tax” for “of taxable year” in section catchline.

Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 94–455, §1204(b)(1), revised pars. (1) and (2) to provide that a termination assessment does not end the taxable year for any purpose other than the computation of the amount of tax to be assessed and collected and to set out the method for determining the tax for the current taxable year, and added pars. (3) and (4).

Subsec. (b). Pub. L. 94–455, §1204(b)(1), substituted provisions for the mailing of a notice of deficiency for provisions for the reopening of taxable period.

Subsecs. (c), (d). Pub. L. 94–455, §1906(b)(13)(A), struck out “or his delegate” after “Secretary” wherever appearing.

Subsec. (e). Pub. L. 94–455, §1204(b)(2), substituted provisions making section 6861(f) and (g) applicable with respect to assessments under subsec. (a).

Subsec. (f). Pub. L. 94–455, §1204(b)(2), added subsec. (f).

1958—Subsec. (d). Pub. L. 85–866 designated existing provisions as par. (1), inserted opening provisions, and added par. (2).

Effective Date of 1976 Amendment

Section 1204(d) of Pub. L. 94–455, as amended by Pub. L. 94–528, §2(a), Oct. 17, 1976, 90 Stat. 2483; Pub. L. 99–514, §2, Oct. 22, 1986, 100 Stat. 2095, provided that: “The amendments made by this section [enacting section 7429 of this title and amending this section and sections 443, 6091, 6211, 6213, 6863, 7103, and 7421 of this title] apply with respect to action taken under section 6851, 6861, or 6862 of the Internal Revenue Code of 1986 [formerly I.R.C. 1954] where the notice and demand takes place after February 28, 1977.”

Effective Date of 1958 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 85–866 effective Aug. 17, 1954, see section 1(c)(2) of Pub. L. 85–866, set out as a note under section 165 of this title.

§6852. Termination assessments in case of flagrant political expenditures of section 501(c)(3) organizations

(a) Authority to make

(1) In general

If the Secretary finds that—

(A) a section 501(c)(3) organization has made political expenditures, and

(B) such expenditures constitute a flagrant violation of the prohibition against making political expenditures,


the Secretary shall immediately make a determination of any income tax payable by such organization for the current or immediately preceding taxable year, or both, and shall immediately make a determination of any tax payable under section 4955 by such organization or any manager thereof with respect to political expenditures during the current or preceding taxable year, or both. Notwithstanding any other provision of law, any such tax shall become immediately due and payable. The Secretary shall immediately assess the amount of tax so determined (together with all interest, additional amounts, and additions to the tax provided by law) for the current year or the preceding taxable year, or both, and shall cause notice of such determination and assessment to be given to the organization or any manager thereof, as the case may be, together with a demand for immediate payment of such tax.

(2) Computation of tax

In the case of a current taxable year, the Secretary shall determine the taxes for the period beginning on the 1st day of such current taxable year and ending on the date of the determination under paragraph (1) as though such period were a taxable year of the organization, and shall take into account any prior determination made under this subsection with respect to such current taxable year.

(3) Treatment of amounts collected

Any amounts collected as a result of any assessments under this subsection shall, to the extent thereof, be treated as a payment of income tax for such taxable year, or tax under section 4955 with respect to the expenditure, as the case may be.

(4) Section inapplicable to assessments after due date

This section shall not authorize any assessment of tax for the preceding taxable year which is made after the due date of the organization's return for such taxable year (determined with regard to any extensions).

(b) Definitions and special rules

(1) Definitions

For purposes of this section, the terms “section 501(c)(3) organization”, “political expenditure”, and “organization manager” have the respective meanings given to such terms by section 4955.

(2) Certain rules made applicable

The provisions of sections 6851(b), 6861(f), and 6861(g) shall apply with respect to any assessment made under subsection (a), except that determinations under section 6861(g) shall be made on the basis of whether the requirements of subsection (a)(1)(B) of this section are met in lieu of whether jeopardy exists.

(Added Pub. L. 100–203, title X, §10713(b)(1), Dec. 22, 1987, 101 Stat. 1330–469.)

PART II—JEOPARDY ASSESSMENTS

Sec.
6861.
Jeopardy assessments of income, estate, gift, and certain excise taxes.
6862.
Jeopardy assessment of taxes other than income, estate, gift, and certain excise taxes.
6863.
Stay of collection of jeopardy assessments.
6864.
Termination of extended period for payment in case of carryback.

