42 U.S.C.
United States Code, 2011 Edition
Title 42 - THE PUBLIC HEALTH AND WELFARE
CHAPTER 99 - OCEAN THERMAL ENERGY CONVERSION
From the U.S. Government Printing Office, www.gpo.gov

CHAPTER 99—OCEAN THERMAL ENERGY CONVERSION

Sec.
9101.
Congressional declaration of policy.
9102.
Definitions.

        

SUBCHAPTER I—REGULATION OF OCEAN THERMAL ENERGY CONVERSION FACILITIES AND PLANTSHIPS

9111.
License for ownership, construction, and operation of ocean thermal energy conversion facilities or plantships.
9112.
Procedure.
9113.
Protection of submarine electric transmission cables and equipment.
9114.
Antitrust review.
9115.
Adjacent coastal States.
9116.
Diligence requirements.
9117.
Protection of the environment.
9118.
Marine environmental protection and safety of life and property at sea.
9119.
Prevention of interference with other uses of high seas.
9120.
Monitoring of licensees’ activities.
9121.
Suspension, revocation, and termination of licenses.
9122.
Recordkeeping and public access to information.
9123.
Relinquishment or surrender of license.
9124.
Civil actions.
9125.
Judicial review.
9126.
Exempt operations.
9127.
Periodic review and revision of regulations.

        

SUBCHAPTER II—MARITIME FINANCING FOR OCEAN THERMAL ENERGY CONVERSION

9141.
Determinations under Merchant Marine Act, 1936.

        

SUBCHAPTER III—ENFORCEMENT

9151.
Prohibited acts.
9152.
Remedies and penalties.
9153.
Enforcement.

        

SUBCHAPTER IV—MISCELLANEOUS PROVISIONS

9161.
Law of the Sea Treaty.
9162.
International negotiations.
9163.
Relationship to other laws.
9164.
Submarine electric transmission cable and equipment safety.
9165.
Omitted.
9166.
Authorization of appropriations.
9167.
Severability.
9168.
Report to Congress on promotion and enhancement of export potential of ocean thermal energy conversion components, facilities, and plantships.

        

§9101. Congressional declaration of policy

(a) It is declared to be the purposes of the Congress in this chapter to—

(1) authorize and regulate the construction, location, ownership, and operation of ocean thermal energy conversion facilities connected to the United States by pipeline or cable, or located in whole or in part between the highwater mark and the seaward boundary of the territorial sea of the United States consistent with the Convention on the High Seas, and general principles of international law;

(2) authorize and regulate the construction, location, ownership, and operation of ocean thermal energy conversion plantships documented under the laws of the United States, consistent with the Convention on the High Seas and general principles of international law;

(3) authorize and regulate the construction, location, ownership, and operation of ocean thermal energy conversion plantships by United States citizens, consistent with the Convention on the High Seas and general principles of international law;

(4) establish a legal regime which will permit and encourage the development of ocean thermal energy conversion as a commercial energy technology;

(5) provide for the protection of the marine and coastal environment, and consideration of the interests of ocean users, to prevent or minimize any adverse impact which might occur as a consequence of the development of such ocean thermal energy conversion facilities or plantships;

(6) make applicable certain provisions of the Merchant Marine Act, 1936 (46 U.S.C. 1177 et seq.) 1 to assist in financing of ocean thermal energy conversion facilities and plantships;

(7) protect the interests of the United States in the location, construction, and operation of ocean thermal energy conversion facilities and plantships; and

(8) protect the rights and responsibilities of adjacent coastal States in ensuring that Federal actions are consistent with approved State coastal zone management programs and other applicable State and local laws.


(b) The Congress declares that nothing in this chapter shall be construed to affect the legal status of the high seas, the superjacent airspace, or the seabed and subsoil, including the Continental Shelf.

(Pub. L. 96–320, §2, Aug. 3, 1980, 94 Stat. 974; Pub. L. 98–623, title VI, §602(a)(1), Nov. 8, 1984, 98 Stat. 3410.)

References in Text

This chapter, referred to in text, was in the original “this Act”, meaning Pub. L. 96–320, Aug. 3, 1980, 94 Stat. 974, known as the Ocean Thermal Energy Conversion Act of 1980, which is classified principally to this chapter. For complete classification of this Act to the Code, see Short Title note set out below and Tables.

The Merchant Marine Act, 1936, referred to in subsec. (a)(6), is act June 29, 1936, ch. 858, 49 Stat. 1985, which was classified principally to chapter 27 (§1101 et seq.) of the former Appendix to Title 46, Shipping. Most of this Act was repealed and restated mainly as subtitle V of Title 46, Shipping, by Pub. L. 109–304, §§8, 19, Oct. 6, 2006, 120 Stat. 1555, 1710. For complete classification of this Act to the Code, see Tables. For disposition of sections of the former Appendix to Title 46, see Disposition Table preceding section 101 of Title 46.

Amendments

1984—Subsec. (a)(1). Pub. L. 98–623 substituted “located in whole or in part between the highwater mark and the seaward boundary of the territorial sea” for “located in the territorial sea”.

Short Title

Section 1 of Pub. L. 96–320 provided: “That this Act [enacting this chapter and section 1279c of Title 46, Appendix, Shipping, amending sections 1271, 1273, and 1274 of Title 46, Appendix, and enacting provisions set out as a note under section 1273 of Title 46, Appendix] may be cited as the ‘Ocean Thermal Energy Conversion Act of 1980’.”

Territorial Sea of United States

For extension of territorial sea of United States, see Proc. No. 5928, set out as a note under section 1331 of Title 43, Public Lands.

1 See References in Text note below.

§9102. Definitions

As used in this chapter, unless the context otherwise requires, the term—

(1) “adjacent coastal State” means any coastal State which is required to be designated as such by section 9115(a)(1) of this title or is designated as such by the Administrator in accordance with section 9115(a)(2) of this title;

(2) “Administrator” means the Administrator of the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration;

(3) “antitrust laws” includes the Act of July 2, 1890, as amended [15 U.S.C. 1 et seq.], the Act of October 15, 1914, as amended [15 U.S.C. 12 et seq.], and sections 73 and 74 of the Act of August 27, 1894, as amended [15 U.S.C. 8 and 9];

(4) “application” means any application submitted under this chapter (A) for issuance of a license for the ownership, construction, and operation of an ocean thermal energy conversion facility or plantship; (B) for transfer or renewal of any such license; or (C) for any substantial change in any of the conditions and provisions of any such license;

(5) “coastal State” means a State in, or bordering on, the Atlantic, Pacific, or Arctic Ocean, the Gulf of Mexico, Long Island Sound, or one or more of the Great Lakes;

(6) “construction” means any activities conducted at sea to supervise, inspect, actually build, or perform other functions incidental to the building, repairing, or expanding of an ocean thermal energy conversion facility or plantship or any of its components, including but not limited to, piledriving, emplacement of mooring devices, emplacement of cables and pipelines, and deployment of the cold water pipe, and alterations, modifications, or additions to an ocean thermal energy conversion facility or plantship;

(7) “facility” means an ocean thermal energy conversion facility;

(8) “Governor” means the Governor of a State or the person designated by law to exercise the powers granted to the Governor pursuant to this chapter;

(9) “high seas” means that part of the oceans lying seaward of the territorial sea of the United States and outside the territorial sea, as recognized by the United States, of any other nation;

(10) “licensee” means the holder of a valid license for the ownership, construction, and operation of an ocean thermal energy conversion facility or plantship that was issued, transferred, or renewed pursuant to this chapter;

(11) “ocean thermal energy conversion facility” means any facility which is standing, fixed or moored in whole or in part seaward of the highwater mark and which is designed to use temperature differences in ocean water to produce electricity or another form of energy capable of being used directly to perform work, and includes any equipment installed on such facility to use such electricity or other form of energy to produce, process, refine, or manufacture a product, and any cable or pipeline used to deliver such electricity, fresh water, or product to shore, and all other associated equipment and appurtenances of such facility, to the extent they are located seaward of the highwater mark;

(12) “ocean thermal energy conversion plantship” means any vessel which is designed to use temperature differences in ocean water while floating unmoored or moving through such water, to produce electricity or another form of energy capable of being used directly to perform work, and includes any equipment installed on such vessel to use such electricity or other form of energy to produce, process, refine, or manufacture a product, and any equipment used to transfer such product to other vessels for transportation to users, and all other associated equipment and appurtenances of such vessel;

(13) “plantship” means an ocean thermal energy conversion plantship;

(14) “person” means any individual (whether or not a citizen of the United States), any corporation, partnership, association, or other entity organized or existing under the laws of any nation, and any Federal, State, local or foreign government or any entity of any such government;

(15) “State” means each of the several States, the District of Columbia, the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico, American Samoa, the United States Virgin Islands, Guam, the Commonwealth of the Northern Marianas, and any other Commonwealth, territory, or possession over which the United States has jurisdiction;

(16) “test platform” means any floating or moored platform, barge, ship, or other vessel which is designed for limited-scale, at sea operation in order to test or evaluate the operation of components or all of an ocean thermal energy conversion system and which will not operate as an ocean thermal energy conversion facility or plantship after the conclusion of such tests or evaluation;

(17) “thermal plume” means the area of the ocean in which a significant difference in temperature, as defined in regulations by the Administrator, occurs as a result of the operation of an ocean thermal energy conversion facility or plantship; and

(18) “United States citizen” means (A) any individual who is a citizen of the United States by law, birth, or naturalization; (B) any Federal, State, or local government in the United States, or any entity of any such government; or (C) any corporation, partnership, association, or other entity, organized or existing under the laws of the United States, or of any State, which has as its president or other executive officer and as its chairman of the board of directors, or holder of similar office, an individual who is a United States citizen and which has no more of its directors who are not United States citizens than constitute a minority of the number required for a quorum necessary to conduct the business of the board.

(Pub. L. 96–320, §3, Aug. 3, 1980, 94 Stat. 975; Pub. L. 98–623, title VI, §602(a)(2), (e)(7), Nov. 8, 1984, 98 Stat. 3410, 3412.)

References in Text

This chapter, referred to in introductory provisions and pars. (4), (8), and (10), was in the original “this Act”, meaning Pub. L. 96–320, Aug. 3, 1980, 94 Stat. 974, known as the Ocean Thermal Energy Conversion Act of 1980, which is classified principally to this chapter. For complete classification of this Act to the Code, see Short Title note set out under section 9101 of this title and Tables.

Act of July 2, 1890, as amended, referred to in par. (3), is act July 2, 1890, ch. 647, 26 Stat. 209, known as the Sherman Act, which is classified to sections 1 to 7 of Title 15, Commerce and Trade. For complete classification of this Act to the Code, see Short Title note set out under section 1 of Title 15 and Tables.

Act of October 15, 1914, as amended, referred to in par. (3), is act Oct. 15, 1914, ch. 323, 78 Stat. 730, known as the Clayton Act, which is classified generally to sections 12, 13, 14 to 19, 21, and 22 to 27 of Title 15, and sections 52 and 53 of Title 29, Labor. For further details and complete classification of this Act to the Code, see References in Text note set out under section 12 of Title 15 and Tables.

Sections 73 and 74 of the Act of August 27, 1894, as amended, referred to in par. (3), are sections 73 and 74 of act Aug. 27, 1894, ch. 349, 28 Stat. 570. Sections 73 to 77 of such Act are known as the Wilson Tariff Act. Sections 73 to 76 enacted sections 8 to 11 of Title 15. Section 77 is not classified to the Code. For complete classification of this Act to the Code, see Short Title note under section 8 of Title 15 and Tables.

