[Senate Document 104-20] [From the U.S. Government Printing Office] 104th Congress, 2d Session / Senate Document 104-20 ________________________________________________________________________ Resolved: that the Federal Government should establish a program to substantially reduce juvenile crime in the United States ________________________________________________________________________ NATIONAL DEBATE TOPIC FOR HIGH SCHOOLS, 1996-97 Pursuant to 44 United States Code, Section 1333 Compiled by the Congressional Research Service Library of Congress 44 U.S. CODE SECTION 1333 (a) The Librarian of Congress shall prepare compilations of pertinent excerpts, bibliographical references, and other appropriate materials relating to: (1) the subject selected annually by the National University Extension Association as the national high school debate topics and (2) the subject selected annually by the American Speech Association as the national college debate topic. In preparing the compilations the Librarian shall include materials which in his judgment are representative of, and give equal emphasis to, the opposing points of view on the respective topics. (b) The compilations on the high school debate topics shall be printed as Senate documents and the compilations on the college debate topics shall be printed as House of Representative documents, the cost of which shall be charged to the congressional allotment for printing and binding. Additional copies of such documents may be printed in the quantities and distributed in the manner as the Joint Committee on Printing directs. (Pub. L. 90-620, Oct. 22, 1968, 82 Stat. 1270.) CONTENTS FOREWORD v INTRODUCTION vii RESOLVED: THAT THE FEDERAL GOVERNMENT SHOULD ESTABLISH A PROGRAM TO SUBSTANTIALLY REDUCE JUVENILE CRIME IN THE UNITED STATES (An Annotated Bibliography on the 1996-1997 High School Debate Topic) I. GENERAL 3 II. CAUSES OF JUVENILE DELINQUENCY AND VIOLENCE 8 III. ADMINISTRATION OF JUVENILE JUSTICE 13 A. GENERAL 13 B. JUVENILE COURTS 17 C. JUVENILE CORRECTIONS, JUVENILE DETENTION, JUVENILE INSTITUTIONS, JUVENILE PAROLE, AND JUVENILE PROBATION 19 D. PRISON BOOT CAMPS 23 E. REHABILITATION 24 IV. DELINQUENCY PREVENTION AND INTERVENTION 27 V. DRUG AND ALCOHOL ABUSE 35 A. DRUG USE PATTERNS 35 B. CRIMINAL BEHAVIOR AND LAW ENFORCEMENT 38 C. EDUCATION, PREVENTION, INTERVENTION, AND TREATMENT 42 VI. GANGS 48 A. GENERAL 48 B. PREVENTION AND INTERVENTION 53 VII. SCHOOL VIOLENCE AND SECURITY 55 A. GENERAL 55 B. PREVENTION AND INTERVENTION 58 VIII. VIOLENCE IN MASS MEDIA 61 A GUIDE TO INFORMATION SOURCES ON THE 1996-1997 HIGH SCHOOL DEBATE TOPIC 67 AVAILABLE GOVERNMENT PUBLICATIONS ON THE 1996-1997 HIGH SCHOOL DEBATE TOPIC 85 Congressional Research Service - The Library of Congress - Washington, D.C. 20540-7000 FOREWORD The 1996-1997 high school debate topic is "Resolved: that the Federal Government should establish a program to substantially reduce juvenile crime in the United States." In compliance with 44 U.S. Code 1333, the Congressional Research Service of the Library of Congress prepared this compilation of materials and bibliographic references to assist high school debaters in researching the topic. In selecting items for this manual, the Congressional Research Service (CRS) has sampled the wide spectrum of opinions reflected in current literature on these questions. No preference for any policy is indicated by the selection or positioning of articles cited, nor is CRS disapproval of any policy or article to be inferred from its omission. The annotated bibliography covers such topics as delinquency and prevention, juvenile courts, corrections, rehabilitation, drug and alcohol abuse, gangs, and school violence. A research guide is included at the end of this volume; it is intended to help debaters identify further references and organizational resources on their own. Also included is a list of relevant publications that are available for purchase from the Superintendent of Documents, Government Printing Office. Some of the U.S. Government documents listed in the manual may be found in U.S. Government depository libraries, which can be identified by local public libraries. The Library of Congress cannot distribute copies of these or other materials to debaters. Because this document is so widely used, GPO has also placed it on its Web site for direct viewing or downloading into ASCII text or Adobe Acrobat Portable Document Format (PDF). The address is: http://www.access.gpo.gov/su_docs/aces/aaces800.shtml The bibliography and research guide were prepared by Tangela G. Roe, Bibliographer in the Library Services Division. Valerie Miles-Washington produced the bibliography and the research guide. Good luck to each debater in researching, preparing, and presenting arguments on this year's topic. Daniel P. Mulhollan, Director Congressional Research Service INTRODUCTION This selected bibliography provides citations to assist high school debaters with research on the 1996-1997 debate topic on juvenile crime. It covers a number of issues associated with juvenile delinquency and crime. Monographs, journal and magazine articles, reports, and Congressional publications from recent years are included, particularly focusing on publications from 1991 to present. Sources in this annotated bibliography were obtained from the computerized bibliographic database created and maintained by the Congressional Research Service's Library Services Division and from the Library of Congress' online catalog. The General section includes sources addressing several facets of juvenile delinquency. This section also includes general discussions of recent trends in urban crime, with a particular focus on crimes committed by juveniles. The next section, Causes of Juvenile Delinquency and Violence, identifies sources addressing the reasons why certain people become criminals, particularly focusing on juveniles. The third section, Administration of Juvenile Justice, includes the following subsections: A. General; B. Juvenile Courts; C. Juvenile Corrections, Juvenile Detention, Juvenile Institutions, Juvenile Parole, and Juvenile Probation; D. Prison Boot Camps; and E. Rehabilitation. The Delinquency Prevention and Intervention section addresses general discussions of delinquency preventive strategies. Strategies focusing on preventing particular problems, such as drug abuse or gangs, are included in the appropriate section. The fifth section, Drug and Alcohol Abuse, includes the following subsections: A. Drug Use Patterns; B. Criminal Behavior and Law Enforcement; and C. Education, Prevention, Intervention, and Treatment. The section on Gangs, includes the following subsections: A. General and B. Prevention and Intervention. The penultimate section, School Violence and Security, includes the following subsections: A. General and B. Prevention and Intervention. The final section, Violence in Mass Media, includes sources examining whether there is inappropriate violence in the media, the effect that media violence might have on young people, and the limits to which government should attempt to censor violence in the media. The author wishes to thank her colleagues in the Congressional Research Service for their help in the preparation of this bibliography. Thanks are also extended to the following Library Services Division colleagues for their assistance--Kris Vajs, Head, Subject Specialization Section; Sherry Shapiro, Bibliographic Specialist; and Bibliographic Assistant, Valerie Miles-Washington, for technical production work. Thanks are also extended to CRS colleagues Jennifer Neisner, Suzanne Cavanagh, Liane E. White, David Teasley, and Edith Cooper. Resolved that the Federal Government should establish a program to substantially reduce juvenile crime in the United States An Annotated Bibliography on the 1996-1997 High School Debate Topic Tangela G. Roe Senior Bibliographer Library Services Division with the assistance of Valerie Miles-Washington, Bibliographic Assistant June 1996 I. GENERAL Adolescent sex offenders: issues in research and treatment. Edited by Emeline M. Otey and Gail D. Ryan. Rockville, Md., National Institute of Mental Health, 1985. 183 p. (DHHS publication no. (ADM) 85-1396) Partial contents.--Identifying adolescent sex offenders: family incest treatment programs as source.--Methodological and ethical issues in evaluating and treating adolescent sexual offenders.--An outpatient program's perspective on research directions. African-American perspectives on crime causation, criminal justice administration, and crime prevention. Edited by Anne T. Sulton. Englewood, Colo., Sulton Books, 1994. 222 p. HV6028.A33 1994 Partial contents.--The colonial model as a theoretical explanation of crime and delinquency.--Blacks, self-esteem, and delinquency: it's time for a new approach.--Drugs and violence in gangs.--Black female delinquency.--Family and delinquency: African-American female-headed households and chronic maladaptive behavior by juveniles.--Reducing the involvement of African American males in the criminal justice system: a policy paper.--Preventing crime through economic development of urban neighborhoods. Bartollas, Clemens. Juvenile delinquency. 3rd ed. New York, Macmillan, 1993. 610 p. HV9104.B345 1993 "Instead of viewing delinquency in terms of only one context, such as that of the legal or justice system, this book examines delinquency in broader terms--the sociocultural, legal, political, economic, and historical contexts. All these contexts impinge on present efforts to prevent and control delinquency and on future attempts to create hope and a new vision for youths in trouble. This edition, examines delinquency from a sociological perspective. The book also evaluates the justice system's effectiveness in controlling juvenile delinquency, reviews recent legislation and court rulings on the rights of youthful offenders, examines the rights of adolescents in general, and assesses legal efforts to correct their antisocial behavior." Bennett, Richard R. Basiotis, P. Peter. Structural correlates of juvenile property crime: a cross-national, time-series analysis. Journal of research in crime and delinquency, v. 28, Aug. 1991: 262-287. "The present study employs a fixed effect, pooled, cross-section, time-series analysis with a sample of 29 nations over a 25-year span to evaluate a structural model of juvenile delinquency. The findings indicate that selected correlates of juvenile delinquency such as level of industrialization, educational opportunity, national wealth, and guardianship do not always behave as commonly believed." Bigelow, Aileen M. In the ghetto: the state's duty to protect inner-city children from violence. Notre Dame journal of law, ethics & public policy, v. 7, no. 2, 1993: 533-567. "This article explores life for young children living in the violence-ridden communities of the inner-city housing projects." Children and violence. Edited by David Reiss . . . [et al.] New York, Guilford Press, 1993. 136 p. HQ784.V55C44 1993 Partial contents.--The NIMH Community Violence Project: I. Children as victims of witnessses to violence: what is happening to our children?.--II. The NIMH Community Violence Project: children's distress symptoms associated with violence exposure.--Chronic community violence: what is happening to our children?--Children's exposure to community violence: following a path from concern to research to action.--Impact of violence on children and adolescents: report from a community-based child psychiatry clinic. Clark, Charles S. Suburban crime. CQ researcher, v. 3, Sept. 3, 1993: whole issue (769-792 p.) "Envied for decades as havens from crime, the nation's suburbs are increasingly the setting for burglaries, rapes, car thefts and gunfights between youth gangs. Many residents fear that crime is spilling out from the inner cities on highways and public transportation systems, but others argue that most suburban crime is home-grown. While homeowners install burglar alarms and build walls around their subdivisions, social critics warn against widening racial and class divisions and the decline of America's sense of community. As land-use planners rethink the design of suburban tracts and shopping malls, suburban residents are joining Neighborhood Watch anti-crime groups." Collins, Jessica. Kids hurting kids for sex. Insight (Washington times), v. 8, July 26, 1992: 12-13, 29-30. "Sex crimes are generally thought to be perpetrated by adults, but some of the country's most violent children may soon change that notion. Authorities say the number of juvenile sex offenders across the United States is rising. Nearly one-third of rape suspects in 1990 were under 21." Compilation of the Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention Act of 1974 and related provisions of law, as amended through December 31, 1994. Prepared for use by the Committee on Economic and Educational Opportunities of the U.S. House of Representatives, 104th Congress, 1st session. Washington, G.P.O., 1995. 107 p. At head of title: committee print. "Serial no. 104-C" Covering violence. American journalism review, v. 16, Sept. 1994: 1-12. "A report on a conference on violence and the young." Ewing, Charles Patrick. Kids who kill. Lexington, Mass., Lexington Books, 1990. 205 p. HV9067.H6E954 1990 Partial contents.--Theft-related killings.--Senseless killings.--Crazy killings.--Little kids who kill.--Punishing kids who kill.--Juvenile homicide in the 1990s. Exploring delinquency: causes and control. [Compiled by] Dean G. Rojeck and Gary F. Jensen. Los Angeles, Roxbury Pub. Co., 1996. 464 p. HV9104.E99 1996 Feltey, Kathryn M. Ainslie, Julie J. Geib, Aleta. Sexual coercion attitudes among high school students: the influence of gender and rape education. Youth & society, v. 23, Dec. 1991: 229-250. "The perception of sexual coercion as justifiable under certain conditions is the focus of the current study. This study examined adolescents' attitudes about date rape and other forced sexual behaviors within specific social contexts to determine how these attitudes are affected by gender and other structural and individual-level variables." Forst, Martin L. Harry, Jonathan. Goddard, Phil A. A health-profile comparison of delinquent and homeless youths. Journal of health care for the poor and underserved, v. 4, 1993: 386-400. "Little is known about the health status and health care needs of homeless and delinquent youths. This study provides medical data (medical history and physical examination) on samples of delinquent (n=245) and homeless (n=160) youths in San Francisco, CA. Although homeless youths had somewhat more medical problems than did delinquent youths, both groups had a multiplicity of medical problems, many of which were worse than among the general adolescent population. A substantial percentage of both samples did not have adequate health care coverage." Green, Herbert L. The state of America's cities; the eleventh annual opinion survey of municipal elected officials. Washington, National League of Cities, 1995. 47 p. At head of title: Research report on America's cities. Reports on several urban problems, including urban crime, highlighted by respondents. Finds that "nearly two out of three (63.4%) of city officials say that youth crime worsened in their locality in 1994." Greenfeld, Lawrence A. Zawitz, Marianne W. Weapons offenses and offenders. Washington, U.S. Bureau of Justice Statistics, 1995. 8 p. "November 1995, NCJ-155284" "About 2% of arrests nation-wide in 1993 were for weapons offenses . . . . Weapons arrests are predominantly male, age 18 or over, and white. However, weapons arrest rates per 100,000 population are highest for teens and for blacks." Health and criminal justice: strengthening the partnership. National Institute of Justice journal, no. 228, Nov. 1994: 1-48. Partial contents.--Understanding the roots of crime: the project on human development in Chicago neighborhoods.--Adopting the health care model to prevent victimization.--Health care needs in corrections: NIJ responds. --Young people, violence, and guns--what NIJ is doing now. Homicide Research Working Group (3rd : 1995 : Atlanta, Ga.). Trends, risks, and interventions in lethal violence: proceedings. Washington, National Institute of Justice, 1995. 370 p. "NCJ-154254" Partial contents.--Recent and long term trends in U.S. homicide.-- International and regional violence patterns.--High risk groups: youth at risk of becoming an offender.--Data for what? Intervention strategies based on data analysis.--Violence surveillance and prevention at CDC. Inner city violence. Gary E. McCuen [editor] Hudson, Wis., G.E. McCuen, 1990. 165 p. HV6789.I47 1990 "Presents opposing viewpoints on the increasing problem of inner-city violence, discussing such aspects as drugs, violence against women, gays, and the elderly, and gangs." Jensen, Gary F. Rojek, Dean G. Delinquency and youth crime. 2nd ed. Prospect Heights, Ill., Waveland Press, 1992. 532 p. HV9069.J46 1992 "Juvenile delinquency has been the subject of `scientific research' for more than half a century and this text attempts to capture and summarize the best of that research and to organize it in a manner that gives students a comprehensive understanding of delinquency and juvenile justice." Juvenile delinquency: classic and contemporary readings. Edited by William E. Thompson and Jack E. Bynum. Boston, Allyn and Bacon, 1991. 619 p. HV9069.J794 1991 Partial contents.--Classic book synopsis 1: Task force report: juvenile delinquency and youth crime.--Juvenile crime: the offenders are younger and the offenses more serious, by Peter Applebome and "Letter to the Editor," Barry Krisberg.--Classic book synopsis 2: Causes of delinquency, by Travis Hirschi.--An empirical test of Hirschi's control theory of delinquency, by William E. Thompson, Jim Mitchell, and Richard A. Dodder.--Classic book synopsis 5: Radical non-intervention: rethinking the delinquency problem, by Edwin M. Schur.--Girls in jail, by Meda Chesney-Lind. Juvenile delinquency: historical, theoretical, and societal reactions to youth. Editors, Paul M. Sharp and Barry W. Hancock. Englewood Cliffs, N.J., 1995. 478 p. HV9104.J845 1995 Contents.--History of the legal and social definitions of juvenile delinquency.--Theories of juvenile delinquency.--The social context of juvenile delinquency.--Institutional responses to juvenile delinquency.-- Juvenile delinquency and public policy. Juvenile homicide. Edited by Elissa P. Benedek and Dewey G. Cornell. Washington, American Psychiatric Press, 1989. 247 p. (The Clinical practice series, no. 7) RJ506.H65J88 1989 Kinnear, Karen L. Violent children: a reference handbook. Santa Barbara, Calif., ABC-CLIO, 1995. 251 p. (Contemporary world issues) HQ784.V55K56 1995 Lacayo, Richard. Law and order. Time, v. 147, Jan. 15, 1996: 48-56. "Crime rates are down across the U.S.--some dramatically. Is this a blip or a trend? With so many factors in play, it may be a bit of both." Includes a related article, by Eric Pooley, One good apple, about "Police Commissioner William Bratton [in New York City who] set out to prove that cops really can cut crime. The experts scoffed--but felony rates have dropped so far, so fast, that no other explanation makes sense." Mainstreaming retardation delinquency. Edited by Richard S. Greene. Lancaster, Pa., Technomic Pub. Co., 1991. 205 p. HV9081.M35 1991 Partial contents.--Mental retardation and delinquency, by Mark E. Wallace and Stephen B. Billick.--An examination of the relationship between IQ and delinquency, by Elizabeth Kandel.--Corrections and the learning disabled offender, by Carolyn Gerlock Grande.--The least restrictive environment principle and the care and education of handicapped youth, by Kenneth J. Graves and Elizabeth Hart.--P.L. 94-142 and the retarded delinquent, by Richard S. Greene.--Learning disability and giftedness as potential contributing factors to double homicide by youth: explanation and prevention of future tragedies, by Kathleen M. Heide and August J. Mauser. Melville, Keith. Kids who commit crimes: what should be done about juvenile violence? Regular ed. Dubuque, Iowa, Kendall/Hunt Pub. Co., 1994. 24 p. (National issues forums) HV9104.M44 1994 Contents.--Crime time: a plague of juvenile violence.--Choice #1: Deterrence effect: getting tougher with young criminals.--Choice #2: Moral messages: cultural confusion and media pollution.--Choice #3: Risk factors: attacking juvenile crime at its roots.--Special session on crime: agenda for public action. Pennsylvania. General Assembly. Joint State Government Commission. The cost of juvenile violence in Pennsylvania: staff report to the Task Force to study the issues surrounding violence as a public health concern. [Harrisburg] The Commission  107 p. HV9105.P2P35 1995 A statistical "examination of the major costs of juvenile violence. Various elements of the cost associated with the victims and perpetrators of juvenile violence, as well as the prevention of juvenile violence, are identified; separate computations or estimates of these major cost elements are made. Where possible, the urban and rural dimensions of the cost of juvenile violence are separated and analyzed." Regoli, Robert M. Hewitt, John D. Delinquency in society: a child-centered approach. 2nd ed. New York, McGraw-Hill, 1994. 500 p. HV9104.R43 1994 Sheley, Joseph F. Wright, James D. In the line of fire: youths, guns, and violence in urban America. New York, A. de Gruyter, 1995. 180 p. HV9104.I48 1995 Partial contents.--Guns and violence as an urban problem.--Gun possession: crime, status, or protection.--Youth, drugs, and guns.--Youth, gangs, and guns.--Kids, guns, and violence: conclusions and implications. Snyder, Howard N. Sickmund, Melissa. Juvenile offenders and victims: a national report. Washington, U.S. Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention, 1995. 188 p. "Pulls together the most requested information on juveniles and the juvenile justice system . . . . The report presents important, and at times complex, information using clear, nontechnical writing and easy-to-understand graphs and tables. It is designed as a series of briefing papers on specific topics . . . . After more than a decade of relative stability, the juvenile violent crime arrest rate soared between 1988 and 1992 . . . . If trends continue as they have over the past 10 years, juvenile arrests for violent crime will double by the year 2010." Research is updated in Juvenile offenders and victims: 1996 update on violence, published Feb. 1996. The Sociology of juvenile delinquency. Edited by Ronald J. Berger. 2nd ed. Chicago, Nelson-Hall, 1996. 506 p. HV9104.S735 1996 Partial contents.--Gangs, drugs, and delinquency in a survey of urban youth.--Delinquents' perspectives on the role of the victim.--Social learning theory, drug use, and American Indian youth: a cross-cultural test.--School bonding, race, and delinquency.--No place to hide: a story of runaways.-- Conclusion: the politics of juvenile justice and future directions. Violent crime. Police chief, v. 60, Sept. 1993: 12, 14, 18, 21-31. Partial contents.--A comprehensive program to combat violent crime: the Savannah experience, by Michael E. Donahue.--Florida's violent crime problem, by James T. Moore.--Code 6: a joint effort to fight violent crime, by Vincent P. Lamia. Violent crime in America. U.S. news & world report, v. 116, Jan. 17, 1994: 22-24, 26-27, 30, 32-33, 36-42. Partial contents.--Violence in America, by Ted Gest.--A generation of stone killers, by Scott Minerbrook.--Cost of crime: $674 billion.--Killer profits from deadly bullets, by Don L. Boroughs. Voices from the future: our children tell us about violence in America. By Children's express; edited by Susan Goodwillie. 1st ed. New York, Crown Publishers, Random House, Inc., 1993. 254 p. HQ784.V55V65 1993 Wright, James D. Sheley, Joseph F. Smith, M. Dwayne. Kids, guns, and killing fields. Society, v. 30, Nov.-Dec. 1992: 84-89. "We have undertaken extensive surveys [the four states where we did the research were California, Louisiana, Illinois, and New Jersey] concerning firearms and firearms behaviors among two groups of youth: 835 criminally active youth (all males, mostly from large cities) currently serving time in six maximum-security juvenile corrections facilities in four states, and 1,653 students (males and females) in ten inner-city public high schools in five large cities near the six correctional facilities." The Young desperados. USA today (magazine), v. 122, Jan. 1994: 24-38. Partial contents.--American killers are getting younger, by James Alan Fox and Glenn Pierce.--Society confronts the hard-core youthful offender, by Russell Eisenman.--Gangs, guns, and school violence, by Ronald D. Stephens.-- America's schools confront violence, by James E. Booth, Leo H. Bradley, T. Michael Flick, Katherine E. Keough, and Susanne P. Kirk.--How to save our children, by Janet Reno.--Curbing youth violence, by Richard W. Riley. Youth violence. Michael D. Biskup and Charles P. Cozic, book editors. San Diego, Calif., Greenhaven Press, 1992. 