8 U.S.C.
United States Code, 2012 Edition
Title 8 - ALIENS AND NATIONALITY
CHAPTER 12 - IMMIGRATION AND NATIONALITY
SUBCHAPTER IV - REFUGEE ASSISTANCE
Sec. 1522 - Authorization for programs for domestic resettlement of and assistance to refugees
From the U.S. Government Printing Office, www.gpo.gov

§1522. Authorization for programs for domestic resettlement of and assistance to refugees

(a) Conditions and considerations

(1)(A) In providing assistance under this section, the Director shall, to the extent of available appropriations, (i) make available sufficient resources for employment training and placement in order to achieve economic self-sufficiency among refugees as quickly as possible, (ii) provide refugees with the opportunity to acquire sufficient English language training to enable them to become effectively resettled as quickly as possible, (iii) insure that cash assistance is made available to refugees in such a manner as not to discourage their economic self-sufficiency, in accordance with subsection (e)(2) of this section, and (iv) insure that women have the same opportunities as men to participate in training and instruction.

(B) It is the intent of Congress that in providing refugee assistance under this section—

(i) employable refugees should be placed on jobs as soon as possible after their arrival in the United States;

(ii) social service funds should be focused on employment-related services, English-as-a-second-language training (in nonwork hours where possible), and case-management services; and

(iii) local voluntary agency activities should be conducted in close cooperation and advance consultation with State and local governments.


(2)(A) The Director and the Federal agency administering subsection (b)(1) of this section shall consult regularly (not less often than quarterly) with State and local governments and private nonprofit voluntary agencies concerning the sponsorship process and the intended distribution of refugees among the States and localities before their placement in those States and localities.

(B) The Director shall develop and implement, in consultation with representatives of voluntary agencies and State and local governments, policies and strategies for the placement and resettlement of refugees within the United States.

(C) Such policies and strategies, to the extent practicable and except under such unusual circumstances as the Director may recognize, shall—

(i) insure that a refugee is not initially placed or resettled in an area highly impacted (as determined under regulations prescribed by the Director after consultation with such agencies and governments) by the presence of refugees or comparable populations unless the refugee has a spouse, parent, sibling, son, or daughter residing in that area,

(ii) provide for a mechanism whereby representatives of local affiliates of voluntary agencies regularly (not less often than quarterly) meet with representatives of State and local governments to plan and coordinate in advance of their arrival the appropriate placement of refugees among the various States and localities, and

(iii) take into account—

(I) the proportion of refugees and comparable entrants in the population in the area,

(II) the availability of employment opportunities, affordable housing, and public and private resources (including educational, health care, and mental health services) for refugees in the area,

(III) the likelihood of refugees placed in the area becoming self-sufficient and free from long-term dependence on public assistance, and

(IV) the secondary migration of refugees to and from the area that is likely to occur.


(D) With respect to the location of placement of refugees within a State, the Federal agency administering subsection (b)(1) of this section shall, consistent with such policies and strategies and to the maximum extent possible, take into account recommendations of the State.

(3) In the provision of domestic assistance under this section, the Director shall make a periodic assessment, based on refugee population and other relevant factors, of the relative needs of refugees for assistance and services under this subchapter and the resources available to meet such needs. The Director shall compile and maintain data on secondary migration of refugees within the United States and, by State of residence and nationality, on the proportion of refugees receiving cash or medical assistance described in subsection (e) of this section. In allocating resources, the Director shall avoid duplication of services and provide for maximum coordination between agencies providing related services.

(4)(A) No grant or contract may be awarded under this section unless an appropriate proposal and application (including a description of the agency's ability to perform the services specified in the proposal) are submitted to, and approved by, the appropriate administering official. Grants and contracts under this section shall be made to those agencies which the appropriate administering official determines can best perform the services. Payments may be made for activities authorized under this subchapter in advance or by way of reimbursement. In carrying out this section, the Director, the Secretary of State, and any such other appropriate administering official are authorized—

(i) to make loans, and

(ii) to accept and use money, funds, property, and services of any kind made available by gift, devise, bequest, grant, or otherwise for the purpose of carrying out this section.


(B) No funds may be made available under this subchapter (other than under subsection (b)(1) of this section) to States or political subdivisions in the form of block grants, per capita grants, or similar consolidated grants or contracts. Such funds shall be made available under separate grants or contracts—

(i) for medical screening and initial medical treatment under subsection (b)(5) of this section,

(ii) for services for refugees under subsection (c)(1) of this section,

(iii) for targeted assistance project grants under subsection (c)(2) of this section, and

(iv) for assistance for refugee children under subsection (d)(2) of this section.


(C) The Director may not delegate to a State or political subdivision his authority to review or approve grants or contracts under this subchapter or the terms under which such grants or contracts are made.

(5) Assistance and services funded under this section shall be provided to refugees without regard to race, religion, nationality, sex, or political opinion.

(6) As a condition for receiving assistance under this section, a State must—

(A) submit to the Director a plan which provides—

(i) a description of how the State intends to encourage effective refugee resettlement and to promote economic self-sufficiency as quickly as possible,

(ii) a description of how the State will insure that language training and employment services are made available to refugees receiving cash assistance,

(iii) for the designation of an individual, employed by the State, who will be responsible for insuring coordination of public and private resources in refugee resettlement,

(iv) for the care and supervision of and legal responsibility for unaccompanied refugee children in the State, and

(v) for the identification of refugees who at the time of resettlement in the State are determined to have medical conditions requiring, or medical histories indicating a need for, treatment or observation and such monitoring of such treatment or observation as may be necessary;


(B) meet standards, goals, and priorities, developed by the Director, which assure the effective resettlement of refugees and which promote their economic self-sufficiency as quickly as possible and the efficient provision of services; and

(C) submit to the Director, within a reasonable period of time after the end of each fiscal year, a report on the uses of funds provided under this subchapter which the State is responsible for administering.


(7) The Secretary, together with the Secretary of State with respect to assistance provided by the Secretary of State under subsection (b) of this section, shall develop a system of monitoring the assistance provided under this section. This system shall include—

(A) evaluations of the effectiveness of the programs funded under this section and the performance of States, grantees, and contractors;

(B) financial auditing and other appropriate monitoring to detect any fraud, abuse, or mismanagement in the operation of such programs; and

(C) data collection on the services provided and the results achieved.


(8) The Attorney General shall provide the Director with information supplied by refugees in conjunction with their applications to the Attorney General for adjustment of status, and the Director shall compile, summarize, and evaluate such information.

(9) The Secretary, the Secretary of Education, the Attorney General, and the Secretary of State may issue such regulations as each deems appropriate to carry out this subchapter.

(10) For purposes of this subchapter, the term “refugee” includes any alien described in section 1157(c)(2) of this title.

(b) Program of initial resettlement

(1)(A) For—

(i) fiscal years 1980 and 1981, the Secretary of State is authorized, and

(ii) fiscal year 1982 and succeeding fiscal years, the Director (except as provided in subparagraph (B)) is authorized,


to make grants to, and contracts with, public or private nonprofit agencies for initial resettlement (including initial reception and placement with sponsors) of refugees in the United States. Grants to, or contracts with, private nonprofit voluntary agencies under this paragraph shall be made consistent with the objectives of this subchapter, taking into account the different resettlement approaches and practices of such agencies. Resettlement assistance under this paragraph shall be provided in coordination with the Director's provision of other assistance under this subchapter. Funds provided to agencies under such grants and contracts may only be obligated or expended during the fiscal year in which they are provided (or the subsequent fiscal year or such subsequent fiscal period as the Federal contracting agency may approve) to carry out the purposes of this subsection.

(B) If the President determines that the Director should not administer the program under this paragraph, the authority of the Director under the first sentence of subparagraph (A) shall be exercised by such officer as the President shall from time to time specify.

(2) The Director is authorized to develop programs for such orientation, instruction in English, and job training for refugees, and such other education and training of refugees, as facilitates their resettlement in the United States. The Director is authorized to implement such programs, in accordance with the provisions of this section, with respect to refugees in the United States. The Secretary of State is authorized to implement such programs with respect to refugees awaiting entry into the United States.

(3) The Secretary is authorized to make arrangements (including cooperative arrangements with other Federal agencies) for the temporary care of refugees in the United States in emergency circumstances, including the establishment of processing centers, if necessary, without regard to such provisions of law (other than the Renegotiation Act of 1951 [50 U.S.C. App. 1211 et seq.] and section 1524(b) of this title) regulating the making, performance, amendment, or modification of contracts and the expenditure of funds of the United States Government as the Secretary may specify.

(4) The Secretary shall—

(A) assure that an adequate number of trained staff are available at the location at which the refugees enter the United States to assure that all necessary medical records are available and in proper order;

(B) provide for the identification of refugees who have been determined to have medical conditions affecting the public health and requiring treatment;

(C) assure that State or local health officials at the resettlement destination within the United States of each refugee are promptly notified of the refugee's arrival and provided with all applicable medical records; and

(D) provide for such monitoring of refugees identified under subparagraph (B) as will insure that they receive appropriate and timely treatment.