        

Amendments

1974—Pub. L. 93–406, title II, §1016(b)(5), Sept. 2, 1974, 88 Stat. 932, substituted “gift, and certain excise taxes” for “and gift taxes” in items 6861 and 6862.

§6861. Jeopardy assessments of income, estate, gift, and certain excise taxes

(a) Authority for making

If the Secretary believes that the assessment or collection of a deficiency, as defined in section 6211, will be jeopardized by delay, he shall, notwithstanding the provisions of section 6213(a), immediately assess such deficiency (together with all interest, additional amounts, and additions to the tax provided for by law), and notice and demand shall be made by the Secretary for the payment thereof.

(b) Deficiency letters

If the jeopardy assessment is made before any notice in respect of the tax to which the jeopardy assessment relates has been mailed under section 6212(a), then the Secretary shall mail a notice under such subsection within 60 days after the making of the assessment.

(c) Amount assessable before decision of Tax Court

The jeopardy assessment may be made in respect of a deficiency greater or less than that notice of which has been mailed to the taxpayer, despite the provisions of section 6212(c) prohibiting the determination of additional deficiencies, and whether or not the taxpayer has theretofore filed a petition with the Tax Court. The Secretary may, at any time before the decision of the Tax Court is rendered, abate such assessment, or any unpaid portion thereof, to the extent that he believes the assessment to be excessive in amount. The Secretary shall notify the Tax Court of the amount of such assessment, or abatement, if the petition is filed with the Tax Court before the making of the assessment or is subsequently filed, and the Tax Court shall have jurisdiction to redetermine the entire amount of the deficiency and of all amounts assessed at the same time in connection therewith.

(d) Amount assessable after decision of Tax Court

If the jeopardy assessment is made after the decision of the Tax Court is rendered, such assessment may be made only in respect of the deficiency determined by the Tax Court in its decision.

(e) Expiration of right to assess

A jeopardy assessment may not be made after the decision of the Tax Court has become final or after the taxpayer has filed a petition for review of the decision of the Tax Court.

(f) Collection of unpaid amounts

When the petition has been filed with the Tax Court and when the amount which should have been assessed has been determined by a decision of the Tax Court which has become final, then any unpaid portion, the collection of which has been stayed by bond as provided in section 6863(b) shall be collected as part of the tax upon notice and demand from the Secretary, and any remaining portion of the assessment shall be abated. If the amount already collected exceeds the amount determined as the amount which should have been assessed, such excess shall be credited or refunded to the taxpayer as provided in section 6402, without the filing of claim therefor. If the amount determined as the amount which should have been assessed is greater than the amount actually assessed, then the difference shall be assessed and shall be collected as part of the tax upon notice and demand from the Secretary.

(g) Abatement if jeopardy does not exist

The Secretary may abate the jeopardy assessment if he finds that jeopardy does not exist. Such abatement may not be made after a decision of the Tax Court in respect of the deficiency has been rendered or, if no petition is filed with the Tax Court, after the expiration of the period for filing such petition. The period of limitation on the making of assessments and levy or a proceeding in court for collection, in respect of any deficiency, shall be determined as if the jeopardy assessment so abated had not been made, except that the running of such period shall in any event be suspended for the period from the date of such jeopardy assessment until the expiration of the 10th day after the day on which such jeopardy assessment is abated.

(h) Cross references

(1) For the effect of the furnishing of security for payment, see section 6863.

(2) For provision permitting immediate levy in case of jeopardy, see section 6331(a).

(Aug. 16, 1954, ch. 736, 68A Stat. 834; Pub. L. 93–406, title II, §1016(a)(24), Sept. 2, 1974, 88 Stat. 931; Pub. L. 94–455, title XIX, §1906(b)(13)(A), Oct. 4, 1976,90 Stat. 1834.)

Amendments

1976—Pub. L. 94–455 struck out “or his delegate” after “Secretary” wherever appearing.

1974—Pub. L. 93–406 substituted “, gift, and certain excise taxes” for “and gift taxes” in section catchline.

Effective Date of 1974 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 93–406 applicable, except as otherwise provided in section 1017(c) through (i) of Pub. L. 93–406, for plan years beginning after Sept. 2, 1974, but, in the case of plans in existence on Jan. 1, 1974, amendment by Pub. L. 93–406 applicable for plan years beginning after Dec. 31, 1975, see section 1017 of Pub. L. 93–406, set out as an Effective Date; Transitional Rules note under section 410 of this title.

