20 U.S.C.
United States Code, 2012 Edition
Title 20 - EDUCATION
CHAPTER 28 - HIGHER EDUCATION RESOURCES AND STUDENT ASSISTANCE
SUBCHAPTER I - GENERAL PROVISIONS
From the U.S. Government Printing Office, www.gpo.gov

SUBCHAPTER I—GENERAL PROVISIONS

Codification

Title I of the Higher Education Act of 1965, comprising this subchapter, was originally enacted by Pub. L. 89–329, title I, Nov. 8, 1965, 79 Stat. 1219, and amended by Pub. L. 90–575, Oct. 16, 1968, 82 Stat. 1014; Pub. L. 91–230, Apr. 13, 1970, 84 Stat. 121; Pub. L. 92–318, June 23, 1972, 86 Stat. 235; Pub. L. 93–29, May 3, 1973, 87 Stat. 30; Pub. L. 93–380, Aug. 21, 1974, 88 Stat. 484; Pub. L. 93–644, Jan. 4, 1975, 88 Stat. 2291; Pub. L. 94–135, Nov. 28, 1975, 89 Stat. 713; Pub. L. 94–482, Oct. 12, 1976, 90 Stat. 2081; Pub. L. 95–43, June 15, 1977, 91 Stat. 213; Pub. L. 96–49, Aug. 13, 1979, 93 Stat. 351; Pub. L. 96–96, Oct. 31, 1979, 93 Stat. 729; Pub. L. 96–374, Oct. 3, 1980, 94 Stat. 1367; Pub. L. 97–300, Oct. 13, 1982, 96 Stat. 1322; Pub. L. 98–524, Oct. 19, 1984, 98 Stat. 2435; Pub. L. 99–386, Aug. 22, 1986, 100 Stat. 821; Pub. L. 99–498, Oct. 17, 1986, 100 Stat. 1268; Pub. L. 100–418, Aug. 23, 1988, 102 Stat. 1107; Pub. L. 101–305, May 30, 1990, 104 Stat. 253; Pub. L. 101–610, Nov. 16, 1990, 104 Stat. 3127; Pub. L. 102–54, June 13, 1991, 105 Stat. 267; Pub. L. 102–325, July 23, 1992, 106 Stat. 448; Pub. L. 103–208, Dec. 20, 1993, 107 Stat. 2457. Such title is shown herein, however, as having been added by Pub. L. 105–244, title I, §101(a), Oct. 7, 1998, 112 Stat. 1585, without reference to such intervening amendments because of the extensive revision of the title's provisions by Pub. L. 105–244.

Part A—Definitions

§1001. General definition of institution of higher education

(a) Institution of higher education

For purposes of this chapter, other than subchapter IV, the term “institution of higher education” means an educational institution in any State that—

(1) admits as regular students only persons having a certificate of graduation from a school providing secondary education, or the recognized equivalent of such a certificate, or persons who meet the requirements of section 1091(d) of this title;

(2) is legally authorized within such State to provide a program of education beyond secondary education;

(3) provides an educational program for which the institution awards a bachelor's degree or provides not less than a 2-year program that is acceptable for full credit toward such a degree, or awards a degree that is acceptable for admission to a graduate or professional degree program, subject to review and approval by the Secretary;

(4) is a public or other nonprofit institution; and

(5) is accredited by a nationally recognized accrediting agency or association, or if not so accredited, is an institution that has been granted preaccreditation status by such an agency or association that has been recognized by the Secretary for the granting of preaccreditation status, and the Secretary has determined that there is satisfactory assurance that the institution will meet the accreditation standards of such an agency or association within a reasonable time.

(b) Additional institutions included

For purposes of this chapter, other than subchapter IV, the term “institution of higher education” also includes—

(1) any school that provides not less than a 1-year program of training to prepare students for gainful employment in a recognized occupation and that meets the provision of paragraphs (1), (2), (4), and (5) of subsection (a) of this section; and

(2) a public or nonprofit private educational institution in any State that, in lieu of the requirement in subsection (a)(1), admits as regular students individuals—

(A) who are beyond the age of compulsory school attendance in the State in which the institution is located; or

(B) who will be dually or concurrently enrolled in the institution and a secondary school.

(c) List of accrediting agencies

For purposes of this section and section 1002 of this title, the Secretary shall publish a list of nationally recognized accrediting agencies or associations that the Secretary determines, pursuant to subpart 2 of part G of subchapter IV of this chapter, to be reliable authority as to the quality of the education or training offered.

(Pub. L. 89–329, title I, §101, as added Pub. L. 105–244, title I, §101(a), Oct. 7, 1998, 112 Stat. 1585; amended Pub. L. 110–315, title I, §101(a), Aug. 14, 2008, 122 Stat. 3083; Pub. L. 112–74, div. F, title III, §309(c)(3), Dec. 23, 2011, 125 Stat. 1101.)

Prior Provisions

Provisions similar to this section were contained in section 1141(a) of this title prior to repeal by Pub. L. 105–244.

A prior section 1001, Pub. L. 89–329, title I, §101, as added Pub. L. 102–325, title I, §101, July 23, 1992, 106 Stat. 459, related to purposes of school, college, and university partnership grant program, prior to the general amendment of this subchapter by Pub. L. 105–244.

Another prior section 1001, Pub. L. 89–329, title I, §101, as added Pub. L. 99–498, title I, §101, Oct. 17, 1986, 100 Stat. 1278, related to Congressional findings, prior to the general amendment of this subchapter by Pub. L. 102–325.

Another prior section 1001, Pub. L. 89–329, title I, §101, as added Pub. L. 96–374, title I, §101(a), Oct. 3, 1980, 94 Stat. 1373, stated Congressional findings with respect to continuing postsecondary education program and planning, prior to the general amendment of this subchapter by Pub. L. 99–498.

Another prior section 1001, Pub. L. 89–329, title I, §101, Nov. 8, 1965, 79 Stat. 1219; Pub. L. 90–575, title II, §201, Oct. 16, 1968, 82 Stat. 1035; Pub. L. 92–318, title I, §101(a), June 23, 1972, 86 Stat. 236; Pub. L. 94–482, title I, §101(a), Oct. 12, 1976, 90 Stat. 2083; Pub. L. 96–49, §2, Aug. 13, 1979, 93 Stat. 351, authorized appropriations for the community service, continuing education, and lifelong learning program grant programs through fiscal year 1980, prior to the general amendment of this subchapter by Pub. L. 96–374.

Amendments

2011—Subsec. (a)(1). Pub. L. 112–74 substituted “section 1091(d)” for “section 1091(d)(3)”.

2008—Subsec. (a)(1). Pub. L. 110–315, §101(a)(1)(A), inserted “, or persons who meet the requirements of section 1091(d)(3) of this title” before semicolon at end.

Subsec. (a)(3). Pub. L. 110–315, §101(a)(1)(B), inserted “, or awards a degree that is acceptable for admission to a graduate or professional degree program, subject to review and approval by the Secretary” before semicolon at end.

Subsec. (b)(2). Pub. L. 110–315, §101(a)(2), added par. (2) and struck out former par. (2) which read as follows: “a public or nonprofit private educational institution in any State that, in lieu of the requirement in subsection (a)(1) of this section, admits as regular students persons who are beyond the age of compulsory school attendance in the State in which the institution is located.”

Effective Date of 2011 Amendment

Pub. L. 112–74, div. F, title III, §309(g), Dec. 23, 2011, 125 Stat. 1103, provided that: “The amendments made by subsections (a), (b), and (c) [amending this section and sections 1070a, 1087ss, and 1091 of this title, and enacting provisions set out as a note under section 1091 of this title] shall take effect on July 1, 2012.”

Effective Date of 2009 Amendment

Pub. L. 111–39, §3, July 1, 2009, 123 Stat. 1935, provided that: “Except as otherwise provided in this Act [see Tables for classification], the amendments made by this Act shall take effect as if enacted on the date of enactment of the Higher Education Opportunity Act (Public Law 110–315) [Aug. 14, 2008].”

Effective Date of 2008 Amendment

Pub. L. 110–315, §3, Aug. 14, 2008, 122 Stat. 3083, provided that: “Except as otherwise provided in this Act [see Tables for classification] or the amendments made by this Act, this Act and the amendments made by this Act shall take effect on the date of enactment of this Act [Aug. 14, 2008].”

Pub. L. 110–315, title I, §101(b), Aug. 14, 2008, 122 Stat. 3083, as amended by Pub. L. 111–39, title I, §101(a)(1), July 1, 2009, 123 Stat. 1935, provided that: “The amendments made by this section [amending this section] shall take effect on the date of enactment of this Act [Aug. 14, 2008].”

Effective Date of 1998 Amendment

Pub. L. 105–244, §3, Oct. 7, 1998, 112 Stat. 1585, provided that: “Except as otherwise provided in this Act [see Tables for classification] or the amendments made by this Act, the amendments made by this Act shall take effect on October 1, 1998.”

Effective Date of 1992 Amendment

Pub. L. 102–325, §2, July 23, 1992, 106 Stat. 458, provided that: “Except as otherwise provided in this Act (20 U.S.C. 1001 et seq.) [see Tables for classification], the amendments made by this Act shall take effect on October 1, 1992.”

Effective Date of 1987 Amendment

Pub. L. 100–50, §27, June 3, 1987, 101 Stat. 363, provided that: “The amendments made by this Act [see Short Title of 1987 Amendment note below] shall take effect as if enacted as part of the Higher Education Amendments of 1986 [Pub. L. 99–498, see Short Title of 1986 Amendments note below].”

Effective Date of 1986 Amendment

Pub. L. 99–498, §2, Oct. 17, 1986, 100 Stat. 1277, provided that: “Except as otherwise provided in this Act, the amendments made by this Act [see Tables for classification] shall take effect on the date of enactment of this Act [Oct. 17, 1986].”

Effective Date of 1980 Amendment

Pub. L. 96–374, title XIII, §1393, Oct. 3, 1980, 94 Stat. 1504, provided that:

“(a) Except as provided in subsection (b), this Act and the amendments made by this Act [see Tables for classification] shall take effect on October 1, 1980.

“(b)(1) The amendment made by section 301 of this Act to title III of the Act [enacting subchapter III of this chapter] shall take effect October 1, 1981.

“(2) The amendment made by section 404(c)(4) of this Act to section 415C(b)(4) of the Act [amending section 1070c–2 of this title] shall be effective October 1, 1979.

“(3) The amendment made by section 405 to subpart 4 of part A of title IV of the Act [amending subpart 4 of part A of subchapter IV of this chapter generally] shall take effect October 1, 1981.

“(4) The amendments made by part B of title IV of this Act [enacting sections 1077a, 1078–2, 1083a, and 1087–1a of this title and amending sections 1074, 1075, 1077, 1078, 1078–1, 1080, 1082, 1085, 1087–1, and 1087–2 of this title] shall take effect, except as otherwise provided therein, on January 1, 1981, and to the extent such amendments make changes in such part B which affect student loans, such changes shall apply to outstanding loans as well as to loans made after the amendments take effect, except that the amendments made by section 415(b) [amending sections 1077(a)(2)(B) and 1078(b)(1)(E) of this title] shall apply with respect to any loan to cover the cost of instruction for any period of instruction beginning on or after January 1, 1981, to any student borrower who has no outstanding balance of principal or interest on any loan made, insured, or guaranteed under part B of title IV of the Higher Education Act of 1965 [part B of subchapter IV of this chapter] on the date on which the borrower enters into the note or other written evidence of the loan.

“(5) The amendments made by part D of title IV of this Act [enacting sections 1087cc–1, 1087hh, and 1087ii of this title and amending sections 1087aa to 1087gg of this title] shall apply to loans made under part E of the Act [part D of subchapter IV of this chapter] on or after October 1, 1980.

“(6) The amendment made by section 701 of this Act adding section 731 of the Act [former section 1132d of this title] shall apply to loans made under section 731 on or after October 1, 1980.”

Effective Date of 1976 Amendment

Pub. L. 94–482, title V, §532, Oct. 12, 1976, 90 Stat. 2241, provided that: “The provisions of this Act [see Tables for classification] and the amendments made by this Act shall take effect 30 days after the date of the enactment of this Act [Oct. 12, 1976] except—

“(1) as specifically otherwise provided; and

“(2) that each amendment made by this Act (not subject to clause (1) of this section) providing for authorization of appropriations shall take effect July 1, 1976.”

Short Title of 2010 Amendment

Pub. L. 111–152, title II, §2001(a), Mar. 30, 2010, 124 Stat. 1071, provided that: “This subtitle [subtitle A (§§2001–2213) of title II of Pub. L. 111–152, enacting section 1087i–2 of this title, amending sections 1002, 1067q, 1070a, 1070a–14, 1071, 1074, 1077a, 1078, 1078–2, 1078–3, 1078–8, 1085, 1087–1, 1087b, 1087d, 1087e, 1087f, 1087h, 1090, 1092f, 1098e, 1141, and 1161y of this title, enacting provisions set out as notes under sections 1002, 1070a, 1087d, and 1087e of this title, and repealing provisions set out as a note under section 1078 of this title] may be cited as the ‘SAFRA Act’.”

Short Title of 2008 Amendment

Pub. L. 110–315, §1(a), Aug. 14, 2008, 122 Stat. 3078, provided that: “This Act [see Tables for classification] may be cited as the ‘Higher Education Opportunity Act’.”

Pub. L. 110–227, §1, May 7, 2008, 122 Stat. 740, provided that: “This title [probably means this “Act”, enacting section 1087i–1 of this title, amending sections 1070a–1, 1071, 1078, 1078–2, 1078–8, 1087a, and 1087f of this title, and enacting provisions set out as notes under sections 1070a–1, 1071, 1078, 1078–8, and 1089 of this title] may be cited as the ‘Ensuring Continued Access to Student Loans Act of 2008’.”

Pub. L. 110–198, §1, Mar. 24, 2008, 122 Stat. 656, provided that: “This Act [enacting and amending provisions set out as notes under this section] may be cited as the ‘Higher Education Extension Act of 2008’.”

Short Title of 2007 Amendment

Pub. L. 110–109, §1, Oct. 31, 2007, 121 Stat. 1028, provided that: “This Act [amending section 1085 of this title and enacting and amending provisions set out as notes under this section] may be cited as the ‘Third Higher Education Extension Act of 2007’.”

Pub. L. 110–84, §1(a), Sept. 27, 2007, 121 Stat. 784, provided that: “This Act [enacting sections 1070g to 1070g–3, 1098e, 1098f, 1099d, 1099e, and 1141 of this title, amending sections 1070a, 1070a–13, 1077a, 1078, 1078–3, 1085, 1087–1, 1087e, 1087h, 1087dd, 1087ff, 1087oo to 1087tt, and 1087vv of this title, repealing section 1078–9 of this title, enacting provisions set out as notes under sections 1070a, 1078, 1078–3, 1087oo, 1087ss, 1087tt, and 1087vv of this title, and amending provisions set out as a note under section 1078 of this title] may be cited as the ‘College Cost Reduction and Access Act’.”

Pub. L. 110–51, §1, July 31, 2007, 121 Stat. 263, provided that: “This Act [enacting and amending provisions set out as notes under this section] may be cited as the ‘Second Higher Education Extension Act of 2007’.”

Pub. L. 110–44, §1, July 3, 2007, 121 Stat. 238, provided that: “This Act [enacting and amending provisions set out as notes under this section] may be cited as the ‘First Higher Education Extension Act of 2007’.”

Short Title of 2006 Amendment

Pub. L. 109–292, §1, Sept. 30, 2006, 120 Stat. 1340, provided that: “This Act [amending sections 1085, 1087h, 1101a, and 1101c of this title, enacting provisions set out as notes under this section and section 1085 of this title, and amending provisions set out as a note under this section] may be cited as the ‘Third Higher Education Extension Act of 2006’.”

Pub. L. 109–238, §1, June 30, 2006, 120 Stat. 507, provided that: “This Act [enacting and amending provisions set out as notes under this section] may be cited as the ‘Second Higher Education Extension Act of 2006’.”

Pub. L. 109–212, §1, Apr. 1, 2006, 120 Stat. 321, provided that: “This Act [enacting and amending provisions set out as notes under this section] may be cited as the ‘Higher Education Extension Act of 2006’.”

Pub. L. 109–171, title VIII, §8001(a), Feb. 8, 2006, 120 Stat. 155, provided that: “This subtitle [subtitle A (§§8001–8024) of title VIII of Pub. L. 109–171, enacting sections 1070a–1 and 1092e of this title, amending sections 1002, 1071, 1074, 1075, 1077a, 1078 to 1078–3, 1078–6 to 1078–10, 1082, 1085, 1087, 1087–1, 1087e, 1087h, 1087j, 1087dd, 1087ll, 1087oo to 1087ss, 1087vv, 1088, 1091, 1091b, and 1095a of this title, enacting provisions set out as notes under sections 1002, 1075, 1078, 1087–1, 1087oo to 1087qq, and 1087ss of this title, and amending provisions set out as a note under section 1078–10 of this title] may be cited as the ‘Higher Education Reconciliation Act of 2005’.”

Short Title of 2005 Amendments

Pub. L. 109–150, §1, Dec. 30, 2005, 119 Stat. 2884, provided that: “This Act [amending section 1087–1 of this title, enacting provisions set out as a note under section 1087–1 of this title, and amending provisions set out as notes under this section and section 1078–10 of this title] may be cited as the ‘Second Higher Education Extension Act of 2005’.”

Pub. L. 109–67, §1, Sept. 21, 2005, 119 Stat. 2001, provided that: “This Act [amending section 1091b of this title] may be cited as the ‘Student Grant Hurricane and Disaster Relief Act’.”

Pub. L. 109–66, §1, Sept. 21, 2005, 119 Stat. 1999, provided that: “This Act [amending section 1091b of this title] may be cited as the ‘Pell Grant Hurricane and Disaster Relief Act’.”

Short Title of 2004 Amendment

Pub. L. 108–409, §1, Oct. 30, 2004, 118 Stat. 2299, provided that: “This Act [amending sections 1078–10, 1087–1, and 1087j of this title and enacting provisions set out as notes under section 1078–10 of this title] may be cited as the ‘Taxpayer-Teacher Protection Act of 2004’.”

Short Title of 2000 Amendments

Pub. L. 106–420, §1, Nov. 1, 2000, 114 Stat. 1867, provided that: “This Act [enacting section 1092d of this title, amending section 522 of Title 11, Bankruptcy, and enacting provisions set out as notes under section 1092d of this title and section 994 of Title 28, Judiciary and Judicial Procedure] may be cited as the ‘College Scholarship Fraud Prevention Act of 2000’.”

Pub. L. 106–386, div. B, title VI, §1601(a), Oct. 28, 2000, 114 Stat. 1537, provided that: “This section [amending sections 1092 and 1232g of this title and section 14071 of Title 42, The Public Health and Welfare, and enacting provisions set out as notes under section 1092 of this title and section 14071 of Title 42] may be cited as the ‘Campus Sex Crimes Prevention Act’.”

Short Title of 1998 Amendment

Pub. L. 105–244, §1(a), Oct. 7, 1998, 112 Stat. 1581, provided that: “This Act [see Tables for classification] may be cited as the ‘Higher Education Amendments of 1998’.”

Short Title of 1997 Amendment

Pub. L. 105–78, title VI, §609(a), Nov. 13, 1997, 111 Stat. 1522, provided in part that: “This section [amending sections 1078–3, 1087h, 1087oo to 1087qq, and 1087vv of this title and enacting provisions set out as notes under sections 1078–3 and 1087h of this title] may be cited as the ‘Emergency Student Loan Consolidation Act of 1997’.”

Short Title of 1996 Amendment

Pub. L. 104–208, div. A, title I, §101(e) [title VI, §601], Sept. 30, 1996, 110 Stat. 3009–233, 3009–275, provided that: “This title [enacting sections 1087–3, 1087–4, and 1132f–10 of this title, amending sections 1078–3, 1085, and 1087–2 of this title, repealing sections 1087–2, 1087–3, and 1132f to 1132f–9 of this title, and enacting provisions set out as notes under sections 1078–3 and 1087–2 of this title] may be cited as the ‘Student Loan Marketing Association Reorganization Act of 1996’.”

Short Title of 1994 Amendment

Pub. L. 103–382, title III, §360B(a), Oct. 20, 1994, 108 Stat. 3969, provided that: “This section [amending section 1092 of this title and enacting provisions set out as a note under section 1092 of this title] may be cited as the ‘Equity in Athletics Disclosure Act’.”

Short Title of 1993 Amendments

Pub. L. 103–208, §1(a), Dec. 20, 1993, 107 Stat. 2457, provided that: “This Act [see Tables for classification] may be cited as the ‘Higher Education Technical Amendments of 1993’.”

Pub. L. 103–66, title IV, §4011(a), Aug. 10, 1993, 107 Stat. 341, provided that: “This subtitle [subtitle A (§§4011–4047) of title IV of Pub. L. 103–66, amending sections 1072, 1078, 1078–3, 1078–8, 1085, 1087–2, and 1087a to 1087h of this title, repealing section 1078–1 of this title, omitting sections 1087i and 1087j of this title, and enacting provisions set out as notes under sections 1078, 1078–3, and 1078–8 of this title] may be cited as the ‘Student Loan Reform Act of 1993’.”

Short Title of 1992 Amendment

Pub. L. 102–325, §1(a), July 23, 1992, 106 Stat. 448, provided that: “This Act [see Tables for classification] may be cited as the ‘Higher Education Amendments of 1992’.”

Short Title of 1991 Amendment

Pub. L. 102–26, §1(a), Apr. 9, 1991, 105 Stat. 123, provided that: “This Act [enacting section 1211b of this title, amending sections 1078, 1078–1, 1085, 1087ss, 1088, 1091, 1091a, 1092, 1094, and 1141 of this title, enacting provisions set out as notes under sections 1070, 1078–1, 1088, and 1091a of this title, amending provisions set out as a note under section 1092 of this title, and repealing provisions set out as a note under section 1088 of this title] may be cited as the ‘Higher Education Technical Amendments of 1991’.”

Short Title of 1990 Amendments

Pub. L. 101–542, §1, Nov. 8, 1990, 104 Stat. 2381, provided that: “This Act [amending sections 1085, 1092, 1094, and 1232g of this title and enacting provisions set out as notes under this section and section 1092 of this title] may be cited as the ‘Student Right-To-Know and Campus Security Act’.”

Pub. L. 101–542, title I, §101, Nov. 8, 1990, 104 Stat. 2381, provided that: “This title [amending section 1092 of this title and enacting provisions set out as notes under section 1092 of this title] may be cited as the ‘Student Right-To-Know Act’.”

Pub. L. 101–542, title II, §201, Nov. 8, 1990, 104 Stat. 2384, provided that: “This title [amending sections 1092, 1094, and 1232g of this title and enacting provisions set out as notes under section 1092 of this title] may be cited as the ‘Crime Awareness and Campus Security Act of 1990’.”

Pub. L. 101–508, title III, §3001, Nov. 5, 1990, 104 Stat. 1388–25, provided that: “This subtitle [subtitle A (§§3001–3008) of title III of Pub. L. 101–508, amending sections 1078, 1078–1, 1078–7, 1085, 1088, and 1091 of this title and sections 362, 541, and 1328 of Title 11, Bankruptcy, enacting provisions set out as notes under sections 1078–7, 1085, and 1088 of this title and sections 362 and 1328 of Title 11, and amending provisions set out as a note under section 1078–1 of this title] may be cited as the ‘Student Loan Default Prevention Initiative Act of 1990’.”

Short Title of 1989 Amendment

Pub. L. 101–239, title II, §2001, Dec. 19, 1989, 103 Stat. 2111, provided that: “This subtitle [subtitle A (§§2001–2009) of title II of Pub. L. 101–239, enacting section 1078–7 of this title, amending sections 1077, 1078, 1078–1, 1078–6, 1082, 1085, 1087dd, 1087tt, 1088, 1092b, and 1094 of this title, and enacting provisions set out as notes under sections 1077, 1078, 1078–1, and 1078–6 of this title] may be cited as the ‘Student Loan Reconciliation Amendments of 1989’.”

Short Title of 1987 Amendment

Pub. L. 100–50, §1(a), June 3, 1987, 101 Stat. 335, provided that: “This Act [enacting sections 1059a, 1087tt, 1087uu, 1087uu–1, and 1145d–1 of this title, amending sections 1057, 1058, 1062, 1063a to 1063c, 1065, 1066, 1067, 1069a, 1070a to 1070a–4, 1070a–6, 1070b–3, 1070c–4, 1070d–1b, 1070d–2, 1070e–1, 1070f, 1075, 1077, 1077a, 1078 to 1078–3, 1078–5, 1078–6, 1080a, 1081 to 1083, 1085, 1087–1, 1087–2, 1087d, 1087bb, 1087cc, 1087cc–1, 1087dd, 1087ee, 1087oo to 1087ss, 1087vv, 1088, 1089 to 1091, 1092 to 1092b, 1095, 1096, 1098, 1109 to 1109d, 1111, 1111b, 1111f, 1111g, 1122, 1132a, 1132a–1, 1132d, 1132d–2, 1132g–3, 1132i–1, 1134h to 1134j, 1141, 1145e, 1221e, and 1221e–1 of this title, section 4604 of Title 22, Foreign Relations and Intercourse, and sections 2752, 2753, and 2756 of Title 42, The Public Health and Welfare, enacting provisions set out as notes under section 2752 of Title 42, and amending provisions set out as notes under sections 1011, 1071, 1087dd, 1087kk, 1091, 1121, 1145d, 1221–1, and 1221e–1 of this title and section 2753 of Title 42] may be cited as the ‘Higher Education Technical Amendments Act of 1987’.”

Short Title of 1986 Amendments

Pub. L. 99–498, §1, Oct. 17, 1986, 100 Stat. 1268, provided that: “This Act [see Tables for classification] may be cited as the ‘Higher Education Amendments of 1986’.”

Pub. L. 99–320, §1, May 23, 1986, 100 Stat. 491, provided: “That this Act [amending sections 1078 and 1080a of this title and a provision set out as a note under section 1072 of this title] may be cited as the ‘Student Financial Assistance Technical Corrections Act of 1986’.”

Pub. L. 99–272, title XVI, §16001(a), Apr. 7, 1986, 100 Stat. 339, provided that: “This title [enacting sections 1078–3, 1080a, and 1091a of this title, amending sections 1072, 1074, 1075, 1077, 1078, 1080, 1082, 1083a, 1085, 1087–1, 1087–2, 1087cc, 1087cc–1, 1087dd, 1087gg, 1089, 1091, and 1094 of this title, enacting provisions set out as notes under sections 1072, 1078, and 1078–3 of this title, and amending provisions set out as a note under section 1078 of this title] may be cited as the ‘Student Financial Assistance Amendments of 1985’.”

Short Title of 1983 Amendments

Pub. L. 98–95, §1, Sept. 26, 1983, 97 Stat. 708, provided: “That this Act [enacting section 1065a of this title, amending section 1069c of this title, enacting provisions set out as a note under section 1132a–1 of this title, and amending provisions set out as notes under sections 123 and 1069c of this title] may be cited as the ‘Challenge Grant Amendments of 1983’.”

Pub. L. 98–79, §1, Aug. 15, 1983, 97 Stat. 476, provided: “That this Act [amending sections 1071, 1077, 1077a, 1078, 1078–2, 1083a, 1087–1, 1087–2, 1087cc–1, and 1098 of this title, repealing section 1087–1a of this title, enacting provisions set out as notes under sections 1077, 1077a, 1078, and 1087–1 of this title, and amending provisions set out as notes under sections 1070a, 1078, and 1089 of this title] may be cited as the ‘Student Loan Consolidation and Technical Amendments Act of 1983’.”

Short Title of 1982 Amendment

Pub. L. 97–301, §1, Oct. 13, 1982, 96 Stat. 1400, which provided: “That this Act [amending sections 1070a, 1083a, 1087–2, and 1087cc–1 of this title and enacting provisions set out as notes under sections 1070a, 1070b–3, 1078, 1087bb, 1089, and 1221e–1 of this title and section 2752 of Title 42, The Public Health and Welfare] may be cited as the ‘Student Financial Assistance Technical Amendments Act of 1982’.”, was repealed by Pub. L. 99–498, title IV, §408(b), Oct. 17, 1986, 100 Stat. 1495, eff. with respect to any academic year beginning on or after July 1, 1988.

Short Title of 1981 Amendment

Pub. L. 97–35, title V, subtitle B, §531, Aug. 13, 1981, 95 Stat. 450, provided that: “This subtitle [amending sections 1075, 1077, 1077a, 1078, 1078–1, 1078–2, 1087–1, 1087–2, 1087dd, 1089, 1096, and 1232 of this title, repealing section 1087–3a of this title, and enacting provisions set out as notes under section 1078 of this title] may be cited as the ‘Postsecondary Student Assistance Amendments of 1981’.”

Short Title of 1980 Amendment

Pub. L. 96–374, §1, Oct. 3, 1980, 94 Stat. 1367, provided: “That this Act [enacting sections 239a, 1001 to 1005, 1011 to 1015, 1016 to 1019, 1021, 1022, 1029, 1031 to 1034, 1041, 1042, 1047 to 1047j, 1051, 1057 to 1069c, 1070d–1a to 1070d–2, 1077a, 1078–2, 1083a, 1087–1a, 1087cc–1, 1087hh, 1087ii, 1088 to 1098, 1119b to 1119b–5, 1119c to 1119c–2, 1121 to 1127, 1130 to 1132, 1132a to 1132a–1, 1132b to 1132c, 1132d to 1132d–4, 1132e, 1132e–1, 1134d to 1134p, 1135 to 1135a–3, 1136 to 1136d, 1143, 1144a, 1145, 1146, 1221e–1b, 1221e–4, and 3063 to 3065 of this title, section 640c–2 of Title 25, Indians, and sections 2753 and 2756b of Title 42, The Public Health and Welfare, amending sections 1070 to 1070c–3, 1070d, 1070d–1, 1070e to 1077, 1078, 1078–1, 1079, 1080 to 1083, 1085 to 1087–1, 1087–2, 1087aa to 1087cc, 1087dd to 1087gg, 1101 to 1104, 1119 to 1119a–1, 1133 to 1134c, 1135c–1, 1141, 1142, 1221e, 1226a, 1226c, and 1232 of this title, section 326a of Title 7, Agriculture, section 640c–1 of Title 25, sections 714 and 792 of Title 29, Labor, and sections 2751, 2752, and 2756 of Title 42, repealing sections 511 to 513, 1070c–4, 1070d–3, 1087–4, 1134q to 1134s, 1142a, 1142b, 1145, 1145a, 1145c, 1172 to 1174, 1176, 1177, and 1221d of this title and section 2754 of Title 42, enacting provisions set out as notes under sections 236, 1001, 1119b, and 1221–1 of this title and section 301 of Title 7, and amending provisions set out as notes under section 236 of this title and section 301 of Title 7] may be cited as the ‘Education Amendments of 1980’.”

Short Title of 1979 Amendment

Pub. L. 96–49, §1, Aug. 13, 1979, 93 Stat. 351, provided: “That this Act [enacting section 1087gg of this title, amending this section and sections 513, 1021, 1042, 1051, 1070a, 1070b, 1070c, 1070d, 1070d–2, 1070e–1, 1078, 1087–1, 1087aa, 1088, 1101, 1119, 1121, 1132a, 1132b, 1132c, 1132c–4, 1134, 1134e, 1134i, 1134n, 1134r–1, 1135, 1135a, 1136b, 1142b, 1221d, and 1221e of this title, enacting provisions set out as notes under sections 1070a, 1087–1, 1087gg, and 1088 of this title, and amending provisions set out as a note under section 1070a of this title] may be cited as the ‘Higher Education Technical Amendments of 1979’.”