The Secretary shall develop and implement methods for monitoring and assessing the quality of medical screening and related health services provided to refugees awaiting resettlement in the United States.

(5) The Director is authorized to make grants to, and enter into contracts with, State and local health agencies for payments to meet their costs of providing medical screening and initial medical treatment to refugees.

(6) The Comptroller General shall directly conduct an annual financial audit of funds expended under each grant or contract made under paragraph (1) for fiscal year 1986 and for fiscal year 1987.

(7) Each grant or contract with an agency under paragraph (1) shall require the agency to do the following:

(A) To provide quarterly performance and financial status reports to the Federal agency administering paragraph (1).

(B)(i) To provide, directly or through its local affiliate, notice to the appropriate county or other local welfare office at the time that the agency becomes aware that a refugee is offered employment and to provide notice to the refugee that such notice has been provided, and

(ii) upon request of such a welfare office to which a refugee has applied for cash assistance, to furnish that office with documentation respecting any cash or other resources provided directly by the agency to the refugee under this subsection.

(C) To assure that refugees, known to the agency as having been identified pursuant to paragraph (4)(B) as having medical conditions affecting the public health and requiring treatment, report to the appropriate county or other health agency upon their resettlement in an area.

(D) To fulfill its responsibility to provide for the basic needs (including food, clothing, shelter, and transportation for job interviews and training) of each refugee resettled and to develop and implement a resettlement plan including the early employment of each refugee resettled and to monitor the implementation of such plan.

(E) To transmit to the Federal agency administering paragraph (1) an annual report describing the following:

(i) The number of refugees placed (by county of placement) and the expenditures made in the year under the grant or contract, including the proportion of such expenditures used for administrative purposes and for provision of services.

(ii) The proportion of refugees placed by the agency in the previous year who are receiving cash or medical assistance described in subsection (e) of this section.

(iii) The efforts made by the agency to monitor placement of the refugees and the activities of local affiliates of the agency.

(iv) The extent to which the agency has coordinated its activities with local social service providers in a manner which avoids duplication of activities and has provided notices to local welfare offices and the reporting of medical conditions of certain aliens to local health departments in accordance with subparagraphs (B)(i) and (C).

(v) Such other information as the agency administering paragraph (1) deems to be appropriate in monitoring the effectiveness of agencies in carrying out their functions under such grants and contracts.


The agency administering paragraph (1) shall promptly forward a copy of each annual report transmitted under subparagraph (E) to the Committees on the Judiciary of the House of Representatives and of the Senate.

(8) The Federal agency administering paragraph (1) shall establish criteria for the performance of agencies under grants and contracts under that paragraph, and shall include criteria relating to an agency's—

(A) efforts to reduce welfare dependency among refugees resettled by that agency,

(B) collection of travel loans made to refugees resettled by that agency for travel to the United States,

(C) arranging for effective local sponsorship and other nonpublic assistance for refugees resettled by that agency,

(D) cooperation with refugee mutual assistance associations, local social service providers, health agencies, and welfare offices,

(E) compliance with the guidelines established by the Director for the placement and resettlement of refugees within the United States, and

(F) compliance with other requirements contained in the grant or contract, including the reporting and other requirements under subsection (b)(7) of this section.


The Federal administering agency shall use the criteria in the process of awarding or renewing grants and contracts under paragraph (1).

(c) Project grants and contracts for services for refugees

(1)(A) The Director is authorized to make grants to, and enter into contracts with, public or private nonprofit agencies for projects specifically designed—

(i) to assist refugees in obtaining the skills which are necessary for economic self-sufficiency, including projects for job training, employment services, day care, professional refresher training, and other recertification services;

(ii) to provide training in English where necessary (regardless of whether the refugees are employed or receiving cash or other assistance); and

(iii) to provide where specific needs have been shown and recognized by the Director, health (including mental health) services, social services, educational and other services.


(B) The funds available for a fiscal year for grants and contracts under subparagraph (A) shall be allocated among the States based on the total number of refugees (including children and adults) who arrived in the United States not more than 36 months before the beginning of such fiscal year and who are actually residing in each State (taking into account secondary migration) as of the beginning of the fiscal year.

(C) Any limitation which the Director establishes on the proportion of funds allocated to a State under this paragraph that the State may use for services other than those described in subsection (a)(1)(B)(ii) of this section shall not apply if the Director receives a plan (established by or in consultation with local governments) and determines that the plan provides for the maximum appropriate provision of employment-related services for, and the maximum placement of, employable refugees consistent with performance standards established under section 106 of the Job Training Partnership Act.

(2)(A) The Director is authorized to make grants to States for assistance to counties and similar areas in the States where, because of factors such as unusually large refugee populations (including secondary migration), high refugee concentrations, and high use of public assistance by refugees, there exists and can be demonstrated a specific need for supplementation of available resources for services to refugees.

(B) Grants shall be made available under this paragraph—

(i) primarily for the purpose of facilitating refugee employment and achievement of self-sufficiency,

(ii) in a manner that does not supplant other refugee program funds and that assures that not less than 95 percent of the amount of the grant award is made available to the county or other local entity.

(d) Assistance for refugee children

(1) The Secretary of Education is authorized to make grants, and enter into contracts, for payments for projects to provide special educational services (including English language training) to refugee children in elementary and secondary schools where a demonstrated need has been shown.

(2)(A) The Director is authorized to provide assistance, reimbursement to States, and grants to and contracts with public and private nonprofit agencies, for the provision of child welfare services, including foster care maintenance payments and services and health care, furnished to any refugee child (except as provided in subparagraph (B)) during the thirty-six month period beginning with the first month in which such refugee child is in the United States.

(B)(i) In the case of a refugee child who is unaccompanied by a parent or other close adult relative (as defined by the Director), the services described in subparagraph (A) may be furnished until the month after the child attains eighteen years of age (or such higher age as the State's child welfare services plan under part B of title IV of the Social Security Act [42 U.S.C. 620 et seq.] prescribes for the availability of such services to any other child in that State).

(ii) The Director shall attempt to arrange for the placement under the laws of the States of such unaccompanied refugee children, who have been accepted for admission to the United States, before (or as soon as possible after) their arrival in the United States. During any interim period while such a child is in the United States or in transit to the United States but before the child is so placed, the Director shall assume legal responsibility (including financial responsibility) for the child, if necessary, and is authorized to make necessary decisions to provide for the child's immediate care.

(iii) In carrying out the Director's responsibilities under clause (ii), the Director is authorized to enter into contracts with appropriate public or private nonprofit agencies under such conditions as the Director determines to be appropriate.

(iv) The Director shall prepare and maintain a list of (I) all such unaccompanied children who have entered the United States after April 1, 1975, (II) the names and last known residences of their parents (if living) at the time of arrival, and (III) the children's location, status, and progress.

(e) Cash assistance and medical assistance to refugees

(1) The Director is authorized to provide assistance, reimbursement to States, and grants to, and contracts with, public or private nonprofit agencies for 100 per centum of the cash assistance and medical assistance provided to any refugee during the thirty-six month period beginning with the first month in which such refugee has entered the United States and for the identifiable and reasonable administrative costs of providing this assistance.

(2)(A) Cash assistance provided under this subsection to an employable refugee is conditioned, except for good cause shown—

(i) on the refugee's registration with an appropriate agency providing employment services described in subsection (c)(1)(A)(i) of this section, or, if there is no such agency available, with an appropriate State or local employment service;

(ii) on the refugee's participation in any available and appropriate social service or targeted assistance program (funded under subsection (c) of this section) providing job or language training in the area in which the refugee resides; and

(iii) on the refugee's acceptance of appropriate offers of employment.


(B) Cash assistance shall not be made available to refugees who are full-time students in institutions of higher education (as defined by the Director after consultation with the Secretary of Education).

(C) In the case of a refugee who—

(i) refuses an offer of employment which has been determined to be appropriate either by the agency responsible for the initial resettlement of the refugee under subsection (b) of this section or by the appropriate State or local employment service,

(ii) refuses to go to a job interview which has been arranged through such agency or service, or

(iii) refuses to participate in a social service or targeted assistance program referred to in subparagraph (A)(ii) which such agency or service determines to be available and appropriate,


cash assistance to the refugee shall be terminated (after opportunity for an administrative hearing) for a period of three months (for the first such refusal) or for a period of six months (for any subsequent refusal).

(3) The Director shall develop plans to provide English training and other appropriate services and training to refugees receiving cash assistance.

(4) If a refugee is eligible for aid or assistance under a State program funded under part A of title IV or under title XIX of the Social Security Act [42 U.S.C. 601 et seq., 1396 et seq.], or for supplemental security income benefits (including State supplementary payments) under the program established under title XVI of that Act [42 U.S.C. 1381 et seq.], funds authorized under this subsection shall only be used for the non-Federal share of such aid or assistance, or for such supplementary payments, with respect to cash and medical assistance provided with respect to such refugee under this paragraph.

(5) The Director is authorized to allow for the provision of medical assistance under paragraph (1) to any refugee, during the one-year period after entry, who does not qualify for assistance under a State plan approved under title XIX of the Social Security Act [42 U.S.C. 1396 et seq.] on account of any resources or income requirement of such plan, but only if the Director determines that—

(A) this will (i) encourage economic self-sufficiency, or (ii) avoid a significant burden on State and local governments; and

(B) the refugee meets such alternative financial resources and income requirements as the Director shall establish.