§6862. Jeopardy assessment of taxes other than income, estate, gift, and certain excise taxes

(a) Immediate assessment

If the Secretary believes that the collection of any tax (other than income tax, estate tax, gift tax, and the excise taxes imposed by chapters 41, 42, 43, and 44) under any provision of the internal revenue laws will be jeopardized by delay, he shall, whether or not the time otherwise prescribed by law for making return and paying such tax has expired, immediately assess such tax (together with all interest, additional amounts, and additions to the tax provided for by law). Such tax, additions to the tax, and interest shall thereupon become immediately due and payable, and immediate notice and demand shall be made by the Secretary for the payment thereof.

(b) Immediate levy

For provision permitting immediate levy in case of jeopardy, see section 6331(a).

(Aug. 16, 1954, ch. 736, 68A Stat. 836; Pub. L. 93–406, title II, §1016(a)(25), Sept. 2, 1974, 88 Stat. 931; Pub. L. 94–455, title XIX, §1906(b)(13)(A), Oct. 4, 1976, 90 Stat. 1834; Pub. L. 96–222, title I, §108(b)(1)(C), Apr. 1, 1980, 94 Stat. 226; Pub. L. 96–223, title I, §101(f)(9), Apr. 2, 1980, 94 Stat. 253; Pub. L. 100–418, title I, §1941(b)(2)(N), Aug. 23, 1988, 102 Stat. 1324.)

Amendments

1988—Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 100–418 substituted “and 44” for “44, and 45”.

1980—Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 96–223 which directed the substitution of “the excise taxes imposed by chapters 41, 42, 43, 44, and 45” for “certain excise taxes” was executed by inserting reference to chapter 45 in view of the amendment by Pub. L. 96–222.

Pub. L. 96–222 substituted “the taxes imposed by chapters 41, 42, 43, and 44” for “certain excise taxes”.

1976—Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 94–455 struck out “or his delegate” after “Secretary” wherever appearing.

1974—Pub. L. 93–406 substituted “, gift, and certain excise taxes” for “, and gift taxes” in section catchline and “gift tax, and certain excise taxes)” for “and gift tax)” in subsec. (a).

Effective Date of 1988 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 100–418 applicable to crude oil removed from the premises on or after Aug. 23, 1988, see section 1941(c) of Pub. L. 100–418, set out as a note under section 164 of this title.

Effective Date of 1980 Amendments

Amendment by Pub. L. 96–223 applicable to periods after Feb. 29, 1980, see section 101(i) of Pub. L. 96–223, set out as a note under section 6161 of this title.

Amendment by Pub. L. 96–222 effective as if included in the provisions of the Black Lung Benefits Revenue Act of 1977, Pub. L. 95–227, see section 108(b)(4) of Pub. L. 96–222, set out as a note under section 192 of this title.

Effective Date of 1974 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 93–406 applicable, except as otherwise provided in section 1017(c) through (i) of Pub. L. 93–406, for plan years beginning after Sept. 2, 1974, but, in the case of plans in existence on Jan. 1, 1974, amendment by Pub. L. 93–406 applicable for plan years beginning after Dec. 31, 1975, see section 1017 of Pub. L. 93–406, set out as an Effective Date; Transitional Rules note under section 410 of this title.

§6863. Stay of collection of jeopardy assessments

(a) Bond to stay collection

When an assessment has been made under section 6851, 6852,,1 6861 or 6862, the collection of the whole or any amount of such assessment may be stayed by filing with the Secretary, within such time as may be fixed by regulations prescribed by the Secretary, a bond in an amount equal to the amount as to which the stay is desired, conditioned upon the payment of the amount (together with interest thereon) the collection of which is stayed, at the time at which, but for the making of such assessment, such amount would be due. Upon the filing of the bond the collection of so much of the amount assessed as is covered by the bond shall be stayed. The taxpayer shall have the right to waive such stay at any time in respect of the whole or any part of the amount covered by the bond, and if as a result of such waiver any part of the amount covered by the bond is paid, then the bond shall, at the request of the taxpayer, be proportionately reduced. If any portion of such assessment is abated, the bond shall, at the request of the taxpayer, be proportionately reduced.

