42 U.S.C.
United States Code, 2011 Edition
Title 42 - THE PUBLIC HEALTH AND WELFARE
CHAPTER 55 - NATIONAL ENVIRONMENTAL POLICY
Sec. 4321 - Congressional declaration of purpose
From the U.S. Government Printing Office, www.gpo.gov

§4321. Congressional declaration of purpose

The purposes of this chapter are: To declare a national policy which will encourage productive and enjoyable harmony between man and his environment; to promote efforts which will prevent or eliminate damage to the environment and biosphere and stimulate the health and welfare of man; to enrich the understanding of the ecological systems and natural resources important to the Nation; and to establish a Council on Environmental Quality.

(Pub. L. 91–190, §2, Jan. 1, 1970, 83 Stat. 852.)

Short Title

Section 1 Pub. L. 91–190 provided: “That this Act [enacting this chapter] may be cited as the ‘National Environmental Policy Act of 1969’.”

Transfer of Functions

Enforcement functions of Secretary or other official in Department of the Interior related to compliance with system activities requiring coordination and approval under this chapter, and enforcement functions of Secretary or other official in Department of Agriculture, insofar as they involve lands and programs under jurisdiction of that Department, related to compliance with this chapter with respect to pre-construction, construction, and initial operation of transportation system for Canadian and Alaskan natural gas transferred to Federal Inspector, Office of Federal Inspector for Alaska Natural Gas Transportation System, until first anniversary of date of initial operation of Alaska Natural Gas Transportation System, see Reorg. Plan No. 1 of 1979, §§102(e), (f), 203(a), 44 F.R. 33663, 33666, 93 Stat. 1373, 1376, effective July 1, 1979, set out in the Appendix to Title 5, Government Organization and Employees. Office of Federal Inspector for the Alaska Natural Gas Transportation System abolished and functions and authority vested in Inspector transferred to Secretary of Energy by section 3012(b) of Pub. L. 102–486, set out as an Abolition of Office of Federal Inspector note under section 719e of Title 15, Commerce and Trade. Functions and authority vested in Secretary of Energy subsequently transferred to Federal Coordinator for Alaska Natural Gas Transportation Projects by section 720d(f) of Title 15.

Emergency Preparedness Functions

For assignment of certain emergency preparedness functions to Administrator of Environmental Protection Agency, see Parts 1, 2, and 16 of Ex. Ord. No. 12656, Nov. 18, 1988, 53 F.R. 47491, set out as a note under section 5195 of this title.

Modification or Replacement of Executive Order No. 13423

Pub. L. 111–117, div. C, title VII, §742(b), Dec. 16, 2009, 123 Stat. 3216, provided that: “Hereafter, the President may modify or replace Executive Order No. 13423 [set out as a note under this section] if the President determines that a revised or new executive order will achieve equal or better environmental or energy efficiency results.”

Pub. L. 111–8, div. D, title VII, §748, Mar. 11, 2009, 123 Stat. 693, which provided that Ex. Ord. No. 13423 (set out as a note under this section) would remain in effect on and after Mar. 11, 2009, except as otherwise provided by law after Mar. 11, 2009, was repealed by Pub. L. 111–117, div. C, title VII, §742(a), Dec. 16, 2009, 123 Stat. 3216.

Necessity of Military Low-Level Flight Training To Protect National Security and Enhance Military Readiness

Pub. L. 106–398, §1 [[div. A], title III, §317], Oct. 30, 2000, 114 Stat. 1654, 1654A–57, provided that: “Nothing in the National Environmental Policy Act of 1969 (42 U.S.C. 4321 et seq.) or the regulations implementing such law shall require the Secretary of Defense or the Secretary of a military department to prepare a programmatic, nation-wide environmental impact statement for low-level flight training as a precondition to the use by the Armed Forces of an airspace for the performance of low-level training flights.”

Pollution Prosecution

Pub. L. 101–593, title II, Nov. 16, 1990, 104 Stat. 2962, provided that:

“SEC. 201. SHORT TITLE.

“This title may be cited as the ‘Pollution Prosecution Act of 1990’.

“SEC. 202. EPA OFFICE OF CRIMINAL INVESTIGATION.

“(a) The Administrator of the Environmental Protection Agency (hereinafter referred to as the ‘Administrator’) shall increase the number of criminal investigators assigned to the Office of Criminal Investigations by such numbers as may be necessary to assure that the number of criminal investigators assigned to the office—

“(1) for the period October 1, 1991, through September 30, 1992, is not less than 72;

“(2) for the period October 1, 1992, through September 30, 1993, is not less than 110;

“(3) for the period October 1, 1993, through September 30, 1994, is not less than 123;

“(4) for the period October 1, 1994, through September 30, 1995, is not less than 160;

“(5) beginning October 1, 1995, is not less than 200.

“(b) For fiscal year 1991 and in each of the following 4 fiscal years, the Administrator shall, during each such fiscal year, provide increasing numbers of additional support staff to the Office of Criminal Investigations.

“(c) The head of the Office of Criminal Investigations shall be a position in the competitive service as defined in 2102 of title 5 U.S.C. or a career reserve [reserved] position as defined in 3132(A) [3132(a)] of title 5 U.S.C. and the head of such office shall report directly, without intervening review or approval, to the Assistant Administrator for Enforcement.

“SEC. 203. CIVIL INVESTIGATORS.

“The Administrator, as soon as practicable following the date of the enactment of this Act [Nov. 16, 1990], but no later than September 30, 1991, shall increase by fifty the number of civil investigators assigned to assist the Office of Enforcement in developing and prosecuting civil and administrative actions and carrying out its other functions.

“SEC. 204. NATIONAL TRAINING INSTITUTE.

“The Administrator shall, as soon as practicable but no later than September 30, 1991 establish within the Office of Enforcement the National Enforcement Training Institute. It shall be the function of the Institute, among others, to train Federal, State, and local lawyers, inspectors, civil and criminal investigators, and technical experts in the enforcement of the Nation's environmental laws.

“SEC. 205. AUTHORIZATION.

“For the purposes of carrying out the provisions of this Act [probably should be “this title”], there is authorized to be appropriated to the Environmental Protection Agency $13,000,000 for fiscal year 1991, $18,000,000 for fiscal year 1992, $20,000,000 for fiscal year 1993, $26,000,000 for fiscal year 1994, and $33,000,000 for fiscal year 1995.”

REORGANIZATION PLAN NO. 3 OF 1970

Eff. Dec. 2, 1970, 35 F.R. 15623, 84 Stat. 2086, as amended Pub. L. 98–80, §2(a)(2), (b)(2), (c)(2)(C), Aug. 23, 1983, 97 Stat. 485, 486

Prepared by the President and transmitted to the Senate and the House of Representatives in Congress assembled, July 9, 1970, pursuant to the provisions of Chapter 9 of Title 5 of the United States Code.

ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY

Section 1. Establishment of Agency

(a) There is hereby established the Environmental Protection Agency, hereinafter referred to as the “Agency.”

(b) There shall be at the head of the Agency the Administrator of the Environmental Protection Agency, hereinafter referred to as the “Administrator.” The Administrator shall be appointed by the President, by and with the advice and consent of the Senate.

(c) There shall be in the Agency a Deputy Administrator of the Environmental Protection Agency who shall be appointed by the President, by and with the advice and consent of the Senate. The Deputy Administrator shall perform such functions as the Administrator shall from time to time assign or delegate, and shall act as Administrator during the absence or disability of the Administrator or in the event of a vacancy in the office of Administrator.

(d) There shall be in the Agency not to exceed five Assistant Administrators of the Environmental Protection Agency who shall be appointed by the President, by and with the advice and consent of the Senate. Each Assistant Administrator shall perform such functions as the Administrator shall from time to time assign or delegate. [As amended Pub. L. 98–80, §2(a)(2), (b)(2), (c)(2)(C), Aug. 23, 1983, 97 Stat. 485, 486.]

Sec. 2. Transfers to Environmental Protection Agency

(a) There are hereby transferred to the Administrator:

(1) All functions vested by law in the Secretary of the Interior and the Department of the Interior which are administered through the Federal Water Quality Administration, all functions which were transferred to the Secretary of the Interior by Reorganization Plan No. 2 of 1966 (80 Stat. 1608), and all functions vested in the Secretary of the Interior or the Department of the Interior by the Federal Water Pollution Control Act or by provisions of law amendatory or supplementary thereof [see 33 U.S.C. 1251 et seq.].

(2)(i) The functions vested in the Secretary of the Interior by the Act of August 1, 1958, 72 Stat. 479, 16 U.S.C. 742d–1 (being an Act relating to studies on the effects of insecticides, herbicides, fungicides, and pesticides upon the fish and wildlife resources of the United States), and (ii) the functions vested by law in the Secretary of the Interior and the Department of the Interior which are administered by the Gulf Breeze Biological Laboratory of the Bureau of Commercial Fisheries at Gulf Breeze, Florida.

(3) The functions vested by law in the Secretary of Health, Education, and Welfare or in the Department of Health, Education, and Welfare which are administered through the Environmental Health Service, including the functions exercised by the following components thereof:

(i) The National Air Pollution Control Administration,

(ii) The Environmental Control Administration:

(A) Bureau of Solid Waste Management,

(B) Bureau of Water Hygiene,

(C) Bureau of Radiological Health,


except that functions carried out by the following components of the Environmental Control Administration of the Environmental Health Service are not transferred: (i) Bureau of Community Environmental Management, (ii) Bureau of Occupational Safety and Health, and (iii) Bureau of Radiological Health, insofar as the functions carried out by the latter Bureau pertain to (A) regulation of radiation from consumer products, including electronic product radiation, (B) radiation as used in the healing arts, (C) occupational exposures to radiation, and (D) research, technical assistance, and training related to clauses (A), (B), and (C).

(4) The functions vested in the Secretary of Health, Education, and Welfare of establishing tolerances for pesticide chemicals under the Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act, as amended, 21 U.S.C. 346, 346a, and 348, together with authority, in connection with the functions transferred, (i) to monitor compliance with the tolerances and the effectiveness of surveillance and enforcement, and (ii) to provide technical assistance to the States and conduct research under the Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act, as amended [21 U.S.C. 301 et seq.], and the Public Health Service Act, as amended [42 U.S.C. 201 et seq.].

(5) So much of the functions of the Council on Environmental Quality under section 204(5) of the National Environmental Policy Act of 1969 (Public Law 91–190, approved January 1, 1970, 83 Stat. 855) [42 U.S.C. 4344(5)], as pertains to ecological systems.

(6) The functions of the Atomic Energy Commission under the Atomic Energy Act of 1954, as amended [42 U.S.C. 2011 et seq.], administered through its Division of Radiation Protection Standards, to the extent that such functions of the Commission consist of establishing generally applicable environmental standards for the protection of the general environment from radioactive material. As used herein, standards mean limits on radiation exposures or levels, or concentrations or quantities of radioactive material, in the general environment outside the boundaries of locations under the control of persons possessing or using radio-active material.

(7) All functions of the Federal Radiation Council (42 U.S.C. 2021(h)).

(8)(i) The functions of the Secretary of Agriculture and the Department of Agriculture under the Federal Insecticide, Fungicide, and Rodenticide Act, as amended (7 U.S.C. 135–135k) [7 U.S.C. 136 et seq.], (ii) the functions of the Secretary of Agriculture and the Department of Agriculture under section 408(l) of the Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act, as amended (21 U.S.C. 346a(l)), and (iii) the functions vested by law in the Secretary of Agriculture and the Department of Agriculture which are administered through the Environmental Quality Branch of the Plant Protection Division of the Agricultural Research Service.

(9) So much of the functions of the transferor officers and agencies referred to in or affected by the foregoing provisions of this section as is incidental to or necessary for the performance by or under the Administrator of the functions transferred by those provisions or relates primarily to those functions. The transfers to the Administrator made by this section shall be deemed to include the transfer of (1) authority, provided by law, to prescribe regulations relating primarily to the transferred functions, and (2) the functions vested in the Secretary of the Interior and the Secretary of Health, Education, and Welfare by section 169(d)(1)(B) and (3) of the Internal Revenue Code of 1954 (as enacted by section 704 of the Tax Reform Act of 1969, 83 Stat. 668); but shall be deemed to exclude the transfer of the functions of the Bureau of Reclamation under section 3(b)(1) of the Water Pollution Control Act (33 U.S.C. [former] 466a(b)(1)).

(b) There are hereby transferred to the Agency:

(1) From the Department of the Interior, (i) the Water Pollution Control Advisory Board (33 U.S.C. [former] 466f) [see 33 U.S.C. 1363], together with its functions, and (ii) the hearing boards provided for in sections 10(c)(4) and 10(f) of the Federal Water Pollution Control Act, as amended (33 U.S.C. [former] 466g(c)(4); 466g(f)). The functions of the Secretary of the Interior with respect to being or designating the Chairman of the Water Pollution Control Advisory Board are hereby transferred to the Administrator.

(2) From the Department of Health, Education, and Welfare, the Air Quality Advisory Board (42 U.S.C. 1857e) [42 U.S.C. 7417], together with its functions. The functions of the Secretary of Health, Education, and Welfare with respect to being a member and the Chairman of that Board are hereby transferred to the Administrator.

Sec. 3. Performance of Transferred Functions

The Administrator may from time to time make such provisions as he shall deem appropriate authorizing the performance of any of the functions transferred to him by the provisions of this reorganization plan by any other officer, or by any organizational entity or employee, of the Agency.

Sec. 4. Incidental Transfers

(a) So much of the personnel, property, records, and unexpended balances of appropriations, allocations, and other funds employed, used, held, available or to be made available in connection with the functions transferred to the Administrator or the Agency by this reorganization plan as the Director of the Office of Management and Budget shall determine shall be transferred to the Agency at such time or times as the Director shall direct.

(b) Such further measures and dispositions as the Director of Office of Management and Budget shall deem to be necessary in order to effectuate the transfers referred to in subsection (a) of this section shall be carried out in such manner as he shall direct and by such agencies as he shall designate.

Sec. 5. Interim Officers

(a) The President may authorize any person who immediately prior to the effective date of this reorganization plan held a position in the executive branch of the Government to act as Administrator until the office of Administrator is for the first time filled pursuant to the provisions of this reorganization plan or by recess appointment, as the case may be.

(b) The President may similarly authorize any such person to act as Deputy Administrator, authorize any such person to act as Assistant Administrator, and authorize any such person to act as the head of any principal constituent organizational entity of the Administration.

(c) The President may authorize any person who serves in an acting capacity under the foregoing provisions of this section to receive the compensation attached to the office in respect of which he so serves. Such compensation, if authorized, shall be in lieu of, but not in addition to, other compensation from the United States to which such person may be entitled.

Sec. 6. Abolitions

(a) Subject to the provisions of this reorganization plan, the following, exclusive of any functions, are hereby abolished:

(1) The Federal Water Quality Administration in the Department of the Interior (33 U.S.C. [former] 466–1).

(2) The Federal Radiation Council (73 Stat. 690; 42 U.S.C. 2021(h)).

(b) Such provisions as may be necessary with respect to terminating any outstanding affairs shall be made by the Secretary of the Interior in the case of the Federal Water Quality Administration and by the Administrator of General Services in the case of the Federal Radiation Council.

Sec. 7. Effective Date

The provisions of this reorganization plan shall take effect sixty days after the date they would take effect under 5 U.S.C. 906(a) in the absence of this section.

Message of the President

To the Congress of the United States:

I transmit herewith Reorganization Plan No. 3 of 1970, prepared in accordance with chapter 9 of title 5 of the United States Code and providing for an Environmental Protection Agency. My reasons for transmitting this plan are stated in a more extended accompanying message.

After investigation, I have found and hereby declare that each reorganization included in Reorganization Plan No. 3 of 1970 is necessary to accomplish one or more of the purposes set forth in section 901(a) of title 5 of the United States Code. In particular, the plan is responsive to section 901(a)(1), “to promote the better execution of the laws, the more effective management of the executive branch and of its agencies and functions, and the expeditious administration of the public business;” and section 901(a)(3), “to increase the efficiency of the operations of the Government to the fullest extent practicable.”

The reorganizations provided for in the plan make necessary the appointment and compensation of new officers as specified in section 1 of the plan. The rates of compensation fixed for these officers are comparable to those fixed for other officers in the executive branch who have similar responsibilities.

Section 907 of title 5 of the United States Code will operate to preserve administrative proceedings, including any public hearing proceedings, related to the transferred functions, which are pending immediately prior to the taking effect of the reorganization plan.

The reorganization plan should result in more efficient operation of the Government. It is not practical, however, to itemize or aggregate the exact expenditure reductions which will result from this action.

Richard Nixon.      

The White House, July 9, 1970.

Message of the President

To the Congress of the United States:

As concern with the condition of our physical environment has intensified, it has become increasingly clear that we need to know more about the total environment—land, water and air. It also has become increasingly clear that only by reorganizing our Federal efforts can we develop that knowledge, and effectively ensure the protection, development and enhancement of the total environment itself.

The Government's environmentally-related activities have grown up piecemeal over the years. The time has come to organize them rationally and systematically. As a major step in this direction, I am transmitting today two reorganization plans: one to establish an Environmental Protection Agency, and one to establish, within the Department of Commerce, a National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration.

ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (EPA)

Our national government today is not structured to make a coordinated attack on the pollutants which debase the air we breathe, the water we drink, and the land that grows our food. Indeed, the present governmental structure for dealing with environmental pollution often defies effective and concerted action.

Despite its complexity, for pollution control purposes the environment must be perceived as a single, interrelated system. Present assignments of departmental responsibilities do not reflect this interrelatedness.

Many agency missions, for example, are designed primarily along media lines—air, water, and land. Yet the sources of air, water, and land pollution are interrelated and often interchangeable. A single source may pollute the air with smoke and chemicals, the land with solid wastes, and a river or lake with chemical and other wastes. Control of the air pollution may produce more solid wastes, which then pollute the land or water. Control of the water-polluting effluent may convert it into solid wastes, which must be disposed of on land.

Similarly, some pollutants—chemicals, radiation, pesticides—appear in all media. Successful control of them at present requires the coordinated efforts of a variety of separate agencies and departments. The results are not always successful.

A far more effective approach to pollution control would:

—identify pollutants.

—trace them through the entire ecological chain, observing and recording changes in form as they occur.

—Determine the total exposure of man his environment.

—Examine interactions among forms of pollution.

—Identify where in the ecological chain interdiction would be most appropriate.

In organizational terms, this requires pulling together into one agency a variety of research, monitoring, standard-setting and enforcement activities now scattered through several departments and agencies. It also requires that the new agency include sufficient support elements—in research and in aids to State and local anti-pollution programs, for example—to give it the needed strength and potential for carrying out its mission. The new agency would also, of course, draw upon the results of research conducted by other agencies.

components of the epa

Under the terms of Reorganization Plan No. 3, the following would be moved to the new Environmental Protection Agency:

—The functions carried out by the Federal Water Quality Administration (from the Department of the Interior).

—Functions with respect to pesticides studies now vested in the Department of the Interior.

—The functions carried out by the National Air Pollution Control Administration (from the Department of Health, Education, and Welfare).

—The functions carried out by the Bureau of Solid Waste Management and the Bureau of Water Hygiene, and portions of the functions carried out by the Bureau of Radiological Health of the Environmental Control Administration (from the Department of Health, Education, and Welfare).

—Certain functions with respect to pesticides carried out by the Food and Drug Administration (from the Department of Health, Education, and Welfare).

—Authority to perform studies relating to ecological systems now vested in the Council on Environmental Quality.

—Certain functions respecting radiation criteria and standards now vested in the Atomic Energy Commission and the Federal Radiation Council.

—Functions respecting pesticides registration and related activities now carried out by the Agricultural Research Service (from the Department of Agriculture).

With its broad mandate, EPA would also develop competence in areas of environmental protection that have not previously been given enough attention, such, for example, as the problem of noise, and it would provide an organization to which new programs in these areas could be added.

In brief, these are the principal functions to be transferred:

Federal Water Quality Administration.—Charged with the control of pollutants which impair water quality, it is broadly concerned with the impact of degraded water quality. It performs a wide variety of functions, including research, standard-setting and enforcement, and provides construction grants and technical assistance.

Certain pesticides research authority from the Department of the Interior.—Authority for research on the effects of pesticides on fish and wildlife would be provided to the EPA through transfer of the specialized research authority of the pesticides act enacted in 1958. Interior would retain its responsibility to do research on all factors affecting fish and wildlife. Under this provision, only one laboratory would be transferred to the EPA—the Gulf Breeze Biological Laboratory of the Bureau of Commercial Fisheries. The EPA would work closely with the fish and wildlife laboratories remaining with the Bureau of Sport Fisheries and Wildlife.

National Air Pollution Control Administration.—As the principal Federal agency concerned with air pollution, it conducts research on the effects of air pollution, operates a monitoring network, and promulgates criteria which serve as the basis for setting air quality standards. Its regulatory functions are similar to those of the Federal Water Quality Administration. NAPCA is responsible for administering the Clean Air Act, which involves designating air quality regions, approving State standards and providing financial and technical assistance to State Control agencies to enable them to comply with the Act's provisions. It also sets and enforces Federal automotive emission standards.

Elements of the Environmental Control Administration.—ECA is the focal point within HEW for evaluation and control of a broad range of environmental health problems, including water quality, solid wastes, and radiation. Programs in the ECA involve research, development of criteria and standards, and the administration of planning and demonstration grants. From the ECA, the activities of the Bureaus of Water Hygiene and Solid Waste Management and portions of the activities of the Bureau of Radiological Health would be transferred. Other functions of the ECA including those related to the regulation of radiation from consumer products and occupational safety and health would remain in HEW.