Short Title of 1978 Amendments

Pub. L. 95–566, §1, Nov. 1, 1978, 92 Stat. 2402, provided: “That this Act [enacting section 1087–3a of this title, amending sections 1070a, 1070c–2, 1070d–1, 1075, 1077, 1078, 1088 and 1088f of this title, and enacting provisions set out as a note under this section] may be cited as the ‘Middle Income Student Assistance Act’.”

Pub. L. 95–336, §1, Aug. 4, 1978, 92 Stat. 451, provided: “That this Act [amending section 1070e–1 of this title, sections 1001, 1002, and 1007 of Title 21, Food and Drugs, and former section 246 of Title 38, Veterans’ Benefits, and enacting provisions set out as a note under section 1070e–1 of this title] may be cited as the ‘Alcohol and Drug Abuse Education Amendments of 1978’.”

Short Title of 1976 Amendments

Pub. L. 94–482, §1, Oct. 12, 1976, 90 Stat. 2081, provided: “That this Act [see Tables for classification] may be cited as the ‘Education Amendments of 1976’.”

Pub. L. 94–328, §1, June 30, 1976, 90 Stat. 727, provided: “That this joint resolution [amending sections 1070a, 1074, 1078 and 1078a of this title and enacting provisions set out as notes under section 1226a of this title and section 2756 of Title 42, The Public Health and Welfare] may be cited as the ‘Emergency Technical Provisions Act of 1976’.”

Short Title of 1972 Amendment

Pub. L. 92–318, §1, June 23, 1972, 86 Stat. 235, provided: “That this Act [enacting chapter 36 (§1601 et seq.), chapter 37 (§1651 et seq.), chapter 38 (§1681 et seq.), and sections 241aa to 241ff, 887c, 887d, 900 to 900a–5, 1005a, 1021, 1031, 1042, 1070 to 1070e, 1070e–1, 1087–1, 1087–2, 1087aa to 1087ff, 1088d to 1088g, 1119a, 1132a to 1132e–1, 1134 to 1134s, 1135, 1135a, 1135b to 1135c, 1135c–1, 1142a, 1142b, 1144a, 1145a, 1211a, 1221a to 1221h, 1227 of this title, and section 326a of Title 7, Agriculture, and 2756a of Title 42, The Public Health and Welfare, amending this section and sections 240, 241c, 241e, 331a, 332, 421, 441, 511, 513, 822, 823, 842, 843, 863, 880b–3a, 1003, 1011, 1021, 1022 to 1024, 1027, 1031, 1033, 1041, 1051 to 1056, 1061, 1068, 1070, 1074, 1075, 1077, 1078, 1078a, 1080, 1083, 1084, 1087, 1087a, 1087c, 1088, 1088c, 1091, 1091a to 1091c, 1101, 1102, 1108 to 1111, 1115, 1116, 1118, 1119, 1119a, 1119b–2, 1121, 1129, 1133, 1133a, 1134j, 1136, 1136a, 1136b, 1141, 1176, 1231, 1231a, 1232a, 1232c, 1242, 1244, 1248, 1302, 1321 to 1323, 1341, 1352, 1371, 1391, and 1412 of this title, and sections 329, 331, 343, 349, 361, and 1626 of Title 7, sections 24, 84, 1464, and 1757 of Title 12, Banks and Banking, sections 203 and 213 of Title 29, Labor, and sections 2751, 2752, and 2754 of Title 42, repealing sections 1, 2, 426, 711 to 721, 731, 732, 746, 1021, 1031, 1032, 1060, 1118, 1119a, 1119b–2, and 1119c–4 of this title, and enacting provisions set out as notes under this section and sections 241a, 241e, 241aa, 331a, 425, 821, 887d, 1005a, 1009, 1070, 1070e, 1074, 1075, 1087–2, 1087aa, 1091a, 1132a, 1132c–3, 1135c, 1231, and 1232 of this title, sections 301 and 326a of Title 7, and section 3501 of Title 42] may be cited as the ‘Education Amendments of 1972’.”

Short Title of 1968 Amendment

Pub. L. 90–575, §1, Oct. 16, 1968, 82 Stat. 1014, provided: “That this Act [enacting sections 451 to 455, 746, 1056, 1060, 1087, 1087a to 1087c, 1088 to 1088c, 1089, 1119a–1, 1129a, 1133 to 1133b, 1134 to 1134l, 1135, 1135a, 1135b, 1135c, 1136 to 1136b, 1145, 1146 to 1150 of this title, amending this section and sections 403, 421 to 425, 425 note, 426, 441 to 445, 462 to 464, 481 to 484, 511, 513, 562, 581, 584, 588, 591, 711, 713 to 718, 731, 732, 743, 751, 758, 961, 1005, 1006, 1021 to 1024, 1031, 1033, 1041, 1051, 1061, 1062, 1065 to 1068, 1071 to 1075, 1077, 1078, 1080, 1083 to 1086, 1091c, 1101, 1104, 1108 to 1111, 1113, 1114, 1115, 1118, 1119a, 1119b–2, 1121, 1124, 1125, 1141, 1142, 1143, 1144 and 1176 of this title, section 1464 of Title 12, Banks and Banking, and sections 2741, 2751 to 2756, and 2809 of Title 42, The Public Health and Welfare, repealing sections 733, 981 to 996 of this title, and section 2757 of Title 42, and enacting provisions set out as notes under this section and sections 423 to 425, 445, 462 to 464, 588, 713, 716 to 718, 743, 751, 981, 1006, 1022, 1024, 1051, 1056, 1060, 1067, 1071, 1077, 1078, 1083, 1088b, and 1109 of this title, and sections 2751, 2753, 2754, and 2809 of Title 42] may be cited as the ‘Higher Education Amendments of 1968’.”

Short Title of 1966 Amendment

Pub. L. 89–752, §1, Nov. 3, 1966, 80 Stat. 1240, provided: “That this Act [enacting section 1086 of this title, amending sections 403, 421, 425, 441, 443, 711–715, 731, 743, 744, 751, 1022, 1051, 1072, 1121, and 1124 of this title, and enacting provisions set out as notes under sections 403, 443, 1022, 1071, and 1124 of this title] may be cited as the ‘Higher Education Amendments of 1966’.”

Short Title

Pub. L. 89–329, §1, Nov. 8, 1965, 79 Stat. 1219, provided: “That this Act [enacting this chapter and section 2757 of Title 42, The Public Health and Welfare, and amending sections 403, 424, 425, 441, 443, 591, 711, 713 to 717, 731, and 751 of this title, and sections 2751 to 2756, and 2761 of Title 42] may be cited as the ‘Higher Education Act of 1965’.”

Pub. L. 89–329, title V, §509, as added by Pub. L. 90–35, §8, provided that title V of Pub. L. 89–329 could be cited as the “Education Professions Development Act”, prior to the general amendment of title V of Pub. L. 89–329 by Pub. L. 99–498, title V, §501(a), Oct. 17, 1986, 100 Stat. 1495.

For short title of section 1092(f) of this title as the Jeanne Clery Disclosure of Campus Security Policy and Campus Crime Statistics Act, see section 1092(f)(18) of this title.

Higher Education Extension

Pub. L. 109–81, Sept. 30, 2005, 119 Stat. 2048, as amended by Pub. L. 109–150, §2(a), Dec. 30, 2005, 119 Stat. 2884; Pub. L. 109–212, §2, Apr. 1, 2006, 120 Stat. 321; Pub. L. 109–238, §2, June 30, 2006, 120 Stat. 507; Pub. L. 109–292, §2, Sept. 30, 2006, 120 Stat. 1340; Pub. L. 110–44, §2, July 3, 2007, 121 Stat. 238; Pub. L. 110–51, §2, July 31, 2007, 121 Stat. 263; Pub. L. 110–109, §2, Oct. 31, 2007, 121 Stat. 1028; Pub. L. 110–198, §2, Mar. 24, 2008, 122 Stat. 656; Pub. L. 110–230, §1(a), May 13, 2008, 122 Stat. 877; Pub. L. 110–238, §1(a), May 30, 2008, 122 Stat. 1558; Pub. L. 110–256, §1(a), June 30, 2008, 122 Stat. 2425; Pub. L. 110–300, §1(a), July 31, 2008, 122 Stat. 2998, provided that:

“SECTION 1. SHORT TITLE.

“This Act may be cited as the ‘Higher Education Extension Act of 2005’.

“SEC. 2. EXTENSION OF PROGRAMS.

“(a) Extension of Duration.—The authorization of appropriations for, and the duration of, each program authorized under the Higher Education Act of 1965 (20 U.S.C. 1001 et seq.) [and 42 U.S.C. 2751 et seq.] shall be extended through August 15, 2008.

“(b) Performance of Required and Authorized Functions.—If the Secretary of Education, a State, an institution of higher education, a guaranty agency, a lender, or another person or entity—

“(1) is required, in or for fiscal year 2004, to carry out certain acts or make certain determinations or payments under a program under the Higher Education Act of 1965, such acts, determinations, or payments shall be required to be carried out, made, or continued during the period of the extension under this section; or

“(2) is permitted or authorized, in or for fiscal year 2004, to carry out certain acts or make certain determinations or payments under a program under the Higher Education Act of 1965, such acts, determinations, or payments are permitted or authorized to be carried out, made, or continued during the period of the extension under this section.

“(c) Extension at Current Levels.—The amount authorized to be appropriated for a program described in subsection (a) during the period of extension under this section shall be the amount authorized to be appropriated for such program for fiscal year 2004, or the amount appropriated for such program for such fiscal year, whichever is greater. Except as provided in any amendment to the Higher Education Act of 1965 enacted during fiscal year 2005 or 2006, the amount of any payment required or authorized under subsection (b) in or for the period of the extension under this section shall be determined in the same manner as the amount of the corresponding payment required or authorized in or for fiscal year 2004.

“(d) Advisory Committees and Other Entities Continued.—Any advisory committee, interagency organization, or other entity that was, during fiscal year 2004, authorized or required to perform any function under the Higher Education Act of 1965 (20 U.S.C. 1001 et seq.) [and 42 U.S.C. 2751 et seq.], or in relation to programs under that Act, shall continue to exist and is authorized or required, respectively, to perform such function for the period of the extension under this section.

“(e) Additional Extension not Permitted.—Section 422 of the General Education Provisions Act (20 U.S.C. 1226a) shall not apply to further extend the authorization of appropriations for any program described in subsection (a) on the basis of the extension of such program under this section.

“(f) Exception.—The programs described in subsection (a) for which the authorization of appropriations, or the duration of which, is extended by this section include provisions applicable to institutions in, and students in or from, the Freely Associated States, except that those provisions shall be applicable with respect to institutions in, and students in or from, the Federated States of Micronesia and the Republic of the Marshall Islands only to the extent specified in Public Law 108–188 [48 U.S.C. 1921 et seq.].”

[Pub. L. 110–300, §1(c), July 31, 2008, 122 Stat. 2998, provided that: “The amendment made by subsection (a) [amending Pub. L. 109–81, set out above] shall take effect as if enacted on July 31, 2008.”]

[Pub. L. 110–230, §1(c), May 13, 2008, 122 Stat. 877, provided that: “The amendment made by subsection (a) [amending Pub. L. 109–81, set out above] shall take effect as if enacted on April 30, 2008.”]

[Pub. L. 110–300, §1(b), July 31, 2008, 122 Stat. 2998, provided that: “Nothing in this section [enacting provisions set out above and amending Pub. L. 109–81, set out above], or in the Higher Education Extension Act of 2005 [Pub. L. 109–81, set out above] as amended by this Act, shall be construed to limit or otherwise alter the authorizations of appropriations for, or the durations of, programs contained in the amendments made by the Higher Education Reconciliation Act of 2005 (Public Law 109–171) [see Short Title of 2006 Amendment note above], by the College Cost Reduction and Access Act (Public Law 110–84) [see Short Title of 2007 Amendment note above], or by the Ensuring Continued Access to Student Loans Act of 2008 (Public Law 110–227) [see Short Title of 2008 Amendment note above] to the provisions of the Higher Education Act of 1965 [20 U.S.C. 1001 et seq., 42 U.S.C. 2751 et seq.] and the Taxpayer-Teacher Protection Act of 2004 [see Short Title of 2004 Amendment note above].”]

[Pub. L. 110–256, §1(b), June 30, 2008, 122 Stat. 2425, provided that: “Nothing in this section [amending Pub. L. 109–81, set out above], or in the Higher Education Extension Act of 2005 [Pub. L. 109–81, set out above] as amended by this Act, shall be construed to limit or otherwise alter the authorizations of appropriations for, or the durations of, programs contained in the amendments made by the Higher Education Reconciliation Act of 2005 (Public Law 109–171) [see Short Title of 2006 Amendment note above], by the College Cost Reduction and Access Act (Public Law 110–84) [see Short Title of 2007 Amendment note above], or by the Ensuring Continued Access to Student Loans Act of 2008 (Public Law 110–227) [see Short Title of 2008 Amendment note above] to the provisions of the Higher Education Act of 1965 [20 U.S.C. 1001 et seq., 42 U.S.C. 2751 et seq.] and the Taxpayer-Teacher Protection Act of 2004 [see Short Title of 2004 Amendment note above].”]

[Pub. L. 110–238, §1(b), May 30, 2008, 122 Stat. 1558, provided that: “Nothing in this section [amending Pub. L. 109–81, set out above], or in the Higher Education Extension Act of 2005 [Pub. L. 109–81, set out above] as amended by this Act, shall be construed to limit or otherwise alter the authorizations of appropriations for, or the durations of, programs contained in the amendments made by the Higher Education Reconciliation Act of 2005 (Public Law 109–171) [see Short Title of 2006 Amendment note above], by the College Cost Reduction and Access Act (Public Law 110–84) [see Short Title of 2007 Amendment note above], or by the Ensuring Continued Access to Student Loans Act of 2008 (Public Law 110–227) [see Short Title of 2008 Amendment note above] to the provisions of the Higher Education Act of 1965 [20 U.S.C. 1001 et seq., 42 U.S.C. 2751 et seq.] and the Taxpayer-Teacher Protection Act of 2004 [see Short Title of 2004 Amendment note above].”]

[Pub. L. 110–230, §1(b), May 13, 2008, 122 Stat. 877, provided that: “Nothing in this section [enacting provisions set out above and amending Pub. L. 109–81, set out above], or in the Higher Education Extension Act of 2005 [Pub. L. 109–81, set out above] as amended by this Act, shall be construed to limit or otherwise alter the authorizations of appropriations for, or the durations of, programs contained in the amendments made by the Higher Education Reconciliation Act of 2005 (Public Law 109–171) [see Short Title of 2006 Amendment note above] or by the College Cost Reduction and Access Act (Public Law 110–84) [see Short Title of 2007 Amendment note above] to the provisions of the Higher Education Act of 1965 [20 U.S.C. 1001 et seq., 42 U.S.C. 2751 et seq.] and the Taxpayer-Teacher Protection Act of 2004 [see Short Title of 2004 Amendment note above].”]

[Pub. L. 110–198, §3, Mar. 24, 2008, 122 Stat. 656, provided that: “Nothing in this Act [see Short Title of 2008 Amendment note above], or in the Higher Education Extension Act of 2005 [Pub. L. 109–81, set out above] as amended by this Act, shall be construed to limit or otherwise alter the authorizations of appropriations for, or the durations of, programs contained in the amendments made by the Higher Education Reconciliation Act of 2005 (Public Law 109–171) [see Short Title of 2006 Amendment note above] or by the College Cost Reduction and Access Act (Public Law 110–84) [see Short Title of 2007 Amendment note above] to the provisions of the Higher Education Act of 1965 [20 U.S.C. 1001 et seq., 42 U.S.C. 2751 et seq.] and the Taxpayer-Teacher Protection Act of 2004 [see Short Title of 2004 Amendment note above].”]

[Pub. L. 110–109, §3, Oct. 31, 2007, 121 Stat. 1028, provided that: “Nothing in this Act [see Short Title of 2007 Amendment note above], or in the Higher Education Extension Act of 2005 [Pub. L. 109–81, set out above] as amended by this Act, shall be construed to limit or otherwise alter the authorizations of appropriations for, or the durations of, programs contained in the amendments made by the Higher Education Reconciliation Act of 2005 (Public Law 109–171) [see Short Title of 2006 Amendment note above] or by the College Cost Reduction and Access Act (Public Law 110–84) [see Short Title of 2007 Amendment note above] to the provisions of the Higher Education Act of 1965 [20 U.S.C. 1001 et seq., 42 U.S.C. 2751 et seq.] and the Taxpayer-Teacher Protection Act of 2004 [see Short Title of 2004 Amendment note above].”]

[Pub. L. 110–51, §3, July 31, 2007, 121 Stat. 263, provided that: “Nothing in this Act [see Short Title of 2007 Amendment note above], or in the Higher Education Extension Act of 2005 [Pub. L. 109–81, set out above] as amended by this Act, shall be construed to limit or otherwise alter the authorizations of appropriations for, or the durations of, programs contained in the amendments made by the Higher Education Reconciliation Act of 2005 (Public Law 109–171) [see Short Title of 2006 Amendment note above] to the provisions of the Higher Education Act of 1965 [20 U.S.C. 1001 et seq., 42 U.S.C. 2751 et seq.] and the Taxpayer-Teacher Protection Act of 2004 [see Short Title of 2004 Amendment note above].”]

[Pub. L. 110–44, §3, July 3, 2007, 121 Stat. 238, provided that: “Nothing in this Act [see Short Title of 2007 Amendment note above], or in the Higher Education Extension Act of 2005 [Pub. L. 109–81, set out above] as amended by this Act, shall be construed to limit or otherwise alter the authorizations of appropriations for, or the durations of, programs contained in the amendments made by the Higher Education Reconciliation Act of 2005 (Public Law 109–171) [see Short Title of 2006 Amendment note above] to the provisions of the Higher Education Act of 1965 [20 U.S.C. 1001 et seq., 42 U.S.C. 2751 et seq.] and the Taxpayer-Teacher Protection Act of 2004 [see Short Title of 2004 Amendment note above].”]

[Pub. L. 109–292, §7, Sept. 30, 2006, 120 Stat. 1343, provided that: “Nothing in this Act [see Short Title of 2006 Amendment note above], or in the Higher Education Extension Act of 2005 [Pub. L. 109–81, set out above] as amended by this Act, shall be construed to limit or otherwise alter the authorizations of appropriations for, or the durations of, programs contained in the amendments made by the Higher Education Reconciliation Act of 2005 (P.L. 109–171) [see Short Title of 2006 Amendment note above] to the provisions of the Higher Education Act of 1965 [20 U.S.C. 1001 et seq., 42 U.S.C. 2751 et seq.] and the Taxpayer-Teacher Protection Act of 2004 [see Short Title of 2004 Amendment note above].”]

[Pub. L. 109–238, §3, June 30, 2006, 120 Stat. 507, provided that: “Nothing in this Act [see Short Title of 2006 Amendment note above], or in the Higher Education Extension Act of 2005 [Pub. L. 109–81, set out above] as amended by this Act, shall be construed to limit or otherwise alter the authorizations of appropriations for, or the durations of, programs contained in the amendments made by the Higher Education Reconciliation Act of 2005 (Public Law 109–171) [see Short Title of 2006 Amendment note above] to the provisions of the Higher Education Act of 1965 [20 U.S.C. 1001 et seq., 42 U.S.C. 2751 et seq.] and the Taxpayer-Teacher Protection Act of 2004 [see Short Title of 2004 Amendment note above].”]

[Pub. L. 109–212, §3, Apr. 1, 2006, 120 Stat. 321, provided that: “Nothing in this Act [see Short Title of 2006 Amendment note above], or in the Higher Education Extension Act of 2005 [Pub. L. 109–81, set out above] as amended by this Act, shall be construed to limit or otherwise alter the authorizations of appropriations for, or the durations of, programs contained in the amendments made by the Higher Education Reconciliation Act of 2005 (Public Law 109–171) [see Short Title of 2006 Amendment note above] to the provisions of the Higher Education Act of 1965 [20 U.S.C. 1001 et seq., 42 U.S.C. 2751 et seq.] and the Taxpayer-Teacher Protection Act of 2004 [see Short Title of 2004 Amendment note above].”]

Similar provisions were contained in Pub. L. 108–366, Oct. 25, 2004, 118 Stat. 1741.

Study of Opportunities for Participation in Athletics Programs

Pub. L. 105–244, title VIII, §805, Oct. 7, 1998, 112 Stat. 1807, which required the Comptroller General to conduct a study of the opportunities for participation in intercollegiate athletics and to submit a report on the study to committees of Congress, was repealed by Pub. L. 110–315, title IX, §931(1), Aug. 14, 2008, 122 Stat. 3456.

Stylistic Consistency

Pub. L. 103–208, §2(m), Dec. 20, 1993, 107 Stat. 2486, provided that: “The Act [Pub. L. 89–329, see Short Title note above] is amended so that the section designation and section heading of each section of the Act shall be in the form and typeface of the section designation and heading of this section [107 Stat. 2457].”

Terms Defined for Purposes of Titles XIII, XIV, and XV of Pub. L. 102–325

Pub. L. 102–325, §1(c), July 23, 1992, 106 Stat. 448, as amended by Pub. L. 105–244, title I, §102(a)(6)(A), Oct. 7, 1998, 112 Stat. 1618, provided that: “Unless otherwise provided therein, terms used in titles XIII, XIV, and XV [enacting sections 1145h and 4426 of this title, sections 3301 to 3371 of Title 25, Indians, and sections 2401 to 2405 of Title 29, Labor, amending sections 1221e–1, 1232g, 3412, 4412, 4414, 4416, 4417, 4418, 4421, 4422, 4423, 4424, 4425, 5381, and 5411 of this title, section 5315 of Title 5, Government Organization and Employees, sections 4604 and 4609 of Title 22, Foreign Relations and Intercourse, sections 640c–1, 1810, 1836, and 1852 of Title 25, and sections 295g–8 and 12576 of Title 42, The Public Health and Welfare, enacting provisions set out as notes under sections 1070, 1070a–11, 1070a–21, 1071, 1080, 1088, 1101, 1132a, 1134, 1221–1, 1221e, 1232g, 1452, and 9003 of this title, amending provisions set out as a note under section 1091a of this title, and repealing provisions set out as a note under section 362 of Title 11, Bankruptcy] shall have the same meaning given to such terms in section 101 of the Higher Education Act of 1965 [this section].”

General Provisions of 1972 Amendment

Pub. L. 92–318, §2, June 23, 1972, 86 Stat. 236, provided that:

“(a) As used in this Act [See Short Title of 1972 Amendment note above]—

“(1) the term ‘Secretary’ means the Secretary of Health, Education, and Welfare [now Secretary of Education]; and

“(2) the term ‘Commissioner’ means the Commissioner of Education [now Secretary of Education];

unless the context requires another meaning.

“(b) Unless otherwise specified, the redesignation of a section, subsection, or other designation by any amendment in this Act shall include the redesignation of any reference to such section, subsection, or other designation in any Act or regulation, however styled.

“(c)(1) Unless otherwise specified, each provision of this Act and each amendment made by this Act shall be effective after June 30, 1972, and with respect to appropriations for the fiscal year ending June 30, 1973, and succeeding fiscal years.

“(2) Unless otherwise specified, in any case where an amendment made by this Act is to become effective after a date set herein, it shall be effective with the beginning of the day which immediately follows the date after which such amendment is effective.

“(3) In any case where the effective date for an amendment made by this Act is expressly stated to be effective after June 30, 1971, such amendment shall be deemed to have been enacted on July 1, 1971.”

Rulemaking Requirements; Publication in Federal Register

Pub. L. 90–575, title V, §505, Oct. 16, 1968, 82 Stat. 1063, provided for publication of rules and regulations in Federal Register, prior to repeal by Pub. L. 91–230, title IV, §401(e)(2), Apr. 13, 1970, 84 Stat. 173.

Presidential Recommendations by December 31, 1969, With Respect to Post-Secondary Education for All

Pub. L. 90–575, title V, §508, Oct. 16, 1968, 82 Stat. 1063, authorized the President, on or before Dec. 31, 1969, to submit to the Congress proposals relative to the feasibility of making available a post-secondary education to all young Americans who qualify and seek it.

§1002. Definition of institution of higher education for purposes of student assistance programs

(a) Definition of institution of higher education for purposes of student assistance programs

(1) Inclusion of additional institutions

Subject to paragraphs (2) through (4) of this subsection, the term “institution of higher education” for purposes of subchapter IV of this chapter and part C of subchapter I of chapter 34 of title 42 includes, in addition to the institutions covered by the definition in section 1001 of this title—

(A) a proprietary institution of higher education (as defined in subsection (b) of this section);

(B) a postsecondary vocational institution (as defined in subsection (c) of this section); and

(C) only for the purposes of part C of subchapter IV of this chapter, an institution outside the United States that is comparable to an institution of higher education as defined in section 1001 of this title and that has been approved by the Secretary for the purpose of part C of subchapter IV of this chapter, consistent with the requirements of section 1087b(d) of this title.

(2) Institutions outside the United States

(A) In general

For the purpose of qualifying as an institution under paragraph (1)(C), the Secretary shall establish criteria by regulation for the approval of institutions outside the United States and for the determination that such institutions are comparable to an institution of higher education as defined in section 1001 of this title (except that a graduate medical school, nursing school, or a veterinary school, located outside the United States shall not be required to meet the requirements of section 1001(a)(4) of this title). Such criteria shall include a requirement that a student attending such school outside the United States is ineligible for loans made under part C of subchapter IV of this chapter unless—

(i) except as provided in subparagraph (B)(iii)(IV), in the case of a graduate medical school located outside the United States—

(I)(aa) at least 60 percent of those enrolled in, and at least 60 percent of the graduates of, the graduate medical school outside the United States were not persons described in section 1091(a)(5) of this title in the year preceding the year for which a student is seeking a loan under part C of subchapter IV of this chapter; and

(bb) at least 75 percent of the individuals who were students or graduates of the graduate medical school outside the United States or Canada (both nationals of the United States and others) taking the examinations administered by the Educational Commission for Foreign Medical Graduates received a passing score in the year preceding the year for which a student is seeking a loan under part C of subchapter IV of this chapter; or

(II) the institution—

(aa) has or had a clinical training program that was approved by a State as of January 1, 1992; and

(bb) continues to operate a clinical training program in at least one State that is approved by that State;


(ii) in the case of a veterinary school located outside the United States that does not meet the requirements of section 1001(a)(4) of this title, the institution's students complete their clinical training at an approved veterinary school located in the United States; or

(iii) in the case of a nursing school located outside of the United States—

(I) the nursing school has an agreement with a hospital, or accredited school of nursing (as such terms are defined in section 296 of title 42), located in the United States that requires the students of the nursing school to complete the students’ clinical training at such hospital or accredited school of nursing;

(II) the nursing school has an agreement with an accredited school of nursing located in the United States providing that the students graduating from the nursing school located outside of the United States also receive a degree from the accredited school of nursing located in the United States;

(III) the nursing school certifies only Federal Direct Stafford Loans under section 1087e(a)(2)(A) of this title, Federal Direct Unsubsidized Stafford Loans under section 1087e(a)(2)(D) of this title, or Federal Direct PLUS Loans under section 1087e(a)(2)(B) of this title for students attending the institution;

(IV) the nursing school reimburses the Secretary for the cost of any loan defaults for current and former students included in the calculation of the institution's cohort default rate during the previous fiscal year; and

(V) not less than 75 percent of the individuals who were students or graduates of the nursing school, and who took the National Council Licensure Examination for Registered Nurses in the year preceding the year for which the institution is certifying a Federal Direct Stafford Loan under section 1087e(a)(2)(A) of this title, a Federal Direct Unsubsidized Stafford Loan under section 1087e(a)(2)(D) of this title, or a Federal Direct PLUS Loan under section 1087e(a)(2)(B) of this title, received a passing score on such examination.

(B) Advisory panel

(i) In general

For the purpose of qualifying as an institution under paragraph (1)(C) of this subsection, the Secretary shall establish an advisory panel of medical experts that shall—

(I) evaluate the standards of accreditation applied to applicant foreign medical schools; and

(II) determine the comparability of those standards to standards for accreditation applied to United States medical schools.

(ii) Special rule

If the accreditation standards described in clause (i) are determined not to be comparable, the foreign medical school shall be required to meet the requirements of section 1001 of this title.

(iii) Report

(I) In general

Not later than 1 year after August 14, 2008, the advisory panel described in clause (i) shall submit a report to the Secretary and to the authorizing committees recommending eligibility criteria for participation in the loan programs under part C of subchapter IV of this chapter for graduate medical schools that—

(aa) are located outside of the United States;

(bb) do not meet the requirements of subparagraph (A)(i); and

(cc) have a clinical training program approved by a State prior to January 1, 2008.

(II) Recommendations

In the report described in subclause (I), the advisory panel's eligibility criteria shall include recommendations regarding the appropriate levels of performance for graduate medical schools described in such subclause in the following areas:

(aa) Entrance requirements.

(bb) Retention and graduation rates.

(cc) Successful placement of students in United States medical residency programs.

(dd) Passage rate of students on the United States Medical Licensing Examination.

(ee) The extent to which State medical boards have assessed the quality of such school's program of instruction, including through on-site reviews.

(ff) The extent to which graduates of such schools would be unable to practice medicine in 1 or more States, based on the judgment of a State medical board.

(gg) Any areas recommended by the Comptroller General of the United States under section 1101 of the Higher Education Opportunity Act.

(hh) Any additional areas the Secretary may require.

(III) Minimum eligibility requirement

In the recommendations described in subclause (II), the criteria described in subparagraph (A)(i)(I)(bb) shall be a minimum eligibility requirement for a graduate medical school described in subclause (I) to participate in the loan programs under part C of subchapter IV of this chapter.

(IV) Authority

The Secretary may—

(aa) not earlier than 180 days after the submission of the report described in subclause (I), issue proposed regulations establishing criteria for the eligibility of graduate medical schools described in such subclause to participate in the loan programs under part C of subchapter IV of this chapter based on the recommendations of such report; and

(bb) not earlier than one year after the issuance of proposed regulations under item (aa), issue final regulations establishing such criteria for eligibility.

(C) Failure to release information

The failure of an institution outside the United States to provide, release, or authorize release to the Secretary of such information as may be required by subparagraph (A) shall render such institution ineligible for the purpose of part C of subchapter IV of this chapter.

(D) Special rule

If, pursuant to this paragraph, an institution loses eligibility to participate in the programs under subchapter IV of this chapter and part C of subchapter I of chapter 34 of title 42, then a student enrolled at such institution may, notwithstanding such loss of eligibility, continue to be eligible to receive a loan under part C of subchapter IV while attending such institution for the academic year succeeding the academic year in which such loss of eligibility occurred.

