42 U.S.C.
United States Code, 2011 Edition
Title 42 - THE PUBLIC HEALTH AND WELFARE
CHAPTER 7 - SOCIAL SECURITY
SUBCHAPTER II - FEDERAL OLD-AGE, SURVIVORS, AND DISABILITY INSURANCE BENEFITS
From the U.S. Government Printing Office, www.gpo.gov

SUBCHAPTER II—FEDERAL OLD-AGE, SURVIVORS, AND DISABILITY INSURANCE BENEFITS

Amendments

1956—Act Aug. 1, 1956, ch. 836, title I, §103(i), 70 Stat. 824, included disability insurance benefits in subchapter heading.

§401. Trust Funds

(a) Federal Old-Age and Survivors Insurance Trust Fund

There is hereby created on the books of the Treasury of the United States a trust fund to be known as the “Federal Old-Age and Survivors Insurance Trust Fund”. The Federal Old-Age and Survivors Insurance Trust Fund shall consist of the securities held by the Secretary of the Treasury for the Old-Age Reserve Account and the amount standing to the credit of the Old-Age Reserve Account on the books of the Treasury on January 1, 1940, which securities and amount the Secretary of the Treasury is authorized and directed to transfer to the Federal Old-Age and Survivors Insurance Trust Fund, and, in addition, such gifts and bequests as may be made as provided in subsection (i)(1) of this section, and such amounts as may be appropriated to, or deposited in, the Federal Old-Age and Survivors Insurance Trust Fund as hereinafter provided. There is hereby appropriated to the Federal Old-Age and Survivors Insurance Trust Fund for the fiscal year ending June 30, 1941, and for each fiscal year thereafter, out of any moneys in the Treasury not otherwise appropriated, amounts equivalent to 100 per centum of—

(1) the taxes (including interest, penalties, and additions to the taxes) received under subchapter A of chapter 9 of the Internal Revenue Code of 1939 (and covered into the Treasury) which are deposited into the Treasury by collectors of internal revenue before January 1, 1951; and

(2) the taxes certified each month by the Commissioner of Internal Revenue as taxes received under subchapter A of chapter 9 of such Code which are deposited into the Treasury by collectors of internal revenue after December 31, 1950, and before January 1, 1953, with respect to assessments of such taxes made before January 1, 1951; and

(3) the taxes imposed by subchapter A of chapter 9 of such Code with respect to wages (as defined in section 1426 of such Code), and by chapter 21 (other than sections 3101(b) and 3111(b)) of the Internal Revenue Code of 1954 with respect to wages (as defined in section 3121 of such Code) reported to the Commissioner of Internal Revenue pursuant to section 1420(c) of the Internal Revenue Code of 1939 after December 31, 1950, or to the Secretary of the Treasury or his delegates pursuant to subtitle F of the Internal Revenue Code of 1954 after December 31, 1954, as determined by the Secretary of the Treasury by applying the applicable rates of tax under such subchapter or chapter 21 (other than sections 3101(b) and 3111(b)) to such wages, which wages shall be certified by the Commissioner of Social Security on the basis of the records of wages established and maintained by such Commissioner in accordance with such reports, less the amounts specified in clause (1) of subsection (b) of this section; and

(4) the taxes imposed by subchapter E of chapter 1 of the Internal Revenue Code of 1939, with respect to self-employment income (as defined in section 481 of such Code), and by chapter 2 (other than section 1401(b)) of the Internal Revenue Code of 1954 with respect to self-employment income (as defined in section 1402 of such Code) reported to the Commissioner of Internal Revenue on tax returns under such subchapter or to the Secretary of the Treasury or his delegate on tax returns under subtitle F of such Code, as determined by the Secretary of the Treasury by applying the applicable rate of tax under such subchapter or chapter (other than section 1401(b)) to such self-employment income, which self-employment income shall be certified by the Commissioner of Social Security on the basis of the records of self-employment income established and maintained by the Commissioner of Social Security in accordance with such returns, less the amounts specified in clause (2) of subsection (b) of this section.


The amounts appropriated by clauses (3) and (4) of this subsection shall be transferred from time to time from the general fund in the Treasury to the Federal Old-Age and Survivors Insurance Trust Fund, and the amounts appropriated by clauses (1) and (2) of subsection (b) of this section shall be transferred from time to time from the general fund in the Treasury to the Federal Disability Insurance Trust Fund, such amounts to be determined on the basis of estimates by the Secretary of the Treasury of the taxes, specified in clauses (3) and (4) of this subsection, paid to or deposited into the Treasury; and proper adjustments shall be made in amounts subsequently transferred to the extent prior estimates were in excess of or were less than the taxes specified in such clauses (3) and (4) of this subsection. All amounts transferred to either Trust Fund under the preceding sentence shall be invested by the Managing Trustee in the same manner and to the same extent as the other assets of such Trust Fund. Notwithstanding the preceding sentence, in any case in which the Secretary of the Treasury determines that the assets of either such Trust Fund would otherwise be inadequate to meet such Fund's obligations for any month, the Secretary of the Treasury shall transfer to such Trust Fund on the first day of such month the amount which would have been transferred to such Fund under this section as in effect on October 1, 1990; and such Trust Fund shall pay interest to the general fund on the amount so transferred on the first day of any month at a rate (calculated on a daily basis, and applied against the difference between the amount so transferred on such first day and the amount which would have been transferred to the Trust Fund up to that day under the procedures in effect on January 1, 1983) equal to the rate earned by the investments of such Fund in the same month under subsection (d) of this section.

(b) Federal Disability Insurance Trust Fund

There is hereby created on the books of the Treasury of the United States a trust fund to be known as the “Federal Disability Insurance Trust Fund”. The Federal Disability Insurance Trust Fund shall consist of such gifts and bequests as may be made as provided in subsection (i)(1) of this section, and such amounts as may be appropriated to, or deposited in, such fund as provided in this section. There is hereby appropriated to the Federal Disability Insurance Trust Fund for the fiscal year ending June 30, 1957, and for each fiscal year thereafter, out of any moneys in the Treasury not otherwise appropriated, amounts equivalent to 100 per centum of—

(1)(A) ½ of 1 per centum of the wages (as defined in section 3121 of the Internal Revenue Code of 1954) paid after December 31, 1956, and before January 1, 1966, and reported to the Secretary of the Treasury or his delegate pursuant to subtitle F of the Internal Revenue Code of 1954, (B) 0.70 of 1 per centum of the wages (as so defined) paid after December 31, 1965, and before January 1, 1968, and so reported, (C) 0.95 of 1 per centum of the wages (as so defined) paid after December 31, 1967, and before January 1, 1970, and so reported, (D) 1.10 per centum of the wages (as so defined) paid after December 31, 1969, and before January 1, 1973, and so reported, (E) 1.1 per centum of the wages (as so defined) paid after December 31, 1972, and before January 1, 1974, and so reported, (F) 1.15 per centum of the wages (as so defined) paid after December 31, 1973, and before January 1, 1978, and so reported, (G) 1.55 per centum of the wages (as so defined) paid after December 31, 1977, and before January 1, 1979, and so reported, (H) 1.50 per centum of the wages (as so defined) paid after December 31, 1978, and before January 1, 1980, and so reported, (I) 1.12 per centum of the wages (as so defined) paid after December 31, 1979, and before January 1, 1981, and so reported, (J) 1.30 per centum of the wages (as so defined) paid after December 31, 1980, and before January 1, 1982, and so reported, (K) 1.65 per centum of the wages (as so defined) paid after December 31, 1981, and before January 1, 1983, and so reported, (L) 1.25 per centum of the wages (as so defined) paid after December 31, 1982, and before January 1, 1984, and so reported, (M) 1.00 per centum of the wages (as so defined) paid after December 31, 1983, and before January 1, 1988, and so reported, (N) 1.06 per centum of the wages (as so defined) paid after December 31, 1987, and before January 1, 1990, and so reported, (O) 1.20 per centum of the wages (as so defined) paid after December 31, 1989, and before January 1, 1994, and so reported, (P) 1.88 per centum of the wages (as so defined) paid after December 31, 1993, and before January 1, 1997, and so reported, (Q) 1.70 per centum of the wages (as so defined) paid after December 31, 1996, and before January 1, 2000, and so reported, and (R) 1.80 per centum of the wages (as so defined) paid after December 31, 1999, and so reported, which wages shall be certified by the Commissioner of Social Security on the basis of the records of wages established and maintained by such Commissioner in accordance with such reports; and

(2)(A) 3/8 of 1 per centum of the amount of self-employment income (as defined in section 1402 of the Internal Revenue Code of 1954) reported to the Secretary of the Treasury or his delegate on tax returns under subtitle F of the Internal Revenue Code of 1954 for any taxable year beginning after December 31, 1956, and before January 1, 1966, (B) 0.525 of 1 per centum of the amount of self-employment income (as so defined) so reported for any taxable year beginning after December 31, 1965, and before January 1, 1968, (C) 0.7125 of 1 per centum of the amount of self-employment income (as so defined) so reported for any taxable year beginning after December 31, 1967, and before January 1, 1970, (D) 0.825 of 1 per centum of the amount of self-employment income (as so defined) so reported for any taxable year beginning after December 31, 1969, and before January 1, 1973, (E) 0.795 of 1 per centum of the amount of self-employment income (as so defined) so reported for any taxable year beginning after December 31, 1972, and before January 1, 1974, (F) 0.815 of 1 per centum of the amount of self-employment income (as so defined) as reported for any taxable year beginning after December 31, 1973, and before January 1, 1978, (G) 1.090 per centum of the amount of self-employment income (as so defined) so reported for any taxable year beginning after December 31, 1977, and before January 1, 1979, (H) 1.0400 per centum of the amount of self-employment income (as so defined) so reported for any taxable year beginning after December 31, 1978, and before January 1, 1980, (I) 0.7775 per centum of the amount of self-employment income (as so defined) so reported for any taxable year beginning after December 31, 1979, and before January 1, 1981, (J) 0.9750 per centum of the amount of self-employment income (as so defined) so reported for any taxable year beginning after December 31, 1980, and before January 1, 1982, (K) 1.2375 per centum of the amount of self-employment income (as so defined) so reported for any taxable year beginning after December 31, 1981, and before January 1, 1983, (L) 0.9375 per centum of the amount of self-employment income (as so defined) so reported for any taxable year beginning after December 31, 1982, and before January 1, 1984, (M) 1.00 per centum of the amount of self-employment income (as so defined) so reported for any taxable year beginning after December 31, 1983, and before January 1, 1988, (N) 1.06 per centum of the self-employment income (as so defined) so reported for any taxable year beginning after December 31, 1987, and before January 1, 1990, (O) 1.20 per centum of the amount of self-employment income (as so defined) so reported for any taxable year beginning after December 31, 1989, and before January 1, 1994, (P) 1.88 per centum of the amount of self-employment income (as so defined) so reported for any taxable year beginning after December 31, 1993, and before January 1, 1997, (Q) 1.70 per centum of the amount of self-employment income (as so defined) so reported for any taxable year beginning after December 31, 1996, and before January 1, 2000, and (R) 1.80 per centum of the amount of self-employment income (as so defined) so reported for any taxable year beginning after December 31, 1999, which self-employment income shall be certified by the Commissioner of Social Security on the basis of the records of self-employment income established and maintained by the Commissioner of Social Security in accordance with such returns.

(c) Board of Trustees; duties; reports to Congress

With respect to the Federal Old-Age and Survivors Insurance Trust Fund and the Federal Disability Insurance Trust Fund (hereinafter in this subchapter called the “Trust Funds”) there is hereby created a body to be known as the Board of Trustees of the Trust Funds (hereinafter in this subchapter called the “Board of Trustees”) which Board of Trustees shall be composed of the Commissioner of Social Security, the Secretary of the Treasury, the Secretary of Labor, and the Secretary of Health and Human Services, all ex officio, and of two members of the public (both of whom may not be from the same political party), who shall be nominated by the President for a term of four years and subject to confirmation by the Senate. A member of the Board of Trustees serving as a member of the public and nominated and confirmed to fill a vacancy occurring during a term shall be nominated and confirmed only for the remainder of such term. An individual nominated and confirmed as a member of the public may serve in such position after the expiration of such member's term until the earlier of the time at which the member's successor takes office or the time at which a report of the Board is first issued under paragraph (2) after the expiration of the member's term. The Secretary of the Treasury shall be the Managing Trustee of the Board of Trustees (hereinafter in this subchapter called the “Managing Trustee”). The Deputy Commissioner of Social Security shall serve as Secretary of the Board of Trustees. The Board of Trustees shall meet not less frequently than once each calendar year. It shall be the duty of the Board of Trustees to—

(1) Hold the Trust Funds;

(2) Report to the Congress not later than the first day of April of each year on the operation and status of the Trust Funds during the preceding fiscal year and on their expected operation and status during the next ensuing five fiscal years;

(3) Report immediately to the Congress whenever the Board of Trustees is of the opinion that the amount of either of the Trust Funds is unduly small;

(4) Recommend improvements in administrative procedures and policies designed to effectuate the proper coordination of the old-age and survivors insurance and Federal-State unemployment compensation program; and

(5) Review the general policies followed in managing the Trust Funds, and recommend changes in such policies, including necessary changes in the provisions of the law which govern the way in which the Trust Funds are to be managed.


The report provided for in paragraph (2) of this subsection shall include a statement of the assets of, and the disbursements made from, the Trust Funds during the preceding fiscal year, an estimate of the expected future income to, and disbursements to be made from, the Trust Funds during each of the next ensuing five fiscal years, and a statement of the actuarial status of the Trust Funds. Such statement shall include a finding by the Board of Trustees as to whether the Federal Old-Age and Survivors Insurance Trust Fund and the Federal Disability Insurance Trust Fund, individually and collectively, are in close actuarial balance (as defined by the Board of Trustees). Such report shall include an actuarial opinion by the Chief Actuary of the Social Security Administration certifying that the techniques and methodologies used are generally accepted within the actuarial profession and that the assumptions and cost estimates used are reasonable. Such report shall also include an actuarial analysis of the benefit disbursements made from the Federal Old-Age and Survivors Insurance Trust Fund with respect to disabled beneficiaries. Such report shall be printed as a House document of the session of the Congress to which the report is made. A person serving on the Board of Trustees shall not be considered to be a fiduciary and shall not be personally liable for actions taken in such capacity with respect to the Trust Funds.

(d) Investments

It shall be the duty of the Managing Trustee to invest such portion of the Trust Funds as is not, in his judgment, required to meet current withdrawals. Such investments may be made only in interest-bearing obligations of the United States or in obligations guaranteed as to both principal and interest by the United States. For such purpose such obligations may be acquired (1) on original issue at the issue price, or (2) by purchase of outstanding obligations at the market price. The purposes for which obligations of the United States may be issued under chapter 31 of title 31 are hereby extended to authorize the issuance at par of public-debt obligations for purchase by the Trust Funds. Such obligations issued for purchase by the Trust Funds shall have maturities fixed with due regard for the needs of the Trust Funds and shall bear interest at a rate equal to the average market yield (computed by the Managing Trustee on the basis of market quotations as of the end of the calendar month next preceding the date of such issue) on all marketable interest-bearing obligations of the United States then forming a part of the public debt which are not due or callable until after the expiration of four years from the end of such calendar month; except that where such average market yield is not a multiple of one-eighth of 1 per centum, the rate of interest of such obligations shall be the multiple of one-eighth of 1 per centum nearest such market yield. Each obligation issued for purchase by the Trust Funds under this subsection shall be evidenced by a paper instrument in the form of a bond, note, or certificate of indebtedness issued by the Secretary of the Treasury setting forth the principal amount, date of maturity, and interest rate of the obligation, and stating on its face that the obligation shall be incontestable in the hands of the Trust Fund to which it is issued, that the obligation is supported by the full faith and credit of the United States, and that the United States is pledged to the payment of the obligation with respect to both principal and interest. The Managing Trustee may purchase other interest-bearing obligations of the United States or obligations guaranteed as to both principal and interest by the United States, on original issue or at the market price, only where he determines that the purchase of such other obligations is in the public interest.

(e) Sale of acquired obligations

Any obligations acquired by the Trust Funds (except public-debt obligations issued exclusively to the Trust Funds) may be sold by the Managing Trustee at the market price, and such public-debt obligations may be redeemed at par plus accrued interest.

(f) Proceeds from sale or redemption of obligations; interest

The interest on, and the proceeds from the sale or redemption of, any obligations held in the Federal Old-Age and Survivors Insurance Trust Fund and the Federal Disability Insurance Trust Fund shall be credited to and form a part of the Federal Old-Age and Survivors Insurance Trust Fund and the Disability Insurance Trust Fund, respectively. Payment from the general fund of the Treasury to either of the Trust Funds of any such interest or proceeds shall be in the form of paper checks drawn on such general fund to the order of such Trust Fund.

(g) Payments into Treasury

(1)(A) The Managing Trustee of the Trust Funds (which for purposes of this paragraph shall include also the Federal Hospital Insurance Trust Fund and the Federal Supplementary Medical Insurance Trust Fund established by subchapter XVIII of this chapter) is directed to pay from the Trust Funds into the Treasury—

(i) 1 the amounts estimated by the Managing Trustee, the Commissioner of Social Security, and the Secretary of Health and Human Services which will be expended, out of moneys appropriated from the general fund in the Treasury, during a three-month period by the Department of Health and Human Services for the administration of subchapter XVIII of this chapter, and by the Department of the Treasury for the administration of subchapters II and XVIII of this chapter and chapters 2 and 21 of the Internal Revenue Code of 1986, less

(ii) 1 the amounts estimated (pursuant to the applicable method prescribed under paragraph (4) of this subsection) by the Commissioner of Social Security which will be expended, out of moneys made available for expenditures from the Trust Funds, during such three-month period to cover the cost of carrying out the functions of the Social Security Administration, specified in section 432 of this title, which relate to the administration of provisions of the Internal Revenue Code of 1986 other than those referred to in clause (i) and the functions of the Social Security Administration in connection with the withholding of taxes from benefits, as described in section 407(c) of this title, pursuant to requests by persons entitled to such benefits or such persons’ representative payee.


Such payments shall be carried into the Treasury as the net amount of repayments due the general fund account for reimbursement of expenses incurred in connection with the administration of subchapters II and XVIII of this chapter and chapters 2 and 21 of the Internal Revenue Code of 1986. A final accounting of such payments for any fiscal year shall be made at the earliest practicable date after the close thereof. There are hereby authorized to be made available for expenditure, out of any or all of the Trust Funds, such amounts as the Congress may deem appropriate to pay the costs of the part of the administration of this subchapter, subchapter VIII of this chapter, subchapter XVI of this chapter, and subchapter XVIII of this chapter for which the Commissioner of Social Security is responsible, the costs of subchapter XVIII of this chapter for which the Secretary of Health and Human Services is responsible, and the costs of carrying out the functions of the Social Security Administration, specified in section 432 of this title, which relate to the administration of provisions of the Internal Revenue Code of 1986 other than those referred to in clause (i) of the first sentence of this subparagraph and the functions of the Social Security Administration in connection with the withholding of taxes from benefits, as described in section 407(c) of this title, pursuant to requests by persons entitled to such benefits or such persons’ representative payee. Of the amounts authorized to be made available out of the Federal Old-Age and Survivors Insurance Trust Fund and the Federal Disability Insurance Trust Fund under the preceding sentence, there are hereby authorized to be made available from either or both of such Trust Funds for continuing disability reviews—

(i) 1 for fiscal year 1996, $260,000,000;

(ii) 1 for fiscal year 1997, $360,000,000;

(iii) for fiscal year 1998, $570,000,000;

(iv) for fiscal year 1999, $720,000,000;

(v) for fiscal year 2000, $720,000,000;

(vi) for fiscal year 2001, $720,000,000; and

(viii) 2 for fiscal year 2002, $720,000,000.


For purposes of this subparagraph, the term “continuing disability review” means a review conducted pursuant to section 421(i) of this title and a review or disability eligibility redetermination conducted to determine the continuing disability and eligibility of a recipient of benefits under the supplemental security income program under subchapter XVI of this chapter, including any review or redetermination conducted pursuant to section 207 or 208 of the Social Security Independence and Program Improvements Act of 1994 (Public Law 103–296).

(B) After the close of each fiscal year—

(i) the Commissioner of Social Security shall determine—

(I) the portion of the costs, incurred during such fiscal year, of administration of this subchapter, subchapter VIII of this chapter, subchapter XVI of this chapter, and subchapter XVIII of this chapter for which the Commissioner is responsible and of carrying out the functions of the Social Security Administration, specified in section 432 of this title, which relate to the administration of provisions of the Internal Revenue Code of 1986 (other than those referred to in clause (i) of the first sentence of subparagraph (A)) and the functions of the Social Security Administration in connection with the withholding of taxes from benefits, as described in section 407(c) of this title, pursuant to requests by persons entitled to such benefits or such persons’ representative payee, which should have been borne by the general fund of the Treasury,

(II) the portion of such costs which should have been borne by the Federal Old-Age and Survivors Insurance Trust Fund,

(III) the portion of such costs which should have been borne by the Federal Disability Insurance Trust Fund,

(IV) the portion of such costs which should have been borne by the Federal Hospital Insurance Trust Fund, and

(V) the portion of such costs which should have been borne by the Federal Supplementary Medical Insurance Trust Fund (and, of such portion, the portion of such costs which should have been borne by the Medicare Prescription Drug Account in such Trust Fund), and


(ii) the Secretary of Health and Human Services shall determine—

(I) the portion of the costs, incurred during such fiscal year, of the administration of subchapter XVIII of this chapter for which the Secretary is responsible, which should have been borne by the general fund of the Treasury,

(II) the portion of such costs which should have been borne by the Federal Hospital Insurance Trust Fund, and

(III) the portion of such costs which should have been borne by the Federal Supplementary Medical Insurance Trust Fund (and, of such portion, the portion of such costs which should have been borne by the Medicare Prescription Drug Account in such Trust Fund).


(C) After the determinations under subparagraph (B) have been made for any fiscal year, the Commisioner 3 of Social Security and the Secretary shall each certify to the Managing Trustee the amounts, if any, which should be transferred from one to any of the other such Trust Funds and the amounts, if any, which should be transferred between the Trust Funds (or one of the Trust Funds) and the general fund of the Treasury, in order to ensure that each of the Trust Funds and the general fund of the Treasury have borne their proper share of the costs, incurred during such fiscal year, for—

(i) the parts of the administration of this subchapter, subchapter VIII of this chapter, subchapter XVI of this chapter, and subchapter XVIII of this chapter for which the Commissioner of Social Security is responsible,

(ii) the parts of the administration of subchapter XVIII of this chapter for which the Secretary is responsible, and

(iii) carrying out the functions of the Social Security Administration, specified in section 432 of this title, which relate to the administration of provisions of the Internal Revenue Code of 1986 (other than those referred to in clause (i) of the first sentence of subparagraph (A)) and the functions of the Social Security Administration in connection with the withholding of taxes from benefits, as described in section 407(c) of this title, pursuant to requests by persons entitled to such benefits or such persons’ representative payee.


The Managing Trustee shall transfer any such amounts in accordance with any certification so made.

(D) The determinations required under subclauses (IV) and (V) of subparagraph (B)(i) shall be made in accordance with the cost allocation methodology in existence on August 15, 1994, until such time as the methodology for making the determinations required under such subclauses is revised by agreement of the Commissioner and the Secretary, except that the determination of the amounts to be borne by the general fund of the Treasury with respect to expenditures incurred in carrying out the functions of the Social Security Administration specified in section 432 of this title and the functions of the Social Security Administration in connection with the withholding of taxes from benefits as described in section 407(c) of this title shall be made pursuant to the applicable method prescribed under paragraph (4).

(2) The Managing Trustee is directed to pay from time to time from the Trust Funds into the Treasury the amount estimated by him as taxes imposed under section 3101(a) of the Internal Revenue Code of 1986 which are subject to refund under section 6413(c) of such Code with respect to wages (as defined in section 3121 of such Code). Such taxes shall be determined on the basis of the records of wages maintained by the Commissioner of Social Security in accordance with the wages reported to the Secretary of the Treasury or his delegate pursuant to subtitle F of such Code, and the Commissioner of Social Security shall furnish the Managing Trustee such information as may be required by the Trustee for such purpose. The payments by the Managing Trustee shall be covered into the Treasury as repayments to the account for refunding internal revenue collections. Payments pursuant to the first sentence of this paragraph shall be made from the Federal Old-Age and Survivors Insurance Trust Fund and the Federal Disability Insurance Trust Fund in the ratio in which amounts were appropriated to such Trust Funds under clause (3) of subsection (a) of this section and clause (1) of subsection (b) of this section.

(3) Repayments made under paragraph (1) or (2) of this subsection shall not be available for expenditures but shall be carried to the surplus fund of the Treasury. If it subsequently appears that the estimates under either such paragraph in any particular period were too high or too low, appropriate adjustments shall be made by the Managing Trustee in future payments.

(4) The Commissioner of Social Security shall utilize the method prescribed pursuant to this paragraph, as in effect immediately before August 15, 1994, for determining the costs which should be borne by the general fund of the Treasury of carrying out the functions of the Commissioner, specified in section 432 of this title, which relate to the administration of provisions of the Internal Revenue Code of 1986 (other than those referred to in clause (i) of the first sentence of paragraph (1)(A)). The Board of Trustees of such Trust Funds shall prescribe the method of determining the costs which should be borne by the general fund in the Treasury of carrying out the functions of the Social Security Administration in connection with the withholding of taxes from benefits, as described in section 407(c) of this title, pursuant to requests by persons entitled to such benefits or such persons’ representative payee. If at any time or times thereafter the Boards of Trustees of such Trust Funds consider such action advisable, they may modify the method of determining such costs.

(h) Benefit payments

Benefit payments required to be made under section 423 of this title, and benefit payments required to be made under subsection (b), (c), or (d) of section 402 of this title to individuals entitled to benefits on the basis of the wages and self-employment income of an individual entitled to disability insurance benefits, shall be made only from the Federal Disability Insurance Trust Fund. All other benefit payments required to be made under this subchapter (other than section 426 of this title) shall be made only from the Federal Old-Age and Survivors Insurance Trust Fund.

(i) Gifts and bequests

(1) The Managing Trustee may accept on behalf of the United States money gifts and bequests made unconditionally to the Federal Old-Age and Survivors Insurance Trust Fund, the Federal Disability Insurance Trust Fund, the Federal Hospital Insurance Trust Fund, or the Federal Supplementary Medical Insurance Trust Fund (and for the Medicare Prescription Drug Account and the Transitional Assistance Account in such Trust Fund) or to the Social Security Administration, the Department of Health and Human Services, or any part or officer thereof, for the benefit of any of such Funds or any activity financed through such Funds.

(2) Any such gift accepted pursuant to the authority granted in paragraph (1) of this subsection shall be deposited in—

(A) the specific trust fund designated by the donor or

(B) if the donor has not so designated, the Federal Old-Age and Survivors Insurance Trust Fund.

(j) Travel expenses

There are authorized to be made available for expenditure, out of the Federal Old-Age and Survivors Insurance Trust Fund, or the Federal Disability Insurance Trust Fund (as determined appropriate by the Commissioner of Social Security), such amounts as are required to pay travel expenses, either on an actual cost or commuted basis, to individuals for travel incident to medical examinations requested by the Commissioner of Social Security in connection with disability determinations under this subchapter, and to parties, their representatives, and all reasonably necessary witnesses for travel within the United States (as defined in section 410(i) of this title) to attend reconsideration interviews and proceedings before administrative law judges with respect to any determination under this subchapter. The amount available under the preceding sentence for payment for air travel by any person shall not exceed the coach fare for air travel between the points involved unless the use of first-class accommodations is required (as determined under regulations of the Commissioner of Social Security) because of such person's health condition or the unavailability of alternative accommodations; and the amount available for payment for other travel by any person shall not exceed the cost of travel (between the points involved) by the most economical and expeditious means of transportation appropriate to such person's health condition, as specified in such regulations. The amount available for payment under this subsection for travel by a representative to attend an administrative proceeding before an administrative law judge or other adjudicator shall not exceed the maximum amount allowable under this subsection for such travel originating within the geographic area of the office having jurisdiction over such proceeding.

(k) Experiment and demonstration project expenditures

Expenditures made for experiments and demonstration projects under section 434 of this title shall be made from the Federal Disability Insurance Trust Fund and the Federal Old-Age and Survivors Insurance Trust Fund, as determined appropriate by the Commissioner of Social Security.

(l) Interfund borrowing

(1) If at any time prior to January 1988 the Managing Trustee determines that borrowing authorized under this subsection is appropriate in order to best meet the need for financing the benefit payments from the Federal Old-Age and Survivors Insurance Trust Fund or the Federal Disability Insurance Trust Fund, the Managing Trustee may borrow such amounts as he determines to be appropriate from the other such Trust Fund, or, subject to paragraph (5), from the Federal Hospital Insurance Trust Fund established under section 1395i of this title, for transfer to and deposit in the Trust Fund whose need for financing is involved.

(2) In any case where a loan has been made to a Trust Fund under paragraph (1), there shall be transferred on the last day of each month after such loan is made, from the borrowing Trust Fund to the lending Trust Fund, the total interest accrued to such day with respect to the unrepaid balance of such loan at a rate equal to the rate which the lending Trust Fund would earn on the amount involved if the loan were an investment under subsection (d) of this section (even if such an investment would earn interest at a rate different than the rate earned by investments redeemed by the lending fund in order to make the loan).

(3)(A) If in any month after a loan has been made to a Trust Fund under paragraph (1), the Managing Trustee determines that the assets of such Trust Fund are sufficient to permit repayment of all or part of any loans made to such Fund under paragraph (1), he shall make such repayments as he determines to be appropriate.

(B)(i) If on the last day of any year after a loan has been made under paragraph (1) by the Federal Hospital Insurance Trust Fund to the Federal Old-Age and Survivors Insurance Trust Fund or the Federal Disability Insurance Trust Fund, the Managing Trustee determines that the OASDI trust fund ratio exceeds 15 percent, he shall transfer from the borrowing Trust Fund to the Federal Hospital Insurance Trust Fund an amount that—

(I) together with any amounts transferred from another borrowing Trust Fund under this paragraph for such year, will reduce the OASDI trust fund ratio to 15 percent; and

(II) does not exceed the outstanding balance of such loan.


(ii) Amounts required to be transferred under clause (i) shall be transferred on the last day of the first month of the year succeeding the year in which the determination described in clause (i) is made.

(iii) For purposes of this subparagraph, the term “OASDI trust fund ratio” means, with respect to any calendar year, the ratio of—

(I) the combined balance in the Federal Old-Age and Survivors Insurance Trust Fund and the Federal Disability Insurance Trust Fund, as of the last day of such calendar year, to

(II) the amount estimated by the Commissioner of Social Security to be the total amount to be paid from the Federal Old-Age and Survivors Insurance Trust Fund and the Federal Disability Insurance Trust Fund during the calendar year following such calendar year for all purposes authorized by this section (other than payments of interest on, and repayments of, loans from the Federal Hospital Insurance Trust Fund under paragraph (1), but excluding any transfer payments between such trust funds and reducing the amount of any transfer to the Railroad Retirement Account by the amount of any transfers into either such trust fund from that Account).


(C)(i) The full amount of all loans made under paragraph (1) (whether made before or after January 1, 1983) shall be repaid at the earliest feasible date and in any event no later than December 31, 1989.

(ii) For the period after December 31, 1987, and before January 1, 1990, the Managing Trustee shall transfer each month to the Federal Hospital Insurance Trust Fund from any Trust Fund with any amount outstanding on a loan made from the Federal Hospital Insurance Trust Fund under paragraph (1) an amount not less than an amount equal to (I) the amount owed to the Federal Hospital Insurance Trust Fund by such Trust Fund at the beginning of such month (plus the interest accrued on the outstanding balance of such loan during such month), divided by (II) the number of months elapsing after the preceding month and before January 1990. The Managing Trustee may, during this period, transfer larger amounts than prescribed by the preceding sentence.

(4) The Board of Trustees shall make a timely report to the Congress of any amounts transferred (including interest payments) under this subsection.

(5)(A) No amounts may be borrowed from the Federal Hospital Insurance Trust Fund under paragraph (1) during any month if the Hospital Insurance Trust Fund ratio for such month is less than 10 percent.

(B) For purposes of this paragraph, the term “Hospital Insurance Trust Fund ratio” means, with respect to any month, the ratio of—

(i) the balance in the Federal Hospital Insurance Trust Fund, reduced by the outstanding amount of any loan (including interest thereon) theretofore made to such Trust Fund under this subsection, as of the last day of the second month preceding such month, to

(ii) the amount obtained by multiplying by twelve the total amount which (as estimated by the Secretary) will be paid from the Federal Hospital Insurance Trust Fund during the month for which such ratio is to be determined (other than payments of interest on, or repayments of loans from another Trust Fund under this subsection), and reducing the amount of any transfers to the Railroad Retirement Account by the amount of any transfer into the Hospital Insurance Trust Fund from that Account.

(m) Accounting for unnegotiated benefit checks

(1) The Secretary of the Treasury shall implement procedures to permit the identification of each check issued for benefits under this subchapter that has not been presented for payment by the close of the sixth month following the month of its issuance.

(2) The Secretary of the Treasury shall, on a monthly basis, credit each of the Trust Funds for the amount of all benefit checks (including interest thereon) drawn on such Trust Fund more than 6 months previously but not presented for payment and not previously credited to such Trust Fund, to the extent provided in advance in appropriation Acts.

(3) If a benefit check is presented for payment to the Treasury and the amount thereof has been previously credited pursuant to paragraph (2) to one of the Trust Funds, the Secretary of the Treasury shall nevertheless pay such check, if otherwise proper, recharge such Trust Fund, and notify the Commissioner of Social Security.

(4) A benefit check bearing a current date may be issued to an individual who did not negotiate the original benefit check and who surrenders such check for cancellation if the Secretary of the Treasury determines it is necessary to effect proper payment of benefits.

(n) Payments to Funds in satisfaction of obligations

Not later than July 1, 2004, the Secretary of the Treasury shall transfer, from amounts in the general fund of the Treasury that are not otherwise appropriated—

(1) $624,971,854 to the Federal Old-Age and Survivors Insurance Trust Fund;

(2) $105,379,671 to the Federal Disability Insurance Trust Fund; and

(3) $173,306,134 to the Federal Hospital Insurance Trust Fund.


Amounts transferred in accordance with this subsection shall be in satisfaction of certain outstanding obligations for deemed wage credits for 2000 and 2001.

(Aug. 14, 1935, ch. 531, title II, §201, 49 Stat. 622; Aug. 10, 1939, ch. 666, title II, §201, 53 Stat. 1362; Feb. 25, 1944, ch. 63, title IX, §902, 58 Stat. 93; Aug. 28, 1950, ch. 809, title I, §109(a), 64 Stat. 521; Aug. 1, 1956, ch. 836, title I, §103(e), 70 Stat. 819; Pub. L. 85–840, title II, §205(a), Aug. 28, 1958, 72 Stat. 1021; Pub. L. 86–346, title I, §104(2), Sept. 22, 1959, 73 Stat. 622; Pub. L. 86–778, title VII, §701(a)–(e), Sept. 13, 1960, 74 Stat. 992, 993; Pub. L. 89–97, title I, §108(a), title III, §§305, 327, July 30, 1965, 79 Stat. 338, 370, 400; Pub. L. 90–248, title I, §§110, 169, Jan. 2, 1968, 81 Stat. 837, 875; Pub. L. 91–172, title X, §1005, Dec. 30, 1969, 83 Stat. 741; Pub. L. 92–336, title II, §205, July 1, 1972, 86 Stat. 422; Pub. L. 92–603, title I, §§132(a)–(c), 136, title III, §305(a), Oct. 30, 1972, 86 Stat. 1360, 1364, 1484; Pub. L. 93–233, §7, Dec. 31, 1973, 87 Stat. 955; Pub. L. 94–202, §8(d), Jan. 2, 1976, 89 Stat. 1137; Pub. L. 95–216, title I, §102(a), Dec. 20, 1977, 91 Stat. 1513; Pub. L. 96–265, title III, §310(a), title V, §505(a)(5), June 9, 1980, 94 Stat. 459, 474; Pub. L. 96–403, §1, Oct. 9, 1980, 94 Stat. 1709; Pub. L. 97–123, §1(a), Dec. 29, 1981, 95 Stat. 1659; Pub. L. 98–21, title I, §§126, 141(a), 142(a)(1), (2)(A), (3), (4), 152(a), 154(a), title III, §341(a), Apr. 20, 1983, 97 Stat. 91, 98–100, 105, 107, 135; Pub. L. 98–369, div. B, title VI, §§2661(a), 2663(a)(1), (j)(2)(A)(i), July 18, 1984, 98 Stat. 1156, 1160, 1170; Pub. L. 99–272, title IX, §9213(a), Apr. 7, 1986, 100 Stat. 180; Pub. L. 100–360, title II, §212(c)(1), July 1, 1988, 102 Stat. 741; Pub. L. 100–647, title VIII, §8005(a), Nov. 10, 1988, 102 Stat. 3781; Pub. L. 101–234, title II, §202(a), Dec. 13, 1989, 103 Stat. 1981; Pub. L. 101–508, title V, §§5106(c), 5115(a), title XIII, §13304, Nov. 5, 1990, 104 Stat. 1388–268, 1388–274, 1388–627; Pub. L. 103–296, title I, §107(b), title III, §§301(a), (b), 321(a)(1), (c)(1)(A)(i), (B)(i), (C), Aug. 15, 1994, 108 Stat. 1478, 1517, 1535, 1537; Pub. L. 103–387, §3(a), (b), Oct. 22, 1994, 108 Stat. 4074, 4075; Pub. L. 104–121, title I, §103(a), Mar. 29, 1996, 110 Stat. 848; Pub. L. 105–277, div. J, title IV, §4005(b), Oct. 21, 1998, 112 Stat. 2681–911; Pub. L. 106–169, title II, §251(b)(1), Dec. 14, 1999, 113 Stat. 1854; Pub. L. 106–170, title III, §301(b)(1)(B), Dec. 17, 1999, 113 Stat. 1902; Pub. L. 108–173, title I, §101(e)(3)(A), (B), Dec. 8, 2003, 117 Stat. 2150, 2151; Pub. L. 108–203, title IV, §420(a), Mar. 2, 2004, 118 Stat. 535.)

References in Text

Subchapter A of chapter 9 of the Internal Revenue Code of 1939, referred to in subsec. (a)(1) to (3), was comprised of sections 1400 to 1432, and was repealed (subject to certain exceptions) by section 7851(a)(3) of the Internal Revenue Code of 1986.

Sections 1426 and 1420(c) of the Internal Revenue Code of 1939, referred to in subsec. (a)(3), were a part of subchapter A of chapter 9 of the 1939 Code. See above.

Internal Revenue Code of 1954, referred to in subsecs. (a)(3), (4) and (b)(1)(A), (2)(A), redesignated Internal Revenue Code of 1986 by Pub. L. 99–514, §2, Oct. 22, 1986, 100 Stat. 2095.

Subchapter E of chapter 1 of the Internal Revenue Code of 1939, referred to in subsec. (a)(4), was comprised of sections 480 to 482, and was repealed (subject to certain exceptions) by section 7851(a)(1)(A) of the Internal Revenue Code of 1986.

Section 481 of the Internal Revenue Code of 1939, referred to in subsec. (a)(4), was a part of subchapter E of chapter 1 of the 1939 Code. See above.

For provision deeming a reference in other laws to a provision of the 1939 Code as a reference to the corresponding provision of the 1986 Code, see section 7852(b) if the 1986 Code. For table of comparisons of the 1939 Code to the 1986 Code, see table preceding section 1 of Title 26, Internal Revenue Code. The Internal Revenue Code of 1986 is classified generally to Title 26.

Chapters 2 and 21 and subtitle F of the Internal Revenue Code of 1986, referred to in subsec. (g)(1)(A), (2), are classified to sections 1401 et seq., 3101 et seq., and 6001 et seq., respectively, of Title 26, Internal Revenue Code.

Section 207 or 208 of the Social Security Independence and Program Improvements Act of 1994, referred to in subsec. (g)(1)(A), are sections 207 and 208 of Pub. L. 103–296. Section 208 of Pub. L. 103–296 is set out as a note under section 1382 of this title. Section 207 of Pub. L. 103–296 was set out as a note under section 1382 of this title prior to repeal by Pub. L. 104–193, title II, §212(b)(2), (d), Aug. 22, 1996, 110 Stat. 2193, 2194.

Amendments

2004—Subsec. (n). Pub. L. 108–203 added subsec. (n).

2003—Subsec. (g)(1)(B)(i)(V), (ii)(III). Pub. L. 108–173, §101(e)(3)(A), inserted “(and, of such portion, the portion of such costs which should have been borne by the Medicare Prescription Drug Account in such Trust Fund)” after “Trust Fund”.

Subsec. (i)(1). Pub. L. 108–173, §101(e)(3)(B), inserted “(and for the Medicare Prescription Drug Account and the Transitional Assistance Account in such Trust Fund)” after “Federal Supplementary Medical Insurance Trust Fund”.

1999—Subsec. (g)(1)(A). Pub. L. 106–169, §251(b)(1)(A), inserted “subchapter VIII of this chapter,” after “this subchapter,” in fourth sentence.

Subsec. (g)(1)(B)(i)(I). Pub. L. 106–169, §251(b)(1)(B), inserted “subchapter VIII of this chapter,” after “this subchapter,”.

Subsec. (g)(1)(C)(i). Pub. L. 106–169, §251(b)(1)(C), inserted “subchapter VIII of this chapter,” after “this subchapter,”.

Subsec. (k). Pub. L. 106–170 substituted “section 434 of this title” for “section 505(a) of the Social Security Disability Amendments of 1980”.

1998—Subsec. (g)(1)(A). Pub. L. 105–277, §4005(b)(2), which directed the amendment of subsec. (g) by inserting “and the functions of the Social Security Administration in connection with the withholding of taxes from benefits, as described in section 407(c) of this title, pursuant to requests by persons entitled to such benefits or such persons’ representative payee” before period at end of paragraph (1)(A), was executed by inserting this material after “the first sentence of this subparagraph” in provisions following cl. (ii) to reflect the probable intent of Congress.

Subsec. (g)(1)(A)(ii). Pub. L. 105–277, §4005(b)(1), inserted before period at end “and the functions of the Social Security Administration in connection with the withholding of taxes from benefits, as described in section 407(c) of this title, pursuant to requests by persons entitled to such benefits or such persons’ representative payee”.

Subsec. (g)(1)(B)(i)(I). Pub. L. 105–277, §4005(b)(3), substituted “subparagraph (A)) and the functions of the Social Security Administration in connection with the withholding of taxes from benefits, as described in section 407(c) of this title, pursuant to requests by persons entitled to such benefits or such persons’ representative payee,” for “subparagraph (A)),”.

Subsec. (g)(1)(C)(iii). Pub. L. 105–277, §4005(b)(4), inserted before period at end “and the functions of the Social Security Administration in connection with the withholding of taxes from benefits, as described in section 407(c) of this title, pursuant to requests by persons entitled to such benefits or such persons’ representative payee”.

Subsec. (g)(1)(D). Pub. L. 105–277, §4005(b)(5), inserted “and the functions of the Social Security Administration in connection with the withholding of taxes from benefits as described in section 407(c) of this title” after “section 432 of this title”.

Subsec. (g)(4). Pub. L. 105–277, §4005(b)(6), inserted after first sentence “The Board of Trustees of such Trust Funds shall prescribe the method of determining the costs which should be borne by the general fund in the Treasury of carrying out the functions of the Social Security Administration in connection with the withholding of taxes from benefits, as described in section 407(c) of this title, pursuant to requests by persons entitled to such benefits or such persons’ representative payee.”

1996—Subsec. (g)(1)(A). Pub. L. 104–121 inserted at end “Of the amounts authorized to be made available out of the Federal Old-Age and Survivors Insurance Trust Fund and the Federal Disability Insurance Trust Fund under the preceding sentence, there are hereby authorized to be made available from either or both of such Trust Funds for continuing disability reviews—

“(i) for fiscal year 1996, $260,000,000;

“(ii) for fiscal year 1997, $360,000,000;

“(iii) for fiscal year 1998, $570,000,000;

“(iv) for fiscal year 1999, $720,000,000;

“(v) for fiscal year 2000, $720,000,000;

“(vi) for fiscal year 2001, $720,000,000; and

“(viii) for fiscal year 2002, $720,000,000.

For purposes of this subparagraph, the term ‘continuing disability review’ means a review conducted pursuant to section 421(i) of this title and a review or disability eligibility redetermination conducted to determine the continuing disability and eligibility of a recipient of benefits under the supplemental security income program under subchapter XVI of this chapter, including any review or redetermination conducted pursuant to section 207 or 208 of the Social Security Independence and Program Improvements Act of 1994 (Public Law 103–296).”

1994—Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 103–296, §321(a)(1), in closing provisions substituted “and” for “and and” before “such Trust Fund shall pay”.

Subsec. (a)(3). Pub. L. 103–296, §107(b)(1), (2), substituted “Commissioner of Social Security” and “such Commissioner” for “Secretary of Health and Human Services” and “such Secretary”, respectively.

Subsec. (a)(4). Pub. L. 103–296, §107(b)(1), substituted “Commissioner of Social Security” for “Secretary of Health and Human Services” in two places.

Subsec. (b)(1). Pub. L. 103–296, §107(b)(1), (2), substituted “Commissioner of Social Security” and “such Commissioner” for “Secretary of Health and Human Services” and “such Secretary”, respectively.

Subsec. (b)(1)(O) to (R). Pub. L. 103–387, §3(a), substituted “(O) 1.20 per centum of the wages (as so defined) paid after December 31, 1989, and before January 1, 1994, and so reported, (P) 1.88 per centum of the wages (as so defined) paid after December 31, 1993, and before January 1, 1997, and so reported, (Q) 1.70 per centum of the wages (as so defined) paid after December 31, 1996, and before January 1, 2000, and so reported, and (R) 1.80 per centum of the wages (as so defined) paid after December 31, 1999, and so reported,” for “(O) 1.20 per centum of the wages (as so defined) paid after December 31, 1989, and before January 1, 2000, and so reported, and (P) 1.42 per centum of the wages (as so defined) paid after December 31, 1999, and so reported,”.

Subsec. (b)(2). Pub. L. 103–296, §107(b)(1), substituted “Commissioner of Social Security” for “Secretary of Health and Human Services” in two places.

Subsec. (b)(2)(O) to (R). Pub. L. 103–387, §3(b), substituted “(O) 1.20 per centum of the amount of self-employment income (as so defined) so reported for any taxable year beginning after December 31, 1989, and before January 1, 1994, (P) 1.88 per centum of the amount of self-employment income (as so defined) so reported for any taxable year beginning after December 31, 1993, and before January 1, 1997, (Q) 1.70 per centum of the amount of self-employment income (as so defined) so reported for any taxable year beginning after December 31, 1996, and before January 1, 2000, and (R) 1.80 per centum of the amount of self-employment income (as so defined) so reported for any taxable year beginning after December 31, 1999,” for “(O) 1.20 per centum of the amount of self-employment income (as so defined) so reported for any taxable year beginning after December 31, 1989, and before January 1, 2000, and (P) 1.42 per centum of the self-employment income (as so defined) so reported for any taxable year beginning after December 31, 1999,”.

Subsec. (c). Pub. L. 103–296, §107(b)(3), in introductory provisions, inserted “the Commissioner of Social Security,” after “shall be composed of” and inserted “Deputy” before “Commissioner of Social Security shall serve”.

Subsec. (d). Pub. L. 103–296, §301(a), inserted after fifth sentence “Each obligation issued for purchase by the Trust Funds under this subsection shall be evidenced by a paper instrument in the form of a bond, note, or certificate of indebtedness issued by the Secretary of the Treasury setting forth the principal amount, date of maturity, and interest rate of the obligation, and stating on its face that the obligation shall be incontestable in the hands of the Trust Fund to which it is issued, that the obligation is supported by the full faith and credit of the United States, and that the United States is pledged to the payment of the obligation with respect to both principal and interest.”

Subsec. (f). Pub. L. 103–296, §301(b), inserted at end “Payment from the general fund of the Treasury to either of the Trust Funds of any such interest or proceeds shall be in the form of paper checks drawn on such general fund to the order of such Trust Fund.”

Subsec. (g)(1)(A). Pub. L. 103–296, §107(b)(4)(C), in text as amended by Pub. L. 103–296, §321(c)(1)(A)(i)(III), substituted “subchapters II and XVIII” for “subchapters II, XVI, and XVIII” in second sentence and amended last sentence generally. Prior to amendment, last sentence read as follows: “There are hereby authorized to be made available for expenditure, out of any or all of the Trust Funds, such amounts as the Congress may deem appropriate to pay the costs of the part of the administration of this subchapter, subchapter XVI, and subchapter XVIII of this chapter for which the Secretary of Health and Human Services is responsible and of carrying out the functions of the Department of Health and Human Services, specified in section 432 of this title, which relate to the administration of provisions of the Internal Revenue Code of 1986 other than those referred to in clause (i) of the first sentence of this subparagraph.”

Pub. L. 103–296, §321(c)(1)(A)(i)(III), substituted “chapters 2 and 21 of the Internal Revenue Code of 1986” for “subchapter E of chapter 1 and subchapter A of chapter 9 of the Internal Revenue Code of 1939, and chapters 2 and 21 of the Internal Revenue Code of 1954” in second sentence and “1986 other” for “1954 other” in last sentence.

Subsec. (g)(1)(A)(i). Pub. L. 103–296, §321(c)(1)(A)(i)(I), substituted “and chapters 2 and 21 of the Internal Revenue Code of 1986” for “and subchapter E of chapter 1 and subchapter A of chapter 9 of the Internal Revenue Code of 1939, and chapters 2 and 21 of the Internal Revenue Code of 1954”.

Pub. L. 103–296, §107(b)(4)(A), substituted “by the Managing Trustee, the Commissioner of Social Security, and the Secretary of Health and Human Services” for “by him and the Secretary of Health and Human Services” and “by the Department of Health and Human Services for the administration of subchapter XVIII of this chapter, and by the Department of the Treasury for the administration of subchapters II and XVIII of this chapter” for “by the Department of Health and Human Services and the Treasury Department for the administration of subchapters II, XVI, and XVIII of this chapter”.

Subsec. (g)(1)(A)(ii). Pub. L. 103–296, §321(c)(1)(A)(i)(II), substituted “Internal Revenue Code of 1986” for “Internal Revenue Code of 1954”.

Pub. L. 103–296, §107(b)(4)(B), substituted “applicable method prescribed under paragraph (4)” for “method prescribed by the Board of Trustees under paragraph (4)”, “Commissioner of Social Security” for “Secretary of Health and Human Services”, and “Social Security Administration” for “Department of Health and Human Services”.

Subsec. (g)(1)(B). Pub. L. 103–296, §107(b)(4)(A), added subpar. (B) and struck out former subpar. (B), as amended by Pub. L. 103–296, §321(c)(1)(A)(i)(IV), which read as follows: “After the close of each fiscal year the Secretary of Health and Human Services shall determine the portion of the costs, incurred during such fiscal year, of administration of this subchapter, subchapter XVI, and subchapter XVIII of this chapter and of carrying out the functions of the Department of Health and Human Services, specified in section 432 of this title, which relate to the administration of provisions of the Internal Revenue Code of 1986 (other than those referred to in clause (i) of the first sentence of subparagraph (A)), which should have been borne by the general fund in the Treasury and the portion of such costs which should have been borne by each of the Trust Funds; except that the determination of the amounts to be borne by the general fund in the Treasury with respect to expenditures incurred in carrying out such functions specified in section 432 of this title shall be made pursuant to the method prescribed by the Board of Trustees under paragraph (4) of this subsection. After such determination has been made, the Secretary of Health and Human Services shall certify to the Managing Trustee the amounts, if any, which should be transferred from one to any of the other of such Trust Funds and the amounts, if any, which should be transferred between the Trust Funds (or one of the Trust Funds) and the general fund in the Treasury, in order to insure that each of the Trust Funds and the general fund in the Treasury have borne their proper share of the costs, incurred during such fiscal year, for the part of the administration of this subchapter, subchapter XVI, and subchapter XVIII of this chapter for which the Secretary of Health and Human Services is responsible and of carrying out the functions of the Department of Health and Human Services, specified in section 432 of this title, which relate to the administration of provisions of the Internal Revenue Code of 1986 (other than those referred to in clause (i) of the first sentence of subparagraph (A)). The Managing Trustee is authorized and directed to transfer any such amounts in accordance with any certification so made.”

Pub. L. 103–296, §321(c)(1)(A)(i)(IV), substituted “Internal Revenue Code of 1986” for “Internal Revenue Code of 1954” in two places.

Subsec. (g)(1)(C), (D). Pub. L. 103–296, §107(b)(4)(A), added subpars. (C) and (D).

Subsec. (g)(2). Pub. L. 103–296, §321(c)(1)(B)(i), in first sentence substituted “section 3101(a) of the Internal Revenue Code of 1986 which are subject to refund under section 6413(c) of such Code with respect to wages (as defined in section 3121 of such Code).” for “section 3101(a) which are subject to refund under section 6413(c) of the Internal Revenue Code of 1954 with respect to wages (as defined in section 1426 of the Internal Revenue Code of 1939 and section 3121 of the Internal Revenue Code of 1954) paid after December 31, 1950.” and in second sentence substituted “wages reported to the Secretary of the Treasury or his delegate pursuant to subtitle F of such Code,” for “wages reported to the Commissioner of Internal Revenue pursuant to section 1420(c) of the Internal Revenue Code of 1939 and to the Secretary of the Treasury or his delegate pursuant to subtitle F of the Internal Revenue Code of 1954,”.

Pub. L. 103–296, §107(b)(5), in second sentence substituted “maintained by the Commissioner of Social Security” for “established and maintained by the Secretary of Health and Human Services” and “Commissioner of Social Security shall furnish” for “Secretary shall furnish”.

Subsec. (g)(4). Pub. L. 103–296, §107(b)(6), amended generally par. (4) as amended by Pub. L. 103–296, §321(c)(1)(C). Prior to amendment, par. (4) read as follows: “If at any time or times the Boards of Trustees of such Trust Funds deem such action advisable, they may modify the method prescribed by such Boards of determining the costs which should be borne by the general fund in the Treasury of carrying out the functions of the Department of Health and Human Services, specified in section 432 of this title, which relate to the administration of provisions of the Internal Revenue Code of 1986 (other than those referred to in clause (i) of the first sentence of paragraph (1)(A)).”

Pub. L. 103–296, §321(c)(1)(C), substituted “If at any time or times the Boards of Trustees of such Trust Funds deem such action advisable, they may modify the method prescribed by such Boards” for “The Board of Trustees shall prescribe before January 1, 1981, the method” and “Code of 1986” for “Code of 1954” and struck out at end “If at any time or times thereafter the Boards of Trustees of such Trust Funds deem such action advisable they may modify the method so determined.”

Subsec. (i)(1). Pub. L. 103–296, §107(b)(7), amended par. (1) generally. Prior to amendment, par. (1) read as follows: “The Managing Trustee of the Federal Old-Age and Survivors Insurance Trust Fund, the Federal Disability Insurance Trust Fund, the Federal Hospital Insurance Trust Fund, and the Federal Supplementary Medical Insurance Trust Fund is authorized to accept on behalf of the United States money gifts and bequests made unconditionally to any one or more of such Trust Funds or to the Department of Health and Human Services, or any part or officer thereof, for the benefit of any of such Funds or any activity financed through such Funds.”

Subsec. (j). Pub. L. 103–296, §107(b)(8), substituted “Commissioner of Social Security” for “Secretary” wherever appearing.

Subsec. (k). Pub. L. 103–296, §107(b)(8), substituted “Commissioner of Social Security” for “Secretary”.

Subsec. (l)(3)(B)(iii)(II). Pub. L. 103–296, §107(b)(9), substituted “Commissioner of Social Security” for “Secretary”.

Subsec. (m)(3). Pub. L. 103–296, §107(b)(10), substituted “Commissioner of Social Security” for “Secretary of Health and Human Services”.

1990—Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 101–508, §5115(a), in first sentence following cl. (4), substituted “from time to time” for “monthly on the first day of each calendar month” in two places and “paid to or deposited into the Treasury” for “to be paid to or deposited into the Treasury during such month”, and in last sentence substituted “Fund. Notwithstanding the preceding sentence, in any case in which the Secretary of the Treasury determines that the assets of either such Trust Fund would otherwise be inadequate to meet such Fund's obligations for any month, the Secretary of the Treasury shall transfer to such Trust Fund on the first day of such month the amount which would have been transferred to such Fund under this section as in effect on October 1, 1990; and” for “Fund;”.

Subsec. (c). Pub. L. 101–508, §13304, inserted after first sentence following cl. (5) “Such statement shall include a finding by the Board of Trustees as to whether the Federal Old-Age and Survivors Insurance Trust Fund and the Federal Disability Insurance Trust Fund, individually and collectively, are in close actuarial balance (as defined by the Board of Trustees).”

Subsec. (j). Pub. L. 101–508, §5106(c), inserted at end “The amount available for payment under this subsection for travel by a representative to attend an administrative proceeding before an administrative law judge or other adjudicator shall not exceed the maximum amount allowable under this subsection for such travel originating within the geographic area of the office having jurisdiction over such proceeding.”

1989—Subsecs. (g)(1)(A), (i)(1). Pub. L. 101–234 repealed Pub. L. 100–360, §212(c)(1), and provided that the provisions of law amended or repealed by such section are restored or revised as if such section had not been enacted, see 1988 Amendment note below.

1988—Subsec. (c). Pub. L. 100–647 inserted after first sentence “A member of the Board of Trustees serving as a member of the public and nominated and confirmed to fill a vacancy occurring during a term shall be nominated and confirmed only for the remainder of such term. An individual nominated and confirmed as a member of the public may serve in such position after the expiration of such member's term until the earlier of the time at which the member's successor takes office or the time at which a report of the Board is first issued under paragraph (2) after the expiration of the member's term.”

Subsec. (g)(1)(A). Pub. L. 100–360, §212(c)(1)(A), substituted “, Federal Supplementary Medical Insurance Trust Fund, and the Federal Catastrophic Drug Insurance Trust Fund” for “and the Federal Supplementary Medical Insurance Trust Fund”.

Subsec. (i)(1). Pub. L. 100–360, §212(c)(1)(B), substituted “, Federal Hospital Insurance Catastrophic Coverage Reserve Fund, Federal Supplementary Medical Insurance Trust Fund, and the Federal Catastrophic Drug Insurance Trust Fund” for “and the Federal Supplementary Medical Insurance Trust Fund”.

1986—Subsec. (c). Pub. L. 99–272, in provisions following par. (5), substituted “. Such report shall” for “: Provided, That the certification shall not refer to economic assumptions underlying the Trustee's report, and shall”.

1984—Subsecs. (a)(3), (4), (b)(1), (2). Pub. L. 98–369, §2663(j)(2)(A)(i), substituted “Health and Human Services” for “Health, Education, and Welfare”.

Subsec. (d). Pub. L. 98–369, §2663(a)(1)(A), substituted “chapter 31 of title 31” for “the Second Liberty Bond Act, as amended” and “public-debt obligations” for “public-debt obligation”.

Subsec. (g)(1). Pub. L. 98–369, §2663(j)(2)(A)(i), substituted “Health and Human Services” for “Health, Education, and Welfare”.

Subsec. (g)(1)(B). Pub. L. 98–369, §2663(a)(1)(B), substituted “clause” for “clauses” in first sentence.

Subsecs. (g)(2), (4), (i)(1). Pub. L. 98–369, §2663(j)(2)(A)(i), substituted “Health and Human Services” for “Health, Education, and Welfare”.

Subsec. (l)(3)(B)(i). Pub. L. 98–369, §2661(a), inserted “Insurance” after “Survivors”.

1983—Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 98–21, §141(a), in provisions following par. (4), substituted “monthly on the first day of each calendar month” for “from time to time”, wherever appearing, and “to be paid or deposited into the Treasury during such month” for “paid to or deposited into the Treasury”, and inserted provision that all amounts transferred to either Trust Fund under the preceding sentence shall be invested by the Managing Trustee in the same manner and to the same extent as the other assets of such Trust Fund; and such Trust Fund shall pay interest to the general fund on the amount so transferred on the first day of any month at a rate (calculated on a daily basis, and applied against the difference between the amount so transferred on such first day and the amount which would have been transferred to the Trust Fund up to that day under the procedures in effect on Jan. 1, 1983) equal to the rate earned by the investments of such Fund in the same month under subsection (d) of this section.

Subsec. (b)(1)(K) to (P). Pub. L. 98–21, §126(a), substituted, in cls. (K), (L), and (M), appropriations equivalent to 100 per centum of (K) 1.65 per centum of the wages (as so defined) paid after Dec. 31, 1981, and before Jan. 1, 1983, and so reported, (L) 1.25 per centum of the wages (as so defined) paid after Dec. 31, 1982, and before Jan. 1, 1984, and so reported, (M) 1.00 per centum of the wages (as so defined) paid after Dec. 31, 1983, and before Jan. 1, 1988, and so reported, for such appropriations of (K) 1.65 per centum of the wages (as so defined) paid after Dec. 31, 1981, and before Jan. 1, 1985, and so reported, (L) 1.90 per centum of the wages (as so defined) paid Dec. 31, 1984, and before Jan. 1, 1990, and so reported, and (M) 2.20 per centum of the wages (as so defined) paid after Dec. 31, 1989, and so reported, and added cls. (N) to (P).

Subsec. (b)(2)(K) to (P). Pub. L. 98–21, §126(b), substituted, in cls. (K), (L), and (M), appropriations equivalent to 100 per centum of (K) 1.2375 per centum of the amount of self-employment income (as so defined) so reported for any taxable year beginning after Dec. 31, 1981, and before Jan. 1, 1983, (L) 0.9375 per centum of the amount of self-employment income (as so defined) so reported for any taxable year beginning after Dec. 31, 1982, and before Jan. 1, 1984, (M) 1.00 per centum of the amount of self-employment income (as so defined) so reported for any taxable year beginning after Dec. 31, 1983, and before Jan. 1, 1988, for such appropriations of (K) 1.2375 per centum of the amount of self-employment income (as so defined) so reported for any taxable year beginning after Dec. 31, 1981, and before Jan. 1, 1985, (L) 1.4250 per centum of the amount of self-employment income (as so defined) so reported for any taxable year beginning after Dec. 31, 1984, and before Jan. 1, 1990, and (M) 1.6500 per centum of the amount of self-employment income (as so defined) so reported for any taxable year beginning after Dec. 31, 1989, and added cls. (N) to (P).

Subsec. (c). Pub. L. 98–21, §341(a), substituted “Secretary of Health and Human Services, all ex officio, and of two members of the public (both of whom may not be from the same political party), who shall be nominated by the President for a term of four years and subject to confirmation by the Senate” for “Secretary of Health, Education, and Welfare, all ex officio” in provisions preceding par. (1), and inserted provision that a person serving on the Board of Trustees shall not be considered to be a fiduciary and shall not be personally liable for actions taken in such capacity with respect to the Trust Funds, in provisions following par. (5).

Pub. L. 98–21, §154(a), in provisions following par. (5), inserted provision that the report referred to in par. (2) shall include an actuarial opinion by the Chief Actuary of the Social Security Administration certifying that the techniques and methodologies used are generally accepted within the actuarial profession and that the assumptions and cost estimates used are reasonable, and provided further that the certification shall not refer to economic assumptions underlying the Trustee's report.

Subsec. (l)(1). Pub. L. 98–21, §142(a)(1), substituted reference to January 1988 for reference to January 1983, and inserted “, subject to paragraph (5),” after “such Trust Fund, or”.

Subsec. (l)(2). Pub. L. 98–21, §142(a)(2)(A), substituted “on the last day of each month after such loan is made” for “from time to time”, substituted “the total interest accrued to such day” for “interest”, and inserted “(even if such an investment would earn interest at a rate different than the rate earned by investments redeemed by the lending fund in order to make the loan)”.

Subsec. (l)(3). Pub. L. 98–21, §142(a)(3), designated existing provisions as subpar. (A) and added subpars. (B) and (C).

Subsec. (l)(5). Pub. L. 98–21, §142(a)(4), added par. (5).

Subsec. (m). Pub. L. 98–21, §152(a), added subsec. (m).

1981—Subsec. (l). Pub. L. 97–123 added subsec. (l).

1980—Subsec. (b)(1)(H) to (M). Pub. L. 96–403, §1(a), substituted in cl. (H) reference to Jan. 1, 1980, for Jan. 1, 1981; added cls. (I) and (J); redesignated as cl. (K) former cl. (I) substituting reference to Dec. 31, 1981, for Dec. 31, 1980; and redesignated as cls. (L) and (M) former cls. (J) and (K).

Subsec. (b)(2)(H) to (M). Pub. L. 96–403, §1(b), substituted in cl. (H) reference to Jan. 1, 1980, for Jan. 1, 1981; added cls. (I) and (J); redesignated as cl. (K) former cl. (I) substituting reference to Dec. 31, 1981, for Dec. 31, 1980; and redesignated as cls. (L) and (M) former cls. (J) and (K).

Subsec. (j). Pub. L. 96–265, §310(a), added subsec. (j).

Subsec. (k). Pub. L. 96–265, §505(a)(5), added subsec. (k).

1977—Subsec. (b)(1)(G) to (K). Pub. L. 95–216, §102(a)(1), substituted “(G) 1.55 per centum of the wages (as so defined) paid after December 31, 1977, and before January 1, 1979, and so reported, (H) 1.50 per centum of the wages (as so defined) paid after December 31, 1978, and before January 1, 1981, and so reported, (I) 1.65 per centum of the wages (as so defined) paid after December 31, 1980, and before January 1, 1985, and so reported, (J) 1.90 per centum of the wages (as so defined) paid after December 31, 1984, and before January 1, 1990, and so reported, and (K) 2.20 per centum of the wages (as so defined) paid after December 31, 1989, and so reported” for “(G) 1.2 per centum of the wages (as so defined) paid after December 31, 1977, and before January 1, 1981, and so reported, (H) 1.3 per centum of the wages (as so defined) paid after December 31, 1980, and before January 1, 1986, and so reported, (I) 1.4 per centum of the wages (as so defined) paid after December 31, 1985, and before January 1, 2011, and so reported, and (J) 1.7 per centum of the wages (as so defined) paid after December 31, 2010, and so reported”.

Subsec. (b)(2)(G) to (K). Pub. L. 95–216, §102(a)(2), substituted “(G) 1.090 per centum of the amount of self-employment income (as so defined) so reported for any taxable year beginning after December 31, 1977, and before January 1, 1979, (H) 1.0400 per centum of the amount of self-employment income (as so defined) so reported for any taxable year beginning after December 31, 1978, and before January 1, 1981, (I) 1.2375 per centum of the amount of self-employment income (as so defined) so reported for any taxable year beginning after December 31, 1980, and before January 1, 1985, (J) 1.4250 per centum of the amount of self-employment income (as so defined) so reported for any taxable year beginning after December 31, 1984, and before January 1, 1990, and (K) 1.650 per centum of the amount of self-employment income (as so defined) so reported for any taxable year beginning after December 31, 1989” for “(G) 0.850 of 1 per centum of the amount of self-employment income (as so defined) so reported for any taxable year beginning after December 31, 1977, and before January 1, 1981, (H) 0.920 of 1 per centum of the amount of self-employment income (as so defined) so reported for any taxable year beginning after December 31, 1980, and before January 1, 1986, (I) 0.990 of 1 per centum of the amount of self-employment income (as so defined) so reported for any taxable year beginning after December 31, 1985, and before January 1, 2011, and (J) 1 per centum of the amount of self-employment income (as so defined) so reported for any taxable year beginning after December 31, 2010”.

1976—Subsec. (g)(1). Pub. L. 94–202, §8(d)(1), incorporated changes in the operations and responsibilities of the Managing Trustee of the Trust Funds and the Secretary of Health, Education, and Welfare occasioned by changes in the annual method of reporting wages for social security purposes, by directing that estimated amounts paid from the Trust Funds into the Treasury, to replace amounts expended from the general fund in the Treasury, be estimated by both the Managing Trustee and the Secretary and that the Secretary determine the portion of costs attributable to the general fund in the Treasury and the portion attributable to the Trust Funds at the close of the fiscal year, by striking out reference to section 1381 of this title, and by inserting reference to par. (4) of this section, section 432 of this title, and subchapter E of chapter 1 and subchapter A of chapter 9 of the Internal Revenue Code of 1939.

Subsec. (g)(4). Pub. L. 94–202, §8(d)(2), added par. (4).

1973—Subsec. (b)(1)(E) to (J). Pub. L. 93–233, §7(a), substituted in: cl. (E) “January 1, 1974” for “January 1, 1978”; cl. (F) “December 31, 1973” and “January 1, 1978” for “December 31, 1977” and “January 1, 2011”; cl. (G) “1.2” for “1.5” per centum and “paid after December 31, 1977, and before January 1, 1981” for “paid after December 31, 2010,” and added cls. (H) to (J).

Subsec. (b)(2)(E) to (J). Pub. L. 93–233, §7(b), substituted in: cl. (E) “January 1, 1974” for “January 1, 1978”; cl. (F) “0.815 of 1 per centum” for “0.84 per centum” and “as reported for any taxable year beginning after December 31, 1973, and before January 1, 1978” for “so reported for any taxable year beginning after December 31, 1977, and before January 1, 2011”; cl. (G) “0.850 of 1 percentum” for “0.895 per centum” and “taxable year beginning after December 31, 1977, and before January 1, 1981” for “taxable year beginning after December 31, 2010”; and added cls. (H) to (J).

1972—Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 92–603, §132(a), inserted “such gifts and bequests as may be made as provided in subsection (i)(1) of this section, and” after “in addition,” in provisions preceding par. (1).

Subsec. (b). Pub. L. 92–603, §132(b), inserted “such gifts and bequests as may be made as provided in subsection (i)(1) of this section, and” after “consist of” in provisions preceding par. (1).

Subsec. (b)(1). Pub. L. 92–603, §136(a), substituted “1.1” for “1.0” in cl. (E), “1.15” for “1.1” in cl. (F), and “1.5” for “1.4” in cl. (G).

Pub. L. 92–336, §205(a), struck out “and” before “(D)”, inserted reference to wages paid before January 1, 1973, in cl. (D), and added cls. (E), (F), and (G).

Subsec. (b)(2). Pub. L. 92–603, §136(b), substituted “0.795” for “0.75” in cl. (E), “0.84” for “0.825” in cl. (F), and “0.895” for “0.915” in cl. (G).

Pub. L. 92–336, §205(b), struck out “and” before “(D)”, inserted reference to self-employment income before January 1, 1973, in cl. (D), and added cls. (E), (F), and (G).

Subsec. (g)(1)(A). Pub. L. 92–603, §305(a), inserted references to subchapter XVI of this chapter and provisions relating to the general revenues of the United States with respect to subchapter XVI of this chapter and to the appropriations made pursuant to section 1381 of this title.

Subsec. (i). Pub. L. 92–603, §132(c), added subsec. (i).

1969—Subsec. (b)(1). Pub. L. 91–172, §1005(a), inserted reference to wages paid before Jan. 1, 1969, and inserted provision for the appropriation of amounts equal to 1.10 per centum of wages paid after Dec. 31, 1969.

Subsec. (b)(2). Pub. L. 91–172, §1005(b), inserted reference to self-employment income before Jan. 1, 1970, and inserted provision for the appropriation of 0.825 of 1 percent of the amount of self-employment income for taxable years beginning after Dec. 31, 1969.

1968—Subsec. (b)(1). Pub. L. 90–248, §110(a), designated existing provisions as cls. (A) and (B), inserted “and before January 1, 1968,” after “1965,” in cl. (B), and added cl. (C).

Subsec. (b)(2). Pub. L. 90–248, §110(b), designated existing provisions as cls. (A) and (B), inserted “and before January 1, 1968, and” after “1965,” in cl. (B), and added cl. (C).

Subsec. (c)(2). Pub. L. 90–248, §169(a), substituted “April” for “March”.

Subsec. (c). Pub. L. 90–248, §169(b), inserted penultimate sentence for inclusion in reports of board of trustees to Congress of an actuarial analysis of the benefit disbursements made from the Federal Old-Age and Survivors Insurance Trust Fund with respect to disabled beneficiaries.

1965—Subsec. (a)(3). Pub. L. 89–97, §108(a)(1), inserted “(other than sections 3101(b) and 3111(b))” after “chapter 21” in two places.

Subsec. (a)(4). Pub. L. 89–97, §108(a)(2), inserted “(other than section 1401(b))” after “chapter 2” and “such subchapter or chapter”.

Subsec. (b)(1). Pub. L. 89–97, §305(a), inserted “and before January 1, 1966,” after “December 31, 1956,” and “and 0.70 of 1 per centum of the wages (as so defined) paid after December 31, 1965, and so reported,” after “1954,”.

Subsec. (b)(2). Pub. L. 89–97, §305(b), inserted “and before January 1, 1966, and 0.525 of 1 per centum of the amount of self-employment income (as so defined) so reported for any taxable year beginning after December 31, 1965,” after “December 31, 1956,”.

Subsec. (c). Pub. L. 89–97, §327, extended from once each six months to once each calendar year the minimum number of times the Board of Trustees must meet.

Subsec. (g)(1). Pub. L. 89–97, §108(a)(3), included the Federal Hospital Insurance Trust Fund and the Federal Supplementary Medical Insurance Trust Fund among the Trust Funds available for reimbursement of the Treasury for administrative costs of this subchapter and subchapter XVIII of this chapter, deleted references to administrative costs of subchapter VIII of this chapter and subchapter E of chapter 1 and subchapter 9 of the Internal Revenue Code of 1939, and also provided for adjustment among the Trust Funds during each fiscal year so that the Funds bear the proportionate share of the administration costs.

Subsec. (g)(2). Pub. L. 89–97, §108(a)(4), inserted “imposed under section 3101(a)” after “the amount estimated by him as taxes”.

Subsec. (h). Pub. L. 89–97, §108(a)(5), inserted “(other than section 426 of this title)” after “this subchapter”.

1960—Subsec. (c). Pub. L. 86–778, §701(a)–(c), required the Board of Trustees to meet not less frequently than once each six months, struck out provisions from cl. (3) which required the Board to report immediately to the Congress whenever the Board is of the opinion that during the ensuing five fiscal years either of the Trust Funds will exceed three times the highest annual expenditures from such Trust Fund anticipated during that five-fiscal-year period, and added cl. (5).

Subsec. (d). Pub. L. 86–778, §701(d), substituted “shall bear interest at a rate equal to the average market yield (computed by the Managing Trustee on the basis of market quotations as of the end of the calendar month next preceding the date of such issue) on all marketable interest-bearing obligations of the United States then forming a part of the public debt which are not due or callable until after the expiration of four years from the end of such calendar month” for “bear interest at a rate equal to the average rate of interest, computed as to the end of the calendar month next preceding the date of such issue, borne by all marketable interest-bearing obligations of the United States then forming a part of the Public Debt that are not due or callable until after the expiration of five years from the date of original issue”, and substituted provisions authorizing the purchase of other interest-bearing obligations when the Managing Trustee determines that it is in the public interest for provisions which authorized the issuance of obligations by the Trust Funds only if the Managing Trustee determined that the purchase of other obligations was not in the public interest.

Subsec. (e). Pub. L. 86–778, §701(e), substituted “public-debt obligations” for “special obligations” in two places.

1959—Subsec. (d). Pub. L. 86–346 substituted “on original issue at the issue price” for “on original issue at par”.

1958—Subsec. (h). Pub. L. 85–840 provided that benefit payments required to be made under subsection (b), (c), or (d) of section 402 of this title to individuals entitled to benefits on the basis of the wages and self-employment income of an individual entitled to disability insurance benefits be made only from the Federal Disability Insurance Trust Fund.

1956—Act Aug. 1, 1956, amended section generally, inserting references to taxes imposed by the Internal Revenue Code of 1954, substituting “Secretary of Health, Education, and Welfare” for “Federal Security Administrator,” creating the Federal Disability Insurance Trust Fund, requiring obligations issued for purchase by the Trust Funds to have maturities fixed with due regard for the needs of the Trust Funds, authorizing to be made available for expenditure out of the Trust Funds such amounts as Congress deems necessary to pay costs of administration of subchapter, and requiring the Secretary of Health, Education, and Welfare to analyze costs of administration so that each Trust Fund may be charged with its proper share.

1950—Subsec. (a). Act Aug. 28, 1950, §109(a)(1)–(3), substituted “such amounts as may be appropriated to, or deposited in, the Trust Fund” for “such amounts as may be appropriated to the Trust Fund” in second sentence, simplified the accounting and collection processes required for determining the amounts appropriated to the trust fund, as set out in third sentence, and struck out fourth sentence authorizing appropriation of additional funds.

Subsec. (b). Act Aug. 28, 1950, §109(a)(4)–(8), substituted “Federal Security Administrator” for “Chairman of the Social Security Board”, changed filing date for annual report from first day of each regular session of Congress to March 1 of each year, added par. (4), inserted sentence to require report to be printed as a House document, and made Commissioner of Social Security the Secretary of the Board of Trustees.

Subsec. (f). Act. Aug. 28, 1950, §109(a)(9), changed reference in text from Title II of the Federal Insurance Contributions Act to subchapter A of chapter 9 and subchapter E of chapter 1 of the Internal Revenue Code of 1939 to avoid confusion and to include the new provisions of such Code relating to the collection of taxes from the self-employed.

1944—Subsec. (a). Act Feb. 25, 1944, inserted sentence authorizing appropriation of additional funds.

1939—Act Aug. 10, 1939, amended section generally.

Effective Date of 1998 Amendment

Pub. L. 105–277, div. J, title IV, §4005(c), Oct. 21, 1998, 112 Stat. 2681–912, provided that: “The amendments made by subsection (b) [amending this section] shall apply to benefits paid on or after the first day of the second month beginning after the month in which this Act is enacted [October 1998].”

Effective Date of 1994 Amendments

Section 3(c) of Pub. L. 103–387 provided that: “The amendments made by this section [amending this section] shall apply with respect to wages paid after December 31, 1993, and self-employment income for taxable years beginning after such date.”

Section 110 of title I of Pub. L. 103–296 provided that:

“(a) In General.—Except as otherwise provided in this title, this title [see Tables for classification], and the amendments made by such title, shall take effect March 31, 1995.

“(b) Transition Rules.—Section 106 [amending section 5315 of Title 5, Government Organization and Employees, and enacting provisions set out as a note under section 901 of this title] shall take effect on the date of the enactment of this Act [Aug. 15, 1994].

“(c) Exceptions.—The amendments made by section 103 [amending section 903 of this title], subsections (b)(4) and (c) of section 105 [enacting provisions set out in a note under section 901 of this title], and subsections (a)(1), (e)(1), (e)(2), (e)(3), and (l)(2) of section 108 [enacting section 913 of this title and amending sections 5312, 5313, and 5315 of Title 5 and section 11 of Pub. L. 95–452, Inspector General Act of 1978, set out in the Appendix to Title 5] shall take effect on the date of the enactment of this Act.”

Section 301(c) of Pub. L. 103–296 provided that:

“(1) In general.—The amendments made by this section [amending this section] shall apply with respect to obligations issued, and payments made, after 60 days after the date of the enactment of this Act [Aug. 15, 1994].

“(2) Treatment of outstanding obligations.—Not later than 60 days after the date of the enactment of this Act, the Secretary of the Treasury shall issue to the Federal Old-Age and Survivors Insurance Trust Fund or the Federal Disability Insurance Trust Fund, as applicable, a paper instrument, in the form of a bond, note, or certificate of indebtedness, for each obligation which has been issued to the Trust Fund under section 201(d) of the Social Security Act [subsec. (d) of this section] and which is outstanding as of such date. Each such document shall set forth the principal amount, date of maturity, and interest rate of the obligation, and shall state on its face that the obligation shall be incontestable in the hands of the Trust Fund to which it was issued, that the obligation is supported by the full faith and credit of the United States, and that the United States is pledged to the payment of the obligation with respect to both principal and interest.”

Section 321(c)(1)(A)(ii) of Pub. L. 103–296 provided that: “The amendments made by clause (i) [amending this section] shall apply only with respect to periods beginning on or after the date of the enactment of this Act [Aug. 15, 1994].”

Section 321(c)(1)(B)(ii) of Pub. L. 103–296 provided that: “The amendments made by clause (i) [amending this section] shall apply only with respect to wages paid on or after January 1, 1995.”

Effective Date of 1990 Amendment

Section 5106(d) of Pub. L. 101–508 provided that: “The amendments made by this section [amending this section and sections 406, 1320a–6, 1383, and 1395i of this title] shall apply with respect to determinations made on or after July 1, 1991, and to reimbursement for travel expenses incurred on or after April 1, 1991.”

Section 5115(c)[(b)] of Pub. L. 101–508 provided that: “The amendments made by this section [amending this section] shall become effective on the first day of the month following the month in which this Act is enacted [November 1991].”

Amendment by section 13304 of Pub. L. 101–508 effective for annual reports of the Board of Trustees issued in or after calendar year 1991, see section 13306 of Pub. L. 101–508, set out as a note under section 632 of Title 2, The Congress.

Effective Date of 1989 Amendment

Section 202(b) of Pub. L. 101–234 provided that: “The provisions of subsection (a) [set out below] shall take effect January 1, 1990, and the repeal of section 211 of MCCA [Pub. L. 100–360, which amended sections 1395r, 1395w, and 1395mm of this title and enacted provisions set out as a note under section 1395r of this title] shall apply to premiums for months beginning after December 31, 1989.”

Effective Date of 1988 Amendment

Section 8005(b) of Pub. L. 100–647 provided that: “The amendments made by this section [amending this section and sections 1395i and 1395t of this title] shall apply to members of the Boards of Trustees of the Federal Old-Age and Survivors Insurance Trust Fund and the Federal Disability Insurance Trust Fund, of the Federal Hospital Insurance Trust Fund, and of the Federal Supplementary Medical Insurance Trust Fund serving on such Boards of Trustees as members of the public on or after the date of the enactment of this Act [Nov. 10, 1988].”

Effective Date of 1986 Amendment

Section 9213(c) of Pub. L. 99–272 provided that: “The amendments made by this section [amending this section and sections 1395i and 1395t of this title] shall become effective on the date of the enactment of this Act [Apr. 7, 1986].”

Effective Date of 1984 Amendment

Section 2664 of Pub. L. 98–369 provided that:

“(a) Except as otherwise specifically provided, the amendments made by sections 2661 and 2662 [amending this section and sections 402, 403, 405, 409, 410, 415, 416, 423, 428, and 429 of this title and sections 86, 134, 422A, 3121, 3306, and 6334 of Title 26, Internal Revenue Code, enacting provisions set out as notes under sections 402 and 403 of this title and sections 3121 and 3306 of Title 26, and amending provisions set out as notes under sections 415 and 902 of this title, section 3121 of Title 26, and section 3023 [now 5123] of Title 38, Veterans’ Benefits] shall be effective as though they had been included in the enactment of the Social Security Amendments of 1983 (Public Law 98–21).

“(b) Except to the extent otherwise specifically provided in this subtitle [subtitle D (§§2661–2664) of Pub. L. 98–369], the amendments made by section 2663 [amending this section and sections 402, 403, 405, 408–410, 411, 413, 415, 416–418, 421–423, 426, 428, 430, 431, 433, 502, 503, 602, 603, 606, 607, 609, 610, 614, 615, 620, 631, 632, 633, 634, 636, 641, 643–645, 652–654, 656, 660, 662, 674, 902, 903, 907, 1101, 1104, 1108, 1301, 1302, 1306, 1307, 1314–1316, 1320, 1320a–5, 1320b–1, 1381a–1382a, 1382c, 1382d, 1382g, 1382j, 1383, 1395i, 1395s–1395u, 1396, 1397a, and 1397e of this title and sections 51, 1402, 3121, 6057, 6103, and 6511 of Title 26, repealing sections 1331–1336 of this title, and enacting provisions set out as notes under sections 1301 and 1307 of this title] shall be effective on the date of the enactment of this Act [July 18, 1984]; but none of such amendments shall be construed as changing or affecting any right, liability, status, or interpretation which existed (under the provisions of law involved) before that date.”

Effective Date of 1983 Amendment

Section 141(c) of Pub. L. 98–21 provided that: “The amendments made by this section [amending this section and section 1395i of this title] shall become effective on the first day of the month following the month in which this Act is enacted [April 1983].”

Section 142(a)(2)(B) of Pub. L. 98–21 provided that: “The amendment made by this paragraph [amending this section] shall apply with respect to months beginning more than thirty days after the date of enactment of this Act [Apr. 20, 1983].”

Section 152(b) of Pub. L. 98–21 provided that: “The amendment made by subsection (a) [amending this section] shall apply with respect to all checks for benefits under title II of the Social Security Act [this subchapter] which are issued on or after the first day of the twenty-fourth month following the month in which this Act is enacted [April 1983].”

Section 154(e) of Pub. L. 98–21 provided that: “The amendments made by this section [amending this section and sections 1395i and 1395t of this title] shall take effect on the date of the enactment of this Act [Apr. 20, 1983].”

Section 341(d) of Pub. L. 98–21 provided that: “The amendments made by this section [amending this section and sections 1395i and 1395t of this title] shall become effective on the date of enactment of this Act [Apr. 20, 1983].”

Effective Date of 1981 Amendment

Section 1(c) of Pub. L. 97–123 provided that: “The amendments made by this section [amending this section and section 1395i of this title] shall be effective on the date of the enactment of this Act [Dec. 29, 1981].”

Effective Date of 1980 Amendment

Section 2 of Pub. L. 96–403 provided that: “The amendments made by the first section of this Act [amending this section] shall apply with respect to remuneration paid, and taxable years beginning after December 31, 1979.”

Effective Date of 1977 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 95–216 applicable with respect to remuneration paid or received, and taxable years beginning after 1977, see section 104 of Pub. L. 95–216, set out as a note under section 1401 of Title 26, Internal Revenue Code.

Effective Date of 1972 Amendment

Section 132(f) of Pub. L. 92–603 provided that: “The amendments made by this section [amending this section and sections 1395i and 1395t of this title] shall apply with respect to gifts and bequests received after the date of enactment of this Act [Oct. 30, 1972].”

Section 305(c) of Pub. L. 92–603 provided that: “The provisions of this section [amending this section and enacting provisions set out as a note under this section] shall become effective on the date of enactment of this Act [Oct. 30, 1972].”

Effective Date of 1960 Amendment

Section 701(f) of Pub. L. 86–778 provided that: “The amendments made by this section [amending this section] shall take effect on the first day of the first month beginning after the date of the enactment of this Act [Sept. 13, 1960].”

Effective Date of 1958 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 85–840 applicable with respect to monthly benefits under this subchapter for months after August 1958, but only if an application for such benefits is filed on or after Aug. 28, 1958, see section 207(a) of Pub. L. 85–840, set out as a note under section 416 of this title.

Effective Date of 1939 Amendment

Section 201 of act Aug. 10, 1939, provided that the amendment made by that section is effective Jan. 1, 1940.

Construction of 1994 Amendment

Section 321(d) of Pub. L. 103–296 provided that:

“(1) The preceding provisions of this section [amending this section and sections 402, 403, 405, 408 to 411, 413, 415, 416, 418, 423, 429, 430, and 432 of this title, and enacting provisions set out as notes under this section and sections 402 and 430 of this title] shall be construed only as technical and clerical corrections and as reflecting the original intent of the provisions amended thereby.

“(2) Any reference in title II of the Social Security Act [this subchapter] to the Internal Revenue Code of 1986 [26 U.S.C. 1 et seq.] shall be construed to include a reference to the Internal Revenue Code of 1954 to the extent necessary to carry out the provisions of paragraph (1).”

Protection of Social Security

Pub. L. 110–234, title XV, §15361, May 22, 2008, 122 Stat. 1527, and Pub. L. 110–246, §4(a), title XV, §15361, June 18, 2008, 122 Stat. 1664, 2289, provided that: “To ensure that the assets of the trust funds established under section 201 of the Social Security Act (42 U.S.C. 401) are not reduced as a result of the enactment of this Act [see Tables for classification], the Secretary of the Treasury shall transfer annually from the general revenues of the Federal Government to those trust funds the following amounts:

“(1) For fiscal year 2009, $5,000,000.

“(2) For fiscal year 2010, $9,000,000.

“(3) For fiscal year 2011, $8,000,000.

“(4) For fiscal year 2012, $7,000,000.

“(5) For fiscal year 2013, $8,000,000.

“(6) For fiscal year 2014, $8,000,000.

“(7) For fiscal year 2015, $8,000,000.

“(8) For fiscal year 2016, $6,000,000.

“(9) For fiscal year 2017, $7,000,000.”

[Pub. L. 110–234 and Pub. L. 110–246 enacted identical provisions. Pub. L. 110–234 was repealed by section 4(a) of Pub. L. 110–246, set out as a note under section 8701 of Title 7, Agriculture.]

No Impact on Social Security Trust Funds

Pub. L. 107–147, title V, §501, Mar. 9, 2002, 116 Stat. 58, provided that:

“(a) In General.—Nothing in this Act [see Tables for classification] (or an amendment made by this Act) shall be construed to alter or amend title II of the Social Security Act [this subchapter] (or any regulation promulgated under that Act [this chapter]).

“(b) Transfers.—

“(1) Estimate of secretary.—The Secretary of the Treasury shall annually estimate the impact that the enactment of this Act has on the income and balances of the trust funds established under section 201 of the Social Security Act (42 U.S.C. 401).

“(2) Transfer of funds.—If, under paragraph (1), the Secretary of the Treasury estimates that the enactment of this Act has a negative impact on the income and balances of the trust funds established under section 201 of the Social Security Act (42 U.S.C. 401), the Secretary shall transfer, not less frequently than quarterly, from the general revenues of the Federal Government an amount sufficient so as to ensure that the income and balances of such trust funds are not reduced as a result of the enactment of this Act.”

Impact of Pub. L. 107–134 on Social Security Trust Funds

Pub. L. 107–134, title III, §301, Jan. 23, 2002, 115 Stat. 2444, provided that:

“(a) In General.—Nothing in this Act [see Short Title of 2002 Amendment note set out under section 1 of Title 26, Internal Revenue Code] (or an amendment made by this Act) shall be construed to alter or amend title II of the Social Security Act [this subchapter] (or any regulation promulgated under that Act [this chapter]).

“(b) Transfers.—

“(1) Estimate of secretary.—The Secretary of the Treasury shall annually estimate the impact that the enactment of this Act has on the income and balances of the trust funds established under section 201 of the Social Security Act (42 U.S.C. 401).

“(2) Transfer of funds.—If, under paragraph (1), the Secretary of the Treasury estimates that the enactment of this Act has a negative impact on the income and balances of the trust funds established under section 201 of the Social Security Act (42 U.S.C. 401), the Secretary shall transfer, not less frequently than quarterly, from the general revenues of the Federal Government an amount sufficient so as to ensure that the income and balances of such trust funds are not reduced as a result of the enactment of this Act.”

Study by General Accounting Office of Existing Coordination of the DI and SSI Programs as They Relate to Individuals Entering or Leaving Concurrent Entitlement

Pub. L. 106–170, title III, §303(b), Dec. 17, 1999, 113 Stat. 1904, provided that, as soon as practicable after Dec. 17, 1999, the Comptroller General was to undertake a study to evaluate the coordination of the disability insurance program under title II of the Social Security Act (42 U.S.C. 401 et seq.) and the supplemental security income program under title XVI (42 U.S.C. 1381 et seq.) of that Act, as such programs related to individuals entering or leaving concurrent entitlement under such programs, specifically addressing the effectiveness of work incentives under such programs and the effectiveness of coverage of such individuals under titles XVIII and XIX of that Act (42 U.S.C. 1395 et seq., 1396 et seq.), and not later than 3 years after Dec. 17, 1999, was to transmit to the appropriate congressional committees a report presenting the results of the study and any appropriate recommendations for legislative or administrative changes.

Use of Continuing Disability Review Funds and Report Requirement

Section 103(d) of Pub. L. 104–121, as amended by Pub. L. 104–193, title II, §211(d)(5)(D), Aug. 22, 1996, 110 Stat. 2192, provided that:

“(1) In general.—The Commissioner of Social Security shall ensure that funds made available for continuing disability reviews (as defined in section 201(g)(1)(A) of the Social Security Act [subsec. (g)(1)(A) of this section]) are used, to the greatest extent practicable, to maximize the combined savings in the old-age, survivors, and disability insurance, supplemental security income, Medicare, and medicaid programs, except that the amounts appropriated pursuant to the authorization and discretionary spending allowance provisions in section 211(d)(2)(5) of the Personal Responsibility and Work Opportunity Reconciliation Act of 1996 [probably means section 211(d)(5) of Pub. L. 104–193, which amended sections 665e and 901 of Title 2, The Congress, enacted provisions set out as a note under section 1382c of this title, and amended this note] shall be used only for continuing disability reviews and redeterminations under title XVI of the Social Security Act [subchapter XVI of this chapter].

“(2) Report.—The Commissioner of Social Security shall provide annually (at the conclusion of each of the fiscal years 1996 through 2002) to the Congress a report on continuing disability reviews which includes—

“(A) the amount spent on continuing disability reviews in the fiscal year covered by the report, and the number of reviews conducted, by category of review;

“(B) the results of the continuing disability reviews in terms of cessations of benefits or determinations of continuing eligibility, by program; and

“(C)  the  estimated  savings  over  the  short-, medium-, and long-term to the old-age, survivors, and disability insurance, supplemental security income, Medicare, and medicaid programs from continuing disability reviews which result in cessations of benefits and the estimated present value of such savings.”

Repeal of Changes in Medicare Part B Monthly Premium and Financing

Section 202(a) of Pub. L. 101–234 provided that: “Sections 211 through 213 (other than sections 211(b) and 211(c)(3)(B)) of MCCA [Pub. L. 100–360, which enacted sections 1395t–1 and 1395t–2 of this title, amended this section and sections 1395i, 1395l, 1395r, 1395s, 1395t, 1395w, and 1395mm of this title, and enacted provisions set out as a note under section 1395r of this title] are repealed and the provisions of law amended or repealed by such sections are restored or revised as if such sections had not been enacted.”