Pesticides research and standard-setting programs of the Food and Drug Administration.—FDA's pesticides program consists of setting and enforcing standards which limit pesticide residues in food. EPA would have the authority to set pesticide standards and to monitor compliance with them, as well as to conduct related research. However, as an integral part of its food protection activities, FDA would retain its authority to remove from the market food with excess pesticide residues.

General ecological research from the Council on Environmental Quality.—This authority to perform studies and research relating to ecological systems would be in addition to EPA's other specific research authorities, and it would help EPA to measure the impact of pollutants. The Council on Environmental Quality would retain its authority to conduct studies and research relating to environmental quality.

Environmental radiation standards programs.—The Atomic Energy Commission is now responsible for establishing environmental radiation standards and emission limits for radioactivity. Those standards have been based largely on broad guidelines recommended by the Federal Radiation Council. The Atomic Energy Commission's authority to set standards for the protection of the general environment from radioactive material would be transferred to the Environmental Protection Agency. The functions of the Federal Radiation Council would also be transferred. AEC would retain responsibility for the implementation and enforcement of radiation standards through its licensing authority.

Pesticides registration program of the Agricultural Research Service.—The Department of Agriculture is currently responsible for several distinct functions related to pesticides use. It conducts research on the efficacy of various pesticides as related to other pest control methods and on the effects of pesticides on non-target plants, livestock, and poultry. It registers pesticides, monitors their persistence and carries out an educational program on pesticide use through the extension service. It conducts extensive pest control programs which utilize pesticides.

By transferring the Department of Agriculture's pesticides registration and monitoring function to the EPA and merging it with the pesticides programs being transferred from HEW and Interior, the new agency would be given a broad capability for control over the introduction of pesticides into the environment.

The Department of Agriculture would continue to conduct research on the effectiveness of pesticides. The Department would furnish this information to the EPA, which would have the responsibility for actually licensing pesticides for use after considering environmental and health effects. Thus the new agency would be able to make use of the expertise of the Department.

advantages of reorganization

This reorganization would permit response to environmental problems in a manner beyond the previous capability of our pollution control programs. The EPA would have the capacity to do research on important pollutants irrespective of the media in which they appear, and on the impact of these pollutants on the total environment. Both by itself and together with other agencies, the EPA would monitor the condition of the environment—biological as well as physical. With these data, the EPA would be able to establish quantitative “environmental baselines”—critical if we are to measure adequately the success or failure of our pollution abatement efforts.

As no disjointed array of separate programs can, the EPA would be able—in concert with the States—to set and enforce standards for air and water quality and for individual pollutants. This consolidation of pollution control authorities would help assure that we do not create new environmental problems in the process of controlling existing ones. Industries seeking to minimize the adverse impact of their activities on the environment would be assured of consistent standards covering the full range of their waste disposal problems. As the States develop and expand their own pollution control programs, they would be able to look to one agency to support their efforts with financial and technical assistance and training.

In proposing that the Environmental Protection Agency be set up as a separate new agency, I am making an exception to one of my own principles: that, as a matter of effective and orderly administration, additional new independent agencies normally should not be created. In this case, however, the arguments against placing environmental protection activities under the jurisdiction of one or another of the existing departments and agencies are compelling.

In the first place, almost every part of government is concerned with the environment in some way, and affects it in some way. Yet each department also has its own primary mission—such as resource development, transportation, health, defense, urban growth or agriculture—which necessarily affects its own view of environmental questions.

In the second place, if the critical standard-setting functions were centralized within any one existing department, it would require that department constantly to make decisions affecting other departments—in which, whether fairly or unfairly, its own objectivity as an impartial arbiter could be called into question.

Because environmental protection cuts across so many jurisdictions, and because arresting environmental deterioration is of great importance to the quality of life in our country and the world, I believe that in this case a strong, independent agency is needed. That agency would, of course, work closely with and draw upon the expertise and assistance of other agencies having experience in the environmental area.

roles and functions of epa

The principal roles and functions of the EPA would include:

—The establishment and enforcement of environmental protection standards consistent with national environmental goals.

—The conduct of research on the adverse effects of pollution and on methods and equipment for controlling it, the gathering of information on pollution, and the use of this information in strengthening environmental protection programs and recommending policy changes.

—Assisting others, through grants, technical assistance and other means in arresting pollution of the environment.

—Assisting the Council on Environmental Quality in developing and recommending to the President new policies for the protection of the environment.

One natural question concerns the relationship between the EPA and the Council on Environmental Quality, recently established by Act of Congress.

It is my intention and expectation that the two will work in close harmony, reinforcing each other's mission. Essentially, the Council is a top-level advisory group (which might be compared with the Council of Economic Advisers), while the EPA would be an operating, “line” organization. The Council will continue to be a part of the Executive Office of the President and will perform its overall coordinating and advisory roles with respect to all Federal programs related to environmental quality.

The Council, then, is concerned with all aspects of environmental quality—wildlife preservation, parklands, land use, and population growth, as well as pollution. The EPA would be charged with protecting the environment by abating pollution. In short, the Council focuses on what our broad policies in the environment field should be; the EPA would focus on setting and enforcing pollution control standards. The two are not competing, but complementary—and taken together, they should give us, for the first time, the means to mount an effectively coordinated campaign against environmental degradation in all of its many forms.

NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION

The oceans and the atmosphere are interacting parts of the total environmental system upon which we depend not only for the quality of our lives, but for life itself.

We face immediate and compelling needs for better protection of life and property from natural hazards, and for a better understanding of the total environment—and understanding which will enable us more effectively to monitor and predict its actions, and ultimately, perhaps to exercise some degree of control over them.

We also face a compelling need for exploration and development leading to the intelligent use of our marine resources. The global oceans, which constitute nearly three-fourths of the surface of our planet, are today the least-understood, the least-developed, and the least-protected part of our earth. Food from the oceans will increasingly be a key element in the world's fight against hunger. The mineral resources of the ocean beds and of the oceans themselves, are being increasingly tapped to meet the growing world demand. We must understand the nature of these resources, and assure their development without either contaminating the marine environment or upsetting its balance.

Establishment of the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration—NOAA—within the Department of Commerce would enable us to approach these tasks in a coordinated way. By employing a unified approach to the problems of the oceans and atmosphere, we can increase our knowledge and expand our opportunities not only in those areas, but in the third major component of our environment, the solid earth, as well.

Scattered through various Federal departments and agencies, we already have the scientific, technological, and administrative resources to make an effective, unified approach possible. What we need is to bring them together. Establishment of NOAA would do so.

By far the largest of the components being merged would be the Commerce Department's Environmental Science Services Administration (ESSA), with some 10,000 employees (70 percent of NOAA's total personnel strength) and estimated Fiscal 1970 expenditures of almost $200 million. Placing NOAA within the Department of Commerce therefore entails the least dislocation, while also placing it within a Department which has traditionally been a center for service activities in the scientific and technological area.

components of noaa

Under terms of Reorganization Plan No. 4, the programs of the following organizations would be moved into NOAA:

—The Environmental Science Services Administration (from within the Department of Commerce).

—Elements of the Bureau of Commercial Fisheries (from the Department of the Interior).

—The marine sport fish program of the Bureau of Sport Fisheries and Wildlife (from the Department of the Interior).

—The Marine Minerals Technology Center of the Bureau of Mines (from the Department of the Interior).

—The Office of Sea Grant Programs (from the National Science Foundation).

—Elements of the United States Lake Survey (from the Department of the Army).

In addition, by executive action, the programs of the following organizations would be transferred to NOAA:

—The National Oceanographic Data Center (from the Department of the Navy).

—The National Oceanographic Instrumentation Center (from the Department of the Navy).

—The National Data Buoy Project (from the Department of Transportation).

In brief, these are the principal functions of the programs and agencies to be combined:

THE ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCE SERVICES ADMINISTRATION

(ESSA) comprises the following components:

—The Weather Bureau (weather, marine, river and flood forecasting and warning).

—The Coast and Geodetic Survey (earth and marine description, mapping and charting).

—The Environmental Data Service (storage and retrieval of environmental data).

—The National Environmental Satellite Center (observation of the global environment from earth-orbiting satellites).

—The ESSA Research Laboratories (research on physical environmental problems).

ESSA's activities include observing and predicting the state of the oceans, the state of the lower and upper atmosphere, and the size and shape of the earth. It maintains the nation's warning systems for such natural hazards as hurricanes, tornadoes, floods, earthquakes and seismic sea waves. It provides information for national defense, agriculture, transportation and industry.

ESSA monitors atmospheric, oceanic and geophysical phenomena on a global basis, through an unparalleled complex of air, ocean, earth and space facilities. It also prepares aeronautical and marine maps and charts.

Bureau of Commercial Fisheries and marine sport fish activities.—Those fishery activities of the Department of the Interior's U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service which are ocean related and those which are directed toward commercial fishing would be transferred. The Fish and Wildlife Service's Bureau of Commercial Fisheries has the dual function of strengthening the fishing industry and promoting conservation of fishery stocks. It conducts research on important marine species and on fundamental oceanography, and operates a fleet of oceanographic vessels and a number of laboratories. Most of its activities would be transferred. From the Fish and Wildlife Service's Bureau of Sport Fisheries and Wildlife, the marine sport fishing program would be transferred. This involves five supporting laboratories and three ships engaged in activities to enhance marine sport fishing opportunities.

The Marine Minerals Technology Center is concerned with the development of marine mining technology.

Office of Sea Grant Programs.—The Sea Grant Program was authorized in 1966 to permit the Federal Government to assist the academic and industrial communities in developing marine resources and technology. It aims at strengthening education and training of marine specialists, supporting applied research in the recovery and use of marine resources, and developing extension and advisory services. The Office carries out these objectives by making grants to selected academic institutions.

The U.S. Lake Survey has two primary missions. It prepares and publishes navigation charts of the Great Lakes and tributary waters and conducts research on a variety of hydraulic and hydrologic phenomena of the Great Lakes’ waters. Its activities are very similar to those conducted along the Atlantic and Pacific coasts by ESSA's Coast and Geodetic Survey.

The National Oceanographic Data Center is responsible for the collection and dissemination of oceanographic data accumulated by all Federal agencies.

The National Oceanographic Instrumentation Center provides a central Federal service for the calibration and testing of oceanographic instruments.

The National Data Buoy Development Project was established to determine the feasibility of deploying a system of automatic ocean buoys to obtain oceanic and atmospheric data.

role of noaa

Drawing these activities together into a single agency would make possible a balanced Federal program to improve our understanding of the resources of the sea, and permit their development and use while guarding against the sort of thoughtless exploitation that in the past laid waste to so many of our precious natural assets. It would make possible a consolidated program for achieving a more comprehensive understanding of oceanic and atmospheric phenomena, which so greatly affect our lives and activities. It would facilitate the cooperation between public and private interests that can best serve the interests of all.

I expect that NOAA would exercise leadership in developing a national oceanic and atmospheric program of research and development. It would coordinate its own scientific and technical resources with the technical and operational capabilities of other government agencies and private institutions. As important, NOAA would continue to provide those services to other agencies of government, industry and private individuals which have become essential to the efficient operation of our transportation systems, our agriculture and our national security. I expect it to maintain continuing and close liaison with the new Environmental Protection Agency and the Council on Environmental Quality as part of an effort to ensure that environmental questions are dealt with in their totality and they benefit from the full range of the government's technical and human resources.

Authorities who have studied this matter, including the Commission on Marine Science, Engineering and Resources, strongly recommended the creation of a National Advisory Committee for the Oceans. I agree. Consequently, I will request, upon approval of the plan, that the Secretary of Commerce establish a National Advisory Committee for the Oceans and the Atmosphere to advise him on the progress of governmental and private programs in achieving the nation's oceanic and atmospheric objectives.

AN ON-GOING PROCESS

The reorganizations which I am here proposing afford both the Congress and the Executive Branch an opportunity to re-evaluate the adequacy of existing program authorities involved in these consolidations. As these two new organizations come into being, we may well find that supplementary legislation to perfect their authorities will be necessary. I look forward to working with the Congress in this task.

In formulating these reorganization plans, I have been greatly aided by the work of the President's Advisory Council on Executive Organization (the Ash Council), the Commission on Marine Science, Engineering and Resources (the Stratton Commission, appointed by President Johnson), my special task force on oceanography headed by Dr. James Wakelin, and by the information developed during both House and Senate hearings on proposed NOAA legislation.

Many of those who have advised me have proposed additional reorganizations, and it may well be that in the future I shall recommend further changes. For the present, however, I think the two reorganizations transmitted today represent a sound and significant beginning. I also think that in practical terms, in this sensitive and rapidly developing area, it is better to proceed a step at a time—and thus to be sure that we are not caught up in a form of organizational indigestion from trying to rearrange too much at once. As we see how these changes work out, we will gain a better understanding of what further changes—in addition to these—might be desirable.

Ultimately, our objective should be to insure that the nation's environmental and resource protection activities are so organized as to maximize both the effective coordination of all and the effective functioning of each.

The Congress, the Administration and the public all share a profound commitment to the rescue of our natural environment, and the preservation of the Earth as a place both habitable by and hospitable to man. With its acceptance of these reorganization plans, the Congress will help us fulfill that commitment.

Richard Nixon.      

The White House, July 9, 1970.

Ex. Ord. No. 11472. Cabinet Committee on the Environment and Citizens’ Advisory Committee on Environmental Quality

Ex. Ord. No. 11472, May 29, 1969, 34 F.R. 8693, as amended by Ex. Ord. No. 11514, Mar. 5, 1970, 35 F.R. 4247; Ex. Ord. No. 12007, Aug. 22, 1977, 42 F.R. 42839, provided:

By virtue of the authority vested in me as President of the United States, it is ordered as follows:

Part I—Cabinet Committee on the Environment

Section 101. Establishment of the Cabinet Committee. (a) There is hereby established the Cabinet Committee on the Environment (hereinafter referred to as “the Cabinet Committee”).

(b) The President of the United States shall preside over meetings of the Cabinet Committee. The Vice President shall preside in the absence of the President.

(c) The Cabinet Committee shall be composed of the following members:

The Vice President of the United States

Secretary of Agriculture

Secretary of Commerce

Secretary of Health, Education, and Welfare

Secretary of Housing and Urban Development

Secretary of the Interior

Secretary of Transportation

and such other heads of departments and agencies and others as the President may from time to time direct.

(d) Each member of the Cabinet Committee may designate an alternate, who shall serve as a member of the Cabinet Committee whenever the regular member is unable to attend any meeting of the Cabinet Committee.

(e) When matters which affect the interest of Federal agencies the heads of which are not members of the Cabinet Committee are to be considered by the Cabinet Committee, the President or his representative may invite such agency heads or their alternates to participate in the deliberations of the Cabinet Committee.

(f) The Director of the Bureau of the Budget [now the Director of the Office of Management and Budget], the Director of the Office of Science and Technology, the Chairman of the Council of Economic Advisers, and the Executive Secretary of the Council for Urban Affairs or their representatives may participate in the deliberations of the Cabinet Committee on the Environment as observers.

(g) The Chairman of the Council on Environmental Quality (established by Public Law 91–190) [this chapter] shall assist the President in directing the affairs of the Cabinet Committee.

Sec. 102. Functions of the Cabinet Committee. (a) The Cabinet Committee shall advise and assist the President with respect to environmental quality matters and shall perform such other related duties as the President may from time to time prescribe. In addition thereto, the Cabinet Committee is directed to:

(1) Recommend measures to ensure that Federal policies and programs, including those for development and conservation of natural resources, take adequate account of environmental effects.

(2) Review the adequacy of existing systems for monitoring and predicting environmental changes so as to achieve effective coverage and efficient use of facilities and other resources.

(3) Foster cooperation between the Federal Government, State and local governments, and private organizations in environmental programs.

(4) Seek advancement of scientific knowledge of changes in the environment and encourage the development of technology to prevent or minimize adverse effects that endanger man's health and well-being.

(5) Stimulate public and private participation in programs and activities to protect against pollution of the Nation's air, water, and land and its living resources.

(6) Encourage timely public disclosure by all levels of government and by private parties of plans that would affect the quality of environment.

(7) Assure assessment of new and changing technologies for their potential effects on the environment.

(8) Facilitate coordination among departments and agencies of the Federal Government in protecting and improving the environment.

(b) The Cabinet Committee shall review plans and actions of Federal agencies affecting outdoor recreation and natural beauty. The Cabinet Committee may conduct studies and make recommendations to the President on matters of policy in the fields of outdoor recreation and natural beauty. In carrying out the foregoing provisions of this subsection, the Cabinet Committee shall, as far as may be practical, advise Federal agencies with respect to the effect of their respective plans and programs on recreation and natural beauty, and may suggest to such agencies ways to accomplish the purposes of this order. For the purposes of this order, plans and programs may include, but are not limited to, those for or affecting: (1) Development, restoration, and preservation of the beauty of the countryside, urban and suburban areas, water resources, wild rivers, scenic roads, parkways and highways, (2) the protection and appropriate management of scenic or primitive areas, natural wonders, historic sites, and recreation areas, (3) the management of Federal land and water resources, including fish and wildlife, to enhance natural beauty and recreational opportunities consistent with other essential uses, (4) cooperation with the States and their local subdivisions and private organizations and individuals in areas of mutual interest, (5) interstate arrangements, including Federal participation where authorized and necessary, and (6) leadership in a nationwide recreation and beautification effort.

Sec. 103. Coordination. The Secretary of the Interior may make available to the Cabinet Committee for coordination of outdoor recreation the authorities and resources available to him under the Act of May 28, 1963, 77 Stat. 49 [16 U.S.C. 460l et seq.], to the extent permitted by law, he may make such authorities and resources available to the Cabinet Committee also for promoting such coordination of other matters assigned to the Cabinet Committee by this order.

Sec. 104. Assistance for the Cabinet Committee. In compliance with provisions of applicable law, and as necessary to serve the purposes of this order, (1) the Council on Environmental Quality (established by Public Law 91–190) [this chapter] shall provide or arrange for necessary administrative and staff services, support, and facilities for the Cabinet Committee, and (2) each department and agency which has membership on the Cabinet Committee under Section 101(c) hereof shall furnish the Cabinet Committee such information and other assistance as may be available.

Part II—Citizens’ Advisory Committee on Environmental Quality

[Revoked. Ex. Ord. No. 12007, Aug. 22, 1977, 42 F.R. 42839.]

Part III—General Provisions

Sec. 301. Construction. Nothing in this order shall be construed as subjecting any department, establishment, or other instrumentality of the executive branch of the Federal Government or the head thereof, or any function vested by law in or assigned pursuant to law to any such agency or head, to the authority of any other such agency or head or as abrogating, modifying, or restricting any such function in any manner.

Sec. 302. Prior bodies and orders. The President's Council on Recreation and Natural Beauty and the Citizens’ Advisory Committee on Recreation and Natural Beauty are hereby terminated and the following are revoked:

(1) Executive Order No. 11278 of May 4, 1966.

(2) Executive Order No. 11359A of June 29, 1967.

(3) Executive Order No. 11402 of March 29, 1968.

Termination of Cabinet Committee on the Environment

The Cabinet Committee on the Environment was terminated and its functions transferred to the Domestic Council, see section 2(b) of Ex. Ord. No. 11541, eff. July 1, 1970, 35 F.R. 10737, set out as a note under section 501 of Title 31, Money and Finance.

The Domestic Council was abolished by Reorg. Plan No. 1 of 1977, §3, 42 F.R. 56101, 91 Stat. 1633, set out in the Appendix to Title 5, Government Organization and Employees, effective on or before Apr. 1, 1978, at such time as specified by the President. Section 5D of Reorg. Plan No. 1 of 1977 transferred all functions vested in the Domestic Council to the President with power to delegate the performance of such transferred functions within the Executive Office of the President.

Termination of Citizens’ Advisory Committee on Environmental Quality

For provisions relating to termination of Citizens’ Advisory Committee on Environmental Quality see Ex. Ord. No. 12007, Aug. 22, 1977, 42 F.R. 42839, set out as a note under section 14 of the Federal Advisory Committee Act in the Appendix to Title 5, Government Organization and Employees.

Ex. Ord. No. 11514. Protection and Enhancement of Environmental Quality

Ex. Ord. No. 11514, Mar. 5, 1970, 35 F.R. 4247, as amended by Ex. Ord. No. 11991, May 24, 1977, 42 F.R. 26967, provided:

By virtue of the authority vested in me as President of the United States and in furtherance of the purpose and policy of the National Environmental Policy Act of 1969 (Public Law No. 91–190, approved January 1, 1970) [this chapter], it is ordered as follows:

Section 1. Policy. The Federal Government shall provide leadership in protecting and enhancing the quality of the Nation's environment to sustain and enrich human life. Federal agencies shall initiate measures needed to direct their policies, plans and programs so as to meet national environmental goals. The Council on Environmental Quality, through the Chairman, shall advise and assist the President in leading this national effort.

Sec. 2. Responsibilities of Federal agencies. Consonant with Title I of the National Environmental Policy Act of 1969 [42 U.S.C. 4331 et seq.], hereafter referred to as the “Act”, the heads of Federal agencies shall:

(a) Monitor, evaluate, and control on a continuing basis their agencies’ activities so as to protect and enhance the quality of the environment. Such activities shall include those directed to controlling pollution and enhancing the environment and those designed to accomplish other program objectives which may affect the quality of the environment. Agencies shall develop programs and measures to protect and enhance environmental quality and shall assess progress in meeting the specific objectives of such activities. Heads of agencies shall consult with appropriate Federal, State and local agencies in carrying out their activities as they affect the quality of the environment.