(3) Limitations based on course of study or enrollment

An institution shall not be considered to meet the definition of an institution of higher education in paragraph (1) if such institution—

(A) offers more than 50 percent of such institution's courses by correspondence (excluding courses offered by telecommunications as defined in section 1091(l)(4) 1 of this title), unless the institution is an institution that meets the definition in section 2302(3)(C) of this title;

(B) enrolls 50 percent or more of the institution's students in correspondence courses (excluding courses offered by telecommunications as defined in section 1091(l)(4) 1 of this title), unless the institution is an institution that meets the definition in such section, except that the Secretary, at the request of such institution, may waive the applicability of this subparagraph to such institution for good cause, as determined by the Secretary in the case of an institution of higher education that provides a 2- or 4-year program of instruction (or both) for which the institution awards an associate or baccalaureate degree, respectively;

(C) has a student enrollment in which more than 25 percent of the students are incarcerated, except that the Secretary may waive the limitation contained in this subparagraph for a nonprofit institution that provides a 2- or 4-year program of instruction (or both) for which the institution awards a bachelor's degree, or an associate's degree or a postsecondary diploma, respectively; or

(D) has a student enrollment in which more than 50 percent of the students do not have a secondary school diploma or its recognized equivalent, and does not provide a 2- or 4-year program of instruction (or both) for which the institution awards a bachelor's degree or an associate's degree, respectively, except that the Secretary may waive the limitation contained in this subparagraph if a nonprofit institution demonstrates to the satisfaction of the Secretary that the institution exceeds such limitation because the institution serves, through contracts with Federal, State, or local government agencies, significant numbers of students who do not have a secondary school diploma or its recognized equivalent.

(4) Limitations based on management

An institution shall not be considered to meet the definition of an institution of higher education in paragraph (1) if—

(A) the institution, or an affiliate of the institution that has the power, by contract or ownership interest, to direct or cause the direction of the management or policies of the institution, has filed for bankruptcy, except that this paragraph shall not apply to a nonprofit institution, the primary function of which is to provide health care educational services (or an affiliate of such an institution that has the power, by contract or ownership interest, to direct or cause the direction of the institution's management or policies) that files for bankruptcy under chapter 11 of title 11 between July 1, 1998, and December 1, 1998; or

(B) the institution, the institution's owner, or the institution's chief executive officer has been convicted of, or has pled nolo contendere or guilty to, a crime involving the acquisition, use, or expenditure of funds under subchapter IV of this chapter and part C of subchapter I of chapter 34 of title 42, or has been judicially determined to have committed fraud involving funds under subchapter IV of this chapter and part C of subchapter I of chapter 34 of title 42.

(5) Certification

The Secretary shall certify an institution's qualification as an institution of higher education in accordance with the requirements of subpart 3 of part G of subchapter IV of this chapter.

(6) Loss of eligibility

An institution of higher education shall not be considered to meet the definition of an institution of higher education in paragraph (1) if such institution is removed from eligibility for funds under subchapter IV of this chapter and part C of subchapter I of chapter 34 of title 42 as a result of an action pursuant to part G of subchapter IV of this chapter.

(b) Proprietary institution of higher education

(1) Principal criteria

For the purpose of this section, the term “proprietary institution of higher education” means a school that—

(A)(i) provides an eligible program of training to prepare students for gainful employment in a recognized occupation; or

(ii)(I) provides a program leading to a baccalaureate degree in liberal arts, and has provided such a program since January 1, 2009; and

(II) is accredited by a recognized regional accrediting agency or association, and has continuously held such accreditation since October 1, 2007, or earlier;

(B) meets the requirements of paragraphs (1) and (2) of section 1001(a) of this title;

(C) does not meet the requirement of paragraph (4) of section 1001(a) of this title;

(D) is accredited by a nationally recognized accrediting agency or association recognized by the Secretary pursuant to part G of subchapter IV of this chapter; and

(E) has been in existence for at least 2 years.

(2) Additional institutions

The term “proprietary institution of higher education” also includes a proprietary educational institution in any State that, in lieu of the requirement in section 1001(a)(1) of this title, admits as regular students individuals—

(A) who are beyond the age of compulsory school attendance in the State in which the institution is located; or

(B) who will be dually or concurrently enrolled in the institution and a secondary school.

(c) Postsecondary vocational institution

(1) Principal criteria

For the purpose of this section, the term “postsecondary vocational institution” means a school that—

(A) provides an eligible program of training to prepare students for gainful employment in a recognized occupation;

(B) meets the requirements of paragraphs (1), (2), (4), and (5) of section 1001(a) of this title; and

(C) has been in existence for at least 2 years.

(2) Additional institutions

The term “postsecondary vocational institution” also includes an educational institution in any State that, in lieu of the requirement in section 1001(a)(1) of this title, admits as regular students individuals—

(A) who are beyond the age of compulsory school attendance in the State in which the institution is located; or

(B) who will be dually or concurrently enrolled in the institution and a secondary school.

(Pub. L. 89–329, title I, §102, as added Pub. L. 105–244, title I, §101(a), Oct. 7, 1998, 112 Stat. 1586; amended Pub. L. 108–98, §1(a), Oct. 10, 2003, 117 Stat. 1174; Pub. L. 109–171, title VIII, §8002, Feb. 8, 2006, 120 Stat. 155; Pub. L. 109–270, §2(c)(1), Aug. 12, 2006, 120 Stat. 746; Pub. L. 110–315, title I, §102(a)–(d)(1), Aug. 14, 2008, 122 Stat. 3083–3085; Pub. L. 111–39, title I, §101(b)(1), July 1, 2009, 123 Stat. 1935; Pub. L. 111–152, title II, §2209(b)(1), Mar. 30, 2010, 124 Stat. 1077.)

References in Text

Section 1101 of the Higher Education Opportunity Act, referred to in subsec. (a)(2)(B)(iii)(II)(gg), is section 1101 of title XI of 110–315, Aug. 14, 2008, 122 Stat. 3490, which is not classified to the Code.

Section 1091(l) of this title, referred to in subsec. (a)(3)(A), (B), was struck out and a new section 1091(l) was added by Pub. L. 110–315, title IV, §485(a)(5), Aug. 14, 2008, 122 Stat. 3288. As so amended, section 1091(l) no longer contains a par. (4) or a definition of “telecommunications”.

Prior Provisions

Provisions similar to this section were contained in section 1088(a) to (c) of this title prior to repeal by Pub. L. 105–244.

A prior section 1002, Pub. L. 89–329, title I, §102, as added Pub. L. 102–325, title I, §101, July 23, 1992, 106 Stat. 459, related to partnership agreements required for grant eligibility, prior to the general amendment of this subchapter by Pub. L. 105–244.

Another prior section 1002, Pub. L. 89–329, title I, §102, as added Pub. L. 99–498, title I, §101, Oct. 17, 1986, 100 Stat. 1278, defined terms “continuing education”, “adult learner”, “eligible institution”, and “qualified entity”, prior to the general amendment of this subchapter by Pub. L. 102–325.

Another prior section 1002, Pub. L. 89–329, title I, §102, as added Pub. L. 96–374, title I, §101(a), Oct. 3, 1980, 94 Stat. 1374, provided for establishment of Commission on National Development in Postsecondary Education, prior to the general amendment of this subchapter by Pub. L. 99–498.

Another prior section 1002, Pub. L. 89–329, title I, §102, Nov. 8, 1965, 79 Stat. 1219; Pub. L. 94–482, title I, §101(b)(1), (g)(2), Oct. 12, 1976, 90 Stat. 2083, 2086, defined the terms “community service program”, “continuing education program”, and “resource materials sharing programs”, prior to the general amendment of this subchapter by Pub. L. 96–374.

Amendments

2010—Pub. L. 111–152, §2209(b)(1)(A), substituted “part C” for “part B” wherever appearing before “subchapter IV”.

Subsec. (a)(1)(C). Pub. L. 111–152, §2209(b)(1)(B), inserted “, consistent with the requirements of section 1087b(d) of this title” before period at end.

Subsec. (a)(2)(A). Pub. L. 111–152, §2209(b)(1)(C)(i), substituted “made” for “made, insured, or guaranteed” in introductory provisions.

Subsec. (a)(2)(A)(iii)(III). Pub. L. 111–152, §2209(b)(1)(C)(ii)(I), substituted “only Federal Direct Stafford Loans under section 1087e(a)(2)(A) of this title, Federal Direct Unsubsidized Stafford Loans under section 1087e(a)(2)(D) of this title, or Federal Direct PLUS Loans under section 1087e(a)(2)(B) of this title” for “only Federal Stafford Loans under section 1078 of this title, unsubsidized Federal Stafford Loans under section 1078–8 of this title, or Federal PLUS loans under section 1078–2 of this title”.

Subsec. (a)(2)(A)(iii)(V). Pub. L. 111–152, §2209(b)(1)(C)(ii)(II), substituted “a Federal Direct Stafford Loan under section 1087e(a)(2)(A) of this title, a Federal Direct Unsubsidized Stafford Loan under section 1087e(a)(2)(D) of this title, or a Federal Direct PLUS Loan under section 1087e(a)(2)(B) of this title” for “a Federal Stafford Loan under section 1078 of this title, an unsubsidized Federal Stafford Loan under section 1078–8 of this title, or a Federal PLUS loan under section 1078–2 of this title”.

2009—Subsec. (a)(2)(D). Pub. L. 111–39 substituted “under part B of subchapter IV” for “under part B”.

2008—Subsec. (a)(2)(A). Pub. L. 110–315, §102(a)(1)(A), inserted “nursing school,” after “graduate medical school,” in introductory provisions.

Subsec. (a)(2)(A)(i). Pub. L. 110–315, §102(a)(1)(B)(i), inserted “except as provided in subparagraph (B)(iii)(IV),” before “in the case” in introductory provisions.

Subsec. (a)(2)(A)(i)(I)(bb). Pub. L. 110–315, §102(b), substituted “75” for “60”.

Subsec. (a)(2)(A)(i)(II). Pub. L. 110–315, §102(a)(1)(B)(ii), added subcl. (II) and struck out former subcl. (II) which read as follows: “the institution has a clinical training program that was approved by a State as of January 1, 1992; or”.

Subsec. (a)(2)(A)(iii). Pub. L. 110–315, §102(a)(1)(C), (D), added cl. (iii).

Subsec. (a)(2)(B)(iii). Pub. L. 110–315, §102(a)(2), added cl. (iii).

Subsec. (b)(1)(A). Pub. L. 110–315, §102(d)(1)(A)(i), added subpar. (A) and struck out former subpar. (A) which read as follows: “provides an eligible program of training to prepare students for gainful employment in a recognized occupation;”.

Subsec. (b)(1)(D) to (F). Pub. L. 110–315, §102(c), struck out “and” after semicolon in subpar. (D), substituted “; and” for period in subpar. (E), and struck out subpar. (F) which read as follows: “has at least 10 percent of the school's revenues from sources that are not derived from funds provided under subchapter IV of this chapter and part C of subchapter I of chapter 34 of title 42, as determined in accordance with regulations prescribed by the Secretary.”

Subsec. (b)(2). Pub. L. 110–315, §102(d)(1)(A)(ii), added par. (2) and struck out former par. (2). Prior to amendment, text read as follows: “The term ‘proprietary institution of higher education’ also includes a proprietary educational institution in any State that, in lieu of the requirement in paragraph (1) of section 1001(a) of this title, admits as regular students persons who are beyond the age of compulsory school attendance in the State in which the institution is located.”

Subsec. (c)(2). Pub. L. 110–315, §102(d)(1)(B), added par. (2) and struck out former par. (2). Prior to amendment, text read as follows: “The term ‘postsecondary vocational institution’ also includes an educational institution in any State that, in lieu of the requirement in paragraph (1) of section 1001(a) of this title, admits as regular students persons who are beyond the age of compulsory school attendance in the State in which the institution is located.”

2006—Subsec. (a)(3)(A). Pub. L. 109–270 substituted “2302(3)(C) of this title” for “2471(4)(C) of this title”.

Pub. L. 109–171, §8002(1), inserted “(excluding courses offered by telecommunications as defined in section 1091(l)(4) of this title)” after “courses by correspondence”.

Subsec. (a)(3)(B). Pub. L. 109–171, §8002(2), inserted “(excluding courses offered by telecommunications as defined in section 1091(l)(4) of this title)” after “correspondence courses”.

2003—Subsec. (a)(2)(A). Pub. L. 108–98 amended subpar. (A) generally. Prior to amendment, subpar. (A) required the Secretary to establish criteria for approval of institutions outside the United States for purposes of par. (1)(C), including certain requirements for graduate medical or veterinary schools.

Effective Date of 2010 Amendment

Pub. L. 111–152, title II, §2209(b)(2), Mar. 30, 2010, 124 Stat. 1078, provided that: “The amendments made by subparagraph (C) of paragraph (1) [amending this section] shall be effective on July 1, 2010, as if enacted as part of section 102(a)(1) of the Higher Education Opportunity Act (Public Law 110–315) and subject to section 102(e) of such Act as amended by section 101(a)(2) of Public Law 111–39 (20 U.S.C. 1002 note).”

Effective Date of 2009 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 111–39 effective as if enacted on the date of enactment of Pub. L. 110–315 (Aug. 14, 2008), see section 3 of Pub. L. 111–39, set out as a note under section 1001 of this title.

Effective Date of 2008 Amendment

Pub. L. 110–315, title I, §102(e), Aug. 14, 2008, 122 Stat. 3086, as amended by Pub. L. 111–39, title I, §101(a)(2), July 1, 2009, 123 Stat. 1935, provided that: “The amendments made by subsections (a)(1), (b), and (d) [amending this section] shall take effect on July 1, 2010, except that, with respect to foreign nursing schools that were eligible to participate in part B of title IV [20 U.S.C. 1071 et seq.] as of the day before the date of enactment of this Act [Aug. 14, 2008], the amendments made by subsection (a)(1)(D) [amending this section] shall take effect on July 1, 2012.”

Effective Date of 2006 Amendment

Pub. L. 109–171, title VIII, §8001(c), Feb. 8, 2006, 120 Stat. 155, provided that: “Except as otherwise provided in this subtitle [subtitle A (§§8001–8024) of title VIII of Pub. L. 109–171, see Short Title of 2006 Amendment note set out under section 1001 of this title] or the amendments made by this subtitle, the amendments made by this subtitle shall be effective July 1, 2006.”

Effective Date of 2003 Amendment

Pub. L. 108–98, §1(b), Oct. 10, 2003, 117 Stat. 1175, provided that: “This Act [amending this section] and the amendments made by this Act shall be effective as if enacted on October 1, 1998.”

Construction

Pub. L. 110–315, title I, §102(d)(2), Aug. 14, 2008, 122 Stat. 3086, provided that: “Nothing in the amendment made by paragraph (1)(A)(i) to section 102(b)(1)(A) of the Higher Education Act of 1965 (20 U.S.C. 1002(b)(1)(A)) shall be construed to negate or supercede any State laws governing proprietary institutions of higher education.”

1 See References in Text note below.

§1003. Additional definitions

In this chapter and part C of subchapter I of chapter 34 of title 42:

(1) Authorizing committees

The term “authorizing committees” means the Committee on Health, Education, Labor, and Pensions of the Senate and the Committee on Education and Labor of the House of Representatives.

(2) Combination of institutions of higher education

The term “combination of institutions of higher education” means a group of institutions of higher education that have entered into a cooperative arrangement for the purpose of carrying out a common objective, or a public or private nonprofit agency, organization, or institution designated or created by a group of institutions of higher education for the purpose of carrying out a common objective on the group's behalf.

(3) Critical foreign language

Except as otherwise provided, the term “critical foreign language” means each of the languages contained in the list of critical languages designated by the Secretary in the Federal Register on August 2, 1985 (50 Fed. Reg. 31412; promulgated under the authority of section 212(d) of the Education for Economic Security Act (repealed by section 2303 of the Augustus F. Hawkins-Robert T. Stafford Elementary and Secondary School Improvement Amendments of 1988)), as updated by the Secretary from time to time and published in the Federal Register, except that in the implementation of this definition with respect to a specific title, the Secretary may set priorities according to the purposes of such title and the national security, economic competitiveness, and educational needs of the United States.

(4) Department

The term “Department” means the Department of Education.

(5) Diploma mill

The term “diploma mill” means an entity that—

(A)(i) offers, for a fee, degrees, diplomas, or certificates, that may be used to represent to the general public that the individual possessing such a degree, diploma, or certificate has completed a program of postsecondary education or training; and

(ii) requires such individual to complete little or no education or coursework to obtain such degree, diploma, or certificate; and

(B) lacks accreditation by an accrediting agency or association that is recognized as an accrediting agency or association of institutions of higher education (as such term is defined in section 1002 of this title) by—

(i) the Secretary pursuant to subpart 2 of part G of subchapter IV of this chapter; or

(ii) a Federal agency, State government, or other organization or association that recognizes accrediting agencies or associations.

(6) Disability

The term “disability” has the same meaning given that term under section 12102(2) of title 42.

(7) Distance education

(A) In general

Except as otherwise provided, the term “distance education” means education that uses one or more of the technologies described in subparagraph (B)—

(i) to deliver instruction to students who are separated from the instructor; and

(ii) to support regular and substantive interaction between the students and the instructor, synchronously or asynchronously.

(B) Inclusions

For the purposes of subparagraph (A), the technologies used may include—

(i) the Internet;

(ii) one-way and two-way transmissions through open broadcast, closed circuit, cable, microwave, broadband lines, fiber optics, satellite, or wireless communications devices;

(iii) audio conferencing; or

(iv) video cassettes, DVDs, and CD–ROMs, if the cassettes, DVDs, or CD–ROMs are used in a course in conjunction with any of the technologies listed in clauses (i) through (iii).

(8) Early childhood education program

The term “early childhood education program” means—

(A) a Head Start program or an Early Head Start program carried out under the Head Start Act (42 U.S.C. 9831 et seq.), including a migrant or seasonal Head Start program, an Indian Head Start program, or a Head Start program or an Early Head Start program that also receives State funding;

(B) a State licensed or regulated child care program; or

(C) a program that—

(i) serves children from birth through age six that addresses the children's cognitive (including language, early literacy, and early mathematics), social, emotional, and physical development; and

(ii) is—

(I) a State prekindergarten program;

(II) a program authorized under section 619 [20 U.S.C. 1419] or part C of the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act [20 U.S.C. 1431 et seq.]; or

(III) a program operated by a local educational agency.

(9) Elementary school

The term “elementary school” has the same meaning given that term under section 7801 of this title.

(10) Gifted and talented

The term “gifted and talented” has the same meaning given that term under section 7801 of this title.

(11) Local educational agency

The term “local educational agency” has the same meaning given that term under section 7801 of this title.

(12) New borrower

The term “new borrower” when used with respect to any date means an individual who on that date has no outstanding balance of principal or interest owing on any loan made, insured, or guaranteed under subchapter IV of this chapter and part C of subchapter I of chapter 34 of title 42.

(13) Nonprofit

The term “nonprofit” as applied to a school, agency, organization, or institution means a school, agency, organization, or institution owned and operated by one or more nonprofit corporations or associations, no part of the net earnings of which inures, or may lawfully inure, to the benefit of any private shareholder or individual.

(14) Poverty line

The term “poverty line” means the poverty line (as defined in section 9902(2) of title 42) applicable to a family of the size involved.

(15) School or department of divinity

The term “school or department of divinity” means an institution, or a department or a branch of an institution, the program of instruction of which is designed for the education of students—

(A) to prepare the students to become ministers of religion or to enter upon some other religious vocation (or to provide continuing training for any such vocation); or

(B) to prepare the students to teach theological subjects.

(16) Secondary school

The term “secondary school” has the same meaning given that term under section 7801 of this title.

(17) Secretary

The term “Secretary” means the Secretary of Education.

(18) Service-learning

The term “service-learning” has the same meaning given that term under section 12511(23) 1 of title 42.

(19) Special education teacher

The term “special education teacher” means teachers who teach children with disabilities as defined in section 602 of the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act.

(20) State educational agency

The term “State educational agency” has the same meaning given that term under section 7801 of this title.

(21) State; Freely Associated States

(A) State

The term “State” includes, in addition to the several States of the United States, the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico, the District of Columbia, Guam, American Samoa, the United States Virgin Islands, the Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands, and the Freely Associated States.

(B) Freely Associated States

The term “Freely Associated States” means the Republic of the Marshall Islands, the Federated States of Micronesia, and the Republic of Palau.

(22) State higher education agency

The term “State higher education agency” means the officer or agency primarily responsible for the State supervision of higher education.

(23) Universal design

The term “universal design” has the meaning given the term in section 3002 of title 29.

(24) Universal design for learning

The term “universal design for learning” means a scientifically valid framework for guiding educational practice that—

(A) provides flexibility in the ways information is presented, in the ways students respond or demonstrate knowledge and skills, and in the ways students are engaged; and

(B) reduces barriers in instruction, provides appropriate accommodations, supports, and challenges, and maintains high achievement expectations for all students, including students with disabilities and students who are limited English proficient.

(Pub. L. 89–329, title I, §103, as added Pub. L. 105–244, title I, §101(a), Oct. 7, 1998, 112 Stat. 1589; amended Pub. L. 107–110, title X, §1076(g), Jan. 8, 2002, 115 Stat. 2091; Pub. L. 110–315, title I, §103(a), Aug. 14, 2008, 122 Stat. 3086.)

References in Text

Section 212(d) of the Education for Economic Security Act, referred to in par. (3), is section 212(d) of title II of Pub. L. 98–377, Aug. 11, 1984, 98 Stat. 1282, which was classified to section 3972(d) of this title, prior to repeal by Pub. L. 100–297, title II, §2303, Apr. 28, 1988, 102 Stat. 324.

The Head Start Act, referred to in par. (8)(A), is subchapter B (§635 et seq.) of chapter 8 of subtitle A of title VI of Pub. L. 97–35, Aug. 13, 1981, 95 Stat. 499, which is classified generally to subchapter II (§9831 et seq.) of chapter 105 of Title 42, The Public Health and Welfare. For complete classification of this Act to the Code, see Short Title note set out under section 9801 of Title 42 and Tables.

The Individuals with Disabilities Education Act, referred to in par. (8)(C)(ii)(II), is title VI of Pub. L. 91–230, Apr. 13, 1970, 84 Stat. 175. Part C of the Act is classified generally to subchapter III (§1431 et seq.) of chapter 33 of this title. For complete classification of this Act to the Code, see section 1400 of this title and Tables.

Section 12511(23) of title 42, referred to in par. (18), was redesignated section 12511(40) by Pub. L. 111–13, title I, §1102(b)(1), Apr. 21, 2009, 123 Stat. 1467.

Prior Provisions

Provisions similar to this section were contained in section 1141(b) of this title prior to repeal by Pub. L. 105–244.

A prior section 1003, Pub. L. 89–329, title I, §103, as added Pub. L. 102–325, title I, §101, July 23, 1992, 106 Stat. 459; amended Pub. L. 103–208, §2(a)(1), Dec. 20, 1993, 107 Stat. 2457, related to authority to make grants under the school, college, and university partnership grant program, prior to the general amendment of this subchapter by Pub. L. 105–244.

Another prior section 1003, Pub. L. 89–329, title I, §103, as added Pub. L. 99–498, title I, §101, Oct. 17, 1986, 100 Stat. 1279, related to limitation on contract authority, prior to the general amendment of this subchapter by Pub. L. 102–325.

Another prior section 1003, Pub. L. 89–329, title I, §103, as added Pub. L. 96–374, title I, §101(a), Oct. 3, 1980, 94 Stat. 1375, related to duties of the Commission on National Development in Postsecondary Education, prior to the general amendment of this subchapter by Pub. L. 99–498.

Another prior section 1003, Pub. L. 89–329, title I, §103, Nov. 8, 1965, 79 Stat. 1219; Pub. L. 92–318, title I, §102(a)(2), June 23, 1972, 86 Stat. 237; Pub. L. 94–482, title I, §101(b)(2), (g)(2), Oct. 12, 1976, 90 Stat. 2084, 2086; Pub. L. 95–43, §1(a)(1), June 15, 1977, 91 Stat. 213; Pub. L. 96–96, §1, Oct. 31, 1979, 93 Stat. 729, provided for the allotment of funds to States, prior to the general amendment of this subchapter by Pub. L. 96–374.

A prior section 1004, Pub. L. 89–329, title I, §104, as added Pub. L. 102–325, title I, §101, July 23, 1992, 106 Stat. 460; amended Pub. L. 103–208, §2(a)(2), Dec. 20, 1993, 107 Stat. 2457, related to grant applications, prior to the general amendment of this subchapter by Pub. L. 105–244.

Another prior section 1004, Pub. L. 89–329, title I, §104, as added Pub. L. 96–374, title I, §101(a), Oct. 3, 1980, 94 Stat. 1376, related to administrative provisions and powers of Commission on National Development in Postsecondary Education, prior to the general amendment of this subchapter by Pub. L. 99–498.

Another prior section 1004, Pub. L. 89–329, title I, §104, Nov. 8, 1965, 79 Stat. 1220; Pub. L. 94–482, title I, §101(b)(3), Oct. 12, 1976, 90 Stat. 2084; Pub. L. 95–43, §1(a)(2), June 15, 1977, 91 Stat. 213, described the allowable uses of States’ allotments of funds, prior to the general amendment of this subchapter by Pub. L. 96–374.

A prior section 1005, Pub. L. 89–329, title I, §105, as added Pub. L. 102–325, title I, §101, July 23, 1992, 106 Stat. 461, related to peer review of applications, prior to the general amendment of this subchapter by Pub. L. 105–244.

Another prior section 1005, Pub. L. 89–329, title I, §105, as added Pub. L. 96–374, title I, §101(a), Oct. 3, 1980, 94 Stat. 1377, authorized appropriations, prior to the general amendment of this subchapter by Pub. L. 99–498.

Another prior section 1005, Pub. L. 89–329, title I, §105, Nov. 8, 1965, 79 Stat. 1220; Pub. L. 90–575, title II, §202, Oct. 16, 1968, 82 Stat. 1036; Pub. L. 94–482, title I, §101(b)(4)–(10), (g)(2), Oct. 12, 1976, 90 Stat. 2084–2086; Pub. L. 95–43, §1(a)(3), (b)(1), (2), June 15, 1977, 91 Stat. 213, 218, set out the requisite features of State plans, prior to the general amendment of this subchapter by Pub. L. 96–374.

A prior section 1005a, Pub. L. 89–329, title I, §106, as added Pub. L. 92–318, title I, §102(a)(1), June 23, 1972, 86 Stat. 237; amended Pub. L. 94–482, title I, §101(g)(2), Oct. 12, 1976, 90 Stat. 2086, provided for special programs and projects relating to national and regional problems, prior to the general amendment of this subchapter by Pub. L. 96–374.

A prior section 1006, Pub. L. 89–329, title I, §106, as added Pub. L. 102–325, title I, §101, July 23, 1992, 106 Stat. 461, authorized appropriations, prior to the general amendment of this subchapter by Pub. L. 105–244.

Another prior section 1006, Pub. L. 89–329, title I, §107, formerly §106, Nov. 8, 1965, 79 Stat. 1221; Pub. L. 90–575, title II, §203(a), Oct. 16, 1968, 82 Stat. 1036, renumbered Pub. L. 92–318, title I, §102(a)(1), June 23, 1972, 86 Stat. 236, and amended Pub. L. 94–482, title I, §101(c), (g)(2), Oct. 12, 1976, 90 Stat. 2085, 2086, related to payment and method of payment of funds, prior to the general amendment of this subchapter by Pub. L. 96–374.

Prior sections 1007 to 1010 were omitted in the general amendment of this subchapter by Pub. L. 96–374.

Section 1007, Pub. L. 89–329, title I, §108, formerly §107, Nov. 8, 1965, 79 Stat. 1222, renumbered Pub. L. 92–318, title I, §102(a)(1), June 23, 1972, 86 Stat. 236, and amended Pub. L. 94–482, title I, §101(g)(2), Oct. 12, 1976, 90 Stat. 2086, related to disapproval of State plans, notice and hearing, findings of Commissioner of Education, and notification to State of noneligibility.

Section 1008, Pub. L. 89–329, title I, §109, formerly §108, Nov. 8, 1965, 79 Stat. 1222, renumbered Pub. L. 92–318, title I, §102(a)(1), June 23, 1972, 86 Stat. 236, and amended Pub. L. 94–482, title I, §101(d), Oct. 12, 1976, 90 Stat. 2085, provided for judicial review of actions of Commissioner of Education and scope of that review.

Section 1008a, Pub. L. 89–329, title I, §110, as added Pub. L. 93–29, title VIII, §803, May 3, 1973, 87 Stat. 59, and amended Pub. L. 94–135, title II, §201, Nov. 28, 1975, 89 Stat. 726; Pub. L. 94–482, title I, §101(g)(2), Oct. 12, 1976, 90 Stat. 2086, provided for programs and projects relating to problems of the elderly.

Section 1008b, Pub. L. 89–329, title I, §111, as added Pub. L. 94–482, title I, §101(e), Oct. 12, 1976, 90 Stat. 2085, related to technical assistance and administration.

Section 1009, Pub. L. 89–329, title I, §112, formerly §109, Nov. 8, 1965, 79 Stat. 1223; Pub. L. 91–230, title IV, §401(h)(4), Apr. 13, 1970, 84 Stat. 174, renumbered §110, Pub. L. 92–318, title I, §102(a)(1), June 23, 1972, 86 Stat. 236, renumbered §111, Pub. L. 93–29, title VIII, §803, May 3, 1973, 87 Stat. 59; Pub. L. 93–380, title VIII, §831, Aug. 21, 1974, 88 Stat. 603; Pub. L. 93–644, §9(a), Jan. 4, 1975, 88 Stat. 2310, renumbered §112 and amended Pub. L. 94–482, title I, §101(e), (f)(1), (g)(2), Oct. 12, 1976, 90 Stat. 2085, 2086; 1977 Reorg. Plan No. 2, §7(a)(13), 42 F.R. 62461, 91 Stat. 1637, provided for creation of a National Advisory Council on Extension and Continuing Education.

Section 1010, Pub. L. 89–329, title I, §113, formerly §110, Nov. 8, 1965, 79 Stat. 1224, renumbered §111, Pub. L. 92–318, title I, §102(a)(1), June 23, 1972, 86 Stat. 236, renumbered §112, Pub. L. 93–29, title VIII, §803, May 3, 1973, 87 Stat. 59, renumbered §113 and amended Pub. L. 94–482, title I, §101(e), (f)(2), Oct. 12, 1976, 90 Stat. 2085, 2086, directed that nothing in the section be held to modify any authority under the Smith-Lever Act, section 341 et seq. of Title 7, Agriculture.

Amendments

2008—Pub. L. 110–315, §103(a)(2), reordered pars. in alphabetical order based on headings of pars. and renumbered pars. as so reordered, resulting in pars. (1) to (22) being redesignated as (2), (4), (6), (9) to (13), (15) to (20), (22), (21), (1), (3), (7), (5), (8), and (14), respectively.

Pars. (17) to (24). Pub. L. 110–315, §103(a)(1), added pars. (17) to (24).

2002—Pars. (4) to (6), (10), (14). Pub. L. 107–110 substituted “7801” for “8801”.

Change of Name

Committee on Education and Labor of House of Representatives changed to Committee on Education and the Workforce of House of Representatives by House Resolution No. 5, One Hundred Twelfth Congress, Jan. 5, 2011.

Effective Date of 2002 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 107–110 effective Jan. 8, 2002, except with respect to certain noncompetitive programs and competitive programs, see section 5 of Pub. L. 107–110, set out as an Effective Date note under section 6301 of this title.