(6) As a condition for receiving assistance, reimbursement, or a contract under this subsection and notwithstanding any other provision of law, a State or agency must provide assurances that whenever a refugee applies for cash or medical assistance for which assistance or reimbursement is provided under this subsection, the State or agency must notify promptly the agency (or local affiliate) which provided for the initial resettlement of the refugee under subsection (b) of this section of the fact that the refugee has so applied.

(7)(A) The Secretary shall develop and implement alternative projects for refugees who have been in the United States less than thirty-six months, under which refugees are provided interim support, medical services, support services, and case management, as needed, in a manner that encourages self-sufficiency, reduces welfare dependency, and fosters greater coordination among the resettlement agencies and service providers. The Secretary may permit alternative projects to cover specific groups of refugees who have been in the United States 36 months or longer if the Secretary determines that refugees in the group have been significantly and disproportionately dependent on welfare and need the services provided under the project in order to become self-sufficient and that their coverage under the projects would be cost-effective.

(B) Refugees covered under such alternative projects shall be precluded from receiving cash or medical assistance under any other paragraph of this subsection or under title XIX or part A of title IV of the Social Security Act [42 U.S.C. 1396 et seq., 601 et seq.].

(C) The Secretary shall report to Congress not later than October 31, 1985, on the results of these projects and on any recommendations respecting changes in the refugee assistance program under this section to take into account such results.

(D) To the extent that the use of such funds is consistent with the purposes of such provisions, funds appropriated under section 1524(a) of this title, part A of title IV of the Social Security Act [42 U.S.C. 601 et seq.], or title XIX of such Act [42 U.S.C. 1396 et seq.], may be used for the purpose of implementing and evaluating alternative projects under this paragraph.

(8) In its provision of assistance to refugees, a State or political subdivision shall consider the recommendations of, and assistance provided by, agencies with grants or contracts under subsection (b)(1) of this section.

(f) Assistance to States and counties for incarceration of certain Cuban nationals; priority for removal and return to Cuba

(1) The Attorney General shall pay compensation to States and to counties for costs incurred by the States and counties to confine in prisons, during the fiscal year for which such payment is made, nationals of Cuba who—

(A) were paroled into the United States in 1980 by the Attorney General,

(B) after such parole committed any violation of State or county law for which a term of imprisonment was imposed, and

(C) at the time of such parole and such violation were not aliens lawfully admitted to the United States—

(i) for permanent residence, or

(ii) under the terms of an immigrant or a nonimmigrant visa issued,


under this chapter.


(2) For a State or county to be eligible to receive compensation under this subsection, the chief executive officer of the State or county shall submit to the Attorney General, in accordance with rules to be issued by the Attorney General, an application containing—

(A) the number and names of the Cuban nationals with respect to whom the State or county is entitled to such compensation, and

(B) such other information as the Attorney General may require.


(3) For a fiscal year the Attorney General shall pay the costs described in paragraph (1) to each State and county determined by the Attorney General to be eligible under paragraph (2); except that if the amounts appropriated for the fiscal year to carry out this subsection are insufficient to cover all such payments, each of such payments shall be ratably reduced so that the total of such payments equals the amounts so appropriated.

(4) The authority of the Attorney General to pay compensation under this subsection shall be effective for any fiscal year only to the extent and in such amounts as may be provided in advance in appropriation Acts.

(5) It shall be the policy of the United States Government that the President, in consultation with the Attorney General and all other appropriate Federal officials and all appropriate State and county officials referred to in paragraph (2), shall place top priority on seeking the expeditious removal from this country and the return to Cuba of Cuban nationals described in paragraph (1) by any reasonable and responsible means, and to this end the Attorney General may use the funds authorized to carry out this subsection to conduct such policy.

(June 27, 1952, ch. 477, title IV, ch. 2, §412, as added Pub. L. 96–212, title III, §311(a)(2), Mar. 17, 1980, 94 Stat. 111; amended Pub. L. 97–363, §§3(a), 4–6, Oct. 25, 1982, 96 Stat. 1734–1736; Pub. L. 98–164, title X, §1011(b), Nov. 22, 1983, 97 Stat. 1061; Pub. L. 98–473, title I, §101(d), Oct. 12, 1984, 98 Stat. 1876, 1877; Pub. L. 99–605, §§3–5(c), 6(a), (b), (d), 8, 9(a), (b), 10, 12, 13, Nov. 6, 1986, 100 Stat. 3449–3451, 3453–3455; Pub. L. 100–525, §6(b), Oct. 24, 1988, 102 Stat. 2616; Pub. L. 103–236, title I, §162(n)(2), Apr. 30, 1994, 108 Stat. 409; Pub. L. 103–416, title II, §219(x), Oct. 25, 1994, 108 Stat. 4318; Pub. L. 104–193, title I, §110(s)(3), Aug. 22, 1996, 110 Stat. 2175; Pub. L. 104–208, div. C, title VI, §671(e)(7), Sept. 30, 1996, 110 Stat. 3009–723.)

References in Text

The Renegotiation Act of 1951, referred to in subsec. (b)(3), is act Mar. 23, 1951, ch. 15, 65 Stat. 7, as amended, which was classified principally to section 1211 et seq. of Title 50, Appendix, War and National Defense, prior to its omission from the Code. See note preceding section 1211 of Title 50, Appendix.

Section 106 of the Job Training Partnership Act, referred to in subsec. (c)(1)(C), which was classified to section 1516 of Title 29, Labor, was repealed by Pub. L. 105–220, title I, §199(b)(2), (c)(2)(B), Aug. 7, 1998, 112 Stat. 1059, effective July 1, 2000. Pursuant to section 2940(b) of Title 29, references to a provision of the Job Training Partnership Act, effective Aug. 7, 1998, are deemed to refer to that provision or the corresponding provision of the Workforce Investment Act of 1998, Pub. L. 105–220, Aug. 7, 1998, 112 Stat. 936, and effective July 1, 2000, are deemed to refer to the corresponding provision of the Workforce Investment Act of 1998. For complete classification of the Workforce Investment Act of 1998 to the Code, see Short Title note set out under section 9201 of Title 20, Education, and Tables.

The Social Security Act, referred to in subsecs. (d)(2)(B)(i) and (e)(4), (5), (7)(B), (D), is act Aug. 14, 1935, ch. 531, 49 Stat. 620, as amended. Parts A and B of title IV of the Social Security Act are classified generally to part A (§601 et seq.) and part B (§620 et seq.) of subchapter IV of chapter 7 of Title 42, The Public Health and Welfare. Titles XVI and XIX of the Social Security Act are classified generally to subchapters XVI (§1381 et seq.) and XIX (§1396 et seq.), respectively, of chapter 7 of Title 42. For complete classification of this Act to the Code, see section 1305 of Title 42 and Tables.

This chapter, referred to in subsec. (f)(1)(C), was in the original, “this Act”, meaning act June 27, 1952, ch. 477, 66 Stat. 163, known as the Immigration and Nationality Act, which is classified principally to this chapter. For complete classification of this Act to the Code, see Short Title note set out under section 1101 of this title and Tables.

Amendments

1996—Subsec. (b)(3). Pub. L. 104–208 struck out comma after “is authorized”.

Subsec. (b)(4). Pub. L. 104–208 struck out comma after “The Secretary” in introductory provisions.

Subsec. (e)(4). Pub. L. 104–193 substituted “State program funded” for “State plan approved”.

1994—Subsec. (a)(2)(A). Pub. L. 103–236, §162(n)(2)(A), struck out “, together with the Coordinator,” after “subsection (b)(1) of this section”.

Subsec. (b)(3), (4). Pub. L. 103–236, §162(n)(2)(B), struck out “in consultation with the Coordinator,” after “Secretary is authorized,” in par. (3) and after “The Secretary,” in par. (4).

Subsec. (e)(7)(C). Pub. L. 103–236, §162(n)(2)(C), struck out “, in consultation with the United States Coordinator for Refugee Affairs,” after “The Secretary”.

Subsec. (e)(7)(D). Pub. L. 103–416 struck out “paragraph (1) or (2) of” after “appropriated under”.

1988—Subsecs. (f)(5), (g). Pub. L. 100–525 redesignated subsec. (g) as (f)(5) and substituted “all other appropriate Federal officials and all appropriate State and county officials referred to in paragraph (2)” for “all appropriate Federal, State, and county officials referred to in section 13 of this Act”, “Cuban nationals described in paragraph (1)” for “such persons defined in subsection (f)(1) of this section” and “authorized to carry out this subsection” for “hereafter authorized by this section”.

1986—Subsec. (a)(2)(A). Pub. L. 99–605, §4(1), inserted “and the Federal agency administering subsection (b)(1) of this section” after “The Director”, “(not less often than quarterly)” after “shall consult regularly”, and “before their placement in those States and localities” after “States and localities”.

Subsec. (a)(2)(C)(iii). Pub. L. 99–605, §4(2), added cl. (iii).

