49 U.S.C.
United States Code, 2011 Edition
Title 49 - TRANSPORTATION
SUBTITLE VIII - PIPELINES
From the U.S. Government Printing Office, www.gpo.gov

SUBTITLE VIII—PIPELINES

Chapter
Sec.
601.
Safety
60101
603.
User Fees
60301
605.
Interstate Commerce Regulation
60501

        

CHAPTER 601—SAFETY

Sec.
60101.
Definitions.
60102.
Purpose and general authority.
60103.
Standards for liquefied natural gas pipeline facilities.
60104.
Requirements and limitations.
60105.
State pipeline safety program certifications.
60106.
State pipeline safety agreements.
60107.
State pipeline safety grants.
60108.
Inspection and maintenance.
60109.
High-density population areas and environmentally sensitive areas.
60110.
Excess flow valves.
60111.
Financial responsibility for liquefied natural gas facilities.
60112.
Pipeline facilities hazardous to life and property.
60113.
Customer-owned natural gas service lines.
60114.
One-call notification systems.
60115.
Technical safety standards committees.
60116.
Public education programs.
60117.
Administrative.
60118.
Compliance and waivers.
60119.
Judicial review.
60120.
Enforcement.
60121.
Actions by private persons.
60122.
Civil penalties.
60123.
Criminal penalties.
60124.
Biennial reports.
60125.
Authorization of appropriations.
60126.
Risk management.
60127.
Population encroachment and rights-of-way.
60128.
Dumping within pipeline rights-of-way.
60129.
Protection of employees providing pipeline safety information.
60130.
Pipeline safety information grants to communities.
60131.
Verification of pipeline qualification programs.
60132.
National pipeline mapping system.
60133.
Coordination of environmental reviews.
60134.
State damage prevention programs.
60135.
Enforcement transparency.
60136.
Petroleum product transportation capacity study.
60137.
Pipeline control room management.
60138.
Response plans.
60139.
Maximum allowable operating pressure.
60140.
Cover over buried pipelines.

        

Amendments

2012—Pub. L. 112–90, §§6(c)(2), 23(b), 28(b), Jan. 3, 2012, 125 Stat. 1910, 1919, 1921, added items 60138 to 60140.

2006—Pub. L. 109–468, §§2(b)(3), 6(b), 8(b), 12(b), Dec. 29, 2006, 120 Stat. 3489, 3491, 3492, 3495, added items 60134 to 60137.

2002—Pub. L. 107–355, §§6(c), 9(c), 11(b), 13(a)(2), 15(b), 16(b), 20(a)(2)(B), Dec. 17, 2002, 116 Stat. 2993, 2995, 2997, 3001, 3006, 3008, 3010, substituted “Purpose and general authority” for “General authority” in item 60102 and “Population encroachment and rights-of-way” for “Population encroachment” in item 60127 and added items 60129 to 60133.

1996—Pub. L. 104–304, §§5(f)[(b)], 15(c)[(b)], 16(b), 18(b)(2), 20(e), Oct. 12, 1996, 110 Stat. 3800, 3803, 3804, substituted “State pipeline safety program certifications” for “State certifications” in item 60105, “State pipeline safety agreements” for “State agreements” in item 60106, “State pipeline safety grants” for “State grants” in item 60107, and “Biennial reports” for “Annual reports” in item 60124 and added items 60126, 60127, and 60128.

§60101. Definitions

(a) General.—In this chapter—

(1) “existing liquefied natural gas facility”—

(A) means a liquefied natural gas facility for which an application to approve the site, construction, or operation of the facility was filed before March 1, 1978, with—

(i) the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission (or any predecessor); or

(ii) the appropriate State or local authority, if the facility is not subject to the jurisdiction of the Commission under the Natural Gas Act (15 U.S.C. 717 et seq.); but


(B) does not include a facility on which construction is begun after November 29, 1979, without the approval;


(2) “gas” means natural gas, flammable gas, or toxic or corrosive gas;

(3) “gas pipeline facility” includes a pipeline, a right of way, a facility, a building, or equipment used in transporting gas or treating gas during its transportation;

(4) “hazardous liquid” means—

(A) petroleum or a petroleum product;

(B) nonpetroleum fuel, including biofuel, that is flammable, toxic, or corrosive or would be harmful to the environment if released in significant quantities; and

(C) a substance the Secretary of Transportation decides may pose an unreasonable risk to life or property when transported by a hazardous liquid pipeline facility in a liquid state (except for liquefied natural gas);


(5) “hazardous liquid pipeline facility” includes a pipeline, a right of way, a facility, a building, or equipment used or intended to be used in transporting hazardous liquid;

(6) “interstate gas pipeline facility” means a gas pipeline facility—

(A) used to transport gas; and

(B) subject to the jurisdiction of the Commission under the Natural Gas Act (15 U.S.C. 717 et seq.);


(7) “interstate hazardous liquid pipeline facility” means a hazardous liquid pipeline facility used to transport hazardous liquid in interstate or foreign commerce;

(8) “interstate or foreign commerce”—

(A) related to gas, means commerce—

(i) between a place in a State and a place outside that State; or

(ii) that affects any commerce described in subclause (A)(i) of this clause; and


(B) related to hazardous liquid, means commerce between—

(i) a place in a State and a place outside that State; or

(ii) places in the same State through a place outside the State;


(9) “intrastate gas pipeline facility” means a gas pipeline facility and transportation of gas within a State not subject to the jurisdiction of the Commission under the Natural Gas Act (15 U.S.C. 717 et seq.);

(10) “intrastate hazardous liquid pipeline facility” means a hazardous liquid pipeline facility that is not an interstate hazardous liquid pipeline facility;

(11) “liquefied natural gas” means natural gas in a liquid or semisolid state;

(12) “liquefied natural gas accident” means a release, burning, or explosion of liquefied natural gas from any cause, except a release, burning, or explosion that, under regulations prescribed by the Secretary, does not pose a threat to public health or safety, property, or the environment;

(13) “liquefied natural gas conversion” means conversion of natural gas into liquefied natural gas or conversion of liquefied natural gas into natural gas;

(14) “liquefied natural gas pipeline facility”—

(A) means a gas pipeline facility used for transporting or storing liquefied natural gas, or for liquefied natural gas conversion, in interstate or foreign commerce; but

(B) does not include any part of a structure or equipment located in navigable waters (as defined in section 3 of the Federal Power Act (16 U.S.C. 796));


(15) “municipality” means a political subdivision of a State;

(16) “new liquefied natural gas pipeline facility” means a liquefied natural gas pipeline facility except an existing liquefied natural gas pipeline facility;

(17) “person”, in addition to its meaning under section 1 of title 1 (except as to societies), includes a State, a municipality, and a trustee, receiver, assignee, or personal representative of a person;

(18) “pipeline facility” means a gas pipeline facility and a hazardous liquid pipeline facility;

(19) “pipeline transportation” means transporting gas and transporting hazardous liquid;

(20) “State” means a State of the United States, the District of Columbia, and Puerto Rico;

(21) “transporting gas”—

(A) means—

(i) the gathering, transmission, or distribution of gas by pipeline, or the storage of gas, in interstate or foreign commerce; and

(ii) the movement of gas through regulated gathering lines; but


(B) does not include gathering gas (except through regulated gathering lines) in a rural area outside a populated area designated by the Secretary as a nonrural area.1


(22) “transporting hazardous liquid”—

(A) means—

(i) the movement of hazardous liquid by pipeline, or the storage of hazardous liquid incidental to the movement of hazardous liquid by pipeline, in or affecting interstate or foreign commerce; and

(ii) the movement of hazardous liquid through regulated gathering lines; but


(B) does not include moving hazardous liquid through—

(i) gathering lines (except regulated gathering lines) in a rural area;

(ii) onshore production, refining, or manufacturing facilities; or

(iii) storage or in-plant piping systems associated with onshore production, refining, or manufacturing facilities.1


(23) “risk management” means the systematic application, by the owner or operator of a pipeline facility, of management policies, procedures, finite resources, and practices to the tasks of identifying, analyzing, assessing, reducing, and controlling risk in order to protect employees, the general public, the environment, and pipeline facilities;

(24) “risk management plan” means a management plan utilized by a gas or hazardous liquid pipeline facility owner or operator that encompasses risk management; and

(25) “Secretary” means the Secretary of Transportation.


(b) Gathering Lines.—(1)(A) Not later than October 24, 1994, the Secretary shall prescribe standards defining the term “gathering line”.

(B) In defining “gathering line” for gas, the Secretary—

(i) shall consider functional and operational characteristics of the lines to be included in the definition; and

(ii) is not bound by a classification the Commission establishes under the Natural Gas Act (15 U.S.C. 717 et seq.).


(2)(A) Not later than October 24, 1995, the Secretary, if appropriate, shall prescribe standards defining the term “regulated gathering line”. In defining the term, the Secretary shall consider factors such as location, length of line from the well site, operating pressure, throughput, and the composition of the transported gas or hazardous liquid, as appropriate, in deciding on the types of lines that functionally are gathering but should be regulated under this chapter because of specific physical characteristics.

(B)(i) The Secretary also shall consider diameter when defining “regulated gathering line” for hazardous liquid.

(ii) The definition of “regulated gathering line” for hazardous liquid may not include a crude oil gathering line that has a nominal diameter of not more than 6 inches, is operated at low pressure, and is located in a rural area that is not unusually sensitive to environmental damage.

(Pub. L. 103–272, §§1(e), 4(s), July 5, 1994, 108 Stat. 1301, 1371; Pub. L. 104–287, §5(90), Oct. 11, 1996, 110 Stat. 3398; Pub. L. 104–304, §§3, 20(f), Oct. 12, 1996, 110 Stat. 3793, 3805; Pub. L. 109–468, §7, Dec. 29, 2006, 120 Stat. 3491; Pub. L. 112–90, §14, Jan. 3, 2012, 125 Stat. 1914.)

Historical and Revision Notes
Pub. L. 103–272, §1(e)
Revised

Section

Source (U.S. Code)Source (Statutes at Large)
60101(a)(1) 49 App.:1671(10). Aug. 12, 1968, Pub. L. 90–481, §2(10), 82 Stat. 720; Oct. 11, 1976, Pub. L. 94–477, §3(2), 90 Stat. 2073; Nov. 30, 1979, Pub. L. 96–129, §151, 93 Stat. 998.
  49 App.:1671(14). Aug. 12, 1968, Pub. L. 90–481, 82 Stat. 720, §2(11)–(17); added Nov. 30, 1979, Pub. L. 96–129, §151, 93 Stat. 998.
  49 App.:2001(11). Nov. 30, 1979, Pub. L. 96–129, §202(1)–(4) (1st–27th words), (5)–(9), (11), 93 Stat. 1003, 1004.
60101(a)(2) 49 App.:1671(2). Aug. 12, 1968, Pub. L. 90–481, §2(1), (2), (4) (1st–32d words), (5), (6), 82 Stat. 720.
60101(a)(3) 49 App.:1671(4) (1st–32d words).
60101(a)(4) 49 App.:2001(2).
60101(a)(5) 49 App.:2001(4) (1st–27th words).
60101(a)(6) 49 App.:1671(8). Aug. 12, 1968, Pub. L. 90–481, §2(8), 82 Stat. 720; Oct. 11, 1976, Pub. L. 94–477, §3(1), 90 Stat. 2073; Nov. 30, 1979, Pub. L. 96–129, §109(b) (related to §2(8)), 93 Stat. 996.
60101(a)(7) 49 App.:2001(5).
60101(a) (8)(A) 49 App.:1671(17).
60101(a) (8)(B) 49 App.:2001(7).
60101(a)(9) 49 App.:1671(9). Aug. 12, 1968, Pub. L. 90–481, 82 Stat. 720, §2(9); added Oct. 11, 1976, Pub. L. 94–477, §3(2), 90 Stat. 2073; Nov. 30, 1979, Pub. L. 96–129, §§109(b) (related to §2(9)), 151, 93 Stat. 996, 998.
60101(a)(10) 49 App.:2001(6).
60101(a)(11) 49 App.:1671(11).
60101(a)(12) 49 App.:1671(16).
60101(a)(13) 49 App.:1671(13).
60101(a)(14) 49 App.:1671(12).
60101(a)(15) 49 App.:1671(6).
  49 App.:2001(9).
60101(a)(16) 49 App.:1671(15).
60101(a)(17) 49 App.:1671(1).
  49 App.:2001(1).
60101(a)(18), (19) (no source).
60101(a)(20) 49 App.:1671(5).
  49 App.:2001(8).
60101(a)(21) 49 App.:1671(3). Aug. 12, 1968, Pub. L. 90–481, §2(3), 82 Stat. 720; Nov. 30, 1979, Pub. L. 96–129, §152(b)(1), 93 Stat. 1001.
60101(a)(22) 49 App.:2001(3).
60101(b) 49 App.:1688. Aug. 12, 1968, Pub. L. 90–481, 82 Stat. 720, §21; added Oct. 24, 1992, Pub. L. 102–508, §109(b), 106 Stat. 3295.
  49 App.:2016. Nov. 30, 1979, Pub. L. 96–129, 93 Stat. 989, §220; added Oct. 24, 1992, Pub. L. 102–508, §208(b), 106 Stat. 3303.

In this chapter, the words “liquefied natural gas” are substituted for “LNG” for clarity. The word “authority” is substituted for “agency” for consistency in the revised title and with other titles of the United States Code. The words “gas” and “hazardous liquid” are added where applicable because of the restatement.

In subsection (a), before clause (1), the text of 49 App.:1671(10) and 2001(11) is omitted because the complete name of the Secretary of Transportation is used the first time the term appears in a section. The words “As used” are omitted as surplus. In clause (1)(A), the words “Federal Energy Regulatory Commission” and “Commission” are substituted for “Department of Energy” because under 42:7171(a) and 7172(a)(1) the Commission is statutorily independent of the Department and has the responsibility for siting, construction, and operating applications. In clauses (3) and (5), the words “without limitation, new and existing” are omitted as surplus. In clause (4)(B), the words “or material” are omitted as surplus. In clause (6), before subclause (A), the word “pipeline” is substituted for “transmission” for clarity and consistency. In clause (8)(A), before subclause (i), the words “trade, traffic, transportation, exchange, or other” are omitted as surplus. In subclause (ii), the words “trade, transportation, exchange, or other” are omitted as surplus. In clause (8)(B), the word “place” is substituted for “point” for clarity and consistency in the revised title. In clause (9), before subclause (A), the word “facility” is substituted for “transportation” for clarity and consistency. In clause (12), the words “resulting from” and the text of 49 App.:1671(16)(A)–(D) are omitted as surplus. In clause (13), the words “(liquefaction or solidification)” and “(vaporization)” are omitted as surplus. In clauses (14) and (16), the word “pipeline” is added for clarity. In clause (15), the words “city, county, or any other” are omitted as surplus. In clause (17), the words “in addition to its meaning under section 1 of title 1 (except as to societies)” are substituted for “any individual, firm, joint venture, partnership, corporation, association . . . cooperative association, or joint stock association” to eliminate unnecessary words, for clarity, and for consistency in the revised title and with other titles of the Code. Clauses (18) and (19) are added because of the restatement. In clause (20), the words “of the United States” are substituted for “of the several” for consistency in the revised title and with other titles of the Code. In clause (21)(B), the words “outside a populated area” are substituted for “which lie outside the limits of any incorporated or unincorporated city, town, village, or any other designated residential or commercial area such as a subdivision, a business or shopping center, a community development, or any similar populated area” to eliminate unnecessary words. In clause (22)(B)(i), the word “area” is substituted for “locations” for consistency.

Pub. L. 103–272, §4(s)
Revised

Section

Source (U.S. Code)Source (Statutes at Large)
60101(a)(21), (22) 49 App.:1671 (note). Oct. 24, 1992, Pub. L. 102–508, §109(a), 106 Stat. 3294.
  49 App.:2001 (note). Oct. 24, 1992, Pub. L. 102–508, §208(a), 106 Stat. 3303.

Section 4(s) reflects an amendment to the restatement required by sections 109(a) and 208(a) of the Pipeline Safety Act of 1992 (Public Law 102–508, 106 Stat. 3294, 3303).

Pub. L. 104–287

This amends 49:60101 for consistency with the style of title 49.

References in Text

The Natural Gas Act, referred to in subsecs. (a)(1)(A)(ii), (6)(B), (9) and (b)(1)(B)(ii), is act June 21, 1938, ch. 556, 52 Stat. 821, which is classified generally to chapter 15B (§717 et seq.) of Title 15, Commerce and Trade. For complete classification of this Act to the Code, see section 717w of Title 15 and Tables.

Codification

The amendments by section 4(s) of Pub. L. 103–272 to pars. (21) and (22) of subsec. (a) of this section were executed after the amendments by Pub. L. 104–304 to those pars. pursuant to the effective date provisions of section 4(s). See Effective Date of 1994 Amendment note and 1994 and 1996 Amendment notes below.

Amendments

2012—Subsec. (a)(4)(B), (C). Pub. L. 112–90 added subpar. (B) and redesignated former subpar. (B) as (C).

2006—Subsec. (a)(6). Pub. L. 109–468, §7(1), added par. (6) and struck out former par. (6) which defined “interstate gas pipeline facility”.

Subsec. (a)(9). Pub. L. 109–468, §7(2), added par. (9) and struck out former par. (9) which defined “intrastate gas pipeline facility”.

1996—Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 104–287 inserted heading.

Subsec. (a)(1) to (20). Pub. L. 104–304, §3(a)(1), substituted semicolon for period at end of pars. (1) to (20).

Subsec. (a)(21)(B). Pub. L. 104–304, §3(a)(2), added subpar. (B) and struck out former subpar. (B) which read as follows: “does not include gathering gas in a rural area outside a populated area designated by the Secretary as a nonrural area;”. See Codification note above.

Pub. L. 104–304, §3(a)(1), substituted semicolon for period at end. See Codification note above.

Subsec. (a)(22). Pub. L. 104–304, §3(a)(1), substituted semicolon for period at end. See Codification note above.

Subsec. (a)(23) to (25). Pub. L. 104–304, §3(a)(3), added pars. (23) to (25).

Subsec. (b)(1)(A). Pub. L. 104–304, §20(f), substituted “prescribe standards defining” for “define by regulation”.

Subsec. (b)(2)(A). Pub. L. 104–304, §§3(b), 20(f), inserted “, if appropriate,” after “Not later than October 24, 1995, the Secretary” and substituted “prescribe standards defining” for “define by regulation”.

1994—Subsec. (a)(21), (22). Pub. L. 103–272, §4(s), amended pars. (21) and (22) generally. Prior to amendment, pars. (21) and (22) defined “transporting gas” and “transporting hazardous liquid”.

Effective Date of 1994 Amendment

Section 4(s) of Pub. L. 103–272 provided that the amendment made by that section is effective on the date the regulation required under subsec. (b) of this section is effective. See regulations effective Apr. 14, 2006, 71 F.R. 13289, and July 3, 2008, 73 F.R. 31634.

Short Title of 2012 Amendment

Pub. L. 112–90, §1(a), Jan. 3, 2012, 125 Stat. 1904, provided that: “This Act [enacting sections 60138 to 60140 of this title, amending this section, sections 6103, 6107, 60102, 60107 to 60109, 60117 to 60120, 60122, 60125, 60130, 60132, and 60134 of this title, and section 1321 of Title 33, Navigation and Navigable Waters, enacting provisions set out as notes under this section and sections 6103, 60108, 60109, 60117, and 60132 of this title, and amending provisions set out as a note under this section] may be cited as the ‘Pipeline Safety, Regulatory Certainty, and Job Creation Act of 2011’.”

Short Title of 2006 Amendment

Pub. L. 109–468, §1(a), Dec. 29, 2006, 120 Stat. 3486, provided that: “This Act [enacting sections 6109 and 60134 to 60137 of this title, amending this section and sections 6107, 60102, 60105, 60107, 60109, 60114, 60117, 60118, 60122, 60125, and 60130 of this title, enacting provisions set out as notes under this section and sections 60102 and 60117 of this title, and amending provisions set out as a note under this section] may be cited as the ‘Pipeline Inspection, Protection, Enforcement, and Safety Act of 2006’.”

Short Title of 2002 Amendment

Pub. L. 107–355, §1(a), Dec. 17, 2002, 116 Stat. 2985, provided that: “This Act [enacting sections 60129 to 60133 of this title, amending sections 6103 to 6105, 6107, 60102, 60104, 60106, 60109, 60110, 60112, 60114 to 60118, 60120, 60122, 60123, 60125, and 60127 of this title, and enacting provisions set out as notes under sections 1135, 60101, 60102, 60108, 60109, 60114, 60122, and 60131 of this title and section 717m of Title 15, Commerce and Trade] may be cited as the ‘Pipeline Safety Improvement Act of 2002’.”

Short Title of 1996 Amendment

Section 1 of Pub. L. 104–304 provided that: “This Act [enacting sections 60126 to 60128 of this title, amending this section and sections 60102, 60105 to 60110, 60113 to 60118, 60123 to 60125 of this title, and enacting provisions set out as a note under section 60301 of this title] may be cited as the ‘Accountable Pipeline Safety and Partnership Act of 1996’.”

Transfer of Functions

For transfer of duties, powers, and authority of Research and Special Programs Administration under this chapter to the Administrator of the Pipeline and Hazardous Materials Safety Administration, see section 2(b) of Pub. L. 108–426, set out as a note under section 108 of this title.

Technical Assistance Program

Pub. L. 109–468, §24, Dec. 29, 2006, 120 Stat. 3500, provided that:

“(a) In General.—The Secretary of Transportation may award, through a competitive process, grants to universities with expertise in pipeline safety and security to establish jointly a collaborative program to conduct pipeline safety and technical assistance programs.

“(b) Duties.—In cooperation with the Pipeline and Hazardous Materials Safety Administration and representatives from States and boards of public utilities, the participants in the collaborative program established under subsection (a) shall be responsible for development of workforce training and technical assistance programs through statewide and regional partnerships that provide for—

“(1) communication of national, State, and local safety information to pipeline operators;

“(2) distribution of technical resources and training to support current and future Federal mandates; and

“(3) evaluation of program outcomes.

“(c) Training and Educational Materials.—The collaborative program established under subsection (a) may include courses in recent developments, techniques, and procedures related to—

“(1) safety and security of pipeline systems;

“(2) incident and risk management for such systems;

“(3) integrity management for such systems;

“(4) consequence modeling for such systems;

“(5) detection of encroachments and monitoring of rights-of-way for such systems; and

“(6) vulnerability assessment of such systems at both project and national levels.

“(d) Reports.—

“(1) University.—Not later than March 31, 2009, the universities awarded grants under subsection (a) shall submit to the Secretary a report on the results of the collaborative program.

“(2) Secretary.—Not later than October 1, 2009, the Secretary shall transmit the reports submitted to the Secretary under paragraph (1), along with any findings, recommendations, or legislative options for Congress to consider, to the Committees on Transportation and Infrastructure and Energy and Commerce of the House of Representatives and the Committee on Commerce, Science, and Transportation of the Senate.

“(e) Authorization of Appropriations.—There are authorized to be appropriated such sums as may be necessary to carry out this section for each of fiscal years 2007 through 2010.”

Pipeline Integrity, Safety, and Reliability Research and Development

Pub. L. 107–355, §12, Dec. 17, 2002, 116 Stat. 2997, as amended by Pub. L. 109–468, §26, Dec. 29, 2006, 120 Stat. 3501; Pub. L. 112–90, §32(f), Jan. 3, 2012, 125 Stat. 1923, provided that:

“(a) In General.—The heads of the participating agencies shall carry out a program of research, development, demonstration, and standardization to ensure the integrity of pipeline facilities.

“(b) Memorandum of Understanding.—

“(1) In general.—Not later than 120 days after the date of enactment of this Act [Dec. 17, 2002], the heads of the participating agencies shall enter into a memorandum of understanding detailing their respective responsibilities in the program authorized by subsection (a).

“(2) Areas of expertise.—Under the memorandum of understanding, each of the participating agencies shall have the primary responsibility for ensuring that the elements of the program within its expertise are implemented in accordance with this section. The Department of Transportation's responsibilities shall reflect its lead role in pipeline safety and expertise in pipeline inspection, integrity management, and damage prevention. The Department of Energy's responsibilities shall reflect its expertise in system reliability, low-volume gas leak detection, and surveillance technologies. The National Institute of Standards and Technology's responsibilities shall reflect its expertise in materials research and assisting in the development of consensus technical standards, as that term is used in section 12(d)(4) [probably should be “12(d)(5)”] of Public Law 104–13 [Pub. L. 104–113] (15 U.S.C. 272 note).

“(c) Program Elements.—The program authorized by subsection (a) shall include research, development, demonstration, and standardization activities related to—

“(1) materials inspection;

“(2) stress and fracture analysis, detection of cracks, abrasion, and other abnormalities inside pipelines that lead to pipeline failure, and development of new equipment or technologies that are inserted into pipelines to detect anomalies;

“(3) internal inspection and leak detection technologies, including detection of leaks at very low volumes;

“(4) methods of analyzing content of pipeline throughput;

“(5) pipeline security, including improving the real-time surveillance of pipeline rights-of-way, developing tools for evaluating and enhancing pipeline security and infrastructure, reducing natural, technological, and terrorist threats, and protecting first response units and persons near an incident;

“(6) risk assessment methodology, including vulnerability assessment and reduction of third-party damage;

“(7) communication, control, and information systems surety;

“(8) fire safety of pipelines;

“(9) improved excavation, construction, and repair technologies;

“(10) corrosion detection and improving methods, best practices, and technologies for identifying, detecting, preventing, and managing internal and external corrosion and other safety risks; and

“(11) other appropriate elements.

The results of activities carried out under paragraph (10) shall be used by the participating agencies to support development and improvement of national consensus standards.

“(d) Program Plan.—

“(1) In general.—Not later than 1 year after the date of enactment of this section [Dec. 17, 2002], the Secretary of Transportation, in coordination with the Secretary of Energy and the Director of the National Institute of Standards and Technology, shall prepare and transmit to Congress a 5-year program plan to guide activities under this section. Such program plan shall be submitted to the Technical Pipeline Safety Standards Committee and the Technical Hazardous Liquid Pipeline Safety Standards Committee for review, and the report to Congress shall include the comments of the committees. The 5-year program plan shall be based on the memorandum of understanding under subsection (b) and take into account related activities of other Federal agencies.

“(2) Consultation.—In preparing the program plan and selecting and prioritizing appropriate project proposals, the Secretary of Transportation shall consult with or seek the advice of appropriate representatives of the natural gas, crude oil, and petroleum product pipeline industries, utilities, manufacturers, institutions of higher learning, Federal agencies, pipeline research institutions, national laboratories, State pipeline safety officials, labor organizations, environmental organizations, pipeline safety advocates, and professional and technical societies.

“(3) Ongoing pipeline transportation research and development.—

“(A) In general.—After the initial 5-year program plan has been carried out by the participating agencies, the Secretary of Transportation, in coordination with the Director of the National Institute of Standards and Technology, as appropriate, shall prepare a research and development program plan every 5 years thereafter and shall transmit a report to Congress on the status and results-to-date of implementation of the program every 2 years. The biennial report shall include a summary of updated research needs and priorities identified through the consultation requirements of paragraph (2).

“(B) Consultation.—The Secretary shall comply with the consultation requirements of paragraph (2) when preparing the program plan and in the selection and prioritization of research and development projects.

“(C) Funding from non-federal sources.—The Secretary shall ensure at least 30 percent of the costs of program-wide research and development activities are carried out using non-Federal sources.

“(e) Reports to Congress.—Not later than 1 year after the date of enactment of this Act [Dec. 17, 2002], and annually thereafter, the heads of the participating agencies shall transmit jointly to Congress a report on the status and results to date of the implementation of the program plan prepared under subsection (d).

“(f) Pipeline Integrity Program.—Of the amounts available in the Oil Spill Liability Trust Fund established by section 9509 of the Internal Revenue Code of 1986 (26 U.S.C. 9509), $3,000,000 shall be transferred to the Secretary of Transportation, as provided in appropriation Acts, to carry out programs for detection, prevention, and mitigation of oil spills for each of the fiscal years 2012 through 2015.

“(g) Participating Agencies Defined.—In this section, the term ‘participating agencies’ means the Department of Transportation, the Department of Energy, and the National Institute of Standards and Technology.”

Definitions

Pub. L. 112–90, §1(c), Jan. 3, 2012, 125 Stat. 1904, provided that:

“(1) Applicability of chapter 601 definitions.—In this Act [see Short Title of 2012 Amendment note above], any term defined in chapter 601 of title 49, United States Code, has the meaning given that term in that chapter.

“(2) High-consequence area.—In this Act, the term ‘high-consequence area’ means an area described in section 60109(a) of title 49, United States Code.”

1 So in original. The period probably should be a semicolon.

§60102. Purpose and general authority

(a) Purpose and Minimum Safety Standards.—

(1) Purpose.—The purpose of this chapter is to provide adequate protection against risks to life and property posed by pipeline transportation and pipeline facilities by improving the regulatory and enforcement authority of the Secretary of Transportation.

(2) Minimum safety standards.—The Secretary shall prescribe minimum safety standards for pipeline transportation and for pipeline facilities. The standards—

(A) apply to any or all of the owners or operators of pipeline facilities;

(B) may apply to the design, installation, inspection, emergency plans and procedures, testing, construction, extension, operation, replacement, and maintenance of pipeline facilities; and

(C) shall include a requirement that all individuals who operate and maintain pipeline facilities shall be qualified to operate and maintain the pipeline facilities.


(3) Qualifications of pipeline operators.—The qualifications applicable to an individual who operates and maintains a pipeline facility shall address the ability to recognize and react appropriately to abnormal operating conditions that may indicate a dangerous situation or a condition exceeding design limits. The operator of a pipeline facility shall ensure that employees who operate and maintain the facility are qualified to operate and maintain the pipeline facilities.


(b) Practicability and Safety Needs Standards.—

(1) In general.—A standard prescribed under subsection (a) shall be—

(A) practicable; and

(B) designed to meet the need for—

(i) gas pipeline safety, or safely transporting hazardous liquids, as appropriate; and

(ii) protecting the environment.


(2) Factors for consideration.—When prescribing any standard under this section or section 60101(b), 60103, 60108, 60109, 60110, or 60113, the Secretary shall consider—

(A) relevant available—

(i) gas pipeline safety information;

(ii) hazardous liquid pipeline safety information; and

(iii) environmental information;


(B) the appropriateness of the standard for the particular type of pipeline transportation or facility;

(C) the reasonableness of the standard;

(D) based on a risk assessment, the reasonably identifiable or estimated benefits expected to result from implementation or compliance with the standard;

(E) based on a risk assessment, the reasonably identifiable or estimated costs expected to result from implementation or compliance with the standard;

(F) comments and information received from the public; and

(G) the comments and recommendations of the Technical Pipeline Safety Standards Committee, the Technical Hazardous Liquid Pipeline Safety Standards Committee, or both, as appropriate.


(3) Risk assessment.—In conducting a risk assessment referred to in subparagraphs (D) and (E) of paragraph (2), the Secretary shall—

(A) identify the regulatory and nonregulatory options that the Secretary considered in prescribing a proposed standard;

(B) identify the costs and benefits associated with the proposed standard;

(C) include—

(i) an explanation of the reasons for the selection of the proposed standard in lieu of the other options identified; and

(ii) with respect to each of those other options, a brief explanation of the reasons that the Secretary did not select the option; and


(D) identify technical data or other information upon which the risk assessment information and proposed standard is based.


(4) Review.—

(A) In general.—The Secretary shall—

(i) submit any risk assessment information prepared under paragraph (3) of this subsection to the Technical Pipeline Safety Standards Committee, the Technical Hazardous Liquid Pipeline Safety Standards Committee, or both, as appropriate; and

(ii) make that risk assessment information available to the general public.


(B) Peer review panels.—The committees referred to in subparagraph (A) shall serve as peer review panels to review risk assessment information prepared under this section. Not later than 90 days after receiving risk assessment information for review pursuant to subparagraph (A), each committee that receives that risk assessment information shall prepare and submit to the Secretary a report that includes—

(i) an evaluation of the merit of the data and methods used; and

(ii) any recommended options relating to that risk assessment information and the associated standard that the committee determines to be appropriate.


(C) Review by secretary.—Not later than 90 days after receiving a report submitted by a committee under subparagraph (B), the Secretary—

(i) shall review the report;

(ii) shall provide a written response to the committee that is the author of the report concerning all significant peer review comments and recommended alternatives contained in the report; and

(iii) may revise the risk assessment and the proposed standard before promulgating the final standard.


(5) Secretarial decisionmaking.—Except where otherwise required by statute, the Secretary shall propose or issue a standard under this Chapter 1 only upon a reasoned determination that the benefits of the intended standard justify its costs.

(6) Exceptions from application.—The requirements of subparagraphs (D) and (E) of paragraph (2) do not apply when—

(A) the standard is the product of a negotiated rulemaking, or other rulemaking including the adoption of industry standards that receives no significant adverse comment within 60 days of notice in the Federal Register;

(B) based on a recommendation (in which three-fourths of the members voting concur) by the Technical Pipeline Safety Standards Committee, the Technical Hazardous Liquid Pipeline Safety Standards Committee, or both, as applicable, the Secretary waives the requirements; or

(C) the Secretary finds, pursuant to section 553(b)(3)(B) of title 5, United States Code, that notice and public procedure are not required.


(7) Report.—Not later than March 31, 2000, the Secretary shall transmit to the Congress a report that—

(A) describes the implementation of the risk assessment requirements of this section, including the extent to which those requirements have affected regulatory decisionmaking and pipeline safety; and

(B) includes any recommendations that the Secretary determines would make the risk assessment process conducted pursuant to the requirements under this chapter a more effective means of assessing the benefits and costs associated with alternative regulatory and nonregulatory options in prescribing standards under the Federal pipeline safety regulatory program under this chapter.


(c) Public Safety Program Requirements.—(1) The Secretary shall include in the standards prescribed under subsection (a) of this section a requirement that an operator of a gas pipeline facility participate in a public safety program that—

(A) notifies an operator of proposed demolition, excavation, tunneling, or construction near or affecting the facility;

(B) requires an operator to identify a pipeline facility that may be affected by the proposed demolition, excavation, tunneling, or construction, to prevent damaging the facility; and

(C) the Secretary decides will protect a facility adequately against a hazard caused by demolition, excavation, tunneling, or construction.


(2) To the extent a public safety program referred to in paragraph (1) of this subsection is not available, the Secretary shall prescribe standards requiring an operator to take action the Secretary prescribes to provide services comparable to services that would be available under a public safety program.

(3) The Secretary may include in the standards prescribed under subsection (a) of this section a requirement that an operator of a hazardous liquid pipeline facility participate in a public safety program meeting the requirements of paragraph (1) of this subsection or maintain and carry out a damage prevention program that provides services comparable to services that would be available under a public safety program.

(4) Promoting public awareness.—

(A) Not later than one year after the date of enactment of the Accountable Pipeline Safety and Accountability Act of 1996,2 and annually thereafter, the owner or operator of each interstate gas pipeline facility shall provide to the governing body of each municipality in which the interstate gas pipeline facility is located, a map identifying the location of such facility.

(B)(i) Not later than June 1, 1998, the Secretary shall survey and assess the public education programs under section 60116 and the public safety programs under section 60102(c) and determine their effectiveness and applicability as components of a model program. In particular, the survey shall include the methods by which operators notify residents of the location of the facility and its right of way, public information regarding existing One-Call programs, and appropriate procedures to be followed by residents of affected municipalities in the event of accidents involving interstate gas pipeline facilities.

(ii) Not later than one year after the survey and assessment are completed, the Secretary shall institute a rulemaking to determine the most effective public safety and education program components and promulgate if appropriate, standards implementing those components on a nationwide basis. In the event that the Secretary finds that promulgation of such standards are not appropriate, the Secretary shall report to Congress the reasons for that finding.


(d) Facility Operation Information Standards.—The Secretary shall prescribe minimum standards requiring an operator of a pipeline facility subject to this chapter to maintain, to the extent practicable, information related to operating the facility as required by the standards prescribed under this chapter and, when requested, to make the information available to the Secretary and an appropriate State official as determined by the Secretary. The information shall include—

(1) the business name, address, and telephone number, including an operations emergency telephone number, of the operator;

(2) accurate maps and a supplementary geographic description, including an identification of areas described in regulations prescribed under section 60109 of this title, that show the location in the State of—

(A) major gas pipeline facilities of the operator, including transmission lines and significant distribution lines; and

(B) major hazardous liquid pipeline facilities of the operator;


(3) a description of—

(A) the characteristics of the operator's pipelines in the State; and

(B) products transported through the operator's pipelines in the State;


(4) the manual that governs operating and maintaining pipeline facilities in the State;

(5) an emergency response plan describing the operator's procedures for responding to and containing releases, including—

(A) identifying specific action the operator will take on discovering a release;

(B) liaison procedures with State and local authorities for emergency response; and

(C) communication and alert procedures for immediately notifying State and local officials at the time of a release; and


(6) other information the Secretary considers useful to inform a State of the presence of pipeline facilities and operations in the State.


(e) Pipe Inventory Standards.—The Secretary shall prescribe minimum standards requiring an operator of a pipeline facility subject to this chapter to maintain for the Secretary, to the extent practicable, an inventory with appropriate information about the types of pipe used for the transportation of gas or hazardous liquid, as appropriate, in the operator's system and additional information, including the material's history and the leak history of the pipe. The inventory—

(1) for a gas pipeline facility, shall include an identification of each facility passing through an area described in regulations prescribed under section 60109 of this title but shall exclude equipment used with the compression of gas; and

(2) for a hazardous liquid pipeline facility, shall include an identification of each facility and gathering line passing through an area described in regulations prescribed under section 60109 of this title, whether the facility or gathering line otherwise is subject to this chapter, but shall exclude equipment associated only with the pipeline pumps or storage facilities.


(f) Standards as Accommodating “Smart Pigs”.—

(1) Minimum safety standards.—The Secretary shall prescribe minimum safety standards requiring that—

(A) the design and construction of new natural gas transmission pipeline or hazardous liquid pipeline facilities, and

(B) when the replacement of existing natural gas transmission pipeline or hazardous liquid pipeline facilities or equipment is required, the replacement of such existing facilities be carried out, to the extent practicable, in a manner so as to accommodate the passage through such natural gas transmission pipeline or hazardous liquid pipeline facilities of instrumented internal inspection devices (commonly referred to as “smart pigs”). The Secretary may extend such standards to require existing natural gas transmission pipeline or hazardous liquid pipeline facilities, whose basic construction would accommodate an instrumented internal inspection device to be modified to permit the inspection of such facilities with instrumented internal inspection devices.


(2) Periodic inspections.—Not later than October 24, 1995, the Secretary shall prescribe, if necessary, additional standards requiring the periodic inspection of each pipeline the operator of the pipeline identifies under section 60109 of this title. The standards shall include any circumstances under which an inspection shall be conducted with an instrumented internal inspection device and, if the device is not required, use of an inspection method that is at least as effective as using the device in providing for the safety of the pipeline.


(g) Effective Dates.—A standard prescribed under this section and section 60110 of this title is effective on the 30th day after the Secretary prescribes the standard. However, the Secretary for good cause may prescribe a different effective date when required because of the time reasonably necessary to comply with the standard. The different date must be specified in the regulation prescribing the standard.

(h) Safety Condition Reports.—(1) The Secretary shall prescribe regulations requiring each operator of a pipeline facility (except a master meter) to submit to the Secretary a written report on any—

(A) condition that is a hazard to life, property, or the environment; and

(B) safety-related condition that causes or has caused a significant change or restriction in the operation of a pipeline facility.


(2) The Secretary must receive the report not later than 5 working days after a representative of a person to which this section applies first establishes that the condition exists. Notice of the condition shall be given concurrently to appropriate State authorities.

(i) Carbon Dioxide Regulation.—

(1) Transportation in liquid state.—The Secretary shall regulate carbon dioxide transported by a hazardous liquid pipeline facility. The Secretary shall prescribe standards related to hazardous liquid to ensure the safe transportation of carbon dioxide by such a facility.

