29 U.S.C.
United States Code, 2011 Edition
Title 29 - LABOR
CHAPTER 18 - EMPLOYEE RETIREMENT INCOME SECURITY PROGRAM
From the U.S. Government Printing Office, www.gpo.gov

CHAPTER 18—EMPLOYEE RETIREMENT INCOME SECURITY PROGRAM

Sec.
1001.
Congressional findings and declaration of policy.
1001a.
Additional Congressional findings and declaration of policy.
1001b.
Findings and declaration of policy.
1002.
Definitions.
1003.
Coverage.

        

Subtitle B—Regulatory Provisions

part 1—reporting and disclosure

1021.
Duty of disclosure and reporting.
1022.
Summary plan description.
1023.
Annual reports.
1024.
Filing with Secretary and furnishing information to participants and certain employers.
1025.
Reporting of participant's benefit rights.
1026.
Reports made public information.
1027.
Retention of records.
1028.
Reliance on administrative interpretations.
1029.
Forms.
1030.
Alternative methods of compliance.
1031.
Repeal and effective date.

        

part 2—participation and vesting

1051.
Coverage.
1052.
Minimum participation standards.
1053.
Minimum vesting standards.
1054.
Benefit accrual requirements.
1055.
Requirement of joint and survivor annuity and preretirement survivor annuity.
1056.
Form and payment of benefits.
1057.
Repealed.
1058.
Mergers and consolidations of plans or transfers of plan assets.
1059.
Recordkeeping and reporting requirements.
1060.
Multiple employer plans and other special rules.
1061.
Effective dates.

        

part 3—funding

1081.
Coverage.
1082.
Minimum funding standards.
1083.
Minimum funding standards for single-employer defined benefit pension plans.
1084.
Minimum funding standards for multiemployer plans.
1085.
Additional funding rules for multiemployer plans in endangered status or critical status.
1085a, 1085b, 1086. Repealed.

        

part 4—fiduciary responsibility

1101.
Coverage.
1102.
Establishment of plan.
1103.
Establishment of trust.
1104.
Fiduciary duties.
1105.
Liability for breach of co-fiduciary.
1106.
Prohibited transactions.
1107.
Limitation with respect to acquisition and holding of employer securities and employer real property by certain plans.
1108.
Exemptions from prohibited transactions.
1109.
Liability for breach of fiduciary duty.
1110.
Exculpatory provisions; insurance.
1111.
Persons prohibited from holding certain positions.
1112.
Bonding.
1113.
Limitation of actions.
1114.
Effective date.

        

part 5—administration and enforcement

1131.
Criminal penalties.
1132.
Civil enforcement.
1133.
Claims procedure.
1134.
Investigative authority.
1135.
Regulations.
1136.
Coordination and responsibility of agencies enforcing this subchapter and related Federal laws.
1137.
Administration.
1138.
Appropriations.
1139.
Separability.
1140.
Interference with protected rights.
1141.
Coercive interference.
1142.
Advisory Council on Employee Welfare and Pension Benefit Plans.
1143.
Research, studies, and reports.
1143a.
Studies by Comptroller General.
1144.
Other laws.
1144a.
Clarification of church welfare plan status under State insurance law.
1145.
Delinquent contributions.
1146.
Outreach to promote retirement income savings.
1147.
National Summit on Retirement Savings.
1148.
Authority to postpone certain deadlines by reason of Presidentially declared disaster or terroristic or military actions.
1149.
Prohibition on false statements and representations.
1150.
Applicability of State law to combat fraud and abuse.
1151.
Administrative summary cease and desist orders and summary seizure orders against multiple employer welfare arrangements in financially hazardous condition.

        

part 6—continuation coverage and additional standards for group health plans

1161.
Plans must provide continuation coverage to certain individuals.
1162.
Continuation coverage.
1163.
Qualifying event.
1164.
Applicable premium.
1165.
Election.
1166.
Notice requirements.
1167.
Definitions and special rules.
1168.
Regulations.
1169.
Additional standards for group health plans.

        

part 7—group health plan requirements

Subpart A—Requirements Relating to Portability, Access, and Renewability

1181.
Increased portability through limitation on preexisting condition exclusions.
1182.
Prohibiting discrimination against individual participants and beneficiaries based on health status.
1183.
Guaranteed renewability in multiemployer plans and multiple employer welfare arrangements.

        

Subpart B—Other Requirements

1185.
Standards relating to benefits for mothers and newborns.
1185a.
Parity in mental health and substance use disorder benefits.
1185b.
Required coverage for reconstructive surgery following mastectomies.
1185c.
Coverage of dependent students on medically necessary leave of absence.
1185d.
Additional market reforms.

        

Subpart C—General Provisions

1191.
Preemption; State flexibility; construction.
1191a.
Special rules relating to group health plans.
1191b.
Definitions.
1191c.
Regulations.

        

SUBCHAPTER II—JURISDICTION, ADMINISTRATION, ENFORCEMENT; JOINT PENSION TASK FORCE, ETC.

Subtitle A—Jurisdiction, Administration, and Enforcement

1201.
Procedures in connection with the issuance of certain determination letters by the Secretary of the Treasury covering qualifications under Internal Revenue Code.
1202.
Procedures with respect to continued compliance with Internal Revenue requirements relating to participation, vesting, and funding standards.
1202a.
Employee plans compliance resolution system.
1203.
Procedures in connection with prohibited transactions.
1204.
Coordination between the Department of the Treasury and the Department of Labor.

        

Subtitle B—Joint Pension, Profit-Sharing, and Employee Stock Ownership Plan Task Force; Studies

part 1—joint pension, profit-sharing, and employee stock ownership plan task force

1221.
Establishment.
1222.
Duties.

        

part 2—other studies

1231.
Congressional study.
1232.
Protection for employees under Federal procurement, construction, and research contracts and grants.

        

Subtitle C—Enrollment of Actuaries

1241.
Joint Board for the Enrollment of Actuaries.
1242.
Enrollment by Board; standards and qualifications; suspension or termination of enrollment.

        

SUBCHAPTER III—PLAN TERMINATION INSURANCE

Subtitle A—Pension Benefit Guaranty Corporation

1301.
Definitions.
1302.
Pension Benefit Guaranty Corporation.
1303.
Operation of corporation.
1304.
Repealed.
1305.
Pension benefit guaranty funds.
1306.
Premium rates.
1307.
Payment of premiums.
1308.
Annual report by the corporation.
1309.
Portability assistance.
1310.
Authority to require certain information.
1311.
Repealed.

        

Subtitle B—Coverage

1321.
Coverage.
1322.
Single-employer plan benefits guaranteed.
1322a.
Multiemployer plan benefits guaranteed.
1322b.
Aggregate limit on benefits guaranteed; criteria applicable.
1323.
Plan fiduciaries.

        

Subtitle C—Terminations

1341.
Termination of single-employer plans.
1341a.
Termination of multiemployer plans.
1342.
Institution of termination proceedings by the corporation.
1343.
Reportable events.
1344.
Allocation of assets.
1345.
Recapture of payments.
1346.
Reports to trustee.
1347.
Restoration of plans.
1348.
Termination date.
1349.
Repealed.
1350.
Missing participants.

        

Subtitle D—Liability

1361.
Amounts payable by corporation.
1362.
Liability for termination of single-employer plans under a distress termination or a termination by corporation.
1363.
Liability of substantial employer for withdrawal from single-employer plans under multiple controlled groups.
1364.
Liability on termination of single-employer plans under multiple controlled groups.
1365.
Annual report of plan administrator.
1366.
Annual notification to substantial employers.
1367.
Recovery of liability for plan termination.
1368.
Lien for liability.
1369.
Treatment of transactions to evade liability; effect of corporate reorganization.
1370.
Enforcement authority relating to terminations of single-employer plans.
1371.
Penalty for failure to timely provide required information.

        

Subtitle E—Special Provisions for Multiemployer Plans

part 1—employer withdrawals

1381.
Withdrawal liability established; criteria and definitions.
1382.
Determination and collection of liability; notification of employer.
1383.
Complete withdrawal.
1384.
Sale of assets.
1385.
Partial withdrawals.
1386.
Adjustment for partial withdrawal; determination of amount; reduction for partial withdrawal liability; procedures applicable.
1387.
Reduction or waiver of complete withdrawal liability; procedures and standards applicable.
1388.
Reduction of partial withdrawal liability.
1389.
De minimis rule.
1390.
Nonapplicability of withdrawal liability for certain temporary contribution obligation periods; exception.
1391.
Methods for computing withdrawal liability.
1392.
Obligation to contribute.
1393.
Actuarial assumptions.
1394.
Application of plan amendments; exception.
1395.
Plan notification to corporation of potentially significant withdrawals.
1396.
Special rules for plans under section 404(c) of title 26.
1397.
Application of part in case of certain pre-1980 withdrawals; adjustment of covered plan.
1398.
Withdrawal not to occur because of change in business form or suspension of contributions during labor dispute.
1399.
Notice, collection, etc., of withdrawal liability.
1400.
Approval of amendments.
1401.
Resolution of disputes.
1402.
Reimbursements for uncollectible withdrawal liability.
1403.
Withdrawal liability payment fund.
1404.
Alternative method of withdrawal liability payments.
1405.
Limitation on withdrawal liability.

        

part 2—merger or transfer of plan assets or liabilities

1411.
Mergers and transfers between multiemployer plans.
1412.
Transfers between a multiemployer plan and a single-employer plan.
1413.
Partition.
1414.
Asset transfer rules.
1415.
Transfers pursuant to change in bargaining representative.

        

part 3—reorganization; minimum contribution requirement for multiemployer plans

1421.
Reorganization status.
1422.
Notice of reorganization and funding requirements.
1423.
Minimum contribution requirement.
1424.
Overburden credit against minimum contribution requirement.
1425.
Adjustments in accrued benefits.
1426.
Insolvent plans.

        

part 4—financial assistance

1431.
Assistance by corporation.

        

part 5—benefits after termination

1441.
Benefits under certain terminated plans.

        

part 6—enforcement

1451.
Civil actions.
1452.
Penalty for failure to provide notice.
1453.
Election of plan status.

        

Subtitle F—Transition Rules and Effective Dates

1461.
Effective date; special rules.

        

SUBCHAPTER I—PROTECTION OF EMPLOYEE BENEFIT RIGHTS

Subtitle A—General Provisions

§1001. Congressional findings and declaration of policy

(a) Benefit plans as affecting interstate commerce and the Federal taxing power

The Congress finds that the growth in size, scope, and numbers of employee benefit plans in recent years has been rapid and substantial; that the operational scope and economic impact of such plans is increasingly interstate; that the continued well-being and security of millions of employees and their dependents are directly affected by these plans; that they are affected with a national public interest; that they have become an important factor affecting the stability of employment and the successful development of industrial relations; that they have become an important factor in commerce because of the interstate character of their activities, and of the activities of their participants, and the employers, employee organizations, and other entities by which they are established or maintained; that a large volume of the activities of such plans are carried on by means of the mails and instrumentalities of interstate commerce; that owing to the lack of employee information and adequate safeguards concerning their operation, it is desirable in the interests of employees and their beneficiaries, and to provide for the general welfare and the free flow of commerce, that disclosure be made and safeguards be provided with respect to the establishment, operation, and administration of such plans; that they substantially affect the revenues of the United States because they are afforded preferential Federal tax treatment; that despite the enormous growth in such plans many employees with long years of employment are losing anticipated retirement benefits owing to the lack of vesting provisions in such plans; that owing to the inadequacy of current minimum standards, the soundness and stability of plans with respect to adequate funds to pay promised benefits may be endangered; that owing to the termination of plans before requisite funds have been accumulated, employees and their beneficiaries have been deprived of anticipated benefits; and that it is therefore desirable in the interests of employees and their beneficiaries, for the protection of the revenue of the United States, and to provide for the free flow of commerce, that minimum standards be provided assuring the equitable character of such plans and their financial soundness.

(b) Protection of interstate commerce and beneficiaries by requiring disclosure and reporting, setting standards of conduct, etc., for fiduciaries

It is hereby declared to be the policy of this chapter to protect interstate commerce and the interests of participants in employee benefit plans and their beneficiaries, by requiring the disclosure and reporting to participants and beneficiaries of financial and other information with respect thereto, by establishing standards of conduct, responsibility, and obligation for fiduciaries of employee benefit plans, and by providing for appropriate remedies, sanctions, and ready access to the Federal courts.

(c) Protection of interstate commerce, the Federal taxing power, and beneficiaries by vesting of accrued benefits, setting minimum standards of funding, requiring termination insurance

It is hereby further declared to be the policy of this chapter to protect interstate commerce, the Federal taxing power, and the interests of participants in private pension plans and their beneficiaries by improving the equitable character and the soundness of such plans by requiring them to vest the accrued benefits of employees with significant periods of service, to meet minimum standards of funding, and by requiring plan termination insurance.

(Pub. L. 93–406, title I, §2, Sept. 2, 1974, 88 Stat. 832.)

References in Text

This chapter, referred to in subsecs. (b) and (c), was in the original “this Act”, meaning Pub. L. 93–406, known as the Employee Retirement Income Security Act of 1974. Titles I, III, and IV of such Act are classified principally to this chapter. For complete classification of this Act to the Code, see Short Title note set out below and Tables.

Effective Date of 1984 Amendments; Transitional Rules

Pub. L. 98–397, title III, §§302, 303, Aug. 23, 1984, 98 Stat. 1451, 1452, as amended by Pub. L. 99–514, §2, title XI, §1145(c), title XVIII, §1898(g), (h)(1)(A), (2), (3), Oct. 22, 1986, 100 Stat. 2095, 2491, 2956, 2957; Pub. L. 101–239, title VII, §7861(d)(1), Dec. 19, 1989, 103 Stat. 2431, provided that:

“SEC. 302. GENERAL EFFECTIVE DATES.

“(a) In General.—Except as otherwise provided in this section or section 303, the amendments made by this Act [see Short Title of 1984 Amendments note below] shall apply to plan years beginning after December 31, 1984.

“(b) Special Rule for Collective Bargaining Agreements.—In the case of a plan maintained pursuant to 1 or more collective bargaining agreements between employee representatives and 1 or more employers ratified before the date of the enactment of this Act [Aug. 23, 1984], except as provided in subsection (d) or section 303, the amendments made by this Act shall not apply to plan years beginning before the earlier of—

“(1) the date on which the last of the collective bargaining agreements relating to the plan terminates (determined without regard to any extension thereof agreed to after the date of the enactment of this Act [Aug. 23, 1984]), or

“(2) July 1, 1988.

For purposes of paragraph (1), any plan amendment made pursuant to a collective bargaining agreement relating to the plan which amends the plan solely to conform to any requirement added by title I or II [of Pub. L. 98–397] shall not be treated as a termination of such collective bargaining agreement.

“(c) Notice Requirement.—The amendments made by section 207 [amending sections 402 and 6652 of Title 26, Internal Revenue Code] shall apply to distributions after December 31, 1984.

“(d) Special Rules for Treatment of Plan Amendments.—

“(1) In general.—Except as provided in paragraph (2), the amendments made by section 301 [amending section 1054 of this title and sections 401 and 411 of Title 26] shall apply to plan amendments made after July 30, 1984.

“(2) Special rule for collective bargaining agreements.—In the case of a plan maintained pursuant to 1 or more collective bargaining agreements entered into before January 1, 1985, which are—

“(A) between employee representatives and 1 or more employers, and

“(B) successor agreements to 1 or more collective bargaining agreements which terminate after July 30, 1984, and before January 1, 1985,

the amendments made by section 301 shall not apply to plan amendments adopted before April 1, 1985, pursuant to such successor agreements (without regard to any modification or reopening after December 31, 1984).

“SEC. 303. TRANSITIONAL RULES.

“(a) Amendments Relating to Vesting Rules; Breaks in Service; Maternity or Paternity Leave.—

“(1) Minimum age for vesting.—The amendments made by sections 102(b) and 202(b) [amending section 1053 of this title and section 411 of Title 26, Internal Revenue Code] shall apply in the case of participants who have at least 1 hour of service under the plan on or after the first day of the first plan year to which the amendments made by this Act [see Short Title of 1984 Amendments note below] apply.

“(2) Break in service rules.—If, as of the day before the first day of the first plan year to which the amendments made by this Act apply, section 202(a) or (b) or 203(b) of the Employee Retirement Income Security Act of 1974 [section 1052(a) or (b) or section 1053(b) of this title] or section 410(a) or 411(a) of the Internal Revenue Code of 1986 [section 410(a) or section 411(a) of Title 26] (as in effect on the day before the date of the enactment of this Act [Aug. 23, 1984]) would not require any service to be taken into account, nothing in the amendments made by subsections (c) and (d) of section 102 of this Act [amending sections 1052 and 1053 of this title] and subsections (c) and (d) of section 202 of this Act [amending sections 410 and 411 of Title 26] shall be construed as requiring such service to be taken into account under such section 202(a) or (b), 203(b), 410(a), or 411(a); as the case may be.

“(3) Maternity or paternity leave.—The amendments made by sections 102(e) and 202(e) [amending sections 1052 to 1054 of this title and sections 410 and 411 of Title 26] shall apply in the case of absences from work which begin on or after the first day of the first plan year to which the amendments made by this Act apply.

“(b) Special Rule for Amendments Relating to Maternity or Paternity Absences.—If a plan is administered in a manner which would meet the amendments made by sections 102(e) and 202(e) [amending sections 1052 to 1054 of this title and sections 410 and 411 of Title 26] (relating to certain maternity or paternity absences not treated as breaks in service), such plan need not be amended to meet such requirements until the earlier of—

“(1) the date on which such plan is first otherwise amended after the date of the enactment of this Act [Aug. 23, 1984], or

“(2) the beginning of the first plan year beginning after December 31, 1986.

“(c) Requirement of Joint and Survivor Annuity and Preretirement Survivor Annuity.—

“(1) Requirement that participant have at least 1 hour of service or paid leave on or after date of enactment.—The amendments made by sections 103 and 203 [amending section 1055 of this title and section 401 of Title 26 and enacting section 417 of Title 26] shall apply only in the case of participants who have at least 1 hour of service under the plan on or after the date of the enactment of this Act [Aug. 23, 1984] or have at least 1 hour of paid leave on or after such date of enactment.

“(2) Requirement that preretirement survivor annuity be provided in case of certain participants dying on or after date of enactment.—In the case of any participant—

“(A) who has at least 1 hour of service under the plan on or after the date of the enactment of this Act [Aug. 23, 1984] or has at least 1 hour of paid leave on or after such date of enactment,

“(B) who dies before the annuity starting date, and

“(C) who dies on or after the date of the enactment of this Act [Aug. 23, 1984] and before the first day of the first plan year to which the amendments made by this Act apply,

the amendments made by sections 103 and 203 shall be treated as in effect as of the time of such participant's death. In the case of a profit-sharing or stock bonus plan to which this paragraph applies, the plan shall be treated as meeting the requirements of the amendments made by sections 103 and 203 with respect to any participant if the plan made a distribution in a form other than a life annuity to the surviving spouse of the participant of such participant's nonforfeitable benefit.

“(3) Spousal consent required for certain elections after december 31, 1984.—Any election after December 31, 1984, and before the first day of the first plan year to which the amendments made by this Act apply not to take a joint and survivor annuity shall not be effective unless the requirements of section 205(c)(2) of the Employee Retirement Income Security Act of 1974 [section 1055(c)(2) of this title] (as amended by section 103 of this Act) and section 417(a)(2) of the Internal Revenue Code of 1986 [section 417(a)(2) of Title 26] (as added by section 203 of this Act) are met with respect to such election.

“(4) Elimination of double death benefits.—

“(A) In general.—In the case of a participant described in paragraph (2), death benefits (other than a qualified joint and survivor annuity or a qualified preretirement survivor annuity) payable to any beneficiary shall be reduced by the amount payable to the surviving spouse of such participant by reason of paragraph (2). The reduction under the preceding sentence shall be made on the basis of the respective present values (as of the date of the participant's death) of such death benefits and the amount so payable to the surviving spouse.

“(B) Spouse may waive provisions of paragraph (2).—In the case of any participant described in paragraph (2), the surviving spouse of such participant may waive the provisions of paragraph (2). Such waiver shall be made on or before the close of the second plan year to which the amendments made by section 103 of this Act [amending section 1055 of this title] apply. Such a waiver shall not be treated as a transfer of property for purposes of chapter 12 of the Internal Revenue Code of 1986 and shall not be treated as an assignment or alienation for purposes of section 401(a)(13) of the Internal Revenue Code of 1986 [section 401(a)(13) of Title 26] or section 206(d) of the Employee Retirement Income Security Act of 1974 [section 1056 of this title].

“(d) Amendments Relating to Assignments in Divorce, Etc., Proceedings.—The amendments made by sections 104 and 204 [amending sections 1056 and 1144 of this title and sections 72, 401, 402 and 414 of Title 26] shall take effect on January 1, 1985, except that in the case of a domestic relations order entered before such date, the plan administrator—

“(1) shall treat such order as a qualified domestic relations order if such administrator is paying benefits pursuant to such order on such date, and

“(2) may treat any other such order entered before such date as a qualified domestic relations order even if such order does not meet the requirements of such amendments.

“(e) Treatment of Certain Participants Who Separate From Service Before Date of Enactment.—

“(1) Joint and survivor annuity provisions of employee retirement income security act of 1974 apply to certain participants.—If—

“(A) a participant had at least 1 hour of service under the plan on or after September 2, 1974,

“(B) section 205 of the Employee Retirement Income Security Act of 1974 [section 1055 of this title] and section 401(a)(11) of the Internal Revenue Code of 1986 [section 401(a)(11) of Title 26] (as in effect on the day before the date of the enactment of this Act [Aug. 23, 1984]) would not (but for this paragraph) apply to such participant,

“(C) the amendments made by sections 103 and 203 [amending section 1055 of this title and section 401 of Title 26 and enacting section 417 of Title 26] of this Act do not apply to such participant, and

“(D) as of the date of the enactment of this Act [Aug. 23, 1984], the participant's annuity starting date has not occurred and the participant is alive,

then such participant may elect to have section 205 of the Employee Retirement Income Security Act of 1974 [section 1055 of this title] and section 401(a)(11) of the Internal Revenue Code of 1986 [section 401(a)(11) of Title 26] (as in effect on the day before the date of the enactment of this Act) apply.

“(2) Treatment of certain participants who perform service on or after january 1, 1976.—If—

“(A) a participant had at least 1 hour of service in any plan year beginning on or after January 1, 1976,

“(B) the amendments made by sections 103 and 203 [amending section 1055 of this title and section 401 of Title 26 and enacting section 417 of Title 26] would not (but for this paragraph) apply to such participant,

“(C) when such participant separated from service, such participant had at least 10 years of service under the plan and had a nonforfeitable right to all (or any portion) of such participant's accrued benefit derived from employer contributions, and

“(D) as of the date of the enactment of this Act [Aug. 23, 1984], such participant's annuity starting date has not occurred and such participant is alive,

then such participant may elect to have the qualified preretirement survivor annuity requirements of the amendments made by sections 103 and 203 apply.

“(3) Period during which election may be made.—An election under paragraph (1) or (2) may be made by any participant during the period—

“(A) beginning on the date of the enactment of this Act [Aug. 23, 1984], and

“(B) ending on the earlier of the participant's annuity starting date or the date of the participant's death.

“(4) Requirement of notice.—

“(A) In general.—

“(i) Time and manner.—Every plan shall give notice of the provisions of this subsection at such time or times and in such manner or manners as the Secretary of the Treasury may prescribe.

“(ii) Penalty.—If any plan fails to meet the requirements of clause (i), such plan shall pay a civil penalty to the Secretary of the Treasury equal to $1 per participant for each day during the period beginning with the first day on which such failure occurs and ending on the day before notice is given by the plan; except that the amount of such penalty imposed on any plan shall not exceed $2,500.

“(B) Responsibilities of secretary of labor.—The Secretary of Labor shall take such steps (by public announcements and otherwise) as may be necessary or appropriate to bring to public attention the provisions of this subsection.

“(f) The amendments made by section 301 of this Act [amending section 1054 of this title and sections 401 and 411 of Title 26] shall not apply to the termination of a defined benefit plan if such termination—

“(1) is pursuant to a resolution directing the termination of such plan which was adopted by the Board of Directors of a corporation on July 17, 1984, and

“(2) occurred on November 30, 1984.”

[Amendment by section 1145(c) of Pub. L. 99–514 applicable as if included in the amendments made by the Retirement Equity Act of 1984, Pub. L. 98–397, see section 1145(d) of Pub. L. 99–514, set out as a note under section 401 of Title 26.]

[Amendment by section 1898(g), (h)(1)(A), (2), (3) of Pub. L. 99–514 effective as if included in the provision of the Retirement Equity Act of 1984, Pub. L. 98–397, to which such amendment relates, except as otherwise provided, see section 1898(j) of Pub. L. 99–514, set out as a note under section 401 of Title 26.]

Short Title of 2010 Amendment

Pub. L. 111–192, §1, June 25, 2010, 124 Stat. 1280, provided that: “This Act [amending sections 1021, 1023, 1053, 1054, 1056, 1057, 1083, 1084, 1103, 1108, 1301, 1303, 1310, 1362, 1371, and 1423 of this title, sections 430, 431, 436, and 6103 of Title 26, Internal Revenue Code, and sections 1395w–4, 1395cc, and 1395ww of Title 42, The Public Health and Welfare, enacting provisions set out as notes under sections 401, 430, 431, and 436 of Title 26 and section 1395ww of Title 42, amending provisions set out as notes under this section and section 1021 of this title and section 401 of Title 26, and amending Reorg. Plan No. 4 of 1978, set out in the Appendix to Title 5, Government Organization and Employees, and as a note under this section] may be cited as the ‘Preservation of Access to Care for Medicare Beneficiaries and Pension Relief Act of 2010’.”

Short Title of 2008 Amendment

Pub. L. 110–458, §1(a), Dec. 23, 2008, 122 Stat. 5092, provided that: “This Act [see Tables for classification] may be cited as the ‘Worker, Retiree, and Employer Recovery Act of 2008’.”

Short Title of 2006 Amendment

Pub. L. 109–280, §1(a), Aug. 17, 2006, 120 Stat. 780, provided that: “This Act [see Tables for classification] may be cited as the ‘Pension Protection Act of 2006’.”

Short Title of 2004 Amendment

Pub. L. 108–218, §1, Apr. 10, 2004, 118 Stat. 596, provided that: “This Act [see Tables for classification] may be cited as the ‘Pension Funding Equity Act of 2004’.”

Short Title of 1997 Amendment

Pub. L. 105–92, §1, Nov. 19, 1997, 111 Stat. 2139, provided that: “This Act [enacting sections 1146 and 1147 of this title and provisions set out as a note under section 1146 of this title] may be cited as the ‘Savings Are Vital to Everyone's Retirement Act of 1997’.”

Short Title of 1994 Amendment

Pub. L. 103–401, §1, Oct. 22, 1994, 108 Stat. 4172, provided that: “This Act [amending section 1132 of this title and enacting provisions set out as notes under section 1132 of this title] may be cited as the ‘Pension Annuitants Protection Act of 1994’.”

Short Title of 1991 Amendment

Pub. L. 102–89, §1, Aug. 14, 1991, 105 Stat. 446, provided that: “This Act [amending section 1002 of this title and enacting provisions set out as a note under section 1002 of this title] may be cited as the ‘Rural Telephone Cooperative Associations ERISA Amendments Act of 1991’.”

Short Title of 1986 Amendment

Pub. L. 99–272, title XI, §11001, Apr. 7, 1986, 100 Stat. 237, provided that: “This title [enacting sections 1001b, 1085a, 1143a, 1349, 1369, and 1370 of this title, amending sections 1002, 1023, 1024, 1054, 1061, 1083, 1084, 1086, 1301, 1303, 1305, 1306, 1322, 1322a, 1341, 1342, 1344, 1347, 1348, 1362 to 1364, and 1366 to 1368 of this title, and sections 402, 404, 412, and 501 of Title 26, Internal Revenue Code, repealing section 1304 of this title, and enacting provisions set out as notes under sections 1023, 1054, 1085a, 1135, 1143a, 1303, 1306, 1341, 1362, and 1369 of this title and section 404 of Title 26] may be cited as ‘Single-Employer Pension Plan Amendments Act of 1986’.”

Short Title of 1984 Amendment

Pub. L. 98–397, §1, Aug. 23, 1984, 98 Stat. 1426, provided that: “This Act [enacting section 417 of Title 26, Internal Revenue Code, amending sections 1025, 1052 to 1056, and 1144 of this title and sections 72, 401, 402, 410, 411, 414, 6057, and 6652 of Title 26, and enacting provisions set out as notes under this section] may be cited as the ‘Retirement Equity Act of 1984’.”

Short Title of 1980 Amendment

Pub. L. 96–364, §1, Sept. 26, 1980, 94 Stat. 1208, provided that: “This Act [enacting sections 1001a, 1145, 1322a, 1322b, 1323, 1341a, 1381 to 1405, 1411 to 1415, 1421 to 1426, 1431, 1441, and 1451 to 1453 of this title and sections 418 to 418E of Title 26, Internal Revenue Code, amending sections 1002, 1023, 1051, 1053, 1058, 1081, 1082, 1103, 1104, 1108, 1132, 1202, 1301 to 1303, 1305 to 1307, 1321, 1322, 1341, 1342, 1344, 1346, 1348, 1361 to 1366, and 1461 of this title, section 8521 of Title 5, Government Organization and Employees, and sections 194, 401, 404, 411 to 414, 501, 3304, 4971 and 4975 of Title 26, repealing former section 1323 of this title, and enacting provisions set out as notes under this section, sections 1001a, 1302, 1306, 1381, 1385, 1426 and 1461 of this title, section 8521 of Title 5, and sections 401, 404, 414, 418, and 3304 of Title 26] may be cited as the ‘Multiemployer Pension Plan Amendments Act of 1980’.”

Short Title

Section 1 of Pub. L. 93–406 provided that: “This Act [enacting this chapter, sections 408 to 415, 4971 to 4975, 6057 to 6059, 6692, and 6693 of Title 26, Internal Revenue Code, section 1037 of former Title 31, Money and Finance, and section 1320b–1 of Title 42, The Public Health and Welfare, amending section 441 of this title, sections 5108 and 5109 of Title 5, Government Organization and Employees, sections 664, 1027, and 1954 of Title 18, Crimes and Criminal Procedure, sections 37, 46, 56, 62, 72, 101, 122, 219, 220, 275, 401, 402, 403, 404, 405, 406, 407, 503, 801, 805, 871, 901, 1304, 1348, 1379, 2039, 3401, 6033, 6047, 6051, 6103, 6104, 6161, 6201, 6204, 6211, 6212, 6213, 6214, 6344, 6501, 6503, 6511, 6512, 6601, 6652, 6653, 6659, 6676, 6677, 6679, 6682, 6688, 6690, 6861, 6862, 7422, 7451, 7459, 7482, 7701, and 7802, of Title 26, and section 846 of former Title 31, repealing sections 301 to 309 of this title, and enacting provisions set out as notes under sections 72, 122, 219, 401, 402, 403, 404, 410, 411, 412, 415, 501, 4973, 4975, 6057, 6059, 6103, 6104, 7476, and 7802 of Title 26] may be cited as the ‘Employee Retirement Income Security Act of 1974’.”

Coordination of Internal Revenue Code of 1986 With Employee Retirement Income Security Act of 1974

This subchapter and subchapter III of this chapter not applicable in interpreting Internal Revenue Code of 1986, except to the extent specifically provided in such Code, or as determined by the Secretary of the Treasury, see section 9343(a) of Pub. L. 100–203, set out as a note under section 401 of Title 26, Internal Revenue Code.

Study by Comptroller General of the United States of Effect of Pension Rules on Women

Pub. L. 98–397, title III, §304, Aug. 23, 1984, 98 Stat. 1454, directed Comptroller General to conduct detailed study of effect on women of participation, vesting, funding, integration, survivorship features, and other relevant plan and Federal pension rules and, not later than Jan. 1, 1990, submit a report on the study to Congress.

Study by General Accounting Office Regarding Results of Multiemployer Pension Plan Amendments Act of 1980; Procedures Applicable

Pub. L. 96–364, title IV, §413, Sept. 26, 1980, 94 Stat. 1309, directed Comptroller General to conduct a study of effects of amendments made by Pub. L. 99–364 on: participants, beneficiaries, employers, employee organizations, and other parties, and the self-sufficiency of the fund established under section 1305 of this title with respect to benefits guaranteed under section 1322a of this title, taking into account financial conditions of multiemployer plans and employers and to report to Congress no later than June 30, 1985, results of study including his recommendations with respect thereto.

President's Commission on Pension Policy; Extension of Term; Continuation of Effort

Pub. L. 96–14, May 24, 1979, 93 Stat. 29, known as the Pension Policy Commission Act, authorized the President's Commission on Pension Policy established by Ex. Ord. No. 12071 to continue in operation for two years following May 24, 1979, and set forth membership, compensation, implementation, and reporting requirements, with the Commission to cease to exist ninety days after submission of the final report.

REORGANIZATION PLAN NO. 4 OF 1978

43 F.R. 47713, 92 Stat. 3790, as amended Pub. L. 99–514, §2, Oct. 22, 1986, 100 Stat. 2095; Pub. L. 109–280, title I, §108(c), formerly §107(c), Aug. 17, 2006, 120 Stat. 820, renumbered §108(c), Pub. L. 111–192, title II, §202(a), June 25, 2010, 124 Stat. 1297

Prepared by the President and transmitted to the Senate and the House of Representatives in Congress assembled, August 10, 1978, pursuant to the provisions of Chapter 9 of Title 5 of the United States Code.1

EMPLOYEE RETIREMENT INCOME SECURITY ACT TRANSFERS

Section 101. Transfer to the Secretary of the Treasury

Except as otherwise provided in Sections 104 and 106 of this Plan, all authority of the Secretary of Labor to issue the following described documents pursuant to the statutes hereinafter specified is hereby transferred to the Secretary of the Treasury:

(a) regulations, rulings, opinions, variances and waivers under Parts 2 [29 U.S.C. 1051 et seq.] and 3 [29 U.S.C. 1081 et seq.] of Subtitle B of Title I and subsection 1012(c) [set out as a note under 26 U.S.C. 411] of Title II of the Employee Retirement Income Security Act of 1974 (29 U.S.C. 1001 note) (hereinafter referred to as “ERISA”),

EXCEPT for sections and subsections 201, 203(a)(3)(B), 209, and 301(a) of ERISA; [29 U.S.C. 1051, 1053(a)(3)(B), 1059, and 1081(a)];

(b) such regulations, rulings, and opinions which are granted to the Secretary of Labor under Sections 404, 410, 411, 412, and 413 of the Internal Revenue Code of 1986, as amended [26 U.S.C. 404, 410, 411, 412, and 413], (hereinafter referred to as the “Code”).

EXCEPT for subsection 411(a)(3)(B) of the Code [26 U.S.C. 411(a)(3)(B)] and the definitions of “collectively bargained plan” and “collective bargaining agreement” contained in subsections 404 (a)(1)(B) and (a)(1)(C), 410 (b)(2)(A) and (b)(2)(B), and 413(a)(1) of the Code [26 U.S.C. 404(a)(1)(B) and (a)(1)(C), 410 (b)(2)(A) and (b)(2)(B), and 413(a)(1)]; and

(c) regulations, rulings, and opinions under subsections 3(19), 3(22), 3(23), 3(24), 3(25), 3(27), 3(28), 3(29), 3(30), and 3(31) of Subtitle A of Title I of ERISA [29 U.S.C. 1002(19), (22), (23), (24), (25), (27), (28), (29), (30), and (31)]. [As amended Pub. L. 99–514, §2, Oct. 22, 1986, 100 Stat. 2095.]

Sec. 102. Transfer to the Secretary of Labor

Except as otherwise provided in Section 105 of this Plan, all authority of the Secretary of the Treasury to issue the following described documents pursuant to the statutes hereinafter specified is hereby transferred to the Secretary of Labor;

(a) regulations, rulings, opinions, and exemptions under section 4975 of the Code [26 U.S.C. 4975],

EXCEPT for (i) subsections 4975(a), (b), (c)(3), (d)(3), (c)(1), and (e)(7) of the Code [26 U.S.C. 4975(a), (b), (c)(3), (d)(3), (e)(1), and (e)(7)]; (ii) to the extent necessary for the continued enforcement of subsections 4975(a) and (b) [26 U.S.C. 4975(a) and (b)] by the Secretary of the Treasury, subsections 4975(f)(1), (f)(2), (f)(4), (f)(5) and (f)(6) of the Code [26 U.S.C. 4975(f)(1), (f)(2), (f)(4), (f)(5) and (f)(6)]; and (iii) exemptions with respect to transactions that are exempted by subsection 404(c) of ERISA [29 U.S.C. 1104(c)] from the provisions of Part 4 of Subtitle B of Title I of ERISA [29 U.S.C. 1101 et seq.]; and

(b) regulations, rulings, and opinions under subsection 2003(c) of ERISA [set out as a note under 29 U.S.C. 4975].

EXCEPT for subsection 2003(c)(1)(B) [set out in the note under 26 U.S.C. 4975].

Sec. 103. Coordination Concerning Certain Fiduciary Actions

In the case of fiduciary actions which are subject to Part 4 of Subtitle B of Title I of ERISA [29 U.S.C. 1101 et seq.], the Secretary of the Treasury shall notify the Secretary of Labor prior to the time of commencing any proceeding to determine whether the action violates the exclusive benefit rule of subsection 401(a) of the Code [26 U.S.C. 401(a)], but not later than prior to issuing a preliminary notice of intent to disqualify under that rule, and the Secretary of the Treasury shall not issue a determination that a plan or trust does not satisfy the requirements of subsection 401(a) by reason of the exclusive benefit rule of subsection 401(a), unless within 90 days after the date on which the Secretary of the Treasury notifies the Secretary of Labor of pending action, the Secretary of Labor certifies that he has no objection to the disqualification or the Secretary of Labor fails to respond to the Secretary of the Treasury. The requirements of this paragraph do not apply in the case of any termination or jeopardy assessment under sections 6851 or 6861 of the Code [26 U.S.C. 6851 or 6861] that has been approved in advance by the Commissioner of Internal Revenue, or, as delegated, the Assistant Commissioner for Employee Plans and Exempt Organizations.

Sec. 104. Enforcement by the Secretary of Labor

The transfers provided for in Section 101 of this Plan shall not affect the ability of the Secretary of Labor, subject to the provisions of Title III of ERISA [29 U.S.C. 1201 et seq.] relating to jurisdiction, administration, and enforcement, to engage in enforcement under Section 502 of ERISA [29 U.S.C. 1132] or to exercise the authority set forth under Title III of ERISA, including the ability to make interpretations necessary to engage in such enforcement or to exercise such authority. However, in bringing such actions and in exercising such authority with respect to Parts 2 [29 U.S.C. 1051 et seq.] and 3 [29 U.S.C. 1081 et seq.] of Subtitle B of Title I of ERISA and any definitions for which the authority of the Secretary of Labor is transferred to the Secretary of the Treasury as provided in Section 101 of this Plan, the Secretary of Labor shall be bound by the regulations, rulings, opinions, variances, and waivers issued by the Secretary of the Treasury.

Sec. 105. Enforcement by the Secretary of the Treasury

The transfers provided for in Section 102 of this Plan shall not affect the ability of the Secretary of the Treasury, subject to the provisions of Title III of ERISA [29 U.S.C. 1201 et seq.] relating to jurisdiction, administration, and enforcement, (a) to audit plans and employers and to enforce the excise tax provisions of subsections 4975(a) and 4975(b) of the Code [26 U.S.C. 4975(a) and (b)], to exercise the authority set forth in subsections 502(b)(1) and 502(h) of ERISA [29 U.S.C. 1132(b)(1) and (h)], or to exercise the authority set forth in Title III of ERISA, including the ability to make interpretations necessary to audit, to enforce such taxes, and to exercise such authority; and (b) consistent with the coordination requirements under Section 103 of this Plan, to disqualify, under section 401 of the Code [26 U.S.C. 401], a plan subject to Part 4 of Subtitle B of Title I of ERISA [29 U.S.C. 1101 et seq.], including the ability to make the interpretations necessary to make such disqualification. However, in enforcing such excise taxes and, to the extent applicable, in disqualifying such plans the Secretary of the Treasury shall be bound by the regulations, rulings, opinions, and exemptions issued by the Secretary of Labor pursuant to the authority transferred to the Secretary of Labor as provided in Section 102 of this Plan.

Sec. 106. Coordination for Section 101 Transfer

(a) The Secretary of the Treasury shall not exercise the functions transferred pursuant to Section 101 of this Plan to issue in proposed or final form any of the documents described in subsection (b) of this Section in any case in which such documents would significantly impact on or substantially affect collectively bargained plans unless, within 100 calendar days after the Secretary of the Treasury notifies the Secretary of Labor of such proposed action, the Secretary of Labor certifies that he has no objection or he fails to respond to the Secretary of the Treasury. The fact of such a notification, except for such notification for documents described in subsection (b)(iv) of this Section, from the Secretary of the Treasury to the Secretary of Labor shall be announced by the Secretary of Labor to the public within ten days following the date of receipt of the notification by the Secretary of Labor.

(b) The documents to which this Section applies are:

(i) amendments to regulations issued pursuant to subsections 202(a)(3), 203(b)(2) and (3)(A), 204(b)(3)(A), (C), and (E), and 210(a)(2) of ERISA [29 U.S.C. 1052(a)(3), 1053(b)(2) and (3)(A), 1054(b)(3)(A), (C), and (E), and 1060(a)(2)], and subsections 410(a)(3) and 411(a)(5), (6)(A), and (b)(3)(A), (C), and (E), 413(b)(4) and (c)(3) and 414(f) of the Code [26 U.S.C. 410(a)(3) and 411(a)(5), (6)(A), and (b)(3)(A), (C), and (E), 413 (b)(4) and (c)(3) and 414(f)];

(ii) regulations issued pursuant to subsections 204(b)(3)(D), 302(d)(2), and 304(d)(1), (d)(2), and (e)(2)(A) of ERISA [29 U.S.C. 1054(b)(3)(D), 1082(d)(2), and 1084(d)(1), (d)(2), and (e)(2)(A)], and subsections 411(b)(3)(D), [former] 412(c)(2) and 431(d)(1), (d)(2), and (e)(2)(A) of the Code [26 U.S.C. 411(b)(3)(D), [former] 412(c)(2) and 431(d)(1), (d)(2), and (e)(2)(A)]; and [As amended Pub. L. 109–280, title I, §108(c), formerly §107(c), Aug. 17, 2006, 120 Stat. 820; renumbered §108(c), Pub. L. 111–192, title II, §202(a), June 25, 2010, 124 Stat. 1297.]

(iii) revenue rulings (within the meaning of 26 CFR Section 601.201(a)(6)), revenue procedures, and similar publications, if the rulings, procedures and publications are issued under one of the statutory provisions listed in (i) and (ii) of this subsection; and

(iv) rulings (within the meaning of 26 CFR Section 601.201(a)(2)) issued prior to the issuance of a published regulation under one of the statutory provisions listed in (i) and (ii) of this subsection and not issued under a published Revenue Ruling.

(c) For those documents described in subsections (b)(i), (b)(ii) and (b)(iii) of this Section, the Secretary of Labor may request the Secretary of the Treasury to initiate the actions described in this Section 106 of this Plan.

Sec. 107. Evaluation

On or before January 31, 1980, the President will submit to both Houses of the Congress an evaluation of the extent to which this Reorganization Plan has alleviated the problems associated with the present administrative structure under ERISA, accompanied by specific legislative recommendations for a long-term administrative structure under ERISA.

Sec. 108. Incidental Transfers

So much of the personnel, property, records, and unexpended balances of appropriations, allocations and other funds employed, used, held, available, or to be made available in connection with the functions transferred under this Plan, as the Director of the Office of Management and Budget shall determine, shall be transferred to the appropriate agency, or component at such time or times as the Director of the Office of Management and Budget shall provide, except that no such unexpended balances transferred shall be used for purposes other than those for which the appropriation was originally made. The Director of the Office of Management and Budget shall provide for terminating the affairs of any agencies abolished herein and for such further measures and dispositions as such Director deems necessary to effectuate the purposes of this Reorganization Plan.

Sec. 109. Effective Date

The provisions of this Reorganization Plan shall become effective at such time or times, on or before April 30, 1979, as the President shall specify, but not sooner than the earliest time allowable under Section 906 of Title 5, United States Code.

[Amendment by section 108(c) of Pub. L. 109–280 applicable to plan years beginning after 2007, see section 108(e) of Pub. L. 109–280, set out as a note under section 1021 of this title.]

[For special rules on applicability of amendments by subtitles A (§§101–108) and B (§§111–116) of title I of Pub. L. 109–280 to certain eligible cooperative plans, PBGC settlement plans, and eligible government contractor plans, see sections 104, 105, and 106 of Pub. L. 109–280, set out as notes under section 401 of Title 26, Internal Revenue Code.]

Message of the President

To the Congress of the United States:

Today I am submitting to the Congress my fourth Reorganization Plan for 1978. This proposal is designed to simplify and improve the unnecessarily complex administrative requirements of the Employee Retirement Income Security Act of 1974 (ERISA) [see Short Title note set out under this section]. The new plan will eliminate overlap and duplication in the administration of ERISA and help us achieve our goal of well regulated private pension plans.

ERISA was an essential step in the protection of worker pension rights. Its administrative provisions, however, have resulted in bureaucratic confusion and have been justifiably criticized by employers and unions alike. The biggest problem has been overlapping jurisdictional authority. Under current ERISA provisions, the Departments of Treasury and Labor both have authority to issue regulations and decisions.

This dual jurisdiction has delayed a good many important rulings and, more importantly, produced bureaucratic runarounds and burdensome reporting requirements.

The new plan will significantly reduce these problems. In addition, both Departments are trying to cut red tape and paperwork, to eliminate unnecessary reporting requirements, and to streamline forms wherever possible.

Both Departments have already made considerable progress, and both will continue the effort to simplify their rules and their forms.

The Reorganization Plan is the most significant result of their joint effort to modify and simplify ERISA. It will eliminate most of the jurisdictional overlap between Treasury and Labor by making the following changes:

1) Treasury will have statutory authority for minimum standards. The new plan puts all responsibility for funding, participation, and vesting of benefit rights in the Department of Treasury. These standards are necessary to ensure that employee benefit plans are adequately funded and that all beneficiary rights are protected. Treasury is the most appropriate Department to administer these provisions; however, Labor will continue to have veto power over Treasury decisions that significantly affect collectively bargained plans.

2) Labor will have statutory authority for fiduciary obligations. ERISA prohibits transactions in which self-interest or conflict of interest could occur, but allows certain exemptions from these prohibitions. Labor will be responsible for overseeing fiduciary conduct under these provisions.

3) Both Departments will retain enforcement powers. The Reorganization Plan will continue Treasury's authority to audit plans and levy tax penalties for any deviation from standards. The plan will also continue Labor's authority to bring civil action against plans and fiduciaries. These provisions are retained in order to keep the special expertise of each Department available. New coordination between the Departments will eliminate duplicative investigations of alleged violations.

This reorganization will make an immediate improvement in ERISA's administration. It will eliminate almost all of the dual and overlapping authority in the two departments and dramatically cut the time required to process applications for exemptions from prohibited transactions.

This plan is an interim arrangement. After the Departments have had a chance to administer ERISA under this new plan, the Office of Management and Budget and the Departments will jointly evaluate that experience. Based on that evaluation, early in 1980, the Administration will make appropriate legislative proposals to establish a long-term administrative structure for ERISA.

Each provision in this reorganization will accomplish one or more of the purposes in Title 5 of U.S.C. 901(a). There will be no change in expenditure or personnel levels, although a small number of people will be transferred from the Department of Treasury to the Department of Labor.

We all recognize that the administration of ERISA has been unduly burdensome. I am confident that this reorganization will significantly relieve much of that burden.

This plan is the culmination of our effort to streamline ERISA. It provides an administrative arrangement that will work.

ERISA has been a symbol of unnecessarily complex government regulation. I hope this new step will become equally symbolic of my Administration's commitment to making government more effective and less intrusive in the lives of our people.

Jimmy Carter.      

The White House, August 10, 1978.

Executive Order No. 12071

Ex. Ord. No. 12071, July 12, 1978, 43 F.R. 30259, which established the President's Commission on Pension Policy and provided for its membership, functions, etc., was revoked by Ex. Ord. No. 12379, §1, Aug. 17, 1982, 47 F.R. 36099, set out as a note under section 14 of the Federal Advisory Committee Act in the Appendix to Title 5, Government Organization and Employees.

Ex. Ord. No. 12108. Effective Date of ERISA Transfers

Ex. Ord. No. 12108, Dec. 28, 1978, 44 F.R. 1065, provided:

By the authority vested in me as President of the United States of America by Section 109 of Reorganization Plan No. 4 of 1978 (43 F.R. 47713) [set out above], it is hereby ordered that the provisions of Reorganization Plan No. 4 of 1978 shall be effective on Sunday, December 31, 1978.

Jimmy Carter.      

Executive Order No. 12262

Ex. Ord. No. 12262, Jan. 7, 1981, 46 F.R. 2313, which established the Interagency Employee Benefit Council and provided for its membership, functions, etc., was revoked by Ex. Ord. No. 12379, §9, Aug. 17, 1982, 47 F.R. 36099, set out as a note under section 14 of the Federal Advisory Committee Act in the Appendix to Title 5, Government Organization and Employees.

1 As amended September 20, 1978.

§1001a. Additional Congressional findings and declaration of policy

(a) Effects of multiemployer pension plans

The Congress finds that—

(1) multiemployer pension plans have a substantial impact on interstate commerce and are affected with a national public interest;

(2) multiemployer pension plans have accounted for a substantial portion of the increase in private pension plan coverage over the past three decades;

(3) the continued well-being and security of millions of employees, retirees, and their dependents are directly affected by multiemployer pension plans; and

(4)(A) withdrawals of contributing employers from a multiemployer pension plan frequently result in substantially increased funding obligations for employers who continue to contribute to the plan, adversely affecting the plan, its participants and beneficiaries, and labor-management relations, and

(B) in a declining industry, the incidence of employer withdrawals is higher and the adverse effects described in subparagraph (A) are exacerbated.

(b) Modification of multiemployer plan termination insurance provisions and replacement of program

The Congress further finds that—

(1) it is desirable to modify the current multiemployer plan termination insurance provisions in order to increase the likelihood of protecting plan participants against benefit losses; and

(2) it is desirable to replace the termination insurance program for multiemployer pension plans with an insolvency-based benefit protection program that will enhance the financial soundness of such plans, place primary emphasis on plan continuation, and contain program costs within reasonable limits.

(c) Policy

It is hereby declared to be the policy of this Act—

(1) to foster and facilitate interstate commerce,

(2) to alleviate certain problems which tend to discourage the maintenance and growth of multiemployer pension plans,

(3) to provide reasonable protection for the interests of participants and beneficiaries of financially distressed multiemployer pension plans, and

(4) to provide a financially self-sufficient program for the guarantee of employee benefits under multiemployer plans.

(Pub. L. 96–364, §3, Sept. 26, 1980, 94 Stat. 1209.)

References in Text

This Act, referred to in subsec. (c), is Pub. L. 96–364, Sept. 26, 1980, 94 Stat. 1208, known as the Multiemployer Pension Plan Amendments Act of 1980. For complete classification of this Act to the Code, see Short Title of 1980 Amendment note set out under section 1001 of this title and Tables.

Codification

Section was enacted as part of the Multiemployer Pension Plan Amendments Act of 1980, and not as part of the Employee Retirement Income Security Act of 1974 which comprises this chapter.

Effective Date

Section effective Sept. 26, 1980, see section 1461(e)(1) of this title.

Study and Report Respecting Collective Bargaining for Contributions to, and Benefits From, Multiemployer Plans

Section 412(b) of Pub. L. 96–364 directed Secretary of Labor to study feasibility of requiring collective bargaining on both issues of contributions to, and benefits from, multiemployer plans, and submit a report on the study to Congress within 3 years of Sept. 26, 1980.

§1001b. Findings and declaration of policy

(a) Findings

The Congress finds that—

(1) single-employer defined benefit pension plans have a substantial impact on interstate commerce and are affected with a national interest;

(2) the continued well-being and retirement income security of millions of workers, retirees, and their dependents are directly affected by such plans;

(3) the existence of a sound termination insurance system is fundamental to the retirement income security of participants and beneficiaries of such plans; and

(4) the current termination insurance system in some instances encourages employers to terminate pension plans, evade their obligations to pay benefits, and shift unfunded pension liabilities onto the termination insurance system and the other premium-payers.

(b) Additional findings

The Congress further finds that modification of the current termination insurance system and an increase in the insurance premium for single-employer defined benefit pension plans—

(1) is desirable to increase the likelihood that full benefits will be paid to participants and beneficiaries of such plans;

(2) is desirable to provide for the transfer of liabilities to the termination insurance system only in cases of severe hardship;

(3) is necessary to maintain the premium costs of such system at a reasonable level; and

(4) is necessary to finance properly current funding deficiencies and future obligations of the single-employer pension plan termination insurance system.

(c) Declaration of policy

It is hereby declared to be the policy of this title—

(1) to foster and facilitate interstate commerce;

(2) to encourage the maintenance and growth of single-employer defined benefit pension plans;

(3) to increase the likelihood that participants and beneficiaries under single-employer defined benefit pension plans will receive their full benefits;

(4) to provide for the transfer of unfunded pension liabilities onto the single-employer pension plan termination insurance system only in cases of severe hardship;

(5) to maintain the premium costs of such system at a reasonable level; and

(6) to assure the prudent financing of current funding deficiencies and future obligations of the single-employer pension plan termination insurance system by increasing termination insurance premiums.

(Pub. L. 99–272, title XI, §11002, Apr. 7, 1986, 100 Stat. 237.)

References in Text

This title, referred to in subsec. (c), is title XI of Pub. L. 99–272, Apr. 7, 1986, 100 Stat. 237, known as the Single-Employer Pension Plan Amendments Act of 1986. For complete classification of this Act to the Code, see Short Title of 1986 Amendment note set out under section 1001 of this title and Tables.

Codification

Section was enacted as part of the Single-Employer Pension Plan Amendments Act of 1986, and not as part of the Employee Retirement Income Security Act of 1974 which comprises this chapter.

Effective Date

Section effective Jan. 1, 1986, with certain exceptions, see section 11019 of Pub. L. 99–272, set out as an Effective Date of 1986 Amendment note under section 1341 of this title.

§1002. Definitions

For purposes of this subchapter:

(1) The terms “employee welfare benefit plan” and “welfare plan” mean any plan, fund, or program which was heretofore or is hereafter established or maintained by an employer or by an employee organization, or by both, to the extent that such plan, fund, or program was established or is maintained for the purpose of providing for its participants or their beneficiaries, through the purchase of insurance or otherwise, (A) medical, surgical, or hospital care or benefits, or benefits in the event of sickness, accident, disability, death or unemployment, or vacation benefits, apprenticeship or other training programs, or day care centers, scholarship funds, or prepaid legal services, or (B) any benefit described in section 186(c) of this title (other than pensions on retirement or death, and insurance to provide such pensions).

(2)(A) Except as provided in subparagraph (B), the terms “employee pension benefit plan” and “pension plan” mean any plan, fund, or program which was heretofore or is hereafter established or maintained by an employer or by an employee organization, or by both, to the extent that by its express terms or as a result of surrounding circumstances such plan, fund, or program—

(i) provides retirement income to employees, or

(ii) results in a deferral of income by employees for periods extending to the termination of covered employment or beyond,


regardless of the method of calculating the contributions made to the plan, the method of calculating the benefits under the plan or the method of distributing benefits from the plan. A distribution from a plan, fund, or program shall not be treated as made in a form other than retirement income or as a distribution prior to termination of covered employment solely because such distribution is made to an employee who has attained age 62 and who is not separated from employment at the time of such distribution.

(B) The Secretary may by regulation prescribe rules consistent with the standards and purposes of this chapter providing one or more exempt categories under which—

(i) severance pay arrangements, and

(ii) supplemental retirement income payments, under which the pension benefits of retirees or their beneficiaries are supplemented to take into account some portion or all of the increases in the cost of living (as determined by the Secretary of Labor) since retirement,


shall, for purposes of this subchapter, be treated as welfare plans rather than pension plans. In the case of any arrangement or payment a principal effect of which is the evasion of the standards or purposes of this chapter applicable to pension plans, such arrangement or payment shall be treated as a pension plan. An applicable voluntary early retirement incentive plan (as defined in section 457(e)(11)(D)(ii) of title 26) making payments or supplements described in section 457(e)(11)(D)(i) of title 26, and an applicable employment retention plan (as defined in section 457(f)(4)(C) of title 26) making payments of benefits described in section 457(f)(4)(A) of title 26, shall, for purposes of this subchapter, be treated as a welfare plan (and not a pension plan) with respect to such payments and supplements.

(3) The term “employee benefit plan” or “plan” means an employee welfare benefit plan or an employee pension benefit plan or a plan which is both an employee welfare benefit plan and an employee pension benefit plan.

(4) The term “employee organization” means any labor union or any organization of any kind, or any agency or employee representation committee, association, group, or plan, in which employees participate and which exists for the purpose, in whole or in part, of dealing with employers concerning an employee benefit plan, or other matters incidental to employment relationships; or any employees’ beneficiary association organized for the purpose in whole or in part, of establishing such a plan.

(5) The term “employer” means any person acting directly as an employer, or indirectly in the interest of an employer, in relation to an employee benefit plan; and includes a group or association of employers acting for an employer in such capacity.

(6) The term “employee” means any individual employed by an employer.

(7) The term “participant” means any employee or former employee of an employer, or any member or former member of an employee organization, who is or may become eligible to receive a benefit of any type from an employee benefit plan which covers employees of such employer or members of such organization, or whose beneficiaries may be eligible to receive any such benefit.

(8) The term “beneficiary” means a person designated by a participant, or by the terms of an employee benefit plan, who is or may become entitled to a benefit thereunder.

(9) The term “person” means an individual, partnership, joint venture, corporation, mutual company, joint-stock company, trust, estate, unincorporated organization, association, or employee organization.

(10) The term “State” includes any State of the United States, the District of Columbia, Puerto Rico, the Virgin Islands, American Samoa, Guam, Wake Island, and the Canal Zone. The term “United States” when used in the geographic sense means the States and the Outer Continental Shelf lands defined in the Outer Continental Shelf Lands Act (43 U.S.C. 1331–1343).

(11) The term “commerce” means trade, traffic, commerce, transportation, or communication between any State and any place outside thereof.

(12) The term “industry or activity affecting commerce” means any activity, business, or industry in commerce or in which a labor dispute would hinder or obstruct commerce or the free flow of commerce, and includes any activity or industry “affecting commerce” within the meaning of the Labor Management Relations Act, 1947 [29 U.S.C. 141 et seq.], or the Railway Labor Act [45 U.S.C. 151 et seq.].

(13) The term “Secretary” means the Secretary of Labor.

(14) The term “party in interest” means, as to an employee benefit plan—

(A) any fiduciary (including, but not limited to, any administrator, officer, trustee, or custodian), counsel, or employee of such employee benefit plan;

(B) a person providing services to such plan;

(C) an employer any of whose employees are covered by such plan;

(D) an employee organization any of whose members are covered by such plan;

(E) an owner, direct or indirect, of 50 percent or more of—

(i) the combined voting power of all classes of stock entitled to vote or the total value of shares of all classes of stock of a corporation.1

(ii) the capital interest or the profits interest of a partnership, or

(iii) the beneficial interest of a trust or unincorporated enterprise,


which is an employer or an employee organization described in subparagraph (C) or (D);

(F) a relative (as defined in paragraph (15)) of any individual described in subparagraph (A), (B), (C), or (E);

(G) a corporation, partnership, or trust or estate of which (or in which) 50 percent or more of—

(i) the combined voting power of all classes of stock entitled to vote or the total value of shares of all classes of stock of such corporation,

(ii) the capital interest or profits interest of such partnership, or

(iii) the beneficial interest of such trust or estate,


is owned directly or indirectly, or held by persons described in subparagraph (A), (B), (C), (D), or (E);

(H) an employee, officer, director (or an individual having powers or responsibilities similar to those of officers or directors), or a 10 percent or more shareholder directly or indirectly, of a person described in subparagraph (B), (C), (D), (E), or (G), or of the employee benefit plan; or

(I) a 10 percent or more (directly or indirectly in capital or profits) partner or joint venturer of a person described in subparagraph (B), (C), (D), (E), or (G).


The Secretary, after consultation and coordination with the Secretary of the Treasury, may by regulation prescribe a percentage lower than 50 percent for subparagraph (E) and (G) and lower than 10 percent for subparagraph (H) or (I). The Secretary may prescribe regulations for determining the ownership (direct or indirect) of profits and beneficial interests, and the manner in which indirect stockholdings are taken into account. Any person who is a party in interest with respect to a plan to which a trust described in section 501(c)(22) of title 26 is permitted to make payments under section 1403 of this title shall be treated as a party in interest with respect to such trust.

(15) The term “relative” means a spouse, ancestor, lineal descendant, or spouse of a lineal descendant.

(16)(A) The term “administrator” means—

(i) the person specifically so designated by the terms of the instrument under which the plan is operated;

(ii) if an administrator is not so designated, the plan sponsor; or

(iii) in the case of a plan for which an administrator is not designated and a plan sponsor cannot be identified, such other person as the Secretary may by regulation prescribe.


(B) The term “plan sponsor” means (i) the employer in the case of an employee benefit plan established or maintained by a single employer, (ii) the employee organization in the case of a plan established or maintained by an employee organization, or (iii) in the case of a plan established or maintained by two or more employers or jointly by one or more employers and one or more employee organizations, the association, committee, joint board of trustees, or other similar group of representatives of the parties who establish or maintain the plan.

(17) The term “separate account” means an account established or maintained by an insurance company under which income, gains, and losses, whether or not realized, from assets allocated to such account, are, in accordance with the applicable contract, credited to or charged against such account without regard to other income, gains, or losses of the insurance company.

(18) The term “adequate consideration” when used in part 4 of subtitle B of this subchapter means (A) in the case of a security for which there is a generally recognized market, either (i) the price of the security prevailing on a national securities exchange which is registered under section 78f of title 15, or (ii) if the security is not traded on such a national securities exchange, a price not less favorable to the plan than the offering price for the security as established by the current bid and asked prices quoted by persons independent of the issuer and of any party in interest; and (B) in the case of an asset other than a security for which there is a generally recognized market, the fair market value of the asset as determined in good faith by the trustee or named fiduciary pursuant to the terms of the plan and in accordance with regulations promulgated by the Secretary.

(19) The term “nonforfeitable” when used with respect to a pension benefit or right means a claim obtained by a participant or his beneficiary to that part of an immediate or deferred benefit under a pension plan which arises from the participant's service, which is unconditional, and which is legally enforceable against the plan. For purposes of this paragraph, a right to an accrued benefit derived from employer contributions shall not be treated as forfeitable merely because the plan contains a provision described in section 1053(a)(3) of this title.

(20) The term “security” has the same meaning as such term has under section 77b(1) 2 of title 15.

(21)(A) Except as otherwise provided in subparagraph (B), a person is a fiduciary with respect to a plan to the extent (i) he exercises any discretionary authority or discretionary control respecting management of such plan or exercises any authority or control respecting management or disposition of its assets, (ii) he renders investment advice for a fee or other compensation, direct or indirect, with respect to any moneys or other property of such plan, or has any authority or responsibility to do so, or (iii) he has any discretionary authority or discretionary responsibility in the administration of such plan. Such term includes any person designated under section 1105(c)(1)(B) of this title.

(B) If any money or other property of an employee benefit plan is invested in securities issued by an investment company registered under the Investment Company Act of 1940 [15 U.S.C. 80a–1 et seq.], such investment shall not by itself cause such investment company or such investment company's investment adviser or principal underwriter to be deemed to be a fiduciary or a party in interest as those terms are defined in this subchapter, except insofar as such investment company or its investment adviser or principal underwriter acts in connection with an employee benefit plan covering employees of the investment company, the investment adviser, or its principal underwriter. Nothing contained in this subparagraph shall limit the duties imposed on such investment company, investment adviser, or principal underwriter by any other law.

(22) The term “normal retirement benefit” means the greater of the early retirement benefit under the plan, or the benefit under the plan commencing at normal retirement age. The normal retirement benefit shall be determined without regard to—

(A) medical benefits, and

(B) disability benefits not in excess of the qualified disability benefit.


For purposes of this paragraph, a qualified disability benefit is a disability benefit provided by a plan which does not exceed the benefit which would be provided for the participant if he separated from the service at normal retirement age. For purposes of this paragraph, the early retirement benefit under a plan shall be determined without regard to any benefit under the plan which the Secretary of the Treasury finds to be a benefit described in section 1054(b)(1)(G) of this title.

(23) The term “accrued benefit” means—

(A) in the case of a defined benefit plan, the individual's accrued benefit determined under the plan and, except as provided in section 1054(c)(3) of this title, expressed in the form of an annual benefit commencing at normal retirement age, or

(B) in the case of a plan which is an individual account plan, the balance of the individual's account.


The accrued benefit of an employee shall not be less than the amount determined under section 1054(c)(2)(B) of this title with respect to the employee's accumulated contribution.

(24) The term “normal retirement age” means the earlier of—

(A) the time a plan participant attains normal retirement age under the plan, or

(B) the later of—

(i) the time a plan participant attains age 65, or

(ii) the 5th anniversary of the time a plan participant commenced participation in the plan.


(25) The term “vested liabilities” means the present value of the immediate or deferred benefits available at normal retirement age for participants and their beneficiaries which are nonforfeitable.

(26) The term “current value” means fair market value where available and otherwise the fair value as determined in good faith by a trustee or a named fiduciary (as defined in section 1102(a)(2) of this title) pursuant to the terms of the plan and in accordance with regulations of the Secretary, assuming an orderly liquidation at the time of such determination.

(27) The term “present value”, with respect to a liability, means the value adjusted to reflect anticipated events. Such adjustments shall conform to such regulations as the Secretary of the Treasury may prescribe.

(28) The term “normal service cost” or “normal cost” means the annual cost of future pension benefits and administrative expenses assigned, under an actuarial cost method, to years subsequent to a particular valuation date of a pension plan. The Secretary of the Treasury may prescribe regulations to carry out this paragraph.

(29) The term “accrued liability” means the excess of the present value, as of a particular valuation date of a pension plan, of the projected future benefit costs and administrative expenses for all plan participants and beneficiaries over the present value of future contributions for the normal cost of all applicable plan participants and beneficiaries. The Secretary of the Treasury may prescribe regulations to carry out this paragraph.

(30) The term “unfunded accrued liability” means the excess of the accrued liability, under an actuarial cost method which so provides, over the present value of the assets of a pension plan. The Secretary of the Treasury may prescribe regulations to carry out this paragraph.

(31) The term “advance funding actuarial cost method” or “actuarial cost method” means a recognized actuarial technique utilized for establishing the amount and incidence of the annual actuarial cost of pension plan benefits and expenses. Acceptable actuarial cost methods shall include the accrued benefit cost method (unit credit method), the entry age normal cost method, the individual level premium cost method, the aggregate cost method, the attained age normal cost method, and the frozen initial liability cost method. The terminal funding cost method and the current funding (pay-as-you-go) cost method are not acceptable actuarial cost methods. The Secretary of the Treasury shall issue regulations to further define acceptable actuarial cost methods.

(32) The term “governmental plan” means a plan established or maintained for its employees by the Government of the United States, by the government of any State or political subdivision thereof, or by any agency or instrumentality of any of the foregoing. The term “governmental plan” also includes any plan to which the Railroad Retirement Act of 1935, or 1937 [45 U.S.C. 231 et seq.] applies, and which is financed by contributions required under that Act and any plan of an international organization which is exempt from taxation under the provisions of the International Organizations Immunities Act [22 U.S.C. 288 et seq.]. The term “governmental plan” includes a plan which is established and maintained by an Indian tribal government (as defined in section 7701(a)(40) of title 26), a subdivision of an Indian tribal government (determined in accordance with section 7871(d) of title 26), or an agency or instrumentality of either, and all of the participants of which are employees of such entity substantially all of whose services as such an employee are in the performance of essential governmental functions but not in the performance of commercial activities (whether or not an essential government function) 3

(33)(A) The term “church plan” means a plan established and maintained (to the extent required in clause (ii) of subparagraph (B)) for its employees (or their beneficiaries) by a church or by a convention or association of churches which is exempt from tax under section 501 of title 26.

(B) The term “church plan” does not include a plan—

(i) which is established and maintained primarily for the benefit of employees (or their beneficiaries) of such church or convention or association of churches who are employed in connection with one or more unrelated trades or businesses (within the meaning of section 513 of title 26), or

(ii) if less than substantially all of the individuals included in the plan are individuals described in subparagraph (A) or in clause (ii) of subparagraph (C) (or their beneficiaries).


(C) For purposes of this paragraph—

(i) A plan established and maintained for its employees (or their beneficiaries) by a church or by a convention or association of churches includes a plan maintained by an organization, whether a civil law corporation or otherwise, the principal purpose or function of which is the administration or funding of a plan or program for the provision of retirement benefits or welfare benefits, or both, for the employees of a church or a convention or association of churches, if such organization is controlled by or associated with a church or a convention or association of churches.

(ii) The term employee of a church or a convention or association of churches includes—

(I) a duly ordained, commissioned, or licensed minister of a church in the exercise of his ministry, regardless of the source of his compensation;

(II) an employee of an organization, whether a civil law corporation or otherwise, which is exempt from tax under section 501 of title 26 and which is controlled by or associated with a church or a convention or association of churches; and

(III) an individual described in clause (v).


(iii) A church or a convention or association of churches which is exempt from tax under section 501 of title 26 shall be deemed the employer of any individual included as an employee under clause (ii).

(iv) An organization, whether a civil law corporation or otherwise, is associated with a church or a convention or association of churches if it shares common religious bonds and convictions with that church or convention or association of churches.

(v) If an employee who is included in a church plan separates from the service of a church or a convention or association of churches or an organization, whether a civil law corporation or otherwise, which is exempt from tax under section 501 of title 26 and which is controlled by or associated with a church or a convention or association of churches, the church plan shall not fail to meet the requirements of this paragraph merely because the plan—

(I) retains the employee's accrued benefit or account for the payment of benefits to the employee or his beneficiaries pursuant to the terms of the plan; or

(II) receives contributions on the employee's behalf after the employee's separation from such service, but only for a period of 5 years after such separation, unless the employee is disabled (within the meaning of the disability provisions of the church plan or, if there are no such provisions in the church plan, within the meaning of section 72(m)(7) of title 26) at the time of such separation from service.


(D)(i) If a plan established and maintained for its employees (or their beneficiaries) by a church or by a convention or association of churches which is exempt from tax under section 501 of title 26 fails to meet one or more of the requirements of this paragraph and corrects its failure to meet such requirements within the correction period, the plan shall be deemed to meet the requirements of this paragraph for the year in which the correction was made and for all prior years.

(ii) If a correction is not made within the correction period, the plan shall be deemed not to meet the requirements of this paragraph beginning with the date on which the earliest failure to meet one or more of such requirements occurred.

(iii) For purposes of this subparagraph, the term “correction period” means—

(I) the period ending 270 days after the date of mailing by the Secretary of the Treasury of a notice of default with respect to the plan's failure to meet one or more of the requirements of this paragraph; or

(II) any period set by a court of competent jurisdiction after a final determination that the plan fails to meet such requirements, or, if the court does not specify such period, any reasonable period determined by the Secretary of the Treasury on the basis of all the facts and circumstances, but in any event not less than 270 days after the determination has become final; or

(III) any additional period which the Secretary of the Treasury determines is reasonable or necessary for the correction of the default,


whichever has the latest ending date.

(34) The term “individual account plan” or “defined contribution plan” means a pension plan which provides for an individual account for each participant and for benefits based solely upon the amount contributed to the participant's account, and any income, expenses, gains and losses, and any forfeitures of accounts of other participants which may be allocated to such participant's account.

(35) The term “defined benefit plan” means a pension plan other than an individual account plan; except that a pension plan which is not an individual account plan and which provides a benefit derived from employer contributions which is based partly on the balance of the separate account of a participant—

(A) for the purposes of section 1052 of this title, shall be treated as an individual account plan, and

(B) for the purposes of paragraph (23) of this section and section 1054 of this title, shall be treated as an individual account plan to the extent benefits are based upon the separate account of a participant and as a defined benefit plan with respect to the remaining portion of benefits under the plan.


(36) The term “excess benefit plan” means a plan maintained by an employer solely for the purpose of providing benefits for certain employees in excess of the limitations on contributions and benefits imposed by section 415 of title 26 on plans to which that section applies without regard to whether the plan is funded. To the extent that a separable part of a plan (as determined by the Secretary of Labor) maintained by an employer is maintained for such purpose, that part shall be treated as a separate plan which is an excess benefit plan.

(37)(A) The term “multiemployer plan” means a plan—

(i) to which more than one employer is required to contribute,

(ii) which is maintained pursuant to one or more collective bargaining agreements between one or more employee organizations and more than one employer, and

(iii) which satisfies such other requirements as the Secretary may prescribe by regulation.


(B) For purposes of this paragraph, all trades or businesses (whether or not incorporated) which are under common control within the meaning of section 1301(b)(1) of this title are considered a single employer.

(C) Notwithstanding subparagraph (A), a plan is a multiemployer plan on and after its termination date if the plan was a multiemployer plan under this paragraph for the plan year preceding its termination date.

(D) For purposes of this subchapter, notwithstanding the preceding provisions of this paragraph, for any plan year which began before September 26, 1980, the term “multiemployer plan” means a plan described in this paragraph (37) as in effect immediately before such date.

(E) Within one year after September 26, 1980, a multiemployer plan may irrevocably elect, pursuant to procedures established by the corporation and subject to the provisions of sections 1453(b) and (c) of this title, that the plan shall not be treated as a multiemployer plan for all purposes under this chapter or the Internal Revenue Code of 1954 if for each of the last 3 plan years ending prior to the effective date of the Multiemployer Pension Plan Amendments Act of 1980—

(i) the plan was not a multiemployer plan because the plan was not a plan described in subparagraph (A)(iii) of this paragraph and section 414(f)(1)(C) of title 26 (as such provisions were in effect on the day before September 26, 1980); and

(ii) the plan had been identified as a plan that was not a multiemployer plan in substantially all its filings with the corporation, the Secretary of Labor and the Secretary of the Treasury.


(F)(i) For purposes of this subchapter a qualified football coaches plan—

(I) shall be treated as a multiemployer plan to the extent not inconsistent with the purposes of this subparagraph; and

(II) notwithstanding section 401(k)(4)(B) of title 26, may include a qualified cash and deferred arrangement.


(ii) For purposes of this subparagraph, the term “qualified football coaches plan” means any defined contribution plan which is established and maintained by an organization—

(I) which is described in section 501(c) of title 26;

(II) the membership of which consists entirely of individuals who primarily coach football as full-time employees of 4-year colleges or universities described in section 170(b)(1)(A)(ii) of title 26; and

(III) which was in existence on September 18, 1986.


(G)(i) Within 1 year after August 17, 2006—

(I) an election under subparagraph (E) may be revoked, pursuant to procedures prescribed by the Pension Benefit Guaranty Corporation, if, for each of the 3 plan years prior to August 17, 2006, the plan would have been a multiemployer plan but for the election under subparagraph (E), and

(II) a plan that meets the criteria in clauses (i) and (ii) of subparagraph (A) of this paragraph or that is described in clause (vi) may, pursuant to procedures prescribed by the Pension Benefit Guaranty Corporation, elect to be a multiemployer plan, if—

(aa) for each of the 3 plan years immediately preceding the first plan year for which the election under this paragraph is effective with respect to the plan, the plan has met those criteria or is so described,

(bb) substantially all of the plan's employer contributions for each of those plan years were made or required to be made by organizations that were exempt from tax under section 501 of title 26, and

(cc) the plan was established prior to September 2, 1974.


(ii) An election under this subparagraph shall be effective for all purposes under this chapter and under title 26, starting with any plan year beginning on or after January 1, 1999, and ending before January 1, 2008, as designated by the plan in the election made under clause (i)(II).

(iii) Once made, an election under this subparagraph shall be irrevocable, except that a plan described in clause (i)(II) shall cease to be a multiemployer plan as of the plan year beginning immediately after the first plan year for which the majority of its employer contributions were made or required to be made by organizations that were not exempt from tax under section 501 of title 26.

(iv) The fact that a plan makes an election under clause (i)(II) does not imply that the plan was not a multiemployer plan prior to the date of the election or would not be a multiemployer plan without regard to the election.

(v)(I) No later than 30 days before an election is made under this subparagraph, the plan administrator shall provide notice of the pending election to each plan participant and beneficiary, each labor organization representing such participants or beneficiaries, and each employer that has an obligation to contribute to the plan, describing the principal differences between the guarantee programs under subchapter III and the benefit restrictions under this subchapter for single employer and multiemployer plans, along with such other information as the plan administrator chooses to include.

(II) Within 180 days after August 17, 2006, the Secretary shall prescribe a model notice under this clause.

(III) A plan administrator's failure to provide the notice required under this subparagraph shall be treated for purposes of section 1132(c)(2) of this title as a failure or refusal by the plan administrator to file the annual report required to be filed with the Secretary under section 1021(b)(1) of this title.

(vi) A plan is described in this clause if it is a plan sponsored by an organization which is described in section 501(c)(5) of title 26 and exempt from tax under section 501(a) of such title and which was established in Chicago, Illinois, on August 12, 1881.

(vii) For purposes of this chapter and title 26, a plan making an election under this subparagraph shall be treated as maintained pursuant to a collective bargaining agreement if a collective bargaining agreement, expressly or otherwise, provides for or permits employer contributions to the plan by one or more employers that are signatory to such agreement, or participation in the plan by one or more employees of an employer that is signatory to such agreement, regardless of whether the plan was created, established, or maintained for such employees by virtue of another document that is not a collective bargaining agreement.

(38) The term “investment manager” means any fiduciary (other than a trustee or named fiduciary, as defined in section 1102(a)(2) of this title)—

(A) who has the power to manage, acquire, or dispose of any asset of a plan;

(B) who (i) is registered as an investment adviser under the Investment Advisers Act of 1940 [15 U.S.C. 80b–1 et seq.]; (ii) is not registered as an investment adviser under such Act by reason of paragraph (1) of section 203A(a) of such Act [15 U.S.C. 80b–3a(a)], is registered as an investment adviser under the laws of the State (referred to in such paragraph (1)) in which it maintains its principal office and place of business, and, at the time the fiduciary last filed the registration form most recently filed by the fiduciary with such State in order to maintain the fiduciary's registration under the laws of such State, also filed a copy of such form with the Secretary; (iii) is a bank, as defined in that Act; or (iv) is an insurance company qualified to perform services described in subparagraph (A) under the laws of more than one State; and

(C) has acknowledged in writing that he is a fiduciary with respect to the plan.


(39) The terms “plan year” and “fiscal year of the plan” mean, with respect to a plan, the calendar, policy, or fiscal year on which the records of the plan are kept.

(40)(A) The term “multiple employer welfare arrangement” means an employee welfare benefit plan, or any other arrangement (other than an employee welfare benefit plan), which is established or maintained for the purpose of offering or providing any benefit described in paragraph (1) to the employees of two or more employers (including one or more self-employed individuals), or to their beneficiaries, except that such term does not include any such plan or other arrangement which is established or maintained—

(i) under or pursuant to one or more agreements which the Secretary finds to be collective bargaining agreements,

(ii) by a rural electric cooperative, or

(iii) by a rural telephone cooperative association.


(B) For purposes of this paragraph—

(i) two or more trades or businesses, whether or not incorporated, shall be deemed a single employer if such trades or businesses are within the same control group,

(ii) the term “control group” means a group of trades or businesses under common control,

(iii) the determination of whether a trade or business is under “common control” with another trade or business shall be determined under regulations of the Secretary applying principles similar to the principles applied in determining whether employees of two or more trades or businesses are treated as employed by a single employer under section 1301(b) of this title, except that, for purposes of this paragraph, common control shall not be based on an interest of less than 25 percent,

(iv) the term “rural electric cooperative” means—

(I) any organization which is exempt from tax under section 501(a) of title 26 and which is engaged primarily in providing electric service on a mutual or cooperative basis, and

(II) any organization described in paragraph (4) or (6) of section 501(c) of title 26 which is exempt from tax under section 501(a) of title 26 and at least 80 percent of the members of which are organizations described in subclause (I), and


(v) the term “rural telephone cooperative association” means an organization described in paragraph (4) or (6) of section 501(c) of title 26 which is exempt from tax under section 501(a) of title 26 and at least 80 percent of the members of which are organizations engaged primarily in providing telephone service to rural areas of the United States on a mutual, cooperative, or other basis.


(41) 4 Single-employer plan.—The term “single-employer plan” means an employee benefit plan other than a multiemployer plan.

(41) 4 The term “single-employer plan” means a plan which is not a multiemployer plan.

(42) the term “plan assets” means plan assets as defined by such regulations as the Secretary may prescribe, except that under such regulations the assets of any entity shall not be treated as plan assets if, immediately after the most recent acquisition of any equity interest in the entity, less than 25 percent of the total value of each class of equity interest in the entity is held by benefit plan investors. For purposes of determinations pursuant to this paragraph, the value of any equity interest held by a person (other than such a benefit plan investor) who has discretionary authority or control with respect to the assets of the entity or any person who provides investment advice for a fee (direct or indirect) with respect to such assets, or any affiliate of such a person, shall be disregarded for purposes of calculating the 25 percent threshold. An entity shall be considered to hold plan assets only to the extent of the percentage of the equity interest held by benefit plan investors. For purposes of this paragraph, the term “benefit plan investor” means an employee benefit plan subject to part 4,5 any plan to which section 4975 of title 26 applies, and any entity whose underlying assets include plan assets by reason of a plan's investment in such entity.