(b) Further conditions in case of income, estate, or gift taxes

In the case of taxes subject to the jurisdiction of the Tax Court—

(1) Prior to petition to Tax Court

If the bond is given before the taxpayer has filed his petition under section 6213(a), the bond shall contain a further condition that if a petition is not filed within the period provided in such section, then the amount, the collection of which is stayed by the bond, will be paid on notice and demand at any time after the expiration of such period, together with interest thereon from the date of the jeopardy notice and demand to the date of notice and demand under this paragraph.

(2) Effect of Tax Court decision

The bond shall be conditioned upon the payment of so much of such assessment (collection of which is stayed by the bond) as is not abated by a decision of the Tax Court which has become final. If the Tax Court determines that the amount assessed is greater than the amount which should have been assessed, then when the decision of the Tax Court is rendered the bond shall, at the request of the taxpayer, be proportionately reduced.

(3) Stay of sale of seized property pending Tax Court decision

(A) General rule

Where, notwithstanding the provisions of section 6213(a), an assessment has been made under section 6851, 6852, or 6861, the property seized for the collection of the tax shall not be sold—

(i) before the expiration of the periods described in subsection (c)(1)(A) and (B),

(ii) before the issuance of the notice of deficiency described in section 6851(b) or 6861(b), and the expiration of the period provided in section 6213(a) for filing a petition with the Tax Court, and

(iii) if a petition is filed with the Tax Court (whether before or after the making of such assessment), before the expiration of the period during which the assessment of the deficiency would be prohibited if neither sections 6851(a), 6852(a), nor 6861(a) were applicable.


Clauses (ii) and (iii) shall not apply in the case of a termination assessment under section 6851 if the taxpayer does not file a return for the taxable year by the due date (determined with regard to any extensions).

(B) Exceptions

Such property may be sold if—

(i) the taxpayer consents to the sale,

(ii) the Secretary determines that the expenses of conservation and maintenance will greatly reduce the net proceeds, or

(iii) the property is of the type described in section 6336.

(C) Review by Tax Court

If, but for the application of subparagraph (B), a sale would be prohibited by subparagraph (A)(iii), then the Tax Court shall have jurisdiction to review the Secretary's determination under subparagraph (B) that the property may be sold. Such review may be commenced upon motion by either the Secretary or the taxpayer. An order of the Tax Court disposing of a motion under this paragraph shall be reviewable in the same manner as a decision of the Tax Court.

(c) Stay of sale of seized property pending district court determination under section 7429

(1) General rule

Where a jeopardy assessment has been made under section 6862(a), the property seized for the collection of the tax shall not be sold—

(A) if a civil action is commenced in accordance with section 7429(b), on or before the day on which the district court judgment in such action becomes final, or

(B) if subparagraph (A) does not apply, before the day after the expiration of the period provided in section 7429(a) for requesting an administrative review, and if such review is requested, before the day after the expiration of the period provided in section 7429(b), for commencing an action in the district court.

(2) Exceptions

With respect to any property described in paragraph (1), the exceptions provided by subsection (b)(3)(B) shall apply.

(Aug. 16, 1954, ch. 736, 68A Stat. 836; Pub. L. 94–455, title XII, §1204(c)(7)–(9), title XIX, §1906(a)(38), (b)(13)(A), Oct. 4, 1976, 90 Stat. 1698, 1830, 1834; Pub. L. 100–203, title X, §10713(b)(2)(E), Dec. 22, 1987, 101 Stat. 1330–470; Pub. L. 100–647, title VI, §6245(a), Nov. 10, 1988, 102 Stat. 3750; Pub. L. 101–239, title VII, §7822(d)(2), Dec. 19, 1989, 103 Stat. 2425.)

Amendments

1989—Subsec. (b)(3)(A)(iii). Pub. L. 101–239 made technical correction to Pub. L. 100–203, §10713(b)(2)(E)(iii), see 1987 Amendment note below.

1988—Subsec. (b)(3)(C). Pub. L. 100–647 added subpar. (C).

1987—Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 100–203, §10713(b)(2)(E)(i), substituted “6851, 6852,” for “6851”.

Subsec. (b)(3)(A). Pub. L. 100–203, §10713(b)(2)(E)(ii), substituted “6851, 6852, or 6861” for “6851 or 6861”.

Subsec. (b)(3)(A)(iii). Pub. L. 100–203, §10713(b)(2)(E)(iii), as amended by Pub. L. 101–239, substituted “6851(a), 6852(a), nor 6861(a)” for “6851(a) nor 6861(a)”.