(2) Transportation in gaseous state.—

(A) Minimum safety standards.—The Secretary shall prescribe minimum safety standards for the transportation of carbon dioxide by pipeline in a gaseous state.

(B) Considerations.—In establishing the standards, the Secretary shall consider whether applying the minimum safety standards in part 195 of title 49, Code of Federal Regulations, as in effect on the date of enactment of this paragraph, for the transportation of carbon dioxide in a liquid state to the transportation of carbon dioxide in a gaseous state would ensure safety.


(3) Limitation on statutory construction.—Nothing in this subsection authorizes the Secretary to regulate piping or equipment used in the production, extraction, recovery, lifting, stabilization, separation, or treatment of carbon dioxide or the preparation of carbon dioxide for transportation by pipeline at production, refining, or manufacturing facilities.


(j) Emergency Flow Restricting Devices.—(1) Not later than October 24, 1994, the Secretary shall survey and assess the effectiveness of emergency flow restricting devices (including remotely controlled valves and check valves) and other procedures, systems, and equipment used to detect and locate hazardous liquid pipeline ruptures and minimize product releases from hazardous liquid pipeline facilities.

(2) Not later than 2 years after the survey and assessment are completed, the Secretary shall prescribe standards on the circumstances under which an operator of a hazardous liquid pipeline facility must use an emergency flow restricting device or other procedure, system, or equipment described in paragraph (1) of this subsection on the facility.

(k) Low-Stress Hazardous Liquid Pipelines.—

(1) Minimum standards.—Not later than December 31, 2007, the Secretary shall issue regulations subjecting low-stress hazardous liquid pipelines to the same standards and regulations as other hazardous liquid pipelines, except as provided in paragraph (3). The implementation of the applicable standards and regulatory requirements may be phased in. The regulations issued under this paragraph shall not apply to gathering lines.

(2) General prohibition against low internal stress exception.—Except as provided in paragraph (3), the Secretary may not provide an exception to the requirements of this chapter for a hazardous liquid pipeline because the pipeline operates at low internal stress.

(3) Limited exceptions.—The Secretary shall provide or continue in force exceptions to this subsection for low-stress hazardous liquid pipelines that—

(A) are subject to safety regulations of the United States Coast Guard; or

(B) serve refining, manufacturing, or truck, rail, or vessel terminal facilities if the pipeline is less than 1 mile long (measured outside the facility grounds) and does not cross an offshore area or a waterway currently used for commercial navigation,


until regulations issued under paragraph (1) become effective. After such regulations become effective, the Secretary may retain or remove those exceptions as appropriate.

(4) Relationship to other laws.—Nothing in this subsection shall be construed to prohibit or otherwise affect the applicability of any other statutory or regulatory exemption to any hazardous liquid pipeline.

(5) Definition.—For purposes of this subsection, the term “low-stress hazardous liquid pipeline” means a hazardous liquid pipeline that is operated in its entirety at a stress level of 20 percent or less of the specified minimum yield strength of the line pipe.

(6) Effective date.—The requirements of this subsection shall not take effect as to low-stress hazardous liquid pipeline operators before the effective date of the rules promulgated by the Secretary under this subsection.


(l) Updating Standards.—The Secretary shall, to the extent appropriate and practicable, update incorporated industry standards that have been adopted as part of the Federal pipeline safety regulatory program under this chapter.

(m) Inspections by Direct Assessment.—Not later than 1 year after the date of the enactment of this subsection, the Secretary shall issue regulations prescribing standards for inspection of a pipeline facility by direct assessment.

(n) Automatic and Remote-Controlled Shut-off Valves for New Transmission Pipelines.—

(1) In general.—Not later than 2 years after the date of enactment of this subsection, and after considering the factors specified in subsection (b)(2), the Secretary, if appropriate, shall require by regulation the use of automatic or remote-controlled shut-off valves, or equivalent technology, where economically, technically, and operationally feasible on transmission pipeline facilities constructed or entirely replaced after the date on which the Secretary issues the final rule containing such requirement.

(2) High-consequence area study.—

(A) Study.—The Comptroller General of the United States shall conduct a study on the ability of transmission pipeline facility operators to respond to a hazardous liquid or gas release from a pipeline segment located in a high-consequence area.

(B) Considerations.—In conducting the study, the Comptroller General shall consider the swiftness of leak detection and pipeline shutdown capabilities, the location of the nearest response personnel, and the costs, risks, and benefits of installing automatic and remote-controlled shut-off valves.

(C) Report.—Not later than 1 year after the date of enactment of this subsection, the Comptroller General shall submit to the Committee on Transportation and Infrastructure and the Committee on Energy and Commerce of the House of Representatives and the Committee on Commerce, Science, and Transportation of the Senate a report on the results of the study.


(o) Transportation-Related Oil Flow Lines.—

(1) Data collection.—The Secretary may collect geospatial or technical data on transportation-related oil flow lines, including unregulated transportation-related oil flow lines.

(2) Transportation-related oil flow line defined.—In this subsection, the term “transportation-related oil flow line” means a pipeline transporting oil off of the grounds of the well where it originated and across areas not owned by the producer, regardless of the extent to which the oil has been processed, if at all.

(3) Limitation.—Nothing in this subsection authorizes the Secretary to prescribe standards for the movement of oil through production, refining, or manufacturing facilities or through oil production flow lines located on the grounds of wells.


(p) Limitation on Incorporation of Documents by Reference.—Beginning 1 year after the date of enactment of this subsection, the Secretary may not issue guidance or a regulation pursuant to this chapter that incorporates by reference any documents or portions thereof unless the documents or portions thereof are made available to the public, free of charge, on an Internet Web site.

(Pub. L. 103–272, §1(e), July 5, 1994, 108 Stat. 1304; Pub. L. 104–304, §§4, 20(g), Oct. 12, 1996, 110 Stat. 3794, 3805; Pub. L. 107–355, §§20(a)(1), (2)(A), 23, Dec. 17, 2002, 116 Stat. 3009, 3011; Pub. L. 109–468, §4, Dec. 29, 2006, 120 Stat. 3490; Pub. L. 112–90, §§4, 12, 15, 18(b), 24, Jan. 3, 2012, 125 Stat. 1906, 1913, 1915, 1916, 1919.)

Historical and Revision Notes
Revised

Section

Source (U.S. Code)Source (Statutes at Large)
60102(a)(1) 49 App.:1672(a)(1) (1st, 2d sentences). Aug. 12, 1968, Pub. L. 90–481, §3(a)(1) (1st, 2d, 7th, 8th sentences), 82 Stat. 721; Oct. 11, 1976, Pub. L. 94–477, §4(1), 90 Stat. 2073; Nov. 30, 1979, Pub. L. 96–129, §§101(a), 109(c)–(e), 93 Stat. 990, 996; Oct. 24, 1992, Pub. L. 102–508, §101(a)(1), (2), 106 Stat. 3290.
  49 App.:1672(a)(1) (3d sentence). Aug. 12, 1968, Pub. L. 90–481, 82 Stat. 720, §3(a)(1) (3d sentence); added Oct. 31, 1988, Pub. L. 100–561, §101, 102 Stat. 2806; Oct. 24, 1992, Pub. L. 102–508, §106(1), 102 Stat. 3293.
  49 App.:2002(a)(1) (1st, 2d sentences). Nov. 30, 1979, Pub. L. 96–129, 203(a)(1), 93 Stat. 1004; Oct. 22, 1986, Pub. L. 99–516, §3(b)(1)(A), 100 Stat. 2966; Oct. 24, 1992, Pub. L. 102–508, §201(a)(1), 106 Stat. 3299.
  49 App.:2002(c) (1st sentence). Nov. 30, 1979, Pub. L. 96–129, §203(c) (1st sentence), (e), (f), 93 Stat. 1004.
  49 App.:2002(c) (2d sentence). Nov. 30, 1979, Pub. L. 96–129, 93 Stat. 989, §203(c) (2d sentence); added Oct. 31, 1988, Pub. L. 100–561, §201, 102 Stat. 2809; Oct. 24, 1992, Pub. L. 102–508, §205(1), 106 Stat. 3302.
60102(a)(2) 49 App.:1672(a)(1) (4th, 5th sentences). Aug. 12, 1968, Pub. L. 90–481, 82 Stat. 720, §3(a)(1) (4th, 5th sentences); added Oct. 24, 1992, Pub. L. 102–508, §106(2), 102 Stat. 3293.
  49 App.:2002(c) (3d, 4th sentences). Nov. 30, 1979, Pub. L. 96–129, 93 Stat. 989, §203(c) (3d, 4th sentences); added Oct. 24, 1992, Pub. L. 102–508, §205(2), 106 Stat. 3302.
60102(b) 49 App.:1672(a)(1) (7th, 8th sentences).
  49 App.:2002(a)(1) (last sentence).
  49 App.:2002(b) (1st sentence). Nov. 30, 1979, Pub. L. 96–129, §203(b) (1st sentence), 93 Stat. 1004; Oct. 24, 1992, Pub. L. 102–508, §201(a)(3), 106 Stat. 3300.
60102(c)(1), (2) 49 App.:1672(a)(2). Aug. 12, 1968, Pub. L. 90–481, 82 Stat. 720, §3(a)(2); added Nov. 30, 1979, Pub. L. 96–129, §§101(a), 109(c), 93 Stat. 990, 996.
60102(c)(3) 49 App.:2002(e).
60102(d) 49 App.:1672(e). Aug. 12, 1968, Pub. L. 90–481, 82 Stat. 720, §3(e); added Oct. 31, 1988, Pub. L. 100–561, §102, 102 Stat. 2806; Oct. 24, 1992, Pub. L. 102–508, §102(b), 106 Stat. 3291.
  49 App.:2002(i). Nov. 30, 1979, Pub. L. 96–129, 93 Stat. 989, §203(i); added Oct. 31, 1988, Pub. L. 100–561, §202, 102 Stat. 2810; Oct. 24, 1992, Pub. L. 102–508, §202(b), 106 Stat. 3301.
60102(e) 49 App.:1672(f). Aug. 12, 1968, Pub. L. 90–481, 82 Stat. 720, §3(f); added Oct. 31, 1988, Pub. L. 100–561, §102, 102 Stat. 2806; Oct. 24, 1992, Pub. L. 102–508, §102(a)(1), 106 Stat. 3290.
  49 App.:2002(j). Nov. 30, 1979, Pub. L. 96–129, 93 Stat. 989, §203(j); added Oct. 31, 1988, Pub. L. 100–561, §202, 102 Stat. 2810; Oct. 24, 1992, Pub. L. 102–508, §202(a)(1), 106 Stat. 3300.
60102(f) 49 App.:1672(g). Aug. 12, 1968, Pub. L. 90–481, 82 Stat. 720, §3(g); added Oct. 31, 1988, Pub. L. 100–561, §108(b), 102 Stat. 2808; Oct. 24, 1992, Pub. L. 102–508, §103, 106 Stat. 3291.
  49 App.:2002(k). Nov. 30, 1979, Pub. L. 96–129, 93 Stat. 989, §203(k); added Oct. 31, 1988, Pub. L. 100–561, §207(b), 102 Stat. 2812; Oct. 24, 1992, Pub. L. 102–508, §203, 106 Stat. 3301.
60102(g) 49 App.:1672(b). Aug. 12, 1968, Pub. L. 90–481, §3(b), 82 Stat. 721; Nov. 30, 1979, Pub. L. 96–129, §109(c), (f), 93 Stat. 996.
  49 App.:2002(f).
60102(h) 49 App.:1672(a)(3). Aug. 12, 1968, Pub. L. 90–481, 82 Stat. 720, §3(a)(3); added Oct. 22, 1986, Pub. L. 99–516, §3(a)(1), 100 Stat. 2965; Oct. 24, 1992, Pub. L. 102–508, §101(a)(3), 106 Stat. 3290.
  49 App.:2002(a)(2). Nov. 30, 1979, Pub. L. 96–129, 93 Stat. 989, §203(a)(2); added Oct. 22, 1986, Pub. L. 99–516, §3(b)(1)(B), 100 Stat. 2966; Oct. 24, 1992, Pub. L. 102–508, §201(a)(2), 106 Stat. 3300.
60102(i) 49 App.:2015. Nov. 30, 1979, Pub. L. 96–129, 93 Stat. 989, §219; added Oct. 31, 1988, Pub. L. 100–561, §211(a), 102 Stat. 2813.
  49 App.:2015 (note). Oct. 31, 1988, Pub. L. 100–561, §211(c), 102 Stat. 2813.
60102(j) 49 App.:2002(n). Nov. 30, 1979, Pub. L. 96–129, 93 Stat. 989, §203(n); added Oct. 24, 1992, Pub. L. 102–508, §212, 106 Stat. 3304.
60102(k) 49 App.:2002(b) (last sentence). Nov. 30, 1979, Pub. L. 96–129, 93 Stat. 989, §203(b) (last sentence); added Oct. 24, 1992, Pub. L. 102–508, §206, 106 Stat. 3302.

In this section, the word “Federal” is omitted as surplus.

In subsection (a)(1), before clause (A), the word “prescribe” is substituted for “by regulation, establish” for consistency in the revised title and with other titles of the United States Code. Standards are made applicable to transporters of gas and to owners and operators of gas pipeline facilities because of 49 App.:1677(a)(1), restated in section 60118 of the revised title.

In subsection (b), before clause (1), the words “Except as provided in section 60103 of this title” are added for clarity. In clause (3), the word “proposed” is omitted as surplus.

In subsection (c)(1), before clause (A), the words “Not later than 12 months after November 30, 1979” are omitted as executed. The word “gas” is added because of the restatement. In clause (B), the word “specific” is omitted as surplus. In clause (C), the words “will protect” are substituted for “is being carried out in a manner . . . to assure protection” to eliminate unnecessary words.

In subsection (c)(2) and (3), the words “to the public with respect to that operator's pipeline facilities which are” are omitted as surplus.

In subsection (c)(2), the word “prescribe” is substituted for “provide” for consistency in the revised title and with other titles of the Code.

In subsection (c)(3), the words “participate in a public safety program meeting the requirements of paragraph (1) of this subsection” are substituted for 49 App.:2002(e)(1) to eliminate unnecessary words.

In subsection (d), before clause (1), the words “Not later than 1 year after October 31, 1988” are omitted as obsolete. The word “prescribe” is substituted for “establish by regulation” for consistency in the revised title and with other titles of the Code. The word “maintain” is substituted for “provide, and revise as necessary” and “completed and maintained” to eliminate unnecessary words. The words “as the case may be” are omitted as surplus. In clause (2), before subclause (A), the words “map or” and “appropriate” are omitted as surplus. In clause (5)(B), the word “government” is omitted as surplus and for consistency in this chapter. In clause (6), the words “and necessary” are omitted as surplus.

In subsections (e) and (f), the word “prescribe” is substituted for “by regulation, establish” for consistency in the revised title and with other titles of the Code.

In subsection (e), before clause (1), the words “not later than 1 year after October 31, 1988” are omitted as obsolete. The words “complete and” and “and to revise as appropriate thereafter” are omitted as surplus.

In subsections (e)(2) and (k), the words “regulation under” are omitted as surplus.

In subsection (g), the words “and amendments thereto” and “recited” are omitted as surplus. The word “different” is substituted for “earlier or later” to eliminate unnecessary words. The words “or amending” are omitted as surplus.

In subsection (h)(1), before clause (A), the words “Not later than 12 months after October 22, 1986” are omitted as obsolete.

In subsection (i), the words “In addition to hazardous liquids”, “under this chapter”, and “as necessary and appropriate” are omitted as surplus.

In subsection (k), the words “In exercising any discretion under this chapter” are omitted as surplus. The word “because” is substituted for “on the basis of the fact that” to eliminate unnecessary words.

References in Text

The date of enactment of the Accountable Pipeline Safety and Accountability Act of 1996, referred to in subsec. (c)(4)(A), probably means the date of enactment of the Accountable Pipeline Safety and Partnership Act of 1996, Pub. L. 104–304, which amended this section and was approved Oct. 12, 1996.

The date of enactment of this paragraph, referred to in subsec. (i)(2)(B), and the date of enactment of this subsection, referred to in subsecs. (n) and (p), are the date of enactment of Pub. L. 112–90, which was approved Jan. 3, 2012.

The date of the enactment of this subsection, referred to in subsec. (m), is the date of enactment of Pub. L. 107–355, which was approved Dec. 17, 2002.

Amendments

2012—Subsec. (a)(2)(A). Pub. L. 112–90, §18(b), substituted “any or all of the owners or operators” for “owners and operators”.

Subsec. (i). Pub. L. 112–90, §15, designated existing provisions as par. (1), inserted heading, and added pars. (2) and (3).

Subsec. (j)(3). Pub. L. 112–90, §4(1), struck out par. (3). Text read as follows:

“(A) Not later than June 1, 1998, the Secretary shall survey and assess the effectiveness of remotely controlled valves to shut off the flow of natural gas in the event of a rupture of an interstate natural gas pipeline facility and shall make a determination about whether the use of remotely controlled valves is technically and economically feasible and would reduce risks associated with a rupture of an interstate natural gas pipeline facility.

“(B) Not later than one year after the survey and assessment are completed, if the Secretary has determined that the use of remotely controlled valves is technically and economically feasible and would reduce risks associated with a rupture of an interstate natural gas pipeline facility, the Secretary shall prescribe standards under which an operator of an interstate natural gas pipeline facility must use a remotely controlled valve. These standards shall include, but not be limited to, requirements for high-density population areas.”

Subsec. (n). Pub. L. 112–90, §4(2), added subsec. (n).

Subsec. (o). Pub. L. 112–90, §12, added subsec. (o).

Subsec. (p). Pub. L. 112–90, §24, added subsec. (p).

2006—Subsec. (k). Pub. L. 109–468 amended heading and text of subsec. (k) generally. Prior to amendment, text read as follows: “The Secretary may not provide an exception to this chapter for a hazardous liquid pipeline facility only because the facility operates at low internal stress.”

2002—Pub. L. 107–355, §20(a)(2)(A), substituted “Purpose and general authority” for “General authority” in section catchline.

Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 107–355, §20(a)(1), inserted subsec. heading, added par. (1), redesignated former par. (1) as (2), realigned margins, and substituted “Minimum safety standards” for “Minimum Safety Standards” in heading and “The Secretary” for “The Secretary of Transportation” in introductory provisions, and redesignated former par. (2) as (3) and inserted heading.

Subsec. (m). Pub. L. 107–355, §23, added subsec. (m).

1996—Subsec. (a)(1)(A). Pub. L. 104–304, §4(a)(1), struck out “transporters of gas and hazardous liquid and to” after “apply to”.

Subsec. (a)(1)(C). Pub. L. 104–304, §4(a)(2), added subpar. (C) and struck out former subpar. (C) which read as follows: “shall include a requirement that all individuals responsible for the operation and maintenance of pipeline facilities be tested for qualifications and certified to operate and maintain those facilities.”

Subsec. (a)(2). Pub. L. 104–304, §4(a)(3), added par. (2) and struck out former par. (2) which read as follows: “As the Secretary considers appropriate, the operator of a pipeline facility may make the certification under paragraph (1)(C) of this subsection. Testing and certification under paragraph (1)(C) shall address the ability to recognize and react appropriately to abnormal operating conditions that may indicate a dangerous situation or a condition exceeding design limits.”

Subsec. (b). Pub. L. 104–304, §4(b), reenacted heading without change and amended text generally. Prior to amendment, text read as follows: “A standard prescribed under subsection (a) of this section shall be practicable and designed to meet the need for gas pipeline safety, for safely transporting hazardous liquid, and for protecting the environment. Except as provided in section 60103 of this title, when prescribing the standard the Secretary shall consider—

“(1) relevant available—

“(A) gas pipeline safety information; or

“(B) hazardous liquid pipeline information;

“(2) the appropriateness of the standard for the particular type of pipeline transportation or facility;

“(3) the reasonableness of the standard; and

“(4) the extent to which the standard will contribute to public safety and the protection of the environment.”

Subsec. (c)(4). Pub. L. 104–304, §4(g), added par. (4).

Subsec. (d). Pub. L. 104–304, §4(c), inserted “as required by the standards prescribed under this chapter” after “operating the facility”, substituted “to make the information available” for “to provide the information”, and inserted “as determined by the Secretary” after “to the Secretary and an appropriate State official”.

Subsec. (e). Pub. L. 104–304, §4(d)(2), substituted “transportation” for “transmission” in introductory provisions.

Pub. L. 104–304, §4(d)(1), in introductory provisions, directed striking out “and, to the extent the Secretary considers necessary, an operator of a gathering line that is not a regulated gather line (as defined under section 60101(b)(2) of this title),” after “subject to this chapter”, which was executed by striking out text which read in part “regulated gathering line” instead of “regulated gather line”, to reflect the probable intent of Congress.

Subsec. (f)(1). Pub. L. 104–304, §4(e)(1), added heading and text of par. (1) and struck out former par. (1) which read as follows: “The Secretary shall prescribe minimum safety standards requiring that the design and construction of a new gas pipeline transmission facility or hazardous liquid pipeline facility, and the required replacement of an existing gas pipeline transmission facility, hazardous liquid pipeline facility, or equipment, be carried out, to the extent practicable, in a way that accommodates the passage through the facility of an instrumented internal inspection device (commonly referred to as a ‘smart pig’). The Secretary may apply the standard to an existing gas or hazardous liquid transmission facility and require the facility to be changed to allow the facility to be inspected with an instrumented internal inspection device if the basic construction of the facility will accommodate the device.”

Subsec. (f)(2). Pub. L. 104–304, §§4(e)(2), 20(g), inserted heading, realigned margins, inserted “, if necessary, additional” after “the Secretary shall prescribe”, and substituted “standards” for “regulations” in two places.

Subsecs. (i), (j)(2). Pub. L. 104–304, §20(g), substituted “standards” for “regulations”.

Subsec. (j)(3). Pub. L. 104–304, §4(h), added par. (3).

Subsec. (l). Pub. L. 104–304, §4(f), added subsec. (l).

Standards To Implement NTSB Recommendations

Pub. L. 109–468, §19, Dec. 29, 2006, 120 Stat. 3498, as amended by Pub. L. 110–244, title III, §302(j), June 6, 2008, 122 Stat. 1618, provided that: “Not later than June 1, 2008, the Secretary of Transportation shall issue standards that implement the following recommendations contained in the National Transportation Safety Board's report entitled ‘Supervisory Control and Data Acquisition (SCADA) in Liquid Pipelines’ and adopted November 29, 2005:

“(1) Implementation of the American Petroleum Institute's Recommended Practice 1165 for the use of graphics on the supervisory control and data acquisition screens.

“(2) Implementation of a standard for pipeline companies to review and audit alarms on monitoring equipment.

“(3) Implementation of standards for pipeline controller training that include simulator or noncomputerized simulations for controller recognition of abnormal pipeline operating conditions, in particular, leak events.”

State Pipeline Safety Advisory Committees

Pub. L. 107–355, §24, Dec. 17, 2002, 116 Stat. 3011, provided that: “Within 90 days after receiving recommendations for improvements to pipeline safety from an advisory committee appointed by the Governor of any State, the Secretary of Transportation shall respond in writing to the committee setting forth what action, if any, the Secretary will take on those recommendations and the Secretary's reasons for acting or not acting upon any of the recommendations.”

1 So in original. Probably should not be capitalized.

2 See References in Text note below.

§60103. Standards for liquefied natural gas pipeline facilities

(a) Location Standards.—The Secretary of Transportation shall prescribe minimum safety standards for deciding on the location of a new liquefied natural gas pipeline facility. In prescribing a standard, the Secretary shall consider the—

(1) kind and use of the facility;

(2) existing and projected population and demographic characteristics of the location;

(3) existing and proposed land use near the location;

(4) natural physical aspects of the location;

(5) medical, law enforcement, and fire prevention capabilities near the location that can cope with a risk caused by the facility; and

(6) need to encourage remote siting.


(b) Design, Installation, Construction, Inspection, and Testing Standards.—The Secretary of Transportation shall prescribe minimum safety standards for designing, installing, constructing, initially inspecting, and initially testing a new liquefied natural gas pipeline facility. When prescribing a standard, the Secretary shall consider—

(1) the characteristics of material to be used in constructing the facility and of alternative material;

(2) design factors;

(3) the characteristics of the liquefied natural gas to be stored or converted at, or transported by, the facility; and

(4) the public safety factors of the design and of alternative designs, particularly the ability to prevent and contain a liquefied natural gas spill.


(c) Nonapplication.—(1) Except as provided in paragraph (2) of this subsection, a design, location, installation, construction, initial inspection, or initial testing standard prescribed under this chapter after March 1, 1978, does not apply to an existing liquefied natural gas pipeline facility if the standard is to be applied because of authority given—

(A) under this chapter; or

(B) under another law, and the standard is not prescribed at the time the authority is applied.


(2)(A) Any design, installation, construction, initial inspection, or initial testing standard prescribed under this chapter after March 1, 1978, may provide that the standard applies to any part of a replacement component of a liquefied natural gas pipeline facility if the component or part is placed in service after the standard is prescribed and application of the standard—

(i) does not make the component or part incompatible with other components or parts; or

(ii) is not impracticable otherwise.


(B) Any location standard prescribed under this chapter after March 1, 1978, does not apply to any part of a replacement component of an existing liquefied natural gas pipeline facility.

(3) A design, installation, construction, initial inspection, or initial testing standard does not apply to a liquefied natural gas pipeline facility existing when the standard is adopted.

(d) Operation and Maintenance Standards.—The Secretary of Transportation shall prescribe minimum operating and maintenance standards for a liquefied natural gas pipeline facility. In prescribing a standard, the Secretary shall consider—

(1) the conditions, features, and type of equipment and structures that make up or are used in connection with the facility;

(2) the fire prevention and containment equipment at the facility;

(3) security measures to prevent an intentional act that could cause a liquefied natural gas accident;

(4) maintenance procedures and equipment;

(5) the training of personnel in matters specified by this subsection; and

(6) other factors and conditions related to the safe handling of liquefied natural gas.


(e) Effective Dates.—A standard prescribed under this section is effective on the 30th day after the Secretary of Transportation prescribes the standard. However, the Secretary for good cause may prescribe a different effective date when required because of the time reasonably necessary to comply with the standard. The different date must be specified in the regulation prescribing the standard.

(f) Contingency Plans.—A new liquefied natural gas pipeline facility may be operated only after the operator submits an adequate contingency plan that states the action to be taken if a liquefied natural gas accident occurs. The Secretary of Energy or appropriate State or local authority shall decide if the plan is adequate.

(g) Effect on Other Standards.—This section does not preclude applying a standard prescribed under section 60102 of this title to a gas pipeline facility (except a liquefied natural gas pipeline facility) associated with a liquefied natural gas pipeline facility.

(Pub. L. 103–272, §1(e), July 5, 1994, 108 Stat. 1307.)

Historical and Revision Notes
Revised

Section

Source (U.S. Code)Source (Statutes at Large)
60103(a) 49 App.:1674a(a) (1)(A), (d)(1), (e). Aug. 12, 1968, Pub. L. 90–481, 82 Stat. 720, §6; added Nov. 30, 1979, Pub. L. 96–129, §152(a), 93 Stat. 999.
60103(b) 49 App.:1674a(a) (1)(B), (2), (d)(2), (e).
60103(c)(1), (2) 49 App.:1674a(c)(1).
60103(c)(3) 49 App.:1674a(c)(3).
60103(d) 49 App.:1674a(b), (d)(3), (e).
60103(e) 49 App.:1674a(f).
60103(f) 49 App.:1674a(a)(3).
60103(g) 49 App.:1674a(c)(2).

In subsections (a), (b), and (d), the words “general safety” are omitted as surplus. The text of 49 App.:1674a(e) is omitted for consistency in the revised title and with other titles of the United States Code.

In subsections (a) and (b), before each clause (1), the words “Not later than 180 days after November 30, 1979” are omitted as executed. The word “prescribe” is substituted for “establish by regulation” for consistency in the revised title and with other titles of the Code.

In subsection (a), before clause (1), the words “with respect to standards relating to the location of any new LNG facility” are omitted because of the restatement. In clause (2), the word “involved” is omitted as surplus. In clause (4), the words “meteorological, geological, topographical, seismic, and other” are omitted as surplus. In clause (5), the word “existing” is omitted as surplus.

In subsection (b), before clause (1), the text of 49 App.:1674a(a)(2) (1st sentence) is omitted as executed. The text of 49 App.:1674a(a)(2) (last sentence) is omitted as surplus. The words “with respect to standards applicable to the design, installation, construction, initial inspection, and initial testing of any new LNG facility” are omitted because of the restatement. In clause (1), the words “thermal resistance and other” are omitted as surplus. In clause (2), the words “(such as multiple diking, insulated concrete, and vapor containment barriers)” are omitted as surplus. In clause (3), the words “(for example, whether it is to be in a liquid or semisolid state)” are omitted as surplus. In clause (4), the words “under such a design” are omitted as surplus.

In subsection (c)(1) and (2), the word “prescribed” is substituted for “issued” for consistency in the revised title and with other titles of the Code.

In subsection (c)(1), before clause (A), the words “if the standard is to be applied” are added for clarity. The word “either” is omitted as surplus. In clause (B), the word “Federal” is omitted as surplus. The words “the authority is applied” are substituted for “such authority was exercised” for clarity.

In subsection (c)(2)(A), before clause (i), the words “design, installation, construction, initial inspection, or initial testing standard prescribed under this chapter after March 1, 1978” are substituted for “Any such standard (other than one affecting location)” for clarity. In clause (i), the words “of the facility involved” are omitted as surplus. In clause (ii), the word “otherwise” is omitted as surplus.

In subsection (d), before clause (1), the words “Not later than 270 days after November 30, 1979” are omitted as executed. The words “with respect to standards for the operation and maintance [sic] of any LNG facility” are omitted because of the restatement. In clause (3), the words “to be used with respect to the operation of such facility” and “sabotage or other” are omitted as surplus.

In subsection (e), the text of 49 App.:1674a(f) (related to 49 App.:1672(a)(1) (8th, last sentences), (c), and (d)) is omitted as surplus because those provisions apply to all standards prescribed under the Natural Gas Pipeline Safety Act of 1968 (Public Law 90–481, 82 Stat. 720).

In subsection (f), the words “Secretary of Energy” are substituted for “Department of Energy” because of 42:7131. The words “or local” are added for clarity. The words “in the case of any facility not subject to the jurisdiction of the Department under the Natural Gas Act” are omitted as surplus.

§60104. Requirements and limitations

(a) Opportunity To Present Views.—The Secretary of Transportation shall give an interested person an opportunity to make oral and written presentations of information, views, and arguments when prescribing a standard under this chapter.

(b) Nonapplication.—A design, installation, construction, initial inspection, or initial testing standard does not apply to a pipeline facility existing when the standard is adopted.

(c) Preemption.—A State authority that has submitted a current certification under section 60105(a) of this title may adopt additional or more stringent safety standards for intrastate pipeline facilities and intrastate pipeline transportation only if those standards are compatible with the minimum standards prescribed under this chapter. A State authority may not adopt or continue in force safety standards for interstate pipeline facilities or interstate pipeline transportation. Notwithstanding the preceding sentence, a State authority may enforce a requirement of a one-call notification program of the State if the program meets the requirements for one-call notification programs under this chapter or chapter 61.

(d) Consultation.—(1) When continuity of gas service is affected by prescribing a standard or waiving compliance with standards under this chapter, the Secretary of Transportation shall consult with and advise the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission or a State authority having jurisdiction over the affected gas pipeline facility before prescribing the standard or waiving compliance. The Secretary shall delay the effective date of the standard or waiver until the Commission or State authority has a reasonable opportunity to grant an authorization it considers necessary.

(2) In a proceeding under section 3 or 7 of the Natural Gas Act (15 U.S.C. 717b or 717f), each applicant for authority to import natural gas or to establish, construct, operate, or extend a gas pipeline facility subject to an applicable safety standard shall certify that it will design, install, inspect, test, construct, operate, replace, and maintain a gas pipeline facility under those standards and plans for inspection and maintenance under section 60108 of this title. The certification is binding on the Secretary of Energy and the Commission except when an appropriate enforcement agency has given timely written notice to the Commission that the applicant has violated a standard prescribed under this chapter.

(e) Location and Routing of Facilities.—This chapter does not authorize the Secretary of Transportation to prescribe the location or routing of a pipeline facility.

(Pub. L. 103–272, §1(e), July 5, 1994, 108 Stat. 1308; Pub. L. 107–355, §3(a), Dec. 17, 2002, 116 Stat. 2986.)

Historical and Revision Notes
Revised

Section

Source (U.S. Code)Source (Statutes at Large)
60104(a) 49 App.:1672(c). Aug. 12, 1968, Pub. L. 90–481, §3(c), 82 Stat. 721; Nov. 30, 1979, Pub. L. 96–129, §§104(a)(2), (c), 109(c), 93 Stat. 992, 994, 996.
  49 App.:2002(g). Nov. 30, 1979, Pub. L. 96–129, §§202(4) (28th–last words), 203(c) (last sentence), (g), 93 Stat. 1003, 1004, 1005.
60104(b) 49 App.:1672(a)(1) (6th sentence). Aug. 12, 1968, Pub. L. 90–481, §3(a)(1) (6th, 9th, last sentences), 82 Stat. 721; Oct. 11, 1976, Pub. L. 94–477, §4(2), 90 Stat. 2073; Nov. 30, 1979, Pub. L. 96–129, §§101(a), 109(c), (e), 93 Stat. 990, 996; Oct. 24, 1992, Pub. L. 102–508, §116, 106 Stat. 3298.
  49 App.:2002(c) (last sentence).
60104(c) 49 App.:1672(a)(1) (9th, last sentences).
  49 App.:2002(d). Nov. 30, 1979, Pub. L. 96–129, §203(d), 93 Stat. 1004; Oct. 24, 1992, Pub. L. 102–508, §215, 106 Stat. 3305.
60104(d) 49 App.:1676(a). Aug. 12, 1968, Pub. L. 90–481, §9(a), 82 Stat. 725; Nov. 30, 1979, Pub. L. 96–129, §§109(i), 152(a), (b)(3), 93 Stat. 997, 999, 1001; Oct. 30, 1988, Pub. L. 100–561, §105(1), 102 Stat. 2807.
60104(e) 49 App.:1671(4) (33d–last words). Aug. 12, 1968, Pub. L. 90–481, §2(4) (33d–last words), 82 Stat. 720.
  49 App.:2001(4) (28th–last words).

Subsection (a) is substituted for 49 App.:1672(c) (last sentence) and 2002(g) (last sentence) to eliminate unnecessary words. The text of 49 App.:1672(c) (1st sentence) and 2002(g) (1st sentence) is omitted as unnecessary because 5:ch. 5, subch. II applies unless otherwise stated.

In subsection (c), the words “prescribed under this chapter” are added for clarity. The words “after the Federal minimum standards become effective” in 49 App.:1672(a) (last sentence) are omitted as obsolete.

In subsection (d)(1), the words “waiving compliance” are substituted for “action upon application for waiver” and “acting on the waiver application” to eliminate unnecessary words. The words “the provisions of” are omitted as surplus. The word “authority” is substituted for “commission” for consistency in the revised title and with other titles of the Code.

In subsection (d)(2), the words “and conclusive” are omitted as being included in “binding”. The words “Secretary of Energy” are substituted for “Department of Energy” because of 42:7231.

Amendments

2002—Subsec. (c). Pub. L. 107–355 inserted at end “Notwithstanding the preceding sentence, a State authority may enforce a requirement of a one-call notification program of the State if the program meets the requirements for one-call notification programs under this chapter or chapter 61.”

§60105. State pipeline safety program certifications

(a) General Requirements and Submission.—Except as provided in this section and sections 60114 and 60121 of this title, the Secretary of Transportation may not prescribe or enforce safety standards and practices for an intrastate pipeline facility or intrastate pipeline transportation to the extent that the safety standards and practices are regulated by a State authority (including a municipality if the standards and practices apply to intrastate gas pipeline transportation) that submits to the Secretary annually a certification for the facilities and transportation that complies with subsections (b) and (c) of this section.

(b) Contents.—Each certification submitted under subsection (a) of this section shall state that the State authority—

(1) has regulatory jurisdiction over the standards and practices to which the certification applies;

(2) has adopted, by the date of certification, each applicable standard prescribed under this chapter or, if a standard under this chapter was prescribed not later than 120 days before certification, is taking steps to adopt that standard;

(3) is enforcing each adopted standard through ways that include inspections conducted by State employees meeting the qualifications the Secretary prescribes under section 60107(d)(1)(C) of this title;

(4) is encouraging and promoting the establishment of a program designed to prevent damage by demolition, excavation, tunneling, or construction activity to the pipeline facilities to which the certification applies that subjects persons who violate the applicable requirements of that program to civil penalties and other enforcement actions that are substantially the same as are provided under this chapter, and addresses the elements in section 60134(b);

(5) may require record maintenance, reporting, and inspection substantially the same as provided under section 60117 of this title;

(6) may require that plans for inspection and maintenance under section 60108 (a) and (b) of this title be filed for approval; and

(7) may enforce safety standards of the authority under a law of the State by injunctive relief and civil penalties substantially the same as provided under sections 60120 and 60122(a)(1) and (b)–(f) of this title.


(c) Reports.—(1) Each certification submitted under subsection (a) of this section shall include a report that contains—

(A) the name and address of each person to whom the certification applies that is subject to the safety jurisdiction of the State authority;

(B) each accident or incident reported during the prior 12 months by that person involving a fatality, personal injury requiring hospitalization, or property damage or loss of more than an amount the Secretary establishes (even if the person sustaining the fatality, personal injury, or property damage or loss is not subject to the safety jurisdiction of the authority), any other accident the authority considers significant, and a summary of the investigation by the authority of the cause and circumstances surrounding the accident or incident;

(C) the record maintenance, reporting, and inspection practices conducted by the authority to enforce compliance with safety standards prescribed under this chapter to which the certification applies, including the number of inspections of pipeline facilities the authority made during the prior 12 months; and

(D) any other information the Secretary requires.


(2) The report included in the first certification submitted under subsection (a) of this section is only required to state information available at the time of certification.

(d) Application.—A certification in effect under this section does not apply to safety standards prescribed under this chapter after the date of certification. This chapter applies to each applicable safety standard prescribed after the date of certification until the State authority adopts the standard and submits the appropriate certification to the Secretary under subsection (a) of this section.

(e) Monitoring.—The Secretary may monitor a safety program established under this section to ensure that the program complies with the certification. A State authority shall cooperate with the Secretary under this subsection.

(f) Rejections of Certification.—If after receiving a certification the Secretary decides the State authority is not enforcing satisfactorily compliance with applicable safety standards prescribed under this chapter, the Secretary may reject the certification, assert United States Government jurisdiction, or take other appropriate action to achieve adequate enforcement. The Secretary shall give the authority notice and an opportunity for a hearing before taking final action under this subsection. When notice is given, the burden of proof is on the authority to demonstrate that it is enforcing satisfactorily compliance with the prescribed standards.

(Pub. L. 103–272, §1(e), July 5, 1994, 108 Stat. 1309; Pub. L. 104–304, §20(a), Oct. 12, 1996, 110 Stat. 3804; Pub. L. 109–468, §2(b)(1), Dec. 29, 2006, 120 Stat. 3487.)