Amendments

1984—Par. (11). Pub. L. 98–623, §602(a)(2), substituted “standing, fixed or moored in whole or in part seaward of the highwater mark” for “standing or moored in or beyond the territorial sea of the United States”.

Pub. L. 98–623, §602(e)(7), substituted “fresh water” for “freshwater”.

Territorial Sea of United States

For extension of territorial sea of United States, see Proc. No. 5928, set out as a note under section 1331 of Title 43, Public Lands.

SUBCHAPTER I—REGULATION OF OCEAN THERMAL ENERGY CONVERSION FACILITIES AND PLANTSHIPS

§9111. License for ownership, construction, and operation of ocean thermal energy conversion facilities or plantships

(a) License requirement

No person may engage in the ownership, construction, or operation of an ocean thermal energy conversion facility which is documented under the laws of the United States, which is located in whole or in part between the highwater mark and the seaward boundary of the territorial sea of the United States, or which is connected to the United States by pipeline or cable, except in accordance with a license issued pursuant to this chapter. No citizen of the United States may engage in the ownership, construction or operation of an ocean thermal energy conversion plantship except in accordance with a license issued pursuant to this chapter, or in accordance with a license issued by a foreign nation whose licenses are found by the Administrator, after consultation with the Secretary of State, to be compatible with licenses issued pursuant to this chapter.

(b) Documented plantships; documented facilities; facilities located in territorial sea; facilities connected to United States by pipeline or cable

The Administrator shall, upon application and in accordance with the provisions of this chapter, issue, transfer, amend, or renew licenses for the ownership, construction, and operation of—

(1) ocean thermal energy conversion plantships documented under the laws of the United States, and

(2) ocean thermal energy conversion facilities documented under the laws of the United States, located in whole or in part between the highwater mark and the seaward boundary of the territorial sea of the United States, or connected to the United States by pipeline or cable.

(c) License issuance prerequisites

The Administrator may issue a license to a citizen of the United States in accordance with the provisions of this chapter unless—

(1) he determines that the applicant cannot or will not comply with applicable laws, regulations, and license conditions;

(2) he determines that the construction and operation of the ocean thermal energy conversion facility or plantship will not be in the national interest and consistent with national security and other national policy goals and objectives, including energy self-sufficiency and environmental quality;

(3) he determines, after consultation with the Secretary of the department in which the Coast Guard is operating, that the ocean thermal energy conversion facility or plantship will not be operated with reasonable regard to the freedom of navigation or other reasonable uses of the high seas and authorized uses of the Continental Shelf, as defined by United States law, treaty, convention, or customary international law;

(4) he has been informed, within 45 days after the conclusion of public hearings on that application, or on proposed licenses for the designated application area, by the Administrator of the Environmental Protection Agency that the ocean thermal energy conversion facility or plantship will not conform with all applicable provisions of any law for which he has regulatory authority;

(5) he has received the opinion of the Attorney General, pursuant to section 9114 of this title, stating that issuance of the license would create a situation in violation of the antitrust laws, or the 90-day period provided in section 9114 of this title has not expired;

(6) he has consulted with the Secretary of Energy, the Secretary of Transportation, the Secretary of State, the Secretary of the Interior, and the Secretary of Defense, to determine their views on the adequacy of the application, and its effect on programs within their respective jurisdictions and determines on the basis thereof, that the application for a license is inadequate;

(7) the proposed ocean thermal energy conversion facility or plantship will be documented under the laws of a foreign nation;

(8) the applicant has not agreed to the condition that no vessel may be used for the transportation to the United States of things produced, processed, refined, or manufactured at the ocean thermal energy conversion facility or plantship unless such vessel is documented under the laws of the United States;

(9) when the license is for an ocean thermal energy conversion facility, he determines that the facility, including any submarine electric transmission cables and equipment or pipelines which are components of the facility, will not be located and designed so as to minimize interference with other uses of the high seas or the Continental Shelf, including cables or pipelines already in position on or in the seabed and the possibility of their repair;

(10) the Governor of any adjacent coastal State with an approved coastal zone management program in good standing pursuant to the Coastal Zone Management Act of 1972 (16 U.S.C. 1451 et seq.) determines that, in his or her view, the application is inadequate or inconsistent with respect to programs within his or her jurisdiction;

(11) when the license is for an ocean thermal energy conversion facility, he determines that the thermal plume of the facility is expected to impinge on so as to degrade the thermal gradient used by any other ocean thermal energy conversion facility already licensed or operating, without the consent of its owner;

(12) when the license is for an ocean thermal energy conversion facility, he determines that the thermal plume of the facility is expected to impinge on so as to adversely affect the territorial sea or area of national resource jurisdiction, as recognized by the United States, of any other nation, unless the Secretary of State approves such impingement after consultation with such nation;

(13) when the license is for an ocean thermal energy conversion plantship, he determines that the applicant has not provided adequate assurance that the plantship will be operated in such a way as to prevent its thermal plume from impinging on so as to degrade the thermal gradient used by any other ocean thermal energy conversion facility or plantship without the consent of its owner, and from impinging on so as to adversely affect the territorial sea or area of national resource jurisdiction, as recognized by the United States, of any other nation unless the Secretary of State approves such impingement after consultation with such nation; or

(14) if a regulation has been adopted which places an upper limit on the number or total capacity of ocean thermal energy conversion facilities or plantships to be licensed under this chapter for simultaneous operation, either overall or within specific geographic areas, pursuant to a determination under the provisions of section 9117(b)(4) of this title, issuance of the license will cause such upper limit to be exceeded.

(d) Issuance conditions; written agreement of compliance; disposal or removal requirements

(1) In issuing a license for the ownership, construction, and operation of an ocean thermal energy conversion facility or plantship, the Administrator shall prescribe conditions which he deems necessary to carry out the provisions of this chapter, or which are otherwise required by any Federal department or agency pursuant to the terms of this chapter.

(2) No license shall be issued, transferred, or renewed under this chapter unless the applicant, licensee or transferee first agrees in writing that (A) there will be no substantial change from the plans, operational systems, and methods, procedures, and safeguards set forth in his application, as approved, without prior approval in writing from the Administrator, and (B) he will comply with conditions the Administrator may prescribe in accordance with the provisions of this chapter.

(3) The Administrator shall establish such bonding requirements or other assurances as he deems necessary to assure that, upon the revocation, termination, relinquishment, or surrender of a license, the licensee will dispose of or remove all components of the ocean thermal energy conversion facility or plantship as directed by the Administrator. In the case of components which another applicant or licensee desires to use, the Administrator may waive the disposal or removal requirements until he has reached a decision on the application. In the case of components lying on or below the seabed, the Administrator may waive the disposal or removal requirements if he finds that such removal is not otherwise necessary and that the remaining components do not constitute any threat to the environment, navigation, fishing, or other uses of the seabed.

(e) License transfer

Upon application, a license issued under this chapter may be transferred if the Administrator determines that such transfer is in the public interest and that the transferee meets the requirements of this chapter and the prerequisites to issuance under subsection (c) of this section.

(f) License eligibility

Any United States citizen who otherwise qualifies under the terms of this chapter shall be eligible to be issued a license for the ownership, construction, and operation of an ocean thermal energy conversion facility or plantship.

(g) License term and renewal

Licenses issued under this chapter shall be for a term of not to exceed 25 years. Each licensee shall have a preferential right to renew his license subject to the requirements of subsection (c) of this section, upon such conditions and for such term, not to exceed an additional 10 years upon each renewal, as the Administrator determines to be reasonable and appropriate.

(Pub. L. 96–320, title I, §101, Aug. 3, 1980, 94 Stat. 976; Pub. L. 98–623, title VI, §602(a)(3)–(5), (b), (e)(8)–(11), Nov. 8, 1984, 98 Stat. 3410–3412.)

References in Text

This chapter, referred to in text, was in the original “this Act”, meaning Pub. L. 96–320, Aug. 3, 1980, 94 Stat. 974, known as the Ocean Thermal Energy Conversion Act of 1980, which is classified principally to this chapter. For complete classification of this Act to the Code, see Short Title note set out under section 9101 of this title and Tables.

The Coastal Zone Management Act of 1972, referred to in subsec. (c)(10), is title III of Pub. L. 89–454 as added by Pub. L. 92–583, Oct. 27, 1972, 86 Stat. 1280, which is classified generally to chapter 33 (§1451 et seq.) of Title 16, Conservation. For complete classification of this Act to the Code, see Short Title note set out under section 1451 of Title 16 and Tables.

Amendments

1984—Subsecs. (a), (b)(2). Pub. L. 98–623, §602(a)(3), (4), substituted “located in whole or in part between the highwater mark and the seaward boundary of the territorial sea” for “located in the territorial sea”.

Subsec. (c)(1). Pub. L. 98–623, §602(b)(1), substituted “cannot or will not” for “cannot and will not”.

Subsec. (c)(4). Pub. L. 98–623, §602(e)(8), substituted “regulatory authority” for “enforcement authority”.

Subsec. (c)(5). Pub. L. 98–623, §602(b)(2), substituted “has not expired” for “has expired”.

Subsec. (c)(6). Pub. L. 98–623, §602(e)(9), substituted “application for a license” for “application for license”.

Subsec. (c)(7). Pub. L. 98–623, §602(a)(5), substituted “will be documented under the laws of a foreign nation” for “will not be documented under the laws of the United States”.

Subsec. (c)(10). Pub. L. 98–623, §602(b)(3), (5), substituted “any adjacent” for “each adjacent” and “(16 U.S.C. 1451 et seq.)” for “(33 U.S.C. 1451 et seq.)”.

Subsec. (c)(13). Pub. L. 98–623, §602(b)(4), substituted “or” for “and” after the semicolon at the end.

Subsec. (c)(14). Pub. L. 98–623, §602(e)(10), substituted “if a regulation” for “when a regulation”.

Subsec. (d)(2). Pub. L. 98–623, §602(e)(11), substituted “applicant, licensee” for “licensee”.

Transfer of Functions

For transfer of authorities, functions, personnel, and assets of the Coast Guard, including the authorities and functions of the Secretary of Transportation relating thereto, to the Department of Homeland Security, and for treatment of related references, see sections 468(b), 551(d), 552(d), and 557 of Title 6, Domestic Security, and the Department of Homeland Security Reorganization Plan of November 25, 2002, as modified, set out as a note under section 542 of Title 6.

Territorial Sea of United States

For extension of territorial sea of United States, see Proc. No. 5928, set out as a note under section 1331 of Title 43, Public Lands.

§9112. Procedure

(a) Rules and regulations

The Administrator shall, after consultation with the Secretary of Energy and the heads of other Federal agencies, issue regulations to carry out the purposes and provisions of this chapter, in accordance with the provisions of section 553 of title 5, without regard to subsection (a) thereof. Such regulations shall pertain to, but need not be limited to, application for issuance, transfer, renewal, suspension, and termination of licenses. Such regulations shall provide for full consultation and cooperation with all other interested Federal agencies and departments and with any potentially affected coastal State, and for consideration of the views of any interested members of the general public. The Administrator is further authorized, consistent with the purposes and provisions of this chapter, to amend or rescind any such regulation. The Administrator shall complete issuance of final regulations to implement this chapter within 1 year of August 3, 1980.

(b) Site evaluation and preconstruction testing

The Administrator, in consultation with the Secretary of the Interior and the Secretary of the department in which the Coast Guard is operating may, if he determines it to be necessary, prescribe regulations consistent with the purposes of this chapter, relating to those activities in site evaluation and preconstruction testing at potential ocean thermal energy conversion facility or plantship locations that may (1) adversely affect the environment; (2) interfere with other reasonable uses of the high seas or with authorized uses of the Outer Continental Shelf; or (3) pose a threat to human health and safety. If the Administrator prescribes regulations relating to such activities, such activities may not be undertaken after the effective date of such regulations except in accordance therewith.