1976—Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 94–455, §§1204(c)(7), 1906(b)(13)(A), inserted reference to section 6851, substituted “an assessment” for “a jeopardy assessment”, struck out “or his delegate” after “Secretary”, and substituted “such assessment” for “the jeopardy assessment”.

Subsec. (b)(3)(A). Pub. L. 94–455, §1204(c)(8), substituted “an assessment has been made under section 6851 or 6861,” for “a jeopardy assessment has been made under section 6861” in provisions preceding cl. (i), added cl. (i), redesignated former cl. (i) as (ii) and substituted “before the issuance of the notice of deficiency described in section 6851(b) or 6861(b), and the expiration of the period” for “if section 6861(b) is applicable, prior to the issuance of the notice of deficiency and the expiration of the time”, redesignated former cl. (ii) as (iii) and substituted “assessment), before the expiration” for “jeopardy assessment under section 6861), prior to the expiration” and “if neither sections 6851(a) nor 6861(a) were applicable” for “if section 6861(a) were not applicable”, and inserted provisions following cl. (iii).

Subsec. (b)(3)(B)(ii). Pub. L. 94–455, §1906(b)(13)(A), struck out “or his delegate” after “Secretary”.

Subsec. (b)(3)(C). Pub. L. 94–455, §1906(a)(38), struck out subpar. (C) which had limited the applicability of subpars. (A) and (B) to jeopardy assessments made on or after Jan. 1, 1955, with respect to taxes imposed by this title, and with respect to taxes imposed by the Internal Revenue Code of 1939.

Subsec. (c). Pub. L. 94–455, §1204(c)(9), added subsec. (c).

Effective Date of 1989 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 101–239 effective as if included in the provision of the Revenue Act of 1987, Pub. L. 100–203, title X, to which such amendment relates, see section 7823 of Pub. L. 101–239, set out as a note under section 26 of this title.

Effective Date of 1988 Amendment

Section 6245(b) of Pub. L. 100–647 provided that: “The amendments made by this section [amending this section] shall take effect on the 90th day after the date of the enactment of this Act [Nov. 10, 1988].”

Effective Date of 1976 Amendment

Amendment by section 1204(c)(7)–(9) of Pub. L. 94–455 applicable with respect to action taken under section 6851, 6861, or 6862 of this title where notice and demand takes place after Feb. 28, 1977, see section 1204(d) of Pub. L. 94–455, as amended, set out as a note under section 6851 of this title.

Amendment by section 1906(a)(38), (b)(13)(A) of Pub. L. 94–455 effective on first day of first month which begins more than ninety days after Oct. 4, 1976, see section 1906(d)(1) of Pub. L. 94–455, set out as a note under section 6013 of this title.

1 So in original.

§6864. Termination of extended period for payment in case of carryback

For termination of extensions of time for payment of income tax granted to corporations expecting carrybacks in case of jeopardy, see section 6164(h).

(Aug. 16, 1954, ch. 736, 68A Stat. 837.)

PART III—SPECIAL RULES WITH RESPECT TO CERTAIN CASH

Sec.
6867.
Presumptions where owner of large amount of cash is not identified.

        

§6867. Presumptions where owner of large amount of cash is not identified

(a) General rule

If the individual who is in physical possession of cash in excess of $10,000 does not claim such cash—

(1) as his, or

(2) as belonging to another person whose identity the Secretary can readily ascertain and who acknowledges ownership of such cash,


then, for purposes of sections 6851 and 6861, it shall be presumed that such cash represents gross income of a single individual for the taxable year in which the possession occurs, and that the collection of tax will be jeopardized by delay.

(b) Rules for assessing

In the case of any assessment resulting from the application of subsection (a)—

(1) the entire amount of the cash shall be treated as taxable income for the taxable year in which the possession occurs,

(2) such income shall be treated as taxable at the highest rate of tax specified in section 1, and

(3) except as provided in subsection (c), the possessor of the cash shall be treated (solely with respect to such cash) as the taxpayer for purposes of chapters 63 and 64 and section 7429(a)(1).

(c) Effect of later substitution of true owner

If, after an assessment resulting from the application of subsection (a), such assessment is abated and replaced by an assessment against the owner of the cash, such later assessment shall be treated for purposes of all laws relating to lien, levy and collection as relating back to the date of the original assessment.

(d) Definitions

For purposes of this section—

(1) Cash

The term “cash” includes any cash equivalent.