(b) Develop procedures to ensure the fullest practicable provision of timely public information and understanding of Federal plans and programs with environmental impact in order to obtain the views of interested parties. These procedures shall include, whenever appropriate, provision for public hearings, and shall provide the public with relevant information, including information on alternative courses of action. Federal agencies shall also encourage State and local agencies to adopt similar procedures for informing the public concerning their activities affecting the quality of the environment.

(c) Insure that information regarding existing or potential environmental problems and control methods developed as part of research, development, demonstration, test, or evaluation activities is made available to Federal agencies, States, counties, municipalities, institutions, and other entities, as appropriate.

(d) Review their agencies’ statutory authority, administrative regulations, policies, and procedures, including those relating to loans, grants, contracts, leases, licenses, or permits, in order to identify any deficiencies or inconsistencies therein which prohibit or limit full compliance with the purposes and provisions of the Act. A report on this review and the corrective actions taken or planned, including such measures to be proposed to the President as may be necessary to bring their authority and policies into conformance with the intent, purposes, and procedures of the Act, shall be provided to the Council on Environmental Quality not later than September 1, 1970.

(e) Engage in exchange of data and research results, and cooperate with agencies of other governments to foster the purposes of the Act.

(f) Proceed, in coordination with other agencies, with actions required by section 102 of the Act [42 U.S.C. 4332].

(g) In carrying out their responsibilities under the Act and this Order, comply with the regulations issued by the Council except where such compliance would be inconsistent with statutory requirements.

Sec. 3. Responsibilities of Council on Environmental Quality. The Council on Environmental Quality shall:

(a) Evaluate existing and proposed policies and activities of the Federal Government directed to the control of pollution and the enhancement of the environment and to the accomplishment of other objectives which affect the quality of the environment. This shall include continuing review of procedures employed in the development and enforcement of Federal standards affecting environmental quality. Based upon such evaluations the Council shall, where appropriate, recommend to the President policies and programs to achieve more effective protection and enhancement of environmental quality and shall, where appropriate, seek resolution of significant environmental issues.

(b) Recommend to the President and to the agencies priorities among programs designed for the control of pollution and for enhancement of the environment.

(c) Determine the need for new policies and programs for dealing with environmental problems not being adequately addressed.

(d) Conduct, as it determines to be appropriate, public hearings or conferences on issues of environmental significance.

(e) Promote the development and use of indices and monitoring systems (1) to assess environmental conditions and trends, (2) to predict the environmental impact of proposed public and private actions, and (3) to determine the effectiveness of programs for protecting and enhancing environmental quality.

(f) Coordinate Federal programs related to environmental quality.

(g) Advise and assist the President and the agencies in achieving international cooperation for dealing with environmental problems, under the foreign policy guidance of the Secretary of State.

(h) Issue regulations to Federal agencies for the implementation of the procedural provisions of the Act (42 U.S.C. 4332(2)). Such regulations shall be developed after consultation with affected agencies and after such public hearings as may be appropriate. They will be designed to make the environmental impact statement process more useful to decisionmakers and the public; and to reduce paperwork and the accumulation of extraneous background data, in order to emphasize the need to focus on real environmental issues and alternatives. They will require impact statements to be concise, clear, and to the point, and supported by evidence that agencies have made the necessary environmental analyses. The Council shall include in its regulations procedures (1) for the early preparation of environmental impact statements, and (2) for the referral to the Council of conflicts between agencies concerning the implementation of the National Environmental Policy Act of 1969, as amended [this chapter], and Section 309 of the Clean Air Act, as amended [42 U.S.C. 7609], for the Council's recommendation as to their prompt resolution.

(i) Issue such other instructions to agencies, and request such reports and other information from them, as may be required to carry out the Council's responsibilities under the Act.

(j) Assist the President in preparing the annual Environmental Quality Report provided for in section 201 of the Act [42 U.S.C. 4341].

(k) Foster investigations, studies, surveys, research, and analyses relating to (i) ecological systems and environmental quality, (ii) the impact of new and changing technologies thereon, and (iii) means of preventing or reducing adverse effects from such technologies.

Sec. 4. Amendments of E.O. 11472. Executive Order No. 11472 of May 29, 1969, including the heading thereof, is hereby amended:

(1) By substituting for the term “the Environmental Quality Council”, wherever it occurs, the following: “the Cabinet Committee on the Environment”.

(2) By substituting for the term “the Council”, wherever it occurs, the following: “the Cabinet Committee”.

(3) By inserting in subsection (f) of section 101, after “Budget,”, the following: “the Director of the Office of Science and Technology,”.

(4) By substituting for subsection (g) of section 101 the following:

“(g) The Chairman of the Council on Environmental Quality (established by Public Law 91–190) [this chapter] shall assist the President in directing the affairs of the Cabinet Committee.”

(5) By deleting subsection (c) of section 102.

(6) By substituting for “the Office of Science and Technology”, in section 104, the following: “the Council on Environmental Quality (established by Public Law 91–190) [this chapter]”.

(7) By substituting for “(hereinafter referred to as the ‘Committee’)”, in section 201, the following: “(hereinafter referred to as the ‘Citizens’ Committee’)”.

(8) By substituting for the term “the Committee”, wherever it occurs, the following: “the Citizens’ Committee”.

Ex. Ord. No. 11523. National Industrial Pollution Control Council

Ex. Ord. No. 11523, eff. Apr. 9, 1970, 35 F.R. 5993, provided:

By virtue of the authority vested in me as President of the United States, and in furtherance of the purpose and policy of the National Environmental Policy Act of 1969 (Public Law 91–190, approved January 1, 1970) [this chapter], it is ordered as follows:

Section 1. Establishment of the Council. (a) There is hereby established the National Industrial Pollution Control Council (hereinafter referred to as “the Industrial Council”) which shall be composed of a Chairman, a Vice-chairman, and other representatives of business and industry appointed by the Secretary of Commerce (hereinafter referred to as “the Secretary”).

(b) The Secretary, with the concurrence of the Chairman, shall appoint an Executive Director of the Industrial Council.

Sec. 2. Functions of the Industrial Council. The Industrial Council shall advise the President and the Chairman of the Council on Environmental Quality, through the Secretary, on programs of industry relating to the quality of the environment. In particular, the Industrial Council may—

(1) Survey and evaluate the plans and actions of industry in the field of environmental quality.

(2) Identify and examine problems of the effects on the environment of industrial practices and the needs of industry for improvements in the quality of the environment, and recommend solutions to those problems.

(3) Provide liaison among members of the business and industrial community on environmental quality matters.

(4) Encourage the business and industrial community to improve the quality of the environment.

(5) Advise on plans and actions of Federal, State, and local agencies involving environmental quality policies affecting industry which are referred to it by the Secretary, or by the Chairman of the Council on Environmental Quality through the Secretary.

Sec. 3. Subordinate Committees. The Industrial Council may establish, with the concurrence of the Secretary, such subordinate committees as it may deem appropriate to assist in the performance of its functions. Each subordinate committee shall be headed by a chairman appointed by the Chairman of the Industrial Council with the concurrence of the Secretary.

Sec. 4. Assistance for the Industrial Council. In compliance with applicable law, and as necessary to serve the purposes of this order, the Secretary shall provide or arrange for administrative and staff services, support, and facilities for the Industrial Council and any of its subordinate committees.

Sec. 5. Expenses. Members of the Industrial Council or any of its subordinate committees shall receive no compensation from the United States by reason of their services hereunder, but may be allowed travel expenses, including per diem in lieu of subsistence, as authorized by law (5 U.S.C. 5703) for persons in the Government service employed intermittently.

Sec. 6. Regulations. The provisions of Executive Order No. 11007 of February 26, 1962 (3 CFR 573) [see 5 U.S.C. 901 note] prescribing regulations for the formation and use of advisory committees, are hereby made applicable to the Industrial Council and each of its subordinate committees. The Secretary may exercise the discretionary powers set forth in that order.

Sec. 7. Construction. Nothing in this order shall be construed as subjecting any Federal agency, or any function vested by law in, or assigned pursuant to law to, any Federal agency to the authority of any other Federal agency or of the Industrial Council or of any of its subordinate committees, or as abrogating or restricting any such function in any manner.

Richard Nixon.      

Executive Order No. 11643

Ex. Ord. No. 11643, eff. Feb. 8, 1972, 37 F.R. 2875, as amended by Ex. Ord. No. 11870, eff. July 18, 1975, 40 F.R. 30611; Ex. Ord. No. 11917, eff. May 28, 1976, 41 F.R. 22239, which related to environmental safeguards on activities for animal damage control on Federal lands, was revoked by Ex. Ord. No. 12342, Jan. 27, 1982, 47 F.R. 4223.

Ex. Ord. No. 11644. Use of Off-Road Vehicles on Public Lands

Ex. Ord. No. 11644, Feb. 8, 1972, 37 F.R. 2877, as amended by Ex. Ord. No. 11989, May 24, 1977, 42 F.R. 26959; Ex. Ord. No. 12608, Sept. 9, 1987, 52 F.R. 34617, provided:

An estimated 5 million off-road recreational vehicles—motorcycles, minibikes, trail bikes, snowmobiles, dunebuggies, all-terrain vehicles, and others—are in use in the United States today, and their popularity continues to increase rapidly. The widespread use of such vehicles on the public lands—often for legitimate purposes but also in frequent conflict with wise land and resource management practices, environmental values, and other types of recreational activity—has demonstrated the need for a unified Federal policy toward the use of such vehicles on the public lands.

NOW, THEREFORE, by virtue of the authority vested in me as President of the United States by the Constitution of the United States and in furtherance of the purpose and policy of the National Environmental Policy Act of 1969 (42 U.S.C. 4321), it is hereby ordered as follows:

Section 1. Purpose. It is the purpose of this order to establish policies and provide for procedures that will ensure that the use of off-road vehicles on public lands will be controlled and directed so as to protect the resources of those lands, to promote the safety of all users of those lands, and to minimize conflicts among the various uses of those lands.

Sec. 2. Definitions. As used in this order, the term:

(1) “public lands” means (A) all lands under the custody and control of the Secretary of the Interior and the Secretary of Agriculture, except Indian lands, (B) lands under the custody and control of the Tennessee Valley Authority that are situated in western Kentucky and Tennessee and are designated as “Land Between the Lakes,” and (C) lands under the custody and control of the Secretary of Defense;

(2) “respective agency head” means the Secretary of the Interior, the Secretary of Defense, the Secretary of Agriculture, and the Board of Directors of the Tennessee Valley Authority, with respect to public lands under the custody and control of each;

(3) “off-road vehicle” means any motorized vehicle designed for or capable of cross-country travel on or immediately over land, water, sand, snow, ice, marsh, swampland, or other natural terrain; except that such term excludes (A) any registered motorboat, (B) any fire, military, emergency or law enforcement vehicle when used for emergency purposes, and any combat or combat support vehicle when used for national defense purposes, and (C) any vehicle whose use is expressly authorized by the respective agency head under a permit, lease, license, or contract; and

(4) “official use” means use by an employee, agent, or designated representative of the Federal Government or one of its contractors in the course of his employment, agency, or representation.

Sec. 3. Zones of Use. (a) Each respective agency head shall develop and issue regulations and administrative instructions, within six months of the date of this order, to provide for administrative designation of the specific areas and trails on public lands on which the use of off-road vehicles may be permitted, and areas in which the use of off-road vehicles may not be permitted, and set a date by which such designation of all public lands shall be completed. Those regulations shall direct that the designation of such areas and trails will be based upon the protection of the resources of the public lands, promotion of the safety of all users of those lands, and minimization of conflicts among the various uses of those lands. The regulations shall further require that the designation of such areas and trails shall be in accordance with the following—

(1) Areas and trails shall be located to minimize damage to soil, watershed, vegetation, or other resources of the public lands.

(2) Areas and trails shall be located to minimize harassment of wildlife or significant disruption of wildlife habitats.

(3) Areas and trails shall be located to minimize conflicts between off-road vehicle use and other existing or proposed recreational uses of the same or neighboring public lands, and to ensure the compatibility of such uses with existing conditions in populated areas, taking into account noise and other factors.

(4) Areas and trails shall not be located in officially designated Wilderness Areas or Primitive Areas. Areas and trails shall be located in areas of the National Park system, Natural Areas, or National Wildlife Refuges and Game Ranges only if the respective agency head determines that off-road vehicle use in such locations will not adversely affect their natural, aesthetic, or scenic values.

(b) The respective agency head shall ensure adequate opportunity for public participation in the promulgation of such regulations and in the designation of areas and trails under this section.

(c) The limitations on off-road vehicle use imposed under this section shall not apply to official use.

Sec. 4. Operating Conditions. Each respective agency head shall develop and publish, within one year of the date of this order, regulations prescribing operating conditions for off-road vehicles on the public lands. These regulations shall be directed at protecting resource values, preserving public health, safety, and welfare, and minimizing use conflicts.

Sec. 5. Public Information. The respective agency head shall ensure that areas and trails where off-road vehicle use is permitted are well marked and shall provide for the publication and distribution of information, including maps, describing such areas and trails and explaining the conditions on vehicle use. He shall seek cooperation of relevant State agencies in the dissemination of this information.

Sec. 6. Enforcement. The respective agency head shall, where authorized by law, prescribe appropriate penalties for violation of regulations adopted pursuant to this order, and shall establish procedures for the enforcement of those regulations. To the extent permitted by law, he may enter into agreements with State or local governmental agencies for cooperative enforcement of laws and regulations relating to off-road vehicle use.

Sec. 7. Consultation. Before issuing the regulations or administrative instructions required by this order or designating areas or trails are required by this order and those regulations and administrative instructions, the Secretary of the Interior shall, as appropriate, consult with the Secretary of Energy and the Nuclear Regulatory Commission.

Sec. 8. Monitoring of Effects and Review. (a) The respective agency head shall monitor the effects of the use of off-road vehicles on lands under their jurisdictions. On the basis of the information gathered, they shall from time to time amend or rescind designation of areas or other actions taken pursuant to this order as necessary to further the policy of this order.

(b) The Council on Environmental Quality shall maintain a continuing review of the implementation of this order.

Sec. 9. Special Protection of the Public Lands. (a) Notwithstanding the provisions of Section 3 of this Order, the respective agency head shall, whenever he determines that the use of off-road vehicles will cause or is causing considerable adverse effects on the soil, vegetation, wildlife, wildlife habitat or cultural or historic resources of particular areas or trails of the public lands, immediately close such areas or trails to the type of off-road vehicle causing such effects, until such time as he determines that such adverse effects have been eliminated and that measures have been implemented to prevent future recurrence.

(b) Each respective agency head is authorized to adopt the policy that portions of the public lands within his jurisdiction shall be closed to use by off-road vehicles except those areas or trails which are suitable and specifically designated as open to such use pursuant to Section 3 of this Order.

Executive Order No. 11987

Ex. Ord. No. 11987, May 24, 1977, 42 F.R. 26949, which directed executive agencies, and encouraged States, local governments, and private citizens, to restrict the introduction of exotic species into the natural ecosystems on lands and waters under their control, and which directed executive agencies to restrict the exportation of native species for introduction of such species into ecosystems outside the United States where they do not naturally occur, unless such introduction or exportation was found not to have an adverse effect on natural ecosystems, was revoked by Ex. Ord. No. 13112, §6(b), Feb. 3, 1999, 64 F.R. 6186, set out below.

Ex. Ord. No. 11988. Floodplain Management

Ex. Ord. No. 11988, May 24, 1977, 42 F.R. 26951, as amended by Ex. Ord. No. 12148, July 20, 1979, 44 F.R. 43239, provided:

By virtue of the authority vested in me by the Constitution and statutes of the United States of America, and as President of the United States of America, in furtherance of the National Environmental Policy Act of 1969, as amended (42 U.S.C. 4321 et seq.), the National Flood Insurance Act of 1968, as amended (42 U.S.C. 4001 et seq.), and the Flood Disaster Protection Act of 1973 (Public Law 93–234, 87 Stat. 975) [see Short Title of 1973 Amendment note set out under 42 U.S.C. 4001], in order to avoid to the extent possible the long and short term adverse impacts associated with the occupancy and modification of floodplains and to avoid direct or indirect support of floodplain development wherever there is a practicable alternative, it is hereby ordered as follows:

Section 1. Each agency shall provide leadership and shall take action to reduce the risk of flood loss, to minimize the impact of floods on human safety, health and welfare, and to restore and preserve the natural and beneficial values served by floodplains in carrying out its responsibilities for (1) acquiring, managing, and disposing of Federal lands and facilities; (2) providing Federally undertaken, financed, or assisted construction and improvements; and (3) conducting Federal activities and programs affecting land use, including but not limited to water and related land resources planning, regulating, and licensing activities.

Sec. 2. In carrying out the activities described in Section 1 of this Order, each agency has a responsibility to evaluate the potential effects of any actions it may take in a floodplain; to ensure that its planning programs and budget requests reflect consideration of flood hazards and floodplain management; and to prescribe procedures to implement the policies and requirements of this Order, as follows:

(a)(1) Before taking an action, each agency shall determine whether the proposed action will occur in a floodplain—for major Federal actions significantly affecting the quality of the human environment, the evaluation required below will be included in any statement prepared under Section 102(2)(C) of the National Environmental Policy Act [42 U.S.C. 4332(2)(C)]. This determination shall be made according to a Department of Housing and Urban Development (HUD) floodplain map or a more detailed map of an area, if available. If such maps are not available, the agency shall make a determination of the location of the floodplain based on the best available information. The Water Resources Council shall issue guidance on this information not later than October 1, 1977.

(2) If an agency has determined to, or proposes to, conduct, support, or allow an action to be located in a floodplain, the agency shall consider alternatives to avoid adverse effects and incompatible development in the floodplains. If the head of the agency finds that the only practicable alternative consistent with the law and with the policy set forth in this Order requires siting in a floodplain, the agency shall, prior to taking action, (i) design or modify its action in order to minimize potential harm to or within the floodplain, consistent with regulations issued in accord with Section 2(d) of this Order, and (ii) prepare and circulate a notice containing an explanation of why the action is proposed to be located in the floodplain.

(3) For programs subject to the Office of Management and Budget Circular A–95, the agency shall send the notice, not to exceed three pages in length including a location map, to the state and areawide A–95 clearinghouses for the geographic areas affected. The notice shall include: (i) the reasons why the action is proposed to be located in a floodplain; (ii) a statement indicating whether the action conforms to applicable state or local floodplain protection standards and (iii) a list of the alternatives considered. Agencies shall endeavor to allow a brief comment period prior to taking any action.

(4) Each agency shall also provide opportunity for early public review of any plans or proposals for actions in floodplains, in accordance with Section 2(b) of Executive Order No. 11514, as amended [set out above], including the development of procedures to accomplish this objective for Federal actions whose impact is not significant enough to require the preparation of an environmental impact statement under Section 102(2)(C) of the National Environmental Policy Act of 1969, as amended [42 U.S.C. 4332(2)(C)].

(b) Any requests for new authorizations or appropriations transmitted to the Office of Management and Budget shall indicate, if an action to be proposed will be located in a floodplain, whether the proposed action is in accord with this Order.

(c) Each agency shall take floodplain management into account when formulating or evaluating any water and land use plans and shall require land and water resources use appropriate to the degree of hazard involved. Agencies shall include adequate provision for the evaluation and consideration of flood hazards in the regulations and operating procedures for the licenses, permits, loan or grants-in-aid programs that they administer. Agencies shall also encourage and provide appropriate guidance to applicants to evaluate the effects of their proposals in floodplains prior to submitting applications for Federal licenses, permits, loans or grants.

(d) As allowed by law, each agency shall issue or amend existing regulations and procedures within one year to comply with this Order. These procedures shall incorporate the Unified National Program for Floodplain Management of the Water Resources Council, and shall explain the means that the agency will employ to pursue the nonhazardous use of riverine, coastal and other floodplains in connection with the activities under its authority. To the extent possible, existing processes, such as those of the Council on Environmental Quality and the Water Resources Council, shall be utilized to fulfill the requirements of this Order. Agencies shall prepare their procedures in consultation with the Water Resources Council, the Director of the Federal Emergency Management Agency, and the Council on Environmental Quality, and shall update such procedures as necessary.

Sec. 3. In addition to the requirements of Section 2, agencies with responsibilities for Federal real property and facilities shall take the following measures:

(a) The regulations and procedures established under Section 2(d) of this Order shall, at a minimum, require the construction of Federal structures and facilities to be in accordance with the standards and criteria and to be consistent with the intent of those promulgated under the National Flood Insurance Program. They shall deviate only to the extent that the standards of the Flood Insurance Program are demonstrably inappropriate for a given type of structure or facility.

(b) If, after compliance with the requirements of this Order, new construction of structures or facilities are to be located in a floodplain, accepted floodproofing and other flood protection measures shall be applied to new construction or rehabilitation. To achieve flood protection, agencies shall, wherever practicable, elevate structures above the base flood level rather than filling in land.

(c) If property used by the general public has suffered flood damage or is located in an identified flood hazard area, the responsible agency shall provide on structures, and other places where appropriate, conspicuous delineation of past and probable flood height in order to enhance public awareness of and knowledge about flood hazards.

(d) When property in floodplains is proposed for lease, easement, right-of-way, or disposal to non-Federal public or private parties, the Federal agency shall (1) reference in the conveyance those uses that are restricted under identified Federal, State or local floodplain regulations; and (2) attach other appropriate restrictions to the uses of properties by the grantee or purchaser and any successors, except where prohibited by law; or (3) withhold such properties from conveyance.