1 See References in Text note below.

Part B—Additional General Provisions

§1011. Antidiscrimination

(a) In general

Institutions of higher education receiving Federal financial assistance may not use such financial assistance, directly or indirectly, to undertake any study or project or fulfill the terms of any contract containing an express or implied provision that any person or persons of a particular race, religion, sex, or national origin be barred from performing such study, project, or contract, except that nothing in this subsection shall be construed to prohibit an institution from conducting objective studies or projects concerning the nature, effects, or prevention of discrimination, or to have the institution's curriculum restricted on the subject of discrimination.

(b) Limitations on statutory construction

Nothing in this chapter and part C of subchapter I of chapter 34 of title 42 shall be construed to limit the rights or responsibilities of any individual under the Americans with Disabilities Act of 1990 [42 U.S.C. 12101 et seq.], the Rehabilitation Act of 1973 [29 U.S.C. 701 et seq.], or any other law.

(Pub. L. 89–329, title I, §111, as added Pub. L. 105–244, title I, §101(a), Oct. 7, 1998, 112 Stat. 1590; amended Pub. L. 111–39, title I, §101(b)(2), July 1, 2009, 123 Stat. 1935.)

References in Text

The Americans with Disabilities Act of 1990, referred to in subsec. (b), is Pub. L. 101–336, July 26, 1990, 104 Stat. 327, which is classified principally to chapter 126 (§12101 et seq.) of Title 42, The Public Health and Welfare. For complete classification of this Act to the Code, see Short Title note set out under section 12101 of Title 42 and Tables.

The Rehabilitation Act of 1973, referred to in subsec. (b), is Pub. L. 93–112, Sept. 26, 1973, 87 Stat. 355, which is classified generally to chapter 16 (§701 et seq.) of Title 29, Labor. For complete classification of this Act to the Code, see Short Title note set out under section 701 of Title 29 and Tables.

Prior Provisions

Provisions similar to this section were contained in section 1142 of this title prior to repeal by Pub. L. 105–244.

A prior section 1011, Pub. L. 89–329, title I, §121, as added Pub. L. 102–325, title I, §101, July 23, 1992, 106 Stat. 461, stated congressional findings and purposes of articulation agreements grant program, prior to the general amendment of this subchapter by Pub. L. 105–244.

Another prior section 1011, Pub. L. 89–329, title I, §111, as added Pub. L. 99–498, title I, §101, Oct. 17, 1986, 100 Stat. 1279, related to institutional development, prior to the general amendment of this subchapter by Pub. L. 102–325.

Another prior section 1011, Pub. L. 89–329, title I, §111, as added Pub. L. 96–374, title I, §101(a), Oct. 3, 1980, 94 Stat. 1377, stated Congressional findings with respect to education outreach programs, prior to the general amendment of this subchapter by Pub. L. 99–498.

Another prior section 1011, Pub. L. 89–329, title I, §114, formerly §111, Nov. 8, 1965, 79 Stat. 1224, renumbered §112 and amended Pub. L. 92–318, title I, §§102(a)(1), 131(d)(2)(A), June 23, 1972, 86 Stat. 236, 260, renumbered §113, Pub. L. 93–29, title VIII, §803, May 3, 1973, 87 Stat. 59, renumbered §114, Pub. L. 94–482, title I, §101(e), Oct. 12, 1976, 90 Stat. 2085, prohibited the giving of grants for programs relating to sectarian instruction or worship, prior to the general amendment of this subchapter by Pub. L. 96–374.

Amendments

2009—Subsec. (b). Pub. L. 111–39 substituted “with” for “With”.

Effective Date of 2009 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 111–39 effective as if enacted on the date of enactment of Pub. L. 110–315 (Aug. 14, 2008), see section 3 of Pub. L. 111–39, set out as a note under section 1001 of this title.

§1011a. Protection of student speech and association rights

(a) Protection of rights

(1) It is the sense of Congress that no student attending an institution of higher education on a full- or part-time basis should, on the basis of participation in protected speech or protected association, be excluded from participation in, be denied the benefits of, or be subjected to discrimination or official sanction under any education program, activity, or division of the institution directly or indirectly receiving financial assistance under this chapter and part C of subchapter I of chapter 34 of title 42, whether or not such program, activity, or division is sponsored or officially sanctioned by the institution.

(2) It is the sense of Congress that—

(A) the diversity of institutions and educational missions is one of the key strengths of American higher education;

(B) individual institutions of higher education have different missions and each institution should design its academic program in accordance with its educational goals;

(C) an institution of higher education should facilitate the free and open exchange of ideas;

(D) students should not be intimidated, harassed, discouraged from speaking out, or discriminated against;

(E) students should be treated equally and fairly; and

(F) nothing in this paragraph shall be construed to modify, change, or infringe upon any constitutionally protected religious liberty, freedom, expression, or association.

(b) Construction

Nothing in this section shall be construed—

(1) to discourage the imposition of an official sanction on a student that has willfully participated in the disruption or attempted disruption of a lecture, class, speech, presentation, or performance made or scheduled to be made under the auspices of the institution of higher education, provided that the imposition of such sanction is done objectively and fairly; or

(2) to prevent an institution of higher education from taking appropriate and effective action to prevent violations of State liquor laws, to discourage binge drinking and other alcohol abuse, to protect students from sexual harassment including assault and date rape, to prevent hazing, or to regulate unsanitary or unsafe conditions in any student residence.

(c) Definitions

For the purposes of this section:

(1) Official sanction

The term “official sanction”—

(A) means expulsion, suspension, probation, censure, condemnation, reprimand, or any other disciplinary, coercive, or adverse action taken by an institution of higher education or administrative unit of the institution; and

(B) includes an oral or written warning made by an official of an institution of higher education acting in the official capacity of the official.

(2) Protected association

The term “protected association” means the joining, assembling, and residing with others that is protected under the first and 14th amendments to the Constitution, or would be protected if the institution of higher education involved were subject to those amendments.

(3) Protected speech

The term “protected speech” means speech that is protected under the first and 14th amendments to the Constitution, or would be protected if the institution of higher education involved were subject to those amendments.

(Pub. L. 89–329, title I, §112, as added Pub. L. 105–244, title I, §101(a), Oct. 7, 1998, 112 Stat. 1591; amended Pub. L. 110–315, title I, §104, Aug. 14, 2008, 122 Stat. 3090.)

Prior Provisions

A prior section 1011a, Pub. L. 89–329, title I, §122, as added Pub. L. 102–325, title I, §101, July 23, 1992, 106 Stat. 462, authorized grants to States, prior to the general amendment of this subchapter by Pub. L. 105–244.

Amendments

2008—Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 110–315, §104(1), designated existing provisions as par. (1) and added par. (2).

Subsec. (b)(1). Pub. L. 110–315, §104(2), inserted “, provided that the imposition of such sanction is done objectively and fairly” after “higher education”.

§1011b. Territorial waiver authority

The Secretary is required to waive the eligibility criteria of any postsecondary education program administered by the Department where such criteria do not take into account the unique circumstances in Guam, the United States Virgin Islands, American Samoa, the Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands, and the Freely Associated States.

(Pub. L. 89–329, title I, §113, as added Pub. L. 105–244, title I, §101(a), Oct. 7, 1998, 112 Stat. 1591; amended Pub. L. 110–315, title I, §105, Aug. 14, 2008, 122 Stat. 3090.)

Prior Provisions

Provisions similar to this section were contained in section 1144a of this title prior to repeal by Pub. L. 105–244.

A prior section 1011b, Pub. L. 89–329, title I, §123, as added Pub. L. 102–325, title I, §101, July 23, 1992, 106 Stat. 462, related to State applications for grants, prior to the general amendment of this subchapter by Pub. L. 105–244.

Amendments

2008—Pub. L. 110–315 substituted “Territorial waiver authority” for “Treatment of territories and territorial student assistance” in section catchline and struck out subsec. (a) designation and heading and subsec. (b). Text of former subsec. (b) read as follows: “Notwithstanding any other provision of law, an institution of higher education that is located in any of the Freely Associated States, rather than in another State, shall be eligible, if otherwise qualified, for assistance under division 1 of subpart 2 of part A of subchapter IV of this chapter. This subsection shall cease to be effective on September 30, 2004.”

§1011c. National Advisory Committee on Institutional Quality and Integrity

(a) Establishment

There is established in the Department a National Advisory Committee on Institutional Quality and Integrity (in this section referred to as the “Committee”) to assess the process of accreditation and the institutional eligibility and certification of institutions of higher education (as defined in section 1002 of this title) under subchapter IV of this chapter and part C of subchapter I of chapter 34 of title 42.

(b) Membership

(1) In general

The Committee shall have 18 members, of which—

(A) six members shall be appointed by the Secretary;

(B) six members shall be appointed by the Speaker of the House of Representatives, three of whom shall be appointed on the recommendation of the majority leader of the House of Representatives, and three of whom shall be appointed on the recommendation of the minority leader of the House of Representatives; and

(C) six members shall be appointed by the President pro tempore of the Senate, three of whom shall be appointed on the recommendation of the majority leader of the Senate, and three of whom shall be appointed on the recommendation of the minority leader of the Senate.

(2) Qualifications

Individuals shall be appointed as members of the Committee—

(A) on the basis of the individuals’ experience, integrity, impartiality, and good judgment;

(B) from among individuals who are representatives of, or knowledgeable concerning, education and training beyond secondary education, representing all sectors and types of institutions of higher education (as defined in section 1002 of this title); and

(C) on the basis of the individuals’ technical qualifications, professional standing, and demonstrated knowledge in the fields of accreditation and administration in higher education.

(3) Terms of members

Except as provided in paragraph (5), the term of office of each member of the Committee shall be for six years, except that any member appointed to fill a vacancy occurring prior to the expiration of the term for which the member's predecessor was appointed shall be appointed for the remainder of such term.

(4) Vacancy

A vacancy on the Committee shall be filled in the same manner as the original appointment was made not later than 90 days after the vacancy occurs. If a vacancy occurs in a position to be filled by the Secretary, the Secretary shall publish a Federal Register notice soliciting nominations for the position not later than 30 days after being notified of the vacancy.

(5) Initial terms

The terms of office for the initial members of the Committee shall be—

(A) three years for members appointed under paragraph (1)(A);

(B) four years for members appointed under paragraph (1)(B); and

(C) six years for members appointed under paragraph (1)(C).

(6) Chairperson

The members of the Committee shall select a chairperson from among the members.

(c) Functions

The Committee shall—

(1) advise the Secretary with respect to establishment and enforcement of the standards of accrediting agencies or associations under subpart 2 of part G of subchapter IV of this chapter;

(2) advise the Secretary with respect to the recognition of a specific accrediting agency or association;

(3) advise the Secretary with respect to the preparation and publication of the list of nationally recognized accrediting agencies and associations;

(4) advise the Secretary with respect to the eligibility and certification process for institutions of higher education under subchapter IV of this chapter and part C of subchapter I of chapter 34 of title 42, together with recommendations for improvements in such process;

(5) advise the Secretary with respect to the relationship between—

(A) accreditation of institutions of higher education and the certification and eligibility of such institutions; and

(B) State licensing responsibilities with respect to such institutions; and


(6) carry out such other advisory functions relating to accreditation and institutional eligibility as the Secretary may prescribe by regulation.

(d) Meeting procedures

(1) Schedule

(A) Biannual meetings

The Committee shall meet not less often than twice each year, at the call of the Chairperson.

(B) Publication of date

The Committee shall submit the date and location of each meeting in advance to the Secretary, and the Secretary shall publish such information in the Federal Register not later than 30 days before the meeting.

(2) Agenda

(A) Establishment

The agenda for a meeting of the Committee shall be established by the Chairperson and shall be submitted to the members of the Committee upon notification of the meeting.

(B) Opportunity for public comment

The agenda shall include, at a minimum, opportunity for public comment during the Committee's deliberations.

(3) Secretary's designee

The Secretary shall designate an employee of the Department to serve as the Secretary's designee to the Committee, and the Chairperson shall invite the Secretary's designee to attend all meetings of the Committee.

(4) Federal Advisory Committee Act

The Federal Advisory Committee Act (5 U.S.C. App.) shall apply to the Committee, except that section 14 of such Act shall not apply.

(e) Report and notice

(1) Notice

The Secretary shall annually publish in the Federal Register—

(A) a list containing, for each member of the Committee—

(i) the member's name;

(ii) the date of the expiration of the member's term of office; and

(iii) the name of the individual described in subsection (b)(1) who appointed the member; and


(B) a solicitation of nominations for each expiring term of office on the Committee of a member appointed by the Secretary.

(2) Report

Not later than the last day of each fiscal year, the Committee shall make available an annual report to the Secretary, the authorizing committees, and the public. The annual report shall contain—

(A) a detailed summary of the agenda and activities of, and the findings and recommendations made by, the Committee during the fiscal year preceding the fiscal year in which the report is made;

(B) a list of the date and location of each meeting during the fiscal year preceding the fiscal year in which the report is made;

(C) a list of the members of the Committee; and

(D) a list of the functions of the Committee, including any additional functions established by the Secretary through regulation.

(f) Termination

The Committee shall terminate on September 30, 2014.

(Pub. L. 89–329, title I, §114, as added Pub. L. 105–244, title I, §101(a), Oct. 7, 1998, 112 Stat. 1592; amended Pub. L. 110–315, title I, §106(a), Aug. 14, 2008, 122 Stat. 3090.)

References in Text

The Federal Advisory Committee Act, referred to in subsec. (d)(4), is Pub. L. 92–463, Oct. 6, 1972, 86 Stat. 770, which is set out in the Appendix to Title 5, Government Organization and Employees.

Prior Provisions

Provisions similar to this section were contained in section 1145 of this title prior to repeal by Pub. L. 105–244.

A prior section 1011c, Pub. L. 89–329, title I, §124, as added Pub. L. 102–325, title I, §101, July 23, 1992, 106 Stat. 463, related to local applications for grants, prior to the general amendment of this subchapter by Pub. L. 105–244.

Amendments

2008—Pub. L. 110–315 amended section generally, revising provisions relating to the National Advisory Committee on Institutional Quality and Integrity and extending its termination date from Sept. 30, 2004, to September 30, 2014.

Effective Date of 2008 Amendment

Pub. L. 110–315, title I, §106(c), Aug. 14, 2008, 122 Stat. 3093, provided that: “The amendment made by subsection (a) [amending this section] shall take effect on January 1, 2009.”

Transition

Pub. L. 110–315, title I, §106(b), Aug. 14, 2008, 122 Stat. 3093, provided that: “Notwithstanding section 114 of the Higher Education Act of 1965 (20 U.S.C. 1011c) (as in effect before, during, and after the date of enactment of this Act [Aug. 14, 2008])—

“(1) the term of each member appointed to the National Advisory Committee on Institutional Quality and Integrity before the date of enactment of this Act shall expire on the date of enactment of this Act;

“(2) no new members shall be appointed to the National Advisory Committee on Institutional Quality and Integrity during the period beginning on the date of enactment of this Act and ending on January 31, 2009; and

“(3) no meeting of the National Advisory Committee on Institutional Quality and Integrity shall be convened during such period.”

§1011d. Student representation

The Secretary shall, in appointing individuals to any commission, committee, board, panel, or other body in connection with the administration of this chapter and part C of subchapter I of chapter 34 of title 42, include individuals who are, at the time of appointment, attending an institution of higher education.

(Pub. L. 89–329, title I, §115, as added Pub. L. 105–244, title I, §101(a), Oct. 7, 1998, 112 Stat. 1593.)

Prior Provisions

Provisions similar to this section were contained in section 1145b of this title prior to repeal by Pub. L. 105–244.

A prior section 1011d, Pub. L. 89–329, title I, §125, as added Pub. L. 102–325, title I, §101, July 23, 1992, 106 Stat. 463, related to articulation agreements, prior to the general amendment of this subchapter by Pub. L. 105–244.

§1011e. Financial responsibility of foreign students

Nothing in this chapter and part C of subchapter I of chapter 34 of title 42 or any other Federal law shall be construed to prohibit any institution of higher education from requiring a student who is a foreign national (and not admitted to permanent residence in the United States) to guarantee the future payment of tuition and fees to such institution by—

(1) making advance payment of such tuition and fees;

(2) making deposits in an escrow account administered by such institution for such payments; or

(3) obtaining a bond or other insurance that such payments will be made.

(Pub. L. 89–329, title I, §116, as added Pub. L. 105–244, title I, §101(a), Oct. 7, 1998, 112 Stat. 1593.)

Prior Provisions

Provisions similar to this section were contained in section 1145c of this title prior to repeal by Pub. L. 105–244.

A prior section 1011e, Pub. L. 89–329, title I, §126, as added Pub. L. 102–325, title I, §101, July 23, 1992, 106 Stat. 464, related to State administrative costs, prior to the general amendment of this subchapter by Pub. L. 105–244.

§1011f. Disclosures of foreign gifts

(a) Disclosure report

Whenever any institution is owned or controlled by a foreign source or receives a gift from or enters into a contract with a foreign source, the value of which is $250,000 or more, considered alone or in combination with all other gifts from or contracts with that foreign source within a calendar year, the institution shall file a disclosure report with the Secretary on January 31 or July 31, whichever is sooner.

(b) Contents of report

Each report to the Secretary required by this section shall contain the following:

(1) For gifts received from or contracts entered into with a foreign source other than a foreign government, the aggregate dollar amount of such gifts and contracts attributable to a particular country. The country to which a gift is attributable is the country of citizenship, or if unknown, the principal residence for a foreign source who is a natural person, and the country of incorporation, or if unknown, the principal place of business, for a foreign source which is a legal entity.

(2) For gifts received from or contracts entered into with a foreign government, the aggregate amount of such gifts and contracts received from each foreign government.

(3) In the case of an institution which is owned or controlled by a foreign source, the identity of the foreign source, the date on which the foreign source assumed ownership or control, and any changes in program or structure resulting from the change in ownership or control.

(c) Additional disclosures for restricted and conditional gifts

Notwithstanding the provisions of subsection (b) of this section, whenever any institution receives a restricted or conditional gift or contract from a foreign source, the institution shall disclose the following:

(1) For such gifts received from or contracts entered into with a foreign source other than a foreign government, the amount, the date, and a description of such conditions or restrictions. The report shall also disclose the country of citizenship, or if unknown, the principal residence for a foreign source which is a natural person, and the country of incorporation, or if unknown, the principal place of business for a foreign source which is a legal entity.

(2) For gifts received from or contracts entered into with a foreign government, the amount, the date, a description of such conditions or restrictions, and the name of the foreign government.

(d) Relation to other reporting requirements

(1) State requirements

If an institution described under subsection (a) of this section is within a State which has enacted requirements for public disclosure of gifts from or contracts with a foreign source that are substantially similar to the requirements of this section, a copy of the disclosure report filed with the State may be filed with the Secretary in lieu of a report required under subsection (a) of this section. The State in which the institution is located shall provide to the Secretary such assurances as the Secretary may require to establish that the institution has met the requirements for public disclosure under State law if the State report is filed.

(2) Use of other Federal reports

If an institution receives a gift from, or enters into a contract with, a foreign source, where any other department, agency, or bureau of the executive branch requires a report containing requirements substantially similar to those required under this section, a copy of the report may be filed with the Secretary in lieu of a report required under subsection (a) of this section.

(e) Public inspection

All disclosure reports required by this section shall be public records open to inspection and copying during business hours.

(f) Enforcement

(1) Court orders

Whenever it appears that an institution has failed to comply with the requirements of this section, including any rule or regulation promulgated under this section, a civil action may be brought by the Attorney General, at the request of the Secretary, in an appropriate district court of the United States, or the appropriate United States court of any territory or other place subject to the jurisdiction of the United States, to request such court to compel compliance with the requirements of this section.

(2) Costs

For knowing or willful failure to comply with the requirements of this section, including any rule or regulation promulgated thereunder, an institution shall pay to the Treasury of the United States the full costs to the United States of obtaining compliance, including all associated costs of investigation and enforcement.

(g) Regulations

The Secretary may promulgate regulations to carry out this section.

(h) Definitions

For the purpose of this section—

(1) the term “contract” means any agreement for the acquisition by purchase, lease, or barter of property or services by the foreign source, for the direct benefit or use of either of the parties;

(2) the term “foreign source” means—

(A) a foreign government, including an agency of a foreign government;

(B) a legal entity, governmental or otherwise, created solely under the laws of a foreign state or states;

(C) an individual who is not a citizen or a national of the United States or a trust territory or protectorate thereof; and

(D) an agent, including a subsidiary or affiliate of a foreign legal entity, acting on behalf of a foreign source;


(3) the term “gift” means any gift of money or property;

(4) the term “institution” means any institution, public or private, or, if a multicampus institution, any single campus of such institution, in any State, that—

(A) is legally authorized within such State to provide a program of education beyond secondary school;

(B) provides a program for which the institution awards a bachelor's degree (or provides not less than a 2-year program which is acceptable for full credit toward such a degree) or more advanced degrees; and

(C) is accredited by a nationally recognized accrediting agency or association and to which institution Federal financial assistance is extended (directly or indirectly through another entity or person), or which institution receives support from the extension of Federal financial assistance to any of the institution's subunits; and


(5) the term “restricted or conditional gift or contract” means any endowment, gift, grant, contract, award, present, or property of any kind which includes provisions regarding—

(A) the employment, assignment, or termination of faculty;

(B) the establishment of departments, centers, research or lecture programs, or new faculty positions;

(C) the selection or admission of students; or

(D) the award of grants, loans, scholarships, fellowships, or other forms of financial aid restricted to students of a specified country, religion, sex, ethnic origin, or political opinion.

(Pub. L. 89–329, title I, §117, as added Pub. L. 105–244, title I, §101(a), Oct. 7, 1998, 112 Stat. 1593.)

Prior Provisions

Provisions similar to this section were contained in section 1145d of this title prior to repeal by Pub. L. 105–244.

A prior section 1011f, Pub. L. 89–329, title I, §127, as added Pub. L. 102–325, title I, §101, July 23, 1992, 106 Stat. 464, related to priority grant applications, prior to the general amendment of this subchapter by Pub. L. 105–244.

§1011g. Application of peer review process

All applications submitted under the provisions of this chapter and part C of subchapter I of chapter 34 of title 42 which require peer review shall be read by a panel of readers composed of individuals selected by the Secretary, which shall include outside readers who are not employees of the Federal Government. The Secretary shall ensure that no individual assigned under this section to review any application has any conflict of interest with regard to that application which might impair the impartiality with which that individual conducts the review under this section.

(Pub. L. 89–329, title I, §118, as added Pub. L. 105–244, title I, §101(a), Oct. 7, 1998, 112 Stat. 1595.)

Prior Provisions

Provisions similar to this section were contained in section 1145d–1 of this title prior to repeal by Pub. L. 105–244.

A prior section 1011g, Pub. L. 89–329, title I, §128, as added Pub. L. 102–325, title I, §101, July 23, 1992, 106 Stat. 464, related to reports and evaluation of programs, prior to the general amendment of this subchapter by Pub. L. 105–244.

§1011h. Binge drinking on college campuses

(a) Short title

This section may be cited as the “Collegiate Initiative To Reduce Binge Drinking and Illegal Alcohol Consumption”.

(b) Sense of Congress

It is the sense of Congress that, in an effort to change the culture of alcohol consumption on college campuses, all institutions of higher education should carry out the following:

(1) The president of the institution should appoint a task force consisting of school administrators, faculty, students, Greek system representatives, and others to conduct a full examination of student and academic life at the institution. The task force should make recommendations for a broad range of policy and program changes that would serve to reduce alcohol and other drug-related problems. The institution should provide resources to assist the task force in promoting the campus policies and proposed environmental changes that have been identified.

(2) The institution should provide maximum opportunities for students to live in an alcohol-free environment and to engage in stimulating, alcohol-free recreational and leisure activities.

(3) The institution should enforce a “zero tolerance” policy on the illegal consumption of alcohol by students at the institution.

(4) The institution should vigorously enforce the institution's code of disciplinary sanctions for those who violate campus alcohol policies. Students with alcohol or other drug-related problems should be referred for assistance, including on-campus counseling programs if appropriate.

(5) The institution should adopt a policy to discourage alcoholic beverage-related sponsorship of on-campus activities. It should adopt policies limiting the advertisement and promotion of alcoholic beverages on campus.

(6) The institution should work with the local community, including local businesses, in a “Town/Gown” alliance to encourage responsible policies toward alcohol consumption and to address illegal alcohol use by students.

(Pub. L. 89–329, title I, §119, as added Pub. L. 105–244, title I, §101(a), Oct. 7, 1998, 112 Stat. 1596.)

Prior Provisions

A prior section 1011h, Pub. L. 89–329, title I, §129, as added Pub. L. 102–325, title I, §101, July 23, 1992, 106 Stat. 465, authorized appropriations to carry out the articulation agreements grant program, prior to the general amendment of this subchapter by Pub. L. 105–244.

§1011i. Drug and alcohol abuse prevention

(a) Restriction on eligibility

Notwithstanding any other provision of law, no institution of higher education shall be eligible to receive funds or any other form of financial assistance under any Federal program, including participation in any federally funded or guaranteed student loan program, unless the institution certifies to the Secretary that the institution has adopted and has implemented a program to prevent the use of illicit drugs and the abuse of alcohol by students and employees that, at a minimum, includes—

(1) the annual distribution to each student and employee of—

(A) standards of conduct that clearly prohibit, at a minimum, the unlawful possession, use, or distribution of illicit drugs and alcohol by students and employees on the institution's property or as part of any of the institution's activities;

(B) a description of the applicable legal sanctions under local, State, or Federal law for the unlawful possession or distribution of illicit drugs and alcohol;

(C) a description of the health-risks associated with the use of illicit drugs and the abuse of alcohol;

(D) a description of any drug or alcohol counseling, treatment, or rehabilitation or re-entry programs that are available to employees or students; and

(E) a clear statement that the institution will impose sanctions on students and employees (consistent with local, State, and Federal law), and a description of those sanctions, up to and including expulsion or termination of employment and referral for prosecution, for violations of the standards of conduct required by subparagraph (A); and


(2) a biennial review by the institution of the institution's program to—

(A) determine the program's effectiveness and implement changes to the program if the changes are needed;

(B) determine the number of drug and alcohol-related violations and fatalities that—

(i) occur on the institution's campus (as defined in section 1092(f)(6) of this title), or as part of any of the institution's activities; and

(ii) are reported to campus officials;


(C) determine the number and type of sanctions described in paragraph (1)(E) that are imposed by the institution as a result of drug and alcohol-related violations and fatalities on the institution's campus or as part of any of the institution's activities; and

(D) ensure that the sanctions required by paragraph (1)(E) are consistently enforced.

(b) Information availability

Each institution of higher education that provides the certification required by subsection (a) of this section shall, upon request, make available to the Secretary and to the public a copy of each item required by subsection (a)(1) of this section as well as the results of the biennial review required by subsection (a)(2) of this section.

(c) Regulations

(1) In general

The Secretary shall publish regulations to implement and enforce the provisions of this section, including regulations that provide for—

(A) the periodic review of a representative sample of programs required by subsection (a) of this section; and

(B) a range of responses and sanctions for institutions of higher education that fail to implement their programs or to consistently enforce their sanctions, including information and technical assistance, the development of a compliance agreement, and the termination of any form of Federal financial assistance.

(2) Rehabilitation program

The sanctions required by subsection (a)(1)(E) of this section may include the completion of an appropriate rehabilitation program.

(d) Appeals

Upon determination by the Secretary to terminate financial assistance to any institution of higher education under this section, the institution may file an appeal with an administrative law judge before the expiration of the 30-day period beginning on the date such institution is notified of the decision to terminate financial assistance under this section. Such judge shall hold a hearing with respect to such termination of assistance before the expiration of the 45-day period beginning on the date that such appeal is filed. Such judge may extend such 45-day period upon a motion by the institution concerned. The decision of the judge with respect to such termination shall be considered to be a final agency action.

(e) Alcohol and drug abuse prevention grants

(1) Program authority

The Secretary may make grants to institutions of higher education or consortia of such institutions, and enter into contracts with such institutions, consortia, and other organizations, to develop, implement, operate, improve, and disseminate programs of prevention, and education (including treatment-referral) to reduce and eliminate the illegal use of drugs and alcohol and the violence associated with such use. Such grants or contracts may also be used for the support of a higher education center for alcohol and drug abuse prevention that will provide training, technical assistance, evaluation, dissemination, and associated services and assistance to the higher education community as determined by the Secretary and institutions of higher education.

(2) Awards

Grants and contracts shall be awarded under paragraph (1) on a competitive basis.

(3) Applications

An institution of higher education, a consortium of such institutions, or another organization that desires to receive a grant or contract under paragraph (1) shall submit an application to the Secretary at such time, in such manner, and containing or accompanied by such information as the Secretary may reasonably require by regulation.

(4) Additional requirements

(A) Participation

In awarding grants and contracts under this subsection the Secretary shall make every effort to ensure—

(i) the equitable participation of private and public institutions of higher education (including community and junior colleges); and

(ii) the equitable geographic participation of such institutions.

(B) Consideration

In awarding grants and contracts under this subsection the Secretary shall give appropriate consideration to institutions of higher education with limited enrollment.

(5) Authorization of appropriations

There are authorized to be appropriated to carry out this subsection such sums as may be necessary for fiscal year 2009 and each of the five succeeding fiscal years.

(Pub. L. 89–329, title I, §120, as added Pub. L. 105–244, title I, §101(a), Oct. 7, 1998, 112 Stat. 1596; amended Pub. L. 110–315, title I, §107, Aug. 14, 2008, 122 Stat. 3093.)

Prior Provisions

Provisions similar to subsecs. (a) to (d) of this section were contained in section 1145g of this title prior to repeal by Pub. L. 105–244.

Amendments

2008—Subsec. (a)(2)(B) to (D). Pub. L. 110–315, §107(1), added subpars. (B) and (C) and redesignated former subpar. (B) as (D).

Subsec. (e)(5). Pub. L. 110–315, §107(2), substituted “such sums as may be necessary for fiscal year 2009 and each of the five succeeding fiscal years” for “$5,000,000 for fiscal year 1999 and such sums as may be necessary for each of the 4 succeeding fiscal years”.

Subsec. (f). Pub. L. 110–315, §107(3), struck out subsec. (f) which related to National Recognition Awards for outstanding alcohol and drug abuse prevention programs.

§1011j. Prior rights and obligations

(a) Authorization of appropriations

(1) Pre-1987 parts C and D of subchapter VII

There are authorized to be appropriated such sums as may be necessary for fiscal year 2009 and for each succeeding fiscal year to pay obligations incurred prior to 1987 under parts C and D of subchapter VII of this chapter, as such parts were in effect before the effective date of the Higher Education Amendments of 1992.

(2) Post-1992 and pre-1998 part C of subchapter VII

There are authorized to be appropriated such sums as may be necessary for fiscal year 2009 and for each succeeding fiscal year to pay obligations incurred prior to October 7, 1998, under part C of subchapter VII of this chapter, as such part was in effect during the period—

(A) after the effective date of the Higher Education Amendments of 1992; and

(B) prior to October 7, 1998.

(b) Legal responsibilities

(1) Pre-1987 subchapter VII

All entities with continuing obligations incurred under parts A, B, C, and D of subchapter VII of this chapter, as such parts were in effect before the effective date of the Higher Education Amendments of 1992, shall be subject to the requirements of such part as in effect before the effective date of the Higher Education Amendments of 1992.