(Pub. L. 93–406, title I, §3, Sept. 2, 1974, 88 Stat. 833; Pub. L. 96–364, title III, §§302, 305, title IV, §§407(a), 409, Sept. 26, 1980, 94 Stat. 1291, 1294, 1303, 1307; Pub. L. 97–473, title III, §302(a), Jan. 14, 1983, 96 Stat. 2612; Pub. L. 99–272, title XI, §11016(c)(1), Apr. 7, 1986, 100 Stat. 273; Pub. L. 99–509, title IX, §9203(b)(1), Oct. 21, 1986, 100 Stat. 1979; Pub. L. 99–514, title XVIII, §1879(u)(3), Oct. 22, 1986, 100 Stat. 2913; Pub. L. 100–202, §136(a), Dec. 22, 1987, 101 Stat. 1329–441; Pub. L. 101–239, title VII, §§7871(b)(2), 7881(m)(2)(D), 7891(a)(1), 7893(a), 7894(a)(1)(A), (2)(A), (3), (4), Dec. 19, 1989, 103 Stat. 2435, 2444, 2445, 2447, 2448; Pub. L. 101–508, title XII, §12002(b)(2)(C), Nov. 5, 1990, 104 Stat. 1388–566; Pub. L. 102–89, §2, Aug. 14, 1991, 105 Stat. 446; Pub. L. 104–290, title III, §308(b)(1), Oct. 11, 1996, 110 Stat. 3440; Pub. L. 105–72, §1(a), Nov. 10, 1997, 111 Stat. 1457; Pub. L. 109–280, title VI, §611(f), title IX, §§905(a), 906(a)(2)(A), title XI, §§1104(c), 1106(a), Aug. 17, 2006, 120 Stat. 972, 1050, 1051, 1060; Pub. L. 110–28, title VI, §6611(a)(1), (b)(1), May 25, 2007, 121 Stat. 179, 180; Pub. L. 110–458, title I, §111(c), Dec. 23, 2008, 122 Stat. 5113.)

References in Text

This chapter, referred to in pars. (2)(B) and (37)(E), (G)(ii), (vii), was in the original “this Act”, meaning Pub. L. 93–406, known as the Employee Retirement Income Security Act of 1974. Titles I, III, and IV of such Act are classified principally to this chapter. For complete classification of this Act to the Code, see Short Title note set out under section 1001 of this title and Tables.

The Outer Continental Shelf Lands Act, referred to in par. (10), is act Aug. 7, 1953, ch. 345, 67 Stat. 462, as amended, which is classified generally to subchapter III (§1331 et seq.) of chapter 29 of Title 43, Public Lands. For complete classification of this Act to the Code, see Short Title note set out under section 1331 of Title 43 and Tables.

The Labor Management Relations Act, 1947, referred to in par. (12), is act June 23, 1947, ch. 120, 61 Stat. 136, as amended, which is classified principally to chapter 7 (§141 et seq.) of this title. For complete classification of this Act to the Code, see section 141 of this title and Tables.

The Railway Labor Act, referred to in par. (12), is act May 20, 1926, ch. 347, 44 Stat. 577, as amended, which is classified principally to chapter 8 (§151 et seq.) of Title 45, Railroads. For complete classification of this Act to the Code, see section 151 of Title 45 and Tables.

Section 77b(1) of title 15, referred to in par. (20), was redesignated section 77b(a)(1) of title 15 by Pub. L. 104–290, title I, §106(a)(1), Oct. 11, 1996, 110 Stat. 3424.

The Investment Company Act of 1940, referred to in par. (21)(B), is title I of act Aug. 22, 1940, ch. 686, 54 Stat. 789, as amended, which is classified generally to subchapter I (§80a–1 et seq.) of chapter 2D of Title 15, Commerce and Trade. For complete classification of this Act to the Code, see section 80a–51 of Title 15 and Tables.

The Railroad Retirement Act of 1935 or 1937, referred to in par. (32), means act Aug. 29, 1935, ch. 812, 49 Stat. 967, as amended, known as the Railroad Retirement Act of 1935. The Railroad Retirement Act of 1935 was amended generally by act June 24, 1937, ch. 382, part I, 50 Stat. 307, and was known as the Railroad Retirement Act of 1937. The Railroad Retirement Act of 1937 was amended generally and redesignated the Railroad Retirement Act of 1974 by Pub. L. 93–445, title I, Oct. 16, 1974, 88 Stat. 1305 and is classified generally to subchapter IV (§231 et seq.) of chapter 9 of Title 45, Railroads. For complete classification of this Act to the Code, see Tables.

The International Organizations Immunities Act, referred to in par. (32), is title I of act Dec. 29, 1945, ch. 652, 59 Stat. 669, as amended, which is classified principally to subchapter XVIII (§288 et seq.) of chapter 7 of Title 22, Foreign Relations and Intercourse. For complete classification of this Act to the Code, see Short Title note set out under section 288 of Title 22 and Tables.

Sections 1453(b) and (c) of this title, referred to in par. (37)(E), was in the original “sections 4403(b) and (c)”, meaning sections 4403(b) and (c) of the Employee Retirement Income Security Act of 1974, which was translated as section 1453(b) and (c) of this title as the probable intent of Congress, in view of the Employee Retirement Income Security Act of 1974 not containing a section 4403 and the subject matter of section 4303 of the Act which is classified to section 1453(b) and (c) of this title.

The Internal Revenue Code of 1954, referred to in par. (37)(E), was redesignated the Internal Revenue Code of 1986 by Pub. L. 99–514, §2, Oct. 22, 1986, 100 Stat. 2095, and is classified to Title 26, Internal Revenue Code.

For the effective date of the Multiemployer Pension Plan Amendments Act of 1980, referred to in par. (37)(E), see section 1461(e) of this title.

The Investment Advisers Act of 1940, referred to in par. (38)(B), is title II of act Aug. 22, 1940, ch. 686, 54 Stat. 847, as amended, which is classified generally to subchapter II (§80b–1 et seq.) of chapter 2D of Title 15, Commerce and Trade. For complete classification of this Act to the Code, see section 80b–20 of Title 15 and Tables.

Amendments

2008—Par. (37)(G). Pub. L. 110–458 substituted “subparagraph” for “paragraph” in cls. (ii), (iii), and (v)(I), “clause (i)(II)” for “subclause (i)(II)” in cl. (iii), “clause” for “subparagraph” in cl. (v)(II), and “section 1021(b)(1)” for “section 1021(b)(4)” in cl. (v)(III).

2007—Par. (37)(G)(i)(II)(aa). Pub. L. 110–28, §6611(a)(1)(A), substituted “for each of the 3 plan years immediately preceding the first plan year for which the election under this paragraph is effective with respect to the plan,” for “for each of the 3 plan years immediately before August 17, 2006,”.

Par. (37)(G)(ii). Pub. L. 110–28, §6611(a)(1)(B), substituted “starting with any plan year beginning on or after January 1, 1999, and ending before January 1, 2008, as designated by the plan in the election made under clause (i)(II)” for “starting with the first plan year ending after August 17, 2006”.

Par. (37)(G)(vi). Pub. L. 110–28, §6611(b)(1), substituted “if it is a plan sponsored by an organization which is described in section 501(c)(5) of title 26 and exempt from tax under section 501(a) of such title and which was established in Chicago, Illinois, on August 12, 1881.” for “if it is a plan—

“(I) that was established in Chicago, Illinois, on August 12, 1881; and

“(II) sponsored by an organization described in section 501(c)(5) of title 26 and exempt from tax under section 501(a) of title 26.”

Par. (37)(G)(vii). Pub. L. 110–28, §6611(a)(1)(C), added cl. (vii).

2006—Par. (2)(A). Pub. L. 109–280, §905(a), inserted at end “A distribution from a plan, fund, or program shall not be treated as made in a form other than retirement income or as a distribution prior to termination of covered employment solely because such distribution is made to an employee who has attained age 62 and who is not separated from employment at the time of such distribution.”

Par. (2)(B). Pub. L. 109–280, §1104(c), inserted at end “An applicable voluntary early retirement incentive plan (as defined in section 457(e)(11)(D)(ii) of title 26) making payments or supplements described in section 457(e)(11)(D)(i) of title 26, and an applicable employment retention plan (as defined in section 457(f)(4)(C) of title 26) making payments of benefits described in section 457(f)(4)(A) of title 26, shall, for purposes of this subchapter, be treated as a welfare plan (and not a pension plan) with respect to such payments and supplements.”

Par. (32). Pub. L. 109–280, §906(a)(2)(A), inserted at end “The term ‘governmental plan’ includes a plan which is established and maintained by an Indian tribal government (as defined in section 7701(a)(40) of title 26), a subdivision of an Indian tribal government (determined in accordance with section 7871(d) of title 26), or an agency or instrumentality of either, and all of the participants of which are employees of such entity substantially all of whose services as such an employee are in the performance of essential governmental functions but not in the performance of commercial activities (whether or not an essential government function)”.

Par. (37)(G). Pub. L. 109–280, §1106(a), added subpar. (G).

Par. (42). Pub. L. 109–280, §611(f), added par. (42).

1997—Par. (38)(B). Pub. L. 105–72 added introductory provisions and cls. (i) and (ii), redesignated former cls. (ii) and (iii) as (iii) and (iv), respectively, and struck out former introductory provisions and cl. (i) which read as follows: “who is (i) registered as an investment adviser under the Investment Advisers Act of 1940 or under the laws of any State;”.

1996—Par. (38)(B). Pub. L. 104–290 temporarily inserted “or under the laws of any State” before “; (ii) is a bank,”. See Effective and Termination Dates of 1996 Amendment note below.

1991—Par. (40)(A)(iii), (B)(v). Pub. L. 102–89 added cl. (iii) at end of subpar. (A) and cl. (v) at end of subpar. (B).

1990—Par. (41). Pub. L. 101–508 added par. (41) which read as follows: “The term ‘single-employer plan’ means a plan which is not a multiemployer plan.”

1989—Pars. (14), (33), (36), (40)(B)(iv). Pub. L. 101–239, §7891(a)(1), substituted “Internal Revenue Code of 1986” for “Internal Revenue Code of 1954”, which for purposes of codification was translated as “title 26” thus requiring no change in text.

Par. (23). Pub. L. 101–239, §7881(m)(2)(D), inserted at end “The accrued benefit of an employee shall not be less than the amount determined under section 1054(c)(2)(B) of this title with respect to the employee's accumulated contribution.”

Par. (24)(B). Pub. L. 101–239, §7871(b)(2), amended subpar. (B) generally. Prior to amendment, subpar. (B) read as follows: “the latest of—

“(i) the time a plan participant attains age 65,

“(ii) in the case of a plan participant who commences participation in the plan within 5 years before attaining normal retirement age under the plan, the 5th anniversary of the time the plan participant commences participation in the plan, or

“(iii) in the case of a plan participant not described in clause (ii), the 10th anniversary of the time the plan participant commences participation in the plan.”

Par. (33)(D)(iii). Pub. L. 101–239, §7894(a)(1)(A), substituted “Secretary of the Treasury” for “Secretary” in subcls. (I) to (III).

Par. (37)(B). Pub. L. 101–239, §7893(a), substituted “section 1301(b)(1)” for “section 1301(c)(1)”.

Par. (37)(F)(i)(II). Pub. L. 101–239, §7894(a)(2)(A)(i), substituted “the Internal Revenue Code of 1986” for “such Code”, which for purposes of codification was translated as “title 26” thus requiring no change in text.

Par. (37)(F)(ii). Pub. L. 101–239, §7894(a)(2)(A)(ii), (iii), inserted “of such Code” after “section 501(c)” in subcl. (I) and after “section 170(b)(1)(A)(ii)” in subcl. (II), which for purposes of codification was translated as “of title 26” thus requiring no change in text.

Par. (39). Pub. L. 101–239, §7894(a)(3), substituted “mean, with respect to a plan, the calendar” for “mean with respect to a plan, calendar”.

Par. (41). Pub. L. 101–239, §7894(a)(4), added par. (41).

1987—Par. (37)(F). Pub. L. 100–202 added subpar. (F).

1986—Par. (24)(B). Pub. L. 99–509 amended subpar. (B) generally. Prior to amendment, subpar. (B) read as follows: “the later of—

“(i) the time a plan participant attains age 65, or

“(ii) the 10th anniversary of the time a plan participant commenced participation in the plan.”

Par. (37)(A). Pub. L. 99–514 repealed the amendment made by Pub. L. 99–272. See note below.

Pub. L. 99–272, which, eff. Jan. 1, 1986, directed the substitution of “means a pension plan” for “means a plan” was repealed by Pub. L. 99–514, eff. Jan. 1, 1986.

1983—Par. (40). Pub. L. 97–473 added par. (40).

1980—Par. (2). Pub. L. 96–364, §409, redesignated existing provisions as subpar. (A), inserted exception for subpar. (B), substituted “(i)” for “(A)” and “(ii)” for “(B)”, and added subpar. (B).

Par. (14). Pub. L. 96–364, §305, inserted provisions respecting a trust described in section 501(c)(22) of title 26.

Par. (33). Pub. L. 96–364, §407(a), substituted provisions defining “church plan” as a plan established and maintained (to the extent required in cl. (ii) of subpar. (B)) for employees or beneficiaries by a church, etc., exempt from tax under section 501 of title 26, for provisions defining “church plan” as a plan established and maintained for employees by a church, etc., exempt from tax under section 501 of title 26, or a plan in existence on Jan. 1, 1974, established and maintained by a church, etc., for employees and employees of agencies of the church, etc.

Par. (37). Pub. L. 96–364, §302(a), substantially revised definition of term “multiemployer plan” by, among other changes, restructuring subpar. (A), resulting in elimination of provisions covering amount of contributions and payment of benefits, and subpar. (B), resulting in elimination of provisions reworking amount of contributions for subsequent plan years, and added subpars. (C) to (E).

Effective Date of 2008 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 110–458 effective as if included in the provisions of Pub. L. 109–280 to which the amendment relates, except as otherwise provided, see section 112 of Pub. L. 110–458, set out as a note under section 72 of Title 26, Internal Revenue Code.

Effective Date of 2007 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 110–28 effective as if included in section 1106 of the Pension Protection Act of 2006, Pub. L. 109–280, see section 6611(c) of Pub. L. 110–28, set out as a note under section 414 of Title 26, Internal Revenue Code.

Effective Date of 2006 Amendment

Amendment by section 611(f) of Pub. L. 109–280 applicable to transactions occurring after Aug. 17, 2006, see section 611(h)(1) of Pub. L. 109–280, set out as a note under section 4975 of Title 26, Internal Revenue Code.

Amendment by section 905(a) of Pub. L. 109–280 applicable to distributions in plan years beginning after Dec. 31, 2006, see section 905(c) of Pub. L. 109–280, set out as a note under section 401 of Title 26, Internal Revenue Code.

Amendment by section 906(a)(2)(A) of Pub. L. 109–280 applicable to any year beginning on or after Aug. 17, 2006, see section 906(c) of Pub. L. 109–280, set out as a note under section 414 of Title 26, Internal Revenue Code.

Amendment by section 1104(c) of Pub. L. 109–280 effective Aug. 17, 2006, and applicable to plan years ending after such date, see section 1104(d)(1), (3) of Pub. L. 109–280, set out as a note under section 457 of Title 26, Internal Revenue Code.

Effective Date of 1997 Amendment

Section 1(c) of Pub. L. 105–72 provided that: “The amendments made by subsection (a) [amending this section] shall take effect on July 8, 1997, except that the requirement of section 3(38)(B)(ii) of the Employee Retirement Income Security Act of 1974 [section 1002(38)(B)(ii) of this title] (as amended by this Act) for filing with the Secretary of Labor of a copy of a registration form which has been filed with a State before the date of the enactment of this Act [Nov. 10, 1997], or is to be filed with a State during the 1-year period beginning with such date, shall be treated as satisfied upon the filing of such a copy with the Secretary at any time during such 1-year period. This section shall supersede section 308(b) of the National Securities Markets Improvement Act of 1996 [Pub. L. 104–290, amending this section and enacting provisions set out as an Effective and Termination Dates of 1996 Amendment note below] (and the amendment made thereby).”

Effective and Termination Dates of 1996 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 104–290 effective 270 days after Oct. 11, 1996, see section 308(a) of Pub. L. 104–290, as amended, set out as a note under section 80b–2 of Title 15, Commerce and Trade.

Section 308(b)(2) of Pub. L. 104–290 which provided that the amendment made by paragraph (1), amending this section, ceased to be effective 2 years after Oct. 11, 1996, was superseded by section 1(c) of Pub. L. 105–72, set out as an Effective Date of 1997 Amendment note above.

Effective Date of 1991 Amendment

Section 3 of Pub. L. 102–89 provided that: “The amendments made by section 2 [amending this section] shall take effect on the date of the enactment of this Act [Aug. 14, 1991].”

Effective Date of 1990 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 101–508 applicable to reversions occurring after Sept. 30, 1990, but not applicable to any reversion after Sept. 30, 1990, if (1) in the case of plans subject to subchapter III of this chapter, notice of intent to terminate under such subchapter was provided to participants (or if no participants, to Pension Benefit Guaranty Corporation) before Oct. 1, 1990, (2) in the case of plans subject to subchapter I of this chapter (and not subchapter III), notice of intent to reduce future accruals under section 1054(h) of this title was provided to participants in connection with termination before Oct. 1, 1990, (3) in the case of plans not subject to subchapter I or III of this chapter, a request for a determination letter with respect to termination was filed with Secretary of the Treasury or Secretary's delegate before Oct. 1, 1990, or (4) in the case of plans not subject to subchapter I or III of this chapter and having only one participant, a resolution terminating the plan was adopted by employer before Oct. 1, 1990, see section 12003 of Pub. L. 101–508, set out as a note under section 4980 of Title 26, Internal Revenue Code.

Effective Date of 1989 Amendment

Amendment by section 7871(b)(2) of Pub. L. 101–239 effective as if included in the amendments made by section 9203 of Pub. L. 99–509, see section 7871(b)(3) of Pub. L. 101–239, set out as a note under section 411 of Title 26, Internal Revenue Code.

Amendment by section 7881(m)(2)(D) of Pub. L. 101–239 effective, except as otherwise provided, as if included in the provision of the Pension Protection Act, Pub. L. 100–203, §§9302–9346, to which such amendment relates, see section 7882 of Pub. L. 101–239, set out as a note under section 401 of Title 26.

Section 7891(f) of Pub. L. 101–239 provided that: “Except as otherwise provided in this section, any amendment made by this section [amending this section, sections 1003, 1025, 1051 to 1056, 1060, 1061, 1081 to 1084, 1085a, 1101, 1103, 1107, 1108, 1132, 1134, 1137, 1161, 1166, 1167, 1201 to 1203, 1222, 1301, 1302, 1307, 1309, 1321 to 1322a, 1342 to 1345, 1362, 1368, 1384, 1385, 1390, 1391, 1393, 1403, 1421, 1423, 1425, and 1453 of this title, and section 4980B of Title 26] shall take effect as if included in the provision of the Reform Act [probably means Tax Reform Act of 1986, Pub. L. 99–514] to which such amendment relates.”

Section 7893(h) of Pub. L. 101–239 provided that: “Any amendment made by this section [amending this section and sections 1322a, 1341, 1342, 1347, 1366, 1367, and 1398 of this title] shall take effect as if included in the provision of the Single-Employer Pension Plan Amendments Act of 1986 [Pub. L. 99–272, title XI] to which such amendment relates.”

Section 7894(a)(1)(B) of Pub. L. 101–239 provided that: “The amendments made by subparagraph (A) [amending this section] shall take effect as if included in section 407 of the Multiemployer Pension Plan Amendments Act of 1980 [Pub. L. 96–364].”

Section 7894(a)(2)(B) of Pub. L. 101–239 provided that: “The amendment made by this paragraph [amending this section] shall take effect as if included in section 136 of Public Law 100–202.”

Section 7894(i) of Pub. L. 101–239 provided that: “Except as otherwise provided in this section, any amendment made by this section [amending this section and sections 1021, 1024 to 1026, 1028, 1031, 1051 to 1056, 1060, 1061, 1081, 1082, 1084, 1086, 1103, 1107, 1108, 1113, 1114, 1132, 1144, 1321 to 1322a, 1344, 1368, and 1461 of this title] shall take effect as if originally included in the provision of the Employee Retirement Income Security Act of 1974 [Pub. L. 93–406] to which such amendment relates.”

Effective Date of 1987 Amendment

Section 136(b) of Pub. L. 100–202 provided that: “The amendment made by this section [amending this section] shall apply to years beginning after the date of the enactment of this joint resolution [Dec. 22, 1987].”

Effective Date of 1986 Amendments

Amendment by section 1879(u)(3) of Pub. L. 99–514 effective as if such provisions were included in the enactment of the Single-Employer Pension Plan Amendments Act of 1986 [Pub. L. 99–272], see section 1879(u)(4)(A) of Pub. L. 99–514, set out as a note under section 1054 of this title.

Amendment by Pub. L. 99–509 applicable only with respect to plan years beginning on or after Jan. 1, 1988, and only with respect to service performed on or after such date, see section 9204 of Pub. L. 99–509, set out as an Effective and Termination Dates of 1986 Amendments note under section 623 of this title.

Amendment by Pub. L. 99–272 effective Jan. 1, 1986, with certain exceptions, see section 11019 of Pub. L. 99–272, set out as a note under section 1341 of this title.

Effective Date of 1983 Amendment

Section 302(c) of Pub. L. 97–473 provided that: “The amendments made by this section [amending this section and section 1144 of this title] shall take effect on the date of the enactment of this Act [Jan. 14, 1983].”

Effective Date of 1980 Amendment

Amendment of pars. (2), (14), and (37), by Pub. L. 96–364 effective Sept. 26, 1980, except as specifically provided, see section 1461(e) of this title.

Amendment of par. (33) by Pub. L. 96–364 effective Jan. 1, 1974, see section 407(c) of Pub. L. 96–364, set out as a note under section 414 of Title 26, Internal Revenue Code.

Regulations

Secretary of Labor, Secretary of the Treasury, and Equal Employment Opportunity Commission each to issue before Feb. 1, 1988, final regulations to carry out amendments made by Pub. L. 99–509, see section 9204 of Pub. L. 99–509, set out as an Effective and Termination Dates of 1986 Amendment note under section 623 of this title.

Availability of Documents Via Filing Depository

Section 1(b) of Pub. L. 105–72 provided that: “A fiduciary shall be treated as meeting the requirements of section 3(38)(B)(ii) of the Employee Retirement Income Security Act of 1974 [29 U.S.C. 1002(38)(B)(ii)] (as amended by subsection (a)) relating to provision to the Secretary of Labor of a copy of the form referred to therein, if a copy of such form (or substantially similar information) is available to the Secretary of Labor from a centralized electronic or other record-keeping database.”

Plan Amendments Not Required Until January 1, 1989

For provisions directing that if any amendments made by subtitle A or subtitle C of title XI [§§1101–1147 and 1171–1177] or title XVIII [§§1800–1899A] of Pub. L. 99–514 require an amendment to any plan, such plan amendment shall not be required to be made before the first plan year beginning on or after Jan. 1, 1989, see section 1140 of Pub. L. 99–514, as amended, set out as a note under section 401 of Title 26, Internal Revenue Code.

For provisions directing that if any amendments made by Pub. L. 99–509 require an amendment to any plan, such plan amendment shall not be required to be made before the first plan year beginning on or after Jan. 1, 1989, see section 9204 of Pub. L. 99–509, set out as an Effective and Termination Dates of 1986 Amendment note under section 623 of this title.

1 So in original. The period probably should be a comma.

2 See References in Text note below.

3 So in original. Probably should be followed by a period.

4 So in original. Two pars. (41) have been enacted.

5 So in original. Probably should be “part 4 of subtitle B,”.

§1003. Coverage

(a) In general

Except as provided in subsection (b) or (c) of this section and in sections 1051, 1081, and 1101 of this title, this subchapter shall apply to any employee benefit plan if it is established or maintained—

(1) by any employer engaged in commerce or in any industry or activity affecting commerce; or

(2) by any employee organization or organizations representing employees engaged in commerce or in any industry or activity affecting commerce; or

(3) by both.

(b) Exceptions for certain plans

The provisions of this subchapter shall not apply to any employee benefit plan if—

(1) such plan is a governmental plan (as defined in section 1002(32) of this title);

(2) such plan is a church plan (as defined in section 1002(33) of this title) with respect to which no election has been made under section 410(d) of title 26;

(3) such plan is maintained solely for the purpose of complying with applicable workmen's compensation laws or unemployment compensation or disability insurance laws;

(4) such plan is maintained outside of the United States primarily for the benefit of persons substantially all of whom are nonresident aliens; or

(5) such plan is an excess benefit plan (as defined in section 1002(36) of this title) and is unfunded.


The provisions of part 7 of subtitle B of this subchapter shall not apply to a health insurance issuer (as defined in section 1191b(b)(2) of this title) solely by reason of health insurance coverage (as defined in section 1191b(b)(1) of this title) provided by such issuer in connection with a group health plan (as defined in section 1191b(a)(1) of this title) if the provisions of this subchapter do not apply to such group health plan.

(c) Voluntary employee contributions to accounts and annuities

If a pension plan allows an employee to elect to make voluntary employee contributions to accounts and annuities as provided in section 408(q) of title 26, such accounts and annuities (and contributions thereto) shall not be treated as part of such plan (or as a separate pension plan) for purposes of any provision of this subchapter other than section 1103(c), 1104, or 1105 of this title (relating to exclusive benefit, and fiduciary and co-fiduciary responsibilities) and part 5 of subtitle B of this subchapter 1 (relating to administration and enforcement). Such provisions shall apply to such accounts and annuities in a manner similar to their application to a simplified employee pension under section 408(k) of title 26.

(Pub. L. 93–406, title I, §4, Sept. 2, 1974, 88 Stat. 839; Pub. L. 101–239, title VII, §7891(a)(1), Dec. 19, 1989, 103 Stat. 2445; Pub. L. 104–191, title I, §101(d), Aug. 21, 1996, 110 Stat. 1952; Pub. L. 104–204, title VI, §603(b)(3)(A), Sept. 26, 1996, 110 Stat. 2938; Pub. L. 107–16, title VI, §602(b), June 7, 2001, 115 Stat. 96; Pub. L. 107–147, title IV, §411(i)(2), Mar. 9, 2002, 116 Stat. 47.)

References in Text

Part 5 of subtitle B of this subchapter, referred to in subsec. (c), was in the original a reference to “part 5” and was translated as meaning part 5 of subtitle B of title I of Pub. L. 93–406, to reflect the probable intent of Congress.

Amendments

2002—Subsec. (c). Pub. L. 107–147 inserted “and part 5 of subtitle B of this subchapter (relating to administration and enforcement)” after “co-fiduciary responsibilities)” and “Such provisions shall apply to such accounts and annuities in a manner similar to their application to a simplified employee pension under section 408(k) of title 26.” at end.

2001—Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 107–16, §602(b)(2), inserted “or (c)” after “subsection (b)” in introductory provisions.

Subsec. (c). Pub. L. 107–16, §602(b)(1), added subsec. (c).

1996—Subsec. (b). Pub. L. 104–204, in concluding provisions, made technical amendment to references in original act which appear in text as references to section 1191b of this title.

Pub. L. 104–191 inserted at end “The provisions of part 7 of subtitle B of this subchapter shall not apply to a health insurance issuer (as defined in section 1191b(b)(2) of this title) solely by reason of health insurance coverage (as defined in section 1191b(b)(1) of this title) provided by such issuer in connection with a group health plan (as defined in section 1191b(a)(1) of this title) if the provisions of this subchapter do not apply to such group health plan.”

1989—Subsec. (b)(2). Pub. L. 101–239 substituted “Internal Revenue Code of 1986” for “Internal Revenue Code of 1954”, which for purposes of codification was translated as “title 26” thus requiring no change in text.

Effective Date of 2002 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 107–147 effective as if included in the provisions of the Economic Growth and Tax Relief Reconciliation Act of 2001, Pub. L. 107–16, to which such amendment relates, see section 411(x) of Pub. L. 107–147, set out as a note under section 25B of Title 26, Internal Revenue Code.

Effective Date of 2001 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 107–16 applicable to plan years beginning after Dec. 31, 2002, see section 602(c) of Pub. L. 107–16, set out as a note under section 408 of Title 26, Internal Revenue Code.

Effective Date of 1996 Amendments

Section 603(c) of Pub. L. 104–204 provided that: “The amendments made by this section [enacting section 1185 of this title and amending this section and sections 1021, 1022, 1024, 1132, 1136, 1144, 1181, 1191, and 1191a of this title] shall apply with respect to group health plans for plan years beginning on or after January 1, 1998.”

Amendment by Pub. L. 104–191 applicable with respect to group health plans for plan years beginning after June 30, 1997, except as otherwise provided, see section 101(g) of Pub. L. 104–191, set out as an Effective Date note under section 1181 of this title.

Effective Date of 1989 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 101–239 effective, except as otherwise provided, as if included in the provision of the Tax Reform Act of 1986, Pub. L. 99–514, to which such amendment relates, see section 7891(f) of Pub. L. 101–239, set out as a note under section 1002 of this title.

1 See References in Text note below.

Subtitle B—Regulatory Provisions

part 1—reporting and disclosure

§1021. Duty of disclosure and reporting

(a) Summary plan description and information to be furnished to participants and beneficiaries

The administrator of each employee benefit plan shall cause to be furnished in accordance with section 1024(b) of this title to each participant covered under the plan and to each beneficiary who is receiving benefits under the plan—

(1) a summary plan description described in section 1022(a)(1) 1 of this title; and

(2) the information described in subsection (f) and sections 1024(b)(3) and 1025(a) and (c) of this title.

(b) Reports to be filed with Secretary of Labor

The administrator shall, in accordance with section 1024(a) of this title, file with the Secretary—

(1) the annual report containing the information required by section 1023 of this title; and

(2) terminal and supplementary reports as required by subsection (c) of this section.

(c) Terminal and supplementary reports

(1) Each administrator of an employee pension benefit plan which is winding up its affairs (without regard to the number of participants remaining in the plan) shall, in accordance with regulations prescribed by the Secretary, file such terminal reports as the Secretary may consider necessary. A copy of such report shall also be filed with the Pension Benefit Guaranty Corporation.

(2) The Secretary may require terminal reports to be filed with regard to any employee welfare benefit plan which is winding up its affairs in accordance with regulations promulgated by the Secretary.

(3) The Secretary may require that a plan described in paragraph (1) or (2) file a supplementary or terminal report with the annual report in the year such plan is terminated and that a copy of such supplementary or terminal report in the case of a plan described in paragraph (1) be also filed with the Pension Benefit Guaranty Corporation.

(d) Notice of failure to meet minimum funding standards

(1) In general

If an employer maintaining a plan other than a multiemployer plan fails to make a required installment or other payment required to meet the minimum funding standard under section 1082 of this title to a plan before the 60th day following the due date for such installment or other payment, the employer shall notify each participant and beneficiary (including an alternate payee as defined in section 1056(d)(3)(K) of this title) of such plan of such failure. Such notice shall be made at such time and in such manner as the Secretary may prescribe.

(2) Subsection not to apply if waiver pending

This subsection shall not apply to any failure if the employer has filed a waiver request under section 1083 of this title with respect to the plan year to which the required installment relates, except that if the waiver request is denied, notice under paragraph (1) shall be provided within 60 days after the date of such denial.

(3) Definitions

For purposes of this subsection, the terms “required installment” and “due date” have the same meanings given such terms by section 1083(j) of this title.

(e) Notice of transfer of excess pension assets to health benefits accounts

(1) Notice to participants

Not later than 60 days before the date of a qualified transfer by an employee pension benefit plan of excess pension assets to a health benefits account, the administrator of the plan shall notify (in such manner as the Secretary may prescribe) each participant and beneficiary under the plan of such transfer. Such notice shall include information with respect to the amount of excess pension assets, the portion to be transferred, the amount of health benefits liabilities expected to be provided with the assets transferred, and the amount of pension benefits of the participant which will be nonforfeitable immediately after the transfer.

(2) Notice to Secretaries, administrator, and employee organizations

(A) In general

Not later than 60 days before the date of any qualified transfer by an employee pension benefit plan of excess pension assets to a health benefits account, the employer maintaining the plan from which the transfer is made shall provide the Secretary, the Secretary of the Treasury, the administrator, and each employee organization representing participants in the plan a written notice of such transfer. A copy of any such notice shall be available for inspection in the principal office of the administrator.

(B) Information relating to transfer

Such notice shall identify the plan from which the transfer is made, the amount of the transfer, a detailed accounting of assets projected to be held by the plan immediately before and immediately after the transfer, and the current liabilities under the plan at the time of the transfer.

(C) Authority for additional reporting requirements

The Secretary may prescribe such additional reporting requirements as may be necessary to carry out the purposes of this section.

(3) Definitions

For purposes of paragraph (1), any term used in such paragraph which is also used in section 420 of title 26 (as in effect on August 17, 2006) shall have the same meaning as when used in such section.

(f) Defined benefit plan funding notices

(1) In general

The administrator of a defined benefit plan to which subchapter III applies shall for each plan year provide a plan funding notice to the Pension Benefit Guaranty Corporation, to each plan participant and beneficiary, to each labor organization representing such participants or beneficiaries, and, in the case of a multiemployer plan, to each employer that has an obligation to contribute to the plan.

(2) Information contained in notices

(A) Identifying information

Each notice required under paragraph (1) shall contain identifying information, including the name of the plan, the address and phone number of the plan administrator and the plan's principal administrative officer, each plan sponsor's employer identification number, and the plan number of the plan.

(B) Specific information

A plan funding notice under paragraph (1) shall include—

(i)(I) in the case of a single-employer plan, a statement as to whether the plan's funding target attainment percentage (as defined in section 1083(d)(2) of this title) for the plan year to which the notice relates, and for the 2 preceding plan years, is at least 100 percent (and, if not, the actual percentages), or

(II) in the case of a multiemployer plan, a statement as to whether the plan's funded percentage (as defined in section 1085(i) of this title) for the plan year to which the notice relates, and for the 2 preceding plan years, is at least 100 percent (and, if not, the actual percentages),

(ii)(I) in the case of a single-employer plan, a statement of—

(aa) the total assets (separately stating the prefunding balance and the funding standard carryover balance) and liabilities of the plan, determined in the same manner as under section 1083 of this title, for the plan year to which the notice relates and for the 2 preceding plan years, as reported in the annual report for each such plan year, and

(bb) the value of the plan's assets and liabilities for the plan year to which the notice relates as of the last day of the plan year to which the notice relates determined using the asset valuation under subclause (II) of section 1306(a)(3)(E)(iii) of this title and the interest rate under section 1306(a)(3)(E)(iv) of this title, and


(II) in the case of a multiemployer plan, a statement, for the plan year to which the notice relates and the preceding 2 plan years, of the value of the plan assets (determined both in the same manner as under section 1084 of this title and under the rules of subclause (I)(bb)) and the value of the plan liabilities (determined in the same manner as under section 1084 of this title except that the method specified in section 1085(i)(8) of this title shall be used),

(iii) a statement of the number of participants who are—

(I) retired or separated from service and are receiving benefits,

(II) retired or separated participants entitled to future benefits, and

(III) active participants under the plan,


(iv) a statement setting forth the funding policy of the plan and the asset allocation of investments under the plan (expressed as percentages of total assets) as of the end of the plan year to which the notice relates,

(v) in the case of a multiemployer plan, whether the plan was in critical or endangered status under section 1085 of this title for such plan year and, if so—

(I) a statement describing how a person may obtain a copy of the plan's funding improvement or rehabilitation plan, as appropriate, adopted under section 1085 of this title and the actuarial and financial data that demonstrate any action taken by the plan toward fiscal improvement, and

(II) a summary of any funding improvement plan, rehabilitation plan, or modification thereof adopted under section 1085 of this title during the plan year to which the notice relates,


(vi) in the case of any plan amendment, scheduled benefit increase or reduction, or other known event taking effect in the current plan year and having a material effect on plan liabilities or assets for the year (as defined in regulations by the Secretary), an explanation of the amendment, schedule increase or reduction, or event, and a projection to the end of such plan year of the effect of the amendment, scheduled increase or reduction, or event on plan liabilities,

(vii)(I) in the case of a single-employer plan, a summary of the rules governing termination of single-employer plans under subtitle C of subchapter III, or

(II) in the case of a multiemployer plan, a summary of the rules governing reorganization or insolvency, including the limitations on benefit payments,

(viii) a general description of the benefits under the plan which are eligible to be guaranteed by the Pension Benefit Guaranty Corporation, along with an explanation of the limitations on the guarantee and the circumstances under which such limitations apply,

(ix) a statement that a person may obtain a copy of the annual report of the plan filed under section 1024(a) of this title upon request, through the Internet website of the Department of Labor, or through an Intranet website maintained by the applicable plan sponsor (or plan administrator on behalf of the plan sponsor), and

(x) if applicable, a statement that each contributing sponsor, and each member of the contributing sponsor's controlled group, of the single-employer plan was required to provide the information under section 1310 of this title for the plan year to which the notice relates.

(C) Other information

Each notice under paragraph (1) shall include—

(i) in the case of a multiemployer plan, a statement that the plan administrator shall provide, upon written request, to any labor organization representing plan participants and beneficiaries and any employer that has an obligation to contribute to the plan, a copy of the annual report filed with the Secretary under section 1024(a) of this title, and

(ii) any additional information which the plan administrator elects to include to the extent not inconsistent with regulations prescribed by the Secretary.

(3) Time for providing notice

(A) In general

Any notice under paragraph (1) shall be provided not later than 120 days after the end of the plan year to which the notice relates.

(B) Exception for small plans

In the case of a small plan (as such term is used under section 1083(g)(2)(B) of this title) any notice under paragraph (1) shall be provided upon filing of the annual report under section 1024(a) of this title.

(4) Form and manner

Any notice under paragraph (1)—

(A) shall be provided in a form and manner prescribed in regulations of the Secretary,

(B) shall be written in a manner so as to be understood by the average plan participant, and

(C) may be provided in written, electronic, or other appropriate form to the extent such form is reasonably accessible to persons to whom the notice is required to be provided.

(g) Reporting by certain arrangements

The Secretary shall, by regulation, require multiple employer welfare arrangements providing benefits consisting of medical care (within the meaning of section 1191b(a)(2) of this title) which are not group health plans to register with the Secretary prior to operating in a State and may, by regulation, require such multiple employer welfare arrangements to report, not more frequently than annually, in such form and such manner as the Secretary may require for the purpose of determining the extent to which the requirements of part 7 are being carried out in connection with such benefits.

(h) Simple retirement accounts

(1) No employer reports

Except as provided in this subsection, no report shall be required under this section by an employer maintaining a qualified salary reduction arrangement under section 408(p) of title 26.

(2) Summary description

The trustee of any simple retirement account established pursuant to a qualified salary reduction arrangement under section 408(p) of title 26 shall provide to the employer maintaining the arrangement each year a description containing the following information:

(A) The name and address of the employer and the trustee.

(B) The requirements for eligibility for participation.

(C) The benefits provided with respect to the arrangement.

(D) The time and method of making elections with respect to the arrangement.

(E) The procedures for, and effects of, withdrawals (including rollovers) from the arrangement.

(3) Employee notification

The employer shall notify each employee immediately before the period for which an election described in section 408(p)(5)(C) of title 26 may be made of the employee's opportunity to make such election. Such notice shall include a copy of the description described in paragraph (2).

(i) Notice of blackout periods to participant or beneficiary under individual account plan

(1) Duties of plan administrator

In advance of the commencement of any blackout period with respect to an individual account plan, the plan administrator shall notify the plan participants and beneficiaries who are affected by such action in accordance with this subsection.

(2) Notice requirements

(A) In general

The notices described in paragraph (1) shall be written in a manner calculated to be understood by the average plan participant and shall include—

(i) the reasons for the blackout period,

(ii) an identification of the investments and other rights affected,

(iii) the expected beginning date and length of the blackout period,

(iv) in the case of investments affected, a statement that the participant or beneficiary should evaluate the appropriateness of their current investment decisions in light of their inability to direct or diversify assets credited to their accounts during the blackout period, and

(v) such other matters as the Secretary may require by regulation.

(B) Notice to participants and beneficiaries

Except as otherwise provided in this subsection, notices described in paragraph (1) shall be furnished to all participants and beneficiaries under the plan to whom the blackout period applies at least 30 days in advance of the blackout period.

(C) Exception to 30-day notice requirement

In any case in which—

(i) a deferral of the blackout period would violate the requirements of subparagraph (A) or (B) of section 1104(a)(1) of this title, and a fiduciary of the plan reasonably so determines in writing, or

(ii) the inability to provide the 30-day advance notice is due to events that were unforeseeable or circumstances beyond the reasonable control of the plan administrator, and a fiduciary of the plan reasonably so determines in writing,


subparagraph (B) shall not apply, and the notice shall be furnished to all participants and beneficiaries under the plan to whom the blackout period applies as soon as reasonably possible under the circumstances unless such a notice in advance of the termination of the blackout period is impracticable.

(D) Written notice

The notice required to be provided under this subsection shall be in writing, except that such notice may be in electronic or other form to the extent that such form is reasonably accessible to the recipient.

(E) Notice to issuers of employer securities subject to blackout period

In the case of any blackout period in connection with an individual account plan, the plan administrator shall provide timely notice of such blackout period to the issuer of any employer securities subject to such blackout period.

(3) Exception for blackout periods with limited applicability

In any case in which the blackout period applies only to 1 or more participants or beneficiaries in connection with a merger, acquisition, divestiture, or similar transaction involving the plan or plan sponsor and occurs solely in connection with becoming or ceasing to be a participant or beneficiary under the plan by reason of such merger, acquisition, divestiture, or transaction, the requirement of this subsection that the notice be provided to all participants and beneficiaries shall be treated as met if the notice required under paragraph (1) is provided to such participants or beneficiaries to whom the blackout period applies as soon as reasonably practicable.

(4) Changes in length of blackout period

If, following the furnishing of the notice pursuant to this subsection, there is a change in the beginning date or length of the blackout period (specified in such notice pursuant to paragraph (2)(A)(iii)), the administrator shall provide affected participants and beneficiaries notice of the change as soon as reasonably practicable. In relation to the extended blackout period, such notice shall meet the requirements of paragraph (2)(D) and shall specify any material change in the matters referred to in clauses (i) through (v) of paragraph (2)(A).

(5) Regulatory exceptions

The Secretary may provide by regulation for additional exceptions to the requirements of this subsection which the Secretary determines are in the interests of participants and beneficiaries.

(6) Guidance and model notices

The Secretary shall issue guidance and model notices which meet the requirements of this subsection.

(7) Blackout period

For purposes of this subsection—

(A) In general

The term “blackout period” means, in connection with an individual account plan, any period for which any ability of participants or beneficiaries under the plan, which is otherwise available under the terms of such plan, to direct or diversify assets credited to their accounts, to obtain loans from the plan, or to obtain distributions from the plan is temporarily suspended, limited, or restricted, if such suspension, limitation, or restriction is for any period of more than 3 consecutive business days.

(B) Exclusions

The term “blackout period” does not include a suspension, limitation, or restriction—

(i) which occurs by reason of the application of the securities laws (as defined in section 78c(a)(47) of title 15),

(ii) which is a change to the plan which provides for a regularly scheduled suspension, limitation, or restriction which is disclosed to participants or beneficiaries through any summary of material modifications, any materials describing specific investment alternatives under the plan, or any changes thereto, or

(iii) which applies only to 1 or more individuals, each of whom is the participant, an alternate payee (as defined in section 1056(d)(3)(K) of this title), or any other beneficiary pursuant to a qualified domestic relations order (as defined in section 1056(d)(3)(B)(i) of this title).

(8) Individual account plan

(A) In general

For purposes of this subsection, the term “individual account plan” shall have the meaning provided such term in section 1002(34) of this title, except that such term shall not include a one-participant retirement plan.

(B) One-participant retirement plan

For purposes of subparagraph (A), the term “one-participant retirement plan” means a retirement plan that on the first day of the plan year—

(i) covered only one individual (or the individual and the individual's spouse) and the individual (or the individual and the individual's spouse) owned 100 percent of the plan sponsor (whether or not incorporated), or

(ii) covered only one or more partners (or partners and their spouses) in the plan sponsor.

(j) Notice of funding-based limitation on certain forms of distribution

The plan administrator of a single-employer plan shall provide a written notice to plan participants and beneficiaries within 30 days—

(1) after the plan has become subject to a restriction described in paragraph (1) or (3) of section 1056(g) of this title),2

(2) in the case of a plan to which section 1056(g)(4) of this title applies, after the valuation date for the plan year described in section 1056(g)(4)(A) of this title for which the plan's adjusted funding target attainment percentage for the plan year is less than 60 percent (or, if earlier, the date such percentage is deemed to be less than 60 percent under section 1056(g)(7) of this title), and

(3) at such other time as may be determined by the Secretary of the Treasury.


The notice required to be provided under this subsection shall be in writing, except that such notice may be in electronic or other form to the extent that such form is reasonably accessible to the recipient. The Secretary of the Treasury, in consultation with the Secretary, shall have the authority to prescribe rules applicable to the notices required under this subsection.

(k) Multiemployer plan information made available on request

(1) In general

Each administrator of a multiemployer plan shall, upon written request, furnish to any plan participant or beneficiary, employee representative, or any employer that has an obligation to contribute to the plan—

(A) a copy of any periodic actuarial report (including any sensitivity testing) received by the plan for any plan year which has been in the plan's possession for at least 30 days,

(B) a copy of any quarterly, semi-annual, or annual financial report prepared for the plan by any plan investment manager or advisor or other fiduciary which has been in the plan's possession for at least 30 days, and

(C) a copy of any application filed with the Secretary of the Treasury requesting an extension under section 1084 of this title or section 431(d) of title 26 and the determination of such Secretary pursuant to such application.

(2) Compliance

Information required to be provided under paragraph (1)—

(A) shall be provided to the requesting participant, beneficiary, or employer within 30 days after the request in a form and manner prescribed in regulations of the Secretary,

(B) may be provided in written, electronic, or other appropriate form to the extent such form is reasonably accessible to persons to whom the information is required to be provided, and

(C) shall not—

(i) include any individually identifiable information regarding any plan participant, beneficiary, employee, fiduciary, or contributing employer, or

(ii) reveal any proprietary information regarding the plan, any contributing employer, or entity providing services to the plan.


Subparagraph (C)(i) shall not apply to individually identifiable information with respect to any plan investment manager or adviser, or with respect to any other person (other than an employee of the plan) preparing a financial report required to be included under paragraph (1)(B).

(3) Limitations

In no case shall a participant, beneficiary, or employer be entitled under this subsection to receive more than one copy of any report or application described in paragraph (1) during any one 12-month period. The administrator may make a reasonable charge to cover copying, mailing, and other costs of furnishing copies of information pursuant to paragraph (1). The Secretary may by regulations prescribe the maximum amount which will constitute a reasonable charge under the preceding sentence.

(l) Notice of potential withdrawal liability

(1) In general

The plan sponsor or administrator of a multiemployer plan shall, upon written request, furnish to any employer who has an obligation to contribute to the plan a notice of—

(A) the estimated amount which would be the amount of such employer's withdrawal liability under part 1 of subtitle E of subchapter III if such employer withdrew on the last day of the plan year preceding the date of the request, and

(B) an explanation of how such estimated liability amount was determined, including the actuarial assumptions and methods used to determine the value of the plan liabilities and assets, the data regarding employer contributions, unfunded vested benefits, annual changes in the plan's unfunded vested benefits, and the application of any relevant limitations on the estimated withdrawal liability.


For purposes of subparagraph (B), the term “employer contribution” means, in connection with a participant, a contribution made by an employer as an employer of such participant.

(2) Compliance

Any notice required to be provided under paragraph (1)—

(A) shall be provided in a form and manner prescribed in regulations of the Secretary to the requesting employer within—

(i) 180 days after the request, or

(ii) subject to regulations of the Secretary, such longer time as may be necessary in the case of a plan that determines withdrawal liability based on any method described under paragraph (4) or (5) of section 1391(c) of this title; and


(B) may be provided in written, electronic, or other appropriate form to the extent such form is reasonably accessible to employers to whom the information is required to be provided.

(3) Limitations

In no case shall an employer be entitled under this subsection to receive more than one notice described in paragraph (1) during any one 12-month period. The person required to provide such notice may make a reasonable charge to cover copying, mailing, and other costs of furnishing such notice pursuant to paragraph (1). The Secretary may by regulations prescribe the maximum amount which will constitute a reasonable charge under the preceding sentence.

(m) Notice of right to divest

Not later than 30 days before the first date on which an applicable individual of an applicable individual account plan is eligible to exercise the right under section 1054(j) of this title to direct the proceeds from the divestment of employer securities with respect to any type of contribution, the administrator shall provide to such individual a notice—

(1) setting forth such right under such section, and

(2) describing the importance of diversifying the investment of retirement account assets.


The notice required by this subsection shall be written in a manner calculated to be understood by the average plan participant and may be delivered in written, electronic, or other appropriate form to the extent that such form is reasonably accessible to the recipient.

(n) Cross reference

For regulations relating to coordination of reports to the Secretaries of Labor and the Treasury, see section 1204 of this title.

(Pub. L. 93–406, title I, §101, Sept. 2, 1974, 88 Stat. 840; Pub. L. 100–203, title IX, §9304(d), Dec. 22, 1987, 101 Stat. 1330–348; Pub. L. 101–239, title VII, §§7881(b)(5)(A), 7894(b)(2), Dec. 19, 1989, 103 Stat. 2438, 2448; Pub. L. 101–508, title XII, §12012(d)(1), Nov. 5, 1990, 104 Stat. 1388–572; Pub. L. 103–66, title IV, §4301(b)(1), Aug. 10, 1993, 107 Stat. 375; Pub. L. 103–465, title VII, §731(c)(4)(A), Dec. 8, 1994, 108 Stat. 5004; Pub. L. 104–188, title I, §1421(d)(1), Aug. 20, 1996, 110 Stat. 1799; Pub. L. 104–191, title I, §101(e)(1), Aug. 21, 1996, 110 Stat. 1952; Pub. L. 104–204, title VI, §603(b)(3)(B), Sept. 26, 1996, 110 Stat. 2938; Pub. L. 105–34, title XV, §1503(a), Aug. 5, 1997, 111 Stat. 1061; Pub. L. 105–200, title IV, §401(h)(1)(A), July 16, 1998, 112 Stat. 668; Pub. L. 106–170, title V, §535(a)(2)(A), Dec. 17, 1999, 113 Stat. 1934; Pub. L. 107–204, title III, §306(b)(1), July 30, 2002, 116 Stat. 780; Pub. L. 108–218, title I, §103(a), title II, §204(b)(1), Apr. 10, 2004, 118 Stat. 602, 609; Pub. L. 108–357, title VII, §709(a)(1), Oct. 22, 2004, 118 Stat. 1551; Pub. L. 109–280, title I, §§103(b)(1), 108(a)(1), (11), formerly §107(a)(1), (11), title V, §§501(a), 502(a)(1), (b)(1), 503(c)(2), 507(a), 509(a), Aug. 17, 2006, 120 Stat. 815, 818, 819, 936, 939, 940, 944, 948, 952, renumbered Pub. L. 111–192, title II, §202(a), June 25, 2010, 124 Stat. 1297; Pub. L. 110–458, title I, §§101(c)(1)(A), 105(a), (b)(1), (g), Dec. 23, 2008, 122 Stat. 5097, 5104, 5105; Pub. L. 111–148, title VI, §6606, Mar. 23, 2010, 124 Stat. 781.)

References in Text

Section 1022(a)(1) of this title, referred to in subsec. (a)(1), was redesignated section 1022(a) of this title by Pub. L. 105–34, title XV, §1503(b)(1)(B), Aug. 5, 1997, 111 Stat. 1061.

Amendments

2010—Subsec. (g). Pub. L. 111–148, §6606(2), inserted “to register with the Secretary prior to operating in a State and may, by regulation, require such multiple employer welfare arrangements” after “not group health plans”.

Pub. L. 111–148, §6606(1), which directed substitution of “Secretary shall” for “Secretary may”, was executed by making the substitution the first place appearing, to reflect the probable intent of Congress.

2008—Subsec. (f)(2)(B)(ii)(I)(aa). Pub. L. 110–458, §105(a)(1), substituted “to which the notice relates” for “for which the latest annual report filed under section 1024(a) of this title was filed”.

Subsec. (f)(2)(B)(ii)(II). Pub. L. 110–458, §105(a)(2), added subcl. (II) and struck out former subcl. (II) which read as follows: “in the case of a multiemployer plan, a statement of the value of the plan's assets and liabilities for the plan year to which the notice relates as the last day of such plan year and the preceding 2 plan years,”.

Subsec. (i)(8)(B). Pub. L. 110–458, §105(g), amended subpar. (B) generally. Prior to amendment, text read as follows: “For purposes of subparagraph (A), the term ‘one-participant retirement plan’ means a retirement plan that—

“(i) on the first day of the plan year—

“(I) covered only one individual (or the individual and the individual's spouse) and the individual (or the individual and the individual's spouse) owned 100 percent of the plan sponsor (whether or not incorporated), or

“(II) covered only one or more partners (or partners and their spouses) in the plan sponsor, and

“(ii) does not cover a business that leases employees.”

Subsec. (j). Pub. L. 110–458, §101(c)(1)(A), substituted “section 1056(g)(4)(A)” for “section 1056(g)(4)(B)” in par. (2) and inserted “The Secretary of the Treasury, in consultation with the Secretary, shall have the authority to prescribe rules applicable to the notices required under this subsection.” in concluding provisions.

Subsec. (k)(2). Pub. L. 110–458, §105(b)(1), inserted concluding provisions.

2006—Subsec. (a)(2). Pub. L. 109–280, §503(c)(2), inserted “subsection (f) and” after “described in”.

Subsec. (d)(3). Pub. L. 109–280, §108(a)(1), formerly §107(a)(1), as renumbered by Pub. L. 111–192, substituted “1083(j)” for “1082(e)”.

Subsec. (e)(3). Pub. L. 109–280, §108(a)(11), formerly §107(a)(11), as renumbered by Pub. L. 111–192, substituted “August 17, 2006” for “October 22, 2004”.

Subsec. (f). Pub. L. 109–280, §501(a), amended heading and text of subsec. (f) generally, substituting provisions relating to defined benefit plan funding notices for provisions relating to multiemployer defined benefit plan funding notices.

Subsec. (i)(8)(B). Pub. L. 109–280, §509(a), added cl. (i), redesignated cl. (v) as (ii), and struck out former cls. (i) to (iv) which read as follows:

“(i) on the first day of the plan year—

“(I) covered only the employer (and the employer's spouse) and the employer owned the entire business (whether or not incorporated), or

“(II) covered only one or more partners (and their spouses) in a business partnership (including partners in an S or C corporation (as defined in section 1361(a) of title 26)),

“(ii) meets the minimum coverage requirements of section 410(b) of title 26 (as in effect on July 30, 2002) without being combined with any other plan of the business that covers the employees of the business,

“(iii) does not provide benefits to anyone except the employer (and the employer's spouse) or the partners (and their spouses),

“(iv) does not cover a business that is a member of an affiliated service group, a controlled group of corporations, or a group of businesses under common control, and”.

Subsec. (j). Pub. L. 109–280, §103(b)(1)(B), added subsec. (j). Former subsec. (j) redesignated (k).

Subsec. (k). Pub. L. 109–280, §502(a)(1)(B), added subsec. (k). Former subsec. (k) redesignated (l).

Pub. L. 109–280, §103(b)(1)(A), redesignated subsec. (j) as (k).

Subsec. (l). Pub. L. 109–280, §502(b)(1)(B), added subsec. (l). Former subsec. (l) redesignated (m).

Pub. L. 109–280, §502(a)(1)(A), redesignated subsec. (k) as (l).

Subsec. (m). Pub. L. 109–280, §507(a), added subsec. (m). Former subsec. (m) redesignated (n).

Pub. L. 109–280, §502(b)(1)(A), redesignated subsec. (l) as (m).

Subsec. (n). Pub. L. 109–280, §507(a), redesignated subsec. (m) as (n).

2004—Subsec. (e)(3). Pub. L. 108–357 substituted “October 22, 2004” for “April 10, 2004”.

Pub. L. 108–218, §204(b)(1), substituted “April 10, 2004” for “December 17, 1999”.

Subsec. (f). Pub. L. 108–218, §103(a), added subsec. (f).

2002—Subsecs. (h) to (j). Pub. L. 107–204 added subsec. (i) and redesignated subsec. (h) relating to cross reference as (j).

1999—Subsec. (e)(3). Pub. L. 106–170 substituted “December 17, 1999” for “January 1, 1995”.

1998—Subsec. (f). Pub. L. 105–200 struck out subsec. (f) relating to information necessary to comply with Medicare and Medicaid Coverage Data Bank requirements.

1997—Subsec. (b). Pub. L. 105–34 redesignated pars. (4) and (5) as (1) and (2), respectively, and struck out former pars. (1) to (3), which read as follows:

“(1) the summary plan description described in section 1022(a)(1) of this title;

“(2) a plan description containing the matter required in section 1022(b) of this title;

“(3) modifications and changes referred to in section 1022(a)(2) of this title;”.

1996—Subsec. (g). Pub. L. 104–204 made technical amendment to reference in original act which appears in text as reference to section 1191b of this title.

Pub. L. 104–191, §101(e)(1)(B), added subsec. (g). Former subsec. (g) redesignated (h).

Pub. L. 104–188 added subsec. (g). Former subsec. (g) redesignated (h).

Subsec. (h). Pub. L. 104–191, §101(e)(1)(A), redesignated subsec. (g), relating to simple retirement accounts, as (h).

Pub. L. 104–188, §1421(d)(1), redesignated subsec. (g), relating to cross references, as (h).

1994—Subsec. (e)(3). Pub. L. 103–465 substituted “1995” for “1991”.

1993—Subsecs. (f), (g). Pub. L. 103–66 added subsec. (f) and redesignated former subsec. (f) as (g).

1990—Subsecs. (e), (f). Pub. L. 101–508 added subsec. (e) and redesignated former subsec. (e) as (f).

1989—Subsec. (a)(2). Pub. L. 101–239, §7894(b)(2), substituted “sections” for “section”.

Subsec. (d)(1). Pub. L. 101–239, §7881(b)(5)(A), substituted “an employer maintaining a plan” for “an employer of a plan”.

1987—Subsecs. (d), (e). Pub. L. 100–203 added subsec. (d) and redesignated former subsec. (d) as (e).

Effective Date of 2008 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 110–458 effective as if included in the provisions of Pub. L. 109–280 to which the amendment relates, except as otherwise provided, see section 112 of Pub. L. 110–458, set out as a note under section 72 Title 26, Internal Revenue Code.

Effective Date of 2006 Amendment

Pub. L. 109–280, title I, §103(c), Aug. 17, 2006, 120 Stat. 816, as amended by Pub. L. 110–458, title I, §101(c)(3), Dec. 23, 2008, 122 Stat. 5098, provided that:

“(1) In general.—The amendments made by this section [amending this section and sections 1056 and 1132 of this title] shall apply to plan years beginning after December 31, 2007.

“(2) Collective bargaining exception.—In the case of a plan maintained pursuant to 1 or more collective bargaining agreements between employee representatives and 1 or more employers ratified before January 1, 2008, the amendments made by this section shall not apply to plan years beginning before the earlier of—

“(A) the later of—

“(i) the date on which the last collective bargaining agreement relating to the plan terminates (determined without regard to any extension thereof agreed to after the date of the enactment of this Act [Aug. 17, 2006]), or

“(ii) the first day of the first plan year to which the amendments made by this section would (but for this paragraph) apply, or

“(B) January 1, 2010.

For purposes of subparagraph (A)(i), any plan amendment made pursuant to a collective bargaining agreement relating to the plan which amends the plan solely to conform to any requirement added by this section shall not be treated as a termination of such collective bargaining agreement.”

Pub. L. 109–280, title I, §108(e), formerly §107(e), Aug. 17, 2006, 120 Stat. 820, renumbered Pub. L. 111–192, title II, §202(a), June 25, 2010, 124 Stat. 1297, provided that: “The amendments made by this section [amending this section, sections 1023, 1053, 1054, 1056, 1103, 1108, 1301, 1303, 1310, 1362, 1371, and 1423 of this title, and Reorganization Plan No. 4 of 1978, set out as a note under section 1001 of this title and in the Appendix to Title 5, Government Organization and Employees, and repealing section 1057 of this title] shall apply to plan years beginning after 2007.”

Pub. L. 109–280, title V, §501(d), Aug. 17, 2006, 120 Stat. 939, provided that:

“(1) In general.—The amendments made by this section [amending this section and repealing section 1311 of this title] shall apply to plan years beginning after December 31, 2007, except that the amendment made by subsection (b) [repealing section 1311 of this title] shall apply to plan years beginning after December 31, 2006.

“(2) Transition rule.—Any requirement under section 101(f) of the Employee Retirement Income Security Act of 1974 [29 U.S.C. 1021(f)] (as amended by this section) to report the funding target attainment percentage or funded percentage of a plan with respect to any plan year beginning before January 1, 2008, shall be treated as met if the plan reports—

“(A) in the case of a plan year beginning in 2006, the funded current liability percentage (as defined in section 302(d)(8) of such Act [29 U.S.C. 1082(d)(8)]) of the plan for such plan year, and

“(B) in the case of a plan year beginning in 2007, the funding target attainment percentage or funded percentage as determined using such methods of estimation as the Secretary of the Treasury may provide.”

Amendment by section 502(a)(1), (b)(1) of Pub. L. 109–280 applicable to plan years beginning after Dec. 31, 2007, see section 502(d) of Pub. L. 109–280, set out as a note under section 4980F of Title 26, Internal Revenue Code.

Pub. L. 109–280, title V, §503(f), Aug. 17, 2006, 120 Stat. 945, provided that: “The amendments made by this section [amending this section and sections 1023 and 1024 of this title] shall apply to plan years beginning after December 31, 2007.”

Pub. L. 109–280, title V, §507(d), Aug. 17, 2006, 120 Stat. 949, provided that:

“(1) In general.—The amendments made by this section [amending this section and section 1132 of this title] shall apply to plan years beginning after December 31, 2006.

“(2) Transition rule.—If notice under section 101(m) of the Employee Retirement Income Security Act of 1974 [29 U.S.C. 1021(m)] (as added by this section) would otherwise be required to be provided before the 90th day after the date of the enactment of this Act [Aug. 17, 2006], such notice shall not be required to be provided until such 90th day.”

Pub. L. 109–280, title V, §509(b), Aug. 17, 2006, 120 Stat. 952, provided that: “The amendments made by this subsection [probably means this section, amending this section] shall take effect as if included in the provisions of section 306 of Public Law 107–204 (116 Stat. 745 et seq.).”

Effective Date of 2004 Amendment

Pub. L. 108–218, title I, §103(d), Apr. 10, 2004, 118 Stat. 604, provided that: “The amendments made by this section [amending this section and section 1132 of this title] shall apply to plan years beginning after December 31, 2004.”

Effective Date of 2002 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 107–204 effective 180 days after July 30, 2002, see section 7244(c) of Title 15, Commerce and Trade.

Effective Date of 1999 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 106–170 applicable to qualified transfers occurring after Dec. 17, 1999, see section 535(c)(1) of Pub. L. 106–170, set out as a note under section 420 of Title 26, Internal Revenue Code.

Effective Date of 1998 Amendment

Pub. L. 105–200, title IV, §401(h)(1)(B), July 16, 1998, 112 Stat. 668, provided that: “The amendment made by subparagraph (A) [amending this section] shall take effect as if included in the enactment of the Act entitled ‘An Act to repeal the Medicare and Medicaid Coverage Data Bank’, approved October 2, 1996 (Public Law 104–226; 110 Stat. 3033).”

Effective Date of 1996 Amendments

Amendment by Pub. L. 104–204 applicable with respect to group health plans for plan years beginning on or after Jan. 1, 1998, see section 603(c) of Pub. L. 104–204 set out as a note under section 1003 of this title.

Amendment of Pub. L. 104–191 applicable with respect to group health plans for plan years beginning after June 30, 1997, except as otherwise provided, see section 101(g) of Pub. L. 104–191, set out as an Effective Date note under section 1181 of this title.

Amendment by Pub. L. 104–188 applicable to taxable years beginning after Dec. 31, 1996, see section 1421(e) of Pub. L. 104–188, set out as a note under section 72 of Title 26, Internal Revenue Code.

Effective Date of 1993 Amendment

Section 4301(d) of Pub. L. 103–66 provided that:

“(1) In general.—The amendments made by this section [enacting section 1169 of this title and amending this section and sections 1132 and 1144 of this title] shall take effect on the date of the enactment of this Act [Aug. 10, 1993].

“(2) Plan amendments not required until january 1, 1994.—Any amendment to a plan required to be made by an amendment made by this section shall not be required to be made before the first plan year beginning on or after January 1, 1994, if—

“(A) during the period after the date before the date of the enactment of this Act and before such first plan year, the plan is operated in accordance with the requirements of the amendments made by this section, and

“(B) such plan amendment applies retroactively to the period after the date before the date of the enactment of this Act and before such first plan year.

A plan shall not be treated as failing to be operated in accordance with the provisions of the plan merely because it operates in accordance with this paragraph.”

Effective Date of 1990 Amendment

Section 12012(e) of Pub. L. 101–508 provided that: “The amendments made by this section [amending this section and sections 1082, 1103, 1108, and 1132 of this title] shall apply to qualified transfers under section 420 of the Internal Revenue Code of 1986 [26 U.S.C. 420] made after the date of the enactment of this Act [Nov. 5, 1990].”

Effective Date of 1989 Amendment

Amendment by section 7881(b)(5)(A) of Pub. L. 101–239 effective, except as otherwise provided, as if included in the provision of the Pension Protection Act, Pub. L. 100–203, §§9302–9346, to which such amendment relates, see section 7882 of Pub. L. 101–239, set out as a note under section 401 of Title 26, Internal Revenue Code.

Amendment by section 7894(b)(2) of Pub. L. 101–239 effective, except as otherwise provided, as if originally included in the provision of the Employee Retirement Income Security Act of 1974, Pub. L. 93–406, to which such amendment relates, see section 7894(i) of Pub. L. 101–239, set out as a note under section 1002 of this title.

Effective Date of 1987 Amendment

Section 9304(d) of Pub. L. 100–203, as amended by Pub. L. 101–239, title VII, §7881(b)(5)(C), Dec. 19, 1989, 103 Stat. 2438, provided that the amendment made by that section is effective with respect to plan years beginning after Dec. 31, 1987.

Regulations

Pub. L. 109–280, title V, §502(a)(3), Aug. 17, 2006, 120 Stat. 940, provided that: “The Secretary shall prescribe regulations under section 101(k)(2) of the Employee Retirement Income Security Act of 1974 [29 U.S.C. 1021(k)(2)] (as added by paragraph (1)) not later than 1 year after the date of the enactment of this Act [Aug. 17, 2006].”

Pub. L. 108–218, title I, §103(c), Apr. 10, 2004, 118 Stat. 604, provided that: “The Secretary of Labor shall, not later than 1 year after the date of the enactment of this Act [Apr. 10, 2004], issue regulations (including a model notice) necessary to implement the amendments made by this section [amending this section and section 1132 of this title].”

Secretary authorized, effective Sept. 2, 1974, to promulgate regulations wherever provisions of this subchapter call for the promulgation of regulations, see section 1031 of this title.

Applicability of Amendments by Subtitles A and B of Title I of Pub. L. 109–280

For special rules on applicability of amendments by subtitles A (§§101–108) and B (§§111–116) of title I of Pub. L. 109–280 to certain eligible cooperative plans, PBGC settlement plans, and eligible government contractor plans, see sections 104, 105, and 106 of Pub. L. 109–280, set out as notes under section 401 of Title 26, Internal Revenue Code.

Model Notices and Forms

Pub. L. 109–280, title V, §501(c), Aug. 17, 2006, 120 Stat. 939, provided that: “Not later than 1 year after the date of the enactment of this Act [Aug. 17, 2006], the Secretary of Labor shall publish a model version of the notice required by section 101(f) of the Employee Retirement Income Security Act of 1974 [29 U.S.C. 1021(f)]. The Secretary of Labor may promulgate any interim final rules as the Secretary determines appropriate to carry out the provisions of this subsection.”

Pub. L. 109–280, title V, §503(e), Aug. 17, 2006, 120 Stat. 945, as amended by Pub. L. 110–458, title I, §105(c)(2), Dec. 23, 2008, 122 Stat. 5105, provided that: “Not later than 1 year after the date of the enactment of this Act [Aug. 17, 2006], the Secretary of Labor shall publish a model form for providing the statements, schedules, and other material required to be provided under section 104(d) of the Employee Retirement Income Security Act of 1974 [29 U.S.C. 1024(d)], as amended by this section. The Secretary of Labor may promulgate any interim final rules as the Secretary determines appropriate to carry out the provisions of this subsection.”

Pub. L. 109–280, title V, §507(c), Aug. 17, 2006, 120 Stat. 949, provided that: “The Secretary of the Treasury shall, within 180 days after the date of the enactment of this subsection [Aug. 17, 2006], prescribe a model notice for purposes of satisfying the requirements of the amendments made by this section [amending this section and section 1132 of this title].”

Plan Amendments Not Required Until July 30, 2002

For provisions directing that if any amendment made by section 306(b) of Pub. L. 107–204 requires an amendment to any plan, such plan amendment shall not be required to be made before the first plan year beginning on or after July 30, 2002, see section 7244(b)(3) of Title 15, Commerce and Trade.

Plan Amendments Not Required Until January 1, 1998

For provisions directing that if any amendments made by subtitle D [§§1401–1465] of title I of Pub. L. 104–188 require an amendment to any plan or annuity contract, such amendment shall not be required to be made before the first day of the first plan year beginning on or after Jan. 1, 1998, see section 1465 of Pub. L. 104–188, set out as a note under section 401 of Title 26, Internal Revenue Code.

1 See References in Text note below.

2 So in original. The closing parenthesis probably should not appear.

§1022. Summary plan description

(a) A summary plan description of any employee benefit plan shall be furnished to participants and beneficiaries as provided in section 1024(b) of this title. The summary plan description shall include the information described in subsection (b) of this section, shall be written in a manner calculated to be understood by the average plan participant, and shall be sufficiently accurate and comprehensive to reasonably apprise such participants and beneficiaries of their rights and obligations under the plan. A summary of any material modification in the terms of the plan and any change in the information required under subsection (b) of this section shall be written in a manner calculated to be understood by the average plan participant and shall be furnished in accordance with section 1024(b)(1) of this title.

(b) The summary plan description shall contain the following information: The name and type of administration of the plan; in the case of a group health plan (as defined in section 1191b(a)(1) of this title), whether a health insurance issuer (as defined in section 1191b(b)(2) of this title) is responsible for the financing or administration (including payment of claims) of the plan and (if so) the name and address of such issuer; the name and address of the person designated as agent for the service of legal process, if such person is not the administrator; the name and address of the administrator; names, titles, and addresses of any trustee or trustees (if they are persons different from the administrator); a description of the relevant provisions of any applicable collective bargaining agreement; the plan's requirements respecting eligibility for participation and benefits; a description of the provisions providing for nonforfeitable pension benefits; circumstances which may result in disqualification, ineligibility, or denial or loss of benefits; the source of financing of the plan and the identity of any organization through which benefits are provided; the date of the end of the plan year and whether the records of the plan are kept on a calendar, policy, or fiscal year basis; the procedures to be followed in presenting claims for benefits under the plan including the office at the Department of Labor through which participants and beneficiaries may seek assistance or information regarding their rights under this chapter and the Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act of 1996 with respect to health benefits that are offered through a group health plan (as defined in section 1191b(a)(1) of this title), the remedies available under the plan for the redress of claims which are denied in whole or in part (including procedures required under section 1133 of this title), and if the employer so elects for purposes of complying with section 1181(f)(3)(B)(i) of this title, the model notice applicable to the State in which the participants and beneficiaries reside.

(Pub. L. 93–406, title I, §102, Sept. 2, 1974, 88 Stat. 841; Pub. L. 104–191, title I, §101(c)(2), Aug. 21, 1996, 110 Stat. 1951; Pub. L. 104–204, title VI, §603(b)(3)(C), Sept. 26, 1996, 110 Stat. 2938; Pub. L. 105–34, title XV, §1503(b), Aug. 5, 1997, 111 Stat. 1061; Pub. L. 111–3, title III, §311(b)(1)(B), Feb. 4, 2009, 123 Stat. 67.)

References in Text

This chapter, referred to in subsec. (b), was in the original “this Act”, meaning Pub. L. 93–406, known as the Employee Retirement Income Security Act of 1974. Titles I, III, and IV of such Act are classified principally to this chapter. For complete classification of this Act to the Code, see Short Title note set out under section 1001 of this title and Tables.

The Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act of 1996, referred to in subsec. (b), is Pub. L. 104–191, Aug. 21, 1996, 110 Stat. 1936. For complete classification of this Act to the Code, see Short Title of 1996 Amendment note set out under section 201 of Title 42, The Public Health and Welfare, and Tables.

Amendments

2009—Subsec. (b). Pub. L. 111–3 substituted “, the remedies” for “and the remedies” and inserted “, and if the employer so elects for purposes of complying with section 1181(f)(3)(B)(i) of this title, the model notice applicable to the State in which the participants and beneficiaries reside” before the period at end.

1997—Pub. L. 105–34, §1503(b)(2)(B), substituted “Summary plan description” for “Plan description and summary plan description” in section catchline.

Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 105–34, §1503(b)(1), struck out “(1)” after subsec. designation and struck out par. (2) which read as follows: “A plan description (containing the information required by subsection (b) of this section) of any employee benefit plan shall be prepared on forms prescribed by the Secretary, and shall be filed with the Secretary as required by section 1024(a)(1) of this title. Any material modification in the terms of the plan and any change in the information described in subsection (b) of this section shall be filed in accordance with section 1024(a)(1)(D) of this title.”

Subsec. (b). Pub. L. 105–34, §1503(b)(2)(A), substituted “The summary plan description shall contain” for “The plan description and summary plan description shall contain”.

1996—Subsec. (b). Pub. L. 104–204 made technical amendment to references in original act which appear in text as references to section 1191b of this title.

Pub. L. 104–191 inserted “in the case of a group health plan (as defined in section 1191b(a)(1) of this title), whether a health insurance issuer (as defined in section 1191b(b)(2) of this title) is responsible for the financing or administration (including payment of claims) of the plan and (if so) the name and address of such issuer;” after “type of administration of the plan;” and “including the office at the Department of Labor through which participants and beneficiaries may seek assistance or information regarding their rights under this chapter and the Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act of 1996 with respect to health benefits that are offered through a group health plan (as defined in section 1191b(a)(1) of this title)” after “presenting claims for benefits under the plan”.

Effective Date of 2009 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 111–3 effective Apr. 1, 2009, and applicable to child health assistance and medical assistance provided on or after that date, with certain exceptions, see section 3 of Pub. L. 111–3, set out as an Effective Date note under section 1396 of Title 42, The Public Health and Welfare.

Effective Date of 1996 Amendments

Amendment by Pub. L. 104–204 applicable with respect to group health plans for plan years beginning on or after Jan. 1, 1998, see section 603(c) of Pub. L. 104–204 set out as a note under section 1003 of this title.

Amendment by Pub. L. 104–191 applicable with respect to group health plans for plan years beginning after June 30, 1997, except as otherwise provided, see section 101(g) of Pub. L. 104–191, set out as an Effective Date note under section 1181 of this title.

Regulations

Secretary authorized, effective Sept. 2, 1974, to promulgate regulations wherever provisions of this subchapter call for the promulgation of regulations, see section 1031 of this title.

§1023. Annual reports

(a) Publication and filing

(1)(A) An annual report shall be published with respect to every employee benefit plan to which this part applies. Such report shall be filed with the Secretary in accordance with section 1024(a) of this title, and shall be made available and furnished to participants in accordance with section 1024(b) of this title.

(B) The annual report shall include the information described in subsections (b) and (c) and where applicable subsections (d), (e), and (f) and shall also include—

(i) a financial statement and opinion, as required by paragraph (3) of this subsection, and

(ii) an actuarial statement and opinion, as required by paragraph (4) of this subsection.


(2) If some or all of the information necessary to enable the administrator to comply with the requirements of this subchapter is maintained by—

(A) an insurance carrier or other organization which provides some or all of the benefits under the plan, or holds assets of the plan in a separate account,

(B) a bank or similar institution which holds some or all of the assets of the plan in a common or collective trust or a separate trust, or custodial account, or

(C) a plan sponsor as defined in section 1002(16)(B) of this title,


such carrier, organization, bank, institution, or plan sponsor shall transmit and certify the accuracy of such information to the administrator within 120 days after the end of the plan year (or such other date as may be prescribed under regulations of the Secretary).

(3)(A) Except as provided in subparagraph (C), the administrator of an employee benefit plan shall engage, on behalf of all plan participants, an independent qualified public accountant, who shall conduct such an examination of any financial statements of the plan, and of other books and records of the plan, as the accountant may deem necessary to enable the accountant to form an opinion as to whether the financial statements and schedules required to be included in the annual reports by subsection (b) of this section are presented fairly in conformity with generally accepted accounting principles applied on a basis consistent with that of the preceding year. Such examination shall be conducted in accordance with generally accepted auditing standards, and shall involve such tests of the books and records of the plan as are considered necessary by the independent qualified public accountant. The independent qualified public accountant shall also offer his opinion as to whether the separate schedules specified in subsection (b)(3) of this section and the summary material required under section 1024(b)(3) of this title present fairly, and in all material respects the information contained therein when considered in conjunction with the financial statements taken as a whole. The opinion by the independent qualified public accountant shall be made a part of the annual report. In a case where a plan is not required to file an annual report, the requirements of this paragraph shall not apply. In a case where by reason of section 1024(a)(2) of this title a plan is required only to file a simplified annual report, the Secretary may waive the requirements of this paragraph.

(B) In offering his opinion under this section the accountant may rely on the correctness of any actuarial matter certified to by an enrolled actuary, if he so states his reliance.

(C) The opinion required by subparagraph (A) need not be expressed as to any statements required by subsection (b)(3)(G) of this section prepared by a bank or similar institution or insurance carrier regulated and supervised and subject to periodic examination by a State or Federal agency if such statements are certified by the bank, similar institution, or insurance carrier as accurate and are made a part of the annual report.

(D) For purposes of this subchapter, the term “qualified public accountant” means—

(i) a person who is a certified public accountant, certified by a regulatory authority of a State;

(ii) a person who is a licensed public accountant licensed by a regulatory authority of a State; or

(iii) a person certified by the Secretary as a qualified public accountant in accordance with regulations published by him for a person who practices in States where there is no certification or licensing procedure for accountants.


(4)(A) The administrator of an employee pension benefit plan subject to the reporting requirement of subsection (d) of this section shall engage, on behalf of all plan participants, an enrolled actuary who shall be responsible for the preparation of the materials comprising the actuarial statement required under subsection (d) of this section. In a case where a plan is not required to file an annual report, the requirement of this paragraph shall not apply, and, in a case where by reason of section 1024(a)(2) of this title, a plan is required only to file a simplified report, the Secretary may waive the requirement of this paragraph.

(B) The enrolled actuary shall utilize such assumptions and techniques as are necessary to enable him to form an opinion as to whether the contents of the matters reported under subsection (d) of this section—

(i) are in the aggregate reasonably related to the experience of the plan and to reasonable expectations; and

(ii) represent his best estimate of anticipated experience under the plan.


The opinion by the enrolled actuary shall be made with respect to, and shall be made a part of, each annual report.

(C) For purposes of this subchapter, the term “enrolled actuary” means an actuary enrolled under subtitle C of subchapter II of this chapter.

(D) In making a certification under this section the enrolled actuary may rely on the correctness of any accounting matter under subsection (b) of this section to which any qualified public accountant has expressed an opinion, if he so states his reliance.

(b) Financial statement

An annual report under this section shall include a financial statement containing the following information:

(1) With respect to an employee welfare benefit plan: a statement of assets and liabilities; a statement of changes in fund balance; and a statement of changes in financial position. In the notes to financial statements, disclosures concerning the following items shall be considered by the accountant: a description of the plan including any significant changes in the plan made during the period and the impact of such changes on benefits; a description of material lease commitments, other commitments, and contingent liabilities; a description of agreements and transactions with persons known to be parties in interest; a general description of priorities upon termination of the plan; information concerning whether or not a tax ruling or determination letter has been obtained; and any other matters necessary to fully and fairly present the financial statements of the plan.

(2) With respect to an employee pension benefit plan: a statement of assets and liabilities, and a statement of changes in net assets available for plan benefits which shall include details of revenues and expenses and other changes aggregated by general source and application. In the notes to financial statements, disclosures concerning the following items shall be considered by the accountant: a description of the plan including any significant changes in the plan made during the period and the impact of such changes on benefits; the funding policy (including policy with respect to prior service cost), and any changes in such policies during the year; a description of any significant changes in plan benefits made during the period; a description of material lease commitments, other commitments, and contingent liabilities; a description of agreements and transactions with persons known to be parties in interest; a general description of priorities upon termination of the plan; information concerning whether or not a tax ruling or determination letter has been obtained; and any other matters necessary to fully and fairly present the financial statements of such pension plan.