Sec. 4. In addition to any responsibilities under this Order and Sections 202 and 205 of the Flood Disaster Protection Act of 1973, as amended (42 U.S.C. 4106 and 4128), agencies which guarantee, approve, regulate, or insure any financial transaction which is related to an area located in a floodplain shall, prior to completing action on such transaction, inform any private parties participating in the transaction of the hazards of locating structures in the floodplain.

Sec. 5. The head of each agency shall submit a report to the Council on Environmental Quality and to the Water Resources Council on June 30, 1978, regarding the status of their procedures and the impact of this Order on the agency's operations. Thereafter, the Water Resources Council shall periodically evaluate agency procedures and their effectiveness.

Sec. 6. As used in this Order:

(a) The term “agency” shall have the same meaning as the term “Executive agency” in Section 105 of Title 5 of the United States Code and shall include the military departments; the directives contained in this Order, however, are meant to apply only to those agencies which perform the activities described in Section 1 which are located in or affecting floodplains.

(b) The term “base flood” shall mean that flood which has a one percent or greater chance of occurrence in any given year.

(c) The term “floodplain” shall mean the lowland and relatively flat areas adjoining inland and coastal waters including floodprone areas of offshore islands, including at a minimum, that area subject to a one percent or greater chance of flooding in any given year.

Sec. 7. Executive Order No. 11296 of August 10, 1966, is hereby revoked. All actions, procedures, and issuances taken under that Order and still in effect shall remain in effect until modified by appropriate authority under the terms of this Order.

Sec. 8. Nothing in this Order shall apply to assistance provided for emergency work essential to save lives and protect property and public health and safety, performed pursuant to Sections 305 and 306 of the Disaster Relief Act of 1974 (88 Stat. 148, 42 U.S.C. 5145 and 5146).

Sec. 9. To the extent the provisions of Section 2(a) of this Order are applicable to projects covered by Section 104(h) of the Housing and Community Development Act of 1974, as amended (88 Stat. 640, 42 U.S.C. 5304(h)), the responsibilities under those provisions may be assumed by the appropriate applicant, if the applicant has also assumed, with respect to such projects, all of the responsibilities for environmental review, decisionmaking, and action pursuant to the National Environmental Policy Act of 1969, as amended [42 U.S.C. 4321].

Jimmy Carter.      

Ex. Ord. No. 11990. Protection of Wetlands

Ex. Ord. No. 11990, May 24, 1977, 42 F.R. 26961, as amended by Ex. Ord. No. 12608, Sept. 9, 1987, 52 F.R. 34617, provided:

By virtue of the authority vested in me by the Constitution and statutes of the United States of America, and as President of the United States of America, in furtherance of the National Environmental Policy Act of 1969, as amended (42 U.S.C. 4321 et seq.), in order to avoid to the extent possible the long and short term adverse impacts associated with the destruction or modification of wetlands and to avoid direct or indirect support of new construction in wetlands wherever there is a practicable alternative, it is hereby ordered as follows:

Section 1. (a) Each agency shall provide leadership and shall take action to minimize the destruction, loss or degradation of wetlands, and to preserve and enhance the natural and beneficial values of wetlands in carrying out the agency's responsibilities for (1) acquiring, managing, and disposing of Federal lands and facilities; and (2) providing Federally undertaken, financed, or assisted construction and improvements; and (3) conducting Federal activities and programs affecting land use, including but not limited to water and related land resources planning, regulating, and licensing activities.

(b) This Order does not apply to the issuance by Federal agencies of permits, licenses, or allocations to private parties for activities involving wetlands on non-Federal property.

Sec. 2. (a) In furtherance of Section 101(b)(3) of the National Environmental Policy Act of 1969 (42 U.S.C. 4331(b)(3)) to improve and coordinate Federal plans, functions, programs and resources to the end that the Nation may attain the widest range of beneficial uses of the environment without degradation and risk to health or safety, each agency, to the extent permitted by law, shall avoid undertaking or providing assistance for new construction located in wetlands unless the head of the agency finds (1) that there is no practicable alternative to such construction, and (2) that the proposed action includes all practicable measures to minimize harm to wetlands which may result from such use. In making this finding the head of the agency may take into account economic, environmental and other pertinent factors.

(b) Each agency shall also provide opportunity for early public review of any plans or proposals for new construction in wetlands, in accordance with Section 2(b) of Executive Order No. 11514, as amended [set out above], including the development of procedures to accomplish this objective for Federal actions whose impact is not significant enough to require the preparation of an environmental impact statement under Section 102(2)(C) of the National Environmental Policy Act of 1969, as amended [42 U.S.C. 4332(2)(C)].

Sec. 3. Any requests for new authorizations or appropriations transmitted to the Office of Management and Budget shall indicate, if an action to be proposed will be located in wetlands, whether the proposed action is in accord with this Order.

Sec. 4. When Federally-owned wetlands or portions of wetlands are proposed for lease, easement, right-of-way or disposal to non-Federal public or private parties, the Federal agency shall (a) reference in the conveyance those uses that are restricted under identified Federal, State or local wetlands regulations; and (b) attach other appropriate restrictions to the uses of properties by the grantee or purchaser and any successor, except where prohibited by law; or (c) withhold such properties from disposal.

Sec. 5. In carrying out the activities described in Section 1 of this Order, each agency shall consider factors relevant to a proposal's effect on the survival and quality of the wetlands. Among these factors are:

(a) public health, safety, and welfare, including water supply, quality, recharge and discharge; pollution; flood and storm hazards; and sediment and erosion;

(b) maintenance of natural systems, including conservation and long term productivity of existing flora and fauna, species and habitat diversity and stability, hydrologic utility, fish, wildlife, timber, and food and fiber resources; and

(c) other uses of wetlands in the public interest, including recreational, scientific, and cultural uses.

Sec. 6. As allowed by law, agencies shall issue or amend their existing procedures in order to comply with this Order. To the extent possible, existing processes, such as those of the Council on Environmental Quality, shall be utilized to fulfill the requirements of this Order.

Sec. 7. As used in this Order:

(a) The term “agency” shall have the same meaning as the term “Executive agency” in Section 105 of Title 5 of the United States Code and shall include the military departments; the directives contained in this Order, however, are meant to apply only to those agencies which perform the activities described in Section 1 which are located in or affecting wetlands.

(b) The term “new construction” shall include draining, dredging, channelizing, filling, diking, impounding, and related activities and any structures or facilities begun or authorized after the effective date of this Order.

(c) The term “wetlands” means those areas that are inundated by surface or ground water with a frequency sufficient to support and under normal circumstances does or would support a prevalence of vegetative or aquatic life that requires saturated or seasonally saturated soil conditions for growth and reproduction. Wetlands generally include swamps, marshes, bogs, and similar areas such as sloughs, potholes, wet meadows, river overflows, mud flats, and natural ponds.

Sec. 8. This Order does not apply to projects presently under construction, or to projects for which all of the funds have been appropriated through Fiscal Year 1977, or to projects and programs for which a draft or final environmental impact statement will be filed prior to October 1, 1977. The provisions of Section 2 of this Order shall be implemented by each agency not later than October 1, 1977.

Sec. 9. Nothing in this Order shall apply to assistance provided for emergency work, essential to save lives and protect property and public health and safety, performed pursuant to Sections 305 and 306 of the Disaster Relief Act of 1974 (88 Stat. 148, 42 U.S.C. 5145 and 5146).

Sec. 10. To the extent the provisions of Sections 2 and 5 of this Order are applicable to projects covered by Section 104(h) of the Housing and Community Development Act of 1974, as amended (88 Stat. 640, 42 U.S.C. 5304(h)), the responsibilities under those provisions may be assumed by the appropriate applicant, if the applicant has also assumed, with respect to such projects, all of the responsibilities for environmental review, decisionmaking, and action pursuant to the National Environmental Policy Act of 1969, as amended [42 U.S.C. 4321 et seq.].

Ex. Ord. No. 12088. Federal Compliance With Pollution Control Standards

Ex. Ord. No. 12088, Oct. 13, 1978, 43 F.R. 47707, as amended by Ex. Ord. No. 12580, Jan. 23, 1987, 52 F.R. 2928; Ex. Ord. No. 13148, §901, Apr. 21, 2000, 65 F.R. 24604, provided:

By the authority vested in me as President by the Constitution and statutes of the United States of America, including Section 22 of the Toxic Substances Control Act (15 U.S.C. 2621), Section 313 of the Federal Water Pollution Control Act, as amended (33 U.S.C. 1323), Section 1447 of the Public Health Service Act, as amended by the Safe Drinking Water Act [now Safe Drinking Water Act of 1974] (42 U.S.C. 300j–6), Section 118 of the Clean Air Act, as amended (42 U.S.C. 7418(b)), Section 4 of the Noise Control Act of 1972 (42 U.S.C. 4903), Section 6001 of the Solid Waste Disposal Act, as amended (42 U.S.C. 6961), and Section 301 of Title 3 of the United States Code, and to ensure Federal compliance with applicable pollution control standards, it is hereby ordered as follows:

1–1. Applicability of Pollution Control Standards

1–101. The head of each Executive agency is responsible for ensuring that all necessary actions are taken for the prevention, control, and abatement of environmental pollution with respect to Federal facilities and activities under the control of the agency.

1–102. The head of each Executive agency is responsible for compliance with applicable pollution control standards, including those established pursuant to, but not limited to, the following:

(a) Toxic Substances Control Act (15 U.S.C. 2601 et seq.).

(b) Federal Water Pollution Control Act, as amended (33 U.S.C. 1251 et seq.).

(c) Public Health Service Act, as amended by the Safe Drinking Water Act [now Safe Drinking Water Act of 1974] (42 U.S.C. 300f et seq.).

(d) Clean Air Act, as amended (42 U.S.C. 7401 et seq.).

(e) Noise Control Act of 1972 (42 U.S.C. 4901 et seq.).

(f) Solid Waste Disposal Act, as amended (42 U.S.C. 6901 et seq.).

(g) Radiation guidance pursuant to Section 274(h) of the Atomic Energy Act of 1954, as amended (42 U.S.C. 2021(h); see also, the Radiation Protection Guidance to Federal Agencies for Diagnostic X Rays approved by the President on January 26, 1978 and published at page 4377 of the Federal Register on February 1, 1978).

(h) Marine Protection, Research, and Sanctuaries Act of 1972, as amended (33 U.S.C. 1401, 1402, 1411–1421, 1441–1444 and 16 U.S.C. 1431–1434) [16 U.S.C. 1431 et seq., 1447 et seq.; 33 U.S.C. 1401 et seq., 2801 et seq.].

(i) Federal Insecticide, Fungicide, and Rodenticide Act, as amended (7 U.S.C. 136 et seq.).

1–103. “Applicable pollution control standards” means the same substantive, procedural, and other requirements that would apply to a private person.

1–2. Agency Coordination

1–201. Each Executive agency shall cooperate with the Administrator of the Environmental Protection Agency, hereinafter referred to as the Administrator, and State, interstate, and local agencies in the prevention, control, and abatement of environmental pollution.

1–202. Each Executive agency shall consult with the Administrator and with State, interstate, and local agencies concerning the best techniques and methods available for the prevention, control, and abatement of environmental pollution.

1–3. Technical Advice and Oversight

1–301. The Administrator shall provide technical advice and assistance to Executive agencies in order to ensure their cost effective and timely compliance with applicable pollution control standards.

1–302. The administrator shall conduct such reviews and inspections as may be necessary to monitor compliance with applicable pollution control standards by Federal facilities and activities.

1–4. Pollution Control Plan

[Revoked by Ex. Ord. No. 13148, §901, Apr. 21, 2000, 65 F.R. 24604.]

1–5. Funding

1–501. The head of each Executive agency shall ensure that sufficient funds for compliance with applicable pollution control standards are requested in the agency budget.

1–502. The head of each Executive agency shall ensure that funds appropriated and apportioned for the prevention, control and abatement of environmental pollution are not used for any other purpose unless permitted by law and specifically approved by the Office of Management and Budget.

1–6. Compliance With Pollution Controls

1–601. Whenever the Administrator or the appropriate State, interstate, or local agency notifies an Executive agency that it is in violation of an applicable pollution control standard (see Section 1–102 of this Order), the Executive agency shall promptly consult with the notifying agency and provide for its approval a plan to achieve and maintain compliance with the applicable pollution control standard. This plan shall include an implementation schedule for coming into compliance as soon as practicable.

1–602. The Administrator shall make every effort to resolve conflicts regarding such violation between Executive agencies and, on request of any party, such conflicts between an Executive agency and a State, interstate, or a local agency. If the Administrator cannot resolve a conflict, the Administrator shall request the Director of the Office of Management and Budget to resolve the conflict.

1–603. The Director of the Office of Management and Budget shall consider unresolved conflicts at the request of the Administrator. The Director shall seek the Administrator's technological judgment and determination with regard to the applicability of statues and regulations.

1–604. These conflict resolution procedures are in addition to, not in lieu of, other procedures, including sanctions, for the enforcement of applicable pollution control standards.

1–605. Except as expressly provided by a Presidential exemption under this Order, nothing in this Order, nor any action or inaction under this Order, shall be construed to revise or modify any applicable pollution control standard.

1–7. Limitation on Exemptions

1–701. Exemptions from applicable pollution control standards may only be granted under statues cited in Section 1–102(a) through 1–102(f) if the President makes the required appropriate statutory determination: that such exemption is necessary (a) in the interest of national security, or (b) in the paramount interest of the United States.

1–702. The head of an Executive agency may, from time to time, recommend to the President through the Director of the Office of Management and Budget, that an activity or facility, or uses thereof, be exempt from an applicable pollution control standard.

1–703. The Administrator shall advise the President, through the Director of the Office of Management and Budget, whether he agrees or disagrees with a recommendation for exemption and his reasons therefor.

1–704. The Director of the Office of Management and Budget must advise the President within sixty days of receipt of the Administrator's views.

1–8. General Provisions

1–801. The head of each Executive agency that is responsible for the construction or operation of Federal facilities outside the United States shall ensure that such construction or operation complies with the environmental pollution control standards of general applicability in the host country or jurisdiction.

1–802. Nothing in this Order shall create any right or benefit, substantive or procedural, enforceable at law by a party against the United States, its agencies, its officers, or any person.

1–803. Executive Order No. 11752 of December 17, 1973, is revoked.

Ex. Ord. No. 12114. Environmental Effects Abroad of Major Federal Actions

Ex. Ord. No. 12114, Jan. 4, 1979, 44 F.R. 1957, provided:

By virtue of the authority vested in me by the Constitution and the laws of the United States, and as President of the United States, in order to further environmental objectives consistent with the foreign policy and national security policy of the United States, it is ordered as follows:

Section 1

1–1. Purpose and Scope. The purpose of this Executive Order is to enable responsible officials of Federal agencies having ultimate responsibility for authorizing and approving actions encompassed by this Order to be informed of pertinent environmental considerations and to take such considerations into account, with other pertinent considerations of national policy, in making decisions regarding such actions. While based on independent authority, this Order furthers the purpose of the National Environmental Policy Act [42 U.S.C. 4321 et seq.] and the Marine Protection Research and Sanctuaries Act [16 U.S.C. 1431 et seq. and 33 U.S.C. 1401 et seq.] and the Deepwater Port Act [33 U.S.C. 1501 et seq.] consistent with the foreign policy and national security policy of the United States, and represents the United States government's exclusive and complete determination of the procedural and other actions to be taken by Federal agencies to further the purpose of the National Environmental Policy Act, with respect to the environment outside the United States, its territories and possessions.

Section 2

2–1. Agency Procedures. Every Federal agency taking major Federal actions encompassed hereby and not exempted herefrom having significant effects on the environment outside the geographical borders of the United States and its territories and possessions shall within eight months after the effective date of this Order have in effect procedures to implement this Order. Agencies shall consult with the Department of State and the Council on Environmental Quality concerning such procedures prior to placing them in effect.

2–2. Information Exchange. To assist in effectuating the foregoing purpose, the Department of State and the Council on Environmental Quality in collaboration with other interested Federal agencies and other nations shall conduct a program for exchange on a continuing basis of information concerning the environment. The objectives of this program shall be to provide information for use by decisionmakers, to heighten awareness of and interest in environmental concerns and, as appropriate, to facilitate environmental cooperation with foreign nations.

2–3. Actions Included. Agencies in their procedures under Section 2–1 shall establish procedures by which their officers having ultimate responsibility for authorizing and approving actions in one of the following categories encompassed by this Order, take into consideration in making decisions concerning such actions, a document described in Section 2–4(a):

(a) major Federal actions significantly affecting the environment of the global commons outside the jurisdiction of any nation (e.g., the oceans or Antarctica);

(b) major Federal actions significantly affecting the environment of a foreign nation not participating with the United States and not otherwise involved in the action;

(c) major Federal actions significantly affecting the environment of a foreign nation which provide to that nation:

(1) a product, or physical project producing a principal product or an emission or effluent, which is prohibited or strictly regulated by Federal law in the United States because its toxic effects on the environment create a serious public health risk; or

(2) a physical project which in the United States is prohibited or strictly regulated by Federal law to protect the environment against radioactive substances.

(d) major Federal actions outside the United States, its territories and possessions which significantly affect natural or ecological resources of global importance designated for protection under this subsection by the President, or, in the case of such a resource protected by international agreement binding on the United States, by the Secretary of State. Recommendations to the President under this subsection shall be accompanied by the views of the Council on Environmental Quality and the Secretary of State.

2–4. Applicable Procedures. (a) There are the following types of documents to be used in connection with actions described in Section 2–3:

(i) environmental impact statements (including generic, program and specific statements);

(ii) bilateral or multilateral environmental studies, relevant or related to the proposed action, by the United States and one [or more] more foreign nations, or by an international body or organization in which the United States is a member or participant; or

(iii) concise reviews of the environmental issues involved, including environmental assessments, summary environmental analyses or other appropriate documents.

(b) Agencies shall in their procedures provide for preparation of documents described in Section 2–4(a), with respect to actions described in Section 2–3, as follows:

(i) for effects described in Section 2–3(a), an environmental impact statement described in Section 2–4(a)(i);

(ii) for effects described in Section 2–3(b), a document described in Section 2–4(a)(ii) or (iii), as determined by the agency;

(iii) for effects described in Section 2–3(c), a document described in Section 2–4(a)(ii) or (iii), as determined by the agency;

(iv) for effects described in Section 2–3(d), a document described in Section 2–4(a)(i), (ii) or (iii), as determined by the agency.

Such procedures may provide that an agency need not prepare a new document when a document described in Section 2–4(a) already exists.

(c) Nothing in this Order shall serve to invalidate any existing regulations of any agency which have been adopted pursuant to court order or pursuant to judicial settlement of any case or to prevent any agency from providing in its procedures for measures in addition to those provided for herein to further the purpose of the National Environmental Policy Act [43 U.S.C. 4321 et seq.] and other environmental laws, including the Marine Protection Research and Sanctuaries Act [16 U.S.C. 1431 et seq. and 33 U.S.C. 1401 et seq.], and the Deepwater Port Act [33 U.S.C. 1501 et seq.], consistent with the foreign and national security policies of the United States.

(d) Except as provided in Section 2–5(b), agencies taking action encompassed by this Order shall, as soon as feasible, inform other Federal agencies with relevant expertise of the availability of environmental documents prepared under this Order.

Agencies in their procedures under Section 2–1 shall make appropriate provision for determining when an affected nation shall be informed in accordance with Section 3–2 of this Order of the availability of environmental documents prepared pursuant to those procedures.

In order to avoid duplication of resources, agencies in their procedures shall provide for appropriate utilization of the resources of other Federal agencies with relevant environmental jurisdiction or expertise.

2–5. Exemptions and Considerations. (a) Notwithstanding Section 2–3, the following actions are exempt from this Order:

(i) actions not having a significant effect on the environment outside the United States as determined by the agency;

(ii) actions taken by the President;

(iii) actions taken by or pursuant to the direction of the President or Cabinet officer when the national security or interest is involved or when the action occurs in the course of an armed conflict;

(iv) intelligence activities and arms transfers;

(v) export licenses or permits or export approvals, and actions relating to nuclear activities except actions providing to a foreign nation a nuclear production or utilization facility as defined in the Atomic Energy Act of 1954 [42 U.S.C. 2011 et seq.], as amended, or a nuclear waste management facility;

(vi) votes and other actions in international conferences and organizations;

(vii) disaster and emergency relief action.

(b) Agency procedures under Section 2–1 implementing Section 2–4 may provide for appropriate modifications in the contents, timing and availability of documents to other affected Federal agencies and affected nations, where necessary to:

(i) enable the agency to decide and act promptly as and when required;

(ii) avoid adverse impacts on foreign relations or infringement in fact or appearance of other nations’ sovereign responsibilities, or

(iii) ensure appropriate reflection of:

(1) diplomatic factors;

(2) international commercial, competitive and export promotion factors;

(3) needs for governmental or commercial confidentiality;

(4) national security considerations;

(5) difficulties of obtaining information and agency ability to analyze meaningfully environmental effects of a proposed action; and

(6) the degree to which the agency is involved in or able to affect a decision to be made.

(c) Agency procedure under Section 2–1 may provide for categorical exclusions and for such exemptions in addition to those specified in subsection (a) of this Section as may be necessary to meet emergency circumstances, situations involving exceptional foreign policy and national security sensitivities and other such special circumstances. In utilizing such additional exemptions agencies shall, as soon as feasible, consult with the Department of State and the Council on Environmental Quality.

(d) The provisions of Section 2–5 do not apply to actions described in Section 2–3(a) unless permitted by law.

Section 3

3–1. Rights of Action. This Order is solely for the purpose of establishing internal procedures for Federal agencies to consider the significant effects of their actions on the environment outside the United States, its territories and possessions, and nothing in this Order shall be construed to create a cause of action.