Transfer of Equivalent of 1983 Tax Increases to Payor Funds; Reports

Section 121(e) of Pub. L. 98–21, as amended by Pub. L. 99–514, §2, Oct. 22, 1986, 100 Stat. 2095; Pub. L. 103–66, title XIII, §13215(c), Aug. 10, 1993, 107 Stat. 476; Pub. L. 104–188, title I, §1703(n)(12), Aug. 20, 1996, 110 Stat. 1877, provided that:

“(1) In general.—(A) There are hereby appropriated to each payor fund amounts equivalent to (i) the aggregate increase in tax liabilities under chapter 1 of the Internal Revenue Code of 1986 [26 U.S.C. 1 et seq.] which is attributable to the application of sections 86 and 871(a)(3) of such Code (as added by this section) [26 U.S.C. 86, 871(a)(3)] to payments from such payor fund, less (ii) the amounts equivalent to the aggregate increase in tax liabilities under chapter 1 of the Internal Revenue Code of 1986 which is attributable to the amendments to section 86 of such Code made by section 13215 of the Revenue Reconciliation Act of 1993 [Pub. L. 103–66].

“(B) There are hereby appropriated to the hospital insurance trust fund amounts equal to the increase in tax liabilities described in subparagraph (A)(ii). Such appropriated amounts shall be transferred from the general fund of the Treasury on the basis of estimates of such tax liabilities made by the Secretary of the Treasury. Transfers shall be made pursuant to a schedule made by the Secretary of the Treasury that takes into account estimated timing of collection of such liabilities.

“(2) Transfers.—The amounts appropriated by paragraph (1)(A) to any payor fund shall be transferred from time to time (but not less frequently than quarterly) from the general fund of the Treasury on the basis of estimates made by the Secretary of the Treasury of the amounts referred to in such paragraph. Any such quarterly payment shall be made on the first day of such quarter and shall take into account social security benefits estimated to be received during such quarter. Proper adjustments shall be made in the amounts subsequently transferred to the extent prior estimates were in excess of or less than the amounts required to be transferred.

“(3) Definitions.—For purposes of this subsection—

“(A) Payor fund.—The term ‘payor fund’ means any trust fund or account from which payments of social security benefits are made.

“(B) Hospital insurance trust fund.—The term ‘hospital insurance trust fund’ means the fund established pursuant to section 1817 of the Social Security Act [section 1395i of this title].

“(C) Social security benefits.—The term ‘social security benefits’ has the meaning given such term by section 86(d)(1) of the Internal Revenue Code of 1986 [26 U.S.C. 86(d)(1)].

“(4) Reports.—The Secretary of the Treasury shall submit annual reports to the Congress and to the Secretary of Health and Human Services and the Railroad Retirement Board on—

“(A) the transfers made under this subsection during the year, and the methodology used in determining the amount of such transfers and the funds or account to which made, and

“(B) the anticipated operation of this subsection during the next 5 years.”

[For termination, effective May 15, 2000, of provisions relating to submission of annual reports to Congress in section 121(e)(4) of Pub. L. 98–21, set out above, see section 3003 of Pub. L. 104–66, as amended, set out as a note under section 1113 of Title 31, Money and Finance, and item 17 on page 143 of House Document No. 103–7.]

Reimbursement to Trust Funds for Unnegotiated Benefit Checks

Section 152(c) of Pub. L. 98–21 provided that:

“(1) The Secretary of the Treasury shall transfer from the general fund of the Treasury to the Federal Old-Age and Survivors Insurance Trust Fund and to the Federal Disability Insurance Trust Fund, in the month following the month in which this Act is enacted [April 1983] and in each of the succeeding 30 months, such sums as may be necessary to reimburse such Trust Funds in the total amount of all checks (including interest thereof) which he and the Secretary of Health and Human Services jointly determine to be unnegotiated benefit checks, to the extent provided in advance in appropriation Acts. After any amounts authorized by this subsection have been transferred to a Trust Fund with respect to any benefit check, the provisions of paragraphs (3) and (4) of section 201(m) of the Social Security Act [subsec. (m)(3), (4) of this section] (as added by subsection (a) of this section) shall be applicable to such check.

“(2) As used in paragraph (1), the term ‘unnegotiated benefit checks’ means checks for benefits under title II of the Social Security Act [this subchapter] which are issued prior to the twenty-fourth month following the month in which this Act is enacted [April 1983], which remain unnegotiated after the sixth month following the date on which they were issued, and with respect to which no transfers have previously been made in accordance with the first sentence of such paragraph.”

Study of Float Period of Monthly Insurance Benefit Checks

Section 153 of Pub. L. 98–21 directed Secretary of Health and Human Services and Secretary of the Treasury jointly to undertake a thorough study with respect to period of time (referred to as “float period”) between issuance of checks from general fund of Treasury in payment of monthly insurance benefits under title II of the Social Security Act [this subchapter] and transfer to general fund from Federal Old-Age and Survivors Insurance Trust Fund or Federal Disability Insurance Trust Fund, as applicable, of amounts necessary to compensate general fund for issuance of such checks, with Secretaries to submit a report to President an Congress not later than twelve months after Apr. 20, 1983, on their findings as to necessity of making adjustments in procedures governing payment of monthly insurance benefits.

Due Date for 1983 Report on Operation and Status of Trust Fund

Section 154(d) of Pub. L. 98–21 provided that notwithstanding sections 401(c)(2), 1395i(b)(2), and 1395t(b)(2) of this title, the annual reports of the Boards of Trustees of the Trust Funds which are required in calendar year 1983 under those sections may be filed at any time not later than forty-five days after Apr. 20, 1983.

Study Relating to Establishment of Time Limitations for Decisions on Claims for Benefits; Report

Section 308 of Pub. L. 96–265 directed Secretary of Health and Human Services to submit to Congress, no later than July 1, 1980, a report recommending establishment of appropriate time limitations governing decisions on claims for benefits under this subchapter, taking into account both need for expeditious processing of claims for benefits and need to assure that all such claims will be thoroughly considered and accurately determined.

Effects of Certain Amendments by Pub. L. 96–265; Report

Section 312 of Pub. L. 96–265 directed Secretary of Health and Human Services to submit to Congress, not later than Jan. 1, 1985, a full and complete report as to effects produced by reason of preceding provisions of this Act and amendments made thereby (see Tables for classification).

Appointment and Compensation of Individuals Necessary To Assist the Board of Trustees

Section 8(e) of Pub. L. 94–202 provided that: “Any persons the Board of Trustees finds necessary to employ to assist it in performing its functions under section 201(g)(4) of the Social Security Act [subsec. (g)(4) of this section] may be appointed without regard to the civil service or classification laws, shall be compensated, while so employed at rates fixed by the Board of Trustees, but not exceeding $100 per day, and, while away from their homes or regular places of business, they may be allowed traveling expenses, including per diem in lieu of subsistence, as authorized by law for persons in the Government service employed intermittently.”

Method of Determining Costs Prescribed by the Board of Trustees Certification and Transfer of Funds

Section 8(f) of Pub. L. 94–202, as amended by Pub. L. 99–514, §2, Oct. 22, 1986, 100 Stat. 2095, provided that: “The Secretary shall not make any estimates pursuant to section 201(g)(1)(A)(ii) of the Social Security Act [subsec. (g)(1)(A)(ii) of this section] before the Board of Trustees prescribes the method of determining costs as provided in section 201(g)(4) of such Act [subsec. (g)(4) of this section]. The determinations pursuant to section 201(g)(1)(B) of the Social Security Act [subsec. (g)(1)(B) of this section] with respect to the carrying out of the functions of the Department of Health, Education, and Welfare [now Health and Human Services] specified in section 232 of such Act [section 432 of this title], which relate to the administration of provisions of the Internal Revenue Code of 1986 [formerly I.R.C. 1954] (other than those referred to in clause (i) of the first sentence of section 201(g)(1)(A) of the Social Security Act [subsec. (g)(1)(A) of this section]), during fiscal years ending before the Board of Trustees prescribes the method of making such determinations, shall be made after the Board of Trustees has prescribed such method. The Secretary of Health, Education, and Welfare [now Health and Human Services] shall certify to the Managing Trustee the amounts that should be transferred from the general fund in the Treasury to the Trust Funds (as referred to in section 201(g)(1)(A) of the Social Security Act [subsec. (g)(1)(A) of this section]) to insure that the general fund in the Treasury bears its proper share of the costs of carrying out such functions in such fiscal years. The Managing Trustee is authorized and directed to transfer any such amounts in accordance with any certification so made.”

Advances From Trust Funds for Administrative Expenses

Section 305(b) of Pub. L. 92–603 provided that:

“(1) Sums appropriated pursuant to section 1601 of the Social Security Act [section 1381 of this title] shall be utilized from time to time, in amounts certified under the second sentence of section 201(g)(1)(A) of such Act [subsec. (g)(1)(A) of this section], to repay the Trust Funds for expenditures made from such Funds in any fiscal year under section 201(g)(1)(A) of such Act (as amended by subsection (a) of this section) [amending subsec. (g)(1)(A) of this section] on account of the costs of administration of title XVI of such Act [subchapter XVI of this chapter] (as added by section 301 of this Act).

“(2) If the Trust Funds have not theretofore been repaid for expenditures made in any fiscal year (as described in paragraph (1)) to the extent necessary on account of—

“(A) expenditures made from such Funds prior to the end of such fiscal year to the extent that the amount of such expenditures exceeded the amount of the expenditures which would have been made from such Funds if subsection (a) had not been enacted,

“(B) the additional administrative expenses, if any, resulting from the excess expenditures described in subparagraph (A), and

“(C) any loss in interest to such Funds resulting from such excess expenditures and such administrative expenses,

in order to place each such Fund in the same position (at the end of such fiscal year) as it would have been in if such excess expenditures had not been made, the amendments made by subsection (a) shall cease to be effective at the close of the fiscal year following such fiscal year.

“(3) As used in this subsection, the term ‘Trust Funds’ has the meaning given it in section 201(g)(1)(A) of the Social Security Act [subsec. (g)(1)(A) of this section].”

Advances From Trust Funds for Administrative Purposes; Fiscal Year Transition Period of July 1, 1976, Through September 30, 1976, Deemed Fiscal Year

Fiscal year transition period of July 1, 1976, through Sept. 30, 1976, deemed fiscal year for purposes of section 305(b) of Pub. L. 92–603, set out as a note above, relating to advances from trust funds for administrative purposes, see section 201(11) of Pub. L. 94–274, title II, Apr. 21, 1976, 90 Stat. 390, set out as a note under section 343 of Title 7, Agriculture.

Gifts and Bequests for the Use of the United States and for Exclusively Public Purposes

Section 132(g) of Pub. L. 92–603 provided that: “For the purpose of Federal income, estate, and gift taxes, any gift or bequest to the Federal Old-Age and Survivors Insurance Trust Fund, the Federal Disability Insurance Trust Fund, the Federal Hospital Insurance Trust Fund, or the Federal Supplementary Medical Insurance Trust Fund, or to the Department of Health, Education, and Welfare [now Health and Human Services], or any part or officer thereof, for the benefit of any of such Funds or any activity financed through any of such Funds, which is accepted by the Managing Trustee of such Trust Funds under the authority of section 201(i) of the Social Security Act [subsec. (i) of this section], shall be considered as a gift or bequest to or for the use of the United States and as made for exclusively public purposes.”

Taxes on Services Rendered by Employees of International Organizations Prior to Jan. 1, 1946

Section 5(b) of act Dec. 29, 1945, ch. 652, title I, 59 Stat. 671, prohibited collection of tax under title VIII or IX of the Social Security Act or under the Federal Insurance Contributions Act or the Federal Unemployment Tax Act with respect to services rendered prior to January 1, 1946, which were described in paragraph (16) of sections 1426(b) and 1607(c) of the Internal Revenue Code of 1939, and authorized refund of taxes collected.

Executive Order No. 12335

Ex. Ord. No. 12335, Dec. 16, 1981, 46 F.R. 61633, as amended by Ex. Ord. No. 12397, Dec. 23, 1982, 47 F.R. 57651; Ex. Ord. No. 12402, Jan. 15, 1983, 48 F.R. 2311, which established the National Commission on Social Security Reform and provided for its membership, functions, etc., was revoked by Ex. Ord. No. 12534, Sept. 30, 1985, 50 F.R. 40319, formerly set out as a note under section 14 of the Federal Advisory Committee Act in the Appendix to Title 5, Government Organization and Employees.

1 So in original. Two cls. (i) and (ii) have been enacted.

2 So in original. Probably should be “(vii)”.

3 So in original. Probably should be “Commissioner”.

§401a. Omitted

Codification

Section, acts Aug. 1, 1956, ch. 836, title I, §116, 70 Stat. 833; Sept. 13, 1966, Pub. L. 86–778, title VII, §704, 74 Stat. 994; July 30, 1965, Pub. L. 89–97, title I, §109(b), 79 Stat. 340, which established an initial Advisory Council on Social Security Financing to review the status of the Federal Old-Age and Survivors Insurance Trust Fund and the Federal Disability Insurance Trust Fund in relation to long term commitments to old-age, survivors, and disability insurance programs, appointed personnel and provided for their compensation, required a report of the findings and recommendations of the Council to be submitted to the Secretary of the Board of Trustees of the abovementioned Trust Funds not later than Jan. 1, 1959, at which time the Council terminated, provided for subsequent Advisory Councils to be appointed in 1963, 1966, and every fifth year thereafter and to submit reports to Congress, and required additional information be included in these reports, was omitted in view of the termination of the initial Advisory Council on submission of their report not later than Jan. 1, 1959, the repeal of subsec. (e) by Pub. L. 89–97, title I, §109(b), July 30, 1965, 79 Stat. 340, which provided for the subsequent Advisory Councils, and the obsolescence of subsec. (f), which provided for additional information in reports to Congress, upon the repeal of subsec. (e).

§402. Old-age and survivors insurance benefit payments

(a) Old-age insurance benefits

Every individual who—

(1) is a fully insured individual (as defined in section 414(a) of this title),

(2) has attained age 62, and

(3) has filed application for old-age insurance benefits or was entitled to disability insurance benefits for the month preceding the month in which he attained retirement age (as defined in section 416(l) of this title),


shall be entitled to an old-age insurance benefit for each month, beginning with—

(A) in the case of an individual who has attained retirement age (as defined in section 416(l) of this title), the first month in which such individual meets the criteria specified in paragraphs (1), (2), and (3), or

(B) in the case of an individual who has attained age 62, but has not attained retirement age (as defined in section 416(l) of this title), the first month throughout which such individual meets the criteria specified in paragraphs (1) and (2) (if in that month he meets the criterion specified in paragraph (3)),


and ending with the month preceding the month in which he dies. Except as provided in subsection (q) and subsection (w) of this section, such individual's old-age insurance benefit for any month shall be equal to his primary insurance amount (as defined in section 415(a) of this title) for such month.

(b) Wife's insurance benefits

(1) The wife (as defined in section 416(b) of this title) and every divorced wife (as defined in section 416(d) of this title) of an individual entitled to old-age or disability insurance benefits, if such wife or such divorced wife—

(A) has filed application for wife's insurance benefits,

(B) has attained age 62 or (in the case of a wife) has in her care (individually or jointly with such individual) at the time of filing such application a child entitled to a child's insurance benefit on the basis of the wages and self-employment income of such individual,

(C) in the case of a divorced wife, is not married, and

(D) is not entitled to old-age or disability insurance benefits, or is entitled to old-age or disability insurance benefits based on a primary insurance amount which is less than one-half of the primary insurance amount of such individual,


shall (subject to subsection (s) of this section) be entitled to a wife's insurance benefit for each month, beginning with—

(i) in the case of a wife or divorced wife (as so defined) of an individual entitled to old-age benefits, if such wife or divorced wife has attained retirement age (as defined in section 416(l) of this title), the first month in which she meets the criteria specified in subparagraphs (A), (B), (C), and (D), or

(ii) in the case of a wife or divorced wife (as so defined) of—

(I) an individual entitled to old-age insurance benefits, if such wife or divorced wife has not attained retirement age (as defined in section 416(l) of this title), or

(II) an individual entitled to disability insurance benefits,


the first month throughout which she is such a wife or divorced wife and meets the criteria specified in subparagraphs (B), (C), and (D) (if in such month she meets the criterion specified in subparagraph (A)),


whichever is earlier, and ending with the month preceding the month in which any of the following occurs—

(E) she dies,

(F) such individual dies,

(G) in the case of a wife, they are divorced and either (i) she has not attained age 62, or (ii) she has attained age 62 but has not been married to such individual for a period of 10 years immediately before the date the divorce became effective,

(H) in the case of a divorced wife, she marries a person other than such individual,

(I) in the case of a wife who has not attained age 62, no child of such individual is entitled to a child's insurance benefit,

(J) she becomes entitled to an old-age or disability insurance benefit based on a primary insurance amount which is equal to or exceeds one-half of the primary insurance amount of such individual, or

(K) such individual is not entitled to disability insurance benefits and is not entitled to old-age insurance benefits.


(2) Except as provided in subsections (k)(5) and (q) of this section, such wife's insurance benefit for each month shall be equal to one-half of the primary insurance amount of her husband (or, in the case of a divorced wife, her former husband) for such month.

(3) In the case of any divorced wife who marries—

(A) an individual entitled to benefits under subsection (c), (f), (g), or (h) of this section, or

(B) an individual who has attained the age of 18 and is entitled to benefits under subsection (d) of this section,


such divorced wife's entitlement to benefits under this subsection shall, notwithstanding the provisions of paragraph (1) (but subject to subsection (s) of this section), not be terminated by reason of such marriage.

(4)(A) Notwithstanding the preceding provisions of this subsection, except as provided in subparagraph (B), the divorced wife of an individual who is not entitled to old-age or disability insurance benefits, but who has attained age 62 and is a fully insured individual (as defined in section 414 of this title), if such divorced wife—

(i) meets the requirements of subparagraphs (A) through (D) of paragraph (1), and

(ii) has been divorced from such insured individual for not less than 2 years,


shall be entitled to a wife's insurance benefit under this subsection for each month, in such amount, and beginning and ending with such months, as determined (under regulations of the Commissioner of Social Security) in the manner otherwise provided for wife's insurance benefits under this subsection, as if such insured individual had become entitled to old-age insurance benefits on the date on which the divorced wife first meets the criteria for entitlement set forth in clauses (i) and (ii).

(B) A wife's insurance benefit provided under this paragraph which has not otherwise terminated in accordance with subparagraph (E), (F), (H), or (J) of paragraph (1) shall terminate with the month preceding the first month in which the insured individual is no longer a fully insured individual.

(c) Husband's insurance benefits

(1) The husband (as defined in section 416(f) of this title) and every divorced husband (as defined in section 416(d) of this title) of an individual entitled to old-age or disability insurance benefits, if such husband or such divorced husband—

(A) has filed application for husband's insurance benefits,

(B) has attained age 62 or (in the case of a husband) has in his care (individually or jointly with such individual) at the time of filing such application a child entitled to child's insurance benefits on the basis of the wages and self-employment income of such individual,

(C) in the case of a divorced husband, is not married, and

(D) is not entitled to old-age or disability insurance benefits, or is entitled to old-age or disability insurance benefits based on a primary insurance amount which is less than one-half of the primary insurance amount of such individual,


shall (subject to subsection(s) of this section) be entitled to a husband's insurance benefit for each month, beginning with—

(i) in the case of a husband or divorced husband (as so defined) of an individual who is entitled to an old-age insurance benefit, if such husband or divorced husband has attained retirement age (as defined in section 416(l) of this title), the first month in which he meets the criteria specified in subparagraphs (A), (B), (C), and (D), or

(ii) in the case of a husband or divorced husband (as so defined) of—

(I) an individual entitled to old-age insurance benefits, if such husband or divorced husband has not attained retirement age (as defined in section 416(l) of this title), or

(II) an individual entitled to disability insurance benefits,


the first month throughout which he is such a husband or divorced husband and meets the criteria specified in subparagraphs (B), (C), and (D) (if in such month he meets the criterion specified in subparagraph (A)),


whichever is earlier, and ending with the month preceding the month in which any of the following occurs:

(E) he dies,

(F) such individual dies,

(G) in the case of a husband, they are divorced and either (i) he has not attained age 62, or (ii) he has attained age 62 but has not been married to such individual for a period of 10 years immediately before the divorce became effective,

(H) in the case of a divorced husband, he marries a person other than such individual,

(I) in the case of a husband who has not attained age 62, no child of such individual is entitled to a child's insurance benefit,

(J) he becomes entitled to an old-age or disability insurance benefit based on a primary insurance amount which is equal to or exceeds one-half of the primary insurance amount of such individual, or

(K) such individual is not entitled to disability insurance benefits and is not entitled to old-age insurance benefits.


(2) Except as provided in subsections (k)(5) and (q) of this section, such husband's insurance benefit for each month shall be equal to one-half of the primary insurance amount of his wife (or, in the case of a divorced husband, his former wife) for such month.

(3) In the case of any divorced husband who marries—

(A) an individual entitled to benefits under subsection (b), (e), (g), or (h) of this section, or

(B) an individual who has attained the age of 18 and is entitled to benefits under subsection (d) of this section, by reason of paragraph (1)(B)(ii) thereof,


such divorced husband's entitlement to benefits under this subsection, notwithstanding the provisions of paragraph (1) (but subject to subsection (s) of this section), shall not be terminated by reason of such marriage.

(4)(A) Notwithstanding the preceding provisions of this subsection, except as provided in subparagraph (B), the divorced husband of an individual who is not entitled to old-age or disability insurance benefits, but who has attained age 62 and is a fully insured individual (as defined in section 414 of this title), if such divorced husband—

(i) meets the requirements of subparagraphs (A) through (D) of paragraph (1), and

(ii) has been divorced from such insured individual for not less than 2 years,


shall be entitled to a husband's insurance benefit under this subsection for each month, in such amount, and beginning and ending with such months, as determined (under regulations of the Commissioner of Social Security) in the manner otherwise provided for husband's insurance benefits under this subsection, as if such insured individual had become entitled to old-age insurance benefits on the date on which the divorced husband first meets the criteria for entitlement set forth in clauses (i) and (ii).

(B) A husband's insurance benefit provided under this paragraph which has not otherwise terminated in accordance with subparagraph (E), (F), (H), or (J) of paragraph (1) shall terminate with the month preceding the first month in which the insured individual is no longer a fully insured individual.

(d) Child's insurance benefits

(1) Every child (as defined in section 416(e) of this title) of an individual entitled to old-age or disability insurance benefits, or of an individual who dies a fully or currently insured individual, if such child—

(A) has filed application for child's insurance benefits,

(B) at the time such application was filed was unmarried and (i) either had not attained the age of 18 or was a full-time elementary or secondary school student and had not attained the age of 19, or (ii) is under a disability (as defined in section 423(d) of this title) which began before he attained the age of 22, and

(C) was dependent upon such individual—

(i) if such individual is living, at the time such application was filed,

(ii) if such individual has died, at the time of such death, or

(iii) if such individual had a period of disability which continued until he became entitled to old-age or disability insurance benefits, or (if he has died) until the month of his death, at the beginning of such period of disability or at the time he became entitled to such benefits,


shall be entitled to a child's insurance benefit for each month, beginning with—

(i) in the case of a child (as so defined) of such an individual who has died, the first month in which such child meets the criteria specified in subparagraphs (A), (B), and (C), or

(ii) in the case of a child (as so defined) of an individual entitled to an old-age insurance benefit or to a disability insurance benefit, the first month throughout which such child is a child (as so defined) and meets the criteria specified in subparagraphs (B) and (C) (if in such month he meets the criterion specified in subparagraph (A)),


whichever is earlier, and ending with the month preceding whichever of the following first occurs—

(D) the month in which such child dies, or marries,

(E) the month in which such child attains the age of 18, but only if he (i) is not under a disability (as so defined) at the time he attains such age, and (ii) is not a full-time elementary or secondary school student during any part of such month,

(F) if such child was not under a disability (as so defined) at the time he attained the age of 18, the earlier of—

(i) the first month during no part of which he is a full-time elementary or secondary school student, or

(ii) the month in which he attains the age of 19,


but only if he was not under a disability (as so defined) in such earlier month;

(G) if such child was under a disability (as so defined) at the time he attained the age of 18 or if he was not under a disability (as so defined) at such time but was under a disability (as so defined) at or prior to the time he attained (or would attain) the age of 22—

(i) the termination month, subject to section 423(e) of this title (and for purposes of this subparagraph, the termination month for any individual shall be the third month following the month in which his disability ceases; except that, in the case of an individual who has a period of trial work which ends as determined by application of section 422(c)(4)(A) of this title, the termination month shall be the earlier of (I) the third month following the earliest month after the end of such period of trial work with respect to which such individual is determined to no longer be suffering from a disabling physical or mental impairment, or (II) the third month following the earliest month in which such individual engages or is determined able to engage in substantial gainful activity, but in no event earlier than the first month occurring after the 36 months following such period of trial work in which he engages or is determined able to engage in substantial gainful activity),


or (if later) the earlier of—

(ii) the first month during no part of which he is a full-time elementary or secondary school student, or

(iii) the month in which he attains the age of 19,


but only if he was not under a disability (as so defined) in such earlier month; or

(H) if the benefits under this subsection are based on the wages and self-employment income of a stepparent who is subsequently divorced from such child's natural parent, the month after the month in which such divorce becomes final.


Entitlement of any child to benefits under this subsection on the basis of the wages and self-employment income of an individual entitled to disability insurance benefits shall also end with the month before the first month for which such individual is not entitled to such benefits unless such individual is, for such later month, entitled to old-age insurance benefits or unless he dies in such month. No payment under this paragraph may be made to a child who would not meet the definition of disability in section 423(d) of this title except for paragraph (1)(B) thereof for any month in which he engages in substantial gainful activity.

(2) Such child's insurance benefit for each month shall, if the individual on the basis of whose wages and self-employment income the child is entitled to such benefit has not died prior to the end of such month, be equal to one-half of the primary insurance amount of such individual for such month. Such child's insurance benefit for each month shall, if such individual has died in or prior to such month, be equal to three-fourths of the primary insurance amount of such individual.

(3) A child shall be deemed dependent upon his father or adopting father or his mother or adopting mother at the time specified in paragraph (1)(C) of this subsection unless, at such time, such individual was not living with or contributing to the support of such child and—

(A) such child is neither the legitimate nor adopted child of such individual, or

(B) such child has been adopted by some other individual.


For purposes of this paragraph, a child deemed to be a child of a fully or currently insured individual pursuant to section 416(h)(2)(B) or section 416(h)(3) of this title shall be deemed to be the legitimate child of such individual.

(4) A child shall be deemed dependent upon his stepfather or stepmother at the time specified in paragraph (1)(C) of this subsection if, at such time, the child was receiving at least one-half of his support from such stepfather or stepmother.

(5) In the case of a child who has attained the age of eighteen and who marries—

(A) an individual entitled to benefits under subsection (a), (b), (c), (e), (f), (g), or (h) of this section or under section 423(a) of this title, or

(B) another individual who has attained the age of eighteen and is entitled to benefits under this subsection,


such child's entitlement to benefits under this subsection shall, notwithstanding the provisions of paragraph (1) of this subsection but subject to subsection (s) of this section, not be terminated by reason of such marriage.

(6) A child whose entitlement to child's insurance benefits on the basis of the wages and self-employment income of an insured individual terminated with the month preceding the month in which such child attained the age of 18, or with a subsequent month, may again become entitled to such benefits (provided no event specified in paragraph (1)(D) has occurred) beginning with the first month thereafter in which he—

(A)(i) is a full-time elementary or secondary school student and has not attained the age of 19, or (ii) is under a disability (as defined in section 423(d) of this title) and has not attained the age of 22, or

(B) is under a disability (as so defined) which began (i) before the close of the 84th month following the month in which his most recent entitlement to child's insurance benefits terminated because he ceased to be under such disability, or (ii) after the close of the 84th month following the month in which his most recent entitlement to child's insurance benefits terminated because he ceased to be under such disability due to performance of substantial gainful activity,


but only if he has filed application for such reentitlement. Such reentitlement shall end with the month preceding whichever of the following first occurs:

(C) the first month in which an event specified in paragraph (1)(D) occurs;

(D) the earlier of (i) the first month during no part of which he is a full-time elementary or secondary school student or (ii) the month in which he attains the age of 19, but only if he is not under a disability (as so defined) in such earlier month; or

(E) if he was under a disability (as so defined), the termination month (as defined in paragraph (1)(G)(i)), subject to section 423(e) of this title, or (if later) the earlier of—

(i) the first month during no part of which he is a full-time elementary or secondary school student, or

(ii) the month in which he attains the age of 19.


(7) For the purposes of this subsection—

(A) A “full-time elementary or secondary school student” is an individual who is in full-time attendance as a student at an elementary or secondary school, as determined by the Commissioner of Social Security (in accordance with regulations prescribed by the Commissioner) in the light of the standards and practices of the schools involved, except that no individual shall be considered a “full-time elementary or secondary school student” if he is paid by his employer while attending an elementary or secondary school at the request, or pursuant to a requirement, of his employer. An individual shall not be considered a “full-time elementary or secondary school student” for the purpose of this section while that individual is confined in a jail, prison, or other penal institution or correctional facility, pursuant to his conviction of an offense (committed after the effective date of this sentence 1 ) which constituted a felony under applicable law. An individual who is determined to be a full-time elementary or secondary school student shall be deemed to be such a student throughout the month with respect to which such determination is made.

(B) Except to the extent provided in such regulations, an individual shall be deemed to be a full-time elementary or secondary school student during any period of nonattendance at an elementary or secondary school at which he has been in full-time attendance if (i) such period is 4 calendar months or less, and (ii) he shows to the satisfaction of the Commissioner of Social Security that he intends to continue to be in full-time attendance at an elementary or secondary school immediately following such period. An individual who does not meet the requirement of clause (ii) with respect to such period of nonattendance shall be deemed to have met such requirement (as of the beginning of such period) if he is in full-time attendance at an elementary or secondary school immediately following such period.

(C)(i) An “elementary or secondary school” is a school which provides elementary or secondary education, respectively, as determined under the law of the State or other jurisdiction in which it is located.

(ii) For the purpose of determining whether a child is a “full-time elementary or secondary school student” or “intends to continue to be in full-time attendance at an elementary or secondary school”, within the meaning of this subsection, there shall be disregarded any education provided, or to be provided, beyond grade 12.

(D) A child who attains age 19 at a time when he is a full-time elementary or secondary school student (as defined in subparagraph (A) of this paragraph and without application of subparagraph (B) of such paragraph) but has not (at such time) completed the requirements for, or received, a diploma or equivalent certificate from a secondary school (as defined in subparagraph (C)(i)) shall be deemed (for purposes of determining whether his entitlement to benefits under this subsection has terminated under paragraph (1)(F) and for purposes of determining his initial entitlement to such benefits under clause (i) of paragraph (1)(B)) not to have attained such age until the first day of the first month following the end of the quarter or semester in which he is enrolled at such time (or, if the elementary or secondary school (as defined in this paragraph) in which he is enrolled is not operated on a quarter or semester system, until the first day of the first month following the completion of the course in which he is so enrolled or until the first day of the third month beginning after such time, whichever first occurs).


(8) In the case of—

(A) an individual entitled to old-age insurance benefits (other than an individual referred to in subparagraph (B)), or

(B) an individual entitled to disability insurance benefits, or an individual entitled to old-age insurance benefits who was entitled to disability insurance benefits for the month preceding the first month for which he was entitled to old-age insurance benefits,


a child of such individual adopted after such individual became entitled to such old-age or disability insurance benefits shall be deemed not to meet the requirements of clause (i) or (iii) of paragraph (1)(C) unless such child—

(C) is the natural child or stepchild of such individual (including such a child who was legally adopted by such individual), or

(D)(i) was legally adopted by such individual in an adoption decreed by a court of competent jurisdiction within the United States, and

(ii) in the case of a child who attained the age of 18 prior to the commencement of proceedings for adoption, the child was living with or receiving at least one-half of the child's support from such individual for the year immediately preceding the month in which the adoption is decreed.


(9)(A) A child who is a child of an individual under clause (3) of the first sentence of section 416(e) of this title and is not a child of such individual under clause (1) or (2) of such first sentence shall be deemed not to be dependent on such individual at the time specified in subparagraph (1)(C) of this subsection unless (i) such child was living with such individual in the United States and receiving at least one-half of his support from such individual (I) for the year immediately before the month in which such individual became entitled to old-age insurance benefits or disability insurance benefits or died, or (II) if such individual had a period of disability which continued until he had become entitled to old-age insurance benefits, or disability insurance benefits, or died, for the year immediately before the month in which such period of disability began, and (ii) the period during which such child was living with such individual began before the child attained age 18.

(B) In the case of a child who was born in the one-year period during which such child must have been living with and receiving at least one-half of his support from such individual, such child shall be deemed to meet such requirements for such period if, as of the close of such period, such child has lived with such individual in the United States and received at least one-half of his support from such individual for substantially all of the period which begins on the date of such child's birth.

(10) For purposes of paragraph (1)(H)—

(A) each stepparent shall notify the Commissioner of Social Security of any divorce upon such divorce becoming final; and

(B) the Commissioner shall annually notify any stepparent of the rule for termination described in paragraph (1)(H) and of the requirement described in subparagraph (A).

(e) Widow's insurance benefits

(1) The widow (as defined in section 416(c) of this title) and every surviving divorced wife (as defined in section 416(d) of this title) of an individual who died a fully insured individual, if such widow or such surviving divorced wife—

(A) is not married,

(B)(i) has attained age 60, or (ii) has attained age 50 but has not attained age 60 and is under a disability (as defined in section 423(d) of this title) which began before the end of the period specified in paragraph (4),

(C)(i) has filed application for widow's insurance benefits,

(ii) was entitled to wife's insurance benefits, on the basis of the wages and self-employment income of such individual, for the month preceding the month in which such individual died, and—

(I) has attained retirement age (as defined in section 416(l) of this title),

(II) is not entitled to benefits under subsection (a) of this section or section 423 of this title, or

(III) has in effect a certificate (described in paragraph (8)) filed by her with the Commissioner of Social Security, in accordance with regulations prescribed by the Commissioner of Social Security, in which she elects to receive widow's insurance benefits (subject to reduction as provided in subsection (q) of this section), or


(iii) was entitled, on the basis of such wages and self-employment income, to mother's insurance benefits for the month preceding the month in which she attained retirement age (as defined in section 416(l) of this title), and

(D) is not entitled to old-age insurance benefits or is entitled to old-age insurance benefits each of which is less than the primary insurance amount (as determined after application of subparagraphs (B) and (C) of paragraph (2)) of such deceased individual,


shall be entitled to a widow's insurance benefit for each month, beginning with—

(E) if she satisfies subparagraph (B) by reason of clause (i) thereof, the first month in which she becomes so entitled to such insurance benefits, or

(F) if she satisfies subparagraph (B) by reason of clause (ii) thereof—

(i) the first month after her waiting period (as defined in paragraph (5)) in which she becomes so entitled to such insurance benefits, or

(ii) the first month during all of which she is under a disability and in which she becomes so entitled to such insurance benefits, but only if she was previously entitled to insurance benefits under this subsection on the basis of being under a disability and such first month occurs (I) in the period specified in paragraph (4) and (II) after the month in which a previous entitlement to such benefits on such basis terminated,


and ending with the month preceding the first month in which any of the following occurs: she remarries, dies, becomes entitled to an old-age insurance benefit equal to or exceeding the primary insurance amount (as determined after application of subparagraphs (B) and (C) of paragraph (2)) of such deceased individual, or, if she became entitled to such benefits before she attained age 60, subject to section 423(e) of this title, the termination month (unless she attains retirement age (as defined in section 416(l) of this title) on or before the last day of such termination month). For purposes of the preceding sentence, the termination month for any individual shall be the third month following the month in which her disability ceases; except that, in the case of an individual who has a period of trial work which ends as determined by application of section 422(c)(4)(A) of this title, the termination month shall be the earlier of (I) the third month following the earliest month after the end of such period of trial work with respect to which such individual is determined to no longer be suffering from a disabling physical or mental impairment, or (II) the third month following the earliest month in which such individual engages or is determined able to engage in substantial gainful activity, but in no event earlier than the first month occurring after the 36 months following such period of trial work in which she engages or is determined able to engage in substantial gainful activity.

(2)(A) Except as provided in subsection (k)(5) of this section, subsection (q) of this section, and subparagraph (D) of this paragraph, such widow's insurance benefit for each month shall be equal to the primary insurance amount (as determined for purposes of this subsection after application of subparagraphs (B) and (C)) of such deceased individual.

(B)(i) For purposes of this subsection, in any case in which such deceased individual dies before attaining age 62 and section 415(a)(1) of this title (as in effect after December 1978) is applicable in determining such individual's primary insurance amount—

(I) such primary insurance amount shall be determined under the formula set forth in section 415(a)(1)(B)(i) and (ii) of this title which is applicable to individuals who initially become eligible for old-age insurance benefits in the second year after the year specified in clause (ii),

(II) the year specified in clause (ii) shall be substituted for the second calendar year specified in section 415(b)(3)(A)(ii)(I) of this title, and

(III) such primary insurance amount shall be increased under section 415(i) of this title as if it were the primary insurance amount referred to in section 415(i)(2)(A)(ii)(II) of this title, except that it shall be increased only for years beginning after the first year after the year specified in clause (ii).


(ii) The year specified in this clause is the earlier of—

(I) the year in which the deceased individual attained age 60, or would have attained age 60 had he lived to that age, or

(II) the second year preceding the year in which the widow or surviving divorced wife first meets the requirements of paragraph (1)(B) or the second year preceding the year in which the deceased individual died, whichever is later.


(iii) This subparagraph shall apply with respect to any benefit under this subsection only to the extent its application does not result in a primary insurance amount for purposes of this subsection which is less than the primary insurance amount otherwise determined for such deceased individual under section 415 of this title.

(C) If such deceased individual was (or upon application would have been) entitled to an old-age insurance benefit which was increased (or subject to being increased) on account of delayed retirement under the provisions of subsection (w) of this section, then, for purposes of this subsection, such individual's primary insurance amount, if less than the old-age insurance benefit (increased, where applicable, under section 415(f)(5), 415(f)(6), or 415(f)(9)(B) of this title and under section 415(i) of this title as if such individual were still alive in the case of an individual who has died) which he was receiving (or would upon application have received) for the month prior to the month in which he died, shall be deemed to be equal to such old-age insurance benefit, and (notwithstanding the provisions of paragraph (3) of such subsection (w) of this section) the number of increment months shall include any month in the months of the calendar year in which he died, prior to the month in which he died, which satisfy the conditions in paragraph (2) of such subsection (w) of this section.

(D) If the deceased individual (on the basis of whose wages and self-employment income a widow or surviving divorced wife is entitled to widow's insurance benefits under this subsection) was, at any time, entitled to an old-age insurance benefit which was reduced by reason of the application of subsection (q) of this section, the widow's insurance benefit of such widow or surviving divorced wife for any month shall, if the amount of the widow's insurance benefit of such widow or surviving divorced wife (as determined under subparagraph (A) and after application of subsection (q) of this section) is greater than—

(i) the amount of the old-age insurance benefit to which such deceased individual would have been entitled (after application of subsection (q) of this section) for such month if such individual were still living and section 415(f)(5), 415(f)(6), or 415(f)(9)(B) of this title were applied, where applicable, and

(ii) 82½ percent of the primary insurance amount (as determined without regard to subparagraph (C)) of such deceased individual,


be reduced to the amount referred to in clause (i), or (if greater) the amount referred to in clause (ii).

(3) For purposes of paragraph (1), if—

(A) a widow or surviving divorced wife marries after attaining age 60 (or after attaining age 50 if she was entitled before such marriage occurred to benefits based on disability under this subsection), or

(B) a disabled widow or disabled surviving divorced wife described in paragraph (1)(B)(ii) marries after attaining age 50,


such marriage shall be deemed not to have occurred.

(4) The period referred to in paragraph (1)(B)(ii), in the case of any widow or surviving divorced wife, is the period beginning with whichever of the following is the latest:

(A) the month in which occurred the death of the fully insured individual referred to in paragraph (1) on whose wages and self-employment income her benefits are or would be based, or

(B) the last month for which she was entitled to mother's insurance benefits on the basis of the wages and self-employment income of such individual, or

(C) the month in which a previous entitlement to widow's insurance benefits on the basis of such wages and self-employment income terminated because her disability had ceased,


and ending with the month before the month in which she attains age 60, or, if earlier, with the close of the eighty-fourth month following the month with which such period began.

(5)(A) The waiting period referred to in paragraph (1)(F), in the case of any widow or surviving divorced wife, is the earliest period of five consecutive calendar months—

(i) throughout which she has been under a disability, and

(ii) which begins not earlier than with whichever of the following is the later: (I) the first day of the seventeenth month before the month in which her application is filed, or (II) the first day of the fifth month before the month in which the period specified in paragraph (4) begins.


(B) For purposes of paragraph (1)(F)(i), each month in the period commencing with the first month for which such widow or surviving divorced wife is first eligible for supplemental security income benefits under subchapter XVI of this chapter, or State supplementary payments of the type referred to in section 1382e(a) of this title (or payments of the type described in section 212(a) of Public Law 93–66) which are paid by the Commissioner of Social Security under an agreement referred to in section 1382e(a) of this title (or in section 212(b) of Public Law 93–66), shall be included as one of the months of such waiting period for which the requirements of subparagraph (A) have been met.

(6) In the case of an individual entitled to monthly insurance benefits payable under this section for any month prior to January 1973 whose benefits were not redetermined under section 102(g) of the Social Security Amendments of 1972, such benefits shall not be redetermined pursuant to such section, but shall be increased pursuant to any general benefit increase (as defined in section 415(i)(3) of this title) or any increase in benefits made under or pursuant to section 415(i) of this title, including for this purpose the increase provided effective for March 1974, as though such redetermination had been made.

(7) Any certificate filed pursuant to paragraph (1)(C)(ii)(III) shall be effective for purposes of this subsection—

(A) for the month in which it is filed and for any month thereafter, and

(B) for months, in the period designated by the individual filing such certificate, of one or more consecutive months (not exceeding 12) immediately preceding the month in which such certificate is filed;


except that such certificate shall not be effective for any month before the month in which she attains age 62.

(8) An individual shall be deemed to be under a disability for purposes of paragraph (1)(B)(ii) if such individual is eligible for supplemental security income benefits under subchapter XVI of this chapter, or State supplementary payments of the type referred to in section 1382e(a) of this title (or payments of the type described in section 212(a) of Public Law 93–66) which are paid by the Commissioner of Social Security under an agreement referred to in section 1382e(a) of this title (or in section 212(b) of Public Law 93–66), for the month for which all requirements of paragraph (1) for entitlement to benefits under this subsection (other than being under a disability) are met.

(f) Widower's insurance benefits

(1) The widower (as defined in section 416(g) of this title) and every surviving divorced husband (as defined in section 416(d) of this title) of an individual who died a fully insured individual, if such widower or such surviving divorced husband—

(A) is not married,

(B)(i) has attained age 60, or (ii) has attained age 50 but has not attained age 60 and is under a disability (as defined in section 423(d) of the title) which began before the end of the period specified in paragraph (4),

(C)(i) has filed application for widower's insurance benefits,

(ii) was entitled to husband's insurance benefits, on the basis of the wages and self-employment income of such individual, for the month preceding the month in which such individual died, and—

(I) has attained retirement age (as defined in section 416(l) of this title),

(II) is not entitled to benefits under subsection (a) of this section or section 423 of this title, or

(III) has in effect a certificate (described in paragraph (8)) filed by him with the Commissioner of Social Security, in accordance with regulations prescribed by the Commissioner of Social Security, in which he elects to receive widower's insurance benefits (subject to reduction as provided in subsection (q) of this section), or


(iii) was entitled, on the basis of such wages and self-employment income, to father's insurance benefits for the month preceding the month in which he attained retirement age (as defined in section 416(l) of this title), and

(D) is not entitled to old-age insurance benefits, or is entitled to old-age insurance benefits each of which is less than the primary insurance amount (as determined after application of subparagraphs (B) and (C) of paragraph (3)) of such deceased individual,


shall be entitled to a widower's insurance benefit for each month, beginning with—

(E) if he satisfies subparagraph (B) by reason of clause (i) thereof, the first month in which he becomes so entitled to such insurance benefits, or

(F) if he satisfies subparagraph (B) by reason of clause (ii) thereof—

(i) the first month after his waiting period (as defined in paragraph (5)) in which he becomes so entitled to such insurance benefits, or

(ii) the first month during all of which he is under a disability and in which he becomes so entitled to such insurance benefits, but only if he was previously entitled to insurance benefits under this subsection on the basis of being under a disability and such first month occurs (I) in the period specified in paragraph (4) and (II) after the month in which a previous entitlement to such benefits on such basis terminated,


and ending with the month preceding the first month in which any of the following occurs: he remarries, dies, or becomes entitled to an old-age insurance benefit equal to or exceeding the primary insurance amount (as determined after application of subparagraphs (B) and (C) of paragraph (3)) 1 of such deceased individual, or, if he became entitled to such benefits before he attained age 60, subject to section 423(e) of this title, the termination month (unless he attains retirement age (as defined in section 416(l) of this title) on or before the last day of such termination month). For purposes of the preceding sentence, the termination month for any individual shall be the third month following the month in which his disability ceases; except that, in the case of an individual who has a period of trial work which ends as determined by application of section 422(c)(4)(A) of this title, the termination month shall be the earlier of (I) the third month following the earliest month after the end of such period of trial work with respect to which such individual is determined to no longer be suffering from a disabling physical or mental impairment, or (II) the third month following the earliest month in which such individual engages or is determined able to engage in substantial gainful activity, but in no event earlier than the first month occurring after the 36 months following such period of trial work in which he engages or is determined able to engage in substantial gainful activity.

(2)(A) Except as provided in subsection (k)(5) of this section, subsection (q) of this section, and subparagraph (D) of this paragraph, such widower's insurance benefit for each month shall be equal to the primary insurance amount (as determined for purposes of this subsection after application of subparagraphs (B) and (C)) of such deceased individual.

(B)(i) For purposes of this subsection, in any case in which such deceased individual dies before attaining age 62 and section 415(a)(1) of this title (as in effect after December 1978) is applicable in determining such individual's primary insurance amount—

(I) such primary insurance amount shall be determined under the formula set forth in section 415(a)(1)(B)(i) and (ii) of this title which is applicable to individuals who initially become eligible for old-age insurance benefits in the second year after the year specified in clause (ii),

(II) the year specified in clause (ii) shall be substituted for the second calendar year specified in section 415(b)(3)(A)(ii)(I) of this title, and

(III) such primary insurance amount shall be increased under section 415(i) of this title as if it were the primary insurance amount referred to in section 415(i)(2)(A)(ii)(II) of this title, except that it shall be increased only for years beginning after the first year after the year specified in clause (ii).


(ii) The year specified in this clause is the earlier of—

(I) the year in which the deceased individual attained age 60, or would have attained age 60 had she lived to that age, or

(II) the second year preceding the year in which the widower or surviving divorced husband first meets the requirements of paragraph (1)(B) or the second year preceding the year in which the deceased individual died, whichever is later.


(iii) This subparagraph shall apply with respect to any benefit under this subsection only to the extent its application does not result in a primary insurance amount for purposes of this subsection which is less than the primary insurance amount otherwise determined for such deceased individual under section 415 of this title.

(C) If such deceased individual was (or upon application would have been) entitled to an old-age insurance benefit which was increased (or subject to being increased) on account of delayed retirement under the provisions of subsection (w) of this section, then, for purposes of this subsection, such individual's primary insurance amount, if less than the old-age insurance benefit (increased, where applicable, under section 415(f)(5), 415(f)(6), or 415(f)(9)(B) of this title and under section 415(i) of this title as if such individual were still alive in the case of an individual who has died) which she was receiving (or would upon application have received) for the month prior to the month in which she died, shall be deemed to be equal to such old-age insurance benefit, and (notwithstanding the provisions of paragraph (3) of such subsection (w) of this section) the number of increment months shall include any month in the months of the calendar year in which she died, prior to the month in which she died, which satisfy the conditions in paragraph (2) of such subsection (w) of this section.

(D) If the deceased individual (on the basis of whose wages and self-employment income a widower or surviving divorced husband is entitled to widower's insurance benefits under this subsection) was, at any time, entitled to an old-age insurance benefit which was reduced by reason of the application of subsection (q) of this section, the widower's insurance benefit of such widower or surviving divorced husband for any month shall, if the amount of the widower's insurance benefit of such widower or surviving divorced husband (as determined under subparagraph (A) and after application of subsection (q) of this section) is greater than—

(i) the amount of the old-age insurance benefit to which such deceased individual would have been entitled (after application of subsection (q) of this section) for such month if such individual were still living and section 415(f)(5), 415(f)(6), or 415(f)(9)(B) of this title were applied, where applicable, and

(ii) 82½ percent of the primary insurance amount (as determined without regard to subparagraph (C)) of such deceased individual;


be reduced to the amount referred to in clause (i), or (if greater) the amount referred to in clause (ii).

(3) For purposes of paragraph (1), if—

(A) a widower or surviving divorced husband marries after attaining age 60 (or after attaining age 50 if he was entitled before such marriage occurred to benefits based on disability under this subsection), or

(B) a disabled widower or surviving divorced husband described in paragraph (1)(B)(ii) marries after attaining age 50,


such marriage shall be deemed not to have occurred.

(4) The period referred to in paragraph (1)(B)(ii), in the case of any widower or surviving divorced husband, is the period beginning with whichever of the following is the latest:

(A) the month in which occurred the death of the fully insured individual referred to in paragraph (1) on whose wages and self-employment income his benefits are or would be based,

(B) the last month for which he was entitled to father's insurance benefits on the basis of the wages and self-employment income of such individual, or

(C) the month in which a previous entitlement to widower's insurance benefits on the basis of such wages and self-employment income terminated because his disability had ceased,


and ending with the month before the month in which he attains age 60, or, if earlier, with the close of the eighty-fourth month following the month with which such period began.

(5)(A) The waiting period referred to in paragraph (1)(F), in the case of any widower or surviving divorced husband, is the earliest period of five consecutive calendar months—

(i) throughout which he has been under a disability, and

(ii) which begins not earlier than with whichever of the following is the later: (I) the first day of the seventeenth month before the month in which his application is filed, or (II) the first day of the fifth month before the month in which the period specified in paragraph (4) begins.


(B) For purposes of paragraph (1)(F)(i), each month in the period commencing with the first month for which such widower or surviving divorced husband is first eligible for supplemental security income benefits under subchapter XVI of this chapter, or State supplementary payments of the type referred to in section 1382e(a) of this title (or payments of the type described in section 212(a) of Public Law 93–66) which are paid by the Commissioner of Social Security under an agreement referred to in section 1382e(a) of this title (or in section 212(b) of Public Law 93–66), shall be included as one of the months of such waiting period for which the requirements of subparagraph (A) have been met.

(6) In the case of an individual entitled to monthly insurance benefits payable under this section for any month prior to January 1973 whose benefits were not redetermined under section 102(g) of the Social Security Amendments of 1972, such benefits shall not be redetermined pursuant to such section, but shall be increased pursuant to any general benefit increase (as defined in section 415(i)(3) of this title) or any increase in benefits made under or pursuant to section 415(i) of this title, including for this purpose the increase provided effective for March 1974, as though such redetermination had been made.

(7) Any certificate filed pursuant to paragraph (1)(C)(ii)(III) shall be effective for purposes of this subsection—

(A) for the month in which it is filed and for any month thereafter, and

(B) for months, in the period designated by the individual filing such certificate, of one or more consecutive months (not exceeding 12) immediately preceding the month in which such certificate is filed;


except that such certificate shall not be effective for any month before the month in which he attains age 62.

(8) An individual shall be deemed to be under a disability for purposes of paragraph (1)(B)(ii) if such individual is eligible for supplemental security income benefits under subchapter XVI of this chapter, or State supplementary payments of the type referred to in section 1382e(a) of this title (or payments of the type described in section 212(a) of Public Law 93–66) which are paid by the Commissioner of Social Security under an agreement referred to in such section 1382e(a) of this title (or in section 212(b) of Public Law 93–66), for the month for which all requirements of paragraph (1) for entitlement to benefits under this subsection (other than being under a disability) are met.

(g) Mother's and father's insurance benefits

(1) The surviving spouse and every surviving divorced parent (as defined in section 416(d) of this title) of an individual who died a fully or currently insured individual, if such surviving spouse or surviving divorced parent—

(A) is not married,

(B) is not entitled to a surviving spouse's insurance benefit,

(C) is not entitled to old-age insurance benefits, or is entitled to old-age insurance benefits each of which is less than three-fourths of the primary insurance amount of such individual,

(D) has filed application for mother's or father's insurance benefits, or was entitled to a spouse's insurance benefit on the basis of the wages and self-employment income of such individual for the month preceding the month in which such individual died,

(E) at the time of filing such application has in his or her care a child of such individual entitled to a child's insurance benefit, and

(F) in the case of a surviving divorced parent—

(i) the child referred to in subparagraph (E) is his or her son, daughter, or legally adopted child, and

(ii) the benefits referred to in such subparagraph are payable on the basis of such individual's wages and self-employment income,


shall (subject to subsection (s) of this section) be entitled to a mother's or father's insurance benefit for each month, beginning with the first month in which he or she becomes so entitled to such insurance benefits and ending with the month preceding the first month in which any of the following occurs: no child of such deceased individual is entitled to a child's insurance benefit, such surviving spouse or surviving divorced parent becomes entitled to an old-age insurance benefit equal to or exceeding three-fourths of the primary insurance amount of such deceased individual, he or she becomes entitled to a surviving spouse's insurance benefit, he or she remarries, or he or she dies. Entitlement to such benefits shall also end, in the case of a surviving divorced parent, with the month immediately preceding the first month in which no son, daughter, or legally adopted child of such surviving divorced parent is entitled to a child's insurance benefit on the basis of the wages and self-employment income of such deceased individual.

(2) Such mother's or father's insurance benefit for each month shall be equal to three-fourths of the primary insurance amount of such deceased individual.

(3) In the case of a surviving spouse or surviving divorced parent who marries—

(A) an individual entitled to benefits under this subsection or subsection (a), (b), (c), (e), (f), or (h) of this section, or under section 423(a) of this title, or

(B) an individual who has attained the age of eighteen and is entitled to benefits under subsection (d) of this section,


the entitlement of such surviving spouse or surviving divorced parent to benefits under this subsection shall, notwithstanding the provisions of paragraph (1) of this subsection but subject to subsection (s) of this section, not be terminated by reason of such marriage.

(h) Parent's insurance benefits

(1) Every parent (as defined in this subsection) of an individual who died a fully insured individual, if such parent—

(A) has attained age 62,

(B)(i) was receiving at least one-half of his support from such individual at the time of such individual's death or, if such individual had a period of disability which did not end prior to the month in which he died, at the time such period began or at the time of such death, and (ii) filed proof of such support within two years after the date of such death, or, if such individual had such a period of disability, within two years after the month in which such individual filed application with respect to such period of disability or two years after the date of such death, as the case may be,

(C) has not married since such individual's death,

(D) is not entitled to old-age insurance benefits, or is entitled to old-age insurance benefits each of which is less than 82½ percent of the primary insurance amount of such deceased individual if the amount of the parent's insurance benefit for such month is determinable under paragraph (2)(A) (or 75 percent of such primary insurance amount in any other case), and

(E) has filed application for parent's insurance benefits,


shall be entitled to a parent's insurance benefit for each month beginning with the first month after August 1950 in which such parent becomes so entitled to such parent's insurance benefits and ending with the month preceding the first month in which any of the following occurs: such parent dies, marries, or becomes entitled to an old-age insurance benefit equal to or exceeding 82½ percent of the primary insurance amount of such deceased individual if the amount of the parent's insurance benefit for such month is determinable under paragraph (2)(A) (or 75 percent of such primary insurance amount in any other case).

(2)(A) Except as provided in subparagraphs (B) and (C), such parent's insurance benefit for each month shall be equal to 82½ percent of the primary insurance amount of such deceased individual.

(B) For any month for which more than one parent is entitled to parent's insurance benefits on the basis of such deceased individual's wages and self-employment income, such benefit for each such parent for such month shall (except as provided in subparagraph (C)) be equal to 75 percent of the primary insurance amount of such deceased individual.

(C) In any case in which—

(i) any parent is entitled to a parent's insurance benefit for a month on the basis of a deceased individual's wages and self-employment income, and

(ii) another parent of such deceased individual is entitled to a parent's insurance benefit for such month on the basis of such wages and self-employment income, and on the basis of an application filed after such month and after the month in which the application for the parent's benefits referred to in clause (i) was filed,


the amount of the parent's insurance benefit of the parent referred to in clause (i) for the month referred to in such clause shall be determined under subparagraph (A) instead of subparagraph (B) and the amount of the parent's insurance benefit of a parent referred to in clause (ii) for such month shall be equal to 150 percent of the primary insurance amount of the deceased individual minus the amount (before the application of section 403(a) of this title) of the benefit for such month of the parent referred to in clause (i).

(3) As used in this subsection, the term “parent” means the mother or father of an individual, a stepparent of an individual by a marriage contracted before such individual attained the age of sixteen, or an adopting parent by whom an individual was adopted before he attained the age of sixteen.

(4) In the case of a parent who marries—

(A) an individual entitled to benefits under this subsection or subsection (b), (c), (e), (f), or (g) of this section, or

(B) an individual who has attained the age of eighteen and is entitled to benefits under subsection (d) of this section,


such parent's entitlement to benefits under this subsection shall, notwithstanding the provisions of paragraph (1) of this subsection but subject to subsection (s) of this section, not be terminated by reason of such marriage.

(i) Lump-sum death payments

Upon the death, after August 1950, of an individual who died a fully or currently insured individual, an amount equal to three times such individual's primary insurance amount (as determined without regard to the amendments made by section 2201 of the Omnibus Budget Reconciliation Act of 1981, relating to the repeal of the minimum benefit provisions), or an amount equal to $255, whichever is the smaller, shall be paid in a lump sum to the person, if any, determined by the Commissioner of Social Security to be the widow or widower of the deceased and to have been living in the same household with the deceased at the time of death. If there is no such person, or if such person dies before receiving payment, then such amount shall be paid—

(1) to a widow (as defined in section 416(c) of this title) or widower (as defined in section 416(g) of this title) who is entitled (or would have been so entitled had a timely application been filed), on the basis of the wages and self-employment income of such insured individual, to benefits under subsection (e), (f), or (g) of this section for the month in which occurred such individual's death; or

(2) if no person qualifies for payment under paragraph (1), or if such person dies before receiving payment, in equal shares to each person who is entitled (or would have been so entitled had a timely application been filed), on the basis of the wages and self-employment income of such insured individual, to benefits under subsection (d) of this section for the month in which occurred such individual's death.


No payment shall be made to any person under this subsection unless application therefor shall have been filed, by or on behalf of such person (whether or not legally competent), prior to the expiration of two years after the date of death of such insured individual, or unless such person was entitled to wife's or husband's insurance benefits, on the basis of the wages and self-employment income of such insured individual, for the month preceding the month in which such individual died. In the case of any individual who died outside the forty-eight States and the District of Columbia after December 1953 and before January 1, 1957, whose death occurred while he was in the active military or naval service of the United States, and who is returned to any of such States, the District of Columbia, Alaska, Hawaii, the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico, the Virgin Islands, Guam, or American Samoa for interment or reinterment, the provisions of the preceding sentence shall not prevent payment to any person under the second sentence of this subsection if application for a lump-sum death payment with respect to such deceased individual is filed by or on behalf of such person (whether or not legally competent) prior to the expiration of two years after the date of such interment or reinterment. In the case of any individual who died outside the fifty States and the District of Columbia after December 1956 while he was performing service, as a member of a uniformed service, to which the provisions of section 410(l)(1) of this title are applicable, and who is returned to any State, or to any Territory or possession of the United States, for interment or reinterment, the provisions of the third sentence of this subsection shall not prevent payment to any person under the second sentence of this subsection if application for a lump-sum death payment with respect to such deceased individual is filed by or on behalf of such person (whether or not legally competent) prior to the expiration of two years after the date of such interment or reinterment.

(j) Application for monthly insurance benefits

(1) Subject to the limitations contained in paragraph (4), an individual who would have been entitled to a benefit under subsection (a), (b), (c), (d), (e), (f), (g), or (h) of this section for any month after August 1950 had he filed application therefor prior to the end of such month shall be entitled to such benefit for such month if he files application therefor prior to—

(A) the end of the twelfth month immediately succeeding such month in any case where the individual (i) is filing application for a benefit under subsection (e) or (f) of this section, and satisfies paragraph (1)(B) of such subsection by reason of clause (ii) thereof, or (ii) is filing application for a benefit under subsection (b), (c), or (d) of this section on the basis of the wages and self-employment income of a person entitled to disability insurance benefits, or

(B) the end of the sixth month immediately succeeding such month in any case where subparagraph (A) does not apply.


Any benefit under this subchapter for a month prior to the month in which application is filed shall be reduced, to any extent that may be necessary, so that it will not render erroneous any benefit which, before the filing of such application, the Commissioner of Social Security has certified for payment for such prior month.

(2) An application for any monthly benefits under this section filed before the first month in which the applicant satisfies the requirements for such benefits shall be deemed a valid application (and shall be deemed to have been filed in such first month) only if the applicant satisfies the requirements for such benefits before the Commissioner of Social Security makes a final decision on the application and no request under section 405(b) of this title for notice and opportunity for a hearing thereon is made or, if such a request is made, before a decision based upon the evidence adduced at the hearing is made (regardless of whether such decision becomes the final decision of the Commissioner of Social Security).

(3) Notwithstanding the provisions of paragraph (1), an individual may, at his option, waive entitlement to any benefit referred to in paragraph (1) for any one or more consecutive months (beginning with the earliest month for which such individual would otherwise be entitled to such benefit) which occur before the month in which such individual files application for such benefit; and, in such case, such individual shall not be considered as entitled to such benefits for any such month or months before such individual filed such application. An individual shall be deemed to have waived such entitlement for any such month for which such benefit would, under the second sentence of paragraph (1), be reduced to zero.

(4)(A) Except as provided in subparagraph (B), no individual shall be entitled to a monthly benefit under subsection (a), (b), (c), (e), or (f) of this section for any month prior to the month in which he or she files an application for benefits under that subsection if the amount of the monthly benefit to which such individual would otherwise be entitled for any such month would be subject to reduction pursuant to subsection (q) of this section.

(B)(i) If the individual applying for retroactive benefits is a widow, surviving divorced wife, or widower and is under a disability (as defined in section 423(d) of this title), and such individual would, except for subparagraph (A), be entitled to retroactive benefits as a disabled widow or widower or disabled surviving divorced wife for any month before attaining the age of 60, then subparagraph (A) shall not apply with respect to such month or any subsequent month.

(ii) Subparagraph (A) does not apply to a benefit under subsection (e) or (f) of this section for the month immediately preceding the month of application, if the insured individual died in that preceding month.

(iii) As used in this subparagraph, the term “retroactive benefits” means benefits to which an individual becomes entitled for a month prior to the month in which application for such benefits is filed.

(5) In any case in which it is determined to the satisfaction of the Commissioner of Social Security that an individual failed as of any date to apply for monthly insurance benefits under this subchapter by reason of misinformation provided to such individual by any officer or employee of the Social Security Administration relating to such individual's eligibility for benefits under this subchapter, such individual shall be deemed to have applied for such benefits on the later of—

(A) the date on which such misinformation was provided to such individual, or

(B) the date on which such individual met all requirements for entitlement to such benefits (other than application therefor).

(k) Simultaneous entitlement to benefits

(1) A child, entitled to child's insurance benefits on the basis of the wages and self-employment income of an insured individual, who would be entitled, on filing application, to child's insurance benefits on the basis of the wages and self-employment income of some other insured individual, shall be deemed entitled, subject to the provisions of paragraph (2) of this subsection, to child's insurance benefits on the basis of the wages and self-employment income of such other individual if an application for child's insurance benefits on the basis of the wages and self-employment income of such other individual has been filed by any other child who would, on filing application, be entitled to child's insurance benefits on the basis of the wages and self-employment income of both such insured individuals.

(2)(A) Any child who under the preceding provisions of this section is entitled for any month to child's insurance benefits on the wages and self-employment income of more than one insured individual shall, notwithstanding such provisions, be entitled to only one of such child's insurance benefits for such month. Such child's insurance benefits for such month shall be the benefit based on the wages and self-employment income of the insured individual who has the greatest primary insurance amount, except that such child's insurance benefits for such month shall be the largest benefit to which such child could be entitled under subsection (d) of this section (without the application of section 403(a) of this title) or subsection (m) of this section if entitlement to such benefit would not, with respect to any person, result in a benefit lower (after the application of section 403(a) of this title) than the benefit which would be applicable if such child were entitled on the wages and self-employment income of the individual with the greatest primary insurance amount. Where more than one child is entitled to child's insurance benefits pursuant to the preceding provisions of this paragraph, each such child who is entitled on the wages and self-employment income of the same insured individuals shall be entitled on the wages and self-employment income of the same such insured individual.

(B) Any individual (other than an individual to whom subsection (e)(3) or (f)(3) of this section applies) who, under the preceding provisions of this section and under the provisions of section 423 of this title, is entitled for any month to more than one monthly insurance benefit (other than an old-age or disability insurance benefit) under this subchapter shall be entitled to only one such monthly benefit for such month, such benefit to be the largest of the monthly benefits to which he (but for this subparagraph) would otherwise be entitled for such month. Any individual who is entitled for any month to more than one widow's or widower's insurance benefit to which subsection (e)(3) or (f)(3) of this section applies shall be entitled to only one such benefit for such month, such benefit to be the largest of such benefits.

(3)(A) If an individual is entitled to an old-age or disability insurance benefit for any month and to any other monthly insurance benefit for such month, such other insurance benefit for such month, after any reduction under subsection (q), subsection (e)(2) or (f)(2) of this section, and any reduction under section 403(a) of this title, shall be reduced, but not below zero, by an amount equal to such old-age or disability insurance benefit (after reduction under such subsection (q) of this section).

(B) If an individual is entitled for any month to a widow's or widower's insurance benefit to which subsection (e)(3) or (f)(3) of this section applies and to any other monthly insurance benefit under this section (other than an old-age insurance benefit), such other insurance benefit for such month, after any reduction under subparagraph (A) of this paragraph, any reduction under subsection (q) of this section, and any reduction under section 403(a) of this title, shall be reduced, but not below zero, by an amount equal to such widow's or widower's insurance benefit after any reduction or reductions under such subparagraph (A) and such section 403(a).

(4) Any individual who, under this section and section 423 of this title, is entitled for any month to both an old-age insurance benefit and a disability insurance benefit under this subchapter shall be entitled to only the larger of such benefits for such month, except that, if such individual so elects, he shall instead be entitled to only the smaller of such benefits for such month.

(5)(A) The amount of a monthly insurance benefit of any individual for each month under subsection (b), (c), (e), (f), or (g) of this section (as determined after application of the provisions of subsection (q) of this section and the preceding provisions of this subsection) shall be reduced (but not below zero) by an amount equal to two-thirds of the amount of any monthly periodic benefit payable to such individual for such month which is based upon such individual's earnings while in the service of the Federal Government or any State (or political subdivision thereof, as defined in section 418(b)(2) of this title) if, during any portion of the last 60 months of such service ending with the last day such individual was employed by such entity—

(i) such service did not constitute “employment” as defined in section 410 of this title, or

(ii) such service was being performed while in the service of the Federal Government, and constituted “employment” as so defined solely by reason of—

(I) clause (ii) or (iii) of subparagraph (G) of section 410(a)(5) of this title, where the lump-sum payment described in such clause (ii) or the cessation of coverage described in such clause (iii) (whichever is applicable) was received or occurred on or after January 1, 1988, or

(II) an election to become subject to the Federal Employees’ Retirement System provided in chapter 84 of title 5 or the Foreign Service Pension System provided in subchapter II of chapter 8 of title I of the Foreign Service Act of 1980 [22 U.S.C. 4071 et seq.] made pursuant to law after December 31, 1987,


unless subparagraph (B) applies.


The amount of the reduction in any benefit under this subparagraph, if not a multiple of $0.10, shall be rounded to the next higher multiple of $0.10.

(B)(i) Subparagraph (A)(i) shall not apply with respect to monthly periodic benefits based wholly on service as a member of a uniformed service (as defined in section 410(m) of this title).

(ii) Subparagraph (A)(ii) shall not apply with respect to monthly periodic benefits based in whole or in part on service which constituted “employment” as defined in section 410 of this title if such service was performed for at least 60 months in the aggregate during the period beginning January 1, 1988, and ending with the close of the first calendar month as of the end of which such individual is eligible for benefits under this subsection and has made a valid application for such benefits.

(C) For purposes of this paragraph, any periodic benefit which otherwise meets the requirements of subparagraph (A), but which is paid on other than a monthly basis, shall be allocated on a basis equivalent to a monthly benefit (as determined by the Commissioner of Social Security) and such equivalent monthly benefit shall constitute a monthly periodic benefit for purposes of subparagraph (A). For purposes of this subparagraph, the term “periodic benefit” includes a benefit payable in a lump sum if it is a commutation of, or a substitute for, periodic payments.

(l) Entitlement to survivor benefits under railroad retirement provisions

If any person would be entitled, upon filing application therefor to an annuity under section 2 of the Railroad Retirement Act of 1974 [45 U.S.C. 231a], or to a lump-sum payment under section 6(b) of such Act [45 U.S.C. 231e(b)], with respect to the death of an employee (as defined in such Act) no lump-sum death payment, and no monthly benefit for the month in which such employee died or for any month thereafter, shall be paid under this section to any person on the basis of the wages and self-employment income of such employee.

(m) Repealed. Pub. L. 97–35, title XXII, §2201(b)(10), Aug. 13, 1981, 95 Stat. 831

(n) Termination of benefits upon removal of primary beneficiary

(1) If any individual is (after September 1, 1954) removed under section 1227(a) of title 8 (other than under paragraph (1)(C) of such section) or under section 1182(a)(6)(A) of title 8, then, notwithstanding any other provisions of this subchapter—

(A) no monthly benefit under this section or section 423 of this title shall be paid to such individual, on the basis of his wages and self-employment income, for any month occurring (i) after the month in which the Commissioner of Social Security is notified by the Attorney General or the Secretary of Homeland Security that such individual has been so removed, and (ii) before the month in which such individual is thereafter lawfully admitted to the United States for permanent residence,

(B) if no benefit could be paid to such individual (or if no benefit could be paid to him if he were alive) for any month by reason of subparagraph (A), no monthly benefit under this section shall be paid, on the basis of his wages and self-employment income, for such month to any other person who is not a citizen of the United States and is outside the United States for any part of such month, and

(C) no lump-sum death payment shall be made on the basis of such individual's wages and self-employment income if he dies (i) in or after the month in which such notice is received, and (ii) before the month in which he is thereafter lawfully admitted to the United States for permanent residence.


Section 403(b), (c), and (d) of this title shall not apply with respect to any such individual for any month for which no monthly benefit may be paid to him by reason of this paragraph.

(2) As soon as practicable after the removal of any individual under any of the paragraphs of section 1227(a) of title 8 (other than under paragraph (1)(C) of such section) or under section 1182(a)(6)(A) of title 8, the Attorney General or the Secretary of Homeland Security shall notify the Commissioner of Social Security of such removal.

(3) For purposes of paragraphs (1) and (2) of this subsection, an individual against whom a final order of removal has been issued under paragraph (4)(D) of section 1227(a) of title 8 (relating to participating in Nazi persecutions or genocide) shall be considered to have been removed under such paragraph (4)(D) as of the date on which such order became final.

(o) Application for benefits by survivors of members and former members of uniformed services

In the case of any individual who would be entitled to benefits under subsection (d), (e), (g), or (h) of this section upon filing proper application therefor, the filing with the Administrator of Veterans’ Affairs by or on behalf of such individual of an application for such benefits, on the form described in section 5105 of title 38, shall satisfy the requirement of such subsection (d), (e), (g), or (h) that an application for such benefits be filed.

(p) Extension of period for filing proof of support and applications for lump-sum death payment

In any case in which there is a failure—

(1) to file proof of support under subparagraph (B) of subsection (h)(1) of this section, or under clause (B) of subsection (f)(1) of this section as in effect prior to the Social Security Act Amendments of 1950, within the period prescribed by such subparagraph or clause, or

(2) to file, in the case of a death after 1946, application for a lump-sum death payment under subsection (i) of this section, or under subsection (g) of this section as in effect prior to the Social Security Act Amendments of 1950, within the period prescribed by such subsection,


any such proof or application, as the case may be, which is filed after the expiration of such period shall be deemed to have been filed within such period if it is shown to the satisfaction of the Commissioner of Social Security that there was good cause for failure to file such proof or application within such period. The determination of what constitutes good cause for purposes of this subsection shall be made in accordance with regulations of the Commissioner of Social Security.

(q) Reduction of benefit amounts for certain beneficiaries

(1) Subject to paragraph (9), if the first month for which an individual is entitled to an old-age, wife's, husband's, widow's, or widower's insurance benefit is a month before the month in which such individual attains retirement age, the amount of such benefit for such month and for any subsequent month shall, subject to the succeeding paragraphs of this subsection, be reduced by—

(A) 5/9 of 1 percent of such amount if such benefit is an old-age insurance benefit, 25/36 of 1 percent of such amount if such benefit is a wife's or husband's insurance benefit, or 19/40 of 1 percent of such amount if such benefit is a widow's or widower's insurance benefit, multiplied by

(B)(i) the number of months in the reduction period for such benefit (determined under paragraph (6)), if such benefit is for a month before the month in which such individual attains retirement age, or

(ii) if less, the number of such months in the adjusted reduction period for such benefit (determined under paragraph (7)), if such benefit is (I) for the month in which such individual attains age 62, or (II) for the month in which such individual attains retirement age.


(2) If an individual is entitled to a disability insurance benefit for a month after a month for which such individual was entitled to an old-age insurance benefit, such disability insurance benefit for each month shall be reduced by the amount such old-age insurance benefit would be reduced under paragraphs (1) and (4) for such month had such individual attained retirement age (as defined in section 416(l) of this title) in the first month for which he most recently became entitled to a disability insurance benefit.

(3)(A) If the first month for which an individual both is entitled to a wife's, husband's, widow's, or widower's insurance benefit and has attained age 62 (in the case of a wife's or husband's insurance benefit) or age 50 (in the case of a widow's or widower's insurance benefit) is a month for which such individual is also entitled to—

(i) an old-age insurance benefit (to which such individual was first entitled for a month before he attains retirement age (as defined in section 416(l) of this title)), or

(ii) a disability insurance benefit,


then in lieu of any reduction under paragraph (1) (but subject to the succeeding paragraphs of this subsection) such wife's, husband's, widow's, or widower's insurance benefit for each month shall be reduced as provided in subparagraph (B), (C), or (D).

(B) For any month for which such individual is entitled to an old-age insurance benefit and is not entitled to a disability insurance benefit, such individual's wife's or husband's insurance benefit shall be reduced by the sum of—

(i) the amount by which such old-age insurance benefit is reduced under paragraph (1) for such month, and

(ii) the amount by which such wife's or husband's insurance benefit would be reduced under paragraph (1) for such month if it were equal to the excess of such wife's or husband's insurance benefit (before reduction under this subsection) over such old-age insurance benefit (before reduction under this subsection).


(C) For any month for which such individual is entitled to a disability insurance benefit, such individual's wife's, husband's, widow's, or widower's insurance benefit shall be reduced by the sum of—

(i) the amount by which such disability insurance benefit is reduced under paragraph (2) for such month (if such paragraph applied to such benefit), and

(ii) the amount by which such wife's, husband's, widow's, or widower's insurance benefit would be reduced under paragraph (1) for such month if it were equal to the excess of such wife's, husband's, widow's, or widower's insurance benefit (before reduction under this subsection) over such disability insurance benefit (before reduction under this subsection).


(D) For any month for which such individual is entitled neither to an old-age insurance benefit nor to a disability insurance benefit, such individual's wife's, husband's, widow's, or widower's insurance benefit shall be reduced by the amount by which it would be reduced under paragraph (1).

(E) Notwithstanding subparagraph (A) of this paragraph, if the first month for which an individual is entitled to a widow's or widower's insurance benefit is a month for which such individual is also entitled to an old-age insurance benefit to which such individual was first entitled for that month or for a month before she or he became entitled to a widow's or widower's benefit, the reduction in such widow's or widower's insurance benefit shall be determined under paragraph (1).

(4) If—

(A) an individual is or was entitled to a benefit subject to reduction under paragraph (1) or (3) of this subsection, and

(B) such benefit is increased by reason of an increase in the primary insurance amount of the individual on whose wages and self-employment income such benefit is based,


then the amount of the reduction of such benefit (after the application of any adjustment under paragraph (7)) for each month beginning with the month of such increase in the primary insurance amount shall be computed under paragraph (1) or (3), whichever applies, as though the increased primary insurance amount had been in effect for and after the month for which the individual first became entitled to such monthly benefit reduced under such paragraph (1) or (3).

(5)(A) No wife's or husband's insurance benefit shall be reduced under this subsection—

(i) for any month before the first month for which there is in effect a certificate filed by him or her with the Commissioner of Social Security, in accordance with regulations prescribed by the Commissioner of Social Security, in which he or she elects to receive wife's or husband's insurance benefits reduced as provided in this subsection, or

(ii) for any month in which he or she has in his or her care (individually or jointly with the person on whose wages and self-employment income the wife's or husband's insurance benefit is based) a child of such person entitled to child's insurance benefits.


(B) Any certificate described in subparagraph (A)(i) shall be effective for purposes of this subsection (and for purposes of preventing deductions under section 403(c)(2) of this title)—

(i) for the month in which it is filed and for any month thereafter, and

(ii) for months, in the period designated by the individual filing such certificate, of one or more consecutive months (not exceeding 12) immediately preceding the month in which such certificate is filed;


except that such certificate shall not be effective for any month before the month in which he or she attains age 62, nor shall it be effective for any month to which subparagraph (A)(ii) applies.

(C) If an individual does not have in his or her care a child described in subparagraph (A)(ii) in the first month for which he or she is entitled to a wife's or husband's insurance benefit, and if such first month is a month before the month in which he or she attains retirement age (as defined in section 416(l) of this title), he or she shall be deemed to have filed in such first month the certificate described in subparagraph (A)(i).

(D) No widow's or widower's insurance benefit for a month in which he or she has in his or her care a child of his or her deceased spouse (or deceased former spouse) entitled to child's insurance benefits shall be reduced under this subsection below the amount to which he or she would have been entitled had he or she been entitled for such month to mother's or father's insurance benefits on the basis of his or her deceased spouse's (or deceased former spouse's) wages and self-employment income.

(6) For purposes of this subsection, the “reduction period” for an individual's old-age, wife's, husband's, widow's, or widower's insurance benefit is the period—

(A) beginning—

(i) in the case of an old-age insurance benefit, with the first day of the first month for which such individual is entitled to such benefit,

(ii) in the case of a wife's or husband's insurance benefit, with the first day of the first month for which a certificate described in paragraph (5)(A)(i) is effective, or

(iii) in the case of a widow's or widower's insurance benefit, with the first day of the first month for which such individual is entitled to such benefit or the first day of the month in which such individual attains age 60, whichever is the later, and


(B) ending with the last day of the month before the month in which such individual attains retirement age.


(7) For purposes of this subsection, the “adjusted reduction period” for an individual's old-age, wife's, husband's, widow's, or widower's insurance benefit is the reduction period prescribed in paragraph (6) for such benefit, excluding—

(A) any month in which such benefit was subject to deductions under section 403(b), 403(c)(1), 403(d)(1), or 422(b) of this title,

(B) in the case of wife's or husband's insurance benefits, any month in which such individual had in his or her care (individually or jointly with the person on whose wages and self-employment income such benefit is based) a child of such person entitled to child's insurance benefits,

(C) in the case of wife's or husband's insurance benefits, any month for which such individual was not entitled to such benefits because of the occurrence of an event that terminated her or his entitlement to such benefits,

(D) in the case of widow's or widower's insurance benefits, any month in which the reduction in the amount of such benefit was determined under paragraph (5)(D),

(E) in the case of widow's or widower's insurance benefits, any month before the month in which she or he attained age 62, and also for any later month before the month in which she or he attained retirement age, for which she or he was not entitled to such benefit because of the occurrence of an event that terminated her or his entitlement to such benefits, and

(F) in the case of old-age insurance benefits, any month for which such individual was entitled to a disability insurance benefit.


(8) This subsection shall be applied after reduction under section 403(a) of this title and before application of section 415(g) of this title. If the amount of any reduction computed under paragraph (1), (2), or (3) is not a multiple of $0.10, it shall be increased to the next higher multiple of $0.10.

(9) The amount of the reduction for early retirement specified in paragraph (1)—

(A) for old-age insurance benefits, wife's insurance benefits, and husband's insurance benefits, shall be the amount specified in such paragraph for the first 36 months of the reduction period (as defined in paragraph (6)) or adjusted reduction period (as defined in paragraph (7)), and five-twelfths of 1 percent for any additional months included in such periods; and

(B) for widow's insurance benefits and widower's insurance benefits, shall be periodically revised by the Commissioner of Social Security such that—

(i) the amount of the reduction at early retirement age as defined in section 416(l) of this title shall be 28.5 percent of the full benefit; and

(ii) the amount of the reduction for each month in the reduction period (specified in paragraph (6)) or the adjusted reduction period (specified in paragraph (7)) shall be established by linear interpolation between 28.5 percent at the month of attainment of early retirement age and 0 percent at the month of attainment of retirement age.


(10) For purposes of applying paragraph (4), with respect to monthly benefits payable for any month after December 1977 to an individual who was entitled to a monthly benefit as reduced under paragraph (1) or (3) prior to January 1978, the amount of reduction in such benefit for the first month for which such benefit is increased by reason of an increase in the primary insurance amount of the individual on whose wages and self-employment income such benefit is based and for all subsequent months (and similarly for all subsequent increases) shall be increased by a percentage equal to the percentage increase in such primary insurance amount (such increase being made in accordance with the provisions of paragraph (8)). In the case of an individual whose reduced benefit under this section is increased as a result of the use of an adjusted reduction period (in accordance with paragraphs (1) and (3) of this subsection), then for the first month for which such increase is effective, and for all subsequent months, the amount of such reduction (after the application of the previous sentence, if applicable) shall be determined—

(A) in the case of old-age, wife's, and husband's insurance benefits, by multiplying such amount by the ratio of (i) the number of months in the adjusted reduction period to (ii) the number of months in the reduction period,

(B) in the case of widow's and widower's insurance benefits for the month in which such individual attains age 62, by multiplying such amount by the ratio of (i) the number of months in the reduction period beginning with age 62 multiplied by 19/40 of 1 percent, plus the number of months in the adjusted reduction period prior to age 62 multiplied by 19/40 of 1 percent to (ii) the number of months in the reduction period multiplied by 19/40 of 1 percent, and

(C) in the case of widow's and widower's insurance benefits for the month in which such individual attains retirement age (as defined in section 416(l) of this title), by multiplying such amount by the ratio of (i) the number of months in the adjusted reduction period multiplied by 19/40 of 1 percent to (ii) the number of months in the reduction period beginning with age 62 multiplied by 19/40 of 1 percent, plus the number of months in the adjusted reduction period prior to age 62 multiplied by 19/40 of 1 percent,


such determination being made in accordance with the provisions of paragraph (8).

(11) When an individual is entitled to more than one monthly benefit under this subchapter and one or more of such benefits are reduced under this subsection, paragraph (10) shall apply separately to each such benefit reduced under this subsection before the application of subsection (k) of this section (pertaining to the method by which monthly benefits are offset when an individual is entitled to more than one kind of benefit) and the application of this paragraph shall operate in conjunction with paragraph (3).

(r) Presumed filing of application by individuals eligible for old-age insurance benefits and for wife's or husband's insurance benefits

(1) If the first month for which an individual is entitled to an old-age insurance benefit is a month before the month in which such individual attains retirement age (as defined in section 416(l) of this title), and if such individual is eligible for a wife's or husband's insurance benefit for such first month, such individual shall be deemed to have filed an application in such month for wife's or husband's insurance benefits.

(2) If the first month for which an individual is entitled to a wife's or husband's insurance benefit reduced under subsection (q) of this section is a month before the month in which such individual attains retirement age (as defined in section 416(l) of this title), and if such individual is eligible (but for subsection (k)(4) of this section) for an old-age insurance benefit for such first month, such individual shall be deemed to have filed an application for old-age insurance benefits—

(A) in such month, or

(B) if such individual is also entitled to a disability insurance benefit for such month, in the first subsequent month for which such individual is not entitled to a disability insurance benefit.


(3) For purposes of this subsection, an individual shall be deemed eligible for a benefit for a month if, upon filing application therefor in such month, he would be entitled to such benefit for such month.

(s) Child over specified age to be disregarded for certain benefit purposes unless disabled

(1) For the purposes of subsections (b)(1), (c)(1), (g)(1), (q)(5), and (q)(7) of this section and paragraphs (2), (3), and (4) of section 403(c) of this title, a child who is entitled to child's insurance benefits under subsection (d) of this section for any month, and who has attained the age of 16 but is not in such month under a disability (as defined in section 423(d) of this title), shall be deemed not entitled to such benefits for such month, unless he was under such a disability in the third month before such month.

(2) So much of subsections (b)(3), (c)(4),1 (d)(5), (g)(3), and (h)(4) of this section as precedes the semicolon, shall not apply in the case of any child unless such child, at the time of the marriage referred to therein, was under a disability (as defined in section 423(d) of this title) or had been under such a disability in the third month before the month in which such marriage occurred.

(3) The last sentence of subsection (c) of section 403 of this title, subsection (f)(1)(C) of section 403 of this title, and subsections (b)(3)(B), (c)(6)(B),1 (f)(3)(B), and (g)(6)(B) 1 of section 416 of this title shall not apply in the case of any child with respect to any month referred to therein unless in such month or the third month prior thereto such child was under a disability (as defined in section 423(d) of this title).

(t) Suspension of benefits of aliens who are outside United States; residency requirements for dependents and survivors

(1) Notwithstanding any other provision of this subchapter, no monthly benefits shall be paid under this section or under section 423 of this title to any individual who is not a citizen or national of the United States for any month which is—

(A) after the sixth consecutive calendar month during all of which the Commissioner of Social Security finds, on the basis of information furnished to the Commissioner by the Attorney General or information which otherwise comes to the Commissioner's attention, that such individual is outside the United States, and

(B) prior to the first month thereafter for all of which such individual has been in the United States.


For purposes of the preceding sentence, after an individual has been outside the United States for any period of thirty consecutive days he shall be treated as remaining outside the United States until he has been in the United States for a period of thirty consecutive days.

(2) Subject to paragraph (11), paragraph (1) of this subsection shall not apply to any individual who is a citizen of a foreign country which the Commissioner of Social Security finds has in effect a social insurance or pension system which is of general application in such country and under which—

(A) periodic benefits, or the actuarial equivalent thereof, are paid on account of old age, retirement, or death, and

(B) individuals who are citizens of the United States but not citizens of such foreign country and who qualify for such benefits are permitted to receive such benefits or the actuarial equivalent thereof while outside such foreign country without regard to the duration of the absence.


(3) Paragraph (1) of this subsection shall not apply in any case where its application would be contrary to any treaty obligation of the United States in effect on August 1, 1956.

(4) Subject to paragraph (11), paragraph (1) of this subsection shall not apply to any benefit for any month if—

(A) not less than forty of the quarters elapsing before such month are quarters of coverage for the individual on whose wages and self-employment income such benefit is based, or

(B) the individual on whose wages and self-employment income such benefit is based has, before such month, resided in the United States for a period or periods aggregating ten years or more, or

(C) the individual entitled to such benefit is outside the United States while in the active military or naval service of the United States, or

(D) the individual on whose wages and self-employment income such benefit is based died, before such month, either (i) while on active duty or inactive duty training (as those terms are defined in section 410(l) (2) and (3) of this title) as a member of a uniformed service (as defined in section 410(m) of this title), or (ii) as the result of a disease or injury which the Secretary of Veterans Affairs determines was incurred or aggravated in line of duty while on active duty (as defined in section 410(l)(2) of this title), or an injury which he determines was incurred or aggravated in line of duty while on inactive duty training (as defined in section 410(l)(3) of this title), as a member of a uniformed service (as defined in section 410(m) of this title), if the Secretary of Veterans Affairs determines that such individual was discharged or released from the period of such active duty or inactive duty training under conditions other than dishonorable, and if the Secretary of Veterans Affairs certifies to the Commissioner of Social Security his determinations with respect to such individual under this clause, or

(E) the individual on whose employment such benefit is based had been in service covered by the Railroad Retirement Act of 1937 or 1974 [45 U.S.C. 228a et seq., 231 et seq.] which was treated as employment covered by this chapter pursuant to the provisions of section 5(k)(1) of the Railroad Retirement Act of 1937 [45 U.S.C. 228e(k)(1)] or section 18(2) of the Railroad Retirement Act of 1974 [45 U.S.C. 231q(2)];


except that subparagraphs (A) and (B) of this paragraph shall not apply in the case of any individual who is a citizen of a foreign country that has in effect a social insurance or pension system which is of general application in such country and which satisfies subparagraph (A) but not subparagraph (B) of paragraph (2), or who is a citizen of a foreign country that has no social insurance or pension system of general application if at any time within five years prior to the month in which the Social Security Amendments of 1967 are enacted (or the first month thereafter for which his benefits are subject to suspension under paragraph (1)) payments to individuals residing in such country were withheld by the Treasury Department under sections 3329(a) and 3330(a) of title 31.

(5) No person who is, or upon application would be, entitled to a monthly benefit under this section for December 1956 shall be deprived, by reason of paragraph (1) of this subsection, of such benefit or any other benefit based on the wages and self-employment income of the individual on whose wages and self-employment income such monthly benefit for December 1956 is based.

(6) If an individual is outside the United States when he dies and no benefit may, by reason of paragraph (1) or (10) of this subsection, be paid to him for the month preceding the month in which he dies, no lump-sum death payment may be made on the basis of such individual's wages and self-employment income.

(7) Subsections (b), (c), and (d) of section 403 of this title shall not apply with respect to any individual for any month for which no monthly benefit may be paid to him by reason of paragraph (1) of this subsection.

(8) The Attorney General shall certify to the Commissioner of Social Security such information regarding aliens who depart from the United States to any foreign country (other than a foreign country which is territorially contiguous to the continental United States) as may be necessary to enable the Commissioner of Social Security to carry out the purposes of this subsection and shall otherwise aid, assist, and cooperate with the Commissioner of Social Security in obtaining such other information as may be necessary to enable the Commissioner of Social Security to carry out the purposes of this subsection.

(9) No payments shall be made under part A of subchapter XVIII of this chapter with respect to items or services furnished to an individual in any month for which the prohibition in paragraph (1) against payment of benefits to him is applicable (or would be if he were entitled to any such benefits).

(10) Notwithstanding any other provision of this subchapter, no monthly benefits shall be paid under this section or under section 423 of this title, for any month beginning after June 30, 1968, to an individual who is not a citizen or national of the United States and who resides during such month in a foreign country if payments for such month to individuals residing in such country are withheld by the Treasury Department under sections 3329(a) and 3330(a) of title 31.

(11)(A) Paragraph (2) and subparagraphs (A), (B), (C), and (E) of paragraph (4) shall apply with respect to an individual's monthly benefits under subsection (b), (c), (d), (e), (f), (g), or (h) of this section only if such individual meets the residency requirements of this paragraph with respect to those benefits.

(B) An individual entitled to benefits under subsection (b), (c), (e), (f), or (g) of this section meets the residency requirements of this paragraph with respect to those benefits only if such individual has resided in the United States, and while so residing bore a spousal relationship to the person on whose wages and self-employment income such entitlement is based, for a total period of not less than 5 years. For purposes of this subparagraph, a period of time for which an individual bears a spousal relationship to another person consists of a period throughout which the individual has been, with respect to such other person, a wife, a husband, a widow, a widower, a divorced wife, a divorced husband, a surviving divorced wife, a surviving divorced husband, a surviving divorced mother, a surviving divorced father, or (as applicable in the course of such period) any two or more of the foregoing.

(C) An individual entitled to benefits under subsection (d) of this section meets the residency requirements of this paragraph with respect to those benefits only if—

(i)(I) such individual has resided in the United States (as the child of the person on whose wages and self-employment income such entitlement is based) for a total period of not less than 5 years, or

(II) the person on whose wages and self-employment income such entitlement is based, and the individual's other parent (within the meaning of subsection (h)(3) of this section), if any, have each resided in the United States for a total period of not less than 5 years (or died while residing in the United States), and

(ii) in the case of an individual entitled to such benefits as an adopted child, such individual was adopted within the United States by the person on whose wages and self-employment income such entitlement is based, and has lived in the United States with such person and received at least one-half of his or her support from such person for a period (beginning before such individual attained age 18) consisting of—

(I) the year immediately before the month in which such person became eligible for old-age insurance benefits or disability insurance benefits or died, whichever occurred first, or

(II) if such person had a period of disability which continued until he or she became entitled to old-age insurance benefits or disability insurance benefits or died, the year immediately before the month in which such period of disability began.


(D) An individual entitled to benefits under subsection (h) of this section meets the residency requirements of this paragraph with respect to those benefits only if such individual has resided in the United States, and while so residing was a parent (within the meaning of subsection (h)(3) of this section) of the person on whose wages and self-employment income such entitlement is based, for a total period of not less than 5 years.

(E) This paragraph shall not apply with respect to any individual who is a citizen or resident of a foreign country with which the United States has an agreement in force concluded pursuant to section 433 of this title, except to the extent provided by such agreement.

(u) Conviction of subversive activities, etc.

(1) If any individual is convicted of any offense (committed after August 1, 1956) under—

(A) chapter 37 (relating to espionage and censorship), chapter 105 (relating to sabotage), or chapter 115 (relating to treason, sedition, and subversive activities) of title 18, or

(B) section 783 of title 50,


then the court may, in addition to all other penalties provided by law, impose a penalty that in determining whether any monthly insurance benefit under this section or section 423 of this title is payable to such individual for the month in which he is convicted or for any month thereafter, in determining the amount of any such benefit payable to such individual for any such month, and in determining whether such individual is entitled to insurance benefits under part A of subchapter XVIII of this chapter for any such month, there shall not be taken into account—

(C) any wages paid to such individual or to any other individual in the calendar year in which such conviction occurs or in any prior calendar year, and

(D) any net earnings from self-employment derived by such individual or by any other individual during a taxable year in which such conviction occurs or during any prior taxable year.