Historical and Revision Notes
Revised

Section

Source (U.S. Code)Source (Statutes at Large)
60105(a) 49 App.:1674(a) (1st sentence words before “that such State agency”). Aug. 12, 1968, Pub. L. 90–481, §5(a), 82 Stat. 722; Aug. 22, 1972, Pub. L. 92–401, §1, 86 Stat. 616; Oct. 11, 1976, Pub. L. 94–477, §5(a), 90 Stat. 2073; Nov. 30, 1979, Pub. L. 96–129, §§101(b), 103(a), (b)(3), 109(g), (h)(1), 93 Stat. 990, 991, 996; Jan. 14, 1983, Pub. L. 97–468, §104, 96 Stat. 2543; Oct. 31, 1988, Pub. L. 100–561, §§103, 303(b)(1), 102 Stat. 2807, 2816; Oct. 24, 1992, Pub. L. 102–508, §§110(a), 111, 106 Stat. 3295.
  49 App.:2004(a) (1st sentence words before “that such State agency”). Nov. 30, 1979, Pub. L. 96–129, §205(a), 93 Stat. 1006; Oct. 31, 1988, Pub. L. 100–561, §203, 102 Stat. 2810; Oct. 24, 1992, Pub. L. 102–508, §§209(a), 210, 106 Stat. 3304.
60105(b) 49 App.:1674(a) (1st sentence words after “an annual certification”).
  49 App.:2004(a) (1st sentence words after “an annual certification”).
60105(c) 49 App.:1674(a) (2d, 3d sentences).
  49 App.:2004(a) (2d, last sentences).
60105(d) 49 App.:1674(e). Aug. 12, 1968, Pub. L. 90–481, §5(e), 82 Stat. 724; Oct. 11, 1976, Pub. L. 94–477, §5(c), 90 Stat. 2074; Nov. 30, 1979, Pub. L. 96–129, §103(b)(2)(B), 93 Stat. 991.
  49 App.:2004(e). Nov. 30, 1979, Pub. L. 96–129, §205(c) (related to certification), (e), (f), 93 Stat. 1007, 1008.
60105(e) 49 App.:1674(c) (related to certification). Aug. 12, 1968, Pub. L. 90–481, 82 Stat. 720, §5(c) (related to certification); added Nov. 30, 1979, Pub. L. 96–129, §103(b)(2)(C), 93 Stat. 991.
  49 App.:2004(c) (related to certification).
60105(f) 49 App.:1674(a) (4th, last sentences).
  49 App.:2004(f).

In subsection (a), the words “applicable to same” are omitted as surplus. The words “for the facilities and transportation that complies with subsections (b) and (c) of this section” are added for clarity.

In subsections (b) and (c), the words “to which the certification applies” and “to whom the certification applies” are added because of the restatement.

In subsection (b)(2), the words “Federal safety” and “pursuant to State law” are omitted as surplus.

In subsection (b)(7), the words “injunctive relief and civil penalties” are substituted for “injunctive and monetary sanctions” for clarity and consistency.

In subsection (c)(1), before clause (A), the word “annual” is omitted as surplus. The words “in such form as the Secretary may by regulation provide” are omitted as surplus because of 49:322(a). In clause (B), the words “or loss” are added for consistency in the revised title and with other titles of the United States Code. In clause (C), the words “a detail of” are omitted as surplus.

In subsection (d), the words “with respect” and “new or amended Federal” are omitted as surplus.

In subsection (e), the words “conduct whatever . . . may be necessary” and “fully” are omitted as surplus. The words “with the Secretary” are substituted for “in any monitoring of their programs” for clarity.

In subsection (f), the words “prescribed under this chapter” are added for clarity. The word “reasonable” is omitted as surplus.

Amendments

2006—Subsec. (b)(4). Pub. L. 109–468 amended par. (4) generally. Prior to amendment, par. (4) read as follows: “is encouraging and promoting programs designed to prevent damage by demolition, excavation, tunneling, or construction activity to the pipeline facilities to which the certification applies;”.

1996—Pub. L. 104–304 substituted “State pipeline safety program certifications” for “State certifications” in section catchline.

§60106. State pipeline safety agreements

(a) Agreements Without Certification.—If the Secretary of Transportation does not receive a certification under section 60105 of this title, the Secretary may make an agreement with a State authority (including a municipality if the agreement applies to intrastate gas pipeline transportation) authorizing it to take necessary action. Each agreement shall—

(1) establish an adequate program for record maintenance, reporting, and inspection designed to assist compliance with applicable safety standards prescribed under this chapter; and

(2) prescribe procedures for approval of plans of inspection and maintenance substantially the same as required under section 60108 (a) and (b) of this title.


(b) Agreements With Certification.—

(1) In general.—If the Secretary accepts a certification under section 60105 and makes the determination required under this subsection, the Secretary may make an agreement with a State authority authorizing it to participate in the oversight of interstate pipeline transportation. Each such agreement shall include a plan for the State authority to participate in special investigations involving incidents or new construction and allow the State authority to participate in other activities overseeing interstate pipeline transportation or to assume additional inspection or investigatory duties. Nothing in this section modifies section 60104(c) or authorizes the Secretary to delegate the enforcement of safety standards for interstate pipeline facilities prescribed under this chapter to a State authority.

(2) Determinations required.—The Secretary may not enter into an agreement under this subsection, unless the Secretary determines in writing that—

(A) the agreement allowing participation of the State authority is consistent with the Secretary's program for inspection and consistent with the safety policies and provisions provided under this chapter;

(B) the interstate participation agreement would not adversely affect the oversight responsibilities of intrastate pipeline transportation by the State authority;

(C) the State is carrying out a program demonstrated to promote preparedness and risk prevention activities that enable communities to live safely with pipelines;

(D) the State meets the minimum standards for State one-call notification set forth in chapter 61; and

(E) the actions planned under the agreement would not impede interstate commerce or jeopardize public safety.


(3) Existing agreements.—If requested by the State authority, the Secretary shall authorize a State authority which had an interstate agreement in effect after January 31, 1999, to oversee interstate pipeline transportation pursuant to the terms of that agreement until the Secretary determines that the State meets the requirements of paragraph (2) and executes a new agreement, or until December 31, 2003, whichever is sooner. Nothing in this paragraph shall prevent the Secretary, after affording the State notice, hearing, and an opportunity to correct any alleged deficiencies, from terminating an agreement that was in effect before enactment of the Pipeline Safety Improvement Act of 2002 if—

(A) the State authority fails to comply with the terms of the agreement;

(B) implementation of the agreement has resulted in a gap in the oversight responsibilities of intrastate pipeline transportation by the State authority; or

(C) continued participation by the State authority in the oversight of interstate pipeline transportation has had an adverse impact on pipeline safety.


(c) Notification.—

(1) In general.—Each agreement shall require the State authority to notify the Secretary promptly of a violation or probable violation of an applicable safety standard discovered as a result of action taken in carrying out an agreement under this section.

(2) Response by secretary.—If a State authority notifies the Secretary under paragraph (1) of a violation or probable violation of an applicable safety standard, the Secretary, not later than 60 days after the date of receipt of the notification, shall—

(A) issue an order under section 60118(b) or take other appropriate enforcement actions to ensure compliance with this chapter; or

(B) provide the State authority with a written explanation as to why the Secretary has determined not to take such actions.


(d) Monitoring.—The Secretary may monitor a safety program established under this section to ensure that the program complies with the agreement. A State authority shall cooperate with the Secretary under this subsection.

(e) Ending Agreements.—

(1) Permissive termination.—The Secretary may end an agreement under this section when the Secretary finds that the State authority has not complied with any provision of the agreement.

(2) Mandatory termination of agreement.—The Secretary shall end an agreement for the oversight of interstate pipeline transportation if the Secretary finds that—

(A) implementation of such agreement has resulted in a gap in the oversight responsibilities of intrastate pipeline transportation by the State authority;

(B) the State actions under the agreement have failed to meet the requirements under subsection (b); or

(C) continued participation by the State authority in the oversight of interstate pipeline transportation would not promote pipeline safety.


(3) Procedural requirements.—The Secretary shall give notice and an opportunity for a hearing to a State authority before ending an agreement under this section. The Secretary may provide a State an opportunity to correct any deficiencies before ending an agreement. The finding and decision to end the agreement shall be published in the Federal Register and may not become effective for at least 15 days after the date of publication unless the Secretary finds that continuation of an agreement poses an imminent hazard.

(Pub. L. 103–272, §1(e), July 5, 1994, 108 Stat. 1310; Pub. L. 104–304, §20(b), Oct. 12, 1996, 110 Stat. 3804; Pub. L. 107–355, §4, Dec. 17, 2002, 116 Stat. 2986.)

Historical and Revision Notes
Revised

Section

Source (U.S. Code)Source (Statutes at Large)
60106(a) 49 App.:1674(b) (1st sentence). Aug. 12, 1968, Pub. L. 90–481, §5(b), 82 Stat. 723; Oct. 11, 1976, Pub. L. 94–477, §5(b), 90 Stat. 2074; Nov. 30, 1979, Pub. L. 96–129, §§103(b)(1), 109(h)(2), 93 Stat. 991, 996.
  49 App.:2004(b) (1st sentence). Nov. 30, 1979, Pub. L. 96–129, §205(b), (c) (related to agreement), (g), 93 Stat. 1007, 1008.
60106(b) 49 App.:1674(b) (last sentence).
  49 App.:2004(b) (last sentence).
60106(c) 49 App.:1674(c) (related to agreement). Aug. 12, 1968, Pub. L. 90–481, 82 Stat. 720, §5(c) (related to agreement); added Nov. 30, 1979, Pub. L. 96–129, §103(b)(2)(C), 93 Stat. 991.
  49 App.:2004(c) (related to agreement).
60106(d) 49 App.:1674(f). Aug. 12, 1968, Pub. L. 90–481, §5(f), 82 Stat. 724; Nov. 30, 1979, Pub. L. 96–129, §103(b) (2)(B), 93 Stat. 991.
  49 App.:2004(g).

In subsection (a), before clause (1), the word “annual” is omitted as surplus. The words “to take necessary action” are substituted for “to assume responsibility for, and carry out” for clarity. The words “on behalf of the Secretary” are omitted as surplus. In clause (1), the words “applicable . . . prescribed under this chapter” are added for clarity. The word “Federal” is omitted as surplus. In clause (2), the word “prescribe” is substituted for “establish” for consistency in the revised title and with other titles of the United States Code.

In subsection (b), the words “action taken in carrying out an agreement” are substituted for “its program” for clarity.

In subsection (c), the words “conduct whatever . . . may be necessary” and “fully” are omitted as surplus. The words “with the Secretary” are substituted for “in any monitoring of their programs” for clarity.

References in Text

Enactment of the Pipeline Safety Improvement Act of 2002, referred to in subsec. (b)(3), is the enactment of Pub. L. 107–355, which was approved Dec. 17, 2002.

Amendments

2002—Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 107–355, §4(a)(1), substituted “Agreements Without Certification” for “General Authority” in heading.

Subsec. (b). Pub. L. 107–355, §4(a)(3), added subsec. (b). Former subsec. (b) redesignated (c).

Subsec. (c). Pub. L. 107–355, §4(a)(2), (c), redesignated subsec. (b) as (c), designated existing provisions as par. (1), inserted par. heading, realigned margins, and added par. (2). Former subsec. (c) redesignated (d).

Subsec. (d). Pub. L. 107–355, §4(a)(2), redesignated subsec. (c) as (d). Former subsec. (d) redesignated (e).

Subsec. (e). Pub. L. 107–355, §4(a)(2), (b), redesignated subsec. (d) as (e), reenacted heading without change and amended text generally. Prior to amendment, text read as follows: “The Secretary may end an agreement made under this section when the Secretary finds that the State authority has not complied with any provision of the agreement. The Secretary shall give the authority notice and an opportunity for a hearing before ending an agreement. The finding and decision to end the agreement shall be published in the Federal Register and may not become effective for at least 15 days after the date of publication.”

1996—Pub. L. 104–304 substituted “State pipeline safety agreements” for “State agreements” in section catchline.

§60107. State pipeline safety grants

(a) General Authority.—If a State authority files an application not later than September 30 of a calendar year, the Secretary of Transportation shall pay not more than 80 percent of the cost of the personnel, equipment, and activities the authority reasonably requires during the next calendar year—

(1) to carry out a safety program under a certification under section 60105 of this title or an agreement under section 60106 of this title; or

(2) to act as an agent of the Secretary on interstate gas pipeline facilities or interstate hazardous liquid pipeline facilities.


(b) Payments.—After notifying and consulting with a State authority, the Secretary may withhold any part of a payment when the Secretary decides that the authority is not carrying out satisfactorily a safety program or not acting satisfactorily as an agent. The Secretary may pay an authority under this section only when the authority ensures the Secretary that it will provide the remaining costs of a safety program and that the total State amount spent for a safety program (excluding grants of the United States Government) will at least equal the average amount spent for gas and hazardous liquid safety programs for the 3 fiscal years prior to the fiscal year in which the Secretary makes the payment, except when the Secretary waives this requirement. For each of fiscal years 2012 and 2013, the Secretary shall grant such a waiver to a State if the State can demonstrate an inability to maintain or increase the required funding share of its safety program at or above the level required by this subsection due to economic hardship in that State. For fiscal year 2014, and each fiscal year thereafter, the Secretary may grant such a waiver to a State if the State can make the demonstration described in the preceding sentence.

(c) Apportionment and Method of Payment.—The Secretary shall apportion the amount appropriated to carry out this section among the States. A payment may be made under this section in installments, in advance, or on a reimbursable basis.

(d) Additional Authority and Considerations.—(1) The Secretary may prescribe—

(A) the form of, and way of filing, an application under this section;

(B) reporting and fiscal procedures the Secretary considers necessary to ensure the proper accounting of money of the Government; and

(C) qualifications for a State to meet to receive a payment under this section, including qualifications for State employees who perform inspection activities under section 60105 or 60106 of this title.


(2) The qualifications prescribed under paragraph (1)(C) of this subsection may—

(A) consider the experience and training of the employee;

(B) order training or other requirements; and

(C) provide for approval of qualifications on a conditional basis until specified requirements are met.

(Pub. L. 103–272, §1(e), July 5, 1994, 108 Stat. 1311; Pub. L. 104–304, §20(c), Oct. 12, 1996, 110 Stat. 3804; Pub. L. 109–468, §2(c), (d), Dec. 29, 2006, 120 Stat. 3489; Pub. L. 112–90, §19, Jan. 3, 2012, 125 Stat. 1916.)

Historical and Revision Notes
Revised

Section

Source (U.S. Code)Source (Statutes at Large)
60107(a) 49 App.:1674(d)(1) (1st sentence). Aug. 12, 1968, Pub. L. 90–481, §5(d)(1), (3), (4), 82 Stat. 724; Aug. 22, 1972, Pub. L. 92–401, §2, 86 Stat. 616; Aug. 30, 1974, Pub. L. 93–403, §2, 88 Stat. 802; Nov. 30, 1979, Pub. L. 96–129, §103(b)(2)(B), 93 Stat. 991.
  49 App.:2004(d)(1) (1st sentence). Nov. 30, 1979, Pub. L. 96–129, §205(d)(1), (3), (4), 93 Stat. 1008.
60107(b) 49 App.:1674(d)(1) (2d, last sentences).
  49 App.:2004(d)(1) (2d, last sentences).
60107(c) 49 App.:1674(d)(2). Aug. 12, 1968, Pub. L. 90–481, 82 Stat. 720, §5(d)(2); added Aug. 30, 1974, Pub. L. 93–403, §2, 88 Stat. 802; Nov. 30, 1979, Pub. L. 96–129, §§103(b)(2)(B), 109(h)(3), 93 Stat. 991, 996; Apr. 7, 1986, Pub. L. 99–272, §7002(b)(1), 100 Stat. 139.
  49 App.:1674(d)(3).
  49 App.:2004(d)(2). Nov. 30, 1979, Pub. L. 96–129, §205(d)(2), 93 Stat. 1008; Apr. 7, 1986, Pub. L. 99–272, §7002(b)(2), 100 Stat. 139.
  49 App.:2004(d)(3).
60107(d) (1)(A), (B) 49 App.:1674(d)(4).
  49 App.:2004(d)(4).
60107(d) (1)(C), (2) 49 App.:1674(d)(5). Aug. 12, 1968, Pub. L. 90–481, 82 Stat. 720, §5(d)(5); added Oct. 31, 1988, Pub. L. 100–561, §104, 102 Stat. 2807.
  49 App. 2004(d)(5). Nov. 30, 1979, Pub. L. 96–129, 93 Stat. 989, §205(d)(5); added Oct. 31, 1988, Pub. L. 100–561, §204, 102 Stat. 2811.

In subsection (a), before clause (1), the words “Except as otherwise provided in this section” and “out of funds appropriated or otherwise made available” are omitted as surplus.

In subsection (b), before clause (1), the word “payment” is substituted for “funds” for clarity. The words “the total State amount spent” are substituted for “the aggregate expenditures of funds for the State”, and the words “at least equal the average amount spent” are substituted for “be maintained at a level which does not fall below the average level of such expenditures”, to eliminate unnecessary words. In clause (1), the words “that ended June 30, 1967, and June 30, 1968” are substituted for “last two . . . preceding August 12, 1968” for clarity. In clause (2), the words “that ended September 30, 1978, and September 30, 1979” are substituted for “last two . . . preceding November 30, 1979” for clarity.

In subsection (c), the words “the Federal grants-in-aid provisions of”, “for payments to aid in the conduct of pipeline safety programs in accordance with paragraph (1) of this subsection”, and “with necessary adjustments on account of overpayments and underpayments” are omitted as surplus.

In subsection (d)(1), before clause (A), the word “prescribe” is substituted for “by regulation, provide for” and “establish by regulation” for consistency in the revised title and with other titles of the United States Code. In clause (C), the words “to receive a payment under this section” are substituted for “in order to participate in the pipeline safety grant program under this subsection”, and the words “under section 60105 or 60106 of this title” are substituted for “pursuant to either an annual certification by a State agency or an agreement relating to inspection between a State agency and the Secretary”, to eliminate unnecessary words.

In subsection (d)(2), before clause (A), the words “qualifications prescribed” are substituted for “regulations” for clarity and consistency.

Amendments

2012—Subsec. (b). Pub. L. 112–90 inserted at end “For each of fiscal years 2012 and 2013, the Secretary shall grant such a waiver to a State if the State can demonstrate an inability to maintain or increase the required funding share of its safety program at or above the level required by this subsection due to economic hardship in that State. For fiscal year 2014, and each fiscal year thereafter, the Secretary may grant such a waiver to a State if the State can make the demonstration described in the preceding sentence.”

2006—Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 109–468, §2(c), substituted “not more than 80 percent” for “not more than 50 percent” in introductory provisions.

Subsec. (b). Pub. L. 109–468, §2(d), substituted “spent for gas and hazardous liquid safety programs for the 3 fiscal years prior to the fiscal year in which the Secretary makes the payment, except when the Secretary waives this requirement.” for “spent—

“(1) for a gas safety program, for the fiscal years that ended June 30, 1967, and June 30, 1968; and

“(2) for a hazardous liquid safety program, for the fiscal years that ended September 30, 1978, and September 30, 1979.”

1996—Pub. L. 104–304 substituted “State pipeline safety grants” for “State grants” in section catchline.

§60108. Inspection and maintenance

(a) Plans.—(1) Each person owning or operating a gas pipeline facility or hazardous liquid pipeline facility shall carry out a current written plan (including any changes) for inspection and maintenance of each facility used in the transportation and owned or operated by the person. A copy of the plan shall be kept at any office of the person the Secretary of Transportation considers appropriate. The Secretary also may require a person owning or operating a pipeline facility subject to this chapter to file a plan for inspection and maintenance for approval.

(2) If the Secretary or a State authority responsible for enforcing standards prescribed under this chapter decides that a plan required under paragraph (1) of this subsection is inadequate for safe operation, the Secretary or authority shall require the person to revise the plan. Revision may be required only after giving notice and an opportunity for a hearing. A plan required under paragraph (1) must be practicable and designed to meet the need for pipeline safety and must include terms designed to enhance the ability to discover safety-related conditions described in section 60102(h)(1) of this title. In deciding on the adequacy of a plan, the Secretary or authority shall consider—

(A) relevant available pipeline safety information;

(B) the appropriateness of the plan for the particular kind of pipeline transportation or facility;

(C) the reasonableness of the plan; and

(D) the extent to which the plan will contribute to public safety and the protection of the environment.


(3) A plan required under this subsection shall be made available to the Secretary or State authority on request under section 60117 of this title.

(b) Inspection and Testing.—(1) The Secretary shall inspect and require appropriate testing of a pipeline facility subject to this chapter that is not covered by a certification under section 60105 of this title or an agreement under section 60106 of this title. The Secretary shall decide on the frequency and type of inspection and testing under this subsection on a case-by-case basis after considering the following:

(A) the location of the pipeline facility.

(B) the type, size, age, manufacturer, method of construction, and condition of the pipeline facility.

(C) the nature and volume of material transported through the pipeline facility.

(D) the pressure at which that material is transported.

(E) climatic, geologic, and seismic characteristics (including soil characteristics) and conditions of the area in which the pipeline facility is located.

(F) existing and projected population and demographic characteristics of the area in which the pipeline facility is located.

(G) for a hazardous liquid pipeline facility, the proximity of the area in which the facility is located to an area that is unusually sensitive to environmental damage.

(H) the frequency of leaks.

(I) other factors the Secretary decides are relevant to the safety of pipeline facilities.


(2) To the extent and in amounts provided in advance in an appropriation law, the Secretary shall decide on the frequency of inspection under paragraph (1) of this subsection. The Secretary may reduce the frequency of an inspection of a master meter system.

(3) Testing under this subsection shall use the most appropriate technology practicable.

(c) Pipeline Facilities Offshore and in Other Waters.—(1) In this subsection—

(A) “abandoned” means permanently removed from service.

(B) “pipeline facility” includes an underwater abandoned pipeline facility.

(C) if a pipeline facility has no operator, the most recent operator of the facility is deemed to be the operator of the facility.


(2)(A) Not later than May 16, 1993, on the basis of experience with the inspections under section 3(h)(1)(A) of the Natural Gas Pipeline Safety Act of 1968 or section 203(l)(1)(A) of the Hazardous Liquid Pipeline Safety Act of 1979, as appropriate, and any other information available to the Secretary, the Secretary shall establish a mandatory, systematic, and, where appropriate, periodic inspection program of—

(i) all offshore pipeline facilities; and

(ii) any other pipeline facility crossing under, over, or through waters where a substantial likelihood of commercial navigation exists, if the Secretary decides that the location of the facility in those waters could pose a hazard to navigation or public safety.


(B) In prescribing standards to carry out subparagraph (A) of this paragraph—

(i) the Secretary shall identify what is a hazard to navigation with respect to an underwater abandoned pipeline facility; and

(ii) for an underwater pipeline facility abandoned after October 24, 1992, the Secretary shall include requirements that will lessen the potential that the facility will pose a hazard to navigation and shall consider the relationship between water depth and navigational safety and factors relevant to the local marine environment.


(3)(A) The Secretary shall establish by regulation a program requiring an operator of a pipeline facility described in paragraph (2) of this subsection to report a potential or existing navigational hazard involving that pipeline facility to the Secretary through the appropriate Coast Guard office.

(B) The operator of a pipeline facility described in paragraph (2) of this subsection that discovers any part of the pipeline facility that is a hazard to navigation shall mark the location of the hazardous part with a Coast-Guard-approved marine buoy or marker and immediately shall notify the Secretary as provided by the Secretary under subparagraph (A) of this paragraph. A marine buoy or marker used under this subparagraph is deemed a pipeline sign or right-of-way marker under section 60123(c) of this title.

(4)(A) The Secretary shall establish a standard that each pipeline facility described in paragraph (2) of this subsection that is a hazard to navigation is buried not later than 6 months after the date the condition of the facility is reported to the Secretary. The Secretary may extend that 6-month period for a reasonable period to ensure compliance with this paragraph.

(B) In prescribing standards for subparagraph (A) of this paragraph for an underwater pipeline facility abandoned after October 24, 1992, the Secretary shall include requirements that will lessen the potential that the facility will pose a hazard to navigation and shall consider the relationship between water depth and navigational safety and factors relevant to the local marine environment.

(5)(A) Not later than October 24, 1994, the Secretary shall establish standards on what is an exposed offshore pipeline facility and what is a hazard to navigation under this subsection.

(B) Not later than 6 months after the Secretary establishes standards under subparagraph (A) of this paragraph, or October 24, 1995, whichever occurs first, the operator of each offshore pipeline facility not described in section 3(h)(1)(A) of the Natural Gas Pipeline Safety Act of 1968 or section 203(l)(1)(A) of the Hazardous Liquid Pipeline Safety Act of 1979, as appropriate, shall inspect the facility and report to the Secretary on any part of the facility that is exposed or is a hazard to navigation. This subparagraph applies only to a facility that is between the high water mark and the point at which the subsurface is under 15 feet of water, as measured from mean low water. An inspection that occurred after October 3, 1989, may be used for compliance with this subparagraph if the inspection conforms to the requirements of this subparagraph.

(C) The Secretary may extend the time period specified in subparagraph (B) of this paragraph for not more than 6 months if the operator of a facility satisfies the Secretary that the operator has made a good faith effort, with reasonable diligence, but has been unable to comply by the end of that period.

(6)(A) The operator of a pipeline facility abandoned after October 24, 1992, shall report the abandonment to the Secretary in a way that specifies whether the facility has been abandoned properly according to applicable United States Government and State requirements.

(B) Not later than October 24, 1995, the operator of a pipeline facility abandoned before October 24, 1992, shall report to the Secretary reasonably available information related to the facility, including information that a third party possesses. The information shall include the location, size, date, and method of abandonment, whether the facility has been abandoned properly under applicable law, and other relevant information the Secretary may require. Not later than April 24, 1994, the Secretary shall specify how the information shall be reported. The Secretary shall ensure that the Government maintains the information in a way accessible to appropriate Government agencies and State authorities.

(C) The Secretary shall request that a State authority having information on a collision between a vessel and an underwater pipeline facility report the information to the Secretary in a timely way and make a reasonable effort to specify the location, date, and severity of the collision. Chapter 35 of title 44 does not apply to this subparagraph.

(7) The Secretary may not exempt from this chapter an offshore hazardous liquid pipeline facility only because the pipeline facility transfers hazardous liquid in an underwater pipeline between a vessel and an onshore facility.

(8) If, after reviewing existing Federal and State regulations for hazardous liquid gathering lines located offshore in the United States, including within the inlets of the Gulf of Mexico, the Secretary determines it is appropriate, the Secretary shall issue regulations, after notice and an opportunity for a hearing, subjecting offshore hazardous liquid gathering lines and hazardous liquid gathering lines located within the inlets of the Gulf of Mexico to the same standards and regulations as other hazardous liquid gathering lines. The regulations issued under this paragraph shall not apply to production pipelines or flow lines.

(d) Replacing Cast Iron Gas Pipelines.—(1) The Secretary shall publish a notice on the availability of industry guidelines, developed by the Gas Piping Technology Committee, for replacing cast iron pipelines. Not later than 2 years after the guidelines become available, the Secretary shall conduct a survey of gas pipeline operators with cast iron pipe in their systems to establish—

(A) the extent to which each operator has adopted a plan for the safe management and replacement of cast iron;

(B) the elements of the plan, including the anticipated rate of replacement; and

(C) the progress that has been made.


(2) Chapter 35 of title 44 does not apply to the conduct of the survey.

(3) This subsection does not prevent the Secretary from developing Government guidelines or standards for cast iron gas pipelines as the Secretary considers appropriate.

(4) Not later than December 31, 2012, and every 2 years thereafter, the Secretary shall conduct a follow-up survey to measure the progress that owners and operators of pipeline facilities have made in adopting and implementing their plans for the safe management and replacement of cast iron gas pipelines.

(Pub. L. 103–272, §1(e), July 5, 1994, 108 Stat. 1312; Pub. L. 104–304, §§6, 20(h), Oct. 12, 1996, 110 Stat. 3800, 3805; Pub. L. 112–90, §§7(a), 18(a), 21(c), Jan. 3, 2012, 125 Stat. 1910, 1916, 1917.)

Historical and Revision Notes
Revised

Section

Source (U.S. Code)Source (Statutes at Large)
60108(a)(1) 49 App.:1680(a) (1st, 2d sentences). Aug. 12, 1968, Pub. L. 90–481, §13(a), 82 Stat. 726; Oct. 11, 1976, Pub. L. 94–477, §6, 90 Stat. 2075; Nov. 30, 1979, Pub. L. 96–129, §§104(b), 105(a), 93 Stat. 992, 994; Oct. 22, 1986, Pub. L. 99–516, §3(a)(2), 100 Stat. 2966; Oct. 31, 1988, Pub. L. 100–561, §108(a)(1), 102 Stat. 2808; Oct. 24, 1992, Pub. L. 102–508, §102(c), 106 Stat. 3291.
  49 App.:2009(a) (1st, 2d sentences). Nov. 30, 1979, Pub. L. 96–129, §210(a), 93 Stat. 1011; Oct. 22, 1986, Pub. L. 99–516, §3(b)(2), 100 Stat. 2966; Oct. 31, 1988, Pub. L. 100–561, §207(c), 102 Stat. 2812.
60108(a)(2) 49 App.:1680(a) (3d–5th, last sentences).
  49 App.:2009(a) (3d sentence 1st–18th words, last sentence).
  49 App.:2009(b). Nov. 30, 1979, Pub. L. 96–129, §210(b), 93 Stat. 1012; Oct. 24, 1992, Pub. L. 102–508, §202(c)(1), 106 Stat. 3301.
60108(a)(3) 49 App.:1680(a) (6th sentence).
  49 App.:2009(a) (3d sentence 19th–last words).
60108(b)(1) 49 App.:1680(b)(1) (1st sentence), (2). Aug. 12, 1968, Pub. L. 90–481, 82 Stat. 720, §13(b); added Oct. 31, 1988, Pub. L. 100–561, §108(a)(2), 102 Stat. 2808.
  49 App.:2009(d)(1) (1st sentence), (2). Nov. 30, 1979, Pub. L. 96–129, 93 Stat. 989, §210(d); added Oct. 31, 1988, Pub. L. 100–561, §207(a), 102 Stat. 2811; Oct. 24, 1992, Pub. L. 102–508, §202(c)(2) (related to §210(d)(2)(D)), 106 Stat. 3301.
60108(b)(2) 49 App.:1680(b)(1) (2d, 3d sentences).
  49 App.:2009(d)(1) (2d, 3d sentences).
60108(b)(3) 49 App.:1680(b)(1) (last sentence).
  49 App.:2009(d)(1) (last sentence).
60108(c)(1) 49 App.:1672(h)(6)(A), (D). Aug. 12, 1968, Pub. L. 90–481, 82 Stat. 720, §3(h)(6); added Oct. 24, 1992, Pub. L. 102–508, §117, 106 Stat. 3298.
  49 App.:2002(l)(7)(A), (D). Nov. 30, 1979, Pub. L. 96–129, 93 Stat. 989, §203(l)(7); added Oct. 24, 1992, Pub. L. 102–508, §216, 106 Stat. 3306.
60108(c) (2)(A) 49 App.:1672(h)(3). Aug. 12, 1968, Pub. L. 90–481, 82 Stat. 720, §3(h)(1)–(4); added Nov. 16, 1990, Pub. L. 101–599, §1(a), 104 Stat. 3038; Oct. 24, 1992, Pub. L. 102–508, §108(1)–(4), 106 Stat. 3293.
  49 App.:2002(l)(3). Nov. 30, 1979, Pub. L. 96–129, 93 Stat. 989, §203(l)(1)–(4); added Nov. 16, 1990, Pub. L. 101–599, §1(b), 104 Stat. 3039; Oct. 24, 1992, Pub. L. 102–508, §207(1)–(4), 106 Stat. 3302.
60108(c) (2)(B) 49 App.:1672(h)(6) (B)(i), (ii) (related to paragraph (3)).
  49 App.:2002(l)(7) (B)(i), (ii) (related to paragraph (3)).
60108(c)(3) 49 App.:1672(h)(1), (2).
  49 App.:2002(l)(1), (2).
60108(c) (4)(A) 49 App.:1672(h)(4).
  49 App.:2002(l)(4).
60108(c) (4)(B) 49 App.:1672(h) (6)(B)(ii) (related to paragraph (4)).
  49 App.:2002(l) (7)(B)(ii) (related to paragraph (4)).
60108(c)(5) 49 App.:1672(h)(5). Aug. 12, 1968, Pub. L. 90–481, 82 Stat. 720, §3(h)(5); added Oct. 24, 1992, Pub. L. 102–508, §108(5), 106 Stat. 3294.
  49 App.:2002(l)(6). Nov. 30, 1979, Pub. L. 96–129, 93 Stat. 989, §203(l)(5), (6); added Oct. 24, 1992, Pub. L. 102–508, §207(5), 106 Stat. 3302.
60108(c)(6) 49 App.:1672(h)(6)(C).
  49 App.:2002(l)(7)(C).
60108(c)(7) 49 App.:2002(l)(5).
60108(d) 49 App.:1680(c). Aug. 12, 1968, Pub. L. 90–481, 82 Stat. 720, §13(c); added Oct. 24, 1992, Pub. L. 102–508, §107, 106 Stat. 3293.

In subsection (a)(1), the word “prepare” is omitted as surplus. The words “or offices” are omitted because of 1:1. The words “in accordance with regulations prescribed by the Secretary or appropriate State agency” in 49 App.:1680(a) (1st sentence), “in accordance with regulations prescribed by the Secretary or, where a certification or agreement pursuant to section 2004 of this Appendix is in effect, by the appropriate State agency” in 49 App.:2009(a) (1st sentence), and “by regulation” are omitted as surplus because of 49:322(a) and sections 60102–60105 of the revised title.

In subsection (a)(2), before clause (A), the words “the Secretary or” are added for clarity. The words “at any time” in 49 App.:1680(a) (3d sentence) are omitted as surplus.

In subsection (a)(3), the word “appropriate” is omitted as surplus.

In subsection (b)(1), before clause (A), the words “to ensure the safety of such pipeline facilities” and “factors” are omitted as surplus. In clause (G), the words “if any” are omitted as surplus.

In subsection (b)(2), the text of 49 App.:1680(b)(1) (3d sentence) and 2009(d)(1) (3d sentence) is omitted as obsolete.

In subsection (c)(1)(B), the words “except with respect to the initial inspection required under paragraph (1)” are omitted as obsolete.

In subsection (c)(1)(C), the word “current” is omitted as surplus.

In subsection (c)(2)(B), before clause (i), the words “to carry out” are substituted for “under” because the Secretary does not prescribe regulations under 49 App.:1672(h)(3) or 2002(l)(3).

In subsection (c)(3), the text of 49 App.:1672(h)(1) and 2002(l)(1) is omitted as executed.

In subsection (c)(4)(A), the text of 49 App.:1672(h)(4)(A) and 2002(l)(4)(A) is omitted as obsolete.

In subsection (c)(5)(A), the words “for the purposes of this paragraph” are omitted as surplus.

In subsection (c)(5)(C), the words “an additional period of” and “and care” are omitted as surplus.

In subsection (c)(6)(C), the words “relating to coordination of Federal information policies” are omitted as surplus.

In subsection (c)(7), the words “regulation under” are omitted as surplus. The word “because” is substituted for “on the basis of the fact that” to eliminate unnecessary words.

In subsection (d)(2), the words “(relating to coordination of Federal information policy)” are omitted as surplus.

References in Text

Section 3(h)(1)(A) of the Natural Gas Pipeline Safety Act of 1968, referred to in subsec. (c)(2)(A), (5)(B), is section 3(h)(1)(A) of Pub. L. 90–481, which was classified to section 1672(h)(1)(A) of former Title 49, Transportation, prior to repeal by Pub. L. 103–272, §7(b), July 5, 1994, 108 Stat. 1379. For further details, see Historical and Revision Notes above.

Section 203(l)(1)(A) of the Hazardous Liquid Pipeline Safety Act of 1979, referred to in subsec. (c)(2)(A), (5)(B), is section 203(l)(1)(A) of Pub. L. 96–129, which was classified to section 2002(l)(1)(A) of former Title 49, Transportation, prior to repeal by Pub. L. 103–272, §7(b), July 5, 1994, 108 Stat. 1379. For further details, see Historical and Revision Notes above.

Amendments

2012—Subsec. (a)(1). Pub. L. 112–90, §18(a), substituted “a gas pipeline” for “an intrastate gas pipeline”.

Subsec. (c)(8). Pub. L. 112–90, §21(c), added par. (8).

Subsec. (d)(4). Pub. L. 112–90, §7(a), added par. (4).

1996—Subsec. (a)(1). Pub. L. 104–304, §6(1), struck out “transporting gas or hazardous liquid or” after “Each person” and “a person”.

Subsec. (b)(2). Pub. L. 104–304, §6(2), struck out after first sentence “However, an inspection must occur at least once every 2 years.”

Subsec. (c). Pub. L. 104–304, §6(3), substituted “Other Waters” for “Navigable Waters” in heading.

Subsec. (c)(2)(A)(ii). Pub. L. 104–304, §6(4), added cl. (ii) and struck out former cl. (ii) which read as follows: “any other pipeline facility crossing under, over, or through navigable waters (as defined by the Secretary) if the Secretary decides that the location of the facility in those navigable waters could pose a hazard to navigation or public safety.”

Subsec. (c)(2)(B). Pub. L. 104–304, §20(h)(1), substituted “standards” for “regulations” in introductory provisions.

Subsec. (c)(4)(A). Pub. L. 104–304, §20(h)(2), substituted “establish a standard” for “require by regulation”.

Subsecs. (c)(4)(B), (d)(3). Pub. L. 104–304, §20(h)(1), substituted “standards” for “regulations”.

Transfer of Functions

For transfer of authorities, functions, personnel, and assets of the Coast Guard, including the authorities and functions of the Secretary of Transportation relating thereto, to the Department of Homeland Security, and for treatment of related references, see sections 468(b), 551(d), 552(d), and 557 of Title 6, Domestic Security, and the Department of Homeland Security Reorganization Plan of November 25, 2002, as modified, set out as a note under section 542 of Title 6.

Leak Detection

Pub. L. 112–90, §8, Jan. 3, 2012, 125 Stat. 1911, provided that:

“(a) Leak Detection Report.—

“(1) In general.—Not later than 1 year after the date of enactment of this Act [Jan. 3, 2012], the Secretary of Transportation shall submit to the Committee on Commerce, Science, and Transportation of the Senate and the Committee on Transportation and Infrastructure and the Committee on Energy and Commerce of the House of Representatives a report on leak detection systems utilized by operators of hazardous liquid pipeline facilities and transportation-related flow lines.

“(2) Contents.—The report shall include—

“(A) an analysis of the technical limitations of current leak detection systems, including the ability of the systems to detect ruptures and small leaks that are ongoing or intermittent, and what can be done to foster development of better technologies; and

“(B) an analysis of the practicability of establishing technically, operationally, and economically feasible standards for the capability of such systems to detect leaks, and the safety benefits and adverse consequences of requiring operators to use leak detection systems.

“(b) Rulemaking Requirements.—

“(1) Review period defined.—In this subsection, the term ‘review period’ means the period beginning on the date of enactment of this Act [Jan. 3, 2012] and ending on the earlier of—

“(A) the date that is 1 year after the date of completion of the report under subsection (a); or

“(B) the date that is 2 years after the date of enactment of this Act.

“(2) Congressional authority.—In order to provide Congress the necessary time to review the results of the report required by subsection (a) and implement appropriate recommendations, the Secretary, during the review period, shall not issue final regulations described in paragraph (3).

“(3) Standards.—As soon as practicable following the review period, if the report required by subsection (a) finds that it is practicable to establish technically, operationally, and economically feasible standards for the capability of leak detection systems to detect leaks, the Secretary shall issue final regulations that—

“(A) require operators of hazardous liquid pipeline facilities to use leak detection systems where practicable; and

“(B) establish technically, operationally, and economically feasible standards for the capability of such systems to detect leaks.

“(4) Savings clause.—

“(A) In general.—Notwithstanding any other provision of this subsection, the Secretary, during the review period, may issue final regulations described in paragraph (3) if the Secretary determines that a condition that poses a risk to public safety, property, or the environment is present or an imminent hazard exists and that the regulations will address the risk or hazard.

“(B) Imminent hazard defined.—In subparagraph (A), the term ‘imminent hazard’ means the existence of a condition related to pipelines or pipeline operations that presents a substantial likelihood that death, serious illness, severe personal injury, or substantial endangerment to health, property, or the environment may occur.”

[Terms used in section 8 of Pub. L. 112–90, set out above, have the meaning given those terms in this chapter, see section 1(c)(1) of Pub. L. 112–90, set out as a note under section 60101 of this title.]