3–2. Foreign Relations. The Department of State shall coordinate all communications by agencies with foreign governments concerning environmental agreements and other arrangements in implementation of this Order.

3–3. Multi-Agency Actions. Where more than one Federal agency is involved in an action or program, a lead agency, as determined by the agencies involved, shall have responsibility for implementation of this Order.

3–4. Certain Terms. For purposes of this Order, “environment” means the natural and physical environment and excludes social, economic and other environments; and an action significantly affects the environment if it does significant harm to the environment even though on balance the agency believes the action to be beneficial to the environment. The term “export approvals” in Section 2–5(a)(v) does not mean or include direct loans to finance exports.

3–5. Multiple Impacts. If a major Federal action having effects on the environment of the United States or the global commons requires preparation of an environmental impact statement, and if the action also has effects on the environment of a foreign nation, an environmental impact statement need not be prepared with respect to the effects on the environment of the foreign nation.

Jimmy Carter.      

Executive Order No. 12194

Ex. Ord. No. 12194, Feb. 21, 1980, 45 F.R. 12209, which established the Radiation Policy Council and provided for its membership, functions, etc., was revoked by Ex. Ord. No. 12379, §23, Aug. 17, 1982, 47 F.R. 36100, set out as a note under section 14 of the Federal Advisory Committee Act in the Appendix to Title 5, Government Organization and Employees.

Executive Order No. 12737

Ex. Ord. No. 12737, Dec. 12, 1990, 55 F.R. 51681, which established President's Commission on Environmental Quality and provided for its functions and administration, was revoked by Ex. Ord. No. 12852, §4(c), June 29, 1993, 58 F.R. 35841, formerly set out below.

Ex. Ord. No. 12761. Establishment of President's Environment and Conservation Challenge Awards

Ex. Ord. No. 12761, May 21, 1991, 56 F.R. 23645, provided:

By the authority vested in me as President by the Constitution and the laws of the United States of America, and in order to establish, in accordance with the goals and purposes of the National Environmental Policy Act of 1969, as amended (42 U.S.C. 4321 et seq.), the Environmental Quality Improvement Act of 1970, as amended (42 U.S.C. 4371 et seq.), and the National Environmental Education Act, Public Law 101–619, 104 Stat. 3325 (1990) [20 U.S.C. 5501 et seq.], an awards program to raise environmental awareness and to recognize outstanding achievements in the United States and in its territories in the areas of conservation and environmental protection by both the public and private sectors, it is hereby ordered as follows:

Section 1. Establishment. The President's Environment and Conservation Challenge Awards program is established for the purposes of recognizing outstanding environmental achievements by U.S. citizens, enterprises, or programs; providing an incentive for environmental accomplishment; promoting cooperative partnerships between diverse groups working together to achieve common environmental goals; and identifying successful environmental programs that can be replicated.

Sec. 2. Administration. (a) The Council on Environmental Quality, with the assistance of the President's Commission on Environmental Quality, shall organize, manage, and administer the awards program, including the development of selection criteria, the nomination of eligible individuals to receive the award, and the selection of award recipients.

(b) Any expenses of the program shall be paid from funds available for the expenses of the Council on Environmental Quality.

Sec. 3. Awards. (a) Up to three awards in each of the following four categories shall be made annually to eligible individuals, organizations, groups, or entities:

(i) Quality Environmental Management Awards (incorporation of environmental concerns into management decisions and practices);

(ii) Partnership Awards (successful coalition building efforts);

(iii) Innovation Awards (innovative technology programs, products, or processes); and

(iv) Education and Communication Awards (education and information programs contributing to the development of an ethic fostering conservation and environmental protection).

(b) Presidential citations shall be given to eligible program finalists who demonstrate notable or unique achievements, but who are not selected to receive awards.

Sec. 4. Eligibility. Only residents of the United States and organizations, groups, or entities doing business in the United States are eligible to receive an award under this program. An award under this program shall be given only for achievements in the United States or its territories. Organizations, groups, or entities may be profit or nonprofit, public or private entities.

Sec. 5. Information System. The Council on Environmental Quality shall establish and maintain a data bank with information about award nominees to catalogue and publicize model conservation or environmental protection programs which could be replicated.

George Bush.      

Executive Order No. 12852

Ex. Ord. No. 12852, June 29, 1993, 58 F.R. 35841, as amended by Ex. Ord. No. 12855, July 19, 1993, 58 F.R. 39107; Ex. Ord. No. 12965, June 27, 1995, 60 F.R. 34087; Ex. Ord. No. 12980, Nov. 17, 1995, 60 F.R. 57819; Ex. Ord. No. 13053, June 30, 1997, 62 F.R. 39945 [35945]; Ex. Ord. No. 13114, Feb. 25, 1999, 64 F.R. 10099, which established the President's Council on Sustainable Development, was revoked by Ex. Ord. No. 13138, §3(f), Sept. 30, 1999, 64 F.R. 53880, formerly set out as a note under section 14 of the Appendix to Title 5, Government Organization and Employees.

Ex. Ord. No. 12898. Federal Actions To Address Environmental Justice in Minority Populations and Low-Income Populations

Ex. Ord. No. 12898, Feb. 11, 1994, 59 F.R. 7629, as amended by Ex. Ord. No. 12948, Jan. 30, 1995, 60 F.R. 6381, provided:

By the authority vested in me as President by the Constitution and the laws of the United States of America, it is hereby ordered as follows:

Section 1–1. IMPLEMENTATION.

1–101. Agency Responsibilities. To the greatest extent practicable and permitted by law, and consistent with the principles set forth in the report on the National Performance Review, each Federal agency shall make achieving environmental justice part of its mission by identifying and addressing, as appropriate, disproportionately high and adverse human health or environmental effects of its programs, policies, and activities on minority populations and low-income populations in the United States and its territories and possessions, the District of Columbia, the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico, and the Commonwealth of the Mariana Islands.

1–102. Creation of an Interagency Working Group on Environmental Justice. (a) Within 3 months of the date of this order, the Administrator of the Environmental Protection Agency (“Administrator”) or the Administrator's designee shall convene an interagency Federal Working Group on Environmental Justice (“Working Group”). The Working Group shall comprise the heads of the following executive agencies and offices, or their designees: (a) Department of Defense; (b) Department of Health and Human Services; (c) Department of Housing and Urban Development; (d) Department of Labor; (e) Department of Agriculture; (f) Department of Transportation; (g) Department of Justice; (h) Department of the Interior; (i) Department of Commerce; (j) Department of Energy; (k) Environmental Protection Agency; (l) Office of Management and Budget; (m) Office of Science and Technology Policy; (n) Office of the Deputy Assistant to the President for Environmental Policy; (o) Office of the Assistant to the President for Domestic Policy; (p) National Economic Council; (q) Council of Economic Advisers; and (r) such other Government officials as the President may designate. The Working Group shall report to the President through the Deputy Assistant to the President for Environmental Policy and the Assistant to the President for Domestic Policy.

(b) The Working Group shall: (1) provide guidance to Federal agencies on criteria for identifying disproportionately high and adverse human health or environmental effects on minority populations and low-income populations;

(2) coordinate with, provide guidance to, and serve as a clearinghouse for, each Federal agency as it develops an environmental justice strategy as required by section 1–103 of this order, in order to ensure that the administration, interpretation and enforcement of programs, activities and policies are undertaken in a consistent manner;

(3) assist in coordinating research by, and stimulating cooperation among, the Environmental Protection Agency, the Department of Health and Human Services, the Department of Housing and Urban Development, and other agencies conducting research or other activities in accordance with section 3–3 of this order;

(4) assist in coordinating data collection, required by this order;

(5) examine existing data and studies on environmental justice;

(6) hold public meetings as required in section 5–502(d) of this order; and

(7) develop interagency model projects on environmental justice that evidence cooperation among Federal agencies.

1–103. Development of Agency Strategies. (a) Except as provided in section 6–605 of this order, each Federal agency shall develop an agency-wide environmental justice strategy, as set forth in subsections (b)–(e) of this section that identifies and addresses disproportionately high and adverse human health or environmental effects of its programs, policies, and activities on minority populations and low-income populations. The environmental justice strategy shall list programs, policies, planning and public participation processes, enforcement, and/or rulemakings related to human health or the environment that should be revised to, at a minimum: (1) promote enforcement of all health and environmental statutes in areas with minority populations and low-income populations; (2) ensure greater public participation; (3) improve research and data collection relating to the health of and environment of minority populations and low-income populations; and (4) identify differential patterns of consumption of natural resources among minority populations and low-income populations. In addition, the environmental justice strategy shall include, where appropriate, a timetable for undertaking identified revisions and consideration of economic and social implications of the revisions.

(b) Within 4 months of the date of this order, each Federal agency shall identify an internal administrative process for developing its environmental justice strategy, and shall inform the Working Group of the process.

(c) Within 6 months of the date of this order, each Federal agency shall provide the Working Group with an outline of its proposed environmental justice strategy.

(d) Within 10 months of the date of this order, each Federal agency shall provide the Working Group with its proposed environmental justice strategy.

(e) By March 24, 1995, each Federal agency shall finalize its environmental justice strategy and provide a copy and written description of its strategy to the Working Group. From the date of this order through March 24, 1995, each Federal agency, as part of its environmental justice strategy, shall identify several specific projects that can be promptly undertaken to address particular concerns identified during the development of the proposed environmental justice strategy, and a schedule for implementing those projects.

(f) Within 24 months of the date of this order, each Federal agency shall report to the Working Group on its progress in implementing its agency-wide environmental justice strategy.

(g) Federal agencies shall provide additional periodic reports to the Working Group as requested by the Working Group.

1–104. Reports to the President. Within 14 months of the date of this order, the Working Group shall submit to the President, through the Office of the Deputy Assistant to the President for Environmental Policy and the Office of the Assistant to the President for Domestic Policy, a report that describes the implementation of this order, and includes the final environmental justice strategies described in section 1–103(e) of this order.

Sec. 2–2. FEDERAL AGENCY RESPONSIBILITIES FOR FEDERAL PROGRAMS. Each Federal agency shall conduct its programs, policies, and activities that substantially affect human health or the environment, in a manner that ensures that such programs, policies, and activities do not have the effect of excluding persons (including populations) from participation in, denying persons (including populations) the benefits of, or subjecting persons (including populations) to discrimination under, such programs, policies, and activities, because of their race, color, or national origin.

Sec. 3–3. RESEARCH, DATA COLLECTION, AND ANALYSIS.

3–301. Human Health and Environmental Research and Analysis. (a) Environmental human health research, whenever practicable and appropriate, shall include diverse segments of the population in epidemiological and clinical studies, including segments at high risk from environmental hazards, such as minority populations, low-income populations and workers who may be exposed to substantial environmental hazards.

(b) Environmental human health analyses, whenever practicable and appropriate, shall identify multiple and cumulative exposures.

(c) Federal agencies shall provide minority populations and low-income populations the opportunity to comment on the development and design of research strategies undertaken pursuant to this order.

3–302. Human Health and Environmental Data Collection and Analysis. To the extent permitted by existing law, including the Privacy Act, as amended (5 U.S.C. section 552a): (a) each Federal agency, whenever practicable and appropriate, shall collect, maintain, and analyze information assessing and comparing environmental and human health risks borne by populations identified by race, national origin, or income. To the extent practical and appropriate, Federal agencies shall use this information to determine whether their programs, policies, and activities have disproportionately high and adverse human health or environmental effects on minority populations and low-income populations;

(b) In connection with the development and implementation of agency strategies in section 1–103 of this order, each Federal agency, whenever practicable and appropriate, shall collect, maintain and analyze information on the race, national origin, income level, and other readily accessible and appropriate information for areas surrounding facilities or sites expected to have a substantial environmental, human health, or economic effect on the surrounding populations, when such facilities or sites become the subject of a substantial Federal environmental administrative or judicial action. Such information shall be made available to the public, unless prohibited by law; and

(c) Each Federal agency, whenever practicable and appropriate, shall collect, maintain, and analyze information on the race, national origin, income level, and other readily accessible and appropriate information for areas surrounding Federal facilities that are: (1) subject to the reporting requirements under the Emergency Planning and Community Right-to-Know Act, 42 U.S.C. section 11001–11050 as mandated in Executive Order No. 12856 [former 42 U.S.C. 11001 note]; and (2) expected to have a substantial environmental, human health, or economic effect on surrounding populations. Such information shall be made available to the public, unless prohibited by law.

(d) In carrying out the responsibilities in this section, each Federal agency, whenever practicable and appropriate, shall share information and eliminate unnecessary duplication of efforts through the use of existing data systems and cooperative agreements among Federal agencies and with State, local, and tribal governments.

Sec. 4–4. SUBSISTENCE CONSUMPTION OF FISH AND WILDLIFE.

4–401. Consumption Patterns. In order to assist in identifying the need for ensuring protection of populations with differential patterns of subsistence consumption of fish and wildlife, Federal agencies, whenever practicable and appropriate, shall collect, maintain, and analyze information on the consumption patterns of populations who principally rely on fish and/or wildlife for subsistence. Federal agencies shall communicate to the public the risks of those consumption patterns.

4–402. Guidance. Federal agencies, whenever practicable and appropriate, shall work in a coordinated manner to publish guidance reflecting the latest scientific information available concerning methods for evaluating the human health risks associated with the consumption of pollutant-bearing fish or wildlife. Agencies shall consider such guidance in developing their policies and rules.

Sec. 5–5. PUBLIC PARTICIPATION AND ACCESS TO INFORMATION. (a) The public may submit recommendations to Federal agencies relating to the incorporation of environmental justice principles into Federal agency programs or policies. Each Federal agency shall convey such recommendations to the Working Group.

(b) Each Federal agency may, whenever practicable and appropriate, translate crucial public documents, notices, and hearings relating to human health or the environment for limited English speaking populations.

(c) Each Federal agency shall work to ensure that public documents, notices, and hearings relating to human health or the environment are concise, understandable, and readily accessible to the public.

(d) The Working Group shall hold public meetings, as appropriate, for the purpose of fact-finding, receiving public comments, and conducting inquiries concerning environmental justice. The Working Group shall prepare for public review a summary of the comments and recommendations discussed at the public meetings.

Sec. 6–6. GENERAL PROVISIONS.

6–601. Responsibility for Agency Implementation. The head of each Federal agency shall be responsible for ensuring compliance with this order. Each Federal agency shall conduct internal reviews and take such other steps as may be necessary to monitor compliance with this order.

6–602. Executive Order No. 12250. This Executive order is intended to supplement but not supersede Executive Order No. 12250 [42 U.S.C. 2000d–1 note], which requires consistent and effective implementation of various laws prohibiting discriminatory practices in programs receiving Federal financial assistance. Nothing herein shall limit the effect or mandate of Executive Order No. 12250.

6–603. Executive Order No. 12875. This Executive order is not intended to limit the effect or mandate of Executive Order No. 12875 [former 5 U.S.C. 601 note].

6–604. Scope. For purposes of this order, Federal agency means any agency on the Working Group, and such other agencies as may be designated by the President, that conducts any Federal program or activity that substantially affects human health or the environment. Independent agencies are requested to comply with the provisions of this order.

6–605. Petitions for Exemptions. The head of a Federal agency may petition the President for an exemption from the requirements of this order on the grounds that all or some of the petitioning agency's programs or activities should not be subject to the requirements of this order.

6–606. Native American Programs. Each Federal agency responsibility set forth under this order shall apply equally to Native American programs. In addition, the Department of the Interior, in coordination with the Working Group, and, after consultation with tribal leaders, shall coordinate steps to be taken pursuant to this order that address Federally-recognized Indian Tribes.

6–607. Costs. Unless otherwise provided by law, Federal agencies shall assume the financial costs of complying with this order.

6–608. General. Federal agencies shall implement this order consistent with, and to the extent permitted by, existing law.

6–609. Judicial Review. This order is intended only to improve the internal management of the executive branch and is not intended to, nor does it create any right, benefit, or trust responsibility, substantive or procedural, enforceable at law or equity by a party against the United States, its agencies, its officers, or any person. This order shall not be construed to create any right to judicial review involving the compliance or noncompliance of the United States, its agencies, its officers, or any other person with this order.

William J. Clinton.      

Ex. Ord. No. 13045. Protection of Children From Environmental Health Risks and Safety Risks

Ex. Ord. No. 13045, Apr. 21, 1997, 62 F.R. 19885, as amended by Ex. Ord. No. 13229, Oct. 9, 2001, 66 F.R. 52013; Ex. Ord. No. 13296, Apr. 18, 2003, 68 F.R. 19931, provided:

By the authority vested in me as President by the Constitution and the laws of the United States of America, it is hereby ordered as follows:

Section 1. Policy.

1–101. A growing body of scientific knowledge demonstrates that children may suffer disproportionately from environmental health risks and safety risks. These risks arise because: children's neurological, immunological, digestive, and other bodily systems are still developing; children eat more food, drink more fluids, and breathe more air in proportion to their body weight than adults; children's size and weight may diminish their protection from standard safety features; and children's behavior patterns may make them more susceptible to accidents because they are less able to protect themselves. Therefore, to the extent permitted by law and appropriate, and consistent with the agency's mission, each Federal agency:

(a) shall make it a high priority to identify and assess environmental health risks and safety risks that may disproportionately affect children; and

(b) shall ensure that its policies, programs, activities, and standards address disproportionate risks to children that result from environmental health risks or safety risks.

1–102. Each independent regulatory agency is encouraged to participate in the implementation of this order and comply with its provisions.

Sec. 2. Definitions. The following definitions shall apply to this order.

2–201. “Federal agency” means any authority of the United States that is an agency under 44 U.S.C. 3502(1) other than those considered to be independent regulatory agencies under 44 U.S.C. 3502(5). For purposes of this order, “military departments,” as defined in 5 U.S.C. 102, are covered under the auspices of the Department of Defense.

2–202. “Covered regulatory action” means any substantive action in a rulemaking, initiated after the date of this order or for which a Notice of Proposed Rulemaking is published 1 year after the date of this order, that is likely to result in a rule that may:

(a) be “economically significant” under Executive Order 12866 [5 U.S.C. 601 note] (a rulemaking that has an annual effect on the economy of $100 million or more or would adversely affect in a material way the economy, a sector of the economy, productivity, competition, jobs, the environment, public health or safety, or State, local, or tribal governments or communities); and

(b) concern an environmental health risk or safety risk that an agency has reason to believe may disproportionately affect children.

2–203. “Environmental health risks and safety risks” mean risks to health or to safety that are attributable to products or substances that the child is likely to come in contact with or ingest (such as the air we breath, the food we eat, the water we drink or use for recreation, the soil we live on, and the products we use or are exposed to).

Sec. 3. Task Force on Environmental Health Risks and Safety Risks to Children.

3–301. There is hereby established the Task Force on Environmental Health Risks and Safety Risks to Children (“Task Force”).

3–302. The Task Force will report to the President in consultation with the Domestic Policy Council, the National Science and Technology Council, the Council on Environmental Quality, and the Office of Management and Budget (OMB).

3–303. Membership. The Task Force shall be composed of the:

(a) Secretary of Health and Human Services, who shall serve as a Co-Chair of the Council;

(b) Administrator of the Environmental Protection Agency, who shall serve as a Co-Chair of the Council;

(c) Secretary of Education;

(d) Secretary of Labor;

(e) Attorney General;

(f) Secretary of Energy;

(g) Secretary of Housing and Urban Development;

(h) Secretary of Agriculture;

(i) Secretary of Transportation;

(j) Director of the Office of Management and Budget;

(k) Chair of the Council on Environmental Quality;

(l) Chair of the Consumer Product Safety Commission;

(m) Assistant to the President for Economic Policy;

(n) Assistant to the President for Domestic Policy;

(o) Director of the Office of Science and Technology Policy;

(p) Chair of the Council of Economic Advisers; and

(q) Such other officials of executive departments and agencies as the President may, from time to time, designate.

Members of the Task Force may delegate their responsibilities under this order to subordinates.

3–304. Functions. The Task Force shall recommend to the President Federal strategies for children's environmental health and safety, within the limits of the Administration's budget, to include the following elements:

(a) statements of principles, general policy, and targeted annual priorities to guide the Federal approach to achieving the goals of this order;

(b) a coordinated research agenda for the Federal Government, including steps to implement the review of research databases described in section 4 of this order;

(c) recommendations for appropriate partnerships among Federal, State, local, and tribal governments and the private, academic, and nonprofit sectors;

(d) proposals to enhance public outreach and communication to assist families in evaluating risks to children and in making informed consumer choices;

(e) an identification of high-priority initiatives that the Federal Government has undertaken or will undertake in advancing protection of children's environmental health and safety; and

(f) a statement regarding the desirability of new legislation to fulfill or promote the purposes of this order.

3–305. The Task Force shall prepare a biennial report on research, data, or other information that would enhance our ability to understand, analyze, and respond to environmental health risks and safety risks to children. For purposes of this report, executive departments, the Environmental Protection Agency, and other agencies identified by the Task Force shall identify and specifically describe for the Task Force key data needs related to environmental health risks and safety risks to children that have arisen in the course of the agency's programs and activities. Each report shall also detail the accomplishments of the Task Force from the date of the preceding report. The Task Force shall incorporate agency submissions into its report and ensure that this report is publicly available and widely disseminated. The Office of Science and Technology Policy and the National Science and Technology Council shall ensure that this report is fully considered in establishing research priorities.

3–306. The Task Force shall exist for 8 years from the date of this order.

Sec. 4. Research Coordination and Integration.