(2) Cash equivalent

The term “cash equivalent” means—

(A) foreign currency,

(B) any bearer obligation, and

(C) any medium of exchange which—

(i) is of a type which has been frequently used in illegal activities, and

(ii) is specified as a cash equivalent for purposes of this part in regulations prescribed by the Secretary.

(3) Value of cash equivalent

Any cash equivalent shall be taken into account—

(A) in the case of a bearer obligation, at its face amount, and

(B) in the case of any other cash equivalent, at its fair market value.

(Added Pub. L. 97–248, title III, §330(a), Sept. 3, 1982, 96 Stat. 619; amended Pub. L. 100–647, title I, §1001(a)(1), Nov. 10, 1988, 102 Stat. 3349.)

Amendments

1988—Subsec. (b)(2). Pub. L. 100–647 substituted “the highest rate of tax specified in section 1” for “a 50-percent rate”.

Effective Date of 1988 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 100–647 effective, except as otherwise provided, as if included in the provision of the Tax Reform Act of 1986, Pub. L. 99–514, to which such amendment relates, see section 1019(a) of Pub. L. 100–647, set out as a note under section 1 of this title.

Effective Date

Section 330(c) of Pub. L. 97–248 provided that: “The amendments made by subsections (a) and (b) [enacting this section] shall take effect on the day after the date of the enactment of this Act [Sept. 3, 1982].”

Subchapter B—Receiverships, Etc.

Sec.
6871.
Claims for income, estate, gift, and certain excise taxes in receivership proceedings, etc.
6872.
Suspension of period on assessment.
6873.
Unpaid claims.

        

Amendments

1980—Pub. L. 96–589, §6(g)(3)(A), (B), Dec. 24, 1980, 94 Stat. 3410, substituted “Receiverships, Etc.” for “Bankruptcy and Receiverships” in subchapter heading, and “gift, and certain excise taxes in receivership proceedings, etc.” for “and gift taxes in bankruptcy and receivership proceedings” in item 6871.

§6871. Claims for income, estate, gift, and certain excise taxes in receivership proceedings, etc.

(a) Immediate assessment in receivership proceedings

On the appointment of a receiver for the taxpayer in any receivership proceeding before any court of the United States or of any State or of the District of Columbia, any deficiency (together with all interest, additional amounts, and additions to the tax provided by law) determined by the Secretary in respect of a tax imposed by subtitle A or B or by chapter 41, 42, 43, or 44 on such taxpayer may, despite the restrictions imposed by section 6213(a) on assessments, be immediately assessed if such deficiency has not theretofore been assessed in accordance with law.

(b) Immediate assessment with respect to certain title 11 cases

Any deficiency (together with all interest, additional amounts, and additions to the tax provided by law) determined by the Secretary in respect of a tax imposed by subtitle A or B or by chapter 41, 42, 43, or 44 on—

(1) the debtor's estate in a case under title 11 of the United States Code, or

(2) the debtor, but only if liability for such tax has become res judicata pursuant to a determination in a case under title 11 of the United States Code,


may, despite the restrictions imposed by section 6213(a) on assessments, be immediately assessed if such deficiency has not theretofore been assessed in accordance with law.

(c) Claim filed despite pendency of tax court proceedings

In the case of a tax imposed by subtitle A or B or by chapter 41, 42, 43, or 44—

(1) claims for the deficiency and for interest, additional amounts, and additions to the tax may be presented, for adjudication in accordance with law, to the court before which the receivership proceeding (or the case under title 11 of the United States Code) is pending, despite the pendency of proceedings for the redetermination of the deficiency pursuant to a petition to the Tax Court; but

(2) in the case of a receivership proceeding, no petition for any such redetermination shall be filed with the Tax Court after the appointment of the receiver.

(Aug. 16, 1954, ch. 736, 68A Stat. 838; Pub. L. 85–866, title I, §88, Sept. 2, 1958, 72 Stat. 1665; Pub. L. 94–455, title XIX, §§1906(b)(13)(A), (c)(1), Oct. 4, 1976, 90 Stat. 1834, 1835; Pub. L. 96–589, §6(g)(1), Dec. 24, 1980, 94 Stat. 3409; Pub. L. 101–239, title VII, §7841(d)(2), Dec. 19, 1989, 103 Stat. 2428.)

Amendments

1989—Pub. L. 101–239 substituted “or 44” for “44, or 45” in subsecs. (a), (b), and (c).