Pipeline Bridge Risk Study

Pub. L. 107–355, §25, Dec. 17, 2002, 116 Stat. 3011, required the Secretary of Transportation to conduct a study to determine whether cable-suspension pipeline bridges pose structural or other risks warranting particularized attention in connection with pipeline operators risk assessment programs and whether particularized inspection standards need to be developed by the Department of Transportation to recognize the peculiar risks posed by such bridges and to transmit a report detailing the results of the completed study within 2 years after Dec. 17, 2002.

Study of Underwater Abandoned Pipeline Facilities

Pub. L. 102–508, title III, §307, Oct. 24, 1992, 106 Stat. 3309, directed Secretary of Transportation, in consultation with State and other Federal agencies having authority over underwater natural gas and hazardous liquid pipeline facilities and with pipeline owners and operators, fishing and maritime industries, and other affected groups, to submit to Congress, not later than 3 years after Oct. 24, 1992, report and recommendations on abandonment of such pipeline facilities, including analysis of problems caused by such facilities, alternative methods to abandonment, as well as navigational, safety, economic, and environmental impacts associated with abandonment, and further authorized Secretary to require, based on findings of such study, additional appropriate actions to prevent hazards to navigation in connection with such facilities.

§60109. High-density population areas and environmentally sensitive areas

(a) Identification Requirements.—Not later than October 24, 1994, the Secretary of Transportation shall prescribe standards that—

(1) establish criteria for identifying—

(A) by operators of gas pipeline facilities, each gas pipeline facility (except a natural gas distribution line) located in a high-density population area; and

(B) by operators of hazardous liquid pipeline facilities and gathering lines—

(i) each hazardous liquid pipeline facility, whether otherwise subject to this chapter, that crosses waters where a substantial likelihood of commercial navigation exists or that is located in an area described in the criteria as a high-density population area; and

(ii) each hazardous liquid pipeline facility and gathering line, whether otherwise subject to this chapter, located in an area that the Secretary, in consultation with the Administrator of the Environmental Protection Agency, describes as unusually sensitive to environmental damage if there is a hazardous liquid pipeline accident; and


(2) provide that the identification be carried out through the inventory required under section 60102(e) of this title.


(b) Areas To Be Included as Unusually Sensitive.—When describing areas that are unusually sensitive to environmental damage if there is a hazardous liquid pipeline accident, the Secretary shall consider areas where a pipeline rupture would likely cause permanent or long-term environmental damage, including—

(1) locations near pipeline rights-of-way that are critical to drinking water, including intake locations for community water systems and critical sole source aquifer protection areas; and

(2) locations near pipeline rights-of-way that have been identified as critical wetlands, riverine or estuarine systems, national parks, wilderness areas, wildlife preservation areas or refuges, wild and scenic rivers, or critical habitat areas for threatened and endangered species.


(c) Risk Analysis and Integrity Management Programs.—

(1) Requirement.—Each operator of a gas pipeline facility shall conduct an analysis of the risks to each facility of the operator located in an area identified pursuant to subsection (a)(1) and defined in chapter 192 of title 49, Code of Federal Regulations, including any subsequent modifications, and shall adopt and implement a written integrity management program for such facility to reduce the risks.

(2) Regulations.—

(A) In general.—Not later than 12 months after the date of enactment of this subsection, the Secretary shall issue regulations prescribing standards to direct an operator's conduct of a risk analysis and adoption and implementation of an integrity management program under this subsection. The regulations shall require an operator to conduct a risk analysis and adopt an integrity management program within a time period prescribed by the Secretary, ending not later than 24 months after such date of enactment. Not later than 18 months after such date of enactment, each operator of a gas pipeline facility shall begin a baseline integrity assessment described in paragraph (3).

(B) Authority to issue regulations.—The Secretary may satisfy the requirements of this paragraph through the issuance of regulations under this paragraph or under other authority of law.


(3) Minimum requirements of integrity management programs.—An integrity management program required under paragraph (1) shall include, at a minimum, the following requirements:

(A) A baseline integrity assessment of each of the operator's facilities in areas identified pursuant to subsection (a)(1) and defined in chapter 192 of title 49, Code of Federal Regulations, including any subsequent modifications, by internal inspection device, pressure testing, direct assessment, or an alternative method that the Secretary determines would provide an equal or greater level of safety. The operator shall complete such assessment not later than 10 years after the date of enactment of this subsection. At least 50 percent of such facilities shall be assessed not later than 5 years after such date of enactment. The operator shall prioritize such facilities for assessment based on all risk factors, including any previously discovered defects or anomalies and any history of leaks, repairs, or failures. The operator shall ensure that assessments of facilities with the highest risks are given priority for completion and that such assessments will be completed not later than 5 years after such date of enactment.

(B) Subject to paragraph (5), periodic reassessments of the facility, at a minimum of once every 7 calendar years, using methods described in subparagraph (A). The Secretary may extend such deadline for an additional 6 months if the operator submits written notice to the Secretary with sufficient justification of the need for the extension.

(C) Clearly defined criteria for evaluating the results of assessments conducted under subparagraphs (A) and (B) and for taking actions based on such results.

(D) A method for conducting an analysis on a continuing basis that integrates all available information about the integrity of the facility and the consequences of releases from the facility.

(E) A description of actions to be taken by the operator to promptly address any integrity issue raised by an evaluation conducted under subparagraph (C) or the analysis conducted under subparagraph (D).

(F) A description of measures to prevent and mitigate the consequences of releases from the facility.

(G) A method for monitoring cathodic protection systems throughout the pipeline system of the operator to the extent not addressed by other regulations.

(H) If the Secretary raises a safety concern relating to the facility, a description of the actions to be taken by the operator to address the safety concern, including issues raised with the Secretary by States and local authorities under an agreement entered into under section 60106.


(4) Treatment of baseline integrity assessments.—In the case of a baseline integrity assessment conducted by an operator in the period beginning on the date of enactment of this subsection and ending on the date of issuance of regulations under this subsection, the Secretary shall accept the assessment as complete, and shall not require the operator to repeat any portion of the assessment, if the Secretary determines that the assessment was conducted in accordance with the requirements of this subsection.

(5) Waivers and modifications.—In accordance with section 60118(c), the Secretary may waive or modify any requirement for reassessment of a facility under paragraph (3)(B) for reasons that may include the need to maintain local product supply or the lack of internal inspection devices if the Secretary determines that such waiver is not inconsistent with pipeline safety.

(6) Standards.—The standards prescribed by the Secretary under paragraph (2) shall address each of the following factors:

(A) The minimum requirements described in paragraph (3).

(B) The type or frequency of inspections or testing of pipeline facilities, in addition to the minimum requirements of paragraph (3)(B).

(C) The manner in which the inspections or testing are conducted.

(D) The criteria used in analyzing results of the inspections or testing.

(E) The types of information sources that must be integrated in assessing the integrity of a pipeline facility as well as the manner of integration.

(F) The nature and timing of actions selected to address the integrity of a pipeline facility.

(G) Such other factors as the Secretary determines appropriate to ensure that the integrity of a pipeline facility is addressed and that appropriate mitigative measures are adopted to protect areas identified under subsection (a)(1).


In prescribing those standards, the Secretary shall ensure that all inspections required are conducted in a manner that minimizes environmental and safety risks, and shall take into account the applicable level of protection established by national consensus standards organizations.

(7) Additional optional standards.—The Secretary may also prescribe standards requiring an operator of a pipeline facility to include in an integrity management program under this subsection—

(A) changes to valves or the establishment or modification of systems that monitor pressure and detect leaks based on the operator's risk analysis; and

(B) the use of emergency flow restricting devices.


(8) Lack of regulations.—In the absence of regulations addressing the elements of an integrity management program described in this subsection, the operator of a pipeline facility shall conduct a risk analysis and adopt and implement an integrity management program described in this subsection not later than 24 months after the date of enactment of this subsection and shall complete the baseline integrity assessment described in this subsection not later than 10 years after such date of enactment. At least 50 percent of such facilities shall be assessed not later than 5 years after such date of enactment. The operator shall prioritize such facilities for assessment based on all risk factors, including any previously discovered defects or anomalies and any history of leaks, repairs, or failures. The operator shall ensure that assessments of facilities with the highest risks are given priority for completion and that such assessments will be completed not later than 5 years after such date of enactment.

(9) Review of integrity management programs.—

(A) Review of programs.—

(i) In general.—The Secretary shall review a risk analysis and integrity management program under paragraph (1) and record the results of that review for use in the next review of an operator's program.

(ii) Context of review.—The Secretary may conduct a review under clause (i) as an element of the Secretary's inspection of an operator.

(iii) Inadequate programs.—If the Secretary determines that a risk analysis or integrity management program does not comply with the requirements of this subsection or regulations issued as described in paragraph (2), has not been adequately implemented, or is inadequate for the safe operation of a pipeline facility, the Secretary may conduct proceedings under this chapter.


(B) Amendments to programs.—In order to facilitate reviews under this paragraph, an operator of a pipeline facility shall notify the Secretary of any amendment made to the operator's integrity management program not later than 30 days after the date of adoption of the amendment. The Secretary shall review any such amendment in accordance with this paragraph.

(C) Transmittal of programs to state authorities.—The Secretary shall provide a copy of each risk analysis and integrity management program reviewed by the Secretary under this paragraph to any appropriate State authority with which the Secretary has entered into an agreement under section 60106.


(10) State review of integrity management plans.—A State authority that enters into an agreement pursuant to section 60106, permitting the State authority to review the risk analysis and integrity management program pursuant to paragraph (9), may provide the Secretary with a written assessment of the risk analysis and integrity management program, make recommendations, as appropriate, to address safety concerns not adequately addressed by the operator's risk analysis or integrity management program, and submit documentation explaining the State-proposed revisions. The Secretary shall consider carefully the State's proposals and work in consultation with the States and operators to address safety concerns.

(11) Application of standards.—Section 60104(b) shall not apply to this section.


(d) Evaluation of Integrity Management Regulations.—Not later than 4 years after the date of enactment of this subsection, the Comptroller General shall complete an assessment and evaluation of the effects on public safety and the environment of the requirements for the implementation of integrity management programs contained in the standards prescribed as described in subsection (c)(2).

(e) Distribution Integrity Management Programs.—

(1) Minimum standards.—Not later than December 31, 2007, the Secretary shall prescribe minimum standards for integrity management programs for distribution pipelines.

(2) Additional authority of secretary.—In carrying out this subsection, the Secretary may require operators of distribution pipelines to continually identify and assess risks on their distribution lines, to remediate conditions that present a potential threat to line integrity, and to monitor program effectiveness.

(3) Excess flow valves.—

(A) In general.—The minimum standards shall include a requirement for an operator of a natural gas distribution system to install an excess flow valve on each single family residence service line connected to such system if—

(i) the service line is installed or entirely replaced after June 1, 2008;

(ii) the service line operates continuously throughout the year at a pressure not less than 10 pounds per square inch gauge;

(iii) the service line is not connected to a gas stream with respect to which the operator has had prior experience with contaminants the presence of which could interfere with the operation of an excess flow valve;

(iv) the installation of an excess flow valve on the service line is not likely to cause loss of service to the residence or interfere with necessary operation or maintenance activities, such as purging liquids from the service line; and

(v) an excess flow valve meeting performance standards developed under section 60110(e) of title 49, United States Code, is commercially available to the operator, as determined by the Secretary.


(B) Distribution branch services, multifamily facilities, and small commercial facilities.—Not later than 2 years after the date of enactment of the Pipeline Safety, Regulatory Certainty, and Job Creation Act of 2011, and after issuing a final report on the evaluation of the National Transportation Safety Board's recommendation on excess flow valves in applications other than service lines serving one single family residence, the Secretary, if appropriate, shall by regulation require the use of excess flow valves, or equivalent technology, where economically, technically, and operationally feasible on new or entirely replaced distribution branch services, multifamily facilities, and small commercial facilities.

(C) Reports.—Operators of natural gas distribution systems shall report annually to the Secretary on the number of excess flow valves installed on their systems under subparagraph (A).


(4) Applicability.—The Secretary shall determine which distribution pipelines will be subject to the minimum standards.

(5) Development and implementation.—Each operator of a distribution pipeline that the Secretary determines is subject to the minimum standards prescribed by the Secretary under this subsection shall develop and implement an integrity management program in accordance with those standards.

(6) Savings clause.—Subject to section 60104(c), a State authority having a current certification under section 60105 may adopt or continue in force additional integrity management requirements, including additional requirements for installation of excess flow valves, for gas distribution pipelines within the boundaries of that State.


(f) Certification of Pipeline Integrity Management Program Performance.—The Secretary shall establish procedures requiring certification of annual and semiannual pipeline integrity management program performance reports by a senior executive officer of the company operating a pipeline subject to this chapter. The procedures shall require a signed statement, which may be effected electronically in accordance with the provisions of the Electronic Signatures in Global and National Commerce Act (15 U.S.C. 7001 et seq.), certifying that—

(1) the signing officer has reviewed the report; and

(2) to the best of such officer's knowledge and belief, the report is true and complete.

(Pub. L. 103–272, §1(e), July 5, 1994, 108 Stat. 1315; Pub. L. 103–429, §6(75), Oct. 31, 1994, 108 Stat. 4388; Pub. L. 104–304, §§7, 20(i), Oct. 12, 1996, 110 Stat. 3800, 3805; Pub. L. 107–355, §14(a), (b), Dec. 17, 2002, 116 Stat. 3002, 3005; Pub. L. 109–468, §§9, 14, 16, Dec. 29, 2006, 120 Stat. 3493, 3496; Pub. L. 112–90, §§5(e), 22, Jan. 3, 2012, 125 Stat. 1908, 1917.)

Historical and Revision Notes
Pub. L. 103–272
Revised

Section

Source (U.S. Code)Source (Statutes at Large)
60109(a) (1)(A) 49 App.:1672(i)(1) (1st sentence), (2). Aug. 12, 1968, Pub. L. 90–481, 82 Stat. 720, §3(i); added Oct. 24, 1992, Pub. L. 102–508, §102(a)(2), 106 Stat. 3291.
60109(a) (1)(B) 49 App.:2002(m)(1) (1st sentence). Nov. 30, 1979, Pub. L. 96–129, 93 Stat. 989, §203(m); added Oct. 24, 1992, Pub. L. 102–508, §202(a)(2), 106 Stat. 3300.
60109(a)(2) 49 App.:1672(i)(1) (last sentence).
  49 App.:2002(m)(1) (2d sentence).
60109(b) 49 App.:2002(m)(1) (last sentence).

In subsection (a)(1)(B)(i) and (ii), the words “regulation under” and “or not” are omitted as surplus.

Pub. L. 103–429

This amends 49:60109(a)(2) to correct an error in the codification enacted by section 1 of the Act of July 5, 1994 (Public Law 103–272, 108 Stat. 1315).

References in Text

The date of enactment of this subsection, referred to in subsecs. (c) and (d), is the date of enactment of Pub. L. 107–355, which was approved Dec. 17, 2002.

The date of enactment of the Pipeline Safety, Regulatory Certainty, and Job Creation Act of 2011, referred to in subsec. (e)(3)(B), is the date of enactment of Pub. L. 112–90, which was approved Jan. 3, 2012.

The Electronic Signatures in Global and National Commerce Act, referred to in subsec. (f), is Pub. L. 106–229, June 30, 2000, 114 Stat. 464, which is classified principally to chapter 96 (§7001 et seq.) of Title 15, Commerce and Trade. For complete classification of this Act to the Code, see Short Title note set out under section 7001 of Title 15 and Tables.

Amendments

2012—Subsec. (c)(3)(B). Pub. L. 112–90, §5(e), amended subpar. (B) generally. Prior to amendment, subpar. (B) read as follows: “Subject to paragraph (5), periodic reassessment of the facility, at a minimum of once every 7 years, using methods described in subparagraph (A).”

Subsec. (e)(3)(B), (C). Pub. L. 112–90, §22, added subpar. (B) and redesignated former subpar. (B) as (C).

2006—Subsec. (c)(9)(A)(iii). Pub. L. 109–468, §14, reenacted heading without change and amended text generally. Prior to amendment, text read as follows: “If the Secretary determines that a risk analysis or integrity management program does not comply with the requirements of this subsection or regulations issued as described in paragraph (2), or is inadequate for the safe operation of a pipeline facility, the Secretary shall act under section 60108(a)(2) to require the operator to revise the risk analysis or integrity management program.”

Subsec. (e). Pub. L. 109–468, §9, added subsec. (e).

Subsec. (f). Pub. L. 109–468, §16, added subsec. (f).

2002—Subsec. (c). Pub. L. 107–355, §14(a), added subsec. (c).

Subsec. (d). Pub. L. 107–355, §14(b), added subsec. (d).

1996—Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 104–304, §20(i), substituted “standards” for “regulations” in introductory provisions.

Subsec. (a)(1)(B)(i). Pub. L. 104–304, §7(a), substituted “waters where a substantial likelihood of commercial navigation exists” for “a navigable waterway (as the Secretary defines by regulation)”.

Subsec. (b). Pub. L. 104–304, §7(b), reenacted heading without change and amended text generally. Prior to amendment, text read as follows: “When describing an area that is unusually sensitive to environmental damage if there is a hazardous liquid pipeline accident, the Secretary shall consider including—

“(1) earthquake zones and areas subject to landslides and other substantial ground movements;

“(2) areas of likely ground water contamination if a hazardous liquid pipeline facility ruptures;

“(3) freshwater lakes, rivers, and waterways; and

“(4) river deltas and other areas subject to soil erosion or subsidence from flooding or other water action where a hazardous liquid pipeline facility is likely to become exposed or undermined.”

1994—Subsec. (a)(2). Pub. L. 103–429 substituted “section 60102(e)” for “section 60102(c)”.

Effective Date of 1994 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 103–429 effective July 5, 1994, see section 9 of Pub. L. 103–429, set out as a note under section 321 of this title.

Integrity Management

Pub. L. 112–90, §5, Jan. 3, 2012, 125 Stat. 1907, provided that:

“(a) Evaluation.—Not later than 18 months after the date of enactment of this Act [Jan. 3, 2012], the Secretary of Transportation shall evaluate—

“(1) whether integrity management system requirements, or elements thereof, should be expanded beyond high-consequence areas; and

“(2) with respect to gas transmission pipeline facilities, whether applying integrity management program requirements, or elements thereof, to additional areas would mitigate the need for class location requirements.

“(b) Factors.—In conducting the evaluation under subsection (a), the Secretary shall consider, at a minimum, the following:

“(1) The continuing priority to enhance protections for public safety.

“(2) The continuing importance of reducing risk in high-consequence areas.

“(3) The incremental costs of applying integrity management standards to pipelines outside of high-consequence areas where operators are already conducting assessments beyond what is required under chapter 601 of title 49, United States Code.

“(4) The need to undertake integrity management assessments and repairs in a manner that is achievable and sustainable, and that does not disrupt pipeline service.

“(5) The options for phasing in the extension of integrity management requirements beyond high-consequence areas, including the most effective and efficient options for decreasing risks to an increasing number of people living or working in proximity to pipeline facilities.

“(6) The appropriateness of applying repair criteria, such as pressure reductions and special requirements for scheduling remediation, to areas that are not high-consequence areas.

“(c) Report.—Not later than 2 years after the date of enactment of this Act [Jan. 3, 2012], the Secretary shall submit to the Committee on Transportation and Infrastructure and the Committee on Energy and Commerce of the House of Representatives and the Committee on Commerce, Science, and Transportation of the Senate a report, based on the evaluation conducted under subsection (a), containing the Secretary's analysis and findings regarding—

“(1) expansion of integrity management requirements, or elements thereof, beyond high-consequence areas; and

“(2) with respect to gas transmission pipeline facilities, whether applying the integrity management program requirements, or elements thereof, to additional areas would mitigate the need for class location requirements.

“(d) Data Reporting.—The Secretary shall collect any relevant data necessary to complete the evaluation required by subsection (a).

“(e) Technical Correction.—[Amended this section.]

“(f) Rulemaking Requirements.—

“(1) Review period defined.—In this subsection, the term ‘review period’ means the period beginning on the date of enactment of this Act [Jan. 3, 2012] and ending on the earlier of—

“(A) the date that is 1 year after the date of completion of the report under subsection (c); or

“(B) the date that is 3 years after the date of enactment of this Act.

“(2) Congressional authority.—In order to provide Congress the necessary time to review the results of the report required by subsection (c) and implement appropriate recommendations, the Secretary shall not, during the review period, issue final regulations described in paragraph (3)(B).

“(3) Standards.—

“(A) Findings.—As soon as practicable following the review period, the Secretary shall issue final regulations described in subparagraph (B), if the Secretary finds, in the report required under subsection (c), that—

“(i) integrity management system requirements, or elements thereof, should be expanded beyond high-consequence areas; and

“(ii) with respect to gas transmission pipeline facilities, applying integrity management program requirements, or elements thereof, to additional areas would mitigate the need for class location requirements.

“(B) Regulations.—Regulations issued by the Secretary under subparagraph (A), if any, shall—

“(i) expand integrity management system requirements, or elements thereof, beyond high-consequence areas; and

“(ii) remove redundant class location requirements for gas transmission pipeline facilities that are regulated under an integrity management program adopted and implemented under section 60109(c)(2) of title 49, United States Code.

“(4) Savings clause.—

“(A) In general.—Notwithstanding any other provision of this subsection, the Secretary, during the review period, may issue final regulations described in paragraph (3)(B), if the Secretary determines that a condition that poses a risk to public safety, property, or the environment is present or an imminent hazard exists and that the regulations will address the risk or hazard.

“(B) Imminent hazard defined.—In subparagraph (A), the term ‘imminent hazard’ means the existence of a condition related to pipelines or pipeline operations that presents a substantial likelihood that death, serious illness, severe personal injury, or substantial endangerment to health, property, or the environment may occur.

“(g) Report to Congress on Risk-Based Pipeline Reassessment Intervals.—Not later than 2 years after the date of enactment of this Act [Jan. 3, 2012], the Comptroller General of the United States shall evaluate—

“(1) whether risk-based reassessment intervals are a more effective alternative for managing risks to pipelines in high-consequence areas once baseline assessments are complete when compared to the reassessment interval specified in section 60109(c)(3)(B) of title 49, United States Code;

“(2) the number of anomalies found in baseline assessments required under section 60109(c)(3)(A) of title 49, United States Code, as compared to the number of anomalies found in reassessments required under section 60109(c)(3)(B) of such title; and

“(3) the progress made in implementing the recommendations in GAO Report 06–945 and the current relevance of those recommendations that have not been implemented.”

[Terms used in section 5 of Pub. L. 112–90, set out above, have the meaning given those terms in this chapter, see section 1(c)(1) of Pub. L. 112–90, set out as a note under section 60101 of this title. For definition of “high-consequence area” as used in section 5 of Pub. L. 112–90, see section 1(c)(2) of Pub. L. 112–90, set out as a note under section 60101 of this title.]

Seismicity

Pub. L. 112–90, §29, Jan. 3, 2012, 125 Stat. 1921, provided that: “In identifying and evaluating all potential threats to each pipeline segment pursuant to parts 192 and 195 of title 49, Code of Federal Regulations, an operator of a pipeline facility shall consider the seismicity of the area.”

[Terms used in section 29 of Pub. L. 112–90, set out above, have the meaning given those terms in this chapter, see section 1(c)(1) of Pub. L. 112–90, set out as a note under section 60101 of this title.]

Study of Reassessment Intervals

Pub. L. 107–355, §14(d), Dec. 17, 2002, 116 Stat. 3005, required the Comptroller General to study the 7-year reassessment interval required by section 60109(c)(3)(B) of title 49 and to transmit to Congress a report on the study not later than 4 years after Dec. 17, 2002.

§60110. Excess flow valves

(a) Application.—This section applies only to—

(1) a natural gas distribution system installed after the effective date of regulations prescribed under this section; and

(2) any other natural gas distribution system when repair to the system requires replacing a part to accommodate installing excess flow valves.


(b) Installation Requirements and Considerations.—Not later than April 24, 1994, the Secretary of Transportation shall prescribe standards on the circumstances, if any, under which an operator of a natural gas distribution system must install excess flow valves in the system. The Secretary shall consider—

(1) the system design pressure;

(2) the system operating pressure;

(3) the types of customers to which the distribution system supplies gas, including hospitals, schools, and commercial enterprises;

(4) the technical feasibility and cost of installing, operating, and maintaining the valve;

(5) the public safety benefits of installing the valve;

(6) the location of customer meters; and

(7) other factors the Secretary considers relevant.


(c) Notification of Availability.—(1) Not later than October 24, 1994, the Secretary shall prescribe standards requiring an operator of a natural gas distribution system to notify in writing its customers having lines in which excess flow valves are not required by law but can be installed according to the standards prescribed under subsection (e) of this section, of—

(A) the availability of excess flow valves for installation in the system;

(B) safety benefits to be derived from installation; and

(C) costs associated with installation, maintenance, and replacement.


(2) The standards shall provide that, except when installation is required under subsection (b) of this section, excess flow valves shall be installed at the request of the customer if the customer will pay all costs associated with installation.

(d) Report.—If the Secretary decides under subsection (b) of this section that there are no circumstances under which an operator must install excess flow valves, the Secretary shall submit to Congress a report on the reasons for the decision not later than 30 days after the decision is made.

(e) Performance Standards.—Not later than April 24, 1994, the Secretary shall develop standards for the performance of excess flow valves used to protect lines in a natural gas distribution system. The Secretary may adopt industry accepted performance standards in order to comply with the requirement under the preceding sentence. The standards shall be incorporated into regulations the Secretary prescribes under this section. All excess flow valves shall be installed according to the standards.

(Pub. L. 103–272, §1(e), July 5, 1994, 108 Stat. 1316; Pub. L. 104–304, §§8, 20(j), Oct. 12, 1996, 110 Stat. 3800, 3805; Pub. L. 107–355, §21(1), Dec. 17, 2002, 116 Stat. 3010.)

Historical and Revision Notes
Revised

Section

Source (U.S. Code)Source (Statutes at Large)
60110(a) 49 App.:1672(j)(5). Aug. 12, 1968, Pub. L. 90–481, 82 Stat. 720, §3(j); added Oct. 24, 1992, Pub. L. 102–508, §104, 106 Stat. 3291.
60110(b) 49 App.:1672(j)(1).
60110(c) 49 App.:1672(j)(2).
60110(d) 49 App.:1672(j)(3).
60110(e) 49 App.:1672(j)(4).

In subsection (a)(2), the words “in a manner” are omitted as surplus.

In subsection (b), before clause (1), the words “on when” are substituted for “prescribing the circumstances, if any, under which” to eliminate unnecessary words.

Amendments

2002—Subsec. (b). Pub. L. 107–355 substituted “circumstances, if any, under which an operator” for “circumstances under which an operator” in introductory provisions.

1996—Subsec. (b). Pub. L. 104–304, §20(j), substituted “standards” for “regulations” in introductory provisions.

Subsec. (b)(1). Pub. L. 104–304, §8(1), which directed the insertion of “, if any,” after “circumstances” in the first sentence of subsection (b)(1), could not be executed because the word “circumstances” did not appear in subsec. (b)(1).

Subsec. (b)(4). Pub. L. 104–304, §8(2), inserted “, operating, and maintaining” after “cost of installing”.

Subsec. (c)(1). Pub. L. 104–304, §20(j), substituted “standards” for “regulations” after “prescribe” in introductory provisions.

Subsec. (c)(1)(C). Pub. L. 104–304, §8(3), inserted “, maintenance, and replacement” after “installation”.

Subsec. (c)(2). Pub. L. 104–304, §20(j), substituted “standards” for “regulations”.

Subsec. (e). Pub. L. 104–304, §8(4), inserted after first sentence “The Secretary may adopt industry accepted performance standards in order to comply with the requirement under the preceding sentence.”

§60111. Financial responsibility for liquefied natural gas facilities

(a) Notice.—When the Secretary of Transportation believes that an operator of a liquefied natural gas facility does not have adequate financial responsibility for the facility, the Secretary may issue a notice to the operator about the inadequacy and the amount of financial responsibility the Secretary considers adequate.

(b) Hearings.—An operator receiving a notice under subsection (a) of this section may have a hearing on the record not later than 30 days after receiving the notice. The operator may show why the Secretary should not issue an order requiring the operator to demonstrate and maintain financial responsibility in at least the amount the Secretary considers adequate.

(c) Orders.—After an opportunity for a hearing on the record, the Secretary may issue the order if the Secretary decides it is justified in the public interest.

(Pub. L. 103–272, §1(e), July 5, 1994, 108 Stat. 1317.)

Historical and Revision Notes
Revised

Section

Source (U.S. Code)Source (Statutes at Large)
60111(a) 49 App.:1674b(b)(1), (c). Aug. 12, 1968, Pub. L. 90–481, 82 Stat. 720, §7(b)(1)–(3), (c); added Nov. 30, 1979, Pub. L. 96–129, §153, 93 Stat. 1002.
60111(b) 49 App.:1674b(b)(2).
60111(c) 49 App.:1674b(b)(3).

In subsection (a), the words “is not maintaining adequate insurance or otherwise”, the text of 49 App.:1674b(c), and the words “and serve upon” and “a statement of” are omitted as surplus.

In subsection (b), the words “in accordance with section 554 of title 5” are omitted for consistency in the revised title and because 5:554 applies to a hearing on the record unless otherwise stated. The words “to be held” and “cause as to” are omitted as surplus. The words “the Secretary considers adequate” are substituted for “indicated in the notice under paragraph (1)” for clarity and to eliminate unnecessary words.

Subsection (c) is substituted for 49 App.:1674b(b)(3) to eliminate unnecessary words.

§60112. Pipeline facilities hazardous to life and property

(a) General Authority.—After notice and an opportunity for a hearing, the Secretary of Transportation may decide that a pipeline facility is hazardous if the Secretary decides that—

(1) operation of the facility is or would be hazardous to life, property, or the environment; or

(2) the facility is or would be constructed or operated, or a component of the facility is or would be constructed or operated, with equipment, material, or a technique that the Secretary decides is hazardous to life, property, or the environment.


(b) Considerations.—In making a decision under subsection (a) of this section, the Secretary shall consider, if relevant—

(1) the characteristics of the pipe and other equipment used in the pipeline facility, including the age, manufacture, physical properties, and method of manufacturing, constructing, or assembling the equipment;

(2) the nature of the material the pipeline facility transports, the corrosive and deteriorative qualities of the material, the sequence in which the material are 1 transported, and the pressure required for transporting the material;

(3) the aspects of the area in which the pipeline facility is located, including climatic and geologic conditions and soil characteristics;

(4) the proximity of the area in which the hazardous liquid pipeline facility is located to environmentally sensitive areas;

(5) the population density and population and growth patterns of the area in which the pipeline facility is located;

(6) any recommendation of the National Transportation Safety Board made under another law; and

(7) other factors the Secretary considers appropriate.


(c) Opportunity for State Comment.—The Secretary shall provide, to any appropriate official of a State in which a pipeline facility is located and about which a proceeding has begun under this section, notice and an opportunity to comment on an agreement the Secretary proposes to make to resolve the proceeding. State comment shall incorporate comments of affected local officials.

(d) Corrective Action Orders.—

(1) In general.—If the Secretary decides under subsection (a) of this section that a pipeline facility is or would be hazardous, the Secretary shall order the operator of the facility to take necessary corrective action, including suspended or restricted use of the facility, physical inspection, testing, repair, replacement, or other appropriate action.

(2) Actions attributable to an employee.—If, in the case of a corrective action order issued following an accident, the Secretary determines that the actions of an employee carrying out an activity regulated under this chapter, including duties under section 60102(a), may have contributed substantially to the cause of the accident, the Secretary shall direct the operator to relieve the employee from performing those activities, reassign the employee, or place the employee on leave until the earlier of the date on which—

(A) the Secretary, after notice and an opportunity for a hearing, determines that the employee's actions did not contribute substantially to the cause of the accident; or

(B) the Secretary determines the employee has been re-qualified or re-trained as provided for in section 60131 and can safely perform those activities.


(3) Effect of collective bargaining agreements.—An action taken by an operator under paragraph (2) shall be in accordance with the terms and conditions of any applicable collective bargaining agreement.


(e) Waiver of Notice and Hearing in Emergency.—The Secretary may waive the requirements for notice and an opportunity for a hearing under this section and issue expeditiously an order under this section if the Secretary decides failure to issue the order expeditiously will result in likely serious harm to life, property, or the environment. An order under this subsection shall provide an opportunity for a hearing as soon as practicable after the order is issued.

(Pub. L. 103–272, §1(e), July 5, 1994, 108 Stat. 1317; Pub. L. 103–429, §6(76), Oct. 31, 1994, 108 Stat. 4388; Pub. L. 107–355, §§8(a), 10(b), Dec. 17, 2002, 116 Stat. 2993, 2995.)

Historical and Revision Notes
Pub. L. 103–272
Revised

Section

Source (U.S. Code)Source (Statutes at Large)
60112(a) 49 App.:1679b(b)(1) (1st sentence words before 3d comma), (2). Aug. 12, 1968, Pub. L. 90–481, 82 Stat. 720, §12(b)(1)–(5); added Nov. 30, 1979, Pub. L. 96–129, §104(b), 93 Stat. 993; Oct. 24, 1992, Pub. L. 102–508, §101(b), 106 Stat. 3290.
  49 App.:2008(b)(1) (1st sentence words before 3d comma), (2). Nov. 30, 1979, Pub. L. 96–129, §209(b)(1)–(5), 93 Stat. 1010; Oct. 24, 1992, Pub. L. 102–508, §201(b), 106 Stat. 3300.
60112(b) 49 App.:1679b(b)(3).
  49 App.:2008(b)(3).
60112(c) 49 App.:1679b(b)(6). Aug. 12, 1968, Pub. L. 90–481, 82 Stat. 720, §12(b)(6); added Oct. 24, 1992, Pub. L. 102–508, §113(a), 106 Stat. 3296.
  49 App.:2008(b)(6). Nov. 30, 1979, Pub. L. 96–129, 93 Stat. 989, §209(b)(6); added Oct. 24, 1992, Pub. L. 102–508, §213(a), 106 Stat. 3305.
60112(d) 49 App.:1679b(b)(1) (1st sentence words after 3d comma, last sentence).
  49 App.:2008(b)(1) (1st sentence words after 3d comma, last sentence).
60112(e) 49 App.:1679b(b)(4), (5).
  49 App.:2008(b)(4), (5).

In subsection (a), before clause (1), the word “reasonable” and the text of 49 App.:1679b(b)(1) (last sentence) and 2008(b)(1) (last sentence) are omitted as surplus. Clauses (1) and (2) are substituted for “that any pipeline facility is hazardous to life or property” and 49 App.:1679b(b)(2) and 2008(b)(2) to eliminate unnecessary words.

In subsection (b)(1), the words “involved” and “(including its resistance to corrosion and deterioration)” are omitted as surplus.

In subsection (b)(5), the words “in connection with any investigation conducted by the Board” are omitted as surplus.

In subsection (c), the words “responsible for pipeline safety” are omitted as surplus.

In subsection (e), the text of 49 App.:1679b(b)(4) and 2008(b)(4) is omitted because of 28:516 and 1331.

Pub. L. 103–429

This amends 49:60112(d) to clarify the restatement of 49 App.:1679b(b)(1) and 2008(b)(1) by section 1 of the Act of July 5, 1994 (Public Law 103–272, 108 Stat. 1317).

Amendments

2002—Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 107–355, §8(a)(1), reenacted heading without change and amended text generally. Prior to amendment, text read as follows: “After notice and an opportunity for a hearing, the Secretary of Transportation may decide a pipeline facility is hazardous if the Secretary decides the facility is—

“(1) hazardous to life, property, or the environment; or

“(2) constructed or operated, or a component of the facility is constructed or operated, with equipment, material, or a technique the Secretary decides is hazardous to life, property, or the environment.”

Subsec. (d). Pub. L. 107–355, §10(b), designated existing provisions as par. (1), inserted heading, realigned margins, and added pars. (2) and (3).

Pub. L. 107–355, §8(a)(2), substituted “is or would be hazardous” for “is hazardous”.

1994—Subsec. (d). Pub. L. 103–429 inserted before period at end “, including suspended or restricted use of the facility, physical inspection, testing, repair, replacement, or other appropriate action”.

Effective Date of 1994 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 103–429 effective July 5, 1994, see section 9 of Pub. L. 103–429, set out as a note under section 321 of this title.

1 So in original. Probably should be “is”.

§60113. Customer-owned natural gas service lines

Not later than October 24, 1993, the Secretary of Transportation shall prescribe standards requiring an operator of a natural gas distribution pipeline that does not maintain customer-owned natural gas service lines up to building walls to advise its customers of—

(1) the requirements for maintaining those lines;

(2) any resources known to the operator that could assist customers in carrying out the maintenance;

(3) information the operator has on operating and maintaining its lines that could assist customers; and

(4) the potential hazards of not maintaining the lines.

(Pub. L. 103–272, §1(e), July 5, 1994, 108 Stat. 1318; Pub. L. 104–304, §§9, 20(k), Oct. 12, 1996, 110 Stat. 3801, 3805.)

Historical and Revision Notes
Revised

Section

Source (U.S. Code)Source (Statutes at Large)
60113(a) 49 App.:1685(b). Aug. 12, 1968, Pub. L. 90–481, 82 Stat. 720, §18(b); added Oct. 24, 1992, Pub. L. 102–508, §115(a)(2), 106 Stat. 3296.
60113(b) 49 App.:1672(k). Aug. 12, 1968, Pub. L. 90–481, 82 Stat. 720, §3(k); added Oct. 24, 1992, Pub. L. 102–508, §115(c), 106 Stat. 3297.

Amendments

1996—Pub. L. 104–304 struck out subsec. (a) designation and heading, substituted “standards” for “regulations”, and struck out subsec. (b), which read as follows:

“(b) Actions To Promote Safety.—Not later than one year after submitting the report required under section 115(b) of the Pipeline Safety Act of 1992 (Public Law 102–508, 106 Stat. 3296), the Secretary, considering the report and in cooperation and coordination with appropriate State and local authorities, shall take appropriate action to promote the adoption of measures to improve the safety of customer-owned natural gas service lines.”

Maintenance of Customer-Owned Service Lines

Pub. L. 102–508, title I, §115(b), Oct. 24, 1992, 106 Stat. 3296, provided that:

“(1) DOT safety review.—Within 18 months after the date of the enactment of this Act [Oct. 24, 1992], the Secretary of Transportation shall conduct a review of Department of Transportation and State rules, policies, procedures, and other measures with respect to the safety of customer-owned natural gas service lines, including the effectiveness of such rules, policies, procedures, and other measures. The Secretary of Transportation shall include in the review an evaluation of the extent to which lack of maintenance of customer-owned natural gas service lines raises safety concerns and shall make recommendations regarding maintenance of such lines, including the need for any legislative changes or regulatory action. In conducting the review and developing the recommendations, the Secretary of Transportation shall consider the following factors: State and local law, including law governing private property and rights, and including State pipeline safety regulation of distribution operators; the views of State and local regulatory authorities; the extent of operator compliance with the program for advising customers regarding maintenance of such lines required under section 18(b) of the Natural Gas Pipeline Safety Act of 1968 [see subsec. (a) of this section]; available accident information; the recommendations of the National Transportation Safety Board; costs; the civil liability implications of distribution operators taking responsibility for customer-owned service lines; and whether the service line maintenance information program required under such section 18(b) sufficiently addresses safety risks and concerns involving customer-owned service lines.

“(2) Operation and maintenance responsibility.—Within 18 months after the date of the enactment of this Act [Oct. 24, 1992], the Secretary of Transportation shall conduct, with the participation of the operators of natural gas distribution facilities, a survey of owners of customer-owned service lines to determine the views of such owners regarding whether distribution companies should assume responsibility for the operation and maintenance of customer-owned service lines. In conducting the survey, the Secretary of Transportation shall ensure that such customers are aware of any potential safety benefits, any potential implementation issues (including any property rights or cost issues), the recommendations of the National Transportation Safety Board, and accidents that have occurred, related to customer-owned service lines.