(2) As soon as practicable after an additional penalty has, pursuant to paragraph (1) of this subsection, been imposed with respect to any individual, the Attorney General shall notify the Commissioner of Social Security of such imposition.

(3) If any individual with respect to whom an additional penalty has been imposed pursuant to paragraph (1) of this subsection is granted a pardon of the offense by the President of the United States, such additional penalty shall not apply for any month beginning after the date on which such pardon is granted.

(v) Waiver of benefits

(1) Notwithstanding any other provisions of this subchapter, and subject to paragraph (3), in the case of any individual who files a waiver pursuant to section 1402(g) of the Internal Revenue Code of 1986 and is granted a tax exemption thereunder, no benefits or other payments shall be payable under this subchapter to him, no payments shall be made on his behalf under part A of subchapter XVIII of this chapter, and no benefits or other payments under this subchapter shall be payable on the basis of his wages and self-employment income to any other person, after the filing of such waiver.

(2) Notwithstanding any other provision of this subchapter, and subject to paragraph (3), in the case of any individual who files a waiver pursuant to section 3127 of the Internal Revenue Code of 1986 and is granted a tax exemption thereunder, no benefits or other payments shall be payable under this subchapter to him, no payments shall be made on his behalf under part A of subchapter XVIII of this chapter, and no benefits or other payments under this subchapter shall be payable on the basis of his wages and self-employment income to any other person, after the filing of such waiver.

(3) If, after an exemption referred to in paragraph (1) or (2) is granted to an individual, such exemption ceases to be effective, the waiver referred to in such paragraph shall cease to be applicable in the case of benefits and other payments under this subchapter and part A of subchapter XVIII of this chapter to the extent based on—

(A) his wages for and after the calendar year following the calendar year in which occurs the failure to meet the requirements of section 1402(g) or 3127 of the Internal Revenue Code of 1986 on which the cessation of such exemption is based, and

(B) his self-employment income for and after the taxable year in which occurs such failure.

(w) Increase in old-age insurance benefit amounts on account of delayed retirement

(1) The amount of an old-age insurance benefit (other than a benefit based on a primary insurance amount determined under section 415(a)(3) of this title as in effect in December 1978 or section 415(a)(1)(C)(i) of this title as in effect thereafter) which is payable without regard to this subsection to an individual shall be increased by—

(A) the applicable percentage (as determined under paragraph (6)) of such amount, multiplied by

(B) the number (if any) of the increment months for such individual.


(2) For purposes of this subsection, the number of increment months for any individual shall be a number equal to the total number of the months—

(A) which have elapsed after the month before the month in which such individual attained retirement age (as defined in section 416(l) of this title) or (if later) December 1970 and prior to the month in which such individual attained age 70, and

(B) with respect to which—

(i) such individual was a fully insured individual (as defined in section 414(a) of this title),

(ii) such individual either was not entitled to an old-age insurance benefit or, if so entitled, did not receive benefits pursuant to a request by such individual that benefits not be paid, and

(iii) such individual was not subject to a penalty imposed under section 1320a–8a of this title.


(3) For purposes of applying the provisions of paragraph (1), a determination shall be made under paragraph (2) for each year, beginning with 1972, of the total number of an individual's increment months through the year for which the determination is made and the total so determined shall be applicable to such individual's old-age insurance benefits beginning with benefits for January of the year following the year for which such determination is made; except that the total number applicable in the case of an individual who attains age 70 after 1972 shall be determined through the month before the month in which he attains such age and shall be applicable to his old-age insurance benefit beginning with the month in which he attains such age.

(4) This subsection shall be applied after reduction under section 403(a) of this title.

(5) If an individual's primary insurance amount is determined under paragraph (3) of section 415(a) of this title as in effect in December 1978, or section 415(a)(1)(C)(i) of this title as in effect thereafter, and, as a result of this subsection, he would be entitled to a higher old-age insurance benefit if his primary insurance amount were determined under section 415(a) of this title (whether before, in, or after December 1978) without regard to such paragraph, such individual's old-age insurance benefit based upon his primary insurance amount determined under such paragraph shall be increased by an amount equal to the difference between such benefit and the benefit to which he would be entitled if his primary insurance amount were determined under such section without regard to such paragraph.

(6) For purposes of paragraph (1)(A), the “applicable percentage” is—

(A) 1/12 of 1 percent in the case of an individual who first becomes eligible for an old-age insurance benefit in any calendar year before 1979;

(B) ¼ of 1 percent in the case of an individual who first becomes eligible for an old-age insurance benefit in any calendar year after 1978 and before 1987;

(C) in the case of an individual who first becomes eligible for an old-age insurance benefit in a calendar year after 1986 and before 2005, a percentage equal to the applicable percentage in effect under this paragraph for persons who first became eligible for an old-age insurance benefit in the preceding calendar year (as increased pursuant to this subparagraph), plus 1/24 of 1 percent if the calendar year in which that particular individual first becomes eligible for such benefit is not evenly divisible by 2; and

(D) 2/3 of 1 percent in the case of an individual who first becomes eligible for an old-age insurance benefit in a calendar year after 2004.

(x) Limitation on payments to prisoners, certain other inmates of publicly funded institutions, fugitives, probationers, and parolees

(1)(A) Notwithstanding any other provision of this subchapter, no monthly benefits shall be paid under this section or under section 423 of this title to any individual for any month ending with or during or beginning with or during a period of more than 30 days throughout all of which such individual—

(i) is confined in a jail, prison, or other penal institution or correctional facility pursuant to his conviction of a criminal offense,

(ii) is confined by court order in an institution at public expense in connection with—

(I) a verdict or finding that the individual is guilty but insane, with respect to a criminal offense,

(II) a verdict or finding that the individual is not guilty of such an offense by reason of insanity,

(III) a finding that such individual is incompetent to stand trial under an allegation of such an offense, or

(IV) a similar verdict or finding with respect to such an offense based on similar factors (such as a mental disease, a mental defect, or mental incompetence),


(iii) immediately upon completion of confinement as described in clause (i) pursuant to conviction of a criminal offense an element of which is sexual activity, is confined by court order in an institution at public expense pursuant to a finding that the individual is a sexually dangerous person or a sexual predator or a similar finding,

(iv) is fleeing to avoid prosecution, or custody or confinement after conviction, under the laws of the place from which the person flees, for a crime, or an attempt to commit a crime, which is a felony under the laws of the place from which the person flees, or, in jurisdictions that do not define crimes as felonies, is punishable by death or imprisonment for a term exceeding 1 year regardless of the actual sentence imposed, or

(v) is violating a condition of probation or parole imposed under Federal or State law.


(B)(i) For purposes of clause (i) of subparagraph (A), an individual shall not be considered confined in an institution comprising a jail, prison, or other penal institution or correctional facility during any month throughout which such individual is residing outside such institution at no expense (other than the cost of monitoring) to such institution or the penal system or to any agency to which the penal system has transferred jurisdiction over the individual.

(ii) For purposes of clauses (ii) and (iii) of subparagraph (A), an individual confined in an institution as described in such clause (ii) shall be treated as remaining so confined until—

(I) he or she is released from the care and supervision of such institution, and

(II) such institution ceases to meet the individual's basic living needs.


(iii) Notwithstanding subparagraph (A), the Commissioner shall, for good cause shown, pay the individual benefits that have been withheld or would otherwise be withheld pursuant to clause (iv) or (v) of subparagraph (A) if the Commissioner determines that—

(I) a court of competent jurisdiction has found the individual not guilty of the criminal offense, dismissed the charges relating to the criminal offense, vacated the warrant for arrest of the individual for the criminal offense, or issued any similar exonerating order (or taken similar exonerating action), or

(II) the individual was erroneously implicated in connection with the criminal offense by reason of identity fraud.


(iv) Notwithstanding subparagraph (A), the Commissioner may, for good cause shown based on mitigating circumstances, pay the individual benefits that have been withheld or would otherwise be withheld pursuant to clause (iv) or (v) of subparagraph (A) if the Commissioner determines that—

(I) the offense described in clause (iv) or underlying the imposition of the probation or parole described in clause (v) was nonviolent and not drug-related, and

(II) in the case of an individual from whom benefits have been withheld or otherwise would be withheld pursuant to subparagraph (A)(v), the action that resulted in the violation of a condition of probation or parole was nonviolent and not drug-related.


(2) Benefits which would be payable to any individual (other than a confined individual to whom benefits are not payable by reason of paragraph (1)) under this subchapter on the basis of the wages and self-employment income of such a confined individual but for the provisions of paragraph (1), shall be payable as though such confined individual were receiving such benefits under this section or section 423 of this title.

(3)(A) Notwithstanding the provisions of section 552a of title 5 or any other provision of Federal or State law, any agency of the United States Government or of any State (or political subdivision thereof) shall make available to the Commissioner of Social Security, upon written request, the name and social security account number of any individual who is confined as described in paragraph (1) if the confinement is under the jurisdiction of such agency and the Commissioner of Social Security requires such information to carry out the provisions of this section.

(B)(i) The Commissioner shall enter into an agreement under this subparagraph with any interested State or local institution comprising a jail, prison, penal institution, or correctional facility, or comprising any other institution a purpose of which is to confine individuals as described in paragraph (1)(A)(ii). Under such agreement—

(I) the institution shall provide to the Commissioner, on a monthly basis and in a manner specified by the Commissioner, the names, Social Security account numbers, dates of birth, confinement commencement dates, and, to the extent available to the institution, such other identifying information concerning the individuals confined in the institution as the Commissioner may require for the purpose of carrying out paragraph (1) and other provisions of this subchapter; and

(II) the Commissioner shall pay to the institution, with respect to information described in subclause (I) concerning each individual who is confined therein as described in paragraph (1)(A), who receives a benefit under this subchapter for the month preceding the first month of such confinement, and whose benefit under this subchapter is determined by the Commissioner to be not payable by reason of confinement based on the information provided by the institution, $400 (subject to reduction under clause (ii)) if the institution furnishes the information to the Commissioner within 30 days after the date such individual's confinement in such institution begins, or $200 (subject to reduction under clause (ii)) if the institution furnishes the information after 30 days after such date but within 90 days after such date.


(ii) The dollar amounts specified in clause (i)(II) shall be reduced by 50 percent if the Commissioner is also required to make a payment to the institution with respect to the same individual under an agreement entered into under section 1382(e)(1)(I) of this title.

(iii) There are authorized to be transferred from the Federal Old-Age and Survivors Insurance Trust Fund and the Federal Disability Insurance Trust Fund, as appropriate, such sums as may be necessary to enable the Commissioner to make payments to institutions required by clause (i)(II).

(iv) The Commissioner shall maintain, and shall provide on a reimbursable basis, information obtained pursuant to agreements entered into under this paragraph to any agency administering a Federal or federally-assisted cash, food, or medical assistance program for eligibility and other administrative purposes under such program.

(C) Notwithstanding the provisions of section 552a of title 5 or any other provision of Federal or State law (other than section 6103 of the Internal Revenue Code of 1986 and section 1306(c) of this title), the Commissioner shall furnish any Federal, State, or local law enforcement officer, upon the written request of the officer, with the current address, Social Security number, and photograph (if applicable) of any beneficiary under this subchapter, if the officer furnishes the Commissioner with the name of the beneficiary, and other identifying information as reasonably required by the Commissioner to establish the unique identity of the beneficiary, and notifies the Commissioner that—

(i) the beneficiary is described in clause (iv) or (v) of paragraph (1)(A); and

(ii) the location or apprehension of the beneficiary is within the officer's official duties.

(y) Limitation on payments to aliens

Notwithstanding any other provision of law, no monthly benefit under this subchapter shall be payable to any alien in the United States for any month during which such alien is not lawfully present in the United States as determined by the Attorney General.

(Aug. 14, 1935, ch. 531, title II, §202, 49 Stat. 623; Aug. 10, 1939, ch. 666, title II, §201, 53 Stat. 1362, 1363; Aug. 10, 1946, ch. 951, title IV, §§402, 403(a), 404(a), 405(a), 60 Stat. 986, 987; Aug. 28, 1950, ch. 809, title I, §101(a), 64 Stat. 482; Aug. 14, 1953, ch. 483, §2, 67 Stat. 580; Sept. 1, 1954, ch. 1206, title I, §§102(i), 105(a), 107, 110, 68 Stat. 1073, 1079, 1083, 1085; Aug. 9, 1955, ch. 685, §2, 69 Stat. 621; Aug. 1, 1956, ch. 836, title I, §§101(a)–(c), 102(c), (d)(1)–(10), 103(c)(1)–(3), 113, 114(a), 118(a), 121(a), 70 Stat. 807, 810–814, 818, 831, 832, 835, 838; Aug. 1, 1956, ch. 837, title IV, §§403(a), 407, 70 Stat. 871, 876; Pub. L. 85–238, §§1, 3(a)–(g), Aug. 30, 1957, 71 Stat. 518; Pub. L. 85–798, §1, Aug. 28, 1958, 72 Stat. 964; Pub. L. 85–840, title I, §101(e), title II, §205(b)–(i), title III, §§301(a)(1), (b)(1), (c)(1), 303, 304(a)(1), 305(a), 306(a), 307(a)–(e), Aug. 28, 1958, 72 Stat. 1017, 1021–1024, 1026, 1027, 1029–1032; Pub. L. 85–857, §13(i)(1), Sept. 2, 1958, 72 Stat. 1265; Pub. L. 85–927, §301, Sept. 6, 1958, 72 Stat. 1783; Pub. L. 86–70, §32(c)(1), June 25, 1959, 73 Stat. 149; Pub. L. 86–624, §30(c)(1), July 12, 1960, 74 Stat. 420; Pub. L. 86–778, title I, §103(a)(1), (j)(2)(C), (D), title II, §§201(a), (b), 202(a), 203(a), 205(a), (b), 208(d), 211(i)–(l), title III, §301(a), title IV, §403(d), Sept. 13, 1960, 74 Stat. 936, 937, 946, 947, 949, 952, 957–959, 1969; Pub. L. 87–64, title I, §§102(a), (b)(1), (2)(A), (3), (e), 104(a)–(d), June 30, 1961, 75 Stat. 131, 134–136, 138, 139; Pub. L. 89–97, title I, §104(a), title III, §§303(d), 304(a)–(j), 306(a), (b), (c)(1)–(9), 307(a), (b), 308(a), (b), (d)(1), (2)(A), (3)–(5), (12), (13), 319(d), 323(a), 324(a), 328(a), 333(a)–(c), 334(e), (f), 339(b), 343(a), July 30, 1965, 79 Stat. 334, 367–379, 392, 397, 398, 400, 403–405, 410, 412; Pub. L. 90–248, title I, §§103(a)–(d), 104(a)–(c), 112(a), 151(a)–(d)(1), (2), 157(a), (b), 158(c)(1), (2), 162(a)(1), (b)(1), (c)(1), (2), Jan. 2, 1968, 81 Stat. 828–830, 838, 860, 867, 868, 871; Pub. L. 91–172, title X, §1004(a)–(c), Dec. 30, 1969, 83 Stat. 741; Pub. L. 92–223, §1, Dec. 28, 1971, 85 Stat. 802; Pub. L. 92–603, title I, §§102(a), (b), (d)–(f), 103(a), (b), 107(a), 108(a)–(e), 109(a), 110(a), 111(a), 112(a), 113(b), 114(a)–(c), 116(b), (c), Oct. 30, 1972, 86 Stat. 1335, 1336, 1338–1340, 1343–1348, 1350; Pub. L. 93–66, title II, §240(a), July 9, 1973, 87 Stat. 161; Pub. L. 93–233, §§1(f), (g), 18(b), Dec. 31, 1973, 87 Stat. 947, 948, 967; Pub. L. 93–445, title III, §301, Oct. 16, 1974, 88 Stat. 1357; Pub. L. 95–216, title II, §§203, 204(a)–(d), 205(a), (b), title III, §§331(a)–(c), 332(a)(1), (2), 334(a)–(d)(4)(A), (5), (6), (e), 336(a), (b), 337(b), 353(f)(1), Dec. 20, 1977, 91 Stat. 1527–1529, 1541–1548, 1554; Pub. L. 95–600, title VII, §703(j)(14)(A), Nov. 6, 1978, 92 Stat. 2942; Pub. L. 96–265, title III, §§303(b)(1)(B)–(D), 306(a), June 9, 1980, 94 Stat. 451, 452, 457; Pub. L. 96–473, §§5(b), 6(a), Oct. 19, 1980, 94 Stat. 2265; Pub. L. 96–499, title X, §1011(a), Dec. 5, 1980, 94 Stat. 2655; Pub. L. 97–35, title XXII, §§2201(b)(10), (11), (d), (f), 2202(a)(1), 2203(a), (b)(1), (c)(1), (d)(1), (2), 2205(a), 2206(b)(1), 2210(a), Aug. 13, 1981, 95 Stat. 831–838, 841; Pub. L. 97–123, §2(e), Dec. 29, 1981, 95 Stat. 1660; Pub. L. 97–455, §7(c), Jan. 12, 1983, 96 Stat. 2501; Pub. L. 98–21, title I, §§111(a)(7), 113(d), 114(a)–(c)(1), 131(a)(1)–(3)(G), (b)(1)–(3)(F), (c), 132(a), 133(a), (b), 134(a), (b), title II, §201(b), (c)(1)(A), title III, §§301(a), (b), 302, 306(a), (b), (d)–(h), 307(a), 309(a)–(e), 334(a), 337(a), 339(a), 340(a), (b), Apr. 20, 1983, 97 Stat. 72, 79, 92, 93, 95–98, 108, 111–116, 130, 131, 133–135; Pub. L. 98–369, div. B, title VI, §§2661(b)–(f), 2662(c)(1), 2663(a)(2), July 18, 1984, 98 Stat. 1156, 1159, 1160; Pub. L. 99–272, title XII, §§12104(a), 12107(a), Apr. 7, 1986, 100 Stat. 285, 286; Pub. L. 99–514, title XVIII, §1883(a)(1)–(3), Oct. 22, 1986, 100 Stat. 2916; Pub. L. 100–203, title IX, §§9007(a)–(e), 9010(b)–(d), Dec. 22, 1987, 101 Stat. 1330–289 to 1330–293; Pub. L. 100–647, title VIII, §§8004(a), (b), 8007(b), 8010(a), (b), 8014(a), Nov. 10, 1988, 102 Stat. 3780, 3782, 3788, 3790; Pub. L. 101–239, title X, §§10203(a), 10301(a), (b), 10302(a)(1), Dec. 19, 1989, 103 Stat. 2473, 2481; Pub. L. 101–508, title V, §§5103(c)(2)(A), (B), (d), 5116(a), Nov. 5, 1990, 104 Stat. 1388–252, 1388–253, 1388–274; Pub. L. 101–649, title VI, §603(b)(5), Nov. 29, 1990, 104 Stat. 5085; Pub. L. 102–40, title IV, §402(d)(2), May 7, 1991, 105 Stat. 239; Pub. L. 102–54, §13(q)(3)(C), June 13, 1991, 105 Stat. 279; Pub. L. 103–296, title I, §107(a)(4), title III, §§308(a), 321(a)(2)–(5), (b)(1), (c)(2), Aug. 15, 1994, 108 Stat. 1478, 1522, 1535–1538; Pub. L. 103–387, §4(a), Oct. 22, 1994, 108 Stat. 4076; Pub. L. 104–121, title I, §104(a)(1), (b)(1), (2), Mar. 29, 1996, 110 Stat. 851, 852; Pub. L. 104–208, div. C, title III, §308(g)(1), title V, §503(a), Sept. 30, 1996, 110 Stat. 3009–622, 3009–671; Pub. L. 106–169, title II, §207(b), Dec. 14, 1999, 113 Stat. 1838; Pub. L. 106–170, title IV, §402(a)(1), (b)(1), (d)(1), (2), 113 Stat. 1907–1909; Pub. L. 106–182, §4(b), Apr. 7, 2000, 114 Stat. 199; Pub. L. 108–203, title II, §203(a), title IV, §§412(a), (b), 418(a)–(b)(4)(B)(vi), (5), 420A(a), Mar. 2, 2004, 118 Stat. 509, 527, 528, 531–533, 535.)

References in Text

The effective date of this sentence, referred to in subsec. (d)(7)(A), is the effective date of section 5 of Pub. L. 96–473, which added such sentence effective with respect to benefits payable for months beginning on or after October 1, 1980. See Effective Date of 1980 Amendments note below.

Section 212 of Public Law 93–66, referred to in subsecs. (e)(5)(B), (8) and (f)(5)(B), (8), is set out as a note under section 1382 of this title.

Section 102(g) of the Social Security Amendments of 1972, referred to in subsecs. (e)(6) and (f)(6), is section 102(g) of Pub. L. 92–603, Oct. 30, 1972, 86 Stat. 1329, which is set out as a Redetermination of Widow's and Widower's Benefits note under this section.

Paragraph (3) of subsec. (f) of this section, referred to in subsec. (f)(1), was redesignated par. (2) of subsec. (f) by Pub. L. 108–203, §418(b)(4)(A)(i). See 2004 Amendment note below.

Section 2201 of the Omnibus Budget Reconciliation Act of 1981, referred to in subsec. (i), is Pub. L. 97–35, title XXII, §2201, Aug. 13, 1981, 95 Stat. 830, which enacted section 1382k of this title, amended sections 402, 403, 415, 417, and 433 of this title, and enacted provisions set out as notes under sections 415 and 1382k of this title.

The Foreign Service Act of 1980, referred to in subsec. (k)(5)(A)(ii)(II), is Pub. L. 96–465, Oct. 17, 1980, 94 Stat. 2071, as amended. Subchapter II of chapter 8 of title I of the Act is classified generally to part II (§4071 et seq.) of subchapter VIII of chapter 52 of Title 22, Foreign Relations and Intercourse. For complete classification of this Act to the Code, see Short Title note set out under section 3901 of Title 22 and Tables.

Clause (B) of subsection (f)(1) of this section as in effect prior to the Social Security Act Amendments of 1950, and subsection (g) of this section as in effect prior to the Social Security Act Amendments of 1950, referred to in subsec. (p), means such subsections as in effect prior to September 1, 1950, which was the effective date of section 101(a) of act Aug. 28, 1950. See section 101(b), (1), (3) of act Aug. 28, 1950, set out as an Effective Date of 1950 Amendment note below.

Subsection (c)(4) of this section, referred to in subsec. (s)(2), was redesignated subsec. (c)(3) by Pub. L. 108–203, §418(b)(2)(A). See 2004 Amendment note below.

Subsection (c)(6)(B) of section 416 of this title, referred to in subsec. (s)(3), was redesignated subsec. (c)(1)(F)(ii) of section 416 of this title by Pub. L. 108–203, §414(a)(1), (2), (4).

Subsection (g)(6)(B) of section 416 of this title, referred to in subsec. (s)(3), was redesignated subsec. (g)(1)(F)(ii) of section 416 of this title by Pub. L. 108–203, §414(b)(1), (2), (4).

The Railroad Retirement Act of 1937, referred to in subsec. (t)(4)(E), is act Aug. 29, 1935, ch. 812, 49 Stat. 867, as amended generally. See par. for Railroad Retirement Act of 1974 below.

The Railroad Retirement Act of 1974, referred to in subsec. (t)(4)(E), is act Aug. 29, 1935, ch. 812, as amended generally by Pub. L. 93–445, title I, §101, Oct. 16, 1974, 88 Stat. 1305, which is classified generally to subchapter IV (§231 et seq.) of chapter 9 of Title 45, Railroads. Pub. L. 93–445 completely amended and revised the Railroad Retirement Act of 1937 (approved June 24, 1937, ch. 382, 50 Stat. 307), and as thus amended and revised, the 1937 Act was redesignated the Railroad Retirement Act of 1974. Previously, the 1937 Act had completely amended and revised the Railroad Retirement Act of 1935 (approved Aug. 29, 1935, ch. 812, 49 Stat. 967). Section 201 of the 1937 Act provided that the 1935 Act, as in force prior to amendment by the 1937 Act, may be cited as the Railroad Retirement Act of 1935; and that the 1935 Act, as amended by the 1937 Act may be cited as the Railroad Retirement Act of 1937. The Railroad Retirement Acts of 1935 and 1937 were classified to subchapter II (§215 et seq.) and subchapter III (§228a et seq.), respectively, of chapter 9 of Title 45. For further details and complete classification of these Acts to the Code, see Codification note set out preceding section 231 of Title 45, section 231t of Title 45, and Tables.

The month in which the Social Security Amendments of 1967 were enacted, referred to in the provisions following subsec. (t)(4)(E), is Jan. 1968, date of approval of Pub. L. 90–248.

The Internal Revenue Code of 1986, referred to in subsecs. (v) and (x)(3)(C), is classified generally to Title 26, Internal Revenue Code.

Codification

In subsec. (t)(4), (10), “sections 3329(a) and 3330(a) of title 31” substituted for “the first section of the Act of October 9, 1940 (31 U.S.C. 123)” on authority of Pub. L. 97–258, §4(b), Sept. 13, 1982, 96 Stat. 1067, the first section of which enacted Title 31, Money and Finance.

Amendments

2004—Subsec. (b)(2). Pub. L. 108–203, §418(b)(1)(A), substituted “subsections (k)(5) and (q) of this section” for “subsection (q) of this section and paragraph (4) of this subsection”.

Subsec. (b)(4), (5). Pub. L. 108–203, §418(b)(1)(B), redesignated par. (5) as (4) and struck out former par. (4), which related to reduction of a wife's insurance benefit for each month, in certain circumstances, by an amount equal to two-thirds of the amount of any monthly periodic benefit payable to the wife for such month which is based upon her earnings while in the service of the Federal Government or any State or political subdivision thereof.

Subsec. (c)(2). Pub. L. 108–203, §418(b)(2), redesignated par. (3) as (2), substituted “subsections (k)(5) and (q) of this section” for “subsection (q) of this section and paragraph (2) of this subsection”, and struck out former par. (2), which related to reduction of a husband's insurance benefit for each month, in certain circumstances, by an amount equal to two-thirds of the amount of any monthly periodic benefit payable to the husband for such month which is based upon his earnings while in the service of the Federal Government or any State or political subdivision thereof.

Subsec. (c)(3) to (5). Pub. L. 108–203, §418(b)(2)(A), redesignated pars. (4) and (5) as (3) and (4), respectively. Former par. (3) redesignated (2).

Subsec. (d)(6)(B). Pub. L. 108–203, §420A(a), inserted “(i)” after “began” and added cl. (ii).

Subsec. (e)(2)(A). Pub. L. 108–203, §418(b)(3)(A), substituted “subsection (k)(5) of this section, subsection (q) of this section,” for “subsection (q) of this section, paragraph (7) of this subsection,”.

Subsec. (e)(7) to (9). Pub. L. 108–203, §418(b)(3)(B), redesignated pars. (8) and (9) as (7) and (8), respectively, and struck out former par. (7), which related to reduction of a widow's insurance benefit for each month, in certain circumstances, by an amount equal to two-thirds of the amount of any monthly periodic benefit payable to the widow for such month which is based upon her earnings while in the service of the Federal Government or any State or political subdivision thereof.

Subsec. (f)(1)(B)(ii). Pub. L. 108–203, §418(b)(4)(B)(i), substituted “paragraph (4)” for “paragraph (5)”.

Subsec. (f)(1)(F). Pub. L. 108–203, §418(b)(4)(B)(ii), in cl. (i), substituted “paragraph (5)” for “paragraph (6)” and, in cl. (ii), substituted “paragraph (4)” for “paragraph (5)”.

Subsec. (f)(2). Pub. L. 108–203, §418(b)(4)(A)(i), redesignated par. (3) as (2) and struck out former par. (2), which related to reduction of a widower's insurance benefit for each month, in certain circumstances, by an amount equal to two-thirds of the amount of any monthly periodic benefit payable to the widower for such month which is based upon his earnings while in the service of the Federal Government or any State or political subdivision thereof.

Subsec. (f)(2)(A). Pub. L. 108–203, §418(b)(4)(A)(ii), substituted “subsection (k)(5) of this section, subsection (q) of this section,” for “subsection (q) of this section, paragraph (2) of this subsection,”.

Subsec. (f)(3), (4). Pub. L. 108–203, §418(b)(4)(A)(i), redesignated pars. (4) and (5) as (3) and (4), respectively. Former par. (3) redesignated (2).

Subsec. (f)(5). Pub. L. 108–203, §418(b)(4)(A)(i), (B)(iii), redesignated par. (6) as (5) and substituted “paragraph (4)” for “paragraph (5)” in subpar. (A)(ii). Former par. (5) redesignated (4).

Subsec. (f)(6) to (9). Pub. L. 108–203, §418(b)(4)(A)(i), redesignated pars. (7) to (9) as (6) to (8), respectively. Former par. (6) redesignated (5).

Subsec. (g)(2). Pub. L. 108–203, §418(b)(5)(A), substituted “Such” for “Except as provided in paragraph (4) of this subsection, such”.

Subsec. (g)(4). Pub. L. 108–203, §418(b)(5)(B), struck out par. (4), which related to reduction of a mother's or father's insurance benefit for each month, in certain circumstances, by an amount equal to two-thirds of the amount of any monthly periodic benefit payable to the individual for such month which is based upon the individual's earnings while in the service of the Federal Government or any State or political subdivision thereof.

Subsec. (k)(2)(B). Pub. L. 108–203, §418(b)(4)(B)(iv), substituted “or (f)(3)” for “or (f)(4)” in two places.

Subsec. (k)(3)(A). Pub. L. 108–203, §418(b)(4)(B)(v), substituted “or (f)(2)” for “or (f)(3)”.

Subsec. (k)(3)(B). Pub. L. 108–203, §418(b)(4)(B)(vi), substituted “or (f)(3)” for “or (f)(4)”.

Subsec. (k)(5). Pub. L. 108–203, §418(a), added par. (5).

Subsec. (n). Pub. L. 108–203, §412(b)(1)(C), substituted “removal” for “deportation” in heading.

Subsec. (n)(1). Pub. L. 108–203, §412(b)(1)(B), substituted “removed” for “deported” in introductory provisions.

Pub. L. 108–203, §412(a)(1), substituted “section 1227(a) of title 8 (other than under paragraph (1)(C) of such section) or under section 1182(a)(6)(A) of title 8” for “section 1227(a) of title 8 (other than under paragraph (1)(C) or (1)(E) thereof)” in introductory provisions.

Subsec. (n)(1)(A). Pub. L. 108–203, §412(b)(2), inserted “or the Secretary of Homeland Security” after “the Attorney General”.

Pub. L. 108–203, §412(b)(1)(B), substituted “removed” for “deported”.

Subsec. (n)(2). Pub. L. 108–203, §412(b)(2), inserted “or the Secretary of Homeland Security” after “the Attorney General”.

Pub. L. 108–203, §412(b)(1)(A), substituted “removal” for “deportation” in two places.

Pub. L. 108–203, §412(a)(2), substituted “section 1227(a) of title 8 (other than under paragraph (1)(C) of such section) or under section 1182(a)(6)(A) of title 8” for “section 1227(a) of title 8 (other than under paragraph (1)(C) or (1)(E) thereof)”.

Subsec. (n)(3). Pub. L. 108–203, §412(a)(4), (b)(1)(A), (B), substituted “removed” for “deported” and “removal” for “deportation” and made technical amendment to reference in original act which appears in text as reference to section 1227(a) of title 8.

Pub. L. 108–203, §412(a)(3), substituted “paragraph (4)(D) of section 1227(a) of title 8 (relating to participating in Nazi persecutions or genocide) shall be considered to have been deported under such paragraph (4)(D)” for “paragraph (19) of section 1227(a) of title 8 (relating to persecution of others on account of race, religion, national origin, or political opinion, under the direction of or in association with the Nazi government of Germany or its allies) shall be considered to have been deported under such paragraph (19)”.

Subsec. (x). Pub. L. 108–203, §203(a)(1), substituted “prisoners, certain other inmates of publicly funded institutions, fugitives, probationers, and parolees” for “prisoners and certain other inmates of publicly funded institutions” in heading.

Subsec. (x)(1)(A)(iv), (v). Pub. L. 108–203, §203(a)(2)–(4), added cls. (iv) and (v).

Subsec. (x)(1)(B)(iii), (iv). Pub. L. 108–203, §203(a)(5), added cls. (iii) and (iv).

Subsec. (x)(3)(C). Pub. L. 108–203, §203(a)(6), added subpar. (C).

2000—Subsec. (w)(2)(B)(ii). Pub. L. 106–182 substituted “or, if so entitled, did not receive benefits pursuant to a request by such individual that benefits not be paid” for “or suffered deductions under section 403(b) or 403(c) of this title in amounts equal to the amount of such benefit”.

1999—Subsec. (w)(2)(B)(iii). Pub. L. 106–169 added cl. (iii).

Subsec. (x)(1)(A). Pub. L. 106–170, §402(b)(1)(A), substituted “ending with or during or beginning with or during a period of more than 30 days throughout all of which” for “during which” in introductory provisions.

Subsec. (x)(1)(A)(i). Pub. L. 106–170, §402(d)(1)(A), struck out “or” at end.

Pub. L. 106–170, §402(b)(1)(B), substituted “a criminal offense” for “an offense punishable by imprisonment for more than 1 year (regardless of the actual sentence imposed)”.

Subsec. (x)(1)(A)(ii)(I). Pub. L. 106–170, §402(b)(1)(C), substituted “a criminal offense” for “an offense punishable by imprisonment for more than 1 year”.

Subsec. (x)(1)(A)(ii)(IV). Pub. L. 106–170, §402(d)(1)(B), substituted “, or” for period at end.

Subsec. (x)(1)(A)(iii). Pub. L. 106–170, §402(d)(1)(C), added cl. (iii).

Subsec. (x)(1)(B)(ii). Pub. L. 106–170, §402(d)(2), substituted “clauses (ii) and (iii)” for “clause (ii)”.

Subsec. (x)(3). Pub. L. 106–170, §402(a)(1), designated existing provisions as subpar. (A) and added subpar. (B).

1996—Subsec. (d)(1)(H). Pub. L. 104–121, §104(b)(1), added subpar. (H).

Subsec. (d)(4). Pub. L. 104–121, §104(a)(1), struck out “was living with or” before “was receiving at least one-half of his support”.

Subsec. (d)(10). Pub. L. 104–121, §104(b)(2), added par. (10).

Subsec. (n). Pub. L. 104–208, §308(g)(1), substituted “section 1227(a)” for “section 1251(a)” in pars. (1) to (3).

Subsec. (y). Pub. L. 104–208, §503(a), added subsec. (y).

1994—Subsec. (b)(4)(A). Pub. L. 103–296, §308(a)(1), (2), transferred closing provision for cl. (ii), which read “unless subparagraph (B) applies.”, to appear before “The amount” in closing provision for subpar. (A).

Subsec. (b)(4)(B). Pub. L. 103–296, §308(a)(3), designated existing provisions as cl. (ii) and added cl. (i).

Subsec. (b)(4)(C), (5)(A). Pub. L. 103–296, §107(a)(4), substituted “Commissioner of Social Security” for “Secretary”.

Subsec. (c)(2)(A). Pub. L. 103–296, §308(a)(1), (2), transferred closing provision for cl. (ii), which read “unless subparagraph (B) applies.”, to appear before “The amount” in closing provision for subpar. (A).

Subsec. (c)(2)(B). Pub. L. 103–296, §308(a)(3), designated existing provisions as cl. (ii) and added cl. (i).

Subsec. (c)(2)(C), (5)(A). Pub. L. 103–296, §107(a)(4), substituted “Commissioner of Social Security” for “Secretary”.

Subsec. (d)(7)(A). Pub. L. 103–296, §107(a)(4), substituted “Commissioner of Social Security” for “Secretary” and “the Commissioner” for “him”.

Subsec. (d)(7)(B). Pub. L. 103–296, §107(a)(4), substituted “Commissioner of Social Security” for “Secretary”.

Subsec. (d)(8)(D)(ii). Pub. L. 103–296, §321(a)(2), inserted period at end and realigned margin.

Subsec. (e)(1)(C)(ii)(III), (5)(B). Pub. L. 103–296, §107(a)(4), substituted “Commissioner of Social Security” for “Secretary” wherever appearing.

Subsec. (e)(7)(A). Pub. L. 103–296, §308(a)(1), (2), transferred closing provision for cl. (ii), which read “unless subparagraph (B) applies.”, to appear before “The amount” in closing provision for subpar. (A).

Subsec. (e)(7)(B). Pub. L. 103–296, §308(a)(3), designated existing provisions as cl. (ii) and added cl. (i).

Subsec. (e)(7)(C), (9). Pub. L. 103–296, §107(a)(4), substituted “Commissioner of Social Security” for “Secretary”.

Subsec. (f)(1)(C)(ii)(III). Pub. L. 103–296, §107(a)(4), substituted “Commissioner of Social Security” for “Secretary” in two places.

Subsec. (f)(2)(A). Pub. L. 103–296, §308(a)(1), (2), transferred closing provision for cl. (ii), which read “unless subparagraph (B) applies.”, to appear before “The amount” in closing provision for subpar. (A).

Subsec. (f)(2)(B). Pub. L. 103–296, §308(a)(3), designated existing provisions as cl. (ii) and added cl. (i).

Subsec. (f)(2)(C), (6)(B), (9). Pub. L. 103–296, §107(a)(4), substituted “Commissioner of Social Security” for “Secretary” wherever appearing.

Subsec. (g)(4)(A). Pub. L. 103–296, §308(a)(1), (2), transferred closing provision for cl. (ii), which read “unless subparagraph (B) applies.”, to appear before “The amount” in closing provision for subpar. (A).

Subsec. (g)(4)(B). Pub. L. 103–296, §308(a)(3), designated existing provisions as cl. (ii) and added cl. (i).

Subsec. (g)(4)(C). Pub. L. 103–296, §107(a)(4), substituted “Commissioner of Social Security” for “Secretary”.

Subsecs. (i), (j)(1), (2), (5). Pub. L. 103–296, §107(a)(4), substituted “Commissioner of Social Security” for “Secretary” wherever appearing.

Subsec. (n)(1). Pub. L. 103–296, §321(b)(1), made technical amendment to directory language of Pub. L. 101–649, §603(b)(5)(A). See 1990 Amendment note below.

Subsecs. (n)(1)(A), (2), (p). Pub. L. 103–296, §107(a)(4), substituted “Commissioner of Social Security” for “Secretary” wherever appearing.

Subsec. (q)(1)(A). Pub. L. 103–296, §321(a)(3), struck out dash after “multiplied by” at end.

Subsec. (q)(5)(A)(i). Pub. L. 103–296, §107(a)(4), substituted “Commissioner of Social Security” for “Secretary” in two places.

Subsec. (q)(9). Pub. L. 103–296, §321(a)(4), in introductory provisions substituted “paragraph (1)” for “parargaph (1)”.

Subsec. (q)(9)(B). Pub. L. 103–296, §107(a)(4), substituted “Commissioner of Social Security” for “Secretary”.

Subsec. (t)(1)(A). Pub. L. 103–296, §107(a)(4), substituted “Commissioner of Social Security” for “Secretary”, “the Commissioner by” for “him by”, and “the Commissioner's attention” for “his attention”.

Subsec. (t)(2). Pub. L. 103–296, §107(a)(4), in introductory provisions substituted “Commissioner of Social Security” for “Secretary”.

Subsec. (t)(4)(D). Pub. L. 103–296, §321(a)(5), inserted “if the” before “Secretary of Veterans Affairs determines that such” and before “Secretary of Veterans Affairs certifies to the”.

Pub. L. 103–296, §107(a)(4), substituted “Commissioner of Social Security” for “Secretary” before “his determinations with”.

Subsecs. (t)(8), (u)(2). Pub. L. 103–296, §107(a)(4), substituted “Commissioner of Social Security” for “Secretary” wherever appearing.

Subsec. (v)(1). Pub. L. 103–296, §321(c)(2)(A), substituted “Code of 1986” for “Code of 1954”.

Subsec. (v)(3)(A). Pub. L. 103–296, §321(c)(2)(B), inserted “of the Internal Revenue Code of 1986” after “3127”.

Subsec. (x). Pub. L. 103–387, §4(a)(1), inserted “and certain other inmates of publicly funded institutions” in heading.

Subsec. (x)(1). Pub. L. 103–387, §4(a)(2), amended par. (1) generally. Prior to amendment, par. (1) read as follows: “Notwithstanding any other provision of this subchapter, no monthly benefits shall be paid under this section or under section 423 of this title to any individual for any month during which such individual is confined in a jail, prison, or other penal institution or correctional facility, pursuant to his conviction of an offense which constituted a felony under applicable law, unless such individual is actively and satisfactorily participating in a rehabilitation program which has been specifically approved for such individual by a court of law and, as determined by the Commissioner of Social Security, is expected to result in such individual being able to engage in substantial gainful activity upon release and within a reasonable time.”

Pub. L. 103–296, §107(a)(4), substituted “Commissioner of Social Security” for “Secretary”.

Subsec. (x)(3). Pub. L. 103–387, §4(a)(3), substituted “any individual who is confined as described in paragraph (1) if the confinement is under the jurisdiction of such agency and the Commissioner of Social Security requires such information to carry out the provisions of this section” for “any individual who is confined in a jail, prison, or other penal institution or correctional facility under the jurisdiction of such agency, pursuant to his conviction of an offense which constituted a felony under applicable law, which the Commissioner of Social Security may require to carry out the provisions of this subsection”.

Pub. L. 103–296, §107(a)(4), substituted “Commissioner of Social Security” for “Secretary” in two places.

1991—Subsec. (o). Pub. L. 102–40 substituted “section 5105 of title 38” for “section 3005 of title 38”.

Subsec. (t)(4)(D). Pub. L. 102–54 substituted “Secretary of Veterans Affairs” for “Administrator of Veterans’ Affairs” before “determines was”, “Secretary of Veterans Affairs” for “if the Administrator” before “determines that”, and “Secretary of Veterans Affairs” for “if the Administrator” before “certifies”.

1990—Subsec. (e)(5). Pub. L. 101–508, §5103(c)(2)(A), designated existing provision as subpar. (A), redesignated former subpars. (A) and (B) as cls. (i) and (ii), respectively, in cl. (ii) substituted “(I)” and “(II)” for “(i)” and “(ii)”, respectively, and added subpar. (B).

Subsec. (e)(9). Pub. L. 101–508, §5103(d)(1), added par. (9).

Subsec. (f)(6). Pub. L. 101–508, §5103(c)(2)(B), designated existing provision as subpar. (A), redesignated former subpars. (A) and (B) as cls. (i) and (ii), respectively, in cl. (ii) substituted “(I)” and “(II)” for “(i)” and “(ii)”, respectively, and added subpar. (B).

Subsec. (f)(9). Pub. L. 101–508, §5103(d)(2), added par. (9).

Subsec. (j)(4)(A). Pub. L. 101–508, §5116(a)(1), substituted “if the amount of the monthly benefit to which such individual would otherwise be entitled for any such month would be subject to reduction pursuant to subsection (q) of this section” for “if the effect of entitlement to such benefit would be to reduce, pursuant to subsection (q) of this section, the amount of the monthly benefit to which such individual would otherwise be entitled for the month in which such application is filed”.

Subsec. (j)(4)(B)(i). Pub. L. 101–508, §5116(a)(2), redesignated cl. (ii) as (i) and struck out former cl. (i) which read as follows: “If the individual applying for retroactive benefits is applying for such benefits under subsection (a) of this section, and there are one or more other persons who would (except for subparagraph (A)) be entitled for any month, on the basis of the wages and self-employment income of such individual and because of such individual's entitlement to such retroactive benefits, to retroactive benefits under subsection (b), (c), or (d) of this section not subject to reduction under subsection (q) of this section, then subparagraph (A) shall not apply with respect to such month or any subsequent month.”

Subsec. (j)(4)(B)(ii) to (v). Pub. L. 101–508, §5116(a)(2), redesignated cls. (iii) and (v) as (ii) and (iii), respectively, and struck out cl. (iv) which read as follows: “If the individual applying for retroactive benefits has excess earnings (as defined in section 403(f) of this title) in the year in which he or she files an application for such benefits which could, except for subparagraph (A), be charged to months in such year prior to the month of application, then subparagraph (A) shall not apply to so many of such months immediately preceding the month of application as are required to charge such excess earnings to the maximum extent possible.” Former cl. (ii) redesignated (i).

Subsec. (n)(1). Pub. L. 101–649, §603(b)(5)(A), as amended by Pub. L. 103–296, §321(b)(1), substituted “under section 1251(a) of title 8 (other than under paragraph (1)(C) or (1)(E) thereof)” for “under paragraph (1), (2), (4), (5), (6), (7), (10), (11), (12), (14), (15), (16), (17), (18), or (19) of section 1251(a) of title 8”.

Subsec. (n)(2). Pub. L. 101–649, §603(b)(5)(B), substituted “(other than under paragraph (1)(C) or (1)(E) thereof)” for “enumerated in paragraph (1) in this subsection”.

1989—Subsec. (d)(8). Pub. L. 101–239, §10301(b), struck out at end “In the case of a child who was born in the one-year period during which such child must have been living with and receiving at least one-half of his support from such individual, such child shall be deemed to meet such requirements for such period if, as of the close of such period, such child has lived with such individual in the United States and received at least one-half of his support from such individual for substantially all of the period which begins on the date of birth of such child.”

Subsec. (d)(8)(D). Pub. L. 101–239, §10301(a), inserted “and” after comma at end of cl. (i), added cl. (ii), and struck out former cls. (ii) and (iii) which related to children living with such individual in the United States and receiving at least one-half of support from such individual and who had not attained the age of 18 before living with such individual.

Subsec. (j)(5). Pub. L. 101–239, §10302(a)(1), added par. (5).

Subsec. (q)(3). Pub. L. 101–239, §10203(a), redesignated subpar. (H) as (E) and struck out former subpars. (E), (F), and (G) which related to reductions in benefits for individuals entitled to both old-age and widow's or widower's insurance, reductions in benefits for individuals age 62 or over who are entitled to both disability insurance and widow's or widower's insurance, and reductions in benefits for individuals under age 62 who are entitled to both disability insurance and widow's or widower's insurance.

1988—Subsecs. (b)(4)(A)(ii)(II), (c)(2)(A)(ii)(II). Pub. L. 100–647, §8014(a), substituted “the Federal Employees’ Retirement System provided in chapter 84 of title 5 or the Foreign Service Pension System provided in subchapter II of chapter 8 of title I of the Foreign Service Act of 1980” for “chapter 84 of title 5”.

Subsec. (e)(1)(C). Pub. L. 100–647, §8010(a)(1), (2), redesignated former cl. (ii) as (iii), added cls. (i) and (ii), and struck out former cl. (i) which read as follows: “has filed application for widow's insurance benefits, or was entitled to wife's insurance benefits, on the basis of the wages and self-employment income of such individual, for the month preceding the month in which he died, and (I) has attained retirement age (as defined in section 416(l) of this title) or (II) is not entitled to benefits under subsection (a) of this section or section 423 of this title, or”.

Subsec. (e)(7)(A)(ii)(II). Pub. L. 100–647, §8014(a), substituted “the Federal Employees’ Retirement System provided in chapter 84 of title 5 or the Foreign Service Pension System provided in subchapter II of chapter 8 of title I of the Foreign Service Act of 1980” for “chapter 84 of title 5”.

Subsec. (e)(8). Pub. L. 100–647, §8010(a)(3), added par. (8).

Subsec. (f)(1)(C). Pub. L. 100–647, §8010(b)(1), (2), redesignated former cl. (ii) as (iii), added cls. (i) and (ii), and struck out former cl. (i) which read as follows: “has filed application for widower's insurance benefits or was entitled to husband's insurance benefits, on the basis of the wages and self-employment income of such individual, for the month preceding the month in which she died, and (I) has attained retirement age (as defined in section 416(l) of this title) or (II) is not entitled to benefits under subsection (a) of this section or section 423 of this title, or”.

Subsec. (f)(2)(A)(ii)(II). Pub. L. 100–647, §8014(a), substituted “the Federal Employees’ Retirement System provided in chapter 84 of title 5 or the Foreign Service Pension System provided in subchapter II of chapter 8 of title I of the Foreign Service Act of 1980” for “chapter 84 of title 5”.

Subsec. (f)(8). Pub. L. 100–647, §8010(b)(3), added par. (8).

Subsec. (g)(4)(A)(ii)(II). Pub. L. 100–647, §8014(a), substituted “the Federal Employees’ Retirement System provided in chapter 84 of title 5 or the Foreign Service Pension System provided in subchapter II of chapter 8 of title I of the Foreign Service Act of 1980” for “chapter 84 of title 5”.

Subsec. (n)(1). Pub. L. 100–647, §8004(a), inserted reference to par. (19) of section 1251(a) of title 8 in introductory provisions.

Subsec. (n)(3). Pub. L. 100–647, §8004(b), added par. (3).

Subsec. (v). Pub. L. 100–647, §8007(b), designated existing provisions as par. (1), inserted “and subject to paragraph (3),” after “Notwithstanding any other provisions of this subchapter,”, struck out “; except that, if thereafter such individual's tax exemption under such section 1402(g) ceases to be effective, such waiver shall cease to be applicable in the case of benefits and other payments under this subchapter and part A of subchapter XVIII of this chapter to the extent based on his self-employment income for and after the first taxable year for which such tax exemption ceases to be effective and on his wages for and after the calendar year (if any) which begins in or with the beginning of such taxable year” after “the filing of such waiver”, and added pars. (2) and (3).

1987—Subsec. (b)(4). Pub. L. 100–203, §9007(a), added subpars. (A) and (B), redesignated former subpar. (B) as (C), and struck out former subpar. (A) which read as follows: “The amount of a wife's insurance benefit for each month as determined after application of the provisions of subsections (q) and (k) of this section shall be reduced (but not below zero) by an amount equal to two-thirds of the amount of any monthly periodic benefit payable to such wife (or divorced wife) for such month which is based upon her earnings while in the service of the Federal Government or any State (or political subdivision thereof, as defined in section 418(b)(2) of this title) if, on the last day she was employed by such entity, such service did not constitute ‘employment’ as defined in section 410 of this title for purposes of this subchapter. The amount of the reduction in any benefit under this subparagraph, if not a multiple of $0.10, shall be rounded to the next higher multiple of $0.10.”

Subsec. (c)(2). Pub. L. 100–203, §9007(b), added subpars. (A) and (B), redesignated former subpar. (B) as (C), and struck out former subpar. (A) which read as follows: “The amount of a husband's insurance benefit for each month as determined after application of the provisions of subsections (q) and (k) of this section shall be reduced (but not below zero) by an amount equal to two-thirds of the amount of any monthly periodic benefit payable to such husband (or divorced husband) for such month which is based upon his earnings while in the service of the Federal Government or any State (or political subdivision thereof, as defined in section 418(b)(2) of this title) if, on the last day he was employed by such entity, such service did not constitute ‘employment’ as defined in section 410 of this title for purposes of this subchapter. The amount of the reduction in any benefit under this subparagraph, if not a multiple of $0.10, shall be rounded to the next higher multiple of $0.10.”

Subsec. (d)(1)(G)(i). Pub. L. 100–203, §9010(b), substituted “36 months” for “15 months”.

Subsec. (e)(1). Pub. L. 100–203, §9010(c), substituted “36 months” for “15 months” in subcl. (II) of last sentence.

Subsec. (e)(7). Pub. L. 100–203, §9007(c), added subpars. (A) and (B), redesignated former subpar. (B) as (C), and struck out former subpar. (A) which read as follows: “The amount of a widow's insurance benefit for each month as determined (after application of the provisions of subsections (q) and (k) of this section, paragraph (2)(D), and paragraph (3)) shall be reduced (but not below zero) by an amount equal to two-thirds of the amount of any monthly periodic benefit payable to such widow (or surviving divorced wife) for such month which is based upon her earnings while in the service of the Federal Government or any State (or any political subdivision thereof, as defined in section 418(b)(2) of this title) if, on the last day she was employed by such entity, such service did not constitute ‘employment’ as defined in section 410 of this title for purposes of this subchapter. The amount of the reduction in any benefit under this subparagraph, if not a multiple of $0.10, shall be rounded to the next higher multiple of $0.10.”

Subsec. (f)(1). Pub. L. 100–203, §9010(d), substituted “36 months” for “15 months” in subcl. (II) of last sentence.

Subsec. (f)(2). Pub. L. 100–203, §9007(d), added subpars. (A) and (B), redesignated former subpar. (B) as (C), and struck out former subpar. (A) which read as follows: “The amount of a widower's insurance benefit for each month (as determined after application of the provisions of subsections (k) and (q) of this section, paragraph (3)(D), and paragraph (4)) shall be reduced (but not below zero) by an amount equal to two-thirds of the amount of any monthly periodic benefit payable to such widower for such month which is based upon his earnings while in the service of the Federal Government or any State (or any political subdivision thereof, as defined in section 418(b)(2) of this title) if, on the last day he was employed by such entity, such service did not constitute ‘employment’ as defined in section 410 of this title for purposes of this subchapter. The amount of the reduction in any benefit under this subparagraph, if not a multiple of $0.10, shall be rounded to the next higher multiple of $0.10.”

Subsec. (g)(4). Pub. L. 100–203, §9007(e), added subpars. (A) and (B), redesignated former subpar. (B) as (C), and struck out former subpar. (A) which read as follows: “The amount of a mother's or father's insurance benefit for each month to which any individual is entitled under this subsection (as determined after application of subsection (k) of this section) shall be reduced (but not below zero) by an amount equal to two-thirds of the amount of any monthly periodic benefit payable to such individual for such month which is based upon such individual's earnings while in the service of the Federal Government or any State (or political subdivision thereof, as defined in section 418(b)(2) of this title) if, on the last day such individual was employed by such entity, such service did not constitute ‘employment’ as defined in section 410 of this title for purposes of this subchapter. The amount of the reduction in any benefit under this subparagraph, if not a multiple of $0.10, shall be rounded to the next higher multiple of $0.10.”

1986—Subsec. (c)(5)(B). Pub. L. 99–514, §1883(a)(1), substituted “or (J)” for “or (I)”.

Subsec. (d)(6)(E). Pub. L. 99–272, §12107(a), substituted “the termination month (as defined in paragraph (1)(G)(i)), subject to section 423(e) of this title,” for “the third month following the month in which he ceases to be under such disability”.

Subsec. (d)(8)(D)(ii)(III). Pub. L. 99–272, §12104(a), inserted “or great-grandchild” after “grandchild”.

Subsec. (q)(5)(A)(i). Pub. L. 99–514, §1883(a)(2), substituted “prescribed by the Secretary” for “prescribed by him”.

Subsec. (q)(5)(C). Pub. L. 99–514, §1883(a)(3), which directed substitution of “he or she shall be deemed” for “she shall be deemed” was not executed because of prior amendment substituting “he or she” for “she” by Pub. L. 98–21, §309(c)(4). See 1983 Amendment note below.

1984—Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 98–369, §2662(c)(1), made a clarifying amendment to Pub. L. 98–21, §201(c)(1)(A). See 1983 Amendment note below.

Subsec. (c)(1). Pub. L. 98–369, §2661(b)(1)(A), (B), substituted “retirement age (as defined in section 416(l) of this title)” for “age 65” in cls. (i) and (ii)(I) of provisions following subpar. (D) and preceding subpar. (E).

Pub. L. 98–369, §2661(b)(1)(C), substituted “in which” for “to which” in provisions following cl. (ii) of provisions following subpar. (D) and preceding subpar. (E).

Subsec. (c)(5)(A). Pub. L. 98–369, §2661(b)(2), substituted “clauses (i) and (ii)” for “classes (i) and (ii)”.

Subsec. (d)(1). Pub. L. 98–369, §2663(a)(2)(A)(i), substituted “subparagraphs” for “paragraphs” and “subparagraph” for “paragraph” in cl. (ii) of provisions following subpar. (C) and preceding subpar. (D).

Subsec. (d)(1)(G). Pub. L. 98–369, §2663(a)(2)(A)(ii), in restructuring subpar. (G), struck out the comma after “age of 18”, substituted a dash for a comma after “the age of 22”, substituted “(i) the termination month, subject to section 423(e) of this title (and for purposes” for “, or, subject to section 423(e) of this title, the termination month (and for purposes”, and inserted closing parenthesis after “activity” and substituted “(ii)” and “(iii)” for “(III)” and “(IV)”, respectively.

Subsec. (d)(7)(A). Pub. L. 98–369, §2663(a)(2)(A)(iii), substituted “the effective date of this sentence” for “the date of enactment of this paragraph”.

Subsec. (e)(1). Pub. L. 98–369, §2663(a)(2)(B), in provisions following subpar. (F)(ii), struck out first of two commas following “age 60” and substituted “she engages” for “he engages”.

Subsec. (e)(2)(A). Pub. L. 98–369, §2661(c)(1), substituted “paragraph (7) of this subsection” for “paragraph (8) of this subsection”.

Subsec. (e)(2)(C). Pub. L. 98–369, §2661(c)(2), struck out the period after “If such deceased individual” and inserted a closing parenthesis after “paragraph (3) of such subsection (w) of this section”.

Subsec. (e)(7)(A). Pub. L. 98–369, §2661(c)(3), substituted “paragraph (2)(D)” for “paragraph (2)(B)”.

Subsec. (f)(1). Pub. L. 98–369, §2663(a)(2)(C), struck out the first of two commas after “age 60” in provisions following subpar. (F).

Subsec. (f)(1)(C)(ii). Pub. L. 98–369, §2661(d)(1), substituted “retirement age (as defined in section 416(l) of this title)” for “age 65”.

Subsec. (f)(2)(A). Pub. L. 98–369, §2661(d)(2), substituted “paragraph (3)(D)” for “paragraph (3)(B)”.

Subsec. (f)(3)(C). Pub. L. 98–369, §2661(d)(3), struck out the period after “If such deceased individual”.

Subsec. (f)(3)(D)(i). Pub. L. 98–369, §2663(a)(2)(D), struck out the semicolon after “applicable,”.

Subsec. (i). Pub. L. 98–369, §2663(a)(2)(E), amended language being deleted by Pub. L. 97–35, §2202(a)(1). See 1981 Amendment note below.

Subsec. (q)(3)(E). Pub. L. 98–369, §2662(c)(1), made a clarifying amendment to Pub. L. 98–21, §201(c)(1)(A). See 1983 Amendment note below.

Subsec. (q)(3)(G). Pub. L. 98–369, §2663(a)(2)(F)(i), substituted “if the period” for “as if the period”.

Subsec. (q)(7)(E). Pub. L. 98–369, §2663(a)(2)(F)(ii), substituted “she or he attained retirement age” for “he attained retirement age”.

Subsec. (q)(9)(B)(i). Pub. L. 98–369, §2661(e), substituted “section 416(l) of this title” for “section 416(a) of this title”.

Subsec. (t)(4)(E). Pub. L. 98–369, §2663(a)(2)(G), inserted “of 1937 or 1974” after “Railroad Retirement Act” the first place it appears and substituted references to section 5(k)(1) of the Railroad Retirement Act of 1937 and section 18(2) of the Railroad Retirement Act of 1974 for reference to section 5(k)(1) of the Railroad Retirement Act.

Subsec. (u)(1)(B). Pub. L. 98–369, §2663(a)(2)(H), struck out “, 822, or 823” after “section 783”.

1983—Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 98–21, §201(c)(1)(A), as amended by Pub. L. 98–369, §2662(c)(1), substituted reference to retirement age as defined in section 416(l) of this title for reference to age 65 or the age of 65, wherever appearing.

Subsec. (b)(1). Pub. L. 98–21, §201(c)(1)(A), substituted reference to retirement age as defined in section 416(l) of this title for reference to age 65 in two places.

Subsec. (b)(3). Pub. L. 98–21, §307(a), struck out exception in provisions following subpar. (B) that, in the case of such a marriage to an individual entitled to benefits under subsection (d) of this section, the preceding provisions of this paragraph would not apply with respect to benefits for months after the last month for which such individual was entitled to such benefits under subsection (d) of this section unless he ceased to be so entitled by reason of his death.

Subsec. (b)(3)(A). Pub. L. 98–21, §§301(a)(7), 309(a), inserted references to subsecs. (c) and (g), respectively.

Subsec. (b)(4)(A). Pub. L. 98–21, §337(a), substituted “by an amount equal to two-thirds of the amount of any monthly periodic benefit” for “by an amount equal to the amount of any monthly periodic benefit”, and inserted provision that the amount of the reduction in any benefit under this subparagraph, if not a multiple of $0.10, shall be rounded to the next higher multiple of $0.10.

Pub. L. 97–455, §7(c), inserted “for purposes of this subchapter” after “as defined in section 410 of this title”.

Subsec. (b)(5). Pub. L. 98–21, §132(a), added par. (5).

Subsec. (c)(1). Pub. L. 98–21, §301(a)(1), inserted “and every divorced husband (as defined in section 416(d) of this title)” before “of an individual”, and “or such divorced husband” after “if such husband” in provisions preceding subpar. (A).

Pub. L. 98–21, §306(d), in provisions following subpar. (D) and preceding subpar. (E), inserted “(subject to subsection (s) of this section)” after “be entitled to”.

Pub. L. 98–21, §201(c)(1)(A), which directed the substitution of “retirement age (as defined in section 416(l) of this title” for “age 65” in provisions following subpar. (D) and preceding subpar. (E) was executed to those provisions after the execution of the amendment by section 301(a)(2)(C) of Pub. L. 98–21 as the probable intent of Congress.

Pub. L. 98–21, §301(a)(2)(C), amended provisions following subpar. (D) generally, inserting references to a divorced husband and to subpar. (D), designating existing provisions as subpars. (E) to (G) and (I) and (J), adding subpar. (H), and revising subpar. (G).

Subsec. (c)(1)(B). Pub. L. 98–21, §306(e), inserted alternative provisions relating to the case of a husband.

Subsec. (c)(1)(C). Pub. L. 98–21, §301(a)(2)(A), (B), added subpar. (C) and redesignated former subpar. (C) as (D).

Subsec. (c)(1)(D). Pub. L. 98–21, §301(a)(8), substituted “such individual” for “his wife” after “amount of”.

Pub. L. 98–21, §301(a)(2)(B), redesignated former subpar. (C) as (D).

Subsec. (c)(1)(I) to (K). Pub. L. 98–21, §306(f), added subpar. (I), and redesignated subpars. (I) and (J), as added by section 301(a)(2)(C) of Pub. L. 98–21, as (J) and (K).

Subsec. (c)(2)(A). Pub. L. 98–21, §337(a), substituted “by an amount equal to two-thirds of the amount of any monthly periodic benefit” for “by an amount equal to the amount of any monthly periodic benefit”, and inserted provision that the amount of the reduction in any benefit under this subparagraph, if not a multiple of $0.10, shall be rounded to the next higher multiple of $0.10.

Pub. L. 98–21, §301(a)(6), inserted “(or divorced husband)” after “payable to such husband”.

Pub. L. 97–455, §7(c), inserted “for purposes of this subchapter” after “as defined in section 410 of this title”.

Subsec. (c)(3). Pub. L. 98–21, §301(a)(3), inserted “(or, in the case of a divorced husband, his former wife)” before “for such month”.

Subsec. (c)(4), (5). Pub. L. 98–21, §301(a)(4), (5), added pars. (4) and (5).

Subsec. (d)(5). Pub. L. 98–21, §307(a), struck out exception in provisions following subpar. (B) that in the case of such a marriage to a male individual entitled to benefits under section 423(a) of this title or this subsection, the preceding provisions of this paragraph would not apply with respect to benefits for months after the last month for which such individual was entitled to such benefits under section 423(a) of this title or this subsection unless he ceased to be so entitled by reason of his death, or in the case of an individual entitled to benefits under section 423(a) of this title, he was entitled, for the month following such last month, to benefits under subsection (a) of this section.

Subsec. (d)(5)(A). Pub. L. 98–21, §301(a)(9), inserted reference to subsec. (c).

Subsec. (d)(8)(D)(ii)(II). Pub. L. 98–21, §201(c)(1)(A), substituted reference to retirement age as defined in section 416(l) of this title for reference to age 65 in two places.

Subsec. (e)(1). Pub. L. 98–21, §201(c)(1)(A), substituted reference to retirement age as defined in section 416(l) of this title for reference to age 65 in provisions following subpar. (F).

Pub. L. 98–21, §133(a)(2)(A), inserted “(as determined after application of subparagraphs (B) and (C) of paragraph (2))” after “primary insurance amount” in provisions following subpar. (F).

Subsec. (e)(1)(B)(ii). Pub. L. 98–21, §131(a)(3)(B), substituted reference to par. (4) for reference to par. (5).

Subsec. (e)(1)(C). Pub. L. 98–21, §201(c)(1)(A), substituted reference to retirement age as defined in section 416(l) of this title for reference to age 65 in two places.

Subsec. (e)(1)(D). Pub. L. 98–21, §133(a)(2)(A), inserted “(as determined after application of subparagraphs (B) and (C) of paragraph (2))” after “primary insurance amount”.

Subsec. (e)(1)(F)(i). Pub. L. 98–21, §131(a)(3)(C), substituted reference to par. (5) for reference to par. (6).

Subsec. (e)(1)(F)(ii). Pub. L. 98–21, §131(a)(3)(C), substituted reference to par. (4) for reference to par. (5).

Subsec. (e)(2)(A). Pub. L. 98–21, §133(a)(1)(B), amended subpar. (A) generally. Prior to amendment, subpar. (A) read as follows: “Except as provided in subsection (q) of this section, paragraph (7) of this subsection, and subparagraph (B) of this paragraph, such widow's insurance benefit for each month shall be equal to the primary insurance amount (as determined after application of the following sentence) of such deceased individual. If such deceased individual was (or upon application would have been) entitled to an old-age insurance benefit which was increased (or subject to being increased) on account of delayed retirement under the provisions of subsection (w) of this section, then, for purposes of this subsection, such individual's primary insurance amount, if less than the old-age insurance benefit (increased, where applicable, under section 415(f)(5), 415(f)(6), or 415(f)(9)(B) of this title and under section 415(i) of this title as if such individual were still alive in the case of an individual who has died) which he was receiving (or would upon application have received) for the month prior to the month in which he died, shall be deemed to be equal to such old-age insurance benefit, and (notwithstanding the provisions of paragraph (3) of subsection (w) of this section the number of increment months shall include any month in the months of the calendar year in which he died, prior to the month in which he died, which satisfy the conditions in paragraph (2) of subsection (w) of this section.”

Pub. L. 98–21, §131(a)(3)(D), substituted reference to par. (7) for reference to par. (8).

Pub. L. 98–21, §113(d), substituted “section 415(f)(5), 415(f)(6), or 415(f)(9)(B)” for “section 415(f)(5) or (6)”.

Subsec. (e)(2)(B). Pub. L. 98–21, §133(a)(1)(A), added subpar. (B) and redesignated former subpar. (B) as (D).

Subsec. (e)(2)(B)(i). Pub. L. 98–21, §113(d), substituted “section 415(f)(5), 415(f)(6), or 415(f)(9)(B)” for “section 415(f)(5) or (6)”.

Subsec. (e)(2)(C), (D). Pub. L. 98–21, §133(a)(1), added subpar. (C) and redesignated former subpar. (B) as (D).

Subsec. (e)(2)(D)(ii). Pub. L. 98–21, §133(a)(2)(B), inserted “(as determined without regard to subparagraph (C))” after “primary insurance amount”.

Subsec. (e)(3). Pub. L. 98–21, §131(a)(1)–(3)(A), redesignated par. (4) as (3) and substituted provision that, for purposes of par. (1), if (A) a widow or surviving divorced wife marries after attaining age 60 (or after attaining age 50 if she was entitled before such marriage occurred to benefits based on disability under this subsection, or (B) a disabled widow or disabled surviving divorced wife described in paragraph (1)(B)(ii) marries after attaining age 50, such marriage shall be deemed not to have occurred, for provision that if a widow, after attaining age 60, married, such marriage would for purposes of par. (1) be deemed not to have occurred. Former par. (3), which provided that if a widow before attaining age 60, or a surviving divorced wife, married (A) an individual entitled to benefits under subsec. (f) or (h), or (B) an individual who had attained the age of eighteen and was entitled to benefits under subsec. (d), such widow's or surviving divorced wife's entitlement to benefits under this subsection would, notwithstanding the provisions of par. (1) of this subsection, but subject to subsec. (s), not be terminated by reason of such marriage, except that, in the case of such a marriage to an individual entitled to benefits under subsec. (d), the preceding provisions of this paragraph would not apply with respect to benefits for months after the last month for which such individual was entitled to such benefits under subsec. (d) unless he ceased to be so entitled by reason of his death, was struck out.

Subsec. (e)(4). Pub. L. 98–21, §131(a)(3)(A), redesignated par. (5) as (4). Former par. (4) redesignated (3).

Subsec. (e)(5). Pub. L. 98–21, §131(a)(3)(A), (E), redesignated par. (6) as (5) and substituted reference to par. (4) for reference to par. (5). Former par. (5) redesignated (4).

Subsec. (e)(6). Pub. L. 98–21, §131(a)(3)(A), redesignated par. (7) as (6). Former par. (6) redesignated (5).

Subsec. (e)(7). Pub. L. 98–21, §131(a)(3)(A), redesignated par. (8) as (7). Former par. (7) redesignated (6).

Subsec. (e)(7)(A). Pub. L. 98–21, §337(a), substituted “by an amount equal to two-thirds of the amount of any monthly periodic benefit” for “by an amount equal to the amount of any monthly periodic benefit”, and inserted provision that the amount of the reduction in any benefit under this subparagraph, if not a multiple of $0.10, shall be rounded to the next higher multiple of $0.10.

Pub. L. 98–21, §131(a)(3)(F), substituted reference to par. (3) for reference to par. (4).

Subsec. (e)(8). Pub. L. 98–21, §131(a)(3)(A), redesignated par. (8) as (7).

Subsec. (e)(8)(A). Pub. L. 97–455, §7(c), inserted “for purposes of this subchapter” after “as defined in section 410 of this title”.

Subsec. (f)(1). Pub. L. 98–21, §301(b)(1), inserted “and every surviving divorced husband (as defined in section 416(d) of this title)” before “of an individual”, and “or such surviving divorced husband” after “if such widower” in provisions preceding subpar. (A).

Pub. L. 98–21, §301(b)(2), substituted “such deceased individual” for “his deceased wife” in provisions following subpar. (F).

Pub. L. 98–21, §201(c)(1)(A), substituted reference to retirement age as defined in section 416(l) of this title for reference to age 65 in provisions following subpar. (F).

Pub. L. 98–21, §133(b)(2)(A), inserted “(as determined after application of subparagraphs (B) and (C) of paragraph (3))” after “primary insurance amount” in provisions following subpar. (F).

Subsec. (f)(1)(A). Pub. L. 98–21, §302, substituted “is not married” for “has not remarried”.

Subsec. (f)(1)(B)(ii). Pub. L. 98–21, §131(b)(3)(B), substituted reference to par. (5) for reference to par. (6).

Subsec. (f)(1)(C)(i). Pub. L. 98–21, §306(g), designated existing provisions as cl. (i).

Pub. L. 98–21, §201(c)(1)(A), substituted reference to retirement age as defined in section 416(l) of this title for reference to age 65.

Subsec. (f)(1)(C)(ii). Pub. L. 98–21, §201(c)(1)(A), which directed the substitution of “retirement age (as defined in section 416(l) of this title)” for “age 65” in cl. (ii) was executed to those provisions after the execution of section 306(g) of Pub. L. 98–21 as the probable intent of Congress.

Pub. L. 98–21, §306(g), added cl. (ii).

Subsec. (f)(1)(D). Pub. L. 98–21, §301(b)(2), substituted “such deceased individual” for “his deceased wife”.

Pub. L. 98–21, §133(b)(2)(A), inserted “(as determined after application of subparagraphs (B) and (C) of paragraph (3))” after “primary insurance amount”.

Subsec. (f)(1)(F)(i). Pub. L. 98–21, §131(b)(3)(C), substituted reference to par. (6) for reference to par. (7).

Subsec. (f)(1)(F)(ii)(I). Pub. L. 98–21, §131(b)(3)(C), substituted reference to par. (5) for reference to par. (6).

Subsec. (f)(2)(A). Pub. L. 98–21, §337(a), substituted “by an amount equal to two-thirds of the amount of any monthly periodic benefit” for “by an amount equal to the amount of any monthly periodic benefit”, and inserted provision that the amount of the reduction in any benefit under this subparagraph, if not a multiple of $0.10, shall be rounded to the next higher multiple of $0.10.

Pub. L. 98–21, §131(b)(3)(D), substituted reference to par. (4) for reference to par. (5).

Pub. L. 97–455, §7(c), inserted “for purposes of this subchapter” after “as defined in section 410 of this title”.

Subsec. (f)(3)(A). Pub. L. 98–21, §133(b)(1)(B), amended subpar. (A) generally. Prior to the amendment subpar. (A) read as follows: “Except as provided in subsection (q) of this section, paragraph (2) of this subsection, and subparagraph (B) of this paragraph, such widower's insurance benefit for each month shall be equal to the primary insurance amount (as determined after application of the following sentence) of his deceased wife. If such deceased individual was (or upon application would have been) entitled to an old-age insurance benefit which was increased (or subject to being increased) on account of delayed retirement under the provisions of subsection (w) of this section, then, for purposes of this subsection, such individual's primary insurance amount, if less than the old-age insurance benefit (increased, where applicable, under section 415(f)(5), 415(f)(6), or 415(f)(9)(B) of this title and under section 415(i) of this title as if such individual were still alive in the case of an individual who has died) which she was receiving (or would upon application have received) for the month prior to the month in which she died, shall be deemed to be equal to such old-age insurance benefit, and (notwithstanding the provisions of paragraph (3) of subsection (w) of this section) the number of increment months shall include any month in the months of the calendar year in which she died, prior to the month in which she died, which satisfy the conditions in paragraph (2) of subsection (w) of this section.”

Pub. L. 98–21, §113(d), substituted “section 415(f)(5), 415(f)(6), or 415(f)(9)(B)” for “section 415(f)(5) or (6)”.

Subsec. (f)(3)(B). Pub. L. 98–21, §133(b)(1), added subpar. (B) and redesignated former subpar. (B) as (D).

Pub. L. 98–21, §113(d), substituted “section 415(f)(5), 415(f)(6), or 415(f)(9)” for “section 415(f)(5) or (6)”.

Subsec. (f)(3)(B)(ii)(II). Pub. L. 98–21, §301(b)(3), inserted “or surviving divorced husband” after “widower”.

Subsec. (f)(3)(C). Pub. L. 98–21, §133(b)(1)(B), added subpar. (C).

Subsec. (f)(3)(D). Pub. L. 98–21, §301(b)(4), inserted “or surviving divorced husband” after “widower” wherever appearing.

Pub. L. 98–21, §301(b)(5), substituted “individual” for “wife” wherever appearing.

Pub. L. 98–21, §133(b)(1)(A), redesignated former subpar. (B) as (D).

Subsec. (f)(3)(D)(ii). Pub. L. 98–21, §133(b)(2)(B), inserted “(as determined without regard to subparagraph (C))” after “primary insurance amount”.

Subsec. (f)(4). Pub. L. 98–21, §301(b)(4), inserted “or surviving divorced husband” after “widower” in two places.

Pub. L. 98–21, §131(b)(1)–(3)(A), redesignated par. (5) as (4), and amended par. (4) as so redesignated generally, substituting provision that for purposes of par. (1), if a widower married after attaining age 60 (or after attaining age 50 if entitled before such marriage occurred to benefits based on disability under this subsection), or a disabled widower described in paragraph (1)(B)(ii) married after attaining age 50, such marriage would be deemed not to have occurred, for provision that if a widower married after attaining age 60, such marriage would be deemed not to have occurred for purposes of par. (1). Former par. (4), which had provided that if a widower, before attaining age 60, remarried an individual entitled to benefits under subsec. (b), (e), (g), or (h) or an individual who had attained the age of eighteen and was entitled to benefits under subsec. (d), such widower's entitlement to benefits under this subsection would, notwithstanding the provisions of par. (1) of this subsection but subject to subsec. (s), not be terminated by reason of such marriage, was struck out.

Subsec. (f)(5). Pub. L. 98–21, §301(b)(4), inserted “or surviving divorced husband” after “widower” in provisions preceding subpar. (A).

Pub. L. 98–21, §131(b)(3)(A), redesignated par. (6) as (5). Former par. (5) redesignated (4).

Subsec. (f)(5)(B), (C). Pub. L. 98–21, §306(h), added subpar. (B) and redesignated former subpar. (B) as (C).

Subsec. (f)(6). Pub. L. 98–21, §301(b)(4), inserted “or surviving divorced husband” after “widower”.

Pub. L. 98–21, §131(b)(3)(A), (E), redesignated par. (7) as (6) and substituted reference to par. (5) for reference to par. (6). Former par. (6) redesignated (5).

Subsec. (f)(7), (8). Pub. L. 98–21, §131(b)(3)(A), redesignated par. (8) as (7). Former par. (7) redesignated (6).

Subsec. (g). Pub. L. 98–21, §306(a)(7), inserted “or father's” after “mother's” wherever appearing.

Subsec. (g)(1). Pub. L. 98–21, §306(a)(8), struck out “after August 1950” after “beginning with the first month” in provisions following subpar. (F).

Pub. L. 98–21, §306(a)(1), (2), (5), (6), substituted “surviving spouse” for “widow”, “surviving spouse's” for “widow's”, “he or she” for “she”, and “parent” for “mother”, wherever appearing.

Subsec. (g)(1)(D). Pub. L. 98–21, §306(a)(3), substituted “a spouse's insurance benefit” for “wife's insurance benefits” and “such individual” for “he”.

Subsec. (g)(1)(E), (F)(i). Pub. L. 98–21, §306(a)(4), substituted “his or her” for “her”.

Subsec. (g)(3). Pub. L. 98–21, §307(a), struck out exception in provisions following subpar. (B) that in the case of such a marriage to an individual entitled to benefits under section 423(a) of this title or subsec. (d), the preceding provisions of this paragraph would not apply with respect to benefits for months after the last month for which such individual was entitled to such benefits under section 423(a) of this title or subsec. (d) unless he ceased to be so entitled by reason of his death, or in the case of an individual entitled to benefits under section 423(a) of this title, he was entitled, for the month following such last month, to benefits under subsec. (a).

Pub. L. 98–21, §306(a)(1), (6), substituted “surviving spouse” for “widow” and “parent” for “mother” wherever appearing.

Subsec. (g)(3)(A). Pub. L. 98–21, §306(a)(9)(B), inserted reference to this subsection and subsecs. (b) and (e).

Pub. L. 98–21, §301(b)(6), inserted reference to subsec. (c).

Subsec. (g)(4)(A). Pub. L. 98–21, §337(a), substituted “by an amount equal to two-thirds of the amount of any monthly periodic benefit” for “by an amount equal to the amount of any monthly periodic benefit”, and inserted provision that the amount of the reduction in any benefit under this subparagraph, if not a multiple of $0.10, shall be rounded to the next higher multiple of $0.10.

Pub. L. 97–455, §7(c), inserted “for purposes of this subchapter” after “as defined in section 410 of this title”.

Subsec. (h)(4). Pub. L. 98–21, §307(a), struck out exception in provisions following subpar. (B) that in the case of such a marriage to a male individual entitled to benefits under subsec. (d), the preceding provisions of this paragraph would not apply with respect to benefits for months after the last month for which such individual was entitled to such benefits under subsec. (d) unless he ceased to be so entitled by reason of his death.

Subsec. (h)(4)(A). Pub. L. 98–21, §301(b)(7), inserted reference to subsec. (c).

Subsec. (j)(4)(B)(iii) to (v). Pub. L. 98–21, §334(a), added cl. (iii) and redesignated former cls. (iii) and (iv) as (iv) and (v), respectively.

Subsec. (k)(2)(B), (3)(B). Pub. L. 98–21, §131(b)(3)(F), (G), substituted references to subsecs. (e)(3) and (f)(4) for references to subsecs. (e)(4) and (f)(5), respectively, wherever appearing.

Subsec. (m). Pub. L. 98–21, §§111(a)(7), 134(b), in par. (1) substituted “November” for “May” and in par. (2)(B) substituted “subsection (q)(6)(B)” for “subsection (q)(6)(A)(ii)”, as subsec. (m) [notwithstanding its repeal by Pub. L. 97–35] continues to apply in certain cases by reason of section 2(j)(2)–(4) of Pub. L. 97–123, set out as an Effective Date of 1981 Amendment note under section 415 of this title. As thus amended subsec. (m) would read as follows:

“(1) In any case in which an individual is entitled to a monthly benefit under this section on the basis of a primary insurance amount computed under section 415(a) or (d) of this title, as in effect after December 1978, on the basis of the wages and self-employment income of a deceased individual for any month and no other person is (without the application of subsection (j)(1) of this section) entitled to a monthly benefit under this section for that month on the basis of such wages and self-employment income, the individual's benefit amount for that month, prior to reduction under subsection (k)(3) of this section, shall not be less than that provided by subparagraph (C)(1)(I) of section 415(a)(1) of this title and increased under section 415(i) of this title for months after November of the year in which the insured individual died as though such benefit were a primary insurance amount.

“(2) In the case of any such individual who is entitled to a monthly benefit under subsection (e) or (f) of this section, such individual's benefit amount, after reduction under subsection (q)(1) of this section, shall be not less than—

“(A) $84.50, if his first month of entitlement to such benefit is the month in which such individual attained age 62 or a subsequent month, or

“(B) $84.50 reduced under subsection (q)(1) of this section as if retirement age as specified in subsection (q)(6)(B) of this section were age 62 instead of the age specified in subsection (q)(9) of this section, if his first month of entitlement to such benefit is before the month in which he attained age 62.

“(3) In the case of any individual whose benefit amount was computed (or recomputed) under the provisions of paragraph (2) and such individual was entitled to benefits under subsection (e) or (f) of this section for a month prior to any month after 1972 for which a general benefit increase under this subchapter (as defined in section 415(i)(3) of this title) or a benefit increase under section 415(i) of this title becomes effective, the benefit amount of such individual as computed under paragraph (2) without regard to the reduction specified in subparagraph (B) thereof shall be increased by the percentage increase applicable for such benefit increase, prior to the application of subsection (q)(1) of this section pursuant to paragraph (2)(B) and subsection (q)(4) of this section.”

Subsec. (q)(1). Pub. L. 98–21, §201(b)(2), substituted “Subject to paragraph (9), if” for “If” at beginning of par. (1).

Pub. L. 98–21, §134(a)(1), struck out provisions following subpar. (B)(ii) which directed that in the case of a widow or widower whose first month of entitlement to a widow's or widower's insurance benefit was a month before the month in which such widow or widower attained age 60, such benefit, reduced pursuant to preceding provisions of this paragraph (and before the application of the second sentence of paragraph (8)), had to be further reduced by 43/240 of 1 percent of the amount of such benefit, multiplied by the number of months in the additional reduction period for such benefit (determined under paragraph (6)(B)), if such benefit was for a month before the month in which such individual attained age 62, or if less, the number of months in the additional adjusted reduction period for such benefit (determined under paragraph (7)), if such benefit was for the month in which such individual attained age 62 or any month thereafter.

Subsec. (q)(1)(B)(i). Pub. L. 98–21, §134(a)(2)(C), substituted “paragraph (6)” for “paragraph (6)(A)”.

Subsec. (q)(2). Pub. L. 98–21, §201(c)(1)(A), substituted reference to retirement age as defined in section 416(l) of this title for reference to age 65.

Subsec. (q)(3)(A)(i). Pub. L. 98–21, §201(c)(1)(A), substituted reference to retirement age as defined in section 416(l) of this title for reference to age 65.

Subsec. (q)(3)(E). Pub. L. 98–21, §309(b), inserted “or surviving divorced husband” after “widower”.

Pub. L. 98–21, §201(c)(1)(A), as amended by Pub. L. 98–369, §2662(c)(1), substituted reference to retirement age as defined in section 416(l) of this title for reference to the age of 65.

Subsec. (q)(3)(E)(ii). Pub. L. 98–21, §134(a)(2)(C), substituted “paragraph (6)” for “paragraph (6)(A)”.

Subsec. (q)(3)(F). Pub. L. 98–21, §309(b), inserted “or surviving divorced husband” after “widower”.

Subsec. (q)(3)(F)(ii)(I). Pub. L. 98–21, §134(a)(2)(C), substituted “paragraph (6)” for “paragraph (6)(A)”.

Subsec. (q)(3)(G). Pub. L. 98–21, §309(b), inserted “or surviving divorced husband” after “widower”.

Pub. L. 98–21, §134(a)(2)(B), substituted “paragraph (6)” for “paragraph (6)(A) (or, if such paragraph does not apply, the period specified in paragraph (6)(B))”.

Subsec. (q)(5). Pub. L. 98–21, §309(c)(4), substituted “he or she” for “she” wherever appearing.

Pub. L. 98–21, §309(c)(1), inserted “or husband's” after “wife's” wherever appearing.

Subsec. (q)(5)(A)(i). Pub. L. 98–21, §309(c)(2), substituted “him or her” for “her”.

Subsec. (q)(5)(A)(ii). Pub. L. 98–21, §309(c)(3), substituted “the” for “her” after “income”.

Subsec. (q)(5)(B)(ii). Pub. L. 98–21, §309(c)(6), substituted “the individual” for “the woman”.

Subsec. (q)(5)(C). Pub. L. 98–21, §309(c)(6), substituted “an individual” for “a woman”.

Pub. L. 98–21, §309(c)(5), substituted “his or her” for “her”.

Pub. L. 98–21, §201(c)(1)(A), substituted reference to retirement age as defined in section 416(l) of this title for reference to age 65 wherever appearing.

Subsec. (q)(5)(D). Pub. L. 98–21, §309(c)(7), inserted “or widower's” after “widow's”, substituted “spouse” for “husband” wherever appearing, substituted “spouse's” for “husband's” wherever appearing, and inserted “or father's” after “mother's”.

Pub. L. 98–21, §309(c)(5), substituted “his or her” for “her” in three places.

Subsec. (q)(6). Pub. L. 98–21, §134(a)(2)(A), amended par. (6) generally, striking out subpar. designation “(A)” after “this subsection” and redesignated cl. (i) as subpar. (A), in subpar. (A) as so redesignated, redesignated subcls. (I) to (III) as cls. (i) to (iii), respectively, redesignated former cl. (ii) as subpar. (B), and struck out former subpar. (B), which had provided that the “additional reduction period” for an individual's widow's or widower's insurance benefit was the period beginning with the first day of the first month for which such individual was entitled to such benefit, but only if such individual had not attained age 60 in such first month, and ending with the last day of the month before the month in which such individual attained age 60.

Subsec. (q)(6)(A)(i). Pub. L. 98–21, §309(d)(1), struck out “or husband's” after “old-age”.

Subsec. (q)(6)(A)(ii). Pub. L. 98–21, §309(d)(1), inserted “or husband's” after “wife's”.

Subsec. (q)(7). Pub. L. 98–21, §134(a)(3), amended provisions preceding subpar. (A) generally, substituting reference to par. (6) for reference to par. (6)(A), and striking out provision that the additional adjusted reduction period for an individual's, widow's, or widower's insurance benefit was the additional reduction period prescribed by par. (6)(B) for such benefit, with the same exclusions as from the adjusted reduction period.

Subsec. (q)(7)(B). Pub. L. 98–21, §309(d)(2)(A), inserted “or husband's” after “wife's”, substituted “such individual” for “she”, and inserted “his or” before “her”.

Subsec. (q)(7)(D). Pub. L. 98–21, §309(d)(2)(B), inserted “or widower's” after “widow's”.

Subsec. (q)(9). Pub. L. 98–21, §201(b)(1), amended par. (9) generally, substituting provisions defining the amount of reduction for early retirement specified in par. (1) for provision that, for purposes of this subsection, the term “retirement age” meant age 65.

Subsec. (q)(10). Pub. L. 98–21, §134(a)(4)(A), in that part of second sentence preceding cl. (A) struck out “or an additional adjusted reduction period” after “the use of an adjusted reduction period”.

Subsec. (q)(10)(B)(i). Pub. L. 98–21, §134(a)(4)(B), struck out “, plus the number of months in the adjusted additional reduction period multiplied by 43/240 of 1 percent” before “to (ii)”.

Subsec. (q)(10)(B)(ii). Pub. L. 98–21, §134(a)(4)(C), struck out “plus the number of months in the additional reduction period multiplied by 43/240 of 1 percent,” after “1 percent”.

Subsec. (q)(10)(C). Pub. L. 98–21, §201(c)(1)(A), substituted reference to retirement age as defined in section 416(l) of this title for reference to age 65.

Subsec. (q)(10(C)(i). Pub. L. 98–21, §134(a)(4)(B), struck out “, plus the number of months in the adjusted additional reduction period multiplied by 43/240 of 1 percent” before “to (ii)”.

Subsec. (q)(10)(C)(ii). Pub. L. 98–21, §134(a)(4)(D), struck out “plus the number of months in the adjusted additional reduction period multiplied by 43/240 of 1 percent.” after “1 percent,”.

Subsec. (r)(1), (2). Pub. L. 98–21, §201(c)(1)(A), substituted reference to retirement age as defined in section 416(l) of this title for reference to age 65.

Subsec. (s)(1). Pub. L. 98–21, §309(e)(1), inserted reference to subsec. (c)(1).

Subsec. (s)(2). Pub. L. 98–21, §309(e)(2), inserted reference to subsec. (c)(4).

Pub. L. 98–21, §131(c)(1), substituted “So much of subsections (b)(3), (d)(5), (g)(3), and (h)(4)” for “Subsection (f)(4), and so much of subsections (b)(3), (d)(5), (e)(3), (g)(3), and (h)(4)”.

Subsec. (s)(3). Pub. L. 98–21, §309(e)(3), substituted “The last sentence” for “So much of subsections (b)(3), (d)(5), (g)(3), and (h)(4) of this section as follows the semicolon, the last sentence”.

Pub. L. 98–21, §131(c)(2), struck out “(e)(3),” after “(d)(5),”.

Subsec. (t)(2), (4). Pub. L. 98–21, §340(b), substituted “Subject to paragraph (11), paragraph (1)” for “Paragraph (1)”.

Subsec. (t)(11). Pub. L. 98–21, §340(a)(2), added par. (11).

Subsec. (w)(1)(A). Pub. L. 98–21, §114(a), substituted a definition of the multiplicand as the applicable percentage (as determined under paragraph (6)) of such amount for a definition of the multiplicand as 1/12 of 1 percent of such amount, or, in the case of an individual who first becomes eligible for an old-age insurance benefit after December 1978, one-quarter of 1 percent of such amount.

Subsec. (w)(2)(A). Pub. L. 98–21, §201(c)(1)(A), substituted reference to retirement age as defined in section 416(l) of this title for reference to age 65.

Pub. L. 98–21, §114(c)(1), substituted “age 70” for “age 72”.

Subsec. (w)(3). Pub. L. 98–21, §114(c)(1), substituted “age 70” for “age 72”.

Subsec. (w)(6). Pub. L. 98–21, §114(b), added par. (6).

Subsec. (x). Pub. L. 98–21, §339(a), added subsec. (x).

1981—Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 97–35, §2203(a), substituted in provision following par. (3) provision specifying the beginning month of entitlement in the case of an individual who has attained age 65 and in the case of an individual who has attained the age of 62, but not the age of 65, for provision specifying the beginning month of entitlement as the first month after August 1950 in which the individual becomes entitled.

Subsec. (b)(1). Pub. L. 97–35, §2203(b)(1), substituted in provision following subpar. (D) provision specifying the beginning month of entitlement in the case of a wife or divorced wife who has attained the age of 65 and in the case of a wife or divorced wife who has not attained the age of 65 or of an individual entitled to disability insurance benefits for provision specifying the beginning month of entitlement as the first month the wife or divorced wife becomes so entitled to such benefits.

Subsec. (c)(1). Pub. L. 97–35, §2203(c)(1), substituted in provision following subpar. (C) provision specifying the beginning month of entitlement in the case of a husband who has attained the age of 65 and in the case of a husband who has not attained the age of 65 or of an individual entitled to disability benefits for provision specifying the beginning month of entitlement as the first month after August 1950 in which he becomes entitled to benefits.

Subsec. (d)(1). Pub. L. 97–35, §§2203(d)(1), 2210(a)(1), (5)(A), substituted in subpars. (B)(i), (E)(ii), (F)(i), and (G)(III) “full-time elementary or secondary school student” for “full-time student”, in subpars. (B)(i), (F)(ii), and (G)(IV) “19” for “22”, and in provision following subpar. (C) provision specifying the beginning month of entitlement in the case of a child of an individual who has died and of a child of an individual entitled to an old-age insurance benefit or a disability insurance benefit for provision specifying the beginning month of entitlement as the first month after August 1950 in which such child becomes entitled to benefits.

Subsec. (d)(6)(A). Pub. L. 97–35, §2210(a)(5)(B), substituted “full-time elementary or secondary school student and has not attained the age of 19, or (ii) is under a disability (as defined in section 423(d) of this title) and has not attained the age of 22” for “full-time student or is under a disability (as defined in section 423(d) of this title), and (ii) had not attained the age of 22”.

Subsec. (d)(6)(D), (E). Pub. L. 97–35, §2210(a)(1), (5)(A), substituted in cl. (i) “full-time elementary or secondary school student” for “full-time student” and in cl. (ii) “19” for “22”.

Subsec. (d)(7)(A). Pub. L. 97–35, §§2203(d)(2), 2210(a)(1), (2), substituted “full-time elementary or secondary school student” for “full-time student” wherever appearing, “elementary or secondary school” for “educational institution” wherever appearing, and “schools involved” for “institutions involved” and inserted provision that an individual who is determined to be a full-time elementary or secondary school student be deemed to be such a student throughout the month with respect to which such determination is made.

Subsec. (d)(7)(B). Pub. L. 97–35, §2210(a)(1), (2)(A), substituted “full-time elementary or secondary school student” for “full-time student” and “elementary or secondary school” for “educational institution” wherever appearing.

Subsec. (d)(7)(C). Pub. L. 97–35, §2210(a)(3), substituted provision defining “elementary or secondary school” and provision that for the purpose of determining whether a child is a “full-time elementary or secondary school student” or “intends to continue to be in full-time attendance at an elementary or secondary school” there be disregarded any education provided, or to be provided, beyond grade 12 for provision defining the term “educational institution”.

Subsec. (d)(7)(D). Pub. L. 97–35, §2210(a)(1), (2)(A), (4), (5)(A), substituted “19” for “22”, “full-time elementary or secondary school student” for “full-time student”, “diploma or equivalent certificate from a secondary school (as defined in subparagraph (C)(i))” for “degree from a four-year college or university”, and “elementary or secondary school” for “educational institution”.