(2) Post-1992 and pre-1998 part C of subchapter VII

All entities with continuing obligations incurred under part C of subchapter VII of this chapter, as such part was in effect during the period—

(A) after the effective date of the Higher Education Amendments of 1992; and

(B) prior to October 7, 1998,


shall be subject to the requirements of such part as such part was in effect during such period.

(Pub. L. 89–329, title I, §121, as added Pub. L. 105–244, title I, §101(a), Oct. 7, 1998, 112 Stat. 1601; amended Pub. L. 110–315, title I, §108, Aug. 14, 2008, 122 Stat. 3094.)

References in Text

Parts A, B, C, and D of subchapter VII of this chapter, as such parts were in effect before the effective date of the Higher Education Amendments of 1992, referred to in subsecs. (a)(1) and (b)(1), means parts A (§1132b et seq.), B (§1132c et seq.), C (§1132d et seq.), and D (§1132e et seq.) of subchapter VII of this chapter, as in effect before the effective date of Pub. L. 102–325. For effective date of Pub. L. 102–325, see section 2 of Pub. L. 102–325, set out as an Effective Date of 1992 Amendment note under section 1001 of this title. Pub. L. 102–325, title VII, §§703–707(a), July 23, 1992, 106 Stat. 738–753, amended subchapter VII of this chapter effective Oct. 1, 1992, by amending parts A to C generally, repealing part D, and redesignating former part E as D.

Part C of subchapter VII of this chapter, as such part was in effect during the period after the effective date of the Higher Education Amendments of 1992 and prior to October 7, 1998, referred to in subsecs. (a)(2) and (b)(2), probably means part C (§1132d et seq.) of subchapter VII of this chapter, as in effect during the period after the effective date of Pub. L. 102–325 and before it was amended by Pub. L. 105–244. For effective date of Pub. L. 102–325, see section 2 of Pub. L. 102–325, set out as an Effective Date of 1992 Amendment note under section 1001 of this title. Pub. L. 105–244, title VII, §701, Oct. 7, 1998, 112 Stat. 1786, amended subchapter VII of this chapter generally, effective Oct. 1, 1998, omitting part C which related to loans for construction, reconstruction, and renovation of academic housing, and other educational facilities and adding a new part C (§1139 et seq.) relating to urban community service.

Prior Provisions

Provisions similar to this section were contained in section 1132a–1 of this title prior to the general amendment of subchapter VII of this chapter by Pub. L. 105–244.

A prior section 121 of Pub. L. 89–329, title I, as added Pub. L. 99–498, title I, §101, Oct. 17, 1986, 100 Stat. 1285, related to adult learning research and was classified to section 1016 of this title, prior to the general amendment of this subchapter by Pub. L. 102–325.

Amendments

2008—Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 110–315 substituted “2009 and for each succeeding fiscal year” for “1999 and for each of the 4 succeeding fiscal years” in pars. (1) and (2).

§1011k. Recovery of payments

(a) Public benefit

Congress declares that, if a facility constructed with the aid of a grant under part A of subchapter VII of this chapter as such part A was in effect prior to October 7, 1998, or part B of such subchapter as part B was in effect prior to July 23, 1992, is used as an academic facility for 20 years following completion of such construction, the public benefit accruing to the United States will equal in value the amount of the grant. The period of 20 years after completion of such construction shall therefore be deemed to be the period of Federal interest in such facility for the purposes of such subchapter as so in effect.

(b) Recovery upon cessation of public benefit

If, within 20 years after completion of construction of an academic facility which has been constructed, in part with a grant under part A of subchapter VII of this chapter as such part A was in effect prior to October 7, 1998, or part B of subchapter VII of this chapter as such part B was in effect prior to July 23, 1992—

(1) the applicant under such parts as so in effect (or the applicant's successor in title or possession) ceases or fails to be a public or nonprofit institution; or

(2) the facility ceases to be used as an academic facility, or the facility is used as a facility excluded from the term “academic facility” (as such term was defined under subchapter VII of this chapter, as so in effect), unless the Secretary determines that there is good cause for releasing the institution from its obligation,


the United States shall be entitled to recover from such applicant (or successor) an amount which bears to the value of the facility at that time (or so much thereof as constituted an approved project or projects) the same ratio as the amount of Federal grant bore to the cost of the facility financed with the aid of such grant. The value shall be determined by agreement of the parties or by action brought in the United States district court for the district in which such facility is situated.

(c) Prohibition on use for religion

Notwithstanding the provisions of subsections (a) and (b) of this section, no project assisted with funds under subchapter VII of this chapter (as in effect prior to October 7, 1998) shall ever be used for religious worship or a sectarian activity or for a school or department of divinity.

(Pub. L. 89–329, title I, §122, as added Pub. L. 105–244, title I, §101(a), Oct. 7, 1998, 112 Stat. 1601.)

References in Text

Subchapter VII of this chapter, referred to in text, was amended, effective Oct. 1, 1992, by Pub. L. 102–325, title VII, §§703–707(a), July 23, 1992, 106 Stat. 738–753, by amending parts A to C generally, repealing part D, and redesignating former part E as D, and was further amended generally, effective Oct. 1, 1998, by Pub. L. 105–244, title VII, §701, Oct. 7, 1998, 112 Stat. 1786, by substituting provisions relating to graduate and post-secondary improvement programs for former provisions relating to construction, reconstruction, and renovation of academic facilities.

Prior Provisions

Provisions similar to this section were contained in section 1132i of this title prior to the general amendment of subchapter VII of this chapter by Pub. L. 105–244.

A prior section 122 of Pub. L. 89–329, title I, as added Pub. L. 99–498, title I, §101, Oct. 17, 1986, 100 Stat. 1286, limited funds authorized to be appropriated and was classified to section 1016a of this title, prior to the general amendment of this subchapter by Pub. L. 102–325.

§1011l. Diploma mills

(a) Information to the public

The Secretary shall maintain information and resources on the Department's website to assist students, families, and employers in understanding what a diploma mill is and how to identify and avoid diploma mills.

(b) Collaboration

The Secretary shall continue to collaborate with the United States Postal Service, the Federal Trade Commission, the Department of Justice (including the Federal Bureau of Investigation), the Internal Revenue Service, and the Office of Personnel Management to maximize Federal efforts to—

(1) prevent, identify, and prosecute diploma mills; and

(2) broadly disseminate to the public information about diploma mills, and resources to identify diploma mills.

(Pub. L. 89–329, title I, §123, as added Pub. L. 110–315, title I, §109, Aug. 14, 2008, 122 Stat. 3094.)

§1011m. Certification regarding the use of certain Federal funds

(a) Prohibition

No Federal funds received under the Higher Education Act of 1965 (20 U.S.C. 1001 et seq.) [and 42 U.S.C. 2751 et seq.] by an institution of higher education or other postsecondary educational institution may be used to pay any person for influencing or attempting to influence an officer or employee of any agency, a Member of Congress, an officer or employee of Congress, or an employee of a Member of Congress in connection with any Federal action described in subsection (b).

(b) Applicability

The prohibition in subsection (a) applies with respect to the following Federal actions:

(1) The awarding of any Federal contract.

(2) The making of any Federal grant.

(3) The making of any Federal loan.

(4) The entering into of any Federal cooperative agreement.

(5) The extension, continuation, renewal, amendment, or modification of any Federal contract, grant, loan, or cooperative agreement.

(c) Lobbying and earmarks

No Federal student aid funding under the Higher Education Act of 1965 (20 U.S.C. 1001 et seq.) [and 42 U.S.C. 2751 et seq.] may be used to hire a registered lobbyist or pay any person or entity for securing an earmark.

(d) Certification

Each institution of higher education or other postsecondary educational institution receiving Federal funding under the Higher Education Act of 1965 (20 U.S.C. 1001 et seq.) [and 42 U.S.C. 2751 et seq.], as a condition for receiving such funding, shall annually certify to the Secretary of Education that the requirements of subsections (a) through (c) have been met.

(e) Actions to implement and enforce

The Secretary of Education shall take such actions as are necessary to ensure that the provisions of this section are implemented and enforced.

(Pub. L. 110–315, title I, §119, Aug. 14, 2008, 122 Stat. 3117.)

References in Text

The Higher Education Act of 1965, referred to in subsecs. (a), (c), and (d), is Pub. L. 89–329, Nov. 8, 1965, 79 Stat. 1219, which is classified generally to this chapter and part C (§2751 et seq.) of subchapter I of chapter 34 of Title 42, The Public Health and Welfare. For complete classification of this Act to the Code, see Short Title note set out under section 1001 of this title and Tables.

Codification

Section was enacted as part of the Higher Education Opportunity Act, and not as part of the Higher Education Act of 1965 which comprises this chapter.

Prior Provisions

A prior section 1012, Pub. L. 89–329, title I, §112, as added Pub. L. 99–498, title I, §101, Oct. 17, 1986, 100 Stat. 1282, related to establishment of off-campus program grants, prior to the general amendment of this subchapter by Pub. L. 102–325.

Another prior section 1012, Pub. L. 89–329, title I, §112, as added Pub. L. 96–374, title I, §101(a), Oct. 3, 1980, 94 Stat. 1377, provided for State allotments including percentage breakdown and cases of States not conducting comprehensive statewide planning, prior to the general amendment of this subchapter by Pub. L. 99–498.

A prior section 1013, Pub. L. 89–329, title I, §113, as added Pub. L. 99–498, title I, §101, Oct. 17, 1986, 100 Stat. 1284, related to adult and continuing education staff development, prior to the general amendment of this subchapter by Pub. L. 102–325.

Another prior section 1013, Pub. L. 89–329, title I, §113, as added Pub. L. 96–374, title I, §101(a), Oct. 3, 1980, 94 Stat. 1378; amended Pub. L. 97–300, title I, §183, Oct. 13, 1982, 96 Stat. 1357; Pub. L. 98–524, §4(c)(1), Oct. 19, 1984, 98 Stat. 2488, related to comprehensive statewide planning with respect to education outreach programs, prior to the general amendment of this subchapter by Pub. L. 99–498.

A prior section 1014, Pub. L. 89–329, title I, §114, as added Pub. L. 99–498, title I, §101, Oct. 17, 1986, 100 Stat. 1285, related to administration of programs by Secretary, prior to the general amendment of this subchapter by Pub. L. 102–325.

Another prior section 1014, Pub. L. 89–329, title I, §114, as added Pub. L. 96–374, title I, §101(a), Oct. 3, 1980, 94 Stat. 1379; amended Pub. L. 97–300, title I, §183, Oct. 13, 1982, 96 Stat. 1357; Pub. L. 98–524, §4(c)(2), Oct. 19, 1984, 98 Stat. 2488, related to information services, prior to the general amendment of this subchapter by Pub. L. 99–498.

Part C—Cost of Higher Education

§1015. Improvements in market information and public accountability in higher education

(a) Improved data collection

(1) Development of uniform methodology

The Secretary shall direct the Commissioner of Education Statistics to convene a series of forums to develop nationally consistent methodologies for reporting costs incurred by postsecondary institutions in providing postsecondary education.

(2) Redesign of data systems

On the basis of the methodologies developed pursuant to paragraph (1), the Secretary shall redesign relevant parts of the postsecondary education data systems to improve the usefulness and timeliness of the data collected by such systems.

(3) Information to institutions

The Commissioner of Education Statistics shall—

(A) develop a standard definition for the following data elements:

(i) tuition and fees for a full-time undergraduate student;

(ii) cost of attendance for a full-time undergraduate student, consistent with the provisions of section 1087ll of this title;

(iii) average amount of financial assistance received by an undergraduate student who attends an institution of higher education, including—

(I) each type of assistance or benefit described in section 1078(a)(2)(C)(ii) of this title;

(II) fellowships; and

(III) institutional and other assistance; and


(iv) number of students receiving financial assistance described in each of subclauses (I), (II), and (III) of clause (iii);


(B) not later than 90 days after October 7, 1998, report the definitions to each institution of higher education and within a reasonable period of time thereafter inform the authorizing committees of those definitions; and

(C) collect information regarding the data elements described in subparagraph (A) with respect to at least all institutions of higher education participating in programs under subchapter IV of this chapter and part C of subchapter I of chapter 34 of title 42, beginning with the information from academic year 2000–2001 and annually thereafter.

(b) Data dissemination

The Secretary shall make available the data collected pursuant to subsection (a) of this section. Such data shall be available in a form that permits the review and comparison of the data submissions of individual institutions of higher education. Such data shall be presented in a form that is easily understandable and allows parents and students to make informed decisions based on the costs for typical full-time undergraduate students.

(c) Study

(1) In general

The Commissioner of Education Statistics shall conduct a national study of expenditures at institutions of higher education. Such study shall include information with respect to—

(A) the change in tuition and fees compared with the consumer price index and other appropriate measures of inflation;

(B) faculty salaries and benefits;

(C) administrative salaries, benefits and expenses;

(D) academic support services;

(E) research;

(F) operations and maintenance; and

(G) institutional expenditures for construction and technology and the potential cost of replacing instructional buildings and equipment.

(2) Evaluation

The study shall include an evaluation of—

(A) changes over time in the expenditures identified in paragraph (1);

(B) the relationship of the expenditures identified in paragraph (1) to college costs; and

(C) the extent to which increases in institutional financial aid and tuition discounting practices affect tuition increases, including the demographics of students receiving such discounts, the extent to which financial aid is provided to students with limited need in order to attract a student to a particular institution, and the extent to which Federal financial aid, including loan aid, has been used to offset the costs of such practices.

(3) Final report

The Commissioner of Education Statistics shall submit a report regarding the findings of the study required by paragraph (1) to the appropriate committees of Congress not later than September 30, 2002.

(4) Higher education market basket

The Bureau of Labor Statistics, in consultation with the Commissioner of Education Statistics, shall develop a higher education market basket that identifies the items that comprise the costs of higher education. The Bureau of Labor Statistics shall provide a report on the market basket to the Committee on Labor and Human Resources of the Senate and the Committee on Education and the Workforce of the House of Representatives not later than September 30, 2002.

(5) Fines

In addition to actions authorized in section 1094(c) of this title, the Secretary may impose a fine in an amount not to exceed $25,000 on an institution of higher education for failing to provide the information described in paragraph (1) in a timely and accurate manner, or for failing to otherwise cooperate with the National Center for Education Statistics regarding efforts to obtain data on the cost of higher education under this section and pursuant to the program participation agreement entered into under section 1094 of this title.

(d) Promotion of the Department of Education Federal student financial aid website

The Secretary shall display a link to the Federal student financial aid website of the Department in a prominent place on the homepage of the Department's website.

(e) Enhanced student financial aid information

(1) Implementation

The Secretary shall continue to improve the usefulness and accessibility of the information provided by the Department on college planning and student financial aid.

(2) Dissemination

The Secretary shall continue to make the availability of the information on the Federal student financial aid website of the Department widely known, through a major media campaign and other forms of communication.

(3) Coordination

As a part of the efforts required under this subsection, the Secretary shall create one website accessible from the Department's website that fulfills the requirements under subsections (b), (f), and (g).

(f) Improved availability and coordination of information concerning student financial aid programs for military members and veterans

(1) Coordination

The Secretary, in coordination with the Secretary of Defense and the Secretary of Veterans Affairs, shall create a searchable website that—

(A) contains information, in simple and understandable terms, about all Federal and State student financial assistance, readmission requirements under section 1091c of this title, and other student services, for which members of the Armed Forces (including members of the National Guard and Reserves), veterans, and the dependents of such members or veterans may be eligible; and

(B) is easily accessible through the website described in subsection (e)(3).

(2) Implementation

Not later than one year after August 14, 2008, the Secretary shall make publicly available the Armed Forces information website described in paragraph (1).

(3) Dissemination

The Secretary, in coordination with the Secretary of Defense and the Secretary of Veterans Affairs, shall make the availability of the Armed Forces information website described in paragraph (1) widely known to members of the Armed Forces (including members of the National Guard and Reserves), veterans, the dependents of such members or veterans, States, institutions of higher education, and the general public.

(4) Definition

In this subsection, the term “Federal and State student financial assistance” means any grant, loan, work assistance, tuition assistance, scholarship, fellowship, or other form of financial aid for pursuing a postsecondary education that is—

(A) administered, sponsored, or supported by the Department of Education, the Department of Defense, the Department of Veterans Affairs, or a State; and

(B) available to members of the Armed Forces (including members of the National Guard and Reserves), veterans, or the dependents of such members or veterans.

(g) Promotion of availability of information concerning other student financial aid programs

(1) Definition

For purposes of this subsection, the term “nondepartmental student financial assistance program” means any grant, loan, scholarship, fellowship, or other form of financial aid for students pursuing a postsecondary education that is—

(A) distributed directly to the student or to the student's account at an institution of higher education; and

(B) operated, sponsored, or supported by a Federal department or agency other than the Department of Education.

(2) Availability of other student financial aid information

The Secretary shall ensure that—

(A) not later than 90 days after the Secretary receives the information required under paragraph (3), the eligibility requirements, application procedures, financial terms and conditions, and other relevant information for each nondepartmental student financial assistance program are searchable and accessible through the Federal student financial aid website in a manner that is simple and understandable for students and the students’ families; and

(B) the website displaying the information described in subparagraph (A) includes a link to the National Database on Financial Assistance for the Study of Science, Technology, Engineering, and Mathematics pursuant to paragraph (4), and the information on military benefits under subsection (f), once such Database and information are available.

(3) Nondepartmental student financial assistance programs

The Secretary shall request all Federal departments and agencies to provide the information described in paragraph (2)(A), and each Federal department or agency shall—

(A) promptly respond to surveys or other requests from the Secretary for the information described in such paragraph; and

(B) identify for the Secretary any nondepartmental student financial assistance program operated, sponsored, or supported by such Federal department or agency.

(4) National STEM Database

(A) In general

The Secretary shall establish and maintain, on the website described in subsection (e)(3), a National Database on Financial Assistance for the Study of Science, Technology, Engineering, and Mathematics (in this paragraph referred to as the “STEM Database”). The STEM Database shall consist of information on scholarships, fellowships, and other programs of Federal, State, local, and, to the maximum extent practicable, private financial assistance available for the study of science, technology, engineering, or mathematics at the postsecondary and postbaccalaureate levels.

(B) Database contents

The information maintained on the STEM Database shall be displayed on the website in the following manner:

(i) Separate information

The STEM Database shall provide separate information for each of the fields of science, technology, engineering, and mathematics, and for postsecondary and postbaccalaureate programs of financial assistance.

(ii) Information on targeted assistance

The STEM Database shall provide specific information on any program of financial assistance that is targeted to individuals based on financial need, merit, or student characteristics.

(iii) Contact and website information

The STEM Database shall provide—

(I) standard contact information that an interested person may use to contact a sponsor of any program of financial assistance included in the STEM Database; and

(II) if such sponsor maintains a public website, a link to the website.

(iv) Search and match capabilities

The STEM Database shall—

(I) have a search capability that permits an individual to search for information on the basis of each category of the information provided through the STEM Database and on the basis of combinations of categories of the information provided, including—

(aa) whether the financial assistance is need- or merit-based; and

(bb) by relevant academic majors; and


(II) have a match capability that—

(aa) searches the STEM Database for all financial assistance opportunities for which an individual may be qualified to apply, based on the student characteristics provided by such individual; and

(bb) provides information to an individual for only those opportunities for which such individual is qualified, based on the student characteristics provided by such individual.

(v) Recommendation and disclaimer

The STEM Database shall provide, to the users of the STEM Database—

(I) a recommendation that students and families should carefully review all of the application requirements prior to applying for any aid or program of student financial assistance; and

(II) a disclaimer that the non-Federal programs of student financial assistance presented in the STEM Database are not provided or endorsed by the Department or the Federal Government.

(C) Compilation of financial assistance information

In carrying out this paragraph, the Secretary shall—

(i) consult with public and private sources of scholarships, fellowships, and other programs of student financial assistance; and

(ii) make easily available a process for such entities to provide regular and updated information about the scholarships, fellowships, or other programs of student financial assistance.

(D) Contract authorized

In carrying out the requirements of this paragraph, the Secretary is authorized to enter into a contract with a private entity with demonstrated expertise in creating and maintaining databases such as the one required under this paragraph, under which contract the entity shall furnish, and regularly update, all of the information required to be maintained on the STEM Database.

(5) Dissemination of information

The Secretary shall take such actions, on an ongoing basis, as may be necessary to disseminate information under this subsection and to encourage the use of the information by interested parties, including sending notices to secondary schools and institutions of higher education.

(h) No user fees for Department financial aid websites

No fee shall be charged to any individual to access—

(1) a database or website of the Department that provides information about higher education programs or student financial assistance, including the College Navigator website (or successor website) and the websites and databases described in this section and section 1015a of this title; or

(2) information about higher education programs or student financial assistance available through a database or website of the Department.

(Pub. L. 89–329, title I, §131, as added Pub. L. 105–244, title I, §101(a), Oct. 7, 1998, 112 Stat. 1602; amended Pub. L. 110–315, title I, §§103(b)(1), 110, Aug. 14, 2008, 122 Stat. 3088, 3094; Pub. L. 111–39, title I, §101(b)(3), July 1, 2009, 123 Stat. 1935.)

Prior Provisions

A prior section 1015, Pub. L. 89–329, title I, §131, as added Pub. L. 102–325, title I, §101, July 23, 1992, 106 Stat. 465, authorized grants to eligible partnerships for education telecommunications activities, prior to the general amendment of this subchapter by Pub. L. 105–244.

Another prior section 1015, Pub. L. 89–329, title I, §115, as added Pub. L. 99–498, title I, §101, Oct. 17, 1986, 100 Stat. 1285, authorized appropriations for former part A of this subchapter, prior to the general amendment of this subchapter by Pub. L. 102–325.

Another prior section 1015, Pub. L. 89–329, title I, §115, as added Pub. L. 96–374, title I, §101(a), Oct. 3, 1980, 94 Stat. 1380, related to continuing education, prior to the general amendment of this subchapter by Pub. L. 99–498.

Another prior section 1015, Pub. L. 89–329, title I, §131, as added Pub. L. 94–482, title I, §101(g)(3), Oct. 12, 1976, 90 Stat. 2086, set out the Congressional findings with regard to the lifelong learning program, prior to the general amendment of this subchapter by Pub. L. 96–374.

A prior section 131 of Pub. L. 89–329, title I, as added Pub. L. 99–498, title I, §101, Oct. 17, 1986, 100 Stat. 1286, related to National Advisory Council on Continuing Education and was classified to section 1017 of this title, prior to the general amendment of this subchapter by Pub. L. 102–325.

Amendments

2009—Subsec. (a)(3)(A)(iii)(I). Pub. L. 111–39 substituted “section 1078(a)(2)(C)(ii)” for “section 1078(a)(2)(C)(i)”.

2008—Subsec. (a)(3)(B). Pub. L. 110–315, §103(b)(1), substituted “authorizing committees” for “Committee on Labor and Human Resources of the Senate and the Committee on Education and the Workforce of the House of Representatives”.

Subsecs. (d), (e). Pub. L. 110–315, §110(a), added subsecs. (d) and (e) and struck out former subsec. (d), which required the Secretary to survey student aid recipients on a regular cycle, but not less than once every 3 years.

Subsecs. (f), (g). Pub. L. 110–315, §110(b), added subsecs. (f) and (g).

Subsec. (h). Pub. L. 110–315, §110(c), added subsec. (h).

Change of Name

Committee on Labor and Human Resources of Senate changed to Committee on Health, Education, Labor, and Pensions of Senate by Senate Resolution No. 20, One Hundred Sixth Congress, Jan. 19, 1999.

Effective Date of 2009 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 111–39 effective as if enacted on the date of enactment of Pub. L. 110–315 (Aug. 14, 2008), see section 3 of Pub. L. 111–39, set out as a note under section 1001 of this title.

Student-Related Debt Study Required

Pub. L. 105–244, title VIII, §803, Oct. 7, 1998, 112 Stat. 1805, which required the Secretary of Education to conduct a study to analyze the distribution and increase in student-related debt, submit a report to congressional committees, and include certain information as part of the comparative information provided to families about the costs of higher education, was repealed by Pub. L. 110–315, title IX, §931(1), Aug. 14, 2008, 122 Stat. 3456.

§1015a. Transparency in college tuition for consumers

(a) Definitions

In this section:

(1) College Navigator website

The term “College Navigator website” means the College Navigator website operated by the Department and includes any successor website.

(2) Cost of attendance

The term “cost of attendance” means the average annual cost of tuition and fees, room and board, books, supplies, and transportation for an institution of higher education for a first-time, full-time undergraduate student enrolled in the institution.

(3) Net price

The term “net price” means the average yearly price actually charged to first-time, full-time undergraduate students receiving student aid at an institution of higher education after deducting such aid, which shall be determined by calculating the difference between—

(A) the institution's cost of attendance for the year for which the determination is made; and

(B) the quotient of—

(i) the total amount of need-based grant aid and merit-based grant aid, from Federal, State, and institutional sources, provided to such students enrolled in the institution for such year; and

(ii) the total number of such students receiving such need-based grant aid or merit-based grant aid for such year.

(4) Tuition and fees

The term “tuition and fees” means the average annual cost of tuition and fees for an institution of higher education for first-time, full-time undergraduate students enrolled in the institution.

(b) Calculations for public institutions

In making the calculations regarding cost of attendance, net price, and tuition and fees under this section with respect to a public institution of higher education, the Secretary shall calculate the cost of attendance, net price, and tuition and fees at such institution in the manner described in subsection (a), except that—

(1) the cost of attendance, net price, and tuition and fees shall be calculated for first-time, full-time undergraduate students enrolled in the institution who are residents of the State in which such institution is located; and

(2) in determining the net price, the average need-based grant aid and merit-based grant aid described in subsection (a)(3)(B) shall be calculated based on the average total amount of such aid received by first-time, full-time undergraduate students who are residents of the State in which such institution is located, divided by the total number of such resident students receiving such need-based grant aid or merit-based grant aid at such institution.

(c) College affordability and transparency lists

(1) Availability of lists

Beginning July 1, 2011, the Secretary shall make publicly available on the College Navigator website, in a manner that is sortable and searchable by State, the following:

(A) A list of the five percent of institutions in each category described in subsection (d) that have the highest tuition and fees for the most recent academic year for which data are available.

(B) A list of the five percent of institutions in each such category that have the highest net price for the most recent academic year for which data are available.

(C) A list of the five percent of institutions in each such category that have the largest increase, expressed as a percentage change, in tuition and fees over the most recent three academic years for which data are available, using the first academic year of the three-year period as the base year to compute such percentage change.

(D) A list of the five percent of institutions in each such category that have the largest increase, expressed as a percentage change, in net price over the most recent three academic years for which data are available, using the first academic year of the three-year period as the base year to compute such percentage change.

(E) A list of the ten percent of institutions in each such category that have the lowest tuition and fees for the most recent academic year for which data are available.

(F) A list of the ten percent of institutions in each such category that have the lowest net price for the most recent academic year for which data are available.

(2) Annual updates

The Secretary shall annually update the lists described in paragraph (1) on the College Navigator website.

(d) Categories of institutions

The lists described in subsection (c)(1) shall be compiled according to the following categories of institutions that participate in programs under subchapter IV of this chapter and part C of subchapter I of chapter 34 of title 42:

(1) Four-year public institutions of higher education.

(2) Four-year private, nonprofit institutions of higher education.

(3) Four-year private, for-profit institutions of higher education.

(4) Two-year public institutions of higher education.

(5) Two-year private, nonprofit institutions of higher education.

(6) Two-year private, for-profit institutions of higher education.

(7) Less than two-year public institutions of higher education.

(8) Less than two-year private, nonprofit institutions of higher education.

(9) Less than two-year private, for-profit institutions of higher education.

(e) Reports by institutions

(1) Report to Secretary

If an institution of higher education is included on a list described in subparagraph (C) or (D) of subsection (c)(1), the institution shall submit to the Secretary a report containing the following information:

(A) A description of the major areas in the institution's budget with the greatest cost increases.

(B) An explanation of the cost increases described in subparagraph (A).

(C) A description of the steps the institution will take toward the goal of reducing costs in the areas described in subparagraph (A).

(D) In the case of an institution that is included on the same list under subparagraph (C) or (D) of subsection (c)(1) for two or more consecutive years, a description of the progress made on the steps described in subparagraph (C) of this paragraph that were included in the institution's report for the previous year.

(E) If the determination of any cost increase described in subparagraph (A) is not within the exclusive control of the institution—

(i) an explanation of the extent to which the institution participates in determining such cost increase;

(ii) the identification of the agency or instrumentality of State government responsible for determining such cost increase; and

(iii) any other information the institution considers relevant to the report.

(2) Information to the public

The Secretary shall—

(A) issue an annual report that summarizes all of the reports by institutions required under paragraph (1) to the authorizing committees; and

(B) publish such report on the College Navigator website.

(f) Exemptions

(1) In general

An institution shall not be placed on a list described in subparagraph (C) or (D) of subsection (c)(1), and shall not be subject to the reporting required under subsection (e), if the dollar amount of the institution's increase in tuition and fees, or net price, as applicable, is less than $600 for the three-year period described in such subparagraph.

(2) Update

Beginning in 2014, and every three years thereafter, the Secretary shall update the dollar amount described in paragraph (1) based on annual increases in inflation, using the Consumer Price Index for each of the three most recent preceding years.

(g) State higher education spending chart

The Secretary shall annually report on the College Navigator website, in charts for each State, comparisons of—

(1) the percentage change in spending by such State per full-time equivalent student at all public institutions of higher education in such State, for each of the five most recent preceding academic years;

(2) the percentage change in tuition and fees for such students for all public institutions of higher education in such State for each of the five most recent preceding academic years; and

(3) the percentage change in the total amount of need-based aid and merit-based aid provided by such State to full-time students enrolled in the public institutions of higher education in the State for each of the five most recent preceding academic years.

(h) Net price calculator

(1) Development of net price calculator

Not later than one year after August 14, 2008, the Secretary shall, in consultation with institutions of higher education and other appropriate experts, develop a net price calculator to help current and prospective students, families, and other consumers estimate the individual net price of an institution of higher education for a student. The calculator shall be developed in a manner that enables current and prospective students, families, and consumers to determine an estimate of a current or prospective student's individual net price at a particular institution.

(2) Calculation of individual net price

For purposes of this subsection, an individual net price of an institution of higher education shall be calculated in the same manner as the net price of such institution is calculated under subsection (a)(3), except that the cost of attendance and the amount of need-based and merit-based aid available shall be calculated for the individual student as much as practicable.

(3) Use of net price calculator by institutions

Not later than two years after the date on which the Secretary makes the calculator developed under paragraph (1) available to institutions of higher education, each institution of higher education that receives Federal funds under subchapter IV of this chapter and part C of subchapter I of chapter 34 of title 42 shall make publicly available on the institution's website a net price calculator to help current and prospective students, families, and other consumers estimate a student's individual net price at such institution of higher education. Such calculator may be a net price calculator developed—

(A) by the Department pursuant to paragraph (1); or

(B) by the institution of higher education, if the institution's calculator includes, at a minimum, the same data elements included in the calculator developed under paragraph (1).