(c) Expertise or statutory responsibility descriptions

Not later than 60 days after August 3, 1980, the Secretary of Energy, the Administrator of the Environmental Protection Agency, the Secretary of the department in which the Coast Guard is operating, the Secretary of the Interior, the Chief of Engineers of the United States Army Corps of Engineers, and the heads of any other Federal departments or agencies having expertise concerning, or jurisdiction over, any aspect of the construction or operation of ocean thermal energy conversion facilities or plantships, shall transmit to the Administrator written description of their expertise or statutory responsibilities pursuant to this chapter or any other Federal law.

(d) Application

(1) Within 21 days after the receipt of an application, the Administrator shall determine whether the application appears to contain all of the information required by paragraph (2) of this subsection. If the Administrator determines that such information appears to be contained in the application, the Administrator shall, no later than 5 days after making such a determination, publish notice of the application and a summary of the plans in the Federal Register. If the Administrator determines that all of the required information does not appear to be contained in the application, the Administrator shall notify the applicant and take no further action with respect to the application until such deficiencies have been remedied.

(2) Each application shall include such financial, technical, and other information as the Administrator determines by regulation to be necessary or appropriate to process the license pursuant to section 9111 of this title.

(e) Area description; additional license applications

(1) At the time notice of an application for an ocean thermal energy conversion facility is published pursuant to subsection (d) of this section, the Administrator shall publish a description in the Federal Register of an application area encompassing the site proposed in the application for such facility and within which the thermal plume of one ocean thermal energy conversion facility might be expected to impinge on so as to degrade the thermal gradient used by another ocean thermal energy conversion facility, unless the application is for a license for an ocean thermal energy conversion facility to be located within an application area which has already been designated.

(2) The Administrator shall accompany such publication with a call for submission of any other applications for licenses for the ownership, construction, and operation of an ocean thermal energy conversion facility within the designated application area. Any person intending to file such an application shall submit a notice of intent to file an application to the Administrator not later than 60 days after the publication of notice pursuant to subsection (d) of this section, and shall submit the completed application no later than 90 days after publication of such notice. The Administrator shall publish notice of any such application received in accordance with subsection (d) of this section. No application for a license for the ownership, construction, and operation of an ocean thermal energy conversion facility within the designated application area for which a notice of intent to file was received after such 60-day period, or which is received after such 90-day period has elapsed, shall be considered until action has been completed on all timely filed applications pending with respect to such application area.

(f) Copies of application to other agencies

An application filed with the Administrator shall constitute an application for all Federal authorizations required for ownership, construction, and operation of an ocean thermal energy conversion facility or plantship, except for authorizations required by documentation, inspection, certification, construction, and manning laws and regulations administered by the Secretary of the department in which the Coast Guard is operating. At the time notice of any application is published pursuant to subsection (d) of this section, the Administrator shall forward a copy of such application to those Federal agencies and departments with jurisdiction over any aspect of such ownership, construction, or operation for comment, review, or recommendation as to conditions and for such other action as may be required by law. Each agency or department involved shall review the application and, based upon legal considerations within its area of responsibility, recommend to the Administrator the approval or disapproval of the application not later than 45 days after public hearings are concluded pursuant to subsection (g) of this section. In any case in which an agency or department recommends disapproval, it shall set forth in detail the manner in which the application does not comply with any law or regulation within its area of responsibility and shall notify the Administrator of the manner in which the application may be amended or the license conditioned so as to bring it into compliance with the law or regulation involved.

(g) Notice, comments, and hearing

A license may be issued, transferred, or renewed only after public notice, opportunity for comment, and public hearings in accordance with this subsection. At least one such public hearing shall be held in the District of Columbia and in any adjacent coastal State to which a facility is proposed to be directly connected by pipeline or electric transmission cable. Any interested person may present relevant material at any such hearing. After the hearings required by this subsection are concluded, if the Administrator determines that there exist one or more specific and material factual issues which may be resolved by a formal evidentiary hearing, at least one adjudicatory hearing shall be held in the District of Columbia in accordance with the provisions of section 554 of title 5. The record developed in any such adjudicatory hearing shall be part of the basis for the Administrator's decision to approve or deny a license. Hearings held pursuant to this subsection shall be consolidated insofar as practicable with hearings held by other agencies. All public hearings on all applications with respect to facilities for any designated application area shall be consolidated and shall be concluded not later than 240 days after notice of the initial application has been published pursuant to subsection (d) of this section. All public hearings on applications with respect to ocean thermal energy conversion plantships shall be concluded not later than 240 days after notice of the application has been published pursuant to subsection (d) of this section.

(h) Administrative fee

The Administrator shall not take final action on any application unless the applicant has paid to the Administrator a reasonable administrative fee, which shall be deposited into miscellaneous receipts of the Treasury. The amount of the fee imposed by the Administrator on any applicant shall reflect the reasonable administrative costs incurred by the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration in reviewing and processing the application.

(i) Approval or denial of application; applications for same area; factors determinative of facility selection

(1) The Administrator shall approve or deny any timely filed application with respect to a facility for a designated application area submitted in accordance with the provision of this chapter not later than 90 days after public hearings on proposed licenses for that area are concluded pursuant to subsection (g) of this section. The Administrator shall approve or deny an application for a license for ownership, construction, and operation of an ocean thermal energy conversion plantship submitted pursuant to this chapter no later than 90 days after the public hearings on that application are concluded pursuant to subsection (g) of this section.

(2) In the event more than one application for a license for ownership, construction, and operation of an ocean thermal energy conversion facility is submitted pursuant to this chapter for the same designated application area, the Administrator, unless one or a specific combination of the proposed facilities clearly best serves the national interest, shall make decisions on license applications in the order in which they were submitted to him.

(3) In determining whether any one or a specific combination of the proposed ocean thermal energy conversion facilities clearly best serves the national interest, the Administrator, in consultation with the Secretary of Energy, shall consider the following factors:

(A) the goal of making the greatest possible use of ocean thermal energy conversion by installing the largest capacity practicable in each application area;

(B) the amount of net energy impact of each of the proposed ocean thermal energy conversion facilities;

(C) the degree to which the proposed ocean thermal energy conversion facilities will affect the environment;

(D) any significant differences between anticipated dates and commencement of operation of the proposed ocean thermal energy conversion facilities; and

(E) any differences in costs of construction and operation of the proposed ocean thermal energy conversion facilities, to the extent that such differentials may significantly affect the ultimate cost of energy or products to the consumer.

(Pub. L. 96–320, title I, §102, Aug. 3, 1980, 94 Stat. 979; Pub. L. 98–623, title VI, §602(f), Nov. 8, 1984, 98 Stat. 3412.)

References in Text

This chapter, referred to in subsecs. (a) to (c) and (i)(1), (2), was in the original “this Act”, meaning Pub. L. 96–320, Aug. 3, 1980, 94 Stat. 974, known as the Ocean Thermal Energy Conversion Act of 1980, which is classified principally to this chapter. For complete classification of this Act to the Code, see Short Title note set out under section 9101 of this title and Tables.

Amendments

1984—Subsec. (h). Pub. L. 98–623 substituted “The Administrator shall not take final action on any application unless the applicant has paid to the Administrator a reasonable administrative fee” for “Each person applying for a license pursuant to this chapter shall remit to the Administrator at the time the application is filed a nonrefundable application fee” and “imposed by the Administrator on any applicant shall reflect the reasonable administrative costs incurred by the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration” for “shall be established by regulation by the Administrator, and shall reflect the reasonable administrative costs incurred”.

Transfer of Functions

For transfer of authorities, functions, personnel, and assets of the Coast Guard, including the authorities and functions of the Secretary of Transportation relating thereto, to the Department of Homeland Security, and for treatment of related references, see sections 468(b), 551(d), 552(d), and 557 of Title 6, Domestic Security, and the Department of Homeland Security Reorganization Plan of November 25, 2002, as modified, set out as a note under section 542 of Title 6.

§9113. Protection of submarine electric transmission cables and equipment

(a) Prohibited acts; misdemeanor; penalty and fine

Any person who shall willfully and wrongfully break or injure, or attempt to break or injure, or who shall in any manner procure, counsel, aid, abet, or be accessory to such breaking or injury, or attempt to break or injure, any submarine electric transmission cable or equipment being constructed or operated under a license issued pursuant to this chapter shall be guilty of a misdemeanor and, on conviction thereof, shall be liable to imprisonment for a term not exceeding 2 years, or to a fine not exceeding $5,000, or to both fine and imprisonment, at the discretion of the court.

(b) Culpable negligence; misdemeanor; penalty and fine

Any person who by culpable negligence shall break or injure any submarine electric transmission cable or equipment being constructed or operated under a license issued pursuant to this chapter shall be guilty of a misdemeanor and, on conviction thereof, shall be liable to imprisonment for a term not exceeding 3 months, or to a fine not exceeding $500, or to both fine and imprisonment, at the discretion of the court.

(c) Exceptions

The provisions of subsections (a) and (b) of this section shall not apply to any person who, after having taken all necessary precautions to avoid such breaking or injury, breaks or injures any submarine electric transmission cable or equipment in an effort to save the life or limb of himself or of any other person, or to save his own or any other vessel.

(d) Suits for damages

The penalties provided in subsections (a) and (b) of this section for the breaking or injury of any submarine electric transmission cable or equipment shall not be a bar to a suit for damages on account of such breaking or injury.

(e) Indemnity

Whenever any vessel sacrifices any anchor, fishing net, or other fishing gear to avoid injuring any submarine electric transmission cable or equipment being constructed or operated under a license issued pursuant to this chapter, the licensee shall indemnify the owner of such vessel for the items sacrificed: Provided, That the owner of the vessel had taken all reasonable precautionary measures beforehand.

(f) Repair costs

Any licensee who causes any break in or injury to any submarine cable or pipeline of any type shall bear the cost of the repairs.

(Pub. L. 96–320, title I, §103, Aug. 3, 1980, 94 Stat. 982.)

References in Text

This chapter, referred to in subsecs. (a), (b), and (e), was in the original “this Act”, meaning Pub. L. 96–320, Aug. 3, 1980, 94 Stat. 974, known as the Ocean Thermal Energy Conversion Act of 1980, which is classified principally to this chapter. For complete classification of this Act to the Code, see Short Title note set out under section 9101 of this title and Tables.

§9114. Antitrust review

(a) Review of applications by Attorney General

Whenever any application for issuance, transfer, or renewal of any license is received, the Administrator shall transmit promptly to the Attorney General a complete copy of such application. Within 90 days of the receipt of the application, the Attorney General shall conduct such antitrust review of the application as he deems appropriate, and submit to the Administrator any advice or recommendations he deems advisable to avoid any action upon such application by the Administrator which would create a situation inconsistent with the antitrust laws. If the Attorney General fails to file such views within the 90-day period, the Administrator shall proceed as if such views had been received. The Administrator shall not issue, transfer, or renew the license during the 90-day period, except upon written confirmation by the Attorney General that he does not intend to submit any further advice or recommendation on the application during such period.

(b) Issuance of license as constituting no defense for antitrust violations

The issuance of a license under this chapter shall not be admissible in any way as a defense to any civil or criminal action for violation of the antitrust laws of the United States, nor shall it in any way modify or abridge any private right of action under such laws. Nothing in this section shall be construed to bar the Attorney General or the Federal Trade Commission from challenging any anticompetitive situation involved in the ownership, construction, or operation of an ocean thermal energy conversion facility or plantship.