“(3) Applicability.—Chapter 35 of title 44, United States Code (relating to coordination of Federal information policy) shall not apply to the conduct of the review or survey under this subsection.

“(4) Report.—Not later than 2 years after the date of the enactment of this Act [Oct. 24, 1992], the Secretary of Transportation shall transmit to Congress a report on the results of the review and survey conducted under this subsection, together with any recommendations (including legislative recommendations) regarding maintenance of customer-owned natural gas service lines.”

§60114. One-call notification systems

(a) Minimum Requirements.—The Secretary of Transportation shall prescribe regulations providing minimum requirements for establishing and operating a one-call notification system for a State to adopt that will notify an operator of a pipeline facility of activity in the vicinity of the facility that could threaten the safety of the facility. The regulations shall include the following:

(1) a requirement that the system apply to all areas of the State containing underground pipeline facilities.

(2) a requirement that a person, including a government employee or contractor, intending to engage in an activity the Secretary decides could cause physical damage to an underground facility must contact the appropriate system to establish if there are underground facilities present in the area of the intended activity.

(3) a requirement that all operators of underground pipeline facilities participate in an appropriate one-call notification system.

(4) qualifications for an operator of a facility, a private contractor, or a State or local authority to operate a system.

(5) procedures for advertisement and notice of the availability of a system.

(6) a requirement about the information to be provided by a person contacting the system under clause (2) of this subsection.

(7) a requirement for the response of the operator of the system and of the facility after they are contacted by an individual under this subsection.

(8) a requirement that each State decide whether the system will be toll free.

(9) a requirement for sanctions substantially the same as provided under sections 60120 and 60122 of this title.


(b) Marking Facilities.—On notification by an operator of a damage prevention program or by a person planning to carry out demolition, excavation, tunneling, or construction in the vicinity of a pipeline facility, the operator of the facility shall mark accurately, in a reasonable and timely way, the location of the pipeline facilities in the vicinity of the demolition, excavation, tunneling, or construction.

(c) Relationship to Other Laws.—This section and regulations prescribed under this section do not affect the liability established under a law of the United States or a State for damage caused by an activity described in subsection (a)(2) of this section.

(d) Prohibition Applicable to Excavators.—A person who engages in demolition, excavation, tunneling, or construction—

(1) may not engage in a demolition, excavation, tunneling, or construction activity in a State that has adopted a one-call notification system without first using that system to establish the location of underground facilities in the demolition, excavation, tunneling, or construction area;

(2) may not engage in such demolition, excavation, tunneling, or construction activity in disregard of location information or markings established by a pipeline facility operator pursuant to subsection (b); and

(3) and who causes damage to a pipeline facility that may endanger life or cause serious bodily harm or damage to property—

(A) may not fail to promptly report the damage to the owner or operator of the facility; and

(B) if the damage results in the escape of any flammable, toxic, or corrosive gas or liquid, may not fail to promptly report to other appropriate authorities by calling the 911 emergency telephone number.


(e) Prohibition Applicable to Underground Pipeline Facility Owners and Operators.—Any owner or operator of a pipeline facility who fails to respond to a location request in order to prevent damage to the pipeline facility or who fails to take reasonable steps, in response to such a request, to ensure accurate marking of the location of the pipeline facility in order to prevent damage to the pipeline facility shall be subject to a civil action under section 60120 or assessment of a civil penalty under section 60122.

(f) Limitation.—The Secretary may not conduct an enforcement proceeding under subsection (d) for a violation within the boundaries of a State that has the authority to impose penalties described in section 60134(b)(7) against persons who violate that State's damage prevention laws, unless the Secretary has determined that the State's enforcement is inadequate to protect safety, consistent with this chapter, and until the Secretary issues, through a rulemaking proceeding, the procedures for determining inadequate State enforcement of penalties.

(g) Technology Development Grants.—The Secretary may make grants to any organization or entity (not including for-profit entities) for the development of technologies that will facilitate the prevention of pipeline damage caused by demolition, excavation, tunneling, or construction activities, with emphasis on wireless and global positioning technologies having potential for use in connection with notification systems and underground facility locating and marking services. Funds provided under this subsection may not be used for lobbying or in direct support of litigation. The Secretary may also support such technology development through cooperative agreements with trade associations, academic institutions, and other organizations.

(Pub. L. 103–272, §1(e), July 5, 1994, 108 Stat. 1318; Pub. L. 104–287, §5(91), Oct. 11, 1996, 110 Stat. 3398; Pub. L. 104–304, §20(d), Oct. 12, 1996, 110 Stat. 3804; Pub. L. 107–355, §§3(b), 21(2), Dec. 17, 2002, 116 Stat. 2986, 3010; Pub. L. 109–468, §2(a)(1), (e), Dec. 29, 2006, 120 Stat. 3486, 3489.)

Historical and Revision Notes
Pub. L. 103–272
Revised

Section

Source (U.S. Code)Source (Statutes at Large)
60114(a) 49 App.:1687(b), (e). Aug. 12, 1968, Pub. L. 90–481, 82 Stat. 720, §20(a)–(e); added Oct. 31, 1988, Pub. L. 100–561, §303(a), 102 Stat. 2814.
60114(b) 49 App.:1687(c).
60114(c) 49 App.:1687(h). Aug. 12, 1968, Pub. L. 90–481, 82 Stat. 720, §20(h); added Oct. 24, 1992, Pub. L. 102–508, §304(a), 106 Stat. 3308.
60114(d) 49 App.:1687(a).
60114(e) 49 App.:1687(d).

In subsection (a), before clause (1), the words “Not later than 18 months after October 31, 1988” are omitted as obsolete. The words “as described in subsection (a)” are omitted as surplus. In clause (1), the words “or systems” are omitted because of 1:1. In clause (8), the words “or not” are omitted as surplus.

In subsection (b), the words “all of the requirements established under” are omitted as surplus.

In subsection (c), the words “contractor, excavator, or other” are omitted as surplus.

In subsection (d), before clause (1), the words “When apportioning the amount appropriated to carry out” are substituted for “In making allocations under” for consistency with section 60107 of the revised title. In clause (2), the words “shall withhold part of a payment under section 60107 of this title” are substituted for “such State may not receive the full reimbursement under such sections to which it would otherwise be entitled” for clarity and consistency.

Pub. L. 104–287

This amends 49:60114(a)(9) to clarify the restatement of 49 App.:1687(b) by section 1 of the Act of July 5, 1994 (Public Law 103–272, 108 Stat. 1319), because the requirement for substantially the same sanctions was not intended to include criminal penalties.

Amendments

2006—Subsecs. (d) to (g). Pub. L. 109–468 added subsecs. (d) to (g).

2002—Subsec. (a)(2). Pub. L. 107–355, §3(b), inserted “, including a government employee or contractor,” after “person”.

Subsecs. (c), (d). Pub. L. 107–355, §21(2), redesignated subsec. (d) as (c).

1996—Subsec. (a)(9). Pub. L. 104–287 and Pub. L. 104–304, §20(d)(1), amended par. (9) identically, substituting “60120 and 60122” for “60120, 60122, and 60123”.

Subsec. (b). Pub. L. 104–304, §20(d)(2), (3), redesignated subsec. (c) as (b) and struck out former subsec. (b) which read as follows:

“(b) Grants.—The Secretary may make a grant to a State under this section to develop and establish a one-call notification system consistent with subsection (a) of this section.”

Subsec. (c). Pub. L. 104–304, §20(d)(3), redesignated subsec. (c) as (b).

Subsecs. (d), (e). Pub. L. 104–304, §20(d)(2), (3), redesignated subsec. (e) as (d) and struck out former subsec. (d) which read as follows:

“(d) Apportionment.—When apportioning the amount appropriated to carry out section 60107 of this title among the States, the Secretary—

“(1) shall consider whether a State has adopted or is seeking adoption of a one-call notification system under this section; and

“(2) shall withhold part of a payment under section 60107 of this title when the Secretary decides a State has not adopted, or is not seeking adoption of, a one-call notification system.”

Effective Date of 1996 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 104–287 effective July 5, 1994, see section 8(1) of Pub. L. 104–287, set out as a note under section 5303 of this title.

Nationwide Toll-Free Number System

Pub. L. 107–355, §17, Dec. 17, 2002, 116 Stat. 3008, provided that: “Within 1 year after the date of the enactment of this Act [Dec. 17, 2002], the Secretary of Transportation shall, in conjunction with the Federal Communications Commission, facility operators, excavators, and one-call notification system operators, provide for the establishment of a 3-digit nationwide toll-free telephone number system to be used by State one-call notification systems.”

§60115. Technical safety standards committees

(a) Organization.—The Technical Pipeline Safety Standards Committee and the Technical Hazardous Liquid Pipeline Safety Standards Committee are committees in the Department of Transportation. The committees referred to in the preceding sentence shall serve as peer review committees for carrying out this chapter. Peer reviews conducted by the committees shall be treated for purposes of all Federal laws relating to risk assessment and peer review (including laws that take effect after the date of the enactment of the Accountable Pipeline Safety and Partnership Act of 1996) as meeting any peer review requirements of such laws.

(b) Composition and Appointment.—(1) The Technical Pipeline Safety Standards Committee is composed of 15 members appointed by the Secretary of Transportation after consulting with public and private agencies concerned with the technical aspect of transporting gas or operating a gas pipeline facility. Each member must be experienced in the safety regulation of transporting gas and of gas pipeline facilities or technically qualified, by training, experience, or knowledge in at least one field of engineering applicable to transporting gas or operating a gas pipeline facility, to evaluate gas pipeline safety standards or risk management principles.

(2) The Technical Hazardous Liquid Pipeline Safety Standards Committee is composed of 15 members appointed by the Secretary after consulting with public and private agencies concerned with the technical aspect of transporting hazardous liquid or operating a hazardous liquid pipeline facility. Each member must be experienced in the safety regulation of transporting hazardous liquid and of hazardous liquid pipeline facilities or technically qualified, by training, experience, or knowledge in at least one field of engineering applicable to transporting hazardous liquid or operating a hazardous liquid pipeline facility, to evaluate hazardous liquid pipeline safety standards or risk management principles.

(3) The members of each committee are appointed as follows:

(A) 5 individuals selected from departments, agencies, and instrumentalities of the United States Government and of the States.

(B) 5 individuals selected from the natural gas or hazardous liquid industry, as appropriate, after consulting with industry representatives.

(C) 5 individuals selected from the general public.


(4)(A) Two of the individuals selected for each committee under paragraph (3)(A) of this subsection must be State commissioners. The Secretary shall consult with the national organization of State commissions before selecting those 2 individuals.

(B) At least 3 of the individuals selected for each committee under paragraph (3)(B) of this subsection must be currently in the active operation of natural gas pipelines or hazardous liquid pipeline facilities, as appropriate. At least 1 of the individuals selected for each committee under paragraph (3)(B) shall have education, background, or experience in risk assessment and cost-benefit analysis. The Secretary shall consult with the national organizations representing the owners and operators of pipeline facilities before selecting individuals under paragraph (3)(B).

(C) Two of the individuals selected for each committee under paragraph (3)(C) of this subsection must have education, background, or experience in environmental protection or public safety. At least 1 of the individuals selected for each committee under paragraph (3)(C) shall have education, background, or experience in risk assessment and cost-benefit analysis. At least one individual selected for each committee under paragraph (3)(C) may not have a financial interest in the pipeline, petroleum, or natural gas industries.

(D) None of the individuals selected for a committee under paragraph (3)(C) may have a significant financial interest in the pipeline, petroleum, or gas industry.

(c) Committee Reports on Proposed Standards.—(1) The Secretary shall give to—

(A) the Technical Pipeline Safety Standards Committee each standard proposed under this chapter for transporting gas and for gas pipeline facilities including the risk assessment information and other analyses supporting each proposed standard; and

(B) the Technical Hazardous Liquid Pipeline Safety Standards Committee each standard proposed under this chapter for transporting hazardous liquid and for hazardous liquid pipeline facilities including the risk assessment information and other analyses supporting each proposed standard.


(2) Not later than 90 days after receiving the proposed standard and supporting analyses, the appropriate committee shall prepare and submit to the Secretary a report on the technical feasibility, reasonableness, cost-effectiveness, and practicability of the proposed standard and include in the report recommended actions. The Secretary shall publish each report, including any recommended actions and minority views. The report if timely made is part of the proceeding for prescribing the standard. The Secretary is not bound by the conclusions of the committee. However, if the Secretary rejects the conclusions of the committee, the Secretary shall publish the reasons.

(3) The Secretary may prescribe a standard after the end of the 90-day period.

(d) Proposed Committee Standards and Policy Development Recommendations.—(1) The Technical Pipeline Safety Standards Committee may propose to the Secretary a safety standard for transporting gas and for gas pipeline facilities. The Technical Hazardous Liquid Pipeline Safety Standards Committee may propose to the Secretary a safety standard for transporting hazardous liquid and for hazardous liquid pipeline facilities.

(2) If requested by the Secretary, a committee shall make policy development recommendations to the Secretary.

(e) Meetings.—Each committee shall meet with the Secretary at least up to 4 times annually. Each committee proceeding shall be recorded. The record of the proceeding shall be available to the public.

(f) Expenses.—A member of a committee under this section is entitled to expenses under section 5703 of title 5. A payment under this subsection does not make a member an officer or employee of the Government. This subsection does not apply to members regularly employed by the Government.

(Pub. L. 103–272, §1(e), July 5, 1994, 108 Stat. 1319; Pub. L. 104–88, title III, §308(m), Dec. 29, 1995, 109 Stat. 948; Pub. L. 104–304, §10, Oct. 12, 1996, 110 Stat. 3801; Pub. L. 107–355, §20(b), Dec. 17, 2002, 116 Stat. 3010.)

Historical and Revision Notes
Revised

Section

Source (U.S. Code)Source (Statutes at Large)
60115(a) 49 App.:1673(a) (1st sentence). Aug. 12, 1968, Pub. L. 90–481, §4(a), 82 Stat. 722; Nov. 30, 1979, Pub. L. 96–129, §102(a), 93 Stat. 991; Oct. 24, 1992, Pub. L. 102–508, §105(1), 106 Stat. 3293.
  49 App.:2003(a) (1st sentence). Nov. 30, 1979, Pub. L. 96–129, §204(a), 93 Stat. 1005; Oct. 24, 1992, Pub. L. 102–508, §204(1), 106 Stat. 3301.
60115(b)(1) 49 App.:1673(a) (last sentence words before colon).
60115(b)(2) 49 App.:2003(a) (last sentence words before colon).
60115(b)(3), (4) 49 App.:1671(7). Aug. 12, 1968, Pub. L. 90–481, §2(7), 82 Stat. 720; Nov. 30, 1979, Pub. L. 96–129, §109(a), 93 Stat. 996.
  49 App.:1673(a) (last sentence words after colon).
  49 App.:2001(10). Nov. 30, 1979, Pub. L. 96–129, §§202(10), 204(c), 93 Stat. 1004, 1006.
  49 App.:2003(a) (last sentence words after colon).
60115(c) 49 App.:1673(b) (1st–5th sentences). Aug. 12, 1968, Pub. L. 90–481, §4(b), 82 Stat. 722; Nov. 30, 1979, Pub. L. 96–129, §102(b), 93 Stat. 991; Jan. 14, 1983, Pub. L. 97–468, §101 (related to §4(b)), 96 Stat. 2543; Oct. 24, 1992, Pub. L. 102–508, §105(2), 106 Stat. 3293.
  49 App.:2003(b) (1st–5th sentences). Nov. 30, 1979, Pub. L. 96–129, §204(b), 93 Stat. 1006; Jan. 14, 1983, Pub. L. 97–468, §101 (related to §204(b)), 96 Stat. 2543; Oct. 24, 1992, Pub. L. 102–508, §204(2), 106 Stat. 3302.
60115(d) 49 App.:1673(b) (6th sentence).
  49 App.:2003(b) (6th sentence).
60115(e) 49 App.:1673(b) (7th, last sentences).
  49 App.:2003(b) (7th, last sentences).
60115(f) 49 App.:1673(c). Aug. 12, 1968, Pub. L. 90–481, §4(c), 82 Stat. 722; Nov. 30, 1979, Pub. L. 96–129, §102(c), 93 Stat. 991.
  49 App.:2003(c).

In subsection (a), the words “Not later than 12 months after November 30, 1979” and “and appoint the initial members of the Committee” in 49 App.:2003(a) (1st sentence) are omitted as executed.

In subsection (b)(3)(A)–(C), the word “individuals” is substituted for “members” for consistency.

In subsection (b)(3)(A), the words “departments, agencies, and instrumentalities of the United States Government and of the States” are substituted for “governmental agencies, including State and Federal Governments” for consistency in the revised title and with other titles of the United States Code.

In subsection (b)(3)(B), the words “as appropriate” are added because of the restatement.

In subsection (b)(4), the words “representatives of” are omitted as surplus. The words “section 10344(f) of this title” are substituted for “subchapter III of chapter 103 of title 49” for clarity.

In subsection (c)(1)(A) and (B), the words “or any proposed amendment to a standard under this chapter, for its consideration” are omitted as surplus.

In subsection (c)(1)(B), the words “After the Committee has been established and its members appointed” in 49 App.:2003(b) are omitted as executed.

In subsection (c)(2), the words “or amendment”, “by the Committee”, “of the majority”, and “for rejection thereof” are omitted as surplus.

In subsection (c)(3), the words “final . . . or a final amendment to a standard at any time” are omitted as surplus. The words “the end of the 90-day period” are substituted for “the 90th day after its submission to the Committee, whether or not the Committee has reported on such standard or amendment” to eliminate unnecessary words.

In subsection (d), the words “for his consideration” are omitted as surplus.

In subsection (e), the words “(or his designee)” are omitted as surplus because of 49:322(b). The words “at least” are substituted for “not less frequently than” to eliminate unnecessary words. The word “calendar” is omitted as surplus.

In subsection (f), the words “The Secretary may establish the pay” are substituted for “may be compensated at a rate to be fixed by the Secretary” for consistency and to eliminate unnecessary words. The words “of the Committee” after “Members”, “actual”, and “then currently” are omitted as surplus. The reference to section 5376 of title 5 is substituted for the reference to section 5332 of title 5 because of section 529 of the Treasury, Postal Service and General Government Appropriations Act, 1991 (Public Law 101–509, 104 Stat. 1442). The words “A member is entitled to expenses under section 5703 of title 5” are substituted for 49 App.:1673(c) (2d sentence) and 2003(c) (2d sentence) to eliminate unnecessary words. The words “for any purpose” are omitted as surplus. The words “This subsection does not apply to members regularly employed by the Government” are substituted for “other than Federal employees” for clarity.

References in Text

The date of the enactment of the Accountable Pipeline Safety and Partnership Act of 1996, referred to in subsec. (a), is the date of enactment of Pub. L. 104–304, which was approved Oct. 12, 1996.

Amendments

2002—Subsec. (b)(4)(D). Pub. L. 107–355 added subpar. (D).

1996—Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 104–304, §10(a), inserted at end “The committees referred to in the preceding sentence shall serve as peer review committees for carrying out this chapter. Peer reviews conducted by the committees shall be treated for purposes of all Federal laws relating to risk assessment and peer review (including laws that take effect after the date of the enactment of the Accountable Pipeline Safety and Partnership Act of 1996) as meeting any peer review requirements of such laws.”

Subsec. (b)(1), (2). Pub. L. 104–304, §10(b)(1), (2), inserted before period at end “or risk management principles”.

Subsec. (b)(3)(B). Pub. L. 104–304, §10(b)(3), substituted “5” for “4”.

Subsec. (b)(3)(C). Pub. L. 104–304, §10(b)(4), substituted “5” for “6”.

Subsec. (b)(4)(B). Pub. L. 104–304, §10(b)(5), inserted at end “At least 1 of the individuals selected for each committee under paragraph (3)(B) shall have education, background, or experience in risk assessment and cost-benefit analysis. The Secretary shall consult with the national organizations representing the owners and operators of pipeline facilities before selecting individuals under paragraph (3)(B).”

Subsec. (b)(4)(C). Pub. L. 104–304, §10(b)(6), inserted after first sentence “At least 1 of the individuals selected for each committee under paragraph (3)(C) shall have education, background, or experience in risk assessment and cost-benefit analysis.”

Subsec. (c)(1)(A). Pub. L. 104–304, §10(c)(1), inserted before semicolon “including the risk assessment information and other analyses supporting each proposed standard”.

Subsec. (c)(1)(B). Pub. L. 104–304, §10(c)(2), inserted before period at end “including the risk assessment information and other analyses supporting each proposed standard”.

Subsec. (c)(2). Pub. L. 104–304, §10(c)(3)–(6), inserted “and supporting analyses” after “receiving the proposed standard”, “and submit to the Secretary” after “prepare”, “cost-effectiveness,” after “reasonableness,”, “and include in the report recommended actions” after “practicability of the proposed standard”, and “any recommended actions and” after “including”.

Subsec. (e). Pub. L. 104–304, §10(d), substituted “up to 4 times” for “twice”.

Subsec. (f). Pub. L. 104–304, §10(e), substituted “Expenses” for “Pay and Expenses” in heading, struck out “The Secretary may establish the pay for each member of a committee for each day (including travel time) when performing duties of the committee. However, a member may not be paid more than the daily equivalent of the maximum annual rate of basic pay payable under section 5376 of title 5.” after heading, and inserted “of a committee under this section” after “A member”.

1995—Subsec. (b)(4)(A). Pub. L. 104–88 struck out “(referred to in section 10344(f) of this title)” after “commissions”.

Effective Date of 1995 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 104–88 effective Jan. 1, 1996, see section 2 of Pub. L. 104–88, set out as an Effective Date note under section 701 of this title.

§60116. Public education programs

(a) In General.—Each owner or operator of a gas or hazardous liquid pipeline facility shall carry out a continuing program to educate the public on the use of a one-call notification system prior to excavation and other damage prevention activities, the possible hazards associated with unintended releases from the pipeline facility, the physical indications that such a release may have occurred, what steps should be taken for public safety in the event of a pipeline release, and how to report such an event.

(b) Modification of Existing Programs.—Not later than 12 months after the date of enactment of the Pipeline Safety Improvement Act of 2002, each owner or operator of a gas or hazardous liquid pipeline facility shall review its existing public education program for effectiveness and modify the program as necessary. The completed program shall include activities to advise affected municipalities, school districts, businesses, and residents of pipeline facility locations. The completed program shall be submitted to the Secretary or, in the case of an intrastate pipeline facility operator, the appropriate State agency, and shall be periodically reviewed by the Secretary or, in the case of an intrastate pipeline facility operator, the appropriate State agency.

(c) Standards.—The Secretary may issue standards prescribing the elements of an effective public education program. The Secretary may also develop material for use in the program.

(Pub. L. 103–272, §1(e), July 5, 1994, 108 Stat. 1321; Pub. L. 104–304, §11, Oct. 12, 1996, 110 Stat. 3802; Pub. L. 107–355, §5, Dec. 17, 2002, 116 Stat. 2988.)

Historical and Revision Notes
Revised

Section

Source (U.S. Code)Source (Statutes at Large)
60116 49 App.:1685(a). Aug. 12, 1968, Pub. L. 90–481, 82 Stat. 720, §18(a); added Oct. 11, 1976, Pub. L. 94–477, §8, 90 Stat. 2075; Nov. 30, 1979, Pub. L. 96–129, §104(b), 93 Stat. 992; Oct. 24, 1992, Pub. L. 102–508, §115(a)(1), 106 Stat. 3296.

References in Text

The date of enactment of the Pipeline Safety Improvement Act of 2002, referred to in subsec. (b), is the date of enactment of Pub. L. 107–355, which was approved Dec. 17, 2002.

Amendments

2002—Pub. L. 107–355 reenacted section catchline without change and amended text generally. Prior to amendment, text read as follows: “Under regulations the Secretary of Transportation prescribes, each owner or operator of a gas pipeline facility shall carry out a program to educate the public on the use of a one-call notification system prior to excavation, the possible hazards associated with gas leaks, and the importance of reporting gas odors and leaks to the appropriate authority. The Secretary may develop material suitable for use in the program.”

1996—Pub. L. 104–304 substituted “owner or operator of a gas pipeline facility” for “person transporting gas”, inserted “the use of a one-call notification system prior to excavation,” after “educate the public on”, and inserted comma after “gas leaks”.

§60117. Administrative

(a) General Authority.—To carry out this chapter, the Secretary of Transportation may conduct investigations, make reports, issue subpenas, conduct hearings, require the production of records, take depositions, and conduct research, testing, development, demonstration, and training activities and promotional activities relating to prevention of damage to pipeline facilities. The Secretary may not charge a tuition-type fee for training State or local government personnel in the enforcement of regulations prescribed under this chapter.

(b) Records, Reports, and Information.—To enable the Secretary to decide whether a person owning or operating a pipeline facility is complying with this chapter and standards prescribed or orders issued under this chapter, the person shall—

(1) maintain records, make reports, and provide information the Secretary requires; and

(2) make the records, reports, and information available when the Secretary requests.


The Secretary may require owners and operators of gathering lines to provide the Secretary information pertinent to the Secretary's ability to make a determination as to whether and to what extent to regulate gathering lines.

(c) Entry and Inspection.—An officer, employee, or agent of the Department of Transportation designated by the Secretary, on display of proper credentials to the individual in charge, may enter premises to inspect the records and property of a person at a reasonable time and in a reasonable way to decide whether a person is complying with this chapter and standards prescribed or orders issued under this chapter.

(d) Confidentiality of Information.—Information related to a confidential matter referred to in section 1905 of title 18 that is obtained by the Secretary or an officer, employee, or agent in carrying out this section may be disclosed only to another officer or employee concerned with carrying out this chapter or in a proceeding under this chapter.

(e) Use of Accident Reports.—(1) Each accident report made by an officer, employee, or agent of the Department may be used in a judicial proceeding resulting from the accident. The officer, employee, or agent may be required to testify in the proceeding about the facts developed in investigating the accident. The report shall be made available to the public in a way that does not identify an individual.

(2) Each report related to research and demonstration projects and related activities is public information.

(f) Testing Facilities Involved in Accidents.—The Secretary may require testing of a part of a pipeline facility subject to this chapter that has been involved in or affected by an accident only after—

(1) notifying the appropriate State official in the State in which the facility is located; and

(2) attempting to negotiate a mutually acceptable plan for testing with the owner of the facility and, when the Secretary considers appropriate, the National Transportation Safety Board.


(g) Providing Safety Information.—On request, the Secretary shall provide the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission or appropriate State authority with information the Secretary has on the safety of material, operations, devices, or processes related to pipeline transportation or operating a pipeline facility.

(h) Cooperation.—The Secretary may—

(1) advise, assist, and cooperate with other departments, agencies, and instrumentalities of the United States Government, the States, and public and private agencies and persons in planning and developing safety standards and ways to inspect and test to decide whether those standards have been complied with;

(2) consult with and make recommendations to other departments, agencies, and instrumentalities of the Government, State and local governments, and public and private agencies and persons to develop and encourage activities, including the enactment of legislation, that will assist in carrying out this chapter and improve State and local pipeline safety programs; and

(3) participate in a proceeding involving safety requirements related to a liquefied natural gas facility before the Commission or a State authority.


(i) Promoting Coordination.—(1) After consulting with appropriate State officials, the Secretary shall establish procedures to promote more effective coordination between departments, agencies, and instrumentalities of the Government and State authorities with regulatory authority over pipeline facilities about responses to a pipeline accident.

(2) In consultation with the Occupational Safety and Health Administration, the Secretary shall establish procedures to notify the Administration of any pipeline accident in which an excavator that has caused damage to a pipeline may have violated a regulation of the Administration.

(j) Withholding Information From Congress.—This section does not authorize information to be withheld from a committee of Congress authorized to have the information.

(k) Authority for Cooperative Agreements.—To carry out this chapter, the Secretary may enter into grants, cooperative agreements, and other transactions with any person, agency, or instrumentality of the United States, any unit of State or local government, any educational institution, or any other entity to further the objectives of this chapter. The objectives of this chapter include the development, improvement, and promotion of one-call damage prevention programs, research, risk assessment, and mapping.

(l) Safety Orders.—

(1) In general.—Not later than December 31, 2007, the Secretary shall issue regulations providing that, after notice and opportunity for a hearing, if the Secretary determines that a pipeline facility has a condition that poses a pipeline integrity risk to public safety, property, or the environment, the Secretary may order the operator of the facility to take necessary corrective action, including physical inspection, testing, repair, or other appropriate action, to remedy that condition.

(2) Considerations.—In making a determination under paragraph (1), the Secretary, if relevant and pursuant to the regulations issued under paragraph (1), shall consider—

(A) the considerations specified in paragraphs (1) through (6) of section 60112(b);

(B) the likelihood that the condition will impair the serviceability of a pipeline;

(C) the likelihood that the condition will worsen over time; and

(D) the likelihood that the condition is present or could develop on other areas of the pipeline.


(m) Restoration of Operations.—

(1) In general.—The Secretary may advise, assist, and cooperate with the heads of other departments, agencies, and instrumentalities of the United States Government, the States, and public and private agencies and persons to facilitate the restoration of pipeline operations that have been or are anticipated to become disrupted by manmade or natural disasters.

(2) Savings clause.—Nothing in this section alters or amends the authorities and responsibilities of any department, agency, or instrumentality of the United States Government, other than the Department of Transportation.


(n) Cost Recovery for Design Reviews.—

(1) In general.—

(A) Review costs.—For any project described in subparagraph (B), if the Secretary conducts facility design safety reviews in connection with a proposal to construct, expand, or operate a gas or hazardous liquid pipeline facility or liquefied natural gas pipeline facility, including construction inspections and oversight, the Secretary may require the person proposing the project to pay the costs incurred by the Secretary relating to such reviews. If the Secretary exercises the cost recovery authority described in this paragraph, the Secretary shall prescribe a fee structure and assessment methodology that is based on the costs of providing these reviews and shall prescribe procedures to collect fees under this paragraph. The Secretary may not collect design safety review fees under this paragraph and section 60301 for the same design safety review.

(B) Projects to which applicable.—Subparagraph (A) applies to any project that—

(i) has design and construction costs totaling at least $2,500,000,000, as periodically adjusted by the Secretary to take into account increases in the Consumer Price Index for all-urban consumers published by the Department of Labor, based on—

(I) the cost estimate provided to the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission in an application for a certificate of public convenience and necessity for a gas pipeline facility or an application for authorization for a liquefied natural gas pipeline facility; or

(II) a good faith estimate developed by the person proposing a hazardous liquid pipeline facility and submitted to the Secretary; or


(ii) uses new or novel technologies or design, as determined by the Secretary.


(2) Notification.—For any new pipeline facility construction project in which the Secretary will conduct design reviews, the person proposing the project shall notify the Secretary and provide the design specifications, construction plans and procedures, and related materials at least 120 days prior to the commencement of construction. To the maximum extent practicable, not later than 90 days after receiving such design specifications, construction plans and procedures, and related materials, the Secretary shall provide written comments, feedback, and guidance on the project.

(3) Pipeline safety design review fund.—

(A) Establishment.—There is established a Pipeline Safety Design Review Fund in the Treasury of the United States.

(B) Deposits.—The Secretary shall deposit funds paid under this subsection into the Fund.

(C) Use.—Amounts in the Fund shall be available to the Secretary, in amounts specified in appropriations Acts, to offset the costs of conducting facility design safety reviews under this subsection.


(4) No additional permitting authority.—Nothing in this subsection may be construed as authorizing the Secretary to require a person to obtain a permit before beginning design and construction in connection with a project described in paragraph (1)(B).

(Pub. L. 103–272, §1(e), July 5, 1994, 108 Stat. 1321; Pub. L. 103–429, §6(77), Oct. 31, 1994, 108 Stat. 4388; Pub. L. 104–304, §§12, 19, Oct. 12, 1996, 110 Stat. 3802, 3804; Pub. L. 107–355, §7, Dec. 17, 2002, 116 Stat. 2993; Pub. L. 109–468, §§11, 13, 17, Dec. 29, 2006, 120 Stat. 3494–3496; Pub. L. 112–90, §13(a), Jan. 3, 2012, 125 Stat. 1913.)

Historical and Revision Notes
Pub. L. 103–272
Revised

Section

Source (U.S. Code)Source (Statutes at Large)
60117(a) 49 App.:1681(a) (1st sentence words before semicolon). Aug. 12, 1968, Pub. L. 90–481, §14(a) (1st sentence), 82 Stat. 727; restated Nov. 30, 1979, Pub. L. 96–129, §§104(b), 106, 93 Stat. 992, 994.
  49 App.:1681(a) (last sentence). Aug. 12, 1968, Pub. L. 90–481, 82 Stat. 720, §14(a) (last sentence); added Oct. 11, 1984, Pub. L. 98–464, §7(a), 98 Stat. 1823.
  49 App.:2010(a) (1st sentence words before semicolon). Nov. 30, 1979, Pub. L. 96–129, §211(a) (1st sentence), 93 Stat. 1012.
  49 App.:2010(a) (last sentence). Nov. 30, 1979, Pub. L. 96–129, 93 Stat. 989, §211(a) (last sentence); added Oct. 11, 1984, Pub. L. 98–464, §7(b), 98 Stat. 1823.
60117(b) 49 App.:1681(b). Aug. 12, 1968, Pub. L. 90–481, §14(b)–(e), 82 Stat. 727; restated Nov. 30, 1979, Pub. L. 96–129, §§104(b), 106, 93 Stat. 992, 995.
  49 App.:2010(b). Nov. 30, 1979, Pub. L. 96–129, §211(b)–(e), 93 Stat. 1012.
60117(c) 49 App.:1681(c).
  49 App.:2010(c).
60117(d) 49 App.:1681(e) (1st sentence).
  49 App.:2010(e) (1st sentence).
60117(e) 49 App.:1681(d).
  49 App.:2010(d).
60117(f) 49 App.:1681(a) (1st sentence words after semicolon).
  49 App.:1681(a) (2d sentence). Aug. 12, 1968, Pub. L. 90–481, 82 Stat. 720, §14(a) (2d sentence); added Oct. 31, 1988, Pub. L. 100–561, §109, 102 Stat. 2809.
  49 App.:2010(a) (1st sentence words after semicolon).
  49 App.:2010(a) (2d sentence). Nov. 30, 1979, Pub. L. 96–129, 93 Stat. 989, §211(a) (2d sentence); added Oct. 31, 1988, Pub. L. 100–561, §208, 102 Stat. 2812.
60117(g) 49 App.:1682(a). Aug. 12, 1968, Pub. L. 90–481, §15(a), 82 Stat. 727; Nov. 30, 1979, Pub. L. 96–129, §§104(b), 109(j)(2), (k), 155(b), 93 Stat. 992, 997, 1003.
  49 App.:2011(a). Nov. 30, 1979, Pub. L. 96–129, §212(a)–(c), 93 Stat. 1013.
60117(h)(1) 49 App.:1682(b). Aug. 12, 1968, Pub. L. 90–481, §15(b), 82 Stat. 727; Nov. 30, 1979, Pub. L. 96–129, §§104(b), 109(j)(2), 93 Stat. 992, 997.
  49 App.:2011(b).
60117(h)(2) 49 App.:1682(c). Aug. 12, 1968, Pub. L. 90–481, 82 Stat. 720, §15(c); added Aug. 22, 1972, Pub. L. 92–401, §3, 86 Stat. 616; Nov. 30, 1979, Pub. L. 96–129, §§104(b), 109(j)(2), 93 Stat. 992, 997.
  49 App.:2011(c).
60117(h)(3) 49 App.:1682(d). Aug. 12, 1968, Pub. L. 90–481, 82 Stat. 720, §15(d); added Nov. 30, 1979, Pub. L. 96–129, §155(a), 93 Stat. 1003.
60117(i) 49 App.:1676(b). Aug. 12, 1968, Pub. L. 90–481, 82 Stat. 720, §9(b); added Oct. 31, 1988, Pub. L. 100–561, §105(2), 102 Stat. 2807.
  49 App.:2011(d). Nov. 30, 1979, Pub. L. 96–129, 93 Stat. 989, §212(d); added Oct. 31, 1988, Pub. L. 100–561, §209, 102 Stat. 2812.
60117(j) 49 App.:1681(e) (last sentence).
  49 App.:2010(e) (last sentence).

In subsection (a), the words “to the extent necessary . . . his responsibilities under” and “relevant” are omitted as surplus. The words “documents and” are omitted as being included in “records”. The words “directly or, by contract, or otherwise” are omitted as surplus.

In subsections (b), before clause (1), and (c), the words “has acted or . . . acting” are omitted as surplus. The word “prescribed” is added for consistency in the revised title and with other titles of the United States Code.

In subsection (b)(1), the words “establish and” and “reasonably” are omitted as surplus.

In subsection (c), the words “enter premises to” are substituted for “enter upon” for clarity and consistency. The words “and examine” and “to the extent such records and properties are relevant” are omitted as surplus.

In subsection (d), the words “related to a confidential matter” are substituted for “which information contains or relates to a trade secret . . . shall be considered confidential for the purpose of that section” to eliminate unnecessary words. The words “All information reported to or otherwise” are omitted as surplus. The words “an officer, employee, or agent” are substituted for “his representative” for consistency. The word “only” is substituted for “except that such information” to eliminate unnecessary words. The words “when relevant” are omitted as surplus.

In subsection (e)(1), the words “civil, criminal, or other” are omitted as surplus.

In subsection (f), before clause (1), the words “however . . . exercise authority under this section to” are omitted as surplus. In clause (1), the word “affected” is omitted as surplus. In clause (2), the word “attempting” is substituted for “make every effort” to eliminate unnecessary words. The words “for testing” and “the Secretary considers” are added for clarity.

In subsection (g), the words “with respect to matters under their jurisdiction” in 49 App.:2011(a) are omitted as surplus.

In subsection (h)(1) and (2), the word “instrumentalities” is added for consistency in the revised title and with other titles of the Code.

In subsection (h)(1), the word “Federal” before “safety” is omitted as surplus.

In subsection (h)(3), the words “as a matter of right intervene or otherwise” and the text of 49 App.:1682(d) (last sentence) are omitted as surplus.

In subsection (i), the words “Not later than 1 year after October 31, 1988” are omitted as obsolete. The words “departments, agencies, and instrumentalities of the Government and State authorities” are substituted for “agencies of the United States and of the States” for consistency in the revised title and with other titles of the Code.

In subsection (j), the words “by the Secretary or any officer, employee, or agent under his control” are omitted as surplus. The words “to have the information” are substituted for “duly” for clarity.

Pub. L. 103–429

This amends 49:60117(i) by restating section 304(c) of the Pipeline Safety Act of 1992 (Public Law 102–508, 106 Stat. 3308) as 49:60117(i)(2).

 
Revised

Section

Source (U.S. Code)Source (Statutes at Large)
60117(i)(2) 49 App.:1682 (note). Oct. 24, 1992, Pub. L. 102–508, §304(c), 106 Stat. 3308.

Amendments

2012—Subsec. (n). Pub. L. 112–90 amended subsec. (n) generally. Prior to amendment, text read as follows:

“(1) In general.—If the Secretary conducts facility design safety reviews in connection with a proposal to construct, expand, or operate a liquefied natural gas pipeline facility, the Secretary may require the person requesting such reviews to pay the associated staff costs relating to such reviews incurred by the Secretary in section 60301(d). The Secretary may assess such costs in any reasonable manner.

“(2) Deposit.—The Secretary shall deposit all funds paid to the Secretary under this subsection into the Department of Treasury account 69–5172–0–2–407 or its successor account.

“(3) Authorization of appropriations.—Funds deposited pursuant to this subsection are authorized to be appropriated for the purposes set forth in section 60301(d).”

2006—Subsec. (l). Pub. L. 109–468, §13, reenacted heading without change and amended text generally. Prior to amendment, text read as follows: “If the Secretary decides that a pipeline facility has a potential safety-related condition, the Secretary may order the operator of the facility to take necessary corrective action, including physical inspection, testing, repair, replacement, or other appropriate action to remedy the safety-related condition.”

Subsecs. (m), (n). Pub. L. 109–468, §§11, 17, added subsecs. (m) and (n).

2002—Subsec. (l). Pub. L. 107–355 added subsec. (l).