Subsec. (i). Pub. L. 97–35, §2201(f), inserted in provision preceding par. (1) “(as determined without regard to the amendments made by section 2201 of the Omnibus Budget Reconciliation Act of 1981, relating to repeal of the minimum benefit provisions)”.

Pub. L. 97–35, §2202(a)(1), as amended by Pub. L. 98–369, §2663(a)(2)(E), substituted in par. (1) provision that a qualifying widow or widower be paid for provision that unpaid burial expenses to a funeral home be paid and in par. (2) provision for payment in the event that no one qualifies or if the person entitled dies before receiving payment for provision for payment if all burial expenses incurred by or through a funeral home were paid, and struck out pars. (3) and (4), which provided for payment if the body of the insured is not available for burial but expenses were incurred for a memorial marker, service, etc., and for distribution of any amounts remaining available after payments under this subsection were made, respectively, and struck out “(except a payment authorized pursuant to clause (1)(A) of the preceding sentence)” after “No payment”.

Subsec. (m). Pub. L. 97–35, §2201(b)(10), struck out subsec. (m) which related to the minimum survivor's benefit.

Subsec. (q)(4). Pub. L. 97–123, §2(e)(1), substituted “increased” and “increase” for “changed” and “change”, respectively, wherever appearing.

Pub. L. 97–35, §2201(d)(1), substituted “changed” and “change” for “increased” and “increase”, respectively, wherever appearing.

Subsec. (q)(8). Pub. L. 97–35, §2206(b)(1), substituted “before application of” for “after application of” and “increased to the next higher” for “reduced to the next lower”.

Subsec. (q)(10). Pub. L. 97–123, §2(e)(2), substituted “increased”, “increase”, and “increases” for “changed”, “change”, and “changes”, respectively, wherever appearing.

Pub. L. 97–35, §2201(d)(2), substituted “changed”, “change”, and “changes” for “increased”, “increase” and “increases”, respectively, wherever appearing.

Subsec. (s)(1). Pub. L. 97–35, §2205(a)(1), substituted “the age of 16” for “the age of 18”.

Subsec. (w)(1), (5). Pub. L. 97–35, §2201(b)(11), substituted “section 415(a)(1)(C)(i) of this title” for “section 415(a)(1)(C)(i)(II) of this title”.

1980—Subsec. (d)(1)(G). Pub. L. 96–265, §303(b)(1)(B), inserted provisions relating to an individual's termination month, including cls. (I) and (II), and redesignated existing cls. (i) and (ii) as cls. (III) and (IV), respectively.

Subsec. (d)(7)(A). Pub. L. 96–473, §5(b), inserted provisions relating to individuals confined in a jail, prison, or other penal institutional or correctional facility.

Subsec. (e)(1). Pub. L. 96–265, §303(b)(1)(C), in provisions following subpar. (F)(ii), inserted provisions relating to the termination month.

Subsec. (e)(2)(B)(i). Pub. L. 96–473, §6(a), struck out second comma after “where applicable”, which had been inserted by Pub. L. 95–216, §204(b). See 1977 Amendment note below.

Subsec. (f)(1). Pub. L. 96–265, §303(b)(1)(D), in provisions following subpar. (F)(ii), inserted provisions relating to the termination month.

Subsec. (j)(1). Pub. L. 96–499 designated existing provisions in part as subpar. (A) and expanded such provisions and added subpar. (B).

Subsec. (j)(2). Pub. L. 96–265, §306(a), inserted provisions relating to limitations on the prospective effects of applications.

1978—Subsec. (v). Pub. L. 95–600 substituted “1402(g)” for “1402(h)”.

1977—Subsec. (b)(1)(G). Pub. L. 95–216, §337(b), substituted “10” for “20”.

Subsec. (b)(2). Pub. L. 95–216, §334(a)(1), inserted reference to par. (4) of this subsection.

Subsec. (b)(4). Pub. L. 95–216, §334(a)(2), added par. (4).

Subsec. (c)(1). Pub. L. 95–216, §334(b)(1), in subpar. (B) inserted “and” after “62,”, struck out subpar. (C) which related to support payment requirements for the husband, and redesignated former subpar. (D) as (C).

Subsec. (c)(2). Pub. L. 95–216, §334(b)(2), substituted provisions relating to reduction of the amount of the husband's insurance benefit for each month as determined after application of the provisions of subsecs. (q) and (k) of this section for provisions relating to applicability of provisions of former subsec. (c)(1)(C) of this section, as subject to subsec. (s) of this section.

Subsec. (c)(3). Pub. L. 95–216, §334(b)(3), inserted reference to par. (2) of this subsection.

Subsec. (e)(2)(A). Pub. L. 95–216, §§204(a), 334(c)(1), 336(a)(1), inserted “(as determined after application of the following sentence)” after “primary insurance amount”, provisions relating to entitlement of the deceased to an old-age insurance benefit which was increased or was to be increased on account of delayed retirement, and reference to par. (8) of this subsection, and struck out reference to par. (4) of this subsection.

Subsec. (e)(2)(B)(i). Pub. L. 95–216, §204(b), substituted “living and section 415(f)(5) or (6) of this title were applied, where applicable,, and” for “living, and”. See 1980 Amendment note above.

Subsec. (e)(3). Pub. L. 95–216, §336(a)(2), substituted “If a widow, before attaining age 60, or a surviving divorced wife,” for “In the case of a widow or surviving divorced wife who”.

Subsec. (e)(4). Pub. L. 95–216, §336(a)(3), struck out reference to an individual (other than one described in subsec. (e)(3)(A) or (B) of this section) as the husband, and provisions relating to benefits during the marriage.

Subsec. (e)(8). Pub. L. 95–216, §334(c)(2), added par. (8).

Subsec. (f)(1). Pub. L. 95–216, §334(d)(1), struck out subpar. (D) which related to receipt of support by the widower in accordance with regulations promulgated by the Secretary, and redesignated former subpars. (E) to (G) as (D) to (F), respectively.

Subsec. (f)(2). Pub. L. 95–216, §334(d)(2), substituted provisions relating to reduction of the amount of the widower's insurance benefit for each month as determined after application of the provisions of subsecs. (k) and (q) of this section and pars. (3)(B) and (5) of this subsec., for provisions relating to applicability of former subsec. (f)(1)(D) of this section, as subject to subsec. (s) of this section.

Subsec. (f)(3)(A). Pub. L. 95–216, §§204(c), 334(d)(3), 336(b)(1), inserted “(as determined after application of the following sentence)” after “primary insurance amount”, inserted provisions relating to entitlement of the deceased to an old-age insurance benefit which was increased or was to be increased on account of delayed retirement, and substituted reference to par. (2) of this subsection for reference to par. (5) of this subsection.

Subsec. (f)(3)(B). Pub. L. 95–216, §204(d), inserted reference to section 415(f)(5) or (6) of this title in cl. (i).

Subsec. (f)(4). Pub. L. 95–216, §336(b)(2), substituted “If a widower, before attaining age 60,” for “In the case of a widower who”.

Subsec. (f)(5). Pub. L. 95–216, §336(b)(3), struck out reference to an individual (other than one described in subsec. (f)(4)(A) or (B) of this section) as the wife, and provisions relating to benefits during the marriage.

Subsec. (f)(7). Pub. L. 95–216, §334(d)(4)(A), substituted “(F)” for “(G)”.

Subsec. (g)(2). Pub. L. 95–216, §334(e)(1), substituted “Except as provided in paragraph (4) of this subsection, such” for “Such”.

Subsec. (g)(4). Pub. L. 95–216, §334(e)(2), added par. (4).

Subsec. (j)(1). Pub. L. 95–216, §332(a)(1), substituted “Subject to the limitations contained in paragraph (4), an” for “An”.

Subsec. (j)(4). Pub. L. 95–216, §332(a)(2), added par. (4).

Subsec. (m)(1). Pub. L. 95–216, §205(a), substituted provisions relating to entitlement to monthly benefits under this section on the basis of primary insurance amounts computed under section 415(a) or (d) of this title as in effect after Dec., 1978, for provisions relating to entitlement to monthly benefits under this section on the basis of wages and self-employment income of deceased individuals for any month.

Subsec. (p)(1). Pub. L. 95–216, §334(d)(5), struck out references to subsecs. (c)(1)(C) and (f)(1)(D)(i) or (ii) of this section.

Subsec. (q)(3)(H). Pub. L. 95–216, §331(c)(2), inserted “for that month or” after “first entitled”.

Subsec. (q)(4). Pub. L. 95–216, §331(a), substituted provisions setting forth factors for the computation of the amount of the reduction of the benefit for each month beginning with the month of the increase in the primary insurance amount, after application of any adjustment under par. (7) of this subsec., for provisions setting forth factors for the computation of the amount of the reduction of the benefit for each month.

Subsec. (q)(7)(C). Pub. L. 95–216, §331(c)(1), substituted “of the occurrence of an event that terminated her or his entitlement to such benefits” for “the spouse on whose wages and self-employment income such benefits were based ceased to be under a disability”.

Subsec. (q)(10), (11). Pub. L. 95–216, §331(b), added pars. (10) and (11).

Subsec. (s)(3). Pub. L. 95–216, §334(d)(6), substituted “So” for “Subsections (c)(2)(B) and (f)(2)(B) of this section, so”.

Subsec. (u)(1)(C). Pub. L. 95–216, §353(f)(1), substituted “year” for “quarter” wherever appearing.

Subsec. (w)(1). Pub. L. 95–216, §§203(1), 205(b)(1), substituted “The amount of an old-age insurance benefit (other than a benefit based on a primary insurance amount determined under section 415(a)(3) of this title as in effect in December 1978 or section 415(a)(1)(C)(i)(II) of this title as in effect thereafter) which is payable without regard to this subsection to an individual” for “If the first month for which an old-age insurance benefit becomes payable to an individual is not earlier than the month in which such individual attains age 65 (or his benefit payable at such age is not reduced under subsection (q) of this section), the amount of the old-age insurance benefit (other than a benefit based on a primary insurance amount determined under section 415(a)(3) of this title) which is payable without regard to this subsection to such individual”.

Subsec. (w)(1)(A). Pub. L. 95–216, §203(2), inserted provision relating to individuals eligible after Dec., 1978.

Subsec. (w)(5). Pub. L. 95–216, §205(b)(2), (3), inserted “as in effect in December 1978, or section 415(a)(1)(C)(i)(II) of this title as in effect thereafter,” after “(3) of section 415(a) of this title” and “(whether before, in, or after December 1978)” after “under section 415(a) of this title”.

1974—Subsec. (l). Pub. L. 93–445 substituted “annuity under section 2 of the Railroad Retirement Act of 1974, or to a lump-sum payment under section 6(b) of such Act, with respect to the death of an employee (as defined in such Act)” for “annuity under section 5 of the Railroad Retirement Act of 1937 or to a lump-sum payment under subsection (f)(1) of such section with respect to the death of an employee (as defined in such Act)”.

1973—Subsec. (d)(8)(D)(ii). Pub. L. 93–66 added item (III).

Subsec. (e)(7). Pub. L. 93–233, §1(f), added par. (7).

Subsec. (f)(8). Pub. L. 93–233, §1(g), added par. (8).

Subsec. (w)(5). Pub. L. 93–233, §18(b), added par. (5).

1972—Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 92–603, §103(b), inserted reference to subsection (w) of this section.

Subsec. (b)(1). Pub. L. 92–603, §114(a), struck out subpar. (D) which covered support aspects involved with a divorced wife and redesignated subpars. (E) through (L) and subpars. (D) through (K), respectively.

Subsec. (d)(1). Pub. L. 92–603, §§108(a)–(c), 112(a), substituted “age of 22” for “age of eighteen” in subpar. (B)(ii), struck out provisions covering adoption in subpar. (D), inserted “but only if he was not under a disability (as so defined) in such earlier month” in subpar. (F), substituted “age of 18, or if he was not under a disability (as so defined) at such time but was under a disability (as so defined) at or prior to the time he attained (or would attain) the age of 22” for “age of 18” and inserted “but only if he was not under a disability (as so defined) in such earlier month” after “attains the age of 22” in subpar. (G), and inserted provision prohibiting payments under par. (1) to a child who would not meet the definition of disability in section 423(d) of this title except for par. (1)(B) thereof for any month in which he engages in substantial gainful activity.

Subsec. (d)(6). Pub. L. 92–603, §108(d), designated existing provisions as subpars. (A), (C), and (D), added subpars. (B) and (E), inserted “or is under a disability (as defined in section 423(d) of this title)” in subpar. (A)(i) as so redesignated, and inserted “but only if he is not under a disability (as so defined) in such earlier month” in subpar. (D)(ii) as so redesignated.

Subsec. (d)(7). Pub. L. 92–603, §109(a), added subpar. (D).

Subsec. (d)(8). Pub. L. 92–603, §111(a), combined into par. (8) the provisions formerly set out in both pars. (8) and (9) covering adoptions by disability and old-age insurance beneficiaries and struck out provisions covering supervision of an adoption by a public or private child placement agency and provisions covering a special category of adoptions during the 24–month period beginning with the month after the month in which the individual most recently became entitled to disability insurance benefits or became entitled to old-age insurance benefits.

Subsec. (d)(9). Pub. L. 92–603, §113(b), added par. (9). Former par. (9) incorporated, as amended, into par. (8).

Subsec. (e)(1). Pub. L. 92–603, §§102(a)(1), 114(b)(1), struck out subpar. (D) which covered support aspects involved with a surviving divorced wife and redesignated subpars. (E) through (G) as subpars. (D) through (F), respectively, substituted “the primary insurance amount” for “82½ percent of the primary insurance amount” in subpar. (D) and in the provisions following subpar. (F), substituted “entitled to wife's insurance benefits,” for “entitled, after attainment of age 62, to wife's insurance benefits,” in subpar. (C)(i), inserted “and (I) has attained age 65 or (II) is not entitled to benefits under subsection (a) of this section or section 423 of this title,” at end of subpar. (C)(i), and substituted “age 65” for “age 62” in subpar. (C)(ii) and in provisions following subpar. (F).

Subsec. (e)(2). Pub. L. 92–603, §102(a)(2), designated existing provisions as subpar. (A), added subpar. (B), in subpar. (A) as so designated inserted reference to subpar. (B) of this par., and substituted “the primary insurance amount” for “82½ percent of the primary amount”.

Subsec. (e)(6). Pub. L. 92–603, §§114(b)(2), 116(b), substituted “five”, “seventeenth”, and “fifth” for “six”, “eighteenth”, and “sixth”, respectively, and “paragraph (1)(F)” for “paragraph (1)(G)”.

Subsec. (f)(1). Pub. L. 92–603, §§102(b)(1), 107(a)(1), (2), substituted “age 60” for “age 62” in subpar. (B), substituted “the primary insurance amount” for “82½ percent of the primary insurance amount” in subpar. (E) and provisions following subpar. (G), inserted “and (I) has attained age 65 or (II) is not entitled to benefits under subsection (a) of this section or section 423 of this title,” at end of subpar. (C), and substituted “age 65” for “age 62” and inserted “, if he became entitled to such benefits before he attained age 60,” before “the third month” in provisions following subpar. (G).

Subsec. (f)(3). Pub. L. 92–603, §102(b)(2), designated existing provisions as subpar. (A), added subpar. (B), in subpar. (A) as so designated inserted reference to subpar. (B) of this par., and substituted “the primary insurance amount” for “82½ percent of the primary amount”.

Subsec. (f)(5). Pub. L. 92–603, §107(a)(3), substituted “the age of 60” for “the age of 62”.

Subsec. (f)(6). Pub. L. 92–603, §107(a)(1), substituted “age 60” for “age 62”.

Subsec. (f)(7). Pub. L. 92–603, §116(c), substituted “five”, “seventeenth”, and “fifth” for “six”, “eighteenth”, and “sixth”, respectively.

Subsec. (g)(1)(F). Pub. L. 92–603, §114(c), struck out cl. (i) covering the support aspects of a surviving divorced mother and redesignated cl. (ii) and (iii) as cl. (i) and (ii), respectively.

Subsec. (k)(2)(A). Pub. L. 92–603, §110(a), inserted provisions establishing exceptions to rule that a child's benefits in the case where the child is entitled on more than one wage record shall be based on wages and self-employment of the insured individual with greatest primary insurance amount.

Subsec. (k)(3)(A). Pub. L. 92–603, §102(d), inserted reference to subsection (e)(2) or (f)(3) of this section.

Subsec. (m). Pub. L. 92–603, §102(f), amended subsec. (m) generally to increase the minimums on survivor's benefits.

Subsec. (q)(1). Pub. L. 92–603, §102(e)(1), generally provided for an increase in widow's and widower's insurance benefits through the insertion of provisions covering such benefits in subpar. (A), and in provisions preceding subpar. (C), and through the substitution of a 43/240 fraction in subpar. (C) for a 43/198 fraction.

Subsec. (q)(3). Pub. L. 92–603, §102(e)(2), (5), redesignated existing provisions of subpars. (E)(ii) and (F)(ii) as subcls. (I) and (II) and in subcls. (I) of each such subpar. as so redesignated substituted “would be reduced under paragraph (1) if the period specified in paragraph (6)(A) ended with the month before the month in which she or he attained age 62” for “was reduced for the month in which such individual attained retirement age”, substituted in subpar. (G) “as if the period specified in paragraph (6)(A) (or, if such paragraph does not apply, the period specified in paragraph (6)(B)) ended with the month before” for “had such individual attained age 62 in”, and added subpar. (H).

Subsec. (q)(7). Pub. L. 92–603, §102(e)(3), divided existing source references for “adjusted reduction period” and “additional adjusted reduction period” into separate references to subpars. (A) and (B) of par. (6) in the provisions preceding subpar. (A) and, in subpar. (E), substituted “attained age 62, and also for any later month before the month in which he attained retirement age,” for “attained retirement age”.

Subsec. (q)(9). Pub. L. 92–603, §102(e)(4), struck out provisions which had set age 62 as the meaning of “retirement age” with respect to a widow's and widower's insurance benefits.

Subsec. (s). Pub. L. 92–603, §108(e), struck out “which began before he attained such age” after “disability (as defined in section 423(d) of this title)” in par. (1) and struck out “which began before such child attained the age of 18” after “disability (as defined in section 423(d) of this title)” in pars. (2) and (3).

Subsec. (w). Pub. L. 92–603, §103(a), added subsec. (w).

1971—Subsec. (i)(3). Pub. L. 92–223, §1(a), added cl. (3).

Subsec. (i)(4). Pub. L. 92–223, §1(a), (b), redesignated former cl. (3) as (4) and included reference to cl. (3) in the second sentence.

1969—Subsec. (b)(2). Pub. L. 91–172, §1004(a), removed $105 ceiling on insurance benefits of wives.

Subsec. (c)(3). Pub. L. 91–172, §1004(b), removed $105 ceiling on insurance benefits of husbands.

Subsec. (e)(4). Pub. L. 91–172, §1004(c), removed $105 ceiling on insurance benefits of widows.

Subsec. (f)(5). Pub. L. 91–172, §1004(c), removed $105 ceiling on insurance benefits of widowers.

1968—Subsec. (b)(2). Pub. L. 90–248, §103(a), provided that a wife's insurance benefit may not exceed $105.

Subsec. (c)(1). Pub. L. 90–248, §157(a)(1), substituted in text preceding subpar. (A) “an individual” for “a currently insured individual (as defined in section 414(b) of this title)”.

Subsec. (c)(2). Pub. L. 90–248, §157(a)(2), substituted in text preceding subpar. (A) “The provisions of subparagraph (C) of paragraph (1) of this subsection” for “The requirement in paragraph (1) of this subsection that the individual entitled to old-age or disability insurance benefits be a currently insured individual, and the provisions of subparagraph (C) of such paragraph”.

Subsec. (c)(3). Pub. L. 90–248, §103(b), provided that a husband's insurance benefit may not exceed $105.

Subsec. (d)(1)(B). Pub. L. 90–248, §158(c)(1), substituted “section 423(d)” for “section 423(c)”.

Subsec. (d)(3). Pub. L. 90–248, §151(a), inserted in first sentence “or his mother or adopting mother” after “adopting father”, and struck out in second sentence, “if such individual is the child's father,” after “title shall”.

Subsec. (d)(4). Pub. L. 90–248, §151(b), inserted, “or stepmother” after “stepfather” in two places.

Subsec. (d)(5) to (8). Pub. L. 90–248, §151(c), struck out former par. (5) which provided that (1) a child is deemed dependent on his mother or adopting mother if she is currently insured, and (2) a child is deemed dependent on a mother who is not currently insured only if she is contributing one-half of the child's support or, if the child is not living with his father nor being supported by him, only if she is then living with or supporting the child, and redesignated former pars. (6) to (9) as (5) to (8), respectively.

Subsec. (d)(8). Pub. L. 90–248, §§112(a), 151(c), added subpar. (E) and redesignated former par. (9) as (8), respectively. Former par. (8) redesignated (7).

Subsec. (d)(9). Pub. L. 90–248, §151(c), (d)(1), redesignated former par. (10) as (9) and substituted “paragraph (8)” for “paragraph (9)”. Former par. (9) redesignated (8).

Subsec. (d)(10). Pub. L. 90–248, §151(c), redesignated former par. (10) as (9).

Subsec. (e)(1). Pub. L. 90–248, §104(a)(2), set out part of text formerly following subpar. (E) after subpar. (G) and inserted therein: “or, if she became entitled to such benefits before she attained age 60, the third month following the month in which her disability ceases (unless she attains age 62 on or before the last day of such third month)”.

Subsec. (e)(1)(B). Pub. L. 90–248, §104(a)(1), provided that a widow or surviving divorced wife may become entitled to widow's insurance benefits if she is disabled and her disability began within the period specified in subsec. (e)(5) even though she has not attained age 60.

Subsec. (e)(1)(F). Pub. L. 90–248, §104(a)(2), designated part of material formerly following subpar. (E) as subpar. (F) and inserted provision requiring satisfaction with subpar. (B) clause (i).

Subsec. (e)(1)(G). Pub. L. 90–248, §104(a)(2), added subpar. (G).

Subsec. (e)(4). Pub. L. 90–248, §103(c), provided that a remarried widow's insurance benefit may not exceed $105.

Subsec. (e)(5), (6). Pub. L. 90–248, §104(a)(3), added pars. (5) and (6).

Subsec. (f)(1). Pub. L. 90–248, §157(b)(1), struck out in text preceding subpar. (A) “and currently” before “insured individual” and in cl. (ii) of subpar. (D) “, and she was a currently insured individual,” after “from such individual”.

Subsec. (f)(1)(B). Pub. L. 90–248, §104(b)(1), provided that a dependent widower may become entitled to widower's insurance benefits if he is disabled and his disability began within the specified period even though such individual has not attained age 62.

Subsec. (f)(1). Pub. L. 90–248, §104(b)(2), set out part of text formerly following subpar. (E) after subpar. (G) and inserted: “or the third month following the month in which his disability ceases (unless he attains age 62 on or before the last day of such third month)”.

Subsec. (f)(1)(F). Pub. L. 90–248, §104(b)(2), designated part of text formerly following subpar. (F) as subpar. (F) and inserted provision requiring satisfaction with subpar. (B) clause (i).

Subsec. (f)(1)(G). Pub. L. 90–248, §104(b)(2), added subpar. (G).

Subsec. (f)(2). Pub. L. 90–248, §157(b)(2), substituted in text preceding subpar. (A) “The provisions of subparagraph (D) of paragraph (1) of this subsection” for “The requirement in paragraph (1) of this subsection that the deceased fully insured individual also be a currently insured individual, and the provisions of subparagraph (D) of such paragraph,”.

Subsec. (f)(3). Pub. L. 90–248, §104(b)(3), inserted reference to subsec. (q).

Subsec. (f)(5). Pub. L. 90–248, §103(d), provided that a remarried widower's insurance benefit may not exceed $105.

Subsec. (f)(6), (7). Pub. L. 90–248, §104(b)(4), added pars. (6) and (7).

Subsec. (q). Pub. L. 90–248, §104(c)(1), substituted “Reduction of benefit amounts for certain beneficiaries” for “Reduction of old-age, disability, wife's, husband's, or widow's insurance benefit amounts” in heading.

Subsec. (q)(1). Pub. L. 90–248, §104(c)(2)–(4), substituted “widow's, or widower's” for “or widow's” in text preceding subpar. (A), “, widow's, or widower's” for “or widow's” in subpar. (A), and added subpar. (C) and (D) provisions for further reduction of a widow's or widower's insurance benefit.

Subsec. (q)(3)(A). Pub. L. 90–248, §104(c)(5), substituted “widow's, or widower's” for “or widow's” wherever appearing, “50” for “60”, and inserted “or widower's” after “(in the case of a widow's)”.

Subsec. (q)(3)(C). Pub. L. 90–248, §104(c)(6), substituted “widow's, or widower's” for “or widow's” wherever appearing.

Subsec. (q)(3)(D). Pub. L. 90–248, §104(c)(7), substituted “widow's, or widower's” for “or widow's”.

Subsec. (q)(3)(E). Pub. L. 90–248, §104(c)(8), inserted “in the case of a widow or surviving divorced wife or subsection (f)(1) in the case of a widower” after “(e)(1) of this section”, and “or he” after “she”, and substituted “widow's or widower's” for “widow's” wherever appearing.

Subsec. (q)(3)(F). Pub. L. 90–248, §104(c)(9), inserted “in the case of a widow or surviving divorced wife or subsection (f)(1) in the case of a widower” after “(e)(1) of this section”, and “or he” after “she”, and substituted “widow's or widower's” for “widow's”.

Subsec. (q)(3)(G). Pub. L. 90–248, §104(c)(10), inserted “in the case of a widow or surviving divorced wife or subsection (f)(1) in the case of a widower” before “(e)(1) of this section”, and “she or” before “he”, and substituted “widow's or widower's” for “widow's” wherever appearing.

Subsec. (q)(6). Pub. L. 90–248, §104(c)(11), extended definition of “reduction period” to apply to widower's insurance benefit, inserted second alternative in subpar. (A)(i)(III) that the reduction period for a widow's or widower's insurance benefit begins with the “first day of the month in which such individual attains age 60, whichever is the later”, substituted paragraph “(5)” for “(4)” in item (II) of subpar. (A)(i), and added subpar. (B).

Subsec. (q)(7). Pub. L. 90–248, §104(c)(12), in text preceding subpar. (A), inserted “or ‘additional adjusted reduction period’ ” after “the ‘adjusted reduction period’ ”, “or additional reduction period (as the case may be)” after “the reduction period”, and substituted “widow's, or widower's” for “or widow's”, and in subpar. (E) substituted “widow's or widower's”, “she or he”, and “her or his” for “widow's”, “she”, and “her”, respectively.

Subsec. (q)(9). Pub. L. 90–248, §104(c)(13), inserted reference to widowers.

Subsec. (s). Pub. L. 90–248, §158(c)(2), substituted “section 423(d)” for “section 423(c)” in pars. (1) to (3).

Subsec. (s)(2), (3). Pub. L. 90–248, §151(d)(2), substituted “(d)(5)” for “(d)(6)” in pars. (2), (3).

Subsec. (t)(1). Pub. L. 90–248, §162(a)(1), provided that “For purposes of the preceding sentence, after an individual has been outside the United States for any period of thirty consecutive days he shall be treated as remaining outside the United States until he has been in the United States for a period of thirty consecutive days.”

Subsec. (t)(4). Pub. L. 90–248, §162(b)(1), provided for exception to application of subpars. (A) and (B) of par. (4).

Subsec. (t)(6). Pub. L. 90–248, §162(c)(2), included reference to par. (10).

Subsec. (t)(10). Pub. L. 90–248, §162(c)(1), added par. (10).

1965—Subsec. (b)(1). Pub. L. 89–97, §308(a), made provisions applicable to divorced wife by inclusion of references to divorced wife in provisions preceding subpar. (A), substituted “such individual” for “her husband” in subpars. (B), (E), (G), (J) to (L); inserted in subpar. (B) “(in the case of a wife)” after “age 62 or”; added subpars. (C) and (D); redesignated former subpar. (C) as (E); in provisions after subpar. (E), inserted “(subject to subsection (s) of this section)” and struck out “after August 1950” after “beginning with the first month”; designated existing provisions as subpars. (F), (G), (J) to (L); and substituted provisions designated as subpars. (H) and (I) for former provisions reading “they are divorced from vinculo matrimonii”.

Subsec. (b)(2). Pub. L. 89–97, §308(a), inserted “(or, in the case of a divorced wife, her former husband)”.

Subsec. (b)(3). Pub. L. 89–97, §308(a), added par. (3).

Subsec. (c)(1). Pub. L. 89–97, §308(d)(1), substituted “divorced” for “divorced a vinculo matrimonii” in provisions following subpar. (D).

Subsec. (c)(2). Pub. L. 89–97, §§306(c)(2), 334(e), inserted in text preceding subpar. (A) “(subject to subsection (s) of this section)” after “shall”, and added subpar. (C).

Subsec. (d)(1). Pub. L. 89–97, §§306(a), (b)(1), (2), 323(a)(1), 343(a), inserted in subpar. (B)(i) and (ii) “or was a full-time student and had not attained the age of 22” and “which began before he attained the age of 22”, respectively, and substituted “is” for “was” in cl. (ii) substituted “preceding whichever of the following first occurs” for “preceding the first month in which any of the following occurs” following provisions of subpar. (C), incorporated existing provisions in subpar. (D) and (E), substituting in such subpar. (E) “but only if he (i) is not under a disability (as so defined) at the time he attains such age, and (ii) is not a full-time student during any part of such month” for former provision and is not under a disability (as defined in section 423(c) of this title), which began before he attained such age”, added subpars. (F) and (G), and repealed the second sentence which provided for the termination of entitlement of any child to benefits under this subsection with the month preceding the third month following the month in which he ceases to be under a disability after the month in which he attains age eighteen; struck out the last sentence which related to adoptions by disabled workers; and substituted “uncle, brother, or sister” for “or uncle” in subpar. (D), respectively.

Subsec. (d)(3). Pub. L. 89–97, §339(b), inserted “or section 416(h)(3)” after “section 416(h)(2)(B)”.

Subsec. (d)(6). Pub. L. 89–97, §306(c)(3), inserted in text following subpar. (B) “but subject to subsection (s) of this section” after “notwithstanding the provisions of paragraph (1) of this subsection”.

Subsec. (d)(6)(A). Pub. L. 89–97, §308(d)(2)(A), inserted reference to subsec. (b) of this section.

Subsec. (d)(7), (8). Pub. L. 89–97, §306(b)(3), added pars. (7) and (8).

Subsec. (d)(9), (10). Pub. L. 89–97, §323(a)(2), added pars. (9) and (10).

Subsec. (e)(1). Pub. L. 89–97, §§307(a)(1), 308(b)(1), substituted “age 60” for “age 62” in subpar. (B); and inserted references to surviving divorced wife in the provisions preceding subpar. (A), substituted in subpar. (A) “is not married” for “has not remarried”, added subpar. (D), redesignated former subpar. (D) as (E) substituted in subpar. (E) and following provision “such deceased individual” “her deceased husband”, and struck out from provisions following subpar. (E) “after August 1950” after “beginning with the first month”, respectively.

Subsec. (e)(2). Pub. L. 89–97, §§307(a)(2), 308(b)(1), 333(a)(2), inserted introductory phrase “Except as provided in subsection (q) of this section”; substituted “such deceased individual” for “her deceased husband”; and inserted “and paragraph (4) of this subsection” before the comma, respectively.

Subsec. (e)(3). Pub. L. 89–97, §§306(c)(4), 308(b) (2), (3), inserted “but subject to subsection (s) of this section” after “notwithstanding the provisions of paragraph (1)” following subpar. (B); repealed former par. (3) which provided for reinstatement of benefits to a widow if she married a person who died within one year and was not a fully insured individual; and redesignated former par. (4) as (3), and substituted “widow or surviving divorced wife” and “widow's or surviving divorced wife's” for “widow” and “widow's”, respectively.

Subsec. (e)(4). Pub. L. 89–97, §333(a)(1), added par. (4). Former par. (4) redesignated (3).

Subsec. (f)(2). Pub. L. 89–97, §§306(c)(5), 334(f), inserted in text preceding subpar. (A) “(subject to subsection (s) of this section)” after “shall”, and added subpar. (C).

Subsec. (f)(3). Pub. L. 89–97, §333(b)(2), substituted “Except as provided in paragraph (5), such” for “Such”.

Subsec. (f)(4). Pub. L. 89–97, §306(c)(6), inserted in text following subpar. (B) “but subject to subsection (s) of this section” after “notwithstanding the provisions of paragraph (1) of this subsection”.

Subsec. (f)(4)(A). Pub. L. 89–97, §308(d)(2)(A), inserted reference to subsec. (b) of this section.

Subsec. (f)(5). Pub. L. 89–97, §333(b)(1), added par. (5).

Subsec. (g)(1). Pub. L. 89–97, §§306(c)(7), 308(d) (3)–(5), inserted “(subject to subsection (s) of this section)” after “shall” in provisions following subpar. (F); substituted in subpar. (A) “is not married” for “has not remarried”; in subpar. (F), substituted “surviving divorced mother” for “former wife divorced”, incorporated existing provisions in cls. (i) (other than (I) to (III)), (ii), and (iii), and substituted provisions of cl. (i)(I) to (III) for receipt of one-half of support under administrative regulations and substantial contributions pursuant to written agreement or court order for former provision for receipt of one-half of support pursuant to agreements or court order; and substituted “surviving divorced mother” for “former wife divorced” twice in provisions before subpar. (A) and thrice in provisions following subpar. (F), respectively.

Subsec. (g)(3). Pub. L. 89–97, §§306(c)(8), 308(d)(5), (13), inserted “but subject to subsection (s) of this section” after “notwithstanding the provisions of paragraph (1)” following subpar. (B), substituted “surviving divorced mother” for “former wife divorced” in two places, and redesignated former par. (4) as (3), respectively. Pub. L. 89–97, §308(d)(12), repealed former par. (3) which had provided that:

“In the case of any widow or former wife divorced of an individual—

“(A) who marries another individual, and

“(B) whose marriage to the individual referred to in subparagraph (A) is terminated by his death but she is not, and upon filing application therefor in the month in which he died would not be, entitled to benefits for such month on the basis of his wages and self-employment income,

the marriage to the individual referred to in clause (A) shall, for purpose of paragraph (1), be deemed not to have occurred. No benefits shall be payable under this subsection by reason of the preceding sentence for any month prior to whichever of the following is the latest: (i) the month in which the death referred to in subparagraph (B) of the preceding sentence occurs, (ii) the twelfth month before the month in which such widow or former wife divorced files application for purposes of this paragraph or (ii) September 1958.”

Subsec. (g)(4). Pub. L. 89–97, §308(d)(13), redesignated former par. (4) as (3).

Subsec. (h)(4). Pub. L. 89–97, §306(c)(9), inserted in text following subpar. (B) “but subject to subsection (s) of this section” after “notwithstanding the provisions of paragraph (1) of this subsection”.

Subsec. (h)(4)(A). Pub. L. 89–97, §308(d)(2)(A), inserted reference to subsec. (b) of this section.

Subsec. (j)(1). Pub. L. 89–97, §303(d), inserted “under this subchapter” after “any benefit”.

Subsec. (j)(2). Pub. L. 89–97, §328(a), provided that an application for monthly benefits filed before the first month in which the applicant satisfies the requirements for such benefits shall be deemed a valid application only if the applicant satisfies the requirements for such benefits before the Secretary makes a final decision on the application and that the application shall be deemed to have been filed in the first month if the applicant is found to satisfy the requirements for entitlement.

Subsec. (k)(2)(B). Pub. L. 89–97, §333(c)(1), inserted “(other than an individual to whom subsection (e)(4) or (f)(5) of this section applies)” after “Any individual” and inserted provision limiting to the largest of such benefits any individual who is entitled for any month to more than one widow's or widower's benefits to which subsections (e)(4) or (f)(5) of this section applies.

Subsec. (k)(3). Pub. L. 89–97, §333(c)(2), designated existing provisions as subpar. (A) and added subpar. (B).

Subsec. (k)(4). Pub. L. 89–97, §304(a), added par. (4).

Subsec. (p). Pub. L. 89–97, §324(a), removed the 2-year limit on the allowed extension during which, for good cause shown, applications or proof may be filed and still be deemed filed within the prescribed period for filing applications or proof.

Subsec. (q). Pub. L. 89–97, §304(b), substituted “Reduction of old-age, disability, wife's, husband's, or widow's insurance benefit amounts” for “Adjustment of old-age, wife's or husband's insurance benefit amounts in accordance with age of beneficiary” in heading.

Subsec. (q)(1). Pub. L. 89–97, §307(b)(1), made provisions preceding subpar. (A) and the 5/9 of 1 percent reduction in subpar. (A) applicable to widow's insurance benefit, substituted “retirement age” for “age 65” in provisions preceding subpar. (A) and subpar. (B)(i) and (ii), substituted “(6)” and “(7)” for “(5)” and “(6)” in subpar. (B)(i) and (ii) and “any month” for “any other month” in subpar. (B)(ii).

Subsec. (q)(2). Pub. L. 89–97, §304(c), added par. (2) and redesignated former par. (2) as (3).

Subsec. (q)(3)(A). Pub. L. 89–97, §§304(c), 307(b)(2), redesignated former par. (2) as (3), and made provisions of subpar. (A) applicable to widow's insurance benefit and inserted “(in the case of a wife's or husband's insurance benefit) or age 60 (in the case of a widow's insurance benefit)” after “age 62”, respectively. Former par. (3) redesignated (4).

Subsec. (q)(3)(B). Pub. L. 89–97, §304(c), (d), redesignated former par. (2) as (3), and substituted “benefit and is not entitled to a disability insurance benefit” for “benefit” the first time it appeared and inserted in cls. (i) and (ii) “for such month” after “paragraph (1)”, respectively. Former par. (3) redesignated (4).

Subsec. (q)(3)(C). Pub. L. 89–97, §304(c), (e), redesignated former par. (2) as (3), and made provisions of subpar. (C) applicable to widow's insurance benefit, inserted cl. (i), incorporated existing provisions in cl. (ii), and inserted in such cl. (ii) “for such month” and “(before reduction under this subsection)” after “disability insurance benefit”, respectively. Former par. (3) redesignated (4).

Subsec. (q)(3)(D), (E). Pub. L. 89–97, §§304(c), 307(b), (3), (4), redesignated former par. (2) as (3), made provisions of subpar. (D) applicable to widow's insurance benefit, and added subpar. (E), respectively. Former par. (3) redesignated (4).

Subsec. (q)(3)(F), (G). Pub. L. 89–97, §304(c), (f), redesignated former par. (2) as (3) and added subpars. (F) and (G), respectively. Former par. (3) redesignated (4).

Subsec. (q)(4). Pub. L. 89–97, §304(c), (g), redesignated former par. (3) as (4) and renumbered in text following subpar. (B) cross references to par. (2) as (3) in three places, and substituted in subpar. (A) “under paragraph (1) or (3) of this subsection” for “under this subsection”, respectively. Former par. (4) redesignated (5).

Subsec. (q)(5)(D). Pub. L. 89–97, §§304(c), 307(b)(5), redesignated former par. (4) as (5) and added subpar. (D), respectively. Former par. (5) redesignated (6).

Subsec. (q)(6). Pub. L. 89–97, §§304(c), 307(b)(6), redesignated former par. (5) as (6) and renumbered in subpar. (A)(ii) cross reference to par. (4) as (5), and made provisions preceding subpar. (A) and provisions of subpar. (A)(i) applicable to widow's insurance benefit and substituted in subpar. (B) “retirement age” for “age 65”, respectively. Former par. (6) redesignated (7).

Subsec. (q)(7). Pub. L. 89–97, §§304(c), (h), 307(b)(7), redesignated former par. (6) as (7) and renumbered in text preceding subpar. (A) cross reference to par. (5) as (6), added subpar. (F), and made provisions preceding subpar. (A) applicable to widow's insurance benefit and added subpars. (D), (E), respectively. Former par. (7), redesignated (8).

Subsec. (q)(8). Pub. L. 89–97, §304(c), (i), redesignated former par. (7) and (8) and renumbered cross reference to par. (2) as (3), and substituted “(1), (2),” for “(1)”, respectively.

Subsec. (q)(9). Pub. L. 89–97, §307(b)(8), added par. (9).

Subsec. (r)(2). Pub. L. 89–97, §304(j), inserted “(but for subsection (k)(4) of this section)” after “eligible”.

Subsec. (s). Pub. L. 89–97, §306(c)(1), added subsec. (s).

Subsec. (t)(9). Pub. L. 89–97, §104(a)(1), added par. (9).

Subsec. (u). Pub. L. 89–97, §104(a)(2), inserted “in determining whether such individual is entitled to insurance benefits under part A of subchapter XVII of this chapter for any such month,”.

Subsec. (v). Pub. L. 89–97, §319(d), added subsec. (v).

1961—Subsec. (a)(2). Pub. L. 87–64, §102(a), substituted “has attained age 62” for “has attained retirement age (as defined in section 416(a) of this title)”.

Subsec. (b)(1). Pub. L. 87–64, §102(a), (e), (1), (2), substituted “age 62” for “retirement age” in two places, “less than one-half of the primary insurance amount of her husband” for “less than one-half of an old-age or disability insurance benefit of her husband”, and “equal to or exceeds one-half of the primary insurance amount of her husband” for “equal to or exceeds one-half of an old-age or disability insurance benefit of her husband”.

Subsec. (b)(2). Pub. L. 87–64, §102(e)(3), substituted “primary insurance amount” for “old-age or disability insurance benefit.”

Subsec. (c)(1). Pub. L. 87–64, §102(a), (e), (4), (5), substituted “has attained age 62” for “has attained retirement age” in cl. (B), “based on a primary insurance amount which is less than one-half” for “each of which is less than one-half” in cl. (D), and “based on a primary insurance amount which is equal to or exceeds one-half” for “equal to or exceeding one-half” in closing provisions.

Subsec. (c)(2)(A). Pub. L. 87–64, §102(a), substituted “attainment of age 62” for “attainment of retirement age”.

Subsec. (c)(3). Pub. L. 87–64, §102(e)(6), substituted “Except as provided in subsection (q) of this section, such” for “Such”.

Subsec. (e)(1). Pub. L. 87–64, §§102(a), 104(d)(1), substituted “has attained age 62” for “has attained retirement age” in subpar. (B), “attainment of age 62” for “attainment of retirement age” and “attained age 62” for “attained retirement age” in subpar. (C), and “82½ percent” for “three-fourths” in subpar. (D) and in closing provisions.

Subsec. (e)(2). Pub. L. 87–64, §104(a), substituted “82½ percent” for “three-fourths”.

Subsec. (f)(1). Pub. L. 87–64, §§102(a), 104(d)(1), substituted “has attained age 62” for “has attained retirement age” in subpar. (B), and “82½ percent” for “three-fourths” in subpar. (E) and in closing provisions.

Subsec. (f)(2)(A). Pub. L. 87–64, §102(a), substituted “attainment of age 62” for “attainment of retirement age”.

Subsec. (f)(3). Pub. L. 87–64, §104(b), substituted “82½ percent” for “three-fourths”.

Subsec. (h)(1). Pub. L. 87–64, §§102(a), 104(d)(2), substituted “has attained age 62” for “has attained retirement age” in subpar. (A), and “82½ percent of the primary insurance amount of such deceased individual if the amount of the parent's insurance benefit for such month is determinable under paragraph (2)(A) (or 75 percent of such primary insurance amount in any other case)” for “three-fourths of the primary insurance amount of such deceased individual” in subpar. (D) and in closing provisions.

Subsec. (h)(2). Pub. L. 87–64, §104(c), designated existing provisions as subpar. (A), increased the benefit from three-fourths to 82½ percent of the primary insurance amount, and added subpars. (B) and (C).

Subsec. (j). Pub. L. 87–64, §102(b)(3), extended provisions which formerly authorized waiver of old-age benefits or wife's benefits by a woman to permit waiver of any benefit by any individual.

Subsec. (q). Pub. L. 87–64, §102(b)(1), among other changes, authorized adjustment of the old-age insurance benefits for men and of the husband's insurance benefits for months prior to the month in which the individual attains age 65, simplified the formula for reducing benefits, and, in cases where an individual is entitled to a reduced benefit and such benefit is increased by reason of an increase in the primary insurance amount, required separate computation of the increase for and after the first month for which such increase is effective.

Subsec. (r). Pub. L. 87–64, §102(b)(1), extended application of the subsection to men, and provided in cases where an individual is entitled to a disability insurance benefit for the same month for which an application for a reduced wife's or husband's insurance benefit is effective, that the individual will be deemed to have filed an application for old-age insurance benefit in the first subsequent month for which the individual is not entitled to a disability insurance benefit.

Subsec. (s). Pub. L. 87–64, §102(b)(2)(A), repealed subsec. (s) which related to female disability insurance beneficiaries.

1960—Subsec. (d)(1). Pub. L. 86–778, §§201(a), (b), 205(a), 403(d), among other changes, struck out “after 1939” after “fully or currently insured individual” in opening clause, substituted “a period of disability which continued until he became entitled to old-age or disability insurance benefits, or (if he has died) until the month of his death, at the beginning of such period of disability or at the time he became entitled to such benefits” for “a period of disability which did not end prior to the month in which he became entitled to old-age or disability insurance benefits or (if he has died) prior to the month in which he died, at the beginning of such period or at the time he became entitled to such benefits or died)” in subpar. (C), and inserted provisions making subpar. (C)(1) inapplicable, in the case of an individual entitled to disability insurance benefits, to a child of such individual unless he is the natural child or stepchild of such individual (including such a child who was legally adopted by such individual) or was legally adopted by such individual before the end of the 24–month period beginning with the month after the month in which such individual most recently became entitled to disability insurance benefits, and substituted provisions authorizing the payment of benefits until the month preceding the third month following the month in which a child ceases to be under a disability (as so defined) after the month in which he attains age 18 for provisions which authorized payment of benefits until the child ceases to be under a disability (as so defined) on or after the day on which he attains age 18.

Subsec. (d)(2). Pub. L. 86–778, §301(a), struck out provisions which required each child's insurance benefit, if there is more than one child entitled to benefits on the basis of an individual's wages and self-employment income, to be equal to the sum of (A) one-half of the primary insurance amount of the individual, and (B) one-fourth of the primary insurance amount divided by the number of such children.

Subsec. (d)(3). Pub. L. 86–778, §§202(a), 208(d), inserted provisions requiring that for purposes of such paragraph, a child deemed to be a child of a fully or currently insured individual pursuant to section 416(h)(2)(B) of this title, shall, if such individual is the child's father, be deemed to be the legitimate child of such individual, and struck out subpar. (C) which related to a child living with and receiving more than one-half of his support from his stepfather.

Subsec. (e)(1). Pub. L. 86–778, §205(a), struck out “after 1939” after “died a fully insured individual” in opening clause.

Subsec. (f)(1). Pub. L. 86–778, §205(b), struck out “after August 1950” after “died a fully and currently insured individual” in opening clause.

Subsecs. (g)(1), (h)(1). Pub. L. 86–778, §205(a), struck out “after 1939” after “died a fully or currently insured individual” in opening clause.

Subsec. (i). Pub. L. 86–778, §§103(a), (j)(2)(C), 203(a), amended second and third sentences to require payment to the funeral home to the extent of the unpaid expenses if all or part of the burial expenses remain unpaid, and to prescribe the manner of payment of any balance that may remain after the funeral home and the persons equitably entitled thereto have received payment, and substituted “the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico, the Virgin Islands, Guam, or American Samoa” for “Puerto Rico, or the Virgin Islands”, “section 410(l)(1) of this title” for “section 410(m)(1) of this title”, and “is returned to any State” for “is returned to any of such States, or the District of Columbia”.

Pub. L. 86–624 substituted “fifty States” for “forty-nine States”.

Subsec. (n). Pub. L. 86–778, §211(i), substituted “Section 403(b), (c), and (d) of this title” for “Section 403 (b) and (c) of this title” in last sentence of cl. (1).

Subsec. (q)(5). Pub. L. 86–778, §211(j), substituted “under section 403(b) of this title or paragraph (1) of section 403(c) of this title” for “under paragraph (1) or (2) of section 403(b) of this title” in cl. (A), and “section 403(b), under section 403(c)(1), under section 403(d)(1), or under section 422(b) of this title” for “paragraph (1) or (2) of section 403(b) of this title, under section 403(c) of this title, or under section 422(b) of this title” in cl. (B).

Subsec. (q)(6). Pub. L. 86–778, §211(k), substituted “section 403(b), under section 403(c)(1), under section 403(d)(1), or under section 422(b) of this title” for “section 403(b) (1) or (2), under section 403(c), or under section 422(b) of this title” in cl. (A), and “under section 403(b) of this title or paragraph (1) of section 403(c) of this title” for “under paragraph (1) or (2) of section 403(b) of this title” in cl. (D).

Subsec. (t)(4)(D). Pub. L. 86–778, §103(j)(2)(D), substituted “section 410(l)(2)” for “section 410(m)(2)”, “section 410(l)(3)” for “section 410(m)(3)”, and “section 410(m)” for “section 410(n)”, wherever appearing.

Subsec. (t)(7). Pub. L. 86–778, §211(l), substituted “Subsections (b), (c), and (d) of section 403 of this title” for “Subsections (b) and (c) of section 403 of this title”.

1959—Subsec. (i). Pub. L. 86–70 substituted “forty-nine States” for “forty-eight States”.

1958—Subsec. (b). Pub. L. 85–840, §205(b), substituted “old-age or disability insurance” for “old-age insurance” in seven places, and inserted provisions terminating the wife's insurance benefit the month preceding the first month in which her husband is not entitled to disability insurance benefits and is not entitled to old-age insurance benefits.

Subsec. (c)(1). Pub. L. 85–840, §205(c), substituted “old-age or disability insurance” for “old-age insurance” wherever appearing, inserted provisions in subpar. (C) entitling the husband to an insurance benefit if he was receiving at least one-half of his support from the individual if she had a period of disability which did not end prior to the month in which she became entitled to old-age or disability insurance benefits, at the beginning of such period or at the time she became entitled to such benefits provided he filed proof of such support within two years after the month in which she filed application with respect to such period of disability or after the month in which she became entitled to such benefits, and inserted provisions terminating the husband's insurance benefit the month preceding the first month in which his wife is not entitled to disability insurance benefits and is not entitled to old-age insurance benefits.

Subsec. (c)(2), (3). Pub. L. 85–840, §301(a)(1), added par. (2) and redesignated former par. (2) as (3).

Subsec. (d)(1). Pub. L. 85–840, §205(d), inserted provisions entitling the child of an individual entitled to disability insurance benefits to insurance benefits if the child was dependent upon such individual if such individual had a period of disability which did not end prior to the month in which he became entitled to old-age or disability insurance benefits or (if he has died) prior to the month in which he died, at the beginning of such period or at the time he became entitled to such benefits or died, and providing that the benefits to a child of a disability insurance beneficiary shall cease with the month before the first month for which the individual is not entitled to such benefits unless such individual is, for such later month, entitled to old-age insurance benefits or unless he dies in such month.

Subsec. (d)(3) to (5). Pub. L. 85–840, §306(a), struck out “who has not attained the age of eighteen” after “A child” wherever appearing.

Subsec. (d)(6). Pub. L. 85–840, §307(a), added par. (6), and Pub. L. 85–840, §306(a), repealed former par. (6), which related to dependency of a child who has attained the age of eighteen and who is under a disability which began before he attained the age of eighteen.

Subsec. (e)(3)(B). Pub. L. 85–840, §301(b)(1), substituted “which occurs within one year after such marriage and he did not die a fully insured individual” for “but she is not his widow (as defined in section 416(c) of this title)”.

Subsec. (e)(4). Pub. L. 85–840, §307(b), added par. (4).

Subsec. (f)(1)(D). Pub. L. 85–840, §205(e), inserted provisions entitling a widower to an insurance benefit if he was receiving at least one-half of his support from the individual, if the individual had a period of disability which did not end prior to the month in which she died, at the time such period began, or at the time of her death, or at the time she became entitled to old-age or disability insurance benefits, and he filed proof of such support within two years after the month in which she filed application with respect to the period of disability or two years after the date of her entitlement to old-age or disability insurance benefits or her death.

Subsec. (f)(2), (3). Pub. L. 85–840, §301(c)(1), added par. (2) and redesignated former par. (2) as (3).

Subsec. (f)(4). Pub. L. 85–840, §307(c), added par. (4).

Subsec. (g)(1)(F). Pub. L. 85–840, §205(f), inserted provisions entitling a former wife divorced to an insurance benefit, if she was receiving at least one-half of her support from an individual, if the individual had a period of disability which did not end prior to the month in which he died, at the time such period began or at the time of his death.

Subsec. (g)(3). Pub. L. 85–840, §303(a), added par. (3). Another par. (3), which was added by Pub. L. 85–798, was repealed by Pub. L. 85–840, §303(b), effective with respect to benefits payable for any month following August 1958.

Subsec. (g)(4). Pub. L. 85–840, §307(d), added par. (4).

Subsec. (h)(1). Pub. L. 85–840, §304(a)(1), struck out from opening clause provisions which prevented payment of a parent's benefit if the deceased individual left a widow who met the conditions in subsec. (e)(1)(D) of this section, a widower who met the conditions in subsec. (f)(1)(D) of this section, an unmarried child under the age of eighteen deemed dependent on such individual under subsec. (d)(3), (4), or (5) of this section, or an unmarried child who had attained the age of eighteen and was under a disability which began before he attained such age and who is deemed dependent on such individual under subsec. (d)(6) of this section.

Subsec. (h)(1)(B). Pub. L. 85–840, §205(g), inserted provisions entitling a parent to an insurance benefit if the parent was receiving at least one-half of his support from the individual, if the individual had a period of disability which did not end prior to the month in which he died, at the time such period began or at the time of such death, and the parent filed proof of such support within two years after the month in which the individual filed application with respect to such period of disability or two years after the date of such death.

Subsec. (h)(4). Pub. L. 85–840, §307(e), added par. (4).

Subsec. (i). Pub. L. 85–840, §305(a), required a widow or widower to be living in the same household with the deceased at the time of death in order to receive a lump-sum death payment.

Subsec. (k). Pub. L. 85–840, §205(h), substituted “old-age or disability insurance” for “old-age insurance” wherever appearing.

Subsec. (m). Pub. L. 85–840, §101(e), substituted “less than the first figure in column IV of the table in section 415(a) of this title” for “less than $30”, and “increased to the first figure in column IV of the table in section 415(a) of this title” for “increased to $30”.

Subsec. (o). Pub. L. 85–857 substituted “described in section 3005 of Title 38” for “prescribed under section 601 of the Servicemen's and Veterans’ Survivor Benefits Act”.

Subsec. (q)(5). Pub. L. 85–840, §205(i)(1), (2), inserted reference to section 422(b) of this title in subpar. (B), added subpar. (D), and substituted “clauses (A), (B), (C), and (D)” for “clauses (A), (B), and (C)” in closing provisions.

Subsec. (q)(6). Pub. L. 85–840, §205(i)(3), (4), inserted reference to section 422(b) of this title in subpar. (A), added subpar. (C), redesignated former subpar. (C) as (D), and substituted “clauses (A), (B), (C), and (D))” for “clauses (A), (B), and (C)” in closing provisions.

Subsec. (t)(4)(E). Pub. L. 85–927 added par. (E).

1957—Subsec. (b)(1). Pub. L. 85–238, §3(a), redesignated subpar. (D) as (C), and repealed former subpar. (C) which required the wife to be living with her husband at the time the application for benefits was filed.

Subsec. (c)(1). Pub. L. 85–238, §3(b), redesignated subpars. (D) and (E) as (C) and (D), respectively, and repealed former subpar. (C) which required the husband to be living with his wife at the time the application for benefits was filed.

Subsec. (e)(1). Pub. L. 85–238, §3(c), redesignated subpar. (E) as (D), and repealed former subpar. (D) which required the widow to be living with her husband at the time of his death.

Subsec. (f)(1). Pub. L. 85–238, §3(d), redesignated subpars. (E) and (F) as (D) and (E), respectively, and repealed former subpar. (D) which required the widower to be living with his wife at the time of her death.

Subsec. (g)(1)(F). Pub. L. 85–238, §3(e), struck out provisions which required the widow to be living with her husband at the time of his death.

Subsec. (h)(1). Pub. L. 85–238, §3(f), struck out references to subpar. (E) of subsec. (e)(1) of this section and to subpar. (F) of subsec. (f)(1) of this section.

Subsec. (p)(1). Pub. L. 85–238, §3(g), substituted “subparagraph (C) of subsection (c)(1)” for “subparagraph (D) of subsection (c)(1)” and “subparagraph (D) of subsection (f)(1)” for “subparagraph (E) of subsection (f)(1)”.

Subsec. (t)(4)(D). Pub. L. 85–238, §1, added subpar. (D).

1956—Subsec. (a). Act Aug. 1, 1956, ch. 836, §102(d)(1), inserted “Except as provided in subsection (q) of this section”.

Subsec. (a)(3). Act Aug. 1, 1956, ch. 836, §103(c)(1), included an individual entitled to disability insurance benefits for the month preceding the month in which he attained the age of 65.

Subsec. (b)(1). Act Aug. 1, 1956, ch. 836, §102(d)(2), (3), substituted “old-age insurance benefits based on a primary insurance amount which” for “old-age insurance benefits each of which” in cl. (D), and “old-age insurance benefit based on a primary insurance amount which is equal to or exceeds” for “old-age insurance benefit equal to or exceeding” in provisions following cl. (D).

Subsec. (b)(2). Act Aug. 1, 1956, ch. 836, §102(d)(4), inserted “Except as provided in subsection (q) of this section”.

Subsec. (c)(1). Act. Aug. 1, 1956, ch. 836, §102(d)(5), (6), substituted “the primary insurance amount of his wife” for “an old-age insurance benefit of his wife” in cl. (E), and in provisions following cl. (E).

Subsec. (c)(2). Act Aug. 1, 1956, ch. 836, §102(d)(7), substituted “primary insurance amount” for “old-age insurance benefit”.

Subsec. (d)(1). Act Aug. 1, 1956, ch. 836, §101(a), authorized child's insurance benefit for children, who at the time of filing application, are under a disability which began before they attained the age of 18, and permitted payment of such benefit until such disability ceases.

Subsec. (d)(2). Act Aug. 1, 1956, ch. 836, §102(d)(7), substituted “primary insurance amount” for “old-age insurance benefit”.

Subsec. (d)(3) to (5). Act Aug. 1, 1956, ch. 836, §101(b)(1), substituted “A child who has not attained the age of eighteen” for “A child” wherever appearing in such paragraphs.

Subsec. (d)(6). Act Aug. 1, 1956, ch. 836, §101(b)(2), added par. (6).

Subsec. (e)(3). Act Aug. 1, 1956, ch. 836, §113, added par. (3).

Subsec. (h)(1). Act Aug. 1, 1956, ch. 836, §101(c), precluded payment of parent's benefit if an individual dies leaving an unmarried child over 18 who is under a disability which began before the age of 18 and who is deemed dependent on such individual.

Subsec. (i). Act Aug. 1, 1956, ch. 837, §403(a), substituted “January 1, 1957” for “April 1956”, and inserted provisions authorizing payment of lump-sum death payment in the case of any individual who died outside the United States and the District of Columbia after December 1956 while performing service, as a member of a uniformed service, to which the provisions of section 410(m)(1) of this title are applicable.

Subsec. (j)(3). Act Aug. 1, 1956, ch. 836, §102(d)(8), added par. (3).

Subsec. (k)(2)(B). Act Aug. 1, 1956, ch. 836, §103(c)(2), inserted reference to section 423 of this title.

Subsec. (k)(3). Act Aug. 1, 1956, ch. 836, §102(d)(9), inserted provisions requiring reduction under subsection (q) of this section, and provided that the reduction should be not below zero.

Subsec. (m). Act Aug. 1, 1956, ch. 836, §102(d)(10), inserted references to subsection (q) of this section.

Subsec. (n)(1)(A). Act Aug. 1, 1956, ch. 836, §103(c)(3), inserted reference to section 423 of this title.

Subsec. (o). Act Aug. 1, 1956, ch. 837, §407, added subsec. (o).

Subsec. (p). Act Aug. 1, 1956, ch. 836, §114(a), added subsec. (p).

Subsecs. (q) to (s). Act Aug. 1, 1956, ch. 836, §102(c), added subsecs. (q) to (s).

Subsecs. (t), (u). Act Aug. 1, 1956, ch. 836, §§118(a), 121(a), added subsecs. (t) and (u), respectively.

1955—Subsec. (i). Act Aug. 9, 1955, made subsection applicable to cases of deaths occurring before April 1956.

1954—Subsec. (e)(1)(C). Act Sept. 1, 1954, §110(a), provided that applications for widow's insurance benefits would not be required if the widow was entitled to a mother's insurance benefit in the month prior to the month in which she attained retirement age.

Subsec. (g)(1)(D). Act Sept. 1, 1954, §110(b), provided that applications for mother's insurance benefits would not be required if the widow was entitled to a wife's insurance benefit for the month preceding the month in which the insured individual died.

Subsec. (i). Act Sept. 1, 1954, §§102(i)(2), 110(c), inserted “, or an amount equal to $255, whichever is the smaller” after “primary insurance amount.”, and provided that an application for a lump-sum death payment would not be required from an individual who was entitled to wife's or husband's insurance benefits for the month preceding the month in which the insured individual died.

Subsec. (j)(1). Act Sept. 1, 1954, §105(a), substituted “twelfth” for “sixth”.

Subsecs. (m), (n). Act Sept. 1, 1954, §§102(i)(1), 107, added subsecs. (m) and (n), respectively.

1953—Subsec. (i). Act Aug. 14, 1953, made subsec. (i) applicable to cases of deaths occurring before July 1955.

1950—Subsec. (a). Act Aug. 28, 1950, changed the name of the benefit provided by this subsection from “primary insurance benefit” to “old-age insurance benefit”, and continued the conditions under which an individual becomes entitled to the benefits.

Subsec. (b). Act Aug. 28, 1950, continued the conditions required for the wife to be entitled to benefits.

Subsec. (c). Act Aug. 28, 1950, provided benefits for the dependent husband of a female old-age insurance beneficiary who was currently insured at the time of her entitlement to the old-age insurance benefit.

Subsec. (d). Act Aug. 28, 1950, increased the total amount of the family benefits in a survivor family in which there is at least one entitled child by one-fourth of the worker's old-age benefit and restates the circumstances under which a child is deemed dependent upon an individual.

Subsec. (e). Act Aug. 28, 1950, permitted a wife entitled to wife's insurance benefits to become entitled to widow's insurance benefits upon the husband's death without filing a new application.

Subsec. (f). Act Aug. 28, 1950, provided benefits for the dependent widower of a woman who is fully and currently insured at the time of her death.

Subsec. (g). Act Aug. 28, 1950, changed title of widow's current insurance benefits to mother's insurance benefits and provided for payment of such benefits to the divorced wife of a deceased insured worker if she had been receiving at least half her support from the worker, and if she is caring for her son, daughter, or legally adopted child who is receiving benefits on the worker's wage record.

Subsec. (h). Act Aug. 28, 1950, changed the requirement that a parent must have been chiefly dependent upon and supported by the wage earner to the requirement that the parent only need have been receiving one-half his support in order for the parent to be found a dependent.

Subsec. (i). Act Aug. 28, 1950, limited the amount of the lump-sum death payment to three times the worker's primary insurance amount instead of six times the amount.

Subsec. (j). Act Aug. 28, 1950, increased from 3 to 6 the number of months for which benefits may be paid retroactively to individuals who failed to file their applications as soon as they were otherwise eligible.

Subsecs. (k), (l). Act Aug. 28, 1950, added subsecs. (k) and (l).

1946—Subsec. (c). Act Aug. 10, 1946, §402, changed par. (1) to prevent termination of benefits on adoption by a stepparent, grandparent, aunt or uncle and changed par. (3)(C) to omit qualification as to the time of such individual's death and to require the child to be chiefly supported by the stepfather.

Subsec. (f)(1). Act Aug. 10, 1946, §403(a), provided that benefit payments to parents are prevented only if the individual leaves a widow or child who could become entitled to benefits and required parents to be chiefly instead of wholly dependent.

Subsec. (g). Act Aug. 10, 1946, §404(a), required that a widow or widower must have been living with deceased at time of death to be entitled to a lump sum payment and provided that if there was no such spouse, the payment will be made to the person or persons equitably entitled thereto in the proportion and to the extent that he or they have paid the burial expenses.

Subsec. (h). Act Aug. 10, 1946, §405(a), extended provision for payment of benefits retroactively for three months to the primary beneficiary and provided that retroactive benefits shall be reduced so as not to render erroneous any benefit previously paid.

1939—Act Aug. 10, 1939, amended section generally.

Change of Name

Reference to Administrator of Veterans’ Affairs deemed to refer to Secretary of Veterans Affairs pursuant to section 10 of Pub. L. 100–527, set out as a Department of Veterans Affairs Act note under section 301 of Title 38, Veterans’ Benefits.

Effective Date of 2004 Amendment

Pub. L. 108–203, title II, §203(d), Mar. 2, 2004, 118 Stat. 511, provided that: “The amendments made by this section [amending this section and sections 1004 and 1382 of this title] shall take effect on the first day of the first month that begins on or after the date that is 9 months after the date of enactment of this Act [Mar. 2, 2004].”

Pub. L. 108–203, title IV, §412(c), Mar. 2, 2004, 118 Stat. 528, provided that:

“(1) In general.—The amendment made by—

“(A) subsection (a)(1) [amending this section] shall apply to individuals with respect to whom the Commissioner of Social Security receives a removal notice after the date of the enactment of this Act [Mar. 2, 2004];

“(B) subsection (a)(2) [amending this section] shall apply with respect to notifications of removals received by the Commissioner of Social Security after the date of enactment of this Act; and

“(C) subsection (a)(3) [amending this section] shall be effective as if enacted on March 1, 1991.

“(2) Subsequent correction of cross-reference and terminology.—The amendments made by subsections (a)(4) and (b)(1) [amending this section] shall be effective as if enacted on April 1, 1997.

“(3) References to the secretary of homeland security.—The amendment made by subsection (b)(2) [amending this section] shall be effective as if enacted on March 1, 2003.”

Pub. L. 108–203, title IV, §418(c), Mar. 2, 2004, 118 Stat. 533, provided that:

“(1) In general.—The amendments made by this section [amending this section and section 426 of this title] shall apply with respect to applications for benefits under title II of the Social Security Act [this subchapter] filed on or after the first day of the first month that begins after the date of enactment of this Act [Mar. 2, 2004], except that such amendments shall not apply in connection with monthly periodic benefits of any individual based on earnings while in service described in section 202(k)(5)(A) of the Social Security Act [subsec. (k)(5)(A) of this section] (in the matter preceding clause (i) thereof) if the last day of such service occurs before July 1, 2004.

“(2) Transitional rule.—In the case of any individual whose last day of service described in subparagraph (A) of section 202(k)(5) of the Social Security Act (as added by subsection (a) of this section) occurs within 5 years after the date of enactment of this Act—

“(A) the 60-month period described in such subparagraph (A) shall be reduced (but not to less than 1 month) by the number of months of such service (in the aggregate and without regard to whether such months of service were continuous) which—

“(i) were performed by the individual under the same retirement system on or before the date of enactment of this Act, and

“(ii) constituted ‘employment’ as defined in section 210 of the Social Security Act [section 410 of this title]; and

“(B) months of service necessary to fulfill the 60-month period as reduced by subparagraph (A) of this paragraph must be performed after the date of enactment of this Act.”

Pub. L. 108–203, title IV, §420A(b), Mar. 2, 2004, 118 Stat. 535, provided that: “The amendments made by subsection (a) [amending this section] shall be effective with respect to benefits payable for months beginning with the 7th month that begins after the date of enactment of this Act [Mar. 2, 2004].”

Effective Date of 2000 Amendment

Pub. L. 106–182, §5, Apr. 7, 2000, 114 Stat. 199, provided that: “The amendments made by this Act [amending this section and section 403 of this title] shall apply with respect to taxable years ending after December 31, 1999.”

Effective Date of 1999 Amendments

Pub. L. 106–170, title IV, §402(a)(4), Dec. 17, 1999, 113 Stat. 1908, provided that: “The amendments made by this subsection [amending this section, section 1382 of this title, and section 552a of Title 5, Government Organization and Employees] shall apply to individuals whose period of confinement in an institution commences on or after the first day of the fourth month beginning after the month in which this Act is enacted [Dec. 1999].”

Pub. L. 106–170, title IV, §402(b)(2), Dec. 17, 1999, 113 Stat. 1908, provided that: “The amendments made by this subsection [amending this section] shall apply to individuals whose period of confinement in an institution commences on or after the first day of the fourth month beginning after the month in which this Act is enacted [Dec. 1999].”

Pub. L. 106–170, title IV, §402(d)(3), Dec. 17, 1999, 113 Stat. 1909, provided that: “The amendments made by this subsection [amending this section] shall apply with respect to benefits for months ending after the date of the enactment of this Act [Dec. 17, 1999].”

Pub. L. 106–169, title II, §207(e), Dec. 14, 1999, 113 Stat. 1839, provided that: “The amendments made by this section [enacting section 1320a–8a of this title, amending this section and section 1382 of this title, and enacting provisions set out as a note under section 1320a–8a of this title] shall apply to statements and representations made on or after the date of the enactment of this Act [Dec. 14, 1999].”

Effective Date of 1996 Amendments

Amendment by section 308(g)(1) of Pub. L. 104–208 effective, with certain transitional provisions, on the first day of the first month beginning more than 180 days after Sept. 30, 1996, see section 309 of Pub. L. 104–208, set out as a note under section 1101 of Title 8, Aliens and Nationality.

Section 503(b) of div. C of Pub. L. 104–208 provided that: “The amendment made by subsection (a) [amending this section] shall apply with respect to benefits for which applications are filed on or after the first day of the first month that begins at least 60 days after the date of the enactment of this Act [Sept. 30, 1996].”

Section 104(a)(2) of Pub. L. 104–121 provided that: “The amendment made by paragraph (1) [amending this section] shall apply with respect to benefits of individuals who become entitled to such benefits for months after the third month following the month in which this Act is enacted [March 1996].”

Section 104(b)(3) of Pub. L. 104–121 provided that:

“(A) The amendments made by paragraph (1) [amending this section] shall apply with respect to final divorces occurring after the third month following the month in which this Act is enacted [March 1996].

“(B) The amendment made by paragraph (2) [amending this section] shall take effect on the date of the enactment of this Act [Mar. 29, 1996].”

Effective Date of 1994 Amendments

Section 4(b) of Pub. L. 103–387 provided that: “The amendments made by this section [amending this section] shall apply with respect to benefits for months commencing after 90 days after the date of the enactment of this Act [Oct. 22, 1994].”

Amendment by section 107(a)(4) of Pub. L. 103–296 effective Mar. 31, 1995, see section 110(a) of Pub. L. 103–296, set out as a note under section 401 of this title.

Section 308(c) of Pub. L. 103–296 provided that: “The amendments made by this section [amending this section and section 415 of this title] shall apply (notwithstanding section 215(f) of the Social Security Act [section 415(f) of this title]) with respect to benefits payable for months after December 1994.”

Section 321(b)(1) of Pub. L. 103–296 provided that the amendment made by that section is effective as if included in section 603(b)(5)(A) of Pub. L. 101–649.

Effective Date of 1990 Amendments

Amendment by Pub. L. 101–649 not applicable to deportation proceedings for which notice has been provided to the alien before Mar. 1, 1991, see section 602(d) of Pub. L. 101–649, set out as a note under section 1227 of Title 8, Aliens and Nationality.

Section 5103(e) of Pub. L. 101–508 provided that:

“(1) In general.—The amendments made by this section [amending this section and sections 416, 423, 426, and 1383c of this title] (other than paragraphs (1) and (2)(C) of subsection (c) [amending sections 426 and 1383c of this title]) shall apply with respect to monthly insurance benefits for months after December 1990 for which applications are filed on or after January 1, 1991, or are pending on such date. The amendments made by subsection (c)(1) [amending section 1383c of this title] shall apply with respect to medical assistance provided after December 1990. The amendments made by subsection (c)(2)(C) [amending section 426 of this title] shall apply with respect to items and services furnished after December 1990.

“(2) Application requirements for certain individuals on benefit rolls.—In the case of any individual who—

“(A) is entitled to disability insurance benefits under section 223 of the Social Security Act [section 423 of this title] for December 1990 or is eligible for supplemental security income benefits under title XVI of such Act [subchapter XVI of this chapter], or State supplementary payments of the type referred to in section 1616(a) of such Act [section 1382e(a) of this title] (or payments of the type described in section 212(a) of Public Law 93–66 [set out as a note under section 1382 of this title]) which are paid by the Secretary under an agreement referred to in such section 1616(a) (or in section 212(b) of Public Law 93–66 [set out as a note under section 1382 of this title]), for January 1991,

“(B) applied for widow's or widower's insurance benefits under subsection (e) or (f) of section 202 of the Social Security Act during 1990 [subsec. (e) or (f) of this section], and

“(C) is not entitled to such benefits under such subsection (e) or (f) for any month on the basis of such application by reason of the definition of disability under section 223(d)(2)(B) of the Social Security Act (as in effect immediately before the date of the enactment of this Act [Nov. 5, 1990]), and would have been so entitled for such month on the basis of such application if the amendments made by this section had been applied with respect to such application,

for purposes of determining such individual's entitlement to such benefits under subsection (e) or (f) of section 202 of the Social Security Act for months after December 1990, the requirement of paragraph (1)(C)(i) of such subsection shall be deemed to have been met.”

Section 5116(b) of Pub. L. 101–508 provided that: “The amendments made by this section [amending this section] shall apply with respect to applications for benefits filed on or after January 1, 1991.”

Effective Date of 1989 Amendment

Section 10203(b) of Pub. L. 101–239 provided that: “The amendments made by this section [amending this section] shall apply—

“(1) in the case of any individual's old-age insurance benefit referred to in section 202(q)(3)(E) of the Social Security Act [subsec. (q)(3)(E) of this section] (as in effect before the amendments made by this section), only if such individual attains age 62 on or after January 1, 1990, and

“(2) in the case of any individual's disability insurance benefit referred to in section 202(q)(3)(F) or (G) of such Act (as so in effect), only if such individual both attains age 62 and becomes disabled on or after such date.”

Section 10301(c) of Pub. L. 101–239 provided that: “The amendments made by this section [amending this section] shall apply with respect to benefits payable for months after December 1989, but only on the basis of applications filed on or after January 1, 1990.”

Section 10302(a)(2) of Pub. L. 101–239 provided that: “The amendment made by paragraph (1) [amending this section] shall apply with respect to misinformation furnished after December 1982 and to benefits for months after December 1982.”

Effective Date of 1988 Amendment

Section 8004(c) of Pub. L. 100–647 provided that: “The amendments made by this section [amending this section] shall apply only in the case of deportations occurring, and final orders of deportation issued, on or after the date of enactment of this Act [Nov. 10, 1988], and only to benefits for months beginning (and deaths occurring) on or after such date.”

Amendment by section 8007(b) of Pub. L. 100–647 applicable to benefits paid for (and items and services furnished in) months after December 1988, see section 8007(d) of Pub. L. 100–647, set out as a note under section 1402 of Title 26, Internal Revenue Code.

Section 8010(c) of Pub. L. 100–647 provided that: “The amendments made by this section [amending this section] shall apply to benefits payable under section 202(e) or section 202(f) of the Social Security Act [subsec. (e) or (f) of this section] on the basis of the wages and self-employment income of an individual who dies after the month in which this Act is enacted [Nov. 10, 1988].”

Section 8014(c) of Pub. L. 100–647 provided that: “The preceding provisions of this section (including the amendments made by subsection (a)) [amending this section and enacting provisions set out below] shall apply as if they had been included or reflected in the provisions of section 9007 of the Omnibus Budget Reconciliation Act of 1987 (101 Stat. 1330–289) [Pub. L. 100–203, amending this section and enacting provisions set out below] at the time of its enactment [Dec. 22, 1987].”

Effective Date of 1987 Amendment

Section 9007(f) of Pub. L. 100–203 provided that: “The amendments made by this section [amending this section] shall apply only with respect to benefits for months after December 1987; except that nothing in such amendments shall affect any exemption (from the application of the pension offset provisions contained in subsection (b)(4), (c)(2), (e)(7), (f)(2), or (g)(4) of section 202 of the Social Security Act [this section]) which any individual may have by reason of subsection (g) or (h) of section 334 of the Social Security Amendments of 1977 [section 334(g), (h) of Pub. L. 95–216, set out as notes below].”

Section 9010(f) of Pub. L. 100–203 provided that: “The amendments made by this section [amending this section and sections 416, 423, and 426 of this title] shall take effect January 1, 1988, and shall apply with respect to—

“(1) individuals who are entitled to benefits which are payable under subsection (d)(1)(B)(ii), (d)(6)(A)(ii), (d)(6)(B), (e)(1)(B)(ii), or (f)(1)(B)(ii) of section 202 of the Social Security Act [this section] or subsection (a)(1) of section 223 of such Act [section 423 of this title] for any month after December 1987, and

“(2) individuals who are entitled to benefits which are payable under any provision referred to in paragraph (1) for any month before January 1988 and with respect to whom the 15-month period described in the applicable provision amended by this section has not elapsed as of January 1, 1988.”

Effective Date of 1986 Amendments

Section 1883(f) of Pub. L. 99–514 provided that: “Except as otherwise provided in this section, the amendments made by this section [amending this section and sections 410, 411, 415, 418, 421, 423, 602, 657, 658, 664, 674, 1301, 1320b–6, 1382a, 1383, and 1397b of this title and sections 1402 and 3121 of Title 26, Internal Revenue Code, repealing section 1397f of this title, enacting provisions set out as notes under sections 602 and 678 of this title, and amending provisions set out as a note under section 410 of this title] shall take effect on the date of the enactment of this Act [Oct. 22, 1986].”

Section 12104(b) of Pub. L. 99–272 provided that: “The amendment made by subsection (a) [amending this section] shall apply with respect to benefits for which application is filed after the date of the enactment of this Act [Apr. 7, 1986].”

Section 12107(c) of Pub. L. 99–272 provided that: “The amendments made by this section [amending this section and section 423 of this title] are effective December 1, 1980, and shall apply with respect to any individual who is under a disability (as defined in section 223(d) of the Social Security Act [section 423(d) of this title]) on or after that date.”

Effective Date of 1984 Amendment

Amendment by sections 2661(b)–(f) and 2662(c)(1) of Pub. L. 98–369 effective as though included in the enactment of the Social Security Amendments of 1983, Pub. L. 98–21, see section 2664(a) of Pub. L. 98–369, set out as a note under section 401 of this title.

Amendment by section 2663(a)(2) of Pub. L. 98–369 effective July 18, 1984, but not to be construed as changing or affecting any right, liability, status, or interpretation which existed (under the provisions of law involved) before that date, see section 2664(b) of Pub. L. 98–369, set out as a note under section 401 of this title.

Effective Date of 1983 Amendments

Section 111(a)(8) of Pub. L. 98–21 provided that: “The amendments made by this subsection [amending this section and sections 403, 415, and 430 of this title] shall apply with respect to cost-of-living increases determined under section 215(i) of the Social Security Act [section 415(i) of this title] for years after 1982.”

Section 114(c)(2) of Pub. L. 98–21 provided that: “The amendments made by paragraph (1) [amending this section] shall apply with respect to increment months in calendar years after 1983.”

Section 131(d) of Pub. L. 98–21 provided that:

“(1) The amendments made by this section [amending this section and section 426 of this title] shall be effective with respect to monthly benefits payable under title II of the Social Security Act [this subchapter] for months after December 1983.

“(2) In the case of an individual who was not entitled to a monthly benefit of the type involved under title II of such Act for December 1983, no benefit shall be paid under such title by reason of such amendments unless proper application for such benefit is made.”

Section 132(c)(1) of Pub. L. 98–21 provided that: “The amendments made by subsection (a) [amending this section] shall apply with respect to monthly insurance benefits for months after December 1984, but only on the basis of applications filed on or after January 1, 1985.”

Section 133(c) of Pub. L. 98–21 provided that: “The amendments made by this section [amending this section] shall apply with respect to monthly insurance benefits for months after December 1984 for individuals who first meet all criteria for entitlement to benefits under section 202(e) or (f) of the Social Security Act [subsec. (e) or (f) of this section] (other than making application for such benefits) after December 1984.”

Section 134(c) of Pub. L. 98–21 provided that: “The amendments made by this section [amending this section] shall apply with respect to benefits for months after December 1983.”

Section 301(a)(5) of Pub. L. 98–21, as amended by Pub. L. 98–369, div. B, title VI, §2662(d), July 18, 1984, 98 Stat. 1159, provided that the amendment made by that section is effective with respect to monthly insurance benefits for months after December 1984 (but only on the basis of applications filed on or after January 1, 1985).

Section 307(b) of Pub. L. 98–21 provided that: “The amendments made by subsection (a) [amending this section] shall apply with respect to benefits under title II of the Social Security Act [this subchapter] for months after the month in which this Act is enacted [April 1983], but only in cases in which the ‘last month’ referred to in the provision amended is a month after the month in which this Act is enacted.”

Section 310 of title III of Pub. L. 98–21 provided that:

“(a) Except as otherwise specifically provided in this title, the amendments made by this part [part A (§§301–310) of title III of Pub. L. 98–21, amending this section and sections 403, 405, 416, 417, 422, 423, 425, 426, 427, and 428 of this title] apply only with respect to monthly benefits payable under title II of the Social Security Act [this subchapter] for months after the month in which this Act is enacted [April 1983].

“(b) Nothing in any amendment made by this part shall be construed as affecting the validity of any benefit which was paid, prior to the effective date of such amendment, as a result of a judicial determination.”

Section 334(b) of Pub. L. 98–21 provided that: “The amendments made by subsection (a) [amending this section] shall apply with respect to survivors whose applications for monthly benefits are filed after the second month following the month in which this Act is enacted [April 1983].”

Section 337(b) of Pub. L. 98–21, as amended by Pub. L. 98–617, §2(a)(1), Nov. 8, 1984, 98 Stat. 3294, provided that: “The amendments made by subsection (a) of this section [amending this section] shall apply only with respect to monthly insurance benefits payable under title II of the Social Security Act [this subchapter] for months after June 1983.”

[Section 2(a)(2) of Pub. L. 98–617 provided that: “The amendments made by this subsection [amending section 337(b) of Pub. L. 98–21, set out above] shall apply to benefits payable under title II of the Social Security Act [this subchapter] for months beginning after the month of enactment of this Act [November 1984].”]

Section 339(c) of Pub. L. 98–21 provided that: “The amendments made by subsections (a) and (b) [amending this section and section 423 of this title] shall apply with respect to monthly benefits payable for months beginning on or after the date of enactment of this Act [Apr. 20, 1983].”

Section 340(c) of Pub. L. 98–21 provided that: “The amendments made by this section [amending this section] shall apply with respect to any individual who initially becomes eligible for benefits under section 202 or 223 [this section or section 423 of this title] after December 31, 1984.”

Section 7(d) of Pub. L. 97–455 provided that: “The amendments made by subsections (a) [enacting and amending provisions set out as notes under this section] and (c) [amending this section] of this section shall be effective with respect to monthly insurance benefits for months after November 1982.”

Effective Date of 1981 Amendments

Amendment by section 2201(b)(10), (11), (d)(1), (2) of Pub. L. 97–35 and amendment by section 2(e) of Pub. L. 97–123 applicable with respect to benefits for months after December 1981, and amendment by section 2201(f) of Pub. L. 97–35 applicable with respect to deaths occurring after December 1981, with certain exceptions, see section 2(j)(2)–(4) of Pub. L. 97–123, set out as a note under section 415 of this title.

Section 2202(b) of Pub. L. 97–35 provided that: “The amendments made by subsection (a) [amending this section and section 416 of this title] shall apply only with respect to deaths occurring after August 1981.”

Section 2203(f)(1), (2) of Pub. L. 97–35 provided that:

“(1) The amendments made by subsections (a), (b), and (c) [amending this section and section 416 of this title] of this section shall apply only to monthly insurance benefits payable to individuals who attain age 62 after August 1981.

“(2) The amendments made by subsection (d) of this section [amending this section and section 416 of this title] shall apply to monthly insurance benefits for months after August 1981, and only in the case of individuals who were not entitled to such insurance benefits for August 1981 or any preceding month.”

Section 2205(b) of Pub. L. 97–35 provided that: “The amendments made by subsection (a) [amending this section] shall apply with respect to wife's and mother's insurance benefits for months after the month in which this Act is enacted [August 1981], except that, in the case of an individual who is entitled to such a benefit (on the basis of having a child in her care) for the month in which this Act is enacted [August 1981], such amendments shall not take effect until the first day of the first month which begins 2 years or more after the date of the enactment of this Act [Aug. 13, 1981].”

Section 2206(c) of Pub. L. 97–35 provided that: “The amendments made by this section [amending this section and sections 403 and 415 of this title] shall apply only with respect to initial calculations and adjustments of primary insurance amounts and benefit amounts which are attributable to periods after August 1981.”

Section 2210(b) of Pub. L. 97–35 provided that: “Except as provided in subsection (c) [section 2210(c) of Pub. L. 97–35, set out below], the amendments made by subsection (a) [amending this section] shall apply to child's insurance benefits under section 202(d) of the Social Security Act [subsec. (d) of this section] for months after July 1982.”

Effective Date of 1980 Amendments

Section 1011(b) of Pub. L. 96–499 provided that: “The amendment made by subsection (a) [amending this section] shall be effective with respect to applications filed on or after the first day of the first month which begins 60 days or more after the date of the enactment of this Act [Dec. 5, 1980].”

Section 5(d) of Pub. L. 96–473 provided that: “The amendments made by this section [amending this section and sections 416 and 423 of this title] shall be effective with respect to benefits payable for months beginning on or after October 1, 1980.”

Section 303(d) of Pub. L. 96–265 provided that: “The amendments made by this section [amending this section and sections 416, 422, 423, 1382, and 1382c of this title] shall become effective on the first day of the sixth month which begins after the date of the enactment of this Act [June 9, 1980], and shall apply with respect to any individual whose disability has not been determined to have ceased prior to such first day.”

Section 306(d) of Pub. L. 96–265 provided that: “The amendments made by this section [amending this section and sections 416 and 423 of this title] shall apply to applications filed after the month in which this Act is enacted [June 1980].”

Effective Date of 1978 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 95–600 effective Oct. 4, 1976, see section 703(r) of Pub. L. 95–600, set out as a note under section 46 of Title 26, Internal Revenue Code.

Effective Date of 1977 Amendment

Section 206 of title II of Pub. L. 95–216 provided that: “The amendments made by the provisions of this title other than sections 201(d), 204, and 205(a) [amending this section and sections 403, 415, 417, 424a, and 1395r of this title] shall be effective with respect to monthly benefits under title II of the Social Security Act [this subchapter] payable for months after December 1978 and with respect to lump-sum death payments with respect to deaths occurring after such month. The amendments made by section 201(d) [amending section 415 of this title] shall be effective with respect to monthly benefits of an individual who becomes eligible for an old-age or disability insurance benefit, or dies, after December 1977. The amendments made by section 204 [amending this section and section 403 of this title] shall be effective with respect to monthly benefits for months after May 1978. The amendment made by section 205(a) [amending this section] shall be effective with respect to monthly benefits payable for months after December 1978 based on the wages and self-employment income of individuals who die after December 1978.”

Section 331(d) of Pub. L. 95–216 provided that: “The amendments made by this section [amending this section] shall be effective with respect to monthly benefits payable for months after December 1977.”

Section 332(b) of Pub. L. 95–216 provided that: “The amendments made by subsection (a) [amending this section and section 426 of this title] shall be effective with respect to monthly insurance benefits under title II of the Social Security Act [this subchapter] to which an individual becomes entitled on the basis of an application filed on or after January 1, 1978.”

Section 334(f) of Pub. L. 95–216 as amended by section 7(a)(2) of Pub. L. 97–455, provided that: “Subject to subsections (g) and (h) [section 334(g) and (h) of Pub. L. 95–216, set out as notes below], the amendments made by this section [amending this section and section 426 of this title and enacting provisions set out as notes under this section] shall apply with respect to monthly insurance benefits payable under title II of the Social Security Act [this subchapter] for months beginning with the month in which this Act is enacted [December 1977], on the basis of applications filed in or after the month in which this Act is enacted.”

Section 336(c)(1) of Pub. L. 95–216 provided that: “The amendments made by this section [amending this section] shall apply only with respect to monthly benefits payable under title II of the Social Security Act [this subchapter] for months after December 1978, and, in the case of individuals who are not entitled to benefits of the type involved for December 1978, only on the basis of applications filed on or after January 1, 1979.”

Section 337(c) of Pub. L. 95–216 provided that: “The amendments made by this section [amending this section and section 416 of this title] shall apply with respect to monthly benefits payable under title II of the Social Security Act [this subchapter] for months after December 1978, and, in the case of individuals who are not entitled to benefits of the type involved for December 1978, only on the basis of applications filed on or after January 1, 1979.”

Section 353(f)(1) of Pub. L. 95–216 provided that the amendment made by that section is effective with respect to convictions after Dec. 31, 1977.

Effective Date of 1974 Amendment

Section 603 of Pub. L. 93–445 provided that: “The provision of title II of this Act [set out as a note under section 231 of Title 45, Railroads] and the amendments made by title III and title IV of this Act [amending this section and sections 405, 410, 416, 426, 1395s, 1395u, 1395v, 1395gg, and 1395kk of this title and sections 352, 354, 360, 361, and 362 of Title 45] shall become effective on January 1, 1975.”

Effective Date of 1973 Amendment

Section 240(b) of Pub. L. 93–66 provided that: “The amendment made by subsection (a) [amending this section] shall apply with respect to monthly benefits payable under title II of the Social Security Act [this subchapter] for months after the month in which this Act is enacted [July 1973] on the basis of applications for such benefits filed in or after the month in which this Act is enacted.”

Effective Date of 1972 Amendment

Section 102(i) of Pub. L. 92–603 provided that: “The amendments made by this section [amending this section and section 403 of this title and enacting provisions set out as notes under this section] shall apply with respect to monthly benefits under title II of the Social Security Act [this subchapter] for months after December 1972.”

Section 103(d) of Pub. L. 92–603 provided that: “The amendments made by this section [amending this section and section 403 of this title] shall be applicable with respect to old-age insurance benefits payable under title II of the Social Security Act [this subchapter] for months beginning after 1972.”

Section 107(c) of Pub. L. 92–603 provided that: “The amendments made by this section [amending this section and sections 403, 422, and 425 of this title] shall apply with respect to monthly benefits under title II of the Social Security Act [this subchapter] for months after December 1972, except that in the case of an individual who was not entitled to a monthly benefit under title II of such Act for December 1972 such amendments shall apply only on the basis of an application filed in or after the month in which this Act is enacted [October 1972].”

Section 108(f) of Pub. L. 92–603 provided that: “The amendments made by this section [amending this section] shall apply only with respect to monthly benefits under section 202 of the Social Security Act [this section] for months after December 1972 except that in the case of an individual who was not entitled to a monthly benefit under such section 202 for December 1972 such amendments shall apply only on the basis of an application filed after September 30, 1972.”

Section 109(b) of Pub. L. 92–603 provided that: “The amendment made by subsection (a) [amending this section] shall apply only with respect to benefits payable under title II of the Social Security Act [this subchapter] for months after December 1972.”

Section 110(b) of Pub. L. 92–603 provided that: “The amendment made by subsection (a) [amending this section] shall apply only with respect to monthly benefits under title II of the Social Security Act [this subchapter] for months after December 1972.”

Section 111(b) of Pub. L. 92–603 provided that: “The amendment made by subsection (a) [amending this section] shall apply with respect to monthly benefits payable under title II of the Social Security Act [this subchapter] for months after December 1967 on the basis of an application filed in or after the month in which this Act is enacted [October 1972], except that such amendments shall not apply with respect to benefits for any month before the month in which this Act is enacted unless such application is filed before the close of the sixth month after the month in which this Act is enacted.”

Section 112(b) of Pub. L. 92–603 provided that: “The amendment made by subsection (a) [amending this section] shall apply only with respect to monthly benefits under title II of the Social Security Act [this subchapter] for months beginning with the month in which this Act is enacted [October 1972].”

Section 113(c) of Pub. L. 92–603 provided that: “The amendments made by this section [amending this section and section 416 of this title] shall apply with respect to monthly benefits payable under title II of the Social Security Act [this subchapter] for months after December 1972, but only on the basis of applications filed on or after the date of the enactment of this Act [Oct. 30, 1972].”

Section 114(d) of Pub. L. 92–603 provided that: “The amendments made by this section [amending this section] shall apply only with respect to benefits payable under title II of the Social Security Act [this subchapter] for months after December 1972 on the basis of applications filed on or after the date of enactment of this Act [Oct. 30, 1972].”

Amendment by section 116(b), (c) of Pub. L. 92–603 effective with respect to applications for widow's and widower's insurance benefits based on disability under this section filed in or after October 1972 or before October 1972 under specified conditions, see section 116(e) of Pub. L. 92–603, set out as a note under section 423 of this title.

Effective Date of 1971 Amendment

Section 2 of Pub. L. 92–223 provided that: “The amendments made by the first section of this Act [amending this section] shall be effective only in the case of lump-sum death payments under title II of the Social Security Act [this subchapter] made with respect to deaths which occur after December 31, 1970.”

Effective Date of 1969 Amendment

Section 1004(d) of Pub. L. 91–172 provided that: “The amendments made by subsections (a), (b), and (c) [amending this section] shall apply with respect to monthly benefits under title II of the Social Security Act [this subchapter] for months after December 1969.”

Effective Date of 1968 Amendment

Section 103(e) of Pub. L. 90–248 provided that: “The amendments made by subsections (a), (b), (c), and (d) [amending this section] shall apply with respect to monthly benefits under title II of the Social Security Act [this subchapter] for months after January 1968.”

Section 104(e) of Pub. L. 90–248 provided that: “The amendments made by this section [amending this section and sections 403, 416, 422, and 425 of this title] shall apply with respect to monthly benefits under title II of the Social Security Act [this subchapter] for and after the month of February 1968, but only on the basis of applications for such benefits filed in or after the month in which this Act is enacted [January 1968].”