Subsec. (a)(2)(D). Pub. L. 99–605, §4(3), added subpar. (D).

Subsec. (a)(4). Pub. L. 99–605, §12, designated existing provision as subpar. (A), redesignated existing subpars. (A) and (B) as cls. (i) and (ii), respectively, and added subpars. (B) and (C).

Subsec. (a)(9). Pub. L. 99–605, §3(b), inserted “, the Secretary of Education, the Attorney General,” after “The Secretary”.

Subsec. (b)(1)(A). Pub. L. 99–605, §5(b)(2), struck out provisions which related to requirement in grants and contracts that agency provide notice to appropriate welfare office that refugee is offered employment, provide notice to the refugee about notice to the welfare office, and assure that refugees with medical conditions affecting public health and requiring treatment report to appropriate health agency in area of resettlement.

Subsec. (b)(6). Pub. L. 99–605, §5(a), amended par. (6) generally, substituting “shall directly conduct an annual financial audit” for “shall conduct an annual audit”, and “grant or contract made under paragraph (1) for fiscal year 1986 and for fiscal year 1987” for “grants and contracts made under this subsection”.

Subsec. (b)(7). Pub. L. 99–605, §5(b)(1), added par. (7).

Subsec. (b)(8). Pub. L. 99–605, §5(c), added par. (8).

Subsec. (c)(1). Pub. L. 99–605, §6(a), designated existing provision as par. (1)(A), redesignated former pars. (1) to (3) as cls. (i) to (iii), respectively, and added subpar. (B).

Subsec. (c)(1)(C). Pub. L. 99–605, §6(b), added subpar. (C).

Subsec. (c)(2). Pub. L. 99–605, §8(a), added par. (2).

Subsec. (d)(1). Pub. L. 99–605, §3(a), substituted “Secretary of Education” for “Director”.

Subsec. (e)(2)(A). Pub. L. 99–605, §9(a)(1), struck out provisions following cl. (iii) which related to termination of cash assistance to refugee with month in which refugee refuses offer of employment or participation in social service program.

Subsec. (e)(2)(A)(i). Pub. L. 99–605, §6(d), substituted “(c)(1)(A)(i)” for “(c)(1)”.

Subsec. (e)(2)(A)(ii). Pub. L. 99–605, §8(b), inserted “or targeted assistance” after “social service”.

Subsec. (e)(2)(C). Pub. L. 99–605, §9(a)(2), added subpar. (C).

Subsec. (e)(7)(A). Pub. L. 99–605, §10, inserted provisions which related to alternative projects for specific groups of refugees in the United States 36 months or longer if determined to be disproportionately dependent on welfare.

Subsec. (e)(8). Pub. L. 99–605, §9(b), added par. (8).

Subsecs. (f), (g). Pub. L. 99–605, §13, added subsecs. (f) and (g).

1984—Subsec. (e)(7). Pub. L. 98–473 added par. (7).

1983—Subsec. (b)(1)(B). Pub. L. 98–164 struck out first sentence directing the President to provide for a study of which agency is best able to administer the program of initial resettlement and to report to the Congress, not later than Mar. 1, 1981, on that study, and “after such study” after “If the President determines”.

1982—Subsec. (a)(1)(A). Pub. L. 97–363, §3(a)(1), (2), designated existing provisions of par. (1) as subpar. (A) and redesignated existing cls. (A) through (D) as (i) through (iv), respectively.

Subsec. (a)(1)(B). Pub. L. 97–363, §3(a)(3), added subpar. (B).

Subsec. (a)(2)(A). Pub. L. 97–363, §4(a)(1), designated existing provisions of par. (2) as subpar. (A).

Subsec. (a)(2)(B), (C). Pub. L. 97–363, §4(a)(2), added subpars. (B) and (C).

Subsec. (a)(3). Pub. L. 97–363, §4(b), inserted provision that the Director shall compile and maintain data on secondary migration of refugees within the United States and, by State of residence and nationality, on the proportion of refugees receiving cash or medical assistance described in subsec. (e) of this section.

Subsec. (b)(1)(A). Pub. L. 97–363, §5(1), struck out provision that the Secretary of State and the Director shall jointly monitor the assistance provided during fiscal years 1980 and 1981 under this paragraph.

Pub. L. 97–363, §5(2), inserted provision relating to period for expenditure of funds provided under grants and contracts and the inclusion in such grants and contracts of requirements for notification by the agency in the event of employment offers to the refugee and assurance that refugees identified under par. (4)(B) will report to appropriate health agencies upon resettlement.

Subsec. (b)(5). Pub. L. 97–363, §5(3), added par. (5).

Subsec. (b)(6). Pub. L. 97–363, §5(4), added par. (6).

Subsec. (e)(1). Pub. L. 97–363, §6(a), struck out “up to” before “100 per centum”.

Subsec. (e)(2). Pub. L. 97–363, §6(b), redesignated existing provisions of par. (2) as subpar. (A), redesignated former subpars. (A) and (B) as cls. (i) and (iii), respectively, added cl. (ii), inserted provision that cash assistance be cut off, after opportunity for hearing, to a refugee who refuses appropriate offer of employment or participation in available social service program, and added subpar. (B).

Subsec. (e)(6). Pub. L. 97–363, §6(c), added par. (6).

Effective Date of 1996 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 104–193 effective July 1, 1997, with transition rules relating to State options to accelerate such date, rules relating to claims, actions, and proceedings commenced before such date, rules relating to closing out of accounts for terminated or substantially modified programs and continuance in office of Assistant Secretary for Family Support, and provisions relating to termination of entitlement under AFDC program, see section 116 of Pub. L. 104–193, as amended, set out as an Effective Date note under section 601 of Title 42, The Public Health and Welfare.

Effective Date of 1994 Amendments

Amendment by Pub. L. 103–416 effective as if included in the enactment of the Immigration Act of 1990, Pub. L. 101–649, see section 219(dd) of Pub. L. 103–416, set out as a note under section 1101 of this title.

Amendment by Pub. L. 103–236 applicable with respect to officials, offices, and bureaus of Department of State when executive orders, regulations, or departmental directives implementing the amendments by sections 161 and 162 of Pub. L. 103–236 become effective, or 90 days after Apr. 30, 1994, whichever comes earlier, see section 161(b) of Pub. L. 103–236, as amended, set out as a note under section 2651a of Title 22, Foreign Relations and Intercourse.

Effective Date of 1988 Amendment

Pub. L. 100–525, §6(c), Oct. 24, 1988, 102 Stat. 2616, provided that: “The amendments made by this section [amending this section and section 1524 of this title] shall be effective as if they were included in the enactment of the Refugee Assistance Extension Act of 1986 [Pub. L. 99–605].”

Effective Date of 1986 Amendment

Pub. L. 99–605, §5(d), Nov. 6, 1986, 100 Stat. 3452, provided that:

“(1) Section 412(b)(7) (other than subparagraphs (B)(i), (C), and (D)) of the Immigration and Nationality Act [8 U.S.C. 1522(b)(7)], as added by subsection (b)(1) of this section, shall apply to grants and contracts made or renewed after the end of the 30-day period beginning on the date of the enactment of this Act [Nov. 6, 1986].

“(2) Section 412(b)(7)(D) of the Immigration and Nationality Act [8 U.S.C. 1522(b)(7)], as added by subsection (b)(1) of this section, shall apply to grants and contracts made or renewed after the end of the six-month period beginning on the date of the enactment of this Act [Nov. 6, 1986].

“(3) The criteria required under the amendment made by subsection (c) [amending this section] shall be established not later than 60 days after the date of the enactment of this Act [Nov. 6, 1986].”

Pub. L. 99–605, §6(c), Nov. 6, 1986, 100 Stat. 3453, provided that: “The amendment made by subsection (a) [amending this section] shall apply to allocations of funds for fiscal years beginning with fiscal year 1987.”

Pub. L. 99–605, §9(c), Nov. 6, 1986, 100 Stat. 3454, provided that: “The amendments made by subsection (a) of this section [amending this section] shall apply to aliens entering the United States as refugees on or after the first day of the first calendar quarter that begins more than 90 days after the date of the enactment of this Act [Nov. 6, 1986].”

Effective Date of 1984 Amendment

Pub. L. 98–473, title I, §101(d), Oct. 12, 1984, 98 Stat. 1877, provided in part that: “The amendment made by this paragraph [amending this section] shall take effect on October 1, 1984.”

Effective Date of 1982 Amendment

Pub. L. 97–363, §8, Oct. 25, 1982, 96 Stat. 1737, provided that: “The amendments made by—

“(1) sections 3(b), 4, 5(3), 5(4), 6(a), and 7 [amending this section and section 1523 of this title] take effect on October 1, 1982, and

“(2) sections 5(2), 6(b), and 6(c) [amending this section] apply to grants and contracts made, and assistance furnished, on or after October 1, 1982.”

Effective Date

Pub. L. 96–212, title III, pt. B, §313, Mar. 17, 1980, 94 Stat. 117, provided that:

“(a) Except as otherwise provided in this section, the amendments made by this part [enacting sections 1521 to 1524 of this title, amending section 2601 of Title 22, Foreign Relations and Intercourse, and repealing provisions set out as a note under section 2601 of Title 22] shall apply to fiscal years beginning on or after October 1, 1979.