1996—Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 104–304, §19, inserted “and promotional activities relating to prevention of damage to pipeline facilities” after “and training activities”.

Subsec. (b). Pub. L. 104–304, §12(1), (3), substituted “owning” for “transporting gas or hazardous liquid” and inserted at end “The Secretary may require owners and operators of gathering lines to provide the Secretary information pertinent to the Secretary's ability to make a determination as to whether and to what extent to regulate gathering lines.”

Subsec. (k). Pub. L. 104–304, §12(2), added subsec. (k).

1994—Subsec. (i). Pub. L. 103–429 designated existing provisions as par. (1) and added par. (2).

Regulations

Pub. L. 112–90, §20(a), Jan. 3, 2012, 125 Stat. 1916, provided that:

“(1) In general.—Not later than 2 years after the date of enactment of this Act [Jan. 3, 2012], the Secretary of Transportation shall issue regulations—

“(A) requiring hearings under sections 60112, 60117, 60118, and 60122 of title 49, United States Code, to be convened before a presiding official;

“(B) providing the opportunity for any person requesting a hearing under section 60112, 60117, 60118, or 60122 of such title to arrange for a transcript of the hearing, at the expense of the requesting person;

“(C) ensuring expedited review of any order issued pursuant to section 60112(e) of such title;

“(D) implementing a separation of functions between personnel involved with the investigation and prosecution of an enforcement case and advising the Secretary on findings and determinations; and

“(E) prohibiting ex-parte communication relevant to the question to be decided in such a case by parties to an investigation or hearing.

“(2) Presiding official.—The regulations issued under this subsection shall—

“(A) define the term ‘presiding official’ to mean the person who conducts any hearing relating to civil penalty assessments, compliance orders, safety orders, or corrective action orders; and

“(B) require that the presiding official be an attorney on the staff of the Deputy Chief Counsel of the Pipeline and Hazardous Materials Safety Administration that is not engaged in investigative or prosecutorial functions, including the preparation of notices of probable violations, notices relating to civil penalty assessments, notices relating to compliance, or notices of proposed corrective actions.

“(3) Expedited review.—The regulations issued under this subsection shall define the term ‘expedited review’ for the purposes of paragraph (1)(C).”

Accident and Incident Notification

Pub. L. 112–90, §9, Jan. 3, 2012, 125 Stat. 1912, provided that:

“(a) Revision of Regulations.—Not later than 18 months after the date of enactment of this Act [Jan. 3, 2012], the Secretary of Transportation shall revise regulations issued under sections 191.5 and 195.52 of title 49, Code of Federal Regulations, to establish specific time limits for telephonic or electronic notice of accidents and incidents involving pipeline facilities to the Secretary and the National Response Center.

“(b) Minimum Requirements.—In revising the regulations, the Secretary, at a minimum, shall—

“(1) establish time limits for telephonic or electronic notification of an accident or incident to require such notification at the earliest practicable moment following confirmed discovery of an accident or incident and not later than 1 hour following the time of such confirmed discovery;

“(2) review procedures for owners and operators of pipeline facilities and the National Response Center to provide thorough and coordinated notification to all relevant State and local emergency response officials, including 911 emergency call centers, for the jurisdictions in which those pipeline facilities are located in the event of an accident or incident, and revise such procedures as appropriate; and

“(3) require such owners and operators to revise their initial telephonic or electronic notice to the Secretary and the National Response Center with an estimate of the amount of the product released, an estimate of the number of fatalities and injuries, if any, and any other information determined appropriate by the Secretary within 48 hours of the accident or incident, to the extent practicable.

“(c) Updating of Reports.—After receiving revisions described in subsection (b)(3), the National Response Center shall update the initial report on an accident or incident instead of generating a new report.”

[Terms used in section 9 of Pub. L. 112–90, set out above, have the meaning given those terms in this chapter, see section 1(c)(1) of Pub. L. 112–90, set out as a note under section 60101 of this title.]

Guidance

Pub. L. 112–90, §13(b), Jan. 3, 2012, 125 Stat. 1914, provided that: “Not later than 1 year after the date of enactment of this Act [Jan. 3, 2012], the Secretary of Transportation shall issue guidance to clarify the meaning of the term ‘new or novel technologies or design’ as used in section 60117(n)(1)(B)(ii) of title 49, United States Code, as amended by subsection (a) of this section.”

Pipeline Safety Training for State and Local Government Personnel

Pub. L. 112–90, §25, Jan. 3, 2012, 125 Stat. 1919, provided that:

“(a) In General.—To further the objectives of chapter 601 of title 49, United States Code, the Secretary of Transportation may provide the services of personnel from the Pipeline and Hazardous Materials Safety Administration to provide training for State and local government personnel at a pipeline safety training facility that is established and operated by an agency or instrumentality of the United States, a unit of State or local government, or an educational institution.

“(b) Reimbursements for Training Expenditures.—

“(1) In general.—Notwithstanding any other provision of law, the Secretary may require reimbursement from sources other than the Federal Government for all expenses incurred by the Secretary in providing training for State and local government personnel under subsection (a), including salaries, expenses, transportation for Pipeline and Hazardous Materials Safety Administration personnel, and the cost of training materials.

“(2) Authorization of appropriations.—Amounts collected as reimbursement under paragraph (1) are authorized to be appropriated for the purposes set forth in chapter 601 of title 49, United States Code.”

[Terms used in section 25 of Pub. L. 112–90, set out above, have the meaning given those terms in this chapter, see section 1(c)(1) of Pub. L. 112–90, set out as a note under section 60101 of this title.]

Tribal Consultation for Pipeline Projects

Pub. L. 112–90, §30, Jan. 3, 2012, 125 Stat. 1921, provided that: “Not later than 1 year after the date of enactment of this Act [Jan. 3, 2012], the Secretary of Transportation shall develop and implement a protocol for consulting with Indian tribes to provide technical assistance for the regulation of pipelines that are under the jurisdiction of Indian tribes.”

Incident Reporting

Pub. L. 109–468, §15, Dec. 29, 2006, 120 Stat. 3496, provided that: “Not later than December 31, 2007, the Secretary of Transportation shall review the incident reporting requirements for operators of natural gas pipelines and modify the reporting criteria as appropriate to ensure that the incident data gathered accurately reflects incident trends over time, taking into consideration the recommendations from the Comptroller General in GAO report 06–946.”

Accident Reporting Form

Pub. L. 109–468, §20, Dec. 29, 2006, 120 Stat. 3498, provided that: “Not later than December 31, 2007, the Secretary of Transportation shall amend accident reporting forms to require operators of gas and hazardous liquid pipelines to provide data related to controller fatigue.”

§60118. Compliance and waivers

(a) General Requirements.—A person owning or operating a pipeline facility shall—

(1) comply with applicable safety standards prescribed under this chapter, except as provided in this section or in section 60126;

(2) prepare and carry out a plan for inspection and maintenance required under section 60108(a) and (b) of this title;

(3) allow access to or copying of records, make reports and provide information, and allow entry or inspection required under section 60117(a)–(d) of this title; and

(4) conduct a risk analysis, and adopt and implement an integrity management program, for pipeline facilities as required under section 60109(c).


(b) Compliance Orders.—The Secretary of Transportation may issue orders directing compliance with this chapter, an order under section 60126, or a regulation prescribed under this chapter. An order shall state clearly the action a person must take to comply.

(c) Waivers by Secretary.—

(1) Nonemergency waivers.—

(A) In general.—On application of an owner or operator of a pipeline facility, the Secretary by order may waive compliance with any part of an applicable standard prescribed under this chapter with respect to such facility on terms the Secretary considers appropriate if the Secretary determines that the waiver is not inconsistent with pipeline safety.

(B) Hearing.—The Secretary may act on a waiver under this paragraph only after notice and an opportunity for a hearing.


(2) Emergency waivers.—

(A) In general.—The Secretary by order may waive compliance with any part of an applicable standard prescribed under this chapter on terms the Secretary considers appropriate without prior notice and comment if the Secretary determines that—

(i) it is in the public interest to grant the waiver;

(ii) the waiver is not inconsistent with pipeline safety; and

(iii) the waiver is necessary to address an actual or impending emergency involving pipeline transportation, including an emergency caused by a natural or manmade disaster.


(B) Period of waiver.—A waiver under this paragraph may be issued for a period of not more than 60 days and may be renewed upon application to the Secretary only after notice and an opportunity for a hearing on the waiver. The Secretary shall immediately revoke the waiver if continuation of the waiver would not be consistent with the goals and objectives of this chapter.


(3) Statement of reasons.—The Secretary shall state in an order issued under this subsection the reasons for granting the waiver.


(d) Waivers by State Authorities.—If a certification under section 60105 of this title or an agreement under section 60106 of this title is in effect, the State authority may waive compliance with a safety standard to which the certification or agreement applies in the same way and to the same extent the Secretary may waive compliance under subsection (c) of this section. However, the authority must give the Secretary written notice of the waiver at least 60 days before its effective date. If the Secretary makes a written objection before the effective date of the waiver, the waiver is stayed. After notifying the authority of the objection, the Secretary shall provide a prompt opportunity for a hearing. The Secretary shall make the final decision on granting the waiver.

(e) Operator Assistance in Investigations.—

(1) Assistance and access.—If the Secretary or the National Transportation Safety Board investigates an accident or incident involving a pipeline facility, the operator of the facility shall—

(A) make available to the Secretary or the Board all records and information that in any way pertain to the accident or incident, including integrity management plans and test results; and

(B) afford all reasonable assistance in the investigation of the accident or incident.


(2) Operator assistance in investigations.—

(A) In general.—The Secretary may impose a civil penalty under section 60122 on a person who obstructs or prevents the Secretary from carrying out inspections or investigations under this chapter.

(B) Obstructs defined.—

(i) In general.—In this paragraph, the term “obstructs” includes actions that were known, or reasonably should have been known, to prevent, hinder, or impede an investigation without good cause.

(ii) Good cause.—In clause (i), the term “good cause” may include actions such as restricting access to facilities that are not secure or safe for nonpipeline personnel or visitors.


(f) Limitation on Statutory Construction.—Nothing in this section may be construed to infringe upon the constitutional rights of an operator or its employees.

(Pub. L. 103–272, §1(e), July 5, 1994, 108 Stat. 1322; Pub. L. 104–304, §13, Oct. 12, 1996, 110 Stat. 3802; Pub. L. 107–355, §§10(a), (c), 14(c), Dec. 17, 2002, 116 Stat. 2995, 2996, 3005; Pub. L. 109–468, §10, Dec. 29, 2006, 120 Stat. 3494; Pub. L. 112–90, §2(b), Jan. 3, 2012, 125 Stat. 1905.)

Historical and Revision Notes
Revised

Section

Source (U.S. Code)Source (Statutes at Large)
60118(a) 49 App.:1677(a). Aug. 12, 1968, Pub. L. 90–481, §10(a), 82 Stat. 725; Nov. 30, 1979, Pub. L. 96–129, §[§] 105(b), 109(h)(4), 152(a), 93 Stat. 994, 996, 999.
  49 App.:2006(a). Nov. 30, 1979, Pub. L. 96–129, §§203(h), 207(a), (b)(1), 93 Stat. 1005, 1009.
60118(b) 49 App.:1677(b)(1). Aug. 12, 1968, Pub. L. 90–481, 82 Stat. 720, §10(b)(1); added Nov. 30, 1979, Pub. L. 96–129, §§104(a)(1), 152(a), 93 Stat. 992, 999.
  49 App.:2006(b)(1).
60118(c) 49 App.:1672(d) (1st, 2d sentences). Aug. 12, 1968, Pub. L. 90–481, §3(d), 82 Stat. 721; Nov. 30, 1979, Pub. L. 96–129, §[§] 104(d), 109(c), 152(b)(2), 93 Stat. 994, 996, 1001.
  49 App.:2002(h) (1st, 2d sentences).
60118(d) 49 App.:1672(d) (3d–last sentences).
  49 App.:2002(h) (3d–last sentences).

In subsection (a)(1), the words “at all times after the date . . . takes effect . . . the requirements of” are omitted as surplus. The words “except as provided in this section” are added for clarity.

In subsection (a)(2), the words “establish and” in 49 App.:2006(a)(2) and “and comply with such plan” are omitted as surplus.

In subsection (b), the word “prescribed” is substituted for “issued” for consistency in the revised title and with other titles of the United States Code. The word “particular” is omitted as surplus. The words “a person must take to comply” are substituted for “required of the person to whom the order is issued” for clarity and to eliminate unnecessary words.

In subsection (c), the words “any part of” are substituted for “in whole or in part” to eliminate unnecessary words. The words “and to such extent” and “he determines that . . . of compliance with such standard” are omitted as surplus.

In subsection (d), the words “to which the certification or agreement applies” are added for clarity. The words “to the granting of the waiver” and “any State agency action granting” are omitted as surplus. The words “shall provide a prompt opportunity for a hearing” are substituted for “shall afford such agency a prompt opportunity to present its request for waiver, with opportunity for hearing” to eliminate unnecessary words and for consistency in the revised title and with other titles of the Code.

Amendments

2012—Subsec. (e). Pub. L. 112–90 amended subsec. (e) generally. Prior to amendment, text read as follows: “If the Secretary or the National Transportation Safety Board investigate an accident involving a pipeline facility, the operator of the facility shall make available to the Secretary or the Board all records and information that in any way pertain to the accident (including integrity management plans and test results), and shall afford all reasonable assistance in the investigation of the accident.”

2006—Subsec. (c). Pub. L. 109–468 reenacted heading without change and amended text generally. Prior to amendment, text read as follows: “On application of a person owning or operating a pipeline facility, the Secretary by order may waive compliance with any part of an applicable standard prescribed under this chapter on terms the Secretary considers appropriate, if the waiver is not inconsistent with pipeline safety. The Secretary shall state the reasons for granting a waiver under this subsection. The Secretary may act on a waiver only after notice and an opportunity for a hearing.”

2002—Subsec. (a)(4). Pub. L. 107–355, §14(c), added par. (4).

Subsec. (e). Pub. L. 107–355, §10(a), added subsec. (e).

Subsec. (f). Pub. L. 107–355, §10(c), added subsec. (f).

1996—Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 104–304, §13(a)(1), struck out “transporting gas or hazardous liquid or” after “person” in introductory provisions.

Subsec. (a)(1). Pub. L. 104–304, §13(a)(2), added par. (1) and struck out former par. (1) which read as follows: “comply with applicable safety standards prescribed under this chapter, except as provided in this section;”.

Subsec. (b). Pub. L. 104–304, §13(b), reenacted subsec. heading without change and amended text generally. Prior to amendment, text read as follows: “The Secretary of Transportation may issue orders directing compliance with this chapter or a regulation prescribed under this chapter. An order shall state clearly the action a person must take to comply.”

Subsec. (c). Pub. L. 104–304, §13(c), substituted “owning” for “transporting gas or hazardous liquid”.

§60119. Judicial review

(a) Review of Regulations, Orders, and Other Final Agency Actions.—(1) Except as provided in subsection (b) of this section, a person adversely affected by a regulation prescribed under this chapter or an order issued under this chapter may apply for review of the regulation or order by filing a petition for review in the United States Court of Appeals for the District of Columbia Circuit or in the court of appeals of the United States for the circuit in which the person resides or has its principal place of business. The petition must be filed not later than 89 days after the regulation is prescribed or order is issued. The clerk of the court immediately shall send a copy of the petition to the Secretary of Transportation.

(2) A judgment of a court under paragraph (1) of this subsection may be reviewed only by the Supreme Court under section 1254 of title 28. A remedy under paragraph (1) is in addition to any other remedies provided by law.

(3) A judicial review of agency action under this section shall apply the standards of review established in section 706 of title 5.

(b) Review of Financial Responsibility Orders.—(1) A person adversely affected by an order issued under section 60111 of this title may apply for review of the order by filing a petition for review in the appropriate court of appeals of the United States. The petition must be filed not later than 60 days after the order is issued. Findings of fact the Secretary makes are conclusive if supported by substantial evidence.

(2) A judgment of a court under paragraph (1) of this subsection may be reviewed only by the Supreme Court under section 1254(1) of title 28.

(Pub. L. 103–272, §1(e), July 5, 1994, 108 Stat. 1323; Pub. L. 112–90, §§2(d), 20(b), Jan. 3, 2012, 125 Stat. 1905, 1917.)

Historical and Revision Notes
Revised

Section

Source (U.S. Code)Source (Statutes at Large)
60119(a)(1) 49 App.:1675(a). Aug. 12, 1968, Pub. L. 90–481, §8(a), 82 Stat. 724; Nov. 30, 1979, Pub. L. 96–129, §§104(e)(2), 152(a), 93 Stat. 994, 999; Jan. 14, 1983, Pub. L. 97–468, §102, 96 Stat. 2543.
  49 App.:2005(a). Nov. 30, 1979, Pub. L. 96–129, §206(a), 93 Stat. 1009; Jan. 14, 1983, Pub. L. 97–468, §103, 96 Stat. 2543.
60119(a)(2) 49 App.:1675(b), (c). Aug. 12, 1968, Pub. L. 90–481, §8(b), (c), 82 Stat. 724; Nov. 30, 1979, Pub. L. 96–129, §§104(e)(3), 152(a), 93 Stat. 994, 999.
  49 App.:1675(d), (e). Aug. 12, 1968, Pub. L. 90–481, §8(d), (e), 82 Stat. 725; Nov. 30, 1979, Pub. L. 96–129, §152(a), 93 Stat. 999.
  49 App.:2005(b)–(e). Nov. 30, 1979, Pub. L. 96–129, §206(b)–(e), 93 Stat. 1009.
60119(b)(1) 49 App.:1674b(b) (4)(A), (B). Aug. 12, 1968, Pub. L. 90–481, 82 Stat. 720, §7(b)(4); added Nov. 30, 1979, Pub. L. 96–129, §153, 93 Stat. 1002.
60119(b)(2) 49 App.:1674b(b) (4)(C).

In this section, the word “judicial” is omitted as surplus.

In subsection (a)(1), the words “Except as provided in subsection (b) of this section” are added for clarity. The words “who is or will be . . . or aggrieved” are omitted as surplus. The word “prescribed” is added for consistency in the revised title and with other titles of the United States Code. The word “Circuit” is added to complete the proper title of the Court. The word “resides” is substituted for “located” for clarity and for consistency in the revised title and with other titles of the Code. The words “or other officer designated by him for that purpose” are omitted as surplus because of 49:322(b).

In subsection (a)(2), the text of 49 App.:1675(b) and 2005(b) is omitted as surplus because of 28:1331 and because 5:ch. 7 applies in the absence of an exception. The text of 49 App.:1675(d) and 2005(d) is omitted as covered by rule 43 of the Federal Rules of Appellate Procedure (28 App. U.S.C.). The words “affirming or setting aside, in whole or in part, any such regulation or order of the Secretary” are omitted as surplus. The words “may be reviewed only” are substituted for “shall be final, subject to review” for consistency. The words “and not in substitution for” are omitted as surplus.

In subsection (b)(1), the words “adversely affected” are substituted for “aggrieved” for consistency in the revised title and with other titles of the Code. The word “only” is omitted as surplus. The text of 49 App.:1674b(b)(4)(B) (1st sentence) is omitted as surplus because 28:2112 applies in the absence of an exception. The text of 49 App.:1674b(b)(4)(B) (2d sentence) is omitted as surplus and because of 28:1651.

In subsection (b)(2), the words “and decree” are omitted as surplus. The words “may be reviewed only” are substituted for “shall be final, except that such judgment and decree shall be subject to review” for consistency and to eliminate unnecessary words. The words “upon certiorari” are omitted as surplus because of 28:1254(1).

Amendments

2012—Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 112–90, §2(d)(1), substituted “, Orders, and Other Final Agency Actions” for “and Waiver Orders” in heading.

Subsec. (a)(1). Pub. L. 112–90, §2(d)(2), substituted “order issued under this chapter” for “order issued about an application for a waiver under section 60118(c) or (d) of this title”.

Subsec. (a)(3). Pub. L. 112–90, §20(b), added par. (3).

§60120. Enforcement

(a) Civil Actions.—

(1) Civil actions to enforce this chapter.—At the request of the Secretary of Transportation, the Attorney General may bring a civil action in an appropriate district court of the United States to enforce this chapter, including section 60112, or a regulation prescribed or order issued under this chapter. The court may award appropriate relief, including a temporary or permanent injunction, punitive damages, and assessment of civil penalties, considering the same factors as prescribed for the Secretary in an administrative case under section 60122. The maximum amount of civil penalties for administrative enforcement actions under section 60122 shall not apply to enforcement actions under this section.

(2) Civil actions to require compliance with subpoenas or allow for inspections.—At the request of the Secretary, the Attorney General may bring a civil action in a district court of the United States to require a person to comply immediately with a subpena or to allow an officer, employee, or agent authorized by the Secretary to enter the premises, and inspect the records and property, of the person to decide whether the person is complying with this chapter. The action may be brought in the judicial district in which the defendant resides, is found, or does business. The court may punish a failure to obey the order as a contempt of court.


(b) Jury Trial Demand.—In a trial for criminal contempt for violating an injunction issued under this section, the violation of which is also a violation of this chapter, the defendant may demand a jury trial. The defendant shall be tried as provided in rule 42(b) of the Federal Rules of Criminal Procedure (18 App. U.S.C.).

(c) Effect on Tort Liability.—This chapter does not affect the tort liability of any person.

(Pub. L. 103–272, §1(e), July 5, 1994, 108 Stat. 1323; Pub. L. 107–355, §8(b)(3), Dec. 17, 2002, 116 Stat. 2993; Pub. L. 112–90, §2(c), Jan. 3, 2012, 125 Stat. 1905.)

Historical and Revision Notes
Revised

Section

Source (U.S. Code)Source (Statutes at Large)
60120(a)(1) 49 App.:1677(b)(2). Aug. 12, 1968, Pub. L. 90–481, 82 Stat. 720, §10(b)(2); added Nov. 30, 1979, Pub. L. 96–129, §§104(a)(1), 152(a), 93 Stat. 992, 999.
  49 App.:1679b(a)(1). Aug. 12, 1968, Pub. L. 90–481, 82 Stat. 720, §12(a); added Nov. 30, 1979, Pub. L. 96–129, §104(b), 93 Stat. 993.
  49 App.:2006(b)(2). Nov. 30, 1979, Pub. L. 96–129, §§207(b)(2), (c), 209(a), 93 Stat. 1009, 1010.
  49 App.:2008(a)(1).
60120(a)(2) 49 App.:1681(f). Aug. 12, 1968, Pub. L. 90–481, 82 Stat. 720, §14(f); added Oct. 24, 1992, Pub. L. 102–508, §112(b), 106 Stat. 3295.
  49 App.:2010(f). Nov. 30, 1979, Pub. L. 96–129, 93 Stat. 989, §211(f); added Oct. 24, 1992, Pub. L. 102–508, §211(b), 106 Stat. 3304.
60120(b) 49 App.:1679b(a)(2).
  49 App.:2008(a)(2).
60120(c) 49 App.:1677(c). Aug. 12, 1968, Pub. L. 90–481, §10(c), 82 Stat. 725; Nov. 30, 1979, Pub. L. 96–129, §§104(a)(1), 152(a), 93 Stat. 992, 999.
  49 App.:2006(c).

In subsection (a)(1), the text of 49 App.:1677(b)(2) and 2006(b)(2) and the words “shall have jurisdiction to determine such actions” in 49 App.:1679b(a)(1) and 2008(a)(1) are omitted as redundant and because of 28:1331 and 1345. The word “civil” is added for consistency in the revised title and with other titles of the United States Code and because of rule 2 of the Federal Rules of Civil Procedure (28 App. U.S.C.). The words “to enforce this chapter” are substituted for “for equitable relief to redress or restrain a violation by any person of a provision of this chapter” to eliminate unnecessary words. The word “prescribed” is substituted for “issued” for consistency in the revised title and with other titles of the Code. The words “necessary or . . . mandatory or prohibitive injunctive relief, interim equitable relief, and” are omitted as surplus.

In subsection (a)(2), the words “the Attorney General may bring a civil action in a district court of the United States” are substituted for “such district court shall, upon the request of the Attorney General . . . have jurisdiction to issue to such person an order” for clarity and consistency and because of 28:1331 and 1345. The words “contumacy or” are omitted as surplus. The word “premises” is added for clarity and consistency. The words “or examine” are omitted as being included in “inspect”.

In subsection (b), the words “mandatory or prohibitive” are omitted as surplus. The words “the defendant may demand a jury trial” are substituted for “trial shall be by the court or, upon demand of the accused, by a jury” to eliminate unnecessary words and for consistency in the revised title and with other titles of the Code.

In subsection (c), the words “common law or statutory” are omitted as surplus.

Amendments

2012—Subsec. (a)(1). Pub. L. 112–90 added at end “The maximum amount of civil penalties for administrative enforcement actions under section 60122 shall not apply to enforcement actions under this section.”

Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 107–355 reenacted subsec. heading without change, added par. (1) and struck out former par. (1), inserted par. (2) heading and realigned margins. Prior to amendment, par. (1) read as follows: “On the request of the Secretary of Transportation, the Attorney General may bring a civil action in an appropriate district court of the United States to enforce this chapter or a regulation prescribed or order issued under this chapter. The court may award appropriate relief, including punitive damages.”

§60121. Actions by private persons

(a) General Authority.—(1) A person may bring a civil action in an appropriate district court of the United States for an injunction against another person (including the United States Government and other governmental authorities to the extent permitted under the 11th amendment to the Constitution) for a violation of this chapter or a regulation prescribed or order issued under this chapter. However, the person—

(A) may bring the action only after 60 days after the person has given notice of the violation to the Secretary of Transportation or to the appropriate State authority (when the violation is alleged to have occurred in a State certified under section 60105 of this title) and to the person alleged to have committed the violation;

(B) may not bring the action if the Secretary or authority has begun and diligently is pursuing an administrative proceeding for the violation; and

(C) may not bring the action if the Attorney General of the United States, or the chief law enforcement officer of a State, has begun and diligently is pursuing a judicial proceeding for the violation.


(2) The Secretary shall prescribe the way in which notice is given under this subsection.

(3) The Secretary, with the approval of the Attorney General, or the Attorney General may intervene in an action under paragraph (1) of this subsection.

(b) Costs and Fees.—The court may award costs, reasonable expert witness fees, and a reasonable attorney's fee to a prevailing plaintiff in a civil action under this section. The court may award costs to a prevailing defendant when the action is unreasonable, frivolous, or meritless. In this subsection, a reasonable attorney's fee is a fee—

(1) based on the actual time spent and the reasonable expenses of the attorney for legal services provided to a person under this section; and

(2) computed at the rate prevailing for providing similar services for actions brought in the court awarding the fee.


(c) State Violations as Violations of This Chapter.—In this section, a violation of a safety standard or practice of a State is deemed to be a violation of this chapter or a regulation prescribed or order issued under this chapter only to the extent the standard or practice is not more stringent than a comparable minimum safety standard prescribed under this chapter.

(d) Additional Remedies.—A remedy under this section is in addition to any other remedies provided by law. This section does not restrict a right to relief that a person or a class of persons may have under another law or at common law.

(Pub. L. 103–272, §1(e), July 5, 1994, 108 Stat. 1324.)

Historical and Revision Notes
Revised

Section

Source (U.S. Code)Source (Statutes at Large)
60121(a)(1) 49 App.:1686(a), (b) (1st sentence). Aug. 12, 1968, Pub. L. 90–481, 82 Stat. 720, §19; added Oct. 11, 1976, Pub. L. 94–477, §8, 90 Stat. 2075; Nov. 30, 1979, Pub. L. 96–129, §104(b), 93 Stat. 992.
  49 App.:2014(a), (b) (1st sentence). Nov. 30, 1979, Pub. L. 96–129, §215, 93 Stat. 1014.
60121(a)(2) 49 App.:1686(b) (last sentence).
  49 App.:2014(b) (last sentence).
60121(a)(3) 49 App.:1686(c).
  49 App.:2014(c).
60121(b) 49 App.:1686(e).
  49 App.:2014(e).
60121(c) 49 App.:1686(f).
  49 App.:2014(f).
60121(d) 49 App.:1686(d).
  49 App.:2014(d).

In subsection (a)(1), before clause (A), the text of 49 App.:1686(a) (last sentence, words after the comma) and 2014(a) (last sentence, words after the comma) is omitted as surplus because the amount in controversy is no longer a criterion. The word “bring” is substituted for “commence” for consistency in the revised title and with other titles of the United States Code. The words “mandatory or prohibitive”, “including interim equitable relief”, “State, municipality, or”, and “alleged to be” are omitted as surplus. The word “prescribed” is added for consistency in the revised title and with other titles of the Code.

In subsection (a)(2), the words “by regulation” are omitted as surplus because of 49:322(a).

In subsection (a)(3), the words “as a matter of right” are omitted as surplus.

In subsection (b), before clause (1), the words “in the interest of justice” and “of suit, including” are omitted as surplus. In clause (1), the words “by an attorney” and “advice and other” are omitted as surplus. The words “provided to a person under this section” are substituted for “providing . . . in connection with representing a person in an action brought under this section” to eliminate unnecessary words.

In subsection (c), the word “Federal” is omitted as surplus. The words “prescribed under this chapter” are added for clarity.

In subsection (d), the words “enforcement of this chapter or any order or regulation under this chapter or to seek any other” are omitted as surplus.

§60122. Civil penalties

(a) General Penalties.—(1) A person that the Secretary of Transportation decides, after written notice and an opportunity for a hearing, has violated section 60114(b), 60114(d), or 60118(a) of this title or a regulation prescribed or order issued under this chapter is liable to the United States Government for a civil penalty of not more than $200,000 for each violation. A separate violation occurs for each day the violation continues. The maximum civil penalty under this paragraph for a related series of violations is $2,000,000.

(2) A person violating a standard or order under section 60103 or 60111 of this title is liable to the Government for a civil penalty of not more than $50,000 for each violation. A penalty under this paragraph may be imposed in addition to penalties imposed under paragraph (1) of this subsection.

(3) A person violating section 60129, or an order issued thereunder, is liable to the Government for a civil penalty of not more than $1,000 for each violation. The penalties provided by paragraph (1) do not apply to a violation of section 60129 or an order issued thereunder.

(b) Penalty Considerations.—In determining the amount of a civil penalty under this section—

(1) the Secretary shall consider—

(A) the nature, circumstances, and gravity of the violation, including adverse impact on the environment;

(B) with respect to the violator, the degree of culpability, any history of prior violations, and any effect on ability to continue doing business; and

(C) good faith in attempting to comply; and


(2) the Secretary may consider—

(A) the economic benefit gained from the violation without any reduction because of subsequent damages; and

(B) other matters that justice requires.


(c) Collection and Compromise.—(1) The Secretary may request the Attorney General to bring a civil action in an appropriate district court of the United States to collect a civil penalty imposed under this section.

(2) The Secretary may compromise the amount of a civil penalty imposed under this section before referral to the Attorney General.

(d) Setoff.—The Government may deduct the amount of a civil penalty imposed or compromised under this section from amounts it owes the person liable for the penalty.

(e) Deposit in Treasury.—Amounts collected under this section shall be deposited in the Treasury as miscellaneous receipts.

(f) Prohibition on Multiple Penalties for Same Act.—Separate penalties for violating a regulation prescribed under this chapter and for violating an order under section 60112 or 60118(b) of this title may not be imposed under this chapter if both violations are based on the same act.

(Pub. L. 103–272, §1(e), July 5, 1994, 108 Stat. 1325; Pub. L. 107–355, §§6(b), 8(b)(1), (2), 21(3), Dec. 17, 2002, 116 Stat. 2992, 2993, 3010; Pub. L. 109–468, §2(a)(2), Dec. 29, 2006, 120 Stat. 3487; Pub. L. 112–90, §2(a), Jan. 3, 2012, 125 Stat. 1905.)

Historical and Revision Notes
Revised

Section

Source (U.S. Code)Source (Statutes at Large)
60122(a)(1) 49 App.:1679a(a)(1), (3) (1st sentence). Aug. 12, 1968, Pub. L. 90–481, 82 Stat. 720, §11(a); added Nov. 30, 1979, Pub. L. 96–129, §§104(b), 154, 93 Stat. 992, 1002; Oct. 31, 1988, Pub. L. 100–561, §106, 102 Stat. 2807; Oct. 24, 1992, Pub. L. 102–508, §§112(a), 304(b), 106 Stat. 3295, 3308.
  49 App.:2007(a)(1), (2) (1st sentence). Nov. 30, 1979, Pub. L. 96–129, §208(a), (b), (d), 93 Stat. 1009, 1010; Oct. 31, 1988, Pub. L. 100–561, §205, 102 Stat. 2811; Oct. 24, 1992, Pub. L. 102–508, §211(a), 106 Stat. 3304.
60122(a)(2) 49 App.:1679a(a)(2).
60122(b) 49 App.:1679a(a)(3) (last sentence).
  49 App.:2007(a)(2) (last sentence).
60122(c) 49 App.:1679a(b) (1st sentence). Aug. 12, 1968, Pub. L. 90–481, 82 Stat. 720, §11(b), (d); added Nov. 30, 1979, Pub. L. 96–129, §104(b), 93 Stat. 992, 993.
  49 App.:2007(b) (1st sentence).
60122(d) 49 App.:1679a(b) (2d sentence).
  49 App.:2007(b) (2d sentence).
60122(e) 49 App.:1679a(b) (last sentence).
  49 App.:2007(b) (last sentence).
60122(f) 49 App.:1679a(d).
  49 App.:2007(d).

In subsection (a)(1), the word “prescribed” is added for consistency in the revised title and with other titles of the United States Code. The words “including any order issued under sections 1677(b) and 1679b(b)” in 49 App.:1679a(a)(1) and “including any order issued under section 2006(b) or 2008(b)” in 49 App.:2007(a)(1) are omitted as surplus. The word “occurs” is added for clarity.

In subsection (a)(2), the words “is determined by the Secretary to have” are omitted as surplus. The words “for each violation” are added for clarity and consistency. The word “imposed” is substituted for “to which such person may be subject” for consistency and to eliminate unnecessary words.

In subsection (b)(2), the word “violator” is substituted for “the person found to have committed the violation” for consistency and to eliminate unnecessary words. The words “the penalty” are omitted as surplus.

In subsection (c)(1), the words “The Secretary may request the Attorney General to bring a civil action” are substituted for “in an action brought by the Attorney General on behalf of the United States” for clarity, to eliminate unnecessary words, and because of 28:2461 and rule 2 of the Federal Rules of Civil Procedure (28 App. U.S.C.).

In subsection (d), the words “imposed or compromised under this section” are substituted for “of the penalty, when finally determined (or agreed upon in compromise)” to eliminate unnecessary words and for consistency. The words “liable for the penalty” are substituted for “charged” for clarity.

In subsection (f), the words “Separate penalties . . . prescribed under this chapter . . . may not be imposed under this chapter” are substituted for “Nothing in this title shall be construed to authorize . . . penalties” for clarity.

Amendments

2012—Subsec. (a)(1). Pub. L. 112–90, §2(a)(1), substituted “$200,000” for “$100,000” and “$2,000,000” for “$1,000,000”.

Subsec. (b)(1)(B). Pub. L. 112–90, §2(a)(2), struck out “the ability to pay,” after “violations,”.

2006—Subsec. (a)(1). Pub. L. 109–468 substituted “60114(b), 60114(d),” for “60114(b)”.

2002—Subsec. (a)(1). Pub. L. 107–355, §21(3), substituted “section 60114(b)” for “section 60114(c)”.

Pub. L. 107–355, §8(b)(1), substituted “$100,000” for “$25,000” and “$1,000,000” for “$500,000”.

Subsec. (a)(3). Pub. L. 107–355, §6(b), added par. (3).

Subsec. (b). Pub. L. 107–355, §8(b)(2), substituted “under this section—” and pars. (1) and (2) for “under this section, the Secretary shall consider—

“(1) the nature, circumstances, and gravity of the violation;

“(2) with respect to the violator, the degree of culpability, any history of prior violations, the ability to pay, and any effect on ability to continue doing business;

“(3) good faith in attempting to comply; and

“(4) other matters that justice requires.”

Comptroller General Study

Pub. L. 107–355, §8(d), Dec. 17, 2002, 116 Stat. 2994, required the Comptroller General to study the actions, policies, and procedures of the Secretary of Transportation for assessing and collecting fines and penalties on operators of hazardous liquid and gas transmission pipelines, and to report, not later than 1 year after Dec. 17, 2002, the results of the study to certain committees of Congress.

§60123. Criminal penalties

(a) General Penalty.—A person knowingly and willfully violating section 60114(b), 60118(a), or 60128 of this title or a regulation prescribed or order issued under this chapter shall be fined under title 18, imprisoned for not more than 5 years, or both.

(b) Penalty for Damaging or Destroying Facility.—A person knowingly and willfully damaging or destroying an interstate gas pipeline facility, an interstate hazardous liquid pipeline facility, or either an intrastate gas pipeline facility or intrastate hazardous liquid pipeline facility that is used in interstate or foreign commerce or in any activity affecting interstate or foreign commerce, or attempting or conspiring to do such an act, shall be fined under title 18, imprisoned for not more than 20 years, or both, and, if death results to any person, shall be imprisoned for any term of years or for life.

(c) Penalty for Damaging or Destroying Sign.—A person knowingly and willfully defacing, damaging, removing, or destroying a pipeline sign or right-of-way marker required by a law or regulation of the United States shall be fined under title 18, imprisoned for not more than one year, or both.

(d) Penalty for Not Using One-Call Notification System or Not Heeding Location Information or Markings.—A person shall be fined under title 18, imprisoned for not more than 5 years, or both, if the person—

(1) knowingly and willfully engages in an excavation activity—

(A) without first using an available one-call notification system to establish the location of underground facilities in the excavation area; or

(B) without paying attention to appropriate location information or markings the operator of a pipeline facility establishes; and


(2) subsequently damages—

(A) a pipeline facility that results in death, serious bodily harm, or actual damage to property of more than $50,000;

(B) a pipeline facility, and knows or has reason to know of the damage, but does not report the damage promptly to the operator of the pipeline facility and to other appropriate authorities; or

(C) a hazardous liquid pipeline facility that results in the release of more than 50 barrels of product.


Penalties under this subsection may be reduced in the case of a violation that is promptly reported by the violator.

(Pub. L. 103–272, §1(e), July 5, 1994, 108 Stat. 1325; Pub. L. 104–304, §§14, 18(b)(1), Oct. 12, 1996, 110 Stat. 3803, 3804; Pub. L. 107–56, title VIII, §§810(h), 811(k), Oct. 26, 2001, 115 Stat. 381, 382; Pub. L. 107–355, §§3(c), 8(c), 21(4), Dec. 17, 2002, 116 Stat. 2986, 2994, 3010.)

Historical and Revision Notes
Revised

Section

Source (U.S. Code)Source (Statutes at Large)
60123(a) 49 App.:1679a(c)(1). Aug. 12, 1968, Pub. L. 90–481, 82 Stat. 720, §11(c)(1); added Nov. 30, 1979, Pub. L. 96–129, §104(b), 93 Stat. 992; Oct. 24, 1992, Pub. L. 102–508, §304(b), 106 Stat. 3308.
  49 App.:2007(c)(1). Nov. 30, 1979, Pub. L. 96–129, §208(c)(1), (2), 93 Stat. 1010.
60123(b) 49 App.:1679a(c)(2). Aug. 12, 1968, Pub. L. 90–481, 82 Stat. 720, §11(c)(2); added Nov. 30, 1979, Pub. L. 96–129, §104(b), 93 Stat. 992.
  49 App.:2007(c)(2).
60123(c) 49 App.:1679a(c)(3). Aug. 12, 1968, Pub. L. 90–481, 82 Stat. 720, §11(c)(3); added Oct. 31, 1988, Pub. L. 100–561, §107, 102 Stat. 2807.
  49 App.:2007(c)(3). Nov. 30, 1979, Pub. L. 96–129, 93 Stat. 989, §208(c)(3); added Oct. 31, 1988, Pub. L. 100–561, §206, 102 Stat. 2811.
60123(d) 49 App.:1687(g). Aug. 12, 1968, Pub. L. 90–481, 82 Stat. 720, §20(g); added Oct. 24, 1992, Pub. L. 102–508, §304(a), 106 Stat. 3307.