(Pub. L. 96–320, title I, §104, Aug. 3, 1980, 94 Stat. 983.)

References in Text

This chapter, referred to in subsec. (b), was in the original “this Act”, meaning Pub. L. 96–320, Aug. 3, 1980, 94 Stat. 974, known as the Ocean Thermal Energy Conversion Act of 1980, which is classified principally to this chapter. For complete classification of this Act to the Code, see Short Title note set out under section 9101 of this title and Tables.

§9115. Adjacent coastal States

(a) Designation of adjacent coastal State

(1) The Administrator, in issuing notice of application pursuant to section 9112(d) of this title, shall designate as an “adjacent coastal State” any coastal State which (A) would be directly connected by electric transmission cable or pipeline to an ocean thermal energy conversion facility as proposed in an application, or (B) in whose waters any part of such proposed ocean thermal energy conversion facility would be located, or (C) in whose waters an ocean thermal energy conversion plantship would be operated as proposed in an application.

(2) The Administrator shall, upon request of a State, designate such State as an “adjacent coastal State” if he determines (A) that there is a risk of damage to the coastal environment of such State equal to or greater than the risk posed to a State required to be designated as an “adjacent coastal State” by paragraph (1) of this subsection or (B) that the thermal plume of the proposed ocean thermal energy conversion facility or plantship is likely to impinge on so as to degrade the thermal gradient at possible locations for ocean thermal energy conversion facilities which could reasonably be expected to be directly connected by electric transmission cable or pipeline to such State. This paragraph shall apply only with respect to requests made by a State not later than the 14th day after the date of publication of notice of application for a proposed ocean thermal energy conversion facility in the Federal Register in accordance with section 9112(d) of this title. The Administrator shall make any designation required by this paragraph not later than the 45th day after the date he receives such a request from a State.

(b) State coastal zone management program

(1) Not later than 5 days after the designation of an adjacent coastal State pursuant to this section, the Administrator shall transmit a complete copy of the application to the Governor of such State. The Administrator shall not issue a license without consultation with the Governor of each adjacent coastal State which has an approved coastal zone management program in good standing pursuant to the Coastal Zone Management Act of 1972 (16 U.S.C. 1451 et seq.). If the Governor of such a State has not transmitted his approval or disapproval to the Administrator by the 45th day after public hearings on the application are concluded pursuant to section 9112(g) of this title, such approval shall be conclusively presumed. If the Governor of such a State notifies the Administrator that an application which the Governor would otherwise approve pursuant to this paragraph is inconsistent in some respect with the State's coastal zone management program, the Administrator shall condition the license granted so as to make it consistent with such State program.

(2) Any adjacent coastal State which does not have an approved coastal zone management program in good standing, and any other interested State, shall have the opportunity to make its views known to, and to have them given full consideration by, the Administrator regarding the location, construction, and operation of an ocean thermal energy conversion facility or plantship.

(c) Agreements and compacts between States

The consent of Congress is given to 2 or more States to negotiate and enter into agreements or compacts, not in conflict with any law or treaty of the United States, (1) to apply for a license for the ownership, construction, and operation of an ocean thermal energy conversion facility or plantship or for the transfer of such a license, and (2) to establish such agencies, joint or otherwise, as are deemed necessary or appropriate for implementing and carrying out the provisions of any such agreement or compact. Such agreement or compact shall be binding and obligatory upon any State or other party thereto without further approval by the Congress.

(Pub. L. 96–320, title I, §105, Aug. 3, 1980, 94 Stat. 983; Pub. L. 98–623, title VI, §602(e)(12)–(14), Nov. 8, 1984, 98 Stat. 3412.)

References in Text

The Coastal Zone Management Act of 1972 (16 U.S.C. 1451 et seq.), referred to in subsec. (b)(1), is title III of Pub. L. 89–454 as added by Pub. L. 92–583, Oct. 27, 1972, 86 Stat. 1280, and amended, which is classified generally to chapter 33 (§1451 et seq.) of Title 16, Conservation. For complete classification of this Act to the Code, see Short Title note set out under section 1451 of Title 16 and Tables.

Amendments

1984—Subsec. (a)(2). Pub. L. 98–623, §602(e)(12), substituted “(A) that” for “that (A)”.

Subsec. (b)(1). Pub. L. 98–623, §602(e)(13), (14), substituted “of an adjacent coastal State” for “of adjacent coastal State” and “application are concluded” for “application is concluded”.

§9116. Diligence requirements

(a) Rules and regulations

The Administrator shall promulgate regulations requiring each licensee to pursue diligently the construction and operation of the ocean thermal energy conversion facility or plantship to which the license applies.

(b) Termination of license

If the Administrator determines that a licensee is not pursuing diligently the construction and operation of the ocean thermal energy conversion facility or plantship to which the license applies, or that the project has apparently been abandoned, the Administrator shall cause proceedings to be instituted under section 9121 of this title to terminate the license.

(Pub. L. 96–320, title I, §106, Aug. 3, 1980, 94 Stat. 984.)

§9117. Protection of the environment

(a) Environmental assessment program

The Administrator shall initiate a program to assess the effects on the environment of ocean thermal energy conversion facilities and plantships. The program shall include baseline studies of locations where ocean thermal energy conversion facilities or plantships are likely to be sited or operated; and research; and monitoring of the effects of ocean thermal energy conversion facilities and plantships in actual operation. The purpose of the program shall be to assess the environmental effects of individual ocean thermal energy facilities and plantships, and to assess the magnitude of any cumulative environmental effects of large numbers of ocean thermal energy facilities and plantships.

(b) Program purposes

The program shall be designed to determine, among other things—

(1) any short-term and long-term effects on the environment which may occur as a result of the operation of ocean thermal energy conversion facilities and plantships;

(2) the nature and magnitude of any oceanographic, atmospheric, weather, climatic, or biological changes in the environment which may occur as a result of deployment and operation of large numbers of ocean thermal energy conversion facilities and plantships;

(3) the nature and magnitude of any oceanographic, biological or other changes in the environment which may occur as a result of the operation of electric transmission cables and equipment located in the water column or on or in the seabed, including the hazards of accidentally severed transmission cables; and

(4) whether the magnitude of one or more of the cumulative environmental effects of deployment and operation of large numbers of ocean thermal energy conversion facilities and plantships requires that an upper limit be placed on the number or total capacity of such facilities or plantships to be licensed under this chapter for simultaneous operation, either overall or within specific geographic areas.

(c) Plan submittal to Congress

Within 180 days after August 3, 1980, the Administrator shall prepare a plan to carry out the program described in subsections (a) and (b) of this section, including necessary funding levels for the next 5 fiscal years, and submit the plan to the Congress.

(d) Reduction of program to minimum necessary level

The program established by subsections (a) and (b) of this section shall be reduced to the minimum necessary to perform baseline studies and to analyze monitoring data, when the Administrator determines that the program has resulted in sufficient knowledge to make the determinations enumerated in subsection (b) of this section with an acceptable level of confidence.

(e) Environmental impact statement

The issuance of any license for ownership, construction, and operation of an ocean thermal energy conversion facility or plantship shall be deemed to be a major Federal action significantly affecting the quality of the human environment for purposes of section 4332(2)(C) of this title. For all timely applications covering proposed facilities in a single application area, and for each application relating to a proposed plantship, the Administrator shall, pursuant to such section 4332(2)(C) of this title and in cooperation with other involved Federal agencies and departments, prepare a single environmental impact statement, which shall fulfill the requirement of all Federal agencies in carrying out their responsibilities pursuant to this chapter to prepare an environmental impact statement. Each such draft environmental impact statement relating to proposed facilities shall be prepared and published within 180 days after notice of the initial application has been published pursuant to section 9112(d) of this title. Each such draft environmental impact statement relating to a proposed plantship shall be prepared and published within 180 days after notice of the application has been published pursuant to section 9112(d) of this title. Each final environmental impact statement shall be published not later than 90 days following the date on which public hearings are concluded pursuant to section 9112(g) of this title. The Administrator may extend the deadline for publication of a specific draft or final environmental impact statement to a later specified time for good cause shown in writing.

(f) Discharge of pollutants

An ocean thermal energy conversion facility or plantship licensed under this subchapter shall be deemed not to be a “vessel or other floating craft” for the purposes of section 1362(12)(B) of title 33.

(Pub. L. 96–320, title I, §107, Aug. 3, 1980, 94 Stat. 984.)

References in Text

This chapter, referred to in subsecs. (b)(4) and (e), was in the original “this Act”, meaning Pub. L. 96–320, Aug. 3, 1980, 94 Stat. 974, known as the Ocean Thermal Energy Conversion Act of 1980, which is classified principally to this chapter. For complete classification of this Act to the Code, see Short Title note set out under section 9101 of this title and Tables.

§9118. Marine environmental protection and safety of life and property at sea

(a) Coast Guard operations

The Secretary of the department in which the Coast Guard is operating shall, subject to recognized principles of international law, prescribe by regulation and enforce procedures with respect to any ocean thermal energy conversion facility or plantship licensed under this chapter, including, but not limited to, rules governing vessel movement, procedures for transfer of materials between such a facility or plantship and transport vessels, designation and marking of anchorage areas, maintenance, law enforcement, and the equipment, training, and maintenance required (1) to promote the safety of life and property at sea, (2) to prevent pollution of the marine environment, (3) to clean up any pollutants which may be discharged, and (4) to otherwise prevent or minimize any adverse impact from the construction and operation of such ocean thermal energy conversion facility or plantship.

(b) Promotion of safety of life and property

The Secretary of the department in which the Coast Guard is operating shall issue and enforce regulations, subject to recognized principles of international law, with respect to lights and other warning devices, safety equipment, and other matters relating to the promotion of safety of life and property on any ocean thermal energy conversion facility or plantship licensed under this chapter.

(c) Marking components for protection of navigation

Whenever a licensee fails to mark any component of such an ocean thermal energy conversion facility or plantship in accordance with applicable regulations, the Secretary of the department in which the Coast Guard is operating shall mark such components for the protection of navigation, and the licensee shall pay the cost of such marking.

(d) Safety zones

(1) Subject to recognized principles of international law and after consultation with the Secretary of Commerce, the Secretary of the Interior, the Secretary of State, and the Secretary of Defense, the Secretary of the department in which the Coast Guard is operating shall designate a zone of appropriate size around and including any ocean thermal energy conversion facility licensed under this chapter and may designate such a zone around and including any ocean thermal energy conversion plantship licensed under this chapter for the purposes of navigational safety and protection of the facility or plantship. The Secretary of the department in which the Coast Guard is operating shall by regulation define permitted activities within such zone consistent with the purpose for which it was designated. The Secretary of the department in which the Coast Guard is operating shall, not later than 30 days after publication of notice pursuant to section 9112(d) of this title, designate such safety zone with respect to any proposed ocean thermal energy conversion facility or plantship.

(2) In addition to any other regulations, the Secretary of the department in which the Coast Guard is operating is authorized, in accordance with this subsection, to establish a safety zone to be effective during the period of construction of an ocean thermal energy conversion facility or plantship licensed under this chapter, and to issue rules and regulations relating thereto.

(3) Except in a situation involving force majeure, a licensee of an ocean thermal energy conversion facility or plantship shall not permit a vessel, registered in or flying the flag of a foreign state, to call at, load or unload cargo at, or otherwise utilize such a facility or plantship licensed under this chapter unless (A) the foreign state involved has agreed, by specific agreement with the United States, to recognize the jurisdiction of the United States over the vessel and its personnel, in accordance with the provisions of this chapter, while the vessel is located within the safety zone, and (B) the vessel owner or operator has designated an agent in the United States for receipt of service of process in the event of any claim or legal proceeding resulting from activities of the vessel or its personnel while located within such a safety zone.