(3) With respect to all employee benefit plans, the statement required under paragraph (1) or (2) shall have attached the following information in separate schedules:

(A) a statement of the assets and liabilities of the plan aggregated by categories and valued at their current value, and the same data displayed in comparative form for the end of the previous fiscal year of the plan;

(B) a statement of receipts and disbursements during the preceding twelve-month period aggregated by general sources and applications;

(C) a schedule of all assets held for investment purposes aggregated and identified by issuer, borrower, or lessor, or similar party to the transaction (including a notation as to whether such party is known to be a party in interest), maturity date, rate of interest, collateral, par or maturity value, cost, and current value;

(D) a schedule of each transaction involving a person known to be party in interest, the identity of such party in interest and his relationship or that of any other party in interest to the plan, a description of each asset to which the transaction relates; the purchase or selling price in case of a sale or purchase, the rental in case of a lease, or the interest rate and maturity date in case of a loan; expense incurred in connection with the transaction; the cost of the asset, the current value of the asset, and the net gain (or loss) on each transaction;

(E) a schedule of all loans or fixed income obligations which were in default as of the close of the plan's fiscal year or were classified during the year as uncollectable and the following information with respect to each loan on such schedule (including a notation as to whether parties involved are known to be parties in interest): the original principal amount of the loan, the amount of principal and interest received during the reporting year, the unpaid balance, the identity and address of the obligor, a detailed description of the loan (including date of making and maturity, interest rate, the type and value of collateral, and other material terms), the amount of principal and interest overdue (if any) and an explanation thereof;

(F) a list of all leases which were in default or were classified during the year as uncollectable; and the following information with respect to each lease on such schedule (including a notation as to whether parties involved are known to be parties in interest): the type of property leased (and, in the case of fixed assets such as land, buildings, leasehold, and so forth, the location of the property), the identity of the lessor or lessee from or to whom the plan is leasing, the relationship of such lessors and lessees, if any, to the plan, the employer, employee organization, or any other party in interest, the terms of the lease regarding rent, taxes, insurance, repairs, expenses, and renewal options; the date the leased property was purchased and its cost, the date the property was leased and its approximate value at such date, the gross rental receipts during the reporting period, expenses paid for the leased property during the reporting period, the net receipts from the lease, the amounts in arrears, and a statement as to what steps have been taken to collect amounts due or otherwise remedy the default;

(G) if some or all of the assets of a plan or plans are held in a common or collective trust maintained by a bank or similar institution or in a separate account maintained by an insurance carrier or a separate trust maintained by a bank as trustee, the report shall include the most recent annual statement of assets and liabilities of such common or collective trust, and in the case of a separate account or a separate trust, such other information as is required by the administrator in order to comply with this subsection; and

(H) a schedule of each reportable transaction, the name of each party to the transaction (except that, in the case of an acquisition or sale of a security on the market, the report need not identify the person from whom the security was acquired or to whom it was sold) and a description of each asset to which the transaction applies; the purchase or selling price in case of a sale or purchase, the rental in case of a lease, or the interest rate and maturity date in case of a loan; expenses incurred in connection with the transaction; the cost of the asset, the current value of the asset, and the net gain (or loss) on each transaction. For purposes of the preceding sentence, the term “reportable transaction” means a transaction to which the plan is a party if such transaction is—

(i) a transaction involving an amount in excess of 3 percent of the current value of the assets of the plan;

(ii) any transaction (other than a transaction respecting a security) which is part of a series of transactions with or in conjunction with a person in a plan year, if the aggregate amount of such transactions exceeds 3 percent of the current value of the assets of the plan;

(iii) a transaction which is part of a series of transactions respecting one or more securities of the same issuer, if the aggregate amount of such transactions in the plan year exceeds 3 percent of the current value of the assets of the plan; or

(iv) a transaction with or in conjunction with a person respecting a security, if any other transaction with or in conjunction with such person in the plan year respecting a security is required to be reported by reason of clause (i).


(4) The Secretary may, by regulation, relieve any plan from filing a copy of a statement of assets and liabilities (or other information) described in paragraph (3)(G) if such statement and other information is filed with the Secretary by the bank or insurance carrier which maintains the common or collective trust or separate account.

(c) Information to be furnished by administrator

The administrator shall furnish as a part of a report under this section the following information:

(1) The number of employees covered by the plan.

(2) The name and address of each fiduciary.

(3) Except in the case of a person whose compensation is minimal (determined under regulations of the Secretary) and who performs solely ministerial duties (determined under such regulations), the name of each person (including but not limited to, any consultant, broker, trustee, accountant, insurance carrier, actuary, administrator, investment manager, or custodian who rendered services to the plan or who had transactions with the plan) who received directly or indirectly compensation from the plan during the preceding year for services rendered to the plan or its participants, the amount of such compensation, the nature of his services to the plan or its participants, his relationship to the employer of the employees covered by the plan, or the employee organization, and any other office, position, or employment he holds with any party in interest.

(4) An explanation of the reason for any change in appointment of trustee, accountant, insurance carrier, enrolled actuary, administrator, investment manager, or custodian.

(5) Such financial and actuarial information including but not limited to the material described in subsections (b) and (d) of this section as the Secretary may find necessary or appropriate.

(d) Actuarial statement

With respect to an employee pension benefit plan (other than (A) a profit sharing, savings, or other plan, which is an individual account plan, (B) a plan described in section 1081(b) of this title, or (C) a plan described both in section 1321(b) of this title and in paragraph (1), (2), (3), (4), (5), (6), or (7) of section 1081(a) of this title) an annual report under this section for a plan year shall include a complete actuarial statement applicable to the plan year which shall include the following:

(1) The date of the plan year, and the date of the actuarial valuation applicable to the plan year for which the report is filed.

(2) The date and amount of the contribution (or contributions) received by the plan for the plan year for which the report is filed and contributions for prior plan years not previously reported.

(3) The following information applicable to the plan year for which the report is filed: the normal costs or target normal costs, the accrued liabilities or funding target, an identification of benefits not included in the calculation; a statement of the other facts and actuarial assumptions and methods used to determine costs, and a justification for any change in actuarial assumptions or cost methods; and the minimum contribution required under section 1082 of this title.

(4) The number of participants and beneficiaries, both retired and nonretired, covered by the plan.

(5) The current value of the assets accumulated in the plan, and the present value of the assets of the plan used by the actuary in any computation of the amount of contributions to the plan required under section 1082 of this title and a statement explaining the basis of such valuation of present value of assets.

(6) Information required in regulations of the Pension Benefit Guaranty Corporation with respect to:

(A) the current value of the assets of the plan,

(B) the present value of all nonforfeitable benefits for participants and beneficiaries receiving payments under the plan,

(C) the present value of all nonforfeitable benefits for all other participants and beneficiaries,

(D) the present value of all accrued benefits which are not nonforfeitable (including a separate accounting of such benefits which are benefit commitments, as defined in section 1301(a)(16) of this title), and

(E) the actuarial assumptions and techniques used in determining the values described in subparagraphs (A) through (D).


(7) A certification of the contribution necessary to reduce the minimum required contribution determined under section 1083 of this title, or the accumulated funding deficiency determined under section 1084 of this title, to zero.

(8) A statement by the enrolled actuary—

(A) that to the best of his knowledge the report is complete and accurate, and

(B) the applicable requirements of sections 1083(h) and 1084(c)(3) of this title (relating to reasonable actuarial assumptions and methods) have been complied with.


(9) A copy of the opinion required by subsection (a)(4) of this section.

(10) A statement by the actuary which discloses—

(A) any event which the actuary has not taken into account, and

(B) any trend which, for purposes of the actuarial assumptions used, was not assumed to continue in the future,


but only if, to the best of the actuary's knowledge, such event or trend may require a material increase in plan costs or required contribution rates.

(11) If the current value of the assets of the plan is less than 70 percent of—

(A) in the case of a single-employer plan, the funding target (as defined in section 1083(d)(1) of this title) of the plan, or

(B) in the case of a multiemployer plan, the current liability (as defined in section 1084(c)(6)(D) of this title) under the plan,


the percentage which such value is of the amount described in subparagraph (A) or (B).

(12) A statement explaining the actuarial assumptions and methods used in projecting future retirements and forms of benefit distributions under the plan.

(13) Such other information regarding the plan as the Secretary may by regulation require.

(14) Such other information as may be necessary to fully and fairly disclose the actuarial position of the plan.


Such actuary shall make an actuarial valuation of the plan for every third plan year, unless he determines that a more frequent valuation is necessary to support his opinion under subsection (a)(4) of this section.

(e) Statement from insurance company, insurance service, or other similar organizations which sell or guarantee plan benefits

If some or all of the benefits under the plan are purchased from and guaranteed by an insurance company, insurance service, or other similar organization, a report under this section shall include a statement from such insurance company, service, or other similar organization covering the plan year and enumerating—

(1) the premium rate or subscription charge and the total premium or subscription charges paid to each such carrier, insurance service, or other similar organization and the approximate number of persons covered by each class of such benefits; and

(2) the total amount of premiums received, the approximate number of persons covered by each class of benefits, and the total claims paid by such company, service, or other organization; dividends or retroactive rate adjustments, commissions, and administrative service or other fees or other specific acquisition costs paid by such company, service, or other organization; any amounts held to provide benefits after retirement; the remainder of such premiums; and the names and addresses of the brokers, agents, or other persons to whom commissions or fees were paid, the amount paid to each, and for what purpose. If any such company, service, or other organization does not maintain separate experience records covering the specific groups it serves, the report shall include in lieu of the information required by the foregoing provisions of this paragraph (A) a statement as to the basis of its premium rate or subscription charge, the total amount of premiums or subscription charges received from the plan, and a copy of the financial report of the company, service, or other organization and (B) if such company, service, or organization incurs specific costs in connection with the acquisition or retention of any particular plan or plans, a detailed statement of such costs.

(f) Additional information with respect to defined benefit plans

(1) Liabilities under 2 or more plans

(A) In general

In any case in which any liabilities to participants or their beneficiaries under a defined benefit plan as of the end of a plan year consist (in whole or in part) of liabilities to such participants and beneficiaries under 2 or more pension plans as of immediately before such plan year, an annual report under this section for such plan year shall include the funded percentage of each of such 2 or more pension plans as of the last day of such plan year and the funded percentage of the plan with respect to which the annual report is filed as of the last day of such plan year.

(B) Funded percentage

For purposes of this paragraph, the term “funded percentage”—

(i) in the case of a single-employer plan, means the funding target attainment percentage, as defined in section 1083(d)(2) of this title, and

(ii) in the case of a multiemployer plan, has the meaning given such term in section 1085(i)(2) of this title.

(2) Additional information for multiemployer plans

With respect to any defined benefit plan which is a multiemployer plan, an annual report under this section for a plan year shall include, in addition to the information required under paragraph (1), the following, as of the end of the plan year to which the report relates:

(A) The number of employers obligated to contribute to the plan.

(B) A list of the employers that contributed more than 5 percent of the total contributions to the plan during such plan year.

(C) The number of participants under the plan on whose behalf no contributions were made by an employer as an employer of the participant for such plan year and for each of the 2 preceding plan years.

(D) The ratios of—

(i) the number of participants under the plan on whose behalf no employer had an obligation to make an employer contribution during the plan year, to

(ii) the number of participants under the plan on whose behalf no employer had an obligation to make an employer contribution during each of the 2 preceding plan years.


(E) Whether the plan received an amortization extension under section 1084(d) of this title or section 431(d) of title 26 for such plan year and, if so, the amount of the difference between the minimum required contribution for the year and the minimum required contribution which would have been required without regard to the extension, and the period of such extension.

(F) Whether the plan used the shortfall funding method (as such term is used in section 1085 of this title) for such plan year and, if so, the amount of the difference between the minimum required contribution for the year and the minimum required contribution which would have been required without regard to the use of such method, and the period of use of such method.

(G) Whether the plan was in critical or endangered status under section 1085 of this title for such plan year, and if so, a summary of any funding improvement or rehabilitation plan (or modification thereto) adopted during the plan year, and the funded percentage of the plan.

(H) The number of employers that withdrew from the plan during the preceding plan year and the aggregate amount of withdrawal liability assessed, or estimated to be assessed, against such withdrawn employers.

(I) In the case of a multiemployer plan that has merged with another plan or to which assets and liabilities have been transferred, the actuarial valuation of the assets and liabilities of each affected plan during the year preceding the effective date of the merger or transfer, based upon the most recent data available as of the day before the first day of the plan year, or other valuation method performed under standards and procedures as the Secretary may prescribe by regulation.

(Pub. L. 93–406, title I, §103, Sept. 2, 1974, 88 Stat. 841; Pub. L. 96–364, title III, §307, Sept. 26, 1980, 94 Stat. 1295; Pub. L. 99–272, title XI, §11016(b)(1), Apr. 7, 1986, 100 Stat. 272; Pub. L. 100–203, title IX, §9342(a)(1), Dec. 22, 1987, 101 Stat. 1330–371; Pub. L. 101–239, title VII, §7881(j)(1), Dec. 19, 1989, 103 Stat. 2442; Pub. L. 109–280, title I, §108(a)(2), (3), formerly §107(a)(2), (3), title V, §503(a)(1), (b), Aug. 17, 2006, 120 Stat. 818, 942, 943, renumbered Pub. L. 111–192, title II, §202(a), June 25, 2010, 124 Stat. 1297; Pub. L. 110–458, title I, §101(d)(1)(A), Dec. 23, 2008, 122 Stat. 5098.)

Amendments

2008—Subsec. (d)(3). Pub. L. 110–458, §101(d)(1)(A)(i), substituted “the normal costs or target normal costs, the accrued liabilities or funding target” for “the normal costs, the accrued liabilities”.

Subsec. (d)(7). Pub. L. 110–458, §101(d)(1)(A)(ii), added par. (7) and struck out former par. (7) which read as follows: “A certification of the contribution necessary to reduce the accumulated funding deficiency to zero.”

2006—Subsec. (a)(1)(B). Pub. L. 109–280, §503(a)(1)(A), substituted “subsections (d), (e), and (f)” for “subsections (d) and (e)” in introductory provisions.

Subsec. (d)(8)(B). Pub. L. 109–280, §108(a)(2), formerly §107(a)(2), as renumbered by Pub. L. 111–192, substituted “the applicable requirements of sections 1083(h) and 1084(c)(3)” for “the requirements of section 1082(c)(3)”.

Subsec. (d)(11). Pub. L. 109–280, §108(a)(3), formerly §107(a)(3), as renumbered by Pub. L. 111–192, added par. (11) and struck out former par. (11) which read as follows: “If the current value of the assets of the plan is less than 70 percent of the current liability under the plan (within the meaning of section 1082(d)(7) of this title), the percentage which such value is of such liability..”

Subsec. (d)(12) to (14). Pub. L. 109–280, §503(b), added par. (12) and redesignated former pars. (12) and (13) as (13) and (14), respectively.

Subsec. (f). Pub. L. 109–280, §503(a)(1)(B), added subsec. (f).

1989—Subsec. (d)(11). Pub. L. 101–239 substituted “70 percent” for “60 percent” and “the percentage which such value is of such liability.” for “such percentage”.

1987—Subsec. (d)(11) to (13). Pub. L. 100–203 added par. (11) and redesignated former pars. (11) and (12) as (12) and (13), respectively.

1986—Subsec. (d)(6). Pub. L. 99–272 amended par. (6) generally. Prior to amendment, par. (6) read as follows: “The present value of all of the plan's liabilities for nonforfeitable pension benefits allocated by the termination priority categories as set forth in section 1344 of this title, and the actuarial assumptions used in these computations. The Secretary shall establish regulations defining (for purposes of this section) ‘termination priority categories’ and acceptable methods, including approximate methods, for allocating the plan's liabilities to such termination priority categories.”

1980—Subsec. (d)(10) to (12). Pub. L. 96–364 added par. (10) and redesignated former pars. (10) and (11) as (11) and (12), respectively.

Effective Date of 2008 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 110–458 effective as if included in the provisions of Pub. L. 109–280 to which the amendment relates, except as otherwise provided, see section 112 of Pub. L. 110–458, set out as a note under section 72 of Title 26, Internal Revenue Code.

Effective Date of 2006 Amendment

Amendment by section 108(a)(2), (3) of Pub. L. 109–280 applicable to plan years beginning after 2007, see section 108(e) of Pub. L. 109–280, set out as a note under section 1021 of this title.

Amendment by section 503(a)(1), (b) of Pub. L. 109–280 applicable to plan years beginning after Dec. 31, 2007, see section 503(f) of Pub. L. 109–280, set out as a note under section 1021 of this title.

Effective Date of 1989 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 101–239 effective, except as otherwise provided, as if included in the provision of the Pension Protection Act, Pub. L. 100–203, §§9302–9346, to which such amendment relates, see section 7882 of Pub. L. 101–239, set out as a note under section 401 of Title 26, Internal Revenue Code.

Effective Date of 1987 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 100–203 applicable with respect to reports required to be filed after Dec. 31, 1987, see section 9342(d)(1) of Pub. L. 100–203, set out as a note under section 1132 of this title.

Effective Date of 1986 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 99–272 effective Jan. 1, 1986, with certain exceptions, see section 11019 of Pub. L. 99–272, set out as a note under section 1341 of this title.

Effective Date of 1980 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 96–364 effective Sept. 26, 1980, except as specifically provided, see section 1461(e) of this title.

Regulations

Secretary authorized, effective Sept. 2, 1974, to promulgate regulations wherever provisions of this subchapter call for the promulgation of regulations, see section 1031 of this title.

Applicability of Amendments by Subtitles A and B of Title I of Pub. L. 109–280

For special rules on applicability of amendments by subtitles A (§§101–108) and B (§§111–116) of title I of Pub. L. 109–280 to certain eligible cooperative plans, PBGC settlement plans, and eligible government contractor plans, see sections 104, 105, and 106 of Pub. L. 109–280, set out as notes under section 401 of Title 26, Internal Revenue Code.

Guidance by Secretary of Labor

Pub. L. 109–280, title V, §503(a)(2), Aug. 17, 2006, 120 Stat. 943, provided that: “Not later than 1 year after the date of enactment of this Act [Aug. 17, 2006], the Secretary of Labor shall publish guidance to assist multiemployer defined benefit plans to—

“(A) identify and enumerate plan participants for whom there is no employer with an obligation to make an employer contribution under the plan; and

“(B) report such information under section 103(f)(2)(D) of the Employee Retirement Income Security Act of 1974 [29 U.S.C. 1023(f)(2)(D)] (as added by this section).”

Transition Rules

Section 11016(b)(3) of Pub. L. 99–272 provided that: “Any regulations, modifications, or waivers which have been issued by the Secretary of Labor with respect to section 103(d)(6) of the Employee Retirement Income Security Act of 1974 [29 U.S.C. 1023(d)(6)] (as in effect immediately before the date of the enactment of this Act [Apr. 7, 1986]) shall remain in full force and effect until modified by any regulations with respect to such section 103(d)(6) prescribed by the Pension Benefit Guaranty Corporation.”

Consolidation of Actuarial Reports

Secretary of the Treasury and Secretary of Labor to take such steps as may be necessary to assure coordination to the maximum extent feasible between the actuarial reports required by subsec. (d) of this section and section 6059 of Title 26, Internal Revenue Code, see section 1033(c) of Pub. L. 93–406, set out as a note under section 6059 of Title 26.

§1024. Filing with Secretary and furnishing information to participants and certain employers

(a) Filing of annual report with Secretary

(1) The administrator of any employee benefit plan subject to this part shall file with the Secretary the annual report for a plan year within 210 days after the close of such year (or within such time as may be required by regulations promulgated by the Secretary in order to reduce duplicative filing). The Secretary shall make copies of such annual reports available for inspection in the public document room of the Department of Labor.

(2)(A) With respect to annual reports required to be filed with the Secretary under this part, he may by regulation prescribe simplified annual reports for any pension plan which covers less than 100 participants.

(B) Nothing contained in this paragraph shall preclude the Secretary from requiring any information or data from any such plan to which this part applies where he finds such data or information is necessary to carry out the purposes of this subchapter nor shall the Secretary be precluded from revoking provisions for simplified reports for any such plan if he finds it necessary to do so in order to carry out the objectives of this subchapter.

(3) The Secretary may by regulation exempt any welfare benefit plan from all or part of the reporting and disclosure requirements of this subchapter, or may provide for simplified reporting and disclosure if he finds that such requirements are inappropriate as applied to welfare benefit plans.

(4) The Secretary may reject any filing under this section—

(A) if he determines that such filing is incomplete for purposes of this part; or

(B) if he determines that there is any material qualification by an accountant or actuary contained in an opinion submitted pursuant to section 1023(a)(3)(A) or section 1023(a)(4)(B) of this title.


(5) If the Secretary rejects a filing of a report under paragraph (4) and if a revised filing satisfactory to the Secretary is not submitted within 45 days after the Secretary makes his determination under paragraph (4) to reject the filing, and if the Secretary deems it in the best interest of the participants, he may take any one or more of the following actions—

(A) retain an independent qualified public accountant (as defined in section 1023(a)(3)(D) of this title) on behalf of the participants to perform an audit,

(B) retain an enrolled actuary (as defined in section 1023(a)(4)(C) of this title) on behalf of the plan participants, to prepare an actuarial statement,

(C) bring a civil action for such legal or equitable relief as may be appropriate to enforce the provisions of this part, or

(D) take any other action authorized by this subchapter.


The administrator shall permit such accountant or actuary to inspect whatever books and records of the plan are necessary for such audit. The plan shall be liable to the Secretary for the expenses for such audit or report, and the Secretary may bring an action against the plan in any court of competent jurisdiction to recover such expenses.

(6) The administrator of any employee benefit plan subject to this part shall furnish to the Secretary, upon request, any documents relating to the employee benefit plan, including but not limited to, the latest summary plan description (including any summaries of plan changes not contained in the summary plan description), and the bargaining agreement, trust agreement, contract, or other instrument under which the plan is established or operated.

(b) Publication of summary plan description and annual report to participants and beneficiaries of plan

Publication of the summary plan descriptions and annual reports shall be made to participants and beneficiaries of the particular plan as follows:

(1) The administrator shall furnish to each participant, and each beneficiary receiving benefits under the plan, a copy of the summary plan description, and all modifications and changes referred to in section 1022(a) of this title—

(A) within 90 days after he becomes a participant, or (in the case of a beneficiary) within 90 days after he first receives benefits, or

(B) if later, within 120 days after the plan becomes subject to this part.


The administrator shall furnish to each participant, and each beneficiary receiving benefits under the plan, every fifth year after the plan becomes subject to this part an updated summary plan description described in section 1022 of this title which integrates all plan amendments made within such five-year period, except that in a case where no amendments have been made to a plan during such five-year period this sentence shall not apply. Notwithstanding the foregoing, the administrator shall furnish to each participant, and to each beneficiary receiving benefits under the plan, the summary plan description described in section 1022 of this title every tenth year after the plan becomes subject to this part. If there is a modification or change described in section 1022(a) of this title (other than a material reduction in covered services or benefits provided in the case of a group health plan (as defined in section 1191b(a)(1) of this title)), a summary description of such modification or change shall be furnished not later than 210 days after the end of the plan year in which the change is adopted to each participant, and to each beneficiary who is receiving benefits under the plan. If there is a modification or change described in section 1022(a) of this title that is a material reduction in covered services or benefits provided under a group health plan (as defined in section 1191b(a)(1) of this title), a summary description of such modification or change shall be furnished to participants and beneficiaries not later than 60 days after the date of the adoption of the modification or change. In the alternative, the plan sponsors may provide such description at regular intervals of not more than 90 days. The Secretary shall issue regulations within 180 days after August 21, 1996, providing alternative mechanisms to delivery by mail through which group health plans (as so defined) may notify participants and beneficiaries of material reductions in covered services or benefits.

(2) The administrator shall make copies of the latest updated summary plan description and the latest annual report and the bargaining agreement, trust agreement, contract, or other instruments under which the plan was established or is operated available for examination by any plan participant or beneficiary in the principal office of the administrator and in such other places as may be necessary to make available all pertinent information to all participants (including such places as the Secretary may prescribe by regulations).

(3) Within 210 days after the close of the fiscal year of the plan, the administrator (other than an administrator of a defined benefit plan to which the requirements of section 1021(f) of this title applies) 1 shall furnish to each participant, and to each beneficiary receiving benefits under the plan, a copy of the statements and schedules, for such fiscal year, described in subparagraphs (A) and (B) of section 1023(b)(3) of this title and such other material (including the percentage determined under section 1023(d)(11) of this title) as is necessary to fairly summarize the latest annual report.

(4) The administrator shall, upon written request of any participant or beneficiary, furnish a copy of the latest updated summary,2 plan description, and the latest annual report, any terminal report, the bargaining agreement, trust agreement, contract, or other instruments under which the plan is established or operated. The administrator may make a reasonable charge to cover the cost of furnishing such complete copies. The Secretary may by regulation prescribe the maximum amount which will constitute a reasonable charge under the preceding sentence.

(5) Identification and basic plan information and actuarial information included in the annual report for any plan year shall be filed with the Secretary in an electronic format which accommodates display on the Internet, in accordance with regulations which shall be prescribed by the Secretary. The Secretary shall provide for display of such information included in the annual report, within 90 days after the date of the filing of the annual report, on an Internet website maintained by the Secretary and other appropriate media. Such information shall also be displayed on any Intranet website maintained by the plan sponsor (or by the plan administrator on behalf of the plan sponsor) for the purpose of communicating with employees and not the public, in accordance with regulations which shall be prescribed by the Secretary.

(c) Statement of rights

The Secretary may by regulation require that the administrator of any employee benefit plan furnish to each participant and to each beneficiary receiving benefits under the plan a statement of the rights of participants and beneficiaries under this subchapter.

(d) Furnishing summary plan information to employers and employee representatives of multiemployer plans

(1) In general

With respect to a multiemployer plan subject to this section, within 30 days after the due date under subsection (a)(1) for the filing of the annual report for the fiscal year of the plan, the administrators shall furnish to each employee organization and to each employer with an obligation to contribute to the plan a report that contains—

(A) a description of the contribution schedules and benefit formulas under the plan, and any modification to such schedules and formulas, during such plan year;

(B) the number of employers obligated to contribute to the plan;

(C) a list of the employers that contributed more than 5 percent of the total contributions to the plan during such plan year;

(D) the number of participants under the plan on whose behalf no contributions were made by an employer as an employer of the participant for such plan year and for each of the 2 preceding plan years;

(E) whether the plan was in critical or endangered status under section 1085 of this title for such plan year and, if so, include—

(i) a list of the actions taken by the plan to improve its funding status; and

(ii) a statement describing how a person may obtain a copy of the plan's funding improvement or rehabilitation plan, as applicable, adopted under section 1085 of this title and the actuarial and financial data that demonstrate any action taken by the plan toward fiscal improvement;


(F) the number of employers that withdrew from the plan during the preceding plan year and the aggregate amount of withdrawal liability assessed, or estimated to be assessed, against such withdrawn employers, as reported on the annual report for the plan year to which the report under this subsection relates;

(G) in the case of a multiemployer plan that has merged with another plan or to which assets and liabilities have been transferred, the actuarial valuation of the assets and liabilities of each affected plan during the year preceding the effective date of the merger or transfer, based upon the most recent data available as of the day before the first day of the plan year, or other valuation method performed under standards and procedures as the Secretary may prescribe by regulation;

(H) a description as to whether the plan—

(i) sought or received an amortization extension under section 1084(d) of this title or section 431(d) of title 26 for such plan year; or

(ii) used the shortfall funding method (as such term is used in section 1085 of this title) for such plan year; and


(I) notification of the right under this section of the recipient to a copy of the annual report filed with the Secretary under subsection (a), summary plan description, summary of any material modification of the plan, upon written request, but that—

(i) in no case shall a recipient be entitled to receive more than one copy of any such document described during any one 12-month period; and

(ii) the administrator may make a reasonable charge to cover copying, mailing, and other costs of furnishing copies of information pursuant to this subparagraph.

(2) Effect of subsection

Nothing in this subsection waives any other provision under this subchapter requiring plan administrators to provide, upon request, information to employers that have an obligation to contribute under the plan.

(e) Cross references

For regulations respecting coordination of reports to the Secretaries of Labor and the Treasury, see section 1204 of this title.

(Pub. L. 93–406, title I, §104, Sept. 2, 1974, 88 Stat. 847; Pub. L. 99–272, title XI, §11016(b)(2), Apr. 7, 1986, 100 Stat. 273; Pub. L. 100–203, title IX, §9342(a)(2), Dec. 22, 1987, 101 Stat. 1330–371; Pub. L. 101–239, title VII, §7894(b)(3), (4), Dec. 19, 1989, 103 Stat. 2448; Pub. L. 104–191, title I, §101(c)(1), Aug. 21, 1996, 110 Stat. 1951; Pub. L. 104–204, title VI, §603(b)(3)(D), Sept. 26, 1996, 110 Stat. 2938; Pub. L. 105–34, title XV, §1503(c)(1), (2)(A), (d)(1)–(3), Aug. 5, 1997, 111 Stat. 1062; Pub. L. 109–280, title V, §§503(c)(1), (d), 504(a), Aug. 17, 2006, 120 Stat. 943–945; Pub. L. 110–458, title I, §105(c)(1), Dec. 23, 2008, 122 Stat. 5105.)

Amendments

2008—Subsec. (b)(3). Pub. L. 110–458, §105(c)(1)(A)(ii), which directed substitution of “the administrator” for “the administrators” in par. (3), could not be executed because the words “the administrators” did not appear.

Pub. L. 110–458, §105(c)(1)(A)(i), substituted “section 1021(f)” for “section 1023(f)”.

Subsec. (d)(1)(E)(ii). Pub. L. 110–458, §105(c)(1)(B), inserted “funding” after “plan's”.

2006—Pub. L. 109–280, §503(d)(1), substituted “participants and certain employers” for “participants” in section catchline.

Subsec. (b)(3). Pub. L. 109–280, §503(c)(1), which directed amendment of par. (3) by inserting “(other than an administrator of a defined benefit plan to which the requirements of section 1023(f) of this title applies)” after “the administrators”, was executed by making the insertion after “the administrator”, to reflect the probable intent of Congress.

Subsec. (b)(5). Pub. L. 109–280, §504(a), added par. (5).

Subsecs. (d), (e). Pub. L. 109–280, §503(d)(2), (3), added subsec. (d) and redesignated former subsec. (d) as (e).

1997—Subsec. (a)(1). Pub. L. 105–34, §1503(c)(1), amended par. (1) generally, substituting present provisions for provisions requiring filing of annual report, plan description, summary plan description, as well as modifications and changes in plan descriptions.

Subsec. (a)(6). Pub. L. 105–34, §1503(c)(2)(A), added par. (6).

Subsec. (b)(1). Pub. L. 105–34, §1503(d)(1), substituted “section 1022(a) of this title” for “section 1022(a)(1) of this title” wherever appearing.

Subsec. (b)(2). Pub. L. 105–34, §1503(d)(2), substituted “the latest updated summary plan description and” for “the plan description and”.

Subsec. (b)(4). Pub. L. 105–34, §1503(d)(3), struck out “plan description” before “, plan description, and the latest annual report”.

1996—Subsec. (b)(1). Pub. L. 104–204 made technical amendment to references in original act which appear in text as references to section 1191b of this title.

Pub. L. 104–191, in closing provisions, substituted “1022(a)(1) of this title (other than a material reduction in covered services or benefits provided in the case of a group health plan (as defined in section 1191b(a)(1) of this title)),” for “1022(a)(1) of this title,” and inserted at end “If there is a modification or change described in section 1022(a)(1) of this title that is a material reduction in covered services or benefits provided under a group health plan (as defined in section 1191b(a)(1) of this title), a summary description of such modification or change shall be furnished to participants and beneficiaries not later than 60 days after the date of the adoption of the modification or change. In the alternative, the plan sponsors may provide such description at regular intervals of not more than 90 days. The Secretary shall issue regulations within 180 days after August 21, 1996, providing alternative mechanisms to delivery by mail through which group health plans (as so defined) may notify participants and beneficiaries of material reductions in covered services or benefits.”

1989—Subsec. (a)(5)(B). Pub. L. 101–239, §7894(b)(3), substituted a comma for period at end.

Subsec. (b)(1). Pub. L. 101–239, §7894(b)(4), struck out comma after “summary”.

1987—Subsec. (b)(3). Pub. L. 100–203 inserted “(including the percentage determined under section 1023(d)(11) of this title)” after “material”.

1986—Subsec. (a)(2)(A). Pub. L. 99–272 struck out provision permitting the Secretary to waive or modify the requirements of section 1023(d)(6) of this title if he found that the interests of the plan participants were not harmed and the expense of compliance was not justified by the needs of the participants, the Pension Benefit Guaranty Corporation, and the Department of Labor for some portion or all of the information otherwise required under section 1023(d)(6) of this title.

Effective Date of 2008 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 110–458 effective as if included in the provisions of Pub. L. 109–280 to which the amendment relates, except as otherwise provided, see section 112 of Pub. L. 110–458, set out as a note under section 72 of Title 26, Internal Revenue Code.

Effective Date of 2006 Amendment

Amendment by section 503(c)(1), (d) of Pub. L. 109–280 applicable to plan years beginning after Dec. 31, 2007, see section 503(f) of Pub. L. 109–280, set out as a note under section 1021 of this title.

Pub. L. 109–280, title V, §504(b), Aug. 17, 2006, 120 Stat. 945, provided that: “The amendment made by this section [amending this section] shall apply to plan years beginning after December 31, 2007.”

Effective Date of 1996 Amendments

Amendment by Pub. L. 104–204 applicable with respect to group health plans for plan years beginning on or after Jan. 1, 1998, see section 603(c) of Pub. L. 104–204 set out as a note under section 1003 of this title.

Amendment by Pub. L. 104–191 applicable with respect to group health plans for plan years beginning after June 30, 1997, except as otherwise provided, see section 101(g) of Pub. L. 104–191, set out as an Effective Date note under section 1181 of this title.

Effective Date of 1989 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 101–239 effective, except as otherwise provided, as if originally included in the provision of the Employee Retirement Income Security Act of 1974, Pub. L. 93–406, to which such amendment relates, see section 7894(i) of Pub. L. 101–239, set out as a note under section 1002 of this title.

Effective Date of 1987 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 100–203 applicable with respect to reports required to be filed after Dec. 31, 1987, see section 9342(d)(1) of Pub. L. 100–203, set out as a note under section 1132 of this title.

Effective Date of 1986 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 99–272 effective Jan. 1, 1986, with certain exceptions, see section 11019 of Pub. L. 99–272, set out as a note under section 1341 of this title.

Regulations

Secretary authorized, effective Sept. 2, 1974, to promulgate regulations wherever provisions of this subchapter call for the promulgation of regulations, see section 1031 of this title.

Model Notices and Forms

For provisions requiring the Secretary of Labor to publish a model form for providing the statements, schedules, and other material required to be provided under subsec. (d) of this section, see section 503(e) of Pub. L. 109–280, set out as a note under section 1021 of this title.

1 So in original. Probably should be “apply)”.

2 So in original. Comma probably should not appear.

§1025. Reporting of participant's benefit rights

(a) Requirements to provide pension benefit statements

(1) Requirements

(A) Individual account plan

The administrator of an individual account plan (other than a one-participant retirement plan described in section 1021(i)(8)(B) of this title) shall furnish a pension benefit statement—

(i) at least once each calendar quarter to a participant or beneficiary who has the right to direct the investment of assets in his or her account under the plan,

(ii) at least once each calendar year to a participant or beneficiary who has his or her own account under the plan but does not have the right to direct the investment of assets in that account, and

(iii) upon written request to a plan beneficiary not described in clause (i) or (ii).

(B) Defined benefit plan

The administrator of a defined benefit plan (other than a one-participant retirement plan described in section 1021(i)(8)(B) of this title) shall furnish a pension benefit statement—

(i) at least once every 3 years to each participant with a nonforfeitable accrued benefit and who is employed by the employer maintaining the plan at the time the statement is to be furnished, and

(ii) to a participant or beneficiary of the plan upon written request.


Information furnished under clause (i) to a participant may be based on reasonable estimates determined under regulations prescribed by the Secretary, in consultation with the Pension Benefit Guaranty Corporation.

(2) Statements

(A) In general

A pension benefit statement under paragraph (1)—

(i) shall indicate, on the basis of the latest available information—

(I) the total benefits accrued, and

(II) the nonforfeitable pension benefits, if any, which have accrued, or the earliest date on which benefits will become nonforfeitable,


(ii) shall include an explanation of any permitted disparity under section 401(l) of title 26 or any floor-offset arrangement that may be applied in determining any accrued benefits described in clause (i),

(iii) shall be written in a manner calculated to be understood by the average plan participant, and

(iv) may be delivered in written, electronic, or other appropriate form to the extent such form is reasonably accessible to the participant or beneficiary.

(B) Additional information

In the case of an individual account plan, any pension benefit statement under clause (i) or (ii) of paragraph (1)(A) shall include—

(i) the value of each investment to which assets in the individual account have been allocated, determined as of the most recent valuation date under the plan, including the value of any assets held in the form of employer securities, without regard to whether such securities were contributed by the plan sponsor or acquired at the direction of the plan or of the participant or beneficiary, and

(ii) in the case of a pension benefit statement under paragraph (1)(A)(i)—

(I) an explanation of any limitations or restrictions on any right of the participant or beneficiary under the plan to direct an investment,

(II) an explanation, written in a manner calculated to be understood by the average plan participant, of the importance, for the long-term retirement security of participants and beneficiaries, of a well-balanced and diversified investment portfolio, including a statement of the risk that holding more than 20 percent of a portfolio in the security of one entity (such as employer securities) may not be adequately diversified, and

(III) a notice directing the participant or beneficiary to the Internet website of the Department of Labor for sources of information on individual investing and diversification.

(C) Alternative notice

The requirements of subparagraph (A)(i)(II) are met if, at least annually and in accordance with requirements of the Secretary, the plan—

(i) updates the information described in such paragraph which is provided in the pension benefit statement, or

(ii) provides in a separate statement such information as is necessary to enable a participant or beneficiary to determine their nonforfeitable vested benefits.

(3) Defined benefit plans

(A) Alternative notice

In the case of a defined benefit plan, the requirements of paragraph (1)(B)(i) shall be treated as met with respect to a participant if at least once each year the administrator provides to the participant notice of the availability of the pension benefit statement and the ways in which the participant may obtain such statement. Such notice may be delivered in written, electronic, or other appropriate form to the extent such form is reasonably accessible to the participant.

(B) Years in which no benefits accrue

The Secretary may provide that years in which no employee or former employee benefits (within the meaning of section 410(b) of title 26) under the plan need not be taken into account in determining the 3-year period under paragraph (1)(B)(i).

(b) Limitation on number of statements

In no case shall a participant or beneficiary of a plan be entitled to more than 1 statement described in subparagraph (A)(iii) or (B)(ii) of subsection (a)(1), whichever is applicable, in any 12-month period.

(c) Individual statement furnished by administrator to participants setting forth information in administrator's Internal Revenue registration statement and notification of forfeitable benefits

Each administrator required to register under section 6057 of title 26 shall, before the expiration of the time prescribed for such registration, furnish to each participant described in subsection (a)(2)(C) of such section, an individual statement setting forth the information with respect to such participant required to be contained in the registration statement required by section 6057(a)(2) of title 26. Such statement shall also include a notice to the participant of any benefits which are forfeitable if the participant dies before a certain date.

(Pub. L. 93–406, title I, §105, Sept. 2, 1974, 88 Stat. 849; Pub. L. 98–397, title I, §106, Aug. 23, 1984, 98 Stat. 1436; Pub. L. 101–239, title VII, §§7891(a)(1), 7894(b)(5), Dec. 19, 1989, 103 Stat. 2445, 2448; Pub. L. 109–280, title V, §508(a)(1)–(2)(B), Aug. 17, 2006, 120 Stat. 949, 951.)

Amendments

2006—Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 109–280, §508(a)(1), amended heading and text of subsec. (a) generally. Prior to amendment, text read as follows: “Each administrator of an employee pension benefit plan shall furnish to any plan participant or beneficiary who so requests in writing, a statement indicating, on the basis of the latest available information—

“(1) the total benefits accrued, and

“(2) the nonforfeitable pension benefits, if any, which have accrued, or the earliest date on which benefits will become nonforfeitable.”

Subsec. (b). Pub. L. 109–280, §508(a)(2)(B), amended heading and text of subsec. (b) generally. Prior to amendment, text read as follows: “In no case shall a participant or beneficiary be entitled under this section to receive more than one report described in subsection (a) of this section during any one 12-month period.”

Subsec. (d). Pub. L. 109–280, §508(a)(2)(A), struck out heading and text of subsec. (d). Text read as follows: “Subsection (a) of this section shall apply to a plan to which more than one unaffiliated employer is required to contribute only to the extent provided in regulations prescribed by the Secretary in coordination with the Secretary of the Treasury.”

1989—Subsec. (b). Pub. L. 101–239, §7894(b)(5), substituted “12-month” for “12 month”.

Subsec. (c). Pub. L. 101–239, §7891(a)(1), substituted “Internal Revenue Code of 1986” for “Internal Revenue Code of 1954”, which for purposes of codification was translated as “title 26” thus requiring no change in text.

1984—Subsec. (c). Pub. L. 98–397 inserted at end “Such statement shall also include a notice to the participant of any benefits which are forfeitable if the participant dies before a certain date.”

Effective Date of 2006 Amendment

Pub. L. 109–280, title V, §508(c), Aug. 17, 2006, 120 Stat. 952, provided that:

“(1) In general.—The amendments made by this section [amending this section and section 1132 of this title] shall apply to plan years beginning after December 31, 2006.

“(2) Special rule for collectively bargained agreements.—In the case of a plan maintained pursuant to 1 or more collective bargaining agreements between employee representatives and 1 or more employers ratified on or before the date of the enactment of this Act [Aug. 17, 2006], paragraph (1) shall be applied to benefits pursuant to, and individuals covered by, any such agreement by substituting for ‘December 31, 2006’ the earlier of—

“(A) the later of—

“(i) December 31, 2007, or

“(ii) the date on which the last of such collective bargaining agreements terminates (determined without regard to any extension thereof after such date of enactment), or

“(B) December 31, 2008.”

Effective Date of 1989 Amendment

Amendment by section 7891(a)(1) of Pub. L. 101–239 effective, except as otherwise provided, as if included in the provision of the Tax Reform Act of 1986, Pub. L. 99–514, to which such amendment relates, see section 7891(f) of Pub. L. 101–239, set out as a note under section 1002 of this title.

Amendment by section 7894(b)(5) of Pub. L. 101–239 effective, except as otherwise provided, as if originally included in the provision of the Employee Retirement Income Security Act of 1974, Pub. L. 93–406, to which such amendment relates, see section 7894(i) of Pub. L. 101–239, set out as a note under section 1002 of this title.

Effective Date of 1984 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 98–397 applicable to plan years beginning after Dec. 31, 1984, except as otherwise provided, see sections 302 and 303 of Pub. L. 98–397, set out as a note under section 1001 of this title.

Regulations

Secretary of Labor authorized, effective Sept. 2, 1974, to promulgate regulations wherever provisions of this subchapter call for the promulgation of regulations by him, see section 1031 of this title.

Model Statements

Pub. L. 109–280, title V, §508(b), Aug. 17, 2006, 120 Stat. 951, provided that:

“(1) In general.—The Secretary of Labor shall, within 1 year after the date of the enactment of this section [Aug. 17, 2006], develop 1 or more model benefit statements that are written in a manner calculated to be understood by the average plan participant and that may be used by plan administrators in complying with the requirements of section 105 of the Employee Retirement Income Security Act of 1974 [29 U.S.C. 1025].

“(2) Interim final rules.—The Secretary of Labor may promulgate any interim final rules as the Secretary determines appropriate to carry out the provisions of this subsection.”

§1026. Reports made public information

(a) Except as provided in subsection (b) of this section, the contents of the annual reports, statements, and other documents filed with the Secretary pursuant to this part shall be public information and the Secretary shall make any such information and data available for inspection in the public document room of the Department of Labor. The Secretary may use the information and data for statistical and research purposes, and compile and publish such studies, analyses, reports, and surveys based thereon as he may deem appropriate.

(b) Information described in sections 1025(a) and 1025(c) of this title with respect to a participant may be disclosed only to the extent that information respecting that participant's benefits under title II of the Social Security Act [42 U.S.C. 401 et seq.] may be disclosed under such Act.

(Pub. L. 93–406, title I, §106, Sept. 2, 1974, 88 Stat. 850; Pub. L. 101–239, title VII, §7894(b)(6), Dec. 19, 1989, 103 Stat. 2448; Pub. L. 105–34, title XV, §1503(d)(4), Aug. 5, 1997, 111 Stat. 1062.)

References in Text

The Social Security Act, referred to in subsec. (b), is act Aug. 14, 1935, ch. 531, 49 Stat. 620, as amended. Title II of the Social Security Act is classified generally to subchapter II (§401 et seq.) of chapter 7 of Title 42, The Public Health and Welfare. For complete classification of this Act to the Code, see section 1305 of Title 42 and Tables.

Amendments

1997—Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 105–34 struck out “descriptions,” before “annual reports,”.

1989—Subsec. (b). Pub. L. 101–239 substituted “sections” for “section”.

Effective Date of 1989 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 101–239 effective, except as otherwise provided, as if originally included in the provision of the Employee Retirement Income Security Act of 1974, Pub. L. 93–406, to which such amendment relates, see section 7894(i) of Pub. L. 101–239, set out as a note under section 1002 of this title.

§1027. Retention of records

Every person subject to a requirement to file any report or to certify any information therefor under this subchapter or who would be subject to such a requirement but for an exemption or simplified reporting requirement under section 1024(a)(2) or (3) of this title shall maintain records on the matters of which disclosure is required which will provide in sufficient detail the necessary basic information and data from which the documents thus required may be verified, explained, or clarified, and checked for accuracy and completeness, and shall include vouchers, worksheets, receipts, and applicable resolutions, and shall keep such records available for examination for a period of not less than six years after the filing date of the documents based on the information which they contain, or six years after the date on which such documents would have been filed but for an exemption or simplified reporting requirement under section 1024(a)(2) or (3) of this title.

(Pub. L. 93–406, title I, §107, Sept. 2, 1974, 88 Stat. 850; Pub. L. 105–34, title XV, §1503(d)(5), Aug. 5, 1997, 111 Stat. 1062.)

Amendments

1997—Pub. L. 105–34 struck out “description or” after “requirement to file any”.

§1028. Reliance on administrative interpretations

In any criminal proceeding under section 1131 of this title, based on any act or omission in alleged violation of this part or section 1112 of this title, no person shall be subject to any liability or punishment for or on account of the failure of such person to (1) comply with this part or section 1112 of this title, if he pleads and proves that the act or omission complained of was in good faith, in conformity with, and in reliance on any regulation or written ruling of the Secretary, or (2) publish and file any information required by any provision of this part if he pleads and proves that he published and filed such information in good faith, and in conformity with any regulation or written ruling of the Secretary issued under this part regarding the filing of such reports. Such a defense, if established, shall be a bar to the action or proceeding, notwithstanding that (A) after such act or omission, such interpretation or opinion is modified or rescinded or is determined by judicial authority to be invalid or of no legal effect, or (B) after publishing or filing the annual reports and other reports required by this subchapter, such publication or filing is determined by judicial authority not to be in conformity with the requirements of this part.

(Pub. L. 93–406, title I, §108, Sept. 2, 1974, 88 Stat. 850; Pub. L. 101–239, title VII, §7894(b)(7), Dec. 19, 1989, 103 Stat. 2448; Pub. L. 105–34, title XV, §1503(d)(6), Aug. 5, 1997, 111 Stat. 1062.)

Amendments

1997—Pub. L. 105–34, which directed the amendment of cl. (2)(B) by substituting “annual reports” for “plan descriptions, annual reports,”, was executed by making the substitution for “plan description, annual reports,” to reflect the probable intent of Congress.

1989—Pub. L. 101–239 substituted “act or omission” for “act of omission” before “complained of”.

Effective Date of 1989 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 101–239 effective, except as otherwise provided, as if originally included in the provision of the Employee Retirement Income Security Act of 1974, Pub. L. 93–406, to which such amendment relates, see section 7894(i) of Pub. L. 101–239, set out as a note under section 1002 of this title.

Regulations

Secretary authorized, effective Sept. 2, 1974, to promulgate regulations wherever provisions of this subchapter call for the promulgation of regulations, see section 1031 of this title.

§1029. Forms

(a) Information required on forms

Except as provided in subsection (b) of this section, the Secretary may require that any information required under this subchapter to be submitted to him, including but not limited to the information required to be filed by the administrator pursuant to section 1023(b)(3) and (c) of this title, must be submitted on such forms as he may prescribe.

(b) Information not required on forms

The financial statement and opinion required to be prepared by an independent qualified public accountant pursuant to section 1023(a)(3)(A) of this title, the actuarial statement required to be prepared by an enrolled actuary pursuant to section 1023(a)(4)(A) of this title and the summary plan description required by section 1022(a) of this title shall not be required to be submitted on forms.

(c) Format and content of summary plan description, annual report, etc., required to be furnished to plan participants and beneficiaries

The Secretary may prescribe the format and content of the summary plan description, the summary of the annual report described in section 1024(b)(3) of this title and any other report, statements or documents (other than the bargaining agreement, trust agreement, contract, or other instrument under which the plan is established or operated), which are required to be furnished or made available to plan participants and beneficiaries receiving benefits under the plan.

(Pub. L. 93–406, title I, §109, Sept. 2, 1974, 88 Stat. 850.)

Regulations

Secretary authorized, effective Sept. 2, 1974, to promulgate regulations wherever provisions of this subchapter call for the promulgation of regulations, see section 1031 of this title.

§1030. Alternative methods of compliance

(a) The Secretary on his own motion or after having received the petition of an administrator may prescribe an alternative method for satisfying any requirement of this part with respect to any pension plan, or class of pension plans, subject to such requirement if he determines—

(1) that the use of such alternative method is consistent with the purposes of this subchapter and that it provides adequate disclosure to the participants and beneficiaries in the plan, and adequate reporting to the Secretary,

(2) that the application of such requirement of this part would—

(A) increase the costs to the plan, or

(B) impose unreasonable administrative burdens with respect to the operation of the plan, having regard to the particular characteristics of the plan or the type of plan involved; and


(3) that the application of this part would be adverse to the interests of plan participants in the aggregate.


(b) An alternative method may be prescribed under subsection (a) of this section by regulation or otherwise. If an alternative method is prescribed other than by regulation, the Secretary shall provide notice and an opportunity for interested persons to present their views, and shall publish in the Federal Register the provisions of such alternative method.

(Pub. L. 93–406, title I, §110, Sept. 2, 1974, 88 Stat. 851.)

Regulations

Secretary authorized, effective Sept. 2, 1974, to promulgate regulations wherever provisions of this subchapter call for the promulgation of regulations, see section 1031 of this title.

§1031. Repeal and effective date

(a)(1) The Welfare and Pension Plans Disclosure Act [29 U.S.C. 301 et seq.] is repealed except that such Act shall continue to apply to any conduct and events which occurred before the effective date of this part.

(2)(A) Section 664 of title 18 is amended by striking out “any such plan subject to the provisions of the Welfare and Pension Plans Disclosure Act” and inserting in lieu thereof “any employee benefit plan subject to any provisions of title I of the Employee Retirement Income Security Act of 1974”.

(B)(i) Section 1027 of such title 18 is amended by striking out “Welfare and Pension Plans Disclosure Act” and inserting in lieu thereof “title I of the Employee Retirement Income Security Act of 1974”, and by striking out “Act” each place it appears and inserting in lieu thereof “title”.

(ii) The heading for such section is amended by striking out “welfare and pension plans disclosure act” and inserting in lieu thereof “employee retirement income security act of 1974”.

(iii) The table of sections of chapter 47 of such title 18 is amended by striking out “Welfare and Pension Plans Disclosure Act” in the item relating to section 1027 and inserting in lieu thereof “Employee Retirement Income Security Act of 1974”.

(C) Section 1954 of such title 18 is amended by striking out “any plan subject to the provisions of the Welfare and Pension Plans Disclosure Act as amended” and inserting in lieu thereof “any employee welfare benefit plan or employee pension benefit plan, respectively, subject to any provision of title I of the Employee Retirement Income Security Act of 1974”; and by striking out “sections 3(3) and 5(b)(1) and (2) of the Welfare and Pension Plans Disclosure Act, as amended” and inserting in lieu thereof “sections 3(4) and (3)(16) 1 of the Employee Retirement Income Security Act of 1974”.

(D) Section 211 of the Labor-Management Reporting and Disclosure Act of 1959 (29 U.S.C. 441) is amended by striking out “Welfare and Pension Plans Disclosure Act” and inserting in lieu thereof “Employee Retirement Income Security Act of 1974”.

(b)(1) Except as provided in paragraph (2), this part (including the amendments and repeals made by subsection (a) of this section) shall take effect on January 1, 1975.

(2) In the case of a plan which has a plan year which begins before January 1, 1975, and ends after December 31, 1974, the Secretary may postpone by regulation the effective date of the repeal of any provision of the Welfare and Pension Plans Disclosure Act (and of any amendment made by subsection (a)(2) of this section) and the effective date of any provision of this part, until the beginning of the first plan year of such plan which begins after January 1, 1975.

(c) The provisions of this subchapter authorizing the Secretary to promulgate regulations shall take effect on September 2, 1974.

(d) Subsections (b) and (c) of this section shall not apply with respect to amendments made to this part in provisions enacted after September 2, 1974.

(Pub. L. 93–406, title I, §111, Sept. 2, 1974, 88 Stat. 851; Pub. L. 101–239, title VII, §7894(h)(1), Dec. 19, 1989, 103 Stat. 2451.)

References in Text

The Welfare and Pension Plans Disclosure Act, referred to in subsecs. (a) and (b)(2), is Pub. L. 85–836, Aug. 28, 1958, 72 Stat. 997, as amended, which was classified generally to chapter 10 (§301 et seq.) of this title. For complete classification of this Act to the Code, see Short Title note set out under section 301 of this title and Tables.

Title I of the Employee Retirement Income Security Act of 1974, referred to in subsec. (a)(2)(A) to (C), means title I of Pub. L. 93–406, which enacted this subchapter, amended section 441 of this title, section 5108 of Title 5, Government Organization and Employees, and sections 664, 1027, and 1954 of Title 18, Crimes and Criminal Procedure, and repealed sections 301 to 309 of this title.

The Employee Retirement Income Security Act of 1974, referred to in subsec. (a)(2)(B)(ii), (iii), (D), is Pub. L. 93–406, Sept. 2, 1974, 88 Stat. 829, as amended. Titles I, III, and IV of such act are classified principally to this chapter. For complete classification of this Act to the Code, see Short Title note set out under section 1001 of this title and Tables.

Amendments

1989—Subsec. (d). Pub. L. 101–239 added subsec. (d).

Effective Date of 1989 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 101–239 effective, except as otherwise provided, as if originally included in the provision of the Employee Retirement Income Security Act of 1974, Pub. L. 93–406, to which such amendment relates, see section 7894(i) of Pub. L. 101–239, set out as a note under section 1002 of this title.

1 So in original. Probably should be “3(16)”.

part 2—participation and vesting

§1051. Coverage

This part shall apply to any employee benefit plan described in section 1003(a) of this title (and not exempted under section 1003(b) of this title) other than—

(1) an employee welfare benefit plan;

(2) a plan which is unfunded and is maintained by an employer primarily for the purpose of providing deferred compensation for a select group of management or highly compensated employees;

(3)(A) a plan established and maintained by a society, order, or association described in section 501(c)(8) or (9) of title 26, if no part of the contributions to or under such plan are made by employers of participants in such plan, or

(B) a trust described in section 501(c)(18) of title 26;

(4) a plan which is established and maintained by a labor organization described in section 501(c)(5) of title 26 and which does not at any time after September 2, 1974, provide for employer contributions;

(5) any agreement providing payments to a retired partner or a deceased partner's successor in interest, as described in section 736 of title 26;

(6) an individual retirement account or annuity described in section 408 of title 26, or a retirement bond described in section 409 of title 26 (as effective for obligations issued before January 1, 1984);

(7) an excess benefit plan; or

(8) any plan, fund or program under which an employer, all of whose stock is directly or indirectly owned by employees, former employees or their beneficiaries, proposes through an unfunded arrangement to compensate retired employees for benefits which were forfeited by such employees under a pension plan maintained by a former employer prior to the date such pension plan became subject to this chapter.

(Pub. L. 93–406, title I, §201, Sept. 2, 1974, 88 Stat. 852; Pub. L. 96–364, title IV, §411(a), Sept. 26, 1980, 94 Stat. 1308; Pub. L. 101–239, title VII, §§7891(a)(1), 7894(c)(1)(A), (11)(A), Dec. 19, 1989, 103 Stat. 2445, 2448, 2449.)

References in Text

Section 409 of title 26, referred to in par. (6), means section 409 of Title 26, Internal Revenue Code, prior to its repeal by Pub. L. 98–369, div. A, title IV, §491(b), July 18, 1984, 98 Stat. 848, applicable to obligations issued after Dec. 31, 1983.

This chapter, referred to in par. (8), was in the original “this Act”, meaning Pub. L. 93–406, known as the Employee Retirement Income Security Act of 1974. Titles I, III, and IV of such Act are classified principally to this chapter. For complete classification of this Act to the Code, see Short Title note set out under section 1001 of this title and Tables.

Amendments

1989—Pars. (3)(A), (4), (5). Pub. L. 101–239, §7891(a)(1), substituted “Internal Revenue Code of 1986” for “Internal Revenue Code of 1954”, which for purposes of codification was translated as “title 26” thus requiring no change in text.

Par. (6). Pub. L. 101–239, §7891(a)(1), substituted “section 408 of the Internal Revenue Code of 1986” for “section 408 of the Internal Revenue Code of 1954”, which for purposes of codification was translated as “section 408 of title 26” thus requiring no change in text.

Pub. L. 101–239, §7894(c)(11)(A), substituted “section 409 of title 26 (as effective for obligations issued before January 1, 1984)” for “section 409 of title 26”.

Pub. L. 101–239, §7894(c)(1)(A)(i), struck out “or” after semicolon at end.

Par. (7). Pub. L. 101–239, §7894(c)(1)(A)(ii), substituted “plan; or” for “plan.”

Par. (8). Pub. L. 101–239, §7894(c)(1)(A)(iii), substituted “any plan” for “Any plan”.

1980—Par. (8). Pub. L. 96–364 added par. (8).

Effective Date of 1989 Amendment

Amendment by section 7891(a)(1) of Pub. L. 101–239 effective, except as otherwise provided, as if included in the provision of the Tax Reform Act of 1986, Pub. L. 99–514, to which such amendment relates, see section 7891(f) of Pub. L. 101–239, set out as a note under section 1002 of this title.

Section 7894(c)(1)(B) of Pub. L. 101–239 provided that: “The amendments made by subparagraph (A) [amending this section] shall take effect as if included in section 411 of the Multiemployer Pension Plan Amendments Act of 1980 [Pub. L. 96–364].”

Section 7894(c)(11)(B) of Pub. L. 101–239 provided that: “The amendment made by subparagraph (A) [amending this section] shall take effect as if originally included in section 491(b) of Public Law 98–369.”

Effective Date of 1980 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 96–364 effective Sept. 26, 1980, except as specifically provided, see section 1461(e) of this title.

§1052. Minimum participation standards

(a)(1)(A) No pension plan may require, as a condition of participation in the plan, that an employee complete a period of service with the employer or employers maintaining the plan extending beyond the later of the following dates—

(i) the date on which the employee attains the age of 21; or

(ii) the date on which he completes 1 year of service.


(B)(i) In the case of any plan which provides that after not more than 2 years of service each participant has a right to 100 percent of his accrued benefit under the plan which is nonforfeitable at the time such benefit accrues, clause (ii) of subparagraph (A) shall be applied by substituting “2 years of service” for “1 year of service”.

(ii) In the case of any plan maintained exclusively for employees of an educational organization (as defined in section 170(b)(1)(A)(ii) of title 26) by an employer which is exempt from tax under section 501(a) of title 26, which provides that each participant having at least 1 year of service has a right to 100 percent of his accrued benefit under the plan which is nonforfeitable at the time such benefit accrues, clause (i) of subparagraph (A) shall be applied by substituting “26” for “21”. This clause shall not apply to any plan to which clause (i) applies.

(2) No pension plan may exclude from participation (on the basis of age) employees who have attained a specified age.

(3)(A) For purposes of this section, the term “year of service” means a 12-month period during which the employee has not less than 1,000 hours of service. For purposes of this paragraph, computation of any 12-month period shall be made with reference to the date on which the employee's employment commenced, except that, in accordance with regulations prescribed by the Secretary, such computation may be made by reference to the first day of a plan year in the case of an employee who does not complete 1,000 hours of service during the 12-month period beginning on the date his employment commenced.

(B) In the case of any seasonal industry where the customary period of employment is less than 1,000 hours during a calendar year, the term “year of service” shall be such period as may be determined under regulations prescribed by the Secretary.

(C) For purposes of this section, the term “hour of service” means a time of service determined under regulations prescribed by the Secretary.

(D) For purposes of this section, in the case of any maritime industry, 125 days of service shall be treated as 1,000 hours of service. The Secretary may prescribe regulations to carry out the purposes of this subparagraph.

(4) A plan shall be treated as not meeting the requirements of paragraph (1) unless it provides that any employee who has satisfied the minimum age and service requirements specified in such paragraph, and who is otherwise entitled to participate in the plan, commences participation in the plan no later than the earlier of—

(A) the first day of the first plan year beginning after the date on which such employee satisfied such requirements, or

(B) the date 6 months after the date on which he satisfied such requirements,


unless such employee was separated from the service before the date referred to in subparagraph (A) or (B), whichever is applicable.

(b)(1) Except as otherwise provided in paragraphs (2), (3), and (4), all years of service with the employer or employers maintaining the plan shall be taken into account in computing the period of service for purposes of subsection (a)(1) of this section.

(2) In the case of any employee who has any 1-year break in service (as defined in section 1053(b)(3)(A) of this title) under a plan to which the service requirements of clause (i) of subsection (a)(1)(B) of this section apply, if such employee has not satisfied such requirements, service before such break shall not be required to be taken into account.

(3) In computing an employee's period of service for purposes of subsection (a)(1) of this section in the case of any participant who has any 1-year break in service (as defined in section 1053(b)(3)(A) of this title), service before such break shall not be required to be taken into account under the plan until he has completed a year of service (as defined in subsection (a)(3) of this section) after his return.

(4)(A) For purposes of paragraph (1), in the case of a nonvested participant, years of service with the employer or employers maintaining the plan before any period of consecutive 1-year breaks in service shall not be required to be taken into account in computing the period of service if the number of consecutive 1-year breaks in service within such period equals or exceeds the greater of—

(i) 5, or

(ii) the aggregate number of years of service before such period.


(B) If any years of service are not required to be taken into account by reason of a period of breaks in service to which subparagraph (A) applies, such years of service shall not be taken into account in applying subparagraph (A) to a subsequent period of breaks in service.

(C) For purposes of subparagraph (A), the term “nonvested participant” means a participant who does not have any nonforfeitable right under the plan to an accrued benefit derived from employer contributions.

(5)(A) In the case of each individual who is absent from work for any period—

(i) by reason of the pregnancy of the individual,

(ii) by reason of the birth of a child of the individual,

(iii) by reason of the placement of a child with the individual in connection with the adoption of such child by such individual, or

(iv) for purposes of caring for such child for a period beginning immediately following such birth or placement,


the plan shall treat as hours of service, solely for purposes of determining under this subsection whether a 1-year break in service (as defined in section 1053(b)(3)(A) of this title) has occurred, the hours described in subparagraph (B).

(B) The hours described in this subparagraph are—

(i) the hours of service which otherwise would normally have been credited to such individual but for such absence, or

(ii) in any case in which the plan is unable to determine the hours described in clause (i), 8 hours of service per day of such absence,


except that the total number of hours treated as hours of service under this subparagraph by reason of any such pregnancy or placement shall not exceed 501 hours.

(C) The hours described in subparagraph (B) shall be treated as hours of service as provided in this paragraph—

(i) only in the year in which the absence from work begins, if a participant would be prevented from incurring a 1-year break in service in such year solely because the period of absence is treated as hours of service as provided in subparagraph (A); or

(ii) in any other case, in the immediately following year.


(D) For purposes of this paragraph, the term “year” means the period used in computations pursuant to subsection (a)(3)(A) of this section.

(E) A plan may provide that no credit will be given pursuant to this paragraph unless the individual furnishes to the plan administrator such timely information as the plan may reasonably require to establish—

(i) that the absence from work is for reasons referred to in subparagraph (A), and

(ii) the number of days for which there was such an absence.

(Pub. L. 93–406, title I, §202, Sept. 2, 1974, 88 Stat. 853; Pub. L. 98–397, title I, §102(a), (d)(1), (e)(1), Aug. 23, 1984, 98 Stat. 1426, 1427; Pub. L. 99–509, title IX, §9203(a)(1), Oct. 21, 1986, 100 Stat. 1979; Pub. L. 99–514, title XI, §1113(e)(3), Oct. 22, 1986, 100 Stat. 2448; Pub. L. 101–239, title VII, §§7861(a)(2), 7891(a)(1), 7892(a), 7894(c)(2), Dec. 19, 1989, 103 Stat. 2430, 2445, 2447, 2449.)

Amendments

1989—Subsec. (a)(1)(B)(i). Pub. L. 101–239, §7861(a)(2), made technical correction to directory language of Pub. L. 99–514. See 1986 Amendment note below.

Subsec. (a)(1)(B)(ii). Pub. L. 101–239, §7894(c)(2)(A), substituted “educational organization” for “educational institution”.

Pub. L. 101–239, §7891(a)(1), substituted “Internal Revenue Code of 1986” for “Internal Revenue Code of 1954”, which for purposes of codification was translated as “title 26” thus requiring no change in text.

Subsec. (a)(2). Pub. L. 101–239, §7892(a), struck out comma after “specified age”.

Subsec. (b)(2). Pub. L. 101–239, §7894(c)(2)(B), substituted “a plan” for “the plan”.

1986—Subsec. (a)(1)(B)(i). Pub. L. 99–514, as amended by Pub. L. 101–239, §7861(a)(2), substituted “2 years of service” for “3 years of service” in two places.

Subsec. (a)(2). Pub. L. 99–509 substituted a period for “unless—

“(A) the plan is a—

“(i) defined benefit plan, or

“(ii) target benefit plan (as defined under regulations prescribed by the Secretary of the Treasury), and

“(B) such employees begin employment with the employer after they have attained a specified age which is not more than 5 years before the normal retirement age under the plan.”

1984—Subsec. (a)(1). Pub. L. 98–397, §102(a), substituted “21” for “25” in subpar. (A)(i) and “ ‘26’ for ‘21’ ” for “ ‘30’ for ‘25’ ” in subpar. (B)(ii).

Subsec. (b)(4). Pub. L. 98–397, §102(d)(1), amended par. (4) generally. Prior to amendment, par. (4) read as follows: “In the case of an employee who does not have any nonforfeitable right to an accrued benefit derived from employer contributions, years of service with the employer or employers maintaining the plan before a break in service shall not be required to be taken into account in computing the period of service for purposes of subsection (a)(1) of this section if the number of consecutive 1-year breaks in service equals or exceeds the aggregate number of such years of service before such break. Such aggregate number of years of service before such break shall be deemed not to include any years of service not required to be taken into account under this paragraph by reason of any prior break in service.”

Subsec. (b)(5). Pub. L. 98–397, §102(e)(1), added par. (5).

Effective Date of 1989 Amendment

Amendment by section 7861(a)(2) of Pub. L. 101–239 effective as if included in the provision of the Tax Reform Act of 1986, Pub. L. 99–514, to which such amendment relates, see section 7863 of Pub. L. 101–239, set out as a note under section 106 of Title 26, Internal Revenue Code.

Amendment by section 7891(a)(1) of Pub. L. 101–239 effective, except as otherwise provided, as if included in the provision of the Tax Reform Act of 1986, Pub. L. 99–514, to which such amendment relates, see section 7891(f) of Pub. L. 101–239, set out as a note under section 1002 of this title.

Section 7892(c) of Pub. L. 101–239 provided that: “Any amendment made by this section [amending this section and section 1082 of this title] shall take effect as if included in the provision of the Omnibus Budget Reconciliation Act of 1987 [Pub. L. 100–203, probably should refer to Omnibus Budget Reconciliation Act of 1986, Pub. L. 99–509] or Pension Protection Act [Pub. L. 100–203, §§9302–9346, probably should refer to Omnibus Budget Reconciliation Act of 1987, Pub. L. 100–203] to which such amendment relates.”

Amendment by section 7894(c)(2) of Pub. L. 101–239 effective, except as otherwise provided, as if originally included in the provision of the Employee Retirement Income Security Act of 1974, Pub. L. 93–406, to which such amendment relates, see section 7894(i) of Pub. L. 101–239, set out as a note under section 1002 of this title.

Effective Date of 1986 Amendments

Amendment by section 1113(e)(3) of Pub. L. 99–514 applicable to plan years beginning after Dec. 31, 1988, with special rule for plans maintained pursuant to collective bargaining agreements ratified before Mar. 1, 1986, and not applicable to employees who do not have 1 hour of service in any plan year to which the amendment applies, see section 1113(f) of Pub. L. 99–514, as amended, set out as a note under section 411 of Title 26, Internal Revenue Code.

Amendment by Pub. L. 99–509 applicable only with respect to plan years beginning on or after Jan. 1, 1988, and only with respect to service performed on or after such date, see section 9204 of Pub. L. 99–509, set out as an Effective and Termination Dates of 1986 Amendments note under section 623 of this title.

Effective Date of 1984 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 98–397 applicable to plan years beginning after Dec. 31, 1984, except as otherwise provided, see sections 302 and 303 of Pub. L. 98–397, set out as a note under section 1001 of this title.

Regulations

Secretary of Labor, Secretary of the Treasury, and Equal Employment Opportunity Commission each to issue before Feb. 1, 1988, final regulations to carry out amendments made by Pub. L. 99–509, see section 9204 of Pub. L. 99–509, set out as an Effective and Termination Dates of 1986 Amendment note under section 623 of this title.

Secretary authorized, effective Sept. 2, 1974, to promulgate regulations wherever provisions of this subchapter call for the promulgation of regulations, see section 1031 of this title.

Plan Amendments Not Required Until January 1, 1989

For provisions directing that if any amendments made by subtitle A or subtitle C of title XI [§§1101–1147 and 1171–1177] or title XVIII [§§1800–1899A] of Pub. L. 99–514 require an amendment to any plan, such plan amendment shall not be required to be made before the first plan year beginning on or after Jan. 1, 1989, see section 1140 of Pub. L. 99–514, as amended, set out as a note under section 401 of Title 26, Internal Revenue Code.

For provisions directing that if any amendments made by Pub. L. 99–509 require an amendment to any plan, such plan amendment shall not be required to be made before the first plan year beginning on or after Jan. 1, 1989, see section 9204 of Pub. L. 99–509, set out as an Effective and Termination Dates of 1986 Amendment note under section 623 of this title.

§1053. Minimum vesting standards

(a) Nonforfeitability requirements

Each pension plan shall provide that an employee's right to his normal retirement benefit is nonforfeitable upon the attainment of normal retirement age and in addition shall satisfy the requirements of paragraphs (1) and (2) of this subsection.

(1) A plan satisfies the requirements of this paragraph if an employee's rights in his accrued benefit derived from his own contributions are nonforfeitable.

(2)(A)(i) In the case of a defined benefit plan, a plan satisfies the requirements of this paragraph if it satisfies the requirements of clause (ii) or (iii).

(ii) A plan satisfies the requirements of this clause if an employee who has completed at least 5 years of service has a nonforfeitable right to 100 percent of the employee's accrued benefit derived from employer contributions.

(iii) A plan satisfies the requirements of this clause if an employee has a nonforfeitable right to a percentage of the employee's accrued benefit derived from employer contributions determined under the following table:


 
The nonforfeitable
  Years of service:
percentage is:
3
20     
4
40     
5
60     
6
80     
7 or more
100.   

        

(B)(i) In the case of an individual account plan, a plan satisfies the requirements of this paragraph if it satisfies the requirements of clause (ii) or (iii).

(ii) A plan satisfies the requirements of this clause if an employee who has completed at least 3 years of service has a nonforfeitable right to 100 percent of the employee's accrued benefit derived from employer contributions.

(iii) A plan satisfies the requirements of this clause if an employee has a nonforfeitable right to a percentage of the employee's accrued benefit derived from employer contributions determined under the following table:


 
The nonforfeitable
  Years of service:
percentage is:
2
20     
3
40     
4
60     
5
80     
6 or more
100.   

        

(3)(A) A right to an accrued benefit derived from employer contributions shall not be treated as forfeitable solely because the plan provides that it is not payable if the participant dies (except in the case of a survivor annuity which is payable as provided in section 1055 of this title).

(B) A right to an accrued benefit derived from employer contributions shall not be treated as forfeitable solely because the plan provides that the payment of benefits is suspended for such period as the employee is employed, subsequent to the commencement of payment of such benefits—

(i) in the case of a plan other than a multiemployer plan, by an employer who maintains the plan under which such benefits were being paid; and

(ii) in the case of a multiemployer plan, in the same industry, in the same trade or craft, and the same geographic area covered by the plan, as when such benefits commenced.


The Secretary shall prescribe such regulations as may be necessary to carry out the purposes of this subparagraph, including regulations with respect to the meaning of the term “employed”.

(C) A right to an accrued benefit derived from employer contributions shall not be treated as forfeitable solely because plan amendments may be given retroactive application as provided in section 1082(d)(2) of this title.

(D)(i) A right to an accrued benefit derived from employer contributions shall not be treated as forfeitable solely because the plan provides that, in the case of a participant who does not have a nonforfeitable right to at least 50 percent of his accrued benefit derived from employer contributions, such accrued benefit may be forfeited on account of the withdrawal by the participant of any amount attributable to the benefit derived from mandatory contributions (as defined in the last sentence of section 1054(c)(2)(C) of this title) made by such participant.

(ii) Clause (i) shall not apply to a plan unless the plan provides that any accrued benefit forfeited under a plan provision described in such clause shall be restored upon repayment by the participant of the full amount of the withdrawal described in such clause plus, in the case of a defined benefit plan, interest. Such interest shall be computed on such amount at the rate determined for purposes of section 1054(c)(2)(C) of this title (if such subsection applies) on the date of such repayment (computed annually from the date of such withdrawal). The plan provision required under this clause may provide that such repayment must be made (I) in the case of a withdrawal on account of separation from service, before the earlier of 5 years after the first date on which the participant is subsequently re-employed by the employer, or the close of the first period of 5 consecutive 1-year breaks in service commencing after the withdrawal; or (II) in the case of any other withdrawal, 5 years after the date of the withdrawal.

(iii) In the case of accrued benefits derived from employer contributions which accrued before September 2, 1974, a right to such accrued benefit derived from employer contributions shall not be treated as forfeitable solely because the plan provides that an amount of such accrued benefit may be forfeited on account of the withdrawal by the participant of an amount attributable to the benefit derived from mandatory contributions, made by such participant before September 2, 1974, if such amount forfeited is proportional to such amount withdrawn. This clause shall not apply to any plan to which any mandatory contribution is made after September 2, 1974. The Secretary of the Treasury shall prescribe such regulations as may be necessary to carry out the purposes of this clause.

(iv) For purposes of this subparagraph, in the case of any class-year plan, a withdrawal of employee contributions shall be treated as a withdrawal of such contributions on a plan year by plan year basis in succeeding order of time.

(v) Cross reference.—

For nonforfeitability where the employee has a nonforfeitable right to at least 50 percent of his accrued benefit, see section 1056(c) of this title.


(E)(i) A right to an accrued benefit derived from employer contributions under a multiemployer plan shall not be treated as forfeitable solely because the plan provides that benefits accrued as a result of service with the participant's employer before the employer had an obligation to contribute under the plan may not be payable if the employer ceases contributions to the multiemployer plan.

(ii) A participant's right to an accrued benefit derived from employer contributions under a multiemployer plan shall not be treated as forfeitable solely because—

(I) the plan is amended to reduce benefits under section 1425 or 1441 of this title, or

(II) benefit payments under the plan may be suspended under section 1426 or 1441 of this title.


(F) A matching contribution (within the meaning of section 401(m) of title 26) shall not be treated as forfeitable merely because such contribution is forfeitable if the contribution to which the matching contribution relates is treated as an excess contribution under section 401(k)(8)(B) of title 26, an excess deferral under section 402(g)(2)(A) of title 26, an erroneous automatic contribution under section 414(w) of title 26, or an excess aggregate contribution under section 401(m)(6)(B) of title 26.

(b) Computation of period of service

(1) In computing the period of service under the plan for purposes of determining the nonforfeitable percentage under subsection (a)(2) of this section, all of an employee's years of service with the employer or employers maintaining the plan shall be taken into account, except that the following may be disregarded:

(A) years of service before age 18,1

(B) years of service during a period for which the employee declined to contribute to a plan requiring employee contributions,1

(C) years of service with an employer during any period for which the employer did not maintain the plan or a predecessor plan, defined by the Secretary of the Treasury;

(D) service not required to be taken into account under paragraph (3);

(E) years of service before January 1, 1971, unless the employee has had at least 3 years of service after December 31, 1970;

(F) years of service before this part first applies to the plan if such service would have been disregarded under the rules of the plan with regard to breaks in service, as in effect on the applicable date; and

(G) in the case of a multiemployer plan, years of service—

(i) with an employer after—

(I) a complete withdrawal of such employer from the plan (within the meaning of section 1383 of this title), or

(II) to the extent permitted by regulations prescribed by the Secretary of the Treasury, a partial withdrawal described in section 1385(b)(2)(A)(i) of this title in connection with the decertification of the collective bargaining representative; and


(ii) with any employer under the plan after the termination date of the plan under section 1348 of this title.


(2)(A) For purposes of this section, except as provided in subparagraph (C), the term “year of service” means a calendar year, plan year, or other 12-consecutive month period designated by the plan (and not prohibited under regulations prescribed by the Secretary) during which the participant has completed 1,000 hours of service.

(B) For purposes of this section, the term “hour of service” has the meaning provided by section 1052(a)(3)(C) of this title.

(C) In the case of any seasonal industry where the customary period of employment is less than 1,000 hours during a calendar year, the term “year of service” shall be such period as determined under regulations of the Secretary.

(D) For purposes of this section, in the case of any maritime industry, 125 days of service shall be treated as 1,000 hours of service. The Secretary may prescribe regulations to carry out the purposes of this subparagraph.

(3)(A) For purposes of this paragraph, the term “1-year break in service” means a calendar year, plan year, or other 12-consecutive-month period designated by the plan (and not prohibited under regulations prescribed by the Secretary) during which the participant has not completed more than 500 hours of service.

(B) For purposes of paragraph (1), in the case of any employee who has any 1-year break in service, years of service before such break shall not be required to be taken into account until he has completed a year of service after his return.

(C) For purposes of paragraph (1), in the case of any participant in an individual account plan or an insured defined benefit plan which satisfies the requirements of subsection 1054(b)(1)(F) of this title who has 5 consecutive 1-year breaks in service, years of service after such 5-year period shall not be required to be taken into account for purposes of determining the nonforfeitable percentage of his accrued benefit derived from employer contributions which accrued before such 5-year period.

(D)(i) For purposes of paragraph (1), in the case of a nonvested participant, years of service with the employer or employers maintaining the plan before any period of consecutive 1-year breaks in service shall not be required to be taken into account if the number of consecutive 1-year breaks in service within such period equals or exceeds the greater of—

(I) 5, or

(II) the aggregate number of years of service before such period.


(ii) If any years of service are not required to be taken into account by reason of a period of breaks in service to which clause (i) applies, such years of service shall not be taken into account in applying clause (i) to a subsequent period of breaks in service.

(iii) For purposes of clause (i), the term “nonvested participant” means a participant who does not have any nonforfeitable right under the plan to an accrued benefit derived from employer contributions.

(E)(i) In the case of each individual who is absent from work for any period—

(I) by reason of the pregnancy of the individual,

(II) by reason of the birth of a child of the individual,

(III) by reason of the placement of a child with the individual in connection with the adoption of such child by such individual, or

(IV) for purposes of caring for such child for a period beginning immediately following such birth or placement,


the plan shall treat as hours of service, solely for purposes of determining under this paragraph whether a 1-year break in service has occurred, the hours described in clause (ii).

(ii) The hours described in this clause are—

(I) the hours of service which otherwise would normally have been credited to such individual but for such absence, or

(II) in any case in which the plan is unable to determine the hours described in subclause (I), 8 hours of service per day of absence,


except that the total number of hours treated as hours of service under this clause by reason of such pregnancy or placement shall not exceed 501 hours.

(iii) The hours described in clause (ii) shall be treated as hours of service as provided in this subparagraph—

(I) only in the year in which the absence from work begins, if a participant would be prevented from incurring a 1-year break in service in such year solely because the period of absence is treated as hours of service as provided in clause (i); or

(II) in any other case, in the immediately following year.


(iv) For purposes of this subparagraph, the term “year” means the period used in computations pursuant to paragraph (2).

(v) A plan may provide that no credit will be given pursuant to this subparagraph unless the individual furnishes to the plan administrator such timely information as the plan may reasonably require to establish—

(I) that the absence from work is for reasons referred to in clause (i), and

(II) the number of days for which there was such an absence.


