As used in this chapter—
The term “agricultural commodity” means any agricultural commodity, food, feed, fiber, or livestock (including livestock as it is defined in section 1471(2) of this title and insects), and any product thereof.
The term “developing country” means a country that—
(A) has a shortage of foreign exchange earnings and has difficulty accessing sufficient commercial credit to meet all of its food needs, as determined by the Secretary; and
(B) has the potential to become a commercial market for agricultural commodities.
The term “Secretary” means the Secretary of Agriculture.
The term “Service” means the Foreign Agricultural Service of the Department of Agriculture.
Subject to subparagraph (B), the term “unfair trade practice” means any act, policy, or practice of a foreign country that—
(i) violates, or is inconsistent with, the provisions of, or otherwise denies benefits to the United States under, any trade agreement to which the United States is a party;
(ii) in the case of a monopolistic state trading enterprise engaged in the export sale of an agricultural commodity, implements a pricing practice that is inconsistent with sound commercial practice;
(iii) provides a subsidy that—
(I) decreases market opportunities for United States exports; or
(II) unfairly distorts an agricultural market to the detriment of United States exporters;
(iv) imposes an unfair technical barrier to trade, including—
(I) a trade restriction or commercial requirement (such as a labeling requirement) that adversely affects a new technology (including biotechnology); and
(II) an unjustified sanitary or phytosanitary restriction (including any restriction that, in violation of the Uruguay Round Agreements, is not based on scientific principles; 1
(v) imposes a rule that unfairly restricts imports of United States agricultural commodities in the administration of tariff rate quotas; or
(vi) fails to adhere to, or circumvents any obligation under, any provision of a trade agreement with the United States.
Nothing in this chapter may be construed to authorize the Secretary to make any determination regarding an unfair trade practice that is inconsistent with section 2411 of title 19.
The term “United States” includes each of the States, the District of Columbia, Puerto Rico, and the territories and possessions of the United States.
The term “United States agricultural commodity” means—
(A) an agricultural commodity or product entirely produced in the United States; or
(B) a product of an agricultural commodity—
(i) 90 percent or more of the agricultural components of which by weight, excluding packaging and added water, is entirely produced in the United States; and
(ii) that the Secretary determines to be a high value agricultural product.
For purposes of this paragraph, fish entirely produced in the United States include fish harvested by a documented fishing vessel as defined in title 46 in waters that are not waters (including the territorial sea) of a foreign country.
The term “independent states of the former Soviet Union” means the following: Armenia, Azerbaijan, Belarus, Georgia, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Moldova, Russia, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan, Ukraine, and Uzbekistan.
(Pub. L. 95–501, title I, §102, as added Pub. L. 101–624, title XV, §1531, Nov. 28, 1990, 104 Stat. 3669; amended Pub. L. 102–511, title VII, §702, Oct. 24, 1992, 106 Stat. 3349; Pub. L. 104–127, title II, §243(c), Apr. 4, 1996, 110 Stat. 967; Pub. L. 107–171, title III, §3104(b), May 13, 2002, 116 Stat. 290.)
2002—Par. (5)(A)(ii) to (vi). Pub. L. 107–171 added cls. (ii) to (vi) and struck out former cl. (ii) which read as follows: “is unjustifiable, unreasonable, or discriminatory and burdens or restricts United States commerce.”
1996—Par. (7). Pub. L. 104–127 added subpars. (A) and (B) and struck out former subpars. (A) and (B) which read as follows:
“(A) with respect to any agricultural commodity other than a product of an agricultural commodity, an agricultural commodity entirely produced in the United States; and
“(B) with respect to a product of an agricultural commodity—
“(i) a product all of the agricultural components of which are entirely produced in the United States; or
“(ii) any other product the Secretary may designate that contains any agricultural component that is not entirely produced in the United States if—
“(I) such component is an added, de minimis component,
“(II) such component is not commercially produced in the United States, and
“(III) there is no acceptable substitute for such component that is commercially produced in the United States.”
1992—Par. (1). Pub. L. 102–511, §702(a), substituted “feed, fiber, or livestock (including livestock as it is defined in section 1471(2) of this title and insects)” for “feed, or fiber”.
Par. (8). Pub. L. 102–511, §702(b), added par. (8).
1 So in original. There probably should be a closing parenthesis.