Section 112(b) of Pub. L. 90–248 provided that: “The amendments made by subsection (a) [amending this section] shall apply with respect to monthly benefits payable under title II of the Social Security Act [this subchapter] for months after January 1968, but only on the basis of applications filed after the date of enactment of this Act [Jan. 2, 1968].”

Section 151(e) of Pub. L. 90–248 provided that: “The amendments made by this section [amending this section and section 228e of Title 45, Railroads] shall apply with respect to monthly benefits payable under title II of the Social Security Act [this subchapter] (and annuities accruing under the Railroad Retirement Act of 1937 [section 228a et seq. of Title 45]) for months after January 1968, but only on the basis of applications filed in or after the month in which this Act is enacted [January 1968].”

Section 157(d) of Pub. L. 90–248 provided that: “The amendments made by this section [amending this section] shall apply with respect to monthly benefits payable under title II of the Social Security Act [this subchapter] for months after January 1968, but only on the basis of applications filed in or after the month in which this Act is enacted [January 1968].”

Amendment by section 158(c)(1), (2) of Pub. L. 90–248, applicable with respect to applications for disability insurance benefits under section 423 of this title and to disability determinations under section 416(i) of this title, see section 158(e) of Pub. L. 90–248, set out as a note under section 423 of this title.

Section 162(a)(2) of Pub. L. 90–248 provided that: “The amendment made by paragraph (1) [amending this section] shall apply only with respect to six-month periods (within the meaning of section 202(t)(1)(A) of the Social Security Act [subsec. (t)(1)(A) of this section]) which begin after the date of the enactment of this Act [Jan. 2, 1968].”

Section 162(b)(2) of Pub. L. 90–248 provided that: “The amendment made by paragraph (1) [amending this section] shall apply only with respect to monthly benefits under title II of the Social Security Act [this subchapter] for months beginning after June 30, 1968.”

Effective Date of 1965 Amendment

Amendment by section 303(d) of Pub. L. 89–97 effective with respect to applications for disability insurance benefits under section 423 of this title, and for disability determinations under section 416(i) of this title, filed in or after July 1965 or before July 1965, if the applicant has not died before such month and notice of final administrative decision has not been given to the applicant before such month, see section 303(f)(1), of Pub. L. 89–97, set out as a note under section 423 of this title.

Section 304(o) of Pub. L. 89–97 provided that: “The amendments made by this section [amending this section and sections 415, 416, and 423 of this title] shall apply with respect to monthly insurance benefits under title II of the Social Security Act [this subchapter] for and after the second month following the month [July 1965] in which this Act is enacted, but only on the basis of applications filed in or after the month in which this Act is enacted.”

Section 306(d) of Pub. L. 89–97 provided that: “The amendments made by this section [amending this section and sections 403, 416, 422, and 425 of this title] shall apply with respect to monthly insurance benefits under section 202 of the Social Security Act [this section] for months after December 1964; except that—

“(1) in the case of an individual who was not entitled to a child's insurance benefit under subsection (d) of such section [subsec. (d) of this section] for the month in which this Act is enacted [July 1965], such amendments shall apply only on the basis of an application filed in or after the month in which this Act is enacted, and

“(2) no monthly insurance benefit shall be payable for any month before the second month following the month in which this Act is enacted [July 1965] by reason of section 202(d)(1)(B)(ii) of the Social Security Act [subsec. (d)(1)(B)(ii) of this section] as amended by this section.”

Section 307(c) of Pub. L. 89–97 provided that: “The amendments made by this section [amending this section] shall apply with respect to monthly insurance benefits under section 202 of the Social Security Act [this section] for and after the second month following the month [July 1965] in which this Act is enacted, but only on the basis of applications filed in or after the month in which this Act is enacted.”

Section 308(e) of Pub. L. 89–97 provided that: “The amendments made by this section [amending this section and sections 403, 405, 416, and 422 of this title] shall be applicable with respect to monthly insurance benefits under title II of the Social Security Act [this subchapter] beginning with the second month following the month in which this Act is enacted [July 1965]; but, in the case of an individual who was not entitled to a monthly insurance benefit under section 202 of such Act [this section] for the first month following the month in which this Act is enacted [July 1965], only on the basis of an application filed in or after the month in which this Act is enacted.”

Amendment by section 319(d) of Pub. L. 89–97 applicable with respect to taxable years beginning after December 31, 1950, see section 319(e) of Pub. L. 89–97, set out as a note under section 1402 of Title 26.

Section 323(b) of Pub. L. 89–97 provided that: “The amendments made by subsection (a) of this section [amending this section] shall be applicable to persons who file applications, or on whose behalf applications are filed, for benefits under section 202(d) of the Social Security Act [subsec. (d) of this section] on or after the date this section is enacted [July 30, 1965]. The time limit provided by section 202(d)(10)(B) of such Act [subsec. (d)(10)(B) of this section] as amended by this section for legally adopting a child shall not apply in the case of any child who is adopted before the end of the 12-month period following the month in which this section is enacted.”

Section 324(b) of Pub. L. 89–97 provided that: “The amendments made by this section [amending this section] shall be effective with respect to (1) applications for lump-sum death payments filed in or after the month [July 1965] in which this Act is enacted, and (2) monthly benefits based on applications filed in or after such month.”

Amendment by section 328(a) of Pub. L. 89–97 applicable with respect to applications filed on or after July 30, 1965, applications as to which the Secretary has not made a final decision before July 30, 1965, and, if a civil action with respect to a final decision of the Secretary has been commenced under section 405(g) of this title before July 30, 1965, applications as to which there has been no final judicial decision before July 30, 1965, see section 328(d) of Pub. L. 89–97, set out as a note under section 416 of this title.

Section 333(d) of Pub. L. 89–97 provided that: “The amendments made by this section [amending this section] shall apply with respect to monthly insurance benefits under section 202 of the Social Security Act [this section] beginning with the second month following the month in which this Act is enacted [July 1965]; but, in the case of an individual who was not entitled to a monthly insurance benefit under section 203(e) or (f) of such Act [subsec. (e) or (f) of this section] for the first month following the month in which this Act is enacted, only on the basis of an application filed in or after the month in which this Act is enacted.”

Section 334(g) of Pub. L. 89–97 provided that: “The amendments made by this section [amending this section and section 416 of this title] shall be applicable only with respect to monthly insurance benefits under title II of the Social Security Act [this subchapter] beginning with the second month following the month in which this Act is enacted [July 1965], but only on the basis of applications filed in or after the month in which this Act is enacted.”

Amendment by section 339(b) of Pub. L. 89–97 applicable with respect to monthly insurance benefits under subchapter II of this chapter beginning with September 1965 but only on the basis of an application filed in or after July 1965, see section 339(c) of Pub. L. 89–97, set out as a note under section 416 of this title.

Section 343(b) of Pub. L. 89–97 provided that: “The amendment made by subsection (a) [amending this section] shall apply only with respect to monthly insurance benefits under title II of the Social Security Act [this subchapter] for months after the month in which this Act is enacted [July 1965]; except that, in the case of an individual who was not entitled to child's insurance benefits under section 202(d) of such Act [subsec. (d) of this section] for the month in which this Act was enacted, such amendment shall apply only on the basis of an application filed in or after the month in which this Act is enacted.”

Effective Date of 1961 Amendment

Section 102(f) of title I of Pub. L. 87–64 provided that:

“(1) The amendments made by subsection (a) [amending this section] shall apply with respect to monthly benefits for months beginning on or after the effective date of this title [see Effective Date of 1961 Amendment note set out above] based on applications filed in or after March 1961.

“(2)(A) Except as provided in subparagraphs (B), (C), and (D), section 202(q) of such Act [subsec. (q) of this section], as amended by subsection (b)(1), shall apply with respect to monthly benefits for months beginning on or after the effective date of this title [see Effective Date of 1961 Amendment note set out above].

“(B) Section 202(q)(3) of such Act, as amended by subsection (b)(1), shall apply with respect to monthly benefits for months beginning on or after the effective date of this title [see Effective Date of 1961 Amendment note set out above], but only if the increase described in such section 202(q)(3)—

“(i) is not effective for any month beginning before the effective date of this title, or

“(ii) is based on an application for a recomputation filed on or after the effective date of this title.

“(C) In the case of any individual who attained age 65 before the effective date of this title, the adjustment in such individual's reduction period provided for in section 202(q)(6) of such Act [subsec. (q)(6) of this section], as amended by subsection (b)(1), shall not apply to such individual unless the total of the months specified in subparagraphs (A), (B), and (C) of such section 202(q)(6) is not less than 3.

“(D) In the case of any individual entitled to a monthly benefit for the last month beginning before the effective date of this title, if the amount of such benefit for any month thereafter is, solely by reason of the change in section 202(q) of such Act [subsec. (q) of this section] made by subsection (b)(1), lower than the amount of such benefit for such last month, then it shall be increased to the amount of such benefit for such last month.

“(3) Section 202(r) of such Act [subsec. (r) of this section], as amended by subsection (b)(1), shall apply only with respect to monthly benefits for months beginning on or after the effective date of this title [see Effective Date of 1961 Amendment note set out above], except that subparagraph (B) of section 202(r)(2) (as so amended) shall apply only if the first subsequent month described in such subparagraph (B) is a month beginning on or after the effective date of this title.

“(4) The amendments made by subsection (b)(2) [amending this section and sections 416 and 423 of this title] shall take effect on the effective date of this title [see Effective Date of 1961 Amendment note set out above].

“(5) The amendments made by subsection (b)(3) [amending this section] shall apply with respect to applications for monthly benefits filed on or after the effective date of this title [see Effective Date of 1961 Amendment note set out above].

“(6) The amendments made by subsections (c) and (d)(1) and (2) [amending sections 409, 413, 415, 416, and 423 of this title] shall apply with respect to—

“(A) monthly benefits for months beginning on or after the Effective Date of this title [see Effective Date of 1961 Amendment note set out above] based on applications filed in or after March 1961, and

“(B) lump-sum death payments under title II of the Social Security Act [this subchapter] in the case of deaths on or after the effective date of this title.

“(7) The amendment made by subsection (d)(3) [amending section 415 of this title] shall take effect on the effective date of this title [see Effective Date of 1961 Amendment note set out above].

“(8) The amendments made by subsection (e) [amending this section] shall apply with respect to monthly benefits for months beginning on or after the effective date of this title [see Effective Date of 1961 Amendment note set out above].

“(9) For purposes of this subsection, the term ‘monthly benefits’ means monthly insurance benefits under title II of the Social Security Act [this subchapter].”

Section 104(e) of title I of Pub. L. 87–64 provided that: “The amendments made by this section [amending this section] shall apply with respect to monthly benefits under section 202 of the Social Security Act [this section] for months beginning on or after the effective date of this title [see Effective Date of 1961 Amendment note set out above].”

Section 109 of title I of Pub. L. 87–64 provided that: “Except as otherwise provided, the effective date of this title [see Tables for classifications] is the first day of the first calendar month which begins on or after the 30th day after the date of the enactment of this Act [June 30, 1961].”

Effective Date of 1960 Amendments

Section 103(v) of Pub. L. 86–778, as amended by Pub. L. 99–514, §2, Oct. 22, 1986, 100 Stat. 2095, provided that:

“(1) The amendments made by subsection (a) [amending this section and provisions set out as notes under this section] shall apply only with respect to reinterments after the date of the enactment of this Act [Sept. 13, 1960]. The amendments made by subsections (b), (e), and (f) [amending sections 403 and 410 of this title] shall apply only with respect to service performed after 1960; except that insofar as the carrying on of a trade or business (other than performance of service as an employee) is concerned, such amendments shall apply only in the case of taxable years beginning after 1960. The amendments made by subsections (d), (i), (o), and (p) [amending section 410 of this title and section 3121 of Title 26, Internal Revenue Code, and amending section 418 of this title and section 3121 of Title 26] shall apply only with respect to service performed after 1960. The amendments made by subsections (h) and (l) [amending section 411 of this title and section 1402 of Title 26] shall apply only in the case of taxable years beginning after 1960. The amendments made by subsections (c), (n), (q), and (r) [enacting section 3125 of Title 26 and amending section 410 of this title and sections 3121, 6205, and 6413 of Title 26] shall apply only with respect to (1) service in the employ of the Government of Guam or any political subdivision thereof, or any instrumentality of any one or more of the foregoing wholly owned thereby, which is performed after 1960 and after the calendar quarter in which the Secretary of the Treasury receives a certification by the Governor of Guam that legislation has been enacted by the Government of Guam expressing its desire to have the insurance system established by title II of the Social Security Act [this subchapter] extended to the officers and employees of such Government and such political subdivisions and instrumentalities, and (2) service in the employ of the Government of American Samoa or any political subdivision thereof or any instrumentality of any one or more of the foregoing wholly owned thereby, which is performed after 1960 and after the calendar quarter in which the Secretary of the Treasury receives a certification by the Governor of American Samoa that the Government of American Samoa desires to have the insurance system established by such title II extended to the officers and employees of such Government and such political subdivisions and instrumentalities. The amendments made by subsections (g) and (k) [amending section 411 of this title and section 1402 of Title 26] shall apply only in the case of taxable years beginning after 1960, except that, insofar as they involve the nonapplication of section 932 of the Internal Revenue Code of 1986 [formerly I.R.C. 1954] [section 932 of Title 26] to the Virgin Islands for purposes of chapter 2 of such Code and section 211 of the Social Security Act [section 411 of this title], such amendments shall be effective in the case of all taxable years with respect to which such chapter 2 (and corresponding provisions of prior law) and such section 211 [section 411 of this title] are applicable. The amendments made by subsections (j), (s), and (t) [amending this section and sections 405, 409, 410, 411, 415, 417, and 418 of this title and sections 7213 and 7701 of Title 26 and repealing section 419 of this title] shall take effect on the date of the enactment of this Act [Sept. 13, 1960]; and there are authorized to be appropriated such sums as may be necessary for the performance by any officer or employee of functions delegated to him by the Secretary of the Treasury in accordance with the amendment made by such subsection (t) [amending section 7701 of Title 26].

“(2) The amendments made by subsections (c) and (n) [amending section 410 of this title and section 3121 of Title 26] shall have application only as expressly provided therein, and determinations as to whether an officer or employee of the Government of Guam or the Government of American Samoa or any political subdivision thereof, or of any instrumentality of any one or more of the foregoing which is wholly owned thereby, is an employee of the United States or any agency or instrumentality thereof within the meaning of any provision of law not affected by such amendments, shall be made without any inferences drawn from such amendments.

“(3) The repeal (by subsection (j)(1)) of section 219 of the Social Security Act [section 419 of this title], and the elimination (by subsections (e), (f), (h), (j)(2), and (j)(3)) of other provisions of such Act [from sections 410 and 411 of this title] making reference to such section 219 [section 419 of this title], shall not be construed as changing or otherwise affecting the effective date specified in such section for the extension to the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico of the insurance system under title II of such Act [this subchapter], the manner or consequences of such extension, or the status of any individual with respect to whom the provisions so eliminated are applicable.”

Section 201(c) of Pub. L. 86–778 provided that: “The amendments made by this section [amending this section] shall apply as though this Act had been enacted on August 28, 1958, and with respect to monthly benefits under section 202 of the Social Security Act [this section] for months after August 1958 based on applications for such benefits filed on or after August 28, 1958.”

Section 202(b) of Pub. L. 86–778 provided that: “The amendments made by subsection (a) [amending this section] shall apply with respect to monthly benefits under section 202 of the Social Security Act [this section] for months beginning with the month in which this Act is enacted [September 1960], but only if an application for such benefits is filed in or after such month.”

Section 203(b) of Pub. L. 86–778 provided that: “The amendment made by subsection (a) [amending this section] shall apply—

“(1) in the case of the death of an individual occurring on or after the date of the enactment of this Act [Sept. 13, 1960], and

“(2) in the case of the death of an individual occurring prior to such date, but only if no application for a lump-sum death payment under section 202(i) of the Social Security Act [subsec. (i) of this section] is filed on the basis of such individual's wages and self-employment income prior to the third calendar month beginning after such date.”

Section 205(d) of Pub. L. 86–778 provided that: “The preceding provisions of this section and the amendments made thereby [amending this section] shall apply only in the case of monthly benefits under title II of the Social Security Act [this subchapter] for months after the month in which this Act is enacted [September 1960], on the basis of applications filed in or after such month.”

Amendment by section 208(d) of Pub. L. 86–778 applicable (1) with respect to monthly benefits under this subchapter for months beginning with September 1960 on the basis of an application filed in or after such month, and (2) in the case of a lump-sum death payment under this subchapter based on an application filed in or after September 1960, but only if no person, other than the person filing such application, has filed an application for a lump-sum death payment under this subchapter prior to Sept. 13, 1960 with respect to the death of the same individual, see section 208(f) of Pub. L. 86–778, set out as a note under section 416 of this title.

Amendment by section 211(i)–(l) of Pub. L. 86–778 effective in the manner provided in section 211(p) and (q) of Pub. L. 86–778, see section 211(p)–(s) of Pub. L. 86–778 set out as a note under section 403 of this title.

Section 301(b) of Pub. L. 86–778 provided that: “The amendment made by this section [amending this section] shall apply only with respect to monthly benefits under section 202 of the Social Security Act [this section] for months after the second month following the month in which this Act is enacted [September 1960].”

Amendment by section 403(d) of Pub. L. 86–778 applicable only with respect to benefits under subsec. (d) of this section for months after September 1960, in the case of individuals who, without regard to such amendment, would have been entitled to such benefits for September 1960, or for any succeeding month, see section 403(e) of Pub. L. 86–778, set out as a note under section 422 of this title.

Section 47(e) of Pub. L. 86–624 provided that: “The amendment made by section 30(c)(1) [amending this section] shall be applicable in the case of deaths occurring on or after August 21, 1959.”

Effective Date of 1959 Amendment

Section 47(e) of Pub. L. 86–70 provided that: “The amendment made by paragraph (1) of subsection (c) of section 32 [amending this section] shall apply in the case of deaths occurring on or after January 3, 1959.”

Effective Date of 1958 Amendments

Section 302 of Pub. L. 85–927 provided that: “The amendments made by section 301 of this Act [amending this section] shall apply with respect to monthly benefits under section 202 of the Social Security Act [this section] for months after December 1956, and with respect to lump-sum death payments under such section 202 in the case of deaths occurring after December 1956.”

Amendment by Pub. L. 85–857 effective Jan. 1, 1959, see section 2 of Pub. L. 85–857, set out as an Effective Date note preceding section 101 of Title 38, Veterans’ Benefits.

Amendment by section 101(e) of Pub. L. 85–840 applicable in the case of monthly benefits under subchapter II of this chapter for months after December 1958, and in the case of lump-sum death payments under subchapter II of this chapter, with respect to deaths occurring after such month, see section 101(g) of Pub. L. 85–840, set out as a note under section 415 of this title.

Amendment by section 205(b)–(i) of Pub. L. 85–840 applicable with respect to monthly benefits under this subchapter for months after August 1958, but only if an application for such benefits is filed on or after Aug. 28, 1958, see section 207(a) of Pub. L. 85–840, set out as a note under section 416 of this title.

Section 301(f) of Pub. L. 85–840 provided that: “The amendments made by this section [amending this section and section 416 of this title] shall apply with respect to monthly benefits under section 202 of the Social Security Act [this section] for months beginning after the date of enactment of this Act [Aug. 28, 1958], but only if an application for such benefits is filed on or after such date.”

Section 304(a)(2) of Pub. L. 85–840 provided that: “The amendment made by this subsection [amending this section] shall apply with respect to monthly benefits under section 202 of the Social Security Act [this section] for months beginning after the date of enactment of this Act [Aug. 28, 1958], but only if an application for such benefits is filed on or after such date.”

Section 305(c) of Pub. L. 85–840 provided that: “The amendments made by this section [amending this section and section 416 of this title] shall apply in the case of lump-sum death payments under such section 202(i) [subsec. (i) of this section] on the basis of the wages and self-employment income of any individual who dies after the month in which this Act is enacted [August 1958].”

Section 306(b) of Pub. L. 85–840 provided that: “The amendments made by this section [amending this section] shall apply with respect to monthly benefits under section 202 of the Social Security Act [this section] for months beginning after the date of enactment of this Act [Aug. 28, 1958], but only if an application for such benefits is filed on or after such date.”

Section 307(h)(1) of Pub. L. 85–840 provided that: “The amendments made by this section (other than by subsections (f) and (g) [amending this section]) shall apply with respect to monthly benefits under section 202 of the Social Security Act [this section] for months following the month in which this Act is enacted [August 1958]; except that in any case in which benefits were terminated with the close of the month in which this Act is enacted or any prior month and, if the amendments made by this section had been in effect for such month, such benefits would not have been terminated, the amendments made by this section shall apply with respect to monthly benefits under section 202 of the Social Security Act for months beginning after the date of enactment of this Act, but only if an application for such benefits is filed after such date.”

Effective Date of 1957 Amendment

Section 2 of Pub. L. 85–238 provided that: “The amendments made by the first section of this Act [amending this section] shall apply with respect to monthly benefits under section 202 of the Social Security Act [this section] for months after December 1956, and with respect to lump-sum death payments under such section 202 in the case of deaths occurring after December 1956.”

Section 3(i) of Pub. L. 85–238 provided that:

“(1) Except as provided in paragraph (2), the amendments made by this section [amending this section and section 416 of this title] shall apply in the case of monthly benefits under section 202 of the Social Security Act [this section] for months after the month in which this Act is enacted [August 1957].

“(2) The amendment made by subsection (f) [amending this section] shall not apply in the case of benefits under section 202(h) of the Social Security Act [subsec. (h) of this section], based on the wages and self-employment income of a deceased individual who died in or prior to the month in which this Act is enacted [August 1957] for any parent who files the proof of support, required by such section 202(h), in or prior to the month in which this Act is enacted; and the amendment to section 216(h)(1) of such Act [section 416(h)(1) of this title] made by subsection (h) of this section shall not operate to deprive any such parent of benefits to which he would otherwise be entitled under section 202(h) of such Act.”

Effective Date of 1956 Amendments

Section 403(b) of act Aug. 1, 1956, ch. 837, provided that: “The amendment made by subsection (a) [amending this section] shall be effective as though it had been enacted on March 31, 1956.”

Section 101(h) of act Aug. 1, 1956, ch. 836, provided that:

“(1) The amendments made by this section [amending this section and section 403 of this title], other than subsection (c) [amending this section], shall apply with respect to monthly benefits under section 202 of the Social Security Act [this section] for months after December 1956, but only, except as provided in paragraph (2), on the basis of an application filed after September 1956. For purposes of title II of the Social Security Act, as amended by this Act [this subchapter], an application for wife's, child's, or mother's insurance benefits under such title II filed, by reason of this paragraph, by an individual who was entitled to benefits prior to, but not for, December 1956 and whose entitlement terminated as a result of a child's attainment of age eighteen shall be treated as the application referred to in subsection (b), (d), and (g), respectively, of section 202 of such Act.

“(2) In the case of an individual who was entitled, without the application of subsection (j)(1) of such section 202 [subsec. (j)(1) of this section], to a child's insurance benefit under subsection (d) of such section [subsec. (d) of this section] for December 1956, such amendments shall apply with respect to benefits under such section 202 [this section] for months after December 1956.

“(3) The amendment made by subsection (c) [amending this section] shall apply in the case of benefits under section 202(h) of the Social Security Act [subsec. (h) of this section] based on the wages and self-employment income of an individual who dies after August 1956.”

Section 114(b) of act Aug. 1, 1956, ch. 836, provided that: “The amendment made by subsection (a) [amending this section] shall apply in the case of lump-sum death payments under title II of the Social Security Act [this subchapter], and monthly benefits under such title for months after August 1956, based on applications filed after August 1956.”

Section 118(b) of act Aug. 1, 1956, ch. 836, provided that: “The amendment made by subsection (a) [amending this section] shall apply in the case of monthly benefits under title II of the Social Security Act [this subchapter] for months after December 1956 and in the case of lump-sum death payments under section 202(i) of such Act [subsec. (i) of this section] with respect to deaths occurring after December 1956.”

Effective Date of 1954 Amendment

Section 105(b) of act Sept. 1, 1954, provided that: “The amendment made by subsection (a) [amending this section] shall be applicable only in the case of applications for monthly benefits under section 202 of the Social Security Act [this section] filed after August 1954; except that no individual shall, by reason of such amendment, be entitled to any benefit for any month prior to February 1954.”

Effective Date of 1950 Amendment

Section 101(b)(1), (3) of act Aug. 28, 1950, provided that:

“(1) Except as provided in paragraph (3), the amendment made by subsection (a) of this section [amending this section] shall take effect September 1, 1950.

“(3) Section 202(j)(2) of the Social Security Act [subsec. (j)(2) of this section], as amended by this Act, shall take effect on the date of enactment of this Act [Aug. 28, 1950].”

Effective Date of 1946 Amendment

Section 403(b) of act Aug. 10, 1946, provided that: “The amendment made by subsection (a) of this section [amending this section] shall be applicable only in cases of applications for benefits under that Act filed after December 31, 1946.”

Section 404(b) of act Aug. 10, 1946, provided that: “The amendment made by subsection (a) of this section [amending this section] shall be applicable only in cases where the death of the insured individual occurs after December 31, 1946.”

Subsec. 405(b) of act Aug. 10, 1946, provided that: “The amendment made by subsection (a) of this section [amending this section] shall be applicable only in cases of applications for benefits under this title [this subchapter] filed after December 31, 1946.”

Effective Date of 1939 Amendment

Section 201 of act Aug. 10, 1939, provided that the amendment made by that section is effective Jan. 1, 1940.

Construction of 1994 Amendments

Section 7 of Pub. L. 103–387 provided that: “Until March 31, 1995, any reference in this Act [see Short Title of 1994 Amendments note, set out under section 1 of Title 26, Internal Revenue Code] (other than section 3(d) [108 Stat. 4075]) or any amendment made by this Act to the Commissioner of Social Security shall be deemed a reference to the Secretary of Health and Human Services.”

Pilot Study of Efficacy of Providing Individualized Information to Recipients of Old-Age and Survivors Insurance Benefits

Pub. L. 104–121, title I, §106, Mar. 29, 1996, 110 Stat. 855, directed the Commissioner of Social Security, during a 2-year period beginning in 1996, to conduct a pilot study of the efficacy of providing certain individualized information, in the form of annual statements designed to promote better understanding of contributions and benefits, to recipients of monthly insurance benefits under 42 U.S.C. 402 whose entitlement began in or after 1984, and to report to Congress regarding the results of the pilot study not later than 60 days after the completion of the study.

Treatment of Employees Whose Federal Employment Terminated After Making Election Into Social Security Coverage But Before Effective Date of Election

Section 8014(b) of Pub. L. 100–647 provided that: “Subsections (b)(4)(A)(i), (c)(2)(A)(i), (e)(7)(A)(i), (f)(2)(A)(i), and (g)(4)(A)(i) of section 202 of the Social Security Act (42 U.S.C. 402(b)(4)(A)(i), (c)(2)(A)(i), (e)(7)(A)(i), (f)(2)(A)(i), (g)(4)(A)(i)) shall not apply with respect to monthly periodic benefits of any individual based solely on service which was performed while in the service of the Federal Government if—

“(1) such person made, before January 1, 1988, an election pursuant to law to become subject to the Federal Employees’ Retirement System provided in chapter 84 of title 5, United States Code, or the Foreign Service Pension System provided in subchapter II of chapter 8 of title I of the Foreign Service Act of 1980 [22 U.S.C. 4071 et seq.] (or such person made such an election on or after January 1, 1988, and before July 1, 1988, pursuant to regulations of the Office of Personnel Management relating to belated elections and correction of administrative errors (5 CFR 846.204) as in effect on the date of the enactment of this Act [Nov. 10, 1988]), and

“(2) such service terminated before the date on which such election became effective.”

Monthly Payments to Surviving Spouse of Member or Former Member of Armed Forces Where Such Person Has in Care a Child of Such Member; Amount, Criteria, etc.

Pub. L. 97–377, title I, §156, Dec. 21, 1982, 96 Stat. 1920, as amended by Pub. L. 98–94, title IX, §943, Sept. 24, 1983, 97 Stat. 654; Pub. L. 100–322, title III, §314, May 20, 1988, 102 Stat. 535; Pub. L. 102–83, §5(c)(2), Aug. 6, 1991, 105 Stat. 406, provided that:

“(a)(1) The head of the agency shall pay each month an amount determined under paragraph (2) to a person—

“(A) who is the surviving spouse of a member or former member of the Armed Forces described in subsection (c);

“(B) who has in such person's care a child of such member or former member who has attained sixteen years of age but not eighteen years of age and is entitled to a child's insurance benefit under section 202(d) of the Social Security Act (42 U.S.C. 402(d)) for such month or who meets the requirements for entitlement to the equivalent of such benefit provided under section 1312(a) of title 38, United States Code; and

“(C) who is not entitled for such month to a mother's insurance benefit under section 202(g) of the Social Security Act (42 U.S.C. 402(g)), or to the equivalent of such benefit based on meeting the requirements of section 1312(a) of title 38, United States Code, by reason of having such child (or any other child of such member or former member) in her care.

“(2) A payment under paragraph (1) for any month shall be in the amount of the mother's insurance benefit, if any, that such person would receive for such month under section 202(g) of the Social Security Act [subsec. (g) of this section] if such child were under sixteen years of age, disregarding any adjustments made under section 215(i) of the Social Security Act [section 415(i) of this title] after August 1981. However, if such person is entitled for such month to a mother's insurance benefit under section 202(g) of such Act by reason of having the child of a person other than such member or former member of the Armed Forces in such person's care, the amount of the payment under the preceding sentence for such month shall be reduced (but not below zero) by the amount of the benefit payable by reason of having such child in such person's care.

“(b)(1) The head of the agency shall pay each month an amount determined under paragraph (2) to a person—

“(A) who is the child of a member or former member of the Armed Forces described in subsection (c);

“(B) who has attained eighteen years of age but not twenty-two years of age and is not under a disability as defined in section 223(d) of the Social Security Act (42 U.S.C. 423(d));

“(C) who is a full-time student at a postsecondary school, college, or university that is an educational institution (as such terms were defined in section 202(d)(7)(A) and (C) of the Social Security Act [subsec. (d)(7)(A) and (C) of this section] as in effect before the amendments made by section 2210(a) of the Omnibus Budget Reconciliation Act of 1981 (Public Law 97–35; 95 Stat. 841)); and

“(D) who is not entitled for such month to a child's insurance benefit under section 202(d) of the Social Security Act (42 U.S.C. 402(d)) or is entitled for such month to such benefit only by reason of section 2210(c) of the Omnibus Budget Reconciliation Act of 1981 (95 Stat. 842) [section 2210(c) of Pub. L. 97–35, set out below].

“(2) A payment under paragraph (1) for any month shall be in the amount that the person concerned would have been entitled to receive for such month as a child's insurance benefit under section 202(d) of the Social Security Act [subsec. (d) of this section] (as in effect before the amendments made by section 2210(a) of the Omnibus Budget Reconciliation Act of 1981 (95 Stat. 841) [section 2210(a) of Pub. L. 97–35]), disregarding any adjustments made under section 215(i) of the Social Security Act [section 415(i) of this title] after August 1981, but reduced for any month by any amount payable to such person for such month under section 2210(c) of the Omnibus Budget Reconciliation Act of 1981 (95 Stat. 842).

“(c) A member or former member of the Armed Forces referred to in subsection (a) or (b) as described in this subsection is a member or former member of the Armed Forces who died on active duty before August 13, 1981, or died from a service-connected disability incurred or aggravated before such date.

“(d)(1) The Secretary of Health and Human Services shall provide to the head of the agency such information as the head of the agency may require to carry out this section.

“(2) The head of the agency shall carry out this section under regulations which the head of the agency shall prescribe. Such regulations shall be prescribed not later than ninety days after the date of the enactment of this section [Dec. 21, 1982].

“(e)(1) Unless otherwise provided by law—

“(A) each time after December 31, 1981, that an increase is made by law in the dependency and indemnity compensation paid under section 1311 of title 38, United States Code, the head of the agency shall, at the same time and effective as of the same date on which such increase takes effect, increase the benefits paid under subsection (a) by a percentage that is equal to the overall average (rounded to the nearest one-tenth of 1 per centum) of the percentages by which each of the dependency and indemnity compensation rates under section 1311 of such title are increased above the rates as in effect immediately before such increase; and

“(B) each time after December 31, 1981, that an increase is made by law in the rates of educational assistance allowances provided for under section 3531(b) of title 38, United States Code, the head of the agency shall, at the same time and effective as of the same date on which such increase takes effect, increase the benefits paid under subsection (b) by a percentage that is equal to the overall average (rounded to the nearest one-tenth of 1 per centum) of the percentages by which each of the educational assistance allowance rates provided for under section 3531(b) of such title are increased above the rates as in effect immediately before such increase.

“(2) The amount of the benefit payable to any person under subsection (a) or (b) and the amount of any increase in any such benefit made pursuant to clause (1) or (2) of this subsection, if not a multiple of $1, shall be rounded to the next lower multiple of $1.

“(f) Payments under subsections (a) and (b) shall be made only for months after the month in which this section is enacted.

“(g)(1) During each fiscal year the Secretary of Defense shall transfer from time to time to the head of the agency such amounts as the head of the agency determines to be necessary to pay the benefits provided for under subsections (a) and (b) during such fiscal year and to pay the administrative expenses incurred in paying such benefits during such fiscal year. During fiscal year 1983, transfers under this subsection shall be made from the ‘Retired Pay, Defense’ account of the Department of Defense. During subsequent fiscal years, such transfers shall be made from such account or from funds otherwise available to the Secretary for the purpose of the payment of such benefits and expenses. The Secretary of Defense may transfer funds under this subsection in advance of the payment of benefits and expenses by the head of the agency.

“(2) The head of the agency shall establish on the books of the agency over which he exercises jurisdiction a new account to be used for the payment of benefits under subsections (a) and (b) and shall credit to such account all funds transferred to him for such purpose by the Secretary of Defense.

“(h) The head of the agency and the Secretary of Health and Human Services may enter into an agreement to provide for the payment by the Secretary or the head of the agency of benefits provided for under subsection (a) and benefits provided for under section 202(g) of the Social Security Act (42 U.S.C. 402(g)) in a single monthly payment and for the payment by the Secretary or the head of the agency of benefits provided for under subsection (b) and benefits provided for under section 202(d) of the Social Security Act (42 U.S.C. 402(d)) in a single monthly payment, if the head of the agency and the Secretary agree that such action would be practicable and cost effective to the Government.

“(i) For the purposes of this section:

“(1) The term ‘head of the agency’ means the head of such department or agency of the Government as the President shall designate to administer the provisions of this section.

“(2) The terms ‘active military, naval, or air service’ and ‘service-connected’ have the meanings given those terms in paragraphs (24) and (16), respectively, of section 101 of title 38, United States Code, except that for the purposes of this section such terms do not apply to any service in the commissioned corps of the Public Health Service or the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration.”

Child's Insurance Benefits; Continued Eligibility of Certain Individuals; Limitations

Section 2210(c) of Pub. L. 97–35 provided that:

“(1) Notwithstanding the provisions of section 202(d) of the Social Security Act [subsec. (d) of this section] (as in effect prior to or after the amendments made by subsection (a)), any individual who—

“(A) has attained the age of 18;

“(B) is not under a disability (as defined in section 223(d) of such Act) [section 423(d) of this title];

“(C) is entitled to a child's insurance benefit under such section 202(d) [subsec. (d) of this section] for August 1981; and

“(D) is a full-time student at a postsecondary school, college, or university that is an educational institution (as such terms are defined in section 202(d)(7)(A) and (C) of such Act as in effect prior to the amendments made by subsection (a)) for any month prior to May 1982;

shall be entitled to a child's benefit under section 202(d) of such Act in accordance with the provisions of such section as in effect prior to the amendments made by subsection (a) for any month after July 1981 and prior to August 1985 if such individual would be entitled to such child's benefit for such month under such section 202(d) if subsections (a) and (b) of this section [amending subsec. (d) of this section and enacting a provision set out as a note under this section] had not been enacted, but such benefits shall be subject to the limitations set forth in this subsection.

“(2) No benefit described in paragraph (1) shall be paid to an individual to whom paragraph (1) applies for the months of May, June, July, and August, beginning with benefits otherwise payable for May 1982.

“(3) The amount of the monthly benefit payable under paragraph (1) to an individual to whom paragraph (1) applies for any month after July 1982 (prior to deductions on account of work required by section 203 of such Act) [section 403 of this title] shall not exceed the amount of the benefit to which such individual was entitled for August 1981 (prior to deductions on account of work required by section 203 of such Act), less an amount—

“(A) during the months after July 1982 and before August 1983, equal to 25 percent of such benefit for August 1981;

“(B) during the months after July 1983 and before August 1984, equal to 50 percent of such benefit for August 1981; and

“(C) during the months after July 1984 and before August 1985, equal to 75 percent of such benefit for August 1981.

“(4) Any individual to whom the provisions of paragraph (1) apply and whose entitlement to benefits under paragraph (1) ends after July 1982 shall not subsequently become entitled, or reentitled, to benefits under paragraph (1) or under section 202(d) of the Social Security Act [subsec. (d) of this section] as in effect after the amendments made by subsection (a) unless he meets the requirements of section 202(d)(1)(B)(ii) of that Act as so in effect.”

Nonapplicability of Amendments by Section 334 of Pub. L. 95–216 to Monthly Insurance Benefits Payable to Individuals Eligible for Monthly Periodic Benefits; Savings Provision

Section 334(g) of Pub. L. 95–216, as amended by Pub. L. 98–617, §2(b)(1), Nov. 8, 1984, 98 Stat. 3294, provided that:

“(1) The amendments made by the preceding provisions of this section [see section 334(f) of Pub. L. 95–216, set out as an Effective Date of 1977 Amendment note above] shall not apply with respect to any monthly insurance benefit payable, under subsection (b), (c), (e), (f), or (g) (as the case may be) of section 202 of the Social Security Act [this section], to an individual—

“(A)(i) to whom there is payable for any month within the 60-month period beginning with the month in which this Act [December 1977] is enacted (or who is eligible in any such month for) a monthly periodic benefit (within the meaning of such provisions) based upon such individual's earnings while in the service of the Federal Government or any State (or political subdivision thereof, as defined in section 218(b)(2) of the Social Security Act) [section 418(b)(2) of this title], or (ii) who would have been eligible for such a monthly periodic benefit (within the meaning of paragraph (2)) before the close of such 60-month period, except for a requirement which postponed eligibility (as so defined) for such monthly periodic benefit until the month following the month in which all other requirements were met; and

“(B) who at time of application for or initial entitlement to such monthly insurance benefit under such subsection (b), (c), (e), (f), or (g) meets the requirements of that subsection as it was in effect and being administered in January 1977.

“(2) For purposes of paragraph (1)(A), an individual is eligible for a monthly periodic benefit for any month if such benefit would be payable to such individual for that month if such individual were not employed during that month and had made proper application for such benefit.

“(3) If any provision of this subsection, or the application thereof to any person or circumstance, is held invalid, the remainder of this section shall not be affected thereby, but the application of this subsection to any other persons or circumstances shall also be considered invalid.”

[Section 2(b)(3) of Pub. L. 98–617 provided that: “The amendments made by this subsection [amending above note and provisions set out as an Offset Against Spouses’ Benefits on Account of Public Pensions note below] shall apply with respect to benefits payable under title II of the Social Security Act [this subchapter] for months beginning after the month of enactment of this Act [November 1984].”]

Offset Against Spouses’ Benefits on Account of Public Pensions

Section 334(h) of Pub. L. 95–216, as added by Pub. L. 97–455, §7(a)(1), Jan. 12, 1983, 96 Stat. 2501, and amended by Pub. L. 98–617, §2(b)(2), Nov. 8, 1984, 98 Stat. 3294, provided that: “In addition, the amendments made by the preceding provisions of this section [see section 334(f) of Pub. L. 95–216, set out as an Effective Date of 1977 Amendment note above] shall not apply with respect to any monthly insurance benefit payable, under subsection (b), (c), (e), (f), or (g) (as the case may be) of section 202 of the Social Security Act [this section], to an individual—

“(1)(A) to whom there is payable for any month prior to July 1983 (or who is eligible in any such month for) a monthly periodic benefit (within the meaning of such provisions) based upon such individual's earnings while in the service of the Federal Government or any State (or political subdivision thereof, as defined in section 218(b)(2) of the Social Security Act [section 418(b)(2) of this title]), or (B) who would have been eligible for such a monthly periodic benefit (within the meaning of subsection (g)(2) [set out as a note above]) before the close of June 1983, except for a requirement which postponed eligibility (as so defined) for such monthly periodic benefit until the month following the month in which all other requirements were met; and

“(2) who at the time of application for or initial entitlement to such monthly insurance benefit under such subsection (b), (c), (e), (f), or (g)—

“(A) meets the dependency test of one-half support set forth in paragraph (1)(C) of such subsection (c) as it read prior to the enactment of the amendments made by this section [see section 334(f) of Pub. L. 95–216, set out as an Effective Date of 1977 Amendment note above], or an equivalent dependency test (if the individual is a woman), in the case of an individual applying for or becoming entitled to benefits under such subsection (b) or (c), or

“(B) meets the dependency test of one-half support set forth in paragraph (1)(D) of such subsection (f) as it read prior to the enactment of the amendments made by this section, or an equivalent dependency test (if the individual is a woman), in the case of an individual applying for or becoming entitled to benefits under such subsection (e), (f), or (g).”

Redetermination of Widow's and Widower's Monthly Insurance Benefits for Months After December 1978

Section 336(c)(2) of Pub. L. 95–216 provided that: “In the case of an individual who was entitled for the month of December 1978 to monthly insurance benefits under subsection (e) or (f) of section 202 of the Social Security Act [subsec. (e) or (f) of this section] to which the provisions of subsection (e)(4) or (f)(5) applied, the Secretary shall, if such benefits would be increased by the amendments made by this section [amending this section] redetermine the amount of such benefits for months after December 1978 as if such amendments had been in effect for the first month for which the provisions of section 202(e)(4) or 202(f)(5) became applicable.”

Minimum Monthly Insurance Benefits for Months After December 1978, for Widow or Widower and Other Jointly Entitled Individuals

Section 336(d) of Pub. L. 95–216 provided that: “Where—

“(1) two or more persons are entitled to monthly benefits under section 202 of the Social Security Act [this section] for December 1978 on the basis of the wages and self-employment income of a deceased individual, and one or more of such persons is so entitled under subsection (e) or (f) of such section 202 [subsec. (e) or (f) of this section], and

“(2) one or more of such persons is entitled on the basis of such wages and self-employment income to monthly benefits under subsection (e) or (f) of such section 202 (as amended by this section) for January 1979, and

“(3) the total of benefits to which all persons are entitled under section 202 of such Act on the basis of such wages and self-employment income for January 1979 is reduced by reason of section 203(a) of such Act as amended by this Act [section 403(a) of this title] (or would, but for the first sentence of section 203(a)(4), be so reduced),

then the amount of the benefit to which each such person referred to in paragraph (1) is entitled for months after December 1978 shall in no case be less after the application of this section [see section 336(c)(1) of Pub. L. 95–216, set out as an Effective Date of 1977 Amendment note under this section] and such section 203(a) [section 403(a) of this title] than the amount it would have been without the application of this section.”

Termination of Special $50 Payments Under Tax Reduction Act of 1975

Pub. L. 95–30, title IV, §406, May 23, 1977, 91 Stat. 156, provided that: “Notwithstanding the provisions of section 702(a) of the Tax Reduction Act of 1975 [see Pub. L. 94–12, §702, set out as a note under this section], no payment shall, after the date of the enactment of this Act [May 23, 1977], be made under that section.”

Special $50 Payment Under Tax Reduction Act of 1975

Pub. L. 94–12, title VII, §702, Mar. 29, 1975, 89 Stat. 66, provided that the Secretary of the Treasury, at the earliest practicable date after Mar. 29, 1975, make a $50 payment to each individual, who for the month of March, 1975, was entitled, without regard to section 402(j)(1) or 423(b) of this title or section 231d(a)(ii) of Title 45, Railroads, to a monthly insurance benefit payable under this subchapter, a monthly annuity or pension payment under the Railroad Retirement Act of 1935, the Railroad Retirement Act of 1937, or the Railroad Retirement Act of 1974, or a benefit under the supplemental security income benefits program under subchapter XVI of this title, except that payment be made only to individuals who were paid a benefit for March 1975 in a check issued no later than Aug. 31, 1975, that no payment be made to any individual who is not a resident of the United States as defined in section 410(i) of this title, and if an individual is entitled under two or more programs, this individual receive only one $50 payment, and that this payment received not be considered as income, or for the calendar year 1975, as a resource, for purposes of any Federal or State program which undertakes to furnish aid or assistance to individuals or families, where eligibility for the program is based upon need of the individual or family involved or as income for federal income tax purposes.

March Through May 1974 Monthly Insurance Benefit for Only Individual Entitled to Benefit on Basis of Wages and Self-Employment Income of Deceased Individual

Section 1(i) of Pub. L. 93–233 provided that: “In the case of an individual to whom monthly benefits are payable under title II of the Social Security Act [this subchapter] for February 1974 (without the application of section 202(j)(1) or 223(b) of such Act [subsec. (j)(1) of this section or section 423(b) of this title]), and to whom section 202(m) of such Act [subsec. (m) of this section] is applicable for such month, such section shall continue to be applicable to such benefits for the months of March through May 1974 for which such individual remains the only individual entitled to a monthly benefit on the basis of the wages and self-employment income of the deceased insured individual.”

Cost-of-Living Increase in Social Security Benefits; Effective Date; Consumer Price Index Percentage

Section 201 of Pub. L. 93–66, as amended by Pub. L. 93–233, §1(a)–(e), Dec. 30, 1973, 87 Stat. 947, provided that:

“(a)(1) The Secretary of Health, Education, and Welfare [now Health and Human Services] (hereinafter in this section referred to as the ‘Secretary’) shall, in accordance with the provisions of this section, increase the monthly benefits and lump-sum death payments payable under title II of the Social Security Act [this subchapter] by 7 per centum.

“(2) The provisions of this section (and the increase in benefits made hereunder) shall be effective, in the case of monthly benefits under title II of the Social Security Act [this subchapter] only for months after February 1974 and prior to June 1974, and, in the case of lump-sum death payments under such title [this subchapter], only with respect to deaths which occur after February 1974 and prior to June 1974.

“(b) The increase in social security benefits authorized under this section shall be provided, and any determinations by the Secretary in connection with the provision of such increase in benefits shall be made, in the manner prescribed in section 215(i) of the Social Security Act [section 415(i) of this title] for the implementation of cost-of-living increases authorized under title II of such Act [this subchapter] except that—

“(1) the amount of such increase shall be 7 per centum,

“(2) in the case of any individual entitled to monthly insurance benefits payable pursuant to section 202(e) of such Act [subsec. (e) of this section] for February 1974 (without the application of section 202(j)(1) or 223(b) of such Act [subsec. (j)(1) of this section or section 423(f) of this title]), including such benefits based on a primary insurance amount determined under section 215(a)(3) of such Act [section 415(a)(3) of this title] as amended by this section, such increase shall be determined without regard to paragraph (2)(B) of such section 202(e), and

“(3) in the case of any individual entitled to monthly insurance benefits payable pursuant to section 202(f) of such Act for February 1974 (without the application of section 202(j)(1) or 223(b) of such Act), including such benefits based on a primary insurance amount determined under section 215(a)(3) of such Act as amended by this section, such increase shall be determined without regard to paragraph (3)(B) of such section 202(f).

“(c) The increase in social security benefits provided by this section shall—

“(1) not be considered to be an increase in benefits made under or pursuant to section 215(i) of the Social Security Act [section 415(i) of this title], and

“(2) not (except for purposes of section 203(a)(2) of such Act [section 403(a)(2) of this title], as in effect after February 1974) be considered to be a ‘general benefit increase under this title’ [this subchapter] (as such term is defined in section 215(i)(3) of such Act) [section 415(i)(3) of this title];

and nothing in this section shall be construed as authorizing any increase in the ‘contribution and benefit base’ (as that term is employed in section 230 of such Act) [section 430 of this title], or any increase in the ‘exempt amount’ (as such term is used in section 203(f)(8) of such Act [section 403(f)(8) of this title]).

“(d) Nothing in this section shall be construed to authorize (directly or indirectly) any increase in monthly benefits under title II of the Social Security Act [this subchapter] for any month after May 1974, or any increase in lump-sum death payments payable under such title in the case of deaths occurring after May 1974. The recognition of the existence of the increase in benefits authorized by the preceding subsections of this section (during the period it was in effect) in the application, after May 1974, of the provisions of sections 202(q) and 203(a) of such Act [subsec. (q) of this section and section 403(a) of this title] shall not, for purposes of the preceding sentence, be considered to be an increase in a monthly benefit for a month after May 1974.”

Redetermination of Widow's and Widower's Benefits for December 1972 and After To Provide for 1972 Increases

Section 102(g) of Pub. L. 92–603 provided that:

“(1) In the case of an individual who is entitled to widow's or widower's insurance benefits for the month of December 1972 the Secretary shall, if it would increase such benefits, redetermine the amount of such benefits for months after December 1972 under title II of the Social Security Act [this subchapter] as if the amendments made by this section [amending this section and section 403 of this title] had been in effect for the first month of such individual's entitlement to such benefits.

“(2) For purposes of paragraph (1)—

“(A) any deceased individual on whose wages and self-employment income the benefits of an individual referred to in paragraph (1) are based, shall be deemed not to have been entitled to benefits if the record, of insured individuals who were entitled to benefits, that is readily available to the Secretary contains no entry for such deceased individual; and

“(B) any deductions under subsections (b) and (c) of section 203 of such Act [section 403 of this title], applicable to the benefits of an individual referred to in paragraph (1) for any month prior to September 1965, shall be disregarded in applying the provisions of section 202(q)(7) of such Act [subsec. (q)(7) of this section] (as amended by this Act) [Pub. L. 92–603].”

Adjustment of Benefits Based on Disability Which Began Between Age 18 and 22

Section 108(g) of Pub. L. 92–603 provided that: “Where—

“(1) one or more persons are entitled (without the application of sections 202(j)(1) and 223(b) of the Social Security Act) [subsec. (j)(1) of this section and section 423(b) of this title] to monthly benefits under section 202 or 223 of such Act for December 1972 on the basis of the wages and self-employment income of an insured individual, and

“(2) one or more persons (not included in paragraph (1)) are entitled to monthly benefits under such section 202 or 223 [this section or section 423 of this title] for January 1973 solely by reason of the amendments made by this section on the basis of such wages and self-employment income, and

“(3) the total of benefits to which all persons are entitled under such sections 202 and 223 [this section and section 423 of this title] on the basis of such wages and self-employment income for January 1973 is reduced by reason of section 203(a) of such Act [section 403(a) of this title] as amended by this Act, or would, but for the penultimate sentence of such section 203(a), be so reduced),

then the amount of the benefit to which each person referred to in paragraph (1) of this subsection is entitled for months after December 1972 shall be adjusted, after the application of such section 203(a) [section 403(a) of this title], to an amount no less than the amount it would have been if the person or persons referred to in paragraph (2) of this subsection were not entitled to a benefit referred to in such paragraph (2).”

Termination of Child's Insurance Benefits by Reason of Adoption

Section 112(c) of Pub. L. 92–603 provided that: “Any child—

“(1) whose entitlement to child's insurance benefits under section 202(d) of the Social Security Act [subsec. (d) of this section] was terminated by reason of his adoption, prior to the date of the enactment of this Act [Oct. 30, 1972], and

“(2) who, except for such adoption, would be entitled to child's insurance benefits under such section for a month after the month in which this Act is enacted [October 1972],

may, upon filing application for child's insurance benefits under the Social Security Act after the date of enactment of this Act, become reentitled to such benefits; except that no child shall, by reason of the enactment of this section, become reentitled to such benefits for any month prior to the month after the month in which this Act is enacted.”

Savings Provision

1972—Section 102(h) of Pub. L. 92–603 provided that: “Where—

“(1) two or more persons are entitled to monthly benefits under section 202 of the Social Security Act [this section] for December 1972 on the basis of the wages and self-employment income of a deceased individual, and one or more of such persons is so entitled under subsection (e) or (f) of such section 202, and

“(2) one or more of such persons is entitled on the basis of such wages and self-employment income to monthly benefits under subsection (e) or (f) of such section 202 (as amended by this section) for January 1973, and

“(3) the total of benefits to which all persons are entitled under section 202 of such Act [this section] on the basis of such wages and self-employment income for January 1973 is reduced by reason of section 203(a) of such Act [section 403(a) of this title], as amended by this Act (or would, but for the penultimate sentence of such section 203(a), be so reduced),

then the amount of the benefit to which each such person referred to in paragraph (1) is entitled for months after December 1972 shall in no case be less after the application of this section and such section 203(a) than the amount it would have been without the application of this section.”

Section 114(e) of Pub. L. 92–603 provided that: “Where—

“(1) one or more persons are entitled (without the application of sections 202(j)(1) and 223(b) of the Social Security Act) [subsec. (j)(1) of this section and section 423(b) of this title] to monthly benefits under section 202 or 223 of such Act for December 1972 on the basis of the wages and self-employment income of an insured individual, and

“(2) one or more persons (not included in paragraph (1)) are entitled to monthly benefits under such section 202(g) as a surviving divorced mother (as defined in section 216(d)(3) [section 416(d)(3) of this title]) for a month after December 1972 on the basis of such wages and self-employment income, and

“(3) the total of benefits to which all persons are entitled under such section 202 and 223 [this section and section 423 of this title] on the basis of such wages and self-employment income for any month after December 1972 is reduced by reason of section 203(a) of such Act [section 403(a) of this title] as amended by this Act (or would, but for the penultimate sentence of such section 203(a), be so reduced)

then the amount of the benefit to which each person referred to in paragraph (1) of this subsection is entitled beginning with the first month after December 1972 for which any person referred to in paragraph (2) becomes entitled shall be adjusted, after the application of such section 203(a), to an amount no less than the amount it would have been if the person or persons referred to in paragraph (2) of this subsection were not entitled to a benefit referred to in such paragraph (2).”

1961—Section 104(f) of Pub. L. 87–64 provided that: “Where—

“(1) two or more persons were entitled (without the application of subsection (j)(1) of section 202 of the Social Security Act [subsec. (j)(1) of this section]) to monthly benefits under such section 202 for the last month beginning before the effective date of this title [see Effective Date of 1961 Amendment note set out above] on the basis of the wages and self-employment income of a deceased individual, and one or more of such persons is entitled to a monthly insurance benefit under subsection (e), (f), or (h) of such section 202 for such last month; and

“(2) no person, other than the persons referred to in paragraph (1) of this subsection, is entitled to benefits under such section 202 on the basis of such individual's wages and self-employment income for a subsequent month or for any month after such last month and before such subsequent month; and

“(3) the total of the benefits to which all persons are entitled under such section 202 on the basis of such individual's wages and self-employment income for such subsequent month is reduced by reason of the application of section 203(a) of such Act [section 403(a) of this title],

then the amount of the benefit to which each such person referred to in paragraph (1) of this subsection is entitled for such subsequent month shall be determined without regard to this Act if, after the application of this Act, such benefit for such month is less than the amount of such benefit for such last month. The preceding provisions of this subsection shall not apply to any monthly benefit of any person for any month beginning after the effective date of this title [see Effective Date note of 1961 Amendment note set out above] unless paragraph (3) also applies to such benefit for the month beginning on such effective date (or would so apply but for the next to the last sentence of section 203(a) of the Social Security Act).”

1960—Section 208(e) of Pub. L. 86–778 provided that: “Where—

“(1) one or more persons were entitled (without the application of section 202(j)(1) of the Social Security Act [subsec. (j)(1) of this section]) to monthly benefits under section 202 of such Act for the month before the month in which this Act is enacted [September 1960] on the basis of the wages and self-employment income of an individual; and

“(2) any person is entitled to benefits under subsection (b), (c), (d), (e), (f), or (g) of section 202 of the Social Security Act for any subsequent month on the basis of such individual's wages and self-employment income and such person would not be entitled to such benefits but for the enactment of this section; and

“(3) the total of the benefits to which all persons are entitled under section 202 of the Social Security Act on the basis of such individual's wages and self-employment income for such subsequent month is reduced by reason of the application of section 203(a) of such Act [section 403(a) of this title],

then the amount of the benefit to which each person referred to in paragraph (1) of this subsection is entitled for such subsequent month shall not, after the application of such section 203(a), be less than the amount it would have been (determined without regard to section 301 [section 501 of this title]) if no person referred to in paragraph (2) of this subsection was entitled to a benefit referred to in such paragraph for such subsequent month on the basis of such wages and self-employment income of such individual.”

Section 301(c) of Pub. L. 86–778 provided that: “Where—

“(1) one or more persons were entitled (without the application of section 202(j)(1) of the Social Security Act [subsec. (j)(1) of this section]) to monthly benefits under section 202 of such Act for the second month following the month in which this Act is enacted [September 1960] on the basis of the wages and self-employment income of a deceased individual (but not including any person who became so entitled by reason of section 208 of this Act [section 408 of this title]); and

“(2) no person, other than (i) those persons referred to in paragraph (1) of this subsection (ii) those persons who are entitled to benefits under section 202(d), (e), (f), or (g) of the Social Security Act but would not be so entitled except for the enactment of section 208 of this Act [section 408 of this title], is entitled to benefits under such section 202 [this section] on the basis of such individual's wages and self-employment income for any subsequent month or for any month after the second month following the month in which this Act is enacted [September 1960] and prior to such subsequent month; and

“(3) the total of the benefits to which all persons referred to in paragraph (1) of this subsection are entitled under section 202 of the Social Security Act on the basis of such individual's wages and self-employment income for such subsequent month exceeds the maximum of benefits payable, as provided in section 203(a) of such Act [section 403(a) of this title], on the basis of such wages and self-employment income,

then the amount of the benefit to which each such person referred to in paragraph (1) of this subsection is entitled for such subsequent month shall be determined—

“(4) in case such person is entitled to benefits under section 202(e), (f), (g), or (h), as though this section and section 208 [section 408 of this title] had not been enacted, or

“(5) in case such person is entitled to benefits under section 202(d), as though (i) no person is entitled to benefits under section 202(e), (f), (g), or (h) for such subsequent month, and (ii) the maximum of benefits payable, as described in paragraph (3), is such maximum less the amount of each person's benefit for such month determined pursuant to paragraph (4).”

1958—Section 304(b) of Pub. L. 85–840 provided that: “Where—

“(1) one or more persons were entitled (without the application of section 202(j)(1) of the Social Security Act [subsec. (j)(1) of this section]) to monthly benefits under section 202 of such Act for the month in which this Act is enacted [August 1958] on the basis of the wages and self-employment income of an individual; and

“(2) a person is entitled to a parent's insurance benefit under section 202(h) of the Social Security Act for any subsequent month on the basis of such wages and self-employment income and such person would not be entitled to such benefit but for the enactment of this section; and

“(3) the total of the benefits to which all persons are entitled under section 202 of the Social Security Act on the basis of such wages and self-employment income for such subsequent month are reduced by reason of the application of section 203(a) of such Act [section 403(a) of this title].

then the amount of the benefit to which each such person referred to in paragraph (1) of this subsection is entitled for such subsequent month shall be increased, after the application of such section 203(a), to the amount it would have been if no person referred to in paragraph (2) of this subsection was entitled to a parent's insurance benefit for such subsequent month on the basis of such wages and self-employment income.”

1957—Section 5 of Pub. L. 85–238 provided that: “Where—

“(a) one or more persons were entitled (without the application of section 202(j)(1) of the Social Security Act [subsec. (j)(1) of this section]) to parent's insurance benefits under section 202(h) of such Act for the month in which this Act [August 1957] is enacted on the basis of the wages and self-employment income of an individual;

“(b) a person becomes entitled to a widow's, widower's or mother's insurance benefit under section 202(e), (f), or (g) of the Social Security Act for any subsequent month on the basis of such wages and self-employment income;

“(c) the total of the benefits to which all persons are entitled under section 202 of the Social Security Act, on the basis of such wages and self-employment income for such subsequent month are reduced by reason of the application of section 203(a) of such Act [section 403(a) of this title];

then the amount of the benefit to which each such person referred to in paragraph (a) or (b) is entitled for such subsequent month shall be increased, after the application of such section 203(a), to the amount it would have been—

“(d) if, in the case of a parent's insurance benefit, the person referred to in paragraph (b) was not entitled to the benefit referred to in such paragraph, or

“(e) if, in the case of a benefit referred to in paragraph (b), no person was entitled to a parent's insurance benefit for such subsequent month on the basis of such wages and self-employment income.”

Filing of Proof of Support

1968—Section 157(c) of Pub. L. 90–248 provided that: “In the case of any husband who would not be entitled to husband's insurance benefits under section 202(c) of the Social Security Act [subsec. (c) of this section] or any widower who would not be entitled to widower's insurance benefits under section 202(f) of such Act except for the enactment of this section, the requirement in section 202(c)(1)(C) or 202(f)(1)(D) of such Act relating to the time within which proof of support must be filed shall not apply if such proof of support is filed within two years after the month following the month in which this Act is enacted [January 1968].”

1961—Section 103(c) of title I of Pub. L. 87–64 provided that: “In the case of any widower or parent who would not be entitled to widower's insurance benefits under section 202(f) [subsec. (f) of this section], or parent's insurance benefits under section 202(h), of the Social Security Act except for the enactment of this Act (other than this subsection), the requirement in sections 202(f)(1)(D) and 202(h)(1)(B), respectively, of the Social Security Act relating to the time within which proof of support must be filed shall not apply if such proof of support is filed before the close of the 2–year period which begins on the effective date of this title [see Effective Date of 1961 Amendment note set out above].”

1958—Section 207(b) of Pub. L. 85–840 provided that: “In the case of any husband, widower, or parent who would not be entitled to benefits under section 202(c), section 202(f), and section 202(h), respectively, of the Social Security Act [subsecs. (c), (f), and (h) of this section] except for the enactment of section 205 of this Act [amending this section and sections 401, 403, 414, 415, 422, and 425 of this title], the requirement in such section 202(c), section 202(f), or section 202(h), as the case may be, that proof of support be filed within a two-year period shall not apply if such proof is filed within two years after the month in which this Act is enacted [August 1958].”

Section 304(c) of Pub. L. 85–840 provided that: “In the case of any parent who would not be entitled to parent's benefits under section 202(h) of the Social Security Act [subsec. (h) of this section] except for the enactment of this section, the requirement in such section 202(h) that proof of support be filed within two years of the date of death of the insured individual referred to therein shall not apply if such proof is filed within the two-year period beginning with the first day of the month after the month in which this Act is enacted [August 1958].”

1954—Section 113 of act Sept. 1, 1954, provided that:

“(a) For the purpose of determining the entitlement of any individual to husband's insurance benefits under subsection (c) of section 202 of the Social Security Act [subsec. (c) of this section] on the basis of his wife's wages and self-employment income, the requirements of paragraph (1)(D) of such subsection shall be deemed to be met if—

“(1) such individual was receiving at least one-half of his support, as determined in accordance with regulations prescribed by the Secretary of Health, Education, and Welfare, from his wife on the first day of the first month (A) for which she was entitled to a monthly benefit under subsection (a) of such section 202, and (B) in which an event described in paragraph (1) or (2) of section 203(b) of such Act [section 403(b) of this title] (as in effect before or after the enactment of this Act [Sept. 1, 1954]) did not occur.

“(2) such individual has filed proof of such support within two years after such first month, and

“(3) such wife was, without the application of subsection (j)(1) of such section 202, entitled to a primary insurance benefit under such Act for August 1950.

“(b) For the purpose of determining the entitlement of any individual to widower's insurance benefits under subsection (f) of section 202 of the Social Security Act on the basis of his deceased wife's wages and self-employment income, the requirements of paragraph (1)(E)(ii) of such subsection shall be deemed to be met if—

“(1) such individual was receiving at least one-half of his support, as determined in accordance with regulations prescribed by the Secretary of Health, Education, and Welfare, from his wife, and she was a currently insured individual, on the first day of the first month (A) for which she was entitled to a monthly benefit under subsection (a) of such section 202, and (B) in which an event described in paragraph (1) or (2) of section 203(b) of such Act (as in effect before or after the enactment of this Act [Sept. 1, 1954]) did not occur.

“(2) such individual has filed proof of such support within two years after such first month, and

“(3) such wife was, without the application of subsection (j)(1) of such section 202, entitled to a primary insurance benefit under such Act for August 1950.

“(c) For purposes of subsection (b)(1) of this section, and for purposes of section 202(c)(1) of the Social Security Act in cases to which subsection (a) of this section is applicable, the wife of an individual shall be deemed a currently insured individual if she had not less than six quarters of coverage (as determined under section 213 of the Social Security Act) [section 413 of this title] during the thirteen-quarter period ending with the calendar quarter in which occurs the first month (1) for which such wife was entitled to a monthly benefit under section 202(a) of such Act, and (2) in which an event described in paragraph (1) or (2) of section 203(b) of such Act (as in effect before or after the enactment of this Act [Sept. 1, 1954]) did not occur.

“(d) This section shall apply only with respect to husband's insurance benefits under section 202(c) of the Social Security Act [subsec. (c) of this section], and widower's insurance benefits under section 202(f) of such Act [subsec. (f) of this section], for months after August 1954, and only with respect to benefits based on applications filed after such month.”

1950—Section 101(c) of act Aug. 28, 1950, provided that:

“(1) Any individual entitled to primary insurance benefits or widow's current insurance benefits under section 202 of the Social Security Act [this section] as in effect prior to its amendment by this Act who would, but for the enactment of this Act, be entitled to such benefits for September 1950 shall be deemed to be entitled to old-age insurance benefits or mother's insurance benefits (as the case may be) under section 202 of the Social Security Act, as amended by this Act, as though such individual became entitled to such benefits in such month.

“(2) Any individual entitled to any other monthly insurance benefits under section 202 of the Social Security Act as in effect prior to its amendment by this Act who would, but for the enactment of this Act, be entitled to such benefits for September 1950 shall be deemed to be entitled to such benefits under section 202 of the Social Security Act, as amended by this Act, as though such individual became entitled to such benefits in such month.

“(3) Any individual who files application after August 1950 for monthly benefits under any subsection of section 202 of the Social Security Act who would, but for the enactment of this Act, be entitled to benefits under such subsection (as in effect prior to such enactment) for any month prior to September 1950 shall be deemed entitled to such benefits for such month prior to September 1950 to the same extent and in the same amounts as though this Act had not been enacted.”

Extension of Filing Period for Husband's, Widower's, or Parent's Benefits in Certain Cases

Section 210 of Pub. L. 86–778 provided that:

“(a) In the case of any husband who would not be entitled to husband's insurance benefits under section 202(c) of the Social Security Act [subsec. (c) of this section] except for the enactment of this Act, the requirement in section 202(c)(1)(C) of the Social Security Act relating to the time within which proof of support must be filed shall not apply if such proof of support is filed within two years after the month in which this Act is enacted [September 1960].

“(b) In the case of any widower who would not be entitled to widower's insurance benefits under section 202(f) of the Social Security Act except for the enactment of this Act, the requirement in section 202(f)(1)(D) of the Social Security Act relating to the time within which proof of support must be filed shall not apply if such proof of support is filed within two years after the month in which this Act is enacted.

“(c) In the case of any parent who would not be entitled to parent's insurance benefits under section 202(h) of the Social Security Act except for the enactment of this Act, the requirement in section 202(h)(1)(B) of the Social Security Act relating to the time within which proof of support must be filed shall not apply if such proof of support is filed within two years after the month in which this Act is enacted.”

Disregarding OASDI Benefit Increases and Child's Insurance Benefit Payments Beyond Age 18 to the Extent Attributable to Retroactive Effective Date of 1965 Amendments

Authorization to disregard, in determining need for aid or assistance under an approved State plan, amounts paid under this subchapter for months occurring after December 1964 and before October 1965 to the extent to which payment is attributable to the payment of child's insurance benefits under the old-age, survivors, and disability insurance system after attainment of age 18, in the case of individuals attending school, resulting from enactment of section 306 of Pub. L. 89–97, see section 406 of Pub. L. 89–97, set out as a note under section 415 of this title.

Lump-Sum Payments Where Death Occurred Prior to September 1, 1950

Section 101(d) of act Aug. 28, 1950, as amended July 18, 1952, ch. 945, §5(e)(1), 66 Stat. 775; Sept. 13, 1960, Pub. L. 86–778, title I, §103(a)(2), 74 Stat. 936, provided that: “Lump-sum death payments shall be made in the case of individuals who died prior to September 1950 as though this Act had not been enacted; except that in the case of any individual who died outside the forty-eight States and the District of Columbia after December 6, 1941, and prior to August 10, 1946, the last sentence of section 202(g) of the Social Security Act [subsec. (g) of this section] as in effect prior to the enactment of this Act shall not be applicable if application for a lump-sum death payment is filed prior to September 1952, and except that in the case of any individual who died outside the forty-eight States and the District of Columbia on or after June 25, 1950, and prior to September 1950, whose death occurred while he was in the active military or naval service of the United States, and who is returned to any of such States, the District of Columbia, Alaska, Hawaii, the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico, the Virgin Islands, Guam, or American Samoa for interment or reinterment, the last sentence of section 202(g) of the Social Security Act as in effect prior to the enactment of this Act [July 18, 1952] shall not prevent payment to any person under the second sentence thereof if application for a lump-sum death payment under such section with respect to such deceased individual is filed by or on behalf of such person (whether or not legally competent) prior to the expiration of two years after the date of such interment or reinterment.”

Lump-Sum Payments for Deaths Before 1940; Time Limitation

Lump-sum payments of 3½ percent of total wages paid with respect to employment after Dec. 31, 1936 and before reaching the age of 65 were provided for persons who were not qualified individuals upon reaching that age by section 204 of act Aug. 14, 1935, before amendment in 1939. Such lump-sum payments, except to the estate of an individual who died prior to Jan. 1, 1940, were prohibited after Aug. 10, 1939, by section 902(g) of act Aug. 10, 1939. Section 415 of act Aug. 10, 1946, provided that no lump-sum payments shall be made under section 204 of the 1935 act or section 902(g) of the 1939 act unless application therefor has been filed prior to the expiration of six months after Aug. 10, 1946.

Death Outside U.S.; Extension of Filing Time for Lump-Sum Payments

Section 5(e)(2) of act July 18, 1952, ch. 945, 66 Stat. 775, as amended by Pub. L. 86–778, title I, §103(a)(2), Sept. 13, 1960, 74 Stat. 936, provided that: “In the case of any individual who died outside the forty-eight States and the District of Columbia after August 1950 and prior to January 1954, whose death occurred while he was in the active military or naval service of the United States, and who is returned to any of such States, the District of Columbia, Alaska, Hawaii, the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico, the Virgin Islands, Guam, or American Samoa for interment or reinterment, the last sentence of section 202(i) of the Social Security Act [subsec. (i) of this section] shall not prevent payment to any person under the second sentence thereof if application for a lump-sum death payment with respect to such deceased individual is filed under such section by or on behalf of such person (whether or not legally competent) prior to the expiration of two years after the date of such interment or reinterment.”

Payment of Annuities to Officers and Employees of the United States Convicted of Certain Offenses

Section 121(b) of act Aug. 1, 1956, ch. 836, provided that: “The amendment made by subsection (a) of this section [amending this section] shall not be construed to restrict or otherwise affect any of the provisions of the Act entitled ‘An Act to prohibit payments of annuities to officers and employees of the United States convicted of certain offenses, and for other purposes’, approved September 1, 1954 (Public Law 769, Eighty-third Congress) [sections 2281 to 2288 of former Title 5, Executive Departments and Government Officers and Employees, and are covered by section 8311 et seq. of Title 5, Government Organization and Employees].”

Application for Benefits by Survivors of Members and Former Members of Uniformed Services

Forms for use by survivors of members and former members of the uniformed services in filing applications for benefits under this subchapter to be prescribed jointly by the Secretary of Veterans Affairs and the Secretary of Health and Human Services, see section 5105 of Title 38, Veterans’ Benefits.

Payments of Aliens’ Benefits Withheld Under Foreign Delivery Restriction of Checks Against Federal Funds

Section 162(c)(3) of Pub. L. 90–248 provided that: “Whenever benefits which an individual who is not a citizen or national of the United States was entitled to receive under title II of the Social Security Act [this subchapter] are, on June 30, 1968, being withheld by the Treasury Department under the first section of the Act of October 9, 1940 (31 U.S.C. 123) [31 U.S.C. 3329(a) and 3330(a)], any such benefits, payable to such individual for months after the month in which the determination by the Treasury Department that the benefits should be so withheld was made, shall not be paid—

“(A) to any person other than such individual, or, if such individual dies before such benefits can be paid, to any person other than an individual who was entitled for the month in which the deceased individual died (with the application of section 202(j)(1) of the Social Security Act [subsec. (j)(1) of this section]) to a monthly benefit under title II of such Act [this subchapter] on the basis of the same wages and self-employment income as such deceased individual, or

“(B) in excess of the equivalent of the last twelve months’ benefits that would have been payable to such individual.”

Study of Retirement Test and of Drug Standards and Coverage

Section 405 of Pub. L. 90–248 authorized the Secretary of Health, Education, and Welfare to make a study of the existing retirement test and proposals for the modification of the test, the quality and cost standards for drugs for which payments are made under this chapter, and the coverage of drugs under part B of subchapter XVIII of this chapter, and submit a report to the President and to Congress concerning his findings and recommendations on or before Jan. 1, 1969.

Ex. Ord. No. 12436. Payment of Certain Benefits to Survivors of Persons Who Died in or as a Result of Military Service

Ex. Ord. No. 12436, July 29, 1983, 48 F.R. 34931, provided:

By the authority vested in me as President by the Constitution and laws of the United States of America, including Section 156 of Public Law 97–377 (96 Stat. 1920; 42 U.S.C. 402 note), in order to provide certain benefits to the surviving spouses and children of certain persons who died in or as a result of military service, it is hereby ordered as follows:

Section 1. The Administrator of Veterans’ Affairs is designated to administer the provisions of Section 156 of Public Law 97–377.

Sec. 2. The Secretary of Health and Human Services shall provide to the Administrator of Veterans’ Affairs such information and such technical assistance as the Administrator may reasonably require to discharge his responsibilities under Section 156. The Administrator of Veterans’ Affairs shall reimburse the Department of Health and Human Services for all expenses it incurs in providing such information and technical assistance to the Veterans’ Administration. Such expenses shall be paid from the Veterans’ Administration account described in Section 3 of this Order.

Sec. 3. During fiscal year 1983 and each succeeding fiscal year, the Secretary of Defense shall transfer, from time to time, from the “Retired Pay, Defense” account of the Department of Defense to an account established in the Veterans’ Administration, such amounts as the Administrator of Veterans’ Affairs determines to be necessary to pay the benefits authorized by Section 156 during fiscal year 1983 and each succeeding fiscal year, and the expenses incurred by the Veterans’ Administration in paying such benefits during fiscal year 1983 and each succeeding fiscal year. Such transfers shall, to the extent feasible, be made in advance of the payment of benefits and expenses by the Veterans’ Administration.

Sec. 4. This Order shall be effective as of January 1, 1983.

Ronald Reagan.      

1 See References in Text note below.

§403. Reduction of insurance benefits

(a) Maximum benefits

(1) In the case of an individual whose primary insurance amount has been computed or recomputed under section 415(a)(1) or (4) of this title, or section 415(d) of this title, as in effect after December 1978, the total monthly benefits to which beneficiaries may be entitled under section 402 or 423 of this title for a month on the basis of the wages and self-employment income of such individual shall, except as provided by paragraphs (3) and (6) (but prior to any increases resulting from the application of paragraph (2)(A)(ii)(III) of section 415(i) of this title), be reduced as necessary so as not to exceed—

(A) 150 percent of such individual's primary insurance amount to the extent that it does not exceed the amount established with respect to this subparagraph by paragraph (2),

(B) 272 percent of such individual's primary insurance amount to the extent that it exceeds the amount established with respect to subparagraph (A) but does not exceed the amount established with respect to this subparagraph by paragraph (2),

(C) 134 percent of such individual's primary insurance amount to the extent that it exceeds the amount established with respect to subparagraph (B) but does not exceed the amount established with respect to this subparagraph by paragraph (2), and

(D) 175 percent of such individual's primary insurance amount to the extent that it exceeds the amount established with respect to subparagraph (C).


Any such amount that is not a multiple of $0.10 shall be decreased to the next lower multiple of $0.10.

(2)(A) For individuals who initially become eligible for old-age or disability insurance benefits, or who die (before becoming so eligible for such benefits), in the calendar year 1979, the amounts established with respect to subparagraphs (A), (B), and (C) of paragraph (1) shall be $230, $332, and $433, respectively.

(B) For individuals who initially become eligible for old-age or disability insurance benefits, or who die (before becoming so eligible for such benefits), in any calendar year after 1979, each of the amounts so established shall equal the product of the corresponding amount established for the calendar year 1979 by subparagraph (A) of this paragraph and the quotient obtained under subparagraph (B)(ii) of section 415(a)(1) of this title, with such product being rounded in the manner prescribed by section 415(a)(1)(B)(iii) of this title.

(C) In each calendar year after 1978 the Commissioner of Social Security shall publish in the Federal Register, on or before November 1, the formula which (except as provided in section 415(i)(2)(D) of this title) is to be applicable under this paragraph to individuals who become eligible for old-age or disability insurance benefits, or who die (before becoming eligible for such benefits), in the following calendar year.

(D) A year shall not be counted as the year of an individual's death or eligibility for purposes of this paragraph or paragraph (8) in any case where such individual was entitled to a disability insurance benefit for any of the 12 months immediately preceding the month of such death or eligibility (but there shall be counted instead the year of the individual's eligibility for the disability insurance benefits to which he was entitled during such 12 months).

(3)(A) When an individual who is entitled to benefits on the basis of the wages and self-employment income of any insured individual and to whom this subsection applies would (but for the provisions of section 402(k)(2)(A) of this title) be entitled to child's insurance benefits for a month on the basis of the wages and self-employment income of one or more other insured individuals, the total monthly benefits to which all beneficiaries are entitled on the basis of such wages and self-employment income shall not be reduced under this subsection to less than the smaller of—

(i) the sum of the maximum amounts of benefits payable on the basis of the wages and self-employment income of all such insured individuals, or

(ii) an amount (I) initially equal to the product of 1.75 and the primary insurance amount that would be computed under section 415(a)(1) of this title, for January of the year determined for purposes of this clause under the following two sentences, with respect to average indexed monthly earnings equal to one-twelfth of the contribution and benefit base determined for that year under section 430 of this title, and (II) thereafter increased in accordance with the provisions of section 415(i)(2)(A)(ii) of this title.


The year established for purposes of clause (ii) shall be 1983 or, if it occurs later with respect to any individual, the year in which occurred the month that the application of the reduction provisions contained in this subparagraph began with respect to benefits payable on the basis of the wages and self-employment income of the insured individual. If for any month subsequent to the first month for which clause (ii) applies (with respect to benefits payable on the basis of the wages and self-employment income of the insured individual) the reduction under this subparagraph ceases to apply, then the year determined under the preceding sentence shall be redetermined (for purposes of any subsequent application of this subparagraph with respect to benefits payable on the basis of such wages and self-employment income) as though this subparagraph had not been previously applicable.

(B) When two or more persons were entitled (without the application of section 402(j)(1) of this title and section 423(b) of this title) to monthly benefits under section 402 or 423 of this title for January 1971 or any prior month on the basis of the wages and self-employment income of such insured individual and the provisions of this subsection as in effect for any such month were applicable in determining the benefit amount of any persons on the basis of such wages and self-employment income, the total of benefits for any month after January 1971 shall not be reduced to less than the largest of—

(i) the amount determined under this subsection without regard to this subparagraph,

(ii) the largest amount which has been determined for any month under this subsection for persons entitled to monthly benefits on the basis of such insured individual's wages and self-employment income, or

(iii) if any persons are entitled to benefits on the basis of such wages and self-employment income for the month before the effective month (after September 1972) of a general benefit increase under this title (as defined in section 415(i)(3) of this title) or a benefit increase under the provisions of section 415(i) of this title, an amount equal to the sum of amounts derived by multiplying the benefit amount determined under this subchapter (excluding any part thereof determined under section 402(w) of this title) for the month before such effective month (including this subsection, but without the application of section 422(b) 1 of this title, section 402(q) of this title, and subsections (b), (c), and (d) of this section), for each such person for such month, by a percentage equal to the percentage of the increase provided under such benefit increase (with any such increased amount which is not a multiple of $0.10 being rounded to the next lower multiple of $0.10);


but in any such case (I) subparagraph (A) of this paragraph shall not be applied to such total of benefits after the application of clause (ii) or (iii), and (II) if section 402(k)(2)(A) of this title was applicable in the case of any such benefits for a month, and ceases to apply for a month after such month, the provisions of clause (ii) or (iii) shall be applied, for and after the month in which section 402(k)(2)(A) of this title ceases to apply, as though subparagraph (A) of this paragraph had not been applicable to such total of benefits for the last month for which clause (ii) or (iii) was applicable.

(C) When any of such individuals is entitled to monthly benefits as a divorced spouse under section 402(b) or (c) of this title or as a surviving divorced spouse under section 402(e) or (f) of this title for any month, the benefit to which he or she is entitled on the basis of the wages and self-employment income of such insured individual for such month shall be determined without regard to this subsection, and the benefits of all other individuals who are entitled for such month to monthly benefits under section 402 of this title on the wages and self-employment income of such insured individual shall be determined as if no such divorced spouse or surviving divorced spouse were entitled to benefits for such month.

(D) In any case in which—

(i) two or more individuals are entitled to monthly benefits for the same month as a spouse under subsection (b) or (c) of section 402 of this title, or as a surviving spouse under subsection (e), (f), or (g) of section 402 of this title,

(ii) at least one of such individuals is entitled by reason of subparagraph (A)(ii) or (B) of section 416(h)(1) of this title, and

(iii) such entitlements are based on the wages and self-employment income of the same insured individual,


the benefit of the entitled individual whose entitlement is based on a valid marriage (as determined without regard to subparagraphs (A)(ii) and (B) of section 416(h)(1) of this title) to such insured individual shall, for such month and all months thereafter, be determined without regard to this subsection, and the benefits of all other individuals who are entitled, for such month or any month thereafter, to monthly benefits under section 402 of this title based on the wages and self-employment income of such insured individual shall be determined as if such entitled individual were not entitled to benefits for such month.

(4) In any case in which benefits are reduced pursuant to the provisions of this subsection, the reduction shall be made after any deductions under this section and after any deductions under section 422(b) 1 of this title. Notwithstanding the preceding sentence, any reduction under this subsection in the case of an individual who is entitled to a benefit under subsection (b), (c), (d), (e), (f), (g), or (h) of section 402 of this title for any month on the basis of the same wages and self-employment income as another person—

(A) who also is entitled to a benefit under subsection (b), (c), (d), (e), (f), (g), or (h) of section 402 of this title for such month,

(B) who does not live in the same household as such individual, and

(C) whose benefit for such month is suspended (in whole or in part) pursuant to subsection (h)(3) of this section,


shall be made before the suspension under subsection (h)(3) of this section. Whenever a reduction is made under this subsection in the total of monthly benefits to which individuals are entitled for any month on the basis of the wages and self-employment income of an insured individual, each such benefit other than the old-age or disability insurance benefit shall be proportionately decreased.

(5) Notwithstanding any other provision of law, when—

(A) two or more persons are entitled to monthly benefits for a particular month on the basis of the wages and self-employment income of an insured individual and (for such particular month) the provisions of this subsection are applicable to such monthly benefits, and

(B) such individual's primary insurance amount is increased for the following month under any provision of this subchapter,


then the total of monthly benefits for all persons on the basis of such wages and self-employment income for such particular month, as determined under the provisions of this subsection, shall for purposes of determining the total monthly benefits for all persons on the basis of such wages and self-employment income for months subsequent to such particular month be considered to have been increased by the smallest amount that would have been required in order to assure that the total of monthly benefits payable on the basis of such wages and self-employment income for any such subsequent month will not be less (after the application of the other provisions of this subsection and section 402(q) of this title) than the total of monthly benefits (after the application of the other provisions of this subsection and section 402(q) of this title) payable on the basis of such wages and self-employment income for such particular month.

(6) Notwithstanding any of the preceding provisions of this subsection other than paragraphs (3)(A), (3)(C), (3)(D), (4), and (5) (but subject to section 415(i)(2)(A)(ii) of this title), the total monthly benefits to which beneficiaries may be entitled under sections 402 and 423 of this title for any month on the basis of the wages and self-employment income of an individual entitled to disability insurance benefits shall be reduced (before the application of section 424a of this title) to the smaller of—

(A) 85 percent of such individual's average indexed monthly earnings (or 100 percent of his primary insurance amount, if larger), or

(B) 150 percent of such individual's primary insurance amount.


(7) In the case of any individual who is entitled for any month to benefits based upon the primary insurance amounts of two or more insured individuals, one or more of which primary insurance amounts were determined under section 415(a) or (d) of this title as in effect (without regard to the table contained therein) prior to January 1979 and one or more of which primary insurance amounts were determined under section 415(a)(1) or (4) of this title, or section 415(d) of this title, as in effect after December 1978, the total benefits payable to that individual and all other individuals entitled to benefits for that month based upon those primary insurance amounts shall be reduced to an amount equal to the amount determined in accordance with the provisions of paragraph (3)(A)(ii) of this subsection, except that for this purpose the references to subparagraph (A) in the last two sentences of paragraph (3)(A) shall be deemed to be references to paragraph (7).

(8) Subject to paragraph (7) and except as otherwise provided in paragraph (10)(C), this subsection as in effect in December 1978 shall remain in effect with respect to a primary insurance amount computed under section 415(a) or (d) of this title, as in effect (without regard to the table contained therein) in December 1978 and as amended by section 5117 of the Omnibus Budget Reconciliation Act of 1990, except that a primary insurance amount so computed with respect to an individual who first becomes eligible for an old-age or disability insurance benefit, or dies (before becoming eligible for such a benefit), after December 1978, shall instead be governed by this section as in effect after December 1978. For purposes of the preceding sentence, the phrase “rounded to the next higher multiple of $0.10”, as it appeared in subsection (a)(2)(C) of this section as in effect in December 1978, shall be deemed to read “rounded to the next lower multiple of $0.10”.

(9) When—

(A) one or more persons were entitled (without the application of section 402(j)(1) of this title) to monthly benefits under section 402 of this title for May 1978 on the basis of the wages and self-employment income of an individual,

(B) the benefit of at least one such person for June 1978 is increased by reason of the amendments made by section 204 of the Social Security Amendments of 1977; and

(C) the total amount of benefits to which all such persons are entitled under such section 402 of this title are reduced under the provisions of this subsection (or would be so reduced except for the first sentence of subsection (a)(4) of this section),


then the amount of the benefit to which each such person is entitled for months after May 1978 shall be increased (after such reductions are made under this subsection) to the amount such benefits would have been if the benefit of the person or persons referred to in subparagraph (B) had not been so increased.

(10)(A) Subject to subparagraphs (B) and (C)—

(i) the total monthly benefits to which beneficiaries may be entitled under sections 402 and 423 of this title for a month on the basis of the wages and self-employment income of an individual whose primary insurance amount is computed under section 415(a)(2)(B)(i) of this title shall equal the total monthly benefits which were authorized by this section with respect to such individual's primary insurance amount for the last month of his prior entitlement to disability insurance benefits, increased for this purpose by the general benefit increases and other increases under section 415(i) of this title that would have applied to such total monthly benefits had the individual remained entitled to disability insurance benefits until the month in which he became entitled to old-age insurance benefits or reentitled to disability insurance benefits or died, and

(ii) the total monthly benefits to which beneficiaries may be entitled under sections 402 and 423 of this title for a month on the basis of the wages and self-employment income of an individual whose primary insurance amount is computed under section 415(a)(2)(C) of this title shall equal the total monthly benefits which were authorized by this section with respect to such individual's primary insurance amount for the last month of his prior entitlement to disability insurance benefits.


(B) In any case in which—

(i) the total monthly benefits with respect to such individual's primary insurance amount for the last month of his prior entitlement to disability insurance benefits was computed under paragraph (6), and

(ii) the individual's primary insurance amount is computed under subparagraph (B)(i) or (C) of section 415(a)(2) of this title by reason of the individual's entitlement to old-age insurance benefits or death,


the total monthly benefits shall equal the total monthly benefits that would have been authorized with respect to the primary insurance amount for the last month of his prior entitlement to disability insurance benefits if such total monthly benefits had been computed without regard to paragraph (6).

(C) This paragraph shall apply before the application of paragraph (3)(A), and before the application of subsection (a)(1) of this section as in effect in December 1978.

(b) Deductions on account of work

(1) Deductions, in such amounts and at such time or times as the Commissioner of Social Security shall determine, shall be made from any payment or payments under this subchapter to which an individual is entitled, and from any payment or payments to which any other persons are entitled on the basis of such individual's wages and self-employment income, until the total of such deductions equals—

(A) such individual's benefit or benefits under section 402 of this title for any month, and

(B) if such individual was entitled to old-age insurance benefits under section 402(a) of this title for such month, the benefit or benefits of all other persons for such month under section 402 of this title based on such individual's wages and self-employment income,


if for such month he is charged with excess earnings, under the provisions of subsection (f) of this section, equal to the total of benefits referred to in clauses (A) and (B). If the excess earnings so charged are less than such total of benefits, such deductions with respect to such month shall be equal only to the amount of such excess earnings. If a child who has attained the age of 18 and is entitled to child's insurance benefits, or a person who is entitled to mother's or father's insurance benefits, is married to an individual entitled to old-age insurance benefits under section 402(a) of this title, such child or such person, as the case may be, shall, for the purposes of this subsection and subsection (f) of this section, be deemed to be entitled to such benefits on the basis of the wages and self-employment income of such individual entitled to old-age insurance benefits. If a deduction has already been made under this subsection with respect to a person's benefit or benefits under section 402 of this title for a month, he shall be deemed entitled to payments under such section for such month for purposes of further deductions under this subsection, and for purposes of charging of each person's excess earnings under subsection (f) of this section, only to the extent of the total of his benefits remaining after such earlier deductions have been made. For purposes of this subsection and subsection (f) of this section—

(i) an individual shall be deemed to be entitled to payments under section 402 of this title equal to the amount of the benefit or benefits to which he is entitled under such section after the application of subsection (a) of this section, but without the application of the first sentence of paragraph (4) thereof; and

(ii) if a deduction is made with respect to an individual's benefit or benefits under section 402 of this title because of the occurrence in any month of an event specified in subsection (c) or (d) of this section or in section 422(b) 1 of this title, such individual shall not be considered to be entitled to any benefits under such section 402 for such month.


(2)(A) Except as provided in subparagraph (B), in any case in which—

(i) any of the other persons referred to in paragraph (1)(B) is entitled to monthly benefits as a divorced spouse under section 402(b) or (c) of this title for any month, and

(ii) such person has been divorced for not less than 2 years,


the benefit to which he or she is entitled on the basis of the wages and self-employment income of the individual referred to in paragraph (1) for such month shall be determined without regard to deductions under this subsection as a result of excess earnings of such individual, and the benefits of all other individuals who are entitled for such month to monthly benefits under section 402 of this title on the basis of the wages and self-employment income of such individual referred to in paragraph (1) shall be determined as if no such divorced spouse were entitled to benefits for such month.

(B) Clause (ii) of subparagraph (A) shall not apply with respect to any divorced spouse in any case in which the individual referred to in paragraph (1) became entitled to old-age insurance benefits under section 402(a) of this title before the date of the divorce.

(c) Deductions on account of noncovered work outside United States or failure to have child in care

Deductions, in such amounts and at such time or times as the Commissioner of Social Security shall determine, shall be made from any payment or payments under this subchapter to which an individual is entitled, until the total of such deductions equals such individual's benefits or benefit under section 402 of this title for any month—

(1) in which such individual is under retirement age (as defined in section 416(l) of this title) and for more than forty-five hours of which such individual engaged in noncovered remunerative activity outside the United States;

(2) in which such individual, if a wife or husband under retirement age (as defined in section 416(l) of this title) entitled to a wife's or husband's insurance benefit, did not have in his or her care (individually or jointly with his or her spouse) a child of such spouse entitled to a child's insurance benefit and such wife's or husband's insurance benefit for such month was not reduced under the provisions of section 402(q) of this title;

(3) in which such individual, if a widow or widower entitled to a mother's or father's insurance benefit, did not have in his or her care a child of his or her deceased spouse entitled to a child's insurance benefit; or

(4) in which such an individual, if a surviving divorced mother or father entitled to a mother's or father's insurance benefit, did not have in his or her care a child of his or her deceased former spouse who (A) is his or her son, daughter, or legally adopted child and (B) is entitled to a child's insurance benefit on the basis of the wages and self-employment income of such deceased former spouse.


For purposes of paragraphs (2), (3), and (4) of this subsection, a child shall not be considered to be entitled to a child's insurance benefit for any month in which paragraph (1) of section 402(s) of this title applies or an event specified in section 422(b) 1 of this title occurs with respect to such child. Subject to paragraph (3) of such section 402(s) of this title, no deduction shall be made under this subsection from any child's insurance benefit for the month in which the child entitled to such benefit attained the age of eighteen or any subsequent month; nor shall any deduction be made under this subsection from any widow's or widower's insurance benefit if the widow, surviving divorced wife, widower, or surviving divorced husband involved became entitled to such benefit prior to attaining age 60.

(d) Deductions from dependents’ benefits on account of noncovered work outside United States by old-age insurance beneficiary

(1)(A) Deductions shall be made from any wife's, husband's, or child's insurance benefit, based on the wages and self-employment income of an individual entitled to old-age insurance benefits, to which a wife, divorced wife, husband, divorced husband, or child is entitled, until the total of such deductions equals such wife's, husband's, or child's insurance benefit or benefits under section 402 of this title for any month in which such individual is under retirement age (as defined in section 416(l) of this title) and for more than forty-five hours of which such individual engaged in noncovered remunerative activity outside the United States.

(B)(i) Except as provided in clause (ii), in any case in which—

(I) a divorced spouse is entitled to monthly benefits under section 402(b) or (c) of this title for any month, and

(II) such divorced spouse has been divorced for not less than 2 years,


the benefit to which he or she is entitled for such month on the basis of the wages and self-employment income of the individual entitled to old-age insurance benefits referred to in subparagraph (A) shall be determined without regard to deductions under this paragraph as a result of excess earnings of such individual, and the benefits of all other individuals who are entitled for such month to monthly benefits under section 402 of this title on the basis of the wages and self-employment income of such individual referred to in subparagraph (A) shall be determined as if no such divorced spouse were entitled to benefits for such month.