“(b) Subject to subsection (c), the limitations contained in sections 412(d)(2)(A) and 412(e)(1) of the Immigration and Nationality Act [subsecs. (d)(2)(A) and (e)(1) of this section] on the duration of the period for which child welfare services and cash and medical assistance may be provided to particular refugees shall not apply to such services and assistance provided before April 1, 1981.

“(c) Notwithstanding section 412(e)(1) of the Immigration and Nationality Act [subsec. (e)(1) of this section] and in lieu of any assistance which may otherwise be provided under such section with respect to Cuban refugees who entered the United States and were receiving assistance under section 2(b) of the Migration and Refugee Assistance Act of 1962 [22 U.S.C. 2601(b)] before October 1, 1978, the Director of the Office of Refugee Resettlement is authorized—

“(1) to provide reimbursement—

“(A) in fiscal year 1980, for 75 percent,

“(B) in fiscal year 1981, for 60 percent,

“(C) in fiscal year 1982, for 45 percent, and

“(D) in fiscal year 1983, for 25 percent,

of the non-Federal costs or providing cash and medical assistance (other than assistance described in paragraph (2)) to such refugees, and

“(2) to provide reimbursement in any fiscal year for 100 percent of the non-Federal costs associated with such Cuban refugees with respect to whom supplemental security income payments were being paid as of September 30, 1978, under title XVI of the Social Security Act [42 U.S.C. 1381 et seq.].

“(d) the requirements of section 412(a)(6)(A) of the Immigration and Nationality Act [subsec. (a)(6)(A) of this section] shall apply to assistance furnished under chapter 2 of title IV of such Act [this subchapter] after October 1, 1980, or such earlier date as the Director of the Office of Refugee Resettlement may establish.”

Abolition of Immigration and Naturalization Service and Transfer of Functions

For abolition of Immigration and Naturalization Service, transfer of functions, and treatment of related references, see note set out under section 1551 of this title.

Maintaining Funding Level of Matching Grant Program

Pub. L. 99–605, §7, Nov. 6, 1986, 100 Stat. 3453, provided that:

“(a) Maintaining Funding Level.—Subject to the availability of appropriations, the Director of the Office of Refugee Resettlement shall not reduce the maximum average Federal contribution level per refugee in the matching grant program and shall not increase the percentage grantee matching requirement under that program below the level, or above the percentage, in effect under the program for grants in fiscal year 1985.

“(b) Matching Grant Program.—The ‘matching grant program’ referred to in subsection (a) is the voluntary agency program which is known as the matching grant program and is funded under section 412(c) of the Immigration and Nationality Act [8 U.S.C. 1522(c)].”

Reimbursement to State and Local Public Agencies for Expenses Incurred for Providing Social Services to Applicants for Asylum

Pub. L. 96–212, title IV, §401, Mar. 17, 1980, 94 Stat. 117, as amended by Pub. L. 104–208, div. C, title III, §308(d)(4)(S), Sept. 30, 1996, 110 Stat. 3009–619, provided that:

“(a) The Director of the Office of Refugee Resettlement is authorized to use funds appropriated under paragraphs (1) and (2) of section 414(a) of the Immigration and Nationality Act [8 U.S.C. 1524(a)] to reimburse State and local public agencies for expenses which those agencies incurred, at any time, in providing aliens described in subsection (c) of this section with social services of the types for which reimbursements were made with respect to refugees under paragraphs (3) through (6) of section 2(b) of the Migration and Refugee Assistance Act of 1962 (as in effect prior to the enactment of this Act) [22 U.S.C. 2601(b)(3) to (6)] or under any other Federal law.

“(b) The Attorney General is authorized to grant to an alien described in subsection (c) of this section permission to engage in employment in the United States and to provide to that alien an ‘employment authorized’ endorsement or other appropriate work permit.

“(c) This section applies with respect to any alien in the United States (1) who has applied before November 1, 1979, for asylum in the United States, (2) who has not been granted asylum, and (3) with respect to whom a final, nonappealable, and legally enforceable order of removal has not been entered.”

Eligibility of Certain Cuban-Haitian Entrants Entering After Nov. 1, 1979

Pub. L. 97–35, title V, §§543(a)(2), 547, Aug. 13, 1981, 95 Stat. 459, 463, eff. Oct. 1, 1981, provided that: “For purposes of the Refugee Education Assistance Act of 1980 [set out below], an alien who entered the United States on or after November 1, 1979, and is in the United States with the immigration status of a Cuban-Haitian entrant (status pending) shall be considered to be an eligible participant (within the meaning of section 101(3) of such Act) but only during the 36-month period beginning with the first month in which the alien entered the United States as such an entrant or otherwise first acquired such status.”

Cuban Refugees; Incarceration and Deportation of Certain Cubans

Pub. L. 96–533, title VII, §716, Dec. 16, 1980, 94 Stat. 3162, provided that: “The Congress finds that the United States Government has already incarcerated recently arrived Cubans who are admitted criminals, are security threats, or have incited civil disturbances in Federal processing facilities. The Congress urges the Executive branch, consistent with United States law, to seek the deportation of such individuals.”

Refugee Education Assistance Act of 1980

Pub. L. 96–422, Oct. 10, 1980, 94 Stat. 1799, as amended by Pub. L. 96–424, Oct. 10, 1980, 94 Stat. 1820; Pub. L. 97–35, title V, §§543(a)(1), (b)–(d), 544–547, Aug. 13, 1981, 95 Stat. 459–463, eff. Oct. 1, 1981; Pub. L. 99–514, §2, Oct. 22, 1986, 100 Stat. 2095; Pub. L. 103–382, title III, §391(a), Oct. 20, 1994, 108 Stat. 4021; Pub. L. 104–208, div. C, title III, §308(d)(4)(T), Sept. 30, 1996, 110 Stat. 3009–619; Pub. L. 105–220, title II, §251(b)(1), Aug. 7, 1998, 112 Stat. 1079; Pub. L. 105–277, div. A, §101(f) [title VIII, §405(d)(5), (f)(5)], Oct. 21, 1998, 112 Stat. 2681–337, 2681–419, 2681–430; Pub. L. 107–110, title X, §1076(d), Jan. 8, 2002, 115 Stat. 2091, provided: “That this Act may be cited as the ‘Refugee Education Assistance Act of 1980’.

“Title I—General Provisions

“definitions

“Sec. 101. As used in this Act—

“(1) The terms ‘elementary school’, ‘local educational agency’, ‘secondary school’, ‘State’, and ‘State educational agency’ have the meanings given such terms under section 9101 of the Elementary and Secondary Education Act of 1965 [20 U.S.C. 7801].

“(2) The term ‘elementary or secondary nonpublic schools’ means schools which comply with the compulsory education laws of the State and which are exempt from taxation under section 501(c)(3) of the Internal Revenue Code of 1986 [26 U.S.C. 501(c)(3)].

“(3) The term ‘eligible participant’ means any alien who—

“(A) has been admitted into the United States as a refugee under section 207 of the Immigration and Nationality Act [section 1157 of this title];

“(B) has been paroled into the United States as a refugee by the Attorney General pursuant to section 212(d)(5) of such Act [section 1182(d)(5) of this title];

“(C) is an applicant for asylum, or has been granted asylum, in the United States; or

“(D) has fled from the alien's country of origin and has, pursuant to an Executive order of the President, been permitted to enter the United States and remain in the United States indefinitely for humanitarian reasons;

but only during the 36-month [period] beginning with the first month in which the alien entered the United States (in the case of an alien described in (A), (B), or (D)) or the month in which the alien applied for asylum (in the case of an alien described in subparagraph (C)).

“(4) The term ‘Secretary’ means the Secretary of Education.

“authorizations and allocation of appropriations

“Sec. 102. (a) There are authorized to be appropriated for each of the fiscal years 1981, 1982, and 1983, but only in a lump sum for all programs under this Act, subject to allocation in accordance with subsection (b), such sums as may be necessary to make payments to which State educational agencies are entitled under this Act and payments for administration under section 104.

“(b)(1) If the sums appropriated for any fiscal year to make payments to States under this Act are not sufficient to pay in full the sum of the amounts which State educational agencies are entitled to receive under titles II through IV for such year, the allocations to State educational agencies under each of such titles shall be ratably reduced by the same percentage to the extent necessary to bring the aggregate of such allocations within the limits of the amounts so appropriated.

“(2) In the event that funds become available for making payments under this Act for any period after allocations have been made under paragraph (1) of this subsection for such period, the amounts reduced under such paragraph shall be increased on the same basis as they were reduced.

“treatment of certain jurisdictions

“Sec. 103. (a) The jurisdictions to which this section applies are Guam, American Samoa, the Virgin Islands, the Northern Mariana Islands, and the Trust Territory of the Pacific Islands.