(4) Cross references.—

(A) For definitions of “accrued benefit” and “normal retirement age”, see sections 1002(23) and (24) of this title.

(B) For effect of certain cash out distributions, see section 1054(d)(1) of this title.

(c) Plan amendments altering vesting schedule

(1)(A) A plan amendment changing any vesting schedule under the plan shall be treated as not satisfying the requirements of subsection (a)(2) of this section if the nonforfeitable percentage of the accrued benefit derived from employer contributions (determined as of the later of the date such amendment is adopted, or the date such amendment becomes effective) of any employee who is a participant in the plan is less than such nonforfeitable percentage computed under the plan without regard to such amendment.

(B) A plan amendment changing any vesting schedule under the plan shall be treated as not satisfying the requirements of subsection (a)(2) of this section unless each participant having not less than 3 years of service is permitted to elect, within a reasonable period after adoption of such amendment, to have his nonforfeitable percentage computed under the plan without regard to such amendment.

(2) Subsection (a) of this section shall not apply to benefits which may not be provided for designated employees in the event of early termination of the plan under provisions of the plan adopted pursuant to regulations prescribed by the Secretary of the Treasury to preclude the discrimination prohibited by section 401(a)(4) of title 26.

(d) Nonforfeitable benefits after lesser period and in greater amounts than required

A pension plan may allow for nonforfeitable benefits after a lesser period and in greater amounts than are required by this part.

(e) Consent for distribution; present value; covered distributions

(1) If the present value of any nonforfeitable benefit with respect to a participant in a plan exceeds $5,000, the plan shall provide that such benefit may not be immediately distributed without the consent of the participant.

(2) For purposes of paragraph (1), the present value shall be calculated in accordance with section 1055(g)(3) of this title.

(3) This subsection shall not apply to any distribution of dividends to which section 404(k) of title 26 applies.

(4) A plan shall not fail to meet the requirements of this subsection if, under the terms of the plan, the present value of the nonforfeitable accrued benefit is determined without regard to that portion of such benefit which is attributable to rollover contributions (and earnings allocable thereto). For purposes of this subparagraph, the term “rollover contributions” means any rollover contribution under sections 402(c), 403(a)(4), 403(b)(8), 408(d)(3)(A)(ii), and 457(e)(16) of title 26.

(f) Special rules for plans computing accrued benefits by reference to hypothetical account balance or equivalent amounts

(1) In general

An applicable defined benefit plan shall not be treated as failing to meet—

(A) subject to paragraph (2), the requirements of subsection (a)(2), or

(B) the requirements of section 1054(c) or 1055(g) of this title, or the requirements of subsection (e), with respect to accrued benefits derived from employer contributions,


solely because the present value of the accrued benefit (or any portion thereof) of any participant is, under the terms of the plan, equal to the amount expressed as the balance in the hypothetical account described in paragraph (3) or as an accumulated percentage of the participant's final average compensation.

(2) 3-year vesting

In the case of an applicable defined benefit plan, such plan shall be treated as meeting the requirements of subsection (a)(2) only if an employee who has completed at least 3 years of service has a nonforfeitable right to 100 percent of the employee's accrued benefit derived from employer contributions.

(3) Applicable defined benefit plan and related rules

For purposes of this subsection—

(A) In general

The term “applicable defined benefit plan” means a defined benefit plan under which the accrued benefit (or any portion thereof) is calculated as the balance of a hypothetical account maintained for the participant or as an accumulated percentage of the participant's final average compensation.

(B) Regulations to include similar plans

The Secretary of the Treasury shall issue regulations which include in the definition of an applicable defined benefit plan any defined benefit plan (or any portion of such a plan) which has an effect similar to an applicable defined benefit plan.

(Pub. L. 93–406, title I, §203, Sept. 2, 1974, 88 Stat. 854; Pub. L. 96–364, title III, §303, Sept. 26, 1980, 94 Stat. 1292; Pub. L. 98–397, title I, §§102(b), (c), (d)(2), (e)(2), 105(a), Aug. 23, 1984, 98 Stat. 1426–1428, 1436; Pub. L. 99–514, title XI, §§1113(e)(1), (2), (4)(A), 1139(c)(1), title XVIII, §1898(a)(1)(B), (4)(B)(i), (d)(1)(B), (2)(B), Oct. 22, 1986, 100 Stat. 2447, 2448, 2487, 2942, 2944, 2955; Pub. L. 101–239, title VII, §§7861(a)(1), (5)(B), (6)(B), 7862(d)(4), (5), (10), 7891(a)(1), (b)(1), (2), 7894(c)(3), Dec. 19, 1989, 103 Stat. 2430, 2434, 2445, 2449; Pub. L. 103–465, title VII, §767(c)(1), Dec. 8, 1994, 108 Stat. 5039; Pub. L. 104–188, title I, §1442(b), Aug. 20, 1996, 110 Stat. 1808; Pub. L. 105–34, title X, §1071(b)(1), Aug. 5, 1997, 111 Stat. 948; Pub. L. 107–16, title VI, §§633(b), 648(a)(2), June 7, 2001, 115 Stat. 116, 127; Pub. L. 108–311, title IV, §408(b)(8), Oct. 4, 2004, 118 Stat. 1193; Pub. L. 109–280, title I, §108(a)(4), formerly §107(a)(4), title VII, §701(a)(2), title IX, §§902(d)(2)(E), 904(b), Aug. 17, 2006, 120 Stat. 819, 984, 1038, 1049, renumbered Pub. L. 111–192, title II, §202(a), June 25, 2010, 124 Stat. 1297; Pub. L. 110–458, title I, §107(a)(1), Dec. 23, 2008, 122 Stat. 5107.)

Amendments

2008—Subsec. (f)(1)(B). Pub. L. 110–458 amended subpar. (B) generally. Prior to amendment, subpar. (B) read as follows: “the requirements of section 1054(c) of this title or section 1055(g) of this title with respect to contributions other than employee contributions,”.

2006—Subsec. (a)(2). Pub. L. 109–280, §904(b)(1), amended par. (2) generally, substituting provisions relating to satisfaction of requirements in the case of a defined benefit plan and in the case of an individual account plan for provisions relating to satisfaction of requirements if an employee who has completed at least 5 years of service has a nonforfeitable right to 100 percent of the employee's accrued benefit derived from employer contributions or if an employee has a nonforfeitable right to a percentage of such benefit based upon number of years of service.

Subsec. (a)(3)(C). Pub. L. 109–280, §108(a)(4), formerly §107(a)(4), as renumbered by Pub. L. 111–192, substituted “1082(d)(2)” for “1082(c)(8)”.

Subsec. (a)(3)(F). Pub. L. 109–280, §902(d)(2)(E), inserted “an erroneous automatic contribution under section 414(w) of title 26,” before “or an excess aggregate contribution”.

Subsec. (a)(4). Pub. L. 109–280, §904(b)(2), struck out par. (4), which related to application of par. (2) in the case of matching contributions, as defined in section 401(m)(4)(A) of title 26.

Subsec. (f). Pub. L. 109–280, §701(a)(2), added subsec. (f).

2004—Subsec. (a)(4)(B). Pub. L. 108–311 substituted “6 or more” for “6” in table.

2001—Subsec. (a)(2). Pub. L. 107–16, §633(b)(1), substituted “Except as provided in paragraph (4), a plan” for “A plan” in introductory provisions.

Subsec. (a)(4). Pub. L. 107–16, §633(b)(2), added par. (4).

Subsec. (e)(4). Pub. L. 107–16, §648(a)(2), added par. (4).

1997—Subsec. (e)(1). Pub. L. 105–34 substituted “$5,000” for “$3,500”.

1996—Subsec. (a)(2). Pub. L. 104–188, §1442(b)(1), substituted “subparagraph (A) or (B)” for “subparagraph (A), (B), or (C)” in introductory provisions.

Subsec. (a)(2)(C). Pub. L. 104–188, §1442(b)(2), struck out subpar. (C) which read as follows: “A plan satisfies the requirements of this subparagraph if—

“(i) the plan is a multiemployer plan (within the meaning of section 1002(37)), and

“(ii) under the plan—

“(I) an employee who is covered pursuant to a collective bargaining agreement described in section 1002(37)(A)(ii) of this title and who has completed at least 10 years of service has a nonforfeitable right to 100 percent of the employee's accrued benefit derived from employer contributions, and

“(II) the requirements of subparagraph (A) or (B) are met with respect to employees not described in subclause (I).”

1994—Subsec. (e)(2). Pub. L. 103–465 amended par. (2) generally. Prior to amendment, par. (2) read as follows:

“(2)(A) For purposes of paragraph (1), the present value shall be calculated—

“(i) by using an interest rate no greater than the applicable interest rate if the vested accrued benefit (using such rate) is not in excess of $25,000, and

“(ii) by using an interest rate no greater than 120 percent of the applicable interest rate if the vested accrued benefit exceeds $25,000 (as determined under clause (i)).

In no event shall the present value determined under subclause (II) be less than $25,000.

“(B) For purposes of subparagraph (A), the term ‘applicable interest rate’ means the interest rate which would be used (as of the date of the distribution) by the Pension Benefit Guaranty Corporation for purposes of determining the present value of a lump sum distribution on plan termination.”

1989—Subsec. (a)(2). Pub. L. 101–239, §7861(a)(1)(A), substituted “satisfies the requirements” for “satisfies the following requirements” in introductory provisions.

Subsec. (a)(2)(C)(ii)(I). Pub. L. 101–239, §7861(a)(1)(B), substituted “section 1002(37)(A)(ii) of this title” for “section 414(f)(1)(B)”.

Subsec. (a)(3)(D)(v). Pub. L. 101–239, §7894(c)(3), substituted “nonforfeitability” for “nonforfeitably”.

Subsec. (a)(3)(F). Pub. L. 101–239, §7861(a)(5)(B), added subpar. (F).

Subsec. (b)(1)(A). Pub. L. 101–239, §7861(a)(6)(B), amended subpar. (A) generally. Prior to amendment, subpar. (A) read as follows: “years of service before age 18, except that in case of a plan which does not satisfy subparagraph (A) or (B) of subsection (a)(2) of this section, the plan may not disregard any such year of service during which the employee was a participant;”.

Subsec. (c)(2). Pub. L. 101–239, §7891(a)(1), substituted “Internal Revenue Code of 1986” for “Internal Revenue Code of 1954”, which for purposes of codification was translated as “title 26” thus requiring no change in text.

Subsec. (e)(1). Pub. L. 101–239, §7862(d)(10), which directed amendment of par. (1) by substituting “nonforfeitable benefit” for “vested accrued benefit”, could not be executed because the language “vested accrued benefit” did not appear after the amendment by Pub. L. 101–239, §7862(d)(5), see below.

Pub. L. 101–239, §7862(d)(5), amended par. (1) generally. Prior to amendment, par. (1) read as follows: “If the present value of any vested accrued benefit exceeds $3,500, a pension plan shall provide that such benefit may not be immediately distributed without the consent of the participant.”

Pub. L. 101–239, §7862(d)(4), made technical correction to Pub. L. 99–514, §1898(d)(1)(B), see 1986 Amendment note below.

Subsec. (e)(2). Pub. L. 101–239, §7891(b)(1), (2), realigned margins of subpars. (A) and (B) and struck out subpar. (B) heading “Applicable interest rate”.

Subsec. (e)(3). Pub. L. 101–239, §7891(a)(1), substituted “Internal Revenue Code of 1986” for “Internal Revenue Code of 1954”, which for purposes of codification was translated as “title 26” thus requiring no change in text.

1986—Subsec. (a)(2). Pub. L. 99–514, §1113(e)(1), amended par. (2) generally, substituting provisions covering 5-year vesting, 3- to 7-year vesting, and multiemployer plans, for former provisions which covered 10-year vesting, 5- to 15-year vesting, and the “rule of 45” under which a plan satisfied the requirements of this paragraph if an employee who had completed at least 5 years of service and with respect to whom the sum of his age and years of service equalled or exceeded 45 had a right to a percentage of his accrued benefits derived from employer contributions.

Subsec. (a)(3)(D)(ii). Pub. L. 99–514, §1898(a)(4)(B)(i), inserted last sentence and struck out former last sentence which read as follows: “In the case of a defined contribution plan the plan provision required under this clause may provide that such repayment must be made before the participant has any 1-year break in service commencing after the withdrawal.”

Subsec. (c)(1)(B). Pub. L. 99–514, §1113(e)(4)(A), substituted “3 years” for “5 years”.

Subsec. (c)(3). Pub. L. 99–514, §1113(e)(2), struck out par. (3) which provided for class year vesting.

Pub. L. 99–514, §1898(a)(1)(B), amended par. (3) generally. Prior to amendment, par. (3) read as follows: “The requirements of subsection (a)(2) of this section shall be deemed to be satisfied in the case of a class year plan if such plan provides that 100 percent of each employee's right to or derived from the contributions of the employer on his behalf with respect to any plan year are nonforfeitable not later than the end of the 5th year following the plan year for which such contributions were made. For purposes of this part, the term ‘class year plan’ means a profit sharing, stock bonus, or money purchase plan which provides for the separate nonforfeitability of employees’ rights to or derived from the contributions for each plan year.”

Subsec. (e)(1). Pub. L. 99–514, §1898(d)(1)(B), as amended by Pub. L. 101–239, §7862(d)(4), amended par. (1) generally. Prior to amendment, par. (1) read as follows: “If the present value of any accrued benefit exceeds $3,500, such benefit shall not be treated as nonforfeitable if the plan provides that the present value of such benefit could be immediately distributed without the consent of the participant.”

Subsec. (e)(2). Pub. L. 99–514, §1139(c)(1), amended par. (2) generally. Prior to amendment, par. (2) read as follows: “For purposes of paragraph (1), the present value shall be calculated by using an interest rate not greater than the interest rate which would be used (as of the date of the distribution) by the Pension Benefit Guaranty Corporation for purposes of determining the present value of a lump sum distribution on plan termination.”

Pub. L. 99–514, §1898(d)(2)(B), added par. (3).

1984—Subsec. (b)(1)(A). Pub. L. 98–397, §102(b), substituted “18” for “22”.

Subsec. (b)(3)(C). Pub. L. 98–397, §102(c), substituted “5 consecutive 1-year breaks in service” for “any 1-year break in service” and substituted “such 5-year period” for “such break” in two places.

Subsec. (b)(3)(D). Pub. L. 98–397, §102(d)(2), amended subpar. (D) generally. Prior to amendment, subpar. (D) read as follows: “For purposes of paragraph (1), in the case of a participant who, under the plan, does not have any nonforfeitable right to an accrued benefit derived from employer contributions, years of service before any 1-year break in service shall not be required to be taken into account if the number of consecutive 1-year breaks in service equals or exceeds the aggregate number of such years of service prior to such break. Such aggregate number of years of service before such break shall be deemed not to include any years of service not required to be taken into account under this subparagraph by reason of any prior break in service.”

Subsec. (b)(3)(E). Pub. L. 98–397, §102(e)(2), added subpar. (E).

Subsec. (e). Pub. L. 98–397, §105(a), added subsec. (e).

1980—Subsec. (a)(3)(E). Pub. L. 96–364, §303(1), added subpar. (E).

Subsec. (b)(1)(G). Pub. L. 96–364, §303(2)–(4), added subpar. (G).

Effective Date of 2008 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 110–458 effective as if included in the provisions of Pub. L. 109–280 to which the amendment relates, except as otherwise provided, see section 112 of Pub. L. 110–458, set out as a note under section 72 of Title 26, Internal Revenue Code.

Effective Date of 2006 Amendment

Amendment by section 108(a)(4) of Pub. L. 109–280 applicable to plan years beginning after 2007, see section 108(e) of Pub. L. 109–280, set out as a note under section 1021 of this title.

Amendment by section 701(a)(2) of Pub. L. 109–280 applicable to periods beginning on or after June 29, 2005, and to distributions made after Aug. 17, 2006, with provisions relating to vesting and interest credit requirements for plans in existence on June 29, 2005, special rule for collectively bargained plans, and provisions relating to conversions of plan amendments adopted after, and taking effect after, June 29, 2005, see section 701(e) of Pub. L. 109–280, set out as a note under section 411 of Title 26, Internal Revenue Code.

Amendment by section 902(d)(2)(E) of Pub. L. 109–280 applicable to plan years beginning after Dec. 31, 2007, see section 902(g) of Pub. L. 109–280, set out as a note under section 401 of Title 26, Internal Revenue Code.

Amendment by section 904(b) of Pub. L. 109–280 applicable to contributions for plan years beginning after Dec. 31, 2006, with provisions relating to collective bargaining agreements and amount of service required in any plan year and special rule for stock ownership plans, see section 904(c) of Pub. L. 109–280, set out as a note under section 411 of Title 26, Internal Revenue Code.

Effective Date of 2001 Amendment

Amendment by section 633(b) of Pub. L. 107–16 applicable to contributions for plan years beginning after Dec. 31, 2001, with exception in the case of a plan maintained pursuant to one or more collective bargaining agreements ratified by June 7, 2001, and service requirement with respect to any plan, see section 633(c) of Pub. L. 107–16, set out as a note under section 411 of Title 26, Internal Revenue Code.

Amendment by section 648(a)(2) of Pub. L. 107–16 applicable to distributions after Dec. 31, 2001, see section 648(c) of Pub. L. 107–16, set out as a note under section 411 of Title 26, Internal Revenue Code.

Effective Date of 1997 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 105–34 applicable to plan years beginning after Aug. 5, 1997, see section 1071(c) of Pub. L. 105–34, set out as a note under section 411 of Title 26, Internal Revenue Code.

Effective Date of 1996 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 104–188 applicable to plan years beginning on or after the earlier of (1) the later of (A) Jan. 1, 1997, or (B) the date on which the last of the collective bargaining agreements pursuant to which the plan is maintained terminates (determined without regard to any extension thereof after Aug. 20, 1996), or (2) Jan. 1, 1999, but such amendment not applicable to any individual who does not have more than 1 hour of service under the plan on or after the 1st day of the 1st plan year to which such amendment applies, see section 1442(c) of Pub. L. 104–188, set out as a note under section 411 of Title 26, Internal Revenue Code.

Effective Date of 1994 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 103–465 applicable to plan years and limitation years beginning after Dec. 31, 1994, except that employer may elect to treat such amendment as effective on or after Dec. 8, 1994, with provisions relating to reduction of accrued benefits, exception, and timing of plan amendment, see section 767(d) of Pub. L. 103–465, as amended, set out as a note under section 411 of Title 26, Internal Revenue Code.

Effective Date of 1989 Amendment

Amendment by sections 7861(a)(1), (5)(B), (6)(B) and 7862(d)(4), (5), (10) of Pub. L. 101–239 effective as if included in the provision of the Tax Reform Act of 1986, Pub. L. 99–514, to which such amendment relates, see section 7863 of Pub. L. 101–239, set out as a note under section 106 of Title 26, Internal Revenue Code.

Amendment by section 7891(a)(1), (b)(1), (2) of Pub. L. 101–239 effective, except as otherwise provided, as if included in the provision of the Tax Reform Act of 1986, Pub. L. 99–514, to which such amendment relates, see section 7891(f) of Pub. L. 101–239, set out as a note under section 1002 of this title.

Amendment by section 7894(c)(3) of Pub. L. 101–239 effective, except as otherwise provided, as if originally included in the provision of the Employee Retirement Income Security Act of 1974, Pub. L. 93–406, to which such amendment relates, see section 7894(i) of Pub. L. 101–239, set out as a note under section 1002 of this title.

Effective Date of 1986 Amendment

Amendment by section 1113(e)(1), (2), (4)(A) of Pub. L. 99–514 applicable to plan years beginning after Dec. 31, 1988, with special rule for plans maintained pursuant to collective bargaining agreements ratified before Mar. 1, 1986, and not applicable to employees who do not have 1 hour of service in any plan year to which the amendment applies, see section 1113(f) of Pub. L. 99–514, as amended, set out as a note under section 411 of Title 26, Internal Revenue Code.

Amendment by section 1139(c)(1) of Pub. L. 99–514 applicable to distributions in plan years beginning after Dec. 31, 1984, except that such amendments shall not apply to any distributions in plan years beginning after Dec. 31, 1984, and before Jan. 1, 1987, if such distributions were made in accordance with the requirements of the regulations issued under the Retirement Equity Act of 1984, Pub. L. 98–397, with additional provisions relating to reductions in accrued benefits, see section 1139(d) of Pub. L. 99–514, set out as a note under section 411 of Title 26.

Amendment by section 1898(a)(1)(B) of Pub. L. 99–514 applicable to contributions made for plan years beginning after Oct. 22, 1986, except that in the case of a plan described in section 302(b) of Pub. L. 98–397, set out as a note under section 1001 of this title, such amendments shall not apply to any plan year to which amendments made by Pub. L. 98–397 do not apply by reason of such section 302(b), see section 1898(a)(1)(C) of Pub. L. 99–514, set out as a note under section 411 of Title 26.

Amendment by section 1898(a)(4)(B)(i), (d)(1)(B), (2)(B), of Pub. L. 99–514 effective as if included in the provision of the Retirement Equity Act of 1984, Pub. L. 98–397, to which such amendment relates, except as otherwise provided, see section 1898(j) of Pub. L. 99–514, set out as a note under section 401 of Title 26.

Effective Date of 1984 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 98–397 applicable to plan years beginning after Dec. 31, 1984, except as otherwise provided, see sections 302 and 303 of Pub. L. 98–397, set out as a note under section 1001 of this title.

Effective Date of 1980 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 96–364 effective Sept. 26, 1980, except as specifically provided, see section 1461(e) of this title.

Regulations

Secretary of the Treasury or his delegate to issue before Feb. 1, 1988, final regulations to carry out amendments made by section 1113 of Pub. L. 99–514, see section 1141 of Pub. L. 99–514, set out as a note under section 401 of Title 26, Internal Revenue Code.

Secretary authorized, effective Sept. 2, 1974, to promulgate regulations wherever provisions of this subchapter call for the promulgation of regulations, see section 1031 of this title.

Applicability of Amendments by Subtitles A and B of Title I of Pub. L. 109–280

For special rules on applicability of amendments by subtitles A (§§101–108) and B (§§111–116) of title I of Pub. L. 109–280 to certain eligible cooperative plans, PBGC settlement plans, and eligible government contractor plans, see sections 104, 105, and 106 of Pub. L. 109–280, set out as notes under section 401 of Title 26, Internal Revenue Code.

Plan Amendments Not Required Until January 1, 1998

For provisions directing that if any amendments made by subtitle D [§§1401–1465] of title I of Pub. L. 104–188 require an amendment to any plan or annuity contract, such amendment shall not be required to be made before the first day of the first plan year beginning on or after Jan. 1, 1998, see section 1465 of Pub. L. 104–188, set out as a note under section 401 of Title 26, Internal Revenue Code.

Plan Amendments Not Required Until January 1, 1989

For provisions directing that if any amendments made by subtitle A or subtitle C of title XI [§§1101–1147 and 1171–1177] or title XVIII [§§1800–1899A] of Pub. L. 99–514 require an amendment to any plan, such plan amendment shall not be required to be made before the first plan year beginning on or after Jan. 1, 1989, see section 1140 of Pub. L. 99–514, as amended, set out as a note under section 401 of Title 26, Internal Revenue Code.

1 So in original. The comma probably should be a semicolon.

§1054. Benefit accrual requirements

(a) Satisfaction of requirements by pension plans

Each pension plan shall satisfy the requirements of subsection (b)(3) of this section, and—

(1) in the case of a defined benefit plan, shall satisfy the requirements of subsection (b)(1) of this section; and

(2) in the case of a defined contribution plan, shall satisfy the requirements of subsection (b)(2) of this section.

(b) Enumeration of plan requirements

(1)(A) A defined benefit plan satisfies the requirements of this paragraph if the accrued benefit to which each participant is entitled upon his separation from the service is not less than—

(i) 3 percent of the normal retirement benefit to which he would be entitled at the normal retirement age if he commenced participation at the earliest possible entry age under the plan and served continuously until the earlier of age 65 or the normal retirement age specified under the plan, multiplied by

(ii) the number of years (not in excess of 331/3) of his participation in the plan.


In the case of a plan providing retirement benefits based on compensation during any period, the normal retirement benefit to which a participant would be entitled shall be determined as if he continued to earn annually the average rate of compensation which he earned during consecutive years of service, not in excess of 10, for which his compensation was the highest. For purposes of this subparagraph, social security benefits and all other relevant factors used to compute benefits shall be treated as remaining constant as of the current year for all years after such current year.

(B) A defined benefit plan satisfies the requirements of this paragraph of a particular plan year if under the plan the accrued benefit payable at the normal retirement age is equal to the normal retirement benefit and the annual rate at which any individual who is or could be a participant can accrue the retirement benefits payable at normal retirement age under the plan for any later plan year is not more than 1331/3 percent of the annual rate at which he can accrue benefits for any plan year beginning on or after such particular plan year and before such later plan year. For purposes of this subparagraph—

(i) any amendment to the plan which is in effect for the current year shall be treated as in effect for all other plan years;

(ii) any change in an accrual rate which does not apply to any individual who is or could be a participant in the current year shall be disregarded;

(iii) the fact that benefits under the plan may be payable to certain employees before normal retirement age shall be disregarded; and

(iv) social security benefits and all other relevant factors used to compute benefits shall be treated as remaining constant as of the current year for all years after the current year.


(C) A defined benefit plan satisfies the requirements of this paragraph if the accrued benefit to which any participant is entitled upon his separation from the service is not less than a fraction of the annual benefit commencing at normal retirement age to which he would be entitled under the plan as in effect on the date of his separation if he continued to earn annually until normal retirement age the same rate of compensation upon which his normal retirement benefit would be computed under the plan, determined as if he had attained normal retirement age on the date any such determination is made (but taking into account no more than the 10 years of service immediately preceding his separation from service). Such fraction shall be a fraction, not exceeding 1, the numerator of which is the total number of his years of participation in the plan (as of the date of his separation from the service) and the denominator of which is the total number of years he would have participated in the plan if he separated from the service at the normal retirement age. For purposes of this subparagraph, social security benefits and all other relevant factors used to compute benefits shall be treated as remaining constant as of the current year for all years after such current year.

(D) Subparagraphs (A), (B), and (C) shall not apply with respect to years of participation before the first plan year to which this section applies but a defined benefit plan satisfies the requirements of this subparagraph with respect to such years of participation only if the accrued benefit of any participant with respect to such years of participation is not less than the greater of—

(i) his accrued benefit determined under the plan, as in effect from time to time prior to September 2, 1974, or

(ii) an accrued benefit which is not less than one-half of the accrued benefit to which such participant would have been entitled if subparagraph (A), (B), or (C) applied with respect to such years of participation.


(E) Notwithstanding subparagraphs (A), (B), and (C) of this paragraph, a plan shall not be treated as not satisfying the requirements of this paragraph solely because the accrual of benefits under the plan does not become effective until the employee has two continuous years of service. For purposes of this subparagraph, the term “year of service” has the meaning provided by section 1052(a)(3)(A) of this title.

(F) Notwithstanding subparagraphs (A), (B), and (C), a defined benefit plan satisfies the requirements of this paragraph if such plan

(i) is funded exclusively by the purchase of insurance contracts, and

(ii) satisfies the requirements of paragraphs (2) and (3) of section 1081(b) of this title (relating to certain insurance contract plans),


but only if an employee's accrued benefit as of any applicable date is not less than the cash surrender value his insurance contracts would have on such applicable date if the requirements of paragraphs (4), (5), and (6) of section 1081(b) of this title were satisfied.

(G) Notwithstanding the preceding subparagraphs, a defined benefit plan shall be treated as not satisfying the requirements of this paragraph if the participant's accrued benefit is reduced on account of any increase in his age or service. The preceding sentence shall not apply to benefits under the plan commencing before benefits payable under title II of the Social Security Act [42 U.S.C. 401 et seq.] which benefits under the plan—

(i) do not exceed social security benefits, and

(ii) terminate when such social security benefits commence.


(H)(i) Notwithstanding the preceding subparagraphs, a defined benefit plan shall be treated as not satisfying the requirements of this paragraph if, under the plan, an employee's benefit accrual is ceased, or the rate of an employee's benefit accrual is reduced, because of the attainment of any age.

(ii) A plan shall not be treated as failing to meet the requirements of this subparagraph solely because the plan imposes (without regard to age) a limitation on the amount of benefits that the plan provides or a limitation on the number of years of service or years of participation which are taken into account for purposes of determining benefit accrual under the plan.

(iii) In the case of any employee who, as of the end of any plan year under a defined benefit plan, has attained normal retirement age under such plan—

(I) if distribution of benefits under such plan with respect to such employee has commenced as of the end of such plan year, then any requirement of this subparagraph for continued accrual of benefits under such plan with respect to such employee during such plan year shall be treated as satisfied to the extent of the actuarial equivalent of in-service distribution of benefits, and

(II) if distribution of benefits under such plan with respect to such employee has not commenced as of the end of such year in accordance with section 1056(a)(3) of this title, and the payment of benefits under such plan with respect to such employee is not suspended during such plan year pursuant to section 1053(a)(3)(B) of this title, then any requirement of this subparagraph for continued accrual of benefits under such plan with respect to such employee during such plan year shall be treated as satisfied to the extent of any adjustment in the benefit payable under the plan during such plan year attributable to the delay in the distribution of benefits after the attainment of normal retirement age.


The preceding provisions of this clause shall apply in accordance with regulations of the Secretary of the Treasury. Such regulations may provide for the application of the preceding provisions of this clause, in the case of any such employee, with respect to any period of time within a plan year.

(iv) Clause (i) shall not apply with respect to any employee who is a highly compensated employee (within the meaning of section 414(q) of title 26) to the extent provided in regulations prescribed by the Secretary of the Treasury for purposes of precluding discrimination in favor of highly compensated employees within the meaning of subchapter D of chapter 1 of title 26.

(v) A plan shall not be treated as failing to meet the requirements of clause (i) solely because the subsidized portion of any early retirement benefit is disregarded in determining benefit accruals.

(vi) Any regulations prescribed by the Secretary of the Treasury pursuant to clause (v) of section 411(b)(1)(H) of title 26 shall apply with respect to the requirements of this subparagraph in the same manner and to the same extent as such regulations apply with respect to the requirements of such section 411(b)(1)(H).

(2)(A) A defined contribution plan satisfies the requirements of this paragraph if, under the plan, allocations to the employee's account are not ceased, and the rate at which amounts are allocated to the employee's account is not reduced, because of the attainment of any age.

(B) A plan shall not be treated as failing to meet the requirements of subparagraph (A) solely because the subsidized portion of any early retirement benefit is disregarded in determining benefit accruals.

(C) Any regulations prescribed by the Secretary of the Treasury pursuant to subparagraphs (B) and (C) of section 411(b)(2) of title 26 shall apply with respect to the requirements of this paragraph in the same manner and to the same extent as such regulations apply with respect to the requirements of such section 411(b)(2).

(3) A plan satisfies the requirements of this paragraph if—

(A) in the case of a defined benefit plan, the plan requires separate accounting for the portion of each employee's accrued benefit derived from any voluntary employee contributions permitted under the plan; and

(B) in the case of any plan which is not a defined benefit plan, the plan requires separate accounting for each employee's accrued benefit.


(4)(A) For purposes of determining an employee's accrued benefit, the term “year of participation” means a period of service (beginning at the earliest date on which the employee is a participant in the plan and which is included in a period of service required to be taken into account under section 1052(b) of this title, determined without regard to section 1052(b)(5) of this title) as determined under regulations prescribed by the Secretary which provide for the calculation of such period on any reasonable and consistent basis.

(B) For purposes of this paragraph, except as provided in subparagraph (C), in the case of any employee whose customary employment is less than full time, the calculation of such employee's service on any basis which provides less than a ratable portion of the accrued benefit to which he would be entitled under the plan if his customary employment were full time shall not be treated as made on a reasonable and consistent basis.

(C) For purposes of this paragraph, in the case of any employee whose service is less than 1,000 hours during any calendar year, plan year or other 12-consecutive-month period designated by the plan (and not prohibited under regulations prescribed by the Secretary) the calculation of his period of service shall not be treated as not made on a reasonable and consistent basis merely because such service is not taken into account.

(D) In the case of any seasonal industry where the customary period of employment is less than 1,000 hours during a calendar year, the term “year of participation” shall be such period as determined under regulations prescribed by the Secretary.

(E) For purposes of this subsection in the case of any maritime industry, 125 days of service shall be treated as a year of participation. The Secretary may prescribe regulations to carry out the purposes of this subparagraph.

(5) Special rules relating to age.—

(A) Comparison to similarly situated younger individual.—

(i) In general.—A plan shall not be treated as failing to meet the requirements of paragraph (1)(H)(i) if a participant's accrued benefit, as determined as of any date under the terms of the plan, would be equal to or greater than that of any similarly situated, younger individual who is or could be a participant.

(ii) Similarly situated.—For purposes of this subparagraph, a participant is similarly situated to any other individual if such participant is identical to such other individual in every respect (including period of service, compensation, position, date of hire, work history, and any other respect) except for age.

(iii) Disregard of subsidized early retirement benefits.—In determining the accrued benefit as of any date for purposes of this subparagraph, the subsidized portion of any early retirement benefit or retirement-type subsidy shall be disregarded.

(iv) Accrued benefit.—For purposes of this subparagraph, the accrued benefit may, under the terms of the plan, be expressed as an annuity payable at normal retirement age, the balance of a hypothetical account, or the current value of the accumulated percentage of the employee's final average compensation.


(B) Applicable defined benefit plans.—

(i) Interest credits.—

(I) In general.—An applicable defined benefit plan shall be treated as failing to meet the requirements of paragraph (1)(H) unless the terms of the plan provide that any interest credit (or an equivalent amount) for any plan year shall be at a rate which is not greater than a market rate of return. A plan shall not be treated as failing to meet the requirements of this subclause merely because the plan provides for a reasonable minimum guaranteed rate of return or for a rate of return that is equal to the greater of a fixed or variable rate of return.

(II) Preservation of capital.—An applicable defined benefit plan shall be treated as failing to meet the requirements of paragraph (1)(H) unless the plan provides that an interest credit (or equivalent amount) of less than zero shall in no event result in the account balance or similar amount being less than the aggregate amount of contributions credited to the account.

(III) Market rate of return.—The Secretary of the Treasury may provide by regulation for rules governing the calculation of a market rate of return for purposes of subclause (I) and for permissible methods of crediting interest to the account (including fixed or variable interest rates) resulting in effective rates of return meeting the requirements of subclause (I).


(ii) Special rule for plan conversions.—If, after June 29, 2005, an applicable plan amendment is adopted, the plan shall be treated as failing to meet the requirements of paragraph (1)(H) unless the requirements of clause (iii) are met with respect to each individual who was a participant in the plan immediately before the adoption of the amendment.

(iii) Rate of benefit accrual.—Subject to clause (iv), the requirements of this clause are met with respect to any participant if the accrued benefit of the participant under the terms of the plan as in effect after the amendment is not less than the sum of—

(I) the participant's accrued benefit for years of service before the effective date of the amendment, determined under the terms of the plan as in effect before the amendment, plus

(II) the participant's accrued benefit for years of service after the effective date of the amendment, determined under the terms of the plan as in effect after the amendment.


(iv) Special rules for early retirement subsidies.—For purposes of clause (iii)(I), the plan shall credit the accumulation account or similar amount 1 with the amount of any early retirement benefit or retirement-type subsidy for the plan year in which the participant retires if, as of such time, the participant has met the age, years of service, and other requirements under the plan for entitlement to such benefit or subsidy.

(v) Applicable plan amendment.—For purposes of this subparagraph—

(I) In general.—The term “applicable plan amendment” means an amendment to a defined benefit plan which has the effect of converting the plan to an applicable defined benefit plan.

(II) Special rule for coordinated benefits.—If the benefits of 2 or more defined benefit plans established or maintained by an employer are coordinated in such a manner as to have the effect of the adoption of an amendment described in subclause (I), the sponsor of the defined benefit plan or plans providing for such coordination shall be treated as having adopted such a plan amendment as of the date such coordination begins.

(III) Multiple amendments.—The Secretary of the Treasury shall issue regulations to prevent the avoidance of the purposes of this subparagraph through the use of 2 or more plan amendments rather than a single amendment.

(IV) Applicable defined benefit plan.—For purposes of this subparagraph, the term “applicable defined benefit plan” has the meaning given such term by section 1053(f)(3) of this title.


(vi) Termination requirements.—An applicable defined benefit plan shall not be treated as meeting the requirements of clause (i) unless the plan provides that, upon the termination of the plan—

(I) if the interest credit rate (or an equivalent amount) under the plan is a variable rate, the rate of interest used to determine accrued benefits under the plan shall be equal to the average of the rates of interest used under the plan during the 5-year period ending on the termination date, and

(II) the interest rate and mortality table used to determine the amount of any benefit under the plan payable in the form of an annuity payable at normal retirement age shall be the rate and table specified under the plan for such purpose as of the termination date, except that if such interest rate is a variable rate, the interest rate shall be determined under the rules of subclause (I).


(C) Certain offsets permitted.—A plan shall not be treated as failing to meet the requirements of paragraph (1)(H)(i) solely because the plan provides offsets against benefits under the plan to the extent such offsets are otherwise allowable in applying the requirements of section 401(a) of title 26.

(D) Permitted disparities in plan contributions or benefits.—A plan shall not be treated as failing to meet the requirements of paragraph (1)(H) solely because the plan provides a disparity in contributions or benefits with respect to which the requirements of section 401(l) of title 26 are met.

(E) Indexing permitted.—

(i) In general.—A plan shall not be treated as failing to meet the requirements of paragraph (1)(H) solely because the plan provides for indexing of accrued benefits under the plan.

(ii) Protection against loss.—Except in the case of any benefit provided in the form of a variable annuity, clause (i) shall not apply with respect to any indexing which results in an accrued benefit less than the accrued benefit determined without regard to such indexing.

(iii) Indexing.—For purposes of this subparagraph, the term “indexing” means, in connection with an accrued benefit, the periodic adjustment of the accrued benefit by means of the application of a recognized investment index or methodology.


(F) Early retirement benefit or retirement-type subsidy.—For purposes of this paragraph, the terms “early retirement benefit” and “retirement-type subsidy” have the meaning given such terms in subsection (g)(2)(A).

(G) Benefit accrued to date.—For purposes of this paragraph, any reference to the accrued benefit shall be a reference to such benefit accrued to date.

(c) Employee's accrued benefits derived from employer and employee contributions

(1) For purposes of this section and section 1053 of this title an employee's accrued benefit derived from employer contributions as of any applicable date is the excess (if any) of the accrued benefit for such employee as of such applicable date over the accrued benefit derived from contributions made by such employee as of such date.

(2)(A) In the case of a plan other than a defined benefit plan, the accrued benefit derived from contributions made by an employee as of any applicable date is—

(i) except as provided in clause (ii), the balance of the employee's separate account consisting only of his contributions and the income, expenses, gains, and losses attributable thereto, or

(ii) if a separate account is not maintained with respect to an employee's contributions under such a plan, the amount which bears the same ratio to his total accrued benefit as the total amount of the employee's contributions (less withdrawals) bears to the sum of such contributions and the contributions made on his behalf by the employer (less withdrawals).


(B) Defined benefit plans.—In the case of a defined benefit plan, the accrued benefit derived from contributions made by an employee as of any applicable date is the amount equal to the employee's accumulated contributions expressed as an annual benefit commencing at normal retirement age, using an interest rate which would be used under the plan under section 1055(g)(3) of this title (as of the determination date).

(C) For purposes of this subsection, the term “accumulated contributions” means the total of—

(i) all mandatory contributions made by the employee,

(ii) interest (if any) under the plan to the end of the last plan year to which section 1053(a)(2) of this title does not apply (by reason of the applicable effective date), and

(iii) interest on the sum of the amounts determined under clauses (i) and (ii) compounded annually—

(I) at the rate of 120 percent of the Federal mid-term rate (as in effect under section 1274 of title 26 for the 1st month of a plan year for the period beginning with the 1st plan year to which subsection (a)(2) of this section applies by reason of the applicable effective date) and ending with the date on which the determination is being made, and

(II) at the interest rate which would be used under the plan under section 1055(g)(3) of this title (as of the determination date) for the period beginning with the determination date and ending on the date on which the employee attains normal retirement age.


For purposes of this subparagraph, the term “mandatory contributions” means amounts contributed to the plan by the employee which are required as a condition of employment, as a condition of participation in such plans, or as a condition of obtaining benefits under the plan attributable to employer contributions.

(D) The Secretary of the Treasury is authorized to adjust by regulation the conversion factor described in subparagraph (B) from time to time as he may deem necessary. No such adjustment shall be effective for a plan year beginning before the expiration of 1 year after such adjustment is determined and published.

(3) For purposes of this section, in the case of any defined benefit plan, if an employee's accrued benefit is to be determined as an amount other than an annual benefit commencing at normal retirement age, or if the accrued benefit derived from contributions made by an employee is to be determined with respect to a benefit other than an annual benefit in the form of a single life annuity (without ancillary benefits) commencing at normal retirement age, the employee's accrued benefit, or the accrued benefits derived from contributions made by an employee, as the case may be, shall be the actuarial equivalent of such benefit or amount determined under paragraph (1) or (2).

(4) In the case of a defined benefit plan which permits voluntary employee contributions, the portion of an employee's accrued benefit derived from such contributions shall be treated as an accrued benefit derived from employee contributions under a plan other than a defined benefit plan.

(d) Employee service which may be disregarded in determining employee's accrued benefits under plan

Notwithstanding section 1053(b)(1) of this title, for purposes of determining the employee's accrued benefit under the plan, the plan may disregard service performed by the employee with respect to which he has received—

(1) a distribution of the present value of his entire nonforfeitable benefit if such distribution was in an amount (not more than the dollar limit under section 1053(e)(1) of this title) permitted under regulations prescribed by the Secretary of the Treasury, or

(2) a distribution of the present value of his nonforfeitable benefit attributable to such service which he elected to receive.


Paragraph (1) shall apply only if such distribution was made on termination of the employee's participation in the plan. Paragraph (2) shall apply only if such distribution was made on termination of the employee's participation in the plan or under such other circumstances as may be provided under regulations prescribed by the Secretary of the Treasury.

(e) Opportunity to repay full amount of distributions which have been reduced through disregarded employee service

For purposes of determining the employee's accrued benefit, the plan shall not disregard service as provided in subsection (d) of this section unless the plan provides an opportunity for the participant to repay the full amount of a distribution described in subsection (d) of this section with, in the case of a defined benefit plan, interest at the rate determined for purposes of subsection (c)(2)(C) of this section and provides that upon such repayment the employee's accrued benefit shall be recomputed by taking into account service so disregarded. This subsection shall apply only in the case of a participant who—

(1) received such a distribution in any plan year to which this section applies which distribution was less than the present value of his accrued benefit,

(2) resumes employment covered under the plan, and

(3) repays the full amount of such distribution with, in the case of a defined benefit plan, interest at the rate determined for purposes of subsection (c)(2)(C) of this section.


The plan provision required under this subsection may provide that such repayment must be made (A) in the case of a withdrawal on account of separation from service, before the earlier of 5 years after the first date on which the participant is subsequently re-employed by the employer, or the close of the first period of 5 consecutive 1-year breaks in service commencing after the withdrawal; or (B) in the case of any other withdrawal, 5 years after the date of the withdrawal.

(f) Employer treated as maintaining a plan

For the purposes of this part, an employer shall be treated as maintaining a plan if any employee of such employer accrues benefits under such plan by reason of service with such employer.

(g) Decrease of accrued benefits through amendment of plan

(1) The accrued benefit of a participant under a plan may not be decreased by an amendment of the plan, other than an amendment described in section 1082(d)(2) or 1441 of this title.

(2) For purposes of paragraph (1), a plan amendment which has the effect of—

(A) eliminating or reducing an early retirement benefit or a retirement-type subsidy (as defined in regulations), or

(B) eliminating an optional form of benefit,


with respect to benefits attributable to service before the amendment shall be treated as reducing accrued benefits. In the case of a retirement-type subsidy, the preceding sentence shall apply only with respect to a participant who satisfies (either before or after the amendment) the preamendment conditions for the subsidy. The Secretary of the Treasury shall by regulations provide that this paragraph shall not apply to any plan amendment which reduces or eliminates benefits or subsidies which create significant burdens or complexities for the plan and plan participants, unless such amendment adversely affects the rights of any participant in a more than de minimis manner. The Secretary of the Treasury may by regulations provide that this subparagraph shall not apply to a plan amendment described in subparagraph (B) (other than a plan amendment having an effect described in subparagraph (A)).

(3) For purposes of this subsection, any—

(A) tax credit employee stock ownership plan (as defined in section 409(a) of title 26, or

(B) employee stock ownership plan (as defined in section 4975(e)(7) of title 26),


shall not be treated as failing to meet the requirements of this subsection merely because it modifies distribution options in a nondiscriminatory manner.

(4)(A) A defined contribution plan (in this subparagraph referred to as the “transferee plan”) shall not be treated as failing to meet the requirements of this subsection merely because the transferee plan does not provide some or all of the forms of distribution previously available under another defined contribution plan (in this subparagraph referred to as the “transferor plan”) to the extent that—

(i) the forms of distribution previously available under the transferor plan applied to the account of a participant or beneficiary under the transferor plan that was transferred from the transferor plan to the transferee plan pursuant to a direct transfer rather than pursuant to a distribution from the transferor plan;

(ii) the terms of both the transferor plan and the transferee plan authorize the transfer described in clause (i);

(iii) the transfer described in clause (i) was made pursuant to a voluntary election by the participant or beneficiary whose account was transferred to the transferee plan;

(iv) the election described in clause (iii) was made after the participant or beneficiary received a notice describing the consequences of making the election; and

(v) the transferee plan allows the participant or beneficiary described in clause (iii) to receive any distribution to which the participant or beneficiary is entitled under the transferee plan in the form of a single sum distribution.


(B) Subparagraph (A) shall apply to plan mergers and other transactions having the effect of a direct transfer, including consolidations of benefits attributable to different employers within a multiple employer plan.

(5) Except to the extent provided in regulations promulgated by the Secretary of the Treasury, a defined contribution plan shall not be treated as failing to meet the requirements of this subsection merely because of the elimination of a form of distribution previously available thereunder. This paragraph shall not apply to the elimination of a form of distribution with respect to any participant unless—

(A) a single sum payment is available to such participant at the same time or times as the form of distribution being eliminated; and

(B) such single sum payment is based on the same or greater portion of the participant's account as the form of distribution being eliminated.

(h) Notice of significant reduction in benefit accruals

(1) An applicable pension plan may not be amended so as to provide for a significant reduction in the rate of future benefit accrual unless the plan administrator provides the notice described in paragraph (2) to each applicable individual (and to each employee organization representing applicable individuals) and to each employer who has an obligation to contribute to the plan.

(2) The notice required by paragraph (1) shall be written in a manner calculated to be understood by the average plan participant and shall provide sufficient information (as determined in accordance with regulations prescribed by the Secretary of the Treasury) to allow applicable individuals to understand the effect of the plan amendment. The Secretary of the Treasury may provide a simplified form of notice for, or exempt from any notice requirement, a plan—

(A) which has fewer than 100 participants who have accrued a benefit under the plan, or

(B) which offers participants the option to choose between the new benefit formula and the old benefit formula.


(3) Except as provided in regulations prescribed by the Secretary of the Treasury, the notice required by paragraph (1) shall be provided within a reasonable time before the effective date of the plan amendment.

(4) Any notice under paragraph (1) may be provided to a person designated, in writing, by the person to which it would otherwise be provided.

(5) A plan shall not be treated as failing to meet the requirements of paragraph (1) merely because notice is provided before the adoption of the plan amendment if no material modification of the amendment occurs before the amendment is adopted.

(6)(A) In the case of any egregious failure to meet any requirement of this subsection with respect to any plan amendment, the provisions of the applicable pension plan shall be applied as if such plan amendment entitled all applicable individuals to the greater of—

(i) the benefits to which they would have been entitled without regard to such amendment, or

(ii) the benefits under the plan with regard to such amendment.


(B) For purposes of subparagraph (A), there is an egregious failure to meet the requirements of this subsection if such failure is within the control of the plan sponsor and is—

(i) an intentional failure (including any failure to promptly provide the required notice or information after the plan administrator discovers an unintentional failure to meet the requirements of this subsection),

(ii) a failure to provide most of the individuals with most of the information they are entitled to receive under this subsection, or

(iii) a failure which is determined to be egregious under regulations prescribed by the Secretary of the Treasury.


(7) The Secretary of the Treasury may by regulations allow any notice under this subsection to be provided by using new technologies.

(8) For purposes of this subsection—

(A) The term “applicable individual” means, with respect to any plan amendment—

(i) each participant in the plan; and

(ii) any beneficiary who is an alternate payee (within the meaning of section 1056(d)(3)(K) of this title) under an applicable qualified domestic relations order (within the meaning of section 1056(d)(3)(B)(i) of this title),


whose rate of future benefit accrual under the plan may reasonably be expected to be significantly reduced by such plan amendment.

(B) The term “applicable pension plan” means—

(i) any defined benefit plan; or

(ii) an individual account plan which is subject to the funding standards of section 412 of title 26.


(9) For purposes of this subsection, a plan amendment which eliminates or reduces any early retirement benefit or retirement-type subsidy (within the meaning of subsection (g)(2)(A) of this section) shall be treated as having the effect of reducing the rate of future benefit accrual.

(i) Prohibition on benefit increases where plan sponsor is in bankruptcy

(1) In the case of a plan described in paragraph (3) which is maintained by an employer that is a debtor in a case under title 11 or similar Federal or State law, no amendment of the plan which increases the liabilities of the plan by reason of—

(A) any increase in benefits,

(B) any change in the accrual of benefits, or

(C) any change in the rate at which benefits become nonforfeitable under the plan,


with respect to employees of the debtor, shall be effective prior to the effective date of such employer's plan of reorganization.

(2) Paragraph (1) shall not apply to any plan amendment that—

(A) the Secretary of the Treasury determines to be reasonable and that provides for only de minimis increases in the liabilities of the plan with respect to employees of the debtor,

(B) only repeals an amendment described in section 1082(d)(2) of this title,

(C) is required as a condition of qualification under part I of subchapter D of chapter 1 of title 26, or

(D) was adopted prior to, or pursuant to a collective bargaining agreement entered into prior to, the date on which the employer became a debtor in a case under title 11 or similar Federal or State law.


(3) This subsection shall apply only to plans (other than multiemployer plans) covered under section 1321 of this title for which the funding target attainment percentage (as defined in section 1083(d)(2) of this title) is less than 100 percent after taking into account the effect of the amendment.

(4) For purposes of this subsection, the term “employer” has the meaning set forth in section 1082(b)(1) of this title, without regard to section 1082(b)(2) of this title.

(j) Diversification requirements for certain individual account plans

(1) In general

An applicable individual account plan shall meet the diversification requirements of paragraphs (2), (3), and (4).

(2) Employee contributions and elective deferrals invested in employer securities

In the case of the portion of an applicable individual's account attributable to employee contributions and elective deferrals which is invested in employer securities, a plan meets the requirements of this paragraph if the applicable individual may elect to direct the plan to divest any such securities and to reinvest an equivalent amount in other investment options meeting the requirements of paragraph (4).

(3) Employer contributions invested in employer securities

In the case of the portion of the account attributable to employer contributions other than elective deferrals which is invested in employer securities, a plan meets the requirements of this paragraph if each applicable individual who—

(A) is a participant who has completed at least 3 years of service, or

(B) is a beneficiary of a participant described in subparagraph (A) or of a deceased participant,


may elect to direct the plan to divest any such securities and to reinvest an equivalent amount in other investment options meeting the requirements of paragraph (4).

(4) Investment options

(A) In general

The requirements of this paragraph are met if the plan offers not less than 3 investment options, other than employer securities, to which an applicable individual may direct the proceeds from the divestment of employer securities pursuant to this subsection, each of which is diversified and has materially different risk and return characteristics.

(B) Treatment of certain restrictions and conditions

(i) Time for making investment choices

A plan shall not be treated as failing to meet the requirements of this paragraph merely because the plan limits the time for divestment and reinvestment to periodic, reasonable opportunities occurring no less frequently than quarterly.

(ii) Certain restrictions and conditions not allowed

Except as provided in regulations, a plan shall not meet the requirements of this paragraph if the plan imposes restrictions or conditions with respect to the investment of employer securities which are not imposed on the investment of other assets of the plan. This subparagraph shall not apply to any restrictions or conditions imposed by reason of the application of securities laws.

(5) Applicable individual account plan

For purposes of this subsection—

(A) In general

The term “applicable individual account plan” means any individual account plan (as defined in section 1002(34) of this title) which holds any publicly traded employer securities.

(B) Exception for certain ESOPS

Such term does not include an employee stock ownership plan if—

(i) there are no contributions to such plan (or earnings thereunder) which are held within such plan and are subject to subsection (k) or (m) of section 401 of title 26, and

(ii) such plan is a separate plan (for purposes of section 414(l) of title 26) with respect to any other defined benefit plan or individual account plan maintained by the same employer or employers.

(C) Exception for one participant plans

Such term shall not include a one-participant retirement plan (as defined in section 1021(i)(8)(B) of this title).

(D) Certain plans treated as holding publicly traded employer securities

(i) In general

Except as provided in regulations or in clause (ii), a plan holding employer securities which are not publicly traded employer securities shall be treated as holding publicly traded employer securities if any employer corporation, or any member of a controlled group of corporations which includes such employer corporation, has issued a class of stock which is a publicly traded employer security.

(ii) Exception for certain controlled groups with publicly traded securities

Clause (i) shall not apply to a plan if—

(I) no employer corporation, or parent corporation of an employer corporation, has issued any publicly traded employer security, and

(II) no employer corporation, or parent corporation of an employer corporation, has issued any special class of stock which grants particular rights to, or bears particular risks for, the holder or issuer with respect to any corporation described in clause (i) which has issued any publicly traded employer security.

(iii) Definitions

For purposes of this subparagraph, the term—

(I) “controlled group of corporations” has the meaning given such term by section 1563(a) of title 26, except that “50 percent” shall be substituted for “80 percent” each place it appears,

(II) “employer corporation” means a corporation which is an employer maintaining the plan, and

(III) “parent corporation” has the meaning given such term by section 424(e) of title 26.

(6) Other definitions

For purposes of this paragraph—

(A) Applicable individual

The term “applicable individual” means—

(i) any participant in the plan, and

(ii) any beneficiary who has an account under the plan with respect to which the beneficiary is entitled to exercise the rights of a participant.

(B) Elective deferral

The term “elective deferral” means an employer contribution described in section 402(g)(3)(A) of title 26.

(C) Employer security

The term “employer security” has the meaning given such term by section 1107(d)(1) of this title.

(D) Employee stock ownership plan

The term “employee stock ownership plan” has the meaning given such term by section 4975(e)(7) of title 26.

(E) Publicly traded employer securities

The term “publicly traded employer securities” means employer securities which are readily tradable on an established securities market.

(F) Year of service

The term “year of service” has the meaning given such term by section 1053(b)(2) of this title.

(7) Transition rule for securities attributable to employer contributions

(A) Rules phased in over 3 years

(i) In general

In the case of the portion of an account to which paragraph (3) applies and which consists of employer securities acquired in a plan year beginning before January 1, 2007, paragraph (3) shall only apply to the applicable percentage of such securities. This subparagraph shall be applied separately with respect to each class of securities.

(ii) Exception for certain participants aged 55 or over

Clause (i) shall not apply to an applicable individual who is a participant who has attained age 55 and completed at least 3 years of service before the first plan year beginning after December 31, 2005.

(B) Applicable percentage

For purposes of subparagraph (A), the applicable percentage shall be determined as follows:


 Plan year to which
The applicable
  paragraph (3) applies:
percentage is:
1st
33     
2d
66     
3d
100.   

        

(k) Cross reference

For special rules relating to plan provisions adopted to preclude discrimination, see section 1053(c)(2) of this title.

(Pub. L. 93–406, title I, §204, Sept. 2, 1974, 88 Stat. 858; Pub. L. 98–397, title I, §§102(e)(3), (f), 105(b), title III, §301(a)(2), Aug. 23, 1984, 98 Stat. 1429, 1436, 1451; Pub. L. 99–272, title XI, §11006(a), Apr. 7, 1986, 100 Stat. 243; Pub. L. 99–509, title IX, §9202(a), Oct. 21, 1986, 100 Stat. 1975; Pub. L. 99–514, title XI, §1113(e)(4)(B), title XVIII, §§1879(u)(1), 1898(a)(4)(B)(ii), (f)(1)(B), (2), Oct. 22, 1986, 100 Stat. 2448, 2913, 2944, 2956; Pub. L. 100–203, title IX, §9346(a), Dec. 22, 1987, 101 Stat. 1330–374; Pub. L. 101–239, title VII, §§7862(b)(1)(A), (2), 7871(a)(1), (3), 7881(m)(2)(A)–(C), 7891(a)(1), 7894(c)(4)–(6), Dec. 19, 1989, 103 Stat. 2432, 2434, 2435, 2444, 2445, 2449; Pub. L. 103–465, title VII, §766(a), Dec. 8, 1994, 108 Stat. 5036; Pub. L. 105–34, title X, §1071(b)(2), Aug. 5, 1997, 111 Stat. 948; Pub. L. 107–16, title VI, §§645(a)(2), (b)(2), 659(b), June 7, 2001, 115 Stat. 124, 125, 139; Pub. L. 107–147, title IV, §411(u)(2), Mar. 9, 2002, 116 Stat. 52; Pub. L. 109–280, title I, §108(a)(5)–(8), formerly §107(a)(5)–(8), title V, §502(c)(1), title VII, §701(a)(1), title IX, §901(b)(1), Aug. 17, 2006, 120 Stat. 819, 941, 981, 1029, renumbered Pub. L. 111–192, title II, §202(a), June 25, 2010, 124 Stat. 1297; Pub. L. 110–458, title I, §107(a)(2), (3), Dec. 23, 2008, 122 Stat. 5107.)

References in Text

The Social Security Act, referred to in subsec. (b)(1)(G), is act Aug. 14, 1935, ch. 531, 49 Stat. 620. Title II of the Social Security Act is classified generally to subchapter II (§401 et seq.) of chapter 7 of Title 42, The Public Health and Welfare. For complete classification of this Act to the Code, see section 1305 of Title 42 and Tables.

Amendments

2008—Subsec. (b)(5)(A)(iii). Pub. L. 110–458, §107(a)(2)(A), substituted “subparagraph” for “clause”.

Subsec. (b)(5)(B)(i)(II). Pub. L. 110–458, §107(a)(3), amended subcl. (II) generally. Prior to amendment, text read as follows: “An interest credit (or an equivalent amount) of less than zero shall in no event result in the account balance or similar amount being less than the aggregate amount of contributions credited to the account.”

Subsec. (b)(5)(C). Pub. L. 110–458, §107(a)(2)(B), inserted “otherwise” before “allowable”.

2006—Subsec. (b)(5). Pub. L. 109–280, §701(a)(1), added par. (5).

Subsec. (g)(1). Pub. L. 109–280, §108(a)(5), formerly §107(a)(5), as renumbered by Pub. L. 111–192, substituted “1082(d)(2)” for “1082(c)(8)”.

Subsec. (h)(1). Pub. L. 109–280, §502(c)(1), inserted before period at end “and to each employer who has an obligation to contribute to the plan”.

Subsec. (i)(2)(B). Pub. L. 109–280, §108(a)(6), formerly §107(a)(6), as renumbered by Pub. L. 111–192, substituted “1082(d)(2)” for “1082(c)(8)”.

Subsec. (i)(3). Pub. L. 109–280, §108(a)(7), formerly §107(a)(7), as renumbered by Pub. L. 111–192, substituted “funding target attainment percentage (as defined in section 1083(d)(2) of this title)” for “funded current liability percentage (within the meaning of section 1082(d)(8) of this title)”.

Subsec. (i)(4). Pub. L. 109–280, §108(a)(8), formerly §107(a)(8), as renumbered by Pub. L. 111–192, substituted “section 1082(b)(1) of this title, without regard to section 1082(b)(2) of this title” for “section 1082(c)(11)(A) of this title, without regard to section 1082(c)(11)(B) of this title”.

Subsecs. (j), (k). Pub. L. 109–280, §901(b)(1), added subsec. (j) and redesignated former subsec. (j) as (k).

2002—Subsec. (h)(9). Pub. L. 107–147 struck out “significantly” before “reduces” and before “reducing”.

2001—Subsec. (g)(2). Pub. L. 107–16, §645(b)(2), inserted after second sentence “The Secretary of the Treasury shall by regulations provide that this paragraph shall not apply to any plan amendment which reduces or eliminates benefits or subsidies which create significant burdens or complexities for the plan and plan participants, unless such amendment adversely affects the rights of any participant in a more than de minimis manner.”

Subsec. (g)(4), (5). Pub. L. 107–16, §645(a)(2), added pars. (4) and (5).

Subsec. (h). Pub. L. 107–16, §659(b), amended subsec. (h) generally. Prior to amendment, subsec. (h) read as follows:

“(1) A plan described in paragraph (2) may not be amended so as to provide for a significant reduction in the rate of future benefit accrual, unless, after adoption of the plan amendment and not less than 15 days before the effective date of the plan amendment, the plan administrator provides a written notice, setting forth the plan amendment and its effective date, to—

“(A) each participant in the plan,

“(B) each beneficiary who is an alternate payee (within the meaning of section 1056(d)(3)(K) of this title) under an applicable qualified domestic relations order (within the meaning of section 1056(d)(3)(B)(i) of this title), and

“(C) each employee organization representing participants in the plan,

except that such notice shall instead be provided to a person designated, in writing, to receive such notice on behalf of any person referred to in subparagraph (A), (B), or (C).

“(2) A plan is described in this paragraph if such plan is—

“(A) a defined benefit plan, or

“(B) an individual account plan which is subject to the funding standards of section 1082 of this title.”

1997—Subsec. (d)(1). Pub. L. 105–34 substituted “the dollar limit under section 1053(e)(1) of this title” for “$3,500”.

1994—Subsecs. (i), (j). Pub. L. 103–465 added subsec. (i) and redesignated former subsec. (i) as (j).

1989—Subsec. (b)(1)(A). Pub. L. 101–239, §7894(c)(4), substituted “subparagraph” for “suparagraph” in last sentence.

Subsec. (b)(1)(E). Pub. L. 101–239, §7894(c)(5), substituted “term ‘year of service’ ” for “term ‘years of service’ ”.

Subsec. (b)(2)(B). Pub. L. 101–239, §7871(a)(1), redesignated subpar. (C) as (B) and struck out former subpar. (B) which read as follows: “Subparagraph (A) shall not apply with respect to any employee who is a highly compensated employee (within the meaning of section 414(q) of title 26) to the extent provided in regulations prescribed by the Secretary of the Treasury for purposes of precluding discrimination in favor of highly compensated employees within the meaning of subchapter D of chapter 1 of title 26.”

Subsec. (b)(2)(C). Pub. L. 101–239, §7871(a)(3), substituted “subparagraphs (B) and (C)” for “subparagraphs (C) and (D)”.

Pub. L. 101–239, §7871(a)(1), redesignated subpar. (D) as (C). Former subpar. (C) redesignated (B).

Subsec. (b)(2)(D). Pub. L. 101–239, §7871(a)(1), redesignated subpar. (D) as (C).

Subsec. (c)(2)(B). Pub. L. 101–239, §7881(m)(2)(B), inserted heading and amended text generally. Prior to amendment, text read as follows:

“(i) In the case of a defined benefit plan providing an annual benefit in the form of a single life annuity (without ancillary benefits) commencing at normal retirement age, the accrued benefit derived from contributions made by an employee as of any applicable date is the annual benefit equal to the employee's accumulated contributions multiplied by the appropriate conversion factor.

“(ii) For purposes of clause (i), the term ‘appropriate conversion factor’ means the factor necessary to convert an amount equal to the accumulated contributions to a single life annuity (without ancillary benefits) commencing at normal retirement age and shall be 10 percent for a normal retirement age of 65 years. For other normal retirement ages the conversion factor shall be determined in accordance with regulations prescribed by the Secretary of the Treasury or his delegate.”

Subsec. (c)(2)(C)(iii). Pub. L. 101–239, §7881(m)(2)(A), amended cl. (iii) generally. Prior to amendment, cl. (iii) read as follows: “interest on the sum of the amounts determined under clauses (i) and (ii) compounded annually at the rate of 120 percent of the Federal mid-term rate (as in effect under section 1274 of title 26 for the 1st month of a plan year) from the beginning of the first plan year to which section 1053(a)(2) of this title applies (by reason of the applicable effective date) to the date upon which the employee would attain normal retirement age.”

Subsec. (c)(2)(E). Pub. L. 101–239, §7881(m)(2)(C), struck out subpar. (E) which read as follows: “The accrued benefit derived from employee contributions shall not exceed the greater of—

“(i) the employee's accrued benefit under the plan, or

“(ii) the accrued benefit derived from employee contributions determined as though the amounts calculated under clauses (ii) and (iii) of subparagraph (C) were zero.”

Subsec. (d). Pub. L. 101–239, §7894(c)(6), removed the indentation of the term “Paragraph” where first appearing in concluding provisions.

Subsec. (g)(3)(A). Pub. L. 101–239, §7891(a)(1), substituted “Internal Revenue Code of 1986” for “Internal Revenue Code of 1954”, which for purposes of codification was translated as “title 26” thus requiring no change in text.

Subsec. (h). Pub. L. 101–239, §7862(b)(1)(A), made technical correction to directory language of Pub. L. 99–514, §1879(u)(1), see 1986 Amendment note below.

Subsec. (h)(2). Pub. L. 101–239, §7862(b)(2), adjusted left-hand margin of introductory provisions to full measure.

1987—Subsec. (c)(2)(C)(iii). Pub. L. 100–203, §9346(a)(1), substituted “120 percent of the Federal mid-term rate (as in effect under section 1274 of title 26 for the 1st month of a plan year)” for “5 percent per annum”.

Subsec. (c)(2)(D). Pub. L. 100–203, §9346(a)(2), struck out “, the rate of interest described in clause (iii) of subparagraph (C), or both,” before “from time to time” in first sentence and struck out second sentence which read as follows: “The rate of interest shall bear the relationship to 5 percent which the Secretary of the Treasury determines to be comparable to the relationship which the long-term money rates and investment yields for the last period of 10 calendar years ending at least 12 months before the beginning of the plan year bear to the long-term money rates and investment yields for the 10-calendar year period 1964 through 1973.”

1986—Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 99–509, §9202(a)(1), amended subsec. (a) generally. Prior to amendment, subsec. (a) read as follows: “Each pension plan shall satisfy the requirements of subsection (b)(2) of this section, and in the case of a defined benefit plan shall also satisfy the requirements of subsection (b)(1) of this section.”

Subsec. (b)(1)(H). Pub. L. 99–509, §9202(a)(2), added subpar. (H).

Subsec. (b)(2) to (4). Pub. L. 99–509, §9202(a)(3), added par. (2) and redesignated former pars. (2) and (3) as (3) and (4), respectively.

Subsec. (e). Pub. L. 99–514, §1898(a)(4)(B)(ii), inserted last sentence and struck out former last sentence which read as follows: “In the case of a defined contribution plan, the plan provision required under this subsection may provide that such repayment must be made before the participant has 5 consecutive 1-year breaks in service commencing after such withdrawal”.

Subsec. (g)(1). Pub. L. 99–514, §1898(f)(2), inserted reference to section 1441.

Subsec. (g)(3). Pub. L. 99–514, §1898(f)(1)(B), added par. (3).

Subsec. (h). Pub. L. 99–514, §1879(u)(1), as amended by Pub. L. 101–239, §7862(b)(1)(A), designated existing provisions as par. (1), substituted “plan described in paragraph (2)” for “single-employer plan”, redesignated former pars. (1) to (3) as subpars. (A) to (C), respectively, substituted “subparagraph (A), (B), or (C)” for “paragraph (1), (2), or (3)” in concluding provisions, and added par. (2).

Pub. L. 99–272 added subsec. (h). Former subsec. (h) redesignated (i).

Subsec. (i). Pub. L. 99–514, §1113(e)(4)(B), amended subsec. (i) generally, striking out reference to class year plans under section 1053(c)(3) of this title.

Pub. L. 99–272 redesignated former subsec. (h) as (i).

1984—Subsec. (b)(3)(A). Pub. L. 98–397, §102(e)(3), inserted “, determined without regard to section 1052(b)(5) of this title” after “section 1052(b) of this title”.

Subsec. (d)(1). Pub. L. 98–397, §105(b), substituted “$3,500” for “$1,750”.

Subsec. (e). Pub. L. 98–397, §102(f), substituted “5 consecutive 1-year breaks in service” for “any 1-year break in service”.

Subsec. (g). Pub. L. 98–397, §301(a)(2), designated existing provisions as par. (1) and added par. (2).

Effective Date of 2008 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 110–458 effective as if included in the provisions of Pub. L. 109–280 to which the amendment relates, except as otherwise provided, see section 112 of Pub. L. 110–458, set out as a note under section 72 of Title 26, Internal Revenue Code.

Effective Date of 2006 Amendment

Amendment by section 108(a)(5) to (8) of Pub. L. 109–280 applicable to plan years beginning after 2007, see section 108(e) of Pub. L. 109–280, set out as a note under section 1021 of this title.

Amendment by section 502(c)(1) of Pub. L. 109–280 applicable to plan years beginning after Dec. 31, 2007, see section 502(d) of Pub. L. 109–280, set out as a note under section 4980F of Title 26, Internal Revenue Code.

Amendment by section 701(a)(1) of Pub. L. 109–280 applicable to periods beginning on or after June 29, 2005, with provisions relating to vesting and interest credit requirements for plans in existence on June 29, 2005, special rule for collectively bargained plans, and provisions relating to conversions of plan amendments adopted after, and taking effect after, June 29, 2005, see section 701(e) of Pub. L. 109–280, set out as a note under section 411 of Title 26, Internal Revenue Code.

Amendment by section 901(b)(1) of Pub. L. 109–280 applicable to plan years beginning after Dec. 31, 2006, with special rules for collectively bargained agreements and certain employer securities held in an ESOP, see section 901(c) of Pub. L. 109–280, set out as a note under section 401 of Title 26, Internal Revenue Code.

Effective Date of 2002 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 107–147 effective as if included in the provisions of the Economic Growth and Tax Relief Reconciliation Act of 2001, Pub. L. 107–16, to which such amendment relates, see section 411(x) of Pub. L. 107–147, set out as a note under section 25B of Title 26, Internal Revenue Code.

Effective Date of 2001 Amendment

Amendment by section 645(a)(2) of Pub. L. 107–16 applicable to years beginning after Dec. 31, 2001, see section 645(a)(3) of Pub. L. 107–16, set out as a note under section 411 of Title 26, Internal Revenue Code.

Amendment by section 659(b) of Pub. L. 107–16 applicable to plan amendments taking effect on or after June 7, 2001, with transition provisions and special notice rule, see section 659(c) of Pub. L. 107–16, set out as an Effective Date note under section 4980F of Title 26, Internal Revenue Code.

Effective Date of 1997 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 105–34 applicable to plan years beginning after Aug. 5, 1997, see section 1071(c) of Pub. L. 105–34, set out as a note under section 411 of Title 26, Internal Revenue Code.

Effective Date of 1994 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 103–465 applicable to plan amendments adopted on or after Dec. 8, 1994, see section 766(d) of Pub. L. 103–465, set out as a note under section 401 of Title 26, Internal Revenue Code.

Effective Date of 1989 Amendment

Amendment by section 7862(b)(1)(A), (2) of Pub. L. 101–239 effective as if included in the provision of the Tax Reform Act of 1986, Pub. L. 99–514, to which such amendment relates, see section 7863 of Pub. L. 101–239, set out as a note under section 106 of Title 26, Internal Revenue Code.

Amendment by section 7871(a)(1), (3) of Pub. L. 101–239 effective as if included in the amendments made by section 9202 of the Omnibus Budget Reconciliation Act of 1986, Pub. L. 99–509, see section 7871(a)(4) of Pub. L. 101–239, set out as a note under section 411 of Title 26.

Amendment by section 7881(m)(2)(A)–(C) of Pub. L. 101–239 effective, except as otherwise provided, as if included in the provision of the Pension Protection Act, Pub. L. 100–203, §§9302–9346, to which such amendment relates, see section 7882 of Pub. L. 101–239, set out as a note under section 401 of Title 26.

Amendment by section 7891(a)(1) of Pub. L. 101–239 effective, except as otherwise provided, as if included in the provision of the Tax Reform Act of 1986, Pub. L. 99–514, to which such amendment relates, see section 7891(f) of Pub. L. 101–239, set out as a note under section 1002 of this title.

Amendment by section 7894(c)(4)–(6) of Pub. L. 101–239 effective, except as otherwise provided, as if originally included in the provision of the Employee Retirement Income Security Act of 1974, Pub. L. 93–406, to which such amendment relates, see section 7894(i) of Pub. L. 101–239, set out as a note under section 1002 of this title.

Effective Date of 1987 Amendment

Section 9346(c) of Pub. L. 100–203 provided that:

“(1) In general.—The amendments made by this section [amending this section and section 411 of Title 26, Internal Revenue Code] shall apply to plan years beginning after December 31, 1987.

“(2) Plan amendments not required until january 1, 1989.—If any amendment made by this section requires an amendment to any plan, such plan amendment shall not be required to be made before the first plan year beginning on or after January 1, 1989, if—

“(A) during the period after such amendments made by this section take effect and before such first plan year, the plan is operated in accordance with the requirements of such amendments or in accordance with an amendment prescribed by the Secretary of the Treasury and adopted by the plan, and

“(B) such plan amendment applies retroactively to the period after such amendments take effect and such first plan year.

A plan shall not be treated as failing to provide definitely determinable benefits or contributions, or to be operated in accordance with the provisions of the plan, merely because it operates in accordance with this subsection.”

Effective Date of 1986 Amendments

Amendment by section 1113(e)(4)(B) of Pub. L. 99–514 applicable to plan years beginning after Dec. 31, 1988, with special rule for plans maintained pursuant to collective bargaining agreements ratified before Mar. 1, 1986, and not applicable to employees who do not have 1 hour of service in any plan year to which the amendment applies, see section 1113(f) of Pub. L. 99–514, as amended, set out as a note under section 411 of Title 26, Internal Revenue Code.

Section 1879(u)(5), formerly section 1879(u)(4), of Pub. L. 99–514, as redesignated and amended by Pub. L. 101–239, title VII, §7862(b)(1)(A), (B), Dec. 19, 1989, 103 Stat. 2432, provided that:

“(A) General rule.—Except as provided in subparagraph (B), the preceding provisions of this subsection [amending this section and sections 1002 and 1349 of this title] shall be effective as if such provisions were included in the enactment of the Single-Employer Pension Plan Amendments Act of 1986 [Pub. L. 99–272, title XI].

“(B) Special rule.—Subparagraph (B) of section 204(h)(2) of the Employee Retirement Income Security Act of 1974 (as amended by paragraph (1)) [29 U.S.C. 1054(h)(2)(B)] shall apply only with respect to plan amendments adopted on or after the date of the enactment of this Act [Oct. 22, 1986].”

Amendment by section 1898(a)(4)(B)(ii), (f)(1)(B), (2) of Pub. L. 99–514 effective as if included in the provision of the Retirement Equity Act of 1984, Pub. L. 98–397, to which such amendment relates, except as otherwise provided, see section 1898(j) of Pub. L. 99–514, set out as a note under section 401 of this title.

Amendment by Pub. L. 99–509 applicable only with respect to plan years beginning on or after Jan. 1, 1988, and only to employees who have 1 hour of service in any plan year to which amendment applies, with special rule for collectively bargained plans, see section 9204 of Pub. L. 99–509, set out as an Effective and Termination Dates of 1986 Amendments note under section 623 of this title.

Section 11006(b) of Pub. L. 99–272 provided that: “The amendments made by subsection (a) [amending this section] shall apply with respect to plan amendments adopted on or after January 1, 1986, except that, in the case of plan amendments adopted on or after January 1, 1986, and on or before the date of the enactment of this Act [Apr. 7, 1986], the requirements of section 204(h) of the Employee Retirement Income Security Act of 1974 [subsec. (h) of this section] (as added by this section) shall be treated as met if the written notice required under such section 204(h) is provided before 60 days after the date of the enactment of this Act.”

Effective Date of 1984 Amendment

Amendment by sections 102(e)(3), (f), and 105(b) of Pub. L. 98–397 applicable to plan years beginning after Dec. 31, 1984, except as otherwise provided, see sections 302 and 303 of Pub. L. 98–397, set out as a note under section 1001 of this title.

Amendment by section 301(a)(2) of Pub. L. 98–397 not applicable to the termination of a certain defined benefit plan, see section 303(f) of Pub. L. 98–397.

Regulations

Secretary of Labor, Secretary of the Treasury, and Equal Employment Opportunity Commission each to issue before Feb. 1, 1988, final regulations to carry out amendments made by Pub. L. 99–509, see section 9204 of Pub. L. 99–509, set out as an Effective and Termination Dates of 1986 Amendment note under section 623 of this title.

Secretary authorized, effective Sept. 2, 1974, to promulgate regulations wherever provisions of this subchapter call for the promulgation of regulations, see section 1031 of this title.

Applicability of Amendments by Subtitles A and B of Title I of Pub. L. 109–280

For special rules on applicability of amendments by subtitles A (§§101–108) and B (§§111–116) of title I of Pub. L. 109–280 to certain eligible cooperative plans, PBGC settlement plans, and eligible government contractor plans, see sections 104, 105, and 106 of Pub. L. 109–280, set out as notes under section 401 of Title 26, Internal Revenue Code.

Plan Amendments Reflecting Amendments by Section 7881(m) of Pub. L. 101–239 Not Treated as Reducing Accrued Benefit

Section 7881(m)(3) of Pub. L. 101–239 provided that:“If—

“(A) during the period beginning December 22, 1987, and ending June 21, 1988, a plan was amended to reflect the amendments made by section 9346 of the Pension Protection Act [Pub. L. 100–203, amending this section and section 411 of Title 26, Internal Revenue Code], and

“(B) such plan is amended to reflect the amendments made by this subsection [amending this section, section 1002 of this title, and section 411 of Title 26],

any plan amendment described in subparagraph (B) shall not be treated as reducing accrued benefits for purposes of section 411(d)(6) of the Internal Revenue Code of 1986 [section 411(d)(6) of Title 26] or section 204(g) of ERISA [subsec. (g) of this section].”

Plan Amendments Not Required Until January 1, 1989

For provisions directing that if any amendments made by subtitle A or subtitle C of title XI [§§1101–1147 and 1171–1177] or title XVIII [§§1800–1899A] of Pub. L. 99–514 require an amendment to any plan, such plan amendment shall not be required to be made before the first plan year beginning on or after Jan. 1, 1989, see section 1140 of Pub. L. 99–514, as amended, set out as a note under section 401 of Title 26, Internal Revenue Code.

For provisions directing that if any amendments made by Pub. L. 99–509 require an amendment to any plan, such plan amendment shall not be required to be made before the first plan year beginning on or after Jan. 1, 1989, see section 9204 of Pub. L. 99–509, set out as an Effective and Termination Dates of 1986 Amendment note under section 623 of this title.

1 So in original. Probably should be “similar account”.

§1055. Requirement of joint and survivor annuity and preretirement survivor annuity

(a) Required contents for applicable plans

Each pension plan to which this section applies shall provide that—

(1) in the case of a vested participant who does not die before the annuity starting date, the accrued benefit payable to such participant shall be provided in the form of a qualified joint and survivor annuity, and

(2) in the case of a vested participant who dies before the annuity starting date and who has a surviving spouse, a qualified preretirement survivor annuity shall be provided to the surviving spouse of such participant.

(b) Applicable plans

(1) This section shall apply to—

(A) any defined benefit plan,

(B) any individual account plan which is subject to the funding standards of section 1082 of this title, and

(C) any participant under any other individual account plan unless—

(i) such plan provides that the participant's nonforfeitable accrued benefit (reduced by any security interest held by the plan by reason of a loan outstanding to such participant) is payable in full, on the death of the participant, to the participant's surviving spouse (or, if there is no surviving spouse or the surviving spouse consents in the manner required under subsection (c)(2) of this section, to a designated beneficiary),

(ii) such participant does not elect the payment of benefits in the form of a life annuity, and

(iii) with respect to such participant, such plan is not a direct or indirect transferee (in a transfer after December 31, 1984) of a plan which is described in subparagraph (A) or (B) or to which this clause applied with respect to the participant.


Clause (iii) of subparagraph (C) shall apply only with respect to the transferred assets (and income therefrom) if the plan separately accounts for such assets and any income therefrom.

(2)(A) In the case of—

(i) a tax credit employee stock ownership plan (as defined in section 409(a) of title 26), or

(ii) an employee stock ownership plan (as defined in section 4975(e)(7) of title 26),


subsection (a) of this section shall not apply to that portion of the employee's accrued benefit to which the requirements of section 409(h) of title 26 apply.

(B) Subparagraph (A) shall not apply with respect to any participant unless the requirements of clause 1 (i), (ii), and (iii) of paragraph (1)(C) are met with respect to such participant.

(4) 2 This section shall not apply to a plan which the Secretary of the Treasury or his delegate has determined is a plan described in section 404(c) of title 26 (or a continuation thereof) in which participation is substantially limited to individuals who, before January 1, 1976, ceased employment covered by the plan.

(4) 2 A plan shall not be treated as failing to meet the requirements of paragraph (1)(C) or (2) merely because the plan provides that benefits will not be payable to the surviving spouse of the participant unless the participant and such spouse had been married throughout the 1-year period ending on the earlier of the participant's annuity starting date or the date of the participant's death.

