Deposits of coal, phosphate, sodium, potassium, oil, oil shale, gilsonite (including all vein-type solid hydrocarbons), or gas, and lands containing such deposits owned by the United States, including those in national forests, but excluding lands acquired under the Appalachian Forest Act, approved March 1, 1911 (36 Stat. 961), and those in incorporated cities, towns, and villages and in national parks and monuments, those acquired under other Acts subsequent to February 25, 1920, and lands within the naval petroleum and oil-shale reserves, except as hereinafter provided, shall be subject to disposition in the form and manner provided by this chapter to citizens of the United States, or to associations of such citizens, or to any corporation organized under the laws of the United States, or of any State or Territory thereof, or in the case of coal, oil, oil shale, or gas, to municipalities. Citizens of another country, the laws, customs, or regulations of which deny similar or like privileges to citizens or corporations of this country, shall not by stock ownership, stock holding, or stock control, own any interest in any lease acquired under the provisions of this chapter.
The term “oil” shall embrace all nongaseous hydrocarbon substances other than those substances leasable as coal, oil shale, or gilsonite (including all vein-type solid hydrocarbons).
The term “combined hydrocarbon lease” shall refer to a lease issued in a special tar sand area pursuant to section 226 of this title after November 16, 1981.
The term “special tar sand area” means (1) an area designated by the Secretary of the Interior's orders of November 20, 1980 (45 FR 76800–76801) and January 21, 1981 (46 FR 6077–6078) as containing substantial deposits of tar sand.
The United States reserves the ownership of and the right to extract helium from all gas produced from lands leased or otherwise granted under the provisions of this chapter, under such rules and regulations as shall be prescribed by the Secretary of the Interior: Provided further, That in the extraction of helium from gas produced from such lands it shall be so extracted as to cause no substantial delay in the delivery of gas produced from the well to the purchaser thereof.
(Feb. 25, 1920, ch. 85, §1, 41 Stat. 437; Feb. 7, 1927, ch. 66, §5, 44 Stat. 1058; Aug. 8, 1946, ch. 916, §1, 60 Stat. 950; Pub. L. 86–705, §7(a), Sept. 2, 1960, 74 Stat. 790; Pub. L. 97–78, §1(1), (4), Nov. 16, 1981, 95 Stat. 1070.)
The Appalachian Forest Act, referred to in the first undesignated paragraph, is act Mar. 1, 1911, ch. 186, 36 Stat. 961, as amended, also known as the Weeks Law, which is classified to sections 480, 500, 513 to 519, 521, 552 and 563 of Title 16, Conservation. For complete classification of this Act to the Code, see Short Title note set out under section 552 of Title 16 and Tables.
1981—Pub. L. 97–78, in first par., substituted “gilsonite (including all vein-type solid hydrocarbons),” for “native asphalt, solid and semisolid bitumen, and bituminous rock (including oil-impregnated rock or sands from which oil is recoverable only by special treatment after the deposit is mined or quarried)”, and added, after first par. three paragraphs which defined “oil”, “combined hydrocarbon lease”, and “special tar sand area”, respectively.
1960—Pub. L. 86–705 included deposits of native asphalt, solid and semisolid bitumen, and bituminous rock.
1946—Act Aug. 8, 1946, reenacted: existing par., less three provisos, as first sentence of first par., inserting “potassium” after “sodium”, which was also included in the 1927 amendment, and substituting provision for disposition of deposits “in incorporated cities, towns, and villages, and in national parks and monuments, those acquired under other Acts subsequent to February 25, 1920, and lands within the naval petroleum and oil-shale reserves” for such disposition “in national parks, and in lands withdrawn or reserved for military or naval uses or purposes” and phrase “associations of such citizens” for “any association of such persons”; former third proviso as second sentence of first par.; former first proviso, as second par., inserting reservation of ownership provision and striking out “permitted” before “leased or otherwise granted”; and former second proviso as proviso in second par.
1927—Act Feb. 7, 1927, included deposits of potassium.
Pub. L. 106–463, §1, Nov. 7, 2000, 114 Stat. 2010, provided that: “This Act [amending section 184 of this title and enacting provisions set out as a note under section 184 of this title] may be cited as the ‘Coal Market Competition Act of 2000’.”
Pub. L. 106–393, title V, §501, Oct. 30, 2000, 114 Stat. 1624, provided that: “This title [amending section 191 of this title and enacting provisions set out as a note under section 191 of this title] may be cited as the ‘Mineral Revenue Payments Clarification Act of 2000’.”