(e) Rules and regulations; vessels; “ocean thermal energy conversion facility” defined

(1) The Secretary of the department in which the Coast Guard is operating shall promulgate and enforce regulations specified in paragraph (2) of this subsection and such other regulations as he deems necessary concerning the documentation, design, construction, alteration, equipment, maintenance, repair, inspection, certification, and manning of ocean thermal energy conversion facilities and plantships. In addition to other requirements prescribed under those regulations, the Secretary of the department in which the Coast Guard is operating may require compliance with those vessel documentation, inspection, and manning laws which he determines to be appropriate.

(2) Within 1 year after August 3, 1980, the Secretary of the department in which the Coast Guard is operating shall promulgate regulations under paragraph (1) of this subsection which require that any ocean thermal energy conversion facility or plantship—

(A) be documented;

(B) comply with minimum standards of design, construction, alteration, and repair; and

(C) be manned or crewed by United States citizens or aliens lawfully admitted to the United States for permanent residence, unless—

(i) there is not a sufficient number of United States citizens, or aliens lawfully admitted to the United States for permanent residence, qualified and available for such work, or

(ii) the President makes a specific finding, with respect to the particular vessel, platform, or moored, fixed or standing structure, that application of this requirement would not be consistent with the national interest.


(3) For the purposes of the documentation laws, for which compliance is required under paragraph (1) of this subsection, ocean thermal energy conversion facilities and plantships shall be deemed to be vessels and, if documented, vessels of the United States for the purposes of the Ship Mortgage Act, 1920 (46 U.S.C. 911–984).

(4) For the purposes of this subsection the term “ocean thermal energy conversion facility” refers only to an ocean thermal energy conversion facility which has major components other than water intake or discharge pipes located seaward of the highwater mark 1

(f) Protection of navigation

Subject to recognized principles of international law, the Secretary of the department in which the Coast Guard is operating shall promulgate and enforce such regulations as he deems necessary to protect navigation in the vicinity of a vessel engaged in the installation, repair, or maintenance of any submarine electric transmission cable or equipment, and to govern the markings and signals used by such a vessel.

(Pub. L. 96–320, title I, §108, Aug. 3, 1980, 94 Stat. 986; Pub. L. 98–623, title VI, §602(a)(6), (7), (e)(1), (15), Nov. 8, 1984, 98 Stat. 3410–3412.)

References in Text

This chapter, referred to in subsecs. (a), (b), and (d), was in the original “this Act”, meaning Pub. L. 96–320, Aug. 3, 1980, 94 Stat. 974, known as the Ocean Thermal Energy Conversion Act of 1980, which is classified principally to this chapter. For complete classification of this Act to the Code, see Short Title note set out under section 9101 of this title and Tables.

The Ship Mortgage Act, 1920, referred to in subsec. (e)(3), is section 30 of act June 5, 1920, ch. 250, 41 Stat. 1000, which was classified generally to chapter 25 (§911 et seq.) of former Title 46, Shipping, and was repealed by Pub. L. 100–710, title I, §106(b)(2), Nov. 23, 1988, 102 Stat. 4752, and reenacted by section 102(c) thereof as chapters 301 and 313 of Title 46, Shipping. Chapter 301 of Title 46, consisting solely of section 30101 which defined, among other terms, “vessel of the United States”, was subsequently repealed by Pub. L. 109–304, §6(b), Oct. 6, 2006, 120 Stat. 1509. For a definition of “vessel of the United States” as that term applies to Title 46, see section 116 of Title 46.

Amendments

1984—Subsec. (d)(1). Pub. L. 98–623, §602(e)(1), substituted “navigational safety” for “reorganizational safety”.

Subsec. (d)(3). Pub. L. 98–623, §602(e)(15), added par. (3) by inserting text of former subsec. (b)(3) of section 9119 of this title.

Subsec. (e)(2)(C)(ii). Pub. L. 98–623, §602(a)(6), substituted “moored, fixed or standing” for “moored or standing”.

Subsec. (e)(4). Pub. L. 98–623, §602(a)(7), added par. (4).

Transfer of Functions

For transfer of authorities, functions, personnel, and assets of the Coast Guard, including the authorities and functions of the Secretary of Transportation relating thereto, to the Department of Homeland Security, and for treatment of related references, see sections 468(b), 551(d), 552(d), and 557 of Title 6, Domestic Security, and the Department of Homeland Security Reorganization Plan of November 25, 2002, as modified, set out as a note under section 542 of Title 6.

1 So in original. Probably should be followed by a period.

§9119. Prevention of interference with other uses of high seas

(a) License conditions

Each license shall include such conditions as may be necessary and appropriate to ensure that construction and operation of the ocean thermal energy conversion facility or plantship are conducted with reasonable regard for navigation, fishing, energy production, scientific research, or other uses of the high seas, either by citizens of the United States or by other nations in their exercise of the freedoms of the high seas as recognized under the Convention of the High Seas and the general principles of international law.

(b) Rules and regulations

The Administrator shall promulgate regulations specifying under what conditions and in what circumstances the thermal plume of an ocean thermal energy conversion facility or plantship licensed under this chapter will be deemed—

(1) to impinge on so as to degrade the thermal gradient used by another ocean thermal energy conversion facility or plantship, or

(2) to impinge on so as to adversely affect the territorial sea or area of national resource jurisdiction, as recognized by the United States, of any other nation.


Such regulations shall also provide for the Administrator to mediate or arbitrate any disputes among licensees regarding the extent to which the thermal plume of one licensee's facility or plantship impinges on the operation of another licensee's facility or plantship.

(c) Coast Guard operations

The Secretary of the department in which the Coast Guard is operating shall promulgate, after consultation with the Administrator, and shall enforce, regulations governing the movement and navigation of ocean thermal energy conversion plantships licensed under this chapter to ensure that the thermal plume of such an ocean thermal energy conversion plantship does not unreasonably impinge on so as to degrade the thermal gradient used by the operation of any other ocean thermal energy conversion plantship or facility except in case of force majeure or with the consent of owner of the other such plantship or facility, and to ensure that the thermal plume of such an ocean thermal energy conversion plantship does not impinge on so as to adversely affect the territorial sea or area of national resource jurisdiction, as recognized by the United States, of any other nation unless the Secretary of State has approved such impingement after consultation with such nation.

(Pub. L. 96–320, title I, §109, Aug. 3, 1980, 94 Stat. 987; Pub. L. 98–623, title VI, §602(e)(2), (15), (16), Nov. 8, 1984, 98 Stat. 3412.)

References in Text

This chapter, referred to in subsecs. (b) and (c), was in the original “this Act”, meaning Pub. L. 96–320, Aug. 3, 1980, 94 Stat. 974, known as the Ocean Thermal Energy Conversion Act of 1980, which is classified principally to this chapter. For complete classification of this Act to the Code, see Short Title note set out under section 9101 of this title and Tables.

Amendments

1984—Subsec. (b)(2). Pub. L. 98–623, §602(e)(2), substituted “national resource jurisdiction” for “natural resource jurisdiction”.

Subsec. (b)(3). Pub. L. 98–623, §602(e)(15), struck out par. (3) which prohibited a licensee of an ocean thermal energy conversion facility or plantship under this chapter, except in the case of force majeure, from permitting foreign vessels to call at, or load or unload cargo at, or otherwise use such facility or plantship unless the foreign state involved had specifically agreed to recognize the jurisdiction of the United States over the vessel and its personnel while such vessel was located in the safety zone and the vessel owner or operator had designated an agent in the United States for receipt of service of process for legal claims or proceedings arising from activities of the vessel or its personnel while located in such zone. See section 9118(d)(3) of this title.

Subsec. (c). Pub. L. 98–623, §602(e)(16), substituted “the thermal plume of such” for “the thermal plume such of” in second place appearing, and substituted “impingement” for “impingment”.

Transfer of Functions

For transfer of authorities, functions, personnel, and assets of the Coast Guard, including the authorities and functions of the Secretary of Transportation relating thereto, to the Department of Homeland Security, and for treatment of related references, see sections 468(b), 551(d), 552(d), and 557 of Title 6, Domestic Security, and the Department of Homeland Security Reorganization Plan of November 25, 2002, as modified, set out as a note under section 542 of Title 6.

§9120. Monitoring of licensees’ activities

Each license shall require the licensee—

(1) to allow the Administrator to place appropriate Federal officers or employees in or aboard the ocean thermal energy conversion facility or plantship to which the license applies, at such times and to such extent as the Administrator deems reasonable and necessary to assess compliance with any condition or regulation applicable to the license, and to report to the Administrator whenever such officers or employees have reason to believe there is a failure to comply;

(2) to cooperate with such officers and employees in the performance of monitoring functions; and

(3) to monitor the environmental effects, if any, of the operation of the ocean thermal energy conversion facility or plantship in accordance with regulations issued by the Administrator, and to submit such information as the Administrator finds to be necessary and appropriate to assess environmental impacts and to develop and evaluate mitigation methods and possibilities.

(Pub. L. 96–320, title I, §110, Aug. 3, 1980, 94 Stat. 988; Pub. L. 98–623, title VI, §602(a)(8), Nov. 8, 1984, 98 Stat. 3411.)

Amendments

1984—Par. (1). Pub. L. 98–623 substituted “in or aboard” for “aboard”.

§9121. Suspension, revocation, and termination of licenses

(a) Filing of action by Attorney General; automatic suspension

Whenever a licensee fails to comply with any applicable provision of this chapter or any applicable rule, regulation, restriction, or condition issued or imposed by the Administrator under the authority of this chapter, the Attorney General, at the request of the Administrator, shall file an action in the appropriate United States district court to—

(1) suspend the license; or

(2) if such failure is knowing and continues for a period of 30 days after the Administrator mails notification of such failure by registered letter to the licensee at his record post office address, revoke such license.


No proceeding under this section is necessary if the license, by its terms, provides for automatic suspension or termination upon the occurrence of a fixed or agreed upon condition, event, or time.

(b) Immediate suspension of construction or operation pending completion of proceedings

If the Administrator determines that immediate suspension of the construction or operation of an ocean thermal energy conversion facility or plantship or any component thereof is necessary to protect public health and safety or to eliminate imminent and substantial danger to the environment the Administrator may order the licensee to cease or alter such construction or operation pending the completion of a judicial proceeding pursuant to subsection (a) of this section.

(Pub. L. 96–320, title I, §111, Aug. 3, 1980, 94 Stat. 988; Pub. L. 98–623, title VI, §602(e)(17), Nov. 8, 1984, 98 Stat. 3412.)

References in Text

This chapter, referred to in subsec. (a), was in the original “this Act”, meaning Pub. L. 96–320, Aug. 3, 1980, 94 Stat. 974, known as the Ocean Thermal Energy Conversion Act of 1980, which is classified principally to this chapter. For complete classification of this Act to the Code, see Short Title note set out under section 9101 of this title and Tables.

Amendments

1984—Subsec. (b). Pub. L. 98–623 substituted “environment” for “environment established by any treaty or convention,”.

§9122. Recordkeeping and public access to information

(a) Records and reports

Each licensee shall establish and maintain such records, make such reports, and provide such information as the Administrator, after consultation with other interested Federal departments and agencies, shall by regulation prescribe to carry out the provisions of this chapter. Each licensee shall submit such reports and shall make available such records and information as the Administrator may request.