4–401. Within 6 months of the date of this order, the Task Force shall develop or direct to be developed a review of existing and planned data resources and a proposed plan for ensuring that researchers and Federal research agencies have access to information on all research conducted or funded by the Federal Government that is related to adverse health risks in children resulting from exposure to environmental health risks or safety risks. The National Science and Technology Council shall review the plan.

4–402. The plan shall promote the sharing of information on academic and private research. It shall include recommendations to encourage that such data, to the extent permitted by law, is available to the public, the scientific and academic communities, and all Federal agencies.

Sec. 5. Agency Environmental Health Risk or Safety Risk Regulations.

5–501. For each covered regulatory action submitted to OMB's Office of Information and Regulatory Affairs (OIRA) for review pursuant to Executive Order 12866 [5 U.S.C. 601 note], the issuing agency shall provide to OIRA the following information developed as part of the agency's decisionmaking process, unless prohibited by law:

(a) an evaluation of the environmental health or safety effects of the planned regulation on children; and

(b) an explanation of why the planned regulation is preferable to other potentially effective and reasonably feasible alternatives considered by the agency.

5–502. In emergency situations, or when an agency is obligated by law to act more quickly than normal review procedures allow, the agency shall comply with the provisions of this section to the extent practicable. For those covered regulatory actions that are governed by a court-imposed or statutory deadline, the agency shall, to the extent practicable, schedule any rulemaking proceedings so as to permit sufficient time for completing the analysis required by this section.

5–503. The analysis required by this section may be included as part of any other required analysis, and shall be made part of the administrative record for the covered regulatory action or otherwise made available to the public, to the extent permitted by law.

Sec. 6. Interagency Forum on Child and Family Statistics.

6–601. The Director of the OMB (“Director”) shall convene an Interagency Forum on Child and Family Statistics (“Forum”), which will include representatives from the appropriate Federal statistics and research agencies. The Forum shall produce a biennial compendium (“Report”) of the most important indicators of the well-being of the Nation's children.

6–602. The Forum shall determine the indicators to be included in each Report and identify the sources of data to be used for each indicator. The Forum shall provide an ongoing review of Federal collection and dissemination of data on children and families, and shall make recommendations to improve the coverage and coordination of data collection and to reduce duplication and overlap.

6–603. The Report shall be published by the Forum in collaboration with the National Institute of Child Health and Human Development [now the Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health and Human Development]. The Forum shall present the first annual Report to the President, through the Director, by July 31, 1997. The Report shall be published biennially thereafter, using the most recently available data.

Sec. 7. General Provisions.

7–701. This order is intended only for internal management of the executive branch. This order is not intended, and should not be construed to create, any right, benefit, or trust responsibility, substantive or procedural, enforceable at law or equity by a party against the United States, its agencies, its officers, or its employees. This order shall not be construed to create any right to judicial review involving the compliance or noncompliance with this order by the United States, its agencies, its officers, or any other person.

7–702. Executive Order 12606 of September 2, 1987 is revoked.

7–703. Nothing in this order shall be construed to impair or otherwise affect the functions of the Director of the Office of Management and Budget relating to budget, administrative, or legislative proposals.

Ex. Ord. No. 13061. Federal Support of Community Efforts Along American Heritage Rivers

Ex. Ord. No. 13061, Sept. 11, 1997, 62 F.R. 48445, as amended by Ex. Ord. No. 13093, July 27, 1998, 63 F.R. 40357, provided:

By the authority vested in me as President by the Constitution and the laws of the United States of America, including the National Environmental Policy Act of 1969 (Public Law 91–190) [42 U.S.C. 4321 et seq.], and in order to protect and restore rivers and their adjacent communities, it is hereby ordered as follows:

Section 1. Policies.

(a) The American Heritage Rivers initiative has three objectives: natural resource and environmental protection, economic revitalization, and historic and cultural preservation.

(b) Executive agencies (“agencies”), to the extent permitted by law and consistent with their missions and resources, shall coordinate Federal plans, functions, programs, and resources to preserve, protect, and restore rivers and their associated resources important to our history, culture, and natural heritage.

(c) Agencies shall develop plans to bring increased efficiencies to existing and authorized programs with goals that are supportive of protection and restoration of communities along rivers.

(d) In accordance with Executive Order 12630 [5 U.S.C. 601 note], agencies shall act with due regard for the protection of private property provided for by the Fifth Amendment to the United States Constitution. No new regulatory authority is created as a result of the American Heritage Rivers initiative. This initiative will not interfere with matters of State, local, and tribal government jurisdiction.

(e) In furtherance of these policies, the President will designate rivers that meet certain criteria as “American Heritage Rivers.”

(f) It is the policy of the Federal Government that communities shall nominate rivers as American Heritage Rivers and the Federal role will be solely to support community-based efforts to preserve, protect, and restore these rivers and their communities.

(g) Agencies should, to the extent practicable, help identify resources in the private and nonprofit sectors to aid revitalization efforts.

(h) Agencies are encouraged, to the extent permitted by law, to develop partnerships with State, local, and tribal governments and community and nongovernmental organizations. Agencies will be responsive to the diverse needs of different kinds of communities from the core of our cities to remote rural areas and shall seek to ensure that the role played by the Federal Government is complementary to the plans and work being carried out by State, local, and tribal governments. To the extent possible, Federal resources will be strategically directed to complement resources being spent by these governments.

(i) Agencies shall establish a method for field offices to assess the success of the American Heritage River initiative and provide a means to recommend changes that will improve the delivery and accessibility of Federal services and programs. Agencies are directed, where appropriate, to reduce and make more flexible procedural requirements and paperwork related to providing assistance to communities along designated rivers.

(j) Agencies shall commit to a policy under which they will seek to ensure that their actions have a positive effect on the natural, historic, economic, and cultural resources of American Heritage River communities. The policy will require agencies to consult with American Heritage River communities early in the planning stages of Federal actions, take into account the communities’ goals and objectives and ensure that actions are compatible with the overall character of these communities. Agencies shall seek to ensure that their help for one community does not adversely affect neighboring communities. Additionally, agencies are encouraged to develop formal and informal partnerships to assist communities. Local Federal facilities, to the extent permitted by law and consistent with the agencies’ missions and resources, should provide public access, physical space, technical assistance, and other support for American Heritage River communities.

(k) In addition to providing support to designated rivers, agencies will work together to provide information and services to all communities seeking support.

Sec. 2. Process for Nominating an American Heritage River.

(a) Nomination. Communities, in coordination with their State, local, or tribal governments, can nominate their river, river stretch, or river confluence for designation as an American Heritage River. When several communities are involved in the nomination of the same river, nominations will detail the coordination among the interested communities and the role each will play in the process. Individuals living outside the community may not nominate a river.

(b) Selection Criteria. Nominations will be judged based on the following:

(1) the characteristics of the natural, economic, agricultural, scenic, historic, cultural, or recreational resources of the river that render it distinctive or unique;

(2) the effectiveness with which the community has defined its plan of action and the extent to which the plan addresses, either through planned actions or past accomplishments, all three American Heritage Rivers objectives, which are set forth in section 1(a) of this order;

(3) the strength and diversity of community support for the nomination as evidenced by letters from elected officials; landowners; private citizens; businesses; and especially State, local, and tribal governments. Broad community support is essential to receiving the American Heritage River designation; and

(4) willingness and capability of the community to forge partnerships and agreements to implement their plan to meet their goals and objectives.

(c) Recommendation Process.

The Chair of the Council on Environmental Quality (“CEQ”) shall develop a fair and objective procedure to obtain the views of a diverse group of experts for the purpose of making recommendations to the President as to which rivers shall be designated. These experts shall reflect a variety of viewpoints, such as those representing natural, cultural, and historic resources; scenic, environmental, and recreation interests; tourism, transportation, and economic development interests; and industries such as agriculture, hydropower, manufacturing, mining, and forest management. The Chair of the CEQ will ensure that the rivers recommended represent a variety of stream sizes, diverse geographical locations, and a wide range of settings from urban to rural and ensure that relatively pristine, successful revitalization efforts are considered as well as degraded rivers in need of restoration.

(d) Designation.

(1) The President will designate certain rivers as American Heritage Rivers. Based on the receipt of a sufficient number of qualified nominations, up to 20 rivers will be designated in the first phase of the initiative.

(2) The Interagency Committee provided for in section 3 of this order shall develop a process by which any community that nominates and has its river designated may have this designation terminated at its request.

(3) Upon a determination by the Chair of the CEQ that a community has failed to implement its plan, the Chair may recommend to the President that a designation be revoked. The Chair shall notify the community at least 30 days prior to making such a recommendation to the President. Based on that recommendation, the President may revoke the designation.

Sec. 3. Establishment of an Interagency Committee. There is hereby established the American Heritage Rivers Interagency Committee (“Committee”). The Committee shall have two co-chairs. The Chair of the CEQ shall be a permanent co-chair. The other co-chair will rotate among the heads of the agencies listed below.

(a) The Committee shall be composed of the following members or their designees at the Assistant Secretary level or equivalent:

(1) The Secretary of Defense;

(2) The Attorney General;

(3) The Secretary of the Interior;

(4) The Secretary of Agriculture;

(5) The Secretary of Commerce;

(6) The Secretary of Housing and Urban Development;

(7) The Secretary of Transportation;

(8) The Secretary of Energy;

(9) The Administrator of the Environmental Protection Agency;

(10) The Chair of the Advisory Council on Historic Preservation;

(11) The Chairperson of the National Endowment for the Arts; and

(12) The Chairperson of the National Endowment for the Humanities.

The Chair of the CEQ may invite to participate in meetings of the Committee, representatives of other agencies, as appropriate.

(b) The Committee shall:

(1) establish formal guidelines for designation as an American Heritage River;

(2) periodically review the actions of agencies in support of the American Heritage Rivers;

(3) report to the President on the progress, accomplishments, and effectiveness of the American Heritage Rivers initiative; and

(4) perform other duties as directed by the Chair of the CEQ.

Sec. 4. Responsibilities of the Federal Agencies. Consistent with Title I of the National Environmental Policy Act of 1969 [42 U.S.C. 4331 et seq.], agencies shall:

(a) identify their existing programs and plans that give them the authority to offer assistance to communities involved in river conservation and community health and revitalization;

(b) to the extent practicable and permitted by law and regulation, refocus programs, grants, and technical assistance to provide support for communities adjacent to American Heritage Rivers;

(c) identify all technical tools, including those developed for purposes other than river conservation, that can be applied to river protection, restoration, and community revitalization;

(d) provide access to existing scientific data and information to the extent permitted by law and consistent with the agencies mission and resources;

(e) cooperate with State, local, and tribal governments and communities with respect to their activities that take place in, or affect the area around, an American Heritage River;

(f) commit to a policy, as set forth in section 1(j) of this order, in making decisions affecting the quality of an American Heritage River;

(g) select from among all the agencies a single individual called the “River Navigator,” for each river that is designated an American Heritage River, with whom the communities can communicate goals and needs and who will facilitate community-agency interchange;

(h) allow public access to the river, for agencies with facilities along American Heritage Rivers, to the extent practicable and consistent with their mission; and

(i) cooperate, as appropriate, with communities on projects that protect or preserve stretches of the river that are on Federal property or adjacent to a Federal facility.

Sec. 5. Responsibilities of the Committee and the Council on Environmental Quality. The CEQ shall serve as Executive agent for the Committee, and the CEQ and the Committee shall ensure the implementation of the policies and purposes of this initiative.

Sec. 6. Definition. For the purposes of this order, Executive agency means any agency on the Committee and such other agency as may be designated by the President.

Sec. 7. Judicial Review. This order does not create any right or benefit, substantive or procedural, enforceable by any party against the United States, its agencies or instrumentalities, its officers or employees, or any other person.

William J. Clinton.      

Executive Order No. 13080

Ex. Ord. No. 13080, Apr. 7, 1998, 63 F.R. 17667, as amended by Ex. Ord. No. 13093, July 27, 1998, 63 F.R. 40357, which established the American Heritage Rivers Initiative Advisory Committee, was revoked by Ex. Ord. No. 13225, §3(b), Sept. 28, 2001, 66 F.R. 50292, formerly set out as a note under section 14 of the Federal Advisory Committee Act in the Appendix to Title 5, Government Organization and Employees.

Proc. No. 7112. Designation of American Heritage Rivers

Proc. No. 7112, July 30, 1998, 63 F.R. 41949, provided:

In celebration of America's rivers, and to recognize and reward grassroots efforts to restore them, last year I announced the American Heritage Rivers initiative. My goal was to help communities realize their visions for their rivers by making it easier for them to tap existing programs and resources of the Federal Government. From across the country, hundreds of communities answered my call for nominations, asking that their rivers be designated American Heritage Rivers. I applaud all of the communities that have drawn together and dedicated themselves to the goal of healthy rivers, now and forever.

Having reviewed the recommendations of the American Heritage Rivers Initiative Advisory Committee, I am pleased to be able to recognize a select group of rivers and communities that reflect the true diversity and splendor of America's natural endowment, and the tremendous energy and commitment of its citizenry.

Pursuant to Executive Orders 13061 [set out above], 13080, and 13093 [set out above], I hereby designate the following American Heritage Rivers:

• The Blackstone and Woonasquatucket Rivers, in the States of Massachusetts and Rhode Island;

• The Connecticut River, in the States of Connecticut, Massachusetts, New Hampshire, and Vermont;

• The Cuyahoga River, in the State of Ohio;

• The Detroit River, in the State of Michigan;

• The Hanalei River, in the State of Hawaii;

• The Hudson River, in the State of New York;

• The Upper Mississippi River, in the States of Illinois, Iowa, Minnesota, Missouri, and Wisconsin;

• The Lower Mississippi River, in the States of Louisiana and Tennessee;

• The New River, in the States of North Carolina, Virginia, and West Virginia;

• The Rio Grande, in the State of Texas;

• The Potomac River, in the District of Columbia and the States of Maryland, Pennsylvania, Virginia, and West Virginia;

• The St. Johns River, in the State of Florida;

• The Upper Susquehanna and Lackawanna Rivers, in the State of Pennsylvania;

• The Willamette River, in the State of Oregon.

IN WITNESS WHEREOF, I have hereunto set my hand this thirtieth day of July, in the year of our Lord nineteen hundred and ninety-eight, and of the Independence of the United States of America the two hundred and twenty-third.

William J. Clinton.      

Ex. Ord. No. 13112. Invasive Species

Ex. Ord. No. 13112, Feb. 3, 1999, 64 F.R. 6183, as amended by Ex. Ord. No. 13286, §15, Feb. 28, 2003, 68 F.R. 10623, provided:

By the authority vested in me as President by the Constitution and the laws of the United States of America, including the National Environmental Policy Act of 1969, as amended (42 U.S.C. 4321 et seq.), Nonindigenous Aquatic Nuisance Prevention and Control Act of 1990, as amended (16 U.S.C. 4701 et seq.), Lacey Act, as amended (18 U.S.C. 42), Federal Plant Pest Act (7 U.S.C. 150aa et seq.), Federal Noxious Weed Act of 1974, as amended (7 U.S.C. 2801 et seq.), Endangered Species Act of 1973, as amended (16 U.S.C. 1531 et seq.), and other pertinent statutes, to prevent the introduction of invasive species and provide for their control and to minimize the economic, ecological, and human health impacts that invasive species cause, it is ordered as follows:

Section 1. Definitions.

(a) “Alien species” means, with respect to a particular ecosystem, any species, including its seeds, eggs, spores, or other biological material capable of propagating that species, that is not native to that ecosystem.

(b) “Control” means, as appropriate, eradicating, suppressing, reducing, or managing invasive species populations, preventing spread of invasive species from areas where they are present, and taking steps such as restoration of native species and habitats to reduce the effects of invasive species and to prevent further invasions.

(c) “Ecosystem” means the complex of a community of organisms and its environment.

(d) “Federal agency” means an executive department or agency, but does not include independent establishments as defined by 5 U.S.C. 104.

(e) “Introduction” means the intentional or unintentional escape, release, dissemination, or placement of a species into an ecosystem as a result of human activity.

(f) “Invasive species” means an alien species whose introduction does or is likely to cause economic or environmental harm or harm to human health.

(g) “Native species” means, with respect to a particular ecosystem, a species that, other than as a result of an introduction, historically occurred or currently occurs in that ecosystem.

(h) “Species” means a group of organisms all of which have a high degree of physical and genetic similarity, generally interbreed only among themselves, and show persistent differences from members of allied groups of organisms.

(i) “Stakeholders” means, but is not limited to, State, tribal, and local government agencies, academic institutions, the scientific community, nongovernmental entities including environmental, agricultural, and conservation organizations, trade groups, commercial interests, and private landowners.

(j) “United States” means the 50 States, the District of Columbia, Puerto Rico, Guam, and all possessions, territories, and the territorial sea of the United States.

Sec. 2. Federal Agency Duties. (a) Each Federal agency whose actions may affect the status of invasive species shall, to the extent practicable and permitted by law,

(1) identify such actions;

(2) subject to the availability of appropriations, and within Administration budgetary limits, use relevant programs and authorities to: (i) prevent the introduction of invasive species; (ii) detect and respond rapidly to and control populations of such species in a cost-effective and environmentally sound manner; (iii) monitor invasive species populations accurately and reliably; (iv) provide for restoration of native species and habitat conditions in ecosystems that have been invaded; (v) conduct research on invasive species and develop technologies to prevent introduction and provide for environmentally sound control of invasive species; and (vi) promote public education on invasive species and the means to address them; and

(3) not authorize, fund, or carry out actions that it believes are likely to cause or promote the introduction or spread of invasive species in the United States or elsewhere unless, pursuant to guidelines that it has prescribed, the agency has determined and made public its determination that the benefits of such actions clearly outweigh the potential harm caused by invasive species; and that all feasible and prudent measures to minimize risk of harm will be taken in conjunction with the actions.

(b) Federal agencies shall pursue the duties set forth in this section in consultation with the Invasive Species Council, consistent with the Invasive Species Management Plan and in cooperation with stakeholders, as appropriate, and, as approved by the Department of State, when Federal agencies are working with international organizations and foreign nations.

Sec. 3. Invasive Species Council. (a) An Invasive Species Council (Council) is hereby established whose members shall include the Secretary of State, the Secretary of the Treasury, the Secretary of Defense, the Secretary of the Interior, the Secretary of Agriculture, the Secretary of Commerce, the Secretary of Transportation, the Secretary of Homeland Security, and the Administrator of the Environmental Protection Agency. The Council shall be Co-Chaired by the Secretary of the Interior, the Secretary of Agriculture, and the Secretary of Commerce. The Council may invite additional Federal agency representatives to be members, including representatives from subcabinet bureaus or offices with significant responsibilities concerning invasive species, and may prescribe special procedures for their participation. The Secretary of the Interior shall, with concurrence of the Co-Chairs, appoint an Executive Director of the Council and shall provide the staff and administrative support for the Council.

(b) The Secretary of the Interior shall establish an advisory committee under the Federal Advisory Committee Act, 5 U.S.C. App., to provide information and advice for consideration by the Council, and shall, after consultation with other members of the Council, appoint members of the advisory committee representing stakeholders. Among other things, the advisory committee shall recommend plans and actions at local, tribal, State, regional, and ecosystem-based levels to achieve the goals and objectives of the Management Plan in section 5 of this order. The advisory committee shall act in cooperation with stakeholders and existing organizations addressing invasive species. The Department of the Interior shall provide the administrative and financial support for the advisory committee.

Sec. 4. Duties of the Invasive Species Council. The Invasive Species Council shall provide national leadership regarding invasive species, and shall:

(a) oversee the implementation of this order and see that the Federal agency activities concerning invasive species are coordinated, complementary, cost-efficient, and effective, relying to the extent feasible and appropriate on existing organizations addressing invasive species, such as the Aquatic Nuisance Species Task Force, the Federal Interagency Committee for the Management of Noxious and Exotic Weeds, and the Committee on Environment and Natural Resources;

(b) encourage planning and action at local, tribal, State, regional, and ecosystem-based levels to achieve the goals and objectives of the Management Plan in section 5 of this order, in cooperation with stakeholders and existing organizations addressing invasive species;

(c) develop recommendations for international cooperation in addressing invasive species;

(d) develop, in consultation with the Council on Environmental Quality, guidance to Federal agencies pursuant to the National Environmental Policy Act on prevention and control of invasive species, including the procurement, use, and maintenance of native species as they affect invasive species;

(e) facilitate development of a coordinated network among Federal agencies to document, evaluate, and monitor impacts from invasive species on the economy, the environment, and human health;

(f) facilitate establishment of a coordinated, up-to-date information-sharing system that utilizes, to the greatest extent practicable, the Internet; this system shall facilitate access to and exchange of information concerning invasive species, including, but not limited to, information on distribution and abundance of invasive species; life histories of such species and invasive characteristics; economic, environmental, and human health impacts; management techniques, and laws and programs for management, research, and public education; and

(g) prepare and issue a national Invasive Species Management Plan as set forth in section 5 of this order.

Sec. 5. Invasive Species Management Plan. (a) Within 18 months after issuance of this order, the Council shall prepare and issue the first edition of a National Invasive Species Management Plan (Management Plan), which shall detail and recommend performance-oriented goals and objectives and specific measures of success for Federal agency efforts concerning invasive species. The Management Plan shall recommend specific objectives and measures for carrying out each of the Federal agency duties established in section 2(a) of this order and shall set forth steps to be taken by the Council to carry out the duties assigned to it under section 4 of this order. The Management Plan shall be developed through a public process and in consultation with Federal agencies and stakeholders.