263 p. (Current controversies) HV9104.Y6855 1992 Partial contents.--Is youth volence a serious problem? Yes: youth violence is a serious problem; No: youth violence is not a serious problem.--What causes youth violence?.--What measures can reduce youth violence?.--How can gang violence be reduced?.--Should violent youths receive harsh punishment? Yes: violent youths should be punished harshly; No: violent youths should not be punished harshly. II. CAUSES OF JUVENILE DELINQUENCY AND VIOLENCE Agnew, Robert. The origins of delinquent events: an examination of offender accounts. Journal of research in crime and delinquency, v. 27, Aug. 1990: 267-294. "Data from a nationally representative sample of adolescents are used to examine the explanations delinquents offer for engaging in 14 different offenses. Property crimes are committed primarily for self- gratification/pleasure and utilitarian need. Violent crimes are committed primarily for retaliation/revenge. Drug offenses are committed primarily because of social pressure, with self-gratification/pleasure also an important reason. With isolated exceptions, these findings hold for less and more serious crimes and across a variety of subgroups." Ayers, Edward L. Legacy of violence. American heritage, v. 42, Oct. 1991: 102-109. "Sociologists continue to be vexed by the pathology of urban violence: why is it so random, so fierce, so easily triggered? One answer may be found in our Southern past." The author sees a centuries-long Southern fixation with "honor" now perpetuated mostly by lower-class whites and lower-class Blacks, even in cities far removed from the South. Biopsychosocial characteristics of children who later murder: a prospective study. American journal of psychiatry, v. 142, Oct. 1985: 1161-1167. "Document[s] the childhood neuropsychiatric and family characteristics of nine male subjects who were clinically evaluated as adolescents and were later arrested for murder. Those subjects are compared with 24 incarcerated delinquents who did not go on to commit violent offenses. The future murderers displayed a constellation of biopsychosical characteristics that included psychotic symptoms, major neurological impairment, a psychotic first- degree relative, violent acts during childhood, and severe physical abuse. The authors relate this combination of factors to prediction of violence and discuss ethical issues that are involved in intervention to prevent violence." Buka, Stephen. Early determinants of delinquency and violence. Health affairs, v. 12, winter 1993: 46-64. "This paper reviews established risk factors for later delinquency and violence that are present prior to school age. Case, Anne C. Katz, Lawrence F. The company you keep: the effects of family and neighborhood on disadvantaged youths. Cambridge, Mass., Harvard University Institute of Economic Research, 1991. 28 p. (Discussion paper no. 1555, May 1991) "Residence in a neighborhood in which a large proportion of other youths are involved in crime is associated with a substantial increase in an individual's probability of being involved in crime. Significant neighborhood peer effects are also apparent for drug and alcohol use, church attendance, and the propensity of youths to be out of school and out of work. Our results indicate that family and peer influences both operate in manner such that `like begets like.'" Drennon-Gala, Don. Delinquency and high school dropouts: reconsidering social correlates. Lanham, Md., University Press of America, 1995. 156 p. HV9104.D74 1995 "Theoretical concepts that explain the propensities toward delinquent behavior and disengagement in education are discussed in a comprehensive fashion." Ellis, Lee. Monoamine oxidase and criminality: identifying an apparent biological marker for antisocial behavior. Journal of research in crime and delinquency, v. 28, May 1991: 227-251. "After describing how monoamine oxidase (MAO) appears to affect brain functioning, and how the activity of this enzyme, in turn, seems to be influenced by hormonal and genetic factors, studies are reviewed which link low MAO activity with high probabilities of criminality, psychopathy, childhood conduct disorders, as well as with sensation seeking, impulsivity, and drug abuse (especially alcoholism)." Felthous, Alan R. Kellert, Stephen R. Childhood cruelty to animals and later aggression against people: a review. American journal of psychiatry, v. 144, June 1987: 710-717. Suggests that "literature on the relationship between childhood cruelty to animals and later violence against people appears to be inconsistent." Finds that recurrence of violence or aggression shows cause for early intervention and possible crime prevention. Freeman, Richard B. Crime and the employment of disadvantaged youths. Cambridge, Mass., National Bureau of Economic Research, 1991. 40 p. "This paper examines the magnitude of criminal activity among disadvantaged youths in the 1980s. It shows that a large proportion of youths who dropped out of high school, particularly black school dropouts, developed criminal records in the decade; and that those who were incarcerated in 1980 or earlier were much less likely to hold jobs than other youths over the entire decade. The magnitudes of incarceration, probation, and parole among black dropouts, in particular, suggest that crime has become an intrinsic part of the youth unemployment and poverty problem, rather than deviant behavior on the margin. Limited evidence on the returns to crime suggest that with the decline in earnings and employment for less educated young men, crime offers an increasingly attractive alternative." Friday, Jennifer C. The psychological impact of violence in underserved communities. Journal of health care for the poor and underserved, v. 6, Oct. 1995: 403-409. "There is striking evidence that violence has a psychological impact on children and young adults in the United States, particularly those in underserved communities. Homicide is the second leading cause of death of all persons between the ages of 15 and 24 years and is the leading cause among African American youth. In 1990, more young African American men died from homicides than from all natural causes combined. Research indicates a number of factors that can predispose children to a lifetime of violence and criminal activity, including poverty, substance abuse, poor parenting skills, placement outside the home, and improper peer interaction." Gottfredson, Denise C. McNeil, Richard J. Gottfredson, Gary D. Social area influences on delinquency: a multilevel analysis. Journal of research in crime and delinquency, v. 28, May 1991: 197-226. "One research tradition in criminology has focused on the distribution of crime rates among social areas, and a second tradition has examined the distribution of crime among individuals. Rarely are both traditions combined in a single study. This study explores social area influences on the delinquent behavior of 3,729 adolescents who are clustered within diverse social areas. The research examines mechanisms through which the characteristics of social areas--measured independently of the characteristics of the individuals--contribute to the explanation of individual delinquent behavior." Heide, Kathleen M. Why kids kill parents. Psychology today, v. 25, Sept.-Oct. 1992: 62-66, 76-77. The author argues that "a legacy of child abuse leads to homicide . . . . These are neglected and abused children whose options are limited--children who honestly think they have no other way out." Herrnstein, Richard J. Wilson, James Q. Are criminals made or born? New York times magazine, Aug. 4, 1985: 30-32, 43, 46. "Evidence indicates that both biological and sociological factors play roles." Hull, Jon D. A boy and his gun. Time, v. 142, Aug. 2, 1993: 20-27. "Even in a town like Omaha, Nebraska, the young are packing weapons in a deadly battle against fear and boredom." Jefferson, Terry W. Johnson, James H. The relationship of hyperactivity and sensation seeking to delinquency subtypes. Criminal justice and behavior, v. 18, June 1991: 195-201. "This study separated juvenile delinquents into three personality subtypes and tested the relationship among these three groups with regard to stimulation seeking and a prior history of hyperactivity." Kruttschnitt, Candace. Dornfeld, Maude. Childhood victimization, race, and violent crime. Criminal justice and behavior, v. 18, Dec. 1991: 448-463. "This study employed a logit analysis with retrospective self-report data to assess the importance of three types of childhood victimization experiences-- physical abuse, spouse abuse, and emotional neglect--to the commission of violent crimes as a young adult. The exploratory model is based on data collected on 100 male inmates incarcerated [in Minnesota] for crimes of violence and 65 nonincarcerated, nonviolent males matched on age, race, and neighborhood. Findings from the analyses, estimated separately for Blacks and Whites, indicated that the childhood experiences associated with violent crime differed for Blacks and Whites and that the model fit the experiences of Blacks better than those of Whites." Naison, Mark. Outlaw culture and Black neighborhoods. Reconstruction, v. 4, no. 4, 1992: 128-131. "An `outlaw culture' has emerged among low-income Black youth that has rejected African-American communal norms in favor of the predatory individualism of the capitalist marketplace. These youngsters, living in neighborhoods bereft of resources and hope, have embraced a doctrine of `might makes right' that converts everyone into a potential victim." Neuropsychiatric, psychoeducational, and family characteristics of 14 juveniles condemned to death in the United States. American journal of psychiatry, v. 145, May 1988: 584-589. "The purpose of this paper is twofold: to describe the biopsychosocial characteristics of 14 juveniles sentenced to death in the United States and to explore the implications of these findings for imposition of the death penalty on juveniles." Pabon, Edward. Rodriguez, Orlando. Gurin, Gerald. Clarifying peer relations and delinquency. Youth & society, v. 24, Dec. 1992: 149-165. "Data were obtained from the Puerto Rican Adolescent Survey (PRAS), a two- wave panel data set composed of a sample of Puerto Rican male adolescents residing in the South Bronx of New York City. The area is one of the lowest- income districts in the United States and the area of greatest Puerto Rican concentration in New York City." Prothrow-Stith, Deborah. Deadly consequences. With Michaele Weissman. New York, HarperCollins, 1991. 269 p. HV6250.4.Y68P76 1991 Reason to hope: a psychosocial perspective on violence & youth. Edited by Leonard D. Eron, Jacquelyn H. Gentry and Peggy Schlegel. 1st ed. Washington, American Psychological Association, 1994. 492 p. HV1431.R42 1994 Partial contents.--Experience of violence: ethnic groups.--Experience of violence: vulnerable populations.--Societal influences on youth violence.--Preventive and treatment interventions.--Research and policy recommendations. Robinson, Brenda J. Smith, Shelly L. When home's not sweet. State legislatures, v. 21, June 1995: 32-33, 35, 37. "A just-released study, funded by the federal Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention (OJJDP), followed 1,000 seventh- and eighth-grade Rochester, N.Y. students for four years. It found that mistreated youngsters who grew up in violent families were twice as likely to commit brutal acts as were children from non- violent families. The highest rates of youth violence occurred among youngsters exposed to all three types of family violence--spouse abuse, child mistreatment and general hostility. Nearly 80 percent of these youngsters reported involvement in violent delinquency (six offenses that include assault, rape and robbery, but not murder) compared to 39 percent of those from nonviolent homes." Roth, Jeffrey A. Understanding and preventing violence. Washington, National Institute of Justice, 1994. 11 p. (Research in brief) "NCJ 145645" "Violence is a pervasive national problem, more serious in the United States than in the rest of the industrialized world, and especially serious for males who belong to demographic and ethnic minorities. However, the problem is neither unprecedented nor intractable. Existing knowledge reveals a number of promising prevention strategies involving factors at work in communities, in individuals, and in hazardous situations that present special risks of violence." Royal, Marcella. Youth crime/violence and the cause. [Monroe, Wash., Barrons, 1994] 187 p. HV9104.R69 1994 Partial contents.--The real reason for crime.--The many causes of crime dispelled.--The moral values we must teach.--Yesterday's parents taught obedience.--Yesterday's schools vs. today's schools.--Teach your child who is in charge.--Make children responsible for their actions.--Obedience still in vogue today. Schwartz, Ira M. Rendon, Jose A. Hsieh, Chang-Ming. Is child maltreatment a leading cause of delinquency? Child welfare, v. 73, Sept.-Oct. 1994: 639-655. "This article explores the assumption that child maltreatment is a major cause of juvenile delinquency. Although this relationship is widely accepted as fact, the research that exists in the literature so far is inconclusive at best, and at worst, deeply flawed." Sheline, Jonathan L. Skipper, Betty J. Broadhead, W. Eugene. Risk factors for violent behavior in elementary school boys: have you hugged your child today? American journal of public health, v. 84, Apr. 1994: 661-663. "Seventeen Hispanic elementary schoolboys with violent behavior problems were compared with 27 matched control students who were not overtly violent at school. Violent boys were significantly more likely to not live with their fathers, to have unmarried parents, to have more siblings, and to have fathers who never show them affection. Parents of violent boys were more likely than those of matched control students to use spanking for discipline and to admit that they rarely express affection for their sons." Sommers, Ira. Baskin, Deborah R. Factors related to female adolescent initiation into violent street crime. Youth & society, v. 25, June 1994: 468-489. "The present study is concerned with understanding when and how adolescent girls become involved in violent street crime. Specifically, the study explores the correlates or explanatory factors of such offending among a sample of women arrested and/or incarcerated for violent street crimes in New York City. The findings of this study suggest that an adequate understanding of female offending must consider the impact of neighborhood, peer, and addiction factors that affect both male and female participation in criminal violence. In addition, it appears as though different configurations of these factors contribute to the initiation of violent offending depending on the age of onset." A Symposium on the causes and correlates of juvenile delinquency. Journal of criminal law and criminology, v. 82, spring 1991: 1-242. Partial contents.--Testing interactional theory: an examination of reciprocal causal relationships among family, school, and deliquency, by Terence P. Thornberry and others.--Initiation, escalation and desistance in juvenile offending and their correlates, by Rolf Loeber and others.--Are there multiple paths to delinquency? By David Huizinga, Finn-Aage Esbensen and Anne Wylie Weiher.--Thinking about cohorts, by James Q. Wilson.--The cycle of crime and socialization practices, by Joan McCord. Tonry, Michael H. Ohlin, L.E. Farrington, D.P. Human development and criminal behavior: new ways of advancing knowledge. New York, Springer-Verlag, 1991. 223 p. HV6789.T66 1991 The Program on Human Development and Criminal Behavior (the "Program") has developed a sophisticated, interdisciplinary, and intellectually ambitious agenda for research on the causes and prevention of crime. The agenda includes a series of overlapping longitudinal studies in a single site of seven cohorts of individuals ranging in age at the outset from birth to age 18; one or more full or partial replications of the study in other sites; a linked series of experimental assessments of promising interventions directed at different age groups; and a series of related methodological, statistical, and pilot studies. This book summarizes the conclusions from the first two years of work on the program. Toufexis, Anastasia. Our violent kids. Time, v. 133, June 12, 1989: 52-55, 57-58. Chronicles the rise in brutal crimes by American youth. Author looks for causes in drug use, family violence, poverty, absentee parents, and other contemporary societal problems. ----- Seeking the roots of violence. Time, v. 141, Apr. 19, 1993: 52-53. "Critics from the social sciences have denounced biological research efforts as intellectually unjustified and politically motivated. African-American scholars and politicians are particularly incensed; they fear that because of the high crime rates in inner cities, blacks will be wrongly branded as a group programmed for violence." Tygart, C. E. Juvenile delinquency and number of children in a family: some empirical and theoretical updates. Youth & society, v. 22, June 1991: 525-536. "The general analytical model is that increased family size brings about decreased family influences that lead to greater peer group influences and ultimately increased delinquency. The major burden of this research is whether the model is supported. If support is found, what are the influences of the control or specification variables of family social status and sibling rank order?" Understanding troubled and troubling youth: multiple perspectives. Edited by Peter E. Leone. Newbury Park, Calif., Sage Publications, 1990. 317 p. (Sage focus editions; v. 116) HV9104.U48 1990 Walker, Robert N. Psychology of the youthful offender. 3rd ed. Springfield, Ill., C.C. Thomas, 1995. 119 p. HV9104.W355 1995 "In the following chapters we will explore the aspects of inherited tendencies, environmental shaping, and the social factors which ultimately result in the forming of a unique personality. We will attempt to discover why one individual becomes a well-adjusted, productive citizen and another becomes a maladjusted, youthful offender." Walsh, Anthony. Intellectual imbalance, love deprivation, and violent delinquency: a biosocial perspective. Springfield, Ill., Charles C. Thomas, 1991. 220 p. HV9069.W3 1991 "The primary purpose of this book is to bring evidence from the biological sciences and neurosciences to bear on the problem of violent delinquency." Widom, Cathy Spatz. The cycle of violence. Washington, National Institute of Justice, 1992. 5 p. "NCJ 136607" "In one of the most detailed studies of the issue to date, research sponsored by the National Institute of Justice (NIJ) found that childhood abuse increased the odds of future delinquency and adult criminality overall by 40 percent. The study followed 1,575 cases from childhood through young adulthood, comparing the arrest records of two groups." ----- Victims of childhood sexual abuse--later criminal consequences. Washington, National Institute of Justice, 1995. 7 p. (Research in brief) "NCJ 151525" "Previous research established evidence for a 'cycle of violence': people who were abused and neglected in childhood are more likely than those who were not to become involved in criminal behavior, including violent crime, later in life. This Research in Brief, the second in a series on the cycle of violence, examines the criminal consequences in adulthood of a particular type of childhood victimization: sexual abuse. It traces the same individuals studied initially, using official records of arrest and juvenile detention." Wright, Kevin N. Wright, Karen E. Family life, delinquency, and crime: a policymaker's guide. Washington, U.S. Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention, 1994. 65 p. "This report advances our understanding of the significant effects of family life on delinquency and crime. It describes how positive parental involvement deters delinquent behavior, while its absence--or worse, its negative counterpart--fosters misconduct. As the report reminds us, `Children who are rejected by their parents, who grow up in homes with considerable conflict, or who are inadequately supervised are at greatest risk of becoming delinquent.'" Wright, Robert. The biology of violence. New Yorker, v. 71, Mar. 13, 1995: 68-77. "Is inner-city violence a response to the social ravages of poverty, or a biochemical syndrome that may be remedied with drugs? Fallout from that debate derailed the Bush Administration's Violence Initiative, but a school of new Darwinians is proposing an answer that will unsettle both sides." III. ADMINISTRATION OF JUVENILE JUSTICE A. GENERAL Albanese, Jay S. Dealing with delinquency: the future of juvenile justice. 2nd ed. Chicago, Nelson-Hall, 1993. 216 p. HV9104.A73 1993 Partial contents.--Are juveniles becoming more delinquent?--Due process for juveniles.--Criminal procedure for juveniles.--New constitutional issues for juveniles.--Stages of the juvenile justice system.--Corrections and delinquency prevention.--The future of juvenile justice. Bernard, Thomas J. The cycle of juvenile justice. New York, Oxford University Press, 1992. 195 p. HV9065.B47 1992 Partial contents.--What stays the same in history?--The origin of juvenile delinquency.--The origin of juvenile justice--the first juvenile institution.--The origin of juvenile justice--the first juvenile court.--Juvenile justice today--good intentions.--Juvenile justice today--actual practice. Bishop, Donna M. Frazier, Charles E. Gender bias in juvenile justice processing: implications of the JJDP Act. Journal of criminal law & criminology, v. 82, winter 1992: 1162-1186. "This study examines the effects that the reform initiatives mandated by the JJDP Act have had on the juvenile justice system to determine whether the system's past pattern of unequal treatment of male and female status offenders and delinquents has been corrected or merely masked." Champion, Dean J. The juvenile justice system: delinquency, processing, and the law. New York, Macmillan Pub. Co, 1992. 602 p. KF9779.C425 1992 Partial contents.--Juvenile delinquency: the problem and its measurement.--The juvenile justice system: detection and control.--The juvenile justice system: prosecution, courts, and juvenile rights.--The juvenile justice system: corrections.--Comparative juvenile justice and the future of the juvenile justice system. Chemers, Betty M. Bridging the child welfare and juvenile justice systems. Juvenile justice bulletin, June 1995: whole issue (3 p.) "NCJ 152155" "We have suggested immediate steps for potential collaboration/coordination between key OJJDP [Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention] and ACYF [Administration on Children, Youth and Families] programs. We will continue to identify additional ways in which the two agencies can help facilitate linkages between these and other programs at the State and community levels." Chesney-Lind, Meda. Shelden, Randall G. Girls, delinquency, and juvenile justice. Pacific Grove, Calif., Brooks/Cole Pub. Co., 1992. 249 p. HV9104.C39 1991 "Two central themes emerge from the research. The first is the juvenile justice system's sexual double standard, which views girls very much as commodities who need to have their sexuality controlled. The second is the system's committment to parental authority, even when not in the girls' best interest. Perhaps most troubling is the finding that when young women continue to commit status-offense behavior, most notably running away, it is frequently because they are being sexually and physically abused in the home. And yet, they are most often returned to the home, a situation that is clearly intolerable for them." Cox, Steven M. Conrad, John J. Juvenile justice: a guide to practice and theory. 4th ed. Madison, Brown & Benchmark, 1996. 296 p. HV9104.C63 1996 Partial contents.--Defining and measuring offenses by and against juveniles.--Characteristics of juvenile offenders.--Theories of causation.--Juvenile justice procedures.--Juveniles and the police.--Prevention and diversion programs.--Dispositional alternatives.