(b) Confidential information

Any information reported to or collected by the Administrator under this chapter which is exempt from disclosure pursuant to section 552(b)(4) of title 5 (relating to trade secrets and commercial or financial information which is privileged or confidential) shall not—

(1) be publicly disclosed by the Administrator or by any other officer or employee of the United States, unless the Administrator has—

(A) determined that the disclosure is necessary to protect the public health or safety or the environment against an unreasonable risk of injury, and

(B) notified the person who submitted the information 10 days before the disclosure is to be made, unless the delay resulting from such notice would be detrimental to the public health or safety or the environment, or


(2) be otherwise disclosed except—

(A)(i) to other Federal and adjacent coastal State government departments and agencies for official use,

(ii) to any committee of the Congress of appropriate jurisdiction, or

(iii) pursuant to court order, and

(B) when the Administrator has taken appropriate steps to inform the recipient of the confidential nature of the information.

(Pub. L. 96–320, title I, §112, Aug. 3, 1980, 94 Stat. 989; Pub. L. 98–623, title VI, §602(e)(3), (18), Nov. 8, 1984, 98 Stat. 3412.)

References in Text

This chapter, referred to in text, was in the original “this Act”, meaning Pub. L. 96–320, Aug. 3, 1980, 94 Stat. 974, known as the Ocean Thermal Energy Conversion Act of 1980, which is classified principally to this chapter. For complete classification of this Act to the Code, see Short Title note set out under section 9101 of this title and Tables.

Amendments

1984—Subsec. (b). Pub. L. 98–623, §602(e)(3), substituted “(relating to trade secrets and commercial or financial information which is privileged or confidential)” for “(relating to trade secrets and confidential commercial and financial information)”.

Subsec. (b)(2)(B). Pub. L. 98–623, §602(e)(18), substituted “Administrator” for “administrator”.

§9123. Relinquishment or surrender of license

(a) Relinquishment or surrender authority; continuation of liability

Any licensee may at any time, without penalty, surrender to the Administrator a license issued to him, or relinquish to the Administrator, in whole or in part, any right to conduct construction or operation of an ocean thermal energy conversion facility or plantship, including part or all of any right of way which may have been granted in conjunction with such license: Provided, That such surrender or relinquishment shall not relieve the licensee of any obligation or liability established by this chapter, or any other Act, or of any obligation or liability for actions taken by him prior to such surrender or relinquishment, or during disposal or removal of any components required to be disposed of or removed pursuant to this chapter.

(b) Transfer of right of way

If part or all of a right of way which is relinquished, or for which the license is surrendered, to the Administrator pursuant to subsection (a) of this section contains an electric transmission cable or pipeline which is used in conjunction with another license for an ocean thermal energy conversion facility, the Administrator shall allow the other licensee an opportunity to add such right of way to his license before informing the Secretary of the Interior that the right of way has been vacated.

(Pub. L. 96–320, title I, §113, Aug. 3, 1980, 94 Stat. 989.)

References in Text

This chapter, referred to in subsec. (a), was in the original “this Act”, meaning Pub. L. 96–320, Aug. 3, 1980, 94 Stat. 974, known as the Ocean Thermal Energy Conversion Act of 1980, which is classified principally to this chapter. For complete classification of this Act to the Code, see Short Title note set out under section 9101 of this title and Tables.

§9124. Civil actions

(a) Jurisdiction

Except as provided in subsection (b) of this section, any person having a valid legal interest which is or may be adversely affected may commence a civil action for equitable relief on his own behalf in the United States District Court for the District of Columbia whenever such action constitutes a case or controversy—

(1) against any person who is alleged to be in violation of any provision of this chapter or any regulation or condition of a license issued pursuant to this chapter; or

(2) against the Administrator where there is alleged a failure of the Administrator to perform any act or duty under this chapter which is not discretionary.


In suits brought under this chapter, the district courts of the United States shall have jurisdiction, without regard to the amount in controversy or the citizenship of the parties, to enforce any provision of this chapter or any regulation or term or condition of a license issued pursuant to this chapter or to order the Administrator to perform such act or duty, as the case may be.

(b) Notice

No civil action may be commenced—

(1) under subsection (a)(1) of this section—

(A) prior to 60 days after the plaintiff has given notice of the violation to the Administrator and to any alleged violator; or

(B) if the Administrator or the Attorney General has commenced and is diligently prosecuting a civil or criminal action with respect to such matters in a court of the United States, but in any such action any person may intervene as a matter of right; or


(2) under subsection (a)(2) of this section prior to 60 days after the plaintiff has given notice of such action to the Administrator.


Notice under this subsection shall be given in such a manner as the Administrator shall prescribe by regulation.

(c) Right of Administrator or Attorney General to intervene

In any action under this section, the Administrator or the Attorney General, if not a party, may intervene as a matter of right.

(d) Award of costs

The court, in issuing any final order in any action brought pursuant to subsection (a) of this section, may award costs of litigation (including reasonable attorney and expert witness fees) to any party whenever the court determines that such an award is appropriate.

(e) Other remedies not restricted

Nothing in this section shall restrict any right which any person or class of persons may have under any statute or common law to seek enforcement or to seek any other relief.

(Pub. L. 96–320, title I, §114, Aug. 3, 1980, 94 Stat. 990.)

References in Text

This chapter, referred to in subsec. (a), was in the original “this Act”, meaning Pub. L. 96–320, Aug. 3, 1980, 94 Stat. 974, known as the Ocean Thermal Energy Conversion Act of 1980, which is classified principally to this chapter. For complete classification of this Act to the Code, see Short Title note set out under section 9101 of this title and Tables.

§9125. Judicial review

Any person suffering legal wrong, or who is adversely affected or aggrieved by the Administrator's decision to issue, transfer, modify, renew, suspend, or terminate a license may, not later than 60 days after such decision is made, seek judicial review of such decision in the United States Court of Appeals for the District of Columbia. A person shall be deemed to be aggrieved by the Administrator's decision within the meaning of this chapter if he—

(1) has participated in the administrative proceedings before the Administrator (or if he did not so participate, he can show that his failure to do so was caused by the Administrator's failure to provide the required notice); and

(2) is adversely affected by the Administrator's action.

(Pub. L. 96–320, title I, §115, Aug. 3, 1980, 94 Stat. 990.)

References in Text

This chapter, referred to in introductory provisions, was in the original “this Act”, meaning Pub. L. 96–320, Aug. 3, 1980, 94 Stat. 974, known as the Ocean Thermal Energy Conversion Act of 1980, which is classified principally to this chapter. For complete classification of this Act to the Code, see Short Title note set out under section 9101 of this title and Tables.

§9126. Exempt operations

(a) Test platforms

The provisions of this subchapter shall not apply to any test platform which will not operate as an ocean thermal energy conversion facility or plantship after conclusion of the testing period.

(b) Commercial demonstration ocean thermal energy conversion facilities or plantships

The provisions of this subchapter shall not apply to ownership, construction, or operation of any ocean thermal energy conversion facility or plantship which the Secretary of Energy has designated in writing as a demonstration project for the development of alternative energy sources for the United States which is conducted by, participated in, or approved by the Department of Energy. The Secretary of Energy, after consultation with the Administrator, shall require such demonstration projects to abide by as many of the substantive requirements of this subchapter as he deems to be practicable without damaging the nature of or unduly delaying such projects.

(Pub. L. 96–320, title I, §116, Aug. 3, 1980, 94 Stat. 991; Pub. L. 98–623, title VI, §602(e)(4), Nov. 8, 1984, 98 Stat. 3412.)

Amendments

1984—Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 98–623 substituted “facility or plantship” for “facility or platform”.

§9127. Periodic review and revision of regulations

The Administrator and the Secretary of the department in which the Coast Guard is operating shall periodically, at intervals of not more than every 3 years, and in consultation with the Secretary of Energy, review any regulations promulgated pursuant to the provisions of this subchapter to determine the status and impact of such regulations on the continued development, evolution, and commercialization of ocean thermal energy conversion technology. The results of each such review shall be included in the next annual report required by section 9165 1 of this title. The Administrator and such Secretary are authorized and directed to promulgate any revisions to the then effective regulations as are deemed necessary and appropriate based on such review, to ensure that any regulations promulgated pursuant to the provisions of this subchapter do not impede such development, evolution, and commercialization of such technology. Additionally, the Secretary of Energy is authorized to propose, based on such review, such revisions for the same purpose. The Administrator or such Secretary, as appropriate, shall have exclusive jurisdiction with respect to any such proposal by the Secretary of Energy and, pursuant to applicable procedures, shall consider and take final action on any such proposal in an expeditious manner. Such consideration shall include at least one informal hearing pursuant to the procedures in section 553 of title 5.

(Pub. L. 96–320, title I, §117, Aug. 3, 1980, 94 Stat. 991.)

References in Text

Section 9165 of this title, referred to in text, was omitted from the Code.

Transfer of Functions

For transfer of authorities, functions, personnel, and assets of the Coast Guard, including the authorities and functions of the Secretary of Transportation relating thereto, to the Department of Homeland Security, and for treatment of related references, see sections 468(b), 551(d), 552(d), and 557 of Title 6, Domestic Security, and the Department of Homeland Security Reorganization Plan of November 25, 2002, as modified, set out as a note under section 542 of Title 6.

1 See References in Text note below.

SUBCHAPTER II—MARITIME FINANCING FOR OCEAN THERMAL ENERGY CONVERSION

§9141. Determinations under Merchant Marine Act, 1936

(a)(1) For the purposes of chapter 535 of title 46, any ocean thermal energy conversion facility or plantship licensed pursuant to this chapter, and any vessel providing shipping service to or from such an ocean thermal energy conversion facility or plantship, shall be deemed to be a vessel operated in the foreign commerce of the United States.

(2) The provisions of paragraph (1) of this subsection shall apply for taxable years beginning after December 31, 1981.

(b) For the purposes of the Merchant Marine Act, 1936 (46 U.S.C. 1177 et seq.),1 any vessel documented under the laws of the United States and used in providing shipping service to or from any ocean thermal energy conversion facility or plantship licensed pursuant to the provisions of this chapter shall be deemed to be used in, and used in an essential service in, the foreign commerce or foreign trade of the United States, as defined in section 109 of title 46.

(Pub. L. 96–320, title II, §201, Aug. 3, 1980, 94 Stat. 991.)

References in Text

This chapter, referred to in subsecs. (a)(1) and (b), was in the original “this Act”, meaning Pub. L. 96–320, Aug. 3, 1980, 94 Stat. 974, known as the Ocean Thermal Energy Conversion Act of 1980, which is classified principally to this chapter. For complete classification of this Act to the Code, see Short Title note set out under section 9101 of this title and Tables.

The Merchant Marine Act, 1936, referred to in subsec. (b), is act June 29, 1936, ch. 858, 49 Stat. 1985, which was classified principally to chapter 27 (§1101 et seq.) of the former Appendix to Title 46, Shipping. Most of this Act was repealed and restated mainly as subtitle V of Title 46, Shipping, by Pub. L. 109–304, §§8, 19, Oct. 6, 2006, 120 Stat. 1555, 1710. For complete classification of this Act to the Code, see Tables. For disposition of sections of the former Appendix to Title 46, see Disposition Table preceding section 101 of Title 46.

Codification

In subsec. (a)(1), “chapter 535 of title 46” substituted for “section 607 of the Merchant Marine Act, 1936 (46 U.S.C. 1177)” and in subsec. (b), “section 109 of title 46” substituted for “section 905(a) of the Merchant Marine Act, 1936 (46 U.S.C. 1244(a))” on authority of Pub. L. 109–304, §18(c), Oct. 6, 2006, 120 Stat. 1709, which Act enacted chapter 535 and section 109 of Title 46, Shipping.