(c) Plans meeting requirements of section

(1) A plan meets the requirements of this section only if—

(A) under the plan, each participant—

(i) may elect at any time during the applicable election period to waive the qualified joint and survivor annuity form of benefit or the qualified preretirement survivor annuity form of benefit (or both),

(ii) if the participant elects a waiver under clause (i), may elect the qualified optional survivor annuity at any time during the applicable election period, and

(iii) may revoke any such election at any time during the applicable election period, and


(B) the plan meets the requirements of paragraphs (2), (3), and (4).


(2) Each plan shall provide that an election under paragraph (1)(A)(i) shall not take effect unless—

(A)(i) the spouse of the participant consents in writing to such election, (ii) such election designates a beneficiary (or a form of benefits) which may not be changed without spousal consent (or the consent of the spouse expressly permits designations by the participant without any requirement of further consent by the spouse), and (iii) the spouse's consent acknowledges the effect of such election and is witnessed by a plan representative or a notary public, or

(B) it is established to the satisfaction of a plan representative that the consent required under subparagraph (A) may not be obtained because there is no spouse, because the spouse cannot be located, or because of such other circumstances as the Secretary of the Treasury may by regulations prescribe.


Any consent by a spouse (or establishment that the consent of a spouse may not be obtained) under the preceding sentence shall be effective only with respect to such spouse.

(3)(A) Each plan shall provide to each participant, within a reasonable period of time before the annuity starting date (and consistent with such regulations as the Secretary of the Treasury may prescribe) a written explanation of—

(i) the terms and conditions of the qualified joint and survivor annuity and of the qualified optional survivor annuity,

(ii) the participant's right to make, and the effect of, an election under paragraph (1) to waive the joint and survivor annuity form of benefit,

(iii) the rights of the participant's spouse under paragraph (2), and

(iv) the right to make, and the effect of, a revocation of an election under paragraph (1).


(B)(i) Each plan shall provide to each participant, within the applicable period with respect to such participant (and consistent with such regulations as the Secretary may prescribe), a written explanation with respect to the qualified preretirement survivor annuity comparable to that required under subparagraph (A).

(ii) For purposes of clause (i), the term “applicable period” means, with respect to a participant, whichever of the following periods ends last:

(I) The period beginning with the first day of the plan year in which the participant attains age 32 and ending with the close of the plan year preceding the plan year in which the participant attains age 35.

(II) A reasonable period after the individual becomes a participant.

(III) A reasonable period ending after paragraph (5) ceases to apply to the participant.

(IV) A reasonable period ending after this section applies to the participant.


In the case of a participant who separates from service before attaining age 35, the applicable period shall be a reasonable period after separation.

(4) Each plan shall provide that, if this section applies to a participant when part or all of the participant's accrued benefit is to be used as security for a loan, no portion of the participant's accrued benefit may be used as security for such loan unless—

(A) the spouse of the participant (if any) consents in writing to such use during the 90-day period ending on the date on which the loan is to be so secured, and

(B) requirements comparable to the requirements of paragraph (2) are met with respect to such consent.


(5)(A) The requirements of this subsection shall not apply with respect to the qualified joint and survivor annuity form of benefit or the qualified preretirement survivor annuity form of benefit, as the case may be, if such benefit may not be waived (or another beneficiary selected) and if the plan fully subsidizes the costs of such benefit.

(B) For purposes of subparagraph (A), a plan fully subsidizes the costs of a benefit if under the plan the failure to waive such benefit by a participant would not result in a decrease in any plan benefits with respect to such participant and would not result in increased contributions from such participant.

(6) If a plan fiduciary acts in accordance with part 4 of this subtitle in—

(A) relying on a consent or revocation referred to in paragraph (1)(A), or

(B) making a determination under paragraph (2),


then such consent, revocation, or determination shall be treated as valid for purposes of discharging the plan from liability to the extent of payments made pursuant to such Act.

(7) For purposes of this subsection, the term “applicable election period” means—

(A) in the case of an election to waive the qualified joint and survivor annuity form of benefit, the 180-day period ending on the annuity starting date, or

(B) in the case of an election to waive the qualified preretirement survivor annuity, the period which begins on the first day of the plan year in which the participant attains age 35 and ends on the date of the participant's death.


In the case of a participant who is separated from service, the applicable election period under subparagraph (B) with respect to benefits accrued before the date of such separation from service shall not begin later than such date.

(8) Notwithstanding any other provision of this subsection—

(A)(i) A plan may provide the written explanation described in paragraph (3)(A) after the annuity starting date. In any case to which this subparagraph applies, the applicable election period under paragraph (7) shall not end before the 30th day after the date on which such explanation is provided.

(ii) The Secretary of the Treasury may by regulations limit the application of clause (i), except that such regulations may not limit the period of time by which the annuity starting date precedes the provision of the written explanation other than by providing that the annuity starting date may not be earlier than termination of employment.

(B) A plan may permit a participant to elect (with any applicable spousal consent) to waive any requirement that the written explanation be provided at least 30 days before the annuity starting date (or to waive the 30-day requirement under subparagraph (A)) if the distribution commences more than 7 days after such explanation is provided.

(d)(1) “Qualified joint and survivor annuity” defined

For purposes of this section, the term “qualified joint and survivor annuity” means an annuity—

(A) for the life of the participant with a survivor annuity for the life of the spouse which is not less than 50 percent of (and is not greater than 100 percent of) the amount of the annuity which is payable during the joint lives of the participant and the spouse, and

(B) which is the actuarial equivalent of a single annuity for the life of the participant.


Such term also includes any annuity in a form having the effect of an annuity described in the preceding sentence.

(2)(A) For purposes of this section, the term “qualified optional survivor annuity” means an annuity—

(i) for the life of the participant with a survivor annuity for the life of the spouse which is equal to the applicable percentage of the amount of the annuity which is payable during the joint lives of the participant and the spouse, and

(ii) which is the actuarial equivalent of a single annuity for the life of the participant.


Such term also includes any annuity in a form having the effect of an annuity described in the preceding sentence.

(B)(i) For purposes of subparagraph (A), if the survivor annuity percentage—

(I) is less than 75 percent, the applicable percentage is 75 percent, and

(II) is greater than or equal to 75 percent, the applicable percentage is 50 percent.


(ii) For purposes of clause (i), the term “survivor annuity percentage” means the percentage which the survivor annuity under the plan's qualified joint and survivor annuity bears to the annuity payable during the joint lives of the participant and the spouse.

(e) “Qualified preretirement survivor annuity” defined

For purposes of this section—

(1) Except as provided in paragraph (2), the term “qualified preretirement survivor annuity” means a survivor annuity for the life of the surviving spouse of the participant if—

(A) the payments to the surviving spouse under such annuity are not less than the amounts which would be payable as a survivor annuity under the qualified joint and survivor annuity under the plan (or the actuarial equivalent thereof) if—

(i) in the case of a participant who dies after the date on which the participant attained the earliest retirement age, such participant had retired with an immediate qualified joint and survivor annuity on the day before the participant's date of death, or

(ii) in the case of a participant who dies on or before the date on which the participant would have attained the earliest retirement age, such participant had—

(I) separated from service on the date of death,

(II) survived to the earliest retirement age,

(III) retired with an immediate qualified joint and survivor annuity at the earliest retirement age, and

(IV) died on the day after the day on which such participant would have attained the earliest retirement age, and


(B) under the plan, the earliest period for which the surviving spouse may receive a payment under such annuity is not later than the month in which the participant would have attained the earliest retirement age under the plan.


In the case of an individual who separated from service before the date of such individual's death, subparagraph (A)(ii)(I) shall not apply.

(2) In the case of any individual account plan or participant described in subparagraph (B) or (C) of subsection (b)(1) of this section, the term “qualified preretirement survivor annuity” means an annuity for the life of the surviving spouse the actuarial equivalent of which is not less than 50 percent of the portion of the account balance of the participant (as of the date of death) to which the participant had a nonforfeitable right (within the meaning of section 1053 of this title).

(3) For purposes of paragraphs (1) and (2), any security interest held by the plan by reason of a loan outstanding to the participant shall be taken into account in determining the amount of the qualified preretirement survivor annuity.

(f) Marriage requirements for plan

(1) Except as provided in paragraph (2), a plan may provide that a qualified joint and survivor annuity (or a qualified preretirement survivor annuity) will not be provided unless the participant and spouse had been married throughout the 1-year period ending on the earlier of—

(A) the participant's annuity starting date, or

(B) the date of the participant's death.


(2) For purposes of paragraph (1), if—

(A) a participant marries within 1 year before the annuity starting date, and

(B) the participant and the participant's spouse in such marriage have been married for at least a 1-year period ending on or before the date of the participant's death,


such participant and such spouse shall be treated as having been married throughout the 1-year period ending on the participant's annuity starting date.

(g) Distribution of present value of annuity; written consent; determination of present value

(1) A plan may provide that the present value of a qualified joint and survivor annuity or a qualified preretirement survivor annuity will be immediately distributed if such value does not exceed the amount that can be distributed without the participant's consent under section 1053(e) of this title. No distribution may be made under the preceding sentence after the annuity starting date unless the participant and the spouse of the participant (or where the participant has died, the surviving spouse) consent in writing to such distribution.

(2) If—

(A) the present value of the qualified joint and survivor annuity or the qualified preretirement survivor annuity exceeds the amount that can be distributed without the participant's consent under section 1053(e) of this title, and

(B) the participant and the spouse of the participant (or where the participant has died, the surviving spouse) consent in writing to the distribution,


the plan may immediately distribute the present value of such annuity.

(3)(A) For purposes of paragraphs (1) and (2), the present value shall not be less than the present value calculated by using the applicable mortality table and the applicable interest rate.

(B) For purposes of subparagraph (A)—

(i) The term “applicable mortality table” means a mortality table, modified as appropriate by the Secretary of the Treasury, based on the mortality table specified for the plan year under subparagraph (A) of section 1083(h)(3) of this title (without regard to subparagraph (C) or (D) of such section).

(ii) The term “applicable interest rate” means the adjusted first, second, and third segment rates applied under rules similar to the rules of section 1083(h)(2)(C) of this title for the month before the date of the distribution or such other time as the Secretary of the Treasury may by regulations prescribe.

(iii) For purposes of clause (ii), the adjusted first, second, and third segment rates are the first, second, and third segment rates which would be determined under section 1083(h)(2)(C) of this title if—

(I) section 1083(h)(2)(D) of this title were applied by substituting the average yields for the month described in clause (ii) for the average yields for the 24-month period described in such section,

(II) section 1083(h)(2)(G)(i)(II) of this title were applied by substituting “section 1055(g)(3)(A)(ii)(II) of this title” for “section 1082(b)(5)(B)(ii)(II) of this title”, and

(III) the applicable percentage under section 1083(h)(2)(G) of this title were determined in accordance with the following table:

 
  
In the case of plan years beginning in: The applicable percentage is:
2008 20 percent
2009 40 percent
2010 60 percent
2011 80 percent.

(h) Definitions

For purposes of this section—

(1) The term “vested participant” means any participant who has a nonforfeitable right (within the meaning of section 1002(19) of this title) to any portion of such participant's accrued benefit.

(2)(A) The term “annuity starting date” means—

(i) the first day of the first period for which an amount is payable as an annuity, or

(ii) in the case of a benefit not payable in the form of an annuity, the first day on which all events have occurred which entitle the participant to such benefit.


(B) For purposes of subparagraph (A), the first day of the first period for which a benefit is to be received by reason of disability shall be treated as the annuity starting date only if such benefit is not an auxiliary benefit.

(3) The term “earliest retirement age” means the earliest date on which, under the plan, the participant could elect to receive retirement benefits.

(i) Increased costs from providing annuity

A plan may take into account in any equitable manner (as determined by the Secretary of the Treasury) any increased costs resulting from providing a qualified joint or survivor annuity or a qualified preretirement survivor annuity.

(j) Use of participant's accrued benefit as security for loan as not preventing distribution

If the use of any participant's accrued benefit (or any portion thereof) as security for a loan meets the requirements of subsection (c)(4) of this section, nothing in this section shall prevent any distribution required by reason of a failure to comply with the terms of such loan.

(k) Spousal consent

No consent of a spouse shall be effective for purposes of subsection (g)(1) or (g)(2) of this section (as the case may be) unless requirements comparable to the requirements for spousal consent to an election under subsection (c)(1)(A) of this section are met.

(l) Regulations; consultation of Secretary of the Treasury with Secretary of Labor

In prescribing regulations under this section, the Secretary of the Treasury shall consult with the Secretary of Labor.

(Pub. L. 93–406, title I, §205, Sept. 2, 1974, 88 Stat. 862; Pub. L. 98–397, title I, §103(a), Aug. 23, 1984, 98 Stat. 1429; Pub. L. 99–514, title XI, §§1139(c)(2), 1145(b), title XVIII, §1898(b)(1)(B), (2)(B), (3)(B), (4)(B), (5)(B), (6)(B), (7)(B), (8)(B), (9)(B), (10)(B), (11)(B), (12)(B), (13)(B), (14)(B), Oct. 22, 1986, 100 Stat. 2488, 2491, 2945–2951; Pub. L. 101–239, title VII, §§7861(d)(2), 7862(d)(1)(B), (3), (6)–(9), 7891(a)(1), (b)(3), (c), (e), 7894(c)(7)(A), Dec. 19, 1989, 103 Stat. 2431, 2434, 2445, 2447, 2449; Pub. L. 103–465, title VII, §767(c)(2), Dec. 8, 1994, 108 Stat. 5039; Pub. L. 104–188, title I, §1451(b), Aug. 20, 1996, 110 Stat. 1815; Pub. L. 105–34, title X, §1071(b)(2), title XVI, §1601(d)(5), Aug. 5, 1997, 111 Stat. 948, 1089; Pub. L. 107–147, title IV, §411(r)(2), Mar. 9, 2002, 116 Stat. 51; Pub. L. 109–280, title III, §302(a), title X, §1004(b), title XI, §1102(a)(2)(A), Aug. 17, 2006, 120 Stat. 920, 1054, 1056; Pub. L. 110–458, title I, §103(b)(1), Dec. 23, 2008, 122 Stat. 5103.)

Amendments

2008—Subsec. (g)(3)(B)(iii)(II). Pub. L. 110–458 substituted “section 1055(g)(3)(A)(ii)(II)” for “section 1055(g)(3)(B)(iii)(II)”.

2006—Subsec. (c)(1)(A). Pub. L. 109–280, §1004(b)(1), substituted comma for “, and” at end of cl. (i), added cl. (ii), and redesignated former cl. (ii) as (iii).

Subsec. (c)(3)(A)(i). Pub. L. 109–280, §1004(b)(3), inserted “and of the qualified optional survivor annuity” before comma at end.

Subsec. (c)(7)(A). Pub. L. 109–280, §1102(a)(2)(A), substituted “180-day” for “90-day”.

Subsec. (d). Pub. L. 109–280, §1004(b)(2), designated existing provisions as par. (1), redesignated former pars. (1) and (2) as subpars. (A) and (B), respectively, of par. (1), and added par. (2).

Subsec. (g)(3). Pub. L. 109–280, §302(a), struck out heading and amended text of par. (3) generally. Prior to amendment, par. (3) stated general rule for determination of present value, defined “applicable mortality table” and “applicable interest rate”, and set forth exception from general rule in the case of a distribution from a plan that was adopted and in effect prior to Dec. 8, 1994.

2002—Subsec. (g)(1). Pub. L. 107–147, §411(r)(2)(A), substituted “exceed the amount that can be distributed without the participant's consent under section 1053(e) of this title” for “exceed the dollar limit under section 1053(e)(1) of this title”.

Subsec. (g)(2)(A). Pub. L. 107–147, §411(r)(2)(B), substituted “exceeds the amount that can be distributed without the participant's consent under section 1053(e) of this title” for “exceeds the dollar limit under section 1053(e)(1) of this title”.

1997—Subsec. (c)(8)(A)(ii). Pub. L. 105–34, §1601(d)(5), substituted “Secretary of the Treasury” for “Secretary”.

Subsec. (g)(1), (2)(A). Pub. L. 105–34, §1071(b)(2), substituted “the dollar limit under section 1053(e)(1) of this title” for “$3,500”.

1996—Subsec. (c)(8). Pub. L. 104–188 added par. (8).

1994—Subsec. (g)(3). Pub. L. 103–465 amended par. (3) generally. Prior to amendment, par. (3) read as follows:

“(3)(A) For purposes of paragraphs (1) and (2), the present value shall be calculated—

“(i) by using an interest rate no greater than the applicable interest rate if the vested accrued benefit (using such rate) is not in excess of $25,000, and

“(ii) by using an interest rate no greater than 120 percent of the applicable interest rate if the vested accrued benefit exceeds $25,000 (as determined under clause (i)).

In no event shall the present value determined under subclause (II) be less than $25,000.

“(B) For purposes of subparagraph (A), the term ‘applicable interest rate’ means the interest rate which would be used (as of the date of the distribution) by the Pension Benefit Guaranty Corporation for purposes of determining the present value of a lump sum distribution on plan termination.”

1989—Subsec. (b)(1)(C)(i). Pub. L. 101–239, §7862(d)(7), made technical correction to directory language of Pub. L. 99–514, §1898(b)(7)(B), see 1986 Amendment note below.

Subsec. (b)(2)(A)(i). Pub. L. 101–239, §7891(a)(1), substituted “Internal Revenue Code of 1986” for “Internal Revenue Code of 1954”, which for purposes of codification was translated as “title 26” thus requiring no change in text.

Subsec. (b)(3), (4). Pub. L. 101–239, §7862(d)(9), amended directory language of Pub. L. 99–514, §1898(b)(14)(B), see 1986 Amendment note below, and redesignated par. (3), as added by Pub. L. 99–514, §1898(b)(14)(B), as par. (4).

Pub. L. 101–239, §§7861(d)(2), 7891(c), realigned margins of par. (3), as added by Pub. L. 99–514, §1145(b), and redesignated such par. (3) as (4).

Subsec. (c)(3)(B)(ii). Pub. L. 101–239, §7862(d)(1)(B), inserted at end “In the case of a participant who separates from service before attaining age 35, the applicable period shall be a reasonable period after separation.”

Subsec. (c)(3)(B)(ii)(IV). Pub. L. 101–239, §7862(d)(6), substituted “after this section” for “after section 1101(a)(11) of this title”.

Subsec. (c)(3)(B)(ii)(V). Pub. L. 101–239, §7862(d)(1)(B), struck out subcl. (V) which read as follows: “A reasonable period after separation from service in case of a participant who separates before attaining age 35.”

Subsec. (c)(6). Pub. L. 101–239, §7894(c)(7)(A), substituted “such Act” for “such act”.

Subsec. (e)(2). Pub. L. 101–239, §7862(d)(8), substituted “nonforfeitable right (within the meaning of section 1053 of this title)” for “nonforfeitable accrued benefit”.

Subsec. (g)(3)(A). Pub. L. 101–239, §7891(b)(3), realigned margins of subpar. (A).

Subsec. (h)(1). Pub. L. 101–239, §§7862(d)(3)(A), 7891(e)(1), amended par. (1) identically, substituting “The term” for “the term” and “benefit.” for “benefit,”.

Subsec. (h)(3). Pub. L. 101–239, §§7862(d)(3)B), 7891(e)(2), amended par. (3) identically, substituting “The term” for “the term”.

1986—Subsec. (a)(1). Pub. L. 99–514, §1898(b)(3)(B), substituted “who does not die before the annuity starting date” for “who retires under the plan”.

Subsec. (b)(1). Pub. L. 99–514, §1898(b)(2)(B)(ii), inserted at end “Clause (iii) of subparagraph (C) shall apply only with respect to the transferred assets (and income therefrom) if the plan separately accounts for such assets and any income therefrom.”

Subsec. (b)(1)(C)(i). Pub. L. 99–514, §1898(b)(13)(B), substituted “(c)(2)” for “(c)(2)(A)”.

Pub. L. 99–514, §1898(b)(7)(B), as amended by Pub. L. 101–239, §7862(d)(7), inserted “(reduced by any security interest held by the plan by reason of a loan outstanding to such participant)”.

Subsec. (b)(1)(C)(iii). Pub. L. 99–514, §1898(b)(2)(B)(i), substituted “a direct or indirect transferee (in a transfer after December 31, 1984)” for “a transferee”.

Subsec. (b)(3). Pub. L. 99–514, §1898(b)(14)(B), as amended by Pub. L. 101–239, §7862(d)(9)(A), added par. (3) relating to treatment of plan as meeting requirements of par. (1)(C) or (2) of subsec. (b).

Pub. L. 99–514, §1145(b), added par. (3) relating to applicability of this section to plans described in section 404(c) of title 26.

Subsec. (c)(1)(B). Pub. L. 99–514, §1898(b)(4)(B)(i), substituted “paragraphs (2), (3), and (4)” for “paragraphs (2) and (3)”.

Subsec. (c)(2)(A). Pub. L. 99–514, §1898(b)(6)(B), amended subpar. (A) generally. Prior to amendment, subpar. (A) read as follows: “the spouse of the participant consents in writing to such election, and the spouse's consent acknowledges the effect of such election and is witnessed by a plan representative or a notary public, or”.

Subsec. (c)(3)(B). Pub. L. 99–514, §1898(b)(5)(B), amended subpar. (B) generally. Prior to amendment, subpar. (B) read as follows: “Each plan shall provide to each participant, within the period beginning with the first day of the plan year in which the participant attains age 32 and ending with the close of the plan year preceding the plan year in which the participant attains age 35 (and consistent with such regulations as the Secretary of the Treasury may prescribe), a written explanation with respect to the qualified preretirement survivor annuity comparable to that required under subparagraph (A).”

Subsec. (c)(4). Pub. L. 99–514, §1898(b)(4)(B)(ii), added par. (4). Former par. (4) redesignated (5).

Subsec. (c)(5). Pub. L. 99–514, §1898(b)(4)(B)(ii), redesignated par. (4) as (5). Former par. (5) redesignated (6).

Subsec. (c)(5)(A). Pub. L. 99–514, §1898(b)(11)(B), inserted “if such benefit may not be waived (or another beneficiary selected) and”.

Subsec. (c)(6), (7). Pub. L. 99–514, §1898(b)(4)(B)(ii), redesignated pars. (5) and (6) as (6) and (7), respectively.

Subsec. (e)(1). Pub. L. 99–514, §1898(b)(1)(B), inserted at end “In the case of an individual who separated from service before the date of such individual's death, subparagraph (A)(ii)(I) shall not apply.”

Subsec. (e)(2). Pub. L. 99–514, §1898(b)(9)(B)(i), substituted “the portion of the account balance of the participant (as of the date of death) to which the participant had a nonforfeitable accrued benefit” for “the account balance of the participant as of the date of death”.

Subsec. (e)(3). Pub. L. 99–514, §1898(b)(9)(B)(ii), added par. (3).

Subsec. (g)(3). Pub. L. 99–514, §1139(c)(2), amended par. (3) generally. Prior to amendment, par. (3) read as follows: “For purposes of paragraphs (1) and (2), the present value of a qualified joint and survivor annuity or a qualified preretirement survivor annuity shall be determined as of the date of the distribution and by using an interest rate not greater than the interest rate which would be used (as of the date of the distribution) by the Pension Benefit Guaranty Corporation for purposes of determining the present value of a lump sum distribution on plan termination.”

Subsec. (h)(1). Pub. L. 99–514, §1898(b)(8)(B), substituted “such participant's accrued benefit” for “the accrued benefit derived from employer contributions”.

Subsec. (h)(2). Pub. L. 99–514, §1898(b)(12)(B), amended par. (2) generally. Prior to amendment, par. (2) read as follows: “the term ‘annuity starting date’ means the first day of the first period for which an amount is received as an annuity (whether by reason of retirement or disability), and”.

Subsec. (j). Pub. L. 99–514, §1898(b)(4)(B)(iii), added subsec. (j). Former subsec. (j) redesignated (k).

Subsec. (k). Pub. L. 99–514, §1898(b)(10)(B), added subsec. (k). Former subsec. (k) redesignated (l).

Pub. L. 99–514, §1898(b)(4)(B)(iii), redesignated subsec. (j) as (k).

Subsec. (l). Pub. L. 99–514, §1898(b)(10)(B), redesignated subsec. (k) as (l).

1984—Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 98–397 substituted provisions relating to provisions to be included in applicable plans for former provisions relating to form of payment of annuity benefits.

Subsec. (b). Pub. L. 98–397 substituted provisions relating to applicable plans under this section for former provisions relating to plans providing for payment of benefits before normal retirement age.

Subsec. (c). Pub. L. 98–397 substituted provisions relating to conditions under which plans meet the requirements of this section for former provisions relating to election of qualified joint and survivor annuity form.

Subsec. (d). Pub. L. 98–397 substituted provisions defining “qualified joint and survivor annuity” for former provisions relating to the participant's spouse not being entitled to receive survivor annuity.

Subsec. (e). Pub. L. 98–397 substituted provisions defining “qualified preretirement survivor annuity” for former provisions relating to election to take annuity.

Subsec. (f). Pub. L. 98–397 substituted provisions to the effect that plans may provide that annuities will not be provided unless the participant and spouse had been married for a certain 1-year period, for former provisions relating to plan provisions which render election or revocation ineffective if participant dies within period of up to 2 years following the date of election or revocation.

Subsec. (g). Pub. L. 98–397 substituted provisions relating to plan provisions for immediate distribution of present value if such value does not exceed $3,500 and for written consent from the participant and spouse for former provisions setting forth definitions. See subsec. (h) of this section.

Subsec. (h). Pub. L. 98–397 substituted provisions setting forth definitions for former provisions relating to increased costs resulting from providing joint and survivor annuity benefits. See subsec. (i) of this section.

Subsec. (i). Pub. L. 98–397 substituted provisions relating to increased costs resulting from providing annuities under applicable plans for former provisions setting forth the effective date of this section.

Subsec. (j). Pub. L. 98–397 added subsec. (j).

Effective Date of 2008 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 110–458 effective as if included in the provisions of Pub. L. 109–280 to which the amendment relates, except as otherwise provided, see section 112 of Pub. L. 110–458, set out as a note under section 72 of Title 26, Internal Revenue Code.

Effective Date of 2006 Amendment

Amendment by section 302(a) of Pub. L. 109–280 applicable with respect to plan years beginning after Dec. 31, 2007, see section 302(c) of Pub. L. 109–280, set out as a note under section 417 of Title 26, Internal Revenue Code.

Amendment by section 1004(b) of Pub. L. 109–280 applicable to plan years beginning after Dec. 31, 2007, with special rule for collectively bargained plans, see section 1004(c) of Pub. L. 109–280, set out as a note under section 417 of Title 26, Internal Revenue Code.

Amendments and modifications made or required by section 1102(a)(2)(A) of Pub. L. 109–280 applicable to years beginning after Dec. 31, 2006, see section 1102(a)(3) of Pub. L. 109–280, set out as a note under section 417 of Title 26, Internal Revenue Code.

Effective Date of 2002 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 107–147 effective as if included in the provisions of the Economic Growth and Tax Relief Reconciliation Act of 2001, Pub. L. 107–16, to which such amendment relates, see section 411(x) of Pub. L. 107–147, set out as a note under section 25B of Title 26, Internal Revenue Code.

Effective Date of 1997 Amendment

Amendment by section 1071(b)(2) of Pub. L. 105–34 applicable to plan years beginning after Aug. 5, 1997, see section 1071(c) of Pub. L. 105–34, set out as a note under section 411 of Title 26, Internal Revenue Code.

Amendment by section 1601(d)(5) of Pub. L. 105–34 effective as if included in the provisions of the Small Business Job Protection Act of 1996, Pub. L. 104–188, to which it relates, see section 1601(j) of Pub. L. 105–34, set out as a note under section 36C of Title 26, Internal Revenue Code.

Effective Date of 1996 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 104–188 applicable to plan years beginning after Dec. 31, 1996, see section 1451(c) of Pub. L. 104–188, set out as a note under section 417 of Title 26, Internal Revenue Code.

Effective Date of 1994 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 103–465 applicable to plan years and limitation years beginning after Dec. 31, 1994, except that employer may elect to treat such amendment as effective on or after Dec. 8, 1994, with provisions relating to reduction of accrued benefits, exception, and timing of plan amendment, see section 767(d) of Pub. L. 103–465, as amended, set out as a note under section 411 of Title 26, Internal Revenue Code.

Effective Date of 1989 Amendment

Amendment by sections 7861(d)(2) and 7862(d)(1)(B), (3), (6)–(9) of Pub. L. 101–239 effective as if included in the provision of the Tax Reform Act of 1986, Pub. L. 99–514, to which such amendment relates, see section 7863 of Pub. L. 101–239, set out as a note under section 106 of Title 26, Internal Revenue Code.

Amendment by section 7891(a)(1), (b)(3), (c), (e) of Pub. L. 101–239 effective, except as otherwise provided, as if included in the provision of the Tax Reform Act of 1986, Pub. L. 99–514, to which such amendment relates, see section 7891(f) of Pub. L. 101–239, set out as a note under section 1002 of this title.

Section 7894(c)(7)(B) of Pub. L. 101–239 provided that: “The amendment made by subparagraph (A) [amending this section] shall take effect as if included in section 103 of the Retirement Equity Act of 1984 [Pub. L. 98–397] in reference to the new section 205(c)(5) of ERISA [subsec. (c)(5) of this section] as added by such section 3113.”

Effective Date of 1986 Amendment

Amendment by section 1139(c)(2) of Pub. L. 99–514 applicable to distributions in plan years beginning after Dec. 31, 1984, except that such amendments shall not apply to any distributions in plan years beginning after Dec. 31, 1984, and before Jan. 1, 1987, if such distributions were made in accordance with the requirements of the regulations issued under the Retirement Equity Act of 1984, Pub. L. 98–397, with additional provisions relating to reductions in accrued benefits, see section 1139(d) of Pub. L. 99–514, set out as a note under section 411 of Title 26, Internal Revenue Code.

Amendment by section 1145(b) of Pub. L. 99–514 applicable as if included in the amendments made by the Retirement Equity Act of 1984, Pub. L. 98–397, see section 1145(d) of Pub. L. 99–514, set out as a note under section 401 of Title 26.

Amendment by section 1898(b)(4)(B) of Pub. L. 99–514 applicable with respect to loans made after Aug. 18, 1985, see section 1898(b)(4)(C) of Pub. L. 99–514, set out as a note under section 417 of Title 26.

Amendment by section 1898(b)(6)(B) of Pub. L. 99–514 applicable to plan years beginning after Oct. 22, 1986, see section 1898(b)(6)(C) of Pub. L. 99–514, set out as a note under section 417 of Title 26.

Amendment by section 1898(b)(8)(B) of Pub. L. 99–514 applicable to distributions after Oct. 22, 1986, see section 1898(b)(8)(C) of Pub. L. 99–514, as added, set out as a note under section 417 of Title 26.

Amendment by section 1898(b)(1)(B), (2)(B), (3)(B), (5)(B), (7)(B), (9)(B), (10)(B), (11)(B), (12)(B), (13)(B), (14)(B) of Pub. L. 99–514 effective as if included in the provision of the Retirement Equity Act of 1984, Pub. L. 98–397, to which such amendment relates, except as otherwise provided, see section 1898(j) of Pub. L. 99–514, set out as a note under section 401 of Title 26.

Effective Date of 1984 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 98–397 applicable to plan years beginning after Dec. 31, 1984, except as otherwise provided, see sections 302 and 303 of Pub. L. 98–397, set out as a note under section 1001 of this title.

Nothing in amendment by Pub. L. 98–397 to prevent any distribution required by reason of failure to comply with terms of loan made on or before Aug. 18, 1985, and secured by portion of participant's accrued benefit, see section 1898(b)(4)(C)(ii) of Pub. L. 99–514, set out as an Effective Date of 1986 Amendment note under section 417 of Title 26, Internal Revenue Code.

Plan Amendments Not Required Until January 1, 1998

For provisions directing that if any amendments made by subtitle D [§§1401–1465] of title I of Pub. L. 104–188 require an amendment to any plan or annuity contract, such amendment shall not be required to be made before the first day of the first plan year beginning on or after Jan. 1, 1998, see section 1465 of Pub. L. 104–188, set out as a note under section 401 of Title 26, Internal Revenue Code.

Plan Amendments Not Required Until January 1, 1989

For provisions directing that if any amendments made by subtitle A or subtitle C of title XI [§§1101–1147 and 1171–1177] or title XVIII [§§1800–1899A] of Pub. L. 99–514 require an amendment to any plan, such plan amendment shall not be required to be made before the first plan year beginning on or after Jan. 1, 1989, see section 1140 of Pub. L. 99–514, as amended, set out as a note under section 401 of Title 26, Internal Revenue Code.

1 So in original. Probably should be “clauses”.

2 So in original. There are two pars. designated (4) and no par. (3).

§1056. Form and payment of benefits

(a) Commencement date for payment of benefits

Each pension plan shall provide that unless the participant otherwise elects, the payment of benefits under the plan to the participant shall begin not later than the 60th day after the latest of the close of the plan year in which—

(1) occurs the date on which the participant attains the earlier of age 65 or the normal retirement age specified under the plan,

(2) occurs the 10th anniversary of the year in which the participant commenced participation in the plan, or

(3) the participant terminates his service with the employer.


In the case of a plan which provides for the payment of an early retirement benefit, such plan shall provide that a participant who satisfied the service requirements for such early retirement benefit, but separated from the service (with any nonforfeitable right to an accrued benefit) before satisfying the age requirement for such early retirement benefit, is entitled upon satisfaction of such age requirement to receive a benefit not less than the benefit to which he would be entitled at the normal retirement age, actuarially reduced under regulations prescribed by the Secretary of the Treasury.

(b) Decrease in plan benefits by reason of increases in benefit levels under Social Security Act or Railroad Retirement Act of 1937

If—

(1) a participant or beneficiary is receiving benefits under a pension plan, or

(2) a participant is separated from the service and has non-forfeitable rights to benefits,


a plan may not decrease benefits of such a participant by reason of any increase in the benefit levels payable under title II of the Social Security Act [42 U.S.C. 401 et seq.] or the Railroad Retirement Act of 1937 [45 U.S.C. 231 et seq.] or any increase in the wage base under such title II, if such increase takes place after September 2, 1974, or (if later) the earlier of the date of first entitlement of such benefits or the date of such separation.

(c) Forfeiture of accrued benefits derived from employer contributions

No pension plan may provide that any part of a participant's accrued benefit derived from employer contributions (whether or not otherwise nonforfeitable) is forfeitable solely because of withdrawal by such participant of any amount attributable to the benefit derived from contributions made by such participant. The preceding sentence shall not apply (1) to the accrued benefit of any participant unless, at the time of such withdrawal, such participant has a nonforfeitable right to at least 50 percent of such accrued benefit, or (2) to the extent that an accrued benefit is permitted to be forfeited in accordance with section 1053(a)(3)(D)(iii) of this title.

(d) Assignment or alienation of plan benefits

(1) Each pension plan shall provide that benefits provided under the plan may not be assigned or alienated.

(2) For the purposes of paragraph (1) of this subsection, there shall not be taken into account any voluntary and revocable assignment of not to exceed 10 percent of any benefit payment, or of any irrevocable assignment or alienation of benefits executed before September 2, 1974. The preceding sentence shall not apply to any assignment or alienation made for the purposes of defraying plan administration costs. For purposes of this paragraph a loan made to a participant or beneficiary shall not be treated as an assignment or alienation if such loan is secured by the participant's accrued non-forfeitable benefit and is exempt from the tax imposed by section 4975 of title 26 (relating to tax on prohibited transactions) by reason of section 4975(d)(1) of title 26.

(3)(A) Paragraph (1) shall apply to the creation, assignment, or recognition of a right to any benefit payable with respect to a participant pursuant to a domestic relations order, except that paragraph (1) shall not apply if the order is determined to be a qualified domestic relations order. Each pension plan shall provide for the payment of benefits in accordance with the applicable requirements of any qualified domestic relations order.

(B) For purposes of this paragraph—

(i) the term “qualified domestic relations order” means a domestic relations order—

(I) which creates or recognizes the existence of an alternate payee's right to, or assigns to an alternate payee the right to, receive all or a portion of the benefits payable with respect to a participant under a plan, and

(II) with respect to which the requirements of subparagraphs (C) and (D) are met, and


(ii) the term “domestic relations order” means any judgment, decree, or order (including approval of a property settlement agreement) which—

(I) relates to the provision of child support, alimony payments, or marital property rights to a spouse, former spouse, child, or other dependent of a participant, and

(II) is made pursuant to a State domestic relations law (including a community property law).


(C) A domestic relations order meets the requirements of this subparagraph only if such order clearly specifies—

(i) the name and the last known mailing address (if any) of the participant and the name and mailing address of each alternate payee covered by the order,

(ii) the amount or percentage of the participant's benefits to be paid by the plan to each such alternate payee, or the manner in which such amount or percentage is to be determined,

(iii) the number of payments or period to which such order applies, and

(iv) each plan to which such order applies.


(D) A domestic relations order meets the requirements of this subparagraph only if such order—

(i) does not require a plan to provide any type or form of benefit, or any option, not otherwise provided under the plan,

(ii) does not require the plan to provide increased benefits (determined on the basis of actuarial value), and

(iii) does not require the payment of benefits to an alternate payee which are required to be paid to another alternate payee under another order previously determined to be a qualified domestic relations order.


(E)(i) A domestic relations order shall not be treated as failing to meet the requirements of clause (i) of subparagraph (D) solely because such order requires that payment of benefits be made to an alternate payee—

(I) in the case of any payment before a participant has separated from service, on or after the date on which the participant attains (or would have attained) the earliest retirement age,

(II) as if the participant had retired on the date on which such payment is to begin under such order (but taking into account only the present value of benefits actually accrued and not taking into account the present value of any employer subsidy for early retirement), and

(III) in any form in which such benefits may be paid under the plan to the participant (other than in the form of a joint and survivor annuity with respect to the alternate payee and his or her subsequent spouse).


For purposes of subclause (II), the interest rate assumption used in determining the present value shall be the interest rate specified in the plan or, if no rate is specified, 5 percent.

(ii) For purposes of this subparagraph, the term “earliest retirement age” means the earlier of—

(I) the date on which the participant is entitled to a distribution under the plan, or

(II) the later of the date of the participant attains age 50 or the earliest date on which the participant could begin receiving benefits under the plan if the participant separated from service.


(F) To the extent provided in any qualified domestic relations order—

(i) the former spouse of a participant shall be treated as a surviving spouse of such participant for purposes of section 1055 of this title (and any spouse of the participant shall not be treated as a spouse of the participant for such purposes), and

(ii) if married for at least 1 year, the surviving former spouse shall be treated as meeting the requirements of section 1055(f) of this title.


(G)(i) In the case of any domestic relations order received by a plan—

(I) the plan administrator shall promptly notify the participant and each alternate payee of the receipt of such order and the plan's procedures for determining the qualified status of domestic relations orders, and

(II) within a reasonable period after receipt of such order, the plan administrator shall determine whether such order is a qualified domestic relations order and notify the participant and each alternate payee of such determination.


(ii) Each plan shall establish reasonable procedures to determine the qualified status of domestic relations orders and to administer distributions under such qualified orders. Such procedures—

(I) shall be in writing,

(II) shall provide for the notification of each person specified in a domestic relations order as entitled to payment of benefits under the plan (at the address included in the domestic relations order) of such procedures promptly upon receipt by the plan of the domestic relations order, and

(III) shall permit an alternate payee to designate a representative for receipt of copies of notices that are sent to the alternate payee with respect to a domestic relations order.


(H)(i) During any period in which the issue of whether a domestic relations order is a qualified domestic relations order is being determined (by the plan administrator, by a court of competent jurisdiction, or otherwise), the plan administrator shall separately account for the amounts (hereinafter in this subparagraph referred to as the “segregated amounts”) which would have been payable to the alternate payee during such period if the order had been determined to be a qualified domestic relations order.

(ii) If within the 18-month period described in clause (v) the order (or modification thereof) is determined to be a qualified domestic relations order, the plan administrator shall pay the segregated amounts (including any interest thereon) to the person or persons entitled thereto.

(iii) If within the 18-month period described in clause (v)—

(I) it is determined that the order is not a qualified domestic relations order, or

(II) the issue as to whether such order is a qualified domestic relations order is not resolved,


then the plan administrator shall pay the segregated amounts (including any interest thereon) to the person or persons who would have been entitled to such amounts if there had been no order.

(iv) Any determination that an order is a qualified domestic relations order which is made after the close of the 18-month period described in clause (v) shall be applied prospectively only.

(v) For purposes of this subparagraph, the 18-month period described in this clause is the 18-month period beginning with the date on which the first payment would be required to be made under the domestic relations order.

(I) If a plan fiduciary acts in accordance with part 4 of this subtitle in—

(i) treating a domestic relations order as being (or not being) a qualified domestic relations order, or

(ii) taking action under subparagraph (H),


then the plan's obligation to the participant and each alternate payee shall be discharged to the extent of any payment made pursuant to such Act.

(J) A person who is an alternate payee under a qualified domestic relations order shall be considered for purposes of any provision of this chapter a beneficiary under the plan. Nothing in the preceding sentence shall permit a requirement under section 1301 of this title of the payment of more than 1 premium with respect to a participant for any period.

(K) The term “alternate payee” means any spouse, former spouse, child, or other dependent of a participant who is recognized by a domestic relations order as having a right to receive all, or a portion of, the benefits payable under a plan with respect to such participant.

(L) This paragraph shall not apply to any plan to which paragraph (1) does not apply.

(M) Payment of benefits by a pension plan in accordance with the applicable requirements of a qualified domestic relations order shall not be treated as garnishment for purposes of section 1673(a) of title 15.

(N) In prescribing regulations under this paragraph, the Secretary shall consult with the Secretary of the Treasury.

(4) Paragraph (1) shall not apply to any offset of a participant's benefits provided under an employee pension benefit plan against an amount that the participant is ordered or required to pay to the plan if—

(A) the order or requirement to pay arises—

(i) under a judgment of conviction for a crime involving such plan,

(ii) under a civil judgment (including a consent order or decree) entered by a court in an action brought in connection with a violation (or alleged violation) of part 4 of this subtitle, or

(iii) pursuant to a settlement agreement between the Secretary and the participant, or a settlement agreement between the Pension Benefit Guaranty Corporation and the participant, in connection with a violation (or alleged violation) of part 4 of this subtitle by a fiduciary or any other person,


(B) the judgment, order, decree, or settlement agreement expressly provides for the offset of all or part of the amount ordered or required to be paid to the plan against the participant's benefits provided under the plan, and

(C) in a case in which the survivor annuity requirements of section 1055 of this title apply with respect to distributions from the plan to the participant, if the participant has a spouse at the time at which the offset is to be made—

(i) either—

(I) such spouse has consented in writing to such offset and such consent is witnessed by a notary public or representative of the plan (or it is established to the satisfaction of a plan representative that such consent may not be obtained by reason of circumstances described in section 1055(c)(2)(B) of this title), or

(II) an election to waive the right of the spouse to a qualified joint and survivor annuity or a qualified preretirement survivor annuity is in effect in accordance with the requirements of section 1055(c) of this title,


(ii) such spouse is ordered or required in such judgment, order, decree, or settlement to pay an amount to the plan in connection with a violation of part 4 of this subtitle, or

(iii) in such judgment, order, decree, or settlement, such spouse retains the right to receive the survivor annuity under a qualified joint and survivor annuity provided pursuant to section 1055(a)(1) of this title and under a qualified preretirement survivor annuity provided pursuant to section 1055(a)(2) of this title, determined in accordance with paragraph (5).


A plan shall not be treated as failing to meet the requirements of section 1055 of this title solely by reason of an offset under this paragraph.

(5)(A) The survivor annuity described in paragraph (4)(C)(iii) shall be determined as if—

(i) the participant terminated employment on the date of the offset,

(ii) there was no offset,

(iii) the plan permitted commencement of benefits only on or after normal retirement age,

(iv) the plan provided only the minimum-required qualified joint and survivor annuity, and

(v) the amount of the qualified preretirement survivor annuity under the plan is equal to the amount of the survivor annuity payable under the minimum-required qualified joint and survivor annuity.


(B) For purposes of this paragraph, the term “minimum-required qualified joint and survivor annuity” means the qualified joint and survivor annuity which is the actuarial equivalent of the participant's accrued benefit (within the meaning of section 1002(23) of this title) and under which the survivor annuity is 50 percent of the amount of the annuity which is payable during the joint lives of the participant and the spouse.

(e) Limitation on distributions other than life annuities paid by plan

(1) In general

Notwithstanding any other provision of this part, the fiduciary of a pension plan that is subject to the additional funding requirements of section 1083(j)(4) of this title shall not permit a prohibited payment to be made from a plan during a period in which such plan has a liquidity shortfall (as defined in section 1083(j)(4)(E)(i) of this title).

(2) Prohibited payment

For purposes of paragraph (1), the term “prohibited payment” means—

(A) any payment, in excess of the monthly amount paid under a single life annuity (plus any social security supplements described in the last sentence of section 1054(b)(1)(G) of this title), to a participant or beneficiary whose annuity starting date (as defined in section 1055(h)(2) of this title), that occurs during the period referred to in paragraph (1),

(B) any payment for the purchase of an irrevocable commitment from an insurer to pay benefits, and

(C) any other payment specified by the Secretary of the Treasury by regulations.

(3) Period of shortfall

For purposes of this subsection, a plan has a liquidity shortfall during the period that there is an underpayment of an installment under section 1083(j)(3) of this title by reason of section 1083(j)(4)(A) of this title.

(4) Coordination with other provisions

Compliance with this subsection shall not constitute a violation of any other provision of this chapter.

(f) Missing participants in terminated plans

In the case of a plan covered by section 1350 of this title, upon termination of the plan, benefits of missing participants shall be treated in accordance with section 1350 of this title.

(g) Funding-based limits on benefits and benefit accruals under single-employer plans

(1) Funding-based limitation on shutdown benefits and other unpredictable contingent event benefits under single-employer plans

(A) In general

If a participant of a defined benefit plan which is a single-employer plan is entitled to an unpredictable contingent event benefit payable with respect to any event occurring during any plan year, the plan shall provide that such benefit may not be provided if the adjusted funding target attainment percentage for such plan year—

(i) is less than 60 percent, or

(ii) would be less than 60 percent taking into account such occurrence.

(B) Exemption

Subparagraph (A) shall cease to apply with respect to any plan year, effective as of the first day of the plan year, upon payment by the plan sponsor of a contribution (in addition to any minimum required contribution under section 1083 of this title) equal to—

(i) in the case of subparagraph (A)(i), the amount of the increase in the funding target of the plan (under section 1083 of this title) for the plan year attributable to the occurrence referred to in subparagraph (A), and

(ii) in the case of subparagraph (A)(ii), the amount sufficient to result in an adjusted funding target attainment percentage of 60 percent.

(C) Unpredictable contingent event benefit

For purposes of this paragraph, the term “unpredictable contingent event benefit” means any benefit payable solely by reason of—

(i) a plant shutdown (or similar event, as determined by the Secretary of the Treasury), or

(ii) an event other than the attainment of any age, performance of any service, receipt or derivation of any compensation, or occurrence of death or disability.

(2) Limitations on plan amendments increasing liability for benefits

(A) In general

No amendment to a defined benefit plan which is a single-employer plan which has the effect of increasing liabilities of the plan by reason of increases in benefits, establishment of new benefits, changing the rate of benefit accrual, or changing the rate at which benefits become nonforfeitable may take effect during any plan year if the adjusted funding target attainment percentage for such plan year is—

(i) less than 80 percent, or

(ii) would be less than 80 percent taking into account such amendment.

(B) Exemption

Subparagraph (A) shall cease to apply with respect to any plan year, effective as of the first day of the plan year (or if later, the effective date of the amendment), upon payment by the plan sponsor of a contribution (in addition to any minimum required contribution under section 1083 of this title) equal to—

(i) in the case of subparagraph (A)(i), the amount of the increase in the funding target of the plan (under section 1083 of this title) for the plan year attributable to the amendment, and

(ii) in the case of subparagraph (A)(ii), the amount sufficient to result in an adjusted funding target attainment percentage of 80 percent.

(C) Exception for certain benefit increases

Subparagraph (A) shall not apply to any amendment which provides for an increase in benefits under a formula which is not based on a participant's compensation, but only if the rate of such increase is not in excess of the contemporaneous rate of increase in average wages of participants covered by the amendment.

(3) Limitations on accelerated benefit distributions

(A) Funding percentage less than 60 percent

A defined benefit plan which is a single-employer plan shall provide that, in any case in which the plan's adjusted funding target attainment percentage for a plan year is less than 60 percent, the plan may not pay any prohibited payment after the valuation date for the plan year.

(B) Bankruptcy

A defined benefit plan which is a single-employer plan shall provide that, during any period in which the plan sponsor is a debtor in a case under title 11 or similar Federal or State law, the plan may not pay any prohibited payment. The preceding sentence shall not apply on or after the date on which the enrolled actuary of the plan certifies that the adjusted funding target attainment percentage of such plan is not less than 100 percent.

(C) Limited payment if percentage at least 60 percent but less than 80 percent

(i) In general

A defined benefit plan which is a single-employer plan shall provide that, in any case in which the plan's adjusted funding target attainment percentage for a plan year is 60 percent or greater but less than 80 percent, the plan may not pay any prohibited payment after the valuation date for the plan year to the extent the amount of the payment exceeds the lesser of—

(I) 50 percent of the amount of the payment which could be made without regard to this subsection, or

(II) the present value (determined under guidance prescribed by the Pension Benefit Guaranty Corporation, using the interest and mortality assumptions under section 1055(g) of this title) of the maximum guarantee with respect to the participant under section 1322 of this title.

(ii) One-time application

(I) In general

The plan shall also provide that only 1 prohibited payment meeting the requirements of clause (i) may be made with respect to any participant during any period of consecutive plan years to which the limitations under either subparagraph (A) or (B) or this subparagraph applies.

(II) Treatment of beneficiaries

For purposes of this clause, a participant and any beneficiary on his behalf (including an alternate payee, as defined in subsection (d)(3)(K)) shall be treated as 1 participant. If the accrued benefit of a participant is allocated to such an alternate payee and 1 or more other persons, the amount under clause (i) shall be allocated among such persons in the same manner as the accrued benefit is allocated unless the qualified domestic relations order (as defined in subsection (d)(3)(B)(i)) provides otherwise.

(D) Exception

This paragraph shall not apply to any plan for any plan year if the terms of such plan (as in effect for the period beginning on September 1, 2005, and ending with such plan year) provide for no benefit accruals with respect to any participant during such period.

(E) Prohibited payment

For purpose 1 of this paragraph, the term “prohibited payment” means—

(i) any payment, in excess of the monthly amount paid under a single life annuity (plus any social security supplements described in the last sentence of section 1054(b)(1)(G) of this title), to a participant or beneficiary whose annuity starting date (as defined in section 1055(h)(2) of this title) occurs during any period a limitation under subparagraph (A) or (B) is in effect,

(ii) any payment for the purchase of an irrevocable commitment from an insurer to pay benefits, and

(iii) any other payment specified by the Secretary of the Treasury by regulations.


Such term shall not include the payment of a benefit which under section 1053(e) of this title may be immediately distributed without the consent of the participant.

(4) Limitation on benefit accruals for plans with severe funding shortfalls

(A) In general

A defined benefit plan which is a single-employer plan shall provide that, in any case in which the plan's adjusted funding target attainment percentage for a plan year is less than 60 percent, benefit accruals under the plan shall cease as of the valuation date for the plan year.

(B) Exemption

Subparagraph (A) shall cease to apply with respect to any plan year, effective as of the first day of the plan year, upon payment by the plan sponsor of a contribution (in addition to any minimum required contribution under section 1083 of this title) equal to the amount sufficient to result in an adjusted funding target attainment percentage of 60 percent.

(5) Rules relating to contributions required to avoid benefit limitations

(A) Security may be provided

(i) In general

For purposes of this subsection, the adjusted funding target attainment percentage shall be determined by treating as an asset of the plan any security provided by a plan sponsor in a form meeting the requirements of clause (ii).

(ii) Form of security

The security required under clause (i) shall consist of—

(I) a bond issued by a corporate surety company that is an acceptable surety for purposes of section 1112 of this title,

(II) cash, or United States obligations which mature in 3 years or less, held in escrow by a bank or similar financial institution, or

(III) such other form of security as is satisfactory to the Secretary of the Treasury and the parties involved.

(iii) Enforcement

Any security provided under clause (i) may be perfected and enforced at any time after the earlier of—

(I) the date on which the plan terminates,

(II) if there is a failure to make a payment of the minimum required contribution for any plan year beginning after the security is provided, the due date for the payment under section 1083(j) of this title, or

(III) if the adjusted funding target attainment percentage is less than 60 percent for a consecutive period of 7 years, the valuation date for the last year in the period.

(iv) Release of security

The security shall be released (and any amounts thereunder shall be refunded together with any interest accrued thereon) at such time as the Secretary of the Treasury may prescribe in regulations, including regulations for partial releases of the security by reason of increases in the adjusted funding target attainment percentage.

(B) Prefunding balance or funding standard carryover balance may not be used

No prefunding balance or funding standard carryover balance under section 1083(f) of this title may be used under paragraph (1), (2), or (4) to satisfy any payment an employer may make under any such paragraph to avoid or terminate the application of any limitation under such paragraph.

(C) Deemed reduction of funding balances

(i) In general

Subject to clause (iii), in any case in which a benefit limitation under paragraph (1), (2), (3), or (4) would (but for this subparagraph and determined without regard to paragraph (1)(B), (2)(B), or (4)(B)) apply to such plan for the plan year, the plan sponsor of such plan shall be treated for purposes of this chapter as having made an election under section 1083(f) of this title to reduce the prefunding balance or funding standard carryover balance by such amount as is necessary for such benefit limitation to not apply to the plan for such plan year.

(ii) Exception for insufficient funding balances

Clause (i) shall not apply with respect to a benefit limitation for any plan year if the application of clause (i) would not result in the benefit limitation not applying for such plan year.

(iii) Restrictions of certain rules to collectively bargained plans

With respect to any benefit limitation under paragraph (1), (2), or (4), clause (i) shall only apply in the case of a plan maintained pursuant to 1 or more collective bargaining agreements between employee representatives and 1 or more employers.

(6) New plans

Paragraphs (1), (2), and (4) shall not apply to a plan for the first 5 plan years of the plan. For purposes of this paragraph, the reference in this paragraph to a plan shall include a reference to any predecessor plan.

(7) Presumed underfunding for purposes of benefit limitations

(A) Presumption of continued underfunding

In any case in which a benefit limitation under paragraph (1), (2), (3), or (4) has been applied to a plan with respect to the plan year preceding the current plan year, the adjusted funding target attainment percentage of the plan for the current plan year shall be presumed to be equal to the adjusted funding target attainment percentage of the plan for the preceding plan year until the enrolled actuary of the plan certifies the actual adjusted funding target attainment percentage of the plan for the current plan year.

(B) Presumption of underfunding after 10th month

In any case in which no certification of the adjusted funding target attainment percentage for the current plan year is made with respect to the plan before the first day of the 10th month of such year, for purposes of paragraphs (1), (2), (3), and (4), such first day shall be deemed, for purposes of such paragraph, to be the valuation date of the plan for the current plan year and the plan's adjusted funding target attainment percentage shall be conclusively presumed to be less than 60 percent as of such first day.

(C) Presumption of underfunding after 4th month for nearly underfunded plans

In any case in which—

(i) a benefit limitation under paragraph (1), (2), (3), or (4) did not apply to a plan with respect to the plan year preceding the current plan year, but the adjusted funding target attainment percentage of the plan for such preceding plan year was not more than 10 percentage points greater than the percentage which would have caused such paragraph to apply to the plan with respect to such preceding plan year, and

(ii) as of the first day of the 4th month of the current plan year, the enrolled actuary of the plan has not certified the actual adjusted funding target attainment percentage of the plan for the current plan year,


until the enrolled actuary so certifies, such first day shall be deemed, for purposes of such paragraph, to be the valuation date of the plan for the current plan year and the adjusted funding target attainment percentage of the plan as of such first day shall, for purposes of such paragraph, be presumed to be equal to 10 percentage points less than the adjusted funding target attainment percentage of the plan for such preceding plan year.

(8) Treatment of plan as of close of prohibited or cessation period

For purposes of applying this part—

(A) Operation of plan after period

Unless the plan provides otherwise, payments and accruals will resume effective as of the day following the close of the period for which any limitation of payment or accrual of benefits under paragraph (3) or (4) applies.

(B) Treatment of affected benefits

Nothing in this paragraph shall be construed as affecting the plan's treatment of benefits which would have been paid or accrued but for this subsection.

(9) Terms relating to funding target attainment percentage

For purposes of this subsection—

(A) In general

The term “funding target attainment percentage” has the same meaning given such term by section 1083(d)(2) of this title.

(B) Adjusted funding target attainment percentage

The term “adjusted funding target attainment percentage” means the funding target attainment percentage which is determined under subparagraph (A) by increasing each of the amounts under subparagraphs (A) and (B) of section 1083(d)(2) of this title by the aggregate amount of purchases of annuities for employees other than highly compensated employees (as defined in section 414(q) of title 26) which were made by the plan during the preceding 2 plan years.

(C) Application to plans which are fully funded without regard to reductions for funding balances

(i) In general

In the case of a plan for any plan year, if the funding target attainment percentage is 100 percent or more (determined without regard to the reduction in the value of assets under section 1083(f)(4) of this title), the funding target attainment percentage for purposes of subparagraphs (A) and (B) shall be determined without regard to such reduction.

(ii) Transition rule

Clause (i) shall be applied to plan years beginning after 2007 and before 2011 by substituting for “100 percent” the applicable percentage determined in accordance with the following table:


 In the case of a plan year
The applicable
  beginning in calendar year:
percentage is
2008
92     
2009
94     
2010
96.   

        

(iii) Limitation

Clause (ii) shall not apply with respect to any plan year beginning after 2008 unless the funding target attainment percentage (determined without regard to the reduction in the value of assets under section 1083(f)(4) of this title) of the plan for each preceding plan year beginning after 2007 was not less than the applicable percentage with respect to such preceding plan year determined under clause (ii).

(D) Special rule for certain years

Solely for purposes of any applicable provision—

(i) In general

For plan years beginning on or after October 1, 2008, and before October 1, 2010, the adjusted funding target attainment percentage of a plan shall be the greater of—

(I) such percentage, as determined without regard to this subparagraph, or

(II) the adjusted funding target attainment percentage for such plan for the plan year beginning after October 1, 2007, and before October 1, 2008, as determined under rules prescribed by the Secretary of the Treasury.

(ii) Special rule

In the case of a plan for which the valuation date is not the first day of the plan year—

(I) clause (i) shall apply to plan years beginning after December 31, 2007, and before January 1, 2010, and

(II) clause (i)(II) shall apply based on the last plan year beginning before November 1, 2007, as determined under rules prescribed by the Secretary of the Treasury.

(iii) Applicable provision

For purposes of this subparagraph, the term “applicable provision” means—

(I) paragraph (3), but only for purposes of applying such paragraph to a payment which, as determined under rules prescribed by the Secretary of the Treasury, is a payment under a social security leveling option which accelerates payments under the plan before, and reduces payments after, a participant starts receiving social security benefits in order to provide substantially similar aggregate payments both before and after such benefits are received, and

(II) paragraph (4).

(10) Secretarial authority for plans with alternate valuation date

In the case of a plan which has designated a valuation date other than the first day of the plan year, the Secretary of the Treasury may prescribe rules for the application of this subsection which are necessary to reflect the alternate valuation date.

(11) Special rule for 2008

For purposes of this subsection, in the case of plan years beginning in 2008, the funding target attainment percentage for the preceding plan year may be determined using such methods of estimation as the Secretary of the Treasury may provide.

(Pub. L. 93–406, title I, §206, Sept. 2, 1974, 88 Stat. 864; Pub. L. 98–397, title I, §104(a), Aug. 23, 1984, 98 Stat. 1433; Pub. L. 99–514, title XVIII, §1898(c)(2)(B), (4)(B), (5), (6)(B), (7)(B), Oct. 22, 1986, 100 Stat. 2952–2954; Pub. L. 101–239, title VII, §§7891(a)(1), 7894(c)(8), (9)(A), Dec. 19, 1989, 103 Stat. 2445, 2449; Pub. L. 103–465, title VII, §§761(a)(9)(B)(i), 776(c)(2), Dec. 8, 1994, 108 Stat. 5033, 5048; Pub. L. 105–34, title XV, §1502(a), Aug. 5, 1997, 111 Stat. 1058; Pub. L. 109–280, title I, §§103(a), 108(a)(9), (10), formerly §107(a)(9), (10), title IV, §410(b), Aug. 17, 2006, 120 Stat. 809, 819, 935, renumbered Pub. L. 111–192, title II, §202(a), June 25, 2010, 124 Stat. 1297; Pub. L. 110–458, title I, §101(c)(1)(B)–(G), Dec. 23, 2008, 122 Stat. 5097; Pub. L. 111–192, title II, §203(a)(1), June 25, 2010, 124 Stat. 1299.)

References in Text

The Social Security Act, referred to in subsec. (b), is act Aug. 14, 1935, ch. 531, 49 Stat. 620. Title II of the Social Security Act is classified generally to subchapter II (§401 et seq.) of chapter 7 of Title 42, The Public Health and Welfare. For complete classification of this Act to the Code, see section 1305 of Title 42 and Tables.

The Railroad Retirement Act of 1937, referred to in subsec. (b), is act Aug. 29, 1935, ch. 812, 49 Stat. 967, as amended generally by act June 24, 1937, ch. 382, part I, 50 Stat. 307, and which was classified principally to subchapter III (§228a et seq.) of chapter 9 of Title 45, Railroads. The Railroad Retirement Act of 1937 was amended generally and redesignated the Railroad Retirement Act of 1974 by Pub. L. 93–445, title I, Oct. 16, 1974, 88 Stat. 1305. The Railroad Retirement Act of 1974 is classified generally to subchapter IV (§231 et seq.) of chapter 9 of Title 45. For complete classification of these acts to the Code, see Tables.

This chapter, referred to in subsecs. (e)(4) and (g)(5)(C)(i), was in the original “this Act”, meaning Pub. L. 93–406, known as the Employee Retirement Income Security Act of 1974. Titles I, III, and IV of such Act are classified principally to this chapter. For complete classification of this Act to the Code, see Short Title note set out under section 1001 of this title and Tables.

Amendments

2010—Subsec. (g)(9)(D). Pub. L. 111–192, §203(a)(1), added subpar. (D).

2008—Subsec. (g)(1)(B)(ii). Pub. L. 110–458, §101(c)(1)(B), substituted “an adjusted funding” for “a funding”.

Subsec. (g)(1)(C). Pub. L. 110–458, §101(c)(1)(C), inserted “benefit” after “event” in heading.

Subsec. (g)(3)(E). Pub. L. 110–458, §101(c)(1)(D), inserted concluding provisions.

Subsec. (g)(5)(A)(iv). Pub. L. 110–458, §101(c)(1)(E), inserted “adjusted” before “funding”.

Subsec. (g)(9)(C). Pub. L. 110–458, §101(c)(1)(F), in cl. (i), struck out “without regard to this subparagraph and” before “without regard to the reduction” and, in cl. (iii), substituted “without regard to the reduction in the value of assets under section 1083(f)(4) of this title” for “without regard to this subparagraph” and inserted “beginning” before “after” in two places.

Subsec. (g)(10), (11). Pub. L. 110–458, §101(c)(1)(G), added par. (10) and redesignated former par. (10) as (11).

2006—Subsec. (e)(1). Pub. L. 109–280, §108(a)(9), formerly §107(a)(9), as renumbered by Pub. L. 111–192, §202(a), substituted “1083(j)(4)” for “1082(d)” and “1083(j)(4)(E)(i)” for “1082(e)(5)”.

Subsec. (e)(3). Pub. L. 109–280, §108(a)(10), formerly §107(a)(10), as renumbered by Pub. L. 111–192, §202(a), substituted “section 1083(j)(3) of this title by reason of section 1083(j)(4)(A) of this title” for “section 1082(e) of this title by reason of paragraph (5)(A) thereof”.

Subsec. (f). Pub. L. 109–280, §410(b), substituted “section 1350 of this title” for “subchapter III of this chapter, the plan shall provide that”.

Subsec. (g). Pub. L. 109–280, §103(a), added subsec. (g).

1997—Subsec. (d)(4), (5). Pub. L. 105–34 added pars. (4) and (5).

1994—Subsec. (e). Pub. L. 103–465, §761(a)(9)(B)(i), added subsec. (e).

Subsec. (f). Pub. L. 103–465, §776(c)(2), added subsec. (f).

1989—Subsec. (a)(1). Pub. L. 101–239, §7894(c)(8), inserted “occurs” before “the date”.

Subsec. (d)(2). Pub. L. 101–239, §7891(a)(1), substituted “Internal Revenue Code of 1986” for “Internal Revenue Code of 1954”, which for purposes of codification was translated as “title 26” thus requiring no change in text.

Subsec. (d)(3)(I). Pub. L. 101–239, §7894(c)(9)(A), substituted “such Act” for “such act”.

1986—Subsec. (d)(3)(E)(i). Pub. L. 99–514, §1898(c)(7)(B)(iii), substituted “A” for “In the case of any payment before a participant has separated from service, a” in introductory provisions and inserted “in the case of any payment before a participant has separated from service,” in subcl. (I).

Subsec. (d)(3)(E)(ii). Pub. L. 99–514, §1898(c)(7)(B)(iv), amended cl. (ii) generally. Prior to amendment, cl. (ii) read as follows: “For purposes of this subparagraph, the term ‘earliest retirement age’ has the meaning given such term by section 1055(h)(3) of this section, except that in the case of any individual account plan, the earliest retirement age shall be the date which is 10 years before the normal retirement age.”

Subsec. (d)(3)(F)(i). Pub. L. 99–514, §1898(c)(6)(B), inserted “(and any spouse of the participant shall not be treated as a spouse of the participant for such purposes)”.

Subsec. (d)(3)(F)(ii). Pub. L. 99–514, §1898(c)(7)(B)(i), inserted “surviving” before “former spouse”.

Subsec. (d)(3)(G)(i)(I). Pub. L. 99–514, §1898(c)(7)(B)(ii), substituted “each” for “any other”.

Subsec. (d)(3)(H)(i). Pub. L. 99–514, §1898(c)(2)(B)(i), substituted “shall separately account for the amounts (hereinafter in this subparagraph referred to as the ‘segregated amounts’)” for “shall segregate in a separate account in the plan or in an escrow account the amounts”.

Subsec. (d)(3)(H)(ii), (iii). Pub. L. 99–514, §1898(c)(2)(B)(ii), (iii), substituted “the 18-month period described in clause (v)” for “18 months” and “including any interest” for “plus any interest”.

Subsec. (d)(3)(H)(iv). Pub. L. 99–514, §1898(c)(2)(B)(iv), inserted “described in clause (v)”.

Subsec. (d)(3)(H)(v). Pub. L. 99–514, §1898(c)(2)(B)(v), added cl. (v).

Subsec. (d)(3)(L). Pub. L. 99–514, §1898(c)(4)(B), added subpar. (L) and redesignated former subpar. (L) as (N).

Subsec. (d)(3)(M). Pub. L. 99–514, §1898(c)(5), added subpar. (M).

Subsec. (d)(3)(N). Pub. L. 99–514, §1898(c)(4)(B), redesignated subpar. (L) as (N).

1984—Subsec. (d)(3). Pub. L. 98–397 added par. (3).

Effective Date of 2008 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 110–458 effective as if included in the provisions of Pub. L. 109–280 to which the amendment relates, except as otherwise provided, see section 112 of Pub. L. 110–458, set out as a note under section 72 of Title 26, Internal Revenue Code.

Effective Date of 2006 Amendment

Amendment by section 103(a) of Pub. L. 109–280 applicable to plan years beginning after Dec. 31, 2007, with collective bargaining exception, see section 103(c) of Pub. L. 109–280, set out as a note under section 1021 of this title.

Amendment by section 108(a)(9), (10) of Pub. L. 109–280 applicable to plan years beginning after 2007, see section 108(e) of Pub. L. 109–280, set out as a note under section 1021 of this title.

Pub. L. 109–280, title IV, §410(c), Aug. 17, 2006, 120 Stat. 935, provided that: “The amendments made by this section [amending this section and section 1350 of this title] shall apply to distributions made after final regulations implementing subsections (c) and (d) of section 4050 of the Employee Retirement Income Security Act of 1974 [29 U.S.C. 1350(c), (d)] (as added by subsection (a)), respectively, are prescribed.”

Effective Date of 1997 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 105–34 applicable to judgments, orders, and decrees issued, and settlement agreements entered into, on or after Aug. 5, 1997, see section 1502(c) of Pub. L. 105–34, set out as a note under section 401 of Title 26, Internal Revenue Code.

Effective Date of 1994 Amendment

Section 761(b) of Pub. L. 103–465 provided that:

“(1) In general.—Except as provided in paragraph (2), the amendments made by this section [amending this section and sections 1082, 1132, and 1301 of this title] shall apply to plan years beginning after December 31, 1994.

“(2) Contributing sponsor.—The amendment made by subsection (a)(11) [amending section 1301 of this title] shall be effective as if included in the Pension Protection Act [Pub. L. 100–203, title IX, subtitle D, part II, §§9302–9346].”

Section 776(e) of Pub. L. 103–465 provided that: “The provisions of this section [enacting section 1350 of this title and amending this section and sections 1303, 1305, and 1341 of this title and section 401 of Title 26, Internal Revenue Code] shall be effective with respect to distributions that occur in plan years commencing after final regulations implementing these provisions are prescribed by the Pension Benefit Guaranty Corporation.” [Final implementing regulations were issued Nov. 22, 1995, effective for distributions in plan years beginning on or after Jan. 1, 1996. See 60 F.R. 61740.]

Effective Date of 1989 Amendment

Amendment by section 7891(a)(1) of Pub. L. 101–239 effective, except as otherwise provided, as if included in the provision of the Tax Reform Act of 1986, Pub. L. 99–514, to which such amendment relates, see section 7891(f) of Pub. L. 101–239, set out as a note under section 1002 of this title.

Amendment by section 7894(c)(8) of Pub. L. 101–239 effective, except as otherwise provided, as if originally included in the provision of the Employee Retirement Income Security Act of 1974, Pub. L. 93–406, to which such amendment relates, see section 7894(i) of Pub. L. 101–239, set out as a note under section 1002 of this title.

Section 7894(c)(9)(B) of Pub. L. 101–239 provided that: “The amendment made by subparagraph (A) [amending this section] shall take effect as if included in section 104 of the Retirement Equity Act of 1984 [Pub. L. 98–397].”

Effective Date of 1986 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 99–514 effective as if included in the provision of the Retirement Equity Act of 1984, Pub. L. 98–397, to which such amendment relates, except as otherwise provided, see section 1898(j) of Pub. L. 99–514, set out as a note under section 401 of Title 26, Internal Revenue Code.

Effective Date of 1984 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 98–397 effective Jan. 1, 1985, except as otherwise provided, see section 303(d) of Pub. L. 98–397, set out as a note under section 1001 of this title.

Applicability of Amendments by Subtitles A and B of Title I of Pub. L. 109–280

For special rules on applicability of amendments by subtitles A (§§101–108) and B (§§111–116) of title I of Pub. L. 109–280 to certain eligible cooperative plans, PBGC settlement plans, and eligible government contractor plans, see sections 104, 105, and 106 of Pub. L. 109–280, set out as notes under section 401 of Title 26, Internal Revenue Code.

Plan Amendments Not Required Until January 1, 1989

For provisions directing that if any amendments made by subtitle A or subtitle C of title XI [§§1101–1147 and 1171–1177] or title XVIII [§§1800–1899A] of Pub. L. 99–514 require an amendment to any plan, such plan amendment shall not be required to be made before the first plan year beginning on or after Jan. 1, 1989, see section 1140 of Pub. L. 99–514, set out as a note under section 401 of Title 26, Internal Revenue Code.

1 So in original. Probably should be “purposes”.

§1057. Repealed. Pub. L. 109–280, title I, §108(d), formerly §107(d), Aug. 17, 2006, 120 Stat. 820, renumbered Pub. L. 111–192, title II, §202(a), June 25, 2010, 124 Stat. 1297

Section, Pub. L. 93–406, title I, §207, Sept. 2, 1974, 88 Stat. 865, related to temporary variances from certain vesting requirements.

Effective Date of Repeal

Repeal applicable to plan years beginning after 2007, see section 108(e) of Pub. L. 109–280, set out as an Effective Date of 2006 Amendment note under section 1021 of this title.

§1058. Mergers and consolidations of plans or transfers of plan assets

A pension plan may not merge or consolidate with, or transfer its assets or liabilities to, any other plan after September 2, 1974, unless each participant in the plan would (if the plan then terminated) receive a benefit immediately after the merger, consolidation, or transfer which is equal to or greater than the benefit he would have been entitled to receive immediately before the merger, consolidation, or transfer (if the plan had then terminated). The preceding sentence shall not apply to any transaction to the extent that participants either before or after the transaction are covered under a multiemployer plan to which subchapter III of this chapter applies.

(Pub. L. 93–406, title I, §208, Sept. 2, 1974, 88 Stat. 865; Pub. L. 96–364, title IV, §402(b)(1), Sept. 26, 1980, 94 Stat. 1299.)

Amendments

1980—Pub. L. 96–364 substituted provisions respecting applicability of preceding sentence to transactions under a covered multiemployer plan to which subchapter III applies, for provisions relating to applicability of paragraph to a multiemployer plan only to extent determined by Corporation.

Effective Date of 1980 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 96–364 effective Sept. 26, 1980, except as specifically provided, see section 1461(e) of this title.

§1059. Recordkeeping and reporting requirements

(a)(1) Except as provided by paragraph (2) every employer shall, in accordance with such regulations as the Secretary may prescribe, maintain records with respect to each of his employees sufficient to determine the benefits due or which may become due to such employees. The plan administrator shall make a report, in such manner and at such time as may be provided in regulations prescribed by the Secretary, to each employee who is a participant under the plan and who—

(A) requests such report, in such manner and at such time as may be provided in such regulations,

(B) terminates his service with the employer, or

(C) has a 1-year break in service (as defined in section 1053(b)(3)(A) of this title).


The employer shall furnish to the plan administrator the information necessary for the administrator to make the reports required by the preceding sentence. Not more than one report shall be required under subparagraph (A) in any 12-month period. Not more than one report shall be required under subparagraph (C) with respect to consecutive 1-year breaks in service. The report required under this paragraph shall be in the same form, and contain the same information, as periodic benefit statements under section 1025(a) of this title.

(2) If more than one employer adopts a plan, each such employer shall furnish to the plan administrator the information necessary for the administrator to maintain the records, and make the reports, required by paragraph (1). Such administrator shall maintain the records, and make the reports, required by paragraph (1).

(b) If any person who is required, under subsection (a) of this section, to furnish information or maintain records for any plan year fails to comply with such requirement, he shall pay to the Secretary a civil penalty of $10 for each employee with respect to whom such failure occurs, unless it is shown that such failure is due to reasonable cause.

(Pub. L. 93–406, title I, §209, Sept. 2, 1974, 88 Stat. 865; Pub. L. 110–458, title I, §105(f), Dec. 23, 2008, 122 Stat. 5105.)

Amendments

2008—Subsec. (a)(1). Pub. L. 110–458, §105(f)(1), in introductory provisions, substituted “such regulations as the Secretary may prescribe” for “regulations prescribed by the Secretary” and, in concluding provisions, inserted last sentence and struck out former last sentence which read as follows: “The report required under this paragraph shall be sufficient to inform the employee of his accrued benefits under the plan and the percentage of such benefits which are nonforfeitable under the plan.”

Subsec. (a)(2). Pub. L. 110–458, §105(f)(2), added par. (2) and struck out former par. (2) which read as follows: “If more than one employer adopts a plan, each such employer shall, in accordance with regulations prescribed by the Secretary, furnish to the plan administrator the information necessary for the administrator to maintain the records and make the reports required by paragraph (1). Such administrator shall maintain the records and, to the extent provided under regulations prescribed by the Secretary, make the reports, required by paragraph (1).”

Effective Date of 2008 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 110–458 effective as if included in the provisions of Pub. L. 109–280 to which the amendment relates, except as otherwise provided, see section 112 of Pub. L. 110–458, set out as a note under section 72 of Title 26, Internal Revenue Code.

Regulations

Secretary authorized, effective Sept. 2, 1974, to promulgate regulations wherever provisions of this subchapter call for the promulgation of regulations, see section 1031 of this title.

§1060. Multiple employer plans and other special rules

(a) Plan maintained by more than one employer

Notwithstanding any other provision of this part or part 3, the following provisions of this subsection shall apply to a plan maintained by more than one employer:

(1) Section 1052 of this title shall be applied as if all employees of each of the employers were employed by a single employer.

(2) Sections 1053 and 1054 of this title shall be applied as if all such employers constituted a single employer, except that the application of any rules with respect to breaks in service shall be made under regulations prescribed by the Secretary.

(3) The minimum funding standard provided by section 1082 of this title shall be determined as if all participants in the plan were employed by a single employer.

(b) Maintenance of plan of predecessor employer

For purposes of this part and part 3—

(1) in any case in which the employer maintains a plan of a predecessor employer, service for such predecessor shall be treated as service for the employer, and

(2) in any case in which the employer maintains a plan which is not the plan maintained by a predecessor employer, service for such predecessor shall, to the extent provided in regulations prescribed by the Secretary of the Treasury, be treated as service for the employer.

(c) Plan maintained by controlled group of corporations

For purposes of sections 1052, 1053, and 1054 of this title, all employees of all corporations which are members of a controlled group of corporations (within the meaning of section 1563(a) of title 26, determined without regard to section 1563(a)(4) and (e)(3)(C) of title 26) shall be treated as employed by a single employer. With respect to a plan adopted by more than one such corporation, the minimum funding standard of section 1082 of this title shall be determined as if all such employers were a single employer, and allocated to each employer in accordance with regulations prescribed by the Secretary of the Treasury.

(d) Plan of trades or businesses under common control

For purposes of sections 1052, 1053, and 1054 of this title, under regulations prescribed by the Secretary of the Treasury, all employees of trades or businesses (whether or not incorporated) which are under common control shall be treated as employed by a single employer. The regulations prescribed under this subsection shall be based on principles similar to the principles which apply in the case of subsection (c) of this section.

(e) Special rules for eligible combined defined benefit plans and qualified cash or deferred arrangements

(1) General rule

Except as provided in this subsection, this chapter shall be applied to any defined benefit plan or applicable individual account plan which are 1 part of an eligible combined plan in the same manner as if each such plan were not a part of the eligible combined plan. In the case of a termination of the defined benefit plan and the applicable defined contribution plan forming part of an eligible combined plan, the plan administrator shall terminate each such plan separately.

(2) Eligible combined plan

For purposes of this subsection—

(A) In general

The term “eligible combined plan” means a plan—

(i) which is maintained by an employer which, at the time the plan is established, is a small employer,

(ii) which consists of a defined benefit plan and an applicable individual account plan each of which qualifies under section 401(a) of title 26,

(iii) the assets of which are held in a single trust forming part of the plan and are clearly identified and allocated to the defined benefit plan and the applicable individual account plan to the extent necessary for the separate application of this chapter under paragraph (1), and

(iv) with respect to which the benefit, contribution, vesting, and nondiscrimination requirements of subparagraphs (B), (C), (D), (E), and (F) are met.


For purposes of this subparagraph, the term “small employer” has the meaning given such term by section 4980D(d)(2) of title 26, except that such section shall be applied by substituting “500” for “50” each place it appears.

(B) Benefit requirements

(i) In general

The benefit requirements of this subparagraph are met with respect to the defined benefit plan forming part of the eligible combined plan if the accrued benefit of each participant derived from employer contributions, when expressed as an annual retirement benefit, is not less than the applicable percentage of the participant's final average pay. For purposes of this clause, final average pay shall be determined using the period of consecutive years (not exceeding 5) during which the participant had the greatest aggregate compensation from the employer.

(ii) Applicable percentage

For purposes of clause (i), the applicable percentage is the lesser of—

(I) 1 percent multiplied by the number of years of service with the employer, or

(II) 20 percent.

(iii) Special rule for applicable defined benefit plans

If the defined benefit plan under clause (i) is an applicable defined benefit plan as defined in section 1053(f)(3)(B) of this title which meets the interest credit requirements of section 1054(b)(5)(B)(i) of this title, the plan shall be treated as meeting the requirements of clause (i) with respect to any plan year if each participant receives pay credit for the year which is not less than the percentage of compensation determined in accordance with the following table:


 If the participant's age
The
  as of the beginning
percentage
  of the year is—
is—
30 or less
2     
Over 30 but less than 40
4     
40 or over but less than 50
6     
50 or over
8.   

        

(iv) Years of service

For purposes of this subparagraph, years of service shall be determined under the rules of paragraphs (1), (2), and (3) of section 1053(b) of this title, except that the plan may not disregard any year of service because of a participant making, or failing to make, any elective deferral with respect to the qualified cash or deferred arrangement to which subparagraph (C) applies.

(C) Contribution requirements

(i) In general

The contribution requirements of this subparagraph with respect to any applicable individual account plan forming part of an eligible combined plan are met if—

(I) the qualified cash or deferred arrangement included in such plan constitutes an automatic contribution arrangement, and

(II) the employer is required to make matching contributions on behalf of each employee eligible to participate in the arrangement in an amount equal to 50 percent of the elective contributions of the employee to the extent such elective contributions do not exceed 4 percent of compensation.