--Violence by and against youth. Dormont, David. For the good of the adult: an examination of the constitutionality of using prior juvenile adjudications to enhance adult sentences. Minnesota law review, v. 75, June 1991: 1769-1805. Article argues that enhancement of adult convictions under the United States Sentencing Guidelines "is unconstitutional. Juveniles are denied a jury trial right under the guise of a treatment rationale; thus, their subsequent use to enhance an adult sentence is constitutionally suspect." English, Tom. Improving juvenile justice at the local level. Washington, Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention  5 p. ((NCJ 125549)) "This Bulletin describes the steps one State has taken to improve its juvenile justice system at the local level. Oregon combined legislation, coordination, and volunteer efforts to turn its system around to meet the needs of youth at the community level." Gewerth, Kenneth E. Dorne, Clifford K. Imposing the death penalty on juvenile murderers: a constitutional assessment. Judicature, v. 75, June-July 1991: 6-15. Article comments that "the Supreme Court has long struggled to find an objective and logical answer to the question of whether juvenile offenders should be subject to capital punishment. A recent decision suggests that the primary test of constitutionality in the future may rest on acceptability to contemporary society rather than the Eighth Amendment." Glazer, Sarah. Juvenile justice. CQ researcher, v. 4, Feb. 25, 1994: p. 169-192. Although the number of juveniles arrested for violent crimes increased by 50 percent from 1987 to 1991, many fear that "harsher penalties for violent youths" doesn't really solve the problems causing the minors to turn to crime. A chronology of public opinion and legal landmarks on juvenile justice is included, as well as a sidebar on "Should juvenile possession of a handgun be a federal crime?" Joseph, Janice. Black youths, delinquency, and juvenile justice. Westport, Conn., Praeger, 1995. 213 p. HV9104.J67 1995 Partial contents.--Black youths and American society.--Black youths and delinquency.--Explanatory approaches to delinquency.--Police and Black youths.--Black youths and juvenile court.--Juveniles and adult court.--Black youths and the future of juvenile justice. Juvenile delinquency: a justice perspecive. [Edited by] Ralph A. Weisheit and Robert G. Culbertson. 3rd ed. Prospect Heights, Ill., Waveland Press, 1995. 282 p. HV9104.J84 1995 Juvenile justice and public policy: toward a national agenda. Edited by Ira M. Schwartz. New York, Maxwell Macmillan International, 1992. 271 p. HV9104.J866 1992 Partial contents.--Juvenile diversion: the ongoing search for alternatives, by Mark Ezell.--Prosecutors and juvenile justice: new roles and perspectives, by James Shine and Dwight Price.--Interagency services in juvenile justice systems, by Mark Soler.--Public policy and the incarceration of juveniles: directions for the 1990s, by Ira M. Schwartz and Russell Van Vleet.--The private sector in juvenile corrections, by Yitzhak Bakul and Harvey Lowell.--Juvenile crime-fighting policies: what the public really wants, by Ira M. Schwartz.--Toward a national juvenile justice agenda, by Ira M. Schwartz. Kenney, John Paul. Fuller, Donald E. Barry, Robert J. Police work with juveniles and the administration of juvenile justice. 8th ed. Springfiled, Ill., C.C. Thomas, 1995. 326 p. HV8079.25.P64 1995 "Highlights the police role and functions with interrelationships between community agencies, the courts and correctional agencies emphasized . . . . In this edition, we have focused upon the issues of changes taking place in the juvenile justice system. The substantial increases in juveniles responsible for crimes of violence has continued the transformation of the juvenile court toward a criminal court. The past two decades have reversed the rehabilitation movement toward that of punishment for juvenile offenders. The legislatures have responded with tougher laws. Current research into chronic juvenile recidivism suggests that a multiple agency approach including family support coordinated by probation may be the only realistic way to save juvenile offenders from lives of crime. New in this edition is fuller treatment of the role and functions of the juvenile court judge, a more detailed historical perspective of the juvenile court and community policing." Krisberg, Barry. Austin, James F. Reinventing juvenile justice. Newbury Park, Calif., Sage Publications, 1993. 212 p. HV9104.K75 1993 Partial contents.--History of the control and prevention of juvenile delinquency in the United States.--The contemporary juvenile justice system: its structure and operation.--What works with juvenile offenders: the Massachusetts experiment.--Future directions for juvenile justice: opportunities and barriers. Managing delinquency programs that work. Barry Glick and Arnold P. Goldstein, editors. Laurel, Md., American Correctional Association, 1995. 374 p. HV9104.M257 1995 Partial contents.--Managing program development.--Managing program administration.--Managing program training and evaluation.--Managing system issues. Martin, D. Ross. Conspiratorial children? The intersection of the Federal Juvenile Delinquency Act and Federal conspiracy law. Boston University law review, v. 74, Nov. 1994: 859-901. "Part I of this [Comment] reviews the statutory provisions that address FJDA [Federal Juvenile Delinquency Act] applicability. Part II examines several cases in which federal courts have considered claims of FJDA application within large multi-defendant trials. Part III develops a theoretical concept of the distinction between a finding of juvenile delinquency and an adult criminal conviction for the same offense. That Part then examines several models for guidance in developing a doctrine to address the claims of 'potential juveniles' at the FJDA's temporal boundary." Minorities in juvenile justice. Edited by Kimberly Kemf Leonard, Carl E. Pope, and William Feyerherm. Thousand Oaks, Calif., Sage Publications, 1995. 242 p. HV9104.M57 1995 Partial contents.--The social context of juvenile justice administration: racial disparities in an urban juvenile court, by Barry C. Feld.--The role of race in juvenile justice in Pennsylvania, by Kimberly Kempf Leonard and Henry Sontheimer.--Racial disparities in the confinement of juveniles: effects of crime and community social structure on punishment, by George S. Bridges, Darlene J. Conley, Rodney L. Engen, and Townsand Price-Spratlen.--The overrepresentation of minority youths in the California juvenile justice system: perceptions and realities, by James Austin.--Juvenile justice processing of American Indian youths: disparity in one rural county, by Lisa M. Poupart. The New juvenile justice. Edited by Martin L. Forst. Chicago, Nelson-Hall Publishers, 1995. 335 p. HV9104.F655 1995 Partial contents.--Due process and procedural protections.--The changing philosophy of juvenile justice.--Juvenile sentencing policy.--Transfer of juveniles to adult court.--Rehabilitation and corrections.--The death penalty for juveniles. Pope, Carl E. Juvenile justice in the next millennium. In Crime and justice in the year 2010. Edited by John Klofas and Stan Stojkovic. Belmont, Calif., Wadsworth Publishing Co., 1995. 267-276 p. (Contemporary issues in crime and criminal justice series) "Author surveys the relevant aspects of juvenile justice's future and suggests that the system will be both similar and dissimilar to the existing system, with a greater proportion of minority youths represented. He also ties this overrepresentation of minorities to larger social and economic factors." Reno, Janet. A national agenda for children: on the front lines with Attorney General Janet Reno. Juvenile justice, v. 1, fall-winter 1993: 2-8. The U.S. Attorney General describes the outlines of a National Agenda for Children and how it would affect children in the justice system. Schwartz, Ira M. Guo, Shenyang. Kerbs, John J. The impact of demographic variables on public opinion regarding juvenile justice: implications for public policy. Crime & delinquency, v. 39, Jan. 1993: 5-28. "Examines data from a 1991 national public opinion survey on attitudes toward juvenile crime/justice." The study "was designed to explore whether selected demographic variables, such as age and if one has children, were related to punitive attitudes toward the judicial and correctional handling of young people." Streib, Victor L. Death penalty for juveniles. Bloomington, Indiana University Press, 1987. 256 p. KF9227.C2S77 1987 "This book explores a variety of perspectives on the American experience with juvenile death sentences and executions. Part I focuses on the fundamental issues involved in this phenomenon. . . . Part II deals with the actual executions of persons for crimes committed while under age eighteen . . . . The last section of the book, part III, looks to the future of the death penalty for juveniles." Suarez, Kathryn E. Teenage dating violence: the need for expanded awareness and legislation. California law review, v. 82, Mar. 1994: 423-471. Comment argues that "the same legal protection now available to adult victims should be made available to teenagers. At present, most domestic violence statutes exclude minors, either by a requirement of cohabitation or marriage, or by an explicit requirement of adulthood. The author proposes that each state expand the coverage of its civil and penal domestic violence statutes to include teenagers in dating relationships." Suffredini, Brian R. Juvenile gunslingers: a place for punitive philosophy in rehabilitative juvenile justice. Boston College law review, v. 35, July 1994: 885-925. "This Note provides an overview of the recent wave of legislative bans on juvenile firearm possession and argues that these measures, if properly conceived, are appropriate in the tradition of our rehabilitative juvenile justice scheme. Sullivan, Michele D. From Warren to Rehnquist: the growing conservative trend in the Supreme Court's treatment of children. St. John's law review, v. 65, autumn 1991: 1139-1161. "This [comment] will discuss the Supreme Court's treatment of children's rights, focusing primarily on decisions relating to juvenile delinquents, a minor's right to obtain an abortion without her parents' knowledge, and the testimony of a child witness in a sexual abuse case. U.S. Congress. House. Committee on the Judiciary. Subcommittee on Crime and Criminal Justice. Treatment of juveniles in the criminal justice system. Hearing, 103d Congress, 2nd session. July 14, 1994. Washington, G.P.O., 1995. 168 p. "Serial no. 85" U.S. Dept. of Justice. Office of the Attorney General. Combating violent crime: 24 recommendations to strengthen criminal justice. Washington, The Office, 1992. 59 p. Presents "recommendations for state criminal justice systems. These recommendations [include] . . . . providing for effective deterrence and punishment of juvenile offenders." B. JUVENILE COURTS Butts, Jeffrey A. Offenders in juvenile court, 1992. Juvenile justice bulletin, Oct. 1994: whole issue. 11 p. "NCJ 150039" "This update profiles the nearly one and one-half million delinquency cases handled by juvenile courts in 1992." A Call for justice: an assessment of access to counsel and quality of representation in delinquency proceedings. Washington, American Bar Association, 1996. 79 p. "This report is a national assessment of the current state of representation of youth in juvenile court and an evaluation of training, support, and other needs of practitioners. The assessment sought information about excellent work being done in the field as well as problems in representation of youth. It examines all stages of representation, from the time of arrest to the time of discharge from the juvenile justice system, and covers all regions of the country, including urban, suburban, and rural areas." Champion, Dean J. Mays, G. Larry. Transferring juveniles to criminal courts: trends and implications for criminal justice. New York, Praeger, 1991. 191 p. KF9794.C48 1991 Partial contents.--Transfer hearings: State variations.--Implications of transfers for juvenile offenders.--Criminal court and juvenile offender dispositions.--Juvenile transfer trends: a look ahead. Collins, Jessica. Trial by a jury of teen peers. Insight (Washington times), v. 8, June 21, 1992: 12-16, 30. "No ordinary judicial proceeding, Teen Court is an alternative for teenagers who run afoul of the law. From its inception in Texas, the idea of letting youths argue and decide the legal fate of their peers has spread to a number of states. The court's supporters, including prior defendants, praise its lessons in social and personal responsibility. Low recidivism rates are also a positive result." Feld, Barry C. Violent youth and public policy: a case study of juvenile justice law reform. Minnesota law review, v. 79, May 1995: 965-1128. This article "provides a detailed case study of juvenile and criminal courts' converging responses to serious young offenders [in Minnesota]. Hopefully this study will provide insight into the processes of legislative change, a contextual understanding of the legal changes, and an example of legislative policies and rationality for other states struggling to develop legal responses to serious youth crime." Freitas, Sarah. Extending the privilege against self-incrimination to the juvenile waiver hearing. University of Chicago law review, v. 62, winter 1995: 301-329. "This Comment examines whether the privilege against self-incrimination should extend to the juvenile waiver hearing to prohibit the use of coerced or involuntary statements as evidence to support a juvenile's transfer to adult court." Guttman, Catherine R. Listen to the children: the decision to transfer juveniles to adult court. Harvard civil rights-civil liberties law review, v. 30, summer 1995: 507-542. Comment "examines the legal and policy implications of the recent wave of juvenile transfer laws. It advocates that juveniles be individually assessed by the court system and that they be provided rehabilitation when taken into custody. . . . Only by listening to their stories can we discern how best to treat them." Hafen, Jonathan O. Children's rights and legal representation--the proper roles of children, parents, and attorneys. Notre Dame journal of law, ethics & public policy, v. 7, no. 2, 1993: 423-463. "Article argues that the Model Rules of Professional Conduct, as the best vehicle for defining the attorney-client relationship, should be revised to provide specific directions to attorneys representing children. This article asserts that these modifications should reflect certain well-recognized principles in family and juvenile court law, such as that deserving parents are uniquely qualified, and have the constitutional right, to make decisions on behalf of their minor child, especially where the child is involved in litigation. Humes, Edward. No matter how loud I shout: a year in the life of juvenile court. New York, Simon & Schuster, 1996. 399 p. HV9105.C2H85 1996 A newspaper reporter's account of Los Angeles' juvenile court. The author interviewed prosecutors, defense attorneys, probation officers, social workers, police, jailers, offenders, their families, and their victims. Jensen, Eric L. Metsger, Linda K. A test of the deterrent effect of legislative waiver on violent juvenile crime. Crime & delinquency, v. 40, Jan. 1994: 96-104. "The automatic transfer of juveniles charged with serious crimes to adult court has become an increasingly common alternative to juvenile court handling in a number of states in the past two decades. Deterrence is one of the major arguments underlying this growth in the use of legislative waiver. This research evaluated the deterrent effect of the 1981 Idaho legislative waive statute. Analyses of arrest data using a time series design indicated that this law did not reduce violent juvenile crime." Juvenile justice: should 13-year-olds who commit crimes with firearms be tried as adults? American Bar Association journal, v. 80, Mar. 1994: 46-47. Authors debate the merits of a provision added to the Senate's version of the Violent Crime Control and Law Enforcement Act (S. 1607). Lemov, Penelope. The assault on juvenile justice. Governing, v. 8, Dec. 1994: 26-31. "Treating youthful offenders as adults is clearly good politics. Is it good social policy?" McGarrell, Edmund F. Trends in racial disproportionality in juvenile court processing: 1985-1989. Crime & delinquency, v. 39, Jan. 1993: 29-48. "This study examined data on juvenile court processing of White and non-White youths in a sample of 159 counties. The findings indicated that non-White youths were more likely to be referred to and petitioned in court, to be detained, and to be placed outside the home. Further, the disparity between White and non-White youths increased from 1985 to 1989." Riley, Michael. Corridors of agony. Time, v. 139, Jan. 27, 1992: 48-51, 54-55. "A rare look inside [Baltimore's] juvenile court reveals a system waging a thankless struggle to save society's lost children." Rosenberg, Irene Merker. Leaving bad enough alone: a response to the juvenile court abolitionists. Wisconsin law review, v. 1993, no. 1, 1993: 163-185. "While conceding that minors receive diminished constitutional protection and minimal treatment in the juvenile court system, Professor Rosenberg contends that the disparity in procedural safeguards is not substantial enough to offset the acknowledged benefits of the juvenile justice process, and she argues that if children are tried as adults in criminal court, their immaturity and vulnerability will not be adequately protected. Bad as they are, she concludes, the juvenile courts remain far better than their adult counterparts." Sanborn, Joseph B., Jr. Certification to criminal court: the important policy questions of how, when, and why. Crime & delinquency, v. 40, Apr. 1994: 262-281. "The confusion centers primarily around three vital aspects of certification: how transfer should occur; when transfer should take place; and, relatedly, why juvenile courts should be allowed to send some youths to adult court. The purposes of this article are twofold: to address the definitional problems underlying certifications and to ascertain if juvenile court workers support or reject allegations made about transfer in the literature." ----- Constitutional problems of juvenile delinquency trials. Judicature, v. 78, Sept.-Oct. 1994: 81-88. "Double jeopardy and due process violations occur when judges review the verdict recommendations of masters who conduct juvenile delinquency trials." ----- The right to a public jury trial: a need for today's juvenile court. Judicature, v. 76, Feb.-Mar. 1993: 230-238. "In a significant number of cases, juvenile courts are treating defendants similarly to adult criminals. The Supreme Court, therefore, should extend the Sixth Amendment right to a public jury trial to these youths." U.S. Congress. Senate. Committee on the Judiciary. Subcommittee on Juvenile Justice. Juvenile courts: access to justice. Hearing, 102nd Congress, 2nd session. Mar. 4, 1992. Washington, G.P.O., 1993. 310 p. (Hearing, Senate, 102nd Congress, 2nd session, S. Hrg. 102-1054) "Serial no. J-102-53" U.S. General Accounting Office. Juvenile justice: juveniles processed in criminal court and case dispositions; report to congressional requesters. Aug. 15, 1995. Washington, G.A.O., 1995. 93 p. Provides "data on (1) the frequency with which juveniles have been sent to criminal court, (2) the juvenile conviction rates and sentences in criminal court, (3) the dispositions of juvenile cases in juvenile court, and (4) the conditions of confinement for juveniles incarcerated in adult correctional facilities. In addition, we agreed to provide a summary of state laws that specify the circumstances under which juveniles can be sent to criminal court." ----- Juvenile justice: representation rates varied as did counsel's impact on court outcomes; report to the Committee on the Judiciary, U.S. Senate, and the Committee on Economic and Educational Opportunity, House of Representatives. June 19, 1995. Washington, G.A.O., 1995. 91 p. "GAO/GGD-95-139, B-259801" Reviews "state laws for 15 states that we selected to determine juveniles' right to counsel, determine the frequency with which juveniles have counsel in juvenile courts in three states, determine the likely impact of counsel on juvenile justice outcomes, determine if juveniles who are in adult court have counsel, and develop insights regarding the quality of counsel." C. JUVENILE CORRECTIONS, JUVENILE DETENTION, JUVENILE INSTITUTIONS, JUVENILE PAROLE, AND JUVENILE PROBATION American Correctional Association. Standards for juvenile community residential facilities. In cooperation with the Commission on Accreditation for Corrections. 3rd ed. Laurel, Md., The Association, 1993. 112 p. HV9104.A775 1993 ----- Standards for juvenile day treatment programs. With the Commission on Accreditation for Corrections. 1st ed. Laurel, Md., The Association, 1993. 240 p. HV9104.A775 1993 ----- Standards for juvenile detention facilities. With the Commission on Accreditation for Corrections. 3rd ed. Laurel., Md., The Association, 1991. 146 p. HV9104.A775 1991b ----- Standards for juvenile training schools. In cooperation with the Commission on Accreditation for Corrections. 3rd ed. Laurel, Md., The Association, 1991. 159 p. HV9104.A775 1991a Barton, William H. Butts, Jeffrey A. Viable options: intensive supervision programs for juvenile delinquents. Crime & delinquency, v. 36, Apr. 1990: 238-256. "The Wayne County Juvenile Court in Detroit, Michigan, recently developed and evaluated three in-home, intensive supervision programs as alternatives to commitment for adjudicated delinquents. More than 500 youths were randomly assigned to either intensive supervision or a control group that was committed to the state for placement. The evaluation found the in-home programs to be as effective as commitment for about one-third the cost. Two years after random assignment, the experimental and control group cases showed few differences in recidivism, either in official charges or self-report. The study suggests that in-home programs are a viable option for many youths who would otherwise be committed." Bazemore, Gordon. Dicker, Todd J. Nyhan, Ron. Juvenile justice reform and the difference it makes: an exploratory study of the impact of policy change on detention worker attitudes. Crime & delinquency, v. 40, Jan. 1994: 37-53. "Few studies have examined the impact of criminal justice reforms on staff attitudes. This article compares several dimensions of staff attitudes in two similar juvenile detention facilities [in Broward County, Fla.]: one that has undergone significant reform in policy and practice governing staff/detainee interaction and one that has not. Based on survey data gathered from workers in both facilities in the fall of 1991, exploratory findings reveal significant differences between workers in the two facilities in punitive attitudes, but few differences in other attitudes." Chung, Kristina H. Kids behind bars: the legality of incarcerating juveniles in adult jails. Indiana law journal, v. 66, fall 1991: 999-1029. "This [Comment] will analyze the constitutional, statutory and civil wrongs involved with the incarceration of juveniles in adult prisons which obstruct the administration of the parens patriae doctrine." Curriden, Mark. Hard times for bad kids. American Bar Association journal, v. 81, Feb. 1995: 66-69. "Numbed by teen-age killers and unable to rehabilitate youthful offenders, the juvenile justice system is turning to get-tough measures to halt a new generation of crime." Gest, Ted. Crime time bomb. U.S. news & world report, v. 120, Mar. 25, 1996: 28-30, 32, 36-39. "Rising juvenile crime, and predictions that it is going to get worse, are prodding cities, states and Congress to seek a balance between tougher laws and preventive measures." Includes related articles, A Pittsburgh court battles the tide: can judges succeed where parents have failed? By Katia Hetter; and, Colorado has a new brand of tough love: helping young offenders shape up and ship out, by Gordon Witkin. Gold, Martin. Asgood, D. Wayne. Personality and peer influence in juvenile corrections. Westport, Conn., Greenwood Press, 1992. 230 p. HV9105.M5G65 1992 "A report of the findings of continuing research on over 300 youth who were remanded to medium security institutions because of their delinquent behavior. We observed the boys from the time they arrived at the institution until six months after their release, as well as the staff who were responsible for them and the other boys in their residential groups." Hard time, healing hands: developing primary health care services for incarcerated youth. Edited by Linda S. Thompson and James A. Farrow. Arlington, Va., National Center for Education in Maternal and Child Health  244 p. HV8843.H37 1993 Partial contents.--Heath status and health care issues, by Linda S. Thompson.--Legal issues, by Michael J. Dale.--Mental health, by Janice Hutchinson.--Financing, by Sue Burrell. Heard, Chinita A. The preliminary development of the probation mentor home program: a community-based model. Federal probation, v. 54, Dec. 1990: 51-56. "Institutional violence, high rates of recidivism, and strained resources have sparked interest in community-based programs for juvenile offenders. One such program is the Probation Mentor Home Program in Allen County, Indiana, which provices short-term foster care for juveniles with delinquent or acting out behaviors." Intensive interventions with high-risk youth: promising approaches in juvenile probation and parole. Edited by Troy L. Armstrong. Monsey, N.Y., Criminal Justice Press, 1991. 447 p. HV9069.I66 1990 Partial contents.--Variations in "doing" juvenile intensive supervision: programmatic issues in four Ohio jurisdictions, by Richard G. Wiebush and Donna M. Hamparian.