“(b)(1) Each jurisdiction to which this section applies shall be entitled to grants for the purposes set forth in sections 201(a), 302, and 402 in amounts equal to amounts determined by the Secretary in accordance with criteria established by the Secretary, except that the aggregate of the amount to which such jurisdictions are so entitled for any period—

“(A) for the purposes set forth in section 201(a), shall not exceed an amount equal to 1 percent of the amount authorized to be appropriated under section 201 for that period;

“(B) for the purposes set forth in section 302, shall not exceed an amount equal to 1 percent of the aggregate of the amounts to which all States are entitled under section 301 for that period; and

“(C) for the purposes set forth in section 402, shall not exceed an amount equal to 1 percent of the aggregate of the amounts to which all States are entitled under section 401 for that period.

“(2) If the aggregate of the amounts determined by the Secretary pursuant to paragraph (1) to be so needed for any period exceeds an amount equal to such 1 percent limitation, the entitlement of each such jurisdiction shall be reduced proportionately until such aggregate does not exceed such limitation.

“state administrative costs

“Sec. 104. The Secretary is authorized to pay to each State educational agency amounts equal to the amounts expended by it for the proper and efficient administration of its functions under this Act, except that the total of such payments or any period shall not exceed 2 percent of the amount which that State educational agency receives for that period under this Act.

“withholding

“Sec. 105. Whenever the Secretary, after reasonable notice and opportunity for a hearing to any State educational agency, finds that there is a failure to meet the requirements of any title of this Act, the Secretary shall notify that agency that further payments will not be made to the agency under such title, or in the discretion of the Secretary, that the State educational agency shall not make further payments under such title to specified local education agencies or other entities (in the case of funds under title IV) whose actions cause or are involved in such failure until the Secretary is satisfied that there is no longer any such failure to comply. Until the Secretary is so satisfied, no further payments shall be made to the State educational agency under such title, or payments by the State educational agency under such title shall be limited to local educational agencies or other entities (in the case of funds under title IV) whose actions did not cause or were not involved in the failure, as the case may be.

“consultation with other agencies

“Sec. 106. To the extent that may be appropriate to facilitate the determination of the amount of any reductions under sections 201(b)(2), 301(b)(3), and 401(b)(2), the Secretary shall consult with the heads of other agencies providing assistance to eligible participants in order to secure information concerning the disbursement of funds for educational purposes under programs administered by them and provide, wherever feasible, for coordination among those programs and the programs under titles II through IV of this Act.

“Title II—General Assistance for Local Educational Agencies

“state entitlements

“Sec. 201. (a) The Secretary shall, in accordance with the provisions of this title, make grants to State educational agencies for fiscal year 1981, and for each subsequent fiscal year, for the purposes of assisting local educational agencies of that State in providing basic education for eligible participants enrolled in elementary or secondary public schools. Payments made under this title to any State shall be used in accordance with applications approved under section 202 for public educational services for eligible participants enrolled in the elementary and secondary public schools under the jurisdiction of the local educational agencies of that State.

“(b)(1) As soon as possible after the date of the enactment of the Consolidated Refugee Education Assistance Act [Aug. 13, 1981], the Secretary shall establish a formula (reflecting the availability of the full amount authorized for this title under section 203(b)) by which to determine the amount of the grant which each State educational agency is entitled to receive under this title for any fiscal year. The formula established by the Secretary shall take into account the number of years that an eligible participant assisted under this title has resided within the United States and the relative costs, by grade level, of providing education for elementary and secondary school children. On the basis of the formula the Secretary shall allocate among the State educational agencies, for each fiscal year, the amounts available to carry out this title, subject to such reductions or adjustments as may be required under paragraph (2) or subsection (c). Funds shall be allocated among State educational agencies pursuant to the formula without regard to variations in educational costs among different geographical areas.

“(2) The amount of the grant to which a State educational agency is otherwise entitled for any fiscal year, as determined under paragraph (1), shall be reduced by the amounts made available for such fiscal year under any other Federal law for expenditure within the State for the same purposes as those for which funds are made available under this title, except that the reduction shall be made only to the extent that (A) such amounts are made available for such purposes specifically because of the refugee, parolee, or asylee status of the individuals to be served by such funds, and (B) such amounts are made available to provide assistance to individuals eligible for services under this title. The amount of the reduction required under this paragraph shall be determined by the Secretary in a manner consistent with subsection (c).

“(3) For the purpose of this subsection, the term ‘State’ does not include Guam, American Samoa, the Virgin Islands, the Northern Mariana Islands, and the Trust Territory of the Pacific Islands. The entitlements of such jurisdictions shall be determined in the manner specified in section 103, but for purposes of this title and section 105 any payments made under section 103 for the purposes set forth in section 201(a) shall be considered to be payments under this title.

“(c) Determinations by the Secretary under this title for any period with respect to the number of eligible participants and the amount of the reduction under subsection (b)(2) shall be made, whenever actual satisfactory data are not available, on the basis of estimates. No such determination shall operate because of an underestimate or overestimate to deprive any State educational agency of its entitlement to any payment (or the amount thereof) under this title to which such agency would be entitled had such determination been made on the basis of accurate data.

“applications

“Sec. 202. (a) No State educational agency shall be entitled to any payment under this title for any period unless that agency submits an application to the Secretary at such time, in such manner, and containing or accompanied by such information, as the Secretary may reasonably require. Each such application shall—

“(1) provide that the payments under this title will be used for the purposes set forth in section 201(a);

“(2) provide assurances that such payments will be distributed among local educational agencies within that State in accordance with the formula established by the Secretary under section 201, subject to any reductions in payments for those local educational agencies identified under paragraph (3) to which funds described by section 201(b)(2) are made available for the same purposes under other Federal laws;

“(3) specify the amount of funds described by section 201(b)(2) which are made available under other Federal laws for expenditure within the State for the same purposes as those for which funds are made available under this title and the local educational agencies to which such funds are made available;

“(4) provide assurances that the State educational agency will not finally disapprove in whole or in part any application for funds received under this title without first affording the local educational agency submitting the application for such funds reasonable notice and opportunity for a hearing; and

“(5) provide for making such reports as the Secretary may reasonably require to carry out this title.

“(b) The Secretary shall approve an application which meets the requirements of subsection (a). The Secretary shall not finally disapprove an application of a State educational agency except after reasonable notice and opportunity for a hearing on the record to such agency.

“payments and authorizations

“Sec. 203. (a) The Secretary shall pay to each State educational agency having an application approved under section 202 the amount which that State is entitled to receive under this title.

“(b) For fiscal year 1981 and for each subsequent fiscal year, there is authorized to be appropriated, in the manner specified under section 102, to make payments under this title an amount equal to the product of—

“(1) the total number of eligible participants enrolled in elementary or secondary public schools under the jurisdiction of local educational agencies within all the States (other than the jurisdictions to which section 103 is applicable) during the fiscal year for which the determination is made,

multiplied by—

“(2) $400.

“Title III—Special Impact Assistance for Substantial Increases in Attendance

“state entitlements

“Sec. 301. (a) The Secretary shall, in accordance with the provisions of this title, make payments to State educational agencies for fiscal year 1981, and for each subsequent fiscal year for the purpose set forth in section 302.

“(b)(1) Except as provided in paragraph (3) of this subsection and in subsections (c) and (d) of this section, the amount of the grant to which a State educational agency is entitled under this title for any fiscal year shall be equal to the sum of—

“(A) the amount equal to the product of (i) the number of eligible participants enrolled during the period for which the determination is made in elementary or secondary public schools under the jurisdiction of each local educational agency described under paragraph (2) within that State, or in any elementary or secondary nonpublic school within the district served by each such local educational agency, who have been eligible participants less than one year, multiplied by (ii) $700;

“(B) the amount equal to the product of (i) the number of eligible participants enrolled during the period for which the determination is made in elementary or secondary public schools under the jurisdiction of each local educational agency described under paragraph (2) within that State, or in any elementary or secondary nonpublic school within the district served by each such local educational agency, who have been eligible participants at least one year but not more than two years, multiplied by (ii) $500; and

“(C) the product of (i) the number of eligible participants enrolled during the period for which the determination is made in elementary or secondary public schools under the jurisdiction of each local educational agency described under paragraph (2) within that State, or in any elementary or secondary nonpublic school within the district served by each such local educational agency, who have been eligible participants more than two years but not more than three years, multiplied by (ii) $300.

“(2) The local educational agencies referred to in paragraph (1) are those local educational agencies in which the sum of the number of eligible participants who are enrolled in elementary or secondary public schools under the jurisdiction of such agencies, or in elementary or secondary nonpublic schools within the districts served by such agencies, during the fiscal year for which the payments are to be made under this title, and are receiving supplementary educational services during such period, is equal to—

“(A) at least 500; or

“(B) at least 5 percent of the total number of students enrolled in such public or nonpublic schools during such fiscal year;

whichever number is less. Notwithstanding the provisions of this paragraph, the local educational agencies referred to in paragraph (1) shall include local educational agencies eligible to receive assistance by reason of the last sentence of section 3(b) and section 3(c)(2)(B) of the Act of September 30, 1950 (Public Law 874, Eighty-first Congress) [formerly 20 U.S.C. 238(b) and (c)(2)(B)], relating to Federal impact aid, subject to paragraph (5) of this subsection.