 Rules similar to the rules of clauses (ii) and (iii) of section 401(k)(12)(B) of title 26 shall apply for purposes of this clause.

(ii) Nonelective contributions

An applicable individual account plan shall not be treated as failing to meet the requirements of clause (i) because the employer makes nonelective contributions under the plan but such contributions shall not be taken into account in determining whether the requirements of clause (i)(II) are met.

(D) Vesting requirements

The vesting requirements of this subparagraph are met if—

(i) in the case of a defined benefit plan forming part of an eligible combined plan an employee who has completed at least 3 years of service has a nonforfeitable right to 100 percent of the employee's accrued benefit under the plan derived from employer contributions, and

(ii) in the case of an applicable individual account plan forming part of eligible combined plan—

(I) an employee has a nonforfeitable right to any matching contribution made under the qualified cash or deferred arrangement included in such plan by an employer with respect to any elective contribution, including matching contributions in excess of the contributions required under subparagraph (C)(i)(II), and

(II) an employee who has completed at least 3 years of service has a nonforfeitable right to 100 percent of the employee's accrued benefit derived under the arrangement from nonelective contributions of the employer.


 For purposes of this subparagraph, the rules of section 1053 of this title shall apply to the extent not inconsistent with this subparagraph.

(E) Uniform provision of contributions and benefits

In the case of a defined benefit plan or applicable individual account plan forming part of an eligible combined plan, the requirements of this subparagraph are met if all contributions and benefits under each such plan, and all rights and features under each such plan, must be provided uniformly to all participants.

(F) Requirements must be met without taking into account social security and similar contributions and benefits or other plans

(i) In general

The requirements of this subparagraph are met if the requirements of clauses (ii) and (iii) are met.

(ii) Social security and similar contributions

The requirements of this clause are met if—

(I) the requirements of subparagraphs (B) and (C) are met without regard to section 401(l) of title 26, and

(II) the requirements of sections 401(a)(4) and 410(b) of title 26 are met with respect to both the applicable defined contribution plan and defined benefit plan forming part of an eligible combined plan without regard to section 401(l) of title 26.

(iii) Other plans and arrangements

The requirements of this clause are met if the applicable defined contribution plan and defined benefit plan forming part of an eligible combined plan meet the requirements of sections 401(a)(4) and 410(b) of title 26 without being combined with any other plan.

(3) Automatic contribution arrangement

For purposes of this subsection—

(A) In general

A qualified cash or deferred arrangement shall be treated as an automatic contribution arrangement if the arrangement—

(i) provides that each employee eligible to participate in the arrangement is treated as having elected to have the employer make elective contributions in an amount equal to 4 percent of the employee's compensation unless the employee specifically elects not to have such contributions made or to have such contributions made at a different rate, and

(ii) meets the notice requirements under subparagraph (B).

(B) Notice requirements

(i) In general

The requirements of this subparagraph are met if the requirements of clauses (ii) and (iii) are met.

(ii) Reasonable period to make election

The requirements of this clause are met if each employee to whom subparagraph (A)(i) applies—

(I) receives a notice explaining the employee's right under the arrangement to elect not to have elective contributions made on the employee's behalf or to have the contributions made at a different rate, and

(II) has a reasonable period of time after receipt of such notice and before the first elective contribution is made to make such election.

(iii) Annual notice of rights and obligations

The requirements of this clause are met if each employee eligible to participate in the arrangement is, within a reasonable period before any year, given notice of the employee's rights and obligations under the arrangement.


The requirements of this subparagraph shall not be treated as met unless the requirements of clauses (i) and (ii) of section 401(k)(12)(D) of title 26 are met with respect to the notices described in clauses (ii) and (iii) of this subparagraph.

(4) Coordination with other requirements

(A) Treatment of separate plans

The except clause in section 1002(35) of this title shall not apply to an eligible combined plan.

(B) Reporting

An eligible combined plan shall be treated as a single plan for purposes of section 1023 of this title.

(5) Applicable individual account plan

For purposes of this subsection—

(A) In general

The term “applicable individual account plan” means an individual account plan which includes a qualified cash or deferred arrangement.

(B) Qualified cash or deferred arrangement

The term “qualified cash or deferred arrangement” has the meaning given such term by section 401(k)(2) of title 26.

(Pub. L. 93–406, title I, §210, Sept. 2, 1974, 88 Stat. 866; Pub. L. 101–239, title VII, §§7891(a)(1), 7894(c)(10), Dec. 19, 1989, 103 Stat. 2445, 2449; Pub. L. 109–280, title IX, §903(b)(1), (2)(A), Aug. 17, 2006, 120 Stat. 1044, 1048; Pub. L. 110–458, title I, §109(c)(2), Dec. 23, 2008, 122 Stat. 5111.)

References in Text

This chapter, referred to in subsec. (e)(1), (2)(A)(iii), was in the original “this Act”, meaning Pub. L. 93–406, known as the Employee Retirement Income Security Act of 1974. Titles I, III, and IV of such Act are classified principally to this chapter. For complete classification of this Act to the Code, see Short Title note set out under section 1001 of this title and Tables.

Amendments

2008—Subsec. (e)(1). Pub. L. 110–458, §109(c)(2)(A), inserted at end “In the case of a termination of the defined benefit plan and the applicable defined contribution plan forming part of an eligible combined plan, the plan administrator shall terminate each such plan separately.”

Subsec. (e)(3) to (6). Pub. L. 110–458, §109(c)(2)(B), struck out par. (3) and redesignated pars. (4) to (6) as (3) to (5), respectively. Former par. (3) related to nondiscrimination requirements for qualified cash or deferred arrangement.

2006—Pub. L. 109–280, §903(b)(2)(A), inserted “and other special rules” after “plans” in section catchline.

Subsec. (e). Pub. L. 109–280, §903(b)(1), added subsec. (e).

1989—Subsec. (c). Pub. L. 101–239, §7894(c)(10), substituted “and (e)(3)(C) of such Code” for “and (e)(3)(C) of such code”, which for purposes of codification was translated as “and (e)(3)(C) of title 26” thus requiring no change in text.

Pub. L. 101–239, §7891(a)(1), substituted “Internal Revenue Code of 1986” for “Internal Revenue Code of 1954”, which for purposes of codification was translated as “title 26” thus requiring no change in text.

Effective Date of 2008 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 110–458 effective as if included in the provisions of Pub. L. 109–280 to which the amendment relates, except as otherwise provided, see section 112 of Pub. L. 110–458, set out as a note under section 72 of Title 26, Internal Revenue Code.

Effective Date of 2006 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 109–280 applicable to plan years beginning after Dec. 31, 2009, see section 903(c) of Pub. L. 109–280, set out as a note under section 414 of Title 26, Internal Revenue Code.

Effective Date of 1989 Amendment

Amendment by section 7891(a)(1) of Pub. L. 101–239 effective, except as otherwise provided, as if included in the provision of the Tax Reform Act of 1986, Pub. L. 99–514, to which such amendment relates, see section 7891(f) of Pub. L. 101–239, set out as a note under section 1002 of this title.

Amendment by section 7894(c)(10) of Pub. L. 101–239 effective, except as otherwise provided, as if originally included in the provision of the Employee Retirement Income Security Act of 1974, Pub. L. 93–406, to which such amendment relates, see section 7894(i) of Pub. L. 101–239, set out as a note under section 1002 of this title.

Regulations

Secretary authorized, effective Sept. 2, 1974, to promulgate regulations wherever provisions of this subchapter call for the promulgation of regulations, see section 1031 of this title.

1 So in original. Probably should be “is”.

§1061. Effective dates

(a) Except as otherwise provided in this section, this part shall apply in the case of plan years beginning after September 2, 1974.

(b)(1) Except as otherwise provided in subsection (d) of this section, sections 1055, 1056(d) and 1058 of this title shall apply with respect to plan years beginning after December 31, 1975.

(2) Except as otherwise provided in subsections (c) and (d) of this section in the case of a plan in existence on January 1, 1974, this part shall apply in the case of plan years beginning after December 31, 1975.

(c)(1) In the case of a plan maintained on January 1, 1974, pursuant to one or more agreements which the Secretary finds to be collective bargaining agreements between employee organizations and one or more employers, no plan shall be treated as not meeting the requirements of sections 1054 and 1055 of this title by reason of a supplementary or special plan provision (within the meaning of paragraph (2)) for any plan year before the year which begins after the earlier of—

(A) the date on which the last of such agreements relating to the plan terminates (determined without regard to any extension thereof agreed to after September 2, 1974), or

(B) December 31, 1980.


For purposes of subparagraph (A) and section 1086(c) 1 of this title, any plan amendment made pursuant to a collective bargaining agreement relating to the plan which amends the plan solely to conform to any requirement contained in this chapter or title 26 shall not be treated as a termination of such collective bargaining agreement. This paragraph shall not apply unless the Secretary determines that the participation and vesting rules in effect on September 2, 1974, are not less favorable to participants, in the aggregate, than the rules provided under sections 1052, 1053, and 1054 of this title.

(2) For purposes of paragraph (1), the term “supplementary or special plan provision” means any plan provision which—

(A) provides supplementary benefits, not in excess of one-third of the basic benefit, in the form of an annuity for the life of the participant, or

(B) provides that, under a contractual agreement based on medical evidence as to the effects of working in an adverse environment for an extended period of time, a participant having 25 years of service is to be treated as having 30 years of service.


(3) This subsection shall apply with respect to a plan if (and only if) the application of this subsection results in a later effective date for this part than the effective date required by subsection (b) of this section.

(d) If the administrator of a plan elects under section 1017(d) of this Act to make applicable to a plan year and to all subsequent plan years the provisions of title 26 relating to participation, vesting, funding, and form of benefit, this part shall apply to the first plan year to which such election applies and to all subsequent plan years.

(e)(1) No pension plan to which section 1052 of this title applies may make effective any plan amendment with respect to breaks in service (which amendment is made or becomes effective after January 1, 1974, and before the date on which section 1052 of this title first becomes effective with respect to such plan) which provides that any employee's participation in the plan would commence at any date later than the later of—

(A) the date on which his participation would commence under the break in service rules of section 1052(b) of this title, or

(B) the date on which his participation would commence under the plan as in effect on January 1, 1974.


(2) No pension plan to which section 1053 of this title applies may make effective any plan amendment with respect to breaks in service (which amendment is made or becomes effective after January 1, 1974, and before the date on which section 1053 of this title first becomes effective with respect to such plan) if such amendment provides that the nonforfeitable benefit derived from employer contributions to which any employee would be entitled is less than the lesser of the nonforfeitable benefit derived from employer contributions to which he would be entitled under—

(A) the break in service rules of section 1052(b)(3) of this title, or

(B) the plan as in effect on January 1, 1974.


Subparagraph (B) shall not apply if the break in service rules under the plan would have been in violation of any law or rule of law in effect on January 1, 1974.

(f) The preceding provisions of this section shall not apply with respect to amendments made to this part in provisions enacted after September 2, 1974.

(Pub. L. 93–406, title I, §211, Sept. 2, 1974, 88 Stat. 867; Pub. L. 99–272, title XI, §11015(a)(1)(B), Apr. 7, 1986, 100 Stat. 265; Pub. L. 101–239, title VII, §§7891(a)(1), 7894(h)(2), Dec. 19, 1989, 103 Stat. 2445, 2451.)

References in Text

Section 1086(c) of this title, referred to in subsec. (c)(1), was in the original “section 307(c)”, meaning section 307(c) of Pub. L. 93–406, the Employee Retirement Income Security Act of 1974. Section 307(c) was renumbered section 308(c) by Pub. L. 100–203, title IX, §9341(b)(1), Dec. 22, 1987, 101 Stat. 1330–370.

This chapter, referred to in subsec. (c)(1), was in the original “this Act”, meaning Pub. L. 93–406, known as the Employee Retirement Income Security Act of 1974. Titles I, III, and IV of such Act are classified principally to this chapter. For complete classification of this Act to the Code, see Short Title note set out under section 1001 of this title and Tables.

Section 1017(d) of this Act, referred to in subsec. (d), is section 1017 of Pub. L. 93–406, which is set out as an Effective Date; Transitional Rules note under section 410 of Title 26.

Amendments

1989—Subsecs. (c)(1), (d). Pub. L. 101–239, §7891(a)(1), substituted “Internal Revenue Code of 1986” for “Internal Revenue Code of 1954”, which for purposes of codification was translated as “title 26”.

Subsec. (f). Pub. L. 101–239, §7894(h)(2), added subsec. (f).

1986—Subsec. (c)(1). Pub. L. 99–272 made a technical amendment to the reference to section 1086(c) of this title to reflect the renumbering of the corresponding section of the original act.

Effective Date of 1989 Amendment

Amendment by section 7891(a)(1) of Pub. L. 101–239 effective, except as otherwise provided, as if included in the provision of the Tax Reform Act of 1986, Pub. L. 99–514, to which such amendment relates, see section 7891(f) of Pub. L. 101–239, set out as a note under section 1002 of this title.

Amendment by section 7894(h)(2) of Pub. L. 101–239 effective, except as otherwise provided, as if originally included in the provision of the Employee Retirement Income Security Act of 1974, Pub. L. 93–406, to which such amendment relates, see section 7894(i) of Pub. L. 101–239, set out as a note under section 1002 of this title.

Effective Date of 1986 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 99–272 applicable with respect to applications for waivers, extensions, and modifications filed on or after Apr. 7, 1986, see section 11015(a)(3) of Pub. L. 99–272, set out as an Effective Date note under section 412 of Title 26, Internal Revenue Code.

1 See References in Text note below.

part 3—funding

§1081. Coverage

(a) Plans excepted from applicability of this part

This part shall apply to any employee pension benefit plan described in section 1003(a) of this title, (and not exempted under section 1003(b) of this title), other than—

(1) an employee welfare benefit plan;

(2) an insurance contract plan described in subsection (b) of this section;

(3) a plan which is unfunded and is maintained by an employer primarily for the purpose of providing deferred compensation for a select group of management or highly compensated employees;

(4)(A) a plan which is established and maintained by a society, order, or association described in section 501(c)(8) or (9) of title 26, if no part of the contributions to or under such plan are made by employers of participants in such plan; or

(B) a trust described in section 501(c)(18) of title 26;

(5) a plan which has not at any time after September 2, 1974, provided for employer contributions;

(6) an agreement providing payments to a retired partner or deceased partner or a deceased partner's successor in interest as described in section 736 of title 26;

(7) an individual retirement account or annuity as described in section 408(a) of title 26, or a retirement bond described in section 409 of title 26 (as effective for obligations issued before January 1, 1984);

(8) an individual account plan (other than a money purchase plan) and a defined benefit plan to the extent it is treated as an individual account plan (other than a money purchase plan) under section 1002(35)(B) of this title;

(9) an excess benefit plan; or

(10) any plan, fund or program under which an employer, all of whose stock is directly or indirectly owned by employees, former employees or their beneficiaries, proposes through an unfunded arrangement to compensate retired employees for benefits which were forfeited by such employees under a pension plan maintained by a former employer prior to the date such pension plan became subject to this chapter.

(b) “Insurance contract plan” defined

For the purposes of paragraph (2) of subsection (a) of this section a plan is an “insurance contract plan” if—

(1) the plan is funded exclusively by the purchase of individual insurance contracts,

(2) such contracts provide for level annual premium payments to be paid extending not later than the retirement age for each individual participating in the plan, and commencing with the date the individual became a participant in the plan (or, in the case of an increase in benefits, commencing at the time such increase became effective),

(3) benefits provided by the plan are equal to the benefits provided under each contract at normal retirement age under the plan and are guaranteed by an insurance carrier (licensed under the laws of a State to do business with the plan) to the extent premiums have been paid,

(4) premiums payable for the plan year, and all prior plan years under such contracts have been paid before lapse or there is reinstatement of the policy,

(5) no rights under such contracts have been subject to a security interest at any time during the plan year, and

(6) no policy loans are outstanding at any time during the plan year.


A plan funded exclusively by the purchase of group insurance contracts which is determined under regulations prescribed by the Secretary of the Treasury to have the same characteristics as contracts described in the preceding sentence shall be treated as a plan described in this subsection.

(c) Applicability of this part to terminated multiemployer plans

This part applies, with respect to a terminated multiemployer plan to which section 1321 of this title applies, until the last day of the plan year in which the plan terminates, within the meaning of section 1341a(a)(2) of this title.

(Pub. L. 93–406, title I, §301, Sept. 2, 1974, 88 Stat. 868; Pub. L. 96–364, title III, §304(a), title IV, §411(b), Sept. 26, 1980, 94 Stat. 1293, 1308; Pub. L. 101–239, title VII, §§7891(a)(1), 7894(d)(1)(A), (4)(A), Dec. 19, 1989, 103 Stat. 2445, 2449; Pub. L. 109–280, title II, §201(c)(1), Aug. 17, 2006, 120 Stat. 868.)

References in Text

Section 409 of title 26, referred to in subsec. (a)(7), means section 409 of Title 26, Internal Revenue Code, prior to its repeal by Pub. L. 98–369, div. A, title IV, §491(b), July 18, 1984, 98 Stat. 848, applicable to obligations issued after Dec. 31, 1983.

This chapter, referred to in subsec. (a)(10), was in the original “this Act”, meaning Pub. L. 93–406, known as the Employee Retirement Income Security Act of 1974. Titles I, III, and IV of such Act are classified principally to this chapter. For complete classification of this Act to the Code, see Short Title note set out under section 1001 of this title and Tables.

Amendments

2006—Subsec. (d). Pub. L. 109–280 struck out heading and text of subsec. (d). Text read as follows: “Any amount of any financial assistance from the Pension Benefit Guaranty Corporation to any plan, and any repayment of such amount, shall be taken into account under this section in such manner as determined by the Secretary of the Treasury.”

1989—Subsec. (a)(4)(A), (6). Pub. L. 101–239, §7891(a)(1), substituted “Internal Revenue Code of 1986” for “Internal Revenue Code of 1954”, which for purposes of codification was translated as “title 26” thus requiring no change in text.

Subsec. (a)(7). Pub. L. 101–239, §7894(d)(4)(A), substituted “section 409 of title 26 (as effective for obligations issued before January 1, 1984)” for “section 409 of title 26”.

Subsec. (a)(8). Pub. L. 101–239, §7894(d)(1)(A)(i), struck out “or” after semicolon at end.

Subsec. (a)(9). Pub. L. 101–239, §7894(d)(1)(A)(ii), substituted “; or” for period at end.

Subsec. (a)(10). Pub. L. 101–239, §7894(d)(1)(A)(iii), substituted “any” for “Any”.

1980—Subsec. (a)(10). Pub. L. 96–364, §411(b), added par. (10).

Subsecs. (c), (d). Pub. L. 96–364, §304(a), added subsecs. (c) and (d).

Effective Date of 2006 Amendment

Pub. L. 109–280, title II, §201(d), Aug. 17, 2006, 120 Stat. 868, provided that:

“(1) In general.—The amendments made by this section [enacting section 1084 of this title and amending this section] shall apply to plan years beginning after 2007.

“(2) Special rule for certain amortization extensions.—If the Secretary of the Treasury grants an extension under section 304 of the Employee Retirement Income Security Act of 1974 [29 U.S.C. 1084] and section 412(e) of the Internal Revenue Code of 1986 [former 26 U.S.C. 412(e)] with respect to any application filed with the Secretary of the Treasury on or before June 30, 2005, the extension (and any modification thereof) shall be applied and administered under the rules of such sections as in effect before the enactment of this Act [Aug. 17, 2006], including the use of the rate of interest determined under section 6621(b) of such Code [26 U.S.C. 6621(b)].”

Effective Date of 1989 Amendment

Amendment by section 7891(a)(1) of Pub. L. 101–239 effective, except as otherwise provided, as if included in the provision of the Tax Reform Act of 1986, Pub. L. 99–514, to which such amendment relates, see section 7891(f) of Pub. L. 101–239, set out as a note under section 1002 of this title.

Section 7894(d)(1)(B) of Pub. L. 101–239 provided that: “The amendments made by subparagraph (A) [amending this section] shall take effect as if included in section 411 of the Multiemployer Pension Plan Amendments Act of 1980 [Pub. L. 96–364].”

Section 7894(d)(4)(B) of Pub. L. 101–239 provided that: “The amendment made by subparagraph (A) [amending this section] shall take effect as if originally included in section 491(b) of Public Law 98–369.”

Effective Date of 1980 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 96–364 effective Sept. 26, 1980, except as specifically provided, see section 1461(e) of this title.

Regulations

Secretary authorized, effective Sept. 2, 1974, to promulgate regulations wherever provisions of this subchapter call for the promulgation of regulations, see section 1031 of this title.

Special Rule for Certain Benefits Funded Under an Agreement Approved by the Pension Benefit Guaranty Corporation

For applicability of amendment by Pub. L. 109–280 to a multiemployer plan that is a party to an agreement that was approved by the Pension Benefit Guaranty Corporation prior to June 30, 2005, and that increases benefits and provides for certain withdrawal liability rules, see section 206 of Pub. L. 109–280, set out as a note under section 412 of Title 26, Internal Revenue Code.

§1082. Minimum funding standards

(a) Requirement to meet minimum funding standard

(1) In general

A plan to which this part applies shall satisfy the minimum funding standard applicable to the plan for any plan year.

(2) Minimum funding standard

For purposes of paragraph (1), a plan shall be treated as satisfying the minimum funding standard for a plan year if—

(A) in the case of a defined benefit plan which is a single-employer plan, the employer makes contributions to or under the plan for the plan year which, in the aggregate, are not less than the minimum required contribution determined under section 1083 of this title for the plan for the plan year,

(B) in the case of a money purchase plan which is a single-employer plan, the employer makes contributions to or under the plan for the plan year which are required under the terms of the plan, and

(C) in the case of a multiemployer plan, the employers make contributions to or under the plan for any plan year which, in the aggregate, are sufficient to ensure that the plan does not have an accumulated funding deficiency under section 1084 of this title as of the end of the plan year.

(b) Liability for contributions

(1) In general

Except as provided in paragraph (2), the amount of any contribution required by this section (including any required installments under paragraphs (3) and (4) of section 1083(j) of this title) shall be paid by the employer responsible for making contributions to or under the plan.

(2) Joint and several liability where employer member of controlled group

If the employer referred to in paragraph (1) is a member of a controlled group, each member of such group shall be jointly and severally liable for payment of such contributions.

(3) Multiemployer plans in critical status

Paragraph (1) shall not apply in the case of a multiemployer plan for any plan year in which the plan is in critical status pursuant to section 1085 of this title. This paragraph shall only apply if the plan sponsor adopts a rehabilitation plan in accordance with section 1085(e) of this title and complies with the terms of such rehabilitation plan (and any updates or modifications of the plan).

(c) Variance from minimum funding standards

(1) Waiver in case of business hardship

(A) In general

If—

(i) an employer is (or in the case of a multiemployer plan, 10 percent or more of the number of employers contributing to or under the plan are) unable to satisfy the minimum funding standard for a plan year without temporary substantial business hardship (substantial business hardship in the case of a multiemployer plan), and

(ii) application of the standard would be adverse to the interests of plan participants in the aggregate,


the Secretary of the Treasury may, subject to subparagraph (C), waive the requirements of subsection (a) for such year with respect to all or any portion of the minimum funding standard. The Secretary of the Treasury shall not waive the minimum funding standard with respect to a plan for more than 3 of any 15 (5 of any 15 in the case of a multiemployer plan) consecutive plan years.

(B) Effects of waiver

If a waiver is granted under subparagraph (A) for any plan year—

(i) in the case of a single-employer plan, the minimum required contribution under section 1083 of this title for the plan year shall be reduced by the amount of the waived funding deficiency and such amount shall be amortized as required under section 1083(e) of this title, and

(ii) in the case of a multiemployer plan, the funding standard account shall be credited under section 1084(b)(3)(C) of this title with the amount of the waived funding deficiency and such amount shall be amortized as required under section 1084(b)(2)(C) of this title.

(C) Waiver of amortized portion not allowed

The Secretary of the Treasury may not waive under subparagraph (A) any portion of the minimum funding standard under subsection (a) for a plan year which is attributable to any waived funding deficiency for any preceding plan year.

(2) Determination of business hardship

For purposes of this subsection, the factors taken into account in determining temporary substantial business hardship (substantial business hardship in the case of a multiemployer plan) shall include (but shall not be limited to) whether or not—

(A) the employer is operating at an economic loss,

(B) there is substantial unemployment or underemployment in the trade or business and in the industry concerned,

(C) the sales and profits of the industry concerned are depressed or declining, and

(D) it is reasonable to expect that the plan will be continued only if the waiver is granted.

(3) Waived funding deficiency

For purposes of this part, the term “waived funding deficiency” means the portion of the minimum funding standard under subsection (a) (determined without regard to the waiver) for a plan year waived by the Secretary of the Treasury and not satisfied by employer contributions.

(4) Security for waivers for single-employer plans, consultations

(A) Security may be required

(i) In general

Except as provided in subparagraph (C), the Secretary of the Treasury may require an employer maintaining a defined benefit plan which is a single-employer plan (within the meaning of section 1301(a)(15) of this title) to provide security to such plan as a condition for granting or modifying a waiver under paragraph (1).

(ii) Special rules

Any security provided under clause (i) may be perfected and enforced only by the Pension Benefit Guaranty Corporation, or at the direction of the Corporation, by a contributing sponsor (within the meaning of section 1301(a)(13) of this title), or a member of such sponsor's controlled group (within the meaning of section 1301(a)(14) of this title).

(B) Consultation with the Pension Benefit Guaranty Corporation

Except as provided in subparagraph (C), the Secretary of the Treasury shall, before granting or modifying a waiver under this subsection with respect to a plan described in subparagraph (A)(i)—

(i) provide the Pension Benefit Guaranty Corporation with—

(I) notice of the completed application for any waiver or modification, and

(II) an opportunity to comment on such application within 30 days after receipt of such notice, and


(ii) consider—

(I) any comments of the Corporation under clause (i)(II), and

(II) any views of any employee organization (within the meaning of section 1002(4) of this title) representing participants in the plan which are submitted in writing to the Secretary of the Treasury in connection with such application.


Information provided to the Corporation under this subparagraph shall be considered tax return information and subject to the safeguarding and reporting requirements of section 6103(p) of title 26.

(C) Exception for certain waivers

(i) In general

The preceding provisions of this paragraph shall not apply to any plan with respect to which the sum of—

(I) the aggregate unpaid minimum required contributions for the plan year and all preceding plan years, and

(II) the present value of all waiver amortization installments determined for the plan year and succeeding plan years under section 1083(e)(2) of this title,


 is less than $1,000,000.

(ii) Treatment of waivers for which applications are pending

The amount described in clause (i)(I) shall include any increase in such amount which would result if all applications for waivers of the minimum funding standard under this subsection which are pending with respect to such plan were denied.

(iii) Unpaid minimum required contribution

For purposes of this subparagraph—

(I) In general

The term “unpaid minimum required contribution” means, with respect to any plan year, any minimum required contribution under section 1083 of this title for the plan year which is not paid on or before the due date (as determined under section 1083(j)(1) of this title) for the plan year.

(II) Ordering rule

For purposes of subclause (I), any payment to or under a plan for any plan year shall be allocated first to unpaid minimum required contributions for all preceding plan years on a first-in, first-out basis and then to the minimum required contribution under section 1083 of this title for the plan year.

(5) Special rules for single-employer plans

(A) Application must be submitted before date 2½ months after close of year

In the case of a single-employer plan, no waiver may be granted under this subsection with respect to any plan for any plan year unless an application therefor is submitted to the Secretary of the Treasury not later than the 15th day of the 3rd month beginning after the close of such plan year.

(B) Special rule if employer is member of controlled group

In the case of a single-employer plan, if an employer is a member of a controlled group, the temporary substantial business hardship requirements of paragraph (1) shall be treated as met only if such requirements are met—

(i) with respect to such employer, and

(ii) with respect to the controlled group of which such employer is a member (determined by treating all members of such group as a single employer).


The Secretary of the Treasury may provide that an analysis of a trade or business or industry of a member need not be conducted if such Secretary determines such analysis is not necessary because the taking into account of such member would not significantly affect the determination under this paragraph.

(6) Advance notice

(A) In general

The Secretary of the Treasury shall, before granting a waiver under this subsection, require each applicant to provide evidence satisfactory to such Secretary that the applicant has provided notice of the filing of the application for such waiver to each affected party (as defined in section 1301(a)(21) of this title). Such notice shall include a description of the extent to which the plan is funded for benefits which are guaranteed under subchapter III and for benefit liabilities.

(B) Consideration of relevant information

The Secretary of the Treasury shall consider any relevant information provided by a person to whom notice was given under subparagraph (A).

(7) Restriction on plan amendments

(A) In general

No amendment of a plan which increases the liabilities of the plan by reason of any increase in benefits, any change in the accrual of benefits, or any change in the rate at which benefits become nonforfeitable under the plan shall be adopted if a waiver under this subsection or an extension of time under section 1084(d) of this title is in effect with respect to the plan, or if a plan amendment described in subsection (d)(2) which reduces the accrued benefit of any participant has been made at any time in the preceding 12 months (24 months in the case of a multiemployer plan). If a plan is amended in violation of the preceding sentence, any such waiver, or extension of time, shall not apply to any plan year ending on or after the date on which such amendment is adopted.

(B) Exception

Subparagraph (A) shall not apply to any plan amendment which—

(i) the Secretary of the Treasury determines to be reasonable and which provides for only de minimis increases in the liabilities of the plan,

(ii) only repeals an amendment described in subsection (d)(2), or

(iii) is required as a condition of qualification under part I of subchapter D of chapter 1 of title 26.

(8) Cross reference

For corresponding duties of the Secretary of the Treasury with regard to implementation of title 26, see section 412(c) of title 26.

(d) Miscellaneous rules

(1) Change in method or year

If the funding method or a plan year for a plan is changed, the change shall take effect only if approved by the Secretary of the Treasury.

(2) Certain retroactive plan amendments

For purposes of this section, any amendment applying to a plan year which—

(A) is adopted after the close of such plan year but no later than 2½ months after the close of the plan year (or, in the case of a multiemployer plan, no later than 2 years after the close of such plan year),

(B) does not reduce the accrued benefit of any participant determined as of the beginning of the first plan year to which the amendment applies, and

(C) does not reduce the accrued benefit of any participant determined as of the time of adoption except to the extent required by the circumstances,


shall, at the election of the plan administrator, be deemed to have been made on the first day of such plan year. No amendment described in this paragraph which reduces the accrued benefits of any participant shall take effect unless the plan administrator files a notice with the Secretary of the Treasury notifying him of such amendment and such Secretary has approved such amendment, or within 90 days after the date on which such notice was filed, failed to disapprove such amendment. No amendment described in this subsection shall be approved by the Secretary of the Treasury unless such Secretary determines that such amendment is necessary because of a temporary substantial business hardship (as determined under subsection (c)(2)) or a substantial business hardship (as so determined) in the case of a multiemployer plan and that a waiver under subsection (c) (or, in the case of a multiemployer plan, any extension of the amortization period under section 1084(d) of this title) is unavailable or inadequate.

(3) Controlled group

For purposes of this section, the term “controlled group” means any group treated as a single employer under subsection (b), (c), (m), or (o) of section 414 of title 26.

(Pub. L. 93–406, title I, §302, as added and amended Pub. L. 109–280, title I, §101(b), title II, §202(d), Aug. 17, 2006, 120 Stat. 784, 885; Pub. L. 110–458, title I, §§101(a)(1), 102(b)(1)(A), Dec. 23, 2008, 122 Stat. 5093, 5100.)

Amendment of Section

For termination of amendment by section 221(c) of Pub. L. 109–280, see Effective and Termination Dates of 2006 Amendment note below.

Prior Provisions

A prior section 1082, Pub. L. 93–406, title I, §302, Sept. 2, 1974, 88 Stat. 869; Pub. L. 96–364, title III, §304(b), Sept. 26, 1980, 94 Stat. 1293; Pub. L. 100–203, title IX, §§9301(b), 9303(b), (d)(2), 9304(a)(2), (b)(2), (e)(2), 9305(b)(2), 9307(a)(2), (b)(2), (e)(2), Dec. 22, 1987, 101 Stat. 1330–332, 1330–337, 1330–342, 1330–344, 1330–346, 1330–349, 1330–352, 1330–356 to 1330–358; Pub. L. 100–647, title II, §2005(a)(2)(B), (d)(2), Nov. 10, 1988, 102 Stat. 3610, 3612; Pub. L. 101–239, title VII, §§7881(a)(1)(B), (2)(B), (3)(B), (4)(B), (5)(B), (6)(B), (b)(1)(B), (2)(B), (3)(B), (4)(B), (6)(B)(i), (d)(1)(B), (2), (4), 7891(a)(1), 7892(b), 7894(d)(2), (5), Dec. 19, 1989, 103 Stat. 2435–2439, 2445, 2447, 2449, 2450; Pub. L. 101–508, title XII, §12012(c), Nov. 5, 1990, 104 Stat. 1388–572; Pub. L. 103–465, title VII, §§761(a)(1)–(9)(A), (10), 762(a), 763(a), 764(a), 768(b), Dec. 8, 1994, 108 Stat. 5024–5031, 5033–5036, 5041; Pub. L. 105–34, title XV, §1521(b), (c)(2), (3)(B), title XVI, §1604(b)(2)(B), Aug. 5, 1997, 111 Stat. 1069, 1070, 1097; Pub. L. 107–16, title VI, §§651(b), 661(b), June 7, 2001, 115 Stat. 129, 142; Pub. L. 107–147, title IV, §§405(b), 411(v)(2), Mar. 9, 2002, 116 Stat. 42, 52; Pub. L. 108–218, title I, §§101(a)(1)–(3), 102(a), 104(a)(1), Apr. 10, 2004, 118 Stat. 596, 597, 599, 604; Pub. L. 109–135, title IV, §412(x)(2), Dec. 21, 2005, 119 Stat. 2638; Pub. L. 109–280, title III, §301(a)(1), (2), Aug. 17, 2006, 120 Stat. 919, related to minimum funding standards, prior to repeal by Pub. L. 109–280, title I, §101(a), (d), Aug. 17, 2006, 120 Stat. 784, 789, applicable to plan years beginning after 2007.

Amendments

2008—Subsec. (b)(3). Pub. L. 110–458, §102(b)(1)(A), substituted “the plan sponsor adopts” for “the plan adopts”.

Subsec. (c)(1)(A)(i). Pub. L. 110–458, §101(a)(1)(A), substituted “the plan are” for “the plan is”.

Subsec. (c)(7)(A). Pub. L. 110–458, §101(a)(1)(B), inserted “which reduces the accrued benefit of any participant” after “subsection (d)(2)”.

Subsec. (d)(1). Pub. L. 110–458, §101(a)(1)(C), struck out “, the valuation date,” after “funding method”.

2006—Subsec. (b)(3). Pub. L. 109–280, §§202(d), 221(c), temporarily added par. (3). See Effective and Termination Dates of 2006 Amendment note below.

Effective Date of 2008 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 110–458 effective as if included in the provisions of Pub. L. 109–280 to which the amendment relates, except as otherwise provided, see section 112 of Pub. L. 110–458, set out as a note under section 72 of Title 26, Internal Revenue Code.

Effective and Termination Dates of 2006 Amendment

Pub. L. 109–280, title II, §202(f), Aug. 17, 2006, 120 Stat. 885, provided that:

“(1) In general.—The amendments made by this section [enacting section 1085 of this title and amending this section and section 1132 of this title] shall apply with respect to plan years beginning after 2007.

“(2) Special rule for certain notices.—In any case in which a plan's actuary certifies that it is reasonably expected that a multiemployer plan will be in critical status under section 305(b)(3) of the Employee Retirement Income Security Act of 1974 [29 U.S.C. 1085(b)(3)], as added by this section, with respect to the first plan year beginning after 2007, the notice required under subparagraph (D) of such section may be provided at any time after the date of enactment [Aug. 17, 2006], so long as it is provided on or before the last date for providing the notice under such subparagraph.

“(3) Special rule for certain restored benefits.—In the case of a multiemployer plan—

“(A) with respect to which benefits were reduced pursuant to a plan amendment adopted on or after January 1, 2002, and before June 30, 2005, and

“(B) which, pursuant to the plan document, the trust agreement, or a formal written communication from the plan sponsor to participants provided before June 30, 2005, provided for the restoration of such benefits,

the amendments made by this section shall not apply to such benefit restorations to the extent that any restriction on the providing or accrual of such benefits would otherwise apply by reason of such amendments.”

Amendment by section 202(d) of Pub. L. 109–280 inapplicable to plan years beginning after Dec. 31, 2014, with exception for certain funding improvement and rehabilitation plans, see section 221(c) of Pub. L. 109–280, set out as a note under section 412 of Title 26, Internal Revenue Code.

Effective Date

Pub. L. 109–280, title I, §101(d), Aug. 17, 2006, 120 Stat. 789, provided that: “The amendments made by this section [enacting this section and repealing former section 1082 of this title and sections 1083 to 1085, 1085a, 1085b, and 1086 of this title] shall apply to plan years beginning after 2007.”

Regulations

Secretary authorized, effective Sept. 2, 1974, to promulgate regulations wherever provisions of this subchapter call for the promulgation of regulations, see section 1031 of this title.

Applicability of Amendments by Subtitles A and B of Title I of Pub. L. 109–280

For special rules on applicability of amendments by subtitles A (§§101–108) and B (§§111–116) of title I of Pub. L. 109–280 to certain eligible cooperative plans, PBGC settlement plans, and eligible government contractor plans, see sections 104, 105, and 106 of Pub. L. 109–280, set out as notes under section 401 of Title 26, Internal Revenue Code.

Special Rule for Certain Benefits Funded Under an Agreement Approved by the Pension Benefit Guaranty Corporation

For applicability of amendment by section 202(d) of Pub. L. 109–280 to a multiemployer plan that is a party to an agreement that was approved by the Pension Benefit Guaranty Corporation prior to June 30, 2005, and that increases benefits and provides for certain withdrawal liability rules, see section 206 of Pub. L. 109–280, set out as a note under section 412 of Title 26, Internal Revenue Code.

§1083. Minimum funding standards for single-employer defined benefit pension plans

(a) Minimum required contribution

For purposes of this section and section 1082(a)(2)(A) of this title, except as provided in subsection (f), the term “minimum required contribution” means, with respect to any plan year of a single-employer plan—

(1) in any case in which the value of plan assets of the plan (as reduced under subsection (f)(4)(B)) is less than the funding target of the plan for the plan year, the sum of—

(A) the target normal cost of the plan for the plan year,

(B) the shortfall amortization charge (if any) for the plan for the plan year determined under subsection (c), and

(C) the waiver amortization charge (if any) for the plan for the plan year as determined under subsection (e); or


(2) in any case in which the value of plan assets of the plan (as reduced under subsection (f)(4)(B)) equals or exceeds the funding target of the plan for the plan year, the target normal cost of the plan for the plan year reduced (but not below zero) by such excess.

(b) Target normal cost

For purposes of this section:

(1) In general

Except as provided in subsection (i)(2) with respect to plans in at-risk status, the term “target normal cost” means, for any plan year, the excess of—

(A) the sum of—

(i) the present value of all benefits which are expected to accrue or to be earned under the plan during the plan year, plus

(ii) the amount of plan-related expenses expected to be paid from plan assets during the plan year, over


(B) the amount of mandatory employee contributions expected to be made during the plan year.

(2) Special rule for increase in compensation

For purposes of this subsection, if any benefit attributable to services performed in a preceding plan year is increased by reason of any increase in compensation during the current plan year, the increase in such benefit shall be treated as having accrued during the current plan year.

(c) Shortfall amortization charge

(1) In general

For purposes of this section, the shortfall amortization charge for a plan for any plan year is the aggregate total (not less than zero) of the shortfall amortization installments for such plan year with respect to any shortfall amortization base which has not been fully amortized under this subsection.

(2) Shortfall amortization installment

For purposes of paragraph (1)—

(A) Determination

The shortfall amortization installments are the amounts necessary to amortize the shortfall amortization base of the plan for any plan year in level annual installments over the 7-plan-year period beginning with such plan year.

(B) Shortfall installment

The shortfall amortization installment for any plan year in the 7-plan-year period under subparagraph (A) with respect to any shortfall amortization base is the annual installment determined under subparagraph (A) for that year for that base.

(C) Segment rates

In determining any shortfall amortization installment under this paragraph, the plan sponsor shall use the segment rates determined under subparagraph (C) of subsection (h)(2), applied under rules similar to the rules of subparagraph (B) of subsection (h)(2).

(D) Special election for eligible plan years

(i) In general

If a plan sponsor elects to apply this subparagraph with respect to the shortfall amortization base of a plan for any eligible plan year (in this subparagraph and paragraph (7) referred to as an “election year”), then, notwithstanding subparagraphs (A) and (B)—

(I) the shortfall amortization installments with respect to such base shall be determined under clause (ii) or (iii), whichever is specified in the election, and

(II) the shortfall amortization installment for any plan year in the 9-plan-year period described in clause (ii) or the 15-plan-year period described in clause (iii), respectively, with respect to such shortfall amortization base is the annual installment determined under the applicable clause for that year for that base.

(ii) 2 plus 7 amortization schedule

The shortfall amortization installments determined under this clause are—

(I) in the case of the first 2 plan years in the 9-plan-year period beginning with the election year, interest on the shortfall amortization base of the plan for the election year (determined using the effective interest rate for the plan for the election year), and

(II) in the case of the last 7 plan years in such 9-plan-year period, the amounts necessary to amortize the remaining balance of the shortfall amortization base of the plan for the election year in level annual installments over such last 7 plan years (using the segment rates under subparagraph (C) for the election year).

(iii) 15-year amortization

The shortfall amortization installments determined under this subparagraph are the amounts necessary to amortize the shortfall amortization base of the plan for the election year in level annual installments over the 15-plan-year period beginning with the election year (using the segment rates under subparagraph (C) for the election year).

(iv) Election

(I) In general

The plan sponsor of a plan may elect to have this subparagraph apply to not more than 2 eligible plan years with respect to the plan, except that in the case of a plan described in section 106 of the Pension Protection Act of 2006, the plan sponsor may only elect to have this subparagraph apply to a plan year beginning in 2011.

(II) Amortization schedule

Such election shall specify whether the amortization schedule under clause (ii) or (iii) shall apply to an election year, except that if a plan sponsor elects to have this subparagraph apply to 2 eligible plan years, the plan sponsor must elect the same schedule for both years.

(III) Other rules

Such election shall be made at such time, and in such form and manner, as shall be prescribed by the Secretary of the Treasury, and may be revoked only with the consent of the Secretary of the Treasury. The Secretary of the Treasury shall, before granting a revocation request, provide the Pension Benefit Guaranty Corporation an opportunity to comment on the conditions applicable to the treatment of any portion of the election year shortfall amortization base that remains unamortized as of the revocation date.

(v) Eligible plan year

For purposes of this subparagraph, the term “eligible plan year” means any plan year beginning in 2008, 2009, 2010, or 2011, except that a plan year shall only be treated as an eligible plan year if the due date under subsection (j)(1) for the payment of the minimum required contribution for such plan year occurs on or after June 25, 2010.

(vi) Reporting

A plan sponsor of a plan who makes an election under clause (i) shall—

(I) give notice of the election to participants and beneficiaries of the plan, and

(II) inform the Pension Benefit Guaranty Corporation of such election in such form and manner as the Director of the Pension Benefit Guaranty Corporation may prescribe.

(vii) Increases in required installments in certain cases

For increases in required contributions in cases of excess compensation or extraordinary dividends or stock redemptions, see paragraph (7).

(3) Shortfall amortization base

For purposes of this section, the shortfall amortization base of a plan for a plan year is—

(A) the funding shortfall of such plan for such plan year, minus

(B) the present value (determined using the segment rates determined under subparagraph (C) of subsection (h)(2), applied under rules similar to the rules of subparagraph (B) of subsection (h)(2)) of the aggregate total of the shortfall amortization installments and waiver amortization installments which have been determined for such plan year and any succeeding plan year with respect to the shortfall amortization bases and waiver amortization bases of the plan for any plan year preceding such plan year.

(4) Funding shortfall

For purposes of this section, the funding shortfall of a plan for any plan year is the excess (if any) of—

(A) the funding target of the plan for the plan year, over

(B) the value of plan assets of the plan (as reduced under subsection (f)(4)(B)) for the plan year which are held by the plan on the valuation date.

(5) Exemption from new shortfall amortization base

(A) In general

In any case in which the value of plan assets of the plan (as reduced under subsection (f)(4)(A)) is equal to or greater than the funding target of the plan for the plan year, the shortfall amortization base of the plan for such plan year shall be zero.

(B) Transition rule

(i) In general

Except as provided in clause (iii), in the case of plan years beginning after 2007 and before 2011, only the applicable percentage of the funding target shall be taken into account under paragraph (3)(A) in determining the funding shortfall for purposes of paragraph (3)(A) and subparagraph (A).

(ii) Applicable percentage

For purposes of subparagraph (A), the applicable percentage shall be determined in accordance with the following table:


In the case of a plan year
The
 
applicable
beginning in calendar year:
percentage is
2008
92
2009
94
2010
96.

        

(iii) Transition relief not available for new or deficit reduction plans

Clause (i) shall not apply to a plan—

(I) which was not in effect for a plan year beginning in 2007, or

(II) which was in effect for a plan year beginning in 2007 and which was subject to section 1082(d) of this title (as in effect for plan years beginning in 2007) for such year, determined after the application of paragraphs (6) and (9) thereof.

(6) Early deemed amortization upon attainment of funding target

In any case in which the funding shortfall of a plan for a plan year is zero, for purposes of determining the shortfall amortization charge for such plan year and succeeding plan years, the shortfall amortization bases for all preceding plan years (and all shortfall amortization installments determined with respect to such bases) shall be reduced to zero.

(7) Increases in alternate required installments in cases of excess compensation or extraordinary dividends or stock redemptions

(A) In general

If there is an installment acceleration amount with respect to a plan for any plan year in the restriction period with respect to an election year under paragraph (2)(D), then the shortfall amortization installment otherwise determined and payable under such paragraph for such plan year shall, subject to the limitation under subparagraph (B), be increased by such amount.

(B) Total installments limited to shortfall base

Subject to rules prescribed by the Secretary of the Treasury, if a shortfall amortization installment with respect to any shortfall amortization base for an election year is required to be increased for any plan year under subparagraph (A)—

(i) such increase shall not result in the amount of such installment exceeding the present value of such installment and all succeeding installments with respect to such base (determined without regard to such increase but after application of clause (ii)), and

(ii) subsequent shortfall amortization installments with respect to such base shall, in reverse order of the otherwise required installments, be reduced to the extent necessary to limit the present value of such subsequent shortfall amortization installments (after application of this paragraph) to the present value of the remaining unamortized shortfall amortization base.

(C) Installment acceleration amount

For purposes of this paragraph—

(i) In general

The term “installment acceleration amount” means, with respect to any plan year in a restriction period with respect to an election year, the sum of—

(I) the aggregate amount of excess employee compensation determined under subparagraph (D) with respect to all employees for the plan year, plus

(II) the aggregate amount of extraordinary dividends and redemptions determined under subparagraph (E) for the plan year.

(ii) Annual limitation

The installment acceleration amount for any plan year shall not exceed the excess (if any) of—

(I) the sum of the shortfall amortization installments for the plan year and all preceding plan years in the amortization period elected under paragraph (2)(D) with respect to the shortfall amortization base with respect to an election year, determined without regard to paragraph (2)(D) and this paragraph, over

(II) the sum of the shortfall amortization installments for such plan year and all such preceding plan years, determined after application of paragraph (2)(D) (and in the case of any preceding plan year, after application of this paragraph).

(iii) Carryover of excess installment acceleration amounts

(I) In general

If the installment acceleration amount for any plan year (determined without regard to clause (ii)) exceeds the limitation under clause (ii), then, subject to subclause (II), such excess shall be treated as an installment acceleration amount with respect to the succeeding plan year.

(II) Cap to apply

If any amount treated as an installment acceleration amount under subclause (I) or this subclause with respect 1 any succeeding plan year, when added to other installment acceleration amounts (determined without regard to clause (ii)) with respect to the plan year, exceeds the limitation under clause (ii), the portion of such amount representing such excess shall be treated as an installment acceleration amount with respect to the next succeeding plan year.

(III) Limitation on years to which amounts carried for

No amount shall be carried under subclause (I) or (II) to a plan year which begins after the first plan year following the last plan year in the restriction period (or after the second plan year following such last plan year in the case of an election year with respect to which 15-year amortization was elected under paragraph (2)(D)).

(IV) Ordering rules

For purposes of applying subclause (II), installment acceleration amounts for the plan year (determined without regard to any carryover under this clause) shall be applied first against the limitation under clause (ii) and then carryovers to such plan year shall be applied against such limitation on a first-in, first-out basis.

(D) Excess employee compensation

For purposes of this paragraph—

(i) In general

The term “excess employee compensation” means, with respect to any employee for any plan year, the excess (if any) of—

(I) the aggregate amount includible in income under chapter 1 of title 26 for remuneration during the calendar year in which such plan year begins for services performed by the employee for the plan sponsor (whether or not performed during such calendar year), over

(II) $1,000,000.

(ii) Amounts set aside for nonqualified deferred compensation

If during any calendar year assets are set aside or reserved (directly or indirectly) in a trust (or other arrangement as determined by the Secretary of the Treasury), or transferred to such a trust or other arrangement, by a plan sponsor for purposes of paying deferred compensation of an employee under a nonqualified deferred compensation plan (as defined in section 409A of such title) of the plan sponsor, then, for purposes of clause (i), the amount of such assets shall be treated as remuneration of the employee includible in income for the calendar year unless such amount is otherwise includible in income for such year. An amount to which the preceding sentence applies shall not be taken into account under this paragraph for any subsequent calendar year.

(iii) Only remuneration for certain post-2009 services counted

Remuneration shall be taken into account under clause (i) only to the extent attributable to services performed by the employee for the plan sponsor after February 28, 2010.

(iv) Exception for certain equity payments

(I) In general

There shall not be taken into account under clause (i)(I) any amount includible in income with respect to the granting after February 28, 2010, of service recipient stock (within the meaning of section 409A of title 26) that, upon such grant, is subject to a substantial risk of forfeiture (as defined under section 83(c)(1) of such title) for at least 5 years from the date of such grant.

(II) Secretarial authority

The Secretary of the Treasury may by regulation provide for the application of this clause in the case of a person other than a corporation.

(v) Other exceptions

The following amounts includible in income shall not be taken into account under clause (i)(I):

(I) Commissions

Any remuneration payable on a commission basis solely on account of income directly generated by the individual performance of the individual to whom such remuneration is payable.

(II) Certain payments under existing contracts

Any remuneration consisting of nonqualified deferred compensation, restricted stock, stock options, or stock appreciation rights payable or granted under a written binding contract that was in effect on March 1, 2010, and which was not modified in any material respect before such remuneration is paid.

(vi) Self-employed individual treated as employee

The term “employee” includes, with respect to a calendar year, a self-employed individual who is treated as an employee under section 401(c) of such title for the taxable year ending during such calendar year, and the term “compensation” shall include earned income of such individual with respect to such self-employment.

(vii) Indexing of amount

In the case of any calendar year beginning after 2010, the dollar amount under clause (i)(II) shall be increased by an amount equal to—

(I) such dollar amount, multiplied by

(II) the cost-of-living adjustment determined under section 1(f)(3) of such title for the calendar year, determined by substituting “calendar year 2009” for “calendar year 1992” in subparagraph (B) thereof.


 If the amount of any increase under clause (i) is not a multiple of $1,000, such increase shall be rounded to the next lowest multiple of $1,000.

(E) Extraordinary dividends and redemptions

(i) In general

The amount determined under this subparagraph for any plan year is the excess (if any) of the sum of the dividends declared during the plan year by the plan sponsor plus the aggregate amount paid for the redemption of stock of the plan sponsor redeemed during the plan year over the greater of—

(I) the adjusted net income (within the meaning of section 1343 of this title) of the plan sponsor for the preceding plan year, determined without regard to any reduction by reason of interest, taxes, depreciation, or amortization, or

(II) in the case of a plan sponsor that determined and declared dividends in the same manner for at least 5 consecutive years immediately preceding such plan year, the aggregate amount of dividends determined and declared for such plan year using such manner.

(ii) Only certain post-2009 dividends and redemptions counted

For purposes of clause (i), there shall only be taken into account dividends declared, and redemptions occurring, after February 28, 2010.

(iii) Exception for intra-group dividends

Dividends paid by one member of a controlled group (as defined in section 1082(d)(3) of this title) to another member of such group shall not be taken into account under clause (i).

(iv) Exception for certain redemptions

Redemptions that are made pursuant to a plan maintained with respect to employees, or that are made on account of the death, disability, or termination of employment of an employee or shareholder, shall not be taken into account under clause (i).

(v) Exception for certain preferred stock

(I) In general

Dividends and redemptions with respect to applicable preferred stock shall not be taken into account under clause (i) to the extent that dividends accrue with respect to such stock at a specified rate in all events and without regard to the plan sponsor's income, and interest accrues on any unpaid dividends with respect to such stock.

(II) Applicable preferred stock

For purposes of subclause (I), the term “applicable preferred stock” means preferred stock which was issued before March 1, 2010 (or which was issued after such date and is held by an employee benefit plan subject to the provisions of this subchapter).

(F) Other definitions and rules

For purposes of this paragraph—

(i) Plan sponsor

The term “plan sponsor” includes any member of the plan sponsor's controlled group (as defined in section 1082(d)(3) of this title).

(ii) Restriction period

The term “restriction period” means, with respect to any election year—

(I) except as provided in subclause (II), the 3-year period beginning with the election year (or, if later, the first plan year beginning after December 31, 2009), and

(II) if the plan sponsor elects 15-year amortization for the shortfall amortization base for the election year, the 5-year period beginning with the election year (or, if later, the first plan year beginning after December 31, 2009).

(iii) Elections for multiple plans

If a plan sponsor makes elections under paragraph (2)(D) with respect to 2 or more plans, the Secretary of the Treasury shall provide rules for the application of this paragraph to such plans, including rules for the ratable allocation of any installment acceleration amount among such plans on the basis of each plan's relative reduction in the plan's shortfall amortization installment for the first plan year in the amortization period described in subparagraph (A) (determined without regard to this paragraph).

(iv) Mergers and acquisitions

The Secretary of the Treasury shall prescribe rules for the application of paragraph (2)(D) and this paragraph in any case where there is a merger or acquisition involving a plan sponsor making the election under paragraph (2)(D).

(d) Rules relating to funding target

For purposes of this section—

(1) Funding target

Except as provided in subsection (i)(1) with respect to plans in at-risk status, the funding target of a plan for a plan year is the present value of all benefits accrued or earned under the plan as of the beginning of the plan year.

(2) Funding target attainment percentage

The “funding target attainment percentage” of a plan for a plan year is the ratio (expressed as a percentage) which—

(A) the value of plan assets for the plan year (as reduced under subsection (f)(4)(B)), bears to

(B) the funding target of the plan for the plan year (determined without regard to subsection (i)(1)).

(e) Waiver amortization charge

(1) Determination of waiver amortization charge

The waiver amortization charge (if any) for a plan for any plan year is the aggregate total of the waiver amortization installments for such plan year with respect to the waiver amortization bases for each of the 5 preceding plan years.

(2) Waiver amortization installment

For purposes of paragraph (1)—

(A) Determination

The waiver amortization installments are the amounts necessary to amortize the waiver amortization base of the plan for any plan year in level annual installments over a period of 5 plan years beginning with the succeeding plan year.

(B) Waiver installment

The waiver amortization installment for any plan year in the 5-year period under subparagraph (A) with respect to any waiver amortization base is the annual installment determined under subparagraph (A) for that year for that base.

(3) Interest rate

In determining any waiver amortization installment under this subsection, the plan sponsor shall use the segment rates determined under subparagraph (C) of subsection (h)(2), applied under rules similar to the rules of subparagraph (B) of subsection (h)(2).

(4) Waiver amortization base

The waiver amortization base of a plan for a plan year is the amount of the waived funding deficiency (if any) for such plan year under section 1082(c) of this title.

(5) Early deemed amortization upon attainment of funding target

In any case in which the funding shortfall of a plan for a plan year is zero, for purposes of determining the waiver amortization charge for such plan year and succeeding plan years, the waiver amortization bases for all preceding plan years (and all waiver amortization installments determined with respect to such bases) shall be reduced to zero.

(f) Reduction of minimum required contribution by prefunding balance and funding standard carryover balance

(1) Election to maintain balances

(A) Prefunding balance

The plan sponsor of a single-employer plan may elect to maintain a prefunding balance.

(B) Funding standard carryover balance

(i) In general

In the case of a single-employer plan described in clause (ii), the plan sponsor may elect to maintain a funding standard carryover balance, until such balance is reduced to zero.

(ii) Plans maintaining funding standard account in 2007

A plan is described in this clause if the plan—

(I) was in effect for a plan year beginning in 2007, and

(II) had a positive balance in the funding standard account under section 1082(b) of this title as in effect for such plan year and determined as of the end of such plan year.

(2) Application of balances

A prefunding balance and a funding standard carryover balance maintained pursuant to this paragraph—

(A) shall be available for crediting against the minimum required contribution, pursuant to an election under paragraph (3),

(B) shall be applied as a reduction in the amount treated as the value of plan assets for purposes of this section, to the extent provided in paragraph (4), and

(C) may be reduced at any time, pursuant to an election under paragraph (5).

(3) Election to apply balances against minimum required contribution

(A) In general

Except as provided in subparagraphs (B) and (C), in the case of any plan year in which the plan sponsor elects to credit against the minimum required contribution for the current plan year all or a portion of the prefunding balance or the funding standard carryover balance for the current plan year (not in excess of such minimum required contribution), the minimum required contribution for the plan year shall be reduced as of the first day of the plan year by the amount so credited by the plan sponsor. For purposes of the preceding sentence, the minimum required contribution shall be determined after taking into account any waiver under section 1082(c) of this title.

(B) Coordination with funding standard carryover balance

To the extent that any plan has a funding standard carryover balance greater than zero, no amount of the prefunding balance of such plan may be credited under this paragraph in reducing the minimum required contribution.

(C) Limitation for underfunded plans

The preceding provisions of this paragraph shall not apply for any plan year if the ratio (expressed as a percentage) which—

(i) the value of plan assets for the preceding plan year (as reduced under paragraph (4)(C)), bears to

(ii) the funding target of the plan for the preceding plan year (determined without regard to subsection (i)(1)),


is less than 80 percent. In the case of plan years beginning in 2008, the ratio under this subparagraph may be determined using such methods of estimation as the Secretary of the Treasury may prescribe.

(D) Special rule for certain years of plans maintained by charities

(i) In general

For purposes of applying subparagraph (C) for plan years beginning after August 31, 2009, and before September 1, 2011, the ratio determined under such subparagraph for the preceding plan year shall be the greater of—

(I) such ratio, as determined without regard to this subparagraph, or

(II) the ratio for such plan for the plan year beginning after August 31, 2007, and before September 1, 2008, as determined under rules prescribed by the Secretary of the Treasury.

(ii) Special rule

In the case of a plan for which the valuation date is not the first day of the plan year—

(I) clause (i) shall apply to plan years beginning after December 31, 2008, and before January 1, 2011, and

(II) clause (i)(II) shall apply based on the last plan year beginning before September 1, 2007, as determined under rules prescribed by the Secretary of the Treasury.

(iii) Limitation to charities

This subparagraph shall not apply to any plan unless such plan is maintained exclusively by one or more organizations described in section 501(c)(3) of title 26.

(4) Effect of balances on amounts treated as value of plan assets

In the case of any plan maintaining a prefunding balance or a funding standard carryover balance pursuant to this subsection, the amount treated as the value of plan assets shall be deemed to be such amount, reduced as provided in the following subparagraphs:

(A) Applicability of shortfall amortization base

For purposes of subsection (c)(5), the value of plan assets is deemed to be such amount, reduced by the amount of the prefunding balance, but only if an election under paragraph (3) applying any portion of the prefunding balance in reducing the minimum required contribution is in effect for the plan year.

(B) Determination of excess assets, funding shortfall, and funding target attainment percentage

(i) In general

For purposes of subsections (a), (c)(4)(B), and (d)(2)(A), the value of plan assets is deemed to be such amount, reduced by the amount of the prefunding balance and the funding standard carryover balance.

(ii) Special rule for certain binding agreements with PBGC

For purposes of subsection (c)(4)(B), the value of plan assets shall not be deemed to be reduced for a plan year by the amount of the specified balance if, with respect to such balance, there is in effect for a plan year a binding written agreement with the Pension Benefit Guaranty Corporation which provides that such balance is not available to reduce the minimum required contribution for the plan year. For purposes of the preceding sentence, the term “specified balance” means the prefunding balance or the funding standard carryover balance, as the case may be.

(C) Availability of balances in plan year for crediting against minimum required contribution

For purposes of paragraph (3)(C)(i) of this subsection, the value of plan assets is deemed to be such amount, reduced by the amount of the prefunding balance.

(5) Election to reduce balance prior to determinations of value of plan assets and crediting against minimum required contribution

(A) In general

The plan sponsor may elect to reduce by any amount the balance of the prefunding balance and the funding standard carryover balance for any plan year (but not below zero). Such reduction shall be effective prior to any determination of the value of plan assets for such plan year under this section and application of the balance in reducing the minimum required contribution for such plan for such plan year pursuant to an election under paragraph (2).

(B) Coordination between prefunding balance and funding standard carryover balance

To the extent that any plan has a funding standard carryover balance greater than zero, no election may be made under subparagraph (A) with respect to the prefunding balance.

(6) Prefunding balance

(A) In general

A prefunding balance maintained by a plan shall consist of a beginning balance of zero, increased and decreased to the extent provided in subparagraphs (B) and (C), and adjusted further as provided in paragraph (8).

(B) Increases

(i) In general

As of the first day of each plan year beginning after 2008, the prefunding balance of a plan shall be increased by the amount elected by the plan sponsor for the plan year. Such amount shall not exceed the excess (if any) of—

(I) the aggregate total of employer contributions to the plan for the preceding plan year, over—

(II) the minimum required contribution for such preceding plan year.

(ii) Adjustments for interest

Any excess contributions under clause (i) shall be properly adjusted for interest accruing for the periods between the first day of the current plan year and the dates on which the excess contributions were made, determined by using the effective interest rate for the preceding plan year and by treating contributions as being first used to satisfy the minimum required contribution.

(iii) Certain contributions necessary to avoid benefit limitations disregarded

The excess described in clause (i) with respect to any preceding plan year shall be reduced (but not below zero) by the amount of contributions an employer would be required to make under paragraph (1), (2), or (4) of section 1056(g) of this title to avoid a benefit limitation which would otherwise be imposed under such paragraph for the preceding plan year. Any contribution which may be taken into account in satisfying the requirements of more than 1 of such paragraphs shall be taken into account only once for purposes of this clause.

(C) Decrease

The prefunding balance of a plan shall be decreased (but not below zero) by—

(i) as of the first day of each plan year after 2008, the amount of such balance credited under paragraph (2) (if any) in reducing the minimum required contribution of the plan for the preceding plan year, and

(ii) as of the time specified in paragraph (5)(A), any reduction in such balance elected under paragraph (5).

(7) Funding standard carryover balance

(A) In general

A funding standard carryover balance maintained by a plan shall consist of a beginning balance determined under subparagraph (B), decreased to the extent provided in subparagraph (C), and adjusted further as provided in paragraph (8).

(B) Beginning balance

The beginning balance of the funding standard carryover balance shall be the positive balance described in paragraph (1)(B)(ii)(II).

(C) Decreases

The funding standard carryover balance of a plan shall be decreased (but not below zero) by—

(i) as of the first day of each plan year after 2008, the amount of such balance credited under paragraph (2) (if any) in reducing the minimum required contribution of the plan for the preceding plan year, and

(ii) as of the time specified in paragraph (5)(A), any reduction in such balance elected under paragraph (5).

(8) Adjustments for investment experience

In determining the prefunding balance or the funding standard carryover balance of a plan as of the first day of the plan year, the plan sponsor shall, in accordance with regulations prescribed by the Secretary of the Treasury, adjust such balance to reflect the rate of return on plan assets for the preceding plan year. Notwithstanding subsection (g)(3), such rate of return shall be determined on the basis of fair market value and shall properly take into account, in accordance with such regulations, all contributions, distributions, and other plan payments made during such period.

(9) Elections

Elections under this subsection shall be made at such times, and in such form and manner, as shall be prescribed in regulations of the Secretary of the Treasury.

(g) Valuation of plan assets and liabilities

(1) Timing of determinations

Except as otherwise provided under this subsection, all determinations under this section for a plan year shall be made as of the valuation date of the plan for such plan year.

(2) Valuation date

For purposes of this section—

(A) In general

Except as provided in subparagraph (B), the valuation date of a plan for any plan year shall be the first day of the plan year.

(B) Exception for small plans

If, on each day during the preceding plan year, a plan had 100 or fewer participants, the plan may designate any day during the plan year as its valuation date for such plan year and succeeding plan years. For purposes of this subparagraph, all defined benefit plans which are single-employer plans and are maintained by the same employer (or any member of such employer's controlled group) shall be treated as 1 plan, but only participants with respect to such employer or member shall be taken into account.

(C) Application of certain rules in determination of plan size

For purposes of this paragraph—

(i) Plans not in existence in preceding year

In the case of the first plan year of any plan, subparagraph (B) shall apply to such plan by taking into account the number of participants that the plan is reasonably expected to have on days during such first plan year.

(ii) Predecessors

Any reference in subparagraph (B) to an employer shall include a reference to any predecessor of such employer.

(3) Determination of value of plan assets

For purposes of this section—

(A) In general

Except as provided in subparagraph (B), the value of plan assets shall be the fair market value of the assets.

(B) Averaging allowed

A plan may determine the value of plan assets on the basis of the averaging of fair market values, but only if such method—

(i) is permitted under regulations prescribed by the Secretary of the Treasury,

(ii) does not provide for averaging of such values over more than the period beginning on the last day of the 25th month preceding the month in which the valuation date occurs and ending on the valuation date (or a similar period in the case of a valuation date which is not the 1st day of a month), and

(iii) does not result in a determination of the value of plan assets which, at any time, is lower than 90 percent or greater than 110 percent of the fair market value of such assets at such time.


Any such averaging shall be adjusted for contributions, distributions, and expected earnings (as determined by the plan's actuary on the basis of an assumed earnings rate specified by the actuary but not in excess of the third segment rate applicable under subsection (h)(2)(C)(iii)), as specified by the Secretary of the Treasury.

(4) Accounting for contribution receipts

For purposes of determining the value of assets under paragraph (3)—

(A) Prior year contributions

If—

(i) an employer makes any contribution to the plan after the valuation date for the plan year in which the contribution is made, and

(ii) the contribution is for a preceding plan year,


the contribution shall be taken into account as an asset of the plan as of the valuation date, except that in the case of any plan year beginning after 2008, only the present value (determined as of the valuation date) of such contribution may be taken into account. For purposes of the preceding sentence, present value shall be determined using the effective interest rate for the preceding plan year to which the contribution is properly allocable.

(B) Special rule for current year contributions made before valuation date

If any contributions for any plan year are made to or under the plan during the plan year but before the valuation date for the plan year, the assets of the plan as of the valuation date shall not include—

(i) such contributions, and

(ii) interest on such contributions for the period between the date of the contributions and the valuation date, determined by using the effective interest rate for the plan year.

(h) Actuarial assumptions and methods

(1) In general

Subject to this subsection, the determination of any present value or other computation under this section shall be made on the basis of actuarial assumptions and methods—

(A) each of which is reasonable (taking into account the experience of the plan and reasonable expectations), and

(B) which, in combination, offer the actuary's best estimate of anticipated experience under the plan.

(2) Interest rates

(A) Effective interest rate

For purposes of this section, the term “effective interest rate” means, with respect to any plan for any plan year, the single rate of interest which, if used to determine the present value of the plan's accrued or earned benefits referred to in subsection (d)(1), would result in an amount equal to the funding target of the plan for such plan year.

(B) Interest rates for determining funding target

For purposes of determining the funding target and normal cost of a plan for any plan year, the interest rate used in determining the present value of the benefits of the plan shall be—

(i) in the case of benefits reasonably determined to be payable during the 5-year period beginning on the first day of the plan year, the first segment rate with respect to the applicable month,

(ii) in the case of benefits reasonably determined to be payable during the 15-year period beginning at the end of the period described in clause (i), the second segment rate with respect to the applicable month, and

(iii) in the case of benefits reasonably determined to be payable after the period described in clause (ii), the third segment rate with respect to the applicable month.

(C) Segment rates

For purposes of this paragraph—

(i) First segment rate

The term “first segment rate” means, with respect to any month, the single rate of interest which shall be determined by the Secretary of the Treasury for such month on the basis of the corporate bond yield curve for such month, taking into account only that portion of such yield curve which is based on bonds maturing during the 5-year period commencing with such month.

(ii) Second segment rate

The term “second segment rate” means, with respect to any month, the single rate of interest which shall be determined by the Secretary of the Treasury for such month on the basis of the corporate bond yield curve for such month, taking into account only that portion of such yield curve which is based on bonds maturing during the 15-year period beginning at the end of the period described in clause (i).

(iii) Third segment rate

The term “third segment rate” means, with respect to any month, the single rate of interest which shall be determined by the Secretary of the Treasury for such month on the basis of the corporate bond yield curve for such month, taking into account only that portion of such yield curve which is based on bonds maturing during periods beginning after the period described in clause (ii).

(D) Corporate bond yield curve

For purposes of this paragraph—

(i) In general

The term “corporate bond yield curve” means, with respect to any month, a yield curve which is prescribed by the Secretary of the Treasury for such month and which reflects the average, for the 24-month period ending with the month preceding such month, of monthly yields on investment grade corporate bonds with varying maturities and that are in the top 3 quality levels available.

(ii) Election to use yield curve

Solely for purposes of determining the minimum required contribution under this section, the plan sponsor may, in lieu of the segment rates determined under subparagraph (C), elect to use interest rates under the corporate bond yield curve. For purposes of the preceding sentence such curve shall be determined without regard to the 24-month averaging described in clause (i). Such election, once made, may be revoked only with the consent of the Secretary of the Treasury.

(E) Applicable month

For purposes of this paragraph, the term “applicable month” means, with respect to any plan for any plan year, the month which includes the valuation date of such plan for such plan year or, at the election of the plan sponsor, any of the 4 months which precede such month. Any election made under this subparagraph shall apply to the plan year for which the election is made and all succeeding plan years, unless the election is revoked with the consent of the Secretary of the Treasury.

(F) Publication requirements

The Secretary of the Treasury shall publish for each month the corporate bond yield curve (and the corporate bond yield curve reflecting the modification described in section 1055(g)(3)(B)(iii)(I) of this title for such month) and each of the rates determined under subparagraph (C) for such month. The Secretary of the Treasury shall also publish a description of the methodology used to determine such yield curve and such rates which is sufficiently detailed to enable plans to make reasonable projections regarding the yield curve and such rates for future months based on the plan's projection of future interest rates.

(G) Transition rule

(i) In general

Notwithstanding the preceding provisions of this paragraph, for plan years beginning in 2008 or 2009, the first, second, or third segment rate for a plan with respect to any month shall be equal to the sum of—

(I) the product of such rate for such month determined without regard to this subparagraph, multiplied by the applicable percentage, and

(II) the product of the rate determined under the rules of section 1082(b)(5)(B)(ii)(II) of this title (as in effect for plan years beginning in 2007), multiplied by a percentage equal to 100 percent minus the applicable percentage.

(ii) Applicable percentage

For purposes of clause (i), the applicable percentage is 331/3 percent for plan years beginning in 2008 and 662/3 percent for plan years beginning in 2009.

(iii) New plans ineligible

Clause (i) shall not apply to any plan if the first plan year of the plan begins after December 31, 2007.

(iv) Election

The plan sponsor may elect not to have this subparagraph apply. Such election, once made, may be revoked only with the consent of the Secretary of the Treasury.

(3) Mortality tables

(A) In general

Except as provided in subparagraph (C) or (D), the Secretary of the Treasury shall by regulation prescribe mortality tables to be used in determining any present value or making any computation under this section. Such tables shall be based on the actual experience of pension plans and projected trends in such experience. In prescribing such tables, the Secretary of the Treasury shall take into account results of available independent studies of mortality of individuals covered by pension plans.

(B) Periodic revision

The Secretary of the Treasury shall (at least every 10 years) make revisions in any table in effect under subparagraph (A) to reflect the actual experience of pension plans and projected trends in such experience.

(C) Substitute mortality table

(i) In general

Upon request by the plan sponsor and approval by the Secretary of the Treasury, a mortality table which meets the requirements of clause (iii) shall be used in determining any present value or making any computation under this section during the period of consecutive plan years (not to exceed 10) specified in the request.

(ii) Early termination of period

Notwithstanding clause (i), a mortality table described in clause (i) shall cease to be in effect as of the earliest of—

(I) the date on which there is a significant change in the participants in the plan by reason of a plan spinoff or merger or otherwise, or

(II) the date on which the plan actuary determines that such table does not meet the requirements of clause (iii).

(iii) Requirements

A mortality table meets the requirements of this clause if—

(I) there is a sufficient number of plan participants, and the pension plans have been maintained for a sufficient period of time, to have credible information necessary for purposes of subclause (II), and

(II) such table reflects the actual experience of the pension plans maintained by the sponsor and projected trends in general mortality experience.

(iv) All plans in controlled group must use separate table

Except as provided by the Secretary of the Treasury, a plan sponsor may not use a mortality table under this subparagraph for any plan maintained by the plan sponsor unless—

(I) a separate mortality table is established and used under this subparagraph for each other plan maintained by the plan sponsor and if the plan sponsor is a member of a controlled group, each member of the controlled group, and

(II) the requirements of clause (iii) are met separately with respect to the table so established for each such plan, determined by only taking into account the participants of such plan, the time such plan has been in existence, and the actual experience of such plan.

(v) Deadline for submission and disposition of application

(I) Submission

The plan sponsor shall submit a mortality table to the Secretary of the Treasury for approval under this subparagraph at least 7 months before the 1st day of the period described in clause (i).

(II) Disposition

Any mortality table submitted to the Secretary of the Treasury for approval under this subparagraph shall be treated as in effect as of the 1st day of the period described in clause (i) unless the Secretary of the Treasury, during the 180-day period beginning on the date of such submission, disapproves of such table and provides the reasons that such table fails to meet the requirements of clause (iii). The 180-day period shall be extended upon mutual agreement of the Secretary of the Treasury and the plan sponsor.

(D) Separate mortality tables for the disabled

Notwithstanding subparagraph (A)—

(i) In general

The Secretary of the Treasury shall establish mortality tables which may be used (in lieu of the tables under subparagraph (A)) under this subsection for individuals who are entitled to benefits under the plan on account of disability. The Secretary of the Treasury shall establish separate tables for individuals whose disabilities occur in plan years beginning before January 1, 1995, and for individuals whose disabilities occur in plan years beginning on or after such date.

(ii) Special rule for disabilities occurring after 1994

In the case of disabilities occurring in plan years beginning after December 31, 1994, the tables under clause (i) shall apply only with respect to individuals described in such subclause who are disabled within the meaning of title II of the Social Security Act [42 U.S.C. 401 et seq.] and the regulations thereunder.

(iii) Periodic revision

The Secretary of the Treasury shall (at least every 10 years) make revisions in any table in effect under clause (i) to reflect the actual experience of pension plans and projected trends in such experience.

(4) Probability of benefit payments in the form of lump sums or other optional forms

For purposes of determining any present value or making any computation under this section, there shall be taken into account—

(A) the probability that future benefit payments under the plan will be made in the form of optional forms of benefits provided under the plan (including lump sum distributions, determined on the basis of the plan's experience and other related assumptions), and

(B) any difference in the present value of such future benefit payments resulting from the use of actuarial assumptions, in determining benefit payments in any such optional form of benefits, which are different from those specified in this subsection.

(5) Approval of large changes in actuarial assumptions

(A) In general

No actuarial assumption used to determine the funding target for a plan to which this paragraph applies may be changed without the approval of the Secretary of the Treasury.

(B) Plans to which paragraph applies

This paragraph shall apply to a plan only if—

(i) the plan is a single-employer plan to which subchapter III applies,

(ii) the aggregate unfunded vested benefits as of the close of the preceding plan year (as determined under section 1306(a)(3)(E)(iii) of this title) of such plan and all other plans maintained by the contributing sponsors (as defined in section 1301(a)(13) of this title) and members of such sponsors’ controlled groups (as defined in section 1301(a)(14) of this title) which are covered by subchapter III (disregarding plans with no unfunded vested benefits) exceed $50,000,000, and

(iii) the change in assumptions (determined after taking into account any changes in interest rate and mortality table) results in a decrease in the funding shortfall of the plan for the current plan year that exceeds $50,000,000, or that exceeds $5,000,000 and that is 5 percent or more of the funding target of the plan before such change.

(i) Special rules for at-risk plans

(1) Funding target for plans in at-risk status

(A) In general

In the case of a plan which is in at-risk status for a plan year, the funding target of the plan for the plan year shall be equal to the sum of—

(i) the present value of all benefits accrued or earned under the plan as of the beginning of the plan year, as determined by using the additional actuarial assumptions described in subparagraph (B), and

(ii) in the case of a plan which also has been in at-risk status for at least 2 of the 4 preceding plan years, a loading factor determined under subparagraph (C).

(B) Additional actuarial assumptions

The actuarial assumptions described in this subparagraph are as follows:

(i) All employees who are not otherwise assumed to retire as of the valuation date but who will be eligible to elect benefits during the plan year and the 10 succeeding plan years shall be assumed to retire at the earliest retirement date under the plan but not before the end of the plan year for which the at-risk funding target and at-risk target normal cost are being determined.

(ii) All employees shall be assumed to elect the retirement benefit available under the plan at the assumed retirement age (determined after application of clause (i)) which would result in the highest present value of benefits.

(C) Loading factor

The loading factor applied with respect to a plan under this paragraph for any plan year is the sum of—

(i) $700, times the number of participants in the plan, plus

(ii) 4 percent of the funding target (determined without regard to this paragraph) of the plan for the plan year.

(2) Target normal cost of at-risk plans

In the case of a plan which is in at-risk status for a plan year, the target normal cost of the plan for such plan year shall be equal to the sum of—

(A) the excess of—

(i) the sum of—

(I) the present value of all benefits which are expected to accrue or to be earned under the plan during the plan year, determined using the additional actuarial assumptions described in paragraph (1)(B), plus

(II) the amount of plan-related expenses expected to be paid from plan assets during the plan year, over


(ii) the amount of mandatory employee contributions expected to be made during the plan year, plus


(B) in the case of a plan which also has been in at-risk status for at least 2 of the 4 preceding plan years, a loading factor equal to 4 percent of the amount determined under subsection (b)(1)(A)(i) with respect to the plan for the plan year.

(3) Minimum amount

In no event shall—

(A) the at-risk funding target be less than the funding target, as determined without regard to this subsection, or

(B) the at-risk target normal cost be less than the target normal cost, as determined without regard to this subsection.

(4) Determination of at-risk status

For purposes of this subsection—

(A) In general

A plan is in at-risk status for a plan year if—

(i) the funding target attainment percentage for the preceding plan year (determined under this section without regard to this subsection) is less than 80 percent, and

(ii) the funding target attainment percentage for the preceding plan year (determined under this section by using the additional actuarial assumptions described in paragraph (1)(B) in computing the funding target) is less than 70 percent.

(B) Transition rule

In the case of plan years beginning in 2008, 2009, and 2010, subparagraph (A)(i) shall be applied by substituting the following percentages for “80 percent”:

(i) 65 percent in the case of 2008.

(ii) 70 percent in the case of 2009.

(iii) 75 percent in the case of 2010.


In the case of plan years beginning in 2008, the funding target attainment percentage for the preceding plan year under subparagraph (A) may be determined using such methods of estimation as the Secretary of the Treasury may provide.

(C) Special rule for employees offered early retirement in 2006

(i) In general

For purposes of subparagraph (A)(ii), the additional actuarial assumptions described in paragraph (1)(B) shall not be taken into account with respect to any employee if—

(I) such employee is employed by a specified automobile manufacturer,

(II) such employee is offered a substantial amount of additional cash compensation, substantially enhanced retirement benefits under the plan, or materially reduced employment duties on the condition that by a specified date (not later than December 31, 2010) the employee retires (as defined under the terms of the plan),

(III) such offer is made during 2006 and pursuant to a bona fide retirement incentive program and requires, by the terms of the offer, that such offer can be accepted not later than a specified date (not later than December 31, 2006), and

(IV) such employee does not elect to accept such offer before the specified date on which the offer expires.

(ii) Specified automobile manufacturer

For purposes of clause (i), the term “specified automobile manufacturer” means—

(I) any manufacturer of automobiles, and

(II) any manufacturer of automobile parts which supplies such parts directly to a manufacturer of automobiles and which, after a transaction or series of transactions ending in 1999, ceased to be a member of a controlled group which included such manufacturer of automobiles.

(5) Transition between applicable funding targets and between applicable target normal costs

(A) In general

In any case in which a plan which is in at-risk status for a plan year has been in such status for a consecutive period of fewer than 5 plan years, the applicable amount of the funding target and of the target normal cost shall be, in lieu of the amount determined without regard to this paragraph, the sum of—

(i) the amount determined under this section without regard to this subsection, plus

(ii) the transition percentage for such plan year of the excess of the amount determined under this subsection (without regard to this paragraph) over the amount determined under this section without regard to this subsection.