(4) Disclaimer

Estimates of an individual net price determined using a net price calculator required under paragraph (3) shall be accompanied by a clear and conspicuous notice—

(A) stating that the estimate—

(i) does not represent a final determination, or actual award, of financial assistance;

(ii) shall not be binding on the Secretary, the institution of higher education, or the State; and

(iii) may change;


(B) stating that the student must complete the Free Application for Federal Student Aid described in section 1090 of this title in order to be eligible for, and receive, an actual financial aid award that includes Federal grant, loan, or work-study assistance under subchapter IV of this chapter and part C of subchapter I of chapter 34 of title 42; and

(C) including a link to the website of the Department that allows students to access the Free Application for Federal Student Aid described in section 1090 of this title.

(i) Consumer information

(1) Availability of title IV institution information

Not later than one year after August 14, 2008, the Secretary shall make publicly available on the College Navigator website, in simple and understandable terms, the following information about each institution of higher education that participates in programs under subchapter IV of this chapter and part C of subchapter I of chapter 34 of title 42, for the most recent academic year for which satisfactory data are available:

(A) A statement of the institution's mission.

(B) The total number of undergraduate students who applied to, were admitted by, and enrolled in the institution.

(C) For institutions that require SAT or ACT scores to be submitted, the reading, writing, mathematics, and combined scores on the SAT or ACT, as applicable, for the middle 50 percent range of the institution's freshman class.

(D) The number of first-time, full-time, and part-time students enrolled at the institution, at the undergraduate and (if applicable) graduate levels.

(E) The number of degree- or certificate-seeking undergraduate students enrolled at the institution who have transferred from another institution.

(F) The percentages of male and female undergraduate students enrolled at the institution.

(G) Of the first-time, full-time, degree- or certificate-seeking undergraduate students enrolled at the institution—

(i) the percentage of such students who are from the State in which the institution is located;

(ii) the percentage of such students who are from other States; and

(iii) the percentage of such students who are international students.


(H) The percentages of first-time, full-time, degree- or certificate-seeking students enrolled at the institution, disaggregated by race and ethnic background.

(I) The percentage of undergraduate students enrolled at the institution who are formally registered with the office of disability services of the institution (or the equivalent office) as students with disabilities, except that if such percentage is three percent or less, the institution shall report “three percent or less”.

(J) The percentages of first-time, full-time, degree- or certificate-seeking undergraduate students enrolled at the institution who obtain a degree or certificate within—

(i) the normal time for completion of, or graduation from, the student's program;

(ii) 150 percent of the normal time for completion of, or graduation from, the student's program; and

(iii) 200 percent of the normal time for completion of, or graduation from, the student's program;


(K) The number of certificates, associate degrees, baccalaureate degrees, master's degrees, professional degrees, and doctoral degrees awarded by the institution.

(L) The undergraduate major areas of study at the institution with the highest number of degrees awarded.

(M) The student-faculty ratio, the number of full-time and part-time faculty, and the number of graduate assistants with primarily instructional responsibilities, at the institution.

(N)(i) The cost of attendance for first-time, full-time undergraduate students enrolled in the institution who live on campus;

(ii) the cost of attendance for first-time, full-time undergraduate students enrolled in the institution who live off campus; and

(iii) in the case of a public institution of higher education and notwithstanding subsection (b)(1), the costs described in clauses (i) and (ii), for—

(I) first-time, full-time students enrolled in the institution who are residents of the State in which the institution is located; and

(II) first-time, full-time students enrolled in the institution who are not residents of such State.


(O) The average annual grant amount (including Federal, State, and institutional aid) awarded to a first-time, full-time undergraduate student enrolled at the institution who receives financial aid.

(P) The average annual amount of Federal student loans provided through the institution to undergraduate students enrolled at the institution.

(Q) The total annual grant aid awarded to undergraduate students enrolled at the institution, from the Federal Government, a State, the institution, and other sources known by the institution.

(R) The percentage of first-time, full-time undergraduate students enrolled at the institution receiving Federal, State, and institutional grants, student loans, and any other type of student financial assistance known by the institution, provided publicly or through the institution, such as Federal work-study funds.

(S) The number of students enrolled at the institution receiving Federal Pell Grants.

(T) The institution's cohort default rate, as defined under section 1085(m) of this title.

(U) The information on campus safety required to be collected under section 1092(i) of this title.

(V) A link to the institution's website that provides, in an easily accessible manner, the following information:

(i) Student activities offered by the institution.

(ii) Services offered by the institution for individuals with disabilities.

(iii) Career and placement services offered by the institution to students during and after enrollment.

(iv) Policies of the institution related to transfer of credit from other institutions.


(W) A link to the appropriate section of the Bureau of Labor Statistics website that provides information on regional data on starting salaries in all major occupations.

(X) Information required to be submitted under paragraph (4) and a link to the institution pricing summary page described in paragraph (5).

(Y) In the case of an institution that was required to submit a report under subsection (e)(1), a link to such report.

(Z) The availability of alternative tuition plans, which may include guaranteed tuition plans.

(2) Annual updates

The Secretary shall annually update the information described in paragraph (1) on the College Navigator website.

(3) Consultation

The Secretary shall regularly consult with current and prospective college students, family members of such students, institutions of higher education, and other experts to improve the usefulness and relevance of the College Navigator website, with respect to the presentation of the consumer information collected in paragraph (1).

(4) Data collection

The Commissioner for Education Statistics shall continue to update and improve the Integrated Postsecondary Education Data System (referred to in this section as “IPEDS”), including the reporting of information by institutions and the timeliness of the data collected.

(5) Institution pricing summary page

(A) Availability of list of participating institutions

The Secretary shall make publicly available on the College Navigator website in a sortable and searchable format a list of all institutions of higher education that participate in programs under subchapter IV of this chapter and part C of subchapter I of chapter 34 of title 42, which list shall, for each institution, include the following:

(i) The tuition and fees for each of the three most recent academic years for which data are available.

(ii) The net price for each of the three most recent available academic years for which data are available.

(iii)(I) During the period beginning July 1, 2010, and ending June 30, 2013, the net price for students receiving Federal student financial aid under subchapter IV of this chapter and part C of subchapter I of chapter 34 of title 42, disaggregated by the income categories described in paragraph (6), for the most recent academic year for which data are available.

(II) Beginning July 1, 2013, the net price for students receiving Federal student financial aid under subchapter IV of this chapter and part C of subchapter I of chapter 34 of title 42, disaggregated by the income categories described in paragraph (6), for each of the three most recent academic years for which data are available.

(iv) The average annual percentage change and average annual dollar change in such institution's tuition and fees for each of the three most recent academic years for which data are available.

(v) The average annual percentage change and average annual dollar change in such institution's net price for each of the three most recent preceding academic years for which data are available.

(vi) A link to the webpage on the College Navigator website that provides the information described in paragraph (1) for the institution.

(B) Annual updates

The Secretary shall annually update the lists described in subparagraph (A) on the College Navigator website.

(6) Income categories

(A) In general

For purposes of reporting the information required under this subsection, the following income categories shall apply for students who receive Federal student financial aid under subchapter IV of this chapter and part C of subchapter I of chapter 34 of title 42:

(i) $0–30,000.

(ii) $30,001–48,000.

(iii) $48,001–75,000.

(iv) $75,001–110,000.

(v) $110,001 and more.

(B) Adjustment

The Secretary may adjust the income categories listed in subparagraph (A) using the Consumer Price Index if the Secretary determines such adjustment is necessary.

(j) Multi-year tuition calculator

(1) Development of multi-year tuition calculator

Not later than one year after August 14, 2008, the Secretary shall, in consultation with institutions of higher education, financial planners, and other appropriate experts, develop a multi-year tuition calculator to help current and prospective students, families of such students, and other consumers estimate the amount of tuition an individual may pay to attend an institution of higher education in future years.

(2) Calculation of multi-year tuition

The multi-year tuition calculator described in paragraph (1) shall—

(A) allow an individual to select an institution of higher education for which the calculation shall be made;

(B) calculate an estimate of tuition and fees for each year of the normal duration of the program of study at such institution by—

(i) using the tuition and fees for such institution, as reported under subsection (i)(5)(A)(i), for the most recent academic year for which such data are reported; and

(ii) determining an estimated annual percentage change for each year for which the calculation is made, based on the annual percentage change in such institution's tuition and fees, as reported under subsection (i)(5)(A)(iv), for the most recent three-year period for which such data are reported;


(C) calculate an estimate of the total amount of tuition and fees to complete a program of study at such institution, based on the normal duration of such program, using the estimate calculated under subparagraph (B) for each year of the program of study;

(D) provide the individual with the option to replace the estimated annual percentage change described in subparagraph (B)(ii) with an alternative annual percentage change specified by the individual, and calculate an estimate of tuition and fees for each year and an estimate of the total amount of tuition and fees using the alternative percentage change;

(E) in the case of an institution that offers a multi-year tuition guarantee program, allow the individual to have the estimates of tuition and fees described in subparagraphs (B) and (C) calculated based on the provisions of such guarantee program for the tuition and fees charged to a student, or cohort of students, enrolled for the duration of the program of study; and

(F) include any other features or information determined to be appropriate by the Secretary.

(3) Availability and comparison

The multi-year tuition calculator described in paragraph (1) shall be available on the College Navigator website and shall allow current and prospective students, families of such students, and consumers to compare information and estimates under this subsection for multiple institutions of higher education.

(4) Disclaimer

Each calculation of estimated tuition and fees made using the multi-year tuition calculator described in paragraph (1) shall be accompanied by a clear and conspicuous notice—

(A) stating that the calculation—

(i) is only an estimate and not a guarantee of the actual amount the student may be charged;

(ii) is not binding on the Secretary, the institution of higher education, or the State; and

(iii) may change, subject to the availability of financial assistance, State appropriations, and other factors;


(B) stating that the student must complete the Free Application for Federal Student Aid described in section 1090 of this title in order to be eligible for, and receive, an actual financial aid award that includes Federal grant, loan, or work-study assistance under subchapter IV of this chapter and part C of subchapter I of chapter 34 of title 42; and

(C) including a link to the website of the Department that allows students to access the Free Application for Federal Student Aid described in section 1090 of this title.

(k) Student aid recipient survey

(1) Survey required

The Secretary, acting through the Commissioner for Education Statistics, shall conduct, on a State-by-State basis, a survey of recipients of Federal student financial aid under subchapter IV of this chapter and part C of subchapter I of chapter 34 of title 42—

(A) to identify the population of students receiving such Federal student financial aid;

(B) to describe the income distribution and other socioeconomic characteristics of recipients of such Federal student financial aid;

(C) to describe the combinations of aid from Federal, State, and private sources received by such recipients from all income categories;

(D) to describe the—

(i) debt burden of such loan recipients, and their capacity to repay their education debts; and

(ii) the impact of such debt burden on the recipients’ course of study and post-graduation plans;


(E) to describe the impact of the cost of attendance of postsecondary education in the determination by students of what institution of higher education to attend; and

(F) to describe how the costs of textbooks and other instructional materials affect the costs of postsecondary education for students.

(2) Frequency

The survey shall be conducted on a regular cycle and not less often than once every four years.

(3) Survey design

The survey shall be representative of students from all types of institutions, including full-time and part-time students, undergraduate, graduate, and professional students, and current and former students.

(4) Dissemination

The Commissioner for Education Statistics shall disseminate to the public, in printed and electronic form, the information resulting from the survey.

(l) Regulations

The Secretary is authorized to issue such regulations as may be necessary to carry out this section.

(Pub. L. 89–329, title I, §132, as added Pub. L. 110–315, title I, §111, Aug. 14, 2008, 122 Stat. 3098.)

References in Text

Title IV, referred to in the heading of subsec. (i)(1), means title IV of the Higher Education Act of 1965, Pub. L. 89–329, which is classified generally to subchapter IV of this chapter and part C (§2751 et seq.) of subchapter I of chapter 34 of Title 42, The Public Health and Welfare. For complete classification of title IV to the Code, see Tables.

Prior Provisions

A prior section 1015a, Pub. L. 89–329, title I, §132, as added Pub. L. 102–325, title I, §101, July 23, 1992, 106 Stat. 465, related to grant applications, prior to the general amendment of this subchapter by Pub. L. 105–244.

Another prior section 1015a, Pub. L. 89–329, title I, §132, as added Pub. L. 94–482, title I, §101(g)(3), Oct. 12, 1976, 90 Stat. 2087, set out scope of lifelong learning program, prior to the general amendment of this subchapter by Pub. L. 96–374.

§1015b. Textbook information

(a) Purpose and intent

The purpose of this section is to ensure that students have access to affordable course materials by decreasing costs to students and enhancing transparency and disclosure with respect to the selection, purchase, sale, and use of course materials. It is the intent of this section to encourage all of the involved parties, including faculty, students, administrators, institutions of higher education, bookstores, distributors, and publishers, to work together to identify ways to decrease the cost of college textbooks and supplemental materials for students while supporting the academic freedom of faculty members to select high quality course materials for students.

(b) Definitions

In this section:

(1) Bundle

The term “bundle” means one or more college textbooks or other supplemental materials that may be packaged together to be sold as course materials for one price.

(2) College textbook

The term “college textbook” means a textbook or a set of textbooks, used for, or in conjunction with, a course in postsecondary education at an institution of higher education.

(3) Course schedule

The term “course schedule” means a listing of the courses or classes offered by an institution of higher education for an academic period, as defined by the institution.

(4) Custom textbook

The term “custom textbook”—

(A) means a college textbook that is compiled by a publisher at the direction of a faculty member or other person or adopting entity in charge of selecting course materials at an institution of higher education; and

(B) may include, alone or in combination, items such as selections from original instructor materials, previously copyrighted publisher materials, copyrighted third-party works, and elements unique to a specific institution, such as commemorative editions.

(5) Institution of higher education

The term “institution of higher education” has the meaning given the term in section 1002 of this title.

(6) Integrated textbook

The term “integrated textbook” means a college textbook that is—

(A) combined with materials developed by a third party and that, by third-party contractual agreement, may not be offered by publishers separately from the college textbook with which the materials are combined; or

(B) combined with other materials that are so interrelated with the content of the college textbook that the separation of the college textbook from the other materials would render the college textbook unusable for its intended purpose.

(7) Publisher

The term “publisher” means a publisher of college textbooks or supplemental materials involved in or affecting interstate commerce.

(8) Substantial content

The term “substantial content” means parts of a college textbook such as new chapters, new material covering additional eras of time, new themes, or new subject matter.

(9) Supplemental material

The term “supplemental material” means educational material developed to accompany a college textbook that—

(A) may include printed materials, computer disks, website access, and electronically distributed materials; and

(B) is not being used as a component of an integrated textbook.

(c) Publisher requirements

(1) College textbook pricing information

When a publisher provides a faculty member or other person or adopting entity in charge of selecting course materials at an institution of higher education receiving Federal financial assistance with information regarding a college textbook or supplemental material, the publisher shall include, with any such information and in writing (which may include electronic communications), the following:

(A) The price at which the publisher would make the college textbook or supplemental material available to the bookstore on the campus of, or otherwise associated with, such institution of higher education and, if available, the price at which the publisher makes the college textbook or supplemental material available to the public.

(B) The copyright dates of the three previous editions of such college textbook, if any.

(C) A description of the substantial content revisions made between the current edition of the college textbook or supplemental material and the previous edition, if any.

(D)(i) Whether the college textbook or supplemental material is available in any other format, including paperback and unbound; and

(ii) for each other format of the college textbook or supplemental material, the price at which the publisher would make the college textbook or supplemental material in the other format available to the bookstore on the campus of, or otherwise associated with, such institution of higher education and, if available, the price at which the publisher makes such other format of the college textbook or supplemental material available to the public.

(2) Unbundling of college textbooks from supplemental materials

A publisher that sells a college textbook and any supplemental material accompanying such college textbook as a single bundle shall also make available the college textbook and each supplemental material as separate and unbundled items, each separately priced.

(3) Custom textbooks

To the maximum extent practicable, a publisher shall provide the information required under this subsection with respect to the development and provision of custom textbooks.

(d) Provision of ISBN college textbook information in course schedules

To the maximum extent practicable, each institution of higher education receiving Federal financial assistance shall—

(1) disclose, on the institution's Internet course schedule and in a manner of the institution's choosing, the International Standard Book Number and retail price information of required and recommended college textbooks and supplemental materials for each course listed in the institution's course schedule used for preregistration and registration purposes, except that—

(A) if the International Standard Book Number is not available for such college textbook or supplemental material, then the institution shall include in the Internet course schedule the author, title, publisher, and copyright date for such college textbook or supplemental material; and

(B) if the institution determines that the disclosure of the information described in this subsection is not practicable for a college textbook or supplemental material, then the institution shall so indicate by placing the designation “To Be Determined” in lieu of the information required under this subsection; and


(2) if applicable, include on the institution's written course schedule a notice that textbook information is available on the institution's Internet course schedule, and the Internet address for such schedule.

(e) Availability of information for college bookstores

An institution of higher education receiving Federal financial assistance shall make available to a college bookstore that is operated by, or in a contractual relationship or otherwise affiliated with, the institution, as soon as is practicable upon the request of such college bookstore, the most accurate information available regarding—

(1) the institution's course schedule for the subsequent academic period; and

(2) for each course or class offered by the institution for the subsequent academic period—

(A) the information required by subsection (d)(1) for each college textbook or supplemental material required or recommended for such course or class;

(B) the number of students enrolled in such course or class; and

(C) the maximum student enrollment for such course or class.

(f) Additional information

An institution disclosing the information required by subsection (d)(1) is encouraged to disseminate to students information regarding—

(1) available institutional programs for renting textbooks or for purchasing used textbooks;

(2) available institutional guaranteed textbook buy-back programs;

(3) available institutional alternative content delivery programs; or

(4) other available institutional cost-saving strategies.

(g) GAO report

Not later than July 1, 2013, the Comptroller General of the United States shall report to the authorizing committees on the implementation of this section by institutions of higher education, college bookstores, and publishers. The report shall particularly examine—

(1) the availability of college textbook information on course schedules;

(2) the provision of pricing information to faculty of institutions of higher education by publishers;

(3) the use of bundled and unbundled material in the college textbook marketplace, including the adoption of unbundled materials by faculty and the use of integrated textbooks by publishers; and

(4) the implementation of this section by institutions of higher education, including the costs and benefits to such institutions and to students.

(h) Rule of construction

Nothing in this section shall be construed to supercede the institutional autonomy or academic freedom of instructors involved in the selection of college textbooks, supplemental materials, and other classroom materials.

(i) No regulatory authority

The Secretary shall not promulgate regulations with respect to this section.

(Pub. L. 89–329, title I, §133, as added Pub. L. 110–315, title I, §112(a), Aug. 14, 2008, 122 Stat. 3107.)

Prior Provisions

A prior section 1015b, Pub. L. 89–329, title I, §133, as added Pub. L. 102–325, title I, §101, July 23, 1992, 106 Stat. 466, related to activities for which grants could be used, prior to the general amendment of this subchapter by Pub. L. 105–244.

Another prior section 1015b, Pub. L. 89–329, title I, §133, as added Pub. L. 94–482, title I, §101(g)(3), Oct. 12, 1976, 90 Stat. 2087; amended Pub. L. 95–43, §1(a)(4), June 15, 1977, 91 Stat. 213, related to implementation of lifelong learning program by Assistant Secretary, prior to the general amendment of this subchapter by Pub. L. 96–374.

Effective Date

Pub. L. 110–315, title I, §112(b), Aug. 14, 2008, 122 Stat. 3110, provided that: “The amendment made by subsection (a) [enacting this section] shall take effect on July 1, 2010.”

Establishment of Pilot Program for Course Material Rental

Pub. L. 110–315, title VIII, §803, Aug. 14, 2008, 122 Stat. 3449, provided that:

“(a) Pilot Grant Program.—From the amounts appropriated pursuant to subsection (e), the Secretary of Education (referred to in this section as the ‘Secretary’) shall make grants on a competitive basis to not more than ten institutions of higher education to support pilot programs that expand the services of bookstores to provide the option for students to rent course materials in order to achieve savings for students.

“(b) Application.—An institution of higher education that desires to obtain a grant under this section shall submit an application to the Secretary at such time, in such form, and containing or accompanied by such information, agreements, and assurances as the Secretary may reasonably require.

“(c) Use of Funds.—The funds made available by a grant under this section may be used for—

“(1) purchase of course materials that the entity will make available by rent to students;

“(2) any equipment or software necessary for the conduct of a rental program;

“(3) hiring staff needed for the conduct of a rental program, with priority given to hiring enrolled undergraduate students; and

“(4) building or acquiring extra storage space dedicated to course materials for rent.

“(d) Evaluation and Report.—

“(1) Evaluations by recipients.—After a period of time to be determined by the Secretary, each institution of higher education that receives a grant under this section shall submit a report to the Secretary on the effectiveness of their rental programs in reducing textbook costs for students.

“(2) Report to congress.—Not later than September 30, 2010, the Secretary shall submit a report to Congress on the effectiveness of the textbook rental pilot programs under this section, and identify the best practices developed in such pilot programs. Such report shall contain an estimate by the Secretary of the savings achieved by students who participate in such pilot programs.

“(e) Authorization of Appropriations.—There are authorized to be appropriated to carry out this section such sums as may be necessary for fiscal years 2009 and 2010.”

§1015c. Database of student information prohibited

(a) Prohibition

Except as described in subsection (b), nothing in this chapter and part C of subchapter I of chapter 34 of title 42 shall be construed to authorize the development, implementation, or maintenance of a Federal database of personally identifiable information on individuals receiving assistance under this chapter and part C of subchapter I of chapter 34 of title 42, attending institutions receiving assistance under this chapter and part C of subchapter I of chapter 34 of title 42, or otherwise involved in any studies or other collections of data under this chapter and part C of subchapter I of chapter 34 of title 42, including a student unit record system, an education bar code system, or any other system that tracks individual students over time.

(b) Exception

The provisions of subsection (a) shall not apply to a system (or a successor system) that—

(1) is necessary for the operation of programs authorized by subchapter II, IV, or VII or part C of subchapter I of chapter 34 of title 42; and

(2) was in use by the Secretary, directly or through a contractor, as of the day before August 14, 2008.

(c) State databases

Nothing in this chapter and part C of subchapter I of chapter 34 of title 42 shall prohibit a State or a consortium of States from developing, implementing, or maintaining State-developed databases that track individuals over time, including student unit record systems that contain information related to enrollment, attendance, graduation and retention rates, student financial assistance, and graduate employment outcomes.

(Pub. L. 89–329, title I, §134, as added Pub. L. 110–315, title I, §113, Aug. 14, 2008, 122 Stat. 3110.)

Prior Provisions

A prior section 1015c, Pub. L. 89–329, title I, §134, as added Pub. L. 102–325, title I, §101, July 23, 1992, 106 Stat. 466, defined “public broadcasting entity” for purposes of former part C of this subchapter, prior to the general amendment of this subchapter by Pub. L. 105–244.

Another prior section 1015c, Pub. L. 89–329, title I, §134, as added Pub. L. 94–482, title I, §101(g)(3), Oct. 12, 1976, 90 Stat. 2089, related to annual reports by Assistant Secretary and content of these reports, prior to the general amendment of this subchapter by Pub. L. 96–374.

§1015d. In-State tuition rates for members of the armed forces on active duty, spouses, and dependent children

(a) Requirement

In the case of a member of the armed forces who is on active duty for a period of more than 30 days and whose domicile or permanent duty station is in a State that receives assistance under this chapter and part C of subchapter I of chapter 34 of title 42, such State shall not charge such member (or the spouse or dependent child of such member) tuition for attendance at a public institution of higher education in the State at a rate that is greater than the rate charged for residents of the State.

(b) Continuation

If a member of the armed forces (or the spouse or dependent child of a member) pays tuition at a public institution of higher education in a State at a rate determined by subsection (a), the provisions of subsection (a) shall continue to apply to such member, spouse, or dependent while continuously enrolled at that institution, notwithstanding a subsequent change in the permanent duty station of the member to a location outside the State.

(c) Effective date

This section shall take effect at each public institution of higher education in a State that receives assistance under this chapter and part C of subchapter I of chapter 34 of title 42 for the first period of enrollment at such institution that begins after July 1, 2009.

(d) Definitions

In this section, the terms “armed forces” and “active duty for a period of more than 30 days” have the meanings given those terms in section 101 of title 10.

(Pub. L. 89–329, title I, §135, as added Pub. L. 110–315, title I, §114, Aug. 14, 2008, 122 Stat. 3111.)

Prior Provisions

A prior section 1015d, Pub. L. 89–329, title I, §135, as added Pub. L. 102–325, title I, §101, July 23, 1992, 106 Stat. 466, required grant recipients to submit reports, prior to the general amendment of this subchapter by Pub. L. 105–244.

§1015e. State higher education information system pilot program

(a) Purpose

It is the purpose of this section to carry out a pilot program to assist not more than five States to develop State-level postsecondary student data systems to—

(1) improve the capacity of States and institutions of higher education to generate more comprehensive and comparable data, in order to develop better-informed educational policy at the State level and to evaluate the effectiveness of institutional performance while protecting the confidentiality of students’ personally identifiable information; and

(2) identify how to best minimize the data-reporting burden placed on institutions of higher education, particularly smaller institutions, and to maximize and improve the information institutions receive from the data systems, in order to assist institutions in improving educational practice and postsecondary outcomes.

(b) Definition of eligible entity

In this section, the term “eligible entity” means—

(1) a State higher education system; or

(2) a consortium of State higher education systems, or a consortium of individual institutions of higher education, that is broadly representative of institutions in different sectors and geographic locations.

(c) Competitive grants

(1) Grants authorized

The Secretary shall award grants, on a competitive basis, to not more than five eligible entities to enable the eligible entities to—

(A) design, test, and implement systems of postsecondary student data that provide the maximum benefits to States, institutions of higher education, and State policymakers; and

(B) examine the costs and burdens involved in implementing a State-level postsecondary student data system.

(2) Duration

A grant awarded under this section shall be for a period of not more than three years.

(d) Application requirements

An eligible entity desiring a grant under this section shall submit an application to the Secretary at such time, in such manner, and containing such information as the Secretary may reasonably require, including a description of—

(1) how the eligible entity will ensure that student privacy is protected and that individually identifiable information about students, the students’ achievements, and the students’ families remains confidential in accordance with section 1232g of this title (commonly known as the “Family Educational Rights and Privacy Act of 1974”); and

(2) how the activities funded by the grant will be supported after the three-year grant period.

(e) Use of funds

A grant awarded under this section shall be used to—

(1) design, develop, and implement the components of a comprehensive postsecondary student data system with the capacity to transmit student information within a State;

(2) improve the capacity of institutions of higher education to analyze and use student data;

(3) select and define common data elements, data quality, and other elements that will enable the data system to—

(A) serve the needs of institutions of higher education for institutional research and improvement;

(B) provide students and the students’ families with useful information for decision-making about postsecondary education; and

(C) provide State policymakers with improved information to monitor and guide efforts to improve student outcomes and success in higher education;


(4) estimate costs and burdens at the institutional level for the reporting system for different types of institutions; and

(5) test the feasibility of protocols and standards for maintaining data privacy and data access.

(f) Evaluation; reports

Not later than six months after the end of the projects funded by grants awarded under this section, the Secretary shall—

(1) conduct a comprehensive evaluation of the pilot program authorized by this section; and

(2) report the Secretary's findings, as well as recommendations regarding the implementation of State-level postsecondary student data systems, to the authorizing committees.

(g) Authorization of appropriations

There are authorized to be appropriated to carry out this section such sums as may be necessary for fiscal year 2009 and each of the five succeeding fiscal years.

(Pub. L. 89–329, title I, §136, as added Pub. L. 110–315, title I, §115, Aug. 14, 2008, 122 Stat. 3111; amended Pub. L. 111–39, title I, §101(b)(4), July 1, 2009, 123 Stat. 1935.)

Amendments

2009—Subsec. (d)(1). Pub. L. 111–39 substituted “(commonly known as the ‘Family Educational Rights and Privacy Act of 1974’)” for “(Family Educational Rights and Privacy Act of 1974)”.

Effective Date of 2009 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 111–39 effective as if enacted on the date of enactment of Pub. L. 110–315 (Aug. 14, 2008), see section 3 of Pub. L. 111–39, set out as a note under section 1001 of this title.

§1015f. State commitment to affordable college education

(a) Maintenance of effort required

A State shall provide—

(1) for public institutions of higher education in such State for any academic year beginning on or after July 1, 2008, an amount which is equal to or greater than the average amount provided for non-capital and non-direct research and development expenses or costs by such State to such institutions of higher education during the five most recent preceding academic years for which satisfactory data are available; and

(2) for private institutions of higher education in such State for any academic year beginning on or after July 1, 2008, an amount which is equal to or greater than the average amount provided for student financial aid for paying costs associated with postsecondary education by such State to such institutions during the five most recent preceding academic years for which satisfactory data are available.

(b) Adjustments for biennial appropriations

The Secretary shall take into consideration any adjustments to the calculations under subsection (a) that may be required to accurately reflect funding levels for postsecondary education in States with biennial appropriation cycles.

(c) Waiver

The Secretary shall waive the requirements of subsection (a), if the Secretary determines that such a waiver would be equitable due to exceptional or uncontrollable circumstances, such as a natural disaster or a precipitous and unforseen 1 decline in the financial resources of a State or State educational agency, as appropriate.

(d) Violation of maintenance of effort

Notwithstanding any other provision of law, the Secretary shall withhold from any State that violates subsection (a) and does not receive a waiver pursuant to subsection (c) any amount that would otherwise be available to the State under section 1141 of this title until such State has made significant efforts to correct such violation.

(Pub. L. 89–329, title I, §137, as added Pub. L. 110–315, title I, §116, Aug. 14, 2008, 122 Stat. 3113.)

Prior Provisions

A prior section 1016, Pub. L. 89–329, title I, §121, as added Pub. L. 99–498, title I, §101, Oct. 17, 1986, 100 Stat. 1285, related to adult learning research, prior to the general amendment of this subchapter by Pub. L. 102–325.

Another prior section 1016, Pub. L. 89–329, title I, §116, as added Pub. L. 96–374, title I, §101(a), Oct. 3, 1980, 94 Stat. 1381, provided for Federal discretionary grants, prior to the general amendment of this subchapter by Pub. L. 99–498.

A prior section 1016a, Pub. L. 89–329, title I, §122, as added Pub. L. 99–498, title I, §101, Oct. 17, 1986, 100 Stat. 1286, limited funds authorized to be appropriated, prior to the general amendment of this subchapter by Pub. L. 102–325.

A prior section 1017, Pub. L. 89–329, title I, §131, as added Pub. L. 99–498, title I, §101, Oct. 17, 1986, 100 Stat. 1286; Pub. L. 102–54, §13(g)(1)(A), June 13, 1991, 105 Stat. 275, related to National Advisory Council on Continuing Education, prior to the general amendment of this subchapter by Pub. L. 102–325.

Another prior section 1017, Pub. L. 89–329, title I, §117, as added Pub. L. 96–374, title I, §101(a), Oct. 3, 1980, 94 Stat. 1382; amended Pub. L. 99–386, title I, §103(a), Aug. 22, 1986, 100 Stat. 821, related to establishment and administration of the National Advisory Council on Continuing Education, prior to the general amendment of this subchapter by Pub. L. 99–498.