--Use of electronic monitoring with juvenile intensive supervision programs, by Joseph B. Vaughn.--A comprehensive therapeutic community approach for chronic substance-abusing juvenile offenders: the Amity model, by Rod Mullen, Naya Arbiter and Peggy Glider.--Intensive supervision alternatives for adjudicated juveniles, by William H. Barton and Jeffrey A. Butts.--The regional youth educational facility: a promising short-term intensive institutional and aftercare program for juvenile court wards, by Norman Skonovd and Wesley A. Krause.--Juvenile intensive supervision: a longitudinal evaluation of program effectiveness, by Norma Feinberg. Macallair, Dan. Disposition case advocacy in San Francisco's juvenile justice system: a new approach to deinstitutionalization. Crime & delinquency, v. 40, Jan. 1994: 84-95. "Defense-based case advocates [disposition case advocacy, as described in this study, refers to the efforts of lay persons or nonlegal experts acting on behalf of youthful offenders at disposition hearings] began presenting alternative disposition reports to judges in 1980. As a result, between 1980 and 1990, commitments to state correctional facilities fell 73%. The evidence suggests that case advocacy is an effective strategy for reducing commitments to juvenile correctional institutions." Miller, Jerome G. Last one over the wall: the Massachusetts experiment in closing reform schools. Columbus, Ohio State University Press, 1991. 279 p. HV9105.M4M54 1991 "What follows is about a different kind of deinstitutionalization--different in two crucial ways: (1) the resources followed the inmates to the community, and (2) the alternatives were reserved for the most difficult inmates in the system." National Center for Juvenile Justice. Juvenile Probation Officer Initiative Working Group. Desktop guide to good juvenile probation practice. Washington, Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention, 1993. 132 p. "Part 1 provides a general overview of the juvenile justice system and probation's part in it, Part 2 imparts the 'good practice' philosophies of many juvenile probation professionals." Parent, Dale G. Conditions of confinement: juvenile detention and corrections facilities; research report. Washington, U.S. Office of Juvenile Justice Delinquency Prevention, 1994. 334 p. ("NCJ 145793, August 1994") Contents.--Introduction to the study.--Study methodology.--Description of juvenile facilities and the confined juvenile population.--Meeting basic needs.--Order and safety.--Programming.--Juveniles' rights.--Predicting outcome measures.--Other recommendations.--Definition of assessment criteria used in this study.--Analysis of State standards for juvenile confinement facilities.--Data collection instruments.--Weighting methodology.--Facility-based conformance tables. Pennell, Susan. Curtis, Christine. Scheck, Dennis C. Controlling juvenile delinquency: an evaluation of an interagency strategy. Crime & delinquency, v. 36, Apr. 1990: 257-275. "This article presents the findings of a two-year assessment of the impact of the San Diego County Interagency Agreement upon delinquent behavior. The goals of this system wide strategy are to reduce juvenile delinquency through consistent, early intervention and graduated sanctions, based on the nature of the arrest offense and prior offense history, and to hold youth accountable for their acts. The findings suggest that a strategy such as the Interagency Agreement may be successful in reducing juvenile crime if implemented carefully over an extended time period. Based upon the results of this evaluation, recommendations for other jurisdictions are offered." Reforming juvenile detention: no more hidden closets. Edited by Ira M. Schwartz and William H. Barton. Columbus, Ohio State University Press, 1994. 191 p. HV9104.R42 1994 Partial contents.--National trends in juvenile detention, by Ira M. Schwartz and Deborah A. Willis.--Objective juvenile detention criteria: the California experience, by David Steinhart.--Reducing the use of secure detention in Broward County, Florida, by William H. Barton, Ira M. Schwartz, and Franklin A. Orlando.--Toward a model secure detention program: lessons from Shuman Center, by Joseph T. Christy.--Implementing detention policy changes, by William H. Barton.--Detention reform from a judge's viewpoint, by Sharon McCully.--What policymakers need to know about juvenile detention reform, by Ira M. Schwartz. Rosenbaum, Jill Leslie. Prinsky, Lorraine. The presumption of influence: recent responses to popular music subcultures. Crime & delinquency, v. 37, Oct. 1991: 528-535. "This article focuses on the juvenile justice system in California and outlines approaches currently taken in response to teenagers who are part of the `punk' and `heavy metal' subculture. Data were collected from hospitals that have adolescent care programs. When these hospitals were given a hypothetical situation in which the parents' main problem with their child was the music he or she listened to, the clothes he or she wore, and the posters on his or her bedroom wall, 83% of the facilities believed the youth needed hospitalization. These findings were placed within a labeling framework in order to understand the effect of these policies." Roush, David W. Juvenile detention programming. Federal probation, v. 57, Sept. 1993: 20-33. The author "focuses on programming as a critical part of successful juvenile detention. He defines juvenile detention and programming; explains why programs are necessary; and discusses objectives of programs, what makes good programs, and necessary program components. Obstacles to successful programming are also addressed." Samborn, Hope Viner. Kids' crimes can send parents to jail: critics question constitutionality of newly popular parental responsibility laws. American Bar Association journal, v. 82, Mar. 1996: 28, 30. "Under the laws, parents are being ordered to attend parenting classes, do community service and attend school with their children. Others are being told to attend juvenile hearings and to participate in their children's probation and counseling. Some are being fined or ordered to reimburse the state for their children's care and to pay restitution. A few even are ending up in jail." Thomas, Pierre. Next stop: prison; center seeks answers before sending boys to serve time. Washington post, Mar. 18, 1996: A1, A8. "Faced with ever younger and more violent offenders, Ohio Youth Services Department officials decided last spring that they needed a special facility to conduct in-depth psychological and social assessment of newly convicted youths before dispatching them to serve their sentences in the state's juvenile prison system . . . . Ohio is one of 14 states, including Virginia, California and Texas, to develop centralized receiving and orientation centers since 1993 as they have been forced to manage ever larger prison populations of young criminals. Such centers could become models for many others as the nation faces a surge in youth crime." U.S. Congress. House. Committee on Natural Resources. Subcommittee on Native American Affairs. Indian juvenile detention facilities. Oversight hearing, 103d Congress, 1st session on construction and operation of Indian juvenile detention facilities. Nov. 8, 1993. Washington, G.P.O., 1994. 251 p. "Serial no. 103-59" U.S. General Accounting Office. Juvenile justice: minimal gender bias occurred in processing noncriminal juveniles; report to congressional requesters. Feb. 28, 1995. Washington, G.A.O., 1995. 90 p. "GAO/GGD-95-56, B-259793" "Our specific objectives were to (1) compare the outcome of the intake decisions and the frequency and outcomes of detentions, adjudications, and out-of-home placements of female and male status offenders and (2) compare the availability of facilities and services for female and male status offenders in selected jurisdictions." ----- Noncriminal juveniles: detentions have been reduced but better monitoring is needed; report to congressional committees. Apr. 24, 1991. Washington, G.A.O., 1991. 77 p. "GAO/GGD-91-65, B-242305" "To what extent are youths under age 18 jailed for things like curfew violations, truancy, possession of alcohol, and running away? Further, are states that allow this practice complying with federal policies? . . . . GAO found that while states have reported significant reductions in the numbers of noncriminal offenders detained, the Department of Justice needs to monitor states to ensure compliance with regulations, particularly with respect to offenders' procedural rights." Wiebush, Richard G. Juvenile intensive supervision: the impact on felony offenders diverted from institutional placement. Crime & delinquency, v. 39, Jan. 1993: 68-89. "This article presents the results of a study that examined the 18-month recidivism of juvenile felony offenders who were placed into an intensive supervision program in lieu of commitment to an institution. The study used a quasi-experimental design to compare the outcomes of intensive supervision program (ISP) participants with those of youth who were incarcerated and then released to parole, and with a group of felony offenders who were handled on regular probation. Results show that, although not a panacea, intensive supervision clearly is an effective alternative to incarceration." D. PRISON BOOT CAMPS American Correctional Association. Standards for juvenile correctional boot camp programs. In cooperation with the Commission on Accreditation for Corrections. Laurel, Md., The Association, 1995. 134 p. HV9104.A775 1995 Bates, Ralph S. How effective are boot camps? Police chief, v. 62, Aug. 1995: 49-50. "What goes wrong? What works? Do boot camps do what they are designed to do? What are they designed to do? Are they worth the effort in the criminal justice context?" Blau, T. H. Super, John T. Wells, C. B. Psychological principles promote behavioral change in boot camp. Police chief, v. 62, Aug. 1995: 37-38, 43-45. "This article addresses intervention techniques designed to change the self-awareness of criminal offenders in boot camp settings." Boot camps for juvenile offenders: an implementation evaluation of three demonstration programs. Washington, National Institute of Justice, 1996. 116 p. "In the fall of 1990, the Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention (OJJDP) in the U.S. Department of Justice launched a demonstration program to examine the feasibility, appropriateness, and promise of the boot camp model for juvenile offenders. In 1991, three sites were chosen to participate in the demonstration . . . . This final report on the AIR [American Institutes for Research]/ICR [Institute for Criminological Research] evaluation presents observations of the first 18 months of the demonstration period. Detailed description of the programs at each site, including the assumptions, rationales, and contexts that determined how each site went about developing a program are presented. Comparing the major components of the camps, the report discusses how well the programs succeeded in the short term--during the boot camp as well as the subsequent aftercare program." Fisher, Ian. Prison boot camps prove no sure cure. New York times, Apr. 10, 1994: 37, 43. "The paradox for New York State's boot camp program, at a time when many justice experts and politicians are questioning the value of such boot camps around the nation, is that the programs here are considered one of the best. Inmates do not simply move rocks; they attend daily substance abuse classes, group therapy and academic training." Keenan, John P. Ruback, Barry. Hadley, Judith G. Measuring the military atmosphere of boot camps. Federal probation, v. 58, Mar. 1994: 67-71. "Correctional boot camps are programs characterized by a military atmosphere, that is, by an emphasis on discipline, strict adherence to rules, drills, and physical training. Authors describe an objective method developed to measure the level of `militariness' in boot camps. They discuss the reliability of the measure and its usefulness in helping to understand the effects of boot camp programs on participants." A Study of attitudinal change among boot camp participants. Federal probation, v. 57, Sept. 1993: 46-52. "Report on whether participation in the CRIPP (Courts Regimented Intensive Probation Program) boot camp program in Harris Conty, Texas, influenced young felony offenders' attitudes. The authors measured attitudinal change in several key areas, including offenders' perceptions of the boot camp program and staff, of the boot camp as a place of punishment and rehabilitation, and of the offenders' own future opportunities." U.S. General Accounting Office. Prison boot camps: short-term prison costs reduced, but long-term impact uncertain; report to the Chairman, Subcommittee on Intellectual Property and Judicial Administration, Committee on the Judiciary, House of Representatives. Apr. 29, 1993. Washington, G.A.O., 1993. 72 p. "GAO/GGD-93-69, B-249092" "This report describes state and federal boot camp programs and includes data on their costs and impact on prison crowding and recidivism. The report makes no recommendations." E. REHABILITATION Bourque, Bair B. Han, Mei. Hill, Sarah An inventory of aftercare provisions for 52 boot camp programs. Washington, U.S. Office of Justice Programs, National Institute of Justice  142 p. (Research report) HV9304.B674 1996 Brunner, Michael S. Retarding America: the imprisonment of potential. Portland, Or., Halcyon House, 1993. 158 p. HV9081.B84 1993 "Reviews of the research literature provide ample evidence of the link between academic failure and delinquency. It can also be shown this link is welded to reading failure. It is proposed that research-based reading instruction can be used to reduce recidivism and increase employment opportunity for incarcerated juvenile offenders." Butts, Jeffrey A. Snyder, Howard N. Restitution and juvenile recidivism. Bureau of Justice Statistics OJJDP update on research, Sept. 1992: whole issue (4 p.) "NCJ13774" "The study shows that for cases involving robbery, assault, burglary, theft, auto theft, and vandalism, recidivism is lower when juveniles agree or are ordered to pay restitution to their victims directly or through earnings derived from community service." Comprehensive strategy for serious, violent, and chronic juvenile offenders: program summary. Washington, Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention  46 p. HV9104.C5659 1993 "The Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention (OJJDP) has developed a comprehensive strategy for dealing with serious, violent, and chronic juvenile offenders. This program can be impemented at the State, county, or local levels. The program background, rationale, principles, and components are set forth in this strategy paper. Prior to developing this new program, OJJDP reviewed relevant statistics, research, and program evaluations. This review was conducted to develop a clearer understanding of serious, violent, and chronic juvenile delinquency issues, trends, and effective delinquency prevention, treatment, and control approaches. Detailed information on statistics, research, and program evaluations is set forth in the appendix." Greenwood, Peter W. Deschenes, Elizabeth Piper. Adams, John. Chronic juvenile offenders: final results from the Skillman aftercare experiment. Santa Monica, Calif., Rand Corporation, 1993. 74 p. (Rand MR-220-SKF) "Final report on a four-year evaluation of two experimental intensive aftercare programs that were designed to help delinquent youth from Detroit and Pittsburgh return to their homes following residential placements." Guarino-Ghezzi, Susan. Reintegrative police surveillance of juvenile offenders: forging an urban model. Crime & delinquency, v. 40, Apr. 1994: 131-153. "Neither community-based corrections nor community policing is designed to handle serious, repeat offenders who are returning to high-crime neighborhoods. Police need to reexamine their roles to ensure that (a) policies of maintaining order and consequences of disorder are not ambiguous or misleading to youths and (b) order maintenance and law enforcement practices do not interfere with police ability to protect youths as victims of crime. Haghighi, Bahram. Lopez, Alma. Success/failure of group home treatment programs for juveniles. Federal probation, v. 57, Sept. 1993: 53-58. Examines "the success/failure of group home programs in treating and reforming juvenile delinquents, based on a study of juveniles referred to a group home treatment program in a midwestern state. The authors identify the factors affecting success/failure in group home treatment programs and suggest how to maximize the success of such treatment facilities." Hodges, Jane. Giuliotti, Nancy. Porpotage, F. M. Improving literacy skills of juvenile detainees. Washington, U.S. Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention, 1994. 5 p. "NCJ 150707, October 1994" "Designed to teach illiterate youth to read and write, these programs offer a nontraditional, motivational approach that provides students with immediate positive feedback and then encourages them to strive for success. The approach--not customarily found in schools--is noteworthy because frequently a juvenile offender's sense of inadequacy has been reinforced by the experience of academic failure." Kahn, Timothy J. Chambers, Heather J. Assessing reoffense risk with juvenile sexual offenders. Child welfare, v. 70, May-June 1991: 333-345. This article summarizes a two-year study of juvenile sexual offenders in Washington. Both community-based and institution-based treatment programs were evaluated. A typical profile of the juvenile sexual offender is offered, as well as recidivism data from a menan 20-month follow-up period." Kraus, Richard G. Shank, John. Therapeutic recreation service: principles and practices. 4th ed. Dubuque, Iowa, W.C. Brown, 1992. 397 p. RM736.7.K7 1992 Examines the use of recreation therapy to rehabilitate juvenile delinquents. Leone, Peter E. Rutherford, Robert B., Jr. Nelson, C. Michael. Special education in juvenile corrections. Reston, Va., Council for Exceptional Children, 1991. 25 p. HV9104.L36 1991 Partial contents.--Handicapping conditions among juvenile offenders.--Probable causes for overrepresentation.--Educational services in juvenile corrections.--Administrative arrangements and service providers.--Promising practices.--Future trends.--Professional development. Little, Sandra L. Research on recreation in correctional settings. Parks and recreation, v. 30, Feb. 1995: 20, 22, 24-28. "Research on recreation in correctional settings remains sparse; in particular, few studies concerning adult and juvenile female offenders exist. In addition to reasons cited by Calloway (1981) for the lack of recreation research activity in corrections, there is extreme difficulty in getting access to study populations by researchers." Schlossman, Steven. Spillane, Joseph. Bright hopes, dim realities: vocational innovation in American correctional education. Santa Monica, Calif., Rand Corp., 1992. 55 p. HV8883.3.U5S35 1992 "Supported by the Office of Vocational and Adult Education, U.S. Dept. of Education." Partial contents.--History of correctional education.--Zebulon Brockway and the Elmira reformatory.--On progressivism, penal reform, and vocational education.--Integrating vocational and academic objectives: the implementation experience at the New York State Vocational Institution, 1935-1960. Schneider, Anne L. Deterrence and juvenile crime: results from a national policy experiment. New York, Springer-Verlag, 1990. 127 p. HV9104.S323 1990 "The purpose of this book is to examine the perceptual mechanisms that link delinquency policy to changes in recidivism, and to seek exlanations for why juveniles who have been exposed to numerous programs designed to reduce delinquency continue or discontinue their criminal activity. Perceptions of certainty and severity of punishment will be examined, along with the juvenile's sense of citizenship, perceptions of fairness, and feelings of remorse. . . . The research emerges from a major national policy experiment funded by the Office of Juvenile Justice and the National Institute of Juvenile Justice. Data for the study are from six juvenile courts in which youth were randomly assigned into restitution, incarceration, or probation programs." U.S. Congress. House. Committee on Education and Labor. Subcommittee on Human Resources. Hearing regarding the Department of Justice, Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention, report entitled "A comprehensive strategy for serious, violent, and chronic juvenile offenders." Hearing, 103d Congress, 1st session. Oct. 28, 1993. Washington, G.P.O., 1994. 117 p. "Serial no. 103-34" Vance, Mary A. Rehabilitation of juvenile offenders: a bibliography. Monticello, Ill., Vance Bibliographies  28 p. Z5703.4.J87V35 1988 Wooldredge, John. Effectiveness of culturally specific community treatment for African American juvenile felons. Crime & delinquency, v. 40, Oct. 1994: 589-598. "In response to seemingly high recidivism rates among male African American juvenile felons in Cincinnati, a community program was created specifically for these youths. The Community Corrections Partnership (CCP) Program focuses on the cultural regrounding of African American boys to improve their self-esteem and help them to develop a sense of community. . . . This article presents results from a study of rearrests among juveniles who have completed the program and a comparison group of youths who underwent probation. The findings revealed that CCP did no better than regular probation for preventing recidivism among these juveniles." Young victims, young offenders: current issues in policy and treatment. Nathaniel J. Pallone, editor. New York, Haworth Press, 1994. 237 p. RC560.C46Y68 1994 Partial contents.--Distinguishing characteristics of male and female child sex abusers, by Craig M. Allen and Henry L. Pothast.--Clinical techniques in the treatment of juvenile sex offenders, by Janet Digiorgio-Miller.--Recidivism among adolescent perpetrators of sexual assault against children, by Michael P. Hagan, Robert P. King, and Ronald. Patros.--Outpatient treatment of child molesters: motivational factors and outcome, by Katurah Jenkins-Hall.--Juvenile diversion as agency policy: a twenty-year perspective, by Magnus J. Seng and Gad J. Bensinger.--Institutional treatment for juvenile delinquents: 2000 offenders after three years, by Karin Weiss, Yochanan Wozner and Meir Teichman.--A model for change following the Kibbutz Resocialization Program, by Michael Fischer and Brenda Geiger. IV. DELINQUENCY PREVENTION AND INTERVENTION Beatty, Jack. Combating violence. Foundation news & commentary, v. 35, May-June 1994: 24-29. "As more Americans express alarm over the tidal wave of gun deaths, domestic abuse and violence in the media, foundations are beginning to address violence prevention." Brown, Lee P. Trojanowicz, Robert C. Violent crime and community involvement. FBI law enforcement bulletin, v. 61, May 1992: 2-13. Includes article by Robert C. Trojanowicz, Building support for community policing. Both articles conclude that "police leaders must articulate effective approaches to the problem of crime and violence. They must challenge educators, public health professionals, voluntary and social service agencies, corporate leaders, and the media to help combat what is going down on the streets of their cities, towns, or counties. And, they should set the agenda when it comes to legislation, whether it pertains to laws regarding guns, drugs, or the exposure of children to violence on television." Coordinating Council on Juvenile and Delinquency Prevention (U.S.) Combating violence and delinquency: the national juvenile justice action plan; report. Washington, The Council, 1996. ca. 203 p. in various pagings "The Action Plan describes how communities can generate solutions and how individuals and groups can prevent or reduce violence in their own block, public housing unit, or neighborhood. Cooperative partnerships among justice, health, child welfare, education, and social service systems can lay the foundation for measurable successes. Working together, individuals, groups, and communities can make real and sustained changes. The Action Plan also provides important information about Federal training, technical assistance, grants, research, evaluation, and other resources that support these efforts." Cox, Stephen M. Davidson, William S. Bynum, Timothy S. A meta-analytic assessment of delinquency-related outcomes of alternative education programs. Crime & delinquency, v. 41, Apr. 1995: 219-234. "The meta-analysis findings show that alternative education programs have a small overall effect on school performance, attitudes toward school, and self-esteem but no effect on delinquency. Furthermore, alternative education programs that target a specific population of at-risk delinquents or low school achievers produce larger effects than programs with open admissions." The Crime bill summarized. U.S. mayor, v. 61, Sept. 13, 1994: 1-20. "This special issue of US Mayor provides a summary of the new law. It includes significant information on all of the new grant programs established, such as the Public Safety and Community Policing Grants, the Local Partnership Act and the Local Crime Prevention Block Grant." DiIulio, John J., Jr. Arresting ideas: tougher law enforcement is driving down urban crime. Policy review, no. 74, fall 1995: 12-16. "Serious crime is declining in many big cities across America . . . . Smarter law enforcement and tougher sentencing policies explain much of the recent drop in crime, and can minimize the damage from the next crime wave." ----- The question of Black crime. Public interest, no. 117, fall 1994: 3-56. "Four measures can go a long way toward closing the country's morally repugnant and socially devastating black crime gap: (1) take basic remedial measures to secure inner-city neighborhoods; (2) put more police on inner-city streets; (3) lock up violent and repeat inner-city criminals; and (4) remove severely neglected and abused children from inner-city homes." Appends (p.33-56) commentaries on DiIulio's essay by Glenn C. Loury, James Q. Wilson, Paul H. Robinson, Patrick A. Langan, and Richard T. Gill. Diversion and informal social control. Edited by Gunter Albrecht and Wolfgang Ludwig-Mayerhofer. New York, W. de Gruyter, 1995. 