“(3) The amount of the grant to which a State educational agency is otherwise entitled for any fiscal year, as determined under paragraph (1), shall be reduced by the amounts made available under any other Federal law to agencies or other entities for educational, or education-related, services or activities within the State because of the significant concentration of eligible participants. The amount of the reduction required under this paragraph shall be determined by the Secretary in a manner consistent with subsection (c).

“(4) For the purpose of this subsection, the term ‘State’ does not include Guam, American Samoa, the Virgin Islands, the Northern Mariana Islands, and the Trust Territory of the Pacific Islands. The entitlements of such jurisdictions shall be determined in the manner specified in section 103, but for purposes of this title and section 105 any payments made under section 103 for the purposes set forth in section 302 shall be considered to be payments under this title.

“(5) The amount of the grant to which a State educational agency is entitled as a result of the last sentence of paragraph (2) shall be limited to eligible participants who meet the requirements of section 101(4).

“(c) Determinations by the Secretary under this title for any period with respect to the number of eligible participants and the amount of the reduction under subsection (b)(3) shall be made, whenever actual satisfactory data are not available, on the basis of estimates. No such determination shall operate because of an underestimate or overestimate to deprive any State educational agency of its entitlement to any payment (or the amount thereof) under this title to which such agency would be entitled had such determination been made on the basis of accurate data.

“(d) Whenever the Secretary determines that any amount of a payment made to a State under this title for a fiscal year will not be used by such State for carrying out the purpose for which the payment was made, the Secretary shall make such amount available for carrying out such purpose to one or more other States to the extent the Secretary determines that such other States will be able to use such additional amount for carrying out such purpose. Any amount made available to a State from an appropriation for a fiscal year in accordance with the preceding sentence shall, for purposes of this title, be regarded as part of such State's payment (as determined under subsection (b)) for such year, but shall remain available until the end of the succeeding fiscal year.

“uses of funds

“Sec. 302. (a) Payments made under this title to any State may be used in accordance with applications approved under section 303 for supplementary educational services and costs, as described under subsection (b) of this section, for eligible participants enrolled in the elementary and secondary public schools under the jurisdiction of the local educational agencies of the State described in section 301(b)(2) and in elementary and secondary nonpublic schools of that State within the districts served by such agencies.

“(b) Financial assistance provided under this title shall be available to meet the costs of providing eligible participants supplementary educational services, including but not limited to—

“(1) supplementary educational services necessary to enable those children to achieve a satisfactory level of performance, including—

“(A) English language instruction;

“(B) other bilingual educational services; and

“(C) special materials and supplies;

“(2) additional basic instructional services which are directly attributable to the presence in the school district of eligible participants, including the costs of providing additional classroom supplies, overhead costs, costs of construction, acquisition or rental of space, costs of transportation, or such other costs as are directly attributable to such additional basis instructional services; and

“(3) special inservice training for personnel who will be providing instruction described in either paragraph (1) or (2) of this subsection.

“applications

“Sec. 303. (a) No State educational agency shall be entitled to any payment under this title for any period unless that agency submits an application to the Secretary at such time, in such manner, and containing or accompanied by such information, as the Secretary may reasonably require. Each such application shall—

“(1) provide that the educational programs, services and activities for which payments under this title are made will be administered by or under the supervision of the agency;

“(2) provide assurances that payments under this title will be used for purposes set forth in section 302;

“(3) provide assurances that such payments will be distributed among local educational agencies within that State in accordance with section 301, subject to any reductions in payments for local educational agencies identified under paragraph (5) to take into account the funds described by section 301(b)(3) that are made available for educational, or education-related, services or activities for eligible participants enrolled in elementary or secondary public schools under the jurisdiction of such agencies or elementary or secondary nonpublic schools within the districts served by such agencies;

“(4) provide assurances that the State educational agency will not finally disapprove in whole or in part any application for funds received under this title without first affording the local educational agency submitting an application for such funds reasonable notice and opportunity for a hearing;

“(5) specify (A) the amount of funds described by section 301(b)(3) that are made available under other Federal laws to agencies or other entities for educational, or education-related, services or activities within the State because of a significant concentration of eligible participants, and (B) the local educational agencies within whose districts are eligible participants provided services from such funds who are enrolled in elementary or secondary schools under the jurisdiction of such agencies, or in elementary or secondary nonpublic schools served by such agencies;

“(6) provide for making such reports as the Secretary may reasonably require to perform his functions under this Act; and

“(7) provide assurances—

“(A) that to the extent consistent with the number of eligible participants enrolled in the elementary or secondary nonpublic schools within the district served by a local educational agency, such agency, after consultation with appropriate officials of such schools, shall provide for the benefit of these children secular, neutral, and nonideological services, materials, and equipment necessary for the education of such children;

“(B) that the control of funds provided under this paragraph and the title to any materials, equipment, and property repaired, remodeled, or constructed with those funds shall be in a public agency for the uses and purposes provided in this title, and a public agency shall administer such funds and property; and

“(C) that the provision of services pursuant to this paragraph shall be provided by employees of a public agency or through contract by such public agency with a person, association, agency or corporation who or which, in the provision of such services, is independent of such elementary or secondary nonpublic school and of any religious organization; and such employment or contract shall be under the control and supervision of such public agency, and the funds provided under this paragraph shall not be commingled with State or local funds.

“(b) The Secretary shall approve an application which meets the requirements of subsection (a). The Secretary shall not finally disapprove an application of a State educational agency except after reasonable notice and opportunity for a hearing on the record to such agency.

“payments

“Sec. 304. (a) The Secretary shall pay to each State educational agency having an application approved under section 303 the amount which that State is entitled to receive under this title.

“(b) If a State is prohibited by law from providing public educational services for children enrolled in elementary and secondary nonpublic schools, as required by section 303(a)(6), or if the Secretary determines that a local educational agency has substantially failed or is unwilling to provide for the participation on an equitable basis of children enrolled in such schools, the Secretary may waive such requirement and shall arrange for the provision of services to such children through arrangements which shall be subject to the requirements of this Act.

“Title IV—Adult Education Programs

“state entitlements

“Sec. 401. (a) The Secretary shall, in accordance with the provisions of this title, make payments to State educational agencies for fiscal year 1982, and for each subsequent fiscal year for the purposes of providing for the operation of adult education programs as described under section 402 for eligible participants aged 16 or older. Payments made under this title to any State shall be used in accordance with applications approved under section 403.

“(b)(1) Except as provided in subsection (c) of this section, the amount of the grant to which a State educational agency is entitled under this Act, for any fiscal year described in subsection (a), shall be equal to the product of—

“(A) the number of eligible participants aged 16 or older who are enrolled, during the period for which the determination is made, in programs of instruction referred to in section 402 which are offered within that State, other than any such refugees who are enrolled in elementary or secondary public schools under the jurisdiction of local educational agencies;

multiplied by—

“(B) $300.

“(2) The amount of the grant to which a State educational agency is otherwise entitled for any fiscal year, as determined under paragraph (1), shall be reduced by the amounts made available for such fiscal year under any other Federal law for expenditure within the State for the same purposes as those for which funds are made available under this title, except that the reduction shall be made only to the extent that (A) such amounts are made available for such purposes specifically because of the refugee, parolee, or asylee status of the individuals to be served by such funds, and (B) such amounts are made available to provide assistance to individuals eligible for services under this title. The amount of the reduction required under this paragraph shall be determined by the Secretary in a manner consistent with subsection (c).

“(3) For the purpose of this subsection, the term ‘State’ does not include Guam, American Samoa, the Virgin Islands, the Northern Mariana Islands, and the Trust Territory of the Pacific Islands. The entitlements of such jurisdictions shall be determined in the manner specified in section 103, but for purposes of this title and section 105 any payments made under section 103 for the purposes set forth in section 402 shall be considered to be payments under this title.

“(c) Determinations by the Secretary under this title for any period with respect to the number of eligible participants and the amount of the reduction under subsection (b)(2) shall be made, whenever actual satisfactory data are not available, on the basis of estimates. No such determination shall operate because of an underestimate or overestimate to deprive any State educational agency of its entitlement to any payment (or the amount thereof) under this title to which such agency would be entitled had such determination been made on the basis of accurate data.

“use of funds

“Sec. 402. (a) Funds made available to State educational agencies under this title shall be used by such agencies to provide for programs of adult education and adult basic education to eligible participants aged 16 or older in need for such services who are not enrolled in elementary or secondary public schools under the jurisdiction of local educational agencies. Such programs may be provided directly by the State educational agency, or such agency may make grants, or enter into contracts, with local educational agencies, and other public or private nonprofit agencies, organizations, or institutions to provide for such programs. Funds available under this title may be used for—

“(1) programs of instruction of such adult refugees in basic reading and mathematics, in development and enhancement of necessary skills, and for the promotion of literacy among such refugees;

“(2) administrative costs of planning and operating such programs of instruction;

“(3) educational support services which meet the need for such adult refugees, including guidance and counseling with regard to educational, career, and employment opportunities; and

“(4) special projects designed to operate in conjunction with existing Federal and non-Federal programs and activities to develop occupational and related skills for individuals, particularly programs authorized under the Job Training Partnership Act [29 U.S.C. 1501 et seq.] or title I of the Workforce Investment Act of 1998 [29 U.S.C. 2801 et seq.] or under the Vocational Education Act of 1963 [now Carl D. Perkins Career and Technical Education Act of 2006] [20 U.S.C. 2301 et seq.].