(ii) Subclause (II) of clause (i) shall not apply with respect to any divorced spouse in any case in which the individual entitled to old-age insurance benefits referred to in subparagraph (A) became entitled to such benefits before the date of the divorce.

(2) Deductions shall be made from any child's insurance benefit to which a child who has attained the age of eighteen is entitled, or from any mother's or father's insurance benefit to which a person is entitled, until the total of such deductions equals such child's insurance benefit or benefits or mother's or father's insurance benefit or benefits under section 402 of this title for any month in which such child or person entitled to mother's or father's insurance benefits is married to an individual under retirement age (as defined in section 416(l) of this title) who is entitled to old-age insurance benefits and for more than forty-five hours of which such individual engaged in noncovered remunerative activity outside the United States.

(e) Occurrence of more than one event

If more than one of the events specified in subsections (c) and (d) of this section and section 422(b) 1 of this title occurs in any one month which would occasion deductions equal to a benefit for such month, only an amount equal to such benefit shall be deducted.

(f) Months to which earnings are charged

For purposes of subsection (b) of this section—

(1) The amount of an individual's excess earnings (as defined in paragraph (3)) shall be charged to months as follows: There shall be charged to the first month of such taxable year an amount of his excess earnings equal to the sum of the payments to which he and all other persons (excluding divorced spouses referred to in subsection (b)(2) of this section) are entitled for such month under section 402 of this title on the basis of his wages and self-employment income (or the total of his excess earnings if such excess earnings are less than such sum), and the balance, if any, of such excess earnings shall be charged to each succeeding month in such year to the extent, in the case of each such month, of the sum of the payments to which such individual and all such other persons are entitled for such month under section 402 of this title on the basis of his wages and self-employment income, until the total of such excess has been so charged. Where an individual is entitled to benefits under section 402(a) of this title and other persons (excluding divorced spouses referred to in subsection (b)(2) of this section) are entitled to benefits under section 402(b), (c), or (d) of this title on the basis of the wages and self-employment income of such individual, the excess earnings of such individual for any taxable year shall be charged in accordance with the provisions of this subsection before the excess earnings of such persons for a taxable year are charged to months in such individual's taxable year. Notwithstanding the preceding provisions of this paragraph but subject to section 402(s) of this title, no part of the excess earnings of an individual shall be charged to any month (A) for which such individual was not entitled to a benefit under this subchapter, (B) in which such individual was at or above retirement age (as defined in section 416(l) of this title), (C) in which such individual, if a child entitled to child's insurance benefits, has attained the age of 18, (D) for which such individual is entitled to widow's or widower's insurance benefits if such individual became so entitled prior to attaining age 60, (E) in which such individual did not engage in self-employment and did not render services for wages (determined as provided in paragraph (5) of this subsection) of more than the applicable exempt amount as determined under paragraph (8), if such month is in the taxable year in which occurs the first month after December 1977 that is both (i) a month for which the individual is entitled to benefits under subsection (a), (b), (c), (d), (e), (f), (g), or (h) of section 402 of this title (without having been entitled for the preceding month to a benefit under any other of such subsections), and (ii) a month in which the individual did not engage in self-employment and did not render services for wages (determined as provided in paragraph (5)) of more than the applicable exempt amount as determined under paragraph (8), or (F) in which such individual did not engage in self-employment and did not render services for wages (determined as provided in paragraph (5) of this subsection) of more than the applicable exempt amount as determined under paragraph (8), in the case of an individual entitled to benefits under section 402(b) or (c) of this title (but only by reason of having a child in his or her care within the meaning of paragraph (1)(B) of subsection (b) or (c) of this section, as may be applicable) or under section 402(d) or (g) of this title, if such month is in a year in which such entitlement ends for a reason other than the death of such individual, and such individual is not entitled to any benefits under this subchapter for the month following the month during which such entitlement under section 402(b), (d), or (g) of this title ended.

(2) As used in paragraph (1), the term “first month of such taxable year” means the earliest month in such year to which the charging of excess earnings described in such paragraph is not prohibited by the application of clauses (A), (B), (C), (D), (E), and (F) thereof.

(3) For purposes of paragraph (1) and subsection (h) of this section, an individual's excess earnings for a taxable year shall be 331/3 percent of his earnings for such year in excess of the product of the applicable exempt amount as determined under paragraph (8) in the case of an individual who has attained (or, but for the individual's death, would have attained) retirement age (as defined in section 416(l) of this title) before the close of such taxable year, or 50 percent of his earnings for such year in excess of such product in the case of any other individual, multiplied by the number of months in such year, except that, in determining an individual's excess earnings for the taxable year in which he attains retirement age (as defined in section 416(l) of this title), there shall be excluded any earnings of such individual for the month in which he attains such age and any subsequent month (with any net earnings or net loss from self-employment in such year being prorated in an equitable manner under regulations of the Commissioner of Social Security). For purposes of the preceding sentence, notwithstanding section 411(e) of this title, the number of months in the taxable year in which an individual dies shall be 12. The excess earnings as derived under the first sentence of this paragraph, if not a multiple of $1, shall be reduced to the next lower multiple of $1.

(4) For purposes of clause (E) of paragraph (1)—

(A) An individual will be presumed, with respect to any month, to have been engaged in self-employment in such month until it is shown to the satisfaction of the Commissioner of Social Security that such individual rendered no substantial services in such month with respect to any trade or business the net income or loss of which is includible in computing (as provided in paragraph (5) of this subsection) his net earnings or net loss from self-employment for any taxable year. The Commissioner of Social Security shall by regulations prescribe the methods and criteria for determining whether or not an individual has rendered substantial services with respect to any trade or business.

(B) An individual will be presumed, with respect to any month, to have rendered services for wages (determined as provided in paragraph (5) of this subsection) of more than the applicable exempt amount as determined under paragraph (8) until it is shown to the satisfaction of the Commissioner of Social Security that such individual did not render such services in such month for more than such amount.


(5)(A) An individual's earnings for a taxable year shall be (i) the sum of his wages for services rendered in such year and his net earnings from self-employment for such year, minus (ii) any net loss from self-employment for such year.

(B) For purposes of this section—

(i) an individual's net earnings from self-employment for any taxable year shall be determined as provided in section 411 of this title, except that paragraphs (1), (4), and (5) of section 411(c) of this title shall not apply and the gross income shall be computed by excluding the amounts provided by subparagraph (D) of this paragraph, and

(ii) an individual's net loss from self-employment for any taxable year is the excess of the deductions (plus his distributive share of loss described in section 702(a)(8) of the Internal Revenue Code of 1986) taken into account under clause (i) over the gross income (plus his distributive share of income so described) taken into account under clause (i).


(C) For purposes of this subsection, an individual's wages shall be computed without regard to the limitations as to amounts of remuneration specified in paragraphs (1), (6)(B), (6)(C), (7)(B), and (8) of section 409(a) of this title; and in making such computation services which do not constitute employment as defined in section 410 of this title, performed within the United States by the individual as an employee or performed outside the United States in the active military or naval service of the United States, shall be deemed to be employment as so defined if the remuneration for such services is not includible in computing his net earnings or net loss from self-employment. The term “wages” does not include—

(i) the amount of any payment made to, or on behalf of, an employee or any of his dependents (including any amount paid by an employer for insurance or annuities, or into a fund, to provide for any such payment) on account of retirement, or

(ii) any payment or series of payments by an employer to an employee or any of his dependents upon or after the termination of the employee's employment relationship because of retirement after attaining an age specified in a plan referred to in section 409(a)(11)(B) of this title or in a pension plan of the employer.


(D) In the case of—

(i) an individual who has attained retirement age (as defined in section 416(l) of this title) on or before the last day of the taxable year, and who shows to the satisfaction of the Commissioner of Social Security that he or she is receiving royalties attributable to a copyright or patent obtained before the taxable year in which he or she attained such age and that the property to which the copyright or patent relates was created by his or her own personal efforts, or

(ii) an individual who has become entitled to insurance benefits under this subchapter, other than benefits under section 423 of this title or benefits payable under section 402(d) of this title by reason of being under a disability, and who shows to the satisfaction of the Commissioner of Social Security that he or she is receiving, in a year after his or her initial year of entitlement to such benefits, any other income not attributable to services performed after the month in which he or she initially became entitled to such benefits,


there shall be excluded from gross income any such royalties or other income.

(E) For purposes of this section, any individual's net earnings from self-employment which result from or are attributable to the performance of services by such individual as a director of a corporation during any taxable year shall be deemed to have been derived (and received) by such individual in that year, at the time the services were performed, regardless of when the income, on which the computation of such net earnings from self-employment is based, is actually paid to or received by such individual (unless such income was actually paid and received prior to that year).

(6) For purposes of this subsection, wages (determined as provided in paragraph (5)(C)) which, according to reports received by the Commissioner of Social Security, are paid to an individual during a taxable year shall be presumed to have been paid to him for services performed in such year until it is shown to the satisfaction of the Commissioner of Social Security that they were paid for services performed in another taxable year. If such reports with respect to an individual show his wages for a calendar year, such individual's taxable year shall be presumed to be a calendar year for purposes of this subsection until it is shown to the satisfaction of the Commissioner of Social Security that his taxable year is not a calendar year.

(7) Where an individual's excess earnings are charged to a month and the excess earnings so charged are less than the total of the payments (without regard to such charging) to which all persons (excluding divorced spouses referred to in subsection (b)(2) of this section) are entitled under section 402 of this title for such month on the basis of his wages and self-employment income, the difference between such total and the excess so charged to such month shall be paid (if it is otherwise payable under this subchapter) to such individual and other persons in the proportion that the benefit to which each of them is entitled (without regard to such charging, without the application of section 402(k)(3) of this title, and prior to the application of section 403(a) of this title) bears to the total of the benefits to which all of them are entitled.

(8)(A) Whenever the Commissioner of Social Security pursuant to section 415(i) of this title increases benefits effective with the month of December following a cost-of-living computation quarter 2 the Commissioner shall also determine and publish in the Federal Register on or before November 1 of the calendar year in which such quarter occurs the new exempt amounts (separately stated for individuals described in subparagraph (D) and for other individuals) which are to be applicable (unless prevented from becoming effective by subparagraph (C)) with respect to taxable years ending in (or with the close of) the calendar year after the calendar year in which such benefit increase is effective (or, in the case of an individual who dies during the calendar year after the calendar year in which the benefit increase is effective, with respect to such individual's taxable year which ends, upon his death, during such year).

(B) Except as otherwise provided in subparagraph (D), the exempt amount which is applicable to individuals described in such subparagraph and the exempt amount which is applicable to other individuals, for each month of a particular taxable year, shall each be whichever of the following is the larger—

(i) the corresponding exempt amount which is in effect with respect to months in the taxable year in which the determination under subparagraph (A) is made, or

(ii) the product of the corresponding exempt amount which is in effect with respect to months in the taxable year ending after 2001 and before 2003 (with respect to individuals described in subparagraph (D)) or the taxable year ending after 1993 and before 1995 (with respect to other individuals), and the ratio of—

(I) the national average wage index (as defined in section 409(k)(1) of this title) for the calendar year before the calendar year in which the determination under subparagraph (A) is made, to

(II) the national average wage index (as so defined) for 2000 (with respect to individuals described in subparagraph (D)) or 1992 (with respect to other individuals),


with such product, if not a multiple of $10, being rounded to the next higher multiple of $10 where such product is a multiple of $5 but not of $10 and to the nearest multiple of $10 in any other case.


Whenever the Commissioner of Social Security determines that an exempt amount is to be increased in any year under this paragraph, the Commissioner shall notify the House Committee on Ways and Means and the Senate Committee on Finance within 30 days after the close of the base quarter (as defined in section 415(i)(1)(A) of this title) in such year of the estimated amount of such increase, indicating the new exempt amount, the actuarial estimates of the effect of the increase, and the actuarial assumptions and methodology used in preparing such estimates.

(C) Notwithstanding the determination of a new exempt amount by the Commissioner of Social Security under subparagraph (A) (and notwithstanding any publication thereof under such subparagraph or any notification thereof under the last sentence of subparagraph (B)), such new exempt amount shall not take effect pursuant thereto if during the calendar year in which such determination is made a law increasing the exempt amount is enacted.

(D) Notwithstanding any other provision of this subsection, the exempt amount which is applicable to an individual who has attained retirement age (as defined in section 416(l) of this title) before the close of the taxable year involved shall be—

(i) for each month of any taxable year ending after 1995 and before 1997, $1,041.662/3,

(ii) for each month of any taxable year ending after 1996 and before 1998, $1,125.00,

(iii) for each month of any taxable year ending after 1997 and before 1999, $1,208.331/3,

(iv) for each month of any taxable year ending after 1998 and before 2000, $1,291.662/3,

(v) for each month of any taxable year ending after 1999 and before 2001, $1,416.662/3,

(vi) for each month of any taxable year ending after 2000 and before 2002, $2,083.331/3, and

(vii) for each month of any taxable year ending after 2001 and before 2003, $2,500.00.


(E) Notwithstanding subparagraph (D), no deductions in benefits shall be made under subsection (b) of this section with respect to the earnings of any individual in any month beginning with the month in which the individual attains retirement age (as defined in section 416(l) of this title).

(9) For purposes of paragraphs (3), (5)(D)(i), (8)(D), and (8)(E), the term “retirement age (as defined in section 416(l) of this title)”, with respect to any individual entitled to monthly insurance benefits under section 402 of this title, means the retirement age (as so defined) which is applicable in the case of old-age insurance benefits, regardless of whether or not the particular benefits to which the individual is entitled (or the only such benefits) are old-age insurance benefits.

(g) Penalty for failure to report certain events

Any individual in receipt of benefits subject to deduction under subsection (c) of this section, (or who is in receipt of such benefits on behalf of another individual), because of the occurrence of an event specified therein, who fails to report such occurrence to the Commissioner of Social Security prior to the receipt and acceptance of an insurance benefit for the second month following the month in which such event occurred, shall suffer deductions in addition to those imposed under subsection (c) of this section as follows:

(1) if such failure is the first one with respect to which an additional deduction is imposed by this subsection, such additional deduction shall be equal to his benefit or benefits for the first month of the period for which there is a failure to report even though such failure is with respect to more than one month;

(2) if such failure is the second one with respect to which an additional deduction is imposed by this subsection, such additional deduction shall be equal to two times his benefit or benefits for the first month of the period for which there is a failure to report even though such failure is with respect to more than two months; and

(3) if such failure is the third or a subsequent one for which an additional deduction is imposed under this subsection, such additional deduction shall be equal to three times his benefit or benefits for the first month of the period for which there is a failure to report even though the failure to report is with respect to more than three months;


except that the number of additional deductions required by this subsection shall not exceed the number of months in the period for which there is a failure to report. As used in this subsection, the term “period for which there is a failure to report” with respect to any individual means the period for which such individual received and accepted insurance benefits under section 402 of this title without making a timely report and for which deductions are required under subsection (c) of this section.

(h) Report of earnings to Commissioner

(1)(A) If an individual is entitled to any monthly insurance benefit under section 402 of this title during any taxable year in which he has earnings or wages, as computed pursuant to paragraph (5) of subsection (f) of this section, in excess of the product of the applicable exempt amount as determined under subsection (f)(8) of this section times the number of months in such year, such individual (or the individual who is in receipt of such benefit on his behalf) shall make a report to the Commissioner of Social Security of his earnings (or wages) for such taxable year. Such report shall be made on or before the fifteenth day of the fourth month following the close of such year, and shall contain such information and be made in such manner as the Commissioner of Social Security may by regulations prescribe. Such report need not be made for any taxable year—

(i) beginning with or after the month in which such individual attained retirement age (as defined in section 416(l) of this title), or

(ii) if benefit payments for all months (in such taxable year) in which such individual is under retirement age (as defined in section 416(l) of this title) have been suspended under the provisions of the first sentence of paragraph (3) of this subsection, unless—

(I) such individual is entitled to benefits under subsection (b), (c), (d), (e), (f), (g), or (h) of section 402 of this title,

(II) such benefits are reduced under subsection (a) of this section for any month in such taxable year, and

(III) in any such month there is another person who also is entitled to benefits under subsection (b), (c), (d), (e), (f), (g), or (h) of section 402 of this title on the basis of the same wages and self-employment income and who does not live in the same household as such individual.


The Commissioner of Social Security may grant a reasonable extension of time for making the report of earnings required in this paragraph if the Commissioner finds that there is valid reason for a delay, but in no case may the period be extended more than four months.

(B) If the benefit payments of an individual have been suspended for all months in any taxable year under the provisions of the first sentence of paragraph (3) of this subsection, no benefit payment shall be made to such individual for any such month in such taxable year after the expiration of the period of three years, three months, and fifteen days following the close of such taxable year unless within such period the individual, or some other person entitled to benefits under this subchapter on the basis of the same wages and self-employment income, files with the Commissioner of Social Security information showing that a benefit for such month is payable to such individual.

(2) If an individual fails to make a report required under paragraph (1) of this subsection, within the time prescribed by or in accordance with such paragraph, for any taxable year and any deduction is imposed under subsection (b) of this section by reason of his earnings for such year, he shall suffer additional deductions as follows:

(A) if such failure is the first one with respect to which an additional deduction is imposed under this paragraph, such additional deduction shall be equal to his benefit or benefits for the last month of such year for which he was entitled to a benefit under section 402 of this title, except that if the deduction imposed under subsection (b) of this section by reason of his earnings for such year is less than the amount of his benefit (or benefits) for the last month of such year for which he was entitled to a benefit under section 402 of this title, the additional deduction shall be equal to the amount of the deduction imposed under subsection (b) of this section but not less than $10;

(B) if such failure is the second one for which an additional deduction is imposed under this paragraph, such additional deduction shall be equal to two times his benefit or benefits for the last month of such year for which he was entitled to a benefit under section 402 of this title;

(C) if such failure is the third or a subsequent one for which an additional deduction is imposed under this paragraph, such additional deduction shall be equal to three times his benefit or benefits for the last month of such year for which he was entitled to a benefit under section 402 of this title;


except that the number of the additional deductions required by this paragraph with respect to a failure to report earnings for a taxable year shall not exceed the number of months in such year for which such individual received and accepted insurance benefits under section 402 of this title and for which deductions are imposed under subsection (b) of this section by reason of his earnings. In determining whether a failure to report earnings is the first or a subsequent failure for any individual, all taxable years ending prior to the imposition of the first additional deduction under this paragraph, other than the latest one of such years, shall be disregarded.

(3) If the Commissioner of Social Security determines, on the basis of information obtained by or submitted to the Commissioner, that it may reasonably be expected that an individual entitled to benefits under section 402 of this title for any taxable year will suffer deductions imposed under subsection (b) of this section by reason of his earnings for such year, the Commissioner of Social Security may, before the close of such taxable year, suspend the total or less than the total payment for each month in such year (or for only such months as the Commissioner of Social Security may specify) of the benefits payable on the basis of such individual's wages and self-employment income; and such suspension shall remain in effect with respect to the benefits for any month until the Commissioner of Social Security has determined whether or not any deduction is imposed for such month under subsection (b) of this section. The Commissioner of Social Security is authorized, before the close of the taxable year of an individual entitled to benefits during such year, to request of such individual that he make, at such time or times as the Commissioner of Social Security may specify, a declaration of his estimated earnings for the taxable year and that he furnish to the Commissioner of Social Security such other information with respect to such earnings as the Commissioner of Social Security may specify. A failure by such individual to comply with any such request shall in itself constitute justification for a determination under this paragraph that it may reasonably be expected that the individual will suffer deductions imposed under subsection (b) of this section by reason of his earnings for such year. If, after the close of a taxable year of an individual entitled to benefits under section 402 of this title for such year, the Commissioner of Social Security requests such individual to furnish a report of his earnings (as computed pursuant to paragraph (5) of subsection (f) of this section) for such taxable year or any other information with respect to such earnings which the Commissioner of Social Security may specify, and the individual fails to comply with such request, such failure shall in itself constitute justification for a determination that such individual's benefits are subject to deductions under subsection (b) of this section for each month in such taxable year (or only for such months thereof as the Commissioner of Social Security may specify) by reason of his earnings for such year.

(4) The Commissioner of Social Security shall develop and implement procedures in accordance with this subsection to avoid paying more than the correct amount of benefits to any individual under this subchapter as a result of such individual's failure to file a correct report or estimate of earnings or wages. Such procedures may include identifying categories of individuals who are likely to be paid more than the correct amount of benefits and requesting that they estimate their earnings or wages more frequently than other persons subject to deductions under this section on account of earnings or wages.

(i) Repealed. Pub. L. 103–296, title III, §309(a), Aug. 15, 1994, 108 Stat. 1523

(j) Attainment of retirement age

For the purposes of this section, an individual shall be considered as having attained retirement age (as defined in section 416(l) of this title) during the entire month in which he attains such age.

(k) Noncovered remunerative activity outside United States

An individual shall be considered to be engaged in noncovered remunerative activity outside the United States if he performs services outside the United States as an employee and such services do not constitute employment as defined in section 410 of this title and are not performed in the active military or naval service of the United States, or if he carries on a trade or business outside the United States (other than the performance of service as an employee) the net income or loss of which (1) is not includible in computing his net earnings from self-employment for a taxable year and (2) would not be excluded from net earnings from self-employment, if carried on in the United States, by any of the numbered paragraphs of section 411(a) of this title. When used in the preceding sentence with respect to a trade or business (other than the performance of service as an employee), the term “United States” does not include the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico, the Virgin Islands, Guam, or American Samoa in the case of an alien who is not a resident of the United States (including the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico, the Virgin Islands, Guam, and American Samoa); and the term “trade or business” shall have the same meaning as when used in section 162 of the Internal Revenue Code of 1986.

(l) Good cause for failure to make reports required

The failure of an individual to make any report required by subsection (g) or (h)(1)(A) of this section within the time prescribed therein shall not be regarded as such a failure if it is shown to the satisfaction of the Commissioner of Social Security that he had good cause for failing to make such report within such time. The determination of what constitutes good cause for purposes of this subsection shall be made in accordance with regulations of the Commissioner of Social Security, except that in making any such determination, the Commissioner of Social Security shall specifically take into account any physical, mental, educational, or linguistic limitation such individual may have (including any lack of facility with the English language).

(Aug. 14, 1935, ch. 531, title II, §203, 49 Stat. 623; Aug. 10, 1939, ch. 666, title II, §201, 53 Stat. 1362, 1367; Aug. 10, 1946, ch. 951, title IV, §406, 60 Stat. 988; Aug. 28, 1950, ch. 809, title I, §§102(a), 103(a), 64 Stat. 489; July 18, 1952, ch. 945, §§2(b)(2), 4(a)–(d), 66 Stat. 768, 773; Sept. 1, 1954, ch. 1206, title I, §§102(e)(7), 103(a)–(h), (i)(3), 112(a), 68 Stat. 1070, 1073–1077, 1078, 1085; Aug. 1, 1956, ch. 836, title I, §§101(d)–(g), 102(d)(11), 107(a), 112 (a), (b), 70 Stat. 808, 814, 829, 831; Pub. L. 85–840, title I, §101(f), title II, §205(j), (k), title III, §§307(f), 308(a)–(e), Aug. 28, 1958, 72 Stat. 1017, 1024, 1032, 1033; Pub. L. 86–778, title I, §103(b), title II, §§209(a), 211(a)–(h), title III, §302(a), Sept. 13, 1960, 74 Stat. 936, 953–957, 960; Pub. L. 87–64, title I, §108(a), June 30, 1961, 75 Stat. 140; Pub. L. 89–97, title III, §§301(c), 306(c)(10)–(12), 308(d)(6)–(8), 310(a), 325(a), July 30, 1965, 79 Stat. 363, 373, 378–380, 399; Pub. L. 90–248, title I, §§101(b), 104(d)(1), 107(a), 160, 161(a), (b), 163(a)(1), Jan. 2, 1968, 81 Stat. 826, 832, 834, 870, 872; Pub. L. 91–172, title X, §1002(b)(1), Dec. 30, 1969, 83 Stat. 739; Pub. L. 92–5, title II, §201(b), Mar. 17, 1971, 85 Stat. 8; Pub. L. 92–336, title II, §§201(b), (h)(1), 202(a)(2)(A), (B), July 1, 1972, 86 Stat. 410, 411, 415; Pub. L. 92–603, title I, §§101(b), 102(c), 103(c), 105(a), (b), 106(a), 107(b)(1), (2), 144(a)(2), (3), Oct. 30, 1972, 86 Stat. 1334, 1336, 1340–1343, 1370; Pub. L. 93–66, title II, §202(a)–(c), July 9, 1973, 87 Stat. 153; Pub. L. 93–233, §§3(k), 18(a), Dec. 31, 1973, 87 Stat. 953, 967; Pub. L. 94–202, §8(i), Jan. 2, 1976, 89 Stat. 1140; Pub. L. 95–216, title II, §§202, 204(e), title III, §§301(a), (b), (c)(1), (d), 302(a)–(d), 303(a), 353(a), Dec. 20, 1977, 91 Stat. 1524, 1528, 1530, 1531, 1552; Pub. L. 96–265, title I, §101(a)–(b)(2), June 9, 1980, 94 Stat. 442; Pub. L. 96–473, §§1(a), 3(a), 4(a), 6(b), Oct. 19, 1980, 94 Stat. 2263–2265; Pub. L. 97–35, title XXII, §§2201(c)(6), 2206(b)(2)–(4), Aug. 13, 1981, 95 Stat. 831, 838; Pub. L. 97–123, §2(f), Dec. 29, 1981, 95 Stat. 1661; Pub. L. 98–21, title I, §§111(a)(4), 132(b), title II, §201(c)(1)(B), (2), title III, §§306(i), 309(f)–(h), 324(c)(4), 331(a), (b), 347(a), Apr. 20, 1983, 97 Stat. 72, 94, 109, 114, 116, 117, 125, 128, 129, 138; Pub. L. 98–369, div. B, title VI, §§2602(a), 2661(g)(1)(A), (2)(A), 2662(c)(1), 2663(a)(3), July 18, 1984, 98 Stat. 1127, 1157, 1159, 1161; Pub. L. 99–272, title XII, §12108(a), Apr. 7, 1986, 100 Stat. 286; Pub. L. 100–647, title VIII, §8002(a), (b), Nov. 10, 1988, 102 Stat. 3779; Pub. L. 101–239, title X, §§10208(b)(1)(A), (B), (d)(2)(A)(i), (ii), (vi), 10305(a), Dec. 19, 1989, 103 Stat. 2477, 2480, 2481, 2483; Pub. L. 101–508, title V, §§5117(a)(3)(B), 5119(c), (d), 5123(a)(1), (2), 5127(a), (b), Nov. 5, 1990, 104 Stat. 1388–277, 1388–279, 1388–280, 1388–284, 1388–286; Pub. L. 103–296, title I, §107(a)(4), title III, §§309(a)–(c), 310(a), (b), 314(a), 321(a)(6), (c)(6)(A), (g)(2), Aug. 15, 1994, 108 Stat. 1478, 1523, 1524, 1530, 1536, 1538, 1543; Pub. L. 104–121, title I, §102(a), (b)(1), Mar. 29, 1996, 110 Stat. 847, 848; Pub. L. 106–182, §§2–4(a), Apr. 7, 2000, 114 Stat. 198, 199.)

References in Text

Section 422(b) of this title, referred to in subsecs. (a)(3)(B)(iii), (4), (b)(1)(ii), (c), (e), was repealed by Pub. L. 106–170, title I, §101(b)(1)(C), Dec. 17, 1999, 113 Stat. 1873.

Section 5117 of the Omnibus Budget Reconciliation Act of 1990, referred to in subsec. (a)(8), is section 5117 of Pub. L. 101–508, title V, Nov. 5, 1990, 104 Stat. 1388–274.

The amendments made by section 204 of the Social Security Amendments of 1977, referred to in subsec. (a)(9)(B), means the amendments made by section 204 of Pub. L. 95–216, which enacted subsec. (a)(9) of this section and amended section 402(e)(2)(A), (e)(2)(B)(i), (f)(3)(A), and (f)(3)(B)(i) of this title.

The Internal Revenue Code of 1986, referred to in subsecs. (f)(5)(B)(ii) and (k), is classified generally to Title 26, Internal Revenue Code.

Amendments

2000—Subsec. (c). Pub. L. 106–182, §4(a)(1), in last sentence of concluding provisions substituted “nor shall any deduction be made under this subsection from any widow's or widower's insurance benefit if the widow, surviving divorced wife, widower, or surviving divorced husband involved became entitled to such benefit prior to attaining age 60” for “nor shall any deduction be made under this subsection from any widow's insurance benefit for any month in which the widow or surviving divorced wife is entitled and has not attained retirement age (as defined in section 416(l) of this title) (but only if she became so entitled prior to attaining age 60), or from any widower's insurance benefit for any month in which the widower or surviving divorced husband is entitled and has not attained retirement age (as defined in section 416(l) of this title) (but only if he became so entitled prior to attaining age 60)”.

Subsec. (c)(1). Pub. L. 106–182, §2(1), substituted “retirement age (as defined in section 416(l) of this title)” for “the age of seventy”.

Subsec. (d)(1)(A), (2). Pub. L. 106–182, §2(2), substituted “retirement age (as defined in section 416(l) of this title)” for “the age of seventy”.

Subsec. (f)(1)(B). Pub. L. 106–182, §2(3), substituted “was at or above retirement age (as defined in section 416(l) of this title)” for “was age seventy or over”.

Subsec. (f)(1)(D). Pub. L. 106–182, §4(a)(2), added cl. (D) and struck out former cl. (D) which read as follows: “for which such individual is entitled to widow's insurance benefits and has not attained retirement age (as defined in section 416(l) of this title) (but only if she became so entitled prior to attaining age 60), or widower's insurance benefits and has not attained retirement age (as defined in section 416(l) of this title) (but only if he became so entitled prior to attaining age 60),”.

Subsec. (f)(3). Pub. L. 106–182, §2(4), substituted “retirement age (as defined in section 416(l) of this title)” for “age 70”.

Subsec. (f)(8)(E). Pub. L. 106–182, §3(a), added subpar. (E).

Subsec. (f)(9). Pub. L. 106–182, §3(b), substituted “(8)(D), and (8)(E),” for “and (8)(D),”.

Subsec. (h)(1)(A)(i), (ii). Pub. L. 106–182, §2(5), substituted “retirement age (as defined in section 416(l) of this title)” for “age 70”.

Subsec. (j). Pub. L. 106–182, §2(6), substituted “retirement age” for “age seventy” in heading and “having attained retirement age (as defined in section 416(l) of this title)” for “seventy years of age”.

1996—Subsec. (f)(8)(B)(ii). Pub. L. 104–121, §102(b)(1)(A), substituted “the taxable year ending after 2001 and before 2003 (with respect to individuals described in subparagraph (D)) or the taxable year ending after 1993 and before 1995 (with respect to other individuals)” for “the taxable year ending after 1993 and before 1995”.

Subsec. (f)(8)(B)(ii)(II). Pub. L. 104–121, §102(b)(1)(B), substituted “for 2000 (with respect to individuals described in subparagraph (D)) or 1992 (with respect to other individuals)” for “for 1992”.

Subsec. (f)(8)(D). Pub. L. 104–121, §102(a), amended subpar. (D) generally. Prior to amendment, subpar. (D) read as follows: “Notwithstanding any other provision of this subsection, the exempt amount which is applicable to an individual who has attained retirement age (as defined in section 416(l) of this title) before the close of the taxable year involved—

“(i) shall be $333.331/3 for each month of any taxable year ending after 1977 and before 1979,

“(ii) shall be $375 for each month of any taxable year ending after 1978 and before 1980,

“(iii) shall be $416.662/3 for each month of any taxable year ending after 1979 and before 1981,

“(iv) shall be $458.331/3 for each month of any taxable year ending after 1980 and before 1982, and

“(v) shall be $500 for each month of any taxable year ending after 1981 and before 1983.”

1994—Subsec. (a)(2)(C). Pub. L. 103–296, §107(a)(4), substituted “Commissioner of Social Security” for “Secretary”.

Subsec. (a)(4). Pub. L. 103–296, §309(b), substituted “section 422(b) of this title. Notwithstanding the preceding sentence, any reduction under this subsection in the case of an individual who is entitled to a benefit under subsection (b), (c), (d), (e), (f), (g), or (h) of section 402 of this title for any month on the basis of the same wages and self-employment income as another person—

“(A) who also is entitled to a benefit under subsection (b), (c), (d), (e), (f), (g), or (h) of section 402 of this title for such month,

“(B) who does not live in the same household as such individual, and

“(C) whose benefit for such month is suspended (in whole or in part) pursuant to subsection (h)(3) of this section,

shall be made before the suspension under subsection (h)(3) of this section. Whenever” for “section 422(b) of this title. Whenever”.

Subsec. (a)(8). Pub. L. 103–296, §310(b), substituted “Subject to paragraph (7) and except as otherwise provided in paragraph (10)(C)” for “Subject to paragraph (7)”.

Subsec. (a)(10). Pub. L. 103–296, §310(a), added par. (10).

Subsecs. (b)(1), (c), (f)(3), (4). Pub. L. 103–296, §107(a)(4), substituted “Commissioner of Social Security” for “Secretary” wherever appearing.

Subsec. (f)(5)(B)(ii). Pub. L. 103–296, §321(c)(6)(A), substituted “Code of 1986” for “Code of 1954”.

Subsec. (f)(5)(C)(i), (ii). Pub. L. 103–296, §321(a)(6), realigned margins.

Subsec. (f)(5)(D), (6). Pub. L. 103–296, §107(a)(4), substituted “Commissioner of Social Security” for “Secretary” wherever appearing.

Subsec. (f)(8)(A). Pub. L. 103–296, §107(a)(4), substituted “Commissioner of Social Security” for “Secretary” and “the Commissioner” for “he”.

Subsec. (f)(8)(B). Pub. L. 103–296, §107(a)(4), in closing provisions substituted “Commissioner of Social Security” for “Secretary” and “the Commissioner shall” for “he shall”.

Subsec. (f)(8)(B)(ii). Pub. L. 103–296, §321(g)(2), amended cl. (ii) generally. Prior to amendment, cl. (ii) read as follows: “the product of the exempt amount described in clause (i) and the ratio of (I) the deemed average total wages (as defined in section 409(k)(1) of this title) for the calendar year before the calendar year in which the determination under subparagraph (A) is made to (II) the deemed average total wages (as so defined) for the calendar year before the most recent calendar year in which an increase in the exempt amount was enacted or a determination resulting in such an increase was made under subparagraph (A), with such product, if not a multiple of $10, being rounded to the next higher multiple of $10 where such product is a multiple of $5 but not of $10 and to the nearest multiple of $10 in any other case.”

Subsecs. (f)(8)(C), (g). Pub. L. 103–296, §107(a)(4), substituted “Commissioner of Social Security” for “Secretary”.

Subsec. (h)(1)(A). Pub. L. 103–296, §314(a), substituted “four months” for “three months” in last sentence.

Pub. L. 103–296, §107(a)(4), in subpar. (A) as amended by Pub. L. 103–296, §309(c), substituted “Commissioner of Social Security” for “Secretary” wherever appearing and “the Commissioner” for “he” before “finds”.

Pub. L. 103–296, §309(c), substituted “Such report need not be made for any taxable year—

“(i) beginning with or after the month in which such individual attained age 70, or

“(ii) if benefit payments for all months (in such taxable year) in which such individual is under age 70 have been suspended under the provisions of the first sentence of paragraph (3) of this subsection, unless—

“(I) such individual is entitled to benefits under subsection (b), (c), (d), (e), (f), (g), or (h) of section 402 of this title,

“(II) such benefits are reduced under subsection (a) of this section for any month in such taxable year, and

“(III) in any such month there is another person who also is entitled to benefits under subsection (b), (c), (d), (e), (f), (g), or (h) of section 402 of this title on the basis of the same wages and self-employment income and who does not live in the same household as such individual.

The Secretary may grant” for “Such report need not be made for any taxable year (i) beginning with or after the month in which such individual attained age 70, or (ii) if benefit payments for all months (in such taxable year) in which such individual is under age 70 have been suspended under the provisions of the first sentence of paragraph (3) of this subsection. The Secretary may grant”.

Subsec. (h)(1)(B). Pub. L. 103–296, §107(a)(4), substituted “Commissioner of Social Security” for “Secretary”.

Subsec. (h)(3). Pub. L. 103–296, §107(a)(4), substituted “Commissioner of Social Security” for “Secretary” wherever appearing and “submitted to the Commissioner” for “submitted to him”.

Subsec. (h)(4). Pub. L. 103–296, §107(a)(4), substituted “Commissioner of Social Security” for “Secretary”.

Subsec. (i). Pub. L. 103–296, §309(a), struck out subsec. (i) which read as follows: “In the case of any individual, deductions by reason of the provisions of subsection (b), (c), (g), or (h) of this section, or the provisions of section 422(b) of this title, shall, notwithstanding such provisions, be made from the benefits to which such individual is entitled only to the extent that such deductions reduce the total amount which would otherwise be paid, on the basis of the same wages and self-employment income, to such individual and the other individuals living in the same household.”

Subsec. (k). Pub. L. 103–296, §321(c)(6)(A), substituted “Code of 1986” for “Code of 1954”.

Subsec. (l). Pub. L. 103–296, §107(a)(4), substituted “Commissioner of Social Security” for “Secretary” wherever appearing.

1990—Subsec. (a)(3)(D). Pub. L. 101–508, §5119(c), added subpar. (D).

Subsec. (a)(6). Pub. L. 101–508, §5119(d), inserted “(3)(D),” after “(3)(C),”.

Subsec. (a)(8). Pub. L. 101–508, §5117(a)(3)(B), inserted “and as amended by section 5117 of the Omnibus Budget Reconciliation Act of 1990,” after second reference to “December 1978”.

Subsec. (b)(2). Pub. L. 101–508, §5127(a), designated existing provisions as subpar. (A), substituted “Except as provided in subparagraph (B), in any case in which—” and cls. (i) and (ii) for “When any of the other persons referred to in paragraph (1)(B) is entitled to monthly benefits as a divorced spouse under section 402(b) or (c) of this title for any month and such person has been so divorced for not less than 2 years,”, and added subpar. (B).

Subsec. (d)(1)(B). Pub. L. 101–508, §5127(b), designated existing provisions as cl. (i), substituted “Except as provided in clause (ii), in any case in which—” and subcls. (I) and (II) for “When any divorced spouse is entitled to monthly benefits under section 402(b) or (c) of this title for any month and such divorced spouse has been so divorced for not less than 2 years,”, and added cl. (ii).

Subsec. (f)(5)(E). Pub. L. 101–508, §5123(a)(1), (2), redesignated last undesignated par. of section 411(a) of this title as subpar. (E) and substituted “For purposes of this section, any individual's net earnings from self-employment which result from or are attributable to” for “Any income of an individual which results from or is attributable to”, “the income, on which the computation of such net earnings from self-employment is based, is actually paid” for “the income is actually paid”, and “unless such income was” for “unless it was”.

1989—Subsec. (f)(5)(C). Pub. L. 101–239, §10208(d)(2)(A)(ii), (vi), substituted “paragraphs (1), (6)(B), (6)(C), (7)(B), and (8) of section 409(a)” for “subsections (a), (g)(2), (g)(3), (h)(2), and (j) of section 409” in introductory provisions and “409(a)(11)(B)” for “409(m)(2)” in cl. (ii).

Subsec. (f)(8)(B)(ii)(I). Pub. L. 101–239, §10208(b)(1)(A), substituted “the deemed average total wages (as defined in section 409(k)(1) of this title)” for “the average of the total wages (as defined in regulations of the Secretary and computed without regard to the limitations specified in section 409(a) of this title) reported to the Secretary of the Treasury or his delegate”.

Pub. L. 101–239, §10208(d)(2)(A)(i), substituted “409(a)(1)” for “409(a)”.

Subsec. (f)(8)(B)(ii)(II). Pub. L. 101–239, §10208(b)(1)(B), substituted “the deemed average total wages (as so defined)” for “the average of the total wages (as so defined and computed) reported to the Secretary of the Treasury or his delegate”.

Subsec. (l). Pub. L. 101–239, §10305(a), substituted “Secretary, except that in making any such determination, the Secretary shall specifically take into account any physical, mental, educational, or linguistic limitation such individual may have (including any lack of facility with the English language)” for “Secretary” in last sentence.

1988—Subsec. (f)(3). Pub. L. 100–647 inserted “(or, but for the individual's death, would have attained)” after “who has attained” in first sentence, inserted after first sentence “For purposes of the preceding sentence, notwithstanding section 411(e) of this title, the number of months in the taxable year in which an individual dies shall be 12.”, and substituted “first sentence of this paragraph” for “preceding sentence” in last sentence.

1986—Subsec. (a)(4). Pub. L. 99–272, §12108(a)(1), struck out “preceding” after “pursuant to the” in first sentence.

Subsec. (a)(6). Pub. L. 99–272, §12108(a)(2), substituted “(4), and (5)” for “and (5)” and “shall be reduced” for “whether or not such total benefits are otherwise subject to reduction under this subsection but after any reduction under this subsection which would otherwise be applicable, shall be, reduced or further reduced”.

1984—Subsec. (a)(8). Pub. L. 98–369, §2663(a)(3)(A), inserted a period at end of par. (8).

Subsec. (d)(1)(A). Pub. L. 98–369, §2661(g)(1)(A)(i), substituted “for more than forty-five hours of which such individual engaged” for “on seven or more different calendar days of which he engaged”.

Subsec. (d)(2). Pub. L. 98–369, §2663(a)(3)(B), substituted “an individual under the age of seventy who is entitled” for “an individual who is entitled”.

Pub. L. 98–369, §2661(g)(1)(A)(ii), substituted “for more than forty-five hours” for “on seven or more different calendar days”.

Subsec. (f)(5)(B)(ii). Pub. L. 98–369, §2663(a)(3)(C), substituted “702(a)(8)” for “702(a)(9)”.

Subsec. (f)(5)(D)(i). Pub. L. 98–369, §2662(c)(1), made a clarifying amendment to Pub. L. 98–21, §201(c)(1)(B). See 1983 Amendment note below.

Subsec. (f)(8)(B), (C). Pub. L. 98–369, §2663(a)(3)(D), realigned margins of subpars. (B) and (C).

Subsec. (f)(9). Pub. L. 98–369, §2661(g)(2)(A), added par. (9).

Subsec. (h)(4). Pub. L. 98–369, §2602(a), added par. (4).

1983—Subsec. (a)(3)(A). Pub. L. 98–21, §331(a)(1), amended cl. (ii) generally, substituting provisions relating to an amount (I) initially equal to the product of 1.75 and the primary insurance amount that would be computed under section 415(a)(1) of this title, for January of the year determined for purposes of this clause under the following two sentences, with respect to average indexed monthly earnings equal to one-twelfth of the contribution and benefit base determined for that year under section 430 of this title, and (II) thereafter increased in accordance with the provisions of section 415(i)(2)(A)(ii) of this title, for provisions relating to an amount equal to the product of 1.75 and the primary insurance amount that would be computed under section 415(a)(1) of this title for that month with respect to average indexed monthly earnings equal to one-twelfth of the contribution and benefit base determined for that year under section 430 of this title, and inserted provisions following cl. (ii).

Subsec. (a)(7). Pub. L. 98–21, §331(a)(2), substituted “the amount determined in accordance with the provisions of paragraph (3)(A)(ii) of this subsection, except that for this purpose the references to subparagraph (A) in the last two sentences of paragraph (3)(A) shall be deemed to be references to paragraph (7)” for “the product of 1.75 and the primary insurance amount that would be computed under section 415(a)(1) of this title for that month with respect to average indexed monthly earnings equal to one-twelfth of the contribution and benefit base determined under section 430 of this title for the year in which that month occurs”.

Subsec. (b)(1). Pub. L. 98–21, §309(f), inserted “or father's” after “mother's” in provisions following subpar. (B).

Pub. L. 98–21, §132(b)(1)(A)(iii), substituted “clauses (A) and (B)” for “clauses (1) and (2)” in provisions following subpar. (B).

Pub. L. 98–21, §132(b)(1)(A)(i), (ii), (iv), designated existing provisions of subsec. (b) as par. (1), and in par. (1), as so designated, redesignated cls. (1) and (2) as (A) and (B), respectively, and cls. (A) and (B) as (i) and (ii), respectively.

Subsec. (b)(1)(i). Pub. L. 98–21, §331(b), substituted “first sentence of paragraph (4)” for “penultimate sentence”.

Subsec. (b)(2). Pub. L. 98–21, §132(b)(1)(A)(v), added par. (2).

Subsec. (c). Pub. L. 98–21, §201(c)(2), substituted “retirement age (as defined in section 416(l) of this title)” for “age sixty-five”.

Pub. L. 98–21, §201(c)(1)(B), substituted “retirement age (as defined in section 416(l) of this title)” for “age 65” wherever appearing in provisions following par. (4).

Pub. L. 98–21, §309(g), amended subsec. (c) generally, substituting in par. (1) specification of more than forty-five hours of nonrecovered remunerative activity for specification of seven or more different days of such activity, and in pars. (2) to (4) provisions not distinguishing between the sexes for provisions relating only to the entitlements of women, and in provisions following par. (4) inserting “or surviving divorced husband” after “widower”.

Subsec. (d)(1). Pub. L. 98–21, §309(h), inserted “divorced husband,” after “husband,”.

Pub. L. 98–21, §132(b)(2), designated existing provisions as subpar. (A) and added subpar. (B).

Subsec. (d)(2). Pub. L. 98–21, §309(h), inserted “or father's” after “mother's” in three places.

Subsec. (f)(1). Pub. L. 98–21, §132(b)(1)(B)(i), inserted “(excluding divorced spouses referred to in subsection (b)(2) of this section)” after “and all other persons” and after “other persons” and inserted “such” after “payments to which such individual and all” in first sentence.

Subsec. (f)(1)(D). Pub. L. 98–21, §201(c)(1)(B), substituted “retirement age (as defined in section 416(l) of this title)” for “age 65” in two places.

Subsec. (f)(1)(F). Pub. L. 98–21, §306(i), substituted “section 402(b) or (c) of this title (but only by reason of having a child in his or her care within the meaning of paragraph (1)(B) of subsection (b) or (c) of this section, as may be applicable)” for “section 402(b) of this title (but only by reason of having a child in her care within the meaning of paragraph (1)(B) of that subsection)”.

Subsec. (f)(3). Pub. L. 98–21, §347(a), substituted “331/3 percent of his earnings for such year in excess of the product of the applicable exempt amount as determined under paragraph (8) in the case of an individual who has attained retirement age (as defined in section 416(l) of this title) before the close of such taxable year, or 50 percent of his earnings for such year in excess of such product in the case of any other individual” for “50 per centum of his earnings for such year in excess of the product of the applicable exempt amount as determined under paragraph (8)”.

Subsec. (f)(5)(C). Pub. L. 98–21, §324(c)(4), inserted provision excluding from “wages” certain payments on account of retirement or under a pension plan of the employer.

Subsec. (f)(5)(D)(i). Pub. L. 98–21, §201(c)(1)(B), as amended by Pub. L. 98–369, §2662(c)(1), substituted “retirement age (as defined in section 416(l) of this title)” for “the age of 65”.

Subsec. (f)(7). Pub. L. 98–21, §132(b)(1)(B)(ii), inserted “(excluding divorced spouses referred to in subsection (b)(2) of this section)” after “all persons”.

Subsec. (f)(8)(A). Pub. L. 98–21, §111(a)(4), substituted “December” for “June”.

Subsec. (f)(8)(D). Pub. L. 98–21, §201(c)(1)(B), substituted “retirement age (as defined in section 416(l) of this title)” for “age 65”.

1981—Subsec. (a)(1). Pub. L. 97–35, §2206(b)(2), substituted in provisions following subpar. (D) “decreased to the next lower” for “increased to the next higher”.

Subsec. (a)(3)(B)(iii). Pub. L. 97–35, §2206(b)(3), substituted “next lower multiple” for “next higher multiple”.

Subsec. (a)(8). Pub. L. 97–123, §2(f), struck out “, modified by the application of section 415(a)(6) of this title”.

Pub. L. 97–35, §§2201(c)(6), 2206(b)(4), inserted “, modified by the application of section 415(a)(6) of this title” and inserted provision that for the purposes of the preceding sentence, the phrase “rounded to the next higher multiple of $0.10”, as it appeared in subsec. (a)(2)(C) of this section as in effect in December 1978, be deemed to read “rounded to the next lower multiple of $0.10”.

1980—Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 96–265 added par. (6), redesignated former pars. (6) to (8) as (7) to (9), respectively, and made conforming amendments to pars. (1), (2)(D), and (8).

Subsec. (a)(3)(A). Pub. L. 96–473, §6(b)(1), substituted “entitled on the basis” for “entitled on the bases”.

Subsec. (a)(7). Pub. L. 96–473, §6(b)(2), substituted “benefit base” for “benefits base”.

Subsec. (f)(1). Pub. L. 96–473, §§1(a)(1), 4(a), inserted reference to December 1977 in cl. (E) and added cl. (F).

Subsec. (f)(2)(F). Pub. L. 96–473, §1(a)(2), inserted reference to cl. (F).

Subsec. (f)(5)(D). Pub. L. 96–473, §3(a), revised former cls. (i) and (ii) into cl. (i), inserted reference to women, and added cl. (ii).

1977—Subsec. (a)(1) to (7). Pub. L. 95–216, §202, generally restated the provisions of existing pars. (1) to (5) with changes to take into account the revised system for computing primary insurance amounts based on wage-indexed earnings and redistributed those existing provisions as thus restated into pars. (1) to (7).

Subsec. (a)(8). Pub. L. 95–216, §204(e), added par. (8).

Subsecs. (c)(1), (d)(1), (f)(1)(B). Pub. L. 95–216, §302(a), substituted “seventy” for “seventy-two”.

Subsec. (f)(1)(E). Pub. L. 95–216, §§301(d), 303(a), substituted “the applicable exempt amount” for “$200 or the exempt amount” and inserted “, if such month is in the taxable year in which occurs the first month that is both (i) a month for which the individual is entitled to benefits under subsection (a), (b), (c), (d), (e), (f), (g), or (h) of section 402 of this title (without having been entitled for the preceding month to a benefit under any other of such subsections), and (ii) a month in which the individual did not engage in self-employment and did not render services for wages (determined as provided in paragraph (5)) of more than the applicable exempt amount as determined under paragraph (8)” after “as determined under paragraph (8)”.

Subsec. (f)(3). Pub. L. 95–216, §301(d), substituted “the applicable exempt amount” for “$200 or the exempt amount”.

Pub. L. 95–216, §302(b), substituted “age 70” for “age 72”.

Subsec. (f)(4)(B). Pub. L. 95–216, §301(d), substituted “the applicable exempt amount” for “$200 or the exempt amount”.

Subsec. (f)(8)(A). Pub. L. 95–216, §301(a), substituted “the new exempt amounts (separately stated for individuals described in subparagraph (D) and for other individuals) which are to be applicable (unless prevented from becoming effective by subparagraph (C) with respect to taxable years ending in (or with the close of) the calendar year after the calendar year” for “a new exempt amount which shall be effective (unless such new exempt amount is prevented from becoming effective by subparagraph (C) of this paragraph) with respect to any individual's taxable year which ends after the calendar year”.

Subsec. (f)(8)(B). Pub. L. 95–216, §§301(b), 353(a), applicable with respect to taxable years ending after Dec. 1977, substituted “Except as otherwise provided in subparagraph (D), the exempt amount which is applicable to individuals described in such subparagraph and the exempt amount which is applicable to other individuals for each month of a particular taxable year, shall each be” for “The exempt amount for each month of a particular taxable year shall be” in provisions preceding cl. (i), substituted “the corresponding exempt amount” for “the exempt amount” in cl. (i), and, in provisions following cl. (ii), substituted “an exempt amount” for “the exempt amount”, and effective Jan. 1, 1979, substituted “is” for “was” in cl. (i) and, in cl. (ii), substituted “(I) the average of the total wages (as defined in regulations of the Secretary and computed without regard to the limitations specified in section 409(a) of this title) reported to the Secretary of the Treasury or his delegate for the calendar year before the calendar year in which the determination under subparagraph (A) is made to (II) the average of the total wages (as so defined and computed) reported to the Secretary of the Treasury or his delegate for the calendar year before the most recent calendar year” for “(I) the average of the wages of all employees as reported to the Secretary of the Treasury for the calendar year preceding the calendar year in which the determination under subparagraph (A) was made to (II) the average of the wages of all employees as reported to the Secretary of the Treasury for the calendar year 1973, or, if later, the calendar year preceding the most recent calendar year” and struck out reference to wages for calendar year 1978.

Subsec. (f)(8)(D). Pub. L. 95–216, §301(c)(1), added subpar. (D).

Subsec. (h)(1)(A). Pub. L. 95–216, §301(d), substituted “the applicable exempt amount” for “$200 or the exempt amount”.

Pub. L. 95–216, §302(c), substituted “age 70” for “the age of 72” and for “age 72”.

Subsec. (j). Pub. L. 95–216, §302(a), (d), substituted “seventy” for “seventy-two” in heading and in text.

1976—Subsec. (f)(8)(B)(ii). Pub. L. 94–202 substituted “wages of all employees as reported to the Secretary of the Treasury for the calendar year preceding the calendar year” for “taxable wages of all employees as reported to the Secretary for the first calendar quarter of the calendar year” in cl. (I), substituted “wages of all employees as reported to the Secretary of the Treasury for the calendar year 1973, or, if later, the calendar year preceding” for “taxable wages of all employees as reported to the Secretary for the first calendar quarter of 1973, or, if later, the first calendar quarter of” in cl. (II), and directed that the average wages for calendar year 1978, or any prior calendar year, be deemed equal to 400% of the average wages reported for the first quarter of that year.

1973—Subsec. (f). Pub. L. 93–66, §202(a), (b), substituted in pars. (1), (3), first sentence, and (4)(B), “$200” for “$175”.

Subsec. (f)(8)(A). Pub. L. 93–233, §3(k)(1), substituted: “with the month of June following” for “with the first month of the calendar year following”, “which ends after the calendar year in which such benefit increase is effective” for “which ends with the close of or after the calendar year with the first month of which such benefit increase is effective”, and “during the calendar year after the calendar year in which the benefit increase is effective” for “during such calendar year”; and struck out after “such quarter occurs” and before “a new exempt amount” parenthetical “(along with the publication of such benefit increased as required by section 415(i)(2)(D) of this title)”.

Subsec. (f)(8)(B)(ii). Pub. L. 93–233, §18(a), substituted “exempt amount” for “contribution and benefit base” and “subparagraph (A)” for “section 430(a) of this title”, respectively.

Subsec. (f)(8)(B) foll. (ii). Pub. L. 93–233, §3(k)(2), substituted “within 30 days after the close of the base quarter (as defined in section 415(i)(1)(A) of this title) in such year” for “no later than August 15 of such year”.

Subsec. (f)(8)(C). Pub. L. 93–233, §3(k)(3), struck out “or providing a general benefit increase under this subchapter (as defined in section 415(i)(3) of this title)” after “law increasing the exempt amount”.

Subsec. (h)(1)(A). Pub. L. 93–66, §202(c), substituted “$200” for “$175”.

1972—Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 92–336, §202(a)(2)(A), inserted “in or deemed to be” after “the table”.

Subsec. (a)(2). Pub. L. 92–336, §202(a)(2)(B), as amended by Pub. L. 92–603, §§103(c), 144(a)(3), substituted provisions relating to the reduction in the total benefits for any month after January 1971 where two or more persons were entitled to monthly benefits under section 402 or 423 of this title for January 1971 or any prior month, for provisions relating to the reduction in the total of benefits for September 1972 or any subsequent month where two or more persons were entitled to monthly benefits under section 402 or 423 of this title for August, 1972.

Pub. L. 92–336, §201(b), substituted provisions relating to the reduction in the total of benefits for September 1972 or any subsequent month where two or more persons were entitled to monthly benefits under section 402 or 423 of this title for August 1972, for provisions relating to the reduction in the total of benefits for January 1971 or any subsequent month where two or more persons were entitled to monthly benefits under section 402 or 423 of this title for January 1971.

Subsec. (a)(2)(B). Pub. L. 92–603, §144(a)(2), inserted “such” before “person”.

Subsec. (a)(4). Pub. L. 92–336, §201(h)(1), added par. (4).

Subsec. (a)(5). Pub. L. 92–603, §101(b), added par. (5).

Subsec. (c). Pub. L. 92–603, §§102(c)(1), 107(b)(1), substituted “attained age 65 (but only if she became so entitled prior to attaining age (60), or from any widower's insurance benefit for any month in which the widower is entitled and has not attained age 65 (but only if he became so entitled prior to attaining age 60)” for “attained age 62 (but only if she became so entitled prior to attaining age 60), or from any widower's insurance benefit for any month in which the widower is entitled and has not attained age 62”.

Subsec. (f)(1). Pub. L. 92–603, §§102(c)(2), 105(a)(1), 107(b)(2), substituted “attained age 65 (but only if she became so entitled prior to attaining age 60), or widower's insurance benefits and has not attained age 65 (but only if she became so entitled prior to attaining age 60)” for “attained age 62 (but only if she became so entitled prior to attaining age 60), or widower's insurance benefits and has not attained age 62” in cl. (D) and substituted “$175 or the exempt amount as determined under paragraph (8)” for “$140” in cl. (E).

Subsec. (f)(3). Pub. L. 92–603, §§105(a)(3), 106(a), substituted “shall be 50 per centum of his earnings for such year in excess of the product of $175 or the exempt amount as determined under paragraph (8),” for “shall be his earnings for such year in excess of the product of $140” and struck out “, except that of the first $1,200 of such excess (or all of such excess if it is less than $1,200), an amount equal to one-half thereof shall not be included” after “number of months in such year” and inserted provisions for the exclusion of certain earnings in the year of attaining age 72.

Subsec. (f)(4)(B). Pub. L. 92–603, §105(a)(1), substituted “$175 or the exempt amount as determined under paragraph (8)” for “$140”.

Subsec. (f)(8). Pub. L. 92–603, §105(b), added par. (8).

Subsec. (h)(1)(A). Pub. L. 92–603, §105(a)(2), substituted “$175 or the exempt amount as determined under subsection (f)(8) of this section” for “$140”.

1971—Subsec. (a)(2). Pub. L. 92–5 substituted references to January 1971 for references to January 1970, substituted “December 1970” for “December 1969”, and, in subpar. (B), substituted “prior to March 17, 1971” for “prior to December 30, 1969 (and prior to January 1, 1970)”, and lowered the multiple of the benefit amount from 115 percent to 110 percent.

1969—Subsec. (a)(2). Pub. L. 91–172 substituted references to January 1970 for references to February 1968, and, in subpar. (B), substituted “prior to December 30, 1969 (and prior to January 1, 1970)” for “prior to February 1968”, and raised the multiple of the benefit amount from 113 percent to 115 percent.

1968—Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 90–248, §163(a)(1), provided for reduction of benefits in the total of monthly benefits to which individuals are entitled for any month on the basis of the wages and self-employment income of an insured individual and that where such total of benefits for such month includes any benefit or benefits under section 402(d) of this title which are payable solely by reason of section 416(h)(3) of this title, the reduction shall be first applied to reduce (proportionately where there is more than one benefit so payable) the benefits so payable (but not below zero).

Subsec. (a)(2). Pub. L. 90–248, §101(b), substituted references to February 1968 for former references to December 1964 and for former references to the enactment of the Social Security Amendments of 1965, increased the multiple of the benefit amount from 107 to 113 percent, and struck out former cl. (ii) which provided that the total of monthly benefits shall not be reduced to less than the larger of the amount determined under subpar. (A) or with respect to any month after the month in which the Social Security Amendments of 1965 are enacted, an amount equal to the sum of the amounts derived by multiplying the benefit amount determined under this subchapter (including subsection (a) of this section, but without the application of section 422(b) of this title, section 402(q) of this title, and subsections (b), (c) and (d) of this section), as in effect prior to the enactment of such Amendments, for each such person (other than a person who would not be entitled to such benefits for such month without the application of the amendments made by section 306 of the Social Security Amendments of 1965) for the month of enactment, by 107 percent and raising each such increased amount, if it is not a multiple of $0.10, to the next higher multiple of $0.10.

Subsec. (c). Pub. L. 90–248, §104(d)(1)(A), inserted after “any subsequent month” in third sentence “; nor shall any deduction be made under this subsection from any widow's insurance benefit for any month in which the widow or surviving divorced wife is entitled and has not attained age 62 (but only if she became so entitled prior to attaining age 60), or from any widower's insurance benefit for any month in which the widower is entitled and has not attained age 62”.

Subsec. (f)(1). Pub. L. 90–248, §§104(d)(1)(B), 107(a)(1), inserted in third sentence subpar. (D) and redesignated existing provisions as subpar. (E), and substituted “$140” for “125”.

Subsec. (f)(2). Pub. L. 90–248, §104(d)(1)(C), substituted “(D), and (E)” for “and (D)”.

Subsec. (f)(3). Pub. L. 90–248, §107(a)(1), substituted “$140” for “$125”.

Subsec. (f)(4). Pub. L. 90–248, §104(d)(1)(D), substituted “(E)” for “(D)”.

Subsec. (f)(4)(B). Pub. L. 90–248, §107(a)(1), substituted “$140” for “$125”.

Subsec. (g). Pub. L. 90–248, §161(b), substituted provisions that the penalty for the first failure to report will equal one month's benefit, for the second failure to report—two month's benefits, for the third or a subsequent failure to report—three month's benefits but in no case will the penalty exceed the number of months in the period for which there is a failure to report, and defining “period for which there is a failure to report” for present provisions that the penalty for the first failure to report is one month's benefit and for subsequent failures, the penalty is an amount equal to the total amount of the benefits for all the months in which the event occurred but was not reported within the prescribed time.

Subsec. (h)(1)(A). Pub. L. 90–248, §§107(a)(2), 160(a), inserted last sentence authorizing the Secretary to extend time to report earnings up to three months if there is a valid reason for delay, and substituted “$140” for “$125”.

Subsec. (h)(2). Pub. L. 90–248, §160(b), substituted in text preceding subpar. (A) “by or in accordance with such paragraph” for “therein”.

Subsec. (h)(2)(A). Pub. L. 90–248, §161(a), inserted exception provision that if the deduction is less than the amount of his benefits for the last month for which he was entitled to benefits, the additional deduction will be the amount of the deduction under subsec. (b) but not less than ten dollars.

1965—Subsec. (a)(2). Pub. L. 89–97, §301(c), substituted provisions to assure an increase in the family benefits for families who were on the benefit rolls after December 1964 and whose benefits were determined under former provisions by providing that the maximum family benefit of each month after December 1964 will be the larger of (1) the family maximum specified in column V of the new table or (2) the sum of all family members’ benefits after each such benefit has been increased by seven percent (and rounded to the next higher ten cents if it is not already a multiple of ten cents), for former provisions restricting the reduction of total benefits to individuals entitled to monthly benefits under section 402 or 423 of this title for December 1958.

Subsec. (a)(3). Pub. L. 89–97, §§301(c), 308(d)(6), struck out par. (3) which was a special saving clause for maximum family benefits of people who became disabled before 1959 since families whose benefits were determined under such par. (3) are now covered by subsec. (a)(2) of this section, and added par. (3), respectively.

Subsec. (c). Pub. L. 89–97, §306(c)(10), (11), inserted in penultimate sentence “paragraph (1) of section 402(s) of this title applies or” after “for any month in which” and in last sentence the introductory phrase “Subject to paragraph (3) of such section 402(s)”.

Subsec. (c)(4). Pub. L. 89–97, §308(d)(7), substituted “surviving divorced mother” for “former wife divorced”.

Subsec. (d)(1). Pub. L. 89–97, §308(d)(8), inserted “divorced wife,” after “wife,”.

Subsec. (f)(1). Pub. L. 89–97, §§306(c)(12), 310(a)(1), inserted “but subject to section 402(s) of this title” after “Notwithstanding the preceding provisions of this paragraph” in last sentence and substituted “$125” for “$100”.

Subsec. (f)(3). Pub. L. 89–97, §310(a)(1), (2), substituted “$125” for “$100” and “$1,200” for “$500” in two places.

Subsec. (f)(4)(B). Pub. L. 89–97, §310(a)(1), substituted “$125” for “$100”.

Subsec. (f)(5)(B). Pub. L. 89–97, §325(a)(1), broke down existing provisions into cls. (i) and (ii), provided, in cl. (ii), for exclusion from gross income of amounts provided by subpar. (D) of this par., and, in cl. (ii), inserted reference to distributive share of loss described in section 702(a)(9) of Title 26.

Subsec. (f)(5)(D). Pub. L. 89–97, §325(a)(2), added subpar. (D).

Subsec. (h)(1)(A). Pub. L. 89–97, §310(a)(3), substituted “$125” for “$100”.

1961—Subsec. (f)(3). Pub. L. 87–64 substituted “$500” for “$300” in two places.

1960—Subsec. (a)(3). Pub. L. 86–778, §302(a), substituted “, then such total of benefits shall not be reduced to less than $99.10 if such primary insurance amount is $66, to less than $102.40 if such primary insurance amount is $67, to less than $106.50 if such primary insurance amount is $68, or, if such primary insurance amount is higher than $68, to less than the smaller of” for “and is not less than $68, then such total of benefits shall not be reduced to less than the smaller of” in the provisions following cl. (B), and “the amount determined under this subsection without regard to this paragraph, or $206.60, whichever is larger” for “the last figure in column V of the table appearing in section 415(a) of this title” in cl. (C).

Subsec. (b). Pub. L. 86–778, §211(a), amended subsec. (b) generally, and among other changes, authorized deductions from payments to which any other persons are entitled on the basis of an individual's wages and self-employed income, substituted provisions requiring deductions for months in which an individual is charged with excess earnings under the provisions of subsec. (f) of this section for provisions which required deductions for months in which an individual is charged with any earnings under the provisions of subsec. (e) of this section, and inserted the second, third, fourth and fifth sentences. Former cls. (2)–(5) and the closing paragraph of subsec. (b) are covered by subsec. (c) of this section.

Subsec. (c). Pub. L. 86–778, §211(b), redesignated the opening provisions, cls. (2) to (5) and the closing provisions of former subsec. (b) of this section as the opening provisions, cls. (1) to (4) and the closing provisions of subsec. (c), respectively. Former subsec. (c) redesignated (d).

Subsec. (d). Pub. L. 86–778, §211(c), added subsec. (d) and redesignated former subsec. (d) as (e). Provisions of subsec. (d) were formerly contained in subsec. (c) of this section.

Subsec. (e). Pub. L. 86–778, §211(c), (d), redesignated former subsec. (d) as (e), substituted “subsections (c) and (d) of this section” for “subsections (b) and (c) of this section”, and struck out provisions which required the charging of any earnings to any month to be treated as an event occurring in such month. Former subsec. (e) redesignated (f).

Subsec. (f). Pub. L. 86–778, §211(c), (e), redesignated former subsec. (e) as (f), and amended such subsection by inserting pars. (3) and (7), substituting provisions requiring an amount of an individual's excess earnings equal to the sum of the payments to which he and all other persons are entitled for the month under section 402 of this title on the basis of his wages and self-employment income (or the total of his excess earnings if such excess earnings are less than such sum) to be charged to the first month of the taxable year, and the balance, if any, of such excess earnings to be charged to each succeeding month in such year to the extent, in the case of each month, of the sum of the payments to which such individual and all other persons are entitled for such month under section 402 of this title on the basis of his wages and self-employment income, until the total of such excess has been so charged, for provisions which required the first $80 of earnings in excess of $1,200 to be charged to the first month of the taxable year, and the balance, if any, at the rate of $80 per month to each succeeding month in such year until all of the balance has been applied, and inserting provisions requiring the excess earnings of an individual for any taxable year, where an individual is entitled to benefits under section 402(a) of this title and other persons are entitled to benefits under section 402 (b), (c), or (d) of this title on the basis of the wages and self-employment income of such individual, to be charged in accordance with the provisions of this subsection before the excess earnings of such persons for a taxable year are charged to months in such individual's taxable year. Former subsec. (f) redesignated (g).

Subsec. (g). Pub. L. 86–778, §§209(a), 211(c), redesignated former subsec. (f) as (g), and substituted therein “subsection (c) of this section” for “subsection (b) or (c) of this section” in two places, and struck out “(other than an event specified in subsection (b)(1) or (c)(1) of this section)” after “of an event specified therein.” Former subsec. (g) redesignated (h).

Subsec. (h). Pub. L. 86–778, §211(c), (f), redesignated former subsec. (g) as (h), and substituted therein “paragraph (5) of subsection (f) of this section” for “paragraph (4) of subsection (e) of this section” in two places, “paragraph (3) of this subsection” for “paragraph (3) of subsection (g) of this section”, “subsection (b) of this section” for “subsection (b)(1) of this section” in five places, and “suspend the total or less than the total payment” for “suspend the payment.” Former subsec. (h) redesignated (i).

Subsec. (i). Pub. L. 86–778, §211(c), (g), redesignated former subsec. (h) as (i) and substituted therein “subsection (b), (c), (g), or (h) of this section” for “subsection (b), (f), or (g) of this section.” Former subsec. (i) was repealed by Act Sept. 1, 1954, ch. 1206, title I, §112(a), 68 Stat. 1085.

Subsec. (k). Pub. L. 86–778, §103(b), substituted “the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico, the Virgin Islands, Guam or American Samoa” for “Puerto Rico or the Virgin Islands”, and “the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico, the Virgin Islands, Guam, and American Samoa” for “Puerto Rico and the Virgin Islands”.

Subsec. (l). Pub. L. 86–778, §211(h), substituted “subsection (g) or (h)(1)(A) of this section” for “subsection (f) or (g)(1)(A) of this section”.

1958—Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 85–840, §101(f), substituted provisions limiting the total of monthly benefits under sections 402 and 423 of this title to the amount provided in column V of the table in section 415(a) of this title for provisions which limited the total of monthly benefits under section 402 of this title to $50, or 80% of the average monthly wage, or one and one-half times the primary insurance amount, whichever is greater, with a maximum amount of $200 and inserted provisions limiting the reduction for individuals who were entitled to monthly benefits under section 402 or 423 of this title for December 1958, and for individuals entitled to monthly benefits with respect to whom a period of disability began prior to January 1959 and continued until he became entitled to benefits under section 402 or 423 of this title, or he died, whichever first occurred.

Subsec. (c). Pub. L. 85–840, §205(j), inserted “, based on the wages and self-employment income of an individual entitled to old-age insurance benefits,” before “to which a wife” in opening provisions of par. (1), and Pub. L. 85–840, §307(f), designated existing provisions of subsec. (c) as par. (1), redesignated subpars. (1) and (2) of par. (1) as subpars. (A) and (B), substituted in subpar. (B) of par. (1) “subparagraph (A)” for “paragraph (1)”, and added par. (2).

Subsec. (e)(2). Pub. L. 85–840, §308(a), (c), substituted “first month” for “last month” and “succeeding month” for “preceding month” wherever appearing, and “$100” for “$80” in cl. (D).

Subsec. (e)(3). Pub. L. 85–840, §308(b), (c), substituted “the term ‘first month of such taxable year’ means the earliest month” for “the term ‘last month of such taxable year’ means the latest month” in cl. (A), and “$100” for “$80” in cl. (B)(ii).

Subsec. (g)(1). Pub. L. 85–840, §308(d), designated existing provisions thereof as subpar. (A) and inserted provisions therein dispensing with the need for a report for any taxable year if benefit payments for all months (in such taxable year) in which such individual is under age 72 have been suspended under the provisions of the first sentence of par. (3) of this subsection, and added subpar. (B).

Subsec. (h). Pub. L. 85–840, §205(k), struck out provisions that related to reductions by reason of the provisions of section 424 of this title.

Subsec. (l). Pub. L. 85–840, §308(e), substituted “(g)(1)(A) of this section” for “(g) of this section”.

1956—Subsec. (a). Act Aug. 1, 1956, §101(d), inserted “after any deductions under section 422(b) of this title, and after any reduction under section 424 of this title” in two places.

Subsec. (b). Act Aug. 1, 1956, §101(e), inserted paragraph providing that a child should not be considered to be entitled to a child's insurance benefit for any month in which an event specified in section 422(b) of this title occurs with respect to such child, and prohibiting any deduction from any child's insurance benefit for the month in which the child entitled to such benefit attained the age of 18 or any subsequent month.

Subsec. (b)(3). Act Aug. 1, 1956, §102(d)(11), substituted “age 65” for “retirement age” and inserted “any such wife's insurance benefit for such month was not reduced under the provisions of section 402(q) of this title”.

Subsec. (d). Act Aug. 1, 1956, §101(f), included events specified in section 422(b) of this title.

Subsec. (e)(4)(C). Act Aug. 1, 1956, §112(a), inserted “or performed outside the United States in the active military or naval service of the United States” after “performed within the United States by the individual as an employee”.

Subsec. (g)(1). Act Aug. 1, 1956, §107(a), permitted reports to be made on or before the fifteenth day of the fourth month following the close of the year.

Subsec. (h). Act Aug. 1, 1956, §101(g), included deductions by reason of the provisions of section 422(b) of this title, and reductions by reason of the provisions of section 424 of this title.

Subsec. (k). Act Aug. 1, 1956, §112(b), inserted “and are not performed in the active military or naval service of the United States” after “section 410 of this title”.

1954—Subsec. (a). Act Sept. 1, 1954, §102(e)(7), increased maximum limitations on the total monthly amount of benefits.

Subsec. (b)(1), (2). Act Sept. 1, 1954, §103(a), (i)(3), put into effect an annual retirement test for beneficiaries whether they have wage or self-employment earnings, or both, inserted provision for making deductions on account of nonrecovered remunerative activity outside the United States, and provided that deductions because of such provisions be made from an individual's benefits only for months in which he is under the age of 72, rather than 75.

Subsec. (c). Act Sept. 1, 1954, §103(b), (i)(3), provided that deductions be made from a dependent's benefits for any month in which the primary beneficiary was under the age of 72, and for which he was charged with any earnings for work deduction purposes under subsec. (e) or on 7 or more different calendar days of which he engaged in noncovered remunerative activity outside the United States.

Subsec. (d). Act Sept. 1, 1954, §103(c), provided that the charging of earnings shall be treated as an event occurring in the month to which such earnings are charged.

Subsec. (e)(1), (2). Act Sept. 1, 1942, §103(d)(1), (2), (i)(3), provided a method for charging earnings to particular months of the year for purposes of determining the deductions required under subsecs. (b) and (c).

Subsec. (e)(3)(B). Act Sept. 1, 1954, §103(d)(3), provided authority to presume, for purposes of charging earnings to calendar months, that an individual rendered services for wages of more than $80 in any month.

Subsec. (e)(4), (5). Act Sept. 1, 1954, §103(d)(4), added pars. (4) and (5).

Subsec. (f). Act Sept. 1, 1954, §103(e), clarified the penalty provisions.

Subsec. (g). Act Sept. 1, 1954, §103(f)(1), amended heading.

Subsec. (g)(1). Act Sept. 1, 1954, §103(f)(2), (3), provided that if an individual entitled to any monthly benefit in a taxable year has earnings or wages in excess of $100 times the number of months in such year, he must make a report to the Secretary of his earnings for such taxable year, and substituted “seventy-two” for “seventy-five”.

Subsec. (g)(2). Act Sept. 1, 1954, §103(f)(4), provided a schedule of penalty deductions for failure to make required reports within the time prescribed by subsec. (g)(1) if any deduction is imposed because of earnings in such year.

Subsec. (g)(3). Act Sept. 1, 1954, §103(f)(5), substituted “subsection (b)(1)” for “subsection (b)(2)”, “earnings” for “net earnings from self-employment”, and “such earnings” for “such net earnings”, and added a new sentence at the end.

Subsec. (i). Act Sept. 1, 1954, §112(a), repealed subsec. (i), effective Sept. 1, 1954, and also provided that no deductions should be made pursuant to such subsec. (i) from any benefits for any month after August 1954.

Subsec. (j). Act Sept. 1, 1954, §103(f)(6), (i)(3), substituted “seventy-two” for “seventy-five”.

Subsec. (k). Act Sept. 1, 1954, §103(g), added subsec. (k).

Subsec. (l). Act Sept. 1, 1954, §103(h), added subsec. (l).

1952—Subsec. (a). Act July 18, 1952, §2(b)(2), increased the maximum and minimum monthly benefits payable a family.

Subsecs. (b)(1), (2), (c)(1), (2), (e), (g). Act July 18, 1952, §4(a)–(d), substituted $75 for $50 wherever appearing.

1950—Subsec. (a). Act Aug. 28, 1950, §102(a), amended subsec. (a) generally to consolidate provisions of former subsecs. (a) to (c) of this section and to liberalize the maximum amount of monthly benefits payable.

Subsec. (b). Act Aug. 28, 1950, §103(a), provided that deductions are to be made from benefits for any month in which a beneficiary is under age 75 and either renders services for wages of more than $50, or is charged with net earnings from self-employment of more than $50, and provided that deductions are to be made for any month in which a wife, widow or divorced wife does not have in her care a child or her husband or former husband entitled to a child's insurance benefit.

Subsec. (c). Act Aug. 28, 1950, §103(a), provided for the making of deductions from dependents benefits for any month in which the old-age beneficiary suffers a reduction in his benefit.

Subsec. (d). Act Aug. 28, 1950, §103(a), inserted second sentence.

Subsec. (e). Act Aug. 28, 1950, §103(a), provided the method for charging net earnings from self-employment to the particular months of the taxable year for the purpose of determining deductions under subsecs. (b)(2) and (c)(2) of this section.

Subsec. (f). Act Aug. 28, 1950, §103(a), continued provisions requiring the reporting of any event which causes a deduction from benefits.

Subsec. (g). Act Aug. 28, 1950, §103(a), outlined circumstances under which beneficiaries with net earnings from self-employment are required to file report with the Federal Security Administrator.

Subsec. (h). Act Aug. 28, 1950, §103(a), pointed out circumstances under which deductions otherwise required under subsecs. (b), (f), and (g) of this section will not be made.

Subsecs. (i), (j). Act Aug. 28, 1950, §103(a), added subsecs. (i) and (j).

1946—Subsec. (g). Act Aug. 10, 1946, §406(b), inserted exception limiting the first deduction for failure to report to one month's benefit.

Subsec. (d)(2). Act Aug. 10, 1946, §406(a), struck out par. (2) which related to deductions for failure to attend school.

1939—Act Aug. 10, 1939, amended section generally.

Effective Date of 2000 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 106–182 applicable with respect to taxable years ending after Dec. 31, 1999, see section 5 of Pub. L. 106–182, set out as a note under section 402 of this title.

Effective Date of 1996 Amendment

Section 102(c) of Pub. L. 104–121 provided that: “The amendments made by this section [amending this section and section 423 of this title] shall apply with respect to taxable years ending after 1995.”

Effective Date of 1994 Amendment

Amendment by section 107(a)(4) of Pub. L. 103–296 effective Mar. 31, 1995, see section 110(a) of Pub. L. 103–296, set out as a note under section 401 of this title.

Section 309(e)(1) of Pub. L. 103–296 provided that: “The amendments made by subsections (a), (b), and (c) [amending this section] shall apply with respect to benefits payable for months after December 1995.”

Section 310(c) of Pub. L. 103–296 provided that: “The amendments made by this section [amending this section] shall apply for the purpose of determining the total monthly benefits to which beneficiaries may be entitled under sections 202 and 223 of the Social Security Act [sections 402 and 423 of this title] based on the wages and self-employment income of an individual who—

“(1) becomes entitled to an old-age insurance benefit under section 202(a) of such Act,

“(2) becomes reentitled to a disability insurance benefit under section 223 of such Act, or

“(3) dies,

after December 1995.”

Section 314(b) of Pub. L. 103–296 provided that: “The amendment made by subsection (a) [amending this section] shall apply with respect to reports of earnings for taxable years ending on or after December 31, 1994.”

Section 321(g)(3)(B) of Pub. L. 103–296 provided that: “The amendment made by paragraph (2) [amending this section] shall be effective with respect to the determination of the exempt amounts applicable to any taxable year ending after 1994.”

Effective Date of 1990 Amendment

Section 5117(a)(4) of Pub. L. 101–508 provided that:

“(A) In general.—Except as provided in subparagraph (B), the amendments made by this subsection [amending this section and section 415 of this title] shall apply with respect to the computation of the primary insurance amount of any insured individual in any case in which a person becomes entitled to benefits under section 202 or 223 [section 402 or 423 of this title] on the basis of such insured individual's wages and self-employment income for months after the 18-month period following the month in which this Act is enacted [November 1990], except that such amendments shall not apply if any person is entitled to benefits based on the wages and self-employment income of such insured individual for the month preceding the initial month of such person's entitlement to such benefits under section 202 or 223.

“(B) Recomputations.—The amendments made by this subsection shall apply with respect to any primary insurance amount upon the recomputation of such primary insurance amount if such recomputation is first effective for monthly benefits for months after the 18-month period following the month in which this Act is enacted.”

Section 5119(e) of Pub. L. 101–508 provided that:

“(1) In general.—The amendments made by this section [amending this section and section 416 of this title] shall apply with respect to benefits for months after December 1990.

“(2) Application requirement.—

“(A) General rule.—Except as provided in subparagraph (B), the amendments made by this section shall apply only with respect to benefits for which application is filed with the Secretary of Health and Human Services after December 31, 1990.

“(B) Exception from application requirement.—Subparagraph (A) shall not apply with respect to the benefits of any individual if such individual is entitled to a benefit under subsection (b), (c), (e), or (f) of section 202 of the Social Security Act [section 402(b), (c), (e), or (f) of this title] for December 1990 and the individual on whose wages and self-employment income such benefit for December 1990 is based is the same individual on the basis of whose wages and self-employment income application would otherwise be required under subparagraph (A).”

Section 5123(b) of Pub. L. 101–508 provided that: “The amendments made by this section [amending this section, section 411 of this title, and section 1402 of Title 26, Internal Revenue Code] shall apply with respect to income received for services performed in taxable years beginning after December 31, 1990.”

Section 5127(c) of Pub. L. 101–508 provided that: “The amendments made by this section [amending this section] shall apply with respect to benefits for months after December 1990.”

Effective Date of 1989 Amendment

Amendment by section 10208(b)(1)(A), (B) of Pub. L. 101–239 applicable with respect to computation of average total wage amounts (under amended provisions) for calendar years after 1990, see section 10208(c) of Pub. L. 101–239, set out as a note under section 430 of this title.

Section 10305(f) of Pub. L. 101–239 provided that: “The amendments made by this section [amending this section and sections 404, 423, and 1383 of this title] shall apply with respect to determinations made on or after July 1, 1990.”

Effective Date of 1988 Amendment

Section 8002(c) of Pub. L. 100–647 provided that: “The amendments made by this section [amending this section] shall apply to deaths after the date of the enactment of this Act [Nov. 10, 1988].”

Effective Date of 1986 Amendment

Section 12108(b) of Pub. L. 99–272, as amended by Pub. L. 99–514, title XVIII, §1895(a), Oct. 22, 1986, 100 Stat. 2931, provided that: “The amendments made by subsection (a) [amending this section] shall apply with respect to benefits payable for months after December 1986.”

Effective Date of 1984 Amendment

Section 2602(b) of Pub. L. 98–369 provided that: “The amendment made by subsection (a) [amending this section] shall be effective upon the date of the enactment of this Act [July 18, 1984].”

Section 2661(g)(1)(B) of Pub. L. 98–369 provided that: “The amendments made by subparagraph (A) [amending this section] shall apply only with respect to months beginning with the second month after the month in which this Act is enacted [July 1984].”

Section 2661(g)(2)(B) of Pub. L. 98–369 provided that: “The amendment made by subparagraph (A) [amending this section] shall be effective as though it had been enacted on April 20, 1983, as a part of section 201 of the Social Security Amendments of 1983 [section 201 of Pub. L. 98–21].”

Amendment by section 2662(c)(1) of Pub. L. 98–369 effective as though included in the enactment of the Social Security Amendments of 1983, Pub. L. 98–21, see section 2664(a) of Pub. L. 98–369, set out as a note under section 401 of this title.

Amendment by section 2663(a)(3) of Pub. L. 98–369 effective July 18, 1984, but not to be construed as changing or affecting any right, liability, status, or interpretation which existed (under the provisions of law involved) before that date, see section 2664(b) of Pub. L. 98–369, set out as a note under section 401 of this title.

Effective Date of 1983 Amendment

Amendment by section 111(a)(4) of Pub. L. 98–21 applicable with respect to cost-of-living increases determined under section 415(i) of this title for years after 1982, see section 111(a)(8) of Pub. L. 98–21, set out as a note under section 402 of this title.

Section 132(c)(2) of Pub. L. 98–21 provided that: “The amendments made by subsection (b) [amending this section] shall apply with respect to monthly insurance benefits for months after December 1984.”

Amendment by sections 306(i) and 309(f)–(h) of Pub. L. 98–21 applicable only with respect to monthly payments payable under this subchapter for months after April, 1983, see section 310 of Pub. L. 98–21, set out as a note under section 402 of this title.

Amendment by section 324(c)(4) of Pub. L. 98–21 applicable to remuneration paid after Dec. 31, 1983, except for certain employer contributions made during 1984 under a qualified cash or deferred arrangement, and except in the case of an agreement with certain nonqualified deferred compensation plans in existence on Mar. 24, 1983, see section 324(d) of Pub. L. 98–21, set out as a note under section 3121 of Title 26, Internal Revenue Code.

Section 331(c) of Pub. L. 98–21 provided that: “The amendments made by subsection (a) [amending this section] shall be effective with respect to payments made for months after December 1983.”

Section 347(b) of Pub. L. 98–21 provided that: “The amendment made by subsection (a) [amending this section] shall apply only with respect to taxable years beginning after December 1989, and only in the case of individuals who have attained retirement age (as defined in section 216(l) of the Social Security Act [42 U.S.C. 416(l)].”

Effective Date of 1981 Amendments

Amendment by section 2201(c)(6) of Pub. L. 97–35 and by section 2(f) of Pub. L. 97–123, applicable with respect to benefits for months after December 1981 with certain exceptions, see section 2(j)(2)–(4) of Pub. L. 97–123, set out as a note under section 415 of this title.

Amendment by section 2206(b)(2)–(4) of Pub. L. 97–35 applicable only with respect to initial calculations and adjustments of primary insurance amounts and benefit amounts which are attributable to periods after August 1981, see section 2206(c) of Pub. L. 97–35, set out as a note under section 402 of this title.

Effective Date of 1980 Amendments

Section 1(b) of Pub. L. 96–473 provided that: “The amendment made by subsection (a) [amending this section] shall apply with respect to monthly benefits payable for months after December 1977.”

Section 3(b) of Pub. L. 96–473 provided that: “The amendment made by subsection (a) [amending this section] shall apply with respect to taxable years ending after December 31, 1977, but only with respect to benefits payable for months after December 1977.”

Section 4(b) of Pub. L. 96–473 provided that: “The amendment made by subsection (a) [amending this section] shall apply with respect to monthly benefits payable for months after December 1977.”

Section 101(c) of Pub. L. 96–265 provided that: “The amendments made by this section [amending this section and section 415 of this title] shall apply only with respect to monthly benefits payable on the basis of the wages and self-employment income of an individual who first becomes eligible for benefits (determined under sections 215(a)(3)(B) and 215(a)(2)(A) of the Social Security Act [section 415(a)(3)(B) and (2)(A) of this title], as applied for this purpose) after 1978, and who first becomes entitled to disability insurance benefits after June 30, 1980.”

Effective Date of 1977 Amendment

Amendment by section 202 of Pub. L. 95–216 effective with respect to monthly benefits under this subchapter payable for months after Dec. 1978 and with respect to lump-sum death payments with respect to deaths occurring after such month, and amendment by section 204(e) of Pub. L. 95–216 effective with respect to monthly benefits for months after May 1978, see section 206 of Pub. L. 95–216, set out as a note under section 402 of this title.

Section 301(e) of Pub. L. 95–216 provided that: “The amendments made by this section [amending this section] shall apply with respect to taxable years ending after December 1977.”

Section 302(e) of Pub. L. 95–216 provided that: “The amendments made by this section [amending this section] shall apply only with respect to taxable years ending after December 31, 1981.”

Section 303(b) of Pub. L. 95–216 provided that: “The amendment made by subsection (a) [amending this section] shall apply only with respect to monthly benefits payable for months after December 1977.”

Amendment by section 353(a) of Pub. L. 95–216 effective Jan. 1, 1979, see section 353(g) of Pub. L. 95–216, set out as a note under section 418 of this title.

Effective Date of 1973 Amendment

Section 202(d) of Pub. L. 93–66 provided that: “The amendments made by this section [amending this section] shall be effective with respect to taxable years beginning after December 31, 1973.”

Effective Date of 1972 Amendments

Amendment by section 101(b) of Pub. L. 92–603 applicable with respect to monthly insurance benefits under this subchapter for months after December 1972 and with respect to lump-sum death payments under this subchapter in the case of deaths occurring after such month, see section 101(g) of Pub. L. 92–603, set out as a note under section 415 of this title.

Section 202(a)(2)(A), (B) of Pub. L. 92–336 provided that the amendments made by that section are effective Jan. 1, 1974.

Amendment by section 201(b) of Pub. L. 92–336 applicable with respect to monthly benefits under subchapter II of this chapter for months after August 1972 and with respect to lump-sum death payments under such subchapter in the case of deaths occurring after such month, see section 201(i) of Pub. L. 92–336, set out as a note under section 415 of this title.

Section 144(b) of Pub. L. 92–603 provided that: “The amendments made by each of the paragraphs in subsection (a) [amending this section and sections 415 and 430 of this title] shall be effective in like manner as if such amendment had been included in title II of Public Law 92–336 in the particular provision of such title referred to in such paragraph.”

Amendment by section 201(h)(1) of Pub. L. 92–336 applicable with respect to monthly benefits under subchapter II of this chapter for months after December 1971, see section 201(i) of Pub. L. 92–336, set out as a note under section 415 of this title.

Amendment by section 102(c) of Pub. L. 92–603 applicable with respect to monthly benefits under this subchapter for months after December 1972, see section 102(i) of Pub. L. 92–603, set out as a note under section 402 of this title.

Amendment by section 107(b)(1), (2) of Pub. L. 92–603 applicable with respect to monthly benefits under this subchapter for months after December 1972, with specified exceptions, see section 107(c) of Pub. L. 92–603, set out as a note under section 402 of this title.

Section 105(c) of Pub. L. 92–603 provided that: “The amendments made by this section [amending this section] shall apply with respect to taxable years ending after December 1972.”

Section 106(b) of Pub. L. 92–603 provided that: “The amendment made by subsection (a) [amending this section to provide for the exclusion of certain earnings in year of attaining age 72] shall apply with respect to taxable years ending after December 1972.”

Effective Date of 1971 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 92–5 applicable with respect to monthly benefits under subchapter II of this chapter for months after December 1970 and with respect to lump-sum death payments under such subchapter in the case of deaths occurring in and after March 1971, see section 201(e) of Pub. L. 92–5, set out as a note under section 415 of this title.

Effective Date of 1969 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 91–172 applicable with respect to monthly benefits under this subchapter for months after December 1969 and with respect to lump-sum death payments under such subchapter in the case of deaths occurring after December 1969, see section 1002(e) of Pub. L. 91–172, set out as a note under section 415 of this title.

Effective Date of 1968 Amendment

Amendment by section 101(b) of Pub. L. 90–248 applicable with respect to monthly benefits and lump-sum death benefits in the case of deaths occurring after January 1968, under this subchapter for months after January 1968, see section 101(e) of Pub. L. 90–248, set out as a note under section 415 of this title.

Amendment by section 104(d)(1) of Pub. L. 90–248 applicable with respect to monthly benefits under this subchapter for and after the month of February 1968, but only on the basis of applications for such benefits filed in or after January 1968, see section 104(e) of Pub. L. 90–248, set out as a note under section 402 of this title.

Section 107(b) of Pub. L. 90–248 provided that: “The amendments made by subsection (a) [amending this section] shall apply with respect to taxable years ending after December 1967.”

Section 163(a)(2) of Pub. L. 90–248 provided that: “The amendment made by paragraph (1) [amending this section] shall apply only with respect to monthly benefits payable under title II of the Social Security Act [this subchapter] with respect to individuals who become entitled to benefits under section 202(d) of such Act [section 402(d) of this title] solely by reason of section 216(h)(3) of such Act [section 416(h)(3) of this title] in or after January 1968 (but without regard to section 202(j)(1) of such Act [section 402(j)(1) of this title]). The provisions of section 170 of this Act [set out as Savings Provisions note below] shall not apply with respect to any such individual.”

Effective Date of 1965 Amendment

Amendment by section 301(c) of Pub. L. 89–97 applicable with respect to monthly benefits under this subchapter for months after December 1964 and with respect to lump-sum death benefits payments under this subchapter in the case of deaths occurring in or after July 1965, see section 301(d) of Pub. L. 89–97, set out as a note under section 415 of this title.

Amendment by section 308(d)(6)–(8) of Pub. L. 89–97 applicable with respect to monthly insurance benefits under this subchapter beginning with the second month following July 1965, but, in the case of an individual who was not entitled to a monthly insurance benefit under section 402 of this title for the first month following July 1965, only on the basis of an application filed in or after July 1965, see section 308(e) of Pub. L. 89–97, set out as a note under section 402 of this title.

Section 310(b) of Pub. L. 89–97 provided that: “The amendments made by subsection (a) [amending this section] shall apply with respect to taxable years ending after December 31, 1965.”

Section 325(b) of Pub. L. 89–97 provided that: “The amendments made by subsection (a) [amending this section] shall apply with respect to the computation of net earnings from self-employment and the net loss from self-employment for taxable years beginning after 1964.”

Effective Date of 1961 Amendment

Section 108(b) of Pub. L. 87–64 provided that: “The amendment made by subsection (a) [amending this section] shall apply in the case of taxable years ending after the enactment of this Act [June 30, 1961].”

Effective Date of 1960 Amendment

Amendment by section 103(b) of Pub. L. 86–778 applicable only with respect to service performed after 1960, except that insofar as the carrying on of a trade or business (other than performance of service as an employee) is concerned, the amendment shall be applicable only in the case of taxable years beginning after 1960, see section 103(v)(1) of Pub. L. 86–778, set out as a note under section 402 of this title.