1980—Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 96–589 amended subsec. (a) generally, substituting reference to appointment of a receiver for the taxpayer in any receivership proceedings, for reference to adjudication of bankruptcy of a taxpayer in a liquidating proceeding, the filing or the approval of a petition of or the approval of a petition against any taxpayer in any other bankruptcy proceeding, or the appointment of a receiver for any taxpayer in any receivership proceeding, and inserted reference to chapters 41, 42, 43, 44, and 45.

Subsecs. (b), (c). Pub. L. 96–589 added subsec. (b), redesignated former subsec. (b) as (c), inserted reference to chapters 41, 42, 43, 44, and 45, and struck out reference to bankruptcy proceedings.

1976—Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 94–455, §1906(b)(13)(A), struck out “or his delegate” after “Secretary”.

Pub. L. 94–455, §1906(c)(1), struck out “or Territory” after “any State”.

1958—Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 85–866, §88(a), substituted “the filing or (where approval is required by the Bankruptcy Act) the approval of a petition of, or the approval of a petition against, any taxpayer” for “the approval of a petition of, or against, any taxpayer”.

Subsec. (b). Pub. L. 85–866, §88(b), substituted “the filing or (where approval is required by the Bankruptcy Act) the approval of a petition of, or the approval of a petition against, any taxpayer” for “approval of the petition”.

Effective Date of 1980 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 96–589 effective Oct. 1, 1979, but not applicable to proceedings under Title 11, Bankruptcy, commenced before Oct. 1, 1979, see section 7(e) of Pub. L. 96–589, set out as a note under section 108 of this title.

Effective Date of 1976 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 94–455 effective on first day of first month which begins more than ninety days after Oct. 4, 1976, see section 1906(d)(1) of Pub. L. 94–455, set out as a note under section 6013 of this title.

Effective Date of 1958 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 85–866 effective Aug. 17, 1954, see section 1(c)(2) of Pub. L. 85–866, set out as a note under section 165 of this title.

§6872. Suspension of period on assessment

If the regulations issued pursuant to section 6036 require the giving of notice by any fiduciary in any case under title 11 of the United States Code, or by a receiver in any other court proceeding, to the Secretary of his qualification as such, the running of the period of limitations on the making of assessments shall be suspended for the period from the date of the institution of the proceeding to a date 30 days after the date upon which the notice from the receiver or other fiduciary is received by the Secretary; but the suspension under this sentence shall in no case be for a period in excess of 2 years.

(Aug. 16, 1954, ch. 736, 68A Stat. 838; Pub. L. 94–455, title XIX, §1906(b)(13)(A), Oct. 4, 1976, 90 Stat. 1834; Pub. L. 96–589, §6 (i)(12), Dec. 24, 1980, 94 Stat. 3411.)

Amendments

1980—Pub. L. 96–589 substituted “any case under title 11 of the United States Code” for “any proceeding under the Bankruptcy Act”.

1976—Pub. L. 94–455 struck out “or his delegate” after “Secretary” wherever appearing.

Effective Date of 1980 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 96–589 effective Oct. 1, 1979, but not applicable to proceedings under Title 11, Bankruptcy, commenced before Oct. 1, 1979, see section 7(e) of Pub. L. 96–589, set out as a note under section 108 of this title.

§6873. Unpaid claims

(a) General rule

Any portion of a claim for taxes allowed in a receivership proceeding which is unpaid shall be paid by the taxpayer upon notice and demand from the Secretary after the termination of such proceeding.

(b) Cross references

(1) For suspension of running of period of limitations on collection, see section 6503(b).

(2) For extension of time for payment, see section 6161(c).

(Aug. 16, 1954, ch. 736, 68A Stat. 838; Pub. L. 94–455, title XIX, §1906(b)(13)(A), Oct. 4, 1976, 90 Stat. 1834; Pub. L. 96–589, §6(g)(2), Dec. 24, 1980, 94 Stat. 3409.)

Amendments

1980—Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 96–589 struck out reference to proceedings under the Bankruptcy Act.

1976—Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 94–455 struck out “or his delegate” after “Secretary”.

Effective Date of 1980 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 96–589 effective Oct. 1, 1979, but not applicable to proceedings under Title 11, Bankruptcy, commenced before Oct. 1, 1979, see section 7(e) of Pub. L. 96–589, set out as a note under section 108 of this title.