“[(b) Repealed. Pub. L. 105–220, title II, §251(b)(1), Aug. 7, 1998, 112 Stat. 1079.]

“(c) The State educational agency shall provide for the use of funds made available under this title in such manner that the maximum number of eligible participants aged 16 or older residing within the State receive education under the programs of instruction described under subsection (a).

“applications

“Sec. 403. (a) No State educational agency shall be entitled to any payment under this title for any period unless that agency submits an application to the Secretary at such time, in such manner, and containing or accompanied by such information, as the Secretary may reasonably require. Each such application shall—

“(1) provide that payments made under this title will be used only for the purposes, and in the manner, set forth in section 402;

“(2) specify the amount of reduction required under section 401(b)(2);

“(3) provide assurances that the State educational agency will not finally disapprove in whole or in part any application for funds received under this title without first affording the entity submitting an application for such funds reasonable notice and opportunity for a hearing; and

“(4) provide for making periodic reports to the Secretary evaluating the effectiveness of the payments made under this title, and such other reports as the Secretary may reasonably require to perform his functions under this Act.

“(b) The Secretary shall approve an application which meets the requirements of subsection (a). The Secretary shall not finally disapprove an application of a State educational agency except after reasonable notice and opportunity for a hearing on the record to such agency.

“Title V—Other Provisions Relating to Cuban and Haitian Entrants

“authorities for other programs and activities

“Sec. 501. (a)(1) The President shall exercise authorities with respect to Cuban and Haitian entrants which are identical to the authorities which are exercised under chapter 2 of title IV of the Immigration and Nationality Act [8 U.S.C. 1521 et seq.]. The authorizations provided in section 414 of that Act [8 U.S.C. 1524] shall be available to carry out this section without regard to the dollar limitation contained in section 414(a)(2).

“(2) Any reference in chapter III of title I of the Supplemental Appropriations and Rescission Act, 1980 [Pub. L. 96–304, July 8, 1980, 94 Stat. 857, 865], to section 405(c)(2) of the International Security and Development Assistance Act of 1980 or to the International Security Act of 1980 shall be construed to be a reference to paragraph (1) of this subsection.

“(b) In addition, the President may, by regulation, provide that benefits granted under any law of the United States (other than the Immigration and Nationality Act [8 U.S.C. 1101 et seq.]) with respect to individuals admitted to the United States under section 207(c) of the Immigration and Nationality Act [8 U.S.C. 1157(c)] shall be granted in the same manner and to the same extent with respect to Cuban and Haitian entrants.

“(c)(1)(A) Any Federal agency may, under the direction of the President, provide assistance (in the form of materials, supplies, equipment, work, services, facilities, or otherwise) for the processing, care, maintenance, security, transportation, and initial reception and placement in the United States of Cuban and Haitian entrants. Such assistance shall be provided on such terms and conditions as the President may determine.

“(B) Funds available to carry out this subsection shall be used to reimburse State and local governments for expenses which they incur for the purposes described in subparagraph (A). Such funds may be used to reimburse Federal agencies for assistance which they provide under subparagraph (A).

“(2) The President may direct the head of any Federal agency to detail personnel of that agency, on either a reimbursable or nonreimbursable basis, for temporary duty with any Federal agency directed to provide supervision and management for purposes of this subsection.

“(3) The furnishing of assistance or other exercise of functions under this subsection shall not be considered a major Federal action significantly affecting the quality of the human environment within the meaning of the National Environmental Policy Act of 1969 [42 U.S.C. 4321 et seq.].

“(4) Funds to carry out this subsection may be available until expended.

“(5) [Repealed. Pub. L. 96–424, Oct. 10, 1980, 94 Stat. 1820.]

“(d) The authorities provided in this section are applicable to assistance and services provided with respect to Cuban or Haitian entrants at any time after their arrival in the United States, including periods prior to the enactment of this section.

“(e) As used in this section, the term ‘Cuban and Haitian entrant’ means—

“(1) any individual granted parole status as a Cuban/Haitian Entrant (Status Pending) or granted any other special status subsequently established under the immigration laws for nationals of Cuba or Haiti, regardless of the status of the individual at the time assistance or services are provided; and

“(2) any other national of Cuba or Haiti—

“(A) who—

“(i) was paroled into the United States and has not acquired any other status under the Immigration and Nationality Act [8 U.S.C. 1101 et seq.];

“(ii) is the subject of removal proceedings under the Immigration and Nationality Act; or

“(iii) has an application for asylum pending with the Immigration and Naturalization Service; and

“(B) with respect to whom a final, nonappealable, and legally enforceable order of removal has not been entered.”

[Pub. L. 105–277, div. A, §101(f) [title VIII, §405(f)(5), (g)(2)(B)], Oct. 21, 1998, 112 Stat. 2681–337, 2681–430, 2681–435, which provided that, effective July 1, 2000, section 402(a)(4) of Pub. L. 96–422, set out above, is amended by striking “the Comprehensive Employment and Training Act of 1973” and inserting “the Job Training Partnership Act or”, probably intended to strike “the Job Training Partnership Act or” before “title I of”.]

[Pub. L. 96–424, Oct. 10, 1980, 94 Stat. 1820, provided in part that the repeal of section 501(c)(5) of Pub. L. 96–422, set out above, is effective Oct. 11, 1980.]

[Pub. L. 97–35, title V, subtitle C, §547, Aug. 13, 1981, 95 Stat. 463, provided that: “This subtitle [repealing sections 239a and 1211b of Title 20, Education, amending the Refugee Assistance Act of 1980, set out above, and repealing provisions set out as a note under section 1211b of Title 20] shall take effect on October 1, 1981.”]

[For termination of Trust Territory of the Pacific Islands, see note set out preceding section 1681 of Title 48, Territories and Insular Possessions.]

Consolidated Refugee Education Assistance Act

Pub. L. 97–35, title V, §541, Aug. 13, 1981, 95 Stat. 458, provided that: “This subtitle [subtitle C (§§541–546), repealing sections 239a and 1211b of Title 20, Education, amending the Refugee Education Assistance Act of 1980, set out above, and repealing provisions set out as a note under section 1211b of Title 20] may be cited as the ‘Consolidated Refugee Education Assistance Act’.”

Executive Order No. 12246

Ex. Ord. No. 12246, Oct. 10, 1980, 45 F.R. 68367, which delegated to the Secretary of State the functions of the President under section 501(c) of Pub. L. 96–422, set out above, was revoked by Ex. Ord. No. 12251, Nov. 15, 1980, 45 F.R. 76085, formerly set out below.

Executive Order No. 12251

Ex. Ord. No. 12251, Nov. 15, 1980, 45 F.R. 76085, which related to the delegation of functions concerning educational assistance to Cuban and Haitian entrants, was revoked by Ex. Ord. No. 12341, Jan. 21, 1982, 47 F.R. 3341, set out below.

Ex. Ord. No. 12341. Delegation of Functions Concerning Educational Assistance to Cuban and Haitian Entrants

Ex. Ord. No. 12341, Jan. 21, 1982, 47 F.R. 3341, as amended by Ex. Ord. No. 13286, §48, Feb. 28, 2003, 68 F.R. 10628, provided:

By the authority vested in me as President of the United States of America by Section 501 of the Refugee Education Assistance Act of 1980 (8 U.S.C. 1522 note) and Section 301 of Title 3 of the United States Code, and to reassign some responsibilities for providing assistance to Cuban and Haitian entrants, it is hereby ordered as follows:

Section 1. The functions vested in the President by Sections 501(a) and (b) of the Refugee Education Assistance Act of 1980, hereinafter referred to as the Act (8 U.S.C. 1522 note), are delegated to the Secretary of Health and Human Services.

Sec. 2. The Secretary of Homeland Security shall ensure that actions are taken to provide such assistance to Cuban and Haitian entrants as provided for by Section 501(c) of the Act. To that end, the functions vested in the President by Section 501(c) of the Act are delegated to the Secretary of Homeland Security.

Sec. 3. All actions taken pursuant to Executive Order No. 12251 [formerly set out as a note above] shall continue in effect until superseded by actions under this Order.

Sec. 4. Executive Order No. 12251 of November 15, 1980, is revoked.

Presidential Determination Authorizing Transportation for Certain Unaccompanied Minors, Elderly, and Ill Individuals

Determination of President of the United States, No. 95–10, Dec. 15, 1994, 59 F.R. 65891, provided:

Memorandum for the Secretary of Defense [and] the Attorney General

It is hereby determined that the Secretary of Defense shall assist the Attorney General under section 501(c) of the Refugee Education Assistance Act of 1980 (Public Law 96–422) [set out above] by providing transportation for certain unaccompanied minors, elderly, and ill individuals. The Secretary of Defense may agree to expand the range of services and category of individuals as he determines.

The Secretary of Defense is authorized and directed to publish this determination in the Federal Register.

William J. Clinton.