Section 211(p)–(s) of Pub. L. 86–778 provided that:

“(p) Section 203(c), (d), (e), (g), and (i) of the Social Security Act [subsecs. (c), (d), (e), (g), and (i) of this section] as amended by this Act shall be effective with respect to monthly benefits for months after December 1960.

“(q) Section 203(b), (f), and (h) of the Social Security Act [subsecs. (b), (f), and (h) of this section] as amended by this Act shall be effective with respect to taxable years beginning after December 1960.

“(r) Section 203(l) of the Social Security Act [subsec. (l) of this section] as amended by this Act, to the extent that it applies to section 203(g) of the Social Security Act as amended by this Act, shall be effective with respect to monthly benefits for months after December 1960 and, to the extent that it applies to section 203(h)(1)(A) of the Social Security Act as amended by this Act, shall be effective with respect to taxable years beginning after December 1960.

“(s) The amendments made by subsections (i), (j), (k), (l), (m), (n), and (o) [amending sections 402, 408, and 415 of this title and sections 228c and 228e of Title 45, Railroads], to the extent that they make changes in references to provisions of section 203 of the Social Security Act [this section], shall take effect in the manner provided in subsections (p) and (q) of this section for the provisions of such section 203 to which the respective references so changed relate.”

Section 302(b) of Pub. L. 86–778 provided that: “The amendments made by subsection (a) [amending this section] shall apply only in the case of monthly benefits under section 202 or section 223 of the Social Security Act [section 402 or section 423 of this title] for months after the month following the month in which this Act is enacted [September 1960], and then only (1) if the insured individual on the basis of whose wages and self-employment income such monthly benefits are payable became entitled (without the application of section 202(j)(1) or section 223(b) of such Act) to benefits under section 202(a) or section 223 of such Act after the month following the month in which this Act is enacted, or (2) if such insured individual died before becoming so entitled and no person was entitled (without the application of section 202(j)(1) or section 223(b) of such Act) on the basis of such wages and self-employment income to monthly benefits under title II of the Social Security Act [this subchapter] for the month following the month in which this Act is enacted [September 1960] or any prior month.”

Effective Date of 1958 Amendment

Amendment by section 101(f) of Pub. L. 85–840 applicable in the case of monthly benefits under subchapter II of this chapter for months after December 1958, and in the case of lump-sum death payments under subchapter II of this chapter, with respect to deaths occurring after such month, see section 101(g) of Pub. L. 85–840, set out as a note under section 415 of this title.

Amendment by section 205(j) of Pub. L. 85–840 applicable with respect to monthly benefits under this subchapter for months after August 1958, but only if an application for such benefits is filed on or after Aug. 28, 1958, and amendment by section 205(k) of Pub. L. 85–840 applicable with respect to monthly benefits under this subchapter for August 1958 and succeeding months, see section 207(a) of Pub. L. 85–840, set out as a note under section 416 of this title.

Section 307(h)(2) of Pub. L. 85–840 provided that: “The amendments made by subsection (f) [amending this section] shall apply with respect to monthly benefits under subsection (d) or (g) of section 202 of the Social Security Act [section 402 of this title] for months in any taxable year, of the individual to whom the person entitled to such benefits is married, beginning after the month in which this Act is enacted [August 1958].”

Section 308(f) of Pub. L. 85–840 provided that: “The amendments made by this section [amending this section] shall be applicable with respect to taxable years beginning after the month in which this Act is enacted [August 1958].”

Effective Date of 1956 Amendment

Amendment by section 101(d)–(g) of act Aug. 1, 1956, applicable with respect to monthly benefits under section 402 of this title for months after December 1956, but only on the basis of an application filed after September 1956, see section 101(h) of act Aug. 1, 1956, set out as a note under section 402 of this title.

Section 107(a) of act Aug. 1, 1956, provided that the amendment made by that section is applicable in the case of monthly benefits under this subchapter for months in any taxable year (of the individual entitled to such benefits) beginning after 1954.

Section 112(c) of act Aug. 1, 1956, provided that: “The amendments made by subsections (a) and (b) [amending this section] shall be applicable with respect to taxable years ending after 1955.”

Effective Date of 1954 Amendment

Section 103(i)(3) of act Sept. 1, 1954, provided that: “Subsections (b)(1), (b)(2), (c), (e), and (j) of section 203 of the Social Security Act [this section] as in effect prior to the enactment of this Act, to the extent they are in effect with respect to months after 1954, are each amended by striking out ‘seventy-five’ and inserting in lieu thereof ‘seventy-two’, but only with respect to such months after 1954.”

Amendment by section 102(e)(7) of act Sept. 1, 1954, applicable in the case of lump-sum death payments under section 402 of this title with respect to deaths occurring, and in the case of monthly benefits under such section for months after, August 1954, see section 102(f) of act Sept. 1, 1954, as amended, set out as a note under section 415 of this title.

Section 103(i)(1), (2) of act Sept. 1, 1954, provided that:

“(1) The amendments made by subsection (f) and by paragraph (1) of subsection (a) of this section [amending this section] shall be applicable in the case of monthly benefits under title II of the Social Security Act [this subchapter] for months in any taxable year (of the individual entitled to such benefits) beginning after December 1954. The amendments made by paragraph (1) of subsection (b) of this section [amending this section] shall be applicable in the case of monthly benefits under such title II for months in any taxable year (of the individual on the basis of whose wages and self-employment income such benefits are payable) beginning after December 1954. The amendments made by subsections (e) and (g), and by paragraph (2) of subsection (a) and paragraph (2) of subsection (b) [amending this section] shall be applicable in the case of monthly benefits under such title II for months after December 1954. The remaining amendments made by this section (other than subsection (h)) [amending this section] shall be applicable, insofar as they are related to the monthly benefits of an individual which are based on his wages and self-employment income, in the case of monthly benefits under such title II for months in any taxable year (of such individual) beginning after December 1954 and, insofar as they are related to the monthly benefits of an individual which are based on the wages and self-employment income of someone else, in the case of monthly benefits under such title II for months in any taxable year (of the individual on whose wages and self-employment income such benefits are based) beginning after December 1954.

“(2) No deduction shall be imposed on or after the date of the enactment of this Act [Sept. 1, 1954] under subsection (f) or (g) of section 203 of the Social Security Act [subsec. (f) or (g) of this section], as in effect prior to such date, on account of failure to file a report of an event described in subsection (b)(1), (b)(2), or (c)(1) of such section (as in effect prior to such date); and no such deduction imposed prior to such date shall be collected after such date. In determining whether, under section 203(g)(2) of the Social Security Act, as amended by this Act, a failure to file a report is a first or subsequent failure, any failure with respect to a taxable year which began prior to January 1955 shall be disregarded.”

Effective Date of 1952 Amendment

For effective date of amendment by section 2(b)(2) of act July 18, 1952, see section 2(c)(2) of act July 18, 1952, set out as a note under section 415 of this title.

Section 4(e) of act July 18, 1952, provided that: “The amendments made by subsection (a) [amending this section] shall apply in the case of monthly benefits under title II of the Social Security Act [this subchapter] for months after August 1952. The amendments made by subsection (b) [amending this section] shall apply in the case of monthly benefits under such title II for months in any taxable year (of the individual entitled to such benefits) ending after August 1952. The amendments made by subsection (c) [amending this section] shall apply in the case of monthly benefits under such title II for months in any taxable year (of the individual on the basis of whose wages and self-employment income such benefits are payable) ending after August 1952. The amendments made by subsection (d) [amending this section] shall apply in the case of taxable years ending after August 1952. As used in this subsection, the term “taxable year” shall have the meaning assigned to it by section 211(e) of the Social Security Act [section 411(e) of this title].”

Effective Date of 1950 Amendment

Section 102(b) of act Aug. 28, 1950, provided that: “The amendment made by subsection (a) of this section [amending this section] shall be applicable with respect to benefits for months after August 1950.”

Section 103(b) of act Aug. 28, 1950, provided that: “The amendments made by this section [amending this section] shall take effect September 1, 1950, except that the provisions of subsections (d), (e), and (f) of section 203 of the Social Security Act [this section] as in effect prior to the enactment of this Act [Aug. 28, 1950] shall be applicable for months prior to September 1950.”

Effective Date of 1939 Amendment

Section 201 of act Aug. 10, 1939, provided that the amendment made by that section is effective Jan. 1, 1940.

Savings Provision

Section 201(h)(2) of Pub. L. 92–336 provided that: “In any case in which the provisions of section 1002(b)(2) of the Social Security Amendments of 1969 [set out as a note under this section] were applicable with respect to benefits for any month in 1970, the total of monthly benefits as determined under section 203(a) of the Social Security Act [subsec. (a) of this section] shall, for months after 1970, be increased to the amount that would be required in order to assure that the total of such monthly benefits (after the application of section 202(q) of such Act [section 402(q) of this title]) will not be less than the total of monthly benefits that was applicable (after the application of such sections 203(a) and 202(q)) for the first month for which the provisions of such section 1002(b)(2) applied.”

Section 1002(b)(2) of Pub. L. 91–172 provided that: “Notwithstanding any other provisions of law, when two or more persons are entitled to monthly insurance benefits under title II of the Social Security Act [this subchapter] for any month after 1969 on the basis of the wages and self-employment income of an insured individual (and at least one of such persons was so entitled for a month before January 1971 on the basis of an application filed before 1971), the total of the benefits to which such persons are entitled under such title of such month (after the application of sections 203(a) and 202(q) of such Act [subsec. (a) of this section and section 402(q) of this title]) shall be not less than the total of the monthly insurance benefits to which such persons would be entitled under such title for such month (after the application of such sections 203(a) and 202(q)) without regard to the amendment made by subsection (a) of this section [amending section 415 of this title].”

Section 170 of Pub. L. 90–248 provided that: “Where—

“(1) one or more persons were entitled (without the application of section 202(j)(1) of the Social Security Act [section 402(j)(1) of this title]) to monthly benefits under section 202 or 223 of such Act [section 402 or 423 of this title] for January 1968 on the basis of the wages and self-employment income of an individual, and

“(2) one or more persons (not included in paragraph (1)) become entitled to monthly benefits under such section 202 [section 402 of this title] for February 1968 on the basis of such wages and self-employment by reason of the amendments made to such Act [this chapter] by sections 104 [amending this section and sections 402, 416, 422, and 425 of this title], 112 [amending section 402 of this title], 150 [amending section 416 of this title], 151 [amending section 402 of this title and section 228 of Title 45, Railroads], 156 [amending section 416 of this title], and 157 of this Act [amending section 402 and 402 note of this title], and

“(3) the total of benefits to which all persons are entitled under such section 202 or 223 [section 402 or 423 of this title] on the basis of such wages and self-employment for February 1968 are reduced by reason of section 203(a) of such Act, as amended by this Act (or would, but for the penultimate sentence of such section 203(a), be so reduced),

then the amount of the benefit to which each such person referred to in paragraph (1) is entitled for months after January 1968 shall be increased, after the application of such section 203(a) [subsec. (a) of this section], to the amount it would have been if the person or persons referred to in paragraph (2) were not entitled to a benefit referred to in such paragraph.”

Section 102(h) of act Sept. 1, 1954, provided that:

“(1) Where—

“(A) an individual was entitled (without the application of section 202(j)(1) of the Social Security Act [section 402(j)(1) of this title]) to an old-age insurance benefit under title II of such Act [this subchapter] for August 1954;

“(B) one or more other persons were entitled (without the application of such section 202(j)(1) [section 402(j)(1) of this title]) to monthly benefits under such title for such month on the basis of the wages and self-employment income of such individual; and

“(C) the total of the benefits to which all persons are entitled under such title on the basis of such individual's wages and self-employment income for any subsequent month for which he is entitled to an old-age insurance benefit under such title, would (but for the provisions of this paragraph) be reduced by reason of the application of section 203(a) of the Social Security Act [subsec. (a) of this section], as amended by this Act,

then the total of benefits referred to in clause (C) for such subsequent month shall be reduced to whichever of the following is the larger—

“(D) the amount determined pursuant to section 203(a) of the Social Security Act [subsec. (a) of this section], as amended by this Act; or

“(E) the amount determined pursuant to such section, as in effect prior to the enactment of this Act [Sept. 1, 1954], for August 1954 plus the excess of (i) the amount of his old-age insurance benefit for such month computed as if the amendments made by the preceding subsections of this section [amending this section and section 415 of this title] had been applicable in the case of such benefit for such month over (ii) the amount of his old-age insurance benefit for such month, or

“(F) the amount determined pursuant to section 2(d)(1) of the Social Security Act Amendments of 1952 [set out as a note under section 415 of this title] for August 1954 plus the excess of (i) the amount of his old-age insurance benefit for such month computed as if the amendments made by the preceding subsections of this section had been applicable in the case of such benefit for such month over (ii) the amount of his old-age insurance benefit for such month.

“(2) Where—

“(A) two or more persons were entitled (without the application of section 202(j)(1) of the Social Security Act [section 402(j)(1) of this title]) to monthly benefits under title II of such Act [this subchapter] for August 1954 on the basis of the wages and self-employment income of a deceased individual; and

“(B) to total of the benefits to which all such persons are entitled on the basis of such deceased individual's wages and self-employment income for any subsequent month would (but for the provisions of this paragraph) be reduced by reason of the application of the first sentence of section 203(a) of the Social Security Act [subsec. (a) of this section], as amended by this Act,

then, notwithstanding any other provision in title II of the Social Security Act [this subchapter], such deceased individual's average monthly wage shall, for purposes of such section 203(a), be whichever of the following is the larger:

“(C) his average monthly wage determined pursuant to section 215 of such Act [section 415 of this title], as amended by this Act; or

“(D) his average monthly wage determined under such section 215, as in effect prior to the enactment of this Act [Sept. 1, 1954], plus $7.”

Temporary Extension of Earnings Limitations To Include All Persons Aged Less Than Seventy-two

Section 2204 of Pub. L. 97–35 provided that:

“(a) Notwithstanding subsection (e) of section 302 of the Social Security Amendments of 1977 (91 Stat. 1531; Public Law 95–216) [set out as an Effective Date of 1977 Amendment note above], the amendments made to section 203 of the Social Security Act [this section] by subsections (a) through (d) of such section 302 shall, except as provided in subsection (b) of this section, apply only with respect to monthly insurance benefits payable under title II of the Social Security Act [this subchapter] for months after December 1982.

“(b) In the case of any individual whose first taxable year (as in effect on the date of the enactment of this Act [Aug. 13, 1981]) ending after December 31, 1981, begins before January 1, 1982, the amendments made by section 302 of the Social Security Amendments of 1977 [amending this section] shall apply with respect to taxable years beginning with such taxable year.”

Increased Exempt Amounts for Individuals Described in Subsec. (f)(8)(D); Notification in 1977 to 1981; Individuals Other Than Those Described in Subsec. (f)(8)(D)

Section 301(c)(2) of Pub. L. 95–216 provided that: “No notification with respect to an increased exempt amount for individuals described in section 203(f)(8)(D) of the Social Security Act [subsec. (f)(8)(D) of this section] (as added by paragraph (1) of this subsection) shall be required under the last sentence of section 203(f)(8)(B) of such Act in 1977, 1978, 1979, 1980, or 1981; and section 203(f)(8)(C) of such Act shall not prevent the new exempt amount determined and published under section 203(f)(8)(A) in 1977 from becoming effective to the extent that such new exempt amount applies to individuals other than those described in section 203(f)(8)(D) of such Act (as so added).”

Retirement Test Exempt Amount for 1976

By notice of the Secretary of Health, Education, and Welfare, Oct. 22, 1975, 40 F.R. 50556, it was determined and announced that, pursuant to authority contained in subsec. (f)(8) of this section, the monthly exempt amount under the retirement test would be $230 with respect to taxable years ending in calendar year 1976.

Cost-of-Living Increase in Benefits

For purposes of subsec. (f)(8) of this section, the increase in benefits provided by section 2 of Pub. L. 93–233, revising benefits table of section 415(a) of this title and amending sections 427(a), (b) and 428(b)(1), (2), (c)(3)(A), (B) of this title considered an increase under section 415(i) of this title, see section 3(i) of Pub. L. 93–233, set out as a note under section 415 of this title.

Penalties for Failure To File Timely Reports of Earnings and Other Events

Section 161(c) of Pub. L. 90–248 provided that: “The amendments made by this section [amending this section] shall apply with respect to any deductions imposed on or after the date of the enactment of this Act [Jan. 2, 1968] under subsections (g) and (h) of section 203 of the Social Security Act [this section] on account of failure to make a report required thereby.”

Computation of Benefits for Certain Children

Section 163(b) of Pub. L. 90–248 provided that: “Where—

“(1) one or more persons were entitled (without the application of section 202(j)(1) of the Social Security Act [section 402(j)(1) of this title]) to monthly benefits under section 202 or 223 of such Act [section 402 or 423 of this title] for January 1968 on the basis of the wages and self-employment income of an individual, and

“(2) one or more persons became entitled to monthly benefits before January 1968 under section 202(d) of such Act [section 402(d) of this title] by reason of section 216(h)(3) of such Act [section 416(h)(3) of this section] (but without regard to section 202(j)(1)), on the basis of such wages and self-employment income and are so entitled for January 1968, and

“(3) the total of benefits to which all persons are entitled under such section 202 or 223 of such Act [section 402 or 423 of this title] on the basis of such wages and self-employment for January 1968 are reduced by reason of section 203(a) of such Act [subsec. (a) of this section], as amended by this Act (or would, but for the penultimate sentence of such section 203(a), be so reduced),

then the amount of the benefit to which each such person referred to in paragraph (1) above (but not including persons referred to in paragraph (2) above) is entitled for months after January 1968 shall be increased, after the application of such section 203(a), to the amount it would have been if the person or persons referred to in paragraph (2) were not entitled to a benefit referred to in such paragraph (2).”

Prohibition on Imposition of Deduction for Failure To File Certain Reports of Events

Section 209(b) of Pub. L. 86–778 provided that: “No deduction shall be imposed on or after the date of the enactment of this Act [Sept. 13, 1960] under section 203(f) of the Social Security Act [subsec. (f) of this section], as in effect prior to such date, on account of failure to file a report of an event described in section 203(c) of such Act, as in effect prior to such date; and no such deduction imposed prior to such date shall be collected after such date.”

Prohibition on Payment of Benefits to Certain Spouses or Children

Section 211(t) of Pub. L. 86–778 provided that: “In any case where—

“(1) an individual has earnings (as defined in section 203(e)(4) of the Social Security Act [subsec. (e)(4) of this section] as in effect prior to the enactment of this Act [Sept. 13, 1960]) in a taxable year which begins before 1961 and ends in 1961 (but not on December 31, 1961), and

“(2) such individual's spouse or child entitled to monthly benefits on the basis of such individual's self-employment income has excess earnings (as defined in section 203(f)(3) of the Social Security Act as amended by this Act) in a taxable year which begins after 1960, and

“(3) one or more months in the taxable year specified in paragraph (2) are included in the taxable year specified in paragraph (1),

then, if a deduction is imposed against the benefits payable to such individual with respect to a month described in paragraph (3), such spouse or child, as the case may be, shall not, for purposes of subsections (b) and (f) of section 203 of the Social Security Act as amended by this Act, be entitled to a payment for such month.”

1 See References in Text note below.

2 So in original. Probably should be followed by a comma.

§404. Overpayments and underpayments

(a) Procedure for adjustment or recovery

(1) Whenever the Commissioner of Social Security finds that more or less than the correct amount of payment has been made to any person under this subchapter, proper adjustment or recovery shall be made, under regulations prescribed by the Commissioner of Social Security, as follows:

(A) With respect to payment to a person of more than the correct amount, the Commissioner of Social Security shall decrease any payment under this subchapter to which such overpaid person is entitled, or shall require such overpaid person or his estate to refund the amount in excess of the correct amount, or shall decrease any payment under this subchapter payable to his estate or to any other person on the basis of the wages and self-employment income which were the basis of the payments to such overpaid person, or shall obtain recovery by means of reduction in tax refunds based on notice to the Secretary of the Treasury as permitted under section 3720A of title 31, or shall apply any combination of the foregoing. A payment made under this subchapter on the basis of an erroneous report of death by the Department of Defense of an individual in the line of duty while he is a member of the uniformed services (as defined in section 410(m) of this title) on active duty (as defined in section 410(l) of this title) shall not be considered an incorrect payment for any month prior to the month such Department notifies the Commissioner of Social Security that such individual is alive.

(B)(i) Subject to clause (ii), with respect to payment to a person of less than the correct amount, the Commissioner of Social Security shall make payment of the balance of the amount due such underpaid person, or, if such person dies before payments are completed or before negotiating one or more checks representing correct payments, disposition of the amount due shall be made in accordance with subsection (d) of this section.

(ii) No payment shall be made under this subparagraph to any person during any period for which monthly insurance benefits of such person—

(I) are subject to nonpayment by reason of section 402(x)(1) of this title, or

(II) in the case of a person whose monthly insurance benefits have terminated for a reason other than death, would be subject to nonpayment by reason of section 402(x)(1) of this title but for the termination of such benefits,


until section 402(x)(1) of this title no longer applies, or would no longer apply in the case of benefits that have terminated.

(iii) Nothing in clause (ii) shall be construed to limit the Commissioner's authority to withhold amounts, make adjustments, or recover amounts due under this subchapter, subchapter VIII or subchapter XVI that would be deducted from a payment that would otherwise be payable to such person but for such clause.


(2) Notwithstanding any other provision of this section, when any payment of more than the correct amount is made to or on behalf of an individual who has died, and such payment—

(A) is made by direct deposit to a financial institution;

(B) is credited by the financial institution to a joint account of the deceased individual and another person; and

(C) such other person was entitled to a monthly benefit on the basis of the same wages and self-employment income as the deceased individual for the month preceding the month in which the deceased individual died,


the amount of such payment in excess of the correct amount shall be treated as a payment of more than the correct amount to such other person. If any payment of more than the correct amount is made to a representative payee on behalf of an individual after the individual's death, the representative payee shall be liable for the repayment of the overpayment, and the Commissioner of Social Security shall establish an overpayment control record under the social security account number of the representative payee.

(b) No recovery from persons without fault

In any case in which more than the correct amount of payment has been made, there shall be no adjustment of payments to, or recovery by the United States from, any person who is without fault if such adjustment or recovery would defeat the purpose of this subchapter or would be against equity and good conscience. In making for purposes of this subsection any determination of whether any individual is without fault, the Commissioner of Social Security shall specifically take into account any physical, mental, educational, or linguistic limitation such individual may have (including any lack of facility with the English language).

(c) Nonliability of certifying and disbursing officers

No certifying or disbursing officer shall be held liable for any amount certified or paid by him to any person where the adjustment or recovery of such amount is waived under subsection (b) of this section, or where adjustment under subsection (a) of this section is not completed prior to the death of all persons against whose benefits deductions are authorized.

(d) Payment to survivors or heirs when eligible person is deceased

If an individual dies before any payment due him under this subchapter is completed, payment of the amount due (including the amount of any unnegotiated checks) shall be made—

(1) to the person, if any, who is determined by the Commissioner of Social Security to be the surviving spouse of the deceased individual and who either (i) was living in the same household with the deceased at the time of his death or (ii) was, for the month in which the deceased individual died, entitled to a monthly benefit on the basis of the same wages and self-employment income as was the deceased individual;

(2) if there is no person who meets the requirements of paragraph (1), or if the person who meets such requirements dies before the payment due him under this subchapter is completed, to the child or children, if any, of the deceased individual who were, for the month in which the deceased individual died, entitled to monthly benefits on the basis of the same wages and self-employment income as was the deceased individual (and, in case there is more than one such child, in equal parts to each such child);

(3) if there is no person who meets the requirements of paragraph (1) or (2), or if each person who meets such requirements dies before the payment due him under this subchapter is completed, to the parent or parents, if any, of the deceased individual who were, for the month in which the deceased individual died, entitled to monthly benefits on the basis of the same wages and self-employment income as was the deceased individual (and, in case there is more than one such parent, in equal parts to each such parent);

(4) if there is no person who meets the requirements of paragraph (1), (2), or (3), or if each person who meets such requirements dies before the payment due him under this subchapter is completed, to the person, if any, determined by the Commissioner of Social Security to be the surviving spouse of the deceased individual;

(5) if there is no person who meets the requirements of paragraph (1), (2), (3), or (4), or if each person who meets such requirements dies before the payment due him under this subchapter is completed, to the person or persons, if any, determined by the Commissioner of Social Security to be the child or children of the deceased individual (and, in case there is more than one such child, in equal parts to each such child);

(6) if there is no person who meets the requirements of paragraph (1), (2), (3), (4), or (5), or if each person who meets such requirements dies before the payment due him under this subchapter is completed, to the parent or parents, if any, of the deceased individual (and, in case there is more than one such parent, in equal parts to each such parent); or

(7) if there is no person who meets the requirements of paragraph (1), (2), (3), (4), (5), or (6), or if each person who meets such requirements dies before the payment due him under this subchapter is completed, to the legal representative of the estate of the deceased individual, if any.

(e) Adjustments due to supplemental security income payments

For payments which are adjusted by reason of payment of benefits under the supplemental security income program established by subchapter XVI of this chapter, see section 1320a–6 of this title.

(f) Collection of delinquent amounts

(1) With respect to any deliquent 1 amount, the Commissioner of Social Security may use the collection practices described in sections 3711(f), 3716, 3717, and 3718 of title 31 and in section 5514 of title 5, all as in effect immediately after April 26, 1996.

(2) For purposes of paragraph (1), the term “delinquent amount” means an amount—

(A) in excess of the correct amount of payment under this subchapter;

(B) paid to a person after such person has attained 18 years of age; and

(C) determined by the Commissioner of Social Security, under regulations, to be otherwise unrecoverable under this section after such person ceases to be a beneficiary under this subchapter.

(g) Cross-program recovery of overpayments

For provisions relating to the cross-program recovery of overpayments made under programs administered by the Commissioner of Social Security, see section 1320b–17 of this title.

(Aug. 14, 1935, ch. 531, title II, §204, 49 Stat. 624; Aug. 10, 1939, ch. 666, title II, §201, 53 Stat. 1362, 1368; Aug. 28, 1950, ch. 809, title I, §109(b)(1), 64 Stat. 523; Sept. 1, 1954, ch. 1206, title I, §111(a), 68 Stat. 1085; Pub. L. 89–97, title III, §329, July 30, 1965, 79 Stat. 401; Pub. L. 90–248, title I, §§152, 153(a), 154(a), Jan. 2, 1968, 81 Stat. 860, 861; Pub. L. 96–265, title V, §501(b), June 9, 1980, 94 Stat. 470; Pub. L. 99–272, title XII, §12113(a), Apr. 7, 1986, 100 Stat. 288; Pub. L. 101–239, title X, §10305(b), Dec. 19, 1989, 103 Stat. 2483; Pub. L. 101–508, title V, §5129(a), Nov. 5, 1990, 104 Stat. 1388–287; Pub. L. 103–296, title I, §107(a)(4), Aug. 15, 1994, 108 Stat. 1478; Pub. L. 103–387, §5(a), Oct. 22, 1994, 108 Stat. 4077; Pub. L. 104–134, title III, §31001(z)(2)(A), Apr. 26, 1996, 110 Stat. 1321–379; Pub. L. 104–316, title I, §115(g)(2)(E), Oct. 19, 1996, 110 Stat. 3835; Pub. L. 105–306, §8(b)(1), Oct. 28, 1998, 112 Stat. 2929; Pub. L. 106–169, title II, §§201(a), 203(c), Dec. 14, 1999, 113 Stat. 1831, 1832; Pub. L. 108–203, title II, §210(b)(1), Mar. 2, 2004, 118 Stat. 517; Pub. L. 111–115, §2(a), Dec. 15, 2009, 123 Stat. 3029.)

Amendments

2009—Subsec. (a)(1)(B). Pub. L. 111–115 designated existing provisions as cl. (i), substituted “Subject to clause (ii), with” for “With”, and added cls. (ii) and (iii).

2004—Subsec. (g). Pub. L. 108–203 amended subsec. (g) generally. Prior to amendment, subsec. (g) read as follows: “For payments which are adjusted or withheld to recover an overpayment of supplemental security income benefits paid under subchapter XVI of this chapter (including State supplementary payments paid under an agreement pursuant to section 1382e(a) of this title or section 212(b) of Public Law 93–66), see section 1320b–17 of this title.”

1999—Subsec. (a)(2). Pub. L. 106–169, §201(a), inserted at end “If any payment of more than the correct amount is made to a representative payee on behalf of an individual after the individual's death, the representative payee shall be liable for the repayment of the overpayment, and the Commissioner of Social Security shall establish an overpayment control record under the social security account number of the representative payee.”

Subsec. (f)(1). Pub. L. 106–169, §203(c), substituted “3711(f)” for “3711(e)” and inserted “all” before “as in effect”.

1998—Subsec. (g). Pub. L. 105–306 added subsec. (g).

1996—Subsec. (f). Pub. L. 104–134, which directed that subsec. (f) be amended to read as follows: “(f)(1) With respect to any deliquent amount, the Commissioner of Social Security may use the collection practices described in sections 3711(f), 3716, 3717, and 3718 of title 31 and in section 5514 of title 5, as in effect immediately after April 26, 1996.”, was executed by substituting the new language for par. (1) only to reflect the probable intent of Congress. Prior to amendment, par. (1) read as follows: “With respect to any delinquent amount, the Commissioner of Social Security may use the collection practices described in sections 3711(f), 3716, and 3718 of title 31 as in effect on October 1, 1994.”

Subsec. (f)(1). Pub. L. 104–316 substituted “sections 3711(e)” for “sections 3711(f)”.

1994—Subsecs. (a)(1), (b), (d)(1), (4), (5). Pub. L. 103–296, §107(a)(4), substituted “Commissioner of Social Security” for “Secretary” wherever appearing.

Subsec. (f). Pub. L. 103–387 added subsec. (f).

1990—Subsec. (a)(1)(A). Pub. L. 101–508 inserted “or shall obtain recovery by means of reduction in tax refunds based on notice to the Secretary of the Treasury as permitted under section 3720A of title 31,” after “payments to such overpaid person,”.

1989—Subsec. (b). Pub. L. 101–239 inserted at end “In making for purposes of this subsection any determination of whether any individual is without fault, the Secretary shall specifically take into account any physical, mental, educational, or linguistic limitation such individual may have (including any lack of facility with the English language).”

1986—Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 99–272 redesignated existing subsec. (a) as (a)(1) and pars. (1) and (2) thereof as subpars. (A) and (B), respectively, and added par. (2).

1980—Subsec. (e). Pub. L. 96–265 added subsec. (e).

1968—Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 90–248, §152(a), incorporated in text preceding par. (1) part of existing provisions and broadened the Secretary's authority to include recovery of overpayments.

Subsec. (a)(1). Pub. L. 90–248, §153(a), inserted last sentence which provided that payments made on an erroneous report by the Defense Department of the death, in the line of duty, of a member of the uniformed services on active duty are not to be deemed incorrect payments until the Department notifies the Secretary that he is alive.

Subsec. (a)(2). Pub. L. 90–248, §152(a), incorporated in par. (2) part of existing provisions and broadened Secretary's authority to provide that in the case of underpayments, the Secretary is to pay the balance due the underpaid person but if he dies before receiving the full amount due him or before negotiating checks representing the correct payments, the balance due or the amount for which the checks were issued but not negotiated are to be paid under subsec. (d) of this section.

Subsec. (b). Pub. L. 90–248, §152(b), authorized the Secretary to waive adjustment or recovery of overpayments from any person who is without fault, even where he is not the overpaid person and the latter is at fault, whereas heretofore a condition for waiver was that the overpaid person be without fault.

Subsec. (d). Pub. L. 90–248, §154(a), struck out, in text preceding par. (1), provision excepting subsec. (d) from subsec. (a) and provision that the total amount due at the time of death may not exceed the amount of the monthly insurance benefit to which an individual was entitled for the month preceding the month in which he died, added cl. (ii) in par. (1), added pars. (2) to (6), designated existing provisions as par. (7) and inserted therein references to pars. (1) to (6).

1965—Subsec. (d). Pub. L. 89–97 added subsec. (d).

1954—Subsec. (a). Act Sept. 1, 1954, inserted “and self-employment income” after “wages” in second sentence.

1950—Act Aug. 28, 1950, substituted “Administrator” for “board”.

1939—Act Aug. 10, 1939, omitted former provisions relating to payments to aged individuals not qualified for benefits and substituted the present section relating to overpayments and underpayments.

Effective Date of 2009 Amendment

Pub. L. 111–115, §2(c), Dec. 15, 2009, 123 Stat. 3030, provided that: “The amendments made by this section [amending this section and section 1383 of this title] shall be effective for payments that would otherwise be made on or after the date of the enactment of this Act [Dec. 15, 2009].”

Effective Date of 2004 Amendment

Pub. L. 108–203, title II, §210(c), Mar. 2, 2004, 118 Stat. 517, provided that: “The amendments and repeal made by this section [amending this section and sections 1008, 1320b–17, and 1383 of this title and repealing section 1320b–18 of this title] shall take effect on the date of enactment of this Act [Mar. 2, 2004], and shall be effective with respect to overpayments under titles II, VIII, and XVI of the Social Security Act [subchapters II, VIII, and XVI of this chapter] that are outstanding on or after such date.”

Effective Date of 1999 Amendment

Pub. L. 106–169, title II, §201(c), Dec. 14, 1999, 113 Stat. 1831, provided that: “The amendments made by this section [amending this section and section 1383 of this title] shall apply to overpayments made 12 months or more after the date of the enactment of this Act [Dec. 14, 1999].”

Amendment by section 203(c) of Pub. L. 106–169 applicable to debt outstanding on or after Dec. 14, 1999, see section 203(d) of Pub. L. 106–169, set out as a note under section 3701 of Title 31, Money and Finance.

Effective Date of 1998 Amendment

Pub. L. 105–306, §8(c), Oct. 28, 1998, 112 Stat. 2930, provided that: “The amendments made by this section [enacting section 1320b–17 of this title and amending this section and section 1383 of this title] shall take effect on the date of the enactment of this Act [Oct. 28, 1998] and shall apply to amounts incorrectly paid which remain outstanding on or after such date.”

Effective Date of 1994 Amendments

Amendment by Pub. L. 103–387 applicable to collection activities begun on or after Oct. 22, 1994, see section 5(c) of Pub. L. 103–387, as amended, set out as a note under section 3701 of Title 31, Money and Finance.

Amendment by Pub. L. 103–296 effective Mar. 31, 1995, see section 110(a) of Pub. L. 103–296, set out as a note under section 401 of this title.

Effective Date of 1990 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 101–508 effective Jan. 1, 1991, and inapplicable to refunds to which the amendments made by section 2653 of the Deficit Reduction Act of 1984, Pub. L. 98–369, do not apply, see section 5129(d) of Pub. L. 101–508, set out as a note under section 6402 of Title 26, Internal Revenue Code.

Effective Date of 1989 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 101–239 applicable with respect to determinations made on or after July 1, 1990, see section 10305(f) of Pub. L. 101–239, set out as a note under section 403 of this title.

Effective Date of 1986 Amendment

Section 12113(c) of Pub. L. 99–272 provided that: “The amendments made by this section [amending this section and section 1383 of this title] shall apply only in the case of deaths of which the Secretary is first notified on or after the date of the enactment of this Act [Apr. 7, 1986].”

Effective Date of 1980 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 96–265 applicable in the case of payments of monthly insurance benefits under this subchapter, entitlement for which is determined on or after July 1, 1981, see section 501(d) of Pub. L. 96–265, set out as an Effective Date note under section 1320a–6 of this title.

Effective Date of 1968 Amendment

Section 153(b) of Pub. L. 90–248 provided that: “The amendment made by this section [amending this section] shall apply with respect to benefits under title II of the Social Security Act [this subchapter] if the individual to whom such benefits were paid would have been entitled to such benefits in or after the month in which this Act was enacted [January 1968] if the report mentioned in the amendment made by subsection (a) of this section had been correct (but without regard to the provisions of section 202(j)(1) of such Act [section 402(j)(1) of this title]).”

Effective Date of 1939 Amendment

Section 201 of act Aug. 10, 1939, provided that the amendment made by that section is effective Jan. 1, 1940.

1 So in original. Probably should be “delinquent”.

§405. Evidence, procedure, and certification for payments

(a) Rules and regulations; procedures

The Commissioner of Social Security shall have full power and authority to make rules and regulations and to establish procedures, not inconsistent with the provisions of this subchapter, which are necessary or appropriate to carry out such provisions, and shall adopt reasonable and proper rules and regulations to regulate and provide for the nature and extent of the proofs and evidence and the method of taking and furnishing the same in order to establish the right to benefits hereunder.

(b) Administrative determination of entitlement to benefits; findings of fact; hearings; investigations; evidentiary hearings in reconsiderations of disability benefit terminations; subsequent applications

(1) The Commissioner of Social Security is directed to make findings of fact, and decisions as to the rights of any individual applying for a payment under this subchapter. Any such decision by the Commissioner of Social Security which involves a determination of disability and which is in whole or in part unfavorable to such individual shall contain a statement of the case, in understandable language, setting forth a discussion of the evidence, and stating the Commissioner's determination and the reason or reasons upon which it is based. Upon request by any such individual or upon request by a wife, divorced wife, widow, surviving divorced wife, surviving divorced mother, surviving divorced father, husband, divorced husband, widower, surviving divorced husband, child, or parent who makes a showing in writing that his or her rights may be prejudiced by any decision the Commissioner of Social Security has rendered, the Commissioner shall give such applicant and such other individual reasonable notice and opportunity for a hearing with respect to such decision, and, if a hearing is held, shall, on the basis of evidence adduced at the hearing, affirm, modify, or reverse the Commissioner's findings of fact and such decision. Any such request with respect to such a decision must be filed within sixty days after notice of such decision is received by the individual making such request. The Commissioner of Social Security is further authorized, on the Commissioner's own motion, to hold such hearings and to conduct such investigations and other proceedings as the Commissioner may deem necessary or proper for the administration of this subchapter. In the course of any hearing, investigation, or other proceeding, the Commissioner may administer oaths and affirmations, examine witnesses, and receive evidence. Evidence may be received at any hearing before the Commissioner of Social Security even though inadmissible under rules of evidence applicable to court procedure.

(2) In any case where—

(A) an individual is a recipient of disability insurance benefits, or of child's, widow's, or widower's insurance benefits based on disability,

(B) the physical or mental impairment on the basis of which such benefits are payable is found to have ceased, not to have existed, or to no longer be disabling, and

(C) as a consequence of the finding described in subparagraph (B), such individual is determined by the Commissioner of Social Security not to be entitled to such benefits,


any reconsideration of the finding described in subparagraph (B), in connection with a reconsideration by the Commissioner of Social Security (before any hearing under paragraph (1) on the issue of such entitlement) of the Commissioner's determination described in subparagraph (C), shall be made only after opportunity for an evidentiary hearing, with regard to the finding described in subparagraph (B), which is reasonably accessible to such individual. Any reconsideration of a finding described in subparagraph (B) may be made either by the State agency or the Commissioner of Social Security where the finding was originally made by the State agency, and shall be made by the Commissioner of Social Security where the finding was originally made by the Commissioner of Social Security. In the case of a reconsideration by a State agency of a finding described in subparagraph (B) which was originally made by such State agency, the evidentiary hearing shall be held by an adjudicatory unit of the State agency other than the unit that made the finding described in subparagraph (B). In the case of a reconsideration by the Commissioner of Social Security of a finding described in subparagraph (B) which was originally made by the Commissioner of Social Security, the evidentiary hearing shall be held by a person other than the person or persons who made the finding described in subparagraph (B).

(3)(A) A failure to timely request review of an initial adverse determination with respect to an application for any benefit under this subchapter or an adverse determination on reconsideration of such an initial determination shall not serve as a basis for denial of a subsequent application for any benefit under this subchapter if the applicant demonstrates that the applicant, or any other individual referred to in paragraph (1), failed to so request such a review acting in good faith reliance upon incorrect, incomplete, or misleading information, relating to the consequences of reapplying for benefits in lieu of seeking review of an adverse determination, provided by any officer or employee of the Social Security Administration or any State agency acting under section 421 of this title.

(B) In any notice of an adverse determination with respect to which a review may be requested under paragraph (1), the Commissioner of Social Security shall describe in clear and specific language the effect on possible entitlement to benefits under this subchapter of choosing to reapply in lieu of requesting review of the determination.

(c) Wage records

(1) For the purposes of this subsection—

(A) The term “year” means a calendar year when used with respect to wages and a taxable year when used with respect to self-employment income.

(B) The term “time limitation” means a period of three years, three months, and fifteen days.

(C) The term “survivor” means an individual's spouse, surviving divorced wife, surviving divorced husband, surviving divorced mother, surviving divorced father, child, or parent, who survives such individual.

(D) The term “period” when used with respect to self-employment income means a taxable year and when used with respect to wages means—

(i) a quarter if wages were reported or should have been reported on a quarterly basis on tax returns filed with the Secretary of the Treasury or his delegate under section 6011 of the Internal Revenue Code of 1986 or regulations thereunder (or on reports filed by a State under section 418(e) 1 of this title (as in effect prior to December 31, 1986) or regulations thereunder),

(ii) a year if wages were reported or should have been reported on a yearly basis on such tax returns or reports, or

(iii) the half year beginning January 1 or July 1 in the case of wages which were reported or should have been reported for calendar year 1937.


(2)(A) On the basis of information obtained by or submitted to the Commissioner of Social Security, and after such verification thereof as the Commissioner deems necessary, the Commissioner of Social Security shall establish and maintain records of the amounts of wages paid to, and the amounts of self-employment income derived by, each individual and of the periods in which such wages were paid and such income was derived and, upon request, shall inform any individual or his survivor, or the legal representative of such individual or his estate, of the amounts of wages and self-employment income of such individual and the periods during which such wages were paid and such income was derived, as shown by such records at the time of such request.

(B)(i) In carrying out the Commissioner's duties under subparagraph (A) and subparagraph (F), the Commissioner of Social Security shall take affirmative measures to assure that social security account numbers will, to the maximum extent practicable, be assigned to all members of appropriate groups or categories of individuals by assigning such numbers (or ascertaining that such numbers have already been assigned):

(I) to aliens at the time of their lawful admission to the United States either for permanent residence or under other authority of law permitting them to engage in employment in the United States and to other aliens at such time as their status is so changed as to make it lawful for them to engage in such employment;

(II) to any individual who is an applicant for or recipient of benefits under any program financed in whole or in part from Federal funds including any child on whose behalf such benefits are claimed by another person; and

(III) to any other individual when it appears that he could have been but was not assigned an account number under the provisions of subclauses (I) or (II) but only after such investigation as is necessary to establish to the satisfaction of the Commissioner of Social Security, the identity of such individual, the fact that an account number has not already been assigned to such individual, and the fact that such individual is a citizen or a noncitizen who is not, because of his alien status, prohibited from engaging in employment;


and, in carrying out such duties, the Commissioner of Social Security is authorized to take affirmative measures to assure the issuance of social security numbers:

(IV) to or on behalf of children who are below school age at the request of their parents or guardians; and

(V) to children of school age at the time of their first enrollment in school.


(ii) The Commissioner of Social Security shall require of applicants for social security account numbers such evidence as may be necessary to establish the age, citizenship, or alien status, and true identity of such applicants, and to determine which (if any) social security account number has previously been assigned to such individual. With respect to an application for a social security account number for an individual who has not attained the age of 18 before such application, such evidence shall include the information described in subparagraph (C)(ii).

(iii) In carrying out the requirements of this subparagraph, the Commissioner of Social Security shall enter into such agreements as may be necessary with the Attorney General and other officials and with State and local welfare agencies and school authorities (including nonpublic school authorities).

(C)(i) It is the policy of the United States that any State (or political subdivision thereof) may, in the administration of any tax, general public assistance, driver's license, or motor vehicle registration law within its jurisdiction, utilize the social security account numbers issued by the Commissioner of Social Security for the purpose of establishing the identification of individuals affected by such law, and may require any individual who is or appears to be so affected to furnish to such State (or political subdivision thereof) or any agency thereof having administrative responsibility for the law involved, the social security account number (or numbers, if he has more than one such number) issued to him by the Commissioner of Social Security.

(ii) In the administration of any law involving the issuance of a birth certificate, each State shall require each parent to furnish to such State (or political subdivision thereof) or any agency thereof having administrative responsibility for the law involved, the social security account number (or numbers, if the parent has more than one such number) issued to the parent unless the State (in accordance with regulations prescribed by the Commissioner of Social Security) finds good cause for not requiring the furnishing of such number. The State shall make numbers furnished under this subclause available to the Commissioner of Social Security and the agency administering the State's plan under part D of subchapter IV of this chapter in accordance with Federal or State law and regulation. Such numbers shall not be recorded on the birth certificate. A State shall not use any social security account number, obtained with respect to the issuance by the State of a birth certificate, for any purpose other than for the enforcement of child support orders in effect in the State, unless section 7(a) of the Privacy Act of 1974 does not prohibit the State from requiring the disclosure of such number, by reason of the State having adopted, before January 1, 1975, a statute or regulation requiring such disclosure.

(iii)(I) In the administration of section 9 of the Food and Nutrition Act of 2008 (7 U.S.C. 2018) involving the determination of the qualifications of applicants under such Act [7 U.S.C. 2011 et seq.], the Secretary of Agriculture may require each applicant retail store or wholesale food concern to furnish to the Secretary of Agriculture the social security account number of each individual who is an officer of the store or concern and, in the case of a privately owned applicant, furnish the social security account numbers of the owners of such applicant. No officer or employee of the Department of Agriculture shall have access to any such number for any purpose other than the establishment and maintenance of a list of the names and social security account numbers of such individuals for use in determining those applicants who have been previously sanctioned or convicted under section 12 or 15 of such Act (7 U.S.C. 2021 or 2024).

(II) The Secretary of Agriculture may share any information contained in any list referred to in subclause (I) with any other agency or instrumentality of the United States which otherwise has access to social security account numbers in accordance with this subsection or other applicable Federal law, except that the Secretary of Agriculture may share such information only to the extent that such Secretary determines such sharing would assist in verifying and matching such information against information maintained by such other agency or instrumentality. Any such information shared pursuant to this subclause may be used by such other agency or instrumentality only for the purpose of effective administration and enforcement of the Food and Nutrition Act of 2008 [7 U.S.C. 2011 et seq.] or for the purpose of investigation of violations of other Federal laws or enforcement of such laws.

(III) The Secretary of Agriculture, and the head of any other agency or instrumentality referred to in this subclause, shall restrict, to the satisfaction of the Commissioner of Social Security, access to social security account numbers obtained pursuant to this clause only to officers and employees of the United States whose duties or responsibilities require access for the purposes described in subclause (II).

(IV) The Secretary of Agriculture, and the head of any agency or instrumentality with which information is shared pursuant to clause 2 (II), shall provide such other safeguards as the Commissioner of Social Security determines to be necessary or appropriate to protect the confidentiality of the social security account numbers.

(iv) In the administration of section 506 of the Federal Crop Insurance Act [7 U.S.C. 1506], the Federal Crop Insurance Corporation may require each policyholder and each reinsured company to furnish to the insurer or to the Corporation the social security account number of such policyholder, subject to the requirements of this clause. No officer or employee of the Federal Crop Insurance Corporation shall have access to any such number for any purpose other than the establishment of a system of records necessary for the effective administration of such Act [7 U.S.C. 1501 et seq.]. The Manager of the Corporation may require each policyholder to provide to the Manager, at such times and in such manner as prescribed by the Manager, the social security account number of each individual that holds or acquires a substantial beneficial interest in the policyholder. For purposes of this clause, the term “substantial beneficial interest” means not less than 5 percent of all beneficial interest in the policyholder. The Secretary of Agriculture shall restrict, to the satisfaction of the Commissioner of Social Security, access to social security account numbers obtained pursuant to this clause only to officers and employees of the United States or authorized persons whose duties or responsibilities require access for the administration of the Federal Crop Insurance Act. The Secretary of Agriculture shall provide such other safeguards as the Commissioner of Social Security determines to be necessary or appropriate to protect the confidentiality of such social security account numbers. For purposes of this clause the term “authorized person” means an officer or employee of an insurer whom the Manager of the Corporation designates by rule, subject to appropriate safeguards including a prohibition against the release of such social security account number (other than to the Corporation) by such person.

(v) If and to the extent that any provision of Federal law heretofore enacted is inconsistent with the policy set forth in clause (i), such provision shall, on and after October 4, 1976, be null, void, and of no effect. If and to the extent that any such provision is inconsistent with the requirement set forth in clause (ii), such provision shall, on and after October 13, 1988, be null, void, and of no effect.

(vi)(I) For purposes of clause (i) of this subparagraph, an agency of a State (or political subdivision thereof) charged with the administration of any general public assistance, driver's license, or motor vehicle registration law which did not use the social security account number for identification under a law or regulation adopted before January 1, 1975, may require an individual to disclose his or her social security number to such agency solely for the purpose of administering the laws referred to in clause (i) above and for the purpose of responding to requests for information from an agency administering a program funded under part A of subchapter IV of this chapter or an agency operating pursuant to the provisions of part D of such subchapter.

(II) Any State or political subdivision thereof (and any person acting as an agent of such an agency or instrumentality), in the administration of any driver's license or motor vehicle registration law within its jurisdiction, may not display a social security account number issued by the Commissioner of Social Security (or any derivative of such number) on any driver's license, motor vehicle registration, or personal identification card (as defined in section 7212(a)(2) of the 9/11 Commission Implementation Act of 2004), or include, on any such license, registration, or personal identification card, a magnetic strip, bar code, or other means of communication which conveys such number (or derivative thereof).

(vii) For purposes of this subparagraph, the term “State” includes the District of Columbia, the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico, the Virgin Islands, Guam, the Commonwealth of the Northern Marianas, and the Trust Territory of the Pacific Islands.

(viii)(I) Social security account numbers and related records that are obtained or maintained by authorized persons pursuant to any provision of law enacted on or after October 1, 1990, shall be confidential, and no authorized person shall disclose any such social security account number or related record.

(II) Paragraphs (1), (2), and (3) of section 7213(a) of the Internal Revenue Code of 1986 shall apply with respect to the unauthorized willful disclosure to any person of social security account numbers and related records obtained or maintained by an authorized person pursuant to a provision of law enacted on or after October 1, 1990, in the same manner and to the same extent as such paragraphs apply with respect to unauthorized disclosures of return and return information described in such paragraphs. Paragraph (4) of section 7213(a) of such Code shall apply with respect to the willful offer of any item of material value in exchange for any such social security account number or related record in the same manner and to the same extent as such paragraph applies with respect to offers (in exchange for any return or return information) described in such paragraph.

(III) For purposes of this clause, the term “authorized person” means an officer or employee of the United States, an officer or employee of any State, political subdivision of a State, or agency of a State or political subdivision of a State, and any other person (or officer or employee thereof), who has or had access to social security account numbers or related records pursuant to any provision of law enacted on or after October 1, 1990. For purposes of this subclause, the term “officer or employee” includes a former officer or employee.

(IV) For purposes of this clause, the term “related record” means any record, list, or compilation that indicates, directly or indirectly, the identity of any individual with respect to whom a social security account number or a request for a social security account number is maintained pursuant to this clause.

(ix) In the administration of the provisions of chapter 81 of title 5 and the Longshore and Harbor Workers’ Compensation Act (33 U.S.C. 901 et seq.), the Secretary of Labor may require by regulation that any person filing a notice of injury or a claim for benefits under such provisions provide as part of such notice or claim such person's social security account number, subject to the requirements of this clause. No officer or employee of the Department of Labor shall have access to any such number for any purpose other than the establishment of a system of records necessary for the effective administration of such provisions. The Secretary of Labor shall restrict, to the satisfaction of the Commissioner of Social Security, access to social security account numbers obtained pursuant to this clause to officers and employees of the United States whose duties or responsibilities require access for the administration or enforcement of such provisions. The Secretary of Labor shall provide such other safeguards as the Commissioner of Social Security determines to be necessary or appropriate to protect the confidentiality of the social security account numbers.

(x) 3 The Secretary of Health and Human Services, and the Exchanges established under section 1311 of the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act [42 U.S.C. 18031], are authorized to collect and use the names and social security account numbers of individuals as required to administer the provisions of, and the amendments made by, the such Act.4

(x) 3 No Federal, State, or local agency may display the Social Security 5 account number of any individual, or any derivative of such number, on any check issued for any payment by the Federal, State, or local agency.

(xi) No Federal, State, or local agency may employ, or enter into a contract for the use or employment of, prisoners in any capacity that would allow such prisoners access to the Social Security 5 account numbers of other individuals. For purposes of this clause, the term “prisoner” means an individual confined in a jail, prison, or other penal institution or correctional facility pursuant to such individual's conviction of a criminal offense.

(D)(i) It is the policy of the United States that—

(I) any State (or any political subdivision of a State) and any authorized blood donation facility may utilize the social security account numbers issued by the Commissioner of Social Security for the purpose of identifying blood donors, and

(II) any State (or political subdivision of a State) may require any individual who donates blood within such State (or political subdivision) to furnish to such State (or political subdivision), to any agency thereof having related administrative responsibility, or to any authorized blood donation facility the social security account number (or numbers, if the donor has more than one such number) issued to the donor by the Commissioner of Social Security.


(ii) If and to the extent that any provision of Federal law enacted before November 10, 1988, is inconsistent with the policy set forth in clause (i), such provision shall, on and after November 10, 1988, be null, void, and of no effect.

(iii) For purposes of this subparagraph—

(I) the term “authorized blood donation facility” means an entity described in section 1320b–11(h)(1)(B) of this title, and

(II) the term “State” includes the District of Columbia, the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico, the Virgin Islands, Guam, the Commonwealth of the Northern Marianas, and the Trust Territory of the Pacific Islands.


(E)(i) It is the policy of the United States that—

(I) any State (or any political subdivision of a State) may utilize the social security account numbers issued by the Commissioner of Social Security for the additional purposes described in clause (ii) if such numbers have been collected and are otherwise utilized by such State (or political subdivision) in accordance with applicable law, and

(II) any district court of the United States may use, for such additional purposes, any such social security account numbers which have been so collected and are so utilized by any State.


(ii) The additional purposes described in this clause are the following:

(I) Identifying duplicate names of individuals on master lists used for jury selection purposes.

(II) Identifying on such master lists those individuals who are ineligible to serve on a jury by reason of their conviction of a felony.


(iii) To the extent that any provision of Federal law enacted before August 15, 1994, is inconsistent with the policy set forth in clause (i), such provision shall, on and after August 15, 1994, be null, void, and of no effect.

(iv) For purposes of this subparagraph, the term “State” has the meaning such term has in subparagraph (D).

(F) The Commissioner of Social Security shall require, as a condition for receipt of benefits under this subchapter, that an individual furnish satisfactory proof of a social security account number assigned to such individual by the Commissioner of Social Security or, in the case of an individual to whom no such number has been assigned, that such individual make proper application for assignment of such a number.

(G) The Commissioner of Social Security shall issue a social security card to each individual at the time of the issuance of a social security account number to such individual. The social security card shall be made of banknote paper, and (to the maximum extent practicable) shall be a card which cannot be counterfeited.

(H) The Commissioner of Social Security shall share with the Secretary of the Treasury the information obtained by the Commissioner pursuant to the second sentence of subparagraph (B)(ii) and to subparagraph (C)(ii) for the purpose of administering those sections of the Internal Revenue Code of 1986 which grant tax benefits based on support or residence of children.

(3) The Commissioner's records shall be evidence for the purpose of proceedings before the Commissioner of Social Security or any court of the amounts of wages paid to, and self-employment income derived by, an individual and of the periods in which such wages were paid and such income was derived. The absence of an entry in such records as to wages alleged to have been paid to, or as to self-employment income alleged to have been derived by, an individual in any period shall be evidence that no such alleged wages were paid to, or that no such alleged income was derived by, such individual during such period.

(4) Prior to the expiration of the time limitation following any year the Commissioner of Social Security may, if it is brought to the Commissioner's attention that any entry of wages or self-employment income in the Commissioner's records for such year is erroneous or that any item of wages or self-employment income for such year has been omitted from such records, correct such entry or include such omitted item in the Commissioner's records, as the case may be. After the expiration of the time limitation following any year—

(A) the Commissioner's records (with changes, if any, made pursuant to paragraph (5) of this subsection) of the amounts of wages paid to, and self-employment income derived by, an individual during any period in such year shall be conclusive for the purposes of this subchapter;

(B) the absence of an entry in the Commissioner's records as to the wages alleged to have been paid by an employer to an individual during any period in such year shall be presumptive evidence for the purposes of this subchapter that no such alleged wages were paid to such individual in such period; and

(C) the absence of an entry in the Commissioner's records as to the self-employment income alleged to have been derived by an individual in such year shall be conclusive for the purposes of this subchapter that no such alleged self-employment income was derived by such individual in such year unless it is shown that he filed a tax return of his self-employment income for such year before the expiration of the time limitation following such year, in which case the Commissioner of Social Security shall include in the Commissioner's records the self-employment income of such individual for such year.


(5) After the expiration of the time limitation following any year in which wages were paid or alleged to have been paid to, or self-employment income was derived or alleged to have been derived by, an individual, the Commissioner of Social Security may change or delete any entry with respect to wages or self-employment income in the Commissioner's records of such year for such individual or include in the Commissioner's records of such year for such individual any omitted item of wages or self-employment income but only—

(A) if an application for monthly benefits or for a lump-sum death payment was filed within the time limitation following such year; except that no such change, deletion, or inclusion may be made pursuant to this subparagraph after a final decision upon the application for monthly benefits or lump-sum death payment;

(B) if within the time limitation following such year an individual or his survivor makes a request for a change or deletion, or for an inclusion of an omitted item, and alleges in writing that the Commissioner's records of the wages paid to, or the self-employment income derived by, such individual in such year are in one or more respects erroneous; except that no such change, deletion, or inclusion may be made pursuant to this subparagraph after a final decision upon such request. Written notice of the Commissioner's decision on any such request shall be given to the individual who made the request;

(C) to correct errors apparent on the face of such records;

(D) to transfer items to records of the Railroad Retirement Board if such items were credited under this subchapter when they should have been credited under the Railroad Retirement Act of 1937 or 1974 [45 U.S.C. 228a et seq., 231 et seq.], or to enter items transferred by the Railroad Retirement Board which have been credited under the Railroad Retirement Act of 1937 or 1974 when they should have been credited under this subchapter;

(E) to delete or reduce the amount of any entry which is erroneous as a result of fraud;

(F) to conform the Commissioner's records to—

(i) tax returns or portions thereof (including information returns and other written statements) filed with the Commissioner of Internal Revenue under title VIII of the Social Security Act, under subchapter E of chapter 1 or subchapter A of chapter 9 of the Internal Revenue Code of 1939, under chapter 2 or 21 of the Internal Revenue Code of 1954 or the Internal Revenue Code of 1986, or under regulations made under authority of such title, subchapter, or chapter;

(ii) wage reports filed by a State pursuant to an agreement under section 418 of this title or regulations of the Commissioner of Social Security thereunder; or

(iii) assessments of amounts due under an agreement pursuant to section 418 of this title (as in effect prior to December 31, 1986), if such assessments are made within the period specified in subsection (q) 1 of such section (as so in effect), or allowances of credits or refunds of overpayments by a State under an agreement pursuant to such section;


except that no amount of self-employment income of an individual for any taxable year (if such return or statement was filed after the expiration of the time limitation following the taxable year) shall be included in the Commissioner's records pursuant to this subparagraph;

(G) to correct errors made in the allocation, to individuals or periods, of wages or self-employment income entered in the records of the Commissioner of Social Security;

(H) to include wages paid during any period in such year to an individual by an employer;

(I) to enter items which constitute remuneration for employment under subsection (o) of this section, such entries to be in accordance with certified reports of records made by the Railroad Retirement Board pursuant to section 5(k)(3) of the Railroad Retirement Act of 1937 [45 U.S.C. 228e(k)(3)] or section 7(b)(7) of the Railroad Retirement Act of 1974 [45 U.S.C. 231f(b)(7)]; or

(J) to include self-employment income for any taxable year, up to, but not in excess of, the amount of wages deleted by the Commissioner of Social Security as payments erroneously included in such records as wages paid to such individual, if such income (or net earnings from self-employment), not already included in such records as self-employment income, is included in a return or statement (referred to in subparagraph (F) of this subsection) filed before the expiration of the time limitation following the taxable year in which such deletion of wages is made.


(6) Written notice of any deletion or reduction under paragraph (4) or (5) of this subsection shall be given to the individual whose record is involved or to his survivor, except that (A) in the case of a deletion or reduction with respect to any entry of wages such notice shall be given to such individual only if he has previously been notified by the Commissioner of Social Security of the amount of his wages for the period involved, and (B) such notice shall be given to such survivor only if he or the individual whose record is involved has previously been notified by the Commissioner of Social Security of the amount of such individual's wages and self-employment income for the period involved.

(7) Upon request in writing (within such period, after any change or refusal of a request for a change of the Commissioner's records pursuant to this subsection, as the Commissioner of Social Security may prescribe), opportunity for hearing with respect to such change or refusal shall be afforded to any individual or his survivor. If a hearing is held pursuant to this paragraph the Commissioner of Social Security shall make findings of fact and a decision based upon the evidence adduced at such hearing and shall include any omitted items, or change or delete any entry, in the Commissioner's records as may be required by such findings and decision.

(8) A translation into English by a third party of a statement made in a foreign language by an applicant for or beneficiary of monthly insurance benefits under this subchapter shall not be regarded as reliable for any purpose under this subchapter unless the third party, under penalty of perjury—

(A) certifies that the translation is accurate; and

(B) discloses the nature and scope of the relationship between the third party and the applicant or recipient, as the case may be.


(9) Decisions of the Commissioner of Social Security under this subsection shall be reviewable by commencing a civil action in the United States district court as provided in subsection (g) of this section.

(d) Issuance of subpenas in administrative proceedings

For the purpose of any hearing, investigation, or other proceeding authorized or directed under this subchapter, or relative to any other matter within the Commissioner's jurisdiction hereunder, the Commissioner of Social Security shall have power to issue subpenas requiring the attendance and testimony of witnesses and the production of any evidence that relates to any matter under investigation or in question before the Commissioner of Social Security. Such attendance of witnesses and production of evidence at the designated place of such hearing, investigation, or other proceeding may be required from any place in the United States or in any Territory or possession thereof. Subpenas of the Commissioner of Social Security shall be served by anyone authorized by the Commissioner (1) by delivering a copy thereof to the individual named therein, or (2) by registered mail or by certified mail addressed to such individual at his last dwelling place or principal place of business. A verified return by the individual so serving the subpena setting forth the manner of service, or, in the case of service by registered mail or by certified mail, the return post-office receipt therefor signed by the individual so served, shall be proof of service. Witnesses so subpenaed shall be paid the same fees and mileage as are paid witnesses in the district courts of the United States.

(e) Judicial enforcement of subpenas; contempt

In case of contumacy by, or refusal to obey a subpena duly served upon, any person, any district court of the United States for the judicial district in which said person charged with contumacy or refusal to obey is found or resides or transacts business, upon application by the Commissioner of Social Security, shall have jurisdiction to issue an order requiring such person to appear and give testimony, or to appear and produce evidence, or both; any failure to obey such order of the court may be punished by said court as contempt thereof.

(f) Repealed. Pub. L. 91–452, title II, §236, Oct. 15, 1970, 84 Stat. 930

(g) Judicial review

Any individual, after any final decision of the Commissioner of Social Security made after a hearing to which he was a party, irrespective of the amount in controversy, may obtain a review of such decision by a civil action commenced within sixty days after the mailing to him of notice of such decision or within such further time as the Commissioner of Social Security may allow. Such action shall be brought in the district court of the United States for the judicial district in which the plaintiff resides, or has his principal place of business, or, if he does not reside or have his principal place of business within any such judicial district, in the United States District Court for the District of Columbia. As part of the Commissioner's answer the Commissioner of Social Security shall file a certified copy of the transcript of the record including the evidence upon which the findings and decision complained of are based. The court shall have power to enter, upon the pleadings and transcript of the record, a judgment affirming, modifying, or reversing the decision of the Commissioner of Social Security, with or without remanding the cause for a rehearing. The findings of the Commissioner of Social Security as to any fact, if supported by substantial evidence, shall be conclusive, and where a claim has been denied by the Commissioner of Social Security or a decision is rendered under subsection (b) of this section which is adverse to an individual who was a party to the hearing before the Commissioner of Social Security, because of failure of the claimant or such individual to submit proof in conformity with any regulation prescribed under subsection (a) of this section, the court shall review only the question of conformity with such regulations and the validity of such regulations. The court may, on motion of the Commissioner of Social Security made for good cause shown before the Commissioner files the Commissioner's answer, remand the case to the Commissioner of Social Security for further action by the Commissioner of Social Security, and it may at any time order additional evidence to be taken before the Commissioner of Social Security, but only upon a showing that there is new evidence which is material and that there is good cause for the failure to incorporate such evidence into the record in a prior proceeding; and the Commissioner of Social Security shall, after the case is remanded, and after hearing such additional evidence if so ordered, modify or affirm the Commissioner's findings of fact or the Commissioner's decision, or both, and shall file with the court any such additional and modified findings of fact and decision, and, in any case in which the Commissioner has not made a decision fully favorable to the individual, a transcript of the additional record and testimony upon which the Commissioner's action in modifying or affirming was based. Such additional or modified findings of fact and decision shall be reviewable only to the extent provided for review of the original findings of fact and decision. The judgment of the court shall be final except that it shall be subject to review in the same manner as a judgment in other civil actions. Any action instituted in accordance with this subsection shall survive notwithstanding any change in the person occupying the office of Commissioner of Social Security or any vacancy in such office.

(h) Finality of Commissioner's decision

The findings and decision of the Commissioner of Social Security after a hearing shall be binding upon all individuals who were parties to such hearing. No findings of fact or decision of the Commissioner of Social Security shall be reviewed by any person, tribunal, or governmental agency except as herein provided. No action against the United States, the Commissioner of Social Security, or any officer or employee thereof shall be brought under section 1331 or 1346 of title 28 to recover on any claim arising under this subchapter.

(i) Certification for payment

Upon final decision of the Commissioner of Social Security, or upon final judgment of any court of competent jurisdiction, that any person is entitled to any payment or payments under this subchapter, the Commissioner of Social Security shall certify to the Managing Trustee the name and address of the person so entitled to receive such payment or payments, the amount of such payment or payments, and the time at which such payment or payments should be made, and the Managing Trustee, through the Fiscal Service of the Department of the Treasury, and prior to any action thereon by the Government Accountability Office, shall make payment in accordance with the certification of the Commissioner of Social Security (except that in the case of (A) an individual who will have completed ten years of service (or five or more years of service, all of which accrues after December 31, 1995) creditable under the Railroad Retirement Act of 1937 [45 U.S.C. 228a et seq.] or the Railroad Retirement Act of 1974 [45 U.S.C. 231 et seq.], (B) the wife or husband of such an individual, (C) any survivor of such an individual if such survivor is entitled, or could upon application become entitled, to an annuity under section 2 of the Railroad Retirement Act of 1974 [45 U.S.C. 231a], and (D) any other person entitled to benefits under section 402 of this title on the basis of the wages and self-employment income of such an individual (except a survivor of such an individual where such individual did not have a current connection with the railroad industry, as defined in the Railroad Retirement Act of 1974, at the time of his death), such certification shall be made to the Railroad Retirement Board which shall provide for such payment or payments to such person on behalf of the Managing Trustee in accordance with the provisions of the Railroad Retirement Act of 1974): Provided, That where a review of the Commissioner's decision is or may be sought under subsection (g) of this section the Commissioner of Social Security may withhold certification of payment pending such review. The Managing Trustee shall not be held personally liable for any payment or payments made in accordance with a certification by the Commissioner of Social Security.

(j) Representative payees

(1)(A) If the Commissioner of Social Security determines that the interest of any individual under this subchapter would be served thereby, certification of payment of such individual's benefit under this subchapter may be made, regardless of the legal competency or incompetency of the individual, either for direct payment to the individual, or for his or her use and benefit, to another individual, or an organization, with respect to whom the requirements of paragraph (2) have been met (hereinafter in this subsection referred to as the individual's “representative payee”). If the Commissioner of Social Security or a court of competent jurisdiction determines that a representative payee has misused any individual's benefit paid to such representative payee pursuant to this subsection or section 1007 or 1383(a)(2) of this title, the Commissioner of Social Security shall promptly revoke certification for payment of benefits to such representative payee pursuant to this subsection and certify payment to an alternative representative payee or, if the interest of the individual under this subchapter would be served thereby, to the individual.

(B) In the case of an individual entitled to benefits based on disability, the payment of such benefits shall be made to a representative payee if the Commissioner of Social Security determines that such payment would serve the interest of the individual because the individual also has an alcoholism or drug addiction condition (as determined by the Commissioner) and the individual is incapable of managing such benefits.

(2)(A) Any certification made under paragraph (1) for payment of benefits to an individual's representative payee shall be made on the basis of—

(i) an investigation by the Commissioner of Social Security of the person to serve as representative payee, which shall be conducted in advance of such certification and shall, to the extent practicable, include a face-to-face interview with such person, and

(ii) adequate evidence that such certification is in the interest of such individual (as determined by the Commissioner of Social Security in regulations).


(B)(i) As part of the investigation referred to in subparagraph (A)(i), the Commissioner of Social Security shall—

(I) require the person being investigated to submit documented proof of the identity of such person, unless information establishing such identity has been submitted with an application for benefits under this subchapter, subchapter VIII of this chapter, or subchapter XVI of this chapter,

(II) verify such person's social security account number (or employer identification number),

(III) determine whether such person has been convicted of a violation of section 408, 1011, or 1383a of this title,

(IV) obtain information concerning whether such person has been convicted of any other offense under Federal or State law which resulted in imprisonment for more than 1 year,

(V) obtain information concerning whether such person is a person described in section 402(x)(1)(A)(iv) of this title, and

(VI) determine whether certification of payment of benefits to such person has been revoked pursuant to this subsection, the designation of such person as a representative payee has been revoked pursuant to section 1007(a) of this title, or payment of benefits to such person has been terminated pursuant to section 1383(a)(2)(A)(iii) of this title by reason of misuse of funds paid as benefits under this subchapter, subchapter VIII of this chapter, or subchapter XVI of this chapter.


(ii) The Commissioner of Social Security shall establish and maintain a centralized file, which shall be updated periodically and which shall be in a form which renders it readily retrievable by each servicing office of the Social Security Administration. Such file shall consist of—

(I) a list of the names and social security account numbers (or employer identification numbers) of all persons with respect to whom certification of payment of benefits has been revoked on or after January 1, 1991, pursuant to this subsection, whose designation as a representative payee has been revoked pursuant to section 1007(a) of this title, or with respect to whom payment of benefits has been terminated on or after such date pursuant to section 1383(a)(2)(A)(iii) of this title, by reason of misuse of funds paid as benefits under this subchapter, subchapter VIII of this chapter, or subchapter XVI of this chapter, and

(II) a list of the names and social security account numbers (or employer identification numbers) of all persons who have been convicted of a violation of section 408, 1011, or 1383a of this title.


(iii) Notwithstanding the provisions of section 552a of title 5 or any other provision of Federal or State law (other than section 6103 of the Internal Revenue Code of 1986 and section 1306(c) of this title), the Commissioner shall furnish any Federal, State, or local law enforcement officer, upon the written request of the officer, with the current address, social security account number, and photograph (if applicable) of any person investigated under this paragraph, if the officer furnishes the Commissioner with the name of such person and such other identifying information as may reasonably be required by the Commissioner to establish the unique identity of such person, and notifies the Commissioner that—

(I) such person is described in section 402(x)(1)(A)(iv) of this title,

(II) such person has information that is necessary for the officer to conduct the officer's official duties, and

(III) the location or apprehension of such person is within the officer's official duties.


(C)(i) Benefits of an individual may not be certified for payment to any other person pursuant to this subsection if—

(I) such person has previously been convicted as described in subparagraph (B)(i)(III),

(II) except as provided in clause (ii), certification of payment of benefits to such person under this subsection has previously been revoked as described in subparagraph (B)(i)(VI) 6 the designation of such person as a representative payee has been revoked pursuant to section 1007(a) of this title, or payment of benefits to such person pursuant to section 1383(a)(2)(A)(ii) of this title has previously been terminated as described in section 1383(a)(2)(B)(ii)(VI) of this title,

(III) except as provided in clause (iii), such person is a creditor of such individual who provides such individual with goods or services for consideration,

(IV) such person has previously been convicted as described in subparagraph (B)(i)(IV), unless the Commissioner determines that such certification would be appropriate notwithstanding such conviction, or

(V) such person is a person described in section 402(x)(1)(A)(iv) of this title.


(ii) The Commissioner of Social Security shall prescribe regulations under which the Commissioner of Social Security may grant exemptions to any person from the provisions of clause (i)(II) on a case-by-case basis if such exemption is in the best interest of the individual whose benefits would be paid to such person pursuant to this subsection.

(iii) Clause (i)(III) shall not apply with respect to any person who is a creditor referred to therein if such creditor is—

(I) a relative of such individual if such relative resides in the same household as such individual,

(II) a legal guardian or legal representative of such individual,

(III) a facility that is licensed or certified as a care facility under the law of a State or a political subdivision of a State,

(IV) a person who is an administrator, owner, or employee of a facility referred to in subclause (III) if such individual resides in such facility, and the certification of payment to such facility or such person is made only after good faith efforts have been made by the local servicing office of the Social Security Administration to locate an alternative representative payee to whom such certification of payment would serve the best interests of such individual, or

(V) an individual who is determined by the Commissioner of Social Security, on the basis of written findings and under procedures which the Commissioner of Social Security shall prescribe by regulation, to be acceptable to serve as a representative payee.


(iv) The procedures referred to in clause (iii)(V) shall require the individual who will serve as representative payee to establish, to the satisfaction of the Commissioner of Social Security, that—

(I) such individual poses no risk to the beneficiary,

(II) the financial relationship of such individual to the beneficiary poses no substantial conflict of interest, and

(III) no other more suitable representative payee can be found.


(v) In the case of an individual described in paragraph (1)(B), when selecting such individual's representative payee, preference shall be given to—

(I) a certified community-based nonprofit social service agency (as defined in paragraph (10)),

(II) a Federal, State, or local government agency whose mission is to carry out income maintenance, social service, or health care-related activities,

(III) a State or local government agency with fiduciary responsibilities, or

(IV) a designee of an agency (other than of a Federal agency) referred to in the preceding subclauses of this clause, if the Commissioner of Social Security deems it appropriate,


unless the Commissioner of Social Security determines that selection of a family member would be appropriate.

(D)(i) Subject to clause (ii), if the Commissioner of Social Security makes a determination described in the first sentence of paragraph (1) with respect to any individual's benefit and determines that direct payment of the benefit to the individual would cause substantial harm to the individual, the Commissioner of Social Security may defer (in the case of initial entitlement) or suspend (in the case of existing entitlement) direct payment of such benefit to the individual, until such time as the selection of a representative payee is made pursuant to this subsection.

(ii)(I) Except as provided in subclause (II), any deferral or suspension of direct payment of a benefit pursuant to clause (i) shall be for a period of not more than 1 month.

(II) Subclause (I) shall not apply in any case in which the individual is, as of the date of the Commissioner's determination, legally incompetent, under the age of 15 years, or described in paragraph (1)(B).

(iii) Payment pursuant to this subsection of any benefits which are deferred or suspended pending the selection of a representative payee shall be made to the individual or the representative payee as a single sum or over such period of time as the Commissioner of Social Security determines is in the best interest of the individual entitled to such benefits.

(E)(i) Any individual who is dissatisfied with a determination by the Commissioner of Social Security to certify payment of such individual's benefit to a representative payee under paragraph (1) or with the designation of a particular person to serve as representative payee shall be entitled to a hearing by the Commissioner of Social Security to the same extent as is provided in subsection (b) of this section, and to judicial review of the Commissioner's final decision as is provided in subsection (g) of this section.

(ii) In advance of the certification of payment of an individual's benefit to a representative payee under paragraph (1), the Commissioner of Social Security shall provide written notice of the Commissioner's initial determination to certify such payment. Such notice shall be provided to such individual, except that, if such individual—

(I) is under the age of 15,

(II) is an unemancipated minor under the age of 18, or

(III) is legally incompetent,


then such notice shall be provided solely to the legal guardian or legal representative of such individual.

(iii) Any notice described in clause (ii) shall be clearly written in language that is easily understandable to the reader, shall identify the person to be designated as such individual's representative payee, and shall explain to the reader the right under clause (i) of such individual or of such individual's legal guardian or legal representative—

(I) to appeal a determination that a representative payee is necessary for such individual,

(II) to appeal the designation of a particular person to serve as the representative payee of such individual, and

(III) to review the evidence upon which such designation is based and submit additional evidence.


(3)(A) In any case where payment under this subchapter is made to a person other than the individual entitled to such payment, the Commissioner of Social Security shall establish a system of accountability monitoring whereby such person shall report not less often than annually with respect to the use of such payments. The Commissioner of Social Security shall establish and implement statistically valid procedures for reviewing such reports in order to identify instances in which such persons are not properly using such payments.

(B) Subparagraph (A) shall not apply in any case where the other person to whom such payment is made is a State institution. In such cases, the Commissioner of Social Security shall establish a system of accountability monitoring for institutions in each State.

(C) Subparagraph (A) shall not apply in any case where the individual entitled to such payment is a resident of a Federal institution and the other person to whom such payment is made is the institution.

(D) Notwithstanding subparagraphs (A), (B), and (C), the Commissioner of Social Security may require a report at any time from any person receiving payments on behalf of another, if the Commissioner of Social Security has reason to believe that the person receiving such payments is misusing such payments.

(E) In any case in which the person described in subparagraph (A) or (D) receiving payments on behalf of another fails to submit a report required by the Commissioner of Social Security under subparagraph (A) or (D), the Commissioner may, after furnishing notice to such person and the individual entitled to such payment, require that such person appear in person at a field office of the Social Security Administration serving the area in which the individual resides in order to receive such payments.

(F) The Commissioner of Social Security shall maintain a centralized file, which shall be updated periodically and which shall be in a form which will be readily retrievable by each servicing office of the Social Security Administration, of—

(i) the address and the social security account number (or employer identification number) of each representative payee who is receiving benefit payments pursuant to this subsection, section 1007 of this title, or section 1383(a)(2) of this title, and

(ii) the address and social security account number of each individual for whom each representative payee is reported to be providing services as representative payee pursuant to this subsection, section 1007 of this title, or section 1383(a)(2) of this title.


(G) Each servicing office of the Administration shall maintain a list, which shall be updated periodically, of public agencies and certified community-based nonprofit social service agencies (as defined in paragraph (10)) which are qualified to serve as representative payees pursuant to this subsection or section 1007 or 1383(a)(2) of this title and which are located in the area served by such servicing office.

(4)(A)(i) Except as provided in the next sentence, a qualified organization may collect from an individual a monthly fee for expenses (including overhead) incurred by such organization in providing services performed as such individual's representative payee pursuant to this subsection if such fee does not exceed the lesser of—

(I) 10 percent of the monthly benefit involved, or

(II) $25.00 per month ($50.00 per month in any case in which the individual is described in paragraph (1)(B)).


A qualified organization may not collect a fee from an individual for any month with respect to which the Commissioner of Social Security or a court of competent jurisdiction has determined that the organization misused all or part of the individual's benefit, and any amount so collected by the qualified organization for such month shall be treated as a misused part of the individual's benefit for purposes of paragraphs (5) and (6). The Commissioner shall adjust annually (after 1995) each dollar amount set forth in subclause (II) under procedures providing for adjustments in the same manner and to the same extent as adjustments are provided for under the procedures used to adjust benefit amounts under section 415(i)(2)(A) of this title, except that any amount so adjusted that is not a multiple of $1.00 shall be rounded to the nearest multiple of $1.00. Any agreement providing for a fee in excess of the amount permitted under this subparagraph shall be void and shall be treated as misuse by such organization of such individual's benefits.

(ii) In the case of an individual who is no longer currently entitled to monthly insurance benefits under this subchapter but to whom all past-due benefits have not been paid, for purposes of clause (i), any amount of such past-due benefits payable in any month shall be treated as a monthly benefit referred to in clause (i)(I).

(B) For purposes of this paragraph, the term “qualified organization” means any State or local government agency whose mission is to carry out income maintenance, social service, or health care-related activities, any State or local government agency with fiduciary responsibilities, or any certified community-based nonprofit social service agency (as defined in paragraph (10)), if such agency, in accordance with any applicable regulations of the Commissioner of Social Security—

(i) regularly provides services as the representative payee, pursuant to this subsection or section 1007 or 1383(a)(2) of this title, concurrently to 5 or more individuals,7

(ii) demonstrates to the satisfaction of the Commissioner of Social Security that such agency is not otherwise a creditor of any such individual.


The Commissioner of Social Security shall prescribe regulations under which the Commissioner of Social Security may grant an exception from clause (ii) for any individual on a case-by-case basis if such exception is in the best interests of such individual.

(C) Any qualified organization which knowingly charges or collects, directly or indirectly, any fee in excess of the maximum fee prescribed under subparagraph (A) or makes any agreement, directly or indirectly, to charge or collect any fee in excess of such maximum fee, shall be fined in accordance with title 18, or imprisoned not more than 6 months, or both.

(5) In cases where the negligent failure of the Commissioner of Social Security to investigate or monitor a representative payee results in misuse of benefits by the representative payee, the Commissioner of Social Security shall certify for payment to the beneficiary or the beneficiary's alternative representative payee an amount equal to such misused benefits. In any case in which a representative payee that—

(A) is not an individual (regardless of whether it is a “qualified organization” within the meaning of paragraph (4)(B)); or

(B) is an individual who, for any month during a period when misuse occurs, serves 15 or more individuals who are beneficiaries under this subchapter, subchapter VIII of this chapter, subchapter XVI of this chapter, or any combination of such subchapters;


misuses all or part of an individual's benefit paid to such representative payee, the Commissioner of Social Security shall certify for payment to the beneficiary or the beneficiary's alternative representative payee an amount equal to the amount of such benefit so misused. The provisions of this paragraph are subject to the limitations of paragraph (7)(B). The Commissioner of Social Security shall make a good faith effort to obtain restitution from the terminated representative payee.

(6)(A) In addition to such other reviews of representative payees as the Commissioner of Social Security may otherwise conduct, the Commissioner shall provide for the periodic onsite review of any person or agency located in the United States that receives the benefits payable under this subchapter (alone or in combination with benefits payable under subchapter VIII of this chapter or subchapter XVI of this chapter) to another individual pursuant to the appointment of such person or agency as a representative payee under this subsection, section 1007 of this title, or section 1383(a)(2) of this title in any case in which—

(i) the representative payee is a person who serves in that capacity with respect to 15 or more such individuals;

(ii) the representative payee is a certified community-based nonprofit social service agency (as defined in paragraph (10) of this subsection or section 1383(a)(2)(I) of this title); or

(iii) the representative payee is an agency (other than an agency described in clause (ii)) that serves in that capacity with respect to 50 or more such individuals.


(B) Within 120 days after the end of each fiscal year, the Commissioner shall submit to the Committee on Ways and Means of the House of Representatives and the Committee on Finance of the Senate a report on the results of periodic onsite reviews conducted during the fiscal year pursuant to subparagraph (A) and of any other reviews of representative payees conducted during such fiscal year in connection with benefits under this subchapter. Each such report shall describe in detail all problems identified in such reviews and any corrective action taken or planned to be taken to correct such problems, and shall include—

(i) the number of such reviews;

(ii) the results of such reviews;

(iii) the number of cases in which the representative payee was changed and why;

(iv) the number of cases involving the exercise of expedited, targeted oversight of the representative payee by the Commissioner conducted upon receipt of an allegation of misuse of funds, failure to pay a vendor, or a similar irregularity;

(v) the number of cases discovered in which there was a misuse of funds;

(vi) how any such cases of misuse of funds were dealt with by the Commissioner;

(vii) the final disposition of such cases of misuse of funds, including any criminal penalties imposed; and

(viii) such other information as the Commissioner deems appropriate.


(7)(A) If the Commissioner of Social Security or a court of competent jurisdiction determines that a representative payee that is not a Federal, State, or local government agency has misused all or part of an individual's benefit that was paid to such representative payee under this subsection, the representative payee shall be liable for the amount misused, and such amount (to the extent not repaid by the representative payee) shall be treated as an overpayment of benefits under this subchapter to the representative payee for all purposes of this chapter and related laws pertaining to the recovery of such overpayments. Subject to subparagraph (B), upon recovering all or any part of such amount, the Commissioner shall certify an amount equal to the recovered amount for payment to such individual or such individual's alternative representative payee.

(B) The total of the amount certified for payment to such individual or such individual's alternative representative payee under subparagraph (A) and the amount certified for payment under paragraph (5) may not exceed the total benefit amount misused by the representative payee with respect to such individual.

(8) For purposes of this subsection, the term “benefit based on disability” of an individual means a disability insurance benefit of such individual under section 423 of this title or a child's, widow's, or widower's insurance benefit of such individual under section 402 of this title based on such individual's disability.

(9) For purposes of this subsection, misuse of benefits by a representative payee occurs in any case in which the representative payee receives payment under this subchapter for the use and benefit of another person and converts such payment, or any part thereof, to a use other than for the use and benefit of such other person. The Commissioner of Social Security may prescribe by regulation the meaning of the term “use and benefit” for purposes of this paragraph.

(10) For purposes of this subsection, the term “certified community-based nonprofit social service agency” means a community-based nonprofit social service agency which is in compliance with requirements, under regulations which shall be prescribed by the Commissioner, for annual certification to the Commissioner that it is bonded in accordance with requirements specified by the Commissioner and that it is licensed in each State in which it serves as a representative payee (if licensing is available in the State) in accordance with requirements specified by the Commissioner. Any such annual certification shall include a copy of any independent audit on the agency which may have been performed since the previous certification.

(k) Payments to incompetents

Any payment made after December 31, 1939, under conditions set forth in subsection (j) of this section, any payment made before January 1, 1940, to, or on behalf of, a legally incompetent individual, and any payment made after December 31, 1939, to a legally incompetent individual without knowledge by the Commissioner of Social Security of incompetency prior to certification of payment, if otherwise valid under this subchapter, shall be a complete settlement and satisfaction of any claim, right, or interest in and to such payment.

(l) Delegation of powers and duties by Commissioner

The Commissioner of Social Security is authorized to delegate to any member, officer, or employee of the Social Security Administration designated by the Commissioner any of the powers conferred upon the Commissioner by this section, and is authorized to be represented by the Commissioner's own attorneys in any court in any case or proceeding arising under the provisions of subsection (e) of this section.

(m) Repealed. Aug. 28, 1950, ch. 809, title I, §101(b)(2), 64 Stat. 488

(n) Joint payments

The Commissioner of Social Security may, in the Commissioner's discretion, certify to the Managing Trustee any two or more individuals of the same family for joint payment of the total benefits payable to such individuals for any month, and if one of such individuals dies before a check representing such joint payment is negotiated, payment of the amount of such unnegotiated check to the surviving individual or individuals may be authorized in accordance with regulations of the Secretary of the Treasury; except that appropriate adjustment or recovery shall be made under section 404(a) of this title with respect to so much of the amount of such check as exceeds the amount to which such surviving individual or individuals are entitled under this subchapter for such month.

(o) Crediting of compensation under Railroad Retirement Act

If there is no person who would be entitled, upon application therefor, to an annuity under section 2 of the Railroad Retirement Act of 1974 [45 U.S.C. 231a], or to a lump-sum payment under section 6(b) of such Act [45 U.S.C. 231e(b)], with respect to the death of an employee (as defined in such Act), then, notwithstanding section 410(a)(9) of this title, compensation (as defined in such Railroad Retirement Act, but excluding compensation attributable as having been paid during any month on account of military service creditable under section 3(i) of such Act [45 U.S.C. 231b(i)] if wages are deemed to have been paid to such employee during such month under subsection (a) or (e) of section 417 of this title) of such employee shall constitute remuneration for employment for purposes of determining (A) entitlement to and the amount of any lump-sum death payment under this subchapter on the basis of such employee's wages and self-employment income and (B) entitlement to and the amount of any monthly benefit under this subchapter, for the month in which such employee died or for any month thereafter, on the basis of such wages and self-employment income. For such purposes, compensation (as so defined) paid in a calendar year before 1978 shall, in the absence of evidence to the contrary, be presumed to have been paid in equal proportions with respect to all months in the year in which the employee rendered services for such compensation.

(p) Special rules in case of Federal service

(1) With respect to service included as employment under section 410 of this title which is performed in the employ of the United States or in the employ of any instrumentality which is wholly owned by the United States, including service, performed as a member of a uniformed service, to which the provisions of subsection (l)(1) of such section are applicable, and including service, performed as a volunteer or volunteer leader within the meaning of the Peace Corps Act [22 U.S.C. 2501 et seq.], to which the provisions of section 410(o) of this title are applicable, the Commissioner of Social Security shall not make determinations as to the amounts of remuneration for such service, or the periods in which or for which such remuneration was paid, but shall accept the determinations with respect thereto of the head of the appropriate Federal agency or instrumentality, and of such agents as such head may designate, as evidenced by returns filed in accordance with the provisions of section 3122 of the Internal Revenue Code of 1954 and certifications made pursuant to this subsection. Such determinations shall be final and conclusive. Nothing in this paragraph shall be construed to affect the Commissioner's authority to determine under sections 409 and 410 of this title whether any such service constitutes employment, the periods of such employment, and whether remuneration paid for any such service constitutes wages.

(2) The head of any such agency or instrumentality is authorized and directed, upon written request of the Commissioner of Social Security, to make certification to the Commissioner with respect to any matter determinable for the Commissioner of Social Security by such head or his agents under this subsection, which the Commissioner of Social Security finds necessary in administering this subchapter.

(3) The provisions of paragraphs (1) and (2) of this subsection shall be applicable in the case of service performed by a civilian employee, not compensated from funds appropriated by the Congress, in the Army and Air Force Exchange Service, Army and Air Force Motion Picture Service, Navy Exchanges, Marine Corps Exchanges, or other activities, conducted by an instrumentality of the United States subject to the jurisdiction of the Secretary of Defense, at installations of the Department of Defense for the comfort, pleasure, contentment, and mental and physical improvement of personnel of such Department; and for purposes of paragraphs (1) and (2) of this subsection the Secretary of Defense shall be deemed to be the head of such instrumentality. The provisions of paragraphs (1) and (2) shall be applicable also in the case of service performed by a civilian employee, not compensated from funds appropriated by the Congress, in the Coast Guard Exchanges or other activities, conducted by an instrumentality of the United States subject to the jurisdiction of the Secretary of Homeland Security, at installations of the Coast Guard for the comfort, pleasure, contentment, and mental and physical improvement of personnel of the Coast Guard; and for purposes of paragraphs (1) and (2) the Secretary of Homeland Security shall be deemed to be the head of such instrumentality.

(q) Expedited benefit payments

(1) The Commissioner of Social Security shall establish and put into effect procedures under which expedited payment of monthly insurance benefits under this subchapter will, subject to paragraph (4) of this subsection, be made as set forth in paragraphs (2) and (3) of this subsection.

(2) In any case in which—

(A) an individual makes an allegation that a monthly benefit under this subchapter was due him in a particular month but was not paid to him, and

(B) such individual submits a written request for the payment of such benefit—

(i) in the case of an individual who received a regular monthly benefit in the month preceding the month with respect to which such allegation is made, not less than 30 days after the 15th day of the month with respect to which such allegation is made (and in the event that such request is submitted prior to the expiration of such 30-day period, it shall be deemed to have been submitted upon the expiration of such period), and

(ii) in any other case, not less than 90 days after the later of (I) the date on which such benefit is alleged to have been due, or (II) the date on which such individual furnished the last information requested by the Commissioner of Social Security (and such written request will be deemed to be filed on the day on which it was filed, or the ninetieth day after the first day on which the Commissioner of Social Security has evidence that such allegation is true, whichever is later),


the Commissioner of Social Security shall, if the Commissioner finds that benefits are due, certify such benefits for payment, and payment shall be made within 15 days immediately following the date on which the written request is deemed to have been filed.

(3) In any case in which the Commissioner of Social Security determines that there is evidence, although additional evidence might be required for a final decision, that an allegation described in paragraph (2)(A) is true, the Commissioner may make a preliminary certification of such benefit for payment even though the 30-day or 90-day periods described in paragraph (2)(B)(i) and (B)(ii) have not elapsed.

(4) Any payment made pursuant to a certification under paragraph (3) of this subsection shall not be considered an incorrect payment for purposes of determining the liability of the certifying or disbursing officer.

(5) For purposes of this subsection, benefits payable under section 428 of this title shall be treated as monthly insurance benefits payable under this subchapter. However, this subsection shall not apply with respect to any benefit for which a check has been negotiated, or with respect to any benefit alleged to be due under either section 423 of this title, or section 402 of this title to a wife, husband, or child of an individual entitled to or applying for benefits under section 423 of this title, or to a child who has attained age 18 and is under a disability, or to a widow or widower on the basis of being under a disability.

(r) Use of death certificates to correct program information

(1) The Commissioner of Social Security shall undertake to establish a program under which—

(A) States (or political subdivisions thereof) voluntarily contract with the Commissioner of Social Security to furnish the Commissioner of Social Security periodically with information (in a form established by the Commissioner of Social Security in consultation with the States) concerning individuals with respect to whom death certificates (or equivalent documents maintained by the States or subdivisions) have been officially filed with them; and

(B) there will be (i) a comparison of such information on such individuals with information on such individuals in the records being used in the administration of this chapter, (ii) validation of the results of such comparisons, and (iii) corrections in such records to accurately reflect the status of such individuals.


(2) Each State (or political subdivision thereof) which furnishes the Commissioner of Social Security with information on records of deaths in the State or subdivision under this subsection may be paid by the Commissioner of Social Security from amounts available for administration of this chapter the reasonable costs (established by the Commissioner of Social Security in consultations with the States) for transcribing and transmitting such information to the Commissioner of Social Security.

(3) In the case of individuals with respect to whom federally funded benefits are provided by (or through) a Federal or State agency other than under this chapter, the Commissioner of Social Security shall to the extent feasible provide such information through a cooperative arrangement with such agency, for ensuring proper payment of those benefits with respect to such individuals if—

(A) under such arrangement the agency provides reimbursement to the Commissioner of Social Security for the reasonable cost of carrying out such arrangement, and

(B) such arrangement does not conflict with the duties of the Commissioner of Social Security under paragraph (1).