In this section, the words “upon conviction . . . subject, for each offense, to” and “a term” are omitted as surplus.

In subsections (a)–(c), the words “fined under title 18” are substituted for “a fine of not more than $25,000” and “a fine of not more than $5,000” for consistency with title 18.

In subsection (a), the word “prescribed” is added for consistency in the revised title and with other titles of the United States Code. The words “including any order issued under section 1677(b) and 1679b(b) of this Appendix” in 49 App.:1679a(c)(1) and “including any order issued under section 2006(b) or 2008(b) of the Appendix” in 49 App.:2007(c)(1) are omitted as surplus.

In subsection (b), the word “damaging” is substituted for “injures”, and the word “damage” is substituted for “injure”, for clarity.

Amendments

2002—Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 107–355, §21(4), substituted “60114(b)” for “60114(c)”.

Subsec. (b). Pub. L. 107–355, §8(c), substituted “gas pipeline facility, an” for “gas pipeline facility or” and inserted “, or either an intrastate gas pipeline facility or intrastate hazardous liquid pipeline facility that is used in interstate or foreign commerce or in any activity affecting interstate or foreign commerce” after “liquid pipeline facility”.

Subsec. (d). Pub. L. 107–355, §3(c)(1), (4), struck out “knowingly and willfully” after “if the person” in introductory provisions and inserted concluding provisions.

Subsec. (d)(1). Pub. L. 107–355, §3(c)(2), inserted “knowingly and willfully” before “engages”.

Subsec. (d)(2)(B). Pub. L. 107–355, §3(c)(3), added subpar. (B) and struck out former subpar. (B) which read as follows: “a pipeline facility that does not report the damage promptly to the operator of the pipeline facility and to other appropriate authorities; or”.

2001—Subsec. (b). Pub. L. 107–56 struck out “, or attempting to damage or destroy,” before “an interstate gas pipeline facility”, inserted “, or attempting or conspiring to do such an act,” before “shall be fined under title 18,” and substituted “20 years, or both, and, if death results to any person, shall be imprisoned for any term of years or for life.” for “15 years, or both.”

1996—Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 104–304, §18(b)(1), substituted “, 60118(a), or 60128” for “or 60118(a)”.

Subsec. (d)(2). Pub. L. 104–304, §14, added subpar. (B) and redesignated former subpar. (B) as (C).

§60124. Biennial reports

(a) Submission and Contents.—Not later than August 15, 1997, and every 2 years thereafter, the Secretary of Transportation shall submit to Congress a report on carrying out this chapter for the 2 immediately preceding calendar years for gas and a report on carrying out this chapter for such period for hazardous liquid. Each report shall include the following information about the prior year for gas or hazardous liquid, as appropriate:

(1) a thorough compilation of the leak repairs, accidents, and casualties and a statement of cause when investigated and established by the National Transportation Safety Board.

(2) a list of applicable pipeline safety standards prescribed under this chapter including identification of standards prescribed during the year.

(3) a summary of the reasons for each waiver granted under section 60118(c) and (d) of this title.

(4) an evaluation of the degree of compliance with applicable safety standards, including a list of enforcement actions and compromises of alleged violations by location and company name.

(5) a summary of outstanding problems in carrying out this chapter, in order of priority.

(6) an analysis and evaluation of—

(A) research activities, including their policy implications, completed as a result of the United States Government and private sponsorship; and

(B) technological progress in safety achieved.


(7) a list, with a brief statement of the issues, of completed or pending judicial actions under this chapter.

(8) the extent to which technical information was distributed to the scientific community and consumer-oriented information was made available to the public.

(9) a compilation of certifications filed under section 60105 of this title that were—

(A) in effect; or

(B) rejected in any part by the Secretary and a summary of the reasons for each rejection.


(10) a compilation of agreements made under section 60106 of this title that were—

(A) in effect; or

(B) ended in any part by the Secretary and a summary of the reasons for ending each agreement.


(11) a description of the number and qualifications of State pipeline safety inspectors in each State for which a certification under section 60105 of this title or an agreement under section 60106 of this title is in effect and the number and qualifications of inspectors the Secretary recommends for that State.

(12) recommendations for legislation the Secretary considers necessary—

(A) to promote cooperation among the States in improving—

(i) gas pipeline safety; or

(ii) hazardous liquid pipeline safety programs; and


(B) to strengthen the national gas pipeline safety program.


(b) Submission of One Report.—The Secretary may submit one report to carry out subsection (a) of this section.

(Pub. L. 103–272, §1(e), July 5, 1994, 108 Stat. 1326; Pub. L. 104–66, title I, §1121(l), Dec. 21, 1995, 109 Stat. 724; Pub. L. 104–304, §15(a), Oct. 12, 1996, 110 Stat. 3803.)

Historical and Revision Notes
Revised

Section

Source (U.S. Code)Source (Statutes at Large)
60124(a) 49 App.:1683(a). Aug. 12, 1968, Pub. L. 90–481, §16(a), 82 Stat. 728; Oct. 11, 1976, Pub. L. 94–477, §7, 90 Stat. 2075; Nov. 30, 1979, Pub. L. 96–129, §§104(b), 107, 109(l), (m), 93 Stat. 992, 995, 997; Oct. 11, 1984, Pub. L. 98–464, §3(a), 98 Stat. 1821; Oct. 24, 1992, Pub. L. 102–508, §110(b), 106 Stat. 3295.
  49 App.:1683(b). Aug. 12, 1968, Pub. L. 90–481, §16(b), 82 Stat. 728; Nov. 30, 1979, Pub. L. 96–129, §104(b), 93 Stat. 992.
  49 App.:2012(a). Nov. 30, 1979, Pub. L. 96–129, §213(a), 93 Stat. 1013; Oct. 11, 1984, Pub. L. 98–464, §3(b), 98 Stat. 1821; Oct. 24, 1992, Pub. L. 102–508, §209(b), 106 Stat. 3304.
  49 App.:2012(b). Nov. 30, 1979, Pub. L. 96–129, §213(b), (c), 93 Stat. 1014.
60124(b) 49 App.:2012(c).

In subsection (a), before clause (1), the words “prepare and” and “comprehensive” are omitted as surplus. The words “the following information” are added for clarity. The words “about the prior year” are substituted for “occurring in such year”, “established or in effect in such year”, “during such year”, and “during the preceding calendar year” to eliminate unnecessary words. In clause (2), the word “Federal” is omitted as surplus. The word “prescribed” is substituted for “established or in effect” and “established” for consistency in the revised title and with other titles of the United States Code and to eliminate unnecessary words. The word “newly” is omitted as surplus. In clause (4), the words “for the transportation of gas and pipeline facilities” in 49 App.:1683(a)(4) and “for the transportation of hazardous liquids and pipeline facilities” in 49 App.:2012(a)(4) are omitted because of the restatement. In clause (5), the words “in carrying out” are substituted for “confronting the administration of” for consistency. In clause (9), before subclause (A), the words “by State agencies (including municipalities)” are omitted as surplus. In clauses (9)(B) and (10)(B), the words “in any part” are added for clarity. In clause (10), before subclause (A), the words “with State agencies (including municipalities)” are omitted as surplus. In clause (12), before subclause (A), the word “additional” is omitted as surplus. In subclause (A), the word “several” is omitted as surplus.

In subsection (b), the words “annual” and “the report requirements of” are omitted as surplus.

Amendments

1996—Pub. L. 104–304, §15(a)(1), substituted “Biennial” for “Annual” in section catchline.

Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 104–304, §15(a)(2), inserted first sentence and struck out former first sentence which read as follows: “The Secretary of Transportation shall submit to Congress not later than August 15 of each odd-numbered year a report on carrying out this chapter for the prior calendar year for gas and a report on carrying out this chapter for the prior calendar year for hazardous liquid.”

1995—Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 104–66 substituted “of each odd-numbered year” for “of each year” in first sentence of introductory provisions.

Termination of Reporting Requirements

For termination, effective May 15, 2000, of provisions of law requiring submittal to Congress of any annual, semiannual, or other regular periodic report listed in House Document No. 103–7 (in which the 7th and 9th items on page 135 identify reporting provisions which, as subsequently amended, are contained in this section), see section 3003 of Pub. L. 104–66, as amended, set out as a note under section 1113 of Title 31, Money and Finance.

§60125. Authorization of appropriations

(a) Gas and Hazardous Liquid.—

(1) In general.—To carry out the provisions of this chapter related to gas and hazardous liquid and section 12 of the Pipeline Safety Improvement Act of 2002 (49 U.S.C. 60101 note; Public Law 107–355), there is authorized to be appropriated to the Department of Transportation for each of fiscal years 2012 through 2015, from fees collected under section 60301, $90,679,000, of which $4,746,000 is for carrying out such section 12 and $36,194,000 is for making grants.

(2) Trust fund amounts.—In addition to the amounts authorized to be appropriated by paragraph (1), there is authorized to be appropriated for each of fiscal years 2012 through 2015 from the Oil Spill Liability Trust Fund to carry out the provisions of this chapter related to hazardous liquid and section 12 of the Pipeline Safety Improvement Act of 2002 (49 U.S.C. 60101 note; Public Law 107–355), $18,573,000, of which $2,174,000 is for carrying out such section 12 and $4,558,000 is for making grants.


(b) Emergency Response Grants.—

(1) In general.—The Secretary may establish a program for making grants to State, county, and local governments in high consequence areas, as defined by the Secretary, for emergency response management, training, and technical assistance. To the extent that such grants are used to train emergency responders, such training shall ensure that emergency responders have the ability to protect nearby persons, property, and the environment from the effects of accidents or incidents involving gas or hazardous liquid pipelines, in accordance with existing regulations.

(2) Authorization of appropriations.—There is authorized to be appropriated $10,000,000 for each of fiscal years 2012 through 2015 to carry out this subsection.


(c) Crediting Appropriations for Expenditures for Training.—The Secretary may credit to an appropriation authorized under subsection (a) amounts received from sources other than the Government for reimbursement for expenses incurred by the Secretary in providing training.

(Pub. L. 103–272, §1(e), July 5, 1994, 108 Stat. 1327; Pub. L. 104–304, §21, Oct. 12, 1996, 110 Stat. 3805; Pub. L. 107–355, §22, Dec. 17, 2002, 116 Stat. 3010; Pub. L. 109–468, §18(a)–(c), Dec. 29, 2006, 120 Stat. 3497, 3498; Pub. L. 112–90, §32(a), (b), Jan. 3, 2012, 125 Stat. 1922.)

Historical and Revision Notes
Revised

Section

Source (U.S. Code)Source (Statutes at Large)
60125(a) 49 App.:1684(a) (1st sentence). Aug. 12, 1968, Pub. L. 90–481, §17(a), 82 Stat. 729; Aug. 22, 1972, Pub. L. 92–401, §4, 86 Stat. 616; Aug. 30, 1974, Pub. L. 93–403, §3, 88 Stat. 802; Oct. 11, 1976, Pub. L. 94–477, §2(1), 90 Stat. 2073; restated Nov. 30, 1979, Pub. L. 96–129, §§104(b), 108, 93 Stat. 992, 996; Oct. 11, 1984, Pub. L. 98–464, §1(a), 98 Stat. 1821; Apr. 7, 1986, Pub. L. 99–272, §§7001, 7002(b)(4), 100 Stat. 139; Oct. 22, 1986, Pub. L. 99–516, §1(a), 100 Stat. 2965; Oct. 31, 1988, Pub. L. 100–561, §§110, 303(b)(2), 102 Stat. 2809, 2816; Oct. 24, 1992, Pub. L. 102–508, §114, 106 Stat. 3296.
60125(b) 49 App.:2013(a) (1st sentence). Nov. 30, 1979, Pub. L. 96–129, §214(a), 93 Stat. 1014; Oct. 11, 1984, Pub. L. 98–464, §2(a), 98 Stat. 1821; Apr. 7, 1986, Pub. L. 99–272, §§7002(b)(3), 7004, 100 Stat. 139, 140; Oct. 22, 1986, Pub. L. 99–516, §2, 100 Stat. 2965; Oct. 31, 1988, Pub. L. 100–561, §210, 102 Stat. 2812; Oct. 24, 1992, Pub. L. 102–508, §214, 106 Stat. 3305.
60125(c)(1) 49 App.:1684(c). Aug. 12, 1968, Pub. L. 90–481, 82 Stat. 720, §17(c); added Apr. 7, 1986, Pub. L. 99–272, §7002(a), 100 Stat. 139; Oct. 22, 1986, Pub. L. 99–516, §1(b), 100 Stat. 2965; Oct. 31, 1988, Pub. L. 100–561, §301(a), 102 Stat. 2813; Oct. 24, 1992, Pub. L. 102–508, §301, 106 Stat. 3307.
60125(c)(2), (3) 49 App.:1684(d). Aug. 12, 1968, Pub. L. 90–481, 82 Stat. 720, §17(d); added Apr. 7, 1986, Pub. L. 99–272, §7002(a), 100 Stat. 139; Oct. 31, 1988, Pub. L. 100–561, §301(b), 102 Stat. 2813.
60125(d) 49 App.:1687(f). Aug. 12, 1968, Pub. L. 90–481, 82 Stat. 720, §20(f); added Oct. 31, 1988, Pub. L. 100–561, §303(a), 102 Stat. 2816.
60125(e) 49 App.:1684(a) (2d, last sentences).
  49 App.:2013(a) (last sentence).
60125(f) 49 App.:1684(e). Aug. 12, 1968, Pub. L. 90–481, 82 Stat. 720, §17(e); added Oct. 31, 1988, Pub. L. 100–561, §301(c), 102 Stat. 2814.

In this section, references to fiscal years ending September 30, 1980, 1981, and 1985–1992, are omitted as expired.

In subsection (a), the words “(except sections 60107 and 60114(b))” are substituted for “(other than provisions for which funds are authorized to be appropriated under subsection . . . (c) of this section or section 1687 of this Appendix)” to eliminate unnecessary words. The reference to subsection (b) is omitted as obsolete.

In subsection (b), the words “(except sections 60107” are substituted for “(other than provisions for which funds are authorized to be appropriated under . . . section 1684(c) of this Appendix)” to eliminate unnecessary words. The words “subsection (b) of this section or” are omitted as obsolete. The reference to section 60114(b) of the revised title is added for clarity.

In subsection (c)(1) and (2), the words “the Federal grants-in-aid provisions of” are omitted as surplus.

In subsection (c)(3), the words “the amount of” are omitted as surplus. The word “program” is added for consistency in this chapter. The words “made to a State” are omitted as surplus.

In subsection (e), the text of 49 App.:1684(a) (last sentence) is omitted as expired.

In subsection (f)(5), the words “made available” are omitted as surplus.

Amendments

2012—Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 112–90, §32(a), amended subsec. (a) generally. Prior to amendment, subsec. (a) authorized appropriations and trust fund amounts for gas and hazardous liquid transportation for fiscal years 2007 through 2010.

Subsec. (b)(2). Pub. L. 112–90, §32(b), substituted “2012 through 2015” for “2007 through 2010”.

2006—Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 109–468, §18(a), amended subsec. (a) generally. Prior to amendment, subsec. (a) authorized appropriations for gas and hazardous liquid transportation for fiscal years 2003 through 2006.

Subsec. (b). Pub. L. 109–468, §18(b), redesignated subsec. (d) as (b) and struck out former subsec. (b) which limited appropriation amounts for fiscal years 2003 through 2006 to carry out section 60107 of this title.

Subsec. (b)(1). Pub. L. 109–468, §18(c)(1), inserted at end “To the extent that such grants are used to train emergency responders, such training shall ensure that emergency responders have the ability to protect nearby persons, property, and the environment from the effects of accidents or incidents involving gas or hazardous liquid pipelines, in accordance with existing regulations.”

Subsec. (b)(2). Pub. L. 109–468, §18(c)(2), substituted “$10,000,000” for “$6,000,000” and “2007 through 2010” for “2003 through 2006”.

Subsec. (c). Pub. L. 109–468, §18(b), redesignated subsec. (e) as (c) and struck out heading and text of former subsec. (c). Text read as follows: “Of the amounts available in the Oil Spill Liability Trust Fund, $8,000,000 shall be transferred to the Secretary of Transportation, as provided in appropriation Acts, to carry out programs authorized in this chapter for each of fiscal years 2003 through 2006.”

Subsecs. (d), (e). Pub. L. 109–468, §18(b), redesignated subsecs. (d) and (e) as (b) and (c), respectively.

2002—Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 107–355, §22(a), reenacted heading without change and amended text generally. Prior to amendment, text read as follows: “To carry out this chapter (except for sections 60107 and 60114(b)) related to gas and hazardous liquid, there are authorized to be appropriated to the Department of Transportation—

“(1) $19,448,000 for fiscal year 1996;

“(2) $20,028,000 for fiscal year 1997, of which $14,600,000 is to be derived from user fees for fiscal year 1997 collected under section 60301 of this title;

“(3) $20,729,000 for fiscal year 1998, of which $15,100,000 is to be derived from user fees for fiscal year 1998 collected under section 60301 of this title;

“(4) $21,442,000 for fiscal year 1999, of which $15,700,000 is to be derived from user fees for fiscal year 1999 collected under section 60301 of this title; and

“(5) $22,194,000 for fiscal year 2000, of which $16,300,000 is to be derived from user fees for fiscal year 2000 collected under section 60301 of this title.”

Subsec. (b). Pub. L. 107–355, §22(b)(1), redesignated subsec. (c) as (b) and struck out former subsec. (b) which read as follows:

“(b) Hazardous Liquid.—Not more than the following amounts may be appropriated to the Secretary to carry out this chapter (except sections 60107 and 60114(b)) related to hazardous liquid:

“(1) $1,728,500 for the fiscal year ending September 30, 1993.

“(2) $1,866,800 for the fiscal year ending September 30, 1994.

“(3) $2,000,000 for the fiscal year ending September 30, 1995.”

Subsec. (b)(1). Pub. L. 107–355, §22(b)(2), added subpars. (A) to (D) and struck out former subpars. (A) to (H) which read as follows:

“(A) $7,750,000 for the fiscal year ending September 30, 1993.

“(B) $9,000,000 for the fiscal year ending September 30, 1994.

“(C) $10,000,000 for the fiscal year ending September 30, 1995.

“(D) $12,000,000 for fiscal year 1996.

“(E) $14,000,000 for fiscal year 1997, of which $12,500,000 is to be derived from user fees for fiscal year 1997 collected under section 60301 of this title.

“(F) $14,490,000 for fiscal year 1998, of which $12,900,000 is to be derived from user fees for fiscal year 1998 collected under section 60301 of this title.

“(G) $15,000,000 for fiscal year 1999, of which $13,300,000 is to be derived from user fees for fiscal year 1999 collected under section 60301 of this title.

“(H) $15,524,000 for fiscal year 2000, of which $13,700,000 is to be derived from user fees for fiscal year 2000 collected under section 60301 of this title.”

Subsec. (c). Pub. L. 107–355, §22(c), added subsec. (c). Former subsec. (c) redesignated (b).

Subsec. (d). Pub. L. 107–355, §22(b)(1), (c), added subsec. (d) and struck out former subsec. (d) which read as follows:

“(d) Grants for One-Call Notification Systems.—Not more than $__________ may be appropriated to the Secretary for the fiscal year ending September 30, 19__, to carry out section 60114(b) of this title. Amounts under this subsection remain available until expended.”

Subsec. (e). Pub. L. 107–355, §22(d), struck out “or (b) of this section” after “under subsection (a)”.

Subsec. (f). Pub. L. 107–355, §22(b)(1), struck out subsec. (f) which read as follows:

“(f) Availability of Unused Amounts for Grants.—(1) The Secretary shall make available for grants to States amounts appropriated for each of the fiscal years that ended September 30, 1986, and 1987, that have not been expended in making grants under section 60107 of this title.

“(2) A grant under this subsection is available to a State that after December 31, 1987—

“(A) undertakes a new responsibility under section 60105 of this title; or

“(B) implements a one-call damage prevention program established under State law.

“(3) This subsection does not authorize a State to receive more than 50 percent of its allowable pipeline safety costs from a grant under this chapter.

“(4) A State may receive not more than $75,000 under this subsection.

“(5) Amounts under this subsection remain available until expended.”

1996—Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 104–304, §21(a)(1), added subsec. (a) and struck out former subsec. (a) which read as follows:

“(a) Gas.—Not more than the following amounts may be appropriated to the Secretary of Transportation to carry out this chapter (except sections 60107 and 60114(b)) related to gas:

“(1) $6,857,000 for the fiscal year ending September 30, 1993.

“(2) $7,000,000 for the fiscal year ending September 30, 1994.

“(3) $7,500,000 for the fiscal year ending September 30, 1995.”

Subsec. (c)(1). Pub. L. 104–304, §21(b), added subpars. (D) to (H).

§60126. Risk management

(a) Risk Management Program Demonstration Projects.—

(1) In general.—The Secretary shall establish risk management demonstration projects—

(A) to demonstrate, through the voluntary participation by owners and operators of gas pipeline facilities and hazardous liquid pipeline facilities, the application of risk management; and

(B) to evaluate the safety and cost-effectiveness of the program.


(2) Exemptions.—In carrying out a demonstration project under this subsection, the Secretary, by order—

(A) may exempt an owner or operator of the pipeline facility covered under the project (referred to in this subsection as a “covered pipeline facility”), from the applicability of all or a portion of the requirements under this chapter that would otherwise apply to the covered pipeline facility; and

(B) shall exempt, for the period of the project, an owner or operator of the covered pipeline facility, from the applicability of any new standard that the Secretary promulgates under this chapter during the period of that participation, with respect to the covered facility.


(b) Requirements.—In carrying out a demonstration project under this section, the Secretary shall—

(1) invite owners and operators of pipeline facilities to submit risk management plans for timely approval by the Secretary;

(2) require, as a condition of approval, that a risk management plan submitted under this subsection contain measures that are designed to achieve an equivalent or greater overall level of safety than would otherwise be achieved through compliance with the standards contained in this chapter or promulgated by the Secretary under this chapter;

(3) provide for—

(A) collaborative government and industry training;

(B) methods to measure the safety performance of risk management plans;

(C) the development and application of new technologies;

(D) the promotion of community awareness concerning how the overall level of safety will be maintained or enhanced by the demonstration project;

(E) the development of models that categorize the risks inherent to each covered pipeline facility, taking into consideration the location, volume, pressure, and material transported or stored by that pipeline facility;

(F) the application of risk assessment and risk management methodologies that are suitable to the inherent risks that are determined to exist through the use of models developed under subparagraph (E);

(G) the development of project elements that are necessary to ensure that—

(i) the owners and operators that participate in the demonstration project demonstrate that they are effectively managing the risks referred to in subparagraph (E); and

(ii) the risk management plans carried out under the demonstration project under this subsection can be audited;


(H) a process whereby an owner or operator of a pipeline facility is able to terminate a risk management plan or, with the approval of the Secretary, to amend, modify, or otherwise adjust a risk management plan referred to in paragraph (1) that has been approved by the Secretary pursuant to that paragraph to respond to—

(i) changed circumstances; or

(ii) a determination by the Secretary that the owner or operator is not achieving an overall level of safety that is at least equivalent to the level that would otherwise be achieved through compliance with the standards contained in this chapter or promulgated by the Secretary under this chapter;


(I) such other elements as the Secretary, with the agreement of the owners and operators that participate in the demonstration project under this section, determines to further the purposes of this section; and

(J) an opportunity for public comment in the approval process; and


(4) in selecting participants for the demonstration project, take into consideration the past safety and regulatory performance of each applicant who submits a risk management plan pursuant to paragraph (1).


(c) Emergencies and Revocations.—Nothing in this section diminishes or modifies the Secretary's authority under this title to act in case of an emergency. The Secretary may revoke any exemption granted under this section for substantial noncompliance with the terms and conditions of an approved risk management plan.

(d) Participation by State Authority.—In carrying out this section, the Secretary may provide for consultation by a State that has in effect a certification under section 60105. To the extent that a demonstration project comprises an intrastate natural gas pipeline or an intrastate hazardous liquid pipeline facility, the Secretary may make an agreement with the State agency to carry out the duties of the Secretary for approval and administration of the project.

(e) Report.—Not later than March 31, 2000, the Secretary shall transmit to the Congress a report on the results of the demonstration projects carried out under this section that includes—

(1) an evaluation of each such demonstration project, including an evaluation of the performance of each participant in that project with respect to safety and environmental protection; and

(2) recommendations concerning whether the applications of risk management demonstrated under the demonstration project should be incorporated into the Federal pipeline safety program under this chapter on a permanent basis.

(Added Pub. L. 104–304, §5(a), Oct. 12, 1996, 110 Stat. 3798.)

Deemed References to Chapters 509 and 511 of Title 51

General references to “this title” deemed to refer also to chapters 509 and 511 of Title 51, National and Commercial Space Programs, see section 4(d)(8) of Pub. L. 111–314, set out as a note under section 101 of this title.

§60127. Population encroachment and rights-of-way

(a) Study.—The Secretary of Transportation, in conjunction with the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission and in consultation with appropriate Federal agencies and State and local governments, shall undertake a study of land use practices, zoning ordinances, and preservation of environmental resources with regard to pipeline rights-of-way and their maintenance.

(b) Purpose of Study.—The purpose of the study shall be to gather information on land use practices, zoning ordinances, and preservation of environmental resources—

(1) to determine effective practices to limit encroachment on existing pipeline rights-of-way;

(2) to address and prevent the hazards and risks to the public, pipeline workers, and the environment associated with encroachment on pipeline rights-of-way;

(3) to raise the awareness of the risks and hazards of encroachment on pipeline rights-of-way; and

(4) to address how to best preserve environmental resources in conjunction with maintaining pipeline rights-of-way, recognizing pipeline operators’ regulatory obligations to maintain rights-of-way and to protect public safety.


(c) Considerations.—In conducting the study, the Secretary shall consider, at a minimum, the following:

(1) The legal authority of Federal agencies and State and local governments in controlling land use and the limitations on such authority.

(2) The current practices of Federal agencies and State and local governments in addressing land use issues involving a pipeline easement.

(3) The most effective way to encourage Federal agencies and State and local governments to monitor and reduce encroachment upon pipeline rights-of-way.


(d) Report.—

(1) In general.—Not later than 1 year after the date of enactment of this subsection, the Secretary shall publish a report identifying practices, laws, and ordinances that are most successful in addressing issues of encroachment and maintenance on pipeline rights-of-way so as to more effectively protect public safety, pipeline workers, and the environment.

(2) Distribution of report.—The Secretary shall provide a copy of the report to—

(A) Congress and appropriate Federal agencies; and

(B) States for further distribution to appropriate local authorities.


(3) Adoption of practices, laws, and ordinances.—The Secretary shall encourage Federal agencies and State and local governments to adopt and implement appropriate practices, laws, and ordinances, as identified in the report, to address the risks and hazards associated with encroachment upon pipeline rights-of-way and to address the potential methods of preserving environmental resources while maintaining pipeline rights-of-way, consistent with pipeline safety.

(Added Pub. L. 104–304, §16(a), Oct. 12, 1996, 110 Stat. 3803; amended Pub. L. 107–355, §11(a), Dec. 17, 2002, 116 Stat. 2996.)

References in Text

The date of enactment of this subsection, referred to in subsec. (d)(1), is the date of enactment of Pub. L. 107–355, which was approved Dec. 17, 2002.

Amendments

2002—Pub. L. 107–355 substituted “Population encroachment and rights-of-way” for “Population encroachment” in section catchline and amended text generally. Prior to amendment, text read as follows:

“(a) Land Use Recommendations.—The Secretary of Transportation shall make available to an appropriate official of each State, as determined by the Secretary, the land use recommendations of the special report numbered 219 of the Transportation Research Board, entitled ‘Pipelines and Public Safety’.

“(b) Evaluation.—The Secretary shall—

“(1) evaluate the recommendations in the report referred to in subsection (a);

“(2) determine to what extent the recommendations are being implemented;

“(3) consider ways to improve the implementation of the recommendations; and

“(4) consider other initiatives to further improve awareness of local planning and zoning entities regarding issues involved with population encroachment in proximity to the rights-of-way of any interstate gas pipeline facility or interstate hazardous liquid pipeline facility.”

§60128. Dumping within pipeline rights-of-way

(a) Prohibition.—No person shall excavate for the purpose of unauthorized disposal within the right-of-way of an interstate gas pipeline facility or interstate hazardous liquid pipeline facility, or any other limited area in the vicinity of any such interstate pipeline facility established by the Secretary of Transportation, and dispose solid waste therein.

(b) Definition.—For purposes of this section, the term “solid waste” has the meaning given that term in section 1004(27) of the Solid Waste Disposal Act (42 U.S.C. 6903(27)).

(Added Pub. L. 104–304, §18(a), Oct. 12, 1996, 110 Stat. 3804.)

§60129. Protection of employees providing pipeline safety information

(a) Discrimination Against Employee.—

(1) In general.—No employer may discharge any employee or otherwise discriminate against any employee with respect to his compensation, terms, conditions, or privileges of employment because the employee (or any person acting pursuant to a request of the employee)—

(A) provided, caused to be provided, or is about to provide or cause to be provided, to the employer or the Federal Government information relating to any violation or alleged violation of any order, regulation, or standard under this chapter or any other Federal law relating to pipeline safety;

(B) refused to engage in any practice made unlawful by this chapter or any other Federal law relating to pipeline safety, if the employee has identified the alleged illegality to the employer;

(C) provided, caused to be provided, or is about to provide or cause to be provided, testimony before Congress or at any Federal or State proceeding regarding any provision (or proposed provision) of this chapter or any other Federal law relating to pipeline safety;

(D) commenced, caused to be commenced, or is about to commence or cause to be commenced a proceeding under this chapter or any other Federal law relating to pipeline safety, or a proceeding for the administration or enforcement of any requirement imposed under this chapter or any other Federal law relating to pipeline safety;

(E) provided, caused to be provided, or is about to provide or cause to be provided, testimony in any proceeding described in subparagraph (D); or

(F) assisted or participated or is about to assist or participate in any manner in such a proceeding or in any other manner in such a proceeding or in any other action to carry out the purposes of this chapter or any other Federal law relating to pipeline safety.


(2) Employer defined.—In this section, the term “employer” means—

(A) a person owning or operating a pipeline facility; or

(B) a contractor or subcontractor of such a person.


(b) Department of Labor Complaint Procedure.—

(1) Filing and notification.—A person who believes that he or she has been discharged or otherwise discriminated against by any person in violation of subsection (a) may, not later than 180 days after the date on which such violation occurs, file (or have any person file on his or her behalf) a complaint with the Secretary of Labor alleging such discharge or discrimination. Upon receipt of such a complaint, the Secretary of Labor shall notify, in writing, the person or persons named in the complaint and the Secretary of Transportation of the filing of the complaint, of the allegations contained in the complaint, of the substance of evidence supporting the complaint, and of the opportunities that will be afforded to such person or persons under paragraph (2).

(2) Investigation; preliminary order.—

(A) In general.—Not later than 60 days after the date of receipt of a complaint filed under paragraph (1) and after affording the person or persons named in the complaint an opportunity to submit to the Secretary of Labor a written response to the complaint and an opportunity to meet with a representative of the Secretary of Labor to present statements from witnesses, the Secretary of Labor shall conduct an investigation and determine whether there is reasonable cause to believe that the complaint has merit and notify in writing the complainant and the person or persons alleged to have committed a violation of subsection (a) of the Secretary of Labor's findings. If the Secretary of Labor concludes that there is reasonable cause to believe that a violation of subsection (a) has occurred, the Secretary of Labor shall include with the Secretary of Labor's findings with a preliminary order providing the relief prescribed by paragraph (3)(B). Not later than 60 days after the date of notification of findings under this subparagraph, any person alleged to have committed a violation or the complainant may file objections to the findings or preliminary order, or both, and request a hearing on the record. The filing of such objections shall not operate to stay any reinstatement remedy contained in the preliminary order. Such hearings shall be conducted expeditiously. If a hearing is not requested in such 60-day period, the preliminary order shall be deemed a final order that is not subject to judicial review.

(B) Requirements.—

(i) Required showing by complainant.—The Secretary of Labor shall dismiss a complaint filed under this subsection and shall not conduct an investigation otherwise required under subparagraph (A) unless the complainant makes a prima facie showing that any behavior described in subsection (a) was a contributing factor in the unfavorable personnel action alleged in the complaint.

(ii) Showing by employer.—Notwithstanding a finding by the Secretary of Labor that the complainant has made the showing required under clause (i), no investigation otherwise required under subparagraph (A) shall be conducted if the employer demonstrates, by clear and convincing evidence, that the employer would have taken the same unfavorable personnel action in the absence of that behavior.

(iii) Criteria for determination by Secretary.—The Secretary of Labor may determine that a violation of subsection (a) has occurred only if the complainant demonstrates that any behavior described in subsection (a) was a contributing factor in the unfavorable personnel action alleged in the complaint.

(iv) Prohibition.—Relief may not be ordered under subparagraph (A) if the employer demonstrates by clear and convincing evidence that the employer would have taken the same unfavorable personnel action in the absence of that behavior.


(3) Final order.—

(A) Deadline for issuance; settlement agreements.—Not later than 90 days after the date of conclusion of a hearing under paragraph (2), the Secretary of Labor shall issue a final order providing the relief prescribed by this paragraph or denying the complaint. At any time before issuance of a final order, a proceeding under this subsection may be terminated on the basis of a settlement agreement entered into by the Secretary of Labor, the complainant, and the person or persons alleged to have committed the violation.

(B) Remedy.—If, in response to a complaint filed under paragraph (1), the Secretary of Labor determines that a violation of subsection (a) has occurred, the Secretary of Labor shall order the person or persons who committed such violation to—

(i) take affirmative action to abate the violation;

(ii) reinstate the complainant to his or her former position together with the compensation (including back pay) and restore the terms, conditions, and privileges associated with his or her employment; and

(iii) provide compensatory damages to the complainant.


If such an order is issued under this paragraph, the Secretary of Labor, at the request of the complainant, shall assess against the person or persons against whom the order is issued a sum equal to the aggregate amount of all costs and expenses (including attorney's and expert witness fees) reasonably incurred, as determined by the Secretary of Labor, by the complainant for, or in connection with, the bringing the complaint upon which the order was issued.

(C) Frivolous complaints.—If the Secretary of Labor finds that a complaint under paragraph (1) is frivolous or has been brought in bad faith, the Secretary of Labor may award to the prevailing employer a reasonable attorney's fee not exceeding $1,000.


(4) Review.—

(A) Appeal to court of appeals.—Any person adversely affected or aggrieved by an order issued under paragraph (3) may obtain review of the order in the United States Court of Appeals for the circuit in which the violation, with respect to which the order was issued, allegedly occurred or the circuit in which the complainant resided on the date of such violation. The petition for review must be filed not later than 60 days after the date of issuance of the final order of the Secretary of Labor. Review shall conform to chapter 7 of title 5, United States Code. The commencement of proceedings under this subparagraph shall not, unless ordered by the court, operate as a stay of the order.

(B) Limitation on collateral attack.—An order of the Secretary of Labor with respect to which review could have been obtained under subparagraph (A) shall not be subject to judicial review in any criminal or other civil proceeding.


(5) Enforcement of order by secretary of labor.—Whenever any person has failed to comply with an order issued under paragraph (3), the Secretary of Labor may file a civil action in the United States district court for the district in which the violation was found to occur to enforce such order. In actions brought under this paragraph, the district courts shall have jurisdiction to grant all appropriate relief, including, but not to be limited to, injunctive relief and compensatory damages.

(6) Enforcement of order by parties.—

(A) Commencement of action.—A person on whose behalf an order was issued under paragraph (3) may commence a civil action against the person or persons to whom such order was issued to require compliance with such order. The appropriate United States district court shall have jurisdiction, without regard to the amount in controversy or the citizenship of the parties, to enforce such order.

(B) Attorney fees.—The court, in issuing any final order under this paragraph, may award costs of litigation (including reasonable attorney and expert witness fees) to any party whenever the court determines such award of costs is appropriate.


(c) Mandamus.—Any nondiscretionary duty imposed by this section shall be enforceable in a mandamus proceeding brought under section 1361 of title 28, United States Code.

(d) Nonapplicability To Deliberate Violations.—Subsection (a) shall not apply with respect to an action of an employee of an employer who, acting without direction from the employer (or such employer's agent), deliberately causes a violation of any requirement relating to pipeline safety under this chapter or any other law of the United States.

(Added Pub. L. 107–355, §6(a), Dec. 17, 2002, 116 Stat. 2989.)

§60130. Pipeline safety information grants to communities

(a) Grant Authority.—

(1) In general.—The Secretary of Transportation may make grants for technical assistance to local communities and groups of individuals (not including for-profit entities) relating to the safety of pipeline facilities in local communities, other than facilities regulated under Public Law 93–153 (43 U.S.C. 1651 et seq.). No grants may be awarded under section 60114(g) until the Secretary has established competitive procedures for awarding grants under this section and criteria for selecting grant recipients. The amount of any grant under this section may not exceed $100,000 for a single grant recipient. The Secretary shall establish appropriate procedures to ensure the proper use of funds provided under this section.

(2) Demonstration grants.—At least the first 3 grants awarded under this section shall be demonstration grants for the purpose of demonstrating and evaluating the utility of grants under this section. Each such demonstration grant shall not exceed $25,000.

(3) Dissemination of technical findings.—Each recipient of a grant under this section shall ensure that—

(A) the technical findings made possible by the grants are made available to the relevant operators; and

(B) open communication between the grant recipients, local operators, local communities, and other interested parties is encouraged.


(4) Technical assistance defined.—In this subsection, the term “technical assistance” means engineering and other scientific analysis of pipeline safety issues, including the promotion of public participation in official proceedings conducted under this chapter.


(b) Prohibited Uses.—Funds provided under this section to grant recipients and their contractors may not be used for lobbying, for direct advocacy for or against a pipeline construction or expansion project, or in direct support of litigation.

(c) Annual Report.—

(1) In general.—Not later than 90 days after the last day of each fiscal year for which grants are made by the Secretary under this section, the Secretary shall report to the Committees on Commerce, Science, and Transportation and Energy and Natural Resources of the Senate and the Committees on Transportation and Infrastructure and Energy and Commerce of the House of Representatives on grants made under this section in the preceding fiscal year.

(2) Contents.—The report shall include—

(A) a listing of the identity and location of each recipient of a grant under this section in the preceding fiscal year and the amount received by the recipient;

(B) a description of the purpose for which each grant was made; and

(C) a description of how each grant was used by the recipient.


(d) Authorization of Appropriations.—There is authorized to be appropriated to the Secretary of Transportation for carrying out this section $1,500,000 for each of fiscal years 2012 through 2015. Such amounts shall not be derived from user fees collected under section 60301.

(Added Pub. L. 107–355, §9(a), Dec. 17, 2002, 116 Stat. 2994; amended Pub. L. 109–468, §5, Dec. 29, 2006, 120 Stat. 3490; Pub. L. 112–90, §32(e), Jan. 3, 2012, 125 Stat. 1923.)

References in Text

Public Law 93–153, referred to in subsec. (a)(1), is Pub. L. 93–153, Nov. 16, 1973, 87 Stat. 576, as amended. Title II of the Act, known as the Trans-Alaska Pipeline Authorization Act, is classified generally to chapter 34 (§1651 et seq.) of Title 43, Public Lands. For complete classification of this Act to the Code, see Short Title note set out under section 1651 of Title 43 and Tables.

Amendments

2012—Subsec. (a)(1). Pub. L. 112–90, §32(e)(1), substituted “$100,000” for “$50,000”.

Subsec. (b). Pub. L. 112–90, §32(e)(2), inserted “to grant recipients and their contractors” after “this section” and “, for direct advocacy for or against a pipeline construction or expansion project,” after “for lobbying”.

Subsec. (d). Pub. L. 112–90, §32(e)(3), substituted “$1,500,000 for each of fiscal years 2012 through 2015” for “$1,000,000 for each of the fiscal years 2003 through 2010”.