1 So in original. Probably should be “unforeseen”.

Part D—Administrative Provisions for Delivery of Student Financial Assistance

§1018. Performance-Based Organization for delivery of Federal student financial assistance

(a) Establishment and purpose

(1) Establishment

There is established in the Department a Performance-Based Organization (hereafter referred to as the “PBO”) which shall be a discrete management unit responsible for managing the administrative and oversight functions supporting the programs authorized under subchapter IV of this chapter and part C of subchapter I of chapter 34 of title 42, as specified in subsection (b) of this section.

(2) Purposes

The purposes of the PBO are—

(A) to improve service to students and other participants in the student financial assistance programs authorized under subchapter IV of this chapter and part C of subchapter I of chapter 34 of title 42, including making those programs more understandable to students and their parents;

(B) to reduce the costs of administering those programs;

(C) to increase the accountability of the officials responsible for administering the operational aspects of these programs;

(D) to provide greater flexibility in the management and administration of the Federal student financial assistance programs;

(E) to integrate the information systems supporting the Federal student financial assistance programs;

(F) to implement an open, common, integrated system for the delivery of student financial assistance under subchapter IV of this chapter and part C of subchapter I of chapter 34 of title 42; and

(G) to develop and maintain a student financial assistance system that contains complete, accurate, and timely data to ensure program integrity.

(b) General authority

(1) Authority of Secretary

Notwithstanding any other provision of this part, the Secretary shall maintain responsibility for the development and promulgation of policy and regulations relating to the programs of student financial assistance under subchapter IV of this chapter and part C of subchapter I of chapter 34 of title 42. In the exercise of its functions, the PBO shall be subject to the direction of the Secretary. The Secretary shall—

(A) request the advice of, and work in cooperation with, the Chief Operating Officer in developing regulations, policies, administrative guidance, or procedures affecting the Federal student financial assistance programs authorized under subchapter IV of this chapter and part C of subchapter I of chapter 34 of title 42;

(B) request cost estimates from the Chief Operating Officer for system changes required by specific policies proposed by the Secretary; and

(C) assist the Chief Operating Officer in identifying goals for—

(i) the administration of the systems used to administer the Federal student financial assistance programs authorized under subchapter IV of this chapter and part C of subchapter I of chapter 34 of title 42; and

(ii) the updating of such systems to current technology.

(2) PBO functions

Subject to paragraph (1), the PBO shall be responsible for the administration of Federal student financial assistance programs authorized under subchapter IV of this chapter and part C of subchapter I of chapter 34 of title 42, excluding the development of policy relating to such programs but including the following:

(A) The administrative, accounting, and financial management functions for the Federal student financial assistance programs authorized under subchapter IV of this chapter and part C of subchapter I of chapter 34 of title 42, including—

(i) the collection, processing, and transmission of data to students, institutions, lenders, State agencies, and other authorized parties;

(ii) the design and technical specifications for software development and procurement for systems supporting the Federal student financial assistance programs authorized under subchapter IV of this chapter and part C of subchapter I of chapter 34 of title 42;

(iii) all software and hardware acquisitions and all information technology contracts related to the administration and management of student financial assistance under subchapter IV of this chapter and part C of subchapter I of chapter 34 of title 42;

(iv) all aspects of contracting for the information and financial systems supporting the Federal student financial assistance programs authorized under subchapter IV of this chapter and part C of subchapter I of chapter 34 of title 42;

(v) providing all customer service, training, and user support related to the administration of the Federal student financial assistance programs authorized under subchapter IV of this chapter and part C of subchapter I of chapter 34 of title 42; and

(vi) ensuring the integrity of the Federal student financial assistance programs authorized under subchapter IV of this chapter and part C of subchapter I of chapter 34 of title 42.


(B) Annual development of a budget for the activities and functions of the PBO, in consultation with the Secretary, and for consideration and inclusion in the Department's annual budget submission.

(3) Additional functions

The Secretary may allocate to the PBO such additional functions as the Secretary and the Chief Operating Officer determine are necessary or appropriate to achieve the purposes of the PBO.

(4) Independence

Subject to paragraph (1), in carrying out its functions, the PBO shall exercise independent control of its budget allocations and expenditures, personnel decisions and processes, procurements, and other administrative and management functions.

(5) Audits and review

The PBO shall be subject to the usual and customary Federal audit procedures and to review by the Inspector General of the Department.

(6) Changes

(A) In general

The Secretary and the Chief Operating Officer shall consult concerning the effects of policy, market, or other changes on the ability of the PBO to achieve the goals and objectives established in the performance plan described in subsection (c) of this section.

(B) Revisions to agreement

The Secretary and the Chief Operating Officer may revise the annual performance agreement described in subsection (d)(4) of this section in light of policy, market, or other changes that occur after the Secretary and the Chief Operating Officer enter into the agreement.

(c) Performance plan, report, and briefing

(1) Performance plan

(A) In general

Each year, the Secretary and Chief Operating Officer shall agree on, and make available to the public, a performance plan for the PBO for the succeeding 5 years that establishes measurable goals and objectives for the organization.

(B) Consultation

In developing the 5-year performance plan and any revision to the plan, the Secretary and the Chief Operating Officer shall consult with students, institutions of higher education, Congress, lenders, the Advisory Committee on Student Financial Assistance, and other interested parties not less than 30 days prior to the implementation of the performance plan or revision.

(C) Areas

The plan shall include a concise statement of the goals for a modernized system for the delivery of student financial assistance under subchapter IV of this chapter and part C of subchapter I of chapter 34 of title 42 and identify action steps necessary to achieve such goals. The plan shall address the PBO's responsibilities in the following areas:

(i) Improving service

Improving service to students and other participants in student financial aid programs authorized under under 1 subchapter IV of this chapter and part C of subchapter I of chapter 34 of title 42, including making those programs more understandable to students and their parents.

(ii) Reducing costs

Reducing the costs of administering those programs.

(iii) Improvement and integration of support systems

Improving and integrating the systems that support those programs.

(iv) Delivery and information system

Developing open, common, and integrated systems for programs authorized under under 1 subchapter IV of this chapter and part C of subchapter I of chapter 34 of title 42.

(v) Other areas

Any other areas identified by the Secretary.

(2) Annual report

Each year, the Chief Operating Officer shall prepare and submit to Congress, through the Secretary, an annual report on the performance of the PBO, including an evaluation of the extent to which the PBO met the goals and objectives contained in the 5-year performance plan described in paragraph (1) for the preceding year. The annual report shall include the following:

(A) An independent financial audit of the expenditures of both the PBO and the programs administered by the PBO.

(B) Financial and performance requirements applicable to the PBO under the Chief Financial Officers Act of 1990 and the Government Performance and Results Act of 1993.

(C) The results achieved by the PBO during the year relative to the goals established in the organization's performance plan.

(D) The evaluation rating of the performance of the Chief Operating Officer and senior managers under subsections (d)(4) and (e)(2) of this section, including the amounts of bonus compensation awarded to these individuals.

(E) Recommendations for legislative and regulatory changes to improve service to students and their families, and to improve program efficiency and integrity.

(F) Other such information as the Director of the Office of Management and Budget shall prescribe for performance based organizations.

(3) Consultation with stakeholders

The Chief Operating Officer, in preparing the report described in paragraph (2), shall establish appropriate means to consult with students, borrowers, institutions, lenders, guaranty agencies, secondary markets, and others involved in the delivery system of student aid under subchapter IV of this chapter and part C of subchapter I of chapter 34 of title 42—

(A) regarding the degree of satisfaction with the delivery system; and

(B) to seek suggestions on means to improve the delivery system.

(4) Briefing on enforcement of student loan provisions

The Secretary shall, upon request, provide a briefing to the members of the authorizing committees on the steps the Department has taken to ensure—

(A) the integrity of the student loan programs; and

(B) that lenders and guaranty agencies are adhering to the requirements of subchapter IV of this chapter and part C of subchapter I of chapter 34 of title 42.

(d) Chief Operating Officer

(1) Appointment

The management of the PBO shall be vested in a Chief Operating Officer who shall be appointed by the Secretary to a term of not less than 3 and not more than 5 years, and compensated without regard to chapters 33, 51, and 53 of title 5. The appointment shall be made on the basis of demonstrated management ability and expertise in information technology, including experience with financial systems, and without regard to political affiliation or activity.

(2) Reappointment

The Secretary may reappoint the Chief Operating Officer to subsequent terms of not less than 3 and not more than 5 years, so long as the performance of the Chief Operating Officer, as set forth in the performance agreement described in paragraph (4), is satisfactory.

(3) Removal

The Chief Operating Officer may be removed by—

(A) the President; or

(B) the Secretary, for misconduct or failure to meet performance goals set forth in the performance agreement in paragraph (4).


The President or Secretary shall communicate the reasons for any such removal to the authorizing committees.

(4) Performance agreement

(A) In general

Each year, the Secretary and the Chief Operating Officer shall enter into an annual performance agreement, that shall set forth measurable organization and individual goals for the Chief Operating Officer.

(B) Transmittal

The final agreement, and any revision to the final agreement, shall be transmitted to the authorizing committees, and made publicly available.

(5) Compensation

(A) In general

The Chief Operating Officer is authorized to be paid at an annual rate of basic pay not to exceed the maximum rate of basic pay for the Senior Executive Service under section 5382 of title 5, including any applicable locality-based comparability payment that may be authorized under section 5304(h)(2)(B) of such title. The compensation of the Chief Operating Officer shall be considered for purposes of section 207(c)(2)(A) of title 18 to be the equivalent of that described under clause (ii) of section 207(c)(2)(A) of such title.

(B) Bonus

In addition, the Chief Operating Officer may receive a bonus in an amount that does not exceed 50 percent of such annual rate of basic pay, based upon the Secretary's evaluation of the Chief Operating Officer's performance in relation to the goals set forth in the performance agreement described in paragraph (4).

(C) Payment

Payment of a bonus under subparagraph (B) may be made to the Chief Operating Officer only to the extent that such payment does not cause the Chief Operating Officer's total aggregate compensation in a calendar year to equal or exceed the amount of the President's salary under section 102 of title 3.

(e) Senior management

(1) Appointment

(A) In general

The Chief Operating Officer may appoint such senior managers as that officer determines necessary without regard to the provisions of title 5 governing appointments in the competitive service.

(B) Compensation

The senior managers described in subparagraph (A) may be paid without regard to the provisions of chapter 51 and subchapter III of chapter 53 of such title relating to classification and General Schedule pay rates.

(2) Performance agreement

Each year, the Chief Operating Officer and each senior manager appointed under this subsection shall enter into an annual performance agreement that sets forth measurable organization and individual goals. The agreement shall be subject to review and renegotiation at the end of each term.

(3) Compensation

(A) In general

A senior manager appointed under this subsection may be paid at an annual rate of basic pay of not more than the maximum rate of basic pay for the Senior Executive Service under section 5382 of title 5, including any applicable locality-based comparability payment that may be authorized under section 5304(h)(2)(C) of such title. The compensation of a senior manager shall be considered for purposes of section 207(c)(2)(A) of title 18 to be the equivalent of that described under clause (ii) of section 207(c)(2)(A) of such title.

(B) Bonus

In addition, a senior manager may receive a bonus in an amount such that the manager's total annual compensation does not exceed 125 percent of the maximum rate of basic pay for the Senior Executive Service, including any applicable locality-based comparability payment, based upon the Chief Operating Officer's evaluation of the manager's performance in relation to the goals set forth in the performance agreement described in paragraph (2).

(4) Removal

A senior manager shall be removable by the Chief Operating Officer, or by the Secretary if the position of Chief Operating Officer is vacant.

(f) Student Loan Ombudsman

(1) Appointment

The Chief Operating Officer, in consultation with the Secretary, shall appoint a Student Loan Ombudsman to provide timely assistance to borrowers of loans made, insured, or guaranteed under subchapter IV of this chapter and part C of subchapter I of chapter 34 of title 42 by performing the functions described in paragraph (3).

(2) Public information

The Chief Operating Officer shall disseminate information about the availability and functions of the Ombudsman to students, borrowers, and potential borrowers, as well as institutions of higher education, lenders, guaranty agencies, loan servicers, and other participants in those student loan programs.

(3) Functions of Ombudsman

The Ombudsman shall—

(A) in accordance with regulations of the Secretary, receive, review, and attempt to resolve informally complaints from borrowers of loans described in paragraph (1), including, as appropriate, attempts to resolve such complaints within the Department of Education and with institutions of higher education, lenders, guaranty agencies, loan servicers, and other participants in the loan programs described in paragraph (1); and

(B) compile and analyze data on borrower complaints and make appropriate recommendations.

(4) Report

Each year, the Ombudsman shall submit a report to the Chief Operating Officer, for inclusion in the annual report under subsection (c)(2) of this section, that describes the activities, and evaluates the effectiveness of the Ombudsman during the preceding year.

(g) Personnel flexibility

(1) Personnel ceilings

The PBO shall not be subject to any ceiling relating to the number or grade of employees.

(2) Administrative flexibility

The Chief Operating Officer shall work with the Office of Personnel Management to develop and implement personnel flexibilities in staffing, classification, and pay that meet the needs of the PBO, subject to compliance with title 5.

(3) Excepted service

The Chief Operating Officer may appoint, without regard to the provisions of title 5 governing appointments in the competitive service, technical and professional employees to administer the functions of the PBO. These employees may be paid without regard to the provisions of chapter 51 and subchapter III of chapter 53 of such title relating to classification and General Schedule pay rates.

(h) Establishment of fair and equitable system for measuring staff performance

The PBO shall establish an annual performance management system, subject to compliance with title 5, and consistent with applicable provisions of law and regulations, which strengthens the effectiveness of the PBO by providing for establishing goals or objectives for individual, group, or organizational performance (or any combination thereof), consistent with the performance plan of the PBO and its performance planning procedures, including those established under the Government Performance and Results Act of 1993, and communicating such goals or objectives to employees.

(i) Authorization of appropriations

The Secretary shall allocate from funds made available under section 1087h of this title such funds as are appropriate to the functions assumed by the PBO. In addition, there are authorized to be appropriated such sums as may be necessary to carry out the purposes of this part.

(Pub. L. 89–329, title I, §141, as added Pub. L. 105–244, title I, §101(a), Oct. 7, 1998, 112 Stat. 1604; amended Pub. L. 110–315, title I, §§103(b)(2), 117, Aug. 14, 2008, 122 Stat. 3088, 3114; Pub. L. 111–39, title I, §101(b)(5), July 1, 2009, 123 Stat. 1935.)

References in Text

The Chief Financial Officers Act of 1990, referred to in subsec. (c)(2)(B), is Pub. L. 101–576, Nov. 15, 1990, 104 Stat. 2838. For complete classification of this Act to the Code, see Short Title of 1990 Amendment note set out under section 501 of Title 31, Money and Finance, and Tables.

The Government Performance and Results Act of 1993, referred to in subsecs. (c)(2)(B) and (h), is Pub. L. 103–62, Aug. 3, 1993, 107 Stat. 285, which enacted section 306 of Title 5, Government Organization and Employees, sections 1115 to 1119, 9703, and 9704 of Title 31, Money and Finance, and sections 2801 to 2805 of Title 39, Postal Service, amended section 1105 of Title 31, and enacted provisions set out as notes under sections 1101 and 1115 of Title 31. For complete classification of this Act to the Code, see Short Title of 1993 Amendment note set out under section 1101 of Title 31 and Tables.

Prior Provisions

A prior section 1018, Pub. L. 89–329, title I, §141, as added Pub. L. 100–418, title VI, §6201, Aug. 23, 1988, 102 Stat. 1514, set out purpose of former part D of this subchapter as being the development of student literacy corps programs, prior to the general amendment of this subchapter by Pub. L. 102–325.

Another prior section 1018, Pub. L. 89–329, title I, §118, as added Pub. L. 96–374, title I, §101(a), Oct. 3, 1980, 94 Stat. 1382, defined terms used in former part D of this subchapter, prior to the general amendment of this subchapter by Pub. L. 99–498.

Amendments

2009—Subsec. (c)(3). Pub. L. 111–39, §101(b)(5)(A), substituted “under subchapter IV of this chapter and part C of subchapter I of chapter 34 of title 42” for “under this subchapter” in introductory provisions.

Subsec. (d)(3). Pub. L. 111–39, §101(b)(5)(B), substituted “authorizing committees” for “appropriate committees of Congress” in concluding provisions.

2008—Subsec. (a)(1). Pub. L. 110–315, §117(1)(A), substituted “administrative and oversight” for “operational”.

Subsec. (a)(2)(D). Pub. L. 110–315, §117(1)(B), substituted “and administration” for “of the operational functions”.

Subsec. (b)(1)(A). Pub. L. 110–315, §117(2)(A)(i), substituted “the Federal student financial assistance programs authorized under subchapter IV of this chapter and part C of subchapter I of chapter 34 of title 42” for “the information systems administered by the PBO, and other functions performed by the PBO”.

Subsec. (b)(1)(C). Pub. L. 110–315, §117(2)(A)(ii), added subpar. (C) and struck out former subpar. (C) which read as follows: “assist the Chief Operating Officer in identifying goals for the administration and modernization of the delivery system for student financial assistance under subchapter IV of this chapter and part C of subchapter I of chapter 34 of title 42.”

Subsec. (b)(2). Pub. L. 110–315, §117(2)(B)(i), in introductory provisions, substituted “the administration of Federal” for “administration of the information and financial systems that support” and “subchapter IV of this chapter and part C of subchapter I of chapter 34 of title 42” for “this subchapter”.

Subsec. (b)(2)(A). Pub. L. 110–315, §117(2)(B)(ii)(I), substituted “for the Federal student financial assistance programs authorized under subchapter IV of this chapter and part C of subchapter I of chapter 34 of title 42” for “of the delivery system for Federal student assistance” in introductory provisions.

Subsec. (b)(2)(A)(i), (ii). Pub. L. 110–315, §117(2)(B)(ii)(II), added cls. (i) and (ii) and struck out former cls. (i) and (ii) which read as follows:

“(i) the collection, processing and transmission of applicant data to students, institutions and authorized third parties, as provided for in section 1090 of this title;

“(ii) design and technical specifications for software development and systems supporting the delivery of student financial assistance under subchapter IV of this chapter and part C of subchapter I of chapter 34 of title 42;”.

Subsec. (b)(2)(A)(iii). Pub. L. 110–315, §117(2)(B)(ii)(III), substituted “administration” for “delivery”.

Subsec. (b)(2)(A)(iv). Pub. L. 110–315, §117(2)(B)(ii)(IV), inserted “the Federal” after “supporting”, substituted “authorized under subchapter IV of this chapter and part C of subchapter I of chapter 34 of title 42” for “under this subchapter”, and struck out “and” after the semicolon.

Subsec. (b)(2)(A)(v). Pub. L. 110–315, §117(2)(B)(ii)(V), substituted “the administration of the Federal student financial assistance programs authorized under subchapter IV of this chapter and part C of subchapter I of chapter 34 of title 42; and” for “systems that support those programs.”

Subsec. (b)(2)(A)(vi). Pub. L. 110–315, §117(2)(B)(ii)(VI), added cl. (vi).

Subsec. (b)(2)(B). Pub. L. 110–315, §117(2)(B)(iii), substituted “activities and functions” for “operations and services”.

Subsec. (c). Pub. L. 110–315, §117(3)(A), substituted “Performance plan, report, and briefing” for “Performance plan and report” in heading.

Subsec. (c)(1)(C)(i). Pub. L. 110–315, §117(3)(B)(i), substituted “under subchapter IV of this chapter and part C of subchapter I of chapter 34 of title 42” for “this subchapter”.

Subsec. (c)(1)(C)(iii). Pub. L. 110–315, §117(3)(B)(ii), struck out “information and delivery” after “integrating the”.

Subsec. (c)(1)(C)(iv). Pub. L. 110–315, §117(3)(B)(i), (iii), substituted “Developing” for “Developing an”, “systems” for “delivery and information system”, and “under subchapter IV of this chapter and part C of subchapter I of chapter 34 of title 42” for “this subchapter”.

Subsec. (c)(2)(A). Pub. L. 110–315, §117(3)(C)(i), inserted “the” after “PBO and”.

Subsec. (c)(2)(B). Pub. L. 110–315, §117(3)(C)(ii), substituted “Officers” for “Officer”.

Subsec. (c)(3). Pub. L. 110–315, §117(3)(D), inserted “students,” after “consult with” in introductory provisions.

Subsec. (c)(4). Pub. L. 110–315, §117(3)(E), added par. (4).

Subsec. (d)(1). Pub. L. 110–315, §117(4)(A), struck out after first sentence “The Secretary shall appoint the Chief Operating Officer within 6 months after October 7, 1998.”

Subsec. (d)(4)(B). Pub. L. 110–315, §103(b)(2), substituted “authorizing committees” for “Committee on Education and the Workforce of the House of Representatives and the Committee on Labor and Human Resources of the Senate”.

Subsec. (d)(5)(B). Pub. L. 110–315, §117(4)(B)(i), substituted “paragraph (4)” for “paragraph (2)”.

Subsec. (d)(5)(C). Pub. L. 110–315, §117(4)(B)(ii), struck out “this” before “subparagraph (B)”.

Subsec. (f)(2). Pub. L. 110–315, §117(5)(A), substituted “to students, borrowers,” for “to borrowers”.

Subsec. (f)(3)(A). Pub. L. 110–315, §117(5)(B), substituted “paragraph (1);” for “paragraph (1)(A);”.

Subsec. (g)(3). Pub. L. 110–315, §117(6), struck out “not more than 25” before “technical and professional employees”.

Subsec. (h). Pub. L. 110–315, §117(7), substituted “effectiveness” for “organizational effectiveness”.

Subsecs. (i), (j). Pub. L. 110–315, §117(8)–(10), redesignated subsec. (j) as (i), struck out “, including transition costs” before period at end, and struck out former subsec. (i). Text of former subsec. (i) read as follows: “The Secretary and the Chief Operating Officer, not later than 180 days after October 7, 1998, shall report to Congress on the proposed budget and sources of funding for the operation of the PBO.”

Effective Date of 2009 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 111–39 effective as if enacted on the date of enactment of Pub. L. 110–315 (Aug. 14, 2008), see section 3 of Pub. L. 111–39, set out as a note under section 1001 of this title.

Study of Market Mechanisms in Federal Student Loan Programs

Pub. L. 105–244, title VIII, §801, Oct. 7, 1998, 112 Stat. 1803, which directed the Comptroller General and Secretary of Education, in consultation with a study group, to design and conduct a study to identify and evaluate means of establishing a market mechanism for the delivery of certain student loans made pursuant to title IV of the Higher Education Act (20 U.S.C. 1070 et seq., 42 U.S.C. 2751 et seq.) and to transmit a final report to congressional committees not later than May 15, 2001, was repealed by Pub. L. 110–315, title IX, §931(1), Aug. 14, 2008, 122 Stat. 3456.

1 So in original.

§1018a. Procurement flexibility

(a) Procurement authority

Subject to the authority of the Secretary, the Chief Operating Officer of a PBO may exercise the authority of the Secretary to procure property and services in the performance of functions managed by the PBO. For the purposes of this section, the term “PBO” includes the Chief Operating Officer of the PBO and any employee of the PBO exercising procurement authority under the preceding sentence.

(b) In general

Except as provided in this section, the PBO shall abide by all applicable Federal procurement laws and regulations when procuring property and services. The PBO shall—

(1) enter into contracts to carry out the functions set forth in section 1018(b)(2) of this title;

(2) obtain the services of experts and consultants without regard to section 3109 of title 5 and set pay in accordance with such section; and

(3) through the Chief Operating Officer—

(A) to the maximum extent practicable, utilize procurement systems that streamline operations, improve internal controls, and enhance management; and

(B) assess the efficiency of such systems and assess such systems’ ability to meet PBO requirements.

(c) Service contracts

(1) Performance-based servicing contracts

The Chief Operating Officer shall, to the extent practicable, maximize the use of performance-based servicing contracts, consistent with guidelines for such contracts published by the Office of Federal Procurement Policy, to achieve cost savings and improve service.

(2) Fee for service arrangements

The Chief Operating Officer shall, when appropriate and consistent with the purposes of the PBO, acquire services related to the functions set forth in section 1018(b)(2) of this title from any entity that has the capability and capacity to meet the requirements set by the PBO. The Chief Operating Officer is authorized to pay fees that are equivalent to those paid by other entities to an organization that provides services that meet the requirements of the PBO, as determined by the Chief Operating Officer.

(d) Two-phase source-selection procedures

(1) In general

The PBO may use a two-phase process for selecting a source for a procurement of property or services.

(2) First phase

The procedures for the first phase of the process for a procurement are as follows:

(A) Publication of notice

The contracting officer for the procurement shall publish a notice of the procurement in accordance with section 1708 of title 41 and subsections (e), (f), and (g) of section 637 of title 15, except that the notice shall include only the following:

(i) A general description of the scope or purpose of the procurement that provides sufficient information on the scope or purpose for sources to make informed business decisions regarding whether to participate in the procurement.

(ii) A description of the basis on which potential sources are to be selected to submit offers in the second phase.

(iii) A description of the information that is to be required under subparagraph (B).

(iv) Any additional information that the contracting officer determines appropriate.

(B) Information submitted by offerors

Each offeror for the procurement shall submit basic information, such as information on the offeror's qualifications, the proposed conceptual approach, costs likely to be associated with the proposed conceptual approach, and past performance of the offeror, together with any additional information that is requested by the contracting officer.

(C) Selection for second phase

The contracting officer shall select the offerors that are to be eligible to participate in the second phase of the process. The contracting officer shall limit the number of the selected offerors to the number of sources that the contracting officer determines is appropriate and in the best interests of the Federal Government.

(3) Second phase

(A) In general

The contracting officer shall conduct the second phase of the source selection process in accordance with sections 3306(a) to (e) and 3308, chapter 37, and section 4702 of title 41.

(B) Eligible participants

Only the sources selected in the first phase of the process shall be eligible to participate in the second phase.

(C) Single or multiple procurements

The second phase may include a single procurement or multiple procurements within the scope, or for the purpose, described in the notice pursuant to paragraph (2)(A).

(4) Procedures considered competitive

The procedures used for selecting a source for a procurement under this subsection shall be considered competitive procedures for all purposes.

(e) Use of simplified procedures for commercial items

Whenever the PBO anticipates that commercial items will be offered for a procurement, the PBO may use (consistent with the special rules for commercial items) the special simplified procedures for the procurement without regard to—

(1) any dollar limitation otherwise applicable to the use of those procedures; and

(2) the expiration of the authority to use special simplified procedures under section 4202(e) of the Clinger-Cohen Act of 1996 (110 Stat. 654; 10 U.S.C. 2304 note).

(f) Flexible wait periods and deadlines for submission of offers of noncommercial items

(1) Authority

In carrying out a procurement, the PBO may—

(A) apply a shorter waiting period for the issuance of a solicitation after the publication of a notice under section 1708 of title 41 than is required under subsection (a)(3)(A) of such section; and

(B) notwithstanding subsection (a)(3) of such section, establish any deadline for the submission of bids or proposals that affords potential offerors a reasonable opportunity to respond to the solicitation.

(2) Inapplicability to commercial items

Paragraph (1) does not apply to a procurement of a commercial item.

(3) Consistency with applicable international agreements

If an international agreement is applicable to the procurement, any exercise of authority under paragraph (1) shall be consistent with the international agreement.

(g) Modular contracting

(1) In general

The PBO may satisfy the requirements of the PBO for a system incrementally by carrying out successive procurements of modules of the system. In doing so, the PBO may use procedures authorized under this subsection to procure any such module after the first module.

(2) Utility requirement

A module may not be procured for a system under this subsection unless the module is useful independently of the other modules or useful in combination with another module previously procured for the system.

(3) Conditions for use of authority

The PBO may use procedures authorized under paragraph (4) for the procurement of an additional module for a system if—

(A) competitive procedures were used for awarding the contract for the procurement of the first module for the system; and

(B) the solicitation for the first module included—

(i) a general description of the entire system that was sufficient to provide potential offerors with reasonable notice of the general scope of future modules;

(ii) other information sufficient for potential offerors to make informed business judgments regarding whether to submit offers for the contract for the first module; and

(iii) a statement that procedures authorized under this subsection could be used for awarding subsequent contracts for the procurement of additional modules for the system.

(4) Procedures

If the procurement of the first module for a system meets the requirements set forth in paragraph (3), the PBO may award a contract for the procurement of an additional module for the system using any of the following procedures:

(A) Single-source basis

Award of the contract on a single-source basis to a contractor who was awarded a contract for a module previously procured for the system under competitive procedures or procedures authorized under subparagraph (B).

(B) Adequate competition

Award of the contract on the basis of offers made by—

(i) a contractor who was awarded a contract for a module previously procured for the system after having been selected for award of the contract under this subparagraph or other competitive procedures; and

(ii) at least one other offeror that submitted an offer for a module previously procured for the system and is expected, on the basis of the offer for the previously procured module, to submit a competitive offer for the additional module.

(C) Other

Award of the contract under any other procedure authorized by law.

(5) Notice requirement

(A) Publication

Not less than 30 days before issuing a solicitation for offers for a contract for a module for a system under procedures authorized under subparagraph (A) or (B) of paragraph (4), the PBO shall publish in the Commerce Business Daily a notice of the intent to use such procedures to enter into the contract.

(B) Exception

Publication of a notice is not required under this paragraph with respect to a use of procedures authorized under paragraph (4) if the contractor referred to in that subparagraph (who is to be solicited to submit an offer) has previously provided a module for the system under a contract that contained cost, schedule, and performance goals and the contractor met those goals.

(C) Content of notice

A notice published under subparagraph (A) with respect to a use of procedures described in paragraph (4) shall contain the information required under section 1708(c) of title 41, other than paragraph (4) of such section, and shall invite the submission of any assertion that the use of the procedures for the procurement involved is not in the best interest of the Federal Government together with information supporting the assertion.

(6) Documentation

The basis for an award of a contract under this subsection shall be documented. However, a justification pursuant to section 3304(e) of title 41 or section 637(h) of title 15 is not required.

(7) Simplified source-selection procedures

The PBO may award a contract under any other simplified procedures prescribed by the PBO for the selection of sources for the procurement of modules for a system, after the first module, that are not to be procured under a contract awarded on a single-source basis.

(h) Use of simplified procedures for small business set-asides for services other than commercial items

(1) Authority

The PBO may use special simplified procedures for a procurement of services that are not commercial items if—

(A) the procurement is in an amount not greater than $1,000,000;

(B) the procurement is conducted as a small business set-aside pursuant to section 644(a) of title 15; and

(C) the price charged for supplies associated with the services procured are items of supply expected to be less than 20 percent of the total contract price.

(2) Inapplicability to certain procurements

The authority set forth in paragraph (1) may not be used for—

(A) an award of a contract on a single-source basis; or

(B) a contract for construction.

(i) Guidance for use of authority

(1) Issuance by PBO

The Chief Operating Officer of the PBO, in consultation with the Administrator for Federal Procurement Policy, shall issue guidance for the use by PBO personnel of the authority provided in this section.

(2) Guidance from OFPP

As part of the consultation required under paragraph (1), the Administrator for Federal Procurement Policy shall provide the PBO with guidance that is designed to ensure, to the maximum extent practicable, that the authority under this section is exercised by the PBO in a manner that is consistent with the exercise of the authority by the heads of the other performance-based organizations.

(3) Compliance with OFPP guidance

The head of the PBO shall ensure that the procurements of the PBO under this section are carried out in a manner that is consistent with the guidance provided for the PBO under paragraph (2).