(b) The first edition of the Management Plan shall include a review of existing and prospective approaches and authorities for preventing the introduction and spread of invasive species, including those for identifying pathways by which invasive species are introduced and for minimizing the risk of introductions via those pathways, and shall identify research needs and recommend measures to minimize the risk that introductions will occur. Such recommended measures shall provide for a science-based process to evaluate risks associated with introduction and spread of invasive species and a coordinated and systematic risk-based process to identify, monitor, and interdict pathways that may be involved in the introduction of invasive species. If recommended measures are not authorized by current law, the Council shall develop and recommend to the President through its Co-Chairs legislative proposals for necessary changes in authority.

(c) The Council shall update the Management Plan biennially and shall concurrently evaluate and report on success in achieving the goals and objectives set forth in the Management Plan. The Management Plan shall identify the personnel, other resources, and additional levels of coordination needed to achieve the Management Plan's identified goals and objectives, and the Council shall provide each edition of the Management Plan and each report on it to the Office of Management and Budget. Within 18 months after measures have been recommended by the Council in any edition of the Management Plan, each Federal agency whose action is required to implement such measures shall either take the action recommended or shall provide the Council with an explanation of why the action is not feasible. The Council shall assess the effectiveness of this order no less than once each 5 years after the order is issued and shall report to the Office of Management and Budget on whether the order should be revised.

Sec. 6. Judicial Review and Administration. (a) This order is intended only to improve the internal management of the executive branch and is not intended to create any right, benefit, or trust responsibility, substantive or procedural, enforceable at law or equity by a party against the United States, its agencies, its officers, or any other person.

(b) Executive Order 11987 of May 24, 1977, is hereby revoked.

(c) The requirements of this order do not affect the obligations of Federal agencies under 16 U.S.C. 4713 with respect to ballast water programs.

(d) The requirements of section 2(a)(3) of this order shall not apply to any action of the Department of State or Department of Defense if the Secretary of State or the Secretary of Defense finds that exemption from such requirements is necessary for foreign policy or national security reasons.

Executive Order No. 13148

Ex. Ord. No. 13148, Apr. 21, 2000, 65 F.R. 24595, which directed Federal agencies to establish strategies that supported environmental leadership programs, policies, and procedures and to implement environmental compliance audit programs and policies that emphasized pollution prevention, was revoked by Ex. Ord. No. 13423, §11(a)(iv), Jan. 24, 2007, 72 F.R. 3923, set out below.

Ex. Ord. No. 13423. Strengthening Federal Environmental, Energy, and Transportation Management

Ex. Ord. No. 13423, Jan. 24, 2007, 72 F.R. 3919, provided:

By the authority vested in me as President by the Constitution and the laws of the United States of America, and to strengthen the environmental, energy, and transportation management of Federal agencies, it is hereby ordered as follows:

Section 1. Policy. It is the policy of the United States that Federal agencies conduct their environmental, transportation, and energy-related activities under the law in support of their respective missions in an environmentally, economically and fiscally sound, integrated, continuously improving, efficient, and sustainable manner.

Sec. 2. Goals for Agencies. In implementing the policy set forth in section 1 of this order, the head of each agency shall:

(a) improve energy efficiency and reduce greenhouse gas emissions of the agency, through reduction of energy intensity by (i) 3 percent annually through the end of fiscal year 2015, or (ii) 30 percent by the end of fiscal year 2015, relative to the baseline of the agency's energy use in fiscal year 2003;

(b) ensure that (i) at least half of the statutorily required renewable energy consumed by the agency in a fiscal year comes from new renewable sources, and (ii) to the extent feasible, the agency implements renewable energy generation projects on agency property for agency use;

(c) beginning in FY 2008, reduce water consumption intensity, relative to the baseline of the agency's water consumption in fiscal year 2007, through life-cycle cost-effective measures by 2 percent annually through the end of fiscal year 2015 or 16 percent by the end of fiscal year 2015;

(d) require in agency acquisitions of goods and services (i) use of sustainable environmental practices, including acquisition of biobased, environmentally preferable, energy-efficient, water-efficient, and recycled-content products, and (ii) use of paper of at least 30 percent post-consumer fiber content;

(e) ensure that the agency (i) reduces the quantity of toxic and hazardous chemicals and materials acquired, used, or disposed of by the agency, (ii) increases diversion of solid waste as appropriate, and (iii) maintains cost-effective waste prevention and recycling programs in its facilities;

(f) ensure that (i) new construction and major renovation of agency buildings comply with the Guiding Principles for Federal Leadership in High Performance and Sustainable Buildings set forth in the Federal Leadership in High Performance and Sustainable Buildings Memorandum of Understanding (2006), and (ii) 15 percent of the existing Federal capital asset building inventory of the agency as of the end of fiscal year 2015 incorporates the sustainable practices in the Guiding Principles;

(g) ensure that, if the agency operates a fleet of at least 20 motor vehicles, the agency, relative to agency baselines for fiscal year 2005, (i) reduces the fleet's total consumption of petroleum products by 2 percent annually through the end of fiscal year 2015, (ii) increases the total fuel consumption that is non-petroleum-based by 10 percent annually, and (iii) uses plug-in hybrid (PIH) vehicles when PIH vehicles are commercially available at a cost reasonably comparable, on the basis of life-cycle cost, to non-PIH vehicles; and

(h) ensure that the agency (i) when acquiring an electronic product to meet its requirements, meets at least 95 percent of those requirements with an Electronic Product Environmental Assessment Tool (EPEAT)-registered electronic product, unless there is no EPEAT standard for such product, (ii) enables the Energy Star feature on agency computers and monitors, (iii) establishes and implements policies to extend the useful life of agency electronic equipment, and (iv) uses environmentally sound practices with respect to disposition of agency electronic equipment that has reached the end of its useful life.

Sec. 3. Duties of Heads of Agencies. In implementing the policy set forth in section 1 of this order, the head of each agency shall:

(a) implement within the agency sustainable practices for (i) energy efficiency, greenhouse gas emissions avoidance or reduction, and petroleum products use reduction, (ii) renewable energy, including bioenergy, (iii) water conservation, (iv) acquisition, (v) pollution and waste prevention and recycling, (vi) reduction or elimination of acquisition and use of toxic or hazardous chemicals, (vii) high performance construction, lease, operation, and maintenance of buildings, (viii) vehicle fleet management, and (ix) electronic equipment management;

(b) implement within the agency environmental management systems (EMS) at all appropriate organizational levels to ensure (i) use of EMS as the primary management approach for addressing environmental aspects of internal agency operations and activities, including environmental aspects of energy and transportation functions, (ii) establishment of agency objectives and targets to ensure implementation of this order, and (iii) collection, analysis, and reporting of information to measure performance in the implementation of this order;

(c) establish within the agency programs for (i) environmental management training, (ii) environmental compliance review and audit, and (iii) leadership awards to recognize outstanding environmental, energy, or transportation management performance in the agency;

(d) within 30 days after the date of this order (i) designate a senior civilian officer of the United States, compensated annually in an amount at or above the amount payable at level IV of the Executive Schedule, to be responsible for implementation of this order within the agency, (ii) report such designation to the Director of the Office of Management and Budget and the Chairman of the Council on Environmental Quality, and (iii) assign the designated official the authority and duty to (A) monitor and report to the head of the agency on agency activities to carry out subsections (a) and (b) of this section, and (B) perform such other duties relating to the implementation of this order within the agency as the head of the agency deems appropriate;

(e) ensure that contracts entered into after the date of this order for contractor operation of government-owned facilities or vehicles require the contractor to comply with the provisions of this order with respect to such facilities or vehicles to the same extent as the agency would be required to comply if the agency operated the facilities or vehicles;

(f) ensure that agreements, permits, leases, licenses, or other legally-binding obligations between the agency and a tenant or concessionaire entered into after the date of this order require, to the extent the head of the agency determines appropriate, that the tenant or concessionaire take actions relating to matters within the scope of the contract that facilitate the agency's compliance with this order;

(g) provide reports on agency implementation of this order to the Chairman of the Council on such schedule and in such format as the Chairman of the Council may require; and

(h) provide information and assistance to the Director of the Office of Management and Budget, the Chairman of the Council, and the Federal Environmental Executive.

Sec. 4. Additional Duties of the Chairman of the Council on Environmental Quality. In implementing the policy set forth in section 1 of this order, the Chairman of the Council on Environmental Quality:

(a)(i) shall establish a Steering Committee on Strengthening Federal Environmental, Energy, and Transportation Management to advise the Director of the Office of Management and Budget and the Chairman of the Council on the performance of their functions under this order that shall consist exclusively of (A) the Federal Environmental Executive, who shall chair, convene and preside at meetings of, determine the agenda of, and direct the work of, the Steering Committee, and (B) the senior officials designated under section 3(d)(i) of this order, and (ii) may establish subcommittees of the Steering Committee, to assist the Steering Committee in developing the advice of the Steering Committee on particular subjects;

(b) may, after consultation with the Director of the Office of Management and Budget and the Steering Committee, issue instructions to implement this order, other than instructions within the authority of the Director to issue under section 5 of this order; and

(c) shall administer a presidential leadership award program to recognize exceptional and outstanding environmental, energy, or transportation management performance and excellence in agency efforts to implement this order.

Sec. 5. Duties of the Director of the Office of Management and Budget. In implementing the policy set forth in section 1 of this order, the Director of the Office of Management and Budget shall, after consultation with the Chairman of the Council and the Steering Committee, issue instructions to the heads of agencies concerning:

(a) periodic evaluation of agency implementation of this order;

(b) budget and appropriations matters relating to implementation of this order;

(c) implementation of section 2(d) of this order; and

(d) amendments of the Federal Acquisition Regulation as necessary to implement this order.

Sec. 6. Duties of the Federal Environmental Executive. A Federal Environmental Executive designated by the President shall head the Office of the Federal Environmental Executive, which shall be maintained in the Environmental Protection Agency for funding and administrative purposes. In implementing the policy set forth in section 1 of this order, the Federal Environmental Executive shall:

(a) monitor, and advise the Chairman of the Council on, performance by agencies of functions assigned by sections 2 and 3 of this order;

(b) submit a report to the President, through the Chairman of the Council, not less often than once every 2 years, on the activities of agencies to implement this order; and

(c) advise the Chairman of the Council on the Chairman's exercise of authority granted by subsection 4(c) of this order.

Sec. 7. Limitations. (a) This order shall apply to an agency with respect to the activities, personnel, resources, and facilities of the agency that are located within the United States. The head of an agency may provide that this order shall apply in whole or in part with respect to the activities, personnel, resources, and facilities of the agency that are not located within the United States, if the head of the agency determines that such application is in the interest of the United States.

(b) The head of an agency shall manage activities, personnel, resources, and facilities of the agency that are not located within the United States, and with respect to which the head of the agency has not made a determination under subsection (a) of this section, in a manner consistent with the policy set forth in section 1 of this order to the extent the head of the agency determines practicable.

Sec. 8. Exemption Authority. (a) The Director of National Intelligence may exempt an intelligence activity of the United States, and related personnel, resources, and facilities, from the provisions of this order, other than this subsection and section 10, to the extent the Director determines necessary to protect intelligence sources and methods from unauthorized disclosure.

(b) The head of an agency may exempt law enforcement activities of that agency, and related personnel, resources, and facilities, from the provisions of this order, other than this subsection and section 10, to the extent the head of an agency determines necessary to protect undercover operations from unauthorized disclosure.

(c)(i) The head of an agency may exempt law enforcement, protective, emergency response, or military tactical vehicle fleets of that agency from the provisions of this order, other than this subsection and section 10.

(ii) Heads of agencies shall manage fleets to which paragraph (i) of this subsection refers in a manner consistent with the policy set forth in section 1 of this order to the extent they determine practicable.

(d) The head of an agency may submit to the President, through the Chairman of the Council, a request for an exemption of an agency activity, and related personnel, resources, and facilities, from this order.

Sec. 9. Definitions. As used in this order:

(a) “agency” means an executive agency as defined in section 105 of title 5, United States Code, excluding the Government Accountability Office;

(b) “Chairman of the Council” means the Chairman of the Council on Environmental Quality, including in the Chairman's capacity as Director of the Office of Environmental Quality;

(c) “Council” means the Council on Environmental Quality;

(d) “environmental” means environmental aspects of internal agency operations and activities, including those environmental aspects related to energy and transportation functions;

(e) “greenhouse gases” means carbon dioxide, methane, nitrous oxide, hydrofluorocarbons, perfluorocarbons, and sulfur hexafluoride;

(f) “life-cycle cost-effective” means the life-cycle costs of a product, project, or measure are estimated to be equal to or less than the base case (i.e., current or standard practice or product);

(g) “new renewable sources” means sources of renewable energy placed into service after January 1, 1999;

(h) “renewable energy” means energy produced by solar, wind, biomass, landfill gas, ocean (including tidal, wave, current and thermal), geothermal, municipal solid waste, or new hydroelectric generation capacity achieved from increased efficiency or additions of new capacity at an existing hydroelectric project;

(i) “energy intensity” means energy consumption per square foot of building space, including industrial or laboratory facilities;

(j) “Steering Committee” means the Steering Committee on Strengthening Federal Environmental, Energy, and Transportation Management established under subsection 4(b) of this order;

(k) “sustainable” means to create and maintain conditions, under which humans and nature can exist in productive harmony, that permit fulfilling the social, economic, and other requirements of present and future generations of Americans; and

(l) “United States” when used in a geographical sense, means the fifty states, the District of Columbia, the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico, Guam, American Samoa, the United States Virgin Islands, and the Northern Mariana Islands, and associated territorial waters and airspace.

Sec. 10. General Provisions. (a) This order shall be implemented in a manner consistent with applicable law and subject to the availability of appropriations.

(b) Nothing in this order shall be construed to impair or otherwise affect the functions of the Director of the Office of Management and Budget relating to budget, administrative, or legislative proposals.

(c) This order is intended only to improve the internal management of the Federal Government and is not intended to, and does not, create any right or benefit, substantive or procedural, enforceable at law or in equity by a party against the United States, its departments, agencies, instrumentalities, entities, officers, employees or agents, or any other person.

Sec. 11. Revocations; Conforming Provisions. (a) The following are revoked:

(i) Executive Order 13101 of September 14, 1998;

(ii) Executive Order 13123 of June 3, 1999;

(iii) Executive Order 13134 of August 12, 1999, as amended;

(iv) Executive Order 13148 of April 21, 2000; and

(v) Executive Order 13149 of April 21, 2000.

(b) In light of subsection 317(e) of the National Defense Authorization Act for Fiscal Year 2002 (Public Law 107–107), not later than January 1 of each year through and including 2010, the Secretary of Defense shall submit to the Senate and the House of Representatives a report regarding progress made toward achieving the energy efficiency goals of the Department of Defense.

(c) [Amended Ex. Ord. No. 13327, set out as a note under section 121 of Title 40, Public Buildings, Property, and Works.]

Ex. Ord. No. 13514. Federal Leadership in Environmental, Energy, and Economic Performance

Ex. Ord. No. 13514, Oct. 5, 2009, 74 F.R. 52117, provided:

By the authority vested in me as President by the Constitution and the laws of the United States of America, and to establish an integrated strategy towards sustainability in the Federal Government and to make reduction of greenhouse gas emissions a priority for Federal agencies, it is hereby ordered as follows:

Section 1. Policy. In order to create a clean energy economy that will increase our Nation's prosperity, promote energy security, protect the interests of taxpayers, and safeguard the health of our environment, the Federal Government must lead by example. It is therefore the policy of the United States that Federal agencies shall increase energy efficiency; measure, report, and reduce their greenhouse gas emissions from direct and indirect activities; conserve and protect water resources through efficiency, reuse, and stormwater management; eliminate waste, recycle, and prevent pollution; leverage agency acquisitions to foster markets for sustainable technologies and environmentally preferable materials, products, and services; design, construct, maintain, and operate high performance sustainable buildings in sustainable locations; strengthen the vitality and livability of the communities in which Federal facilities are located; and inform Federal employees about and involve them in the achievement of these goals.

It is further the policy of the United States that to achieve these goals and support their respective missions, agencies shall prioritize actions based on a full accounting of both economic and social benefits and costs and shall drive continuous improvement by annually evaluating performance, extending or expanding projects that have net benefits, and reassessing or discontinuing under-performing projects.

Finally, it is also the policy of the United States that agencies’ efforts and outcomes in implementing this order shall be transparent and that agencies shall therefore disclose results associated with the actions taken pursuant to this order on publicly available Federal websites.

Sec. 2. Goals for Agencies. In implementing the policy set forth in section 1 of this order, and preparing and implementing the Strategic Sustainability Performance Plan called for in section 8 of this order, the head of each agency shall:

(a) within 90 days of the date of this order, establish and report to the Chair of the Council on Environmental Quality (CEQ Chair) and the Director of the Office of Management and Budget (OMB Director) a percentage reduction target for agency-wide reductions of scope 1 and 2 greenhouse gas emissions in absolute terms by fiscal year 2020, relative to a fiscal year 2008 baseline of the agency's scope 1 and 2 greenhouse gas emissions. Where appropriate, the target shall exclude direct emissions from excluded vehicles and equipment and from electric power produced and sold commercially to other parties in the course of regular business. This target shall be subject to review and approval by the CEQ Chair in consultation with the OMB Director under section 5 of this order. In establishing the target, the agency head shall consider reductions associated with:

(i) reducing energy intensity in agency buildings;

(ii) increasing agency use of renewable energy and implementing renewable energy generation projects on agency property; and

(iii) reducing the use of fossil fuels by:

(A) using low greenhouse gas emitting vehicles including alternative fuel vehicles;

(B) optimizing the number of vehicles in the agency fleet; and

(C) reducing, if the agency operates a fleet of at least 20 motor vehicles, the agency fleet's total consumption of petroleum products by a minimum of 2 percent annually through the end of fiscal year 2020, relative to a baseline of fiscal year 2005;

(b) within 240 days of the date of this order and concurrent with submission of the Strategic Sustainability Performance Plan as described in section 8 of this order, establish and report to the CEQ Chair and the OMB Director a percentage reduction target for reducing agency-wide scope 3 greenhouse gas emissions in absolute terms by fiscal year 2020, relative to a fiscal year 2008 baseline of agency scope 3 emissions. This target shall be subject to review and approval by the CEQ Chair in consultation with the OMB Director under section 5 of this order. In establishing the target, the agency head shall consider reductions associated with:

(i) pursuing opportunities with vendors and contractors to address and incorporate incentives to reduce greenhouse gas emissions (such as changes to manufacturing, utility or delivery services, modes of transportation used, or other changes in supply chain activities);

(ii) implementing strategies and accommodations for transit, travel, training, and conferencing that actively support lower-carbon commuting and travel by agency staff;

(iii) greenhouse gas emission reductions associated with pursuing other relevant goals in this section; and

(iv) developing and implementing innovative policies and practices to address scope 3 greenhouse gas emissions unique to agency operations;

(c) establish and report to the CEQ Chair and OMB Director a comprehensive inventory of absolute greenhouse gas emissions, including scope 1, scope 2, and specified scope 3 emissions (i) within 15 months of the date of this order for fiscal year 2010, and (ii) thereafter, annually at the end of January, for the preceding fiscal year.