457 p. (Prevention and intervention in childhood and adolescence; 17) HV9058.D58 1995 Partial contents.--Diversion in the juvenile justice system and a sociological theory of social control, by Heinz Steinert.--Diversion and social control: alternative measures of crime control, by Albert J. Reiss, Jr.--The impact and role of juvenile diversion in the United States, by Ira M. Schwartz.--The diversion of juveniles from custody: the experience of England and Wales 1980-90, by Roger Matthews.--Diversion? It depends on what we divert to: some comments on diversion and the restorative alternatives, by Lode Walgrave.--Informal justice and communication: the case of diversion and victim-offender mediation, by Heinz Messmer. Education in the law: promoting citizenship in the schools. NIJ [National Institute of Justice] reports, no. 218, Jan.-Feb. 1990: 11-14. "The mock trials and free-ranging debates that would delight Benjamin Franklin, Thomas Jefferson, and the other authors of the Constitution are the centerpiece of a national education program, funded by the Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention (OJJDP) since 1978, to prevent delinquency." Eggers, William D. O'Leary, John. The beat generation: community policing at its best. Policy review, no. 74, fall 1995: 4-11. Looks at "America's most innovative public-safety models--San Diego's problem-oriented, neighborhood policing; New York's subway-disorder reduction; Milwaukee's landlord empowerment policies, and Dayton's Five Oaks street closures--to develop a new vision of policing America's neighborhoods and downtowns where police departments are closer to the communities they serve and citizens and communities take a more active role in protecting their safety." Federal funds for at-risk youth. Parks and recreation, v. 28, July 1993: 16, 19-20, 82. Members of the National Recreation and Park Association argue "that any strategy to prevent or reduce delinquent behavior in at-risk youth must include adequate funding for prevention programs, including recreation." Forum on Youth Violence in Minority Communities: setting the agenda for prevention (1990 : Atlanta, GA) Summary of the proceedings. Public health reports, v. 106, May-June 1991: 225-279. Partial contents.--Violence is a greater killer of children than disease, by A. Novello.--Panel discussion 1: Lessons learned--the community experience.--Panel discussion 2: Funding of community interventions to prevent violence. Greene, Michael B. Chronic exposure to violence and poverty: interventions that work for youth. Crime & delinquency, v. 39, Jan. 1993: 106-124. "Adolescents who are chronically exposed to violence and poverty respond with rage, distrust, and hopelessness. Successful programs for these youth include nine essential elements: street outreach and referral; needs and interest assessments; provisions for supportive, personal relationships with adults; availability of role models; peer group discussions; family interventions; neighborhood projects; education and job preparedness training; and program objectives. Neighborhood youth centers should engage youth in program planning and program operation." Hawkins, Darnell F. Inequality, culture, and interpersonal violence. Health affairs, v. 12, winter 1993: 80-95. "Examines the policy implications of the long-standing debate in the social sciences over the relative contributions of socioeconomic inequality versus cultural differences as causes of violence. While the weight of the scholarly evidence favors neither of these explanations, existing and proposed policies often reflect a preference for the importance of culture. This paper discusses the limitations of that choice and advocates alternative policies that consider the importance of both sets of etiological factors." Hechinger, Fred M. Saving youth from violence. Carnegie quarterly, v. 39, winter 1994: whole issue (16 p.) "Nearly one million adolescents between the ages of twelve and nineteen are victims of violent crimes each year, and this has been true at least since 1985. The victimization of adolescents, particularly twelve- to fifteen-year-olds, is growing. Teenagers are twice as likely to be assaulted as persons aged twenty and older. The rate and intensity of violence involving children and youths, moreover, has escalated dramatically, and much of it is accounted for by adolescents attacking others in their age group. Adolescent homicide rates have reached the highest levels in history." Hollin, Clive R. Epps, Kevin J. Kendrick, David J. Managing behavioral treatment: policy and practice with delinquent adolescents. New York, Routledge, 1995. 205 p. RJ506.J88H65 1995 Home-based services for troubled children. Edited by Ira M. Schwartz and Philip AuClaire. Lincoln, University of Nebraska Press, 1995. 220 p. HV881.H66 1995 Partial contents.--Network interventions with high-risk youth and families throughout the continuum of care, by Elizabeth M. Tracy, James K. Whittaker, Francis Boylan, Paul Neitman, and Edward Overstreet.--Multisystemic treatment of serious juvenile offenders and their families, by Scott W. Henggeler and Charles M. Borduin.--In-home programs for juvenile delinquents, by Jeffrey A. Butts and William H. Barton.--Issues in government purchase of family-based services, by Sandra O'Donnell and Ronald D. Davidson. Horowitz, Carl F. An empowerment strategy for eliminating neighborhood crime. Washington, Heritage Foundation, 1991. 19 p. (Backgrounder no. 814) "To rid poor urban neighborhoods of their criminal element, public officials at all levels must encourage the creation of new relationships between low-income resident organizations and local police forces. Central to this strategy is to give residents the confidence that they can take steps themselves to reduce crime. In this way, America may one day have a real chance of declaring victory in a war on urban poverty." Idelson, Holly. Block grants replace prevention, police hiring in House bill. Congressional Quarterly weekly report, v. 53, Feb. 18, 1995: 530-532. "Bill: HR 728--H Rept 104-24: Block grants for police and crime prevention programs. . . . Background: The bill was the last of six House-passed anti-crime bills, formerly HR 3, that would rewrite portions of the 1994 anti-crime law (PL 103-322)." It's 10 p.m. . . . . Do you know where your children are? Police chief, v. 61, Dec. 1994: 29-31, 33, 35-36, 57-61. "As violence committed by and against juveniles escalates nationwide, many jurisdictions are exploring curfew enforcement as one way to curb the problem. Here, we present a sampler of programs that have worked--and some that haven't." Contents.--Curfew: a new look at an old tool, by Dennis A. Garrett and David Brewster.--Statistics in Dallas encouraging, by Bennie R. Click.--Long Beach juvenile anti-loitering program makes impact, by William C. Ellis.--A response to juvenile curfew violations, by Samuel D. Pratcher.--Innovative curfew enforcement, by William P. Nolan. Kennedy, David M. Can we keep guns away from kids? American prospect, no. 18, summer 1994:74-80. Argues that in order to keep guns out of the hands of kids, the U.S. needs to focus on "a new set of market disruption approaches developed in community policing circles and deployed with great effectiveness against street drug markets. Over the past decade, several cities plagued by serious street drug problems have successfully interfered with street trafficking so that the markets ceased to function." Krichbaum, Daniel. Alston, Martha Arnold. Youth restitution & recreation: a successful mix. Parks & recreation, v. 26, Mar. 1991: 42-45. "Recreation makes a big difference in the lives of delinquent youngsters. Recreation professionals have made this claim for many years, but little documentation has been generated to support it. However, some recreation departments, the Detroit Recreation and Parks Department for example, have shown marked success in using leisure programs to combat juvenile delinquency." Lundman, Richard J. Prevention and control of juvenile delinquency. 2nd ed. New York, Oxford University Press, 1993. 279 p. HV9104.L86 1993 Partial contents.--Individual treatment.--Area projects.--Scared straight.--Community treatment.--Recommendations for the future. Luneburg, William V. Altschuler, David M. Bell, Michael E. The Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention's formula grant program: a regulatory approach to Federal grant-making. In Administrative Conference of the United States recommendations and reports 1992. Washington, The Conference, Office of the Chairman, 1993. p. 561-687. "Report for Recommendation 92-8" Examines the grant program established under the 1974 Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention Act "wherein the substantive conditions on funding, along with the devices utilized to accommodate difficulties of compliance with those conditions, create what appears to be a hybrid institution: a federal grant-making agency which in many respects operates in the mode of a traditional regulatory agency. Moreover, at least among categorical formula grant programs designed to provide financial assistance to state and local governments for the delivery of social services, it is unique in its administrative characteristics." Marshall, Joseph E., Jr. Street Soldiers: violence prevention over the airwaves, a phenomenon. Journal of health care for the poor and undeserved, v. 6, no. 2, 1995: 246-253. "The Omega Boys Club of San Francisco is founded on the notion of the extended family, and provides the active support and emotional guidance once found in the home and immediate community. Through a three-tiered program of change, the club has developed a plan to help stop the violence. This has been extended beyond the Bay Area via a radio call-in show called Street Soldiers, in which discussions focus on violence in the home and on the streets." McNulty, Paul J. Natural born killers? Policy review, no. 71, winter 1995: 84-87. "Preventing the coming explosion of teenage crime." National Medical Association Surgical Section Position paper on violence prevention. JAMA [Journal of the American Medical Association], v. 273, June 14, 1995: 1788-1789. "The epidemic of intentional injury continues to be a leading cause of premature death in America. The ravages of violence are particularly devastating within the minority community. With this position paper from the Surgical Section of the National Medical Association (the country's oldest and largest organization of minority physicians), a group of trauma surgeons and surgical intensivists resolve to focus on underused violence prevention opportunities." Nelson, Kristine. The child welfare response to youth violence and homelessness in the nineteenth century. Child welfare, v. 74, Jan.-Feb. 1995: 56-70. "The nineteenth century problem of street children, created by recurring economic crises, parallels contemporary problems of homelessness and youth violence. The programs developed to deal with these problems also have many similarities. Understanding the origins of both the social problems and the child welfare response is crucial to avoiding the mistakes of the past and developing effective programs." O'Keefe, Garrett. The social impact of the National Citizens' Crime Prevention Campaign. Washington, U.S. Bureau of Justice Assistance, 1993. 139 p. "NJ144533" "The media campaign under study is a component of the National Citizens' Crime Prevention Campaign, which is also funded and administered by the Bureau of Justice Assistance. Better known as the `McGruff' or 'Take a Bite Out of Crime' media campaign, it is designed to teach the public crime and drug prevention behaviors; to help build safer, more caring communities; to motivate citizens to take positive actions to protect themselves and their families and communities; and to create an environment less conducive to crime and drug abuse." Parenti, Mark. Scouts `n the hood: a compass for inner-city boyz. Policy review, no. 64, spring 1993: 62-66. "For the members and families of Troops 201 [in Harlem] and 1650 [in Washington, D.C.], and other inner-city troops like them, scouting is a part of their fight to save their children and rebuild their communities. Today, the Boy Scouts of America are bringing their programs to inner-city areas across America." Partnerships against violence: promising programs; resource guide: draft. Washington, U.S. Dept. of Justice, for sale by the Supt. of Docs., G.P.O., 1994. 2 v. "Volume I presents more than 550 specific programs that now operate throughout the country. The scope of these efforts is wide--ranging from parent education and preschool programs to interventions for high-risk adolescents and alternative sanctions for youthful offenders. Highlighted throughout the document are the key details you need to know about each program: project type, target population and setting, and contact persons who can answer your specific questions. Information about evaluation (does the program work?) and budgets, where available, is also included in the Resource Guide . . . . Volume II presents a list of sources for technical assistance, information, and potential funding to support anti-violence programs." Preventing crime & promoting responsibility: 50 programs that help communities help their youth. Washington, President's Crime Prevention Council, for sale by the Supt. of Docs., G.P.O., 1995. 96 p. "Describes some of the most promising Federal crime prevention programs. These programs support the planning and implementation of crime prevention efforts with technical assistance and funding." The Prevention of youth violence: a framework for community action. Mary Ann Fenley . . . [et al.] Atlanta, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, National Center for Injury Prevention and Control, Office of the Assistant Director for Minority Health  95 p. HQ784.V55P74 1993 Prothrow-Stith, Deborah B. The epidemic of youth violence in America: using public health prevention strategies to prevent violence. Journal of health care for the poor and underserved, v. 6, no. 2, 1995: 95-101. "Many law enforcement experts now agree that violence must be met with solutions from disciplines other than law enforcement, those of public health included." Rosenberg, Mark L. Violence in America: an integrated approach to understanding and prevention. Journal of health care for the poor and underserved, v. 6, no. 2, 1995: 102-112. "Violence in our country has reached epidemic proportions, especially among our youth. Of 22 industrialized nations, the United States has the highest homicide rate among young males 15 to 24 years of age. To reduce the incidence of violence, we must radically shift our approach to emphasize prevention and intervention." Ruttenberg, Hattie. The limited promise of public health methodologies to prevent youth violence. Yale law journal, v. 103, May 1994: 1885-1912. "Part I of this Essay describes the public health model of violence prevention. Part II surveys the available data regarding both youth perpetration and victimization, as well as risk factors for youth violence. Part III examines the potential efficacy of the public health model of violence prevention, and concludes that, although the United States likely will benefit from violence-data collection efforts and from interventions focused on firearms, public health's claims regarding its ability to prevent youth violence are greatly exaggerated." Serious, violent & chronic juvenile offenders: a sourcebook. Edited by James C. Howell . . . [et. al.] Thousand Oaks, SAGE Publications, 1995. 296 p. HV9104.S745 1995 Partial contents.--Trends in juvenile crime and youth violence, by James C. Howell, Barry Krisberg, and Michael Jones.--Preventing serious, violent, and chronic juvenile offending: effective strategies from conception to age 6, by J. David Hawkins, Richard F. Catalano and Devon D. Brewer.--Preventing serious, violent, and chronic juvenile offending: a review of evaluations of selected strategies in childhood, adolescence, and the community, by Devon D. Brewer, J. David Hawkins, Richard F. Catalano and Holly J. Neckerman.--Graduated sanctions for serious, violent, and chronic juvenile offenders, by Barry Krisberg, Elliot Currie, David Onek and Richard G. Wiebush.--The prevention of serious delinquency and violence: implications from the Program of Research on the Causes and Correlates of Delinquency, by Terence P. Thornberry, David Huizinga and Rolf Loeber.--Separating the men from the boys: the comparative advantage of juvenile versus criminal court sanctions on recidivism among adolescent felony offenders, by Jeffrey Fagan. Shur, Douglas. Safe streets: combining resources to address violent crime. FBI law enforcement bulletin, v. 64, Apr. 1995: 1-8. "The nearly 120 Safe Street task forces operating nationwide coordinate the resources of Federal, State, and local agencies to address identified violent crime problems in targeted communities. Never before has a partnership between Federal and regional law enforcement agencies been directed at a single crime problem." Sileo, Chi Chi. Who takes the beating for juvenile delinquency? Insight (Washington times), v. 11, Feb. 6, 1995: 15-17. "An adolescent crime wave has sent politicians and therapists scurrying for solutions--in all the wrong places--while parents have found a homemade remedy in Toughlove" a nonprofit, voluntary self-help organization. Smith, Robert L. In the service of youth: a common denominator. Juvenile justice, v. 1, fall-winter 1993: 9-15. "To make a serious dent in delinquency, we must shift our focus from problem-focused (numerator) approaches to universal (denominator) approaches." Maintains that a National Youth Service Program "is an effective way of providing all American youth constructive opportunities to make significant contributions to society and to be rewarded for them. Such a program is a prime example of a denominator approach to youth development." Teens, crime, and the community: education and action for safer schools and neighborhoods. Joint publication of the National Institute for Citizen Education in the Law and the National Crime Prevention Council. St. Paul, West Pub., 1992. 201 p. HV6250.4S78T4 1992 Partial contents.--Violent crime.--Property crime and vandalism.--Acquaintance rape.--Substance abuse and drug trafficking.--Drunk driving. Thornton, Robert Y. Endo, Katsuya. Controlling crime and delinquency: a tale of two cities. Police chief, v. 57, Mar. 1990: 54-58. "A cross-cultural comparative study of crime and delinquency prevention methods and techniques in the sister cities of Salem, Oregon, and Kawagoe, Japan. Salem, the capital city of the state of Oregon . . . . Although Salem's population in 1986 was only one-third that of Kawagoe, there were nearly nine times more reported crimes in Salem for that year. The statistics comparing the percentage of crimes cleared by arrest in both cities are even more surprising. In Kawagoe, 69 percent of crimes were cleared by arrest, compared with only 41 percent in Salem." Tolan, Patrick H. Guerra, Nancy. What works in reducing adolescent violence: an empirical review of the field. Boulder, Colo., Center for the Study and Prevention of Violence, Institute for Behavioral Sciences, University of Colorado, Boulder  94 p. HQ784.V55T65 1994 Tygart, C. E. Religiosity and delinquency for low public opinion consensus deviancy: a contextual approach. International journal of group tensions, v. 23, winter 1993: 329-336. Concludes that "within the limitations of the present study, religiosity makes a modest but lesser contribution to reducing shoplifting and school vandalism than family influences." U.S. Congress. House. Committee on Education and Labor. Subcommittee on Human Resources. Hearing on juvenile crime and delinquency: do we need prevention? Hearing, 103d Congress, 2d session. Mar. 22, 1994. Washington, G.P.O., 1994. 73 p. "Serial no. 103-69" U.S. Congress. House. Committee on Government Operations. Government Information, Justice, and Agricultural Subcommittee. Take back your neighborhood: police and citizen partnerships in confronting crime. Hearing, 102nd Congress, 2nd session. June 24, 1992. Washington, G.P.O., 1993. 174 p. U.S. Congress. House. Committee on Government Operations. Information, Justice, Transportation, and Agriculture Subcommittee. Federal assistance to State and local law enforcement: the proposed elimination of the Byrne Block Grant. Hearing, 103d Congress, 2nd session. Mar. 2, 1994. Washington, G.P.O., 1994. 297 p. U.S. Congress. House. Committee on Natural Resources. Subcommittee on National Parks, Forests and Public Lands. Urban recreation and crime prevention. Joint oversight hearing before the Subcommittee on National Parks, Forests and Public Lands and the Subcommittee on Oversight and Investigations of the Committee on Natural Resources, House of Representatives, 103d Congress, 2d session. Mar. 10, 1994. Washington, G.P.O., 1994. 218 p. "Serial no. 103-76" U.S. Congress. Senate. Committee on Governmental Affairs. Youth violence prevention. Hearing, 102nd Congress, 2nd session. Mar. 31, 1992. Washington, G.P.O., 1993. 189 p. (Hearing, Senate, 102nd Congress, 2nd session, S. Hrg. 102-1123) U.S. Congress. Senate. Committee on Labor and Human Resources. Youth Development Community Block Grant Act; report together with additional and minority views, to accompany S. 673. Washington, G.P.O., 1995. 147 p. (Report, Senate, 104th Congress, 1st session, no. 104-161) ----- Youth Development Community Block Grant Act of 1995. Hearing, 104th Congress, 1st session on S. 673. June 8, 1995. Washington, G.P.O., 1995. 93 p. (Hearing, Senate, 104th Congress, 1st session, S. Hrg. 104-94) U.S. Congress. Senate. Committee on Labor and Human Resources. Subcommittee on Children, Family, Drugs and Alcoholism. Before dreams disappear: preventing youth violence. Hearing, 103d Congress, 2d session on examining certain provisions establishing programs to prevent youth violence as contained in the proposed Violent Crime Control and Law Enforcement Act. May 17, 1994. Washington, G.P.O., 1994. 71 p. (Hearing, Senate, 103d Congress, 2d session, S. Hrg. 103-685) ----- Children of war: violence and America's youth. Hearing, 102nd Congress, 2nd session. July 23, 1992. Washington, G.P.O., 1992. 77 p. (Hearing, Senate, 102nd Congress, 2nd session, S. Hrg. 102-1185) "Examining the effects of violence on children and youth living in American inner city neighborhoods, focusing on alternatives and early intervention programs to reduce later involvement in crime." ----- Keeping every child safe: curbing the epidemic of violence. Joint hearing before the Subcommittee on Children, Family, Drugs and Alcoholism of the Committee on Labor and Human Resources, United States Senate and the Select Committee on Children, Youth, and Families of the House of Representatives, 103d Congress, 1st session. Mar. 10, 1993. Washington, G.P.O., 1993. 79 p. (Hearing, Senate, 103d Congress, 1st session, S. Hrg. 103-28) "Examining the impact of violence on children, and on proposed legislation to provide children exposed to violence with immediate assessment and intervention by child mental health professionals, and to provide training for law enforcement in child, family and cultural issues." U.S. Congress. Senate. Committee on the Judiciary. Subcommittee on Juvenile Justice. Juvenile justice: a new focus on prevention. Hearing, 102nd Congress, 2nd session. Apr. 29, 1992. Washington, G.P.O., 1993. 110 p. (Hearing, Senate, 102nd Congress, 2nd session, S. Hrg. 102-1045) "Serial no. J-102-62" ----- Maine kids at risk: juvenile violence and crime. Hearing, 103d Congress, 2nd session. Apr. 8, 1994. Washington, G.P.O., 1995. 