Pub. L. 100–203, title V, §5101(a), Dec. 22, 1987, 101 Stat. 1330–256, provided that: “This subtitle [subtitle B (§§5101–5113) of Pub. L. 100–203, enacting sections 195 and 226–3 of this title, amending sections 187a, 187b, 188, 191, and 226 of this title and section 3148 of Title 16, Conservation, and enacting provisions set out as notes under this section and section 226 of this title] may be cited as the ‘Federal Onshore Oil and Gas Leasing Reform Act of 1987’.”
Pub. L. 97–78, Nov. 16, 1981, 95 Stat. 1070, which amended this section and sections 182, 184, 209, 226, 241, 351, and 352 of this title and enacted provisions set out as a note under this section, is popularly known as the “Combined Hydrocarbon Leasing Act of 1981”.
Pub. L. 94–377, §1(a), Aug. 4, 1976, 90 Stat. 1083, as amended by Pub. L. 95–554, §8, Oct. 30, 1978, 92 Stat. 2075, provided that: “This Act [enacting sections 202a, 208–1, and 208–2 of this title, amending sections 184, 191, 201, 203, 207, 209, and 352 of this title, repealing sections 201–1 and 204 of this title, and enacting provisions set out as notes under sections 184, 201, 201–1, 203, and 204 of this title] may be cited as the ‘Federal Coal Leasing Amendments Act of 1976’.”
Pub. L. 86–705, §1, Sept. 2, 1960, 74 Stat. 781, provided: “That this Act [amending this section and sections 182, 184, 187a, 226, 226–1, 226–2, and 241 of this title, and enacted provisions set out as notes under sections 187a and 226 of this title] may be cited as the ‘Mineral Leasing Act Revision of 1960’.”
Act Feb. 25, 1920, ch. 85, §44, as added Dec. 22, 1987, Pub. L. 100–203, title V, §5113, 101 Stat. 1330–263, provided that: “This Act [enacting this chapter] may be cited as the ‘Mineral Leasing Act’.”
This chapter is also popularly known as the “Mineral Leasing Act of 1920” and the “Mineral Lands Leasing Act”.
Provisions of Federal Land Policy and Management Act of 1976, Pub. L. 94–579, Oct. 21, 1976, 90 Stat. 2743, not to be construed as permitting any person to place, or allow to be placed, spent oil shale, etc., on any Federal land other than land leased for the recovery of shale oil under the act of Feb. 25, 1920, section 181 et seq. of this title, see section 701(d) of Pub. L. 94–579, set out as a note under section 1701 of Title 43, Public Lands.
Act Aug. 8, 1946, ch. 916, §15, 60 Stat. 950, provided: “No repeal or amendment made by this Act [enacting sections 187a, 187b, 226c–226e, and 236b, amending this section and sections 184, 188, 193, 209, 225, 226, and 285, and repealing sections 223a, 226a, and 226b of this title] shall affect any right acquired under the law as it existed prior to such repeal or amendment, and such right shall be governed by the law in effect at the time of its acquisition; but any person holding a lease on the effective date of this Act [Aug. 8, 1946] may, by filing a statement to that effect, elect to have his lease governed by the applicable provisions of this Act instead of by the law in effect prior thereto.”
Pub. L. 97–78, §1(10), (11), Nov. 16, 1981, 95 Stat. 1072, provided that:
“(10) Nothing in this Act [see Short Title of 1981 Amendment note above] shall affect the taxable status of production from tar sand under the Crude Oil Windfall Profit Tax Act of 1980 (Public Law 96–223) [see Tables for classification], reduce the depletion allowance for production from tar sand, or otherwise affect the existing tax status applicable to such production.
“(11) No provision of this Act [see Short Title of 1981 Amendment note above] shall apply to national parks, national monuments, or other lands where mineral leasing is prohibited by law. The Secretary of the Interior shall apply the provisions of this Act to the Glen Canyon National Recreation Area, and to any other units of the national park system where mineral leasing is permitted, in accordance with any applicable minerals management plan if the Secretary finds that there will be no resulting significant adverse impacts on the administration of such area, or on other contiguous units of the national park system.”
Admission of Alaska into the Union was accomplished Jan. 3, 1959, on issuance of Proc. No. 3269, Jan. 3, 1959, 24 F.R. 81, 73 Stat. c16, as required by sections 1 and 8(c) of Pub. L. 85–508, July 7, 1958, 72 Stat. 339, set out as notes preceding section 21 of Title 48, Territories and Insular Possessions.
Selection of lands by Alaska from lands made available by Statehood provisions including lands subject to leases, permits, licenses or contracts issued under this chapter, see section 6(h) of Pub. L. 85–508, set out as note preceding section 21 of Title 48.
Grant by the Secretary of the Interior of mineral leases on submerged lands of outer Continental Shelf, see section 1331 et seq., of Title 43, Public Lands.