1 See References in Text note below.

SUBCHAPTER III—ENFORCEMENT

§9151. Prohibited acts

It is unlawful for any person who is a United States citizen or national, or a foreign national in or on board an ocean thermal energy conversion facility or plantship or on board any vessel documented or numbered under the laws of the United States, or who is subject to the jurisdiction of the United States by an international agreement to which the United States is a party—

(1) to violate any provision of this chapter; or any rule, regulation, or order issued pursuant to this chapter; or any term or condition of any license issued to such person pursuant to this chapter;

(2) to refuse to permit any Federal officer or employee authorized to monitor or enforce the provisions of sections 9120 and 9153 of this title to enter or board an ocean thermal energy conversion facility or plantship or any vessel documented or numbered under the laws of the United States, for purposes of conducting any search or inspection in connection with the monitoring or enforcement of this chapter or any rule, regulation, order, term, or condition referred to in paragraph (1) of this section;

(3) to forcibly assault, resist, oppose, impede, intimidate, or interfere with any such authorized officer or employee in the conduct of any search or inspection described in paragraph (2) of this section;

(4) to resist a lawful arrest for any act prohibited by this section; or

(5) to interfere with, delay, or prevent, by any means, the apprehension or arrest of another person subject to this section knowing that the other person has committed any act prohibited by this section.

(Pub. L. 96–320, title III, §301, Aug. 3, 1980, 94 Stat. 994; Pub. L. 98–623, title VI, §602(a)(9), Nov. 8, 1984, 98 Stat. 3411.)

References in Text

This chapter, referred to in pars. (1) and (2), was in the original “this Act”, meaning Pub. L. 96–320, Aug. 3, 1980, 94 Stat. 974, known as the Ocean Thermal Energy Conversion Act of 1980, which is classified principally to this chapter. For complete classification of this Act to the Code, see Short Title note set out under section 9101 of this title and Tables.

Amendments

1984—Pub. L. 98–623 substituted “in or on board an ocean thermal energy conversion facility or plantship or on board any vessel” for “on board an ocean thermal energy conversion facility or plantship or other vessel” in provisions preceding par. (1).

Par. (2). Pub. L. 98–623 substituted “to enter or board” for “to board”.

§9152. Remedies and penalties

(a) Issuance and enforcement of orders

(1) The Administrator or his delegate shall have the authority to issue and enforce orders during proceedings brought under this chapter. Such authority shall include the authority to issue subpenas, administer oaths, compel the attendance and testimony of witnesses and the production of books, papers, documents, and other evidence, to take depositions before any designated individual competent to administer oaths, and to examine witnesses.

(2) Whenever on the basis of any information available to him the Administrator finds that any person subject to section 9151 of this title is in violation of any provision of this chapter or any rule, regulation, order, license, or term or condition thereof, or other requirements under this chapter, he may issue an order requiring such person to comply with such provision or requirement, or bring a civil action in accordance with subsection (b) of this section.

(3) Any compliance order issued under this subsection shall state with reasonable specificity the nature of the violation and a time for compliance, not to exceed 30 days, which the Administrator determines is reasonable, taking into account the seriousness of the violation and any good faith efforts to comply with applicable requirements.

(b) Civil actions by Attorney General; equitable relief

(1) Upon a request by the Administrator, the Attorney General shall commence a civil action for appropriate relief, including a permanent or temporary injunction, to halt any violation for which the Administrator is authorized to issue a compliance order under subsection (a)(2) of this section.

(2) Upon a request by the Administrator, the Attorney General shall bring an action in an appropriate district court of the United States for equitable relief to redress a violation, by any person subject to section 9151 of this title, of any provision of this chapter, any regulation issued pursuant to this chapter, or any license condition.

(c) Civil penalties

(1) Any person who is found by the Administrator, after notice and an opportunity for a hearing in accordance with section 554 of title 5, to have committed an act prohibited by section 9151 of this title shall be liable to the United States for a civil penalty, not to exceed $25,000 for each violation. Each day of a continuing violation shall constitute a separate violation. The amount of such civil penalty shall be assessed by the Administrator, or his designee, by written notice. In determining the amount of such penalty, the Administrator shall take into account the nature, circumstances, extent and gravity of the prohibited acts committed and, with respect to the violator, the degree of culpability, any history of prior offenses, ability to pay, and such other matters as justice may require.

(2) Any person against whom a civil penalty is assessed under paragraph (1) of this subsection may obtain a review thereof in the appropriate court of the United States by filing a notice of appeal in such court within 30 days from the date of such order and by simultaneously sending a copy of such notice by certified mail to the Administrator. The Administrator shall promptly file in such court a certified copy of the record upon which such violation was found or such penalty imposed, as provided in section 2112 of title 28. The findings and order of the Administrator shall be set aside by such court if they are not found to be supported by substantial evidence, as provided in section 706(2) of title 5.

(3) If any person subject to section 9151 of this title fails to pay an assessment of a civil penalty against him after it has become final, or after the appropriate court has entered final judgment in favor of the Administrator, the Administrator shall refer the matter to the Attorney General of the United States, who shall recover the amount assessed in any appropriate court of the United States. In such action, the validity and appropriateness of the final order imposing the civil penalty shall not be subject to review.

(4) The Administrator may compromise, modify, or remit, with or without conditions, any civil penalty which is subject to imposition or which has been imposed under this subsection.

(d) Criminal penalties

(1) Any person subject to section 9151 of this title is guilty of an offense if he willfully commits any act prohibited by such section.

(2) Any offense, other than an offense for which the punishment is prescribed by section 9113 of this title, is punishable by a fine of not more than $75,000 for each day during which the violation continues. Any offense described in paragraphs (2), (3), (4), and (5) of section 9151 of this title is punishable by the fine or imprisonment for not more than 6 months, or both. If, in the commission of any offense, the person subject to section 9151 of this title uses a dangerous weapon, engages in conduct that causes bodily injury to any Federal officer or employee, or places any Federal officer or employee in fear of imminent bodily injury, the offense is punishable by a fine of not more than $100,000 or imprisonment for not more than 10 years, or both.

(e) In rem liability of vessels

Any ocean thermal energy conversion facility or plantship licensed pursuant to this chapter and any other vessel documented or numbered under the laws of the United States, except a public vessel engaged in noncommercial activities, used in any violation of this chapter or of any rule, regulation, order, license, or term or condition thereof, or other requirements of this chapter, shall be liable in rem for any civil penalty assessed or criminal fine imposed and may be proceeded against in any district court of the United States having jurisdiction thereof, whenever it shall appear that one or more of the owners, or bareboat charterers, was at the time of the violation a consenting party or privy to such violation.

(Pub. L. 96–320, title III, §302, Aug. 3, 1980, 94 Stat. 995; Pub. L. 98–623, title VI, §602(e)(5), Nov. 8, 1984, 98 Stat. 3412.)

References in Text

This chapter, referred to in subsecs. (a)(1), (2), (b)(2), and (e), was in the original “this Act”, meaning Pub. L. 96–320, Aug. 3, 1980, 94 Stat. 974, known as the Ocean Thermal Energy Conversion Act of 1980, which is classified principally to this chapter. For complete classification of this Act to the Code, see Short Title note set out under section 9101 of this title and Tables.

Amendments

1984—Subsec. (b)(1). Pub. L. 98–623 substituted “to halt any violation” for “any violation”.

§9153. Enforcement

(a) Enforcement responsibility of Administrator of National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration; Coast Guard

Except where a specific section of this chapter designates enforcement responsibility, the provisions of this chapter shall be enforced by the Administrator. The Secretary of the department in which the Coast Guard is operating shall have exclusive responsibility for enforcement measures which affect the safety of life and property at sea, shall exercise such other enforcement responsibilities with respect to vessels subject to the provisions of this chapter as are authorized under other provisions of law, and may, upon the specific request of the Administrator, assist the Administrator in the enforcement of any provision of this chapter. The Administrator and the Secretary of the department in which the Coast Guard is operating may, by agreement, on a reimbursable basis or otherwise, utilize the personnel, services, equipment, including aircraft and vessels, and facilities of any other Federal agency or department, and may authorize officers or employees of other departments or agencies to provide assistance as necessary in carrying out subsection (b) of this section. The Administrator and the Secretary of the department in which the Coast Guard is operating may issue regulations jointly or severally as may be necessary and appropriate to carry out their duties under this section.

(b) Enforcement activities of authorized officers

To enforce the provisions of this chapter in or on board any ocean thermal energy conversion facility or plantship or any vessel subject to the provisions of this chapter, any officer who is authorized by the Administrator or the Secretary of the department in which the Coast Guard is operating may—

(1) enter or board, and inspect, any ocean thermal energy conversion facility or plantship or any vessel which is subject to the provisions of this chapter;

(2) search the vessel if the officer has reasonable cause to believe that the vessel has been used or employed in the violation of any provision of this chapter;

(3) arrest any person subject to section 9151 of this title if the officer has reasonable cause to believe that the person has committed a criminal act prohibited by sections 9151 and 9152(d) of this title;

(4) seize the vessel together with its gear, furniture, appurtenances, stores, and cargo, used or employed in, or with respect to which it reasonably appears that such vessel was used or employed in, the violation of any provision of this chapter if such seizure is necessary to prevent evasion of the enforcement of this chapter;

(5) seize any evidence related to any violation of any provision of this chapter;

(6) execute any warrant or other process issued by any court of competent jurisdiction; and

(7) exercise any other lawful authority.

(c) Jurisdiction; venue

Except as otherwise specified in section 9125 of this title, the district courts of the United States shall have exclusive original jurisdiction over any case or controversy arising under the provisions of this chapter. Except as otherwise specified in this chapter, venue shall lie in any district wherein, or nearest to which, the cause of action arose, or wherein any defendant resides, may be found, or has his principal office. In the case of Guam, and any Commonwealth, territory, or possession of the United States in the Pacific Ocean, the appropriate court is the United States District Court for the District of Guam, except that in the case of American Samoa, the appropriate court is the United States District Court for the District of Hawaii. Any such court may, at any time—

(1) enter restraining orders or prohibitions;

(2) issue warrants, process in rem, or other process;

(3) prescribe and accept satisfactory bonds or other security; and

(4) take such other actions as are in the interest of justice.

(d) Definitions

For the purposes of this section, the term “vessel” includes an ocean thermal energy conversion facility or plantship, and the term “provisions of this chapter” or “provision of this chapter” includes any rule, regulation, or order issued pursuant to this chapter and any term or condition of any license issued pursuant to this chapter.

(Pub. L. 96–320, title III, §303, Aug. 3, 1980, 94 Stat. 996; Pub. L. 98–623, title VI, §602(a)(10), Nov. 8, 1984, 98 Stat. 3411.)

References in Text

This chapter, referred to in text, was in the original “this Act”, meaning Pub. L. 96–320, Aug. 3, 1980, 94 Stat. 974, known as the Ocean Thermal Energy Conversion Act of 1980, which is classified principally to this chapter. For complete classification of this Act to the Code, see Short Title note set out under section 9101 of this title and Tables.

Amendments

1984—Subsec. (b). Pub. L. 98–623 substituted “in or on board any ocean thermal energy conversion facility or plantship or any vessel” for “on board any ocean thermal energy conversion facility or plantship or other vessel” in provisions preceding par. (1).

Subsec. (b)(1). Pub. L. 98–623 substituted “enter or board, and inspect, any ocean thermal energy conversion facility or plantship or” for “board and inspect”.

Transfer of Functions

For transfer of authorities, functions, personnel, and assets of the Coast Guard, including the authorities and functions of the Secretary of Transportation relating thereto, to the Department of Homeland Security, and for treatment of related references, see sections 468(b), 551(d), 552(d), and 557 of Title 6, Domestic Security, and the Department of Homeland Security Reorganization Plan of November 25, 2002, as modified, set out as a note under section 542 of Title 6.