59 p. (Hearing, Senate, 103d Congress, 2nd session, S. Hrg. 103-1055) "Serial no. J-103-54" Hearing held in the Portland City Hall, Portland, Me. ----- The state of youth at risk and the juvenile justice system: prevention and intervention. Hearing, 102nd Congress, 2nd session. Oct. 21, 1992. Washington, G.P.O., 1993. 78 p. (Hearing, Senate, 102nd Congress, 2nd session, S. Hrg. 102-1137) Hearing held in Atlanta, GA. "Serial no. J-102-89" Hearing "on support for State law enforcement efforts and for State juvenile justice systems, to help address the wave of violent crimes among youthful offenders." ----- Status offenders: risks and remedies. Hearing, 102nd Congress, 1st session on the implementation of the Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention Act of 1974, and to explain current prevention and treatment strategies for status offenders. May 22, 1991. Washington, G.P.O., 1991. 115 p. ( Hearing, Senate, 102nd Congress, 1st session, S. Hrg. 102-285) "Serial no. J-102-20" ----- Youth violence: a community response. Hearing, 103d Congress, 1st session on experience and reaction to trends regarding juvenile violence within the jurisdictions of Phoenix and Tucson, AZ. June 1-2, 1993. Washington, G.P.O., 1994. 285 p. (Hearing, Senate, 103d Congress, 1st session, S. Hrg. 103-319) "Serial no. J-103-17" "The purpose of this hearing is to solicit not only what the problem is, which many of us know, but to also raise the awareness of the problem of gangs and violence and use of firearms by young people in our own communities, and also to listen to what works and perhaps what has not worked, and to attempt to see what can be done not only on the local level, but what could be translated into Washington, DC, as to assistance." U.S. General Accounting Office. Multiple youth programs. Jan. 19, 1995. Washington, G.A.O., 1995. 53 p. "GAO/HEHS-95-60R, B-260045" Violence & youth: psychology's response. Washington, American Psychological Association, 1993. 1 v. HV1431.V56 1993 Content: v. 1. Summary report of the American Psychological Association Commission on Violence and Youth. Violence--breaking the cycle: 1994 Young Voices Essay Contest winners. Edited by James A. Burke II. Miami, Grace Contrino Abrams Peace Education Foundation, 1994. 32 p. HN90.V5V538 1994 Violence prevention: resource bibliography. Boston, Massachusetts Dept. of Public Health, Massachusetts Adolescent Violence Prevention Program, Injury Prevention and Control Resource Library  24 p. Z5703.5.U5V56 1993 Watzman, Nancy. The curfew revival gains momentum. Governing, v. 7, Feb. 1994: 20-21. "Teen curfew laws are spreading rapidly despite two formidable obstacles: widespread police resistance and civil libertarian court challenges." White, Michaele P. A comprehensive approach to violence prevention. Journal of health care for the poor and underserved, v. 6, no. 2, 1995: 254-261. "Debate continues about the causes of youth violence and appropriate solutions. This paper discusses a comprehensive holistic approach to violence prevention." Wilson, Paul R. Educating street kids: a ministry to young people in the charism of Edmund Rice. New York, Alba House, 1991. 99 p. BV4464.5.W53 1991 Youth outreach program holds training in Carbrini-Green District of Chicago. CCCO news notes, v. 45, summer 1993: 15. Discusses youth outreach programs designed to show "the connection between violence and militarism." V. DRUG AND ALCOHOL ABUSE A. DRUG USE PATTERNS Alcohol and other drug use among Hispanic youth. Washington, U.S. Office for Substance Abuse Prevention, Alcohol, Drug Abuse, and Mental Health Administration, 1990. 28 p. (OSAP technical report 4) "Report presents a review of the literature that offers many insights into the complex nature of alcohol and other drug problems among Hispanics." Bahr, Stephen J. Hawks, Ricky D. Wang, Gabe. Family and religious influences on adolescent substance abuse. Youth and society, v. 24, June 1993: 443-465. "There were three major findings in this study. First, level of peer drug use is strongly associated with substance abuse. Second, parental monitoring and family drug use do not have direct impacts on adolescent drug use but have moderately strong associations with peer drug use. Third, after controlling for parental monitoring and family drug use, family cohesion (as perceived by either the adolescent or the parent) and religious importance are not associated with peer drug use, substance abuse, or current use of marijuana and cocaine." Bailey, Susan L. Adolescents' multisubstance use patterns: the role of heavy alcohol and cigarette use. American journal of public health, v. 82, Sept. 1992: 1220-1224. Using analysis of responses from 4192 secondary school students who were surveyed three times over a four-year period, the author found that adolescents are likely to have been involved in a history of increasing frequencies of alcohol and cigarette use before progressing to and maintaining the use of other substances." Baylor University. Regional Studies. Doing drugs and dropping out; a report. Washington, G.P.O., 1991. 93 p. (Print, Senate, 102nd Congress, 1st session, joint committee print, S. Prt. 102-45) "This report concludes a two-phase assignment, which the Joint Economic Committee asked the Regional Studies Center at Baylor University to carry out, assessing the costs to society of substance abuse--especially cocaine and crack addiction--and dropping out of school . . . . The report is organized around three central questions. What is the impact of cocaine and crack abuse in terms of crime, present and prospective public spending, and lost productivity? What policies have successfully moved addicts away from crack? And what policies have successfully reduced the high school dropout rate?" Causes of drug use: what do college students think? Criminal justice and behavior, v. 19, Dec. 1992: 363-371. "Subjects were asked in a free-response format to nominate causes of drug use. The 10 most frequently cited causes were used as labels on a matrix, and subjects were asked to determine whether there was a cause-and-effect link between each pair of nominated causes. Individual matrices were combined, and the composite matrix was subjected to network analysis. The results indicate that subjects view personal problems (stress and depression) and peer-related societal acceptance as important causal factors in drug use." Chen, Kevin. Kandel, Denise B. The natural history of drug use from adolescence to the mid-thirties in a general population sample. American journal of public health, v. 85, Jan. 1995: 41-47. "This study sought to describe patterns of initiation, persistence, and cessation in drug use in individuals from their late 20s to their mid-30s, within a broad perspective that spans 19 years from adolescence to adulthood. A fourth wave of personal interviews was conducted at ages 34-35 with a cohort of men and women (n=1160) representative of adolescents formerly enrolled in New York State public secondary high schools. A school survey was administered at ages 15-16, and personal interviews with participants and school absentees were conducted at ages 24-25 and 28-29. Retrospective continuous histories of 12 drug classes were obtained at each follow-up." Drug abuse: opposing viewpoints. Karin L. Swisher, book editor, Katie de Koster, assistant editor. San Diego, Calif., Greenhaven Press, 1994. 261 p. (Opposing view points series) HV5809.5.D78 1994 Presents differing opinions on the causes of drug abuse, the effectiveness of the war on drugs, drug testing, and other related issues. Drug abuse among minority youth: advances in research and methodology. Rockville, Md., National Institute on Drug Abuse, 1993. 348 p. (NIDA research monograph 130) "This monograph is based on the papers and discussions from a technical review on `Epidemiologic Drug Abuse Research on Minority Youth: Methodological Issues and Recent Research Advances' held on July 17-18, 1991, in Bethesda, MD. The technical review was sponsored by the National Institute on Drug Abuse." Dull, R. Thomas. Correlates of alcohol and marijuana use within a college freshman population. Journal of alcohol and drug education, v. 38, fall 1992: 1-10. "The correlations between self-reported alcohol and marijuana use by college-age students and peer and parental alcohol use, family alcohol abuse, and legalization attitudes were studied in a random sample of 557 incoming freshman students from a large university. Regression analyses were performed to identify the relative contributions of each independent variable in a prediction formula for the dependent variables of alcohol use and marijuana use." Goode, Stephen. Are America's college students majoring in booze? Insight (Washington times), v. 10, Aug. 8, 1994: 15-17. "The age-old activity of drinking, once considered a rite of passage on college campuses, has fallen under increased scrutiny. Some researchers report that alcohol consumption has reached `epidemic' proportions and are calling for wide-ranging changes on campus. More moderate voices hope to teach students to drink responsibly." Inhalant abuse: its dangers are nothing to sniff at. Rockville, Md., National Institute on Drug Abuse, 1994. 8 p. (NIH publication no. 94-3818) "A surprisingly large number of adolescents in the United States experiment with intoxicating inhalants. These inhalants include a wide range of household products such as glue, spray paint, lighter fluid, and propellent gases used in aerosols. In spite of the fact that inhalants result in an untold number of deaths every year, inhalant abuse has been relegated to the status of a poor stepchild in the war on drugs. This Research Report is based on recent studies on the use of inhalants among adolescents in the United States." Johnson, Lloyd D. O'Malley, Patrick M. Bachman, Jerald G. National survey results on drug use from the monitoring the future study, 1975-1993. Vols. I-II. Rockville, Md., National Institutes on Drug Abuse for sale by the Supt. of Docs., G.P.O., 1994. 2 v. (281, 189 p.) (NIH publication no. 94-3809; NIH publication no. 94-3810) A two volume set focusing on drug use among secondary school students, college students, and young adults. Leland, John. Just say maybe. Newsweek, v. 122, Nov. 1, 1993: 51-54. "For a decade, the drug culture was demonized. But it's staging a strong return . . . . What is clear, and arresting, is the rise of a popular culture that actively glorifies drug use." Lewis, David K. Dodd, Carley H. Tippens, Darryl L. Dying to tell: the hidden meaning of adolescent substance abuse. Abilene, Tex., ACU Press, 1992. 179 p. HV5824.Y68L49 1992 "Our research and counseling with teens convince us that substance abuse always articulates a deeper pain or trauma in the teen's life, and this pain or trauma inevitably has a spiritual dimension to it. For us, substance abuse only makes sense when interpreted within a spiritual context. And treatment is much more likely to succeed when it takes into account those underlying spiritual conditions." Maginnis, Robert L. Back to the `70s: the MTV generation inhales. Washington, Family Research Council, 1995. 11 p. (Insight IS95B3DR) "The sex-drug-rock counterculture of the 1960s is not dead. It was temporarily stalled in the 1980s when the Reagan administration, activists and citizen groups mobilized against it. But youth drug use has not disappeared. And glamorization of drug use in the [music and entertainment] industry appears to be on the rise. Consider the evidence." McBroom, James R. Correlates of alcohol and marijuana use among junior high school students: family, peers, school problems, and psychosocial concerns. Youth & society, v. 26, Sept. 1994: 54-68. "This study analyzes survey data collected from over 400 junior high school students in Grades 7 and 8 in an attempt to determine the relationships between family drug use factors; peer drug use factors; school problems; psychosocial concerns; alcohol, marijuana, and other drug use; and abstinence. Socialization theory is used as the theoretical framework, factor analysis is used to create indexes, and analysis of variance and regression procedures are used for analysis. Based on the findings, implications for policy, prevention, and treatment programs are discussed." Racial/ethnic differences in smoking, drinking, and illicit drug use among American high school seniors. American journal of public health, v. 81, Mar. 1991: 372-377. "This study, other school-based studies, and general population surveys all show relatively low levels of drug use by most non-White youth, especially Black Americans and Asian Americans. Multivariate analyses indicate that such subgroup differences in high school seniors' drug use are not primarily attributable to family composition, parents' education, region, or urban-rural distinctions." Reese, Finetta L. Chassin, Laurie. Molina, Brooke S. G. Alcohol expectancies in early adolescents: predicting drinking behavior from alcohol expectancies and parental alcoholism. Journal of studies on alcohol, v. 55, May 1994: 276-284. Stuck, Mary Frances. Adolescent worlds: drug use and athletic activity. New York, Praeger, 1990. 179 p. HV5824.Y68S87 1990 Too many young people drink and know too little about the consequences. [Rockville, Md.] U.S. Alcohol, Drug Abuse, and Mental Health Administration, 1991.  p. Presents graphs and charts about teen drinking. Reports findings and references for a range of related research on adolescent alcohol abuse. U.S. General Accounting Office. Teenage drug use: uncertain linkages with either pregnancy or school dropout; report to the chairman, Select Committee on Narcotics Abuse and Control, House of Representatives. Jan. 15, 1991. Washington, G.A.O., 1991. 51 p. "GAO/PEMD-91-3, B-241016" Report "seeks to answer two main questions: First, what is the current status of, and what are recent trends in, teen drug use, pregnancy, and dropping out of school? Second, what has research learned since 1987 about the relationship between teen drug use and either pregnancy or dropping out? The basic data GAO reviewed showed little evidence that trends in the three youth problems are increasing. Indeed, these problems today may not be dramatically different from those seen in recent years." Use of multiple drugs among adolescents who use anabolic steroids. New England journal of medicine, v. 328, Apr. 1, 1993: 922-926. "In this study we examined the relation of anabolic-steroid use to the use of other drugs, including cocaine, marijuana, alcohol, cigarettes, and smokeless tobacco. In addition, we sought to determine the degree to which young adolescents reported the use of injectable drugs and the percentage that reported sharing needles." Youth and drugs: society's mixed messages. Editor, Hank Resnik. Rockville, Md., U.S. Office for Substance Abuse Prevention, 1990. 174 p. (OSAP prevention monograph-6; DHHS publication no. (ADM) 90-1689) "Examines past and present societal influences that have fostered the continued use of both legal and illegal drugs by Americans from virtually every walk of life. Nationally prominent experts present their views of how `mixed messages' are often sent to American youth regarding the use of alcohol and other drugs." B. CRIMINAL BEHAVIOR AND LAW ENFORCEMENT Alcohol, aggression, and injury. Alcohol health & research world, v. 17, no. 2, 1993: whole issue (89-172 p.) Partial contents.--Research approaches in the study of alcohol-related violence, by Kai Pernanen.--Alcohol use and aggression among youth, by Helene Raskin White, Stephen Hansell, and John Brick. American Probation and Parole Association's drug testing guidelines and practices for juvenile probation and parole agencies. Washington, U.S. Dept. of Justice, Office of Justice Programs, Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention  142 p. HV5823.5.U5A44 1992 Chaloupka, Frank J. Wechsler, Henry. The impact of price, availability, and alcohol control policies on binge drinking in college. Cambridge, Mass., National Bureau of Economic Research, 1995. 34 p. (Working paper no. 5319) "The effects of beer prices, alcohol availability, and policies related to driving under the influence of alcohol on drinking and binge drinking among youths and young adults are estimated using data from a nationally representative survey of students in U.S. colleges and universities." Chavez, Ernest L. Edwards, Ruth. Oetting, E. R. Mexican American and white American school dropouts' drug use, health status, and involvement in violence. Public health reports, v. 104, Nov.-Dec. 1989: 594-604. "Dropouts and subjects matched for similarly poor academic records have higher rates of drug use and are more likely to be both the victims and perpetrators of violence. The image is one of youths with multiple problems, which exacerbate each other. The results indicate that dropouts may have many more problems in life than those that are caused by failure to complete high school. The results suggest that prevention or treatment programs may not be effective if they try to deal only with a single facet of the dropouts' lives." Deivert, Richard G. The role of the Constitution in the drug testing of student athletes in the public school. Journal of alcohol and drug education, v. 36, winter 1991: 32-41. "This paper will examine whether the Fourth Amendment applies to the relationship between a student and an educational institution, and whether the drug tests do qualify as a search within the meaning of the Fourth Amendment. Considerations of whether a drug test is an illegal search and seizure in violation of the Fourth Amendment will also be discussed." Drugs and crime. Edited by Richard Dembo. Lanham, Md., University Press of America, 1993. 287 p. HV5825.D7863 1993 Partial contents.--Concentration of delinquent offending: serious drug involvement and high delinquency rates, by Bruce Johnson, Eric D. Wish, James Schmeidler and David Huizinga.--Marijuana use and delinquency: a test of the "independent cause" hypothesis, by Helene Raskin White.--A longitudinal study of the relationships among marijuana/hashish use, cocaine use and delinquency in a cohort of high risk youths, by Richard Dembo, Linda Williams, Alan Getreu, Lisa Genung, James Schmeidler, Estrellita Berry, Eric D. Wish, and Lawrence LaVoie. Drugs and crime: evaluating public policy initiatives. Edited by Doris Layton MacKenzie and Craig D. Uchida. Thousand Oaks, Sage Publications, 1994. 316 p. HV5825.M23 1994 Partial contents.--Drug control and system improvement: evaluating the success of public policies, by Doris Layton MacKenzie.--Doing evaluations in policy research: implications for drug control initiatives, by Albert J. Reiss, Jr.--Prevalence of drug use among criminal offender populations: implications for control, treatment, and policy, by Yih-Ing Hser, Douglas Longshore, and M. Douglas Anglin.--Controlling street-level drug trafficking: professional and community policing approaches, by Craig D. Uchida and Brian Forst.--Do criminal sanctions deter drug crimes? By Jeffrey A. Fagan.--Treating the juvenile drug offender, by Elizabeth Piper Deschenes and Peter W. Greenwood.--Drug policy initiatives: the next 25 years, by Doris Layton MacKenzie. Dunworth, Terence. Saiger, Aaron. Drugs and crime in public housing: a three-city analysis. Santa Monica, Calif., Rand Corporation, 1993. 107 p. (DRLI-170-2-NIJ) Purposes "to provide an objective, quantitative description of the extent and nature of crime in selected public housing developments. It presents an analysis of rates of drug, violent, and property offenses in public housing developments in Los Angeles, California, Phoenix, Arizona, and the District of Columbia for the period 1986-1989. It also compares the rates of these types of offenses in public housing to rates in nearby urban areas containing private housing and to rates in the cities overall." ----- State strategic planning under the drug formula grant program. Washington, National Institute of Justice, 1992. 137 p. (Research report) "An integral part of State anti-drug efforts is the development of strategic plans for using Federal, State, and local resources to mount a comprehensive attack . . . . The study, which was carried out for NIJ by the RAND Corporation, reviewed the approaches used by the States in structuring their plans as well as the usefulness of Federal guidelines for planning." Escobedo, Luis G. Chorba, Terence L. Waxweiler, Richard. Patterns of alcohol use and the risk of drinking and driving among US high school students. American journal of public health, v. 85, July 1995: 976-978. "Approximately one third of deaths among persons aged 15 to 24 years are the result of motor vehicle-related crashes. Data from a national sample of US high school students were used to assess patterns of alcohol use among adolescents in relation to the risk of drinking and driving." Everyday life in two high-risk neighborhoods. American enterprise, v. 2, May-June 1991: 28-37. In the first of two articles, participant-observer Philippe Bourgoisver describes the street-level crack trade among Puerto Rican youths in New York's Spanish Harlem; in the second article researcher Linda Burton "describes several child-care strategies used by families consisting of two or more generations living in a neighborhood [of an unnamed northeastern city] where there is considerable illicit drug activity." Finnegan, William. Out there. New Yorker, v. 66, Sept. 10, 1990: 51-96 passim (24 p.); Sept. 17: 60-90 passim (28 p.) Examines street-level drug dealing in the inner city through the example of "Terry Jackson," a pseudonymous Black teenager in New Haven, Conn. Garcia, Fred. The National Drug Control Strategy: the first-line approach to decreasing violence in our communities. Journal of health care for the poor and underserved, v. 6, no. 2, 1995: 177-186. "The National Drug Control Strategy is designed to address all aspects of drug abuse: drug use, drug trafficking, and drug-related crimes. The nine-pronged program encompasses efforts at the federal, state, and local levels, forming a partnership between government and the private and public sectors." Golub, Andrew. Johnson, Bruce D. A recent decline in cocaine use among youthful arrestees in Manhattan, 1987 through 1993. American journal of public health, v. 84, Aug. 1994: 1250-1254. "Results. All analyses suggest that the dramatic decline in detected cocaine use among arrestees--from 69% in 1987 to 17% in 1993--was a cohort effect. Detected cocaine use, which was highest (78%) among arrestees reaching 18 in 1986 at the height of the crack epidemic in New York City, subsequently declined to a low of 10% among arrestees reaching 18 in 1993. These findings suggest that the epidemic in use of cocaine and crack entered a decline in the late 1980s. However, widespread use of these drugs will probably continue to prevail as an aging population with established habits persists in its use." Hawkins, J. David. Jenson, Jeffrey M. Catalano, Richard F. Delinquency and drug abuse: implications for social services. Social service review, v. 62, June 1988: 258-284. "Explores the evidence linking adolescent drug use and delinquency, examines shared and distinguishing factors in the etiology of each, and discusses implications for prevention and treatment." Hodgin, Deanna. For children, the beep may not go on. Insight (Washington times), v. 7, July 29, 1991: 24-26. "Telephonic pagers have become ingrained into American life, but their use in the networking of illegal drugs has prompted calls to take them out of the hands of children." Huizinga, David. Loeber, Rolf. Thornberry, Terence P. Urban delinquency and substance abuse: initial findings; research summary. [Washington] U.S. Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention, 1994. 27 p. Describes the findings of the interrelated Denver Youth Survey, Pittsburgh Youth Study, and Rochester Youth Development Study. Inciardi, James A. Horowitz, Ruth. Pottieger, Anne E. Street kids, street drugs, street crime: an examination of drug use and serious delinquency in Miami. Belmont, Calif., Wadsworth Pub. Co., 1993. 