(4) The Commissioner of Social Security may enter into similar agreements with States to provide information for their use in programs wholly funded by the States if the requirements of subparagraphs (A) and (B) of paragraph (3) are met.

(5) The Commissioner of Social Security may use or provide for the use of such records as may be corrected under this section, subject to such safeguards as the Commissioner of Social Security determines are necessary or appropriate to protect the information from unauthorized use or disclosure, for statistical and research activities conducted by Federal and State agencies.

(6) Information furnished to the Commissioner of Social Security under this subsection may not be used for any purpose other than the purpose described in this subsection and is exempt from disclosure under section 552 of title 5 and from the requirements of section 552a of such title.

(7) The Commissioner of Social Security shall include information on the status of the program established under this section and impediments to the effective implementation of the program in the 1984 report required under section 904 of this title.

(8)(A) The Commissioner of Social Security shall, upon the request of the official responsible for a State driver's license agency pursuant to the Help America Vote Act of 2002—

(i) enter into an agreement with such official for the purpose of verifying applicable information, so long as the requirements of subparagraphs (A) and (B) of paragraph (3) are met; and

(ii) include in such agreement safeguards to assure the maintenance of the confidentiality of any applicable information disclosed and procedures to permit such agency to use the applicable information for the purpose of maintaining its records.


(B) Information provided pursuant to an agreement under this paragraph shall be provided at such time, in such place, and in such manner as the Commissioner determines appropriate.

(C) The Commissioner shall develop methods to verify the accuracy of information provided by the agency with respect to applications for voter registration, for whom the last 4 digits of a social security number are provided instead of a driver's license number.

(D) For purposes of this paragraph—

(i) the term “applicable information” means information regarding whether—

(I) the name (including the first name and any family forename or surname), the date of birth (including the month, day, and year), and social security number of an individual provided to the Commissioner match the information contained in the Commissioner's records, and

(II) such individual is shown on the records of the Commissioner as being deceased; and


(ii) the term “State driver's license agency” means the State agency which issues driver's licenses to individuals within the State and maintains records relating to such licensure.


(E) Nothing in this paragraph may be construed to require the provision of applicable information with regard to a request for a record of an individual if the Commissioner determines there are exceptional circumstances warranting an exception (such as safety of the individual or interference with an investigation).

(F) Applicable information provided by the Commission pursuant to an agreement under this paragraph or by an individual to any agency that has entered into an agreement under this paragraph shall be considered as strictly confidential and shall be used only for the purposes described in this paragraph and for carrying out an agreement under this paragraph. Any officer or employee or former officer or employee of a State, or any officer or employee or former officer or employee of a contractor of a State who, without the written authority of the Commissioner, publishes or communicates any applicable information in such individual's possession by reason of such employment or position as such an officer, shall be guilty of a felony and upon conviction thereof shall be fined or imprisoned, or both, as described in section 408 of this title.

(9)(A) The Commissioner of Social Security shall, upon the request of the Secretary or the Inspector General of the Department of Health and Human Services—

(i) enter into an agreement with the Secretary or such Inspector General for the purpose of matching data in the system of records of the Social Security Administration and the system of records of the Department of Health and Human Services; and

(ii) include in such agreement safeguards to assure the maintenance of the confidentiality of any information disclosed.


(B) For purposes of this paragraph, the term “system of records” has the meaning given such term in section 552a(a)(5) of title 5.

(s) Notice requirements

The Commissioner of Social Security shall take such actions as are necessary to ensure that any notice to one or more individuals issued pursuant to this subchapter by the Commissioner of Social Security or by a State agency—

(1) is written in simple and clear language, and

(2) includes the address and telephone number of the local office of the Social Security Administration which serves the recipient.


In the case of any such notice which is not generated by a local servicing office, the requirements of paragraph (2) shall be treated as satisfied if such notice includes the address of the local office of the Social Security Administration which services the recipient of the notice and a telephone number through which such office can be reached.

(t) Same-day personal interviews at field offices in cases where time is of essence

In any case in which an individual visits a field office of the Social Security Administration and represents during the visit to an officer or employee of the Social Security Administration in the office that the individual's visit is occasioned by—

(1) the receipt of a notice from the Social Security Administration indicating a time limit for response by the individual, or

(2) the theft, loss, or nonreceipt of a benefit payment under this subchapter,


the Commissioner of Social Security shall ensure that the individual is granted a face-to-face interview at the office with an officer or employee of the Social Security Administration before the close of business on the day of the visit.

(u) Redetermination of entitlement

(1)(A) The Commissioner of Social Security shall immediately redetermine the entitlement of individuals to monthly insurance benefits under this subchapter if there is reason to believe that fraud or similar fault was involved in the application of the individual for such benefits, unless a United States attorney, or equivalent State prosecutor, with jurisdiction over potential or actual related criminal cases, certifies, in writing, that there is a substantial risk that such action by the Commissioner of Social Security with regard to beneficiaries in a particular investigation would jeopardize the criminal prosecution of a person involved in a suspected fraud.

(B) When redetermining the entitlement, or making an initial determination of entitlement, of an individual under this subchapter, the Commissioner of Social Security shall disregard any evidence if there is reason to believe that fraud or similar fault was involved in the providing of such evidence.

(2) For purposes of paragraph (1), similar fault is involved with respect to a determination if—

(A) an incorrect or incomplete statement that is material to the determination is knowingly made; or

(B) information that is material to the determination is knowingly concealed.


(3) If, after redetermining pursuant to this subsection the entitlement of an individual to monthly insurance benefits, the Commissioner of Social Security determines that there is insufficient evidence to support such entitlement, the Commissioner of Social Security may terminate such entitlement and may treat benefits paid on the basis of such insufficient evidence as overpayments.

(Aug. 14, 1935, ch. 531, title II, §205, 49 Stat. 624; Aug. 10, 1939, ch. 666, title II, §201, 53 Stat. 1362, 1368; June 25, 1948, ch. 646, §32(b), 62 Stat. 991; May 24, 1949, ch. 139, §127, 63 Stat. 107; Aug. 28, 1950, ch. 809, title I, §§101(b)(2), 108(a)–(c), 109(b), 64 Stat. 488, 518, 523; July 18, 1952, ch. 945, §5(b), 66 Stat. 775; Sept. 1, 1954, ch. 1206, title I, §101(a)(5), (c)(3), 68 Stat. 1052, 1054; Aug. 1, 1956, ch. 836, title I, §§107(b), 111(a), 117, 70 Stat. 829, 831, 834; Aug. 1, 1956, ch. 837, title IV, §402(b), 70 Stat. 871; Pub. L. 86–507, §1(35), June 11, 1960, 74 Stat. 202; Pub. L. 86–778, title I, §§102(f)(2), 103(j)(2)(E), title VII, §702(a), Sept. 13, 1960, 74 Stat. 933, 938, 993; Pub. L. 87–293, title II, §202(b)(3), Sept. 21, 1961, 75 Stat. 626; Pub. L. 89–97, title III, §§308(d)(9), (10), 330, July 30, 1965, 79 Stat. 379, 401; Pub. L. 90–248, title I, §171(a), Jan. 2, 1968, 81 Stat. 876; Pub. L. 91–452, title II, §236, Oct. 15, 1970, 84 Stat. 930; Pub. L. 92–603, title I, §137, Oct. 30, 1972, 86 Stat. 1364; Pub. L. 93–445, title III, §§302(a), 303, Oct. 16, 1974, 88 Stat. 1358; Pub. L. 94–202, §4, Jan. 2, 1976, 89 Stat. 1136; Pub. L. 94–455, title XII, §1211(b), Oct. 4, 1976, 90 Stat. 1711; Pub. L. 95–216, title III, §353(f)(2), Dec. 20, 1977, 91 Stat. 1554; Pub. L. 95–600, title VII, §703(j)(14)(B), Nov. 6, 1978, 92 Stat. 2942; Pub. L. 96–265, title III, §§305(a), 307, June 9, 1980, 94 Stat. 457, 458; Pub. L. 97–455, §4(a), Jan. 12, 1983, 96 Stat. 2499; Pub. L. 98–21, title III, §§301(d), 309(i), 336, 345(a), Apr. 20, 1983, 97 Stat. 111, 117, 130, 137; Pub. L. 98–369, div. B, title VI, §§2661(h), 2663(a)(4), (j)(4), July 18, 1984, 98 Stat. 1157, 1162, 1171; Pub. L. 98–460, §16(a), Oct. 9, 1984, 98 Stat. 1809; Pub. L. 99–509, title IX, §9002(c)(2)(A), (B), Oct. 21, 1986, 100 Stat. 1971; Pub. L. 100–485, title I, §125(a), Oct. 13, 1988, 102 Stat. 2353; Pub. L. 100–647, title VIII, §§8008(a), 8009(a), 8015(a)(1), 8016(a)(1), Nov. 10, 1988, 102 Stat. 3783, 3787, 3790, 3792; Pub. L. 101–239, title X, §§10303(a), 10304, Dec. 19, 1989, 103 Stat. 2482, 2483; Pub. L. 101–508, title V, §§5105(a)(1)(A), (2)(A)(i), (3)(A)(i), (b)(1)(A), (c)(1), (d)(1)(A), 5107(a)(1), 5109(a)(1), Nov. 5, 1990, 104 Stat. 1388–254, 1388–255, 1388–260, 1388–263, 1388–265, 1388–269, 1388–271; Pub. L. 101–624, title XVII, §1735(a), (b), title XXII, §2201(b), (c), Nov. 28, 1990, 104 Stat. 3791, 3792, 3951, 3952; Pub. L. 103–296, title I, §107(a)(1), (2), (4), title II, §§201(a)(1)(A), (B), (2)(A)–(C), 206(a)(1), (d)(1), title III, §§304(a), 316(a), 318, 321(a)(7)–(11), (c)(3), (6)(B), (f)(2)(A), Aug. 15, 1994, 108 Stat. 1477, 1478, 1490–1493, 1509, 1514, 1520, 1531, 1533, 1536, 1538, 1541; Pub. L. 104–121, title I, §105(a)(2), Mar. 29, 1996, 110 Stat. 852; Pub. L. 104–193, title I, §108(a)(1), Aug. 22, 1996, 110 Stat. 2164; Pub. L. 105–34, title X, §1090(b)(1), Aug. 5, 1997, 111 Stat. 962; Pub. L. 106–169, title II, §251(b)(2), Dec. 14, 1999, 113 Stat. 1854; Pub. L. 107–90, title I, §103(i)(3), Dec. 21, 2001, 115 Stat. 882; Pub. L. 107–252, title III, §303(a)(5)(C), Oct. 29, 2002, 116 Stat. 1711; Pub. L. 108–203, title I, §§101(a), 102(a)(1), (b)(1), 103(a), 104(a), 105(a), 106(a), title IV, §411(a), Mar. 2, 2004, 118 Stat. 495, 497, 498, 500, 503–505, 527; Pub. L. 108–271, §8(b), July 7, 2004, 118 Stat. 814; Pub. L. 108–458, title VII, §7214(a), Dec. 17, 2004, 118 Stat. 3832; Pub. L. 109–241, title IX, §902(n), July 11, 2006, 120 Stat. 568; Pub. L. 110–234, title IV, §4002(b)(1)(B), (2)(V), May 22, 2008, 122 Stat. 1096, 1097; Pub. L. 110–246, §4(a), title IV, §4002(b)(1)(B), (2)(V), June 18, 2008, 122 Stat. 1664, 1857, 1858; Pub. L. 111–148, title I, §1414(a)(2), title VI, §6402(b)(3), Mar. 23, 2010, 124 Stat. 237, 756; Pub. L. 111–318, §2(a)(1), (b)(1), Dec. 18, 2010, 124 Stat. 3455.)

References in Text

Subsecs. (e) and (q) of section 418 of this title, referred to in subsec. (c)(1)(D)(i), (5)(F)(iii), which related to payments and reports by States, and to time limitation on assessments, respectively, were repealed, and subsec. (f) of section 418 of this title was redesignated as subsec. (e), by Pub. L. 99–509, title IX, §9002(c)(1), Oct. 21, 1986, 100 Stat. 1971.

Section 7(a) of the Privacy Act of 1974, referred to in subsec. (c)(2)(C)(ii), is section 7(a) of Pub. L. 93–579, which is set out as a note under section 552a of Title 5, Government Organization and Employees.

The Food and Nutrition Act of 2008, referred to in subsec. (c)(2)(C)(iii)(I), (II), is Pub. L. 88–525, Aug. 31, 1964, 78 Stat. 703, which is classified generally to chapter 51 (§2011 et seq.) of Title 7, Agriculture. For complete classification of this Act to the Code, see Short Title note set out under section 2011 of Title 7 and Tables.

The Federal Crop Insurance Act, referred to in subsec. (c)(2)(C)(iv), is subtitle A of title V of act Feb. 16, 1938, ch. 30, 52 Stat. 72, which is classified generally to subchapter I (§1501 et seq.) of chapter 36 of Title 7, Agriculture. For complete classification of this Act to the Code, see section 1501 of Title 7 and Tables.

Section 7212(a)(2) of the 9/11 Commission Implementation Act of 2004, referred to in subsec. (c)(2)(C)(vi)(II), is section 7212(a)(2) of Pub. L. 108–458, which was formerly set out as a note under section 30301 of Title 49, Transportation.

The Internal Revenue Code of 1986, referred to in subsecs. (c)(2)(C)(viii)(II), (H) and (j)(2)(B)(iii), is classified generally to Title 26, Internal Revenue Code.

The Longshore and Harbor Workers’ Compensation Act, referred to in subsec. (c)(2)(C)(ix), is act Mar. 4, 1927, ch. 509, 44 Stat. 1424, which is classified generally to chapter 18 (§901 et seq.) of Title 33, Navigation and Navigable Waters. For complete classification of this Act to the Code, see section 901 of Title 33 and Tables.

The Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act, referred to in subsec. (c)(2)(C)(x), is Pub. L. 111–148, Mar. 23, 2010, 124 Stat. 119. For complete classification of this Act to the Code, see Short Title note set out under section 18001 of this title and Tables.

The Railroad Retirement Act of 1937, referred to in subsecs. (c)(5)(D) and (i), is act Aug. 29, 1935, ch. 812, 49 Stat. 867, as amended generally. See par. for Railroad Retirement Act of 1974 below.

The Railroad Retirement Act of 1974, referred to in subsecs. (c)(5)(D), (i), and (o), is act Aug. 29, 1935, ch. 812, as amended generally by Pub. L. 93–445, title I, §101, Oct. 16, 1974, 88 Stat. 1305, which is classified generally to subchapter IV (§231 et seq.) of chapter 9 of Title 45, Railroads. Pub. L. 93–445 completely amended and revised the Railroad Retirement Act of 1937 (approved June 24, 1937, ch. 382, 50 Stat. 307), and as thus amended and revised, the 1937 Act was redesignated the Railroad Retirement Act of 1974. Previously, the 1937 Act had completely amended and revised the Railroad Retirement Act of 1935 (approved Aug. 29, 1935, ch. 812, 49 Stat. 967). Section 201 of the 1937 Act provided that the 1935 Act, as in force prior to amendment by the 1937 Act, may be cited as the Railroad Retirement Act of 1935; and that the 1935 Act, as amended by the 1937 Act may be cited as the Railroad Retirement Act of 1937. The Railroad Retirement Acts of 1935 and 1937 were classified to subchapter II (§215 et seq.) and subchapter III (§228a et seq.), respectively, of chapter 9 of Title 45. For further details and complete classification of these Acts to the Code, see Codification note set out preceding section 231 of Title 45, section 231t of Title 45, and Tables.

Title VIII of the Social Security Act, referred to in subsec. (c)(5)(F)(i), probably means former title VIII of the Social Security Act, which was classified to subchapter VIII (§1001 et seq.) of this chapter, and was omitted from the Code as superseded by the provisions of the Internal Revenue Code of 1939 and the Internal Revenue Code of 1986.

Subchapter E of chapter 1 and subchapter A of chapter 9 of the Internal Revenue Code of 1939, referred to in subsec. (c)(5)(F)(i), were comprised of sections 480 to 482 and 1400 to 1432, respectively, and were repealed (subject to certain exceptions) by section 7851(a)(1)(A), (3) of the Internal Revenue Code of 1986.

For provision deeming a reference in other laws to a provision of the 1939 Code as a reference to the corresponding provisions of the 1986 Code, see section 7852(b) of the 1986 Code. For table of comparisons of the 1939 Code to the 1986 Code, see table preceding section 1 of Title 26, Internal Revenue Code. The Internal Revenue Code of 1986 is classified generally to Title 26.

Chapters 2 and 21 of the Internal Revenue Code of 1954, referred to in subsec. (c)(5)(F)(i), were redesignated chapters 2 and 21 of the Internal Revenue Code of 1986, and are classified to sections 1401 et seq. and 3101 et seq., respectively, of Title 26.

The Peace Corps Act, referred to in subsec. (p)(1), is Pub. L. 87–293, Sept. 22, 1961, 75 Stat. 612, which is classified principally to chapter 34 (§2501 et seq.) of Title 22, Foreign Relations and Intercourse. For complete classification of this Act to the Code, see Short Title note set out under section 2501 of Title 22 and Tables.

Section 3122 of the Internal Revenue Code of 1954, referred to in subsec. (p)(1), redesignated section 3122 of the Internal Revenue Code of 1986 by Pub. L. 99–514, §2, Oct. 22, 1986, 100 Stat. 2095, and is classified to section 3122 of Title 26, Internal Revenue Code.

The Help America Vote Act of 2002, referred to in subsec. (r)(8)(A), is Pub. L. 107–252, Oct. 29, 2002, 116 Stat. 1666. For complete classification of this Act to the Code, see Short Title note set out under section 15301 of this title and Tables.

Codification

October 13, 1988, referred to in subsec. (c)(2)(C)(v), was in the original “the date of the enactment of such subclause”, and was translated as if it read “the date of the enactment of such clause”, as the probable intent of Congress. The clause in question, cl. (ii) of subsec. (c)(2)(C), was originally enacted as subcl. (II) of subsec. (c)(2)(C)(i), see 1988 Amendment note below, and was subsequently redesignated as cl. (ii) of subsec. (c)(2)(C), see 1990 Amendment note below.

August 15, 1994, referred to in subsec. (c)(2)(E)(iii), was in the original “the date of the enactment of this subparagraph” and “that date”, which were translated as meaning the date of enactment of Pub. L. 103–296, which added subsec. (c)(2)(E) and redesignated former subsec. (c)(2)(E) as (c)(2)(F).

In subsec. (g), act June 25, 1948, as amended by act May 24, 1949, substituted United States District Court for the District of Columbia, for District Court of the United States for the District of Columbia.

Pub. L. 110–234 and Pub. L. 110–246 made identical amendments to this section. The amendments by Pub. L. 110–234 were repealed by section 4(a) of Pub. L. 110–246.

Amendments

2010—Subsec. (c)(2)(C)(x). Pub. L. 111–318, §2(a)(1), added cl. (x) prohibiting use of social security account numbers on checks issued for payment by governmental agencies.

Pub. L. 111–148, §1414(a)(2), added cl. (x) authorizing collection and use of names and social security account numbers for certain administrative purposes.

Subsec. (c)(2)(C)(xi). Pub. L. 111–318, §2(b)(1), added cl. (xi).

Subsec. (r)(9). Pub. L. 111–148, §6402(b)(3), added par. (9).

2008—Subsec. (c)(2)(C)(iii)(I), (II). Pub. L. 110–246, §4002(b)(1)(B), (2)(V), substituted “Food and Nutrition Act of 2008” for “Food Stamp Act of 1977”.

2006—Subsec. (p)(3). Pub. L. 109–241 substituted “of Homeland Security” for “of Transportation” in two places.

2004—Subsec. (c)(2)(C)(vi). Pub. L. 108–458 designated existing provisions as subcl. (I) and added subcl. (II).

Subsec. (g). Pub. L. 108–203, §411(a), substituted “and, in any case in which the Commissioner has not made a decision fully favorable to the individual, a transcript of the additional record and testimony” for “and a transcript of the additional record and testimony”.

Subsec. (i). Pub. L. 108–271 substituted “Government Accountability Office” for “General Accounting Office”.

Subsec. (j)(2)(B)(i)(IV) to (VI). Pub. L. 108–203, §103(a)(1), added subcls. (IV) and (V) and redesignated former subcl. (IV) as (VI).

Subsec. (j)(2)(B)(iii). Pub. L. 108–203, §103(a)(2), added cl. (iii).

Subsec. (j)(2)(C)(i)(II). Pub. L. 108–203, §103(a)(3), substituted “subparagraph (B)(i)(VI)” for “subparagraph (B)(i)(IV),,” and “section 1383(a)(2)(B)(ii)(VI)” for “section 1383(a)(2)(B)(ii)(IV)”.

Subsec. (j)(2)(C)(i)(IV), (V). Pub. L. 108–203, §103(a)(4), added subcls. (IV) and (V).

Subsec. (j)(2)(C)(v)(I). Pub. L. 108–203, §105(a)(2), substituted “paragraph (10)” for “paragraph (9)”.

Pub. L. 108–203, §102(a)(1)(A), substituted “a certified community-based nonprofit social service agency (as defined in paragraph (9))” for “a community-based nonprofit social service agency licensed or bonded by the State”.

Subsec. (j)(3)(E). Pub. L. 108–203, §106(a)(2), added subpar. (E). Former subpar. (E) redesignated (F).

Subsec. (j)(3)(F). Pub. L. 108–203, §106(a)(1), redesignated subpar. (E) as (F). Former subpar. (F) redesignated (G).

Pub. L. 108–203, §105(a)(2), substituted “paragraph (10)” for “paragraph (9)”.

Pub. L. 108–203, §102(a)(1)(B), substituted “certified community-based nonprofit social service agencies (as defined in paragraph (9))” for “community-based nonprofit social service agencies”.

Subsec. (j)(3)(G). Pub. L. 108–203, §106(a)(1), redesignated subpar. (F) as (G).

Subsec. (j)(4)(A)(i). Pub. L. 108–203, §104(a)(2), which directed amendment of cl. (i) in concluding provisions by substituting “A qualified organization may not collect a fee from an individual for any month with respect to which the Commissioner of Social Security or a court of competent jurisdiction has determined that the organization misused all or part of the individual's benefit, and any amount so collected by the qualified organization for such month shall be treated as a misused part of the individual's benefit for purposes of paragraphs (5) and (6). The Commissioner” for “The Secretary”, was executed by making the substitution for “The Commissioner of Social Security” to reflect the probable intent of Congress. See 1994 Amendment note below.

Pub. L. 108–203, §104(a)(1), substituted “Except as provided in the next sentence, a” for “A” in introductory provisions.

Subsec. (j)(4)(B). Pub. L. 108–203, §105(a)(2), substituted “paragraph (10)” for “paragraph (9)” in introductory provisions.

Pub. L. 108–203, §102(a)(1)(C), substituted “any certified community-based nonprofit social service agency (as defined in paragraph (9))” for “any community-based nonprofit social service agency which is bonded or licensed in each State in which it serves as a representative payee” in introductory provisions.

Subsec. (j)(5). Pub. L. 108–203, §101(a)(1), designated first sentence of existing provisions as introductory provisions and inserted “In any case in which a representative payee that—” after “misused benefits.”, added subpars (A) and (B), and designated second sentence of existing provisions as concluding provisions and inserted “misuses all or part of an individual's benefit paid to such representative payee, the Commissioner of Social Security shall certify for payment to the beneficiary or the beneficiary's alternative representative payee an amount equal to the amount of such benefit so misused. The provisions of this paragraph are subject to the limitations of paragraph (7)(B).” before “The Commissioner of Social Security shall make”.

Subsec. (j)(6). Pub. L. 108–203, §102(b)(1), amended par. (6) generally. Prior to amendment, par. (6) read as follows: “The Commissioner of Social Security shall include as a part of the annual report required under section 904 of this title information with respect to the implementation of the preceding provisions of this subsection, including the number of cases in which the representative payee was changed, the number of cases discovered where there has been a misuse of funds, how any such cases were dealt with by the Commissioner of Social Security, the final disposition of such cases, including any criminal penalties imposed, and such other information as the Commissioner of Social Security determines to be appropriate.”

Subsec. (j)(6)(A)(ii). Pub. L. 108–203, §105(a)(3), substituted “paragraph (10)” for “paragraph (9)”.

Subsec. (j)(7). Pub. L. 108–203, §105(a)(1), (4), added par. (7) and redesignated former par. (7) as (8).

Subsec. (j)(8). Pub. L. 108–203, §105(a)(1), redesignated par. (7) as (8). Former par. (8) redesignated (9).

Pub. L. 108–203, §101(a)(2), added par. (8).

Subsec. (j)(9). Pub. L. 108–203, §105(a)(1), redesignated par. (8) as (9). Former par. (9) redesignated (10).

Pub. L. 108–203, §102(a)(1)(D), added par. (9).

Subsec. (j)(10). Pub. L. 108–203, §105(a)(1), redesignated par. (9) as (10).

2002—Subsec. (r)(8). Pub. L. 107–252 added par. (8).

2001—Subsec. (i). Pub. L. 107–90 inserted “(or five or more years of service, all of which accrues after December 31, 1995)” after “ten years of service”.

1999—Subsec. (j)(1)(A). Pub. L. 106–169, §251(b)(2)(A), inserted “1007 or” before “1383(a)(2)”.

Subsec. (j)(2)(B)(i)(I). Pub. L. 106–169, §251(b)(2)(B), inserted “, subchapter VIII of this chapter,” before “or subchapter XVI of this chapter”.

Subsec. (j)(2)(B)(i)(III). Pub. L. 106–169, §251(b)(2)(C), inserted “, 1011,” before “or 1383a”.

Subsec. (j)(2)(B)(i)(IV). Pub. L. 106–169, §251(b)(2)(D), inserted “, the designation of such person as a representative payee has been revoked pursuant to section 1007(a) of this title,” before “or payment of benefits” and “, subchapter VIII of this chapter,” before “or subchapter XVI of this chapter”.

Subsec. (j)(2)(B)(ii)(I). Pub. L. 106–169, §251(b)(2)(E), inserted “whose designation as a representative payee has been revoked pursuant to section 1007(a) of this title,” before “or with respect to whom” and “, subchapter VIII of this chapter,” before “or subchapter XVI of this chapter”.

Subsec. (j)(2)(B)(ii)(II). Pub. L. 106–169, §251(b)(2)(F), inserted “, 1011,” before “or 1383a”.

Subsec. (j)(2)(C)(i)(II). Pub. L. 106–169, §251(b)(2)(G), inserted “, the designation of such person as a representative payee has been revoked pursuant to section 1007(a) of this title,” before “or payment of benefits”.

Subsec. (j)(3)(E)(i), (ii). Pub. L. 106–169, §251(b)(2)(H), inserted “, section 1007 of this title,” before “or section 1383(a)(2) of this title”.

Subsec. (j)(3)(F). Pub. L. 106–169, §251(b)(2)(I), inserted “1007 or” before “1383(a)(2)”.

Subsec. (j)(4)(B)(i). Pub. L. 106–169, §251(b)(2)(J), inserted “1007 or” before “1383(a)(2)”.

1997—Subsec. (c)(2)(B)(ii). Pub. L. 105–34, §1090(b)(1)(A), inserted at end “With respect to an application for a social security account number for an individual who has not attained the age of 18 before such application, such evidence shall include the information described in subparagraph (C)(ii).”

Subsec. (c)(2)(C)(ii). Pub. L. 105–34, §1090(b)(1)(B), inserted “the Commissioner of Social Security and” after “available to” in second sentence.

Subsec. (c)(2)(H). Pub. L. 105–34, §1090(b)(1)(C), added subpar. (H).

1996—Subsec. (c)(2)(C)(vi). Pub. L. 104–193 inserted “an agency administering a program funded under part A of subchapter IV of this chapter or” before “an agency operating” and substituted “part D of such subchapter” for “part A or D of subchapter IV of this chapter”.

Subsec. (j)(1)(B). Pub. L. 104–121, §105(a)(2)(A), amended subpar. (B) generally. Prior to amendment, subpar. (B) read as follows: “In the case of an individual entitled to benefits based on disability, if alcoholism or drug addiction is a contributing factor material to the Commissioner's determination that the individual is under a disability, certification of payment of such benefits to a representative payee shall be deemed to serve the interest of such individual under this subchapter. In any case in which such certification is so deemed under this subparagraph to serve the interest of an individual, the Commissioner of Social Security shall include, in such individual's notification of entitlement, a notice that alcoholism or drug addiction is a contributing factor material to the Commissioner's determination of such individual's disability and that the Commissioner of Social Security is therefore required to make a certification of payment of such individual's benefits to a representative payee.”

Subsec. (j)(2)(C)(v). Pub. L. 104–121, §105(a)(2)(B), substituted “described in paragraph (1)(B)” for “entitled to benefits based on disability, if alcoholism or drug addiction is a contributing factor material to the Commissioner's determination that the individual is under a disability”.

Subsec. (j)(2)(D)(ii)(II). Pub. L. 104–121, §105(a)(2)(C), substituted “described in paragraph (1)(B).” for “(if alcoholism or drug addiction is a contributing factor material to the Commissioner's determination that the individual is under a disability) is eligible for benefits under this subchapter by reason of disability..”

Subsec. (j)(4)(A)(i)(II). Pub. L. 104–121, §105(a)(2)(D), substituted “described in paragraph (1)(B)” for “entitled to benefits based on disability and alcoholism or drug addiction is a contributing factor material to the Commissioner's determination that the individual is under a disability”.

1994—Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 103–296, §107(a)(4), substituted “Commissioner of Social Security” for “Secretary”.

Subsec. (b)(1), (2). Pub. L. 103–296, §107(a)(4), substituted wherever appearing “Commissioner of Social Security” for “Secretary”, “Commissioner's” for “Secretary's”, “the Commissioner may” for “he may”, “the Commissioner shall” for “he shall”, and “the Commissioner's” for “his” except in the phrase “his or her rights”.

Subsec. (b)(3)(A). Pub. L. 103–296, §321(a)(7), realigned margin.

Subsec. (b)(3)(B). Pub. L. 103–296, §321(a)(7), realigned margin.

Pub. L. 103–296, §107(a)(4), substituted “Commissioner of Social Security” for “Secretary”.

Subsec. (c)(1)(D)(i). Pub. L. 103–296, §321(c)(6)(B), substituted “Code of 1986” for “Code of 1954”.

Subsec. (c)(2)(A). Pub. L. 103–296, §107(a)(4), substituted “Commissioner of Social Security” for “Secretary” in two places and “the Commissioner deems” for “he deems”.

Subsec. (c)(2)(B)(i). Pub. L. 103–296, §304(a)(1), substituted “(F)” for “(E)” in introductory provisions.

Pub. L. 103–296, §107(a)(4), substituted “In carrying out the Commissioner's duties” for “In carrying out his duties” in introductory provisions and “Commissioner of Social Security” for “Secretary” wherever appearing.

Subsec. (c)(2)(B)(ii). Pub. L. 103–296, §107(a)(4), substituted “Commissioner of Social Security” for “Secretary”.

Subsec. (c)(2)(B)(iii). Pub. L. 103–296, §321(a)(8), substituted “nonpublic” for “non-public”.

Pub. L. 103–296, §107(a)(4), substituted “Commissioner of Social Security” for “Secretary”.

Subsec. (c)(2)(C)(i), (ii). Pub. L. 103–296, §107(a)(4), substituted “Commissioner of Social Security” for “Secretary” wherever appearing.

Subsec. (c)(2)(C)(iii). Pub. L. 103–296, §321(a)(9)(B), redesignated the cl. (iii) as added by Pub. L. 101–624, §2201(b)(3), as cl. (iv).

Pub. L. 103–296, §316(a), amended cl. (iii) as added by Pub. L. 101–624, §1735(a)(3), by inserting subcl. (I) designation before “In the administration” and by substituting subcls. (II) to (IV) for “The Secretary of Agriculture shall restrict, to the satisfaction of the Secretary of Health and Human Services, access to social security account numbers obtained pursuant to this clause only to officers and employees of the United States whose duties or responsibilities require access for the administration or enforcement of the Food Stamp Act of 1977. The Secretary of Agriculture shall provide such other safeguards as the Secretary of Health and Human Services determines to be necessary or appropriate to protect the confidentiality of the social security account numbers.”

Subsec. (c)(2)(C)(iii)(III), (IV). Pub. L. 103–296, §107(a)(1), in cl. (iii) as amended by Pub. L. 103–296, §316(a), substituted “Commissioner of Social Security” for “Secretary of Health and Human Services”.

Subsec. (c)(2)(C)(iv). Pub. L. 103–296, §321(a)(9)(B), redesignated the cl. (iii) as added by Pub. L. 101–624, §2201(b)(3), as cl. (iv). Former cl. (iv) redesignated (v).

Pub. L. 103–296, §107(a)(1), in cl. (iv) as redesignated by Pub. L. 103–296, §321(a)(9)(B), substituted “Commissioner of Social Security” for “Secretary of Health and Human Services” in two places.

Subsec. (c)(2)(C)(v). Pub. L. 103–296, §321(a)(9)(B), (C), redesignated cl. (iv) as (v), and substituted “policy set forth in clause (i)” for “policy set forth in subclause (I) of clause (i)” and “clause (ii)” for “subclause (II) of clause (i)”. Former cl. (v) redesignated (vi).

Subsec. (c)(2)(C)(vi). Pub. L. 103–296, §321(a)(9)(B), redesignated cl. (v) as (vi). Former cl. (vi) redesignated (vii).

Subsec. (c)(2)(C)(vii). Pub. L. 103–296, §321(a)(9)(B), redesignated cl. (vi) as (vii). Former cl. (vii) added by Pub. L. 101–624, §1735(b), redesignated (viii).

Pub. L. 103–296, §321(a)(9)(A), struck out cl. (vii) added by Pub. L. 101–624, §2201(c), which was substantially identical to the cl. (vii) added by Pub. L. 101–624, §1735(b).

Subsec. (c)(2)(C)(viii). Pub. L. 103–296, §321(a)(9)(B), (D), redesignated the cl. (vii) added by Pub. L. 101–624, §1735(b), as (viii) and inserted “a social security account number or” before “a request for” in subcl. (IV).

Subsec. (c)(2)(C)(ix). Pub. L. 103–296, §318, added cl. (ix).

Pub. L. 103–296, §107(a)(1), amended cl. (ix) as added by Pub. L. 103–296, §318, by substituting “Commissioner of Social Security” for “Secretary of Health and Human Services” in two places.

Subsec. (c)(2)(D)(i)(I), (II). Pub. L. 103–296, §107(a)(4), substituted “Commissioner of Social Security” for “Secretary”.

Subsec. (c)(2)(E). Pub. L. 103–296, §304(a)(3), added subpar. (E). Former subpar. (E) redesignated (F).

Pub. L. 103–296, §107(a)(4), in subpar. (E) added by Pub. L. 103–296, §304(a)(3), substituted “Commissioner of Social Security” for “Secretary”.

Subsec. (c)(2)(F), (G). Pub. L. 103–296, §304(a)(2), redesignated subpars. (E) and (F) as (F) and (G), respectively.

Pub. L. 103–296, §107(a)(4), in subpars. (F) and (G) as redesignated by Pub. L. 103–296, §304(a)(2), substituted “Commissioner of Social Security” for “Secretary” wherever appearing.

Subsec. (c)(3). Pub. L. 103–296, §107(a)(4), substituted “Commissioner's” for “Secretary's” and “Commissioner of Social Security” for “Secretary”.

Subsec. (c)(4). Pub. L. 103–296, §107(a)(4), in introductory provisions, substituted “Commissioner of Social Security” for “Secretary” and substituted “the Commissioner's” for “his” wherever appearing, in subpars. (A) and (B), substituted “Commissioner's” for “Secretary's”, and in subpar. (C), substituted “Commissioner's records as” for “Secretary's records as”, “Commissioner of Social Security” for “Secretary”, and “the Commissioner's records the” for “his records the”.

Subsec. (c)(5). Pub. L. 103–296, §107(a)(4), in introductory provisions substituted “Commissioner of Social Security” for “Secretary” and substituted “the Commissioner's” for “his” in two places.

Subsec. (c)(5)(B). Pub. L. 103–296, §107(a)(4), substituted “Commissioner's” for “Secretary's” in two places.

Subsec. (c)(5)(F). Pub. L. 103–296, §107(a)(4), substituted “the Commissioner's” for “his” in introductory provisions, “Commissioner of Social Security” for “Secretary” in cl. (ii), and “Commissioner's” for “Secretary's” in closing provisions.

Subsec. (c)(5)(F)(i). Pub. L. 103–296, §321(c)(3), inserted “or the Internal Revenue Code of 1986” after “Code of 1954”.

Subsec. (c)(5)(G), (J), (6), (7). Pub. L. 103–296, §107(a)(4), substituted “Commissioner of Social Security” for “Secretary” wherever appearing and “the Commissioner's” for “his” before “records” in two places in par. (7).

Subsec. (c)(8). Pub. L. 103–296, §206(a)(1)(B), added par. (8). Former par. (8) redesignated (9).

Subsec. (c)(9). Pub. L. 103–296, §206(a)(1)(A), redesignated par. (8) as (9).

Pub. L. 103–296, §107(a)(4), in par. (9) as redesignated by Pub. L. 103–296, §206(a)(1)(A), substituted “Commissioner of Social Security” for “Secretary”.

Subsec. (d). Pub. L. 103–296, §107(a)(4), substituted “Commissioner of Social Security” for “Secretary” wherever appearing, “the Commissioner's” for “his” before “jurisdiction”, and “by the Commissioner” for “by him”.

Subsec. (e). Pub. L. 103–296, §107(a)(4), substituted “Commissioner of Social Security” for “Secretary”.

Subsec. (g). Pub. L. 103–296, §107(a)(4), substituted “Commissioner of Social Security” for “Secretary” wherever appearing, “the Commissioner's” for “his” wherever appearing except in second sentence, and “the Commissioner files” for “he files”.

Subsec. (h). Pub. L. 103–296, §107(a)(4), substituted “Commissioner of Social Security” for “Secretary” wherever appearing.

Subsec. (i). Pub. L. 103–296, §107(a)(4), substituted “Commissioner of Social Security” for “Secretary” wherever appearing and “Commissioner's” for “Secretary's”.

Subsec. (j). Pub. L. 103–296, §321(a)(10), made technical amendment to heading.

Subsec. (j)(1). Pub. L. 103–296, §201(a)(1)(A), designated existing provisions as subpar. (A), in last sentence inserted “, if the interest of the individual under this subchapter would be served thereby,” after “payee or”, and added subpar. (B).

Pub. L. 103–296, §107(a)(4), in par. (1) as amended by Pub. L. 103–296, §201(a)(1)(A), substituted “Commissioner of Social Security” for “Secretary” wherever appearing and “Commissioner's” for “Secretary's” in two places in subpar. (B).

Subsec. (j)(2)(A) to (C)(iv). Pub. L. 103–296, §107(a)(4), substituted “Commissioner of Social Security” for “Secretary” wherever appearing.

Subsec. (j)(2)(C)(v). Pub. L. 103–296, §201(a)(2)(A), added cl. (v).

Pub. L. 103–296, §107(a)(4), in cl. (v) as added by Pub. L. 103–296, §201(a)(2)(A), substituted “Commissioner's” for “Secretary's” in introductory provisions and “Commissioner of Social Security” for “Secretary” in subcl. (IV) and closing provisions.

Subsec. (j)(2)(D)(i). Pub. L. 103–296, §107(a)(4), substituted “Commissioner of Social Security” for “Secretary” in two places.

Subsec. (j)(2)(D)(ii)(II). Pub. L. 103–296, §201(a)(1)(B), substituted “, under the age of 15 years, or (if alcoholism or drug addiction is a contributing factor material to the Secretary's determination that the individual is under a disability) is eligible for benefits under this subchapter by reason of disability.” for “or under the age of 15”.

Pub. L. 103–296, §107(a)(4), in subcl. (II) as amended by Pub. L. 103–296, §201(a)(1)(B), substituted “Commissioner's” for “Secretary's” in two places.

Subsec. (j)(2)(D)(iii), (E), (3)(A), (B), (D), (E). Pub. L. 103–296, §107(a)(4), substituted “Commissioner of Social Security” for “Secretary” wherever appearing and “Commissioner's” for “Secretary's” in par. (2)(E)(i) and (ii).

Subsec. (j)(4)(A). Pub. L. 103–296, §201(a)(2)(B)(i), designated existing provisions as cl. (i), redesignated former cls. (i) and (ii) as subcls. (I) and (II), respectively, added new subcl. (II) and struck out former subcl. (II) (as redesignated) which read “$25.00 per month.”, inserted “The Secretary shall adjust annually (after 1995) each dollar amount set forth in subclause (II) under procedures providing for adjustments in the same manner and to the same extent as adjustments are provided for under the procedures used to adjust benefit amounts under section 415(i)(2)(A) of this title, except that any amount so adjusted that is not a multiple of $1.00 shall be rounded to the nearest multiple of $1.00.” before “Any agreement” in concluding provisions, and added cl. (ii).

Pub. L. 103–296, §107(a)(4), in subpar. (A) as amended by Pub. L. 103–296, §201(a)(2)(B)(i), substituted “Commissioner's” for “Secretary's” and “Commissioner of Social Security” for “Secretary”.

Subsec. (j)(4)(B). Pub. L. 103–296, §201(a)(2)(B)(ii), in introductory provisions, inserted “State or local government agency whose mission is to carry out income maintenance, social service, or health care-related activities, any State or local government agency with fiduciary responsibilities, or any” after “means any”, substituted “representative payee, if such agency,” for “representative payee and which,”, substituted a period for “, and” at end of cl. (ii), and struck out cl. (iii) which read as follows: “was in existence on October 1, 1988.”

Pub. L. 103–296, §107(a)(4), substituted “Commissioner of Social Security” for “Secretary” wherever appearing.

Subsec. (j)(4)(D). Pub. L. 103–296, §201(a)(2)(B)(iii), struck out subpar. (D) which read as follows: “This paragraph shall cease to be effective on July 1, 1994.”

Subsec. (j)(5). Pub. L. 103–296, §107(a)(4), substituted “Commissioner of Social Security” for “Secretary” wherever appearing.

Subsec. (j)(6). Pub. L. 103–296, §321(f)(2)(A), made technical correction to Pub. L. 101–508, §5105(d)(1)(A). See 1990 Amendment note below.

Pub. L. 103–296, §107(a)(4), in par. (6) as amended by Pub. L. 103–296, §321(f)(2)(A), substituted “Commissioner of Social Security” for “Secretary” wherever appearing.

Subsec. (j)(7). Pub. L. 103–296, §201(a)(2)(C), added par. (7).

Subsec. (k). Pub. L. 103–296, §107(a)(4), substituted “Commissioner of Social Security” for “Secretary”.

Subsec. (l). Pub. L. 103–296, §107(a)(2), (4), substituted “Commissioner of Social Security” for “Secretary”, “Social Security Administration” for “Department of Health and Human Services”, “by the Commissioner” for “by him”, “upon the Commissioner” for “upon him”, and “the Commissioner's” for “his”.

Subsec. (n). Pub. L. 103–296, §107(a)(4), substituted “Commissioner of Social Security may, in the Commissioner's discretion” for “Secretary may, in his discretion”.

Subsec. (p)(1), (2). Pub. L. 103–296, §107(a)(4), substituted “Commissioner of Social Security” for “Secretary” wherever appearing, “the Commissioner's” for “Secretary's” in par. (1), and “to the Commissioner” for “to him” in par. (2).

Subsecs. (q), (r). Pub. L. 103–296, §107(a)(4), substituted “Commissioner of Social Security” for “Secretary” wherever appearing, “the Commissioner finds” for “he finds” in subsec. (q)(2), and “the Commissioner may” for “he may” in subsec. (q)(3).

Subsec. (s). Pub. L. 103–296, §321(a)(11), made technical amendment to heading.

Pub. L. 103–296, §107(a)(4), substituted “Commissioner of Social Security” for “Secretary” in two places in introductory provisions.

Subsec. (t). Pub. L. 103–296, §107(a)(4), substituted “Commissioner of Social Security” for “Secretary” in closing provisions.

Subsec. (u). Pub. L. 103–296, §206(d)(1), added subsec. (u).

Pub. L. 103–296, §107(a)(4), in subsec. (u) added by Pub. L. 103–296, §206(d)(1), substituted “Commissioner of Social Security” for “Secretary” wherever appearing.

1990—Subsec. (b)(3). Pub. L. 101–508, §5107(a)(1), added par. (3).

Subsec. (c)(2)(C). Pub. L. 101–624, §§1735(a), (b), 2201(b), (c), made similar amendments redesignating subcls. (I) and (II) of former cl. (i) as cls. (i) and (ii), respectively, adding two cls. (iii) which are different, redesignating former cls. (ii) to (iv) as (iv) to (vi), respectively, and adding two substantially identical cls. (vii). Cls. (iii) and (vii), as added by §1735 of Pub. L. 101–624, are set out first and cls. (iii) and (vii), as added by §2201 of Pub. L. 101–624, are set out second.

Subsec. (j). Pub. L. 101–508, §5105(a)(1)(A), inserted heading “Representative payees”.

Subsec. (j)(1). Pub. L. 101–508, §5105(a)(1)(A), amended par. (1) generally. Prior to amendment, par. (1) read as follows: “When it appears to the Secretary that the interest of an applicant entitled to a payment would be served thereby, certification of payment may be made, regardless of the legal competency or incompetency of the individual entitled thereto, either for direct payment to such applicant, or for his use and benefit to a relative or some other person.”

Subsec. (j)(2). Pub. L. 101–508, §5105(a)(2)(A)(i), amended par. (2) generally. Prior to amendment, par. (2) read as follows: “Any certification made under paragraph (1) for payment to a person other than the individual entitled to such payment must be made on the basis of an investigation, carried out either prior to such certification or within forty-five days after such certification, and on the basis of adequate evidence that such certification is in the interest of the individual entitled to such payment (as determined by the Secretary in regulations). The Secretary shall ensure that such certifications are adequately reviewed.”

Subsec. (j)(3)(B), (C). Pub. L. 101–508, §5105(b)(1)(A)(i), (ii), redesignated subpars. (C) and (D) as (B) and (C), respectively, and struck out former subpar. (B) which read as follows: “Subparagraph (A) shall not apply in any case where the other person to whom such payment is made is a parent or spouse of the individual entitled to such payment who lives in the same household as such individual. The Secretary shall require such parent or spouse to verify on a periodic basis that such parent or spouse continues to live in the same household as such individual.”

Subsec. (j)(3)(D). Pub. L. 101–508, §5105(b)(1)(A)(ii), (iii), redesignated subpar. (E) as (D) and substituted “(A), (B), and (C)” for “(A), (B), (C), and (D)”. Former subpar. (D) redesignated (C).

Subsec. (j)(3)(E), (F). Pub. L. 101–508, §5105(b)(1)(A)(ii), (iv), added subpars. (E) and (F) and redesignated former subpar. (E) as (D).

Subsec. (j)(4). Pub. L. 101–508, §5105(a)(3)(A)(i), added par. (4). Former par. (4) redesignated (5).

Subsec. (j)(5). Pub. L. 101–508, §5105(c)(1), added par. (5) relating to negligent failure of the Secretary to investigate or monitor. Former par. (5), relating to annual report, redesignated (6).

Pub. L. 101–508, §5105(a)(3)(A)(i), redesignated par. (4), relating to annual report, as (5).

Subsec. (j)(6). Pub. L. 101–508, §5105(d)(1)(A), as amended by Pub. L. 103–296, §321(f)(2)(A), amended par. (6) generally. Prior to amendment, par. (6) read as follows:

“(A) The Secretary shall make an initial report to each House of the Congress on the implementation of paragraphs (2) and (3) within 270 days after October 9, 1984.

“(B) The Secretary shall include as a part of the annual report required under section 904 of this title, information with respect to the implementation of paragraphs (2) and (3), including the number of cases in which the payee was changed, the number of cases discovered where there has been a misuse of funds, how any such cases were dealt with by the Secretary, the final disposition of such cases, including any criminal penalties imposed, and such other information as the Secretary determines to be appropriate.”

Pub. L. 101–508, §5105(c)(1), redesignated par. (5), relating to annual report, as (6).

Subsec. (s). Pub. L. 101–508, §5109(a)(1), added subsec. (s).

1989—Subsec. (c)(5)(H). Pub. L. 101–239, §10304, struck out “if there is an absence of an entry in the Secretary's records of wages having been paid by such employer to such individual in such period” before semicolon at end.

Subsec. (t). Pub. L. 101–239, §10303(a), added subsec. (t).

1988—Subsec. (c)(2)(B)(i). Pub. L. 100–647, §8009(a)(1), inserted “and subparagraph (E)” after “subparagraph (A)”.

Subsec. (c)(2)(C)(i). Pub. L. 100–485, §125(a)(1), designated existing provisions as subcl. (I) and added subcl. (II).

Subsec. (c)(2)(C)(ii). Pub. L. 100–485, §125(a)(2), substituted “subclause (I) of clause (i)” for “clause (i) of this subparagraph” and inserted at end “If and to the extent that any such provision is inconsistent with the requirement set forth in subclause (II) of clause (i), such provision shall, on and after October 13, 1988, be null, void, and of no effect.”

Subsec. (c)(2)(C)(iii). Pub. L. 100–647, §8016(a)(1), substituted “of this Act” for “of the Social Security Act”, which for purposes of codification was translated as “of this chapter”.

Subsec. (c)(2)(D). Pub. L. 100–647, §8008(a)(2), added subpar. (D). Former subpar. (D) redesignated (E).

Subsec. (c)(2)(E). Pub. L. 100–647, §8009(a)(3), added subpar. (E). Former subpar. (E) redesignated (F).

Pub. L. 100–647, §8008(a)(1), redesignated former subpar. (D) as (E).

Subsec. (c)(2)(F). Pub. L. 100–647, §8009(a)(2), redesignated former subpar. (E) as (F).

Subsec. (p)(1). Pub. L. 100–647, §8015(a)(1), substituted “the Secretary shall not make determinations as to the amounts of remuneration for such service, or the periods in which or for which such remuneration was paid” for “the Secretary shall not make determinations as to whether an individual has performed such service, the periods of such service, the amounts of remuneration for such service which constitute wages under the provisions of section 409 of this title, or the periods in which or for which such wages were paid” and inserted at end “Nothing in this paragraph shall be construed to affect the Secretary's authority to determine under sections 409 and 410 of this title whether any such service constitutes employment, the periods of such employment, and whether remuneration paid for any such service constitutes wages.”

1986—Subsec. (c)(1)(D)(i). Pub. L. 99–509, §9002(c)(2)(A), inserted “(as in effect prior to December 31, 1986)”.

Subsec. (c)(5)(F)(iii). Pub. L. 99–509, §9002(c)(2)(B), inserted “(as in effect prior to December 31, 1986)” and “(as so in effect)”.

1984—Subsec. (c)(5)(D). Pub. L. 98–369, §2663(a)(4)(A), inserted “of 1937 or 1974” after “Railroad Retirement Act” in two places.

Subsec. (c)(5)(I). Pub. L. 98–369, §2663(a)(4)(B), inserted “or section 7(b)(7) of the Railroad Retirement Act of 1974”.

Subsec. (e). Pub. L. 98–369, §2663(a)(4)(C), substituted “an order” for “on order”.

Subsec. (h). Pub. L. 98–369, §2663(a)(4)(D), substituted “section 1331 or 1346 of title 28” for “section 24 of the Judicial Code of the United States”.

Subsec. (i). Pub. L. 98–369, §2663(a)(4)(E), substituted “the Fiscal Service of the Department of the Treasury” for “the Division of Disbursement of the Treasury Department”.

Subsec. (j). Pub. L. 98–460 designated existing provisions as par. (1) and added pars. (2) to (4).

Subsec. (l). Pub. L. 98–369, §2663(j)(4), substituted “Department of Health and Human Services” for “Federal Security Agency”.

Subsec. (p)(1). Pub. L. 98–369, §2663(a)(4)(F), substituted “section 3122 of the Internal Revenue Code of 1954” for “section 1420(e) of the Internal Revenue Code of 1939”.

Subsec. (r)(4). Pub. L. 98–369, §2661(h)(1), substituted “subparagraphs (A) and (B) of paragraph (3)” for “paragraph (3)(A) and (B)”.

Subsec. (r)(7). Pub. L. 98–369, §2661(h)(2), substituted “this Act” for “the Act” which was translated as “this title”.

1983—Subsec. (b). Pub. L. 98–21, §§301(d)(1), 309(i)(1), in par. (1) inserted “divorced husband,” after “husband,”, “surviving divorced husband,” after “widower,”, and “surviving divorced father,” after “surviving divorced mother,”.

Pub. L. 97–455 designated existing provisions as par. (1) and added par. (2).

Subsec. (c)(1)(C). Pub. L. 98–21, §§301(d)(2), 309(i)(2), inserted “surviving divorced husband,” after “wife,” and “surviving divorced father,” after “surviving divorced mother,”.

Subsec. (c)(2)(D). Pub. L. 98–21, §345(a), added subpar. (D).

Subsec. (r). Pub. L. 98–21, §336, added subsec. (r).

1980—Subsec. (b). Pub. L. 96–265, §305(a), inserted provisions relating to the information that must accompany a decision by the Secretary.

Subsec. (g). Pub. L. 96–265, §307, substituted “The court may, on motion of the Secretary made for good cause shown before he files his answer, remand the case to the Secretary for further action by the Secretary, and it may at any time order additional evidence to be taken before the Secretary, but only upon a showing that there is new evidence which is material and that there is good cause for the failure to incorporate such evidence into the record in a prior proceeding;” for “The court shall, on motion of the Secretary made before he files his answer, remand the case to the Secretary for further action by the Secretary, and may, at any time, on good cause shown, order additional evidence to be taken before the Secretary,”.

1978—Subsec. (p)(3). Pub. L. 95–600 substituted “Secretary of Transportation” for “Secretary of the Treasury” in two places.

1977—Subsec. (c)(1)(A). Pub. L. 95–216, §353(f)(2)(A), struck out “(as defined in section 411(e) of this title)” after “taxable year”.

Subsec. (c)(1)(D). Pub. L. 95–216, §353(f)(2)(B), added subpar. (D).

Subsec. (o). Pub. L. 95–216, §353(f)(2)(C), inserted “before 1978” after “calendar year”.

1976—Subsec. (b). Pub. L. 94–202 substituted provisions that a request for a hearing following the decision of the Secretary be made within sixty days after notice of such decision is received for provisions which authorized the Secretary to prescribe by regulation the period within which to file a request, including the limitation that the period so prescribed be not less than six months after notice of the decision was mailed.

Subsec. (c)(2)(C). Pub. L. 94–455 added subpar. (C).

1974—Subsec. (i). Pub. L. 93–445, §302(a), inserted parenthetical provision covering service under the Railroad Retirement Acts of 1937 and 1974 and certification to the Railroad Retirement Board and payment on behalf of the Managing Trustee in accordance with the provisions of the Railroad Retirement Act of 1974.

Subsec. (o). Pub. L. 93–445, §303, substituted “annuity under section 2 of the Railroad Retirement Act of 1974” for “section 5 of the Railroad Retirement Act of 1937”, “section 6(b) of such Act” for “subsection (f)(1) of such section”, and “section 3(i) of such Act” for “section 4 of such Act”.

1972—Subsec. (c)(2). Pub. L. 92–603 designated existing provisions as par. (A) and added par. (B).

1970—Subsec. (f). Pub. L. 91–452 struck out subsec. (f) which related to the immunity from prosecution of any person compelled to testify or produce evidence after claiming his privilege against self-incrimination.

1968—Subsec. (q). Pub. L. 90–248, §171(a), added subsec. (q).

1965—Subsec. (b). Pub. L. 89–97, §308(d)(9), substituted in second sentence “wife, divorced wife, widow, surviving divorced wife, surviving divorced mother,” for “wife, widow, former wife divorced,”.

Subsec. (c)(1)(C). Pub. L. 89–97, §308(d)(10), substituted “surviving divorced wife, surviving divorced mother,” for “former wife divorced,”.

Subsec. (n). Pub. L. 89–97, §330, provided that Secretary of the Treasury may authorize surviving payee or payees of a combined benefit check to cash one or more such checks which were not negotiated before one of payees died, provided that part of proceeds from each check that represents an overpayment is to be adjusted or recovered as provided in section 404(a) of this title.

1961—Subsec. (p)(1). Pub. L. 87–293 provided that head of Federal agency having control of service or such agents as the head may designate would make determinations with respect to employment and wages in case of service performed by volunteers and volunteer leaders in Peace Corps.

1960—Subsec. (c)(5)(F). Pub. L. 86–778, §102(f)(2), authorized the Secretary to add, change, or delete entries to conform his records to assessments of amounts due under an agreement pursuant to section 418 of this title, if such assessments are made within the period specified in subsection (q) of such section, or allowances of credits or refunds of overpayments by a State under an agreement pursuant to such section, and inserted references to chapters 2 and 21 of the Internal Revenue Code of 1954.

Subsec. (d). Pub. L. 86–507 inserted “or by certified mail” after “registered mail” in two places.

Subsec. (g). Pub. L. 86–778, §702(a), inserted sentence providing that any action instituted in accordance with this subsection shall survive notwithstanding any change in the person occupying the office of Secretary or any vacancy in such office.

Subsec. (p)(1). Pub. L. 86–778, §103(j)(2)(E), substituted “subsection (l)(1)” for “subsection (m)(1)”.

1956—Subsec. (b). Act Aug. 1, 1956, ch. 836, §111(a), required requests with respect to decisions to be filed within such period as the Secretary prescribes by regulation, which period may not be less than six months after notice of the decision is mailed.

Subsec. (c)(1)(B). Act Aug. 1, 1956, ch. 836, §107(b), substituted “three months” for “two months”.

Subsec. (c)(5)(F). Act Aug. 1, 1956, ch. 836, §117, struck out provisions prohibiting inclusion in records of amount of self-employment income in excess of the amount which had been deleted as payments erroneously included in such records as wages paid to such individual in such taxable year, which provisions are now covered by subsec. (c)(5)(J) of this section.

Subsec. (c)(5)(J). Act Aug. 1, 1956, ch. 836, §117, added subpar. (J).

Subsec. (p)(1). Act Aug. 1, 1956, ch. 837, provided for determinations with respect to service performed as a member of a uniformed service to which the provisions of section 410(m)(1) of this title are applicable.

1954—Subsec. (o). Act Sept. 1, 1954, §101(a)(5), substituted “section 410(a)(9)” for “section 410(a)(10)”.

Subsec. (p)(3). Act Sept. 1, 1954, §101(c)(3), inserted provisions making subsec. (p)(1) and (2) applicable to services performed by a civilian employee in the Coast Guard Exchanges or certain other activities at Coast Guard installations.

1952—Subsec. (o). Act July 18, 1952, substituted “subsection (a) or (e) of section 417 of this title” for “section 417(a) of this title”.

1950—Act Aug. 28, 1950, §109(b)(1), substituted “Administrator” for “Board”, “Administrator's” for “Board's”, “he”, “him”, and “his” for “it”, and “its”, wherever appearing.

Subsec. (b). Act Aug. 28, 1950, §108(a), inserted “former wife divorced, husband, widower,” after “widow”.

Subsec. (c). Act Aug. 28, 1950, §108(b), amended subsec. (c) generally to include definitions, to provide for the maintaining of records of self-employed persons, to allow for the revision of the Administrator's record, to authorize corrections after the times limitations if an application for monthly benefits or a lump-sum death payment is filed within the time limitation and no final decision has been made on it, to continue the requirement that written notice of any deletion or reduction of wages be given to the individual whose record is involved, to give the Administrator discretion to prescribe the period, after any change or refusal to change his records, within which an individual may be granted a hearing, and to provide for judicial review.

Subsec. (l). Act Aug. 28, 1950, §109(b)(2), amended subsec. (l) generally.

Subsecs. (o), (p). Act Aug. 28, 1950, §108(c), added subsecs. (o) and (p).

1939—Act Aug. 10, 1939, omitted former section 405 relating to payments of $500 or less to estates, and added subsecs. (a) to (n).

Effective Date of 2010 Amendment

Pub. L. 111–318, §2(a)(2), Dec. 18, 2010, 124 Stat. 3455, provided that: “The amendment made by this subsection [amending this section] shall apply with respect to checks issued after the date that is 3 years after the date of enactment of this Act [Dec. 18, 2010].”

Pub. L. 111–318, §2(b)(2), Dec. 18, 2010, 124 Stat. 3455, provided that: “The amendment made by this subsection [amending this section] shall apply with respect to employment of prisoners, or entry into contract with prisoners, after the date that is 1 year after the date of enactment of this Act [Dec. 18, 2010].”

Effective Date of 2008 Amendment

Amendment of this section and repeal of Pub. L. 110–234 by Pub. L. 110–246 effective May 22, 2008, the date of enactment of Pub. L. 110–234, except as otherwise provided, see section 4 of Pub. L. 110–246, set out as an Effective Date note under section 8701 of Title 7, Agriculture.

Amendment by section 4002(b)(1)(B), (2)(V) of Pub. L. 110–246 effective Oct. 1, 2008, see section 4407 of Pub. L. 110–246, set out as a note under section 1161 of Title 2, The Congress.

Effective Date of 2004 Amendments

Pub. L. 108–458, title VII, §7214(b), Dec. 17, 2004, 118 Stat. 3832, provided that: “The amendment made by subsection (a)(2) [amending this section] shall apply with respect to licenses, registrations, and identification cards issued or reissued 1 year after the date of enactment of this Act [Dec. 17, 2004].”

Amendment by Pub. L. 108–458 effective Dec. 17, 2004, notwithstanding any other provision of such Act, see section 7219 of Pub. L. 108–458, set out as a note under section 1202 of Title 8, Aliens and Nationality.

Pub. L. 108–203, title I, §101(d), Mar. 2, 2004, 118 Stat. 497, provided that: “The amendments made by this section [amending this section and sections 1007, 1382b, and 1383 of this title] shall apply to any case of benefit misuse by a representative payee with respect to which the Commissioner of Social Security makes the determination of misuse on or after January 1, 1995.”

Pub. L. 108–203, title I, §102(a)(3), Mar. 2, 2004, 118 Stat. 498, provided that: “The amendments made by this subsection [amending this section and section 1383 of this title] shall take effect on the first day of the thirteenth month beginning after the date of the enactment of this Act [Mar. 2, 2004].”

Pub. L. 108–203, title I, §103(d), Mar. 2, 2004, 118 Stat. 503, provided that: “The amendments made by this section [amending this section and sections 1007 and 1383 of this title] shall take effect on the first day of the thirteenth month beginning after the date of the enactment of this Act [Mar. 2, 2004].”

Pub. L. 108–203, title I, §104(c), Mar. 2, 2004, 118 Stat. 504, provided that: “The amendments made by this section [amending this section and section 1383 of this title] shall apply to any month involving benefit misuse by a representative payee in any case with respect to which the Commissioner of Social Security or a court of competent jurisdiction makes the determination of misuse after 180 days after the date of the enactment of this Act [Mar. 2, 2004].”

Pub. L. 108–203, title I, §105(d), Mar. 2, 2004, 118 Stat. 505, provided that: “The amendments made by this section [amending this section and sections 1007 and 1383 of this title] shall apply to benefit misuse by a representative payee in any case with respect to which the Commissioner of Social Security or a court of competent jurisdiction makes the determination of misuse after 180 days after the date of the enactment of this Act [Mar. 2, 2004].”

Pub. L. 108–203, title I, §106(d), Mar. 2, 2004, 118 Stat. 506, provided that: “The amendments made by this section [amending this section and sections 1007 and 1383 of this title] shall take effect 180 days after the date of the enactment of this Act [Mar. 2, 2004].”

Pub. L. 108–203, title IV, §411(b), Mar. 2, 2004, 118 Stat. 527, provided that: “The amendment made by this section [amending this section] shall apply with respect to final determinations issued (upon remand) on or after the date of the enactment of this Act [Mar. 2, 2004].”

Effective Date of 2001 Amendment

Pub. L. 107–90, title I, §103(j), Dec. 21, 2001, 115 Stat. 882, provided that: “The amendments made by this section [amending this section and sections 231a to 231f, 231q, and 231r of Title 45, Railroads] shall take effect on January 1, 2002.”

Effective Date of 1997 Amendment

Section 1090(b)(2) of Pub. L. 105–34 provided that:

“(A) The amendment made by paragraph (1)(A) [amending this section] shall apply to applications made after the date which is 180 days after the date of the enactment of this Act [Aug. 5, 1997].

“(B) The amendments made by subparagraphs (B) and (C) of paragraph (1) [amending this section] shall apply to information obtained on, before, or after the date of the enactment of this Act.”

Effective Date of 1996 Amendments

Amendment by Pub. L. 104–193 effective July 1, 1997, with transition rules relating to State options to accelerate such date, rules relating to claims, actions, and proceedings commenced before such date, rules relating to closing out of accounts for terminated or substantially modified programs and continuance in office of Assistant Secretary for Family Support, and provisions relating to termination of entitlement under AFDC program, see section 116 of Pub. L. 104–193, as amended, set out as an Effective Date note under section 601 of this title.

Section 105(a)(5) of Pub. L. 104–121, as amended by Pub. L. 106–170, title IV, §401(a), (b), Dec. 17, 1999, 113 Stat. 1906, provided that:

“(A) The amendments made by paragraphs (1) and (4) [amending sections 423 and 425 of this title] shall apply to any individual who applies for, or whose claim is finally adjudicated with respect to, benefits under title II of the Social Security Act [this subchapter] based on disability on or after the date of the enactment of this Act [Mar. 29, 1996], and, in the case of any individual who has applied for, and whose claim has been finally adjudicated with respect to, such benefits before such date of enactment, such amendments shall apply only with respect to such benefits for months beginning on or after January 1, 1997.

“(B) The amendments made by paragraphs (2) and (3) [amending this section and section 422 of this title] shall take effect on July 1, 1996, with respect to any individual—

“(i) whose claim for benefits is finally adjudicated on or after the date of the enactment of this Act [Mar. 29, 1996]; or

“(ii) whose entitlement to benefits is based upon an entitlement redetermination made pursuant to subparagraph (C).

“(C) Within 90 days after the date of the enactment of this Act [Mar. 29, 1996], the Commissioner of Social Security shall notify each individual who is entitled to monthly insurance benefits under title II of the Social Security Act based on disability for the month in which this Act is enacted and whose entitlement to such benefits would terminate by reason of the amendments made by this subsection [amending this section and sections 422, 423, and 425 of this title]. If such an individual reapplies for benefits under title II of such Act (as amended by this Act) based on disability within 120 days after the date of the enactment of this Act, the Commissioner of Social Security shall, not later than January 1, 1997, complete the entitlement redetermination (including a new medical determination) with respect to such individual pursuant to the procedures of such title.

“(D) For purposes of this paragraph, an individual's claim, with respect to benefits under title II based on disability, which has been denied in whole before the date of the enactment of this Act, may not be considered to be finally adjudicated before such date if, on or after such date—

“(i) there is pending a request for either administrative or judicial review with respect to such claim; or

“(ii) there is pending, with respect to such claim, a readjudication by the Commissioner of Social Security pursuant to relief in a class action or implementation by the Commissioner of a court remand order.

“(E) Notwithstanding the provisions of this paragraph, with respect to any individual for whom the Commissioner of Social Security does not perform the entitlement redetermination before the date prescribed in subparagraph (C), the Commissioner shall perform such entitlement redetermination in lieu of a continuing disability review whenever the Commissioner determines that the individual's entitlement is subject to redetermination based on the preceding provisions of this paragraph, and the provisions of section 223(f) [section 423(f) of this title] shall not apply to such redetermination.”

[Pub. L. 106–170, title IV, §401(c), Dec. 17, 1999, 113 Stat. 1907, provided that: “The amendments made by this section [amending section 105(a)(5) of Pub. L. 104–121, set out above] shall take effect as if included in the enactment of section 105 of the Contract with America Advancement Act of 1996 (Public Law 104–121; 110 Stat. 852 et seq.).”]

Effective Date of 1994 Amendment

Amendment by section 107(a)(1), (2), (4) of Pub. L. 103–296 effective Mar. 31, 1995, see section 110(a) of Pub. L. 103–296, set out as a note under section 401 of this title.

Section 201(a)(1)(D) of Pub. L. 103–296 provided that:

“(i) General rule.—Except as provided in clause (ii), the amendments made by this paragraph [amending this section] shall apply with respect to benefits paid in months beginning after 180 days after the date of the enactment of this Act [Aug. 15, 1994].”

“(ii) Treatment of current beneficiaries.—In any case in which—

“(I) an individual is entitled to benefits based on disability (as defined in section 205(j)(7) of the Social Security Act [subsec. (j)(7) of this section], as amended by this section),

“(II) the determination of disability was made by the Secretary of Health and Human Services during or before the 180-day period following the date of the enactment of this Act, and

“(III) alcoholism or drug addiction is a contributing factor material to the Secretary's determination that the individual is under a disability,

the amendments made by this paragraph shall apply with respect to benefits paid in months after the month in which such individual is notified by the Secretary in writing that alcoholism or drug addiction is a contributing factor material to the Secretary's determination and that the Secretary is therefore required to make a certification of payment of such individual's benefits to a representative payee.”

Section 201(a)(2)(B)(iii) of Pub. L. 103–296 provided that the amendment made by that section is effective July 1, 1994.

Section 201(a)(2)(D) of Pub. L. 103–296 provided that: “Except as provided in subparagraph (B)(iii) [set out above], the amendments made by this paragraph [amending this section] shall apply with respect to months beginning after 90 days after the date of the enactment of this Act [Aug. 15, 1994].”

Section 206(a)(3) of Pub. L. 103–296 provided that: “The amendments made by this subsection [amending this section and section 1383 of this title] shall apply to translations made on or after October 1, 1994.”

Section 206(d)(3) of Pub. L. 103–296 provided that: “The amendments made by this subsection [amending this section and section 1383 of this title] shall take effect on October 1, 1994, and shall apply to determinations made before, on, or after such date.”

Section 304(c) of Pub. L. 103–296 provided that: “The amendments made by this section [amending this section and section 1320b–10 of this title] shall take effect on the date of the enactment of this Act [Aug. 15, 1994].”

Section 321(f)(5) of Pub. L. 103–296 provided that: “Each amendment made by this subsection [amending this section and sections 406, 423, 1320a–6, and 1383 of this title] shall take effect as if included in the provisions of the Omnibus Budget Reconciliation Act of 1990 [Pub. L. 101–508] to which such amendment relates, except that the amendments made by paragraph (3)(B) [amending sections 406 and 1320a–6 of this title] shall apply with respect to favorable judgments made after 180 days after the date of the enactment of this Act [Aug. 15, 1994].”

Effective Date of 1990 Amendments

Amendment by section 1735(a), (b) of Pub. L. 101–624 effective and implemented first day of month beginning 120 days after publication of implementing regulations to be promulgated not later than Oct. 1, 1991, see section 1781(a) of Pub. L. 101–624, set out as a note under section 2012 of Title 7, Agriculture.

Section 5105(a)(5) of Pub. L. 101–508 provided that:

“(A) Use and selection of representative payees.—The amendments made by paragraphs (1) and (2) [amending this section and section 1383 of this title] shall take effect July 1, 1991, and shall apply only with respect to—

“(i) certifications of payment of benefits under title II of the Social Security Act [this subchapter] to representative payees made on or after such date; and

“(ii) provisions for payment of benefits under title XVI of such Act [subchapter XVI of this chapter] to representative payees made on or after such date.

“(B) Compensation of representative payees.—The amendments made by paragraph (3) [amending this section and section 1383 of this title] shall take effect July 1, 1991, and the Secretary of Health and Human Services shall prescribe initial regulations necessary to carry out such amendments not later than such date.”

Section 5105(b)(1)(B) of Pub. L. 101–508 provided that: “The amendments made by subparagraph (A) [amending this section] shall take effect October 1, 1992, and the Secretary of Health and Human Services shall take such actions as are necessary to ensure that the requirements of section 205(j)(3)(E) of the Social Security Act [subsec. (j)(3)(E) of this section] (as amended by subparagraph (A) of this paragraph) are satisfied as of such date.”

Section 5105(d)(2) of Pub. L. 101–508 provided that: “The amendments made by paragraph (1) [amending this section and section 1383 of this title] shall apply with respect to annual reports issued for years after 1991.”

Section 5107(b) of Pub. L. 101–508 provided that: “The amendments made by this section [amending this section and section 1383 of this title] shall apply with respect to adverse determinations made on or after July 1, 1991.”

Section 5109(b) of Pub. L. 101–508 provided that: “The amendments made by this section [amending this section and section 1383 of this title] shall apply with respect to notices issued on or after July 1, 1991.”

Effective Date of 1989 Amendment

Section 10303(c) of Pub. L. 101–239 provided that: “The amendments made by this section [amending this section and section 1383 of this title] shall apply to visits to field offices of the Social Security Administration on or after January 1, 1990.”

Effective Date of 1988 Amendments

Section 8009(b) of Pub. L. 100–647 provided that: “The amendments made by this section [amending this section] shall apply to benefits entitlement to which commences after the sixth month following the month in which this Act is enacted [November 1988].”

Amendment by section 8015(a)(1) of Pub. L. 100–647 applicable to determinations relating to service commenced in any position on or after Nov. 10, 1988, see section 8015(a)(3) of Pub. L. 100–647, set out as a note under section 3122 of Title 26, Internal Revenue Code.

Amendment by section 8016(a)(1) of Pub. L. 100–647 effective Nov. 10, 1988, except that any amendment to a provision of a particular Public Law which is referred to by its number, or to a provision of the Social Security Act [42 U.S.C. 301 et seq.], or to Title 26, as added or amended by a provision of a particular Public Law which is so referred to, effective as though included or reflected in the relevant provisions of that Public Law at the time of its enactment, see section 8016(b) of Pub. L. 100–647, set out as a note under section 3111 of Title 26.

Section 125(b) of Pub. L. 100–485 provided that: “The amendments made by subsection (a) [amending this section] shall become effective on the first day of the 25th month which begins on or after the date of the enactment of this Act [Oct. 13, 1988].”

Effective Date of 1986 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 99–509 effective with respect to payments due with respect to wages paid after Dec. 31, 1986, including wages paid after such date by a State (or political subdivision thereof) that modified its agreement pursuant to section 418(e)(2) of this title prior to Oct. 21, 1986, with certain exceptions, see section 9002(d) of Pub. L. 99–509 set out as a note under section 418 of this title.

Effective Date of 1984 Amendments

Section 16(d) of Pub. L. 98–460 provided that: “The amendments made by this section [amending this section and sections 408, 1383, and 1383a of this title] shall become effective on the date of the enactment of this Act [Oct. 9, 1984], and, in the case of the amendments made by subsection (c) [amending sections 408 and 1383a of this title], shall apply with respect to violations occurring on or after such date.”

Amendment by section 2661(h) of Pub. L. 98–369 effective as though included in the enactment of the Social Security Amendments of 1983, Pub. L. 98–21, see section 2664(a) of Pub. L. 98–369, set out as a note under section 401 of this title.

Amendment by section 2663(a)(4), (j)(4) of Pub. L. 98–369 effective July 18, 1984, but not to be construed as changing or affecting any right, liability, status, or interpretation which existed (under the provisions of law involved) before that date, see section 2664(b) of Pub. L. 98–369, set out as a note under section 401 of this title.

Effective Date of 1983 Amendments

Amendment by sections 301(d) and 309(i) of Pub. L. 98–21 applicable only with respect to monthly payments payable under this subchapter for months after April, 1983, see section 310 of Pub. L. 98–21, set out as a note under section 402 of this title.

Section 345(b) of Pub. L. 98–21 provided that: “The amendment made by this section [amending this section] shall apply with respect to all new and replacement social security cards issued more than 193 days after the date of the enactment of this Act [Apr. 20, 1983].”

Section 4(b) of Pub. L. 97–455 provided that: “The amendments made by subsection (a) [amending this section] shall apply with respect to reconsiderations (of findings described in section 205(b)(2)(B) of the Social Security Act [subsec. (b)(2)(B) of this section]) which are requested on or after such date as the Secretary of Health and Human Services may specify, but in any event not later than January 1, 1984.”

Effective Date of 1980 Amendment

Section 305(c) of Pub. L. 96–265 provided that: “The amendments made by this section [amending this section and section 1383 of this title] shall apply with respect to decisions made on or after the first day of the 13th month following the month in which this Act is enacted [June, 1980].”

Effective Date of 1978 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 95–600 effective Oct. 4, 1976, see section 703(r) of Pub. L. 95–600, set out as a note under section 46 of Title 26, Internal Revenue Code.

Effective Date of 1977 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 95–216 effective Jan. 1, 1978, see section 353(g) of Pub. L. 95–216, set out as a note under section 418 of this title.

Effective Date of 1976 Amendment

Section 5 of Pub. L. 94–202 provided that: “The amendments made by the first two sections of this Act [amending section 1383 of this title], and the provisions of section 3 [enacting provisions set out as a note under section 1383 of this title], shall take effect on the date of the enactment of this Act [Jan. 2, 1976]. The amendment made by section 4 of this Act [amending this section] shall apply with respect to any decision or determination of which notice is received, by the individual requesting the hearing involved, after February 29, 1976. The amendment made by the first section of this Act [amending section 1383 of this title], to the extent that it changes the period within which hearings must be requested, shall apply with respect to any decision or determination of which notice is received, by the individual requesting the hearing involved, on or after the date of the enactment of this Act.”

Effective Date of 1974 Amendment

Section 302(b) of Pub. L. 93–445 provided that: “The amendment made by this section [amending this section] shall apply only with respect to benefits payable to individuals who first become entitled to benefits under title II of the Social Security Act [this subchapter] after 1974.”

Amendment by section 303 of Pub. L. 93–445 effective Jan. 1, 1975, see section 603 of Pub. L. 93–445, set out as a note under section 402 of this title.

Effective Date of 1970 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 91–452 effective on sixtieth day following Oct. 15, 1970, and not to affect any immunity to which any individual is entitled under this section by reason of any testimony given before sixtieth day following Oct. 15, 1970, see section 260 of Pub. L. 91–452, set out as an Effective Date; Savings Provisions note under section 6001 of Title 18, Crimes and Criminal Procedure.

Effective Date of 1968 Amendment

Section 171(b) of Pub. L. 90–248 provided that: “The amendment made by subsection (a) of this section [amending this section] shall be effective with respect to written requests filed under section 205(q) of the Social Security Act [subsec. (q) of this section] after June 30, 1968.”

Effective Date of 1965 Amendment

Amendment by section 308(d)(9), (10) of Pub. L. 89–97 applicable with respect to monthly insurance benefits under this subchapter beginning with the second month following July 1965, but, in the case of an individual who was not entitled to a monthly insurance benefit under section 402 of this title for the first month following July 1965, only on the basis of an application filed in or after July 1965, see section 308(e) of Pub. L. 89–97, set out as a note under section 402 of this title.

Effective Date of 1961 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 87–293 applicable with respect to service performed after Sept. 22, 1961, but in the case of persons serving under the Peace Corps agency established by executive order applicable with respect to service performed on or after the effective date of enrollment, see section 202(c) of Pub. L. 87–293, set out as a note under section 3121 of Title 26, Internal Revenue Code.

Effective Date of 1960 Amendment

Amendment by section 102(f)(2) of Pub. L. 86–778 effective on first day of second calendar year following 1960, see section 102(f)(3) of Pub. L. 86–778, set out as a note under section 418 of this title.

Amendment by section 103(j)(2)(E) of Pub. L. 86–778 effective Sept. 13, 1960, see section 103(v)(1) of Pub. L. 86–778, set out as a note under section 402 of this title.

Section 702(b) of Pub. L. 86–778 provided that: “The amendment made by subsection (a) [amending this section] shall apply to actions which are pending in court on the date of the enactment of this Act or are commenced after such date.”

Effective Date of 1956 Amendments

Section 111(b) of act Aug. 1, 1956, ch. 836, provided that: “The amendment made by subsection (a) [amending this section] shall be effective upon enactment [Aug. 1, 1956]; except that the period of time prescribed by the Secretary pursuant to the third sentence of section 205(b) of the Social Security Act [subsec. (b) of this section], as amended by subsection (a) of this section, with respect to decisions notice of which has been mailed by him to any individual prior to the enactment of this Act may not terminate for such individual less than six months after the date of enactment of this Act.”

Amendment by act Aug. 1, 1956, ch. 837, effective Jan. 1, 1957, see section 603(a) of act Aug. 1, 1956.

Effective Date of 1954 Amendment

Section 101(n) of act Sept. 1, 1954, provided that: “The amendment made by paragraph (3) of subsection (g) [amending section 411 of this title] shall be applicable only with respect to taxable years beginning after 1950. The amendments made by paragraphs (1), (2), and (4) of such subsection [amending section 411 of this title] and by subsection (d) [amending section 411 of this title] shall, except for purposes of section 203 of the Social Security Act [section 403 of this title], be applicable only with respect to taxable years ending after 1954. The amendments made by paragraphs (1), (2), and (3) of subsection (a) [amending section 409 of this title] shall be applicable only with respect to remuneration paid after 1954. The amendments made by paragraphs (4), (5), and (6) of subsection (a) [amending sections 410 and 418 of this title] shall be applicable only with respect to services (whether performed after 1954 or prior to 1955) for which the remuneration is paid after 1954. The amendment made by paragraph (3) of subsection (c) [amending this section] shall become effective January 1, 1955. The other amendments made by this section (other than the amendments made by subsections (h), (i), (j) and (m)[)] [amending section 410 of this title] shall be applicable only with respect to services performed after 1954. For purposes of section 203 of the Social Security Act [section 403 of this title], the amendments made by paragraphs (1), (2), and (4) of subsection (g) [amending section 411 of this title] and by subsection (d) [amending section 411 of this title] shall be effective with respect to net earnings from self-employment derived after 1954. The amount of net earnings from self-employment derived during any taxable year ending in, and not with the close of, 1955 shall be credited equally to the calendar quarter in which such taxable year ends and to each of the three or fewer preceding quarters any part of which is in such taxable year; and, for purposes of the preceding sentence of this subsection, net earnings from self-employment so credited to calendar quarters in 1955 shall be deemed to have been derived after 1954.”

Effective Date of 1950 Amendment

Section 108(d) of act Aug. 28, 1950, provided that: “The amendments made by subsections (a) and (c) of this section [amending this section] shall take effect on September 1, 1950. The amendment made by subsection (b) of this section [amending this section] shall take effect January 1, 1951, except that, effective on September 1, 1950, the husband or former wife divorced of an individual shall be treated the same as a parent of such individual, and the legal representative of an individual or his estate shall be treated the same as the individual, for purposes of section 205(c) of the Social Security Act [subsec. (c) of this section] as in effect prior to the enactment of this Act [Aug. 28, 1950].”

Section 101(b)(2) of act Aug. 28, 1950, provided that: “Section 205(m) of the Social Security Act [subsec. (m) of this section] is repealed effective with respect to monthly payments under section 202 of the Social Security Act [this section], as amended by this Act, for months after August 1950.”

Effective Date of 1939 Amendment

Section 201 of act Aug. 10, 1939, provided that the amendment made by that section is effective Jan. 1, 1940.

Repeals: Amendments and Application of Amendments Unaffected

Section 202(b)(3) of Pub. L. 87–293, cited as a credit to this section, was repealed by Pub. L. 89–572, §5(a), Sept. 13, 1966, 80 Stat. 765. Such repeal not deemed to affect amendments to this section contained in such provisions, and continuation in full force and effect until modified by appropriate authority of all determinations, authorization, regulation, orders, contracts, agreements, and other actions issued, undertaken, or entered into under authority of the repealed provisions, see section 5(b) of Pub. L. 89–572, set out as a note under section 2515 of Title 22, Foreign Relations and Intercourse.

Termination of Trust Territory of the Pacific Islands

For termination of Trust Territory of the Pacific Islands, see note set out preceding section 1681 of Title 48, Territories and Insular Possessions.

Social Security Cards and Numbers

Pub. L. 108–458, title VII, §7213, Dec. 17, 2004, 118 Stat. 3830, provided that:

“(a) Security Enhancements.—The Commissioner of Social Security shall—

“(1) not later than 1 year after the date of enactment of this Act [Dec. 17, 2004]—

“(A) restrict the issuance of multiple replacement social security cards to any individual to 3 per year and 10 for the life of the individual, except that the Commissioner may allow for reasonable exceptions from the limits under this paragraph on a case-by-case basis in compelling circumstances;

“(B) establish minimum standards for the verification of documents or records submitted by an individual to establish eligibility for an original or replacement social security card, other than for purposes of enumeration at birth; and

“(C) require independent verification of any birth record submitted by an individual to establish eligibility for a social security account number, other than for purposes of enumeration at birth, except that the Commissioner may allow for reasonable exceptions from the requirement for independent verification under this subparagraph on a case by case basis in compelling circumstances; and

“(2) notwithstanding section 205(r) of the Social Security Act (42 U.S.C. 405(r)) and any agreement entered into thereunder, not later than 18 months after the date of enactment of this Act with respect to death indicators and not later than 36 months after the date of enactment of this Act with respect to fraud indicators, add death and fraud indicators to the social security number verification systems for employers, State agencies issuing driver's licenses and identity cards, and other verification routines that the Commissioner determines to be appropriate.

“(b) Interagency Security Task Force.—The Commissioner of Social Security, in consultation with the Secretary of Homeland Security, shall form an interagency task force for the purpose of further improving the security of social security cards and numbers. Not later than 18 months after the date of enactment of this Act [Dec. 17, 2004], the task force shall establish, and the Commissioner shall provide for the implementation of, security requirements, including—

“(1) standards for safeguarding social security cards from counterfeiting, tampering, alteration, and theft;

“(2) requirements for verifying documents submitted for the issuance of replacement cards; and

“(3) actions to increase enforcement against the fraudulent use or issuance of social security numbers and cards.

“(c) Enumeration at Birth.—

“(1) Improvement of application process.—As soon as practicable after the date of enactment of this Act [Dec. 17, 2004], the Commissioner of Social Security shall undertake to make improvements to the enumeration at birth program for the issuance of social security account numbers to newborns. Such improvements shall be designed to prevent—

“(A) the assignment of social security account numbers to unnamed children;

“(B) the issuance of more than 1 social security account number to the same child; and

“(C) other opportunities for fraudulently obtaining a social security account number.

“(2) Report to congress.—Not later than 1 year after the date of enactment of this Act, the Commissioner shall transmit to each House of Congress a report specifying in detail the extent to which the improvements required under paragraph (1) have been made.

“(d) Study Regarding Process for Enumeration at Birth.—

“(1) In general.—As soon as practicable after the date of enactment of this Act [Dec. 17, 2004], the Commissioner of Social Security shall conduct a study to determine the most efficient options for ensuring the integrity of the process for enumeration at birth. This study shall include an examination of available methods for reconciling hospital birth records with birth registrations submitted to agencies of States and political subdivisions thereof and with information provided to the Commissioner as part of the process for enumeration at birth.

“(2) Report.—

“(A) In general.—Not later than 18 months after the date of enactment of this Act, the Commissioner shall submit a report to the Committee on Ways and Means of the House of Representatives and the Committee on Finance of the Senate regarding the results of the study conducted under paragraph (1).

“(B) Contents.—The report submitted under subparagraph (A) shall contain such recommendations for legislative changes as the Commissioner considers necessary to implement needed improvements in the process for enumeration at birth.

“(e) Authorization of Appropriations.—There are authorized to be appropriated to the Commissioner of Social Security for each of the fiscal years 2005 through 2009, such sums as may be necessary to carry out this section.”

Development of Prototype of Counterfeit-Resistant Social Security Card

Pub. L. 104–208, div. C, title VI, §657, Sept. 30, 1996, 110 Stat. 3009–719, provided that:

“(a) Development.—

“(1) In general.—The Commissioner of Social Security (in this section referred to as the ‘Commissioner’) shall, in accordance with the provisions of this section, develop a prototype of a counterfeit-resistant social security card. Such prototype card—

“(A) shall be made of a durable, tamper-resistant material such as plastic or polyester;

“(B) shall employ technologies that provide security features, such as magnetic stripes, holograms, and integrated circuits; and

“(C) shall be developed so as to provide individuals with reliable proof of citizenship or legal resident alien status.

“(2) Assistance by attorney general.—The Attorney General shall provide such information and assistance as the Commissioner deems necessary to achieve the purposes of this section.

“(b) Studies and Reports.—

“(1) In general.—The Comptroller General and the Commissioner of Social Security shall each conduct a study, and issue a report to the Congress, that examines different methods of improving the social security card application process.

“(2) Elements of studies.—The studies shall include evaluations of the cost and work load implications of issuing a counterfeit-resistant social security card for all individuals over a 3, 5, and 10 year period. The studies shall also evaluate the feasibility and cost implications of imposing a user fee for replacement cards and cards issued to individuals who apply for such a card prior to the scheduled 3, 5, and 10 year phase-in options.

“(3) Distribution of reports.—Copies of the reports described in this subsection, along with facsimiles of the prototype cards as described in subsection (a), shall be submitted to the Committees on Ways and Means and Judiciary of the House of Representatives and the Committees on Finance and Judiciary of the Senate not later than 1 year after the date of the enactment of this Act [Sept. 30, 1996].”

Similar provisions were contained in the following prior act:

Pub. L. 104–193, title I, §111, Aug. 22, 1996, 110 Stat. 2176.

Ninety-Day Delay in Deferral or Suspension of Benefits for Current Beneficiaries

Section 201(a)(1)(C) of Pub. L. 103–296 provided that: “In the case of an individual who, as of 180 days after the date of the enactment of this Act [Aug. 15, 1994], has been determined to be under a disability, if alcoholism or drug addiction is a contributing factor material to the determination of the Secretary of Health and Human Services that the individual is under a disability, the Secretary may, notwithstanding clauses (i) and (ii) of section 205(j)(2)(D) of the Social Security Act [subsec. (j)(2)(D) of this section], make direct payment of benefits to such individual during the 90-day period commencing with the date on which such individual is provided the notice described in subparagraph (D)(ii) of this paragraph [set out above], until such time during such period as the selection of a representative payee is made pursuant to section 205(j) of such Act [subsec. (j) of this section].”

Study Regarding Feasibility, Cost, and Equity of Requiring Representative Payees for All Disability Beneficiaries Suffering From Alcoholism or Drug Addiction

Pub. L. 103–296, title II, §201(a)(1)(E), Aug. 15, 1994, 108 Stat. 1491, required the Secretary of Health and Human Services, as soon as practicable after Aug. 15, 1994, to conduct a study of the feasibility, cost, and equity of requiring representative payees for all disability beneficiaries under title II or XVI of the Social Security Act (42 U.S.C. 401 et seq., 1381 et seq.) who suffer from alcoholism or drug addiction, irrespective of whether the alcoholism or drug addiction was material to the determination of disability; the feasibility, cost, and equity of providing benefits through non-cash means; and the extent to which child beneficiaries and children's representative payees are afflicted by drug addition or alcoholism and ways of addressing such affliction, and required the Secretary to submit a report to the appropriate committees of Congress by Dec. 31, 1995.

Annual Reports on Reviews of OASDI and SSI Cases

Section 206(g) of Pub. L. 103–296, as amended by Pub. L. 103–296, title I, §108(b)(10)(B), Aug. 15, 1994, 108 Stat. 1483, provided that: “The Commissioner of Social Security shall annually submit to the Committee on Ways and Means of the House of Representatives and the Committee on Finance of the Senate a report on the extent to which the Commissioner has exercised his authority to review cases of entitlement to monthly insurance benefits under title II of the Social Security Act [this subchapter] and supplemental security income cases under title XVI of such Act [subchapter XVI of this chapter], and the extent to which the cases reviewed were those that involved a high likelihood or probability of fraud.”

Report on Feasibility of Obtaining Ready Access to Certain Criminal Fraud Records

Pub. L. 101–508, title V, §5105(a)(2)(B), Nov. 5, 1990, 104 Stat. 1388–260, provided that, as soon as practicable after Nov. 5, 1990, the Secretary of Health and Human Services, in consultation with the Attorney General of the United States and the Secretary of the Treasury, was to study the feasibility of establishing and maintaining a current list of the names and social security account numbers of individuals who had been convicted of a violation of 18 U.S.C. 495 for use in investigations undertaken pursuant to 42 U.S.C. 405(j)(2) or 42 U.S.C. 1383(a)(2)(B), and to submit study results and recommendations to the appropriate committees of Congress by July 1, 1992.

Reports on Organizations Serving as Representative Payees and Fees for Services

Pub. L. 101–508, title V, §5105(a)(3)(B), Nov. 5, 1990, 104 Stat. 1388–262, required the Secretary of Health and Human Services to transmit a report to the appropriate committees of Congress by Jan. 1, 1993, setting forth the number and types of qualified organizations which had served as representative payees and had collected fees for such service pursuant to any amendment made by section 5105(a)(3)(A) of Pub. L. 101–508 (amending this section and section 1383 of this title), and required the Comptroller General of the United States to conduct a study of the advantages and disadvantages of allowing qualified organizations serving as representative payees to charge such fees and to transmit a report to the appropriate committees of Congress by July 1, 1992.

Study Relating to Feasibility of Screening of Individuals With Criminal Records

Pub. L. 101–508, title V, §5105(a)(4), Nov. 5, 1990, 104 Stat. 1388–262, required the Secretary of Health and Human Services, as soon as practicable after Nov. 5, 1999, to conduct a study of the feasibility of determining the type of representative payee applicant most likely to have a felony or misdemeanor conviction, the suitability of individuals with prior convictions to serve as representative payees, and the circumstances under which such applicants could be allowed to serve as representative payees and to transmit study results to the appropriate committees of Congress by July 1, 1992.

Study Relating to More Stringent Oversight of High-Risk Representative Payees

Pub. L. 101–508, title V, §5105(b)(2), Nov. 5, 1990, 104 Stat. 1388–263, required the Secretary of Health and Human Services, as soon as practicable after Nov. 5, 1990, to conduct a study of the need for a more stringent accounting system for high-risk representative payees than was otherwise generally provided under 42 U.S.C. 405(j)(3) or 42 U.S.C. 1383(a)(2)(C), and to report to the appropriate committees of Congress the results of the study and any recommendations by July 1, 1992.

Demonstration Projects Relating to Provision of Information to Local Agencies Providing