(d) improve water use efficiency and management by:

(i) reducing potable water consumption intensity by 2 percent annually through fiscal year 2020, or 26 percent by the end of fiscal year 2020, relative to a baseline of the agency's water consumption in fiscal year 2007, by implementing water management strategies including water-efficient and low-flow fixtures and efficient cooling towers;

(ii) reducing agency industrial, landscaping, and agricultural water consumption by 2 percent annually or 20 percent by the end of fiscal year 2020 relative to a baseline of the agency's industrial, landscaping, and agricultural water consumption in fiscal year 2010;

(iii) consistent with State law, identifying, promoting, and implementing water reuse strategies that reduce potable water consumption; and

(iv) implementing and achieving the objectives identified in the stormwater management guidance referenced in section 14 of this order;

(e) promote pollution prevention and eliminate waste by:

(i) minimizing the generation of waste and pollutants through source reduction;

(ii) diverting at least 50 percent of non-hazardous solid waste, excluding construction and demolition debris, by the end of fiscal year 2015;

(iii) diverting at least 50 percent of construction and demolition materials and debris by the end of fiscal year 2015;

(iv) reducing printing paper use and acquiring uncoated printing and writing paper containing at least 30 percent postconsumer fiber;

(v) reducing and minimizing the quantity of toxic and hazardous chemicals and materials acquired, used, or disposed of;

(vi) increasing diversion of compostable and organic material from the waste stream;

(vii) implementing integrated pest management and other appropriate landscape management practices;

(viii) increasing agency use of acceptable alternative chemicals and processes in keeping with the agency's procurement policies;

(ix) decreasing agency use of chemicals where such decrease will assist the agency in achieving greenhouse gas emission reduction targets under section 2(a) and (b) of this order; and

(x) reporting in accordance with the requirements of sections 301 through 313 of the Emergency Planning and Community Right-to-Know Act of 1986 (42 U.S.C. 11001 et seq.);

(f) advance regional and local integrated planning by:

(i) participating in regional transportation planning and recognizing existing community transportation infrastructure;

(ii) aligning Federal policies to increase the effectiveness of local planning for energy choices such as locally generated renewable energy;

(iii) ensuring that planning for new Federal facilities or new leases includes consideration of sites that are pedestrian friendly, near existing employment centers, and accessible to public transit, and emphasizes existing central cities and, in rural communities, existing or planned town centers;

(iv) identifying and analyzing impacts from energy usage and alternative energy sources in all Environmental Impact Statements and Environmental Assessments for proposals for new or expanded Federal facilities under the National Environmental Policy Act of 1969, as amended (42 U.S.C. 4321 et seq.); and

(v) coordinating with regional programs for Federal, State, tribal, and local ecosystem, watershed, and environmental management;

(g) implement high performance sustainable Federal building design, construction, operation and management, maintenance, and deconstruction including by:

(i) beginning in 2020 and thereafter, ensuring that all new Federal buildings that enter the planning process are designed to achieve zero-net-energy by 2030;

(ii) ensuring that all new construction, major renovation, or repair and alteration of Federal buildings complies with the Guiding Principles for Federal Leadership in High Performance and Sustainable Buildings, (Guiding Principles);

(iii) ensuring that at least 15 percent of the agency's existing buildings (above 5,000 gross square feet) and building leases (above 5,000 gross square feet) meet the Guiding Principles by fiscal year 2015 and that the agency makes annual progress toward 100-percent conformance with the Guiding Principles for its building inventory;

(iv) pursuing cost-effective, innovative strategies, such as highly reflective and vegetated roofs, to minimize consumption of energy, water, and materials;

(v) managing existing building systems to reduce the consumption of energy, water, and materials, and identifying alternatives to renovation that reduce existing assets’ deferred maintenance costs;

(vi) when adding assets to the agency's real property inventory, identifying opportunities to consolidate and dispose of existing assets, optimize the performance of the agency's real-property portfolio, and reduce associated environmental impacts; and

(vii) ensuring that rehabilitation of federally owned historic buildings utilizes best practices and technologies in retrofitting to promote long-term viability of the buildings;

(h) advance sustainable acquisition to ensure that 95 percent of new contract actions including task and delivery orders, for products and services with the exception of acquisition of weapon systems, are energy-efficient (Energy Star or Federal Energy Management Program (FEMP) designated), water-efficient, biobased, environmentally preferable (e.g., Electronic Product Environmental Assessment Tool (EPEAT) certified), non-ozone depleting, contain recycled content, or are non-toxic or less-toxic alternatives, where such products and services meet agency performance requirements;

(i) promote electronics stewardship, in particular by:

(i) ensuring procurement preference for EPEAT-registered electronic products;

(ii) establishing and implementing policies to enable power management, duplex printing, and other energy-efficient or environmentally preferable features on all eligible agency electronic products;

(iii) employing environmentally sound practices with respect to the agency's disposition of all agency excess or surplus electronic products;

(iv) ensuring the procurement of Energy Star and FEMP designated electronic equipment;

(v) implementing best management practices for energy-efficient management of servers and Federal data centers; and

(j) sustain environmental management, including by:

(i) continuing implementation of formal environmental management systems at all appropriate organizational levels; and

(ii) ensuring these formal systems are appropriately implemented and maintained to achieve the performance necessary to meet the goals of this order.

Sec. 3. Steering Committee on Federal Sustainability. The OMB Director and the CEQ Chair shall:

(a) establish an interagency Steering Committee (Steering Committee) on Federal Sustainability composed of the Federal Environmental Executive, designated under section 6 of Executive Order 13423 of January 24, 2007, and Agency Senior Sustainability Officers, designated under section 7 of this order, and that shall:

(i) serve in the dual capacity of the Steering Committee on Strengthening Federal Environmental, Energy, and Transportation Management designated by the CEQ Chair pursuant to section 4 of Executive Order 13423;

(ii) advise the OMB Director and the CEQ Chair on implementation of this order;

(iii) facilitate the implementation of each agency's Strategic Sustainability Performance Plan; and

(iv) share information and promote progress towards the goals of this order;

(b) enlist the support of other organizations within the Federal Government to assist the Steering Committee in addressing the goals of this order;

(c) establish and disband, as appropriate, interagency subcommittees of the Steering Committee, to assist the Steering Committee in carrying out its responsibilities;

(d) determine appropriate Federal actions to achieve the policy of section 1 and the goals of section 2 of this order;

(e) ensure that Federal agencies are held accountable for conformance with the requirements of this order; and

(f) in coordination with the Department of Energy's Federal Energy Management Program and the Office of the Federal Environmental Executive designated under section 6 of Executive Order 13423, provide guidance and assistance to facilitate the development of agency targets for greenhouse gas emission reductions required under subsections 2(a) and (b) of this order.

Sec. 4. Additional Duties of the Director of the Office of Management and Budget. In addition to the duties of the OMB Director specified elsewhere in this order, the OMB Director shall:

(a) review and approve each agency's multi-year Strategic Sustainability Performance Plan under section 8 of this order and each update of the Plan. The Director shall, where feasible, review each agency's Plan concurrently with OMB's review and evaluation of the agency's budget request;

(b) prepare scorecards providing periodic evaluation of Federal agency performance in implementing this order and publish scorecard results on a publicly available website; and

(c) approve and issue instructions to the heads of agencies concerning budget and appropriations matters relating to implementation of this order.

Sec. 5. Additional Duties of the Chair of the Council on Environmental Quality. In addition to the duties of the CEQ Chair specified elsewhere in this order, the CEQ Chair shall:

(a) issue guidance for greenhouse gas accounting and reporting required under section 2 of this order;

(b) issue instructions to implement this order, in addition to instructions within the authority of the OMB Director to issue under subsection 4(c) of this order;

(c) review and approve each agency's targets, in consultation with the OMB Director, for agency-wide reductions of greenhouse gas emissions under section 2 of this order;

(d) prepare, in coordination with the OMB Director, streamlined reporting metrics to determine each agency's progress under section 2 of this order;

(e) review and evaluate each agency's multi-year Strategic Sustainability Performance Plan under section 8 of this order and each update of the Plan;

(f) assess agency progress toward achieving the goals and policies of this order, and provide its assessment of the agency's progress to the OMB Director;

(g) within 120 days of the date of this order, provide the President with an aggregate Federal Government-wide target for reducing scope 1 and 2 greenhouse gas emissions in absolute terms by fiscal year 2020 relative to a fiscal year 2008 baseline;

(h) within 270 days of the date of this order, provide the President with an aggregate Federal Government-wide target for reducing scope 3 greenhouse gas emissions in absolute terms by fiscal year 2020 relative to a fiscal year 2008 baseline;

(i) establish and disband, as appropriate, interagency working groups to provide recommendations to the CEQ for areas of Federal agency operational and managerial improvement associated with the goals of this order; and

(j) administer the Presidential leadership awards program, established under subsection 4(c) of Executive Order 13423, to recognize exceptional and outstanding agency performance with respect to achieving the goals of this order and to recognize extraordinary innovation, technologies, and practices employed to achieve the goals of this order.

Sec. 6. Duties of the Federal Environmental Executive. The Federal Environmental Executive designated by the President to head the Office of the Federal Environmental Executive, pursuant to section 6 of Executive Order 13423, shall:

(a) identify strategies and tools to assist Federal implementation efforts under this order, including through the sharing of best practices from successful Federal sustainability efforts; and

(b) monitor and advise the CEQ Chair and the OMB Director on the agencies’ implementation of this order and their progress in achieving the order's policies and goals.

Sec. 7. Agency Senior Sustainability Officers. (a) Within 30 days of the date of this order, the head of each agency shall designate from among the agency's senior management officials a Senior Sustainability Officer who shall be accountable for agency conformance with the requirements of this order; and shall report such designation to the OMB Director and the CEQ Chair.

(b) The Senior Sustainability Officer for each agency shall perform the functions of the senior agency official designated by the head of each agency pursuant to section 3(d)(i) of Executive Order 13423 and shall be responsible for:

(i) preparing the targets for agency-wide reductions and the inventory of greenhouse gas emissions required under subsections 2(a), (b), and (c) of this order;

(ii) within 240 days of the date of this order, and annually thereafter, preparing and submitting to the CEQ Chair and the OMB Director, for their review and approval, a multi-year Strategic Sustainability Performance Plan (Sustainability Plan or Plan) as described in section 8 of this order;

(iii) preparing and implementing the approved Plan in coordination with appropriate offices and organizations within the agency including the General Counsel, Chief Information Officer, Chief Acquisition Officer, Chief Financial Officer, and Senior Real Property Officers, and in coordination with other agency plans, policies, and activities;

(iv) monitoring the agency's performance and progress in implementing the Plan, and reporting the performance and progress to the CEQ Chair and the OMB Director, on such schedule and in such format as the Chair and the Director may require; and

(v) reporting annually to the head of the agency on the adequacy and effectiveness of the agency's Plan in implementing this order.

Sec. 8. Agency Strategic Sustainability Performance Plan. Each agency shall develop, implement, and annually update an integrated Strategic Sustainability Performance Plan that will prioritize agency actions based on lifecycle return on investment. Each agency Plan and update shall be subject to approval by the OMB Director under section 4 of this order. With respect to the period beginning in fiscal year 2011 and continuing through the end of fiscal year 2021, each agency Plan shall:

(a) include a policy statement committing the agency to compliance with environmental and energy statutes, regulations, and Executive Orders;

(b) achieve the sustainability goals and targets, including greenhouse gas reduction targets, established under section 2 of this order;

(c) be integrated into the agency's strategic planning and budget process, including the agency's strategic plan under section 3 of the Government Performance and Results Act of 1993, as amended (5 U.S.C. 306);

(d) identify agency activities, policies, plans, procedures, and practices that are relevant to the agency's implementation of this order, and where necessary, provide for development and implementation of new or revised policies, plans, procedures, and practices;

(e) identify specific agency goals, a schedule, milestones, and approaches for achieving results, and quantifiable metrics for agency implementation of this order;

(f) take into consideration environmental measures as well as economic and social benefits and costs in evaluating projects and activities based on lifecycle return on investment;

(g) outline planned actions to provide information about agency progress and performance with respect to achieving the goals of this order on a publicly available Federal website;

(h) incorporate actions for achieving progress metrics identified by the OMB Director and the CEQ Chair;

(i) evaluate agency climate-change risks and vulnerabilities to manage the effects of climate change on the agency's operations and mission in both the short and long term; and

(j) identify in annual updates opportunities for improvement and evaluation of past performance in order to extend or expand projects that have net lifecycle benefits, and reassess or discontinue under-performing projects.

Sec. 9. Recommendations for Greenhouse Gas Accounting and Reporting. The Department of Energy, through its Federal Energy Management Program, and in coordination with the Environmental Protection Agency, the Department of Defense, the General Services Administration, the Department of the Interior, the Department of Commerce, and other agencies as appropriate, shall:

(a) within 180 days of the date of this order develop and provide to the CEQ Chair recommended Federal greenhouse gas reporting and accounting procedures for agencies to use in carrying out their obligations under subsections 2(a), (b), and (c) of this order, including procedures that will ensure that agencies:

(i) accurately and consistently quantify and account for greenhouse gas emissions from all scope 1, 2, and 3 sources, using accepted greenhouse gas accounting and reporting principles, and identify appropriate opportunities to revise the fiscal year 2008 baseline to address significant changes in factors affecting agency emissions such as reorganization and improvements in accuracy of data collection and estimation procedures or other major changes that would otherwise render the initial baseline information unsuitable;

(ii) consider past Federal agency efforts to reduce greenhouse gas emissions; and

(iii) consider and account for sequestration and emissions of greenhouse gases resulting from Federal land management practices;

(b) within 1 year of the date of this order, to ensure consistent and accurate reporting under this section, provide electronic accounting and reporting capability for the Federal greenhouse gas reporting procedures developed under subsection (a) of this section, and to the extent practicable, ensure compatibility between this capability and existing Federal agency reporting systems; and

(c) every 3 years from the date of the CEQ Chair's issuance of the initial version of the reporting guidance, and as otherwise necessary, develop and provide recommendations to the CEQ Chair for revised Federal greenhouse gas reporting procedures for agencies to use in implementing subsections 2(a), (b), and (c) of this order.

Sec. 10. Recommendations for Sustainable Locations for Federal Facilities. Within 180 days of the date of this order, the Department of Transportation, in accordance with its Sustainable Partnership Agreement with the Department of Housing and Urban Development and the Environmental Protection Agency, and in coordination with the General Services Administration, the Department of Homeland Security, the Department of Defense, and other agencies as appropriate, shall:

(a) review existing policies and practices associated with site selection for Federal facilities; and

(b) provide recommendations to the CEQ Chair regarding sustainable location strategies for consideration in Sustainability Plans. The recommendations shall be consistent with principles of sustainable development including prioritizing central business district and rural town center locations, prioritizing sites well served by transit, including site design elements that ensure safe and convenient pedestrian access, consideration of transit access and proximity to housing affordable to a wide range of Federal employees, adaptive reuse or renovation of buildings, avoidance of development of sensitive land resources, and evaluation of parking management strategies.

Sec. 11. Recommendations for Federal Local Transportation Logistics. Within 180 days of the date of this order, the General Services Administration, in coordination with the Department of Transportation, the Department of the Treasury, the Department of Energy, the Office of Personnel Management, and other agencies as appropriate, shall review current policies and practices associated with use of public transportation by Federal personnel, Federal shuttle bus and vehicle transportation routes supported by multiple Federal agencies, and use of alternative fuel vehicles in Federal shuttle bus fleets, and shall provide recommendations to the CEQ Chair on how these policies and practices could be revised to support the implementation of this order and the achievement of its policies and goals.

Sec. 12. Guidance for Federal Fleet Management. Within 180 days of the date of this order, the Department of Energy, in coordination with the General Services Administration, shall issue guidance on Federal fleet management that addresses the acquisition of alternative fuel vehicles and use of alternative fuels; the use of biodiesel blends in diesel vehicles; the acquisition of electric vehicles for appropriate functions; improvement of fleet fuel economy; the optimizing of fleets to the agency mission; petroleum reduction strategies, such as the acquisition of low greenhouse gas emitting vehicles and the reduction of vehicle miles traveled; and the installation of renewable fuel pumps at Federal fleet fueling centers.

Sec. 13. Recommendations for Vendor and Contractor Emissions. Within 180 days of the date of this order, the General Services Administration, in coordination with the Department of Defense, the Environmental Protection Agency, and other agencies as appropriate, shall review and provide recommendations to the CEQ Chair and the Administrator of OMB's Office of Federal Procurement Policy regarding the feasibility of working with the Federal vendor and contractor community to provide information that will assist Federal agencies in tracking and reducing scope 3 greenhouse gas emissions related to the supply of products and services to the Government. These recommendations should consider the potential impacts on the procurement process, and the Federal vendor and contractor community including small businesses and other socioeconomic procurement programs. Recommendations should also explore the feasibility of:

(a) requiring vendors and contractors to register with a voluntary registry or organization for reporting greenhouse gas emissions;

(b) requiring contractors, as part of a new or revised registration under the Central Contractor Registration or other tracking system, to develop and make available its greenhouse gas inventory and description of efforts to mitigate greenhouse gas emissions;

(c) using Federal Government purchasing preferences or other incentives for products manufactured using processes that minimize greenhouse gas emissions; and

(d) other options for encouraging sustainable practices and reducing greenhouse gas emissions.

Sec. 14. Stormwater Guidance for Federal Facilities. Within 60 days of the date of this order, the Environmental Protection Agency, in coordination with other Federal agencies as appropriate, shall issue guidance on the implementation of section 438 of the Energy Independence and Security Act of 2007 (42 U.S.C. 17094).

Sec. 15. Regional Coordination. Within 180 days of the date of this order, the Federal Environmental Executive shall develop and implement a regional implementation plan to support the goals of this order taking into account energy and environmental priorities of particular regions of the United States.

Sec. 16. Agency Roles in Support of Federal Adaptation Strategy. In addition to other roles and responsibilities of agencies with respect to environmental leadership as specified in this order, the agencies shall participate actively in the interagency Climate Change Adaptation Task Force, which is already engaged in developing the domestic and international dimensions of a U.S. strategy for adaptation to climate change, and shall develop approaches through which the policies and practices of the agencies can be made compatible with and reinforce that strategy. Within 1 year of the date of this order the CEQ Chair shall provide to the President, following consultation with the agencies and the Climate Change Adaptation Task Force, as appropriate, a progress report on agency actions in support of the national adaptation strategy and recommendations for any further such measures as the CEQ Chair may deem necessary.

Sec. 17. Limitations. (a) This order shall apply to an agency with respect to the activities, personnel, resources, and facilities of the agency that are located within the United States. The head of an agency may provide that this order shall apply in whole or in part with respect to the activities, personnel, resources, and facilities of the agency that are not located within the United States, if the head of the agency determines that such application is in the interest of the United States.

(b) The head of an agency shall manage activities, personnel, resources, and facilities of the agency that are not located within the United States, and with respect to which the head of the agency has not made a determination under subsection (a) of this section, in a manner consistent with the policy set forth in section 1 of this order to the extent the head of the agency determines practicable.

Sec. 18. Exemption Authority.

(a) The Director of National Intelligence may exempt an intelligence activity of the United States, and related personnel, resources, and facilities, from the provisions of this order, other than this subsection and section 20, to the extent the Director determines necessary to protect intelligence sources and methods from unauthorized disclosure.

(b) The head of an agency may exempt law enforcement activities of that agency, and related personnel, resources, and facilities, from the provisions of this order, other than this subsection and section 20, to the extent the head of an agency determines necessary to protect undercover operations from unauthorized disclosure.

(c)(i) The head of an agency may exempt law enforcement, protective, emergency response, or military tactical vehicle fleets of that agency from the provisions of this order, other than this subsection and section 20.

(ii) Heads of agencies shall manage fleets to which paragraph (i) of this subsection refers in a manner consistent with the policy set forth in section 1 of this order to the extent they determine practicable.

(d) The head of an agency may exempt particular agency activities and facilities from the provisions of this order, other than this subsection and section 20, where it is in the interest of national security. If the head of an agency issues an exemption under this section, the agency must notify the CEQ Chair in writing within 30 days of issuance of the exemption under this subsection. To the maximum extent practicable, and without compromising national security, each agency shall strive to comply with the purposes, goals, and implementation steps in this order.

(e) The head of an agency may submit to the President, through the CEQ Chair, a request for an exemption of an agency activity, and related personnel, resources, and facilities, from this order.

Sec. 19. Definitions. As used in this order:

(a) “absolute greenhouse gas emissions” means total greenhouse gas emissions without normalization for activity levels and includes any allowable consideration of sequestration;

(b) “agency” means an executive agency as defined in section 105 of title 5, United States Code, excluding the Government Accountability Office;

(c) “alternative fuel vehicle” means vehicles defined by section 301 of the Energy Policy Act of 1992, as amended (42 U.S.C. 13211), and otherwise includes electric fueled vehicles, hybrid electric vehicles, plug-in hybrid electric vehicles, dedicated alternative fuel vehicles, dual fueled alternative fuel vehicles, qualified fuel cell motor vehicles, advanced lean burn technology motor vehicles, self-propelled vehicles such as bicycles and any other alternative fuel vehicles that are defined by statute;

(d) “construction and demolition materials and debris” means materials and debris generated during construction, renovation, demolition, or dismantling of all structures and buildings and associated infrastructure;

(e) “divert” and “diverting” means redirecting materials that might otherwise be placed in the waste stream to recycling or recovery, excluding diversion to waste-to-energy facilities;

(f) “energy intensity” means energy consumption per square foot of building space, including industrial or laboratory facilities;

(g) “environmental” means environmental aspects of internal agency operations and activities, including those aspects related to energy and transportation functions;

(h) “excluded vehicles and equipment” means any vehicle, vessel, aircraft, or non-road equipment owned or operated by an agency of the Federal Government that is used in:

(i) combat support, combat service support, tactical or relief operations, or training for such operations;

(ii) Federal law enforcement (including protective service and investigation);

(iii) emergency response (including fire and rescue); or

(iv) spaceflight vehicles (including associated ground-support equipment);

(i) “greenhouse gases” means carbon dioxide, methane, nitrous oxide, hydrofluorocarbons, perfluorocarbons, and sulfur hexafluoride;

(j) “renewable energy” means energy produced by solar, wind, biomass, landfill gas, ocean (including tidal, wave, current, and thermal), geothermal, municipal solid waste, or new hydroelectric generation capacity achieved from increased efficiency or additions of new capacity at an existing hydroelectric project;

(k) “scope 1, 2, and 3” mean;

(i) scope 1: direct greenhouse gas emissions from sources that are owned or controlled by the Federal agency;

(ii) scope 2: direct greenhouse gas emissions resulting from the generation of electricity, heat, or steam purchased by a Federal agency; and

(iii) scope 3: greenhouse gas emissions from sources not owned or directly controlled by a Federal agency but related to agency activities such as vendor supply chains, delivery services, and employee travel and commuting;

(l) “sustainability” and “sustainable” mean to create and maintain conditions, under which humans and nature can exist in productive harmony, that permit fulfilling the social, economic, and other requirements of present and future generations;

(m) “United States” means the fifty States, the District of Columbia, the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico, Guam, American Samoa, the United States Virgin Islands, and the Northern Mariana Islands, and associated territorial waters and airspace;

(n) “water consumption intensity” means water consumption per square foot of building space; and

(o) “zero-net-energy building” means a building that is designed, constructed, and operated to require a greatly reduced quantity of energy to operate, meet the balance of energy needs from sources of energy that do not produce greenhouse gases, and therefore result in no net emissions of greenhouse gases and be economically viable.

Sec. 20. General Provisions.

(a) This order shall be implemented in a manner consistent with applicable law and subject to the availability of appropriations.

(b) Nothing in this order shall be construed to impair or otherwise affect the functions of the OMB Director relating to budgetary, administrative, or legislative proposals.

(c) This order is intended only to improve the internal management of the Federal Government and is not intended to, and does not, create any right or benefit, substantive or procedural, enforceable at law or in equity by any party against the United States, its departments, agencies, or entities, its officers, employees, or agents, or any other person.

Barack Obama.