234 p. HV9106.M45I53 1993 "The researchers conducted on-street interviews of some 600 active serious delinquents in 20 neighborhoods within the Miami/Dade County (Florida) metropolitan area. . . . The major focus of the study was on the relationship between criminal behavior and drug involvement. The findings are both significant and alarming, as all of the youth interviewed had extensive histories of multiple drug use, with identifiable patterns of onset and progression. The availability and use of crack cocaine were particularly widespread, contributing to early and violent criminal activities." Kleine, Ted. A portrait of the drug dealer as a young man. Utne reader, no. 45, May-June 1991: 53-63. A description of a young drug dealer. Also contains the following related articles--What will it really take to win the drug war, by Michael Parenti; Living at ground zero: the drug war in Oakland, by Ishmael Reed; and Drugs and the Black community: death of a race, by Salim Muwakkil. Kramer, Karen M. Rule by myth: the social and legal dynamics governing alcohol-related acquaintance rapes. Stanford law review, v. 47, Nov. 1994: 115-160. Using case studies of three alcohol-related campus acquaintance rapes, comment "argues that our culture applies a double standard regarding intoxication: If the rapist was drunk, it reduces his culpability, but if the victim was drunk, it increases her culpability. Using a 1992 amendment to the Canadian criminal code as a model, [the author] proposes a new legal standard for consent in sexual assault cases." Osgood, D. Wayne. Drugs, alcohol, and adolescent violence. Boulder, Colo., Center for the Study and Prevention of Violence, Institute for Behavioral Sciences, University of Colorado, Boulder  59 p. (Center paper; #2) HV5053.084 1995 "F-1077, January 1995." "Americans widely share the belief that drugs are a destructive force that generate other problems, with violence prominent among them. In seeking ways to reduce youth violence, one must consider the possible roles of alcohol and drug use. I focus on the age span of 12 through 18, the time that most American youth spend in junior or senior high school. Violence and substance use most often begin during this period." The President's Commission on Model State Drug Laws. Washington, U.S. President's Commission on Model State Drug Laws, 1993. 6 v. Contents.--Executive summary.--Economic remedies.--Community mobilization.--Crimes code.--Treatment.--Drug-free families, schools, and workplaces. The Real cost of crack: how a decade of addiction has changed Los Angeles. Los Angeles times (Washington edition), Dec. 18, 1994: A1, A18-A20; Dec. 20: A1, A6-A8; Dec. 21: A1, A6-A8; Dec. 22: A1, A6-A7. Four-day series by Rich Connell, David Ferrell, Jesse Katz, and John L. Mitchell explores how "neighborhoods, institutions and morals have been ravaged by a decade of crack, the most addictive form of cocaine ever devised." Sickmund, Melissa. Juvenile court drug and alcohol cases: 1985-1988. Bureau of Justice Statistics bulletin, Dec. 1991: whole issue (11 p.) "NCJ 132073" "From 1985 through 1988, juvenile courts saw an increase in both drug and alcohol cases. During those years, in the jurisdictions studied, the drug case rate increased nearly 12 percent, while the alcohol case rate increased by 8 percent. By 1988, drug cases were more likely to result in residential placement, and were less likely to be dismissed outright. While the severity with which drug cases were handled increased, not much changed in the way alcohol cases were processed." Special issue: drugs and crime. Crime & delinquency, v. 38, Oct. 1992: whole issue (419-605 p.) Collection of ten articles "covers the waterfront on the topic of drugs and crime, with articles concerning the impact of drugs on inner city communities and youth, the economics of street-level drug sales, the link between drugs and criminal behavior, the prevalence of intravenous drug use and HIV among arrestees, the value of drug tests in community supervision programs, and the use of drug indicators to set policy in the war on drugs." Substance use and delinquency among inner city adolescent males. Paul J. Brounstein . . . [et al.] Washington, Urban Institute Press; Lanham, Md., disturbuted by University Press of America, 1990. 140 p. HV5824.Y68S874 1990 Tardiff, Kenneth. Homicide in New York City: cocaine use and firearms. JAMA [Journal of the American Medical Association], v. 272, July 6, 1994: 43-46. "The high rates of death by homicide among young African Americans and Latinos may be due to the increased involvement with both cocaine use and firearms. New efforts must be made to decrease cocaine use and firearm availability." Tidwell, Mike. In the shadow of the White House: drugs, death, and redemption on the streets of the Nation's Capital. Rocklin, Calif., Prima Pub., 1992. 341 p. HV5833.W3T53 1992 "This book is about drug abuse in the nation's capital. It is about what happened in 1989 as a new era of narcotics violence stalked and clobbered Washington, D.C. and urban areas like it across the country. It is about the District government's concerted antidrug counterattack that year, about the emergency expansion of police patrols and the attempts to impose nightly curfews and the large scale drug arrests made possible with help from special federal paramilitary squads backed up by Pentagon intelligence experts." U.S. Bureau of Justice Assistance. Accountability in dispositions for juvenile drug offenders, March 1992. Washington, The Bureau, 1992. 29 p. (NCJ 134224) Partial contents.--Introduction: what is an accountability approach?--Juvenile justice and the drug offender.--Gaps in community supervision.--Complications for sanctioning and supervision.--Accountability practices for drug offenders.--Demonstrating the approach: a suggested pilot project design.--Program funding. U.S. Congress. House. Committee on Public Works and Transportation. Subcommittee on Surface Transportation. Implementation of the National Minimum Drinking Age Act. Hearing, 102nd Congress, 2nd session. Oct. 1, 1992. Washington, G.P.O., 1992. 150 p. "102-86" Urine testing of detained juveniles to identify high-risk youth. Washington, National Institute of Justice, 1990. 8 p. (Research in brief) "This Research in Brief summarizes the findings of an extensive, 3-year research project about the role of drug use in the lives of juvenile detainees and the potential benefits of urine tests for identifying those youngsters at high risk for future criminal behavior. A total of 399 youths entering a State-operated regional detention center in Tampa, Florida, agreed to undergo urine tests and confidential interviews regarding drug use." Watters, John K. Reinarman, Craig. Fagan, Jeffrey. Causality, context, and contingency: relationships between drug abuse and delinquency. Contemporary drug problems, v. 12, fall 1985: 351-373. Reviews "much of the literature on drug abuse and crime in order to further specify the difficulties involved and the varieties of research necessary to build a more sound, empirical base for public policies on the control of drug abuse and crime. . . . [The] discussion [is restricted] largely to research on drug use and serious delinquency." Where and how adolescents obtain alcoholic beverages. Public health reports, v. 108, July-Aug. 1993: 459-464. "Results of focus group interviews revealed the easy accessibility of alcoholic beverages to underage youth." Worsnop, Richard L. High school sports. CQ researcher, v. 5, Sept. 22, 1995: 825-848. "How serious are the drug and academic problems?" Includes pro [Supreme Court Justice Antonin Scalia] and con [Don Kindred] articles on the right of schools to randomly test athletes for drug use. C. EDUCATION, PREVENTION, INTERVENTION, AND TREATMENT Adolescent drug abuse: clinical assessment and therapeutic interventions. Editors, Elizabeth Rahdert and Dorynne Czechowicz. Rockville, Md., National Institute on Drug Abuse, 1995. 373 p. (NIDA research monograph 156) "This monograph is based on the papers from a technical review on `Adolescent Drug Abuse: Clinical Assessment and Therapeutic Interventions' held on May 13-14, 1993. The review meeting was sponsored by the National Institute on Drug Abuse." Adolescent substance abuse: etiology, treatment, prevention. Edited by Gary W. Lawson and Ann W. Lawson. Gaithersburg, Md., Aspen Publishers, 1992. 532 p. RJ506.D78A364 1992 Alcohol problems among adolescents: current directions in prevention research. Edited by Gayle M. Boyd, Jan Howard, and Robert A. Zuker. Hillsdale, N.J., Erlbaum Associates, 1995. 257 p. HV5135.A413 1995 Partial contents.--Family influences on alcohol abuse and other problem behaviors among Black and White adolescents in a general population sample, by Grace M. Barnes, Michael P. Farrell, and Sarbani Banerjee.--Disentangling the effects of parental drinking, family management, and parental alcohol norms on current drinking by Black and White adolescents, by Peggy L. Peterson, J. David Hawkins, Robert D. Abbott, and Richard F. Catalano.--Alcohol expectancy theory and the identification of high-risk adolescents, by Gregory T. Smith and Mark S. Goldman.--The path to alcohol problems through conduct problems: a family-based approach to very early intervention with risk, by Eugene Maguin, Robert A. Zucker, and Hiram E. Fitzgerald.--Community strategies for the reduction of youth drinking: theory and application, by Alexander C. Wagenaar and Cheryl L. Perry. Alcohol, tobacco, and other drug abuse; challenges and responses for faith leaders. [Washington] Center for Substance Abuse Treatment, 1995. 102 p. (DHHS publication no. (SMA) 95-3074) Partial contents.--Effects of commonly abused drugs.--Understanding alcohol, tobacco, and other drug dependencies.--Substance abuse ministries in action: intervention/treatment models.--The impact of substance abuse on families and communities in rural environments.--Towards a culturally competent system of care.--Three strategies for establishing a substance abuse ministry. Aniskiewicz, Rick. Wysong, Earl. Evaluating DARE: drug education and the multiple meanings of success. Policy studies review, v. 9, summer 1990: 727-747. "Background and previous impact evaluations of `DARE' (Drug Abuse Resistance Education) are described along with an assessment of its implementation among fifth graders in Kokomo, Indiana . . . . The results tend to support the conclusion that DARE produces anti-drug outcomes; also, the evidence suggests that drug knowledge and locus of control factors are involved in achieving these effects." Beyond convictions: prosecutors as community leaders in the war on drugs: an overview of prosecutor-led programs in education, prevention, treatment, and enforcement. Prepared by American Prosecutors Research Institute, National Drug Prosecution Center. Alexandria, Va., The Institute, 1993. 443 p. HV5825.B492 1993 Education and prevention.--Community coalitions.--Juvenile substance abuse programs.--Identifying resources. Brademas, D. James. Evaluating substance abuse programs. Parks & recreation, v. 29, Mar. 1994: 55-60. Due to the association between leisure activities and the use of drugs, "this study explored a number of variables concerning the extent of public leisure service agency programs directed toward drug and alcohol abusers and/or programs directed toward neighborhoods in which drugs and alcohol are known to be problems." Brooks, Margaret K. Legal issues for alcohol and other drug use prevention and treatment programs serving high-risk youth. Rockville, Md., U.S. Alcohol, Drug Abuse, and Mental Health Administration, for sale by the Supt. of Docs., G.P.O., 1990. 31 p. (OSAP technical report 2) "Questions agencies most often ask include: 1. whether they must comply with the Federal laws and regulation governing confidentiality of patient records and, if they must comply, how they may do so; 2. when they may offer services to minors without parental consent; 3. when and how they must report child abuse and neglect; 4. how they can best screen employees and volunteers to ensure that no one on staff abuses or injures a client; and 5. whether they are in compliance with applicable quality of care standards." Brown, Joel H. Horowitz, Jordon E. Deviance and deviants: why adolescent substance use prevention programs do not work. Evaluation review, v. 17, Oct. 1993: 529-555. "This article examines the social historical lineages of adolescent alcohol and other drug use prevention programs. It shows how risk factor research evolved from assumptions of deviance regarding the mentally ill and examines patterns in prevention research that have inhibited advancement in the field." Clark, Charles S. Underage drinking: is the government using the right tactics in its crackdown? CQ researcher, v. 2, Mar. 13, 1992: 217-240. "Illegal alcohol use is easing off at schools and colleges, but drips of progress toward temperance may not be enough. Concerned federal officials blame underage drinking for disturbing levels of campus violence and emotional problems, as well as a large proportion of traffic deaths. Just two months ago, the White House Office of National Drug Control Policy addressed alcohol for the first time in its strategy to combat illegal drugs. The issue is also being confronted by the alcoholic beverage industry, which is spending unprecedented sums on advertising to remind Americans that they must be 21 to drink. Though most everyone agrees on a need for multiple solutions--including beefed-up law enforcement, education campaigns and improved family communication--there is little consensus on how tough is too tough." Community responses to drug abuse: a program evaluation. Washington, U.S. National Institute of Justice, 1994. 40 p. "This NIJ-funded evaluation describes how grassroots organizations in 10 cities responded to problems caused by drugs and presents the specific strategies they developed to reduce drug abuse and fear and improve the quality of neighborhood life." Cops in the classroom: a longitudinal evaluation of drug abuse resistance education (DARE). Journal of research in crime and delinquency, v. 31, Feb. 1994: 3-31. "Project DARE has become America's most popular and prevalent drug education program. Despite this status, the effectiveness of the program has yet to be demonstrated. A longitudinal randomized experiment was conducted with 1,584 students to estimate the effects of DARE on their attitudes, beliefs, and drug use behaviors in the year following exposure to the program. DARE had no statistically significant main effects on drug use behaviors and had few effects on attitudes or beliefs about drugs." Cowles, Ernest L. Castellano, Thomas C. "Boot camp" drug treatment and aftercare intervention: an evaluation review; a final summary report. Washington, National Institute of Justice, 1995. 178 p. "Research report, NCJ 153918" "The purpose of the research was to `inform Federal, State, and local agencies about possible ways to incorporate drug treatment into the inprison and aftercare phases of boot camp programs and to highlight particularly innovative programs that may be expected to reduce drug use successfully.'" Drug abuse prevention with multiethnic youth. Editors, Gilbert J. Botvin, Steven Schinke, and Mario A. Orlandi. Thousand Oaks, Calif., Sage Publications, 1995. 359 p. HV5824.Y68D7713 1995 Partial contents.--Cultural identity and drug use among Latino and Latina adolescents, by Maria Felix-Ortiz and Michael D. Newcomb.--Drug abuse prevention in school settings, by Gilbert J. Botvin.--Developing interventions for multiethnic populations: a case study with homeless youth, by Linda Dusenbury and Tracy Diaz.--Strengthening families to prevent drug use in multiethnic youth, by Karol L. Kumpfer and Rose Alvarado.--Substance abuse prevention involving Asian/Pacific Islander American communities, by Sehwan Kim, Shirley D. Coletti, Charles Williams and Nancy A. Hepler. Ellickson, Phyllis L. Bell, Robert M. Challenges to social experiments: a drug prevention example. Journal of research in crime and delinquency, v. 29, Feb. 1992: 79-101. "This article describes how a recent, multisite experiment conducted in 30 junior high schools met several challenges, specifically: evaluating the program in a variety of environments; achieving well-balanced experimental groups; implementing the program as designed; obtaining reliable outcome measures; and eliminating alternative explanations for the results. In most cases, multiple strategies were employed." Glazer, Sarah. Preventing teen drug use: do school programs push the wrong people? CQ researcher, v. 5, July 28, 1995: whole issue (657-680 p.) "Drug use is once again on the rise among America's youth. Although teens who use drugs are still in the minority, some experts say that recent increases in the popularity of drugs, though modest, may indicate the beginnings of a new drug epidemic. They point to the pot culture's comeback, as reflected in music and clothing, and to surveys showing teenagers' weakening disapproval of drugs. Federal drug officials say stronger anti-drug messages are needed, but studies indicate that most school drug prevention programs are untested or ineffective. Some researchers say the predominant message--that students should resist peer pressure to try drugs--may have little impact in a society where drug experimentation is a normal but not necessarily fatal part of adolescence." Gonet, Marlene Miziker. Counseling the adolescent substance abuser: school-based intervention and prevention. Thousand Oaks, Calif., Sage, 1994. 249 p. HV5824.Y68G65 1994 Includes "the basic information necessary to provide effective counseling services and prevention programs to all adolescents. It is not meant as a treatment guide. Rather it provides an overview of the drug problem, how school professionals can and should intervene, and how to address the treatment needs of chemically dependent adolescents and their families in a manner appropriate in the context of the school setting." Hingson, Ralph. Heeren, Timothy. Winter, Michael. Lower legal blood alcohol limits for young drivers. Public health reports, v. 109, Nov.-Dec. 1994: 738-744. "To reduce the involvement of young drivers in alcohol-related crashes, 29 States and the District of Columbia have established lower legal blood alcohol limits for drivers younger than age 21, than for adult drivers. Of these, 12 lowered the legal limit for young people prior to 1991. To assess the impact, these 12 States were paired for comparison with 12 nearby States matched for legal drinking age and timing of changes in that law." Hughes, Stella P. Dodder, Richard A. Changing the legal minimum drinking age: results of a longitudinal study. Journal of studies on alcohol, v. 53, Nov. 1992: 568-575. "The most prevalent observation from analysis of data collected over the 10 sampling periods is that drinking patterns and behaviors exhibited by the students in this research remained roughly constant over time. Only minor changes in drinking patterns were observed, and there were no significant differences in total quantity and frequency of consumption. Some accommodations in drinking locations were apparent, but these seemed to balance out; that is, decreased drinking in one area (e.g., restaurants) was balanced by increased drinking in another (e.g., residence halls). This would seem to indicate that legislation may not have an impact on total drinking behavior to any great extent. After a law is adopted, enforcement agencies frequently find practical difficulties in interpreting or enforcing the law. In addition, businesses and consumers find `loopholes' to allow them to continue behaviors that are targeted by the law." Johnson, Elaine M. Delgado, Jane L. Reaching Hispanics with messages to prevent alcohol and other drug abuse. Public health reports, v. 104, Nov.-Dec. 1989: 588-594. "The authors suggest research priorities designed to promote more effective communications programming in the substance abuse field, and they identify three key target audiences: children and adolescents, women of childbearing age, and heavy-drinking men. The significance of the diversity within the Hispanic community; the opportunities to reinforce attitudes, norms, and behaviors that counter substance use; and the centrality of family are discussed as approaches to communications planning and message development." Lecca, Pedro J., Preschoolers and substance abuse: strategies for prevention and intervention. New York, Haworth Press, 1993. 112 p. HV5824.C45L43 1993 "The intent of this book will be to: 1. briefy state the nature of the substance abuse problem identified by the literature as it affects the child and the family system; 2. discuss the social problems (e.g., violence, crime, sexual abuse, FAS, etc.) often correlated with familial substance abuse; 3. review and analyze the effectiveness of demonstration programs mentioned in the literature on familial substance abuse and related problems; and 4. make policy and research recommendations for future advances and understanding of this important issue." Long-term follow-up results of a randomized drug abuse prevention trial in a white middle-class population. JAMA [Journal of the American Medical Association], v. 273, Apr. 12, 1995: 1106-1112. "This article reports long-term follow-up data from a large-scale randomized trial of a prevention program based on a broad-spectrum, multicomponent approach during the seventh grade with booster sessions in the eighth and ninth grades." McKinnon, John. Turning a new eye on crime. American Bar Association, v. 80, Apr. 1994: 68-69. "With the supply of illegal drugs increasing, one city, Miami, decided to focus deterrence efforts on its children." Mothers Against Drunk Driving. Impaired driving issues: compendium of programs to reduce impaired driving by youth. [Dallas?] Mothers Against Drunk Driving [1990? 17 l.] Describes programs for promotion of alcohol-free activities for youth; increase in school-based education programs; reduction in advertising and marketing to youth; enforcement of age 21 (ABC) laws; efforts to minimize use of fraudulent IDs; reduction in the provision of alcohol by adults; enforcement of youth "use and lose" laws; provisional license; zero BAC limits for underaged youth. National directory of drug abuse and alcoholism treatment and prevention programs; FY94 survey. Washington, U.S. Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration, for sale by the Supt. of Docs., G.P.O., 1995. 542 p. (U.S. Dept. of Health and Human Services. DHHS publication no. (SMA) 95-3007) "A compilation of 12,256 Federal, State, local, and private providers responsible for alcoholism and drug abuse treatment and prevention services provided throughout the 50 States, American Samoa, the District of Columbia, the Federated States of Micronesia, Guam, Puerto Rico, the Trust Territories, and the Virgin Islands." National guide to funding in substance abuse. Edited by James E. Baumgartner. New York, The Foundation Center, 1995. 238 p. HV4999.2.N36 1995 "Contains entries for 530 grantmaking foundations and 75 direct corporate giving programs that have shown a substantial interest in substance abuse, either as part of their stated fields of interest or through the actual grants of $10,000 or more reported to the Foundation Center in the latest year of record. Grants in substance abuse are listed for 209 of the foundations in this volume. These 695 grants represent more than $91 million in support for a variety of organizations concerned with substance abuse, including public policy groups, international funds, educational institutions, and grassroots organizations, among others." Policy compendium on tobacco, alcohol, and other harmful substances affecting adolescents: alcohol and other harmful substances. Editors, Janet E. Gans and Kristen L. Shook. Chicago, American Medical Association, 1994. 57 p. HV5135.P65 1994 Partial contents.--Screening and evaluation.--Treatment and rehabilitation.--Prevention initiatives to reduce the demand for alcohol and other drugs.--Prevention initiatives using legal restrictions and sanctions. Powell, Richard R. Gabe, Janice. Zehm, Stanley. Classrooms under the influence: reaching early adolescent children of alcoholics. Reston, Va., National Association of Secondary School Principals, 1994. 46 p. Preventing adolescent drug use: from theory to practice. Editor, Eric N. Goplerud. Rockville, Md., U.S. Alcohol, Drug Abuse, and Mental Health Administration, Office for Substance Abuse Prevention, 1991. 181 p. (OSAP prevention monograph 8) Contents.--Adolescent transitions and alcohol and other drug use prevention, by Laurence Steinberg.--Identification of youth at high risk for alcohol or other drug problems, by Raymond P. Lorion, Danielle Bussell, and Richard Goldberg.--Reaching and retaining high risk youth and their parents in prevention programs, by Hank Resnik and Marba Wojcicki.--Promoting health development through school-based prevention: new approaches, by Eric Schaps and Victor Battistich. Preventing drug use among youth through community outreach: the military's pilot programs. By Jonathan P. Caulkins . . . [et al.] Santa Monica, Calif., Rand, 1994. 138 p. HV5825.P75 1994 "Congress directed the Secretary of Defense to report on the effectiveness of the pilot outreach programs and make recommendations regarding their continuation. RAND is assisting the Department of Defense with that report, and this document discusses a RAND study that examined the potential suitability of the military for such roles, the pilot programs that were implemented, their effectiveness, how the programs affected the military, and some desirable attributes of military-run prevention programs for youth. The information for the study was gathered largely through site visits and telephone interviews with program administrators, staff, participating youth, parents, and community leaders. A literature review, background research, and supporting calculations supplemented these efforts." Prevention of alcohol-related programs. Alcohol health & research world, v. 17, no. 1, 1993: whole issue (88 p.) Partial contents.