2006—Subsec. (a)(1). Pub. L. 109–468, §5(1), substituted “No grants may be awarded under section 60114(g) until the Secretary has established competitive” for “The Secretary shall establish competitive”.

Subsec. (a)(2) to (4). Pub. L. 109–468, §5(2), (3), added pars. (2) and (3) and redesignated former par. (2) as (4).

Subsec. (d). Pub. L. 109–468, §5(4), substituted “2010” for “2006”.

§60131. Verification of pipeline qualification programs

(a) In General.—Subject to the requirements of this section, the Secretary of Transportation shall require the operator of a pipeline facility to develop and adopt a qualification program to ensure that the individuals who perform covered tasks are qualified to conduct such tasks.

(b) Standards and Criteria.—

(1) Development.—Not later than 1 year after the date of enactment of this section, the Secretary shall ensure that the Department of Transportation has in place standards and criteria for qualification programs referred to in subsection (a).

(2) Contents.—The standards and criteria shall include the following:

(A) The establishment of methods for evaluating the acceptability of the qualifications of individuals described in subsection (a).

(B) A requirement that pipeline operators develop and implement written plans and procedures to qualify individuals described in subsection (a) to a level found acceptable using the methods established under subparagraph (A) and evaluate the abilities of individuals described in subsection (a) according to such methods.

(C) A requirement that the plans and procedures adopted by a pipeline operator under subparagraph (B) be reviewed and verified under subsection (e).


(c) Development of Qualification Programs by Pipeline Operators.—The Secretary shall require each pipeline operator to develop and adopt, not later than 2 years after the date of enactment of this section, a qualification program that complies with the standards and criteria described in subsection (b).

(d) Elements of Qualification Programs.—A qualification program adopted by an operator under subsection (a) shall include, at a minimum, the following elements:

(1) A method for examining or testing the qualifications of individuals described in subsection (a). The method may include written examination, oral examination, observation during on-the-job performance, on-the-job training, simulations, and other forms of assessment. The method may not be limited to observation of on-the-job performance, except with respect to tasks for which the Secretary has determined that such observation is the best method of examining or testing qualifications. The Secretary shall ensure that the results of any such observations are documented in writing.

(2) A requirement that the operator complete the qualification of all individuals described in subsection (a) not later than 18 months after the date of adoption of the qualification program.

(3) A periodic requalification component that provides for examination or testing of individuals in accordance with paragraph (1).

(4) A program to provide training, as appropriate, to ensure that individuals performing covered tasks have the necessary knowledge and skills to perform the tasks in a manner that ensures the safe operation of pipeline facilities.


(e) Review and Verification of Programs.—

(1) In general.—The Secretary shall review the qualification program of each pipeline operator and verify its compliance with the standards and criteria described in subsection (b) and that it includes the elements described in subsection (d). The Secretary shall record the results of that review for use in the next review of an operator's program.

(2) Deadline for completion.—Reviews and verifications under this subsection shall be completed not later than 3 years after the date of the enactment of this section.

(3) Inadequate programs.—If the Secretary decides that a qualification program is inadequate for the safe operation of a pipeline facility, the Secretary shall act as under section 60108(a)(2) to require the operator to revise the qualification program.

(4) Program modifications.—If the operator of a pipeline facility significantly modifies a program that has been verified under this subsection, the operator shall notify the Secretary of the modifications. The Secretary shall review and verify such modifications in accordance with paragraph (1).

(5) Waivers and modifications.—In accordance with section 60118(c), the Secretary may waive or modify any requirement of this section if the waiver or modification is not inconsistent with pipeline safety.

(6) Inaction by the secretary.—Notwithstanding any failure of the Secretary to prescribe standards and criteria as described in subsection (b), an operator of a pipeline facility shall develop and adopt a qualification program that complies with the requirement of subsection (b)(2)(B) and includes the elements described in subsection (d) not later than 2 years after the date of enactment of this section.


(f) Intrastate Pipeline Facilities.—In the case of an intrastate pipeline facility operator, the duties and powers of the Secretary under this section with respect to the qualification program of the operator shall be vested in the appropriate State regulatory agency, consistent with this chapter.

(g) Covered Task Defined.—In this section, the term “covered task”—

(1) with respect to a gas pipeline facility, has the meaning such term has under section 192.801 of title 49, Code of Federal Regulations, including any subsequent modifications; and

(2) with respect to a hazardous liquid pipeline facility, has the meaning such term has under section 195.501 of such title, including any subsequent modifications.


(h) Report.—Not later than 4 years after the date of enactment of this section, the Secretary shall transmit to Congress a report on the status and results to date of the personnel qualification regulations issued under this chapter.

(Added Pub. L. 107–355, §13(a)(1), Dec. 17, 2002, 116 Stat. 2999.)

References in Text

The date of enactment of this section, referred to in subsecs. (b)(1), (c), (e)(2), (6), and (h), is the date of enactment of Pub. L. 107–355, which was approved Dec. 17, 2002.

Pilot Program for Certification of Certain Pipeline Workers

Pub. L. 107–355, §13(b), Dec. 17, 2002, 116 Stat. 3001, provided that:

“(1) In general.—Not later than 36 months after the date of enactment of this Act [Dec. 17, 2002], the Secretary of Transportation shall—

“(A) develop tests and other requirements for certifying the qualifications of individuals who operate computer-based systems for controlling the operations of pipelines; and

“(B) establish and carry out a pilot program for 3 pipeline facilities under which the individuals operating computer-based systems for controlling the operations of pipelines at such facilities are required to be certified under the process established under subparagraph (A).

“(2) Report.—The Secretary shall include in the report required under section 60131(h) [of title 49], as added by subsection (a) of this section, the results of the pilot program. The report shall include—

“(A) a description of the pilot program and implementation of the pilot program at each of the 3 pipeline facilities;

“(B) an evaluation of the pilot program, including the effectiveness of the process for certifying individuals who operate computer-based systems for controlling the operations of pipelines;

“(C) any recommendations of the Secretary for requiring the certification of all individuals who operate computer-based systems for controlling the operations of pipelines; and

“(D) an assessment of the ramifications of requiring the certification of other individuals performing safety-sensitive functions for a pipeline facility.

“(3) Computer-based systems defined.—In this subsection, the term ‘computer-based systems’ means supervisory control and data acquisition systems.”

§60132. National pipeline mapping system

(a) Information To Be Provided.—Not later than 6 months after the date of enactment of this section, the operator of a pipeline facility (except distribution lines and gathering lines) shall provide to the Secretary of Transportation the following information with respect to the facility:

(1) Geospatial data appropriate for use in the National Pipeline Mapping System or data in a format that can be readily converted to geospatial data.

(2) The name and address of the person with primary operational control to be identified as its operator for purposes of this chapter.

(3) A means for a member of the public to contact the operator for additional information about the pipeline facilities it operates.

(4) Any other geospatial or technical data, including design and material specifications, that the Secretary determines are necessary to carry out the purposes of this section. The Secretary shall give reasonable notice to operators that the data are being requested.


(b) Updates.—A person providing information under subsection (a) shall provide to the Secretary updates of the information to reflect changes in the pipeline facility owned or operated by the person and as otherwise required by the Secretary.

(c) Technical Assistance To Improve Local Response Capabilities.—The Secretary may provide technical assistance to State and local officials to improve local response capabilities for pipeline emergencies by adapting information available through the National Pipeline Mapping System to software used by emergency response personnel responding to pipeline emergencies.

(d) Map of High-consequence Areas.—The Secretary shall—

(1) maintain, as part of the National Pipeline Mapping System, a map of designated high-consequence areas (as described in section 60109(a)) in which pipelines are required to meet integrity management program regulations, excluding any proprietary or sensitive security information; and

(2) update the map biennially.


(e) Program To Promote Awareness of National Pipeline Mapping System.—Not later than 1 year after the date of enactment of this subsection, the Secretary shall develop and implement a program promoting greater awareness of the existence of the National Pipeline Mapping System to State and local emergency responders and other interested parties. The program shall include guidance on how to use the National Pipeline Mapping System to locate pipelines in communities and local jurisdictions.

(f) Public Disclosure Limited.—The Secretary may not disclose information collected pursuant to subsection (a) except to the extent permitted by section 552 of title 5.

(Added Pub. L. 107–355, §15(a), Dec. 17, 2002, 116 Stat. 3005; amended Pub. L. 112–90, §§6(a), 11, Jan. 3, 2012, 125 Stat. 1909, 1913.)

References in Text

The date of enactment of this section, referred to in subsec. (a), is the date of enactment of Pub. L. 107–355, which was approved Dec. 17, 2002.

The date of enactment of this subsection, referred to in subsec. (e), is the date of enactment of Pub. L. 112–90, which was approved Jan. 3, 2012.

Amendments

2012—Subsec. (a)(4). Pub. L. 112–90, §11(a), added par. (4).

Subsecs. (d), (e). Pub. L. 112–90, §6(a), added subsecs. (d) and (e).

Subsec. (f). Pub. L. 112–90, §11(b), added subsec. (f).

Information to Emergency Response Agencies

Pub. L. 112–90, §6(b), Jan. 3, 2012, 125 Stat. 1910, provided that:

“(1) Guidance.—Not later than 18 months after the date of enactment of this Act [Jan. 3, 2012], the Secretary shall issue guidance to owners and operators of pipeline facilities on the importance of providing system-specific information about their pipeline facilities to emergency response agencies of the communities and jurisdictions in which those facilities are located.

“(2) Consultation.—Before issuing guidance under paragraph (1), the Secretary shall consult with owners and operators of pipeline facilities to determine the extent to which the owners and operators are already providing system-specific information about their pipeline facilities to emergency response agencies.”

[Terms used in section 6(b) of Pub. L. 112–90, set out above, have the meaning given those terms in this chapter, see section 1(c)(1) of Pub. L. 112–90, set out as a note under section 60101 of this title.]

§60133. Coordination of environmental reviews

(a) Interagency Committee.—

(1) Establishment and purpose.—Not later than 30 days after the date of enactment of this section, the President shall establish an Interagency Committee to develop and ensure implementation of a coordinated environmental review and permitting process in order to enable pipeline operators to commence and complete all activities necessary to carry out pipeline repairs within any time periods specified by rule by the Secretary.

(2) Membership.—The Chairman of the Council on Environmental Quality (or a designee of the Chairman) shall chair the Interagency Committee, which shall consist of representatives of Federal agencies with responsibilities relating to pipeline repair projects, including each of the following persons (or a designee thereof):

(A) The Secretary of Transportation.

(B) The Administrator of the Environmental Protection Agency.

(C) The Director of the United States Fish and Wildlife Service.

(D) The Assistant Administrator for Fisheries of the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration.

(E) The Director of the Bureau of Land Management.

(F) The Director of the Minerals Management Service.

(G) The Assistant Secretary of the Army for Civil Works.

(H) The Chairman of the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission.


(3) Evaluation.—The Interagency Committee shall evaluate Federal permitting requirements to which access, excavation, and restoration activities in connection with pipeline repairs described in paragraph (1) may be subject. As part of its evaluation, the Interagency Committee shall examine the access, excavation, and restoration practices of the pipeline industry in connection with such pipeline repairs, and may develop a compendium of best practices used by the industry to access, excavate, and restore the site of a pipeline repair.

(4) Memorandum of understanding.—Based upon the evaluation required under paragraph (3) and not later than 1 year after the date of enactment of this section, the members of the Interagency Committee shall enter into a memorandum of understanding to provide for a coordinated and expedited pipeline repair permit review process to carry out the purpose set forth in paragraph (1). The Interagency Committee shall include provisions in the memorandum of understanding identifying those repairs or categories of repairs described in paragraph (1) for which the best practices identified under paragraph (3), when properly employed by a pipeline operator, would result in no more than minimal adverse effects on the environment and for which discretionary administrative reviews may therefore be minimized or eliminated. With respect to pipeline repairs described in paragraph (1) to which the preceding sentence would not be applicable, the Interagency Committee shall include provisions to enable pipeline operators to commence and complete all activities necessary to carry out pipeline repairs within any time periods specified by rule by the Secretary. The Interagency Committee shall include in the memorandum of understanding criteria under which permits required for such pipeline repair activities should be prioritized over other less urgent agency permit application reviews. The Interagency Committee shall not enter into a memorandum of understanding under this paragraph except by unanimous agreement of the members of the Interagency Committee.

(5) State and local consultation.—In carrying out this subsection, the Interagency Committee shall consult with appropriate State and local environmental, pipeline safety, and emergency response officials, and such other officials as the Interagency Committee considers appropriate.


(b) Implementation.—Not later than 180 days after the completion of the memorandum of understanding required under subsection (a)(4), each agency represented on the Interagency Committee shall revise its regulations as necessary to implement the provisions of the memorandum of understanding.

(c) Savings Provisions; No Preemption.—Nothing in this section shall be construed—

(1) to require a pipeline operator to obtain a Federal permit, if no Federal permit would otherwise have been required under Federal law; or

(2) to preempt applicable Federal, State, or local environmental law.


(d) Interim Operational Alternatives.—

(1) In general.—Not later than 30 days after the date of enactment of this section, and subject to the limitations in paragraph (2), the Secretary of Transportation shall revise the regulations of the Department, to the extent necessary, to permit a pipeline operator subject to time periods for repair specified by rule by the Secretary to implement alternative mitigation measures until all applicable permits have been granted.

(2) Limitations.—The regulations issued by the Secretary pursuant to this subsection shall not allow an operator to implement alternative mitigation measures pursuant to paragraph (1) unless—

(A) allowing the operator to implement such measures would be consistent with the protection of human health, public safety, and the environment;

(B) the operator, with respect to a particular repair project, has applied for and is pursuing diligently and in good faith all required Federal, State, and local permits to carry out the project; and

(C) the proposed alternative mitigation measures are not incompatible with pipeline safety.


(e) Ombudsman.—The Secretary shall designate an ombudsman to assist in expediting pipeline repairs and resolving disagreements between Federal, State, and local permitting agencies and the pipeline operator during agency review of any pipeline repair activity, consistent with protection of human health, public safety, and the environment.

(f) State and Local Permitting Processes.—The Secretary shall encourage States and local governments to consolidate their respective permitting processes for pipeline repair projects subject to any time periods for repair specified by rule by the Secretary. The Secretary may request other relevant Federal agencies to provide technical assistance to States and local governments for the purpose of encouraging such consolidation.

(Added Pub. L. 107–355, §16(a), Dec. 17, 2002, 116 Stat. 3006.)

References in Text

The date of enactment of this section, referred to in subsecs. (a)(1), (4) and (d)(1), is the date of enactment of Pub. L. 107–355, which was approved Dec. 17, 2002.

§60134. State damage prevention programs

(a) In General.—The Secretary may make a grant to a State authority (including a municipality with respect to intrastate gas pipeline transportation) to assist in improving the overall quality and effectiveness of a damage prevention program of the State authority under subsection (e) if the State authority—

(1) has in effect an annual certification under section 60105 or an agreement under section 60106; and

(2)(A) has in effect an effective damage prevention program that meets the requirements of subsection (b); or

(B) demonstrates that it has made substantial progress toward establishing such a program, and that such program will meet the requirements of subsection (b).


(b) Damage Prevention Program Elements.—An effective damage prevention program includes the following elements:

(1) Participation by operators, excavators, and other stakeholders in the development and implementation of methods for establishing and maintaining effective communications between stakeholders from receipt of an excavation notification until successful completion of the excavation, as appropriate.

(2) A process for fostering and ensuring the support and partnership of stakeholders, including excavators, operators, locators, designers, and local government in all phases of the program.

(3) A process for reviewing the adequacy of a pipeline operator's internal performance measures regarding persons performing locating services and quality assurance programs.

(4) Participation by operators, excavators, and other stakeholders in the development and implementation of effective employee training programs to ensure that operators, the one-call center, the enforcing agency, and the excavators have partnered to design and implement training for the employees of operators, excavators, and locators.

(5) A process for fostering and ensuring active participation by all stakeholders in public education for damage prevention activities.

(6) A process for resolving disputes that defines the State authority's role as a partner and facilitator to resolve issues.

(7) Enforcement of State damage prevention laws and regulations for all aspects of the damage prevention process, including public education, and the use of civil penalties for violations assessable by the appropriate State authority.

(8) A process for fostering and promoting the use, by all appropriate stakeholders, of improving technologies that may enhance communications, underground pipeline locating capability, and gathering and analyzing information about the accuracy and effectiveness of locating programs.

(9) A process for review and analysis of the effectiveness of each program element, including a means for implementing improvements identified by such program reviews.


(c) Factors to Consider.—In making grants under this section, the Secretary shall take into consideration the commitment of each State to ensuring the effectiveness of its damage prevention program, including legislative and regulatory actions taken by the State.

(d) Application.—If a State authority files an application for a grant under this section not later than September 30 of a calendar year and demonstrates that the Governor (or chief executive) of the State has designated it as the appropriate State authority to receive the grant, the Secretary shall review the State's damage prevention program to determine its effectiveness.

(e) Use of Funds.—A grant under this section to a State authority may only be used to pay the cost of the personnel, equipment, and activities that the State authority reasonably requires for the calendar year covered by the grant to develop or carry out its damage prevention program in accordance with subsection (b).

(f) Nonapplicability of Limitation.—A grant made under this section is not subject to the section 60107(a) limitation on the maximum percentage of funds to be paid by the Secretary.

(g) Limitation on Use of Funds.—Funds provided to carry out this section may not be used for lobbying or in direct support of litigation.

(h) Damage Prevention Process Defined.—In this section, the term “damage prevention process” means a process that incorporates the principles described in sections 60114(b), 60114(d), and 60114(e).

(i) Authorization of Appropriations.—There is authorized to be appropriated to the Secretary to provide grants under this section $1,500,000 for each of fiscal years 2012 through 2015. Such funds shall remain available until expended.

(Added Pub. L. 109–468, §2(b)(2), Dec. 29, 2006, 120 Stat. 3487; amended Pub. L. 112–90, §§3(b), 32(d), Jan. 3, 2012, 125 Stat. 1906, 1923.)

Amendment of Subsection (a)

Pub. L. 112–90, §3(b), (c), Jan. 3, 2012, 125 Stat. 1906, provided that, effective 2 years after Jan. 3, 2012, subsec. (a) is amended as follows:

(1) in paragraph (1) by striking “and” after the semicolon;

(2) in paragraph (2)(B) by striking “(b).” and inserting “(b); and”; and

(3) by adding at the end the following:

(3) does not provide any exemptions to municipalities, State agencies, or their contractors from the one-call notification system requirements of the program.

See 2012 Amendment note below.

Amendments

2012—Subsec. (a)(3). Pub. L. 112–90, §3(b), added par. (3).

Subsec. (i). Pub. L. 112–90, §32(d), added subsec. (i).

Effective Date of 2012 Amendment

Amendment by section 3(b) of Pub. L. 112–90 effective 2 years after Jan. 3, 2012, see section 3(c) of Pub. L. 112–90, set out as a note under section 6103 of this title.

§60135. Enforcement transparency

(a) In General.—Not later than December 31, 2007, the Secretary shall—

(1) provide a monthly updated summary to the public of all gas and hazardous liquid pipeline enforcement actions taken by the Secretary or the Pipeline and Hazardous Materials Safety Administration, from the time a notice commencing an enforcement action is issued until the enforcement action is final;

(2) include in each such summary identification of the operator involved in the enforcement activity, the type of alleged violation, the penalty or penalties proposed, any changes in case status since the previous summary, the final assessment amount of each penalty, and the reasons for a reduction in the proposed penalty, if appropriate; and

(3) provide a mechanism by which a pipeline operator named in an enforcement action may make information, explanations, or documents it believes are responsive to the enforcement action available to the public.


(b) Electronic Availability.—Each summary under this section shall be made available to the public by electronic means.

(c) Relationship to FOIA.—Nothing in this section shall be construed to require disclosure of information or records that are exempt from disclosure under section 552 of title 5.

(Added Pub. L. 109–468, §6(a), Dec. 29, 2006, 120 Stat. 3491.)

§60136. Petroleum product transportation capacity study

(a) In General.—The Secretaries of Transportation and Energy shall conduct periodic analyses of the domestic transport of petroleum products by pipeline. Such analyses should identify areas of the United States where unplanned loss of individual pipeline facilities may cause shortages of petroleum products or price disruptions and where shortages of pipeline capacity and reliability concerns may have or are anticipated to contribute to shortages of petroleum products or price disruptions. Upon identifying such areas, the Secretaries may determine if the current level of regulation is sufficient to minimize the potential for unplanned losses of pipeline capacity.

(b) Consultation.—In preparing any analysis under this section, the Secretaries may consult with the heads of other government agencies and public- and private-sector experts in pipeline and other forms of petroleum product transportation, energy consumption, pipeline capacity, population, and economic development.

(c) Report to Congress.—Not later than June 1, 2008, the Secretaries shall submit to the Committee on Energy and Commerce and the Committee on Transportation and Infrastructure of the House of Representatives and the Committee on Commerce, Science, and Transportation and the Committee on Energy and Natural Resources of the Senate a report setting forth their recommendations to reduce the likelihood of the shortages and price disruptions referred to in subsection (a).

(d) Additional Reports.—The Secretaries shall submit additional reports to the congressional committees referred to in subsection (c) containing the results of any subsequent analyses performed under subsection (a) and any additional recommendations, as appropriate.

(e) Petroleum Product Defined.—In this section, the term “petroleum product” means oil of any kind or in any form, gasoline, diesel fuel, aviation fuel, fuel oil, kerosene, any product obtained from refining or processing of crude oil, liquefied petroleum gases, natural gas liquids, petrochemical feedstocks, condensate, waste or refuse mixtures containing any of such oil products, and any other liquid hydrocarbon compounds.

(Added Pub. L. 109–468, §8(a), Dec. 29, 2006, 120 Stat. 3492.)

§60137. Pipeline control room management

(a) In General.—Not later than June 1, 2008, the Secretary shall issue regulations requiring each operator of a gas or hazardous liquid pipeline to develop, implement, and submit to the Secretary or, in the case of an operator of an intrastate pipeline located within the boundaries of a State that has in effect an annual certification under section 60105, to the head of the appropriate State authority, a human factors management plan designed to reduce risks associated with human factors, including fatigue, in each control center for the pipeline. Each plan must include, among the measures to reduce such risks, a maximum limit on the hours of service established by the operator for individuals employed as controllers in a control center for the pipeline.

(b) Review and Approval of the Plan.—The Secretary or, in the case of an operator of an intrastate pipeline located within the boundaries of a State that has in effect an annual certification under section 60105, the head of the appropriate State authority, shall review and approve each plan submitted to the Secretary or the head of such authority under subsection (a). The Secretary and the head of such authority may not approve a plan that does not include a maximum limit on the hours of service established by the operator of the pipeline for individuals employed as controllers in a control center for the pipeline.

(c) Enforcement of the Plan.—If the Secretary or the head of the appropriate State authority determines that an operator's plan submitted to the Secretary or the head of such authority under subsection (a), or implementation of such a plan, does not comply with the regulations issued under this section or is inadequate for the safe operation of a pipeline, the Secretary or the head of such authority may take action consistent with this chapter and enforce the requirements of such regulations.

(d) Compliance With the Plan.—Each operator of a gas or hazardous liquid pipeline shall document compliance with the plan submitted by the operator under subsection (a) and the reasons for any deviation from compliance with such plan. The Secretary or the head of the appropriate State authority, as the case may be, shall review the reasonableness of any such deviation in considering whether to take enforcement action or discontinue approval of the operator's plan under subsection (b).

(e) Deviation Reporting Requirements.—In issuing regulations under subsection (a), the Secretary shall develop and include in such regulations requirements for an operator of a gas or hazardous liquid pipeline to report deviations from compliance with the plan submitted by the operator under subsection (a).

(Added Pub. L. 109–468, §12(a), Dec. 29, 2006, 120 Stat. 3494.)

§60138. Response plans

(a) In General.—The Secretary of Transportation shall—

(1) maintain on file a copy of the most recent response plan (as defined in part 194 of title 49, Code of Federal Regulations) prepared by an owner or operator of a pipeline facility; and

(2) provide upon written request to a person a copy of the plan, which may exclude, as the Secretary determines appropriate—

(A) proprietary information;

(B) security-sensitive information, including information described in section 1520.5(a) of title 49, Code of Federal Regulations;

(C) specific response resources and tactical resource deployment plans; and

(D) the specific amount and location of worst case discharges (as defined in part 194 of title 49, Code of Federal Regulations), including the process by which an owner or operator determines the worst case discharge.


(b) Relationship to FOIA.—Nothing in this section may be construed to require disclosure of information or records that are exempt from disclosure under section 552 of title 5.

(Added Pub. L. 112–90, §6(c)(1), Jan. 3, 2012, 125 Stat. 1910.)

§60139. Maximum allowable operating pressure

(a) Verification of Records.—

(1) In general.—The Secretary of Transportation shall require each owner or operator of a pipeline facility to conduct, not later than 6 months after the date of enactment of this section, a verification of the records of the owner or operator relating to the interstate and intrastate gas transmission pipelines of the owner or operator in class 3 and class 4 locations and class 1 and class 2 high-consequence areas.

(2) Purpose.—The purpose of the verification shall be to ensure that the records accurately reflect the physical and operational characteristics of the pipelines described in paragraph (1) and confirm the established maximum allowable operating pressure of the pipelines.

(3) Elements.—The verification process under this subsection shall include such elements as the Secretary considers appropriate.


(b) Reporting.—

(1) Documentation of certain pipelines.—Not later than 18 months after the date of enactment of this section, each owner or operator of a pipeline facility shall identify and submit to the Secretary documentation relating to each pipeline segment of the owner or operator described in subsection (a)(1) for which the records of the owner or operator are insufficient to confirm the established maximum allowable operating pressure of the segment.

(2) Exceedances of maximum allowable operating pressure.—If there is an exceedance of the maximum allowable operating pressure with respect to a gas transmission pipeline of an owner or operator of a pipeline facility that exceeds the build-up allowed for operation of pressure-limiting or control devices, the owner or operator shall report the exceedance to the Secretary and appropriate State authorities on or before the 5th day following the date on which the exceedance occurs.


(c) Determination of Maximum Allowable Operating Pressure.—

(1) In general.—In the case of a transmission line of an owner or operator of a pipeline facility identified under subsection (b)(1), the Secretary shall—

(A) require the owner or operator to reconfirm a maximum allowable operating pressure as expeditiously as economically feasible; and

(B) determine what actions are appropriate for the pipeline owner or operator to take to maintain safety until a maximum allowable operating pressure is confirmed.


(2) Interim actions.—In determining the actions for an owner or operator of a pipeline facility to take under paragraph (1)(B), the Secretary shall take into account potential consequences to public safety and the environment, potential impacts on pipeline system reliability and deliverability, and other factors, as appropriate.


(d) Testing Regulations.—

(1) In general.—Not later than 18 months after the date of enactment of this section, the Secretary shall issue regulations for conducting tests to confirm the material strength of previously untested natural gas transmission pipelines located in high-consequence areas and operating at a pressure greater than 30 percent of specified minimum yield strength.

(2) Considerations.—In developing the regulations, the Secretary shall consider safety testing methodologies, including, at a minimum—

(A) pressure testing; and

(B) other alternative methods, including in-line inspections, determined by the Secretary to be of equal or greater effectiveness.


(3) Completion of testing.—The Secretary, in consultation with the Chairman of the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission and State regulators, as appropriate, shall establish timeframes for the completion of such testing that take into account potential consequences to public safety and the environment and that minimize costs and service disruptions.


(e) High-consequence Area Defined.—In this section, the term “high-consequence area” means an area described in section 60109(a).

(Added Pub. L. 112–90, §23(a), Jan. 3, 2012, 125 Stat. 1918.)

References in Text

The date of enactment of this section, referred to in subsecs. (a)(1), (b)(1), and (d)(1), is the date of enactment of Pub. L. 112–90, which was approved Jan. 3, 2012.

§60140. Cover over buried pipelines

(a) Hazardous Liquid Pipeline Incidents Involving Buried Pipelines.—

(1) Study.—The Secretary of Transportation shall conduct a study of hazardous liquid pipeline incidents at crossings of inland bodies of water with a width of at least 100 feet from high water mark to high water mark to determine if the depth of cover over the buried pipeline was a factor in any accidental release of hazardous liquids.

(2) Report.—Not later than 1 year after the date of enactment of this section, the Secretary shall transmit to the Committee on Transportation and Infrastructure and the Committee on Energy and Commerce of the House of Representatives and the Committee on Commerce, Science, and Transportation of the Senate a report on the results of the study.


(b) Assessment of Current Requirements for Depth of Cover Over Buried Pipelines.—

(1) In general.—If, following completion of the study under subsection (a), the Secretary finds that the depth of cover over buried pipelines is a contributing factor in the accidental release of hazardous liquids from the pipelines, the Secretary, not later than 1 year after the date of completion of the study, shall review and determine the sufficiency of current requirements for the depth of cover over buried pipelines.

(2) Legislative recommendations.—

(A) Development.—If the Secretary determines under paragraph (1) that the current requirements for the depth of cover over buried pipelines are insufficient, the Secretary shall develop legislative recommendations for improving the safety of buried pipelines at crossings of inland bodies of water with a width of at least 100 feet from high water mark to high water mark.

(B) Consideration of factors.—In developing legislative recommendations under subparagraph (A), the Secretary shall consider the factors specified in section 60102(b)(2).

(C) Report to congress.—If the Secretary develops legislative recommendations under subparagraph (A), the Secretary shall submit to the committees referred to in subsection (a)(2) a report containing the legislative recommendations.

(Added Pub. L. 112–90, §28(a), Jan. 3, 2012, 125 Stat. 1920.)

References in Text

The date of enactment of this section, referred to in subsec. (a)(2), is the date of enactment of Pub. L. 112–90, which was approved Jan. 3, 2012.

CHAPTER 603—USER FEES

Sec.
60301.
User fees.

        

§60301. User fees

(a) Schedule of Fees.—The Secretary of Transportation shall prescribe a schedule of fees for all natural gas and hazardous liquids transported by pipelines subject to chapter 601 of this title. The fees shall be based on usage (in reasonable relationship to volume-miles, miles, revenues, or a combination of volume-miles, miles, and revenues) of the pipelines. The Secretary shall consider the allocation of resources of the Department of Transportation when establishing the schedule.

(b) Imposition and Time of Collection.—A fee shall be imposed on each person operating a gas pipeline transmission facility, a liquefied natural gas pipeline facility, or a hazardous liquid pipeline facility to which chapter 601 of this title applies. The fee shall be collected before the end of the fiscal year to which it applies.

(c) Means of Collection.—The Secretary shall prescribe procedures to collect fees under this section. The Secretary may use a department, agency, or instrumentality of the United States Government or of a State or local government to collect the fee and may reimburse the department, agency, or instrumentality a reasonable amount for its services.

(d) Use of Fees.—A fee collected under this section—

(1)(A) related to a gas pipeline facility may be used only for an activity related to gas under chapter 601 of this title; and

(B) related to a hazardous liquid pipeline facility may be used only for an activity related to hazardous liquid under chapter 601 of this title; and

(2) may be used only to the extent provided in advance in an appropriation law.


(e) Limitations.—Fees prescribed under subsection (a) of this section shall be sufficient to pay for the costs of activities described in subsection (d) of this section. However, the total amount collected for a fiscal year may not be more than 105 percent of the total amount of the appropriations made for the fiscal year for activities to be financed by the fees.

(Pub. L. 103–272, §1(e), July 5, 1994, 108 Stat. 1328.)

Historical and Revision Notes
Revised

Section

Source (U.S. Code)Source (Statutes at Large)
60301(a) 49 App.:1682a(a)(1), (d) (words after “subsection (a) of this section” and before “shall be sufficient”). Apr. 7, 1986, Pub. L. 99–272, §7005, 100 Stat. 140.
60301(b) 49 App.:1682a(a)(3), (b).
60301(c) 49 App.:1682a(a)(2).
60301(d) 49 App.:1682a(c).
60301(e) 49 App.:1682a(d) (less words after “subsection (a) of this section” and before “shall be sufficient”).

In this section, the word “prescribe” is substituted for “establish” for consistency in the revised title and with other titles of the United States Code.

In subsection (a), the words “(hereafter in this section referred to as the ‘Secretary’)” and “appropriate” are omitted as surplus.

In subsection (b), the words “after September 30, 1985” are omitted as obsolete. The words “imposed on each person” are substituted for “assessed to the persons” for consistency in the revised title and with other titles of the Code. The words “the jurisdiction of” and “assess and” are omitted as surplus.

In subsection (c), the words “the services of” are omitted as surplus. The words “department, agency, or instrumentality of the United States Government” are substituted for “Federal . . . agency or instrumentality” for consistency in the revised title and with other titles of the Code.

In subsection (e), the words “by the Secretary” are omitted as surplus. The words “beginning on October 1, 1985” are omitted as executed.

Transfer of Functions

For transfer of duties, powers, and authority of Research and Special Programs Administration under this chapter to the Administrator of the Pipeline and Hazardous Materials Safety Administration, see section 2(b) of Pub. L. 108–426, set out as a note under section 108 of this title.

Study and Report on User Fee Assessment Factors

Pub. L. 104–304, §17, Oct. 12, 1996, 110 Stat. 3803, provided that:

“(a) In General.—Not later than 1 year after the date of the enactment of this Act [Oct. 12, 1996], the Secretary of Transportation shall transmit to the Congress a report analyzing the present assessment of pipeline safety user fees solely on the basis of mileage to determine whether—

“(1) that measure of the resources of the Department of Transportation is the most appropriate measure of the resources used by the Department of Transportation in the regulation of pipeline transportation; or

“(2) another basis of assessment would be a more appropriate measure of those resources.

“(b) Considerations.—In making the report, the Secretary shall consider a wide range of assessment factors and suggestions and comments from the public.”

CHAPTER 605—INTERSTATE COMMERCE REGULATION

Sec.
60501.
Secretary of Energy.
60502.
Federal Energy Regulatory Commission.
60503.
Effect of enactment.

        

§60501. Secretary of Energy

Except as provided in section 60502 of this title, the Secretary of Energy has the duties and powers related to the transportation of oil by pipeline that were vested on October 1, 1977, in the Interstate Commerce Commission or the chairman or a member of the Commission.

(Pub. L. 103–272, §1(e), July 5, 1994, 108 Stat. 1329.)

Historical and Revision Notes
Revised

Section

Source (U.S. Code)Source (Statutes at Large)
60501 42:7155. Aug. 4, 1977, Pub. L. 95–91, §306, 91 Stat. 581.
  49:101 (note prec.). Oct. 17, 1978, Pub. L. 95–473, §4(c)(1)(A), (2) (related to §306 of Department of Energy Organization Act), 92 Stat. 1470.

The words “duties and powers . . . that were vested . . . in” are coextensive with, and substituted for, “transferred . . . such functions set forth in the Interstate Commerce Act and vested by law in” for clarity and to eliminate unnecessary words. The words “on October 1, 1977” are added to reflect the effective date of the transfer of the duties and powers to the Secretary of Energy.

Abolition of Interstate Commerce Commission and Transfer of Functions

Interstate Commerce Commission abolished and functions of Commission transferred, except as otherwise provided in Pub. L. 104–88, to Surface Transportation Board effective Jan. 1, 1996, by section 702 of this title, and section 101 of Pub. L. 104–88, set out as a note under section 701 of this title. References to Interstate Commerce Commission deemed to refer to Surface Transportation Board, a member or employee of the Board, or Secretary of Transportation, as appropriate, see section 205 of Pub. L. 104–88, set out as a note under section 701 of this title.

§60502. Federal Energy Regulatory Commission

The Federal Energy Regulatory Commission has the duties and powers related to the establishment of a rate or charge for the transportation of oil by pipeline or the valuation of that pipeline that were vested on October 1, 1977, in the Interstate Commerce Commission or an officer or component of the Interstate Commerce Commission.

(Pub. L. 103–272, §1(e), July 5, 1994, 108 Stat. 1329.)

Historical and Revision Notes
Revised

Section

Source (U.S. Code)Source (Statutes at Large)
60502 42:7172(b). Aug. 4, 1977, Pub. L. 95–91, §402(b), 91 Stat. 584.
  49:101 (note prec.). Oct. 17, 1978, Pub. L. 95–473, §4(c)(1)(B), (2) (related to §402(b) of Department of Energy Organization Act), 92 Stat. 1470.

The words “duties and powers . . . that were vested . . . in” are coextensive with, and substituted for, “transferred to, and vested in . . . all functions and authority of” for clarity and to eliminate unnecessary words. The word “regulatory” is omitted as surplus. The words “on October 1, 1977” are added to reflect the effective date of the transfer of the duties and powers to the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission.

Abolition of Interstate Commerce Commission and Transfer of Functions

Interstate Commerce Commission abolished and functions of Commission transferred, except as otherwise provided in Pub. L. 104–88, to Surface Transportation Board effective Jan. 1, 1996, by section 702 of this title, and section 101 of Pub. L. 104–88, set out as a note under section 701 of this title. References to Interstate Commerce Commission deemed to refer to Surface Transportation Board, a member or employee of the Board, or Secretary of Transportation, as appropriate, see section 205 of Pub. L. 104–88, set out as a note under section 701 of this title.

§60503. Effect of enactment

The enactment of the Act of October 17, 1978 (Public Law 95–473, 92 Stat. 1337), the Act of January 12, 1983 (Public Law 97–449, 96 Stat. 2413), and the Act enacting this section does not repeal, and has no substantive effect on, any right, obligation, liability, or remedy of an oil pipeline, including a right, obligation, liability, or remedy arising under the Interstate Commerce Act or the Act of August 29, 1916 (known as the Pomerene Bills of Lading Act), before any department, agency, or instrumentality of the United States Government, an officer or employee of the Government, or a court of competent jurisdiction.

(Pub. L. 103–272, §1(e), July 5, 1994, 108 Stat. 1329.)

Historical and Revision Notes
Revised

Section

Source (U.S. Code)Source (Statutes at Large)
60503 49:101 (note prec.). Oct. 31, 1988, Pub. L. 100–561, §308, 102 Stat. 2817.

The words “the Act of January 12, 1983 (Public Law 97–449, 96 Stat. 2413), and the Act enacting this section” are added for clarity. The words “department, agency, or instrumentality of the United States Government” are substituted for “Federal department or agency”, and the words “officer or employee” are substituted for “official”, for consistency in the revised title and with other titles of the United States Code.

References in Text

Act of October 17, 1978, referred to in text, is Pub. L. 95–473, Oct. 17, 1978, 92 Stat. 1337, the first section of which enacted subtitle IV of this title. For complete classification of this Act to the Code, see Tables.

Act of January 12, 1983, referred to in text, is Pub. L. 97–449, Jan. 12, 1983, 96 Stat. 2413, the first section of which enacted subtitles I and II of this title. For complete classification of this Act to the Code, see Tables.

The Act enacting this section, referred to in text, is Pub. L. 103–272, July 5, 1994, 108 Stat. 745, the first section of which enacted subtitles II, III, and V to X of this title. For complete classification of this Act to the Code, see Tables.

The Interstate Commerce Act, referred to in text, is act Feb. 4, 1887, ch. 104, 24 Stat. 379, as amended, which was classified to chapters 1 (§1 et seq.), 8 (§301 et seq.), 12 (§901 et seq.), 13 (§1001 et seq.), and 19 (1231 et seq.) of former Title 49, Transportation. The Act was repealed by Pub. L. 95–473, §4(b), Oct. 17, 1978, 92 Stat. 1467, the first section of which enacted subtitle IV (§10101 et seq.) of Title 49, Transportation. For disposition of sections of former Title 49, see Table at the beginning of Title 49.

Act of August 29, 1916, referred to in text, is act Aug. 29, 1916, ch. 415, 39 Stat. 538, as amended, known as the Pomerene Bills of Lading Act, which was classified generally to chapter 4 (§81 et seq.) of former Title 49, and was repealed by Pub. L. 103–272, §7(b), July 5, 1994, 108 Stat. 1379, and reenacted by the first section thereof as chapter 801 of this title.