(B) Transition percentage

For purposes of subparagraph (A), the transition percentage shall be determined in accordance with the following table:


If the consecutive number of
The
years (including the plan year)
transition
the plan is in at-risk status is—
percentage
 
is—
1
20
2
40
3
60
4
80.

        

(C) Years before effective date

For purposes of this paragraph, plan years beginning before 2008 shall not be taken into account.

(6) Small plan exception

If, on each day during the preceding plan year, a plan had 500 or fewer participants, the plan shall not be treated as in at-risk status for the plan year. For purposes of this paragraph, all defined benefit plans (other than multiemployer plans) maintained by the same employer (or any member of such employer's controlled group) shall be treated as 1 plan, but only participants with respect to such employer or member shall be taken into account and the rules of subsection (g)(2)(C) shall apply.

(j) Payment of minimum required contributions

(1) In general

For purposes of this section, the due date for any payment of any minimum required contribution for any plan year shall be 8½ months after the close of the plan year.

(2) Interest

Any payment required under paragraph (1) for a plan year that is made on a date other than the valuation date for such plan year shall be adjusted for interest accruing for the period between the valuation date and the payment date, at the effective rate of interest for the plan for such plan year.

(3) Accelerated quarterly contribution schedule for underfunded plans

(A) Failure to timely make required installment

In any case in which the plan has a funding shortfall for the preceding plan year, the employer maintaining the plan shall make the required installments under this paragraph and if the employer fails to pay the full amount of a required installment for the plan year, then the amount of interest charged under paragraph (2) on the underpayment for the period of underpayment shall be determined by using a rate of interest equal to the rate otherwise used under paragraph (2) plus 5 percentage points. In the case of plan years beginning in 2008, the funding shortfall for the preceding plan year may be determined using such methods of estimation as the Secretary of the Treasury may provide.

(B) Amount of underpayment, period of underpayment

For purposes of subparagraph (A)—

(i) Amount

The amount of the underpayment shall be the excess of—

(I) the required installment, over

(II) the amount (if any) of the installment contributed to or under the plan on or before the due date for the installment.

(ii) Period of underpayment

The period for which any interest is charged under this paragraph with respect to any portion of the underpayment shall run from the due date for the installment to the date on which such portion is contributed to or under the plan.

(iii) Order of crediting contributions

For purposes of clause (i)(II), contributions shall be credited against unpaid required installments in the order in which such installments are required to be paid.

(C) Number of required installments; due dates

For purposes of this paragraph—

(i) Payable in 4 installments

There shall be 4 required installments for each plan year.

(ii) Time for payment of installments

The due dates for required installments are set forth in the following table:

 
  
In the case of the following required installment: The due date is:
1st April 15
2nd July 15
3rd October 15
4th January 15 of the following year.

(D) Amount of required installment

For purposes of this paragraph—

(i) In general

The amount of any required installment shall be 25 percent of the required annual payment.

(ii) Required annual payment

For purposes of clause (i), the term “required annual payment” means the lesser of—

(I) 90 percent of the minimum required contribution (determined without regard to this subsection) to the plan for the plan year under this section, or

(II) 100 percent of the minimum required contribution (determined without regard to this subsection or to any waiver under section 1082(c) of this title) to the plan for the preceding plan year.


 Subclause (II) shall not apply if the preceding plan year referred to in such clause was not a year of 12 months.

(E) Fiscal years, short years, and years with alternate valuation date

(i) Fiscal years

In applying this paragraph to a plan year beginning on any date other than January 1, there shall be substituted for the months specified in this paragraph, the months which correspond thereto.

(ii) Short plan year

This subparagraph shall be applied to plan years of less than 12 months in accordance with regulations prescribed by the Secretary of the Treasury.

(iii) Plan with alternate valuation date

The Secretary of the Treasury shall prescribe regulations for the application of this paragraph in the case of a plan which has a valuation date other than the first day of the plan year.

(F) Quarterly contributions not to include certain increased contributions

Subparagraph (D) shall be applied without regard to any increase under subsection (c)(7).

(4) Liquidity requirement in connection with quarterly contributions

(A) In general

A plan to which this paragraph applies shall be treated as failing to pay the full amount of any required installment under paragraph (3) to the extent that the value of the liquid assets paid in such installment is less than the liquidity shortfall (whether or not such liquidity shortfall exceeds the amount of such installment required to be paid but for this paragraph).

(B) Plans to which paragraph applies

This paragraph shall apply to a plan (other than a plan described in subsection (g)(2)(B)) which—

(i) is required to pay installments under paragraph (3) for a plan year, and

(ii) has a liquidity shortfall for any quarter during such plan year.

(C) Period of underpayment

For purposes of paragraph (3)(A), any portion of an installment that is treated as not paid under subparagraph (A) shall continue to be treated as unpaid until the close of the quarter in which the due date for such installment occurs.

(D) Limitation on increase

If the amount of any required installment is increased by reason of subparagraph (A), in no event shall such increase exceed the amount which, when added to prior installments for the plan year, is necessary to increase the funding target attainment percentage of the plan for the plan year (taking into account the expected increase in funding target due to benefits accruing or earned during the plan year) to 100 percent.

(E) Definitions

For purposes of this paragraph—

(i) Liquidity shortfall

The term “liquidity shortfall” means, with respect to any required installment, an amount equal to the excess (as of the last day of the quarter for which such installment is made) of—

(I) the base amount with respect to such quarter, over

(II) the value (as of such last day) of the plan's liquid assets.

(ii) Base amount

(I) In general

The term “base amount” means, with respect to any quarter, an amount equal to 3 times the sum of the adjusted disbursements from the plan for the 12 months ending on the last day of such quarter.

(II) Special rule

If the amount determined under subclause (I) exceeds an amount equal to 2 times the sum of the adjusted disbursements from the plan for the 36 months ending on the last day of the quarter and an enrolled actuary certifies to the satisfaction of the Secretary of the Treasury that such excess is the result of nonrecurring circumstances, the base amount with respect to such quarter shall be determined without regard to amounts related to those nonrecurring circumstances.

(iii) Disbursements from the plan

The term “disbursements from the plan” means all disbursements from the trust, including purchases of annuities, payments of single sums and other benefits, and administrative expenses.

(iv) Adjusted disbursements

The term “adjusted disbursements” means disbursements from the plan reduced by the product of—

(I) the plan's funding target attainment percentage for the plan year, and

(II) the sum of the purchases of annuities, payments of single sums, and such other disbursements as the Secretary of the Treasury shall provide in regulations.

(v) Liquid assets

The term “liquid assets” means cash, marketable securities, and such other assets as specified by the Secretary of the Treasury in regulations.

(vi) Quarter

The term “quarter” means, with respect to any required installment, the 3-month period preceding the month in which the due date for such installment occurs.

(F) Regulations

The Secretary of the Treasury may prescribe such regulations as are necessary to carry out this paragraph.

(k) Imposition of lien where failure to make required contributions

(1) In general

In the case of a plan to which this subsection applies (as provided under paragraph (2)), if—

(A) any person fails to make a contribution payment required by section 1082 of this title and this section before the due date for such payment, and

(B) the unpaid balance of such payment (including interest), when added to the aggregate unpaid balance of all preceding such payments for which payment was not made before the due date (including interest), exceeds $1,000,000,


then there shall be a lien in favor of the plan in the amount determined under paragraph (3) upon all property and rights to property, whether real or personal, belonging to such person and any other person who is a member of the same controlled group of which such person is a member.

(2) Plans to which subsection applies

This subsection shall apply to a single-employer plan covered under section 1321 of this title for any plan year for which the funding target attainment percentage (as defined in subsection (d)(2)) of such plan is less than 100 percent.

(3) Amount of lien

For purposes of paragraph (1), the amount of the lien shall be equal to the aggregate unpaid balance of contribution payments required under this section and section 1082 of this title for which payment has not been made before the due date.

(4) Notice of failure; lien

(A) Notice of failure

A person committing a failure described in paragraph (1) shall notify the Pension Benefit Guaranty Corporation of such failure within 10 days of the due date for the required contribution payment.

(B) Period of lien

The lien imposed by paragraph (1) shall arise on the due date for the required contribution payment and shall continue until the last day of the first plan year in which the plan ceases to be described in paragraph (1)(B). Such lien shall continue to run without regard to whether such plan continues to be described in paragraph (2) during the period referred to in the preceding sentence.

(C) Certain rules to apply

Any amount with respect to which a lien is imposed under paragraph (1) shall be treated as taxes due and owing the United States and rules similar to the rules of subsections (c), (d), and (e) of section 1368 of this title shall apply with respect to a lien imposed by subsection (a) and the amount with respect to such lien.

(5) Enforcement

Any lien created under paragraph (1) may be perfected and enforced only by the Pension Benefit Guaranty Corporation, or at the direction of the Pension Benefit Guaranty Corporation, by the contributing sponsor (or any member of the controlled group of the contributing sponsor).

(6) Definitions

For purposes of this subsection—

(A) Contribution payment

The term “contribution payment” means, in connection with a plan, a contribution payment required to be made to the plan, including any required installment under paragraphs (3) and (4) of subsection (j).

(B) Due date; required installment

The terms “due date” and “required installment” have the meanings given such terms by subsection (j).

(C) Controlled group

The term “controlled group” means any group treated as a single employer under subsections (b), (c), (m), and (o) of section 414 of title 26.

(l) Qualified transfers to health benefit accounts

In the case of a qualified transfer (as defined in section 420 of title 26), any assets so transferred shall not, for purposes of this section, be treated as assets in the plan.

(Pub. L. 93–406, title I, §303, as added Pub. L. 109–280, title I, §102(a), Aug. 17, 2006, 120 Stat. 789; amended Pub. L. 110–458, title I, §§101(b)(1), 121(a), title II, §202(a), Dec. 23, 2008, 122 Stat. 5093, 5113, 5117; Pub. L. 111–192, title II, §§201(a), 204(a), June 25, 2010, 124 Stat. 1283, 1300.)

References in Text

Section 106 of the Pension Protection Act of 2006, referred to in subsec. (c)(2)(D)(iv)(I), is section 106 of Pub. L. 109–280, which is set out as a note under section 401 of Title 26, Internal Revenue Code.

The Social Security Act, referred to in subsec. (h)(3)(D)(ii), is act Aug. 14, 1935, ch. 531, 49 Stat. 620. Title II of the Act is classified generally to subchapter II (§401 et seq.) of chapter 7 of Title 42, The Public Health and Welfare. For complete classification of this Act to the Code, see section 1305 of Title 42 and Tables.

Prior Provisions

A prior section 1083, Pub. L. 93–406, title I, §303, Sept. 2, 1974, 88 Stat. 872; Pub. L. 99–272, title XI, §§11015(b)(1)(A), 11016(c)(2), Apr. 7, 1986, 100 Stat. 267, 273; Pub. L. 100–203, title IX, §9306(a)(2), (b)(2), (c)(2)(A), (d)(2), Dec. 22, 1987, 101 Stat. 1330–353 to 1330–355; Pub. L. 101–239, title VII, §§7881(b)(6)(B)(ii), (7), (8), (c)(2), 7891(a)(1), Dec. 19, 1989, 103 Stat. 2438, 2439, 2445, related to variance from minimum funding standard, prior to repeal by Pub. L. 109–280, title I, §101(a), (d), Aug. 17, 2006, 120 Stat. 784, 789, applicable to plan years beginning after 2007.

Amendments

2010—Subsec. (c)(1). Pub. L. 111–192, §201(a)(3)(A), substituted “any shortfall amortization base which has not been fully amortized under this subsection” for “the shortfall amortization bases for such plan year and each of the 6 preceding plan years”.

Subsec. (c)(2)(D). Pub. L. 111–192, §201(a)(1), added subpar. (D).

Subsec. (c)(7). Pub. L. 111–192, §201(a)(2), added par. (7).

Subsec. (f)(3)(D). Pub. L. 111–192, §204(a), added subpar. (D).

Subsec. (j)(3)(F). Pub. L. 111–192, §201(a)(3)(B), added subpar. (F).

2008—Subsec. (b). Pub. L. 110–458, §101(b)(1)(A), amended subsec. (b) generally. Prior to amendment, text read as follows: “For purposes of this section, except as provided in subsection (i)(2) with respect to plans in at-risk status, the term ‘target normal cost’ means, for any plan year, the present value of all benefits which are expected to accrue or to be earned under the plan during the plan year. For purposes of this subsection, if any benefit attributable to services performed in a preceding plan year is increased by reason of any increase in compensation during the current plan year, the increase in such benefit shall be treated as having accrued during the current plan year.”

Subsec. (c)(5)(B)(i). Pub. L. 110–458, §202(a)(2), added cl. (i) and struck out former cl. (i). Prior to amendment, text read as follows: “Except as provided in clauses (iii) and (iv), in the case of plan years beginning after 2007 and before 2011, only the applicable percentage of the funding target shall be taken into account under paragraph (3)(A) in determining the funding shortfall for the plan year for purposes of subparagraph (A).”

Subsec. (c)(5)(B)(iii). Pub. L. 110–458, §202(a)(1), redesignated cl. (iv) as (iii) and struck out former cl. (iii). Prior to amendment, text read as follows: “Clause (i) shall not apply with respect to any plan year beginning after 2008 unless the shortfall amortization base for each of the preceding years beginning after 2007 was zero (determined after application of this subparagraph).”

Pub. L. 110–458, §101(b)(1)(B), inserted “beginning” before “after 2008”.

Subsec. (c)(5)(B)(iv). Pub. L. 110–458, §202(a)(1), redesignated cl. (iv) as (iii).

Subsec. (c)(5)(B)(iv)(II). Pub. L. 110–458, §101(b)(1)(C), inserted “for such year” after “beginning in 2007)”.

Subsec. (f)(4)(A). Pub. L. 110–458, §101(b)(1)(D), substituted “paragraph (3)” for “paragraph (2)”.

Subsec. (g)(3)(B). Pub. L. 110–458, §121(a), amended concluding provisions generally. Prior to amendment, concluding provisions read as follows: “Any such averaging shall be adjusted for contributions and distributions (as provided by the Secretary of the Treasury).”

Subsec. (h)(2)(F). Pub. L. 110–458, §101(b)(1)(E), substituted “section 1055(g)(3)(B)(iii)(I) of this title for such month)” for “section 1055(g)(3)(B)(iii)(I) of this title) for such month” and “subparagraph (C)” for “subparagraph (B)”.

Subsec. (i)(2)(A). Pub. L. 110–458, §101(b)(1)(F)(i)(I), added subpar. (A) and struck out former subpar. (A) which read as follows: “the present value of all benefits which are expected to accrue or be earned under the plan during the plan year, determined using the additional actuarial assumptions described in paragraph (1)(B), plus”.

Subsec. (i)(2)(B). Pub. L. 110–458, §101(b)(1)(F)(i)(II), substituted “the amount determined under subsection (b)(1)(A)(i) with respect to the plan for the plan year” for “the target normal cost (determined without regard to this paragraph) of the plan for the plan year”.

Subsec. (i)(4)(B). Pub. L. 110–458, §101(b)(1)(F)(ii), substituted “subparagraph (A)” for “subparagraph (A)(ii)” in concluding provisions.

Subsec. (j)(3)(A). Pub. L. 110–458, §101(b)(1)(G)(i), inserted last sentence.

Subsec. (j)(3)(E). Pub. L. 110–458, §101(b)(1)(G)(ii), (iii), substituted “, short years, and years with alternate valuation date” for “and short years” in heading and added cl. (iii).

Subsec. (k)(6)(B). Pub. L. 110–458, §101(b)(1)(H), struck out “, except that in the case of a payment other than a required installment, the due date shall be the date such payment is required to be made under this section” after “subsection (j)”.

Effective Date of 2010 Amendment

Amendment by section 201(a) of Pub. L. 111–192 applicable to plan years beginning after Dec. 31, 2007, see section 201(c) of Pub. L. 111–192, set out as a note under section 430 of Title 26, Internal Revenue Code.

Amendment by section 204(a) of Pub. L. 111–192 applicable to plan years beginning after Aug. 31, 2009, with certain exceptions, see section 204(c) of Pub. L. 111–192, set out as a note under section 430 of Title 26, Internal Revenue Code.

Effective Date of 2008 Amendment

Amendment by section 101(b)(1)(A), (F)(i) of Pub. L. 110–458 applicable to plan years beginning after Dec. 31, 2008, and applicable to a plan for the first plan year beginning after Dec. 31, 2007, under certain conditions, see section 101(b)(3) of Pub. L. 110–458, set out as a note under section 430 of Title 26, Internal Revenue Code.

Amendment by section 101(b)(1)(B)–(E), (F)(ii)–(H) of Pub. L. 110–458 effective as if included in the provisions of Pub. L. 109–280 to which the amendment relates, except as otherwise provided, see section 112 of Pub. L. 110–458, set out as a note under section 72 of Title 26, Internal Revenue Code.

Amendment by section 121(a) of Pub. L. 110–458 effective as if included in the provisions of Pub. L. 109–280 to which the amendment relates, see section 121(c) of Pub. L. 110–458, set out as a note under section 430 of Title 26, Internal Revenue Code.

Amendment by section 202(a) of Pub. L. 110–458 applicable as if included in the enactment of this section, see section 202(c) of Pub. L. 110–458, set out as a note under section 430 of Title 26, Internal Revenue Code.

Effective Date

Pub. L. 109–280, title I, §102(c), Aug. 17, 2006, 120 Stat. 809, provided that: “The amendments made by this section [enacting this section] shall apply with respect to plan years beginning after 2007.”

Applicability of Amendments by Subtitles A and B of Title I of Pub. L. 109–280

For special rules on applicability of amendments by subtitles A (§§101–108) and B (§§111–116) of title I of Pub. L. 109–280 to certain eligible cooperative plans, PBGC settlement plans, and eligible government contractor plans, see sections 104, 105, and 106 of Pub. L. 109–280, set out as notes under section 401 of Title 26, Internal Revenue Code.

Modification of Transition Rule to Pension Funding Requirements

For modification of transition rule to pension funding requirements in the case of a plan that was not required to pay a variable rate premium for the plan year beginning in 1996, has not, in any plan year beginning after 1995, merged with another plan (other than a plan sponsored by an employer that was in 1996 within the controlled group of the plan sponsor), and is sponsored by a company that is engaged primarily in the interurban or interstate passenger bus service, see section 115(a)–(c) of Pub. L. 109–280, set out as a note under section 430 of Title 26, Internal Revenue Code.

1 So in original. Probably should be followed by “to”.

§1084. Minimum funding standards for multiemployer plans

(a) In general

For purposes of section 1082 of this title, the accumulated funding deficiency of a multiemployer plan for any plan year is—

(1) except as provided in paragraph (2), the amount, determined as of the end of the plan year, equal to the excess (if any) of the total charges to the funding standard account of the plan for all plan years (beginning with the first plan year for which this part applies to the plan) over the total credits to such account for such years, and

(2) if the multiemployer plan is in reorganization for any plan year, the accumulated funding deficiency of the plan determined under section 1423 of this title.

(b) Funding standard account

(1) Account required

Each multiemployer plan to which this part applies shall establish and maintain a funding standard account. Such account shall be credited and charged solely as provided in this section.

(2) Charges to account

For a plan year, the funding standard account shall be charged with the sum of—

(A) the normal cost of the plan for the plan year,

(B) the amounts necessary to amortize in equal annual installments (until fully amortized)—

(i) in the case of a plan which comes into existence on or after January 1, 2008, the unfunded past service liability under the plan on the first day of the first plan year to which this section applies, over a period of 15 plan years,

(ii) separately, with respect to each plan year, the net increase (if any) in unfunded past service liability under the plan arising from plan amendments adopted in such year, over a period of 15 plan years,

(iii) separately, with respect to each plan year, the net experience loss (if any) under the plan, over a period of 15 plan years, and

(iv) separately, with respect to each plan year, the net loss (if any) resulting from changes in actuarial assumptions used under the plan, over a period of 15 plan years,


(C) the amount necessary to amortize each waived funding deficiency (within the meaning of section 1082(c)(3) of this title) for each prior plan year in equal annual installments (until fully amortized) over a period of 15 plan years,

(D) the amount necessary to amortize in equal annual installments (until fully amortized) over a period of 5 plan years any amount credited to the funding standard account under section 1082(b)(3)(D) of this title (as in effect on the day before August 17, 2006), and

(E) the amount necessary to amortize in equal annual installments (until fully amortized) over a period of 20 years the contributions which would be required to be made under the plan but for the provisions of section 1082(c)(7)(A)(i)(I) of this title (as in effect on the day before August 17, 2006).

(3) Credits to account

For a plan year, the funding standard account shall be credited with the sum of—

(A) the amount considered contributed by the employer to or under the plan for the plan year,

(B) the amount necessary to amortize in equal annual installments (until fully amortized)—

(i) separately, with respect to each plan year, the net decrease (if any) in unfunded past service liability under the plan arising from plan amendments adopted in such year, over a period of 15 plan years,

(ii) separately, with respect to each plan year, the net experience gain (if any) under the plan, over a period of 15 plan years, and

(iii) separately, with respect to each plan year, the net gain (if any) resulting from changes in actuarial assumptions used under the plan, over a period of 15 plan years,


(C) the amount of the waived funding deficiency (within the meaning of section 1082(c)(3) of this title) for the plan year, and

(D) in the case of a plan year for which the accumulated funding deficiency is determined under the funding standard account if such plan year follows a plan year for which such deficiency was determined under the alternative minimum funding standard under section 1085 of this title (as in effect on the day before August 17, 2006), the excess (if any) of any debit balance in the funding standard account (determined without regard to this subparagraph) over any debit balance in the alternative minimum funding standard account.

(4) Special rule for amounts first amortized in plan years before 2008

In the case of any amount amortized under section 1082(b) of this title (as in effect on the day before August 17, 2006) over any period beginning with a plan year beginning before 2008, in lieu of the amortization described in paragraphs (2)(B) and (3)(B), such amount shall continue to be amortized under such section as so in effect.

(5) Combining and offsetting amounts to be amortized

Under regulations prescribed by the Secretary of the Treasury, amounts required to be amortized under paragraph (2) or paragraph (3), as the case may be—

(A) may be combined into one amount under such paragraph to be amortized over a period determined on the basis of the remaining amortization period for all items entering into such combined amount, and

(B) may be offset against amounts required to be amortized under the other such paragraph, with the resulting amount to be amortized over a period determined on the basis of the remaining amortization periods for all items entering into whichever of the two amounts being offset is the greater.

(6) Interest

The funding standard account (and items therein) shall be charged or credited (as determined under regulations prescribed by the Secretary of the Treasury) with interest at the appropriate rate consistent with the rate or rates of interest used under the plan to determine costs.

(7) Special rules relating to charges and credits to funding standard account

For purposes of this part—

(A) Withdrawal liability

Any amount received by a multiemployer plan in payment of all or part of an employer's withdrawal liability under part 1 of subtitle E of subchapter III shall be considered an amount contributed by the employer to or under the plan. The Secretary of the Treasury may prescribe by regulation additional charges and credits to a multiemployer plan's funding standard account to the extent necessary to prevent withdrawal liability payments from being unduly reflected as advance funding for plan liabilities.

(B) Adjustments when a multiemployer plan leaves reorganization

If a multiemployer plan is not in reorganization in the plan year but was in reorganization in the immediately preceding plan year, any balance in the funding standard account at the close of such immediately preceding plan year—

(i) shall be eliminated by an offsetting credit or charge (as the case may be), but

(ii) shall be taken into account in subsequent plan years by being amortized in equal annual installments (until fully amortized) over 30 plan years.


The preceding sentence shall not apply to the extent of any accumulated funding deficiency under section 1423(a) of this title as of the end of the last plan year that the plan was in reorganization.

(C) Plan payments to supplemental program or withdrawal liability payment fund

Any amount paid by a plan during a plan year to the Pension Benefit Guaranty Corporation pursuant to section 1402 of this title or to a fund exempt under section 501(c)(22) of title 26 pursuant to section 1403 of this title shall reduce the amount of contributions considered received by the plan for the plan year.

(D) Interim withdrawal liability payments

Any amount paid by an employer pending a final determination of the employer's withdrawal liability under part 1 of subtitle E of subchapter III and subsequently refunded to the employer by the plan shall be charged to the funding standard account in accordance with regulations prescribed by the Secretary of the Treasury.

(E) Election for deferral of charge for portion of net experience loss

If an election is in effect under section 1082(b)(7)(F) of this title (as in effect on the day before August 17, 2006) for any plan year, the funding standard account shall be charged in the plan year to which the portion of the net experience loss deferred by such election was deferred with the amount so deferred (and paragraph (2)(B)(iii) shall not apply to the amount so charged).

(F) Financial assistance

Any amount of any financial assistance from the Pension Benefit Guaranty Corporation to any plan, and any repayment of such amount, shall be taken into account under this section and section 1082 of this title in such manner as is determined by the Secretary of the Treasury.

(G) Short-term benefits

To the extent that any plan amendment increases the unfunded past service liability under the plan by reason of an increase in benefits which are not payable as a life annuity but are payable under the terms of the plan for a period that does not exceed 14 years from the effective date of the amendment, paragraph (2)(B)(ii) shall be applied separately with respect to such increase in unfunded past service liability by substituting the number of years of the period during which such benefits are payable for “15”.

(8) Special relief rules

Notwithstanding any other provision of this subsection—

(A) Amortization of net investment losses

(i) In general

A multiemployer plan with respect to which the solvency test under subparagraph (C) is met may treat the portion of any experience loss or gain attributable to net investment losses incurred in either or both of the first two plan years ending after August 31, 2008, as an item separate from other experience losses, to be amortized in equal annual installments (until fully amortized) over the period—

(I) beginning with the plan year in which such portion is first recognized in the actuarial value of assets, and

(II) ending with the last plan year in the 30-plan year period beginning with the plan year in which such net investment loss was incurred.

(ii) Coordination with extensions

If this subparagraph applies for any plan year—

(I) no extension of the amortization period under clause (i) shall be allowed under subsection (d), and

(II) if an extension was granted under subsection (d) for any plan year before the election to have this subparagraph apply to the plan year, such extension shall not result in such amortization period exceeding 30 years.

(iii) Net investment losses

For purposes of this subparagraph—

(I) In general

Net investment losses shall be determined in the manner prescribed by the Secretary of the Treasury on the basis of the difference between actual and expected returns (including any difference attributable to any criminally fraudulent investment arrangement).

(II) Criminally fraudulent investment arrangements

The determination as to whether an arrangement is a criminally fraudulent investment arrangement shall be made under rules substantially similar to the rules prescribed by the Secretary of the Treasury for purposes of section 165 of title 26.

(B) Expanded smoothing period

(i) In general

A multiemployer plan with respect to which the solvency test under subparagraph (C) is met may change its asset valuation method in a manner which—

(I) spreads the difference between expected and actual returns for either or both of the first 2 plan years ending after August 31, 2008, over a period of not more than 10 years,

(II) provides that for either or both of the first 2 plan years beginning after August 31, 2008, the value of plan assets at any time shall not be less than 80 percent or greater than 130 percent of the fair market value of such assets at such time, or

(III) makes both changes described in subclauses (I) and (II) to such method.

(ii) Asset valuation methods

If this subparagraph applies for any plan year—

(I) the Secretary of the Treasury shall not treat the asset valuation method of the plan as unreasonable solely because of the changes in such method described in clause (i), and

(II) such changes shall be deemed approved by such Secretary under section 1082(d)(1) of this title and section 412(d)(1) of title 26.

(iii) Amortization of reduction in unfunded accrued liability

If this subparagraph and subparagraph (A) both apply for any plan year, the plan shall treat any reduction in unfunded accrued liability resulting from the application of this subparagraph as a separate experience amortization base, to be amortized in equal annual installments (until fully amortized) over a period of 30 plan years rather than the period such liability would otherwise be amortized over.

(C) Solvency test

The solvency test under this paragraph is met only if the plan actuary certifies that the plan is projected to have sufficient assets to timely pay expected benefits and anticipated expenditures over the amortization period, taking into account the changes in the funding standard account under this paragraph.

(D) Restriction on benefit increases

If subparagraph (A) or (B) apply to a multiemployer plan for any plan year, then, in addition to any other applicable restrictions on benefit increases, a plan amendment increasing benefits may not go into effect during either of the 2 plan years immediately following such plan year unless—

(i) the plan actuary certifies that—

(I) any such increase is paid for out of additional contributions not allocated to the plan immediately before the application of this paragraph to the plan, and

(II) the plan's funded percentage and projected credit balances for such 2 plan years are reasonably expected to be at least as high as such percentage and balances would have been if the benefit increase had not been adopted, or


(ii) the amendment is required as a condition of qualification under part I of subchapter D of chapter 1 of title 26 or to comply with other applicable law.

(E) Reporting

A plan sponsor of a plan to which this paragraph applies shall—

(i) give notice of such application to participants and beneficiaries of the plan, and

(ii) inform the Pension Benefit Guaranty Corporation of such application in such form and manner as the Director of the Pension Benefit Guaranty Corporation may prescribe.

(c) Additional rules

(1) Determinations to be made under funding method

For purposes of this part, normal costs, accrued liability, past service liabilities, and experience gains and losses shall be determined under the funding method used to determine costs under the plan.

(2) Valuation of assets

(A) In general

For purposes of this part, the value of the plan's assets shall be determined on the basis of any reasonable actuarial method of valuation which takes into account fair market value and which is permitted under regulations prescribed by the Secretary of the Treasury.

(B) Election with respect to bonds

The value of a bond or other evidence of indebtedness which is not in default as to principal or interest may, at the election of the plan administrator, be determined on an amortized basis running from initial cost at purchase to par value at maturity or earliest call date. Any election under this subparagraph shall be made at such time and in such manner as the Secretary of the Treasury shall by regulations provide, shall apply to all such evidences of indebtedness, and may be revoked only with the consent of such Secretary.

(3) Actuarial assumptions must be reasonable

For purposes of this section, all costs, liabilities, rates of interest, and other factors under the plan shall be determined on the basis of actuarial assumptions and methods—

(A) each of which is reasonable (taking into account the experience of the plan and reasonable expectations), and

(B) which, in combination, offer the actuary's best estimate of anticipated experience under the plan.

(4) Treatment of certain changes as experience gain or loss

For purposes of this section, if—

(A) a change in benefits under the Social Security Act [42 U.S.C. 301 et seq.] or in other retirement benefits created under Federal or State law, or

(B) a change in the definition of the term “wages” under section 3121 of title 26, or a change in the amount of such wages taken into account under regulations prescribed for purposes of section 401(a)(5) of title 26,


results in an increase or decrease in accrued liability under a plan, such increase or decrease shall be treated as an experience loss or gain.

(5) Full funding

If, as of the close of a plan year, a plan would (without regard to this paragraph) have an accumulated funding deficiency in excess of the full funding limitation—

(A) the funding standard account shall be credited with the amount of such excess, and

(B) all amounts described in subparagraphs (B), (C), and (D) of subsection (b) (2) and subparagraph (B) of subsection (b)(3) which are required to be amortized shall be considered fully amortized for purposes of such subparagraphs.

(6) Full-funding limitation

(A) In general

For purposes of paragraph (5), the term “full-funding limitation” means the excess (if any) of—

(i) the accrued liability (including normal cost) under the plan (determined under the entry age normal funding method if such accrued liability cannot be directly calculated under the funding method used for the plan), over

(ii) the lesser of—

(I) the fair market value of the plan's assets, or

(II) the value of such assets determined under paragraph (2).

(B) Minimum amount

(i) In general

In no event shall the full-funding limitation determined under subparagraph (A) be less than the excess (if any) of—

(I) 90 percent of the current liability of the plan (including the expected increase in current liability due to benefits accruing during the plan year), over

(II) the value of the plan's assets determined under paragraph (2).

(ii) Assets

For purposes of clause (i), assets shall not be reduced by any credit balance in the funding standard account.

(C) Full funding limitation

For purposes of this paragraph, unless otherwise provided by the plan, the accrued liability under a multiemployer plan shall not include benefits which are not nonforfeitable under the plan after the termination of the plan (taking into consideration section 411(d)(3) of title 26).

(D) Current liability

For purposes of this paragraph—

(i) In general

The term “current liability” means all liabilities to employees and their beneficiaries under the plan.

(ii) Treatment of unpredictable contingent event benefits

For purposes of clause (i), any benefit contingent on an event other than—

(I) age, service, compensation, death, or disability, or

(II) an event which is reasonably and reliably predictable (as determined by the Secretary of the Treasury),


 shall not be taken into account until the event on which the benefit is contingent occurs.

(iii) Interest rate used

The rate of interest used to determine current liability under this paragraph shall be the rate of interest determined under subparagraph (E).

(iv) Mortality tables

(I) Commissioners’ standard table

In the case of plan years beginning before the first plan year to which the first tables prescribed under subclause (II) apply, the mortality table used in determining current liability under this paragraph shall be the table prescribed by the Secretary of the Treasury which is based on the prevailing commissioners’ standard table (described in section 807(d)(5)(A) of title 26) used to determine reserves for group annuity contracts issued on January 1, 1993.

(II) Secretarial authority

The Secretary of the Treasury may by regulation prescribe for plan years beginning after December 31, 1999, mortality tables to be used in determining current liability under this subsection. Such tables shall be based upon the actual experience of pension plans and projected trends in such experience. In prescribing such tables, such Secretary shall take into account results of available independent studies of mortality of individuals covered by pension plans.

(v) Separate mortality tables for the disabled

Notwithstanding clause (iv)—

(I) In general

The Secretary of the Treasury shall establish mortality tables which may be used (in lieu of the tables under clause (iv)) to determine current liability under this subsection for individuals who are entitled to benefits under the plan on account of disability. Such Secretary shall establish separate tables for individuals whose disabilities occur in plan years beginning before January 1, 1995, and for individuals whose disabilities occur in plan years beginning on or after such date.

(II) Special rule for disabilities occurring after 1994

In the case of disabilities occurring in plan years beginning after December 31, 1994, the tables under subclause (I) shall apply only with respect to individuals described in such subclause who are disabled within the meaning of title II of the Social Security Act [42 U.S.C. 401 et seq.] and the regulations thereunder.

(vi) Periodic review

The Secretary of the Treasury shall periodically (at least every 5 years) review any tables in effect under this subparagraph and shall, to the extent such Secretary determines necessary, by regulation update the tables to reflect the actual experience of pension plans and projected trends in such experience.

(E) Required change of interest rate

For purposes of determining a plan's current liability for purposes of this paragraph—

(i) In general

If any rate of interest used under the plan under subsection (b)(6) to determine cost is not within the permissible range, the plan shall establish a new rate of interest within the permissible range.

(ii) Permissible range

For purposes of this subparagraph—

(I) In general

Except as provided in subclause (II), the term “permissible range” means a rate of interest which is not more than 5 percent above, and not more than 10 percent below, the weighted average of the rates of interest on 30-year Treasury securities during the 4-year period ending on the last day before the beginning of the plan year.

(II) Secretarial authority

If the Secretary of the Treasury finds that the lowest rate of interest permissible under subclause (I) is unreasonably high, such Secretary may prescribe a lower rate of interest, except that such rate may not be less than 80 percent of the average rate determined under such subclause.

(iii) Assumptions

Notwithstanding paragraph (3)(A), the interest rate used under the plan shall be—

(I) determined without taking into account the experience of the plan and reasonable expectations, but

(II) consistent with the assumptions which reflect the purchase rates which would be used by insurance companies to satisfy the liabilities under the plan.

(7) Annual valuation

(A) In general

For purposes of this section, a determination of experience gains and losses and a valuation of the plan's liability shall be made not less frequently than once every year, except that such determination shall be made more frequently to the extent required in particular cases under regulations prescribed by the Secretary of the Treasury.

(B) Valuation date

(i) Current year

Except as provided in clause (ii), the valuation referred to in subparagraph (A) shall be made as of a date within the plan year to which the valuation refers or within one month prior to the beginning of such year.

(ii) Use of prior year valuation

The valuation referred to in subparagraph (A) may be made as of a date within the plan year prior to the year to which the valuation refers if, as of such date, the value of the assets of the plan are not less than 100 percent of the plan's current liability (as defined in paragraph (6)(D) without regard to clause (iv) thereof).

(iii) Adjustments

Information under clause (ii) shall, in accordance with regulations, be actuarially adjusted to reflect significant differences in participants.

(iv) Limitation

A change in funding method to use a prior year valuation, as provided in clause (ii), may not be made unless as of the valuation date within the prior plan year, the value of the assets of the plan are not less than 125 percent of the plan's current liability (as defined in paragraph (6)(D) without regard to clause (iv) thereof).

(8) Time when certain contributions deemed made

For purposes of this section, any contributions for a plan year made by an employer after the last day of such plan year, but not later than two and one-half months after such day, shall be deemed to have been made on such last day. For purposes of this subparagraph, such two and one-half month period may be extended for not more than six months under regulations prescribed by the Secretary of the Treasury.

(d) Extension of amortization periods for multiemployer plans

(1) Automatic extension upon application by certain plans

(A) In general

If the plan sponsor of a multiemployer plan—

(i) submits to the Secretary of the Treasury an application for an extension of the period of years required to amortize any unfunded liability described in any clause of subsection (b)(2)(B) or described in subsection (b)(4), and

(ii) includes with the application a certification by the plan's actuary described in subparagraph (B),


the Secretary of the Treasury shall extend the amortization period for the period of time (not in excess of 5 years) specified in the application. Such extension shall be in addition to any extension under paragraph (2).

(B) Criteria

A certification with respect to a multiemployer plan is described in this subparagraph if the plan's actuary certifies that, based on reasonable assumptions—

(i) absent the extension under subparagraph (A), the plan would have an accumulated funding deficiency in the current plan year or any of the 9 succeeding plan years,

(ii) the plan sponsor has adopted a plan to improve the plan's funding status,

(iii) the plan is projected to have sufficient assets to timely pay expected benefits and anticipated expenditures over the amortization period as extended, and

(iv) the notice required under paragraph (3)(A) has been provided.

(C) Termination

The preceding provisions of this paragraph shall not apply with respect to any application submitted after December 31, 2014.

(2) Alternative extension

(A) In general

If the plan sponsor of a multiemployer plan submits to the Secretary of the Treasury an application for an extension of the period of years required to amortize any unfunded liability described in any clause of subsection (b)(2)(B) or described in subsection (b)(4), the Secretary of the Treasury may extend the amortization period for a period of time (not in excess of 10 years reduced by the number of years of any extension under paragraph (1) with respect to such unfunded liability) if the Secretary of the Treasury makes the determination described in subparagraph (B). Such extension shall be in addition to any extension under paragraph (1).

(B) Determination

The Secretary of the Treasury may grant an extension under subparagraph (A) if such Secretary determines that—

(i) such extension would carry out the purposes of this chapter and would provide adequate protection for participants under the plan and their beneficiaries, and

(ii) the failure to permit such extension would—

(I) result in a substantial risk to the voluntary continuation of the plan, or a substantial curtailment of pension benefit levels or employee compensation, and

(II) be adverse to the interests of plan participants in the aggregate.

(C) Action by Secretary of the Treasury

The Secretary of the Treasury shall act upon any application for an extension under this paragraph within 180 days of the submission of such application. If such Secretary rejects the application for an extension under this paragraph, such Secretary shall provide notice to the plan detailing the specific reasons for the rejection, including references to the criteria set forth above.

(3) Advance notice

(A) In general

The Secretary of the Treasury shall, before granting an extension under this subsection, require each applicant to provide evidence satisfactory to such Secretary that the applicant has provided notice of the filing of the application for such extension to each affected party (as defined in section 1301(a)(21) of this title) with respect to the affected plan. Such notice shall include a description of the extent to which the plan is funded for benefits which are guaranteed under subchapter III and for benefit liabilities.

(B) Consideration of relevant information

The Secretary of the Treasury shall consider any relevant information provided by a person to whom notice was given under paragraph (1).

(Pub. L. 93–406, title I, §304, as added Pub. L. 109–280, title II, §201(a), Aug. 17, 2006, 120 Stat. 858; amended Pub. L. 111–192, title II, §211(a)(1), June 25, 2010, 124 Stat. 1302.)

References in Text

The Social Security Act, referred to in subsec. (c)(4)(A), (6)(D)(v)(II), is act Aug. 14, 1935, ch. 531, 49 Stat. 620, which is classified generally to chapter 7 (§301 et seq.) of Title 42, The Public Health and Welfare. Title II of the Act is classified generally to subchapter II (§401 et seq.) of chapter 7 of Title 42. For complete classification of this Act to the Code, see section 1305 of Title 42 and Tables.

This chapter, referred to in subsec. (d)(2)(B)(i), was in the original “this Act”, meaning Pub. L. 93–406, known as the Employee Retirement Income Security Act of 1974. Titles I, III, and IV of such Act are classified principally to this chapter. For complete classification of this Act to the Code, see Short Title note set out under section 1001 of this title and Tables.

Prior Provisions

A prior section 1084, Pub. L. 93–406, title I, §304, Sept. 2, 1974, 88 Stat. 873; Pub. L. 99–272, title XI, §§11015(b)(1)(B), 11016(c)(3), Apr. 7, 1986, 100 Stat. 267, 273; Pub. L. 100–203, title IX, §9306(c)(2)(B), Dec. 22, 1987, 101 Stat. 1330–355; Pub. L. 101–239, title VII, §§7891(a)(1), 7894(d)(3), Dec. 19, 1989, 103 Stat. 2445, 2449, related to extension of amortization periods, prior to repeal by Pub. L. 109–280, title I, §101(a), (d), Aug. 17, 2006, 120 Stat. 784, 789, applicable to plan years beginning after 2007.

Amendments

2010—Subsec. (b)(8). Pub. L. 111–192 added par. (8).

Effective Date of 2010 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 111–192 effective as of the first day of the first plan year ending after Aug. 31, 2008, with certain exceptions, see section 211(b) of Pub. L. 111–192, set out as a note under section 431 of Title 26, Internal Revenue Code.

Effective Date

Section applicable to plan years beginning after 2007, with special rule for certain amortization extensions, see section 201(d) of Pub. L. 109–280, set out as an Effective Date of 2006 Amendment note under section 1081 of this title.

Shortfall Funding Method

Pub. L. 109–280, title II, §201(b), Aug. 17, 2006, 120 Stat. 867, as amended by Pub. L. 110–458, title I, §102(a), Dec. 23, 2008, 122 Stat. 5100, provided that:

“(1) In general.—A multiemployer plan meeting the criteria of paragraph (2) may adopt, use, or cease using, the shortfall funding method and such adoption, use, or cessation of use of such method, shall be deemed approved by the Secretary of the Treasury under section 302(d)(1) of the Employee Retirement Income Security Act of 1974 [29 U.S.C. 1082(d)(1)] and section 412(d)(1) of the Internal Revenue Code of 1986 [26 U.S.C. 412(d)(1)].

“(2) Criteria.—A multiemployer pension plan meets the criteria of this clause if—

“(A) the plan has not adopted, or ceased using, the shortfall funding method during the 5-year period ending on the day before the date the plan is to use the method under paragraph (1); and

“(B) the plan is not operating under an amortization period extension under section 304(d) of such Act [29 U.S.C. 1084(d)] and did not operate under such an extension during such 5-year period.

“(3) Shortfall funding method defined.—For purposes of this subsection, the term ‘shortfall funding method’ means the shortfall funding method described in Treasury Regulations section 1.412(c)(1)–2 (26 CFR 1.412(c)(1)–2).

“(4) Benefit restrictions to apply.—The benefit restrictions under section 302(c)(7) of such Act [29 U.S.C. 1082(c)(7)] and section 412(c)(7) of such Code [26 U.S.C. 412(c)(7)] shall apply during any period a multiemployer plan is on the shortfall funding method pursuant to this subsection.

“(5) Use of shortfall method not to preclude other options.—Nothing in this subsection shall be construed to affect a multiemployer plan's ability to adopt the shortfall funding method with the Secretary's permission under otherwise applicable regulations or to affect a multiemployer plan's right to change funding methods, with or without the Secretary's consent, as provided in applicable rules and regulations.”

[Pub. L. 109–280, §201(b), set out above, applicable to plan years beginning after 2007, with special rule for certain amortization extensions, see section 201(d) of Pub. L. 109–280, set out as an Effective Date of 2006 Amendment note under section 1081 of this title.]

[Pub. L. 109–280, §201(b), set out above, inapplicable to plan years beginning after Dec. 31, 2014, with exception for certain funding improvement and rehabilitation plans, see section 221(c) of Pub. L. 109–280, set out as an Effective and Termination Dates of 2006 Amendment note under section 412 of Title 26, Internal Revenue Code.]

Special Rule for Certain Benefits Funded Under an Agreement Approved by the Pension Benefit Guaranty Corporation

For applicability of this section to a multiemployer plan that is a party to an agreement that was approved by the Pension Benefit Guaranty Corporation prior to June 30, 2005, and that increases benefits and provides for certain withdrawal liability rules, see section 206 of Pub. L. 109–280, set out as a note under section 412 of Title 26, Internal Revenue Code.

§1085. Additional funding rules for multiemployer plans in endangered status or critical status

(a) General rule

For purposes of this part, in the case of a multiemployer plan in effect on July 16, 2006—

(1) if the plan is in endangered status—

(A) the plan sponsor shall adopt and implement a funding improvement plan in accordance with the requirements of subsection (c), and

(B) the requirements of subsection (d) shall apply during the funding plan adoption period and the funding improvement period, and


(2) if the plan is in critical status—

(A) the plan sponsor shall adopt and implement a rehabilitation plan in accordance with the requirements of subsection (e), and

(B) the requirements of subsection (f) shall apply during the rehabilitation plan adoption period and the rehabilitation period.

(b) Determination of endangered and critical status

For purposes of this section—

(1) Endangered status

A multiemployer plan is in endangered status for a plan year if, as determined by the plan actuary under paragraph (3), the plan is not in critical status for the plan year and, as of the beginning of the plan year, either—

(A) the plan's funded percentage for such plan year is less than 80 percent, or

(B) the plan has an accumulated funding deficiency for such plan year, or is projected to have such an accumulated funding deficiency for any of the 6 succeeding plan years, taking into account any extension of amortization periods under section 1084(d) of this title.


For purposes of this section, a plan shall be treated as in seriously endangered status for a plan year if the plan is described in both subparagraphs (A) and (B).

(2) Critical status

A multiemployer plan is in critical status for a plan year if, as determined by the plan actuary under paragraph (3), the plan is described in 1 or more of the following subparagraphs as of the beginning of the plan year:

(A) A plan is described in this subparagraph if—

(i) the funded percentage of the plan is less than 65 percent, and

(ii) the sum of—

(I) the fair market value of plan assets, plus

(II) the present value of the reasonably anticipated employer contributions for the current plan year and each of the 6 succeeding plan years, assuming that the terms of all collective bargaining agreements pursuant to which the plan is maintained for the current plan year continue in effect for succeeding plan years,


 is less than the present value of all nonforfeitable benefits projected to be payable under the plan during the current plan year and each of the 6 succeeding plan years (plus administrative expenses for such plan years).


(B) A plan is described in this subparagraph if—

(i) the plan has an accumulated funding deficiency for the current plan year, not taking into account any extension of amortization periods under section 1084(d) of this title, or

(ii) the plan is projected to have an accumulated funding deficiency for any of the 3 succeeding plan years (4 succeeding plan years if the funded percentage of the plan is 65 percent or less), not taking into account any extension of amortization periods under section 1084(d) of this title.


(C) A plan is described in this subparagraph if—

(i)(I) the plan's normal cost for the current plan year, plus interest (determined at the rate used for determining costs under the plan) for the current plan year on the amount of unfunded benefit liabilities under the plan as of the last date of the preceding plan year, exceeds

(II) the present value of the reasonably anticipated employer and employee contributions for the current plan year,

(ii) the present value, as of the beginning of the current plan year, of nonforfeitable benefits of inactive participants is greater than the present value of nonforfeitable benefits of active participants, and

(iii) the plan has an accumulated funding deficiency for the current plan year, or is projected to have such a deficiency for any of the 4 succeeding plan years, not taking into account any extension of amortization periods under section 1084(d) of this title.


(D) A plan is described in this subparagraph if the sum of—

(i) the fair market value of plan assets, plus

(ii) the present value of the reasonably anticipated employer contributions for the current plan year and each of the 4 succeeding plan years, assuming that the terms of all collective bargaining agreements pursuant to which the plan is maintained for the current plan year continue in effect for succeeding plan years,


is less than the present value of all benefits projected to be payable under the plan during the current plan year and each of the 4 succeeding plan years (plus administrative expenses for such plan years).

(3) Annual certification by plan actuary

(A) In general

Not later than the 90th day of each plan year of a multiemployer plan, the plan actuary shall certify to the Secretary of the Treasury and to the plan sponsor—

(i) whether or not the plan is in endangered status for such plan year and whether or not the plan is or will be in critical status for such plan year, and

(ii) in the case of a plan which is in a funding improvement or rehabilitation period, whether or not the plan is making the scheduled progress in meeting the requirements of its funding improvement or rehabilitation plan.

(B) Actuarial projections of assets and liabilities

(i) In general

In making the determinations and projections under this subsection, the plan actuary shall make projections required for the current and succeeding plan years of the current value of the assets of the plan and the present value of all liabilities to participants and beneficiaries under the plan for the current plan year as of the beginning of such year. The actuary's projections shall be based on reasonable actuarial estimates, assumptions, and methods that, except as provided in clause (iii), offer the actuary's best estimate of anticipated experience under the plan. The projected present value of liabilities as of the beginning of such year shall be determined based on the most recent of either—

(I) the actuarial statement required under section 1023(d) of this title with respect to the most recently filed annual report, or

(II) the actuarial valuation for the preceding plan year.

(ii) Determinations of future contributions

Any actuarial projection of plan assets shall assume—

(I) reasonably anticipated employer contributions for the current and succeeding plan years, assuming that the terms of the one or more collective bargaining agreements pursuant to which the plan is maintained for the current plan year continue in effect for succeeding plan years, or

(II) that employer contributions for the most recent plan year will continue indefinitely, but only if the plan actuary determines there have been no significant demographic changes that would make such assumption unreasonable.

(iii) Projected industry activity

Any projection of activity in the industry or industries covered by the plan, including future covered employment and contribution levels, shall be based on information provided by the plan sponsor, which shall act reasonably and in good faith.

(C) Penalty for failure to secure timely actuarial certification

Any failure of the plan's actuary to certify the plan's status under this subsection by the date specified in subparagraph (A) shall be treated for purposes of section 1132(c)(2) of this title as a failure or refusal by the plan administrator to file the annual report required to be filed with the Secretary under section 1021(b)(1) of this title.

(D) Notice

(i) In general

In any case in which it is certified under subparagraph (A) that a multiemployer plan is or will be in endangered or critical status for a plan year, the plan sponsor shall, not later than 30 days after the date of the certification, provide notification of the endangered or critical status to the participants and beneficiaries, the bargaining parties, the Pension Benefit Guaranty Corporation, and the Secretary.

(ii) Plans in critical status

If it is certified under subparagraph (A) that a multiemployer plan is or will be in critical status, the plan sponsor shall include in the notice under clause (i) an explanation of the possibility that—

(I) adjustable benefits (as defined in subsection (e)(8)) may be reduced, and

(II) such reductions may apply to participants and beneficiaries whose benefit commencement date is on or after the date such notice is provided for the first plan year in which the plan is in critical status.

(iii) Model notice

The Secretary of the Treasury, in consultation with the Secretary 1 shall prescribe a model notice that a multiemployer plan may use to satisfy the requirements under clause (ii).

(c) Funding improvement plan must be adopted for multiemployer plans in endangered status

(1) In general

In any case in which a multiemployer plan is in endangered status for a plan year, the plan sponsor, in accordance with this subsection—

(A) shall adopt a funding improvement plan not later than 240 days following the required date for the actuarial certification of endangered status under subsection (b)(3)(A), and

(B) within 30 days after the adoption of the funding improvement plan—

(i) shall provide to the bargaining parties 1 or more schedules showing revised benefit structures, revised contribution structures, or both, which, if adopted, may reasonably be expected to enable the multiemployer plan to meet the applicable benchmarks in accordance with the funding improvement plan, including—

(I) one proposal for reductions in the amount of future benefit accruals necessary to achieve the applicable benchmarks, assuming no amendments increasing contributions under the plan (other than amendments increasing contributions necessary to achieve the applicable benchmarks after amendments have reduced future benefit accruals to the maximum extent permitted by law), and

(II) one proposal for increases in contributions under the plan necessary to achieve the applicable benchmarks, assuming no amendments reducing future benefit accruals under the plan, and


(ii) may, if the plan sponsor deems appropriate, prepare and provide the bargaining parties with additional information relating to contribution rates or benefit reductions, alternative schedules, or other information relevant to achieving the applicable benchmarks in accordance with the funding improvement plan.


For purposes of this section, the term “applicable benchmarks” means the requirements applicable to the multiemployer plan under paragraph (3) (as modified by paragraph (5)).

(2) Exception for years after process begins

Paragraph (1) shall not apply to a plan year if such year is in a funding plan adoption period or funding improvement period by reason of the plan being in endangered status for a preceding plan year. For purposes of this section, such preceding plan year shall be the initial determination year with respect to the funding improvement plan to which it relates.

(3) Funding improvement plan

For purposes of this section—

(A) In general

A funding improvement plan is a plan which consists of the actions, including options or a range of options to be proposed to the bargaining parties, formulated to provide, based on reasonably anticipated experience and reasonable actuarial assumptions, for the attainment by the plan during the funding improvement period of the following requirements:

(i) Increase in plan's funding percentage

The plan's funded percentage as of the close of the funding improvement period equals or exceeds a percentage equal to the sum of—

(I) such percentage as of the beginning of such period, plus

(II) 33 percent of the difference between 100 percent and the percentage under subclause (I).

(ii) Avoidance of accumulated funding deficiencies

No accumulated funding deficiency for any plan year during the funding improvement period (taking into account any extension of amortization periods under section 1084(d) of this title).

(B) Seriously endangered plans

In the case of a plan in seriously endangered status, except as provided in paragraph (5), subparagraph (A)(i)(II) shall be applied by substituting “20 percent” for “33 percent”.

(4) Funding improvement period

For purposes of this section—

(A) In general

The funding improvement period for any funding improvement plan adopted pursuant to this subsection is the 10-year period beginning on the first day of the first plan year of the multiemployer plan beginning after the earlier of—

(i) the second anniversary of the date of the adoption of the funding improvement plan, or

(ii) the expiration of the collective bargaining agreements in effect on the due date for the actuarial certification of endangered status for the initial determination year under subsection (b)(3)(A) and covering, as of such due date, at least 75 percent of the active participants in such multiemployer plan.

(B) Seriously endangered plans

In the case of a plan in seriously endangered status, except as provided in paragraph (5), subparagraph (A) shall be applied by substituting “15-year period” for “10-year period”.

(C) Coordination with changes in status

(i) Plans no longer in endangered status

If the plan's actuary certifies under subsection (b)(3)(A) for a plan year in any funding plan adoption period or funding improvement period that the plan is no longer in endangered status and is not in critical status, the funding plan adoption period or funding improvement period, whichever is applicable, shall end as of the close of the preceding plan year.

(ii) Plans in critical status

If the plan's actuary certifies under subsection (b)(3)(A) for a plan year in any funding plan adoption period or funding improvement period that the plan is in critical status, the funding plan adoption period or funding improvement period, whichever is applicable, shall end as of the close of the plan year preceding the first plan year in the rehabilitation period with respect to such status.

(D) Plans in endangered status at end of period

If the plan's actuary certifies under subsection (b)(3)(A) for the first plan year following the close of the period described in subparagraph (A) that the plan is in endangered status, the provisions of this subsection and subsection (d) shall be applied as if such first plan year were an initial determination year, except that the plan may not be amended in a manner inconsistent with the funding improvement plan in effect for the preceding plan year until a new funding improvement plan is adopted.

(5) Special rules for seriously endangered plans more than 70 percent funded

(A) In general

If the funded percentage of a plan in seriously endangered status was more than 70 percent as of the beginning of the initial determination year—

(i) paragraphs (3)(B) and (4)(B) shall apply only if the plan's actuary certifies, within 30 days after the certification under subsection (b)(3)(A) for the initial determination year, that, based on the terms of the plan and the collective bargaining agreements in effect at the time of such certification, the plan is not projected to meet the requirements of paragraph (3)(A) (without regard to paragraphs (3)(B) and (4)(B)), and

(ii) if there is a certification under clause (i), the plan may, in formulating its funding improvement plan, only take into account the rules of paragraph (3)(B) and (4)(B) for plan years in the funding improvement period beginning on or before the date on which the last of the collective bargaining agreements described in paragraph (4)(A)(ii) expires.

(B) Special rule after expiration of agreements

Notwithstanding subparagraph (A)(ii), if, for any plan year ending after the date described in subparagraph (A)(ii), the plan actuary certifies (at the time of the annual certification under subsection (b)(3)(A) for such plan year) that, based on the terms of the plan and collective bargaining agreements in effect at the time of that annual certification, the plan is not projected to be able to meet the requirements of paragraph (3)(A) (without regard to paragraphs (3)(B) and (4)(B)), paragraphs (3)(B) and (4)(B) shall continue to apply for such year.

(6) Updates to funding improvement plan and schedules

(A) Funding improvement plan

The plan sponsor shall annually update the funding improvement plan and shall file the update with the plan's annual report under section 1024 of this title.

(B) Schedules

The plan sponsor shall annually update any schedule of contribution rates provided under this subsection to reflect the experience of the plan.

(C) Duration of schedule

A schedule of contribution rates provided by the plan sponsor and relied upon by bargaining parties in negotiating a collective bargaining agreement shall remain in effect for the duration of that collective bargaining agreement.

(7) Imposition of default schedule where failure to adopt funding improvement plan

(A) In general

If—

(i) a collective bargaining agreement providing for contributions under a multiemployer plan that was in effect at the time the plan entered endangered status expires, and

(ii) after receiving one or more schedules from the plan sponsor under paragraph (1)(B), the bargaining parties with respect to such agreement fail to adopt a contribution schedule with terms consistent with the funding improvement plan and a schedule from the plan sponsor,


the plan sponsor shall implement the schedule described in paragraph (1)(B)(i)(I) beginning on the date specified in subparagraph (B).

(B) Date of implementation

The date specified in this subparagraph is the date which is 180 days after the date on which the collective bargaining agreement described in subparagraph (A) expires.

(C) Failure to make scheduled contributions

Any failure to make a contribution under a schedule of contribution rates provided under this paragraph shall be treated as a delinquent contribution under section 1145 of this title and shall be enforceable as such.

(8) Funding plan adoption period

For purposes of this section, the term “funding plan adoption period” means the period beginning on the date of the certification under subsection (b)(3)(A) for the initial determination year and ending on the day before the first day of the funding improvement period.

(d) Rules for operation of plan during adoption and improvement periods

(1) Special rules for plan adoption period

During the funding plan adoption period—

(A) the plan sponsor may not accept a collective bargaining agreement or participation agreement with respect to the multiemployer plan that provides for—

(i) a reduction in the level of contributions for any participants,

(ii) a suspension of contributions with respect to any period of service, or

(iii) any new direct or indirect exclusion of younger or newly hired employees from plan participation,


(B) no amendment of the plan which increases the liabilities of the plan by reason of any increase in benefits, any change in the accrual of benefits, or any change in the rate at which benefits become nonforfeitable under the plan may be adopted unless the amendment is required as a condition of qualification under part I of subchapter D of chapter 1 of title 26 or to comply with other applicable law, and

(C) in the case of a plan in seriously endangered status, the plan sponsor shall take all reasonable actions which are consistent with the terms of the plan and applicable law and which are expected, based on reasonable assumptions, to achieve—

(i) an increase in the plan's funded percentage, and

(ii) postponement of an accumulated funding deficiency for at least 1 additional plan year.


Actions under subparagraph (C) include applications for extensions of amortization periods under section 1084(d) of this title, use of the shortfall funding method in making funding standard account computations, amendments to the plan's benefit structure, reductions in future benefit accruals, and other reasonable actions consistent with the terms of the plan and applicable law.

(2) Compliance with funding improvement plan

(A) In general

A plan may not be amended after the date of the adoption of a funding improvement plan so as to be inconsistent with the funding improvement plan.

(B) No reduction in contributions

A plan sponsor may not during any funding improvement period accept a collective bargaining agreement or participation agreement with respect to the multiemployer plan that provides for—

(i) a reduction in the level of contributions for any participants,

(ii) a suspension of contributions with respect to any period of service, or

(iii) any new direct or indirect exclusion of younger or newly hired employees from plan participation.

(C) Special rules for benefit increases

A plan may not be amended after the date of the adoption of a funding improvement plan so as to increase benefits, including future benefit accruals, unless the plan actuary certifies that the benefit increase is consistent with the funding improvement plan and is paid for out of contributions not required by the funding improvement plan to meet the applicable benchmark in accordance with the schedule contemplated in the funding improvement plan.

(e) Rehabilitation plan must be adopted for multiemployer plans in critical status

(1) In general

In any case in which a multiemployer plan is in critical status for a plan year, the plan sponsor, in accordance with this subsection—

(A) shall adopt a rehabilitation plan not later than 240 days following the required date for the actuarial certification of critical status under subsection (b)(3)(A), and

(B) within 30 days after the adoption of the rehabilitation plan—

(i) shall provide to the bargaining parties 1 or more schedules showing revised benefit structures, revised contribution structures, or both, which, if adopted, may reasonably be expected to enable the multiemployer plan to emerge from critical status in accordance with the rehabilitation plan, and

(ii) may, if the plan sponsor deems appropriate, prepare and provide the bargaining parties with additional information relating to contribution rates or benefit reductions, alternative schedules, or other information relevant to emerging from critical status in accordance with the rehabilitation plan.


The schedule or schedules described in subparagraph (B)(i) shall reflect reductions in future benefit accruals and adjustable benefits, and increases in contributions, that the plan sponsor determines are reasonably necessary to emerge from critical status. One schedule shall be designated as the default schedule and such schedule shall assume that there are no increases in contributions under the plan other than the increases necessary to emerge from critical status after future benefit accruals and other benefits (other than benefits the reduction or elimination of which are not permitted under section 1054(g) of this title) have been reduced to the maximum extent permitted by law.

(2) Exception for years after process begins

Paragraph (1) shall not apply to a plan year if such year is in a rehabilitation plan adoption period or rehabilitation period by reason of the plan being in critical status for a preceding plan year. For purposes of this section, such preceding plan year shall be the initial critical year with respect to the rehabilitation plan to which it relates.

(3) Rehabilitation plan

For purposes of this section—

(A) In general

A rehabilitation plan is a plan which consists of—

(i) actions, including options or a range of options to be proposed to the bargaining parties, formulated, based on reasonably anticipated experience and reasonable actuarial assumptions, to enable the plan to cease to be in critical status by the end of the rehabilitation period and may include reductions in plan expenditures (including plan mergers and consolidations), reductions in future benefit accruals or increases in contributions, if agreed to by the bargaining parties, or any combination of such actions, or

(ii) if the plan sponsor determines that, based on reasonable actuarial assumptions and upon exhaustion of all reasonable measures, the plan can not reasonably be expected to emerge from critical status by the end of the rehabilitation period, reasonable measures to emerge from critical status at a later time or to forestall possible insolvency (within the meaning of section 1426 of this title).


A rehabilitation plan must provide annual standards for meeting the requirements of such rehabilitation plan. Such plan shall also include the schedules required to be provided under paragraph (1)(B)(i) and if clause (ii) applies, shall set forth the alternatives considered, explain why the plan is not reasonably expected to emerge from critical status by the end of the rehabilitation period, and specify when, if ever, the plan is expected to emerge from critical status in accordance with the rehabilitation plan.

(B) Updates to rehabilitation plan and schedules

(i) Rehabilitation plan

The plan sponsor shall annually update the rehabilitation plan and shall file the update with the plan's annual report under section 1024 of this title.

(ii) Schedules

The plan sponsor shall annually update any schedule of contribution rates provided under this subsection to reflect the experience of the plan.

(iii) Duration of schedule

A schedule of contribution rates provided by the plan sponsor and relied upon by bargaining parties in negotiating a collective bargaining agreement shall remain in effect for the duration of that collective bargaining agreement.

(C) Imposition of default schedule where failure to adopt rehabilitation plan

(i) In general

If—

(I) a collective bargaining agreement providing for contributions under a multiemployer plan that was in effect at the time the plan entered critical status expires, and

(II) after receiving one or more schedules from the plan sponsor under paragraph (1)(B), the bargaining parties with respect to such agreement fail to adopt a to adopt a 2 contribution schedule with terms consistent with the rehabilitation plan and a schedule from the plan sponsor under paragraph (1)(B)(i),


 the plan sponsor shall implement the default schedule described in the last sentence of paragraph (1) beginning on the date specified in clause (ii).

(ii) Date of implementation

The date specified in this clause is the date which is 180 days after the date on which the collective bargaining agreement described in clause (i) expires.

(iii) Failure to make scheduled contributions

Any failure to make a contribution under a schedule of contribution rates provided under this subsection shall be treated as a delinquent contribution under section 1145 of this title and shall be enforceable as such.

(4) Rehabilitation period

For purposes of this section—

(A) In general

The rehabilitation period for a plan in critical status is the 10-year period beginning on the first day of the first plan year of the multiemployer plan following the earlier of—

(i) the second anniversary of the date of the adoption of the rehabilitation plan, or

(ii) the expiration of the collective bargaining agreements in effect on the due date for the actuarial certification of critical status for the initial critical year under subsection (a)(1) and covering, as of such date at least 75 percent of the active participants in such multiemployer plan.


If a plan emerges from critical status as provided under subparagraph (B) before the end of such 10-year period, the rehabilitation period shall end with the plan year preceding the plan year for which the determination under subparagraph (B) is made.

(B) Emergence

A plan in critical status shall remain in such status until a plan year for which the plan actuary certifies, in accordance with subsection (b)(3)(A), that the plan is not projected to have an accumulated funding deficiency for the plan year or any of the 9 succeeding plan years, without regard to the use of the shortfall method but taking into account any extension of amortization periods under section 1084(d) of this title.

(5) Rehabilitation plan adoption period

For purposes of this section, the term “rehabilitation plan adoption period” means the period beginning on the date of the certification under subsection (b)(3)(A) for the initial critical year and ending on the day before the first day of the rehabilitation period.

(6) Limitation on reduction in rates of future accruals

Any reduction in the rate of future accruals under the default schedule described in the last sentence of paragraph (1) shall not reduce the rate of future accruals below—

(A) a monthly benefit (payable as a single life annuity commencing at the participant's normal retirement age) equal to 1 percent of the contributions required to be made with respect to a participant, or the equivalent standard accrual rate for a participant or group of participants under the collective bargaining agreements in effect as of the first day of the initial critical year, or

(B) if lower, the accrual rate under the plan on such first day.


The equivalent standard accrual rate shall be determined by the plan sponsor based on the standard or average contribution base units which the plan sponsor determines to be representative for active participants and such other factors as the plan sponsor determines to be relevant. Nothing in this paragraph shall be construed as limiting the ability of the plan sponsor to prepare and provide the bargaining parties with alternative schedules to the default schedule that establish lower or higher accrual and contribution rates than the rates otherwise described in this paragraph.

(7) Automatic employer surcharge

(A) Imposition of surcharge

Each employer otherwise obligated to make contributions for the initial critical year shall be obligated to pay to the plan for such year a surcharge equal to 5 percent of the contributions otherwise required under the applicable collective bargaining agreement (or other agreement pursuant to which the employer contributes). For each succeeding plan year in which the plan is in critical status for a consecutive period of years beginning with the initial critical year, the surcharge shall be 10 percent of the contributions otherwise so required.

(B) Enforcement of surcharge

The surcharges under subparagraph (A) shall be due and payable on the same schedule as the contributions on which the surcharges are based. Any failure to make a surcharge payment shall be treated as a delinquent contribution under section 1145 of this title and shall be enforceable as such.

(C) Surcharge to terminate upon collective bargaining agreement renegotiation

The surcharge under this paragraph shall cease to be effective with respect to employees covered by a collective bargaining agreement (or other agreement pursuant to which the employer contributes), beginning on the effective date of a collective bargaining agreement (or other such agreement) that includes terms consistent with a schedule presented by the plan sponsor under paragraph (1)(B)(i), as modified under subparagraph (B) of paragraph (3).

(D) Surcharge not to apply until employer receives notice

The surcharge under this paragraph shall not apply to an employer until 30 days after the employer has been notified by the plan sponsor that the plan is in critical status and that the surcharge is in effect.

(E) Surcharge not to generate increased benefit accruals

Notwithstanding any provision of a plan to the contrary, the amount of any surcharge under this paragraph shall not be the basis for any benefit accrual under the plan.

(8) Benefit adjustments

(A) Adjustable benefits

(i) In general

Notwithstanding section 1054(g) of this title, the plan sponsor shall, subject to the notice requirements in subparagraph (C), make any reductions to adjustable benefits which the plan sponsor deems appropriate, based upon the outcome of collective bargaining over the schedule or schedules provided under paragraph (1)(B)(i).

(ii) Exception for retirees

Except in the case of adjustable benefits described in clause (iv)(III), the plan sponsor of a plan in critical status shall not reduce adjustable benefits of any participant or beneficiary whose benefit commencement date is before the date on which the plan provides notice to the participant or beneficiary under subsection (b)(3)(D) for the initial critical year.

(iii) Plan sponsor flexibility

The plan sponsor shall include in the schedules provided to the bargaining parties an allowance for funding the benefits of participants with respect to whom contributions are not currently required to be made, and shall reduce their benefits to the extent permitted under this subchapter and considered appropriate by the plan sponsor based on the plan's then current overall funding status.

(iv) Adjustable benefit defined

For purposes of this paragraph, the term “adjustable benefit” means—

(I) benefits, rights, and features under the plan, including post-retirement death benefits, 60-month guarantees, disability benefits not yet in pay status, and similar benefits,

(II) any early retirement benefit or retirement-type subsidy (within the meaning of section 1054(g)(2)(A) of this title) and any benefit payment option (other than the qualified joint and survivor annuity), and

(III) benefit increases that would not be eligible for a guarantee under section 1322a of this title on the first day of initial critical year because the increases were adopted (or, if later, took effect) less than 60 months before such first day.

(B) Normal retirement benefits protected

Except as provided in subparagraph (A)(iv)(III), nothing in this paragraph shall be construed to permit a plan to reduce the level of a participant's accrued benefit payable at normal retirement age.

(C) Notice requirements

(i) In general

No reduction may be made to adjustable benefits under subparagraph (A) unless notice of such reduction has been given at least 30 days before the general effective date of such reduction for all participants and beneficiaries to—

(I) plan participants and beneficiaries,

(II) each employer who has an obligation to contribute (within the meaning of section 1392(a) of this title) under the plan, and

(III) each employee organization which, for purposes of collective bargaining, represents plan participants employed by such an employer.

(ii) Content of notice

The notice under clause (i) shall contain—

(I) sufficient information to enable participants and beneficiaries to understand the effect of any reduction on their benefits, including an estimate (on an annual or monthly basis) of any affected adjustable benefit that a participant or beneficiary would otherwise have been eligible for as of the general effective date described in clause (i), and

(II) information as to the rights and remedies of plan participants and beneficiaries as well as how to contact the Department of Labor for further information and assistance where appropriate.

(iii) Form and manner

Any notice under clause (i)—

(I) shall be provided in a form and manner prescribed in regulations of the Secretary of the Treasury, in consultation with the Secretary,

(II) shall be written in a manner so as to be understood by the average plan participant, and

(III) may be provided in written, electronic, or other appropriate form to the extent such form is reasonably accessible to persons to whom the notice is required to be provided.


 The Secretary of the Treasury shall in the regulations prescribed under subclause (I) establish a model notice that a plan sponsor may use to meet the requirements of this subparagraph.

(9) Adjustments disregarded in withdrawal liability determination

(A) Benefit reductions

Any benefit reductions under this subsection shall be disregarded in determining a plan's unfunded vested benefits for purposes of determining an employer's withdrawal liability under section 1381 of this title.

(B) Surcharges

Any surcharges under paragraph (7) shall be disregarded in determining the allocation of unfunded vested benefits to an employer under section 1391 of this title, except for purposes of determining the unfunded vested benefits attributable to an employer under section 1391(c)(4) of this title or a comparable method approved under section 1391(c)(5) of this title.

(C) Simplified calculations

The Pension Benefit Guaranty Corporation shall prescribe simplified methods for the application of this paragraph in determining withdrawal liability.

(f) Rules for operation of plan during adoption and rehabilitation period

(1) Compliance with rehabilitation plan

(A) In general

A plan may not be amended after the date of the adoption of a rehabilitation plan under subsection (e) so as to be inconsistent with the rehabilitation plan.

(B) Special rules for benefit increases

A plan may not be amended after the date of the adoption of a rehabilitation plan under subsection (e) so as to increase benefits, including future benefit accruals, unless the plan actuary certifies that such increase is paid for out of additional contributions not contemplated by the rehabilitation plan, and, after taking into account the benefit increase, the multiemployer plan still is reasonably expected to emerge from critical status by the end of the rehabilitation period on the schedule contemplated in the rehabilitation plan.

(2) Restriction on lump sums and similar benefits

(A) In general

Effective on the date the notice of certification of the plan's critical status for the initial critical year under subsection (b)(3)(D) is sent, and notwithstanding section 1054(g) of this title, the plan shall not pay—

(i) any payment, in excess of the monthly amount paid under a single life annuity (plus any social security supplements described in the last sentence of section 1054(b)(1)(G) of this title), to a participant or beneficiary whose annuity starting date (as defined in section 1055(h)(2) of this title) occurs after the date such notice is sent,

(ii) any payment for the purchase of an irrevocable commitment from an insurer to pay benefits, and

(iii) any other payment specified by the Secretary of the Treasury by regulations.

(B) Exception

Subparagraph (A) shall not apply to a benefit which under section 1053(e) of this title may be immediately distributed without the consent of the participant or to any makeup payment in the case of a retroactive annuity starting date or any similar payment of benefits owed with respect to a prior period.

(3) Adjustments disregarded in withdrawal liability determination

Any benefit reductions under this subsection shall be disregarded in determining a plan's unfunded vested benefits for purposes of determining an employer's withdrawal liability under section 1381 of this title.

(4) Special rules for plan adoption period

During the rehabilitation plan adoption period—

(A) the plan sponsor may not accept a collective bargaining agreement or participation agreement with respect to the multiemployer plan that provides for—

(i) a reduction in the level of contributions for any participants,

(ii) a suspension of contributions with respect to any period of service, or

(iii) any new direct or indirect exclusion of younger or newly hired employees from plan participation, and


(B) no amendment of the plan which increases the liabilities of the plan by reason of any increase in benefits, any change in the accrual of benefits, or any change in the rate at which benefits become nonforfeitable under the plan may be adopted unless the amendment is required as a condition of qualification under part I of subchapter D of chapter 1 of title 26 or to comply with other applicable law.

(g) Expedited resolution of plan sponsor decisions

If, within 60 days of the due date for adoption of a funding improvement plan under subsection (c) or a rehabilitation plan under subsection (e), the plan sponsor of a plan in endangered status or a plan in critical status has not agreed on a funding improvement plan or rehabilitation plan, then any member of the board or group that constitutes the plan sponsor may require that the plan sponsor enter into an expedited dispute resolution procedure for the development and adoption of a funding improvement plan or rehabilitation plan.

(h) Nonbargained participation

(1) Both bargained and nonbargained employee-participants

In the case of an employer that contributes to a multiemployer plan with respect to both employees who are covered by one or more collective bargaining agreements and employees who are not so covered, if the plan is in endangered status or in critical status, benefits of and contributions for the nonbargained employees, including surcharges on those contributions, shall be determined as if those nonbargained employees were covered under the first to expire of the employer's collective bargaining agreements in effect when the plan entered endangered or critical status.

(2) Nonbargained employees only

In the case of an employer that contributes to a multiemployer plan only with respect to employees who are not covered by a collective bargaining agreement, this section shall be applied as if the employer were the bargaining party, and its participation agreement with the plan were a collective bargaining agreement with a term ending on the first day of the plan year beginning after the employer is provided the schedule or schedules described in subsections (c) and (e).

(i) Definitions; actuarial method

For purposes of this section—

(1) Bargaining party

The term “bargaining party” means—

(A)(i) except as provided in clause (ii), an employer who has an obligation to contribute under the plan; or

(ii) in the case of a plan described under section 404(c) of title 26, or a continuation of such a plan, the association of employers that is the employer settlor of the plan; and

(B) an employee organization which, for purposes of collective bargaining, represents plan participants employed by an employer who has an obligation to contribute under the plan.

(2) Funded percentage

The term “funded percentage” means the percentage equal to a fraction—

(A) the numerator of which is the value of the plan's assets, as determined under section 1084(c)(2) of this title, and

(B) the denominator of which is the accrued liability of the plan, determined using actuarial assumptions described in section 1084(c)(3) of this title.

(3) Accumulated funding deficiency

The term “accumulated funding deficiency” has the meaning given such term in section 1084(a) of this title.

(4) Active participant

The term “active participant” means, in connection with a multiemployer plan, a participant who is in covered service under the plan.

(5) Inactive participant

The term “inactive participant” means, in connection with a multiemployer plan, a participant, or the beneficiary or alternate payee of a participant, who—

(A) is not in covered service under the plan, and

(B) is in pay status under the plan or has a nonforfeitable right to benefits under the plan.

(6) Pay status

A person is in pay status under a multiemployer plan if—

(A) at any time during the current plan year, such person is a participant or beneficiary under the plan and is paid an early, late, normal, or disability retirement benefit under the plan (or a death benefit under the plan related to a retirement benefit), or

(B) to the extent provided in regulations of the Secretary of the Treasury, such person is entitled to such a benefit under the plan.

(7) Obligation to contribute

The term “obligation to contribute” has the meaning given such term under section 1392(a) of this title.

(8) Actuarial method

Notwithstanding any other provision of this section, the actuary's determinations with respect to a plan's normal cost, actuarial accrued liability, and improvements in a plan's funded percentage under this section shall be based upon the unit credit funding method (whether or not that method is used for the plan's actuarial valuation).

(9) Plan sponsor

In the case of a plan described under section 404(c) of title 26, or a continuation of such a plan, the term “plan sponsor” means the bargaining parties described under paragraph (1).

(10) Benefit commencement date

The term “benefit commencement date” means the annuity starting date (or in the case of a retroactive annuity starting date, the date on which benefit payments begin).

(Pub. L. 93–406, title I, §305, as added Pub. L. 109–280, title II, §202(a), Aug. 17, 2006, 120 Stat. 868; amended Pub. L. 110–458, title I, §102(b)(1)(B)–(G), Dec. 23, 2008, 122 Stat. 5100, 5101.)

Termination of Section

For termination of section by section 221(c) of Pub. L. 109–280, see Effective and Termination Dates note below.

Prior Provisions

A prior section 1085, Pub. L. 93–406, title I, §305, Sept. 2, 1974, 88 Stat. 873, related to alternative minimum funding standard, prior to repeal by Pub. L. 109–280, title I, §101(a), (d), Aug. 17, 2006, 120 Stat. 784, 789, applicable to plan years beginning after 2007.

Amendments

2008—Subsec. (b)(3)(C). Pub. L. 110–458, §102(b)(1)(B), substituted “section 1021(b)(1)” for “section 1021(b)(4)”.

Subsec. (b)(3)(D)(iii). Pub. L. 110–458, §102(b)(1)(C), substituted “The Secretary of the Treasury, in consultation with the Secretary” for “The Secretary”.

Subsec. (c)(7)(A)(ii). Pub. L. 110–458, §102(b)(1)(D)(i), substituted “to adopt a contribution schedule with terms consistent with the funding improvement plan and a schedule from the plan sponsor,” for “to agree on changes to contribution or benefit schedules necessary to meet the applicable benchmarks in accordance with the funding improvement plan,”.

Subsec. (c)(7)(B), (C). Pub. L. 110–458, §102(b)(1)(D)(ii), (iii), added subpars. (B) and (C) and struck out former subpar. (B). Prior to amendment, text read as follows: “The date specified in this subparagraph is the earlier of the date—

“(i) on which the Secretary certifies that the parties are at an impasse, or

“(ii) which is 180 days after the date on which the collective bargaining agreement described in subparagraph (A) expires.”

Subsec. (e)(3)(C)(i)(II). Pub. L. 110–458, §102(b)(1)(E)(i)(I), substituted “to adopt a contribution schedule with terms consistent with the rehabilitation plan and a schedule from the plan sponsor under paragraph (1)(B)(i),” for “contribution or benefit schedules with terms consistent with the rehabilitation plan and the schedule from the plan sponsor under paragraph (1)(B)(i),”.

Subsec. (e)(3)(C)(ii), (iii). Pub. L. 110–458, §102(b)(1)(E)(i)(II), (III), added cls. (ii) and (iii) and struck out former cl. (ii). Prior to amendment, text read as follows: “The date specified in this clause is the earlier of the date—

“(I) on which the Secretary certifies that the parties are at an impasse, or

“(II) which is 180 days after the date on which the collective bargaining agreement described in clause (i) expires.”

Subsec. (e)(4)(A)(ii). Pub. L. 110–458, §102(b)(1)(E)(ii)(I), struck out “the date of” before “the due date”.

Subsec. (e)(4)(B). Pub. L. 110–458, §102(b)(1)(E)(ii)(II), substituted “but taking” for “and taking”.

Subsec. (e)(6). Pub. L. 110–458, §102(b)(1)(E)(iii), substituted “the last sentence of paragraph (1)” for “paragraph (1)(B)(i)” in introductory provisions and “establish” for “established” in concluding provisions.