(j) Limitation on multiagency contracting

No department or agency of the Federal Government may purchase property or services under contracts entered into or administered by a PBO under this section unless the purchase is approved in advance by the senior procurement official of that department or agency who is responsible for purchasing by the department or agency.

(k) Laws not affected

Nothing in this section shall be construed to waive laws for the enforcement of civil rights or for the establishment and enforcement of labor standards that are applicable to contracts of the Federal Government.

(l) Definitions

In this section:

(1) Commercial item

The term “commercial item” has the meaning given the term in section 103 of title 41.

(2) Competitive procedures

The term “competitive procedures” has the meaning given the term in section 152 of title 41.

(3) Single-source basis

The term “single-source basis”, with respect to an award of a contract, means that the contract is awarded to a source after soliciting an offer or offers from, and negotiating with, only such source (although such source is not the only source in the marketplace capable of meeting the need) because such source is the most advantageous source for purposes of the award.

(4) Special rules for commercial items

The term “special rules for commercial items” means the regulations set forth in the Federal Acquisition Regulation pursuant to sections 1901 and 3305(a) of title 41.

(5) Special simplified procedures

The term “special simplified procedures” means the procedures applicable to purchases of property and services for amounts not greater than the simplified acquisition threshold that are set forth in the Federal Acquisition Regulation pursuant to sections 1901(a)(1) and 3305(a)(1) of title 41.

(Pub. L. 89–329, title I, §142, as added Pub. L. 105–244, title I, §101(a), Oct. 7, 1998, 112 Stat. 1611; amended Pub. L. 110–315, title I, §118, Aug. 14, 2008, 122 Stat. 3116.)

References in Text

Section 4202(e) of the Clinger-Cohen Act of 1996, referred to in subsec. (e)(2), is section 4202(e) of Pub. L. 104–106, which is set out as a note under section 2304 of Title 10, Armed Forces.

Codification

In subsec. (d)(2)(A), “section 1708 of title 41” substituted for “section 18 of the Office of Federal Procurement Policy Act (41 U.S.C. 416)” on authority of Pub. L. 111–350, §6(c), Jan. 4, 2011, 124 Stat. 3854, which Act enacted Title 41, Public Contracts.

In subsec. (d)(3)(A), “sections 3306(a) to (e) and 3308, chapter 37, and section 4702 of title 41” substituted for “sections 303A and 303B of the Federal Property and Administrative Services Act of 1949 (41 U.S.C. 253a and 253b)” on authority of Pub. L. 111–350, §6(c), Jan. 4, 2011, 124 Stat. 3854, which Act enacted Title 41, Public Contracts.

In subsec. (f)(1)(A), “section 1708 of title 41” substituted for “section 18 of the Office of Federal Procurement Policy Act (41 U.S.C. 416)” on authority of Pub. L. 111–350, §6(c), Jan. 4, 2011, 124 Stat. 3854, which Act enacted Title 41, Public Contracts.

In subsec. (g)(5)(C), “section 1708(c) of title 41” substituted for “section 18(b) of the Office of Federal Procurement Policy Act (41 U.S.C. 416(b))” on authority of Pub. L. 111–350, §6(c), Jan. 4, 2011, 124 Stat. 3854, which Act enacted Title 41, Public Contracts.

In subsec. (g)(6), “section 3304(e) of title 41” substituted for “section 303(f) of the Federal Property and Administrative Services Act of 1949 (41 U.S.C. 253(f))” on authority of Pub. L. 111–350, §6(c), Jan. 4, 2011, 124 Stat. 3854, which Act enacted Title 41, Public Contracts.

In subsec. (l)(1), “section 103 of title 41” substituted for “section 4(12) of the Office of Federal Procurement Policy Act (41 U.S.C. 403(12))” on authority of Pub. L. 111–350, §6(c), Jan. 4, 2011, 124 Stat. 3854, which Act enacted Title 41, Public Contracts.

In subsec. (l)(2), “section 152 of title 41” substituted for “section 309(b) of the Federal Property and Administrative Services Act of 1949 (41 U.S.C. 259(b))” on authority of Pub. L. 111–350, §6(c), Jan. 4, 2011, 124 Stat. 3854, which Act enacted Title 41, Public Contracts.

In subsec. (l)(4), “sections 1901 and 3305(a) of title 41” substituted for “section 303(g)(1) of the Federal Property and Administrative Services Act of 1949 (41 U.S.C. 253(g)(1)) and section 31 of the Office of Federal Procurement Policy Act (41 U.S.C. 427)” on authority of Pub. L. 111–350, §6(c), Jan. 4, 2011, 124 Stat. 3854, which Act enacted Title 41, Public Contracts.

In subsec. (l)(5), “sections 1901(a)(1) and 3305(a)(1) of title 41” substituted for “section 303(g)(1)(B) of the Federal Property and Administrative Services Act of 1949 (41 U.S.C. 253(g)(1)(A)) and section 31(a)(1) of the Office of Federal Procurement Policy Act (41 U.S.C. 427(a)(1))” on authority of Pub. L. 111–350, §6(c), Jan. 4, 2011, 124 Stat. 3854, which Act enacted Title 41, Public Contracts.

Prior Provisions

A prior section 1018a, Pub. L. 89–329, title I, §142, as added Pub. L. 100–418, title VI, §6201, Aug. 23, 1988, 102 Stat. 1515, related to grants for literacy corps programs, prior to the general amendment of this subchapter by Pub. L. 102–325.

Amendments

2008—Subsec. (b)(1). Pub. L. 110–315, §118(1)(A), struck out “for information systems supporting the programs authorized under subchapter IV of this chapter and part C of subchapter I of chapter 34 of title 42” after “enter into contracts” and “and” after semicolon.

Subsec. (b)(2), (3). Pub. L. 110–315, §118(1)(B), (C), substituted “; and” for period at end of par. (2) and added par. (3).

Subsec. (c)(2). Pub. L. 110–315, §118(2), added par. (2) and struck out former par. (2). Prior to amendment, text read as follows: “The Chief Operating Officer shall, when appropriate and consistent with the purposes of the PBO, acquire services related to the subchapter IV of this chapter and part C of subchapter I of chapter 34 of title 42 delivery system from any entity that has the capability and capacity to meet the requirements for the system. The Chief Operating Officer is authorized to pay fees that are equivalent to those paid by other entities to an organization that provides an information system or service that meets the requirements of the PBO, as determined by the Chief Operating Officer.”

Subsec. (d)(2)(B). Pub. L. 110–315, §118(3), struck out “on Federal Government contracts” after “performance of the offeror”.

Subsec. (g)(4)(A). Pub. L. 110–315, §118(4)(A), substituted “Single-source basis” for “Sole source” in heading and “single-source” for “sole-source” in text.

Subsec. (g)(7). Pub. L. 110–315, §118(4)(B), substituted “single-source” for “sole-source”.

Subsec. (h)(2)(A). Pub. L. 110–315, §118(5), substituted “single-source” for “sole-source”.

Subsec. (l)(3). Pub. L. 110–315, §118(6), added par. (3) and struck out former par. (3). Prior to amendment, text read as follows: “The term ‘sole-source basis’, with respect to an award of a contract, means that the contract is awarded to a source after soliciting an offer or offers from, and negotiating with, only that source.”

§1018b. Administrative simplification of student aid delivery

(a) In general

In order to improve the efficiency and effectiveness of the student aid delivery system, the Secretary and the Chief Operating Officer shall encourage and participate in the establishment of voluntary consensus standards and requirements for the electronic transmission of information necessary for the administration of programs under subchapter IV of this chapter and part C of subchapter I of chapter 34 of title 42.

(b) Participation in standard setting organizations

(1) The Chief Operating Officer shall participate in the activities of standard setting organizations in carrying out the provisions of this section.

(2) The Chief Operating Officer shall encourage higher education groups seeking to develop common forms, standards, and procedures in support of the delivery of Federal student financial assistance to conduct these activities within a standard setting organization.

(3) The Chief Operating Officer may pay necessary dues and fees associated with participating in standard setting organizations pursuant to this subsection.

(c) Adoption of voluntary consensus standards

Except with respect to the common financial reporting form under section 1090(a) of this title, the Secretary shall consider adopting voluntary consensus standards agreed to by the organization described in subsection (b) of this section for transactions required under subchapter IV of this chapter and part C of subchapter I of chapter 34 of title 42, and common data elements for such transactions, to enable information to be exchanged electronically between systems administered by the Department and among participants in the Federal student aid delivery system.

(d) Use of clearinghouses

Nothing in this section shall restrict the ability of participating institutions and lenders from using a clearinghouse or servicer to comply with the standards for the exchange of information established under this section.

(e) Data security

Any entity that maintains or transmits information under a transaction covered by this section shall maintain reasonable and appropriate administrative, technical, and physical safeguards—

(1) to ensure the integrity and confidentiality of the information; and

(2) to protect against any reasonably anticipated security threats, or unauthorized uses or disclosures of the information.

(f) Definitions

(1) Clearinghouse

The term “clearinghouse” means a public or private entity that processes or facilitates the processing of nonstandard data elements into data elements conforming to standards adopted under this section.

(2) Standard setting organization

The term “standard setting organization” means an organization that—

(A) is accredited by the American National Standards Institute;

(B) develops standards for information transactions, data elements, or any other standard that is necessary to, or will facilitate, the implementation of this section; and

(C) is open to the participation of the various entities engaged in the delivery of Federal student financial assistance.

(3) Voluntary consensus standard

The term “voluntary consensus standard” means a standard developed or used by a standard setting organization described in paragraph (2).

(Pub. L. 89–329, title I, §143, as added Pub. L. 105–244, title I, §101(a), Oct. 7, 1998, 112 Stat. 1615.)

Prior Provisions

Prior sections 1018b to 1018f were omitted in the general amendment of this subchapter by Pub. L. 102–325.

Section 1018b, Pub. L. 89–329, title I, §143, as added Pub. L. 100–418, title VI, §6201, Aug. 23, 1988, 102 Stat. 1515, related to use of funds.

Section 1018c, Pub. L. 89–329, title I, §144, as added Pub. L. 100–418, title VI, §6201, Aug. 23, 1988, 102 Stat. 1515; Pub. L. 101–610, title II, §221(a), (b), Nov. 16, 1990, 104 Stat. 3180, related to applications.

Section 1018d, Pub. L. 89–329, title I, §145, as added Pub. L. 100–418, title VI, §6201, Aug. 23, 1988, 102 Stat. 1516, related to technical assistance and coordination contracts.

Section 1018e, Pub. L. 89–329, title I, §146, as added Pub. L. 100–418, title VI, §6201, Aug. 23, 1988, 102 Stat. 1516; Pub. L. 101–305, §5, May 30, 1990, 104 Stat. 258; Pub. L. 101–610, title II, §221(c), Nov. 16, 1990, 104 Stat. 3180, related to authorization of appropriations.

Section 1018f, Pub. L. 89–329, title I, §147, as added Pub. L. 100–418, title VI, §6201, Aug. 23, 1988, 102 Stat. 1516, defined “public community agency”, “institution of higher education” and “Secretary”.

A prior section 1019, Pub. L. 89–329, title I, §119, as added Pub. L. 96–374, title I, §101(a), Oct. 3, 1980, 94 Stat. 1383, authorized appropriations for education outreach programs, prior to the general amendment of this subchapter by Pub. L. 99–498.

Part E—Lender and Institution Requirements Relating to Education Loans

§1019. Definitions

In this part:

(1) Agent

The term “agent” means an officer or employee of a covered institution or an institution-affiliated organization.

(2) Covered institution

The term “covered institution” means any institution of higher education, as such term is defined in section 1002 of this title, that receives any Federal funding or assistance.

(3) Education loan

The term “education loan” (except when used as part of the term “private education loan”) means—

(A) any loan made, insured, or guaranteed under part B of subchapter IV;

(B) any loan made under part C of subchapter IV; or

(C) a private education loan.

(4) Eligible lender

The term “eligible lender” has the meaning given such term in section 1085(d) of this title.

(5) Institution-affiliated organization

The term “institution-affiliated organization”—

(A) means any organization that—

(i) is directly or indirectly related to a covered institution; and

(ii) is engaged in the practice of recommending, promoting, or endorsing education loans for students attending such covered institution or the families of such students;


(B) may include an alumni organization, athletic organization, foundation, or social, academic, or professional organization, of a covered institution; and

(C) notwithstanding subparagraphs (A) and (B), does not include any lender with respect to any education loan secured, made, or extended by such lender.

(6) Lender

The term “lender” (except when used as part of the terms “eligible lender” and “private educational lender”)—

(A) means—

(i) in the case of a loan made, insured, or guaranteed under part B of subchapter IV, an eligible lender;

(ii) in the case of any loan issued or provided to a student under part C of subchapter IV, the Secretary; and

(iii) in the case of a private education loan, a private educational lender as defined in section 1650 of title 15; and


(B) includes any other person engaged in the business of securing, making, or extending education loans on behalf of the lender.

(7) Officer

The term “officer” includes a director or trustee of a covered institution or institution-affiliated organization, if such individual is treated as an employee of such covered institution or institution-affiliated organization, respectively.

(8) Preferred lender arrangement

The term “preferred lender arrangement”—

(A) means an arrangement or agreement between a lender and a covered institution or an institution-affiliated organization of such covered institution—

(i) under which a lender provides or otherwise issues education loans to the students attending such covered institution or the families of such students; and

(ii) that relates to such covered institution or such institution-affiliated organization recommending, promoting, or endorsing the education loan products of the lender; and


(B) does not include—

(i) arrangements or agreements with respect to loans under part C of subchapter IV; or

(ii) arrangements or agreements with respect to loans that originate through the auction pilot program under section 1099d(b) of this title.

(9) Private education loan

The term “private education loan” has the meaning given the term in section 1650 of title 15.

(Pub. L. 89–329, title I, §151, as added Pub. L. 110–315, title I, §120, Aug. 14, 2008, 122 Stat. 3117.)

§1019a. Responsibilities of covered institutions, institution-affiliated organizations, and lenders

(a) Responsibilities of covered institutions and institution-affiliated organizations

(1) Disclosures by covered institutions and institution-affiliated organizations

(A) Preferred lender arrangement disclosures

In addition to the disclosures required by subsections (a)(27) and (h) of section 1094 of this title (if applicable), a covered institution, or an institution-affiliated organization of such covered institution, that participates in a preferred lender arrangement shall disclose—

(i) on such covered institution's or institution-affiliated organization's website and in all informational materials described in subparagraph (C) that describe or discuss education loans—

(I) the maximum amount of Federal grant and loan aid under subchapter IV of this chapter and part C of subchapter I of chapter 34 of title 42 available to students, in an easy to understand format;

(II) the information required to be disclosed pursuant to section 1019b(a)(2)(A)(i) of this title, for each type of loan described in section 1019(3)(A) of this title that is offered pursuant to a preferred lender arrangement of the institution or organization to students of the institution or the families of such students; and

(III) a statement that such institution is required to process the documents required to obtain a loan under part B of subchapter IV from any eligible lender the student selects; and


(ii) on such covered institution's or institution-affiliated organization's website and in all informational materials described in subparagraph (C) that describe or discuss private education loans—

(I) in the case of a covered institution, the information that the Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System requires to be disclosed under section 1638(e)(11) of title 15, for each type of private education loan offered pursuant to a preferred lender arrangement of the institution to students of the institution or the families of such students; and

(II) in the case of an institution-affiliated organization of a covered institution, the information the Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System requires to be disclosed under section 1638(e)(1) of title 15, for each type of private education loan offered pursuant to a preferred lender arrangement of the organization to students of such institution or the families of such students.

(B) Private education loan disclosures

A covered institution, or an institution-affiliated organization of such covered institution, that provides information regarding a private education loan from a lender to a prospective borrower shall—

(i) provide the prospective borrower with the information the Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System requires to be disclosed under section 1638(e)(1) of title 15 for such loan;

(ii) inform the prospective borrower that—

(I) the prospective borrower may qualify for loans or other assistance under subchapter IV of this chapter and part C of subchapter I of chapter 34 of title 42; and

(II) the terms and conditions of loans made, insured, or guaranteed under subchapter IV of this chapter and part C of subchapter I of chapter 34 of title 42 may be more favorable than the provisions of private education loans; and


(iii) ensure that information regarding private education loans is presented in such a manner as to be distinct from information regarding loans that are made, insured, or guaranteed under subchapter IV of this chapter and part C of subchapter I of chapter 34 of title 42.

(C) Informational materials

The informational materials described in this subparagraph are publications, mailings, or electronic messages or materials that—

(i) are distributed to prospective or current students of a covered institution and families of such students; and

(ii) describe or discuss the financial aid opportunities available to students at an institution of higher education.

(2) Use of institution name

A covered institution, or an institution-affiliated organization of such covered institution, that enters into a preferred lender arrangement with a lender regarding private education loans shall not agree to the lender's use of the name, emblem, mascot, or logo of such institution or organization, or other words, pictures, or symbols readily identified with such institution or organization, in the marketing of private education loans to students attending such institution in any way that implies that the loan is offered or made by such institution or organization instead of the lender.

(3) Use of lender name

A covered institution, or an institution-affiliated organization of such covered institution, that enters into a preferred lender arrangement with a lender regarding private education loans shall ensure that the name of the lender is displayed in all information and documentation related to such loans.

(b) Lender responsibilities

(1) Disclosures by lenders

(A) Disclosures to borrowers

(i) Federal education loans

For each education loan that is made, insured, or guaranteed under part B or C of subchapter IV (other than a loan made under section 1078–3 of this title or a Federal Direct Consolidation Loan), at or prior to the time the lender disburses such loan, the lender shall provide the prospective borrower or borrower, in writing (including through electronic means), with the disclosures described in subsections (a) and (c) of section 1083 of this title.

(ii) Private education loans

For each of a lender's private education loans, the lender shall comply with the disclosure requirements under section 1638(e) of title 15.

(B) Disclosures to the Secretary

(i) In general

Each lender of a loan made, insured, or guaranteed under part B of subchapter IV shall, on an annual basis, report to the Secretary—

(I) any reasonable expenses paid or provided under section 1085(d)(5)(D) of this title or paragraph (3)(B) or (7) of section 1094(e) of this title to any agent of a covered institution who—

(aa) is employed in the financial aid office of a covered institution; or

(bb) otherwise has responsibilities with respect to education loans or other financial aid of the institution; and


(II) any similar expenses paid or provided to any agent of an institution-affiliated organization who is involved in the practice of recommending, promoting, or endorsing education loans.

(ii) Contents of reports

Each report described in clause (i) shall include—

(I) the amount for each specific instance in which the lender provided such expenses;

(II) the name of any agent described in clause (i) to whom the expenses were paid or provided;

(III) the dates of the activity for which the expenses were paid or provided; and

(IV) a brief description of the activity for which the expenses were paid or provided.

(iii) Report to Congress

The Secretary shall summarize the information received from the lenders under this subparagraph in a report and transmit such report annually to the authorizing committees.

(2) Certification by lenders

Not later than 18 months after August 14, 2008—

(A) in addition to any other disclosure required under Federal law, each lender of a loan made, insured, or guaranteed under part B of subchapter IV that participates in one or more preferred lender arrangements shall annually certify the lender's compliance with the requirements of this chapter and part C of subchapter I of chapter 34 of title 42; and

(B) if an audit of a lender is required pursuant to section 1078(b)(1)(U)(iii) of this title, the lender's compliance with the requirements under this section shall be reported on and attested to annually by the auditor of such lender.

(Pub. L. 89–329, title I, §152, as added Pub. L. 110–315, title I, §120, Aug. 14, 2008, 122 Stat. 3119.)

§1019b. Loan information to be disclosed and model disclosure form for covered institutions, institution-affiliated organizations, and lenders participating in preferred lender arrangements

(a) Duties of the Secretary

(1) Determination of minimum disclosures

(A) In general

Not later than 18 months after August 14, 2008, the Secretary, in coordination with the Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System, shall determine the minimum information that lenders, covered institutions, and institution-affiliated organizations of such covered institutions participating in preferred lender arrangements shall make available regarding education loans described in section 1019(3)(A) of this title that are offered to students and the families of such students.

(B) Consultation and content of minimum disclosures

In carrying out subparagraph (A), the Secretary shall—

(i) consult with students, the families of such students, representatives of covered institutions (including financial aid administrators, admission officers, and business officers), representatives of institution-affiliated organizations, secondary school guidance counselors, lenders, loan servicers, and guaranty agencies;

(ii) include, in the minimum information under subparagraph (A) that is required to be made available, the information that the Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System requires to be disclosed under section 1638(e)(1) of title 15, modified as necessary to apply to such loans; and

(iii) consider the merits of requiring each covered institution, and each institution-affiliated organization of such covered institution, with a preferred lender arrangement to provide to prospective borrowers and the families of such borrowers the following information for each type of education loan offered pursuant to such preferred lender arrangement:

(I) The interest rate and terms and conditions of the loan for the next award year, including loan forgiveness and deferment.

(II) Information on any charges, such as origination and Federal default fees, that are payable on the loan, and whether those charges will be—

(aa) collected by the lender at or prior to the disbursal of the loan, including whether the charges will be deducted from the proceeds of the loan or paid separately by the borrower; or

(bb) paid in whole or in part by the lender.


(III) The annual and aggregate maximum amounts that may be borrowed.

(IV) The average amount borrowed from the lender by students who graduated from such institution in the preceding year with certificates, undergraduate degrees, graduate degrees, and professional degrees, as applicable, and who obtained loans of such type from the lender for the preceding year.

(V) The amount the borrower may pay in interest, based on a standard repayment plan and the average amount borrowed from the lender by students who graduated from such institution in the preceding year and who obtained loans of such type from the lender for the preceding year, for—

(aa) borrowers of loans made under section 1078 of this title;

(bb) borrowers of loans made under section 1078–2 or 1078–8 of this title, who pay the interest while in school; and

(cc) borrowers of loans made under section 1078–2 or 1078–8 of this title, who do not pay the interest while in school.


(VI) The consequences for the borrower of defaulting on a loan, including limitations on the discharge of an education loan in bankruptcy.

(VII) Contact information for the lender.

(VIII) Other information suggested by the persons and entities with whom the Secretary has consulted under clause (i).

(2) Required disclosures

After making the determinations under paragraph (1), the Secretary, in coordination with the Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System and after consultation with the public, shall—

(A)(i) provide that the information determined under paragraph (1) shall be disclosed by covered institutions, and institution-affiliated organizations of such covered institutions, with preferred lender arrangements to prospective borrowers and the families of such borrowers regarding the education loans described in section 1019(3)(A) of this title that are offered pursuant to such preferred lender arrangements; and

(ii) make clear that such covered institutions and institution-affiliated organizations may provide the required information on a form designed by the institution or organization instead of the model disclosure form described in subparagraph (B);

(B) develop a model disclosure form that may be used by covered institutions, institution-affiliated organizations, and preferred lenders that includes all of the information required under subparagraph (A)(i) in a format that—

(i) is easily usable by students, families, institutions, institution-affiliated organizations, lenders, loan servicers, and guaranty agencies; and

(ii) is similar in format to the form developed by the Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System under paragraphs (1) and (5)(A) of section 1638(e) 1 of title 15, in order to permit students and the families of students to easily compare private education loans and education loans described in section 1019(3)(A) of this title; and


(C) update such model disclosure form periodically, as necessary.

(b) Duties of lenders

Each lender that has a preferred lender arrangement with a covered institution, or an institution-affiliated organization of such covered institution, with respect to education loans described in section 1019(3)(A) of this title shall annually, by a date determined by the Secretary, provide to such covered institution or such institution-affiliated organization, and to the Secretary, the information the Secretary requires pursuant to subsection (a)(2)(A)(i) for each type of education loan described in section 1019(3)(A) of this title that the lender plans to offer pursuant to such preferred lender arrangement to students attending such covered institution, or to the families of such students, for the next award year.

(c) Duties of covered institutions and institution-affiliated organizations

(1) Providing information to students and families

(A) In general

Each covered institution, and each institution-affiliated organization of such covered institution, that has a preferred lender arrangement shall provide the following information to students attending such institution, or the families of such students, as applicable:

(i) The information the Secretary requires pursuant to subsection (a)(2)(A)(i), for each type of education loan described in section 1019(3)(A) of this title offered pursuant to a preferred lender arrangement to students of such institution or the families of such students.

(ii)(I) In the case of a covered institution, the information that the Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System requires to be disclosed under section 1638(e)(11) of title 15 to the covered institution, for each type of private education loan offered pursuant to such preferred lender arrangement to students of such institution or the families of such students.

(II) In the case of an institution-affiliated organization, the information the Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System requires to be disclosed under section 1638(e)(1) of title 15, for each type of private education loan offered pursuant to such preferred lender arrangement to students of the institution with which such organization is affiliated or the families of such students.

(B) Timely provision of information

The information described in subparagraph (A) shall be provided in a manner that allows for the students or the families to take such information into account before selecting a lender or applying for an education loan.

(2) Annual report

Each covered institution, and each institution-affiliated organization of such covered institution, that has a preferred lender arrangement, shall—

(A) prepare and submit to the Secretary an annual report, by a date determined by the Secretary, that includes, for each lender that has a preferred lender arrangement with such covered institution or organization—

(i) the information described in clauses (i) and (ii) of paragraph (1)(A); and

(ii) a detailed explanation of why such covered institution or institution-affiliated organization entered into a preferred lender arrangement with the lender, including why the terms, conditions, and provisions of each type of education loan provided pursuant to the preferred lender arrangement are beneficial for students attending such institution, or the families of such students, as applicable; and


(B) ensure that the report required under subparagraph (A) is made available to the public and provided to students attending or planning to attend such covered institution and the families of such students.

(3) Code of conduct

(A) In general

Each covered institution, and each institution-affiliated organization of such covered institution, that has a preferred lender arrangement, shall comply with the code of conduct requirements of subparagraphs (A) through (C) of section 1094(a)(25) of this title.

(B) Applicable code of conduct

For purposes of subparagraph (A), an institution-affiliated organization of a covered institution shall—

(i) comply with the code of conduct developed and published by such covered institution under subparagraphs (A) and (B) of section 1094(a)(25) of this title;

(ii) if such institution-affiliated organization has a website, publish such code of conduct prominently on the website; and

(iii) administer and enforce such code of conduct by, at a minimum, requiring that all of such organization's agents with responsibilities with respect to education loans be annually informed of the provisions of such code of conduct.

(Pub. L. 89–329, title I, §153, as added Pub. L. 110–315, title I, §120, Aug. 14, 2008, 122 Stat. 3122; amended Pub. L. 111–39, title I, §101(b)(6), July 1, 2009, 123 Stat. 1935.)

References in Text

Section 1638(e) of title 15, referred to in subsec. (a)(2)(B)(ii), was in the original “section 128(e)”, and was translated as meaning section 128(e) of Pub. L. 90–321, which is classified to section 1638(e) of title 15, to reflect the probable intent of Congress.

Amendments

2009—Subsec. (a)(1)(B)(iii)(V). Pub. L. 111–39 substituted “borrowers of loans made under” for “borrowers who take out loans under” wherever appearing.

Effective Date of 2009 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 111–39 effective as if enacted on the date of enactment of Pub. L. 110–315 (Aug. 14, 2008), see section 3 of Pub. L. 111–39, set out as a note under section 1001 of this title.

1 See References in Text note below.

§1019c. Loan information to be disclosed and model disclosure form for institutions participating in the William D. Ford Federal Direct Loan Program

(a) Provision of disclosures to institutions by the Secretary

Not later than 180 days after the development of the model disclosure form under section 1019b(a)(2)(B) of this title, the Secretary shall provide each institution of higher education participating in the William D. Ford Direct Loan Program under part C of subchapter IV with a completed model disclosure form including the same information for Federal Direct Stafford Loans, Federal Direct Unsubsidized Stafford Loans, and Federal Direct PLUS loans made to, or on behalf of, students attending each such institution as is required on such form for loans described in section 1019(3)(A) of this title.

(b) Duties of institutions

(1) In general

Each institution of higher education participating in the William D. Ford Direct Loan Program under part C of subchapter IV shall—

(A) make the information the Secretary provides to the institution under subsection (a) available to students attending or planning to attend the institution, or the families of such students, as applicable; and

(B) if the institution provides information regarding a private education loan to a prospective borrower, concurrently provide such borrower with the information the Secretary provides to the institution under subsection (a).

(2) Choice of forms

In providing the information required under paragraph (1), an institution of higher education may use a comparable form designed by the institution instead of the model disclosure form developed under section 1019b(a)(2)(B) of this title.

(Pub. L. 89–329, title I, §154, as added Pub. L. 110–315, title I, §120, Aug. 14, 2008, 122 Stat. 3125.)

§1019d. Self-certification form for private education loans

(a) In general

The Secretary, in consultation with the Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System, shall develop the self-certification form for private education loans that shall be used to satisfy the requirements of section 1638(e)(3) of title 15. Such form shall—

(1) be developed in a standardized format;

(2) be made available to the applicant by the relevant institution of higher education, in written or electronic form, upon request of the applicant;

(3) contain only disclosures that—

(A) the applicant may qualify for Federal student financial assistance through a program under subchapter IV of this chapter and part C of subchapter I of chapter 34 of title 42, or State or institutional student financial assistance, in place of, or in addition to, a private education loan;

(B) the applicant is encouraged to discuss the availability of Federal, State, and institutional student financial assistance with financial aid officials at the applicant's institution of higher education;

(C) a private education loan may affect the applicant's eligibility for free or low-cost Federal, State or institutional student financial assistance; and

(D) the information that the applicant is required to provide on the form is available from officials at the financial aid office of the institution of higher education;


(4) include a place to provide information on—

(A) the applicant's cost of attendance at the institution of higher education, as determined by the institution under part E of subchapter IV;

(B) the applicant's estimated financial assistance, including amounts of financial assistance used to replace the expected family contribution, as determined by the institution, in accordance with subchapter IV of this chapter and part C of subchapter I of chapter 34 of title 42, for students who have completed the Free Application for Federal Student Aid; and

(C) the difference between the amounts under subparagraphs (A) and (B), as applicable; and


(5) include a place for the applicant's signature, in written or electronic form.

(b) Limit on liability

Nothing in this section shall be construed to create a private right of action against an institution of higher education with respect to the form developed under subsection (a).

(Pub. L. 89–329, title I, §155, as added Pub. L. 110–315, title X, §1021(b), Aug. 14, 2008, 122 Stat. 3487; amended Pub. L. 111–39, title I, §101(b)(7), July 1, 2009, 123 Stat. 1935.)

Amendments

2009—Subsec. (a)(4). Pub. L. 111–39 added par. (4) and struck out former par. (4) which read as follows: “include a place to provide information on—

“(A) the applicant's cost of attendance at the institution of higher education, as determined by the institution under Part E of subchapter IV;

“(B) the applicant's expected family contribution, as determined under Part E of subchapter IV, as applicable, for students who have completed the free application for Federal student aid;

“(C) the applicant's estimated financial assistance, as determined by the institution, in accordance with subchapter IV of this chapter and part C of subchapter I of chapter 34 of title 42, as applicable;

“(D) the difference between the amounts under subparagraphs (A) and (C), as applicable; and

“(E) the sum of the amounts under subparagraphs (B) and (D), as applicable; and”.

Effective Date of 2009 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 111–39 effective as if enacted on the date of enactment of Pub. L. 110–315 (Aug. 14, 2008), see section 3 of Pub. L. 111–39, set out as a note under section 1001 of this title.