SUBCHAPTER IV—MISCELLANEOUS PROVISIONS

§9161. Law of the Sea Treaty

If the United States ratifies a treaty, which includes provisions with respect to jurisdiction over ocean thermal energy conversion activities, resulting from any United Nations Conference on the Law of the Sea, the Administrator, after consultation with the Secretary of State, shall promulgate any amendment to the regulations promulgated under this chapter which is necessary and appropriate to conform such regulations to the provisions of such treaty, in anticipation of the date when such treaty shall come into force and effect for, or otherwise be applicable to, the United States.

(Pub. L. 96–320, title IV, §401, Aug. 3, 1980, 94 Stat. 998.)

References in Text

This chapter, referred to in text, was in the original “this Act”, meaning Pub. L. 96–320, Aug. 3, 1980, 94 Stat. 974, known as the Ocean Thermal Energy Conversion Act of 1980, which is classified principally to this chapter. For complete classification of this Act to the Code, see Short Title note set out under section 9101 of this title and Tables.

§9162. International negotiations

The Secretary of State, in cooperation with the Administrator and the Secretary of the department in which the Coast Guard is operating, shall seek effective international action and cooperation in support of the policy and purposes of this chapter and may initiate and conduct negotiations for the purpose of entering into international agreements designed to guarantee noninterference of ocean thermal energy conversion facilities and plantships with the thermal gradients used by other such facilities and plantships, to assure protection of such facilities and plantships and of navigational safety in the vicinity thereof, and to resolve such other matters relating to ocean thermal energy conversion facilities and plantships as need to be resolved in international agreements.

(Pub. L. 96–320, title IV, §402, Aug. 3, 1980, 94 Stat. 998.)

References in Text

This chapter, referred to in text, was in the original “this Act”, meaning Pub. L. 96–320, Aug. 3, 1980, 94 Stat. 974, known as the Ocean Thermal Energy Conversion Act of 1980, which is classified principally to this chapter. For complete classification of this Act to the Code, see Short Title note set out under section 9101 of this title and Tables.

Transfer of Functions

For transfer of authorities, functions, personnel, and assets of the Coast Guard, including the authorities and functions of the Secretary of Transportation relating thereto, to the Department of Homeland Security, and for treatment of related references, see sections 468(b), 551(d), 552(d), and 557 of Title 6, Domestic Security, and the Department of Homeland Security Reorganization Plan of November 25, 2002, as modified, set out as a note under section 542 of Title 6.

§9163. Relationship to other laws

(a) Facilities and plantships as comparable to areas of exclusive Federal jurisdiction located within a State

(1) The Constitution, laws, and treaties of the United States shall apply to an ocean thermal energy conversion facility or plantship licensed under this chapter and all of which is located seaward of the highwater mark, and to activities connected, associated, or potentially interfering with the use or operation of any such facility or plantship, in the same manner as if such facility or plantship were an area of exclusive Federal jurisdiction located within a State. Nothing in this chapter shall be construed to relieve, exempt, or immunize any person from any other requirement imposed by Federal law, regulation, or treaty.

(2) Ocean thermal energy conversion facilities and plantships licensed under this chapter do not possess the status of islands and have no territorial seas of their own.

(b) Responsibilities and authorities of States or United States within territorial seas; applicability of State law to facilities located beyond territorial seas

(1) Except as may otherwise be provided by this chapter, nothing in this chapter shall in any way alter the responsibilities and authorities of a State or the United States within the territorial seas of the United States.

(2) The law of the nearest adjacent coastal State to which an ocean thermal energy conversion facility located beyond the territorial sea and licensed under this chapter is connected by electric transmission cable or pipeline, now in effect or hereafter adopted, amended, or repealed, is declared to be the law of the United States, and shall apply to such facility, to the extent applicable and not inconsistent with any provision or regulation under this chapter or other Federal laws and regulations now in effect or hereafter adopted, amended, or repealed: Provided, however, That the application of State taxation laws is not extended hereby outside the seaward boundary of any State. All such applicable laws shall be administered and enforced by the appropriate officers and courts of the United States outside the seaward boundary of any State.

(c) Customs laws

(1) For the purposes of the customs laws administered by the Secretary of the Treasury, ocean thermal energy conversion facilities and plantships documented under the laws of the United States and licensed under this chapter shall be deemed to be vessels.

(2) Except insofar as they apply to vessels documented under the laws of the United States, the customs laws administered by the Secretary of the Treasury, including the provisions of the Tariff Act of 1930, as amended (19 U.S.C. 1202), and other laws codified in title 19, shall not apply to any ocean thermal energy conversion facility or plantship documented under the laws of the United States and licensed under the provisions of this chapter, but all foreign articles to be used in the construction of any such facility or plantship, including any component thereof, shall first be made subject to all applicable duties and taxes which would be imposed upon or by reason of their importation if they were imported for consumption in the United States. Duties and taxes shall be paid thereon in accordance with laws applicable to merchandise imported into the customs territory of the United States.

(Pub. L. 96–320, title IV, §403, Aug. 3, 1980, 94 Stat. 998; Pub. L. 98–623, title VI, §602(a)(11), (12), (e)(6), Nov. 8, 1984, 98 Stat. 3411, 3412.)

References in Text

This chapter, referred to in text, was in the original “this Act”, meaning Pub. L. 96–320, Aug. 3, 1980, 94 Stat. 974, known as the Ocean Thermal Energy Conversion Act of 1980, which is classified principally to this chapter. For complete classification of this Act to the Code, see Short Title note set out under section 9101 of this title and Tables.

The Tariff Act of 1930, as amended, referred to in subsec. (c)(2), is act June 17, 1930, ch. 497, 46 Stat. 590, which is classified generally to chapter 4 (§1202 et seq.) of Title 19. For complete classification of this Act to the Code, see section 1654 of Title 19 and Tables.

Amendments

1984—Subsec. (a)(1). Pub. L. 98–623, §602(a)(11), inserted “and all of which is located seaward of the highwater mark,”.

Subsec. (c)(2). Pub. L. 98–623, §602(a)(12), substituted “ocean thermal energy conversion facility or plantship documented under the laws of the United States and licensed” for “ocean thermal energy conversion facility or plantship licensed”.

Pub. L. 98–623, §602(e)(6), substituted “Secretary of the Treasury, including the provisions of the Tariff Act of 1930, as amended (19 U.S.C. 1202), and other laws codified in title 19,” for “Secretary of the Treasury”.

Territorial Sea of United States

For extension of territorial sea of United States, see Proc. No. 5928, set out as a note under section 1331 of Title 43, Public Lands.

§9164. Submarine electric transmission cable and equipment safety

(a) Standards and regulations

The Secretary of Energy, in cooperation with other interested Federal agencies and departments, shall establish and enforce such standards and regulations as may be necessary to assure the safe construction and operation of submarine electric transmission cables and equipment subject to the jurisdiction of the United States. Such standards and regulations shall include, but not be limited to, requirements for the use of the safest and best available technology for submarine electric transmission cable shielding, and for the use of automatic switches to shut off electric current in the event of a break in such a cable.

(b) Report to Congress on appropriation and staffing needs

The Secretary of Energy, in cooperation with other interested Federal agencies and departments, is authorized and directed to report to the Congress within 60 days after August 3, 1980, on appropriations and staffing needed to monitor submarine electric transmission cables and equipment subject to the jurisdiction of the United States so as to assure that they meet all applicable standards for construction, operation, and maintenance.

(Pub. L. 96–320, title IV, §404, Aug. 3, 1980, 94 Stat. 999.)

§9165. Omitted

Codification

Section, Pub. L. 96–320, title IV, §405, Aug. 3, 1980, 94 Stat. 999; Pub. L. 98–623, title VI, §602(c), Nov. 8, 1984, 98 Stat. 3411, which required the Administrator of the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration to submit an annual report on the administration of this chapter to the President of the Senate and the Speaker of the House of Representatives, terminated, effective May 15, 2000, pursuant to section 3003 of Pub. L. 104–66, as amended, set out as a note under section 1113 of Title 31, Money and Finance. See, also, the 8th item on page 54 of House Document No. 103–7.

§9166. Authorization of appropriations

There are authorized to be appropriated to the Secretary of Commerce, for the use of the Administrator in carrying out the provisions of this chapter, not to exceed $3,000,000 for the fiscal year ending September 30, 1981, not to exceed $3,500,000 for the fiscal year ending September 30, 1982, not to exceed $3,500,000 for the fiscal year ending September 30, 1983, not to exceed $480,000 for each of the fiscal years ending September 30, 1984 and September 30, 1985, and not to exceed $630,000 for each of the fiscal years ending September 30, 1986 and September 30, 1987.

(Pub. L. 96–320, title IV, §406, Aug. 3, 1980, 94 Stat. 1000; Pub. L. 98–623, title VI, §601, Nov. 8, 1984, 98 Stat. 3410.)

References in Text

This chapter, referred to in text, was in the original “this Act”, meaning Pub. L. 96–320, Aug. 3, 1980, 94 Stat. 974, known as the Ocean Thermal Energy Conversion Act of 1980, which is classified principally to this chapter. For complete classification of this Act to the Code, see Short Title note set out under section 9101 of this title and Tables.

Amendments

1984—Pub. L. 98–623 inserted provisions authorizing appropriations not to exceed $480,000 for each of the fiscal years ending September 30, 1984 and September 30, 1985, and not to exceed $630,000 for each of the fiscal years ending September 30, 1986 and September 30, 1987.

§9167. Severability

If any provision of this chapter or any application thereof is held invalid, the validity of the remainder of the chapter, or any other application, shall not be affected thereby.

(Pub. L. 96–320, title IV, §407, Aug. 3, 1980, 94 Stat. 1000.)

References in Text

This chapter, referred to in text, was in the original “this Act”, meaning Pub. L. 96–320, Aug. 3, 1980, 94 Stat. 974, known as the Ocean Thermal Energy Conversion Act of 1980, which is classified principally to this chapter. For complete classification of this Act to the Code, see Short Title note set out under section 9101 of this title and Tables.

§9168. Report to Congress on promotion and enhancement of export potential of ocean thermal energy conversion components, facilities, and plantships

Within 18 months after November 8, 1984, the Administrator shall submit to the President of the Senate and the Speaker of the House of Representatives a report detailing what steps the United States Government is taking and plans to take to promote and enhance the export potential of ocean thermal energy conversion components, facilities, and plantships manufactured by United States industry. Such report shall include—

(1) the relevant views of the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, International Trade Administration, Maritime Administration, Department of Energy, Small Business Administration, United States International Development Cooperative Agency, the Office of the Special Trade Representative, and other relevant United States Government agencies;

(2) the findings of studies conducted by the Administrator to fulfill the intent of this section;

(3) a summary of activities, including consultations held with representatives of both the ocean thermal energy conversion and financial industries conducted by the Administrator to fulfill the intent of this section; and

(4) such recommendations as the Administrator deems appropriate for amending this chapter or other relevant Acts to better promote and enhance the export potential of ocean thermal energy conversion components, facilities and plantships manufactured by United States industry.

(Pub. L. 96–320, title IV, §408, as added Pub. L. 98–623, title VI, §602(d), Nov. 8, 1984, 98 Stat. 3411.)

References in Text

This chapter, referred to in par. (4), was in the original “the Ocean Thermal Energy Conversion Act of 1980 (Public Law 96–320)”, meaning Pub. L. 96–320, Aug. 3, 1980, 94 Stat. 974, which is classified principally to this chapter. For complete classification of this Act to the Code, see Short Title note set out under section 9101 of this title and Tables.