Subsec. (e)(8)(C)(iii). Pub. L. 110–458, §102(b)(1)(E)(iv), substituted “the Secretary of the Treasury, in consultation with the Secretary” for “the Secretary” in subcl. (I) and “Secretary of the Treasury” for “Secretary” in concluding provisions.

Subsec. (e)(9)(B). Pub. L. 110–458, §102(b)(1)(E)(v), substituted “the allocation of unfunded vested benefits to an employer” for “an employer's withdrawal liability”.

Subsec. (f)(2)(A)(i). Pub. L. 110–458, §102(b)(1)(F), inserted at end “to a participant or beneficiary whose annuity starting date (as defined in section 1055(h)(2) of this title) occurs after the date such notice is sent,”.

Subsec. (g). Pub. L. 110–458, §102(b)(1)(G), inserted “under subsection (c)” before “or a rehabilitation plan under subsection (e)”.

Effective Date of 2008 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 110–458 effective as if included in the provisions of Pub. L. 109–280 to which the amendment relates, except as otherwise provided, see section 112 of Pub. L. 110–458, set out as a note under section 72 of Title 26, Internal Revenue Code.

Effective and Termination Dates

Section applicable with respect to plan years beginning after 2007, with special rules for certain notices and certain restored benefits, see section 202(f) of Pub. L. 109–280, set out as an Effective and Termination Dates of 2006 Amendment note under section 1082 of this title.

Section inapplicable to plan years beginning after Dec. 31, 2014, with exception for certain funding improvement and rehabilitation plans, see section 221(c) of Pub. L. 109–280, set out as an Effective and Termination Dates of 2006 Amendment note under section 412 of Title 26, Internal Revenue Code.

Temporary Delay of Designation of Multiemployer Plans as in Endangered or Critical Status

For provisions allowing election of delay of status designation of endangered or critical multiemployer plans for purposes of this section, see section 204 of Pub. L. 110–458, set out as a note under section 432 of Title 26, Internal Revenue Code.

Temporary Extension of the Funding Improvement and Rehabilitation Periods for Multiemployer Pension Plans in Critical and Endangered Status for 2008 or 2009

For provisions allowing election of extension of funding improvement period or rehabilitation period of endangered or critical multiemployer plans for purposes of this section, see section 205 of Pub. L. 110–458, set out as a note under section 432 of Title 26, Internal Revenue Code.

Special Rule for Certain Benefits Funded Under an Agreement Approved by the Pension Benefit Guaranty Corporation

For applicability of this section to a multiemployer plan that is a party to an agreement that was approved by the Pension Benefit Guaranty Corporation prior to June 30, 2005, and that increases benefits and provides for certain withdrawal liability rules, see section 206 of Pub. L. 109–280, set out as a note under section 412 of Title 26, Internal Revenue Code.

1 So in original. Probably should be followed by a comma.

2 So in original. See 2008 Amendment note below.

§§1085a, 1085b, 1086. Repealed. Pub. L. 109–280, title I, §101(a), Aug. 17, 2006, 120 Stat. 784

Section 1085a, Pub. L. 93–406, title I, §306, as added Pub. L. 99–272, title XI, §11015(a)(1)(A)(ii), Apr. 7, 1986, 100 Stat. 264; amended Pub. L. 100–203, title IX, §9306(e)(2), Dec. 22, 1987, 101 Stat. 1330–355; Pub. L. 101–239, title VII, §7891(a)(1), Dec. 19, 1989, 103 Stat. 2445, related to security for waivers of minimum funding standard and extensions of amortization period.

Section 1085b, Pub. L. 93–406, title I, §307, as added Pub. L. 100–203, title IX, §9341(b)(2), Dec. 22, 1987, 101 Stat. 1330–370; amended Pub. L. 101–239, title VII, §7881(i)(1)(B)–(3)(A), (4)(B), Dec. 19, 1989, 103 Stat. 2442, related to security required upon adoption of plan amendment resulting in significant underfunding.

Section 1086, Pub. L. 93–406, title I, §308, formerly §306, Sept. 2, 1974, 88 Stat. 874, renumbered §307, Pub. L. 99–272, title XI, §11015(a)(1)(A)(i), Apr. 7, 1986, 100 Stat. 264; renumbered §308, Pub. L. 100–203, title IX, §9341(b)(1), Dec. 22, 1987, 101 Stat. 1330–370; amended Pub. L. 101–239, title VII, §7894(h)(3), Dec. 19, 1989, 103 Stat. 2451, related to effective dates of part.

Effective Date of Repeal

Repeal applicable to plan years beginning after 2007, see section 101(d) of Pub. L. 109–280, set out as an Effective Date note under section 1082 of this title.

Applicability of Amendments by Subtitles A and B of Title I of Pub. L. 109–280

For special rules on applicability of amendments by subtitles A (§§101–108) and B (§§111–116) of title I of Pub. L. 109–280 to certain eligible cooperative plans, PBGC settlement plans, and eligible government contractor plans, see sections 104, 105, and 106 of Pub. L. 109–280, set out as notes under section 401 of Title 26, Internal Revenue Code.

part 4—fiduciary responsibility

§1101. Coverage

(a) Scope of coverage

This part shall apply to any employee benefit plan described in section 1003(a) of this title (and not exempted under section 1003(b) of this title), other than—

(1) a plan which is unfunded and is maintained by an employer primarily for the purpose of providing deferred compensation for a select group of management or highly compensated employees; or

(2) any agreement described in section 736 of title 26, which provides payments to a retired partner or deceased partner or a deceased partner's successor in interest.

(b) Securities or policies deemed to be included in plan assets

For purposes of this part:

(1) In the case of a plan which invests in any security issued by an investment company registered under the Investment Company Act of 1940 [15 U.S.C. 80a–1 et seq.], the assets of such plan shall be deemed to include such security but shall not, solely by reason of such investment, be deemed to include any assets of such investment company.

(2) In the case of a plan to which a guaranteed benefit policy is issued by an insurer, the assets of such plan shall be deemed to include such policy, but shall not, solely by reason of the issuance of such policy, be deemed to include any assets of such insurer. For purposes of this paragraph:

(A) The term “insurer” means an insurance company, insurance service, or insurance organization, qualified to do business in a State.

(B) The term “guaranteed benefit policy” means an insurance policy or contract to the extent that such policy or contract provides for benefits the amount of which is guaranteed by the insurer. Such term includes any surplus in a separate account, but excludes any other portion of a separate account.

(c) Clarification of application of ERISA to insurance company general accounts

(1)(A) Not later than June 30, 1997, the Secretary shall issue proposed regulations to provide guidance for the purpose of determining, in cases where an insurer issues 1 or more policies to or for the benefit of an employee benefit plan (and such policies are supported by assets of such insurer's general account), which assets held by the insurer (other than plan assets held in its separate accounts) constitute assets of the plan for purposes of this part and section 4975 of title 26 and to provide guidance with respect to the application of this subchapter to the general account assets of insurers.

(B) The proposed regulations under subparagraph (A) shall be subject to public notice and comment until September 30, 1997.

(C) The Secretary shall issue final regulations providing the guidance described in subparagraph (A) not later than December 31, 1997.

(D) Such regulations shall only apply with respect to policies which are issued by an insurer on or before December 31, 1998, to or for the benefit of an employee benefit plan which is supported by assets of such insurer's general account. With respect to policies issued on or before December 31, 1998, such regulations shall take effect at the end of the 18-month period following the date on which such regulations become final.

(2) The Secretary shall ensure that the regulations issued under paragraph (1)—

(A) are administratively feasible, and

(B) protect the interests and rights of the plan and of its participants and beneficiaries (including meeting the requirements of paragraph (3)).


(3) The regulations prescribed by the Secretary pursuant to paragraph (1) shall require, in connection with any policy issued by an insurer to or for the benefit of an employee benefit plan to the extent that the policy is not a guaranteed benefit policy (as defined in subsection (b)(2)(B) of this section)—

(A) that a plan fiduciary totally independent of the insurer authorize the purchase of such policy (unless such purchase is a transaction exempt under section 1108(b)(5) of this title),

(B) that the insurer describe (in such form and manner as shall be prescribed in such regulations), in annual reports and in policies issued to the policyholder after the date on which such regulations are issued in final form pursuant to paragraph (1)(C)—

(i) a description of the method by which any income and expenses of the insurer's general account are allocated to the policy during the term of the policy and upon the termination of the policy, and

(ii) for each report, the actual return to the plan under the policy and such other financial information as the Secretary may deem appropriate for the period covered by each such annual report,


(C) that the insurer disclose to the plan fiduciary the extent to which alternative arrangements supported by assets of separate accounts of the insurer (which generally hold plan assets) are available, whether there is a right under the policy to transfer funds to a separate account and the terms governing any such right, and the extent to which support by assets of the insurer's general account and support by assets of separate accounts of the insurer might pose differing risks to the plan, and

(D) that the insurer manage those assets of the insurer which are assets of such insurer's general account (irrespective of whether any such assets are plan assets) with the care, skill, prudence, and diligence under the circumstances then prevailing that a prudent man acting in a like capacity and familiar with such matters would use in the conduct of an enterprise of a like character and with like aims, taking into account all obligations supported by such enterprise.


(4) Compliance by the insurer with all requirements of the regulations issued by the Secretary pursuant to paragraph (1) shall be deemed compliance by such insurer with sections 1104, 1106, and 1107 of this title with respect to those assets of the insurer's general account which support a policy described in paragraph (3).

(5)(A) Subject to subparagraph (B), any regulations issued under paragraph (1) shall not take effect before the date on which such regulations become final.

(B) No person shall be subject to liability under this part or section 4975 of title 26 for conduct which occurred before the date which is 18 months following the date described in subparagraph (A) on the basis of a claim that the assets of an insurer (other than plan assets held in a separate account) constitute assets of the plan, except—

(i) as otherwise provided by the Secretary in regulations intended to prevent avoidance of the regulations issued under paragraph (1), or

(ii) as provided in an action brought by the Secretary pursuant to paragraph (2) or (5) of section 1132(a) of this title for a breach of fiduciary responsibilities which would also constitute a violation of Federal or State criminal law.


The Secretary shall bring a cause of action described in clause (ii) if a participant, beneficiary, or fiduciary demonstrates to the satisfaction of the Secretary that a breach described in clause (ii) has occurred.

(6) Nothing in this subsection shall preclude the application of any Federal criminal law.

(7) For purposes of this subsection, the term “policy” includes a contract.

(Pub. L. 93–406, title I, §401, Sept. 2, 1974, 88 Stat. 874; Pub. L. 101–239, title VII, §7891(a)(1), Dec. 19, 1989, 103 Stat. 2445; Pub. L. 104–188, title I, §1460(a), Aug. 20, 1996, 110 Stat. 1820.)

References in Text

The Investment Company Act of 1940, referred to in subsec. (b)(1), is title I of act Aug. 22, 1940, ch. 686, 54 Stat. 789, as amended, which is classified generally to subchapter I (§80a–1 et seq.) of chapter 2D of Title 15, Commerce and Trade. For complete classification of this Act to the Code, see section 80a–51 of Title 15 and Tables.

Amendments

1996—Subsec. (c). Pub. L. 104–188 added subsec. (c).

1989—Subsec. (a)(2). Pub. L. 101–239 substituted “Internal Revenue Code of 1986” for “Internal Revenue Code of 1954”, which for purposes of codification was translated as “title 26” thus requiring no change in text.

Effective Date of 1996 Amendment

Section 1460(b) of Pub. L. 104–188 provided that:

“(1) In general.—Except as provided in paragraph (2), the amendment made by this section [amending this section] shall take effect on January 1, 1975.

“(2) Civil actions.—The amendment made by this section shall not apply to any civil action commenced before November 7, 1995.”

Effective Date of 1989 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 101–239 effective, except as otherwise provided, as if included in the provision of the Tax Reform Act of 1986, Pub. L. 99–514, to which such amendment relates, see section 7891(f) of Pub. L. 101–239, set out as a note under section 1002 of this title.

Plan Amendments Not Required Until January 1, 1998

For provisions directing that if any amendments made by subtitle D [§§1401–1465] of title I of Pub. L. 104–188 require an amendment to any plan or annuity contract, such amendment shall not be required to be made before the first day of the first plan year beginning on or after Jan. 1, 1998, see section 1465 of Pub. L. 104–188, set out as a note under section 401 of Title 26, Internal Revenue Code.

§1102. Establishment of plan

(a) Named fiduciaries

(1) Every employee benefit plan shall be established and maintained pursuant to a written instrument. Such instrument shall provide for one or more named fiduciaries who jointly or severally shall have authority to control and manage the operation and administration of the plan.

(2) For purposes of this subchapter, the term “named fiduciary” means a fiduciary who is named in the plan instrument, or who, pursuant to a procedure specified in the plan, is identified as a fiduciary (A) by a person who is an employer or employee organization with respect to the plan or (B) by such an employer and such an employee organization acting jointly.

(b) Requisite features of plan

Every employee benefit plan shall—

(1) provide a procedure for establishing and carrying out a funding policy and method consistent with the objectives of the plan and the requirements of this subchapter,

(2) describe any procedure under the plan for the allocation of responsibilities for the operation and administration of the plan (including any procedure described in section 1105(c)(1) of this title),

(3) provide a procedure for amending such plan, and for identifying the persons who have authority to amend the plan, and

(4) specify the basis on which payments are made to and from the plan.

(c) Optional features of plan

Any employee benefit plan may provide—

(1) that any person or group of persons may serve in more than one fiduciary capacity with respect to the plan (including service both as trustee and administrator);

(2) that a named fiduciary, or a fiduciary designated by a named fiduciary pursuant to a plan procedure described in section 1105(c)(1) of this title, may employ one or more persons to render advice with regard to any responsibility such fiduciary has under the plan; or

(3) that a person who is a named fiduciary with respect to control or management of the assets of the plan may appoint an investment manager or managers to manage (including the power to acquire and dispose of) any assets of a plan.

(Pub. L. 93–406, title I, §402, Sept. 2, 1974, 88 Stat. 875.)

§1103. Establishment of trust

(a) Benefit plan assets to be held in trust; authority of trustees

Except as provided in subsection (b) of this section, all assets of an employee benefit plan shall be held in trust by one or more trustees. Such trustee or trustees shall be either named in the trust instrument or in the plan instrument described in section 1102(a) of this title or appointed by a person who is a named fiduciary, and upon acceptance of being named or appointed, the trustee or trustees shall have exclusive authority and discretion to manage and control the assets of the plan, except to the extent that—

(1) the plan expressly provides that the trustee or trustees are subject to the direction of a named fiduciary who is not a trustee, in which case the trustees shall be subject to proper directions of such fiduciary which are made in accordance with the terms of the plan and which are not contrary to this chapter, or

(2) authority to manage, acquire, or dispose of assets of the plan is delegated to one or more investment managers pursuant to section 1102(c)(3) of this title.

(b) Exceptions

The requirements of subsection (a) of this section shall not apply—

(1) to any assets of a plan which consist of insurance contracts or policies issued by an insurance company qualified to do business in a State;

(2) to any assets of such an insurance company or any assets of a plan which are held by such an insurance company;

(3) to a plan—

(A) some or all of the participants of which are employees described in section 401(c)(1) of title 26; or

(B) which consists of one or more individual retirement accounts described in section 408 of title 26;


to the extent that such plan's assets are held in one or more custodial accounts which qualify under section 401(f) or 408(h) of title 26, whichever is applicable.

(4) to a plan which the Secretary exempts from the requirement of subsection (a) of this section and which is not subject to any of the following provisions of this chapter—

(A) part 2 of this subtitle,

(B) part 3 of this subtitle, or

(C) subchapter III of this chapter; or


(5) to a contract established and maintained under section 403(b) of title 26 to the extent that the assets of the contract are held in one or more custodial accounts pursuant to section 403(b)(7) of title 26.

(6) Any plan, fund or program under which an employer, all of whose stock is directly or indirectly owned by employees, former employees or their beneficiaries, proposes through an unfunded arrangement to compensate retired employees for benefits which were forfeited by such employees under a pension plan maintained by a former employer prior to the date such pension plan became subject to this chapter.

(c) Assets of plan not to inure to benefit of employer; allowable purposes of holding plan assets

(1) Except as provided in paragraph (2), (3), or (4) or subsection (d) of this section, or under sections 1342 and 1344 of this title (relating to termination of insured plans), or under section 420 of title 26 (as in effect on August 17, 2006), the assets of a plan shall never inure to the benefit of any employer and shall be held for the exclusive purposes of providing benefits to participants in the plan and their beneficiaries and defraying reasonable expenses of administering the plan.

(2)(A) In the case of a contribution, or a payment of withdrawal liability under part 1 of subtitle E of subchapter III of this chapter—

(i) if such contribution or payment is made by an employer to a plan (other than a multiemployer plan) by a mistake of fact, paragraph (1) shall not prohibit the return of such contribution to the employer within one year after the payment of the contribution, and

(ii) if such contribution or payment is made by an employer to a multiemployer plan by a mistake of fact or law (other than a mistake relating to whether the plan is described in section 401(a) of title 26 or the trust which is part of such plan is exempt from taxation under section 501(a) of title 26), paragraph (1) shall not prohibit the return of such contribution or payment to the employer within 6 months after the plan administrator determines that the contribution was made by such a mistake.


(B) If a contribution is conditioned on initial qualification of the plan under section 401 or 403(a) of title 26, and if the plan receives an adverse determination with respect to its initial qualification, then paragraph (1) shall not prohibit the return of such contribution to the employer within one year after such determination, but only if the application for the determination is made by the time prescribed by law for filing the employer's return for the taxable year in which such plan was adopted, or such later date as the Secretary of the Treasury may prescribe.

(C) If a contribution is conditioned upon the deductibility of the contribution under section 404 of title 26, then, to the extent the deduction is disallowed, paragraph (1) shall not prohibit the return to the employer of such contribution (to the extent disallowed) within one year after the disallowance of the deduction.

(3) In the case of a withdrawal liability payment which has been determined to be an overpayment, paragraph (1) shall not prohibit the return of such payment to the employer within 6 months after the date of such determination.

(d) Termination of plan

(1) Upon termination of a pension plan to which section 1321 of this title does not apply at the time of termination and to which this part applies (other than a plan to which no employer contributions have been made) the assets of the plan shall be allocated in accordance with the provisions of section 1344 of this title, except as otherwise provided in regulations of the Secretary.

(2) The assets of a welfare plan which terminates shall be distributed in accordance with the terms of the plan, except as otherwise provided in regulations of the Secretary.

(Pub. L. 93–406, title I, §403, Sept. 2, 1974, 88 Stat. 876; Pub. L. 96–364, title III, §310, title IV, §§402(b)(2), 410(a), 411(c), Sept. 26, 1980, 94 Stat. 1296, 1299, 1308; Pub. L. 100–203, title IX, §9343(c), Dec. 22, 1987, 101 Stat. 1330–372; Pub. L. 101–239, title VII, §§7881(k), 7891(a)(1), 7894(e)(1)(A), (3), Dec. 19, 1989, 103 Stat. 2443, 2445, 2450; Pub. L. 101–508, title XII, §12012(a), Nov. 5, 1990, 104 Stat. 1388–571; Pub. L. 103–465, title VII, §731(c)(4)(B), Dec. 8, 1994, 108 Stat. 5004; Pub. L. 106–170, title V, §535(a)(2)(B), Dec. 17, 1999, 113 Stat. 1934; Pub. L. 108–218, title II, §204(b)(2), Apr. 10, 2004, 118 Stat. 609; Pub. L. 108–357, title VII, §709(a)(2), Oct. 22, 2004, 118 Stat. 1551; Pub. L. 109–280, title I, §108(a)(11), formerly §107(a)(11), Aug. 17, 2006, 120 Stat. 819, renumbered Pub. L. 111–192, title II, §202(a), June 25, 2010, 124 Stat. 1297.)

References in Text

This chapter, referred to in subsecs. (a)(1) and (b)(4), (6), was in the original “this Act”, meaning Pub. L. 93–406, known as the Employee Retirement Income Security Act of 1974. Titles I, III, and IV of such Act are classified principally to this chapter. For complete classification of this Act to the Code, see Short Title note set out under section 1001 of this title and Tables.

Amendments

2006—Subsec. (c)(1). Pub. L. 109–280 substituted “August 17, 2006” for “October 22, 2004”.

2004—Subsec. (c)(1). Pub. L. 108–357 substituted “October 22, 2004” for “April 10, 2004”.

Pub. L. 108–218 substituted “April 10, 2004” for “December 17, 1999”.

1999—Subsec. (c)(1). Pub. L. 106–170 substituted “December 17, 1999” for “January 1, 1995”.

1994—Subsec. (c)(1). Pub. L. 103–465 substituted “1995” for “1991”.

1990—Subsec. (c)(1). Pub. L. 101–508 inserted “, or under section 420 of title 26 (as in effect on January 1, 1991)” after “insured plans”.

1989—Subsecs. (b)(3), (5), (c)(2)(A)(ii), (C). Pub. L. 101–239, §7891(a)(1), substituted “Internal Revenue Code of 1986” for “Internal Revenue Code of 1954”, which for purposes of codification was translated as “title 26” thus requiring no change in text.

Subsec. (b)(3). Pub. L. 101–239, §7894(e)(3), redesignated cls. (i) and (ii) as subpars. (A) and (B), respectively, struck out “, to the extent that such plan's assets are held in one or more custodial accounts which qualify under section 401(f) or 408(h) of title 26, whichever is applicable” before the semicolon in subpar. (B), and inserted concluding provision “to the extent that such plan's assets are held in one or more custodial accounts which qualify under section 401(f) or 408(h) of title 26, whichever is applicable.”

Subsec. (c)(2)(A). Pub. L. 101–239, §7894(e)(1)(A), in introductory provisions, made technical amendment to reference to part 1 of subtitle E of subchapter III of this chapter to correct reference to corresponding part of original Act, requiring no change in text, and in cls. (i) and (ii), inserted “if such contribution or payment is” before “made by an employer”.

Subsec. (c)(3), (4). Pub. L. 101–239, §7881(k), redesignated par. (4) as (3) and struck out former par. (3) which read as follows: “In the case of a contribution which would otherwise be an excess contribution (as defined in section 4979(c) of title 26) paragraph (1) shall not prohibit a correcting distribution with respect to such contribution from the plan to the employer to the extent permitted in such section to avoid payment of an excise tax on excess contributions under such section.”

1987—Subsec. (c)(2)(B). Pub. L. 100–203, §9343(c)(1), amended subpar. (B) generally. Prior to amendment, subpar. (B) read as follows: “If a contribution is conditioned on qualification of the plan under section 401, 403(a), or 405(a) of title 26, and if the plan does not qualify, then paragraph (1) shall not prohibit the return of such contributions to the employer within one year after the date of denial of qualification of the plan.”

Subsec. (c)(3). Pub. L. 100–203, §9343(c)(2), substituted “section 4979(c) of title 26” for “section 4972(b) of title 26”.

1980—Subsec. (a)(1). Pub. L. 96–364, §402(b)(2), substituted “chapter” for “subchapter”.

Subsec. (b)(6). Pub. L. 96–364, §411(c), added par. (6).

Subsec. (c)(1). Pub. L. 96–364, §310(1), inserted reference to par. (4).

Subsec. (c)(2)(A). Pub. L. 96–364, §410(a), substituted provisions relating to contributions or payments of withdrawal liability under part 1 of subtitle E of subchapter III of this chapter made by an employer to a plan by a mistake of fact, and by an employer to a multiemployer plan by a mistake of fact or law, for provisions relating to contributions made by an employer by a mistake of fact.

Subsec. (c)(4). Pub. L. 96–364, §310(2), added par. (4).

Effective Date of 2006 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 109–280 applicable to plan years beginning after 2007, see section 108(e) of Pub. L. 109–280, set out as a note under section 1021 of this title.

Effective Date of 1999 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 106–170 applicable to qualified transfers occurring after Dec. 17, 1999, see section 535(c)(1) of Pub. L. 106–170, set out as a note under section 420 of Title 26, Internal Revenue Code.

Effective Date of 1990 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 101–508 applicable to qualified transfers under section 420 of title 26 made after Nov. 5, 1990, see section 12012(e) of Pub. L. 101–508, set out as a note under section 1021 of this title.

Effective Date of 1989 Amendment

Amendment by section 7881(k) of Pub. L. 101–239 effective, except as otherwise provided, as if included in the provision of the Pension Protection Act, Pub. L. 100–203, §§9302–9346, to which such amendment relates, see section 7882 of Pub. L. 101–239, set out as a note under section 401 of Title 26, Internal Revenue Code.

Amendment by section 7891(a)(1) of Pub. L. 101–239 effective, except as otherwise provided, as if included in the provision of the Tax Reform Act of 1986, Pub. L. 99–514, to which such amendment relates, see section 7891(f) of Pub. L. 101–239, set out as a note under section 1002 of this title.

Section 7894(e)(1)(B) of Pub. L. 101–239 provided that: “The amendments made by subparagraph (A) [amending this section] shall take effect as if included in section 410 of the Multiemployer Pension Plan Amendments Act of 1980 [Pub. L. 96–364].”

Amendment by section 7894(e)(3) of Pub. L. 101–239 effective, except as otherwise provided, as if originally included in the provision of the Employee Retirement Income Security Act of 1974, Pub. L. 93–406, to which such amendment relates, see section 7894(i) of Pub. L. 101–239, set out as a note under section 1002 of this title.

Effective Date of 1980 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 96–364 effective Sept. 26, 1980, except as specifically provided, see section 1461(e) of this title.

Amendment by section 410(a) of Pub. L. 96–364 effective Jan. 1, 1975, except with respect to contributions received by a collectively bargained plan maintained by more than one employer before Sept. 26, 1980, see section 410(c) of Pub. L. 96–364, set out as a note under section 401 of Title 26, Internal Revenue Code.

Regulations

Secretary authorized, effective Sept. 2, 1974, to promulgate regulations wherever provisions of this part call for the promulgation of regulations, see sections 1031 and 1114 of this title.

Applicability of Amendments by Subtitles A and B of Title I of Pub. L. 109–280

For special rules on applicability of amendments by subtitles A (§§101–108) and B (§§111–116) of title I of Pub. L. 109–280 to certain eligible cooperative plans, PBGC settlement plans, and eligible government contractor plans, see sections 104, 105, and 106 of Pub. L. 109–280, set out as notes under section 401 of Title 26, Internal Revenue Code.

§1104. Fiduciary duties

(a) Prudent man standard of care

(1) Subject to sections 1103(c) and (d), 1342, and 1344 of this title, a fiduciary shall discharge his duties with respect to a plan solely in the interest of the participants and beneficiaries and—

(A) for the exclusive purpose of:

(i) providing benefits to participants and their beneficiaries; and

(ii) defraying reasonable expenses of administering the plan;


(B) with the care, skill, prudence, and diligence under the circumstances then prevailing that a prudent man acting in a like capacity and familiar with such matters would use in the conduct of an enterprise of a like character and with like aims;

(C) by diversifying the investments of the plan so as to minimize the risk of large losses, unless under the circumstances it is clearly prudent not to do so; and

(D) in accordance with the documents and instruments governing the plan insofar as such documents and instruments are consistent with the provisions of this subchapter and subchapter III of this chapter.


(2) In the case of an eligible individual account plan (as defined in section 1107(d)(3) of this title), the diversification requirement of paragraph (1)(C) and the prudence requirement (only to the extent that it requires diversification) of paragraph (1)(B) is not violated by acquisition or holding of qualifying employer real property or qualifying employer securities (as defined in section 1107(d)(4) and (5) of this title).

(b) Indicia of ownership of assets outside jurisdiction of district courts

Except as authorized by the Secretary by regulations, no fiduciary may maintain the indicia of ownership of any assets of a plan outside the jurisdiction of the district courts of the United States.

(c) Control over assets by participant or beneficiary

(1)(A) In the case of a pension plan which provides for individual accounts and permits a participant or beneficiary to exercise control over the assets in his account, if a participant or beneficiary exercises control over the assets in his account (as determined under regulations of the Secretary)—

(i) such participant or beneficiary shall not be deemed to be a fiduciary by reason of such exercise, and

(ii) no person who is otherwise a fiduciary shall be liable under this part for any loss, or by reason of any breach, which results from such participant's or beneficiary's exercise of control, except that this clause shall not apply in connection with such participant or beneficiary for any blackout period during which the ability of such participant or beneficiary to direct the investment of the assets in his or her account is suspended by a plan sponsor or fiduciary.


(B) If a person referred to in subparagraph (A)(ii) meets the requirements of this subchapter in connection with authorizing and implementing the blackout period, any person who is otherwise a fiduciary shall not be liable under this subchapter for any loss occurring during such period.

(C) For purposes of this paragraph, the term “blackout period” has the meaning given such term by section 1021(i)(7) of this title.

(2) In the case of a simple retirement account established pursuant to a qualified salary reduction arrangement under section 408(p) of title 26, a participant or beneficiary shall, for purposes of paragraph (1), be treated as exercising control over the assets in the account upon the earliest of—

(A) an affirmative election among investment options with respect to the initial investment of any contribution,

(B) a rollover to any other simple retirement account or individual retirement plan, or

(C) one year after the simple retirement account is established.


No reports, other than those required under section 1021(g) of this title, shall be required with respect to a simple retirement account established pursuant to such a qualified salary reduction arrangement.

(3) In the case of a pension plan which makes a transfer to an individual retirement account or annuity of a designated trustee or issuer under section 401(a)(31)(B) of title 26, the participant or beneficiary shall, for purposes of paragraph (1), be treated as exercising control over the assets in the account or annuity upon—

(A) the earlier of—

(i) a rollover of all or a portion of the amount to another individual retirement account or annuity; or

(ii) one year after the transfer is made; or


(B) a transfer that is made in a manner consistent with guidance provided by the Secretary.


(4)(A) In any case in which a qualified change in investment options occurs in connection with an individual account plan, a participant or beneficiary shall not be treated for purposes of paragraph (1) as not exercising control over the assets in his account in connection with such change if the requirements of subparagraph (C) are met in connection with such change.

(B) For purposes of subparagraph (A), the term “qualified change in investment options” means, in connection with an individual account plan, a change in the investment options offered to the participant or beneficiary under the terms of the plan, under which—

(i) the account of the participant or beneficiary is reallocated among one or more remaining or new investment options which are offered in lieu of one or more investment options offered immediately prior to the effective date of the change, and

(ii) the stated characteristics of the remaining or new investment options provided under clause (i), including characteristics relating to risk and rate of return, are, as of immediately after the change, reasonably similar to those of the existing investment options as of immediately before the change.


(C) The requirements of this subparagraph are met in connection with a qualified change in investment options if—

(i) at least 30 days and no more than 60 days prior to the effective date of the change, the plan administrator furnishes written notice of the change to the participants and beneficiaries, including information comparing the existing and new investment options and an explanation that, in the absence of affirmative investment instructions from the participant or beneficiary to the contrary, the account of the participant or beneficiary will be invested in the manner described in subparagraph (B),

(ii) the participant or beneficiary has not provided to the plan administrator, in advance of the effective date of the change, affirmative investment instructions contrary to the change, and

(iii) the investments under the plan of the participant or beneficiary as in effect immediately prior to the effective date of the change were the product of the exercise by such participant or beneficiary of control over the assets of the account within the meaning of paragraph (1).


(5) Default investment arrangements.—

(A) In general.—For purposes of paragraph (1), a participant or beneficiary in an individual account plan meeting the notice requirements of subparagraph (B) shall be treated as exercising control over the assets in the account with respect to the amount of contributions and earnings which, in the absence of an investment election by the participant or beneficiary, are invested by the plan in accordance with regulations prescribed by the Secretary. The regulations under this subparagraph shall provide guidance on the appropriateness of designating default investments that include a mix of asset classes consistent with capital preservation or long-term capital appreciation, or a blend of both.

(B) Notice requirements.—

(i) In general.—The requirements of this subparagraph are met if each participant or beneficiary—

(I) receives, within a reasonable period of time before each plan year, a notice explaining the employee's right under the plan to designate how contributions and earnings will be invested and explaining how, in the absence of any investment election by the participant or beneficiary, such contributions and earnings will be invested, and

(II) has a reasonable period of time after receipt of such notice and before the beginning of the plan year to make such designation.


(ii) Form of notice.—The requirements of clauses (i) and (ii) of section 401(k)(12)(D) of title 26 shall apply with respect to the notices described in this subparagraph.

(d) Plan terminations

(1) If, in connection with the termination of a pension plan which is a single-employer plan, there is an election to establish or maintain a qualified replacement plan, or to increase benefits, as provided under section 4980(d) of title 26, a fiduciary shall discharge the fiduciary's duties under this subchapter and subchapter III of this chapter in accordance with the following requirements:

(A) In the case of a fiduciary of the terminated plan, any requirement—

(i) under section 4980(d)(2)(B) of title 26 with respect to the transfer of assets from the terminated plan to a qualified replacement plan, and

(ii) under section 4980(d)(2)(B)(ii) or 4980(d)(3) of title 26 with respect to any increase in benefits under the terminated plan.


(B) In the case of a fiduciary of a qualified replacement plan, any requirement—

(i) under section 4980(d)(2)(A) of title 26 with respect to participation in the qualified replacement plan of active participants in the terminated plan,

(ii) under section 4980(d)(2)(B) of title 26 with respect to the receipt of assets from the terminated plan, and

(iii) under section 4980(d)(2)(C) of title 26 with respect to the allocation of assets to participants of the qualified replacement plan.


(2) For purposes of this subsection—

(A) any term used in this subsection which is also used in section 4980(d) of title 26 shall have the same meaning as when used in such section, and

(B) any reference in this subsection to title 26 shall be a reference to title 26 as in effect immediately after the enactment of the Omnibus Budget Reconciliation Act of 1990.

(Pub. L. 93–406, title I, §404, Sept. 2, 1974, 88 Stat. 877; Pub. L. 96–364, title III, §309, Sept. 26, 1980, 94 Stat. 1296; Pub. L. 101–508, title XII, §12002(b)(1), (2)(A), Nov. 5, 1990, 104 Stat. 1388–565, 1388–566; Pub. L. 104–188, title I, §1421(d)(2), Aug. 20, 1996, 110 Stat. 1799; Pub. L. 107–16, title VI, §657(c)(1), June 7, 2001, 115 Stat. 136; Pub. L. 107–147, title IV, §411(t), Mar. 9, 2002, 116 Stat. 51; Pub. L. 109–280, title VI, §§621(a), 624(a), Aug. 17, 2006, 120 Stat. 978, 980; Pub. L. 110–458, title I, §106(d), Dec. 23, 2008, 122 Stat. 5107.)

References in Text

The enactment of the Omnibus Budget Reconciliation Act of 1990, referred to in subsec. (d)(2)(B), is the enactment of Pub. L. 101–508, which was approved Nov. 5, 1990.

Amendments

2008—Subsec. (c)(5). Pub. L. 110–458 substituted “participant or beneficiary” for “participant” wherever appearing.

2006—Subsec. (c)(1). Pub. L. 109–280, §621(a)(1), designated existing provisions as subpar. (A), redesignated former subpars. (A) and (B) as cls. (i) and (ii), respectively, of subpar. (A), in cl. (ii), inserted “, except that this clause shall not apply in connection with such participant or beneficiary for any blackout period during which the ability of such participant or beneficiary to direct the investment of the assets in his or her account is suspended by a plan sponsor or fiduciary” before period at end, and added subpars. (B) and (C).

Subsec. (c)(4). Pub. L. 109–280, §621(a)(2), added par. (4).

Subsec. (c)(5). Pub. L. 109–280, §624(a), added par. (5).

2002—Subsec. (c)(3)(A). Pub. L. 107–147, §411(t)(1), struck out “the earlier of” after “the earlier of” in introductory provisions.

Subsec. (c)(3)(B). Pub. L. 107–147, §411(t)(2), substituted “a transfer that” for “if the transfer”.

2001—Subsec. (c)(3). Pub. L. 107–16 added par. (3).

1996—Subsec. (c). Pub. L. 104–188 designated existing provisions as par. (1), redesignated former pars. (1) and (2) as subpars. (A) and (B), respectively, and added par. (2).

1990—Subsec. (a)(1)(D). Pub. L. 101–508, §12002(b)(2)(A), substituted “and subchapter III” for “or subchapter III”.

Subsec. (d). Pub. L. 101–508, §12002(b)(1), added subsec. (d).

1980—Subsec. (a)(1)(D). Pub. L. 96–364 inserted reference to subchapter III of this chapter.

Effective Date of 2008 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 110–458 effective as if included in the provisions of Pub. L. 109–280 to which the amendment relates, except as otherwise provided, see section 112 of Pub. L. 110–458, set out as a note under section 72 of Title 26, Internal Revenue Code.

Effective Date of 2006 Amendment

Pub. L. 109–280, title VI, §621(b), Aug. 17, 2006, 120 Stat. 979, provided that:

“(1) In general.—The amendments made by this section [amending this section] shall apply to plan years beginning after December 31, 2007.

“(2) Special rule for collectively bargained agreements.—In the case of a plan maintained pursuant to 1 or more collective bargaining agreements between employee representatives and 1 or more employers ratified on or before the date of the enactment of this Act [Aug. 17, 2006], paragraph (1) shall be applied to benefits pursuant to, and individuals covered by, any such agreement by substituting for ‘December 31, 2007’ the earlier of—

“(A) the later of—

“(i) December 31, 2008, or

“(ii) the date on which the last of such collective bargaining agreements terminates (determined without regard to any extension thereof after such date of enactment), or

“(B) December 31, 2009.”

Pub. L. 109–280, title VI, §624(b), Aug. 17, 2006, 120 Stat. 980, provided that:

“(1) In general.—The amendments made by this section [amending this section] shall apply to plan years beginning after December 31, 2006.

“(2) Regulations.—Final regulations under section 404(c)(5)(A) of the Employee Retirement Income Security Act of 1974 [29 U.S.C. 1104(c)(5)(A)] (as added by this section) shall be issued no later than 6 months after the date of the enactment of this Act [Aug. 17, 2006].”

Effective Date of 2002 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 107–147 effective as if included in the provisions of the Economic Growth and Tax Relief Reconciliation Act of 2001, Pub. L. 107–16, to which such amendment relates, see section 411(x) of Pub. L. 107–147, set out as a note under section 25B of Title 26, Internal Revenue Code.

Effective Date of 2001 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 107–16 applicable to distributions made after Mar. 28, 2005, see section 657(d) of Pub. L. 107–16, set out as a note under section 401 of Title 26, Internal Revenue Code.

Effective Date of 1996 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 104–188 applicable to taxable years beginning after Dec. 31, 1996, see section 1421(e) of Pub. L. 104–188, set out as a note under section 72 of Title 26, Internal Revenue Code.

Effective Date of 1990 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 101–508 applicable to reversions occurring after Sept. 30, 1990, but not applicable to any reversion after Sept. 30, 1990, if (1) in the case of plans subject to subchapter III of this chapter, notice of intent to terminate under such subchapter was provided to participants (or if no participants, to Pension Benefit Guaranty Corporation) before Oct. 1, 1990, (2) in the case of plans subject to subchapter I of this chapter (and not subchapter III), notice of intent to reduce future accruals under section 1054(h) of this title was provided to participants in connection with termination before Oct. 1, 1990, (3) in the case of plans not subject to subchapter I or III of this chapter, a request for a determination letter with respect to termination was filed with Secretary of the Treasury or Secretary's delegate before Oct. 1, 1990, or (4) in the case of plans not subject to subchapter I or III of this chapter and having only one participant, a resolution terminating the plan was adopted by employer before Oct. 1, 1990, see section 12003 of Pub. L. 101–508, set out as a note under section 4980 of Title 26, Internal Revenue Code.

Effective Date of 1980 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 96–364 effective Sept. 26, 1980, except as specifically provided, see section 1461(e) of this title.

Regulations

Pub. L. 109–280, title VI, §625, Aug. 17, 2006, 120 Stat. 980, provided that:

“(a) In General.—Not later than 1 year after the date of the enactment of this Act [Aug. 17, 2006], the Secretary of Labor shall issue final regulations clarifying that the selection of an annuity contract as an optional form of distribution from an individual account plan to a participant or beneficiary—

“(1) is not subject to the safest available annuity standard under Interpretive Bulletin 95–1 (29 CFR 2509.95–1), and

“(2) is subject to all otherwise applicable fiduciary standards.

“(b) Effective Date.—This section shall take effect on the date of enactment of this Act [Aug. 17, 2006].”

Secretary authorized, effective Sept. 2, 1974, to promulgate regulations wherever provisions of this part call for the promulgation of regulations, see sections 1031 and 1114 of this title.

Plan Amendments Not Required Until January 1, 1998

For provisions directing that if any amendments made by subtitle D [§§1401–1465] of title I of Pub. L. 104–188 require an amendment to any plan or annuity contract, such amendment shall not be required to be made before the first day of the first plan year beginning on or after Jan. 1, 1998, see section 1465 of Pub. L. 104–188, set out as a note under section 401 of Title 26, Internal Revenue Code.

§1105. Liability for breach of co-fiduciary

(a) Circumstances giving rise to liability

In addition to any liability which he may have under any other provisions of this part, a fiduciary with respect to a plan shall be liable for a breach of fiduciary responsibility of another fiduciary with respect to the same plan in the following circumstances:

(1) if he participates knowingly in, or knowingly undertakes to conceal, an act or omission of such other fiduciary, knowing such act or omission is a breach;

(2) if, by his failure to comply with section 1104(a)(1) of this title in the administration of his specific responsibilities which give rise to his status as a fiduciary, he has enabled such other fiduciary to commit a breach; or

(3) if he has knowledge of a breach by such other fiduciary, unless he makes reasonable efforts under the circumstances to remedy the breach.

(b) Assets held by two or more trustees

(1) Except as otherwise provided in subsection (d) of this section and in section 1103(a)(1) and (2) of this title, if the assets of a plan are held by two or more trustees—

(A) each shall use reasonable care to prevent a co-trustee from committing a breach; and

(B) they shall jointly manage and control the assets of the plan, except that nothing in this subparagraph (B) shall preclude any agreement, authorized by the trust instrument, allocating specific responsibilities, obligations, or duties among trustees, in which event a trustee to whom certain responsibilities, obligations, or duties have not been allocated shall not be liable by reason of this subparagraph (B) either individually or as a trustee for any loss resulting to the plan arising from the acts or omissions on the part of another trustee to whom such responsibilities, obligations, or duties have been allocated.


(2) Nothing in this subsection shall limit any liability that a fiduciary may have under subsection (a) of this section or any other provision of this part.

(3)(A) In the case of a plan the assets of which are held in more than one trust, a trustee shall not be liable under paragraph (1) except with respect to an act or omission of a trustee of a trust of which he is a trustee.

(B) No trustee shall be liable under this subsection for following instructions referred to in section 1103(a)(1) of this title.

(c) Allocation of fiduciary responsibility; designated persons to carry out fiduciary responsibilities

(1) The instrument under which a plan is maintained may expressly provide for procedures (A) for allocating fiduciary responsibilities (other than trustee responsibilities) among named fiduciaries, and (B) for named fiduciaries to designate persons other than named fiduciaries to carry out fiduciary responsibilities (other than trustee responsibilities) under the plan.

(2) If a plan expressly provides for a procedure described in paragraph (1), and pursuant to such procedure any fiduciary responsibility of a named fiduciary is allocated to any person, or a person is designated to carry out any such responsibility, then such named fiduciary shall not be liable for an act or omission of such person in carrying out such responsibility except to the extent that—

(A) the named fiduciary violated section 1104(a)(1) of this title—

(i) with respect to such allocation or designation,

(ii) with respect to the establishment or implementation of the procedure under paragraph (1), or

(iii) in continuing the allocation or designation; or


(B) the named fiduciary would otherwise be liable in accordance with subsection (a) of this section.


(3) For purposes of this subsection, the term “trustee responsibility” means any responsibility provided in the plan's trust instrument (if any) to manage or control the assets of the plan, other than a power under the trust instrument of a named fiduciary to appoint an investment manager in accordance with section 1102(c)(3) of this title.

(d) Investment managers

(1) If an investment manager or managers have been appointed under section 1102(c)(3) of this title, then, notwithstanding subsections (a)(2) and (3) and subsection (b) of this section, no trustee shall be liable for the acts or omissions of such investment manager or managers, or be under an obligation to invest or otherwise manage any asset of the plan which is subject to the management of such investment manager.

(2) Nothing in this subsection shall relieve any trustee of any liability under this part for any act of such trustee.

(Pub. L. 93–406, title I, §405, Sept. 2, 1974, 88 Stat. 878.)

§1106. Prohibited transactions

(a) Transactions between plan and party in interest

Except as provided in section 1108 of this title:

(1) A fiduciary with respect to a plan shall not cause the plan to engage in a transaction, if he knows or should know that such transaction constitutes a direct or indirect—

(A) sale or exchange, or leasing, of any property between the plan and a party in interest;

(B) lending of money or other extension of credit between the plan and a party in interest;

(C) furnishing of goods, services, or facilities between the plan and a party in interest;

(D) transfer to, or use by or for the benefit of a party in interest, of any assets of the plan; or

(E) acquisition, on behalf of the plan, of any employer security or employer real property in violation of section 1107(a) of this title.


(2) No fiduciary who has authority or discretion to control or manage the assets of a plan shall permit the plan to hold any employer security or employer real property if he knows or should know that holding such security or real property violates section 1107(a) of this title.

(b) Transactions between plan and fiduciary

A fiduciary with respect to a plan shall not—

(1) deal with the assets of the plan in his own interest or for his own account,

(2) in his individual or in any other capacity act in any transaction involving the plan on behalf of a party (or represent a party) whose interests are adverse to the interests of the plan or the interests of its participants or beneficiaries, or

(3) receive any consideration for his own personal account from any party dealing with such plan in connection with a transaction involving the assets of the plan.

(c) Transfer of real or personal property to plan by party in interest

A transfer of real or personal property by a party in interest to a plan shall be treated as a sale or exchange if the property is subject to a mortgage or similar lien which the plan assumes or if it is subject to a mortgage or similar lien which a party-in-interest placed on the property within the 10-year period ending on the date of the transfer.

(Pub. L. 93–406, title I, §406, Sept. 2, 1974, 88 Stat. 879.)

§1107. Limitation with respect to acquisition and holding of employer securities and employer real property by certain plans

(a) Percentage limitation

Except as otherwise provided in this section and section 1114 of this title:

(1) A plan may not acquire or hold—

(A) any employer security which is not a qualifying employer security, or

(B) any employer real property which is not qualifying employer real property.


(2) A plan may not acquire any qualifying employer security or qualifying employer real property, if immediately after such acquisition the aggregate fair market value of employer securities and employer real property held by the plan exceeds 10 percent of the fair market value of the assets of the plan.

(3)(A) After December 31, 1984, a plan may not hold any qualifying employer securities or qualifying employer real property (or both) to the extent that the aggregate fair market value of such securities and property determined on December 31, 1984, exceeds 10 percent of the greater of—

(i) the fair market value of the assets of the plan, determined on December 31, 1984, or

(ii) the fair market value of the assets of the plan determined on January 1, 1975.


(B) Subparagraph (A) of this paragraph shall not apply to any plan which on any date after December 31, 1974; and before January 1, 1985, did not hold employer securities or employer real property (or both) the aggregate fair market value of which determined on such date exceeded 10 percent of the greater of

(i) the fair market value of the assets of the plan, determined on such date, or

(ii) the fair market value of the assets of the plan determined on January 1, 1975.


(4)(A) After December 31, 1979, a plan may not hold any employer securities or employer real property in excess of the amount specified in regulations under subparagraph (B). This subparagraph shall not apply to a plan after the earliest date after December 31, 1974, on which it complies with such regulations.

(B) Not later than December 31, 1976, the Secretary shall prescribe regulations which shall have the effect of requiring that a plan divest itself of 50 percent of the holdings of employer securities and employer real property which the plan would be required to divest before January 1, 1985, under paragraph (2) or subsection (c) of this section (whichever is applicable).

(b) Exception

(1) Subsection (a) of this section shall not apply to any acquisition or holding of qualifying employer securities or qualifying employer real property by an eligible individual account plan.

(2)(A) If this paragraph applies to an eligible individual account plan, the portion of such plan which consists of applicable elective deferrals (and earnings allocable thereto) shall be treated as a separate plan—

(i) which is not an eligible individual account plan, and

(ii) to which the requirements of this section apply.


(B)(i) This paragraph shall apply to any eligible individual account plan if any portion of the plan's applicable elective deferrals (or earnings allocable thereto) are required to be invested in qualifying employer securities or qualifying employer real property or both—

(I) pursuant to the terms of the plan, or

(II) at the direction of a person other than the participant on whose behalf such elective deferrals are made to the plan (or a beneficiary).


(ii) This paragraph shall not apply to an individual account plan for a plan year if, on the last day of the preceding plan year, the fair market value of the assets of all individual account plans maintained by the employer equals not more than 10 percent of the fair market value of the assets of all pension plans (other than multiemployer plans) maintained by the employer.

(iii) This paragraph shall not apply to an individual account plan that is an employee stock ownership plan as defined in section 4975(e)(7) of title 26.

(iv) This paragraph shall not apply to an individual account plan if, pursuant to the terms of the plan, the portion of any employee's applicable elective deferrals which is required to be invested in qualifying employer securities and qualifying employer real property for any year may not exceed 1 percent of the employee's compensation which is taken into account under the plan in determining the maximum amount of the employee's applicable elective deferrals for such year.

(C) For purposes of this paragraph, the term “applicable elective deferral” means any elective deferral (as defined in section 402(g)(3)(A) of title 26) which is made pursuant to a qualified cash or deferred arrangement as defined in section 401(k) of title 26.

(3) Cross References.—

(A) For exemption from diversification requirements for holding of qualifying employer securities and qualifying employer real property by eligible individual account plans, see section 1104(a)(2) of this title.

(B) For exemption from prohibited transactions for certain acquisitions of qualifying employer securities and qualifying employer real property which are not in violation of 10 percent limitation, see section 1108(e) of this title.

(C) For transitional rules respecting securities or real property subject to binding contracts in effect on June 30, 1974, see section 1114(c) of this title.

(D) For diversification requirements for qualifying employer securities held in certain individual account plans, see section 1054(j) of this title.

(c) Election

(1) A plan which makes the election, under paragraph (3) shall be treated as satisfying the requirement of subsection (a)(3) of this section if and only if employer securities held on any date after December 31, 1974 and before January 1, 1985 have a fair market value, determined as of December 31, 1974, not in excess of 10 percent of the lesser of—

(A) the fair market value of the assets of the plan determined on such date (disregarding any portion of the fair market value of employer securities which is attributable to appreciation of such securities after December 31, 1974) but not less than the fair market value of plan assets on January 1, 1975, or

(B) an amount equal to the sum of (i) the total amount of the contributions to the plan received after December 31, 1974, and prior to such date, plus (ii) the fair market value of the assets of the plan, determined on January 1, 1975.


(2) For purposes of this subsection, in the case of an employer security held by a plan after January 1, 1975, the ownership of which is derived from ownership of employer securities held by the plan on January 1, 1975, or from the exercise of rights derived from such ownership, the value of such security held after January 1, 1975, shall be based on the value as of January 1, 1975, of the security from which ownership was derived. The Secretary shall prescribe regulations to carry out this paragraph.

(3) An election under this paragraph may not be made after December 31, 1975. Such an election shall be made in accordance with regulations prescribed by the Secretary, and shall be irrevocable. A plan may make an election under this paragraph only if on January 1, 1975, the plan holds no employer real property. After such election and before January 1, 1985 the plan may not acquire any employer real property.

(d) Definitions

For purposes of this section—

(1) The term “employer security” means a security issued by an employer of employees covered by the plan, or by an affiliate of such employer. A contract to which section 1108(b)(5) of this title applies shall not be treated as a security for purposes of this section.

(2) The term “employer real property” means real property (and related personal property) which is leased to an employer of employees covered by the plan, or to an affiliate of such employer. For purposes of determining the time at which a plan acquires employer real property for purposes of this section, such property shall be deemed to be acquired by the plan on the date on which the plan acquires the property or on the date on which the lease to the employer (or affiliate) is entered into, whichever is later.

(3)(A) The term “eligible individual account plan” means an individual account plan which is (i) a profit-sharing, stock bonus, thrift, or savings plan; (ii) an employee stock ownership plan; or (iii) a money purchase plan which was in existence on September 2, 1974, and which on such date invested primarily in qualifying employer securities. Such term excludes an individual retirement account or annuity described in section 408 of title 26.

(B) Notwithstanding subparagraph (A), a plan shall be treated as an eligible individual account plan with respect to the acquisition or holding of qualifying employer real property or qualifying employer securities only if such plan explicitly provides for acquisition and holding of qualifying employer securities or qualifying employer real property (as the case may be). In the case of a plan in existence on September 2, 1974, this subparagraph shall not take effect until January 1, 1976.

(C) The term “eligible individual account plan” does not include any individual account plan the benefits of which are taken into account in determining the benefits payable to a participant under any defined benefit plan.

(4) The term “qualifying employer real property” means parcels of employer real property—

(A) if a substantial number of the parcels are dispersed geographically;

(B) if each parcel of real property and the improvements thereon are suitable (or adaptable without excessive cost) for more than one use;

(C) even if all of such real property is leased to one lessee (which may be an employer, or an affiliate of an employer); and

(D) if the acquisition and retention of such property comply with the provisions of this part (other than section 1104(a)(1)(B) of this title to the extent it requires diversification, and sections 1104(a)(1)(C), 1106 of this title, and subsection (a) of this section).


(5) The term “qualifying employer security” means an employer security which is—

(A) stock,

(B) a marketable obligation (as defined in subsection (e) of this section), or

(C) an interest in a publicly traded partnership (as defined in section 7704(b) of title 26), but only if such partnership is an existing partnership as defined in section 10211(c)(2)(A) of the Revenue Act of 1987 (Public Law 100–203).


After December 17, 1987, in the case of a plan other than an eligible individual account plan, an employer security described in subparagraph (A) or (C) shall be considered a qualifying employer security only if such employer security satisfies the requirements of subsection (f)(1) of this section.

(6) The term “employee stock ownership plan” means an individual account plan—

(A) which is a stock bonus plan which is qualified, or a stock bonus plan and money purchase plan both of which are qualified, under section 401 of title 26, and which is designed to invest primarily in qualifying employer securities, and

(B) which meets such other requirements as the Secretary of the Treasury may prescribe by regulation.


(7) A corporation is an affiliate of an employer if it is a member of any controlled group of corporations (as defined in section 1563(a) of title 26, except that “applicable percentage” shall be substituted for “80 percent” wherever the latter percentage appears in such section) of which the employer who maintains the plan is a member. For purposes of the preceding sentence, the term “applicable percentage” means 50 percent, or such lower percentage as the Secretary may prescribe by regulation. A person other than a corporation shall be treated as an affiliate of an employer to the extent provided in regulations of the Secretary. An employer which is a person other than a corporation shall be treated as affiliated with another person to the extent provided by regulations of the Secretary. Regulations under this paragraph shall be prescribed only after consultation and coordination with the Secretary of the Treasury.

(8) The Secretary may prescribe regulations specifying the extent to which conversions, splits, the exercise of rights, and similar transactions are not treated as acquisitions.

(9) For purposes of this section, an arrangement which consists of a defined benefit plan and an individual account plan shall be treated as 1 plan if the benefits of such individual account plan are taken into account in determining the benefits payable under such defined benefit plan.

(e) Marketable obligations

For purposes of subsection (d)(5) of this section, the term “marketable obligation” means a bond, debenture, note, or certificate, or other evidence of indebtedness (hereinafter in this subsection referred to as “obligation”) if—

(1) such obligation is acquired—

(A) on the market, either (i) at the price of the obligation prevailing on a national securities exchange which is registered with the Securities and Exchange Commission, or (ii) if the obligation is not traded on such a national securities exchange, at a price not less favorable to the plan than the offering price for the obligation as established by current bid and asked prices quoted by persons independent of the issuer;

(B) from an underwriter, at a price (i) not in excess of the public offering price for the obligation as set forth in a prospectus or offering circular filed with the Securities and Exchange Commission, and (ii) at which a substantial portion of the same issue is acquired by persons independent of the issuer; or

(C) directly from the issuer, at a price not less favorable to the plan than the price paid currently for a substantial portion of the same issue by persons independent of the issuer;


(2) immediately following acquisition of such obligation—

(A) not more than 25 percent of the aggregate amount of obligations issued in such issue and outstanding at the time of acquisition is held by the plan, and

(B) at least 50 percent of the aggregate amount referred to in subparagraph (A) is held by persons independent of the issuer; and


(3) immediately following acquisition of the obligation, not more than 25 percent of the assets of the plan is invested in obligations of the employer or an affiliate of the employer.

(f) Maximum percentage of stock held by plan; time of holding or acquisition; necessity of legally binding contract

(1) Stock satisfies the requirements of this paragraph if, immediately following the acquisition of such stock—

(A) no more than 25 percent of the aggregate amount of stock of the same class issued and outstanding at the time of acquisition is held by the plan, and

(B) at least 50 percent of the aggregate amount referred to in subparagraph (A) is held by persons independent of the issuer.


(2) Until January 1, 1993, a plan shall not be treated as violating subsection (a) of this section solely by holding stock which fails to satisfy the requirements of paragraph (1) if such stock—

(A) has been so held since December 17, 1987, or

(B) was acquired after December 17, 1987, pursuant to a legally binding contract in effect on December 17, 1987, and has been so held at all times after the acquisition.

(Pub. L. 93–406, title I, §407, Sept. 2, 1974, 88 Stat. 880; Pub. L. 100–203, title IX, §9345(a)(1), (2), (b), Dec. 22, 1987, 101 Stat. 1330–373; Pub. L. 101–239, title VII, §§7881(l)(1)–(4), 7891(a)(1), 7894(e)(2), Dec. 19, 1989, 103 Stat. 2443, 2445, 2450; Pub. L. 101–540, §1, Nov. 8, 1990, 104 Stat. 2379; Pub. L. 105–34, title XV, §1524(a), Aug. 5, 1997, 111 Stat. 1071; Pub. L. 109–280, title IX, §901(b)(2), Aug. 17, 2006, 120 Stat. 1032.)

References in Text

Section 10211(c)(2)(A) of the Revenue Act of 1987 (Public Law 100–203), referred to in subsec. (d)(5)(C), is set out as a note under section 7704 of Title 26, Internal Revenue Code.

Amendments

2006—Subsec. (b)(3)(D). Pub. L. 109–280 added subpar. (D).

1997—Subsec. (b)(2), (3). Pub. L. 105–34 added par. (2) and redesignated former par. (2) as (3).

1990—Subsec. (d)(5). Pub. L. 101–540 amended par. (5) generally. Prior to amendment, par. (5) read as follows: “The term ‘qualifying employer security’ means an employer security which is stock or a marketable obligation (as defined in subsection (e) of this section). After December 17, 1987, in the case of a plan other than an eligible individual account plan, stock shall be considered a qualifying employer security only if such stock satisfies the requirements of subsection (f)(1) of this section.”

1989—Subsec. (d)(3)(A), (6)(A), (7). Pub. L. 101–239, §7891(a)(1), substituted “Internal Revenue Code of 1986” for “Internal Revenue Code of 1954”, which for purposes of codification was translated as “title 26” thus requiring no change in text.

Subsec. (d)(3)(C). Pub. L. 101–239, §7881(l)(1), realigned margin.

Subsec. (d)(6)(A). Pub. L. 101–239, §7894(e)(2), substituted “money purchase plan” for “money purchase” and “employer securities” for “employee securities”.

Subsec. (d)(9). Pub. L. 101–239, §7881(l)(2), substituted “such individual account plan” for “such arrangement” and realigned margin.

Subsec. (f)(1). Pub. L. 101–239, §7881(l)(3)(A), (4), substituted “paragraph” for “subsection” and “if, immediately following the acquisition of such stock” for “if”.

Subsec. (f)(3). Pub. L. 101–239, §7881(l)(3)(B), struck out par. (3) which read as follows: “After December 17, 1987, no plan may acquire stock which does not satisfy the requirements of paragraph (1) unless the acquisition is made pursuant to a legally binding contract in effect on such date.”

1987—Subsec. (d)(3)(C). Pub. L. 100–203, §9345(a)(1), added subpar. (C).

Subsec. (d)(5). Pub. L. 100–203, §9345(b)(1), inserted at end “After December 17, 1987, in the case of a plan other than an eligible individual account plan, stock shall be considered a qualifying employer security only if such stock satisfies the requirements of subsection (f)(1) of this section.”

Subsec. (d)(9). Pub. L. 100–203, §9345(a)(2), added par. (9).

Subsec. (f). Pub. L. 100–203, §9345(b)(2), added subsec. (f).

Effective Date of 2006 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 109–280 applicable to plan years beginning after Dec. 31, 2006, with special rules for collectively bargained agreements and certain employer securities held in an ESOP, see section 901(c) of Pub. L. 109–280, set out as a note under section 401 of Title 26, Internal Revenue Code.

Effective Date of 1997 Amendment

Section 1524(b) of Pub. L. 105–34, as amended by Pub. L. 107–16, title VI, §655(a), June 7, 2001, 115 Stat. 131, provided that:

“(1) In general.—Except as provided in paragraph (2), the amendments made by this section [amending this section] shall apply to elective deferrals for plan years beginning after December 31, 1998.

“(2) Nonapplication to previously acquired property.—The amendments made by this section shall not apply to any elective deferral which is invested in assets consisting of qualifying employer securities, qualifying employer real property, or both, if such assets were acquired before January 1, 1999.”

[Pub. L. 107–16, title VI, §655(b), June 7, 2001, 115 Stat. 131, provided that: “The amendment made by this section [amending section 1524(b) of Pub. L. 105–34, set out above] shall apply as if included in the provision of the Taxpayer Relief Act of 1997 [Pub. L. 105–34] to which it relates.”]

Effective Date of 1990 Amendment

Section 2 of Pub. L. 101–540 provided that: “The amendment made by section 1 [amending this section] shall apply to interests in publicly traded partnerships acquired before, on, or after January 1, 1987.”

Effective Date of 1989 Amendment

Amendment by section 7881(l)(1)–(4) of Pub. L. 101–239 effective, except as otherwise provided, as if included in the provision of the Pension Protection Act, Pub. L. 100–203, §§9302–9346, to which such amendment relates, see section 7882 of Pub. L. 101–239, set out as a note under section 401 of Title 26, Internal Revenue Code.

Amendment by section 7891(a)(1) of Pub. L. 101–239 effective, except as otherwise provided, as if included in the provision of the Tax Reform Act of 1986, Pub. L. 99–514, to which such amendment relates, see section 7891(f) of Pub. L. 101–239, set out as a note under section 1002 of this title.

Amendment by section 7894(e)(2) of Pub. L. 101–239 effective, except as otherwise provided, as if originally included in the provision of the Employee Retirement Income Security Act of 1974, Pub. L. 93–406, to which such amendment relates, see section 7894(i) of Pub. L. 101–239, set out as a note under section 1002 of this title.

Effective Date of 1987 Amendment

Section 9345(a)(3) of Pub. L. 100–203 provided that: “The amendments made by this subsection [amending this section] shall apply with respect to arrangements established after December 17, 1987.”

Regulations

Secretary authorized, effective Sept. 2, 1974, to promulgate regulations wherever provisions of this part call for the promulgation of regulations, see sections 1031 and 1114 of this title.

§1108. Exemptions from prohibited transactions

(a) Grant of exemptions

The Secretary shall establish an exemption procedure for purposes of this subsection. Pursuant to such procedure, he may grant a conditional or unconditional exemption of any fiduciary or transaction, or class of fiduciaries or transactions, from all or part of the restrictions imposed by sections 1106 and 1107(a) of this title. Action under this subsection may be taken only after consultation and coordination with the Secretary of the Treasury. An exemption granted under this section shall not relieve a fiduciary from any other applicable provision of this chapter. The Secretary may not grant an exemption under this subsection unless he finds that such exemption is—

(1) administratively feasible,

(2) in the interests of the plan and of its participants and beneficiaries, and

(3) protective of the rights of participants and beneficiaries of such plan.


Before granting an exemption under this subsection from section 1106(a) or 1107(a) of this title, the Secretary shall publish notice in the Federal Register of the pendency of the exemption, shall require that adequate notice be given to interested persons, and shall afford interested persons opportunity to present views. The Secretary may not grant an exemption under this subsection from section 1106(b) of this title unless he affords an opportunity for a hearing and makes a determination on the record with respect to the findings required by paragraphs (1), (2), and (3) of this subsection.

(b) Enumeration of transactions exempted from section 1106 prohibitions

The prohibitions provided in section 1106 of this title shall not apply to any of the following transactions:

(1) Any loans made by the plan to parties in interest who are participants or beneficiaries of the plan if such loans (A) are available to all such participants and beneficiaries on a reasonably equivalent basis, (B) are not made available to highly compensated employees (within the meaning of section 414(q) of title 26) in an amount greater than the amount made available to other employees, (C) are made in accordance with specific provisions regarding such loans set forth in the plan, (D) bear a reasonable rate of interest, and (E) are adequately secured. A loan made by a plan shall not fail to meet the requirements of the preceding sentence by reason of a loan repayment suspension described under section 414(u)(4) of title 26.

(2) Contracting or making reasonable arrangements with a party in interest for office space, or legal, accounting, or other services necessary for the establishment or operation of the plan, if no more than reasonable compensation is paid therefor.

(3) A loan to an employee stock ownership plan (as defined in section 1107(d)(6) of this title), if—

(A) such loan is primarily for the benefit of participants and beneficiaries of the plan, and

(B) such loan is at an interest rate which is not in excess of a reasonable rate.


If the plan gives collateral to a party in interest for such loan, such collateral may consist only of qualifying employer securities (as defined in section 1107(d)(5) of this title).

(4) The investment of all or part of a plan's assets in deposits which bear a reasonable interest rate in a bank or similar financial institution supervised by the United States or a State, if such bank or other institution is a fiduciary of such plan and if—

(A) the plan covers only employees of such bank or other institution and employees of affiliates of such bank or other institution, or

(B) such investment is expressly authorized by a provision of the plan or by a fiduciary (other than such bank or institution or affiliate thereof) who is expressly empowered by the plan to so instruct the trustee with respect to such investment.


(5) Any contract for life insurance, health insurance, or annuities with one or more insurers which are qualified to do business in a State, if the plan pays no more than adequate consideration, and if each such insurer or insurers is—

(A) the employer maintaining the plan, or

(B) a party in interest which is wholly owned (directly or indirectly) by the employer maintaining the plan, or by any person which is a party in interest with respect to the plan, but only if the total premiums and annuity considerations written by such insurers for life insurance, health insurance, or annuities for all plans (and their employers) with respect to which such insurers are parties in interest (not including premiums or annuity considerations written by the employer maintaining the plan) do not exceed 5 percent of the total premiums and annuity considerations written for all lines of insurance in that year by such insurers (not including premiums or annuity considerations written by the employer maintaining the plan).


(6) The providing of any ancillary service by a bank or similar financial institution supervised by the United States or a State, if such bank or other institution is a fiduciary of such plan, and if—

(A) such bank or similar financial institution has adopted adequate internal safeguards which assure that the providing of such ancillary service is consistent with sound banking and financial practice, as determined by Federal or State supervisory authority, and

(B) the extent to which such ancillary service is provided is subject to specific guidelines issued by such bank or similar financial institution (as determined by the Secretary after consultation with Federal and State supervisory authority), and adherence to such guidelines would reasonably preclude such bank or similar financial institution from providing such ancillary service (i) in an excessive or unreasonable manner, and (ii) in a manner that would be inconsistent with the best interests of participants and beneficiaries of employee benefit plans.


Such ancillary services shall not be provided at more than reasonable compensation.

(7) The exercise of a privilege to convert securities, to the extent provided in regulations of the Secretary, but only if the plan receives no less than adequate consideration pursuant to such conversion.

(8) Any transaction between a plan and (i) a common or collective trust fund or pooled investment fund maintained by a party in interest which is a bank or trust company supervised by a State or Federal agency or (ii) a pooled investment fund of an insurance company qualified to do business in a State, if—

(A) the transaction is a sale or purchase of an interest in the fund,

(B) the bank, trust company, or insurance company receives not more than reasonable compensation, and

(C) such transaction is expressly permitted by the instrument under which the plan is maintained, or by a fiduciary (other than the bank, trust company, or insurance company, or an affiliate thereof) who has authority to manage and control the assets of the plan.


(9) The making by a fiduciary of a distribution of the assets of the plan in accordance with the terms of the plan if such assets are distributed in the same manner as provided under section 1344 of this title (relating to allocation of assets).

(10) Any transaction required or permitted under part 1 of subtitle E of subchapter III of this chapter.

(11) A merger of multiemployer plans, or the transfer of assets or liabilities between multiemployer plans, determined by the Pension Benefit Guaranty Corporation to meet the requirements of section 1411 of this title.

(12) The sale by a plan to a party in interest on or after December 18, 1987, of any stock, if—

(A) the requirements of paragraphs (1) and (2) of subsection (e) of this section are met with respect to such stock,

(B) on the later of the date on which the stock was acquired by the plan, or January 1, 1975, such stock constituted a qualifying employer security (as defined in section 1107(d)(5) of this title as then in effect), and

(C) such stock does not constitute a qualifying employer security (as defined in section 1107(d)(5) of this title as in effect at the time of the sale).


(13) Any transfer made before January 1, 2014, of excess pension assets from a defined benefit plan to a retiree health account in a qualified transfer permitted under section 420 of title 26 (as in effect on August 17, 2006).

(14) Any transaction in connection with the provision of investment advice described in section 1002(21)(A)(ii) of this title to a participant or beneficiary of an individual account plan that permits such participant or beneficiary to direct the investment of assets in their individual account, if—

(A) the transaction is—

(i) the provision of the investment advice to the participant or beneficiary of the plan with respect to a security or other property available as an investment under the plan,

(ii) the acquisition, holding, or sale of a security or other property available as an investment under the plan pursuant to the investment advice, or

(iii) the direct or indirect receipt of fees or other compensation by the fiduciary adviser or an affiliate thereof (or any employee, agent, or registered representative of the fiduciary adviser or affiliate) in connection with the provision of the advice or in connection with an acquisition, holding, or sale of a security or other property available as an investment under the plan pursuant to the investment advice; and


(B) the requirements of subsection (g) are met.


(15)(A) Any transaction involving the purchase or sale of securities, or other property (as determined by the Secretary), between a plan and a party in interest (other than a fiduciary described in section 1002(21)(A) of this title) with respect to a plan if—

(i) the transaction involves a block trade,

(ii) at the time of the transaction, the interest of the plan (together with the interests of any other plans maintained by the same plan sponsor), does not exceed 10 percent of the aggregate size of the block trade,

(iii) the terms of the transaction, including the price, are at least as favorable to the plan as an arm's length 1 transaction, and

(iv) the compensation associated with the purchase and sale is not greater than the compensation associated with an arm's length 1 transaction with an unrelated party.


(B) For purposes of this paragraph, the term “block trade” means any trade of at least 10,000 shares or with a market value of at least $200,000 which will be allocated across two or more unrelated client accounts of a fiduciary.

(16) Any transaction involving the purchase or sale of securities, or other property (as determined by the Secretary), between a plan and a party in interest if—

(A) the transaction is executed through an electronic communication network, alternative trading system, or similar execution system or trading venue subject to regulation and oversight by—

(i) the applicable Federal regulating entity, or

(ii) such foreign regulatory entity as the Secretary may determine by regulation,


(B) either—

(i) the transaction is effected pursuant to rules designed to match purchases and sales at the best price available through the execution system in accordance with applicable rules of the Securities and Exchange Commission or other relevant governmental authority, or

(ii) neither the execution system nor the parties to the transaction take into account the identity of the parties in the execution of trades,


(C) the price and compensation associated with the purchase and sale are not greater than the price and compensation associated with an arm's length 1 transaction with an unrelated party,

(D) if the party in interest has an ownership interest in the system or venue described in subparagraph (A), the system or venue has been authorized by the plan sponsor or other independent fiduciary for transactions described in this paragraph, and

(E) not less than 30 days prior to the initial transaction described in this paragraph executed through any system or venue described in subparagraph (A), a plan fiduciary is provided written or electronic notice of the execution of such transaction through such system or venue.


(17)(A) Transactions described in subparagraphs (A), (B), and (D) of section 1106(a)(1) of this title between a plan and a person that is a party in interest other than a fiduciary (or an affiliate) who has or exercises any discretionary authority or control with respect to the investment of the plan assets involved in the transaction or renders investment advice (within the meaning of section 1002(21)(A)(ii) of this title) with respect to those assets, solely by reason of providing services to the plan or solely by reason of a relationship to such a service provider described in subparagraph (F), (G), (H), or (I) of section 1002(14) of this title, or both, but only if in connection with such transaction the plan receives no less, nor pays no more, than adequate consideration.

(B) For purposes of this paragraph, the term “adequate consideration” means—

(i) in the case of a security for which there is a generally recognized market—

(I) the price of the security prevailing on a national securities exchange which is registered under section 6 of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 [15 U.S.C. 78f], taking into account factors such as the size of the transaction and marketability of the security, or

(II) if the security is not traded on such a national securities exchange, a price not less favorable to the plan than the offering price for the security as established by the current bid and asked prices quoted by persons independent of the issuer and of the party in interest, taking into account factors such as the size of the transaction and marketability of the security, and


(ii) in the case of an asset other than a security for which there is a generally recognized market, the fair market value of the asset as determined in good faith by a fiduciary or fiduciaries in accordance with regulations prescribed by the Secretary.


(18) Foreign exchange transactions.—Any foreign exchange transactions, between a bank or broker-dealer (or any affiliate of either), and a plan (as defined in section 1002(3) of this title) with respect to which such bank or broker-dealer (or affiliate) is a trustee, custodian, fiduciary, or other party in interest, if—

(A) the transaction is in connection with the purchase, holding, or sale of securities or other investment assets (other than a foreign exchange transaction unrelated to any other investment in securities or other investment assets),

(B) at the time the foreign exchange transaction is entered into, the terms of the transaction are not less favorable to the plan than the terms generally available in comparable arm's length 1 foreign exchange transactions between unrelated parties, or the terms afforded by the bank or broker-dealer (or any affiliate of either) in comparable arm's-length foreign exchange transactions involving unrelated parties,

(C) the exchange rate used by such bank or broker-dealer (or affiliate) for a particular foreign exchange transaction does not deviate by more than 3 percent from the interbank bid and asked rates for transactions of comparable size and maturity at the time of the transaction as displayed on an independent service that reports rates of exchange in the foreign currency market for such currency, and

(D) the bank or broker-dealer (or any affiliate of either) does not have investment discretion, or provide investment advice, with respect to the transaction.


(19) Cross trading.—Any transaction described in sections 1106(a)(1)(A) and 1106(b)(2) of this title involving the purchase and sale of a security between a plan and any other account managed by the same investment manager, if—

(A) the transaction is a purchase or sale, for no consideration other than cash payment against prompt delivery of a security for which market quotations are readily available,

(B) the transaction is effected at the independent current market price of the security (within the meaning of section 270.17a–7(b) of title 17, Code of Federal Regulations),

(C) no brokerage commission, fee (except for customary transfer fees, the fact of which is disclosed pursuant to subparagraph (D)), or other remuneration is paid in connection with the transaction,

(D) a fiduciary (other than the investment manager engaging in the cross-trades or any affiliate) for each plan participating in the transaction authorizes in advance of any cross-trades (in a document that is separate from any other written agreement of the parties) the investment manager to engage in cross trades at the investment manager's discretion, after such fiduciary has received disclosure regarding the conditions under which cross trades may take place (but only if such disclosure is separate from any other agreement or disclosure involving the asset management relationship), including the written policies and procedures of the investment manager described in subparagraph (H),

(E) each plan participating in the transaction has assets of at least $100,000,000, except that if the assets of a plan are invested in a master trust containing the assets of plans maintained by employers in the same controlled group (as defined in section 1107(d)(7) of this title), the master trust has assets of at least $100,000,000,

(F) the investment manager provides to the plan fiduciary who authorized cross trading under subparagraph (D) a quarterly report detailing all cross trades executed by the investment manager in which the plan participated during such quarter, including the following information, as applicable: (i) the identity of each security bought or sold; (ii) the number of shares or units traded; (iii) the parties involved in the cross-trade; and (iv) trade price and the method used to establish the trade price,

(G) the investment manager does not base its fee schedule on the plan's consent to cross trading, and no other service (other than the investment opportunities and cost savings available through a cross trade) is conditioned on the plan's consent to cross trading,

(H) the investment manager has adopted, and cross-trades are effected in accordance with, written cross-trading policies and procedures that are fair and equitable to all accounts participating in the cross-trading program, and that include a description of the manager's pricing policies and procedures, and the manager's policies and procedures for allocating cross trades in an objective manner among accounts participating in the cross-trading program, and

(I) the investment manager has designated an individual responsible for periodically reviewing such purchases and sales to ensure compliance with the written policies and procedures described in subparagraph (H), and following such review, the individual shall issue an annual written report no later than 90 days following the period to which it relates signed under penalty of perjury to the plan fiduciary who authorized cross trading under subparagraph (D) describing the steps performed during the course of the review, the level of compliance, and any specific instances of non-compliance.


The written report under subparagraph (I) shall also notify the plan fiduciary of the plan's right to terminate participation in the investment manager's cross-trading program at any time.

(20)(A) Except as provided in subparagraphs (B) and (C), a transaction described in section 1106(a) of this title in connection with the acquisition, holding, or disposition of any security or commodity, if the transaction is corrected before the end of the correction period.

(B) Subparagraph (A) does not apply to any transaction between a plan and a plan sponsor or its affiliates that involves the acquisition or sale of an employer security (as defined in section 1107(d)(1) of this title) or the acquisition, sale, or lease of employer real property (as defined in section 1107(d)(2) of this title).

(C) In the case of any fiduciary or other party in interest (or any other person knowingly participating in such transaction), subparagraph (A) does not apply to any transaction if, at the time the transaction occurs, such fiduciary or party in interest (or other person) knew (or reasonably should have known) that the transaction would (without regard to this paragraph) constitute a violation of section 1106(a) of this title.

(D) For purposes of this paragraph, the term “correction period” means, in connection with a fiduciary or party in interest (or other person knowingly participating in the transaction), the 14-day period beginning on the date on which such fiduciary or party in interest (or other person) discovers, or reasonably should have discovered, that the transaction would (without regard to this paragraph) constitute a violation of section 1106(a) of this title.

(E) For purposes of this paragraph—

(i) The term “security” has the meaning given such term by section 475(c)(2) of title 26 (without regard to subparagraph (F)(iii) and the last sentence thereof).

(ii) The term “commodity” has the meaning given such term by section 475(e)(2) of title 26 (without regard to subparagraph (D)(iii) thereof).

(iii) The term “correct” means, with respect to a transaction—

(I) to undo the transaction to the extent possible and in any case to make good to the plan or affected account any losses resulting from the transaction, and

(II) to restore to the plan or affected account any profits made through the use of assets of the plan.

(c) Fiduciary benefits and compensation not prohibited by section 1106

Nothing in section 1106 of this title shall be construed to prohibit any fiduciary from—

(1) receiving any benefit to which he may be entitled as a participant or beneficiary in the plan, so long as the benefit is computed and paid on a basis which is consistent with the terms of the plan as applied to all other participants and beneficiaries;

(2) receiving any reasonable compensation for services rendered, or for the reimbursement of expenses properly and actually incurred, in the performance of his duties with the plan; except that no person so serving who already receives full time pay from an employer or an association of employers, whose employees are participants in the plan, or from an employee organization whose members are participants in such plan shall receive compensation from such plan, except for reimbursement of expenses properly and actually incurred; or

(3) serving as a fiduciary in addition to being an officer, employee, agent, or other representative of a party in interest.

(d) Owner-employees; family members; shareholder employees

(1) Section 1107(b) of this title and subsections (b), (c), and (e) of this section shall not apply to a transaction in which a plan directly or indirectly—

(A) lends any part of the corpus or income of the plan to,

(B) pays any compensation for personal services rendered to the plan to, or

(C) acquires for the plan any property from, or sells any property to,


any person who is with respect to the plan an owner-employee (as defined in section 401(c)(3) of title 26), a member of the family (as defined in section 267(c)(4) of such title) of any such owner-employee, or any corporation in which any such owner-employee owns, directly or indirectly, 50 percent or more of the total combined voting power of all classes of stock entitled to vote or 50 percent or more of the total value of shares of all classes of stock of the corporation.

(2)(A) For purposes of paragraph (1), the following shall be treated as owner-employees:

(i) A shareholder-employee.

(ii) A participant or beneficiary of an individual retirement plan (as defined in section 7701(a)(37) of title 26).

(iii) An employer or association of employees which establishes such an individual retirement plan under section 408(c) of such title.


(B) Paragraph (1)(C) shall not apply to a transaction which consists of a sale of employer securities to an employee stock ownership plan (as defined in section 1107(d)(6) of this title) by a shareholder-employee, a member of the family (as defined in section 267(c)(4) of such title) of any such owner-employee, or a corporation in which such a shareholder-employee owns stock representing a 50 percent or greater interest described in paragraph (1).

(C) For purposes of paragraph (1)(A), the term “owner-employee” shall only include a person described in clause (ii) or (iii) of subparagraph (A).

(3) For purposes of paragraph (2), the term “shareholder-employee” means an employee or officer of an S corporation (as defined in section 1361(a)(1) of such title) who owns (or is considered as owning within the meaning of section 318(a)(1) of such title) more than 5 percent of the outstanding stock of the corporation on any day during the taxable year of such corporation.

(e) Acquisition or sale by plan of qualifying employer securities; acquisition, sale, or lease by plan of qualifying employer real property