--Prevention of alcohol-impaired driving, by Ralph Higson.--School-based alcohol prevention programs, by William B. Hansen.--Alcohol portrayals and alcohol advertising on television: content and effects on children and adolescents, by Joel W. Grube. Pruitt, B. E. Drug abuse prevention programs: do they work? NASSP [National Association of Secondary School Principals] bulletin, v. 77, Apr. 1993: 37-49. "This article is one writer's attempt to generalize years of experience on the part of public health officials, researchers, educators, and policy makers concerning drug use prevention curricula in the schools." Research and intervention: preventing substance abuse in higher education. Washington, U.S. Office of Educational Research and Improvement, for sale by the Supt. of Docs., G.P.O., 1994. 125 p. Develops a research agenda that addresses the issues of collegiate alcohol and drug abuse. There is a fourfold purpose: "to review the current research and information in college student alcohol and drug use and abuse; to determine the gaps as well as the strengths with particular attention given to the implications for practice; to identify the major areas of applied research including areas such as causal factors, usage patterns, attitudes, and evaluation techniques; and to develop a plan for conducting further research in each of the identified topic areas." Rural communities. Washington, U.S. Office for Substance Abuse Prevention, Alcohol, Drug Abuse, and Mental Health Administration, 1991. 17 p. (OSAP prevention resource guide (June 1991)) It briefly presents facts and statistics and then lists prevention materials, studies, articles and reports, and groups, organizations and programs. Signs of effectiveness II: preventing alcohol, tobacco, and other drug use: a risk factor/resiliency-based approach. Stephen E. Gardner, Patricia F. Green, and Carol Marcus, editors. Washington, U.S. Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration, 1994. 93 p. (DHHS publication no. (SAM) 94-2098) Continues where the first report by the same name left off. "In each . . . section there is a description of factors that place youth at high risk for use of alcohol, tobacco, or other drugs; promising strategies that address these risk factors; and illustrations of effective strategies implemented by the High-Risk Youth Demonstration Grants." Success stories from drug-free schools: a guide for educators, parents & policymakers. Washington, U.S. Dept. of Education, 1991. 59 p. "This book offers the wisdom, experience, and advice of the people who staff the 107 schools recognized in the 1989-90 and 90-91 academic years. These schools represent students who are rich and poor, students of many races and ethnicities, students of all academic levels, and campuses of all sizes and settings." U.S. Congress. House. Committee on Education and Labor. Subcommittee on Select Education and Civil Rights. Field hearing on the Drug-Free Schools and Communities Act. Hearing, 103d Congress, 1st session. June 19, 1993. Washington, G.P.O., 1994. 92 p. "Serial no. 103-47" "We're going to be looking at what rural States, rural communities, rural schools, and families are doing to combat the ravages of drug and alcohol abuse." U.S. Congress. House. Select Committee on Children, Youth, and Families. Preventing underage drinking: a dialogue with the Surgeon General. Hearing, 102nd Congress, 1st session. Nov. 15, 1991. Washington, G.P.O., 1992. 49 p. U.S. Congress. House. Select Committee on Narcotics Abuse and Control. Save our youth. Hearing, 102nd Congress, 2nd session. Sept. 25, 1992. Washington, G.P.O., 1992. 133 p. "SCNAC-102-2-11" U.S. Dept. of Housing and Urban Development. Office of Policy Development and Research. Together we can . . . create drug-free neighborhoods. Washington, The Dept., 1992. 136 p. "This is a book about people reclaiming their neighborhoods. It shows how public housing residents are freeing themselves, their families, and their communities from the tyranny of drugs . . . . The overriding theme of these case histories is that resident involvement, determination, and commitment are essential in preventing or eliminating drug abuse and related crime in public housing communities." U.S. General Accounting Office. Adolescent drug use prevention: common features of promising community programs; report to the chairman, Subcommittee on Select Education, Committee on Education and Labor, House of Representatives. Jan. 16, 1992. Washington, G.P.O., 1992. 81 p. "GAO/PEMD-92-2, B-245204" Examines "the design, implementation, and results of promising comprehensive, community-based drug use prevention programs for young adolescents, regardless of their funding sources." ----- Drug education: rural programs have many components and most rely heavily on Federal funds; report to the Chairman, Subcommittee on Labor, Health and Human Services, Education, and Related Agencies, Committee on Appropriations, House of Representatives. Jan. 31, 1992. Washington, G.A.O., 1992. 28 p. "GAO/HRD-92-34, B-246981" Reports on a telephone survey used "to obtain information from a representative sample of the nation's 8,913 rural school districts. . . . To supplement our survey, we visited 20 judgmentally selected rural districts in 10 states." ----- Drug use among youth: no simple answers to guide prevention; report to the Chairman, Subcommittee on Children, Family, Drugs, and Alcoholism, Committee on Labor and Human Resources, U.S. Senate. Dec. 29, 1993. Washington, G.A.O., 1993. 64 p. "GAO/HRD-94-24, B-246366" "Although the use of illegal drugs and alcohol among adolescents has declined from the peak levels of the late 1970s and early 1980s, it remains widespread. The many social ills that accompany drug and alcohol use remain a serious public policy concern throughout American society. This report (1) describes the prevalence of drug and alcohol use among various groups of young people; (2) describes the relationship between drug and alcohol use; (3) identifies risk factors most related to drug and alcohol use by youth ; (4) identifies and describes federal programs aimed at drug risk factors; and (5) on the basis of GAO's analysis, describes what set of policies might constitute a reasonable prevention and intervention strategy." Young, Connie. Alcohol, Drugs, Driving and You: a comprehensive program to prevent adolescent drinking, drug use, and driving. Journal of alcohol and drug education, v. 36, winter 1991: 20-25. "Alcohol, Drugs, Driving and You (ADDY) is a comprehensive program designed to prevent adolescent drinking, drug use and driving. This article describes the program modules, evaluation results, and school and community benefits that may result from adopting this program." Youth investment and community reconstruction: street lessons on drugs and crime for the nineties. Washington, Milton S. Eisenhower Foundation, 1990. 2 v. (20, 124 p.) Vol. 1. Executive summary.--Vol. 2. Final report. VI. GANGS A. GENERAL Block, Carolyn Rebecca. Block, Richard. Street gang crime in Chicago. Washington, National Institute of Justice, 1993. 11 p. (Research in brief) "NCJ 144782" "Analysis of police homicide records over 26 years and gang-motivated incident records over 3 years revealed the street gang affiliation of every offender and the location of each offense, which gives a detailed picture of gang activity and the relationships of individual, gang, and neighborhood characteristics." Burns, Edward. Deakin, Thomas J. A new investigative approach to youth gangs. FBI law enforcement bulletin, v. 58, Oct. 1989: 20-24. "The Baltimore, MD, Police Department realized that youth gangs are distinct in their structure, objective, and methods of operations from the typical drug organization and must be dealt with accordingly. This article demonstrates that the evolution of gangs--coupled with the dramatic increase of the drug problem--has made many standard investigative approaches ineffective." Campbell, Anne. The girls in the gang. 2nd ed. Cambridge, Mass., B. Backwell, 1991. 295 p. HV6439.U7N435 1991 An indepth study of "female street gangs and female gang membership" in New York City. Clark, Charles S. Youth gangs. CQ researcher, v. 1, Oct. 11, 1991: whole issue (753-776 p.) "Drive by shootings and assaults by gangs now routinely make headlines in dozens of American cities. But today's gangs differ from the classic switchblade-toting packs of the 1950s. Many are tightly organized, mobile criminal units that carry semiautomatic weapons and run sophisticated drug-trafficking operations. Police, government officials, community leaders and academics can't agree on a solution to the gang problem. Does it lie in tougher police tactics, more effective social work or a combined approach that involves the whole community?" Conlon, Edward. The pols, the police, and the gerry curls. American spectator, v. 27, Nov. 1994: 36-42, 44, 46-47. "Inside one of New York's most notorious Dominican drug gangs." Conly, Catherine H. Street gangs: current knowledge and strategies. Washington, National Institute of Justice, 1993. 115 p. "Summarizes research and professional criminal justice perspectives on gangs; describes some current gang prevention, intervention, and suppression strategies; and presents recommendations for dealing with street gangs at the community level." Covey, Herbert C. Scott, Menard. Franzese, Robert J. Juvenile gangs. Springfield, Ill., C.C.. Thomas, 1992. 290 p. HV6439.U5C68 1992 "Ethnographic studies of gangs have provided a richness and depth of description that is indispensable to the study of gangs, but they have typically focused on a single gang or ethnic group. Our goal in the present volume is different but complementary: to provide breadth and generality that may help to put separate studies of gangs in particular times and locations within an appropriate historical, comparative, and theoretical context." Curry, G. David. Ball, Richard A. Fox, Robert J. Gang crime and law enforcement recordkeeping. Washington, National Institute of Justice, 1994. 11 p. "A National Institute of Justice (NIJ)-sponsored survey of metropolitan police departments in the 79 largest U.S. cities showed that in spring 1992 all but 7 were troubled by gangs, as were all but 5 departments in 43 smaller cities . . . . The NIJ-sponsored survey findings detailed in this Research in Brief represent a first step toward the development of national-level data on gangs, their members, and their criminal activities. Results of the NIJ Gang Survey suggest some fruitful preliminary actions jurisdictions can take to improve the information on gangs available to policymakers and officials." Curry, G. David. Spergel, Irving A. Gang involvement and delinquency among Hispanic and African-American adolescent males. Journal of research in crime and delinquency, v. 29, Aug. 1992: 273-291. "Scale sequence and regression analysis suggest that different social processes operate in gang involvement for the two ethnic populations. In both sets of cross-sectional data, the fitting of linear structural models shows gang involvement to be an effective post hoc estimator of delinquency for these youth, whereas delinquency is not an effective estimator of gang involvement." Dunston, Mark S. Street signs: an identification guide of symbols of crime and violence. Powers Lake, Wisc., Performance Dimensions Pub., 1992. 232 p. GT2346.U6D86 1992 Describes tattoo, graffiti, patch, and symbol identification used by street gangs, prison gangs, motocycle gangs, hate groups, and others." Focus on gangs. FBI law enforcement bulletin, v. 63, May 1994: 1-6, 8-17. Contents.--Gangs: a national perspective, by Alan C. Brantley and Andrew DiRosa.--The Chicago area project, by Anthony Sorrentino and David Whittaker.--Gang intervention, by Wayne C. Torok and Kenneth S. Trump. Gangs: the origins and impact of contemporary youth gangs in the United States. Edited by Scott Cummings and Daniel J. Monti. Albany, State University of New York Press, 1993. 355 p. HV6439.U5G37 Several "social scientists and scholars have been brought together in this book to examine the contemporary contours of America's gang problem, . . . . New material dealing with wilding gangs, migration and drug trafficking, and public educational disruption appears in this volume. Other topics covered include how gangs are organized, what social function they serve, their relation to conventional society, and the social and psychological factors that contribute to their rise. The book also includes a section on public policy." Goldstein, Arnold P. Delinquent gangs: a psychological perspective. Champaign, Ill., Research Press, 1991. 313 p. HV6439.U5G65 1991 "This book describes the gang phenomenon and both recommends and exemplifies a strategy for improving the ability to understand, predict, control, and reorient delinquent gang formation and behavior. The strategy is extrapolation--of the findings and insights from diverse fields of psychology to the domain of the delinquent gang formation and behavior. The strategy is extrapolation--of the findings and insights from diverse fields of psychology to the domain of the delinquent gang." Gunst, Laurie. Born fi' dead: a journey through the Jamaican posse underworld. 1st ed. New York, H. Holt, 1995. 245 p. HV6439.J252K664 1995 Helfand, Duke. Caught in the cross-fire. Los Angeles times, June 30, 1994: 10 p. Reports on tensions between Asian and Latino street gangs in Los Angeles and the violence caused by these gangs. Howell, James C. Recent gang research: program and policy implications. Crime & delinquency, v. 40, Oct. 1994: 495-515. "Current knowledge of street gangs and related crime is limited. Media reports would have us believe that they account for the recent increase in juvenile violence; that they are spreading, mostly through establishment of satellite operations in other cities; that they have become extensively involved in drug trafficking; and that they are actively expanding these operations to other cities. This article reviews recent gang studies that shed light on the above assertions and increase our knowledge of gangs. Program and research implications for federal, state, and local entities along with recommended next steps are offered." Hutson, H. Range. The epidemic of gang-related homicides in Los Angeles County from 1979 thorough 1994. JAMA [Journal of the American Medical Association], v. 274, Oct. 4, 1995: 1031-1036. "Objective: To determine trends in gang homicides and the population at greatest risk for homicide by reviewing all gang-related homicides in Los Angeles County, California, from January 1979 to December 1994." Hutson, H. Range. Anglin, Deirdre. Pratts, Michael J., Jr. Adolescents and children injured or killed in drive-by shootings in Los Angeles. New England journal of medicine, v. 330, Feb. 3, 1994: 324-327. "The principal objective of this study was to determine the frequency of drive-by shootings involving children and adolescents in Los Angeles in 1991 and to identify the population at greatest risk for injury and death. We also studied the areas of the body that were most commonly injured, the most common sites of shootings, the seasons in which the most shootings occurred, and the types of firearms used in these shootings." Johnson, Claire. Webster, Barbara. Connors, Edward. Prosecuting gangs: a national assessment. Washington, National Institute of Justice, 1995. 11 p. (Research in brief) "The study found that more than 80 percent of prosecutors acknowledged gangs were a problem in their jurisdiction and said they were vigorously pursuing prosecution of gang crimes. Ultimately, however, prosecutors believed that early intervention with children and youths and more effective services designed to strengthen families were necessary to prevent gang violence and crime." Knox, George W. An introduction to gangs. New rev. ed. Bristo, Ind., Wyndham Hall Press, 1994. 817 p. HV6439.U5K66 1994 "An introductory level college text on gangs." Kroeker, Mark. Haunt, Francois. A tale of two cities: the street gangs of Paris and Los Angeles. Police chief, v. 62, May 1995: 32, 34-35, 44-46. The authors "meld their mutual observations and commentary on the street gang phenomenon, a sad bonding point for two major world urban centers." Lasley, James R. Age, social context, and street gang membership: are "youth" gangs becoming "adult" gangs? Youth & society, v. 23, June 1992: 434-451. "Within the social context of lower-class, inner-city Los Angeles neighborhoods, the present study investigates the extent to which street gangs are the domain of youth or adulthood . . . . All things considered, the final conclusion that must be drawn here is that street gangs are still very much youth gangs." The Modern gang reader. [Edited by] Malcolm W. Klein, Cheryl L. Maxson, and Jody Miller. Los Angeles, Roxbury, 1995. 333 p. HV6439.U5M64 1995 Neo-Nazi Skinheads organizing under banner of racist record company. Klanwatch intelligence report, no. 76, Dec. 1994: 1-3, 8. Charges that the newly organized Resistance Records "is much more than a racist record label for a growing stable of power rock bands and publisher of a slick Skinzine called Resistance. Behind the music and propaganda is a hardcore group of Skins and ex-Skins who envision a national organization that will unite violent young white supremacists under one banner. Racist rock music is the group's most potent recruiting tool." Pryor, Douglas W. McGarrell, Edmund F. Public perceptions of youth gang crime: an exploratory analysis. Youth and society, v. 24, June 1993: 399-418. "The focus is on public perceptions of youth gang crime: How serious of a problem is it? How prevalent? How much danger do people feel they are facing? Is youth gang crime more of an issue for people in their own neighborhoods or other places? And in particular, we ask, what kinds of factors shape these perceptions? Studies of perceptions about crime, especially in relation to youth gangs which have come to symbolize the essence of the crime problem in the United States, are important because or their potential impact on types of control policies and the quality of life in a given area." Sanders, William B. Gangbangs and drive-bys: grounded culture and juvenile gang violence. New York, Aldine de Gruyter, 1994. 198 p. HV6439.U7C26 1994 Partial contents.--Gangbangs.--Mexican-American gang styles.--African-American gang styles.--Other youth gangs.--Police operations and gangs. Sheley, Joseph F. Gang organization, gang criminal activity, and individual gang members' criminal behavior. Social science quarterly, v. 76, Mar. 1995: 53-68. "Objective. The present investigation attempts to assess the relation of general gang structure and criminal activity to the criminal behavior of individual gang members. Methods. The analysis derive from responses to surveys completed by 373 male juveniles who identified themselves as gang members prior to incarceration in mostly maximum security correctional facilities." Sigler, Robert T. Gang violence. Journal of health care for the poor and underserved, v. 6, no. 2, 1995: 198-204. "During childhood and adolescence, the formation of groups or gangs is a normal part of the growing process . . . . However, gangs, as we now know them, are part of the pathological process brought on by the inability to disassociate from adolescent grouping, and more frightening, the result of infiltration by criminal elements." Suall, Irwin. Halpern, Thomas. Young Nazi killers: the rising Skinhead danger. New York, Anti-Defamation League of B'nai B'rith, 1993. 34 p. (ADL special report) Finds that "a dramatic increase is occurring in the number and pace of murders committed by neo-nazi Skinheads," making them "today the most violent of all white supremacy groups. Not even the Ku Klux Klans, so notorious for their use of the rope and the gun, come close." Includes a State-by-State summary of Skinhead activities and a chronology of Skinhead-related homicide cases since Dec. 1987. Substance abuse and gang violence. Richard C. Cervantes, editor. Newbury Park, Calif., Sage Publications, 1992. 179 p. (Sage focus editions, 147) HV6439.U5S83 1992 Torres, Vicki. Li, Tommy. The San Marino tragedy; a deadly attraction to the gang lifestyle. Los Angeles times, June 16, 1994: 3. "Increasingly, ordinary students are mimicking gangbangers' dress and swagger. It's a trend that experts say may have contributed to the shooting deaths of two youths last week." U.S. Congress. House. Committee on the Judiciary. Subcommittee on Civil and Constitutional Rights. Bureau of Alcohol, Tobacco and Firearms' proposal for a gang information network. Hearing, 102nd Congress, 2nd session. June 26, 1992. Washington, G.P.O., 1992. 139 p. "Serial no. 78" U.S. Congress. House. Committee on the Judiciary. Subcommittee on Crime and Criminal Justice. Witness intimidation: showdown in the streets--breakdown in the courts. Hearing, 103d Congress, 2nd session. Aug. 4, 1994. Washington, G.P.O., 1994. 94 p. "Serial no. 81" U.S. Congress. House. Select Committee on Narcotics Abuse and Control. Dominican drug trafficking. Hearing, 103d Congress, 1st session. Mar. 24, 1993. Washington, G.P.O., 1993. 78 p. "SCNAC-103-1-1" U.S. Congress. Senate. Committee on Labor and Human Resources. Jobs Corps oversight. Hearing, 104th Congress, 1st session. Jan. 18-19, 1995. Washington, G.P.O., 1995. 214 p. (Hearing, Senate, 104th Congress, 1st session, S. Hrg. 104-12) "Examining performance, accountability, and the incidence of violence at Job Corps sites." U.S. Congress. Senate. Committee on the Judiciary. Subcommittee on Juvenile Justice. Youth violence and gangs. Hearing, 102nd Congress, 1st session. Nov. 26, 1991. Washington, G.P.O., 1992. 63 p. (Hearing, Senate, 102nd Congress, 1st session, S. Hrg. 102-665) "Serial no. J-102-45" U.S. General Accounting Office. Nontraditional organized crime: law enforcement officials' perspectives on five criminal groups; report to the Chairman, Permanent Subcommittee on Investigations, Committee on Governmental Affairs, U.S. Senate. Sept. 29, 1989. Washington, G.A.O., 1989. 62 p. "GAO/OSI-89-19" "Within the past decade, law enforcement officials throughout the United States have openly addressed the growing problem of organized criminal groups. Five of these--Colombian drug traffickers, Jamaican posses, Chinese organized crime, Vietnamese gangs, and [Black] Los Angeles street gangs--have been identified by authorities as posing particular problems for law enforcement. The following information is drawn from interviews with state and local police, federal agents, and state and federal prosecutors. The information summarizes what law enforcement authorities now know or believe to be true about each group." When you're a Crip (or a Blood). Harper's magazine, v. 278, Mar. 1989: 51-59. Presents a discussion, moderated by journalist Leon Bing, among four members of Black Los Angeles gangs about what their lives are like. B. PREVENTION AND INTERVENTION Burke, Jim. Teenagers, clothes, and gang violence. Educational leadership, v. 49, Sept. 1991: 11-13. "By bringing the school into the community and vice versa, we may be able to offer young people a positive alternative to membership in gangs to provide the security they lack at home." Foley, Jack. Ward, Veda. Recreation, the riots and a healthy L.A. Parks & recreation, no. 3, Mar. 1993: 66-69, 163. "The Bloods and Crips have submitted a series of proposals to revitalize South Los Angeles . . . . The proposals ask to build recreation centers on burned-out corner lots, plant street trees, freshen-up smelly toilets at school and reconstruct city parks. These young gang members also want improved street lightning, clean alleys, repainted classrooms and improved school playgrounds." Fremon, Celeste. Father Greg & the homeboys: the extraordinary journey of Father Greg Boyle and his work with the Latino gangs of East L.A. 1st ed. New York, Hyperion, 1995. 307 p. BX2347.8.J89F74 1995 Profiles the work of Father Greg Boyle, the "pastor of Delores Mission Church, which serves a parish that has the most intense level of gang activity in all of Los Angeles, perhaps in the whole of the United States . . . . Within its boundaries, which enclose roughly two square miles of Boyle Heights, east of the Los Angeles River, seven Latino gangs and one African-American gang claim neighborhoods. This means that in an area smaller than most university campuses, there are eight separate armies of adolescents, each equipped with small and large caliber weapons, each of whom may be at war with any of the others at any given moment." Gang intervention efforts. Police chief, v. 60, Feb. 1993: 20-23, 25-28, 31. Three related articles discuss how police in Aurora, Colo. and Oxnard, Calif. have mobilized to deal effectively with local gangs; and how the State of Connecticut has used RICO, money laundering, and forfeiture laws to prosecute gangs. Gang intervention handbook. Arnold P. Goldstein, C. Ronald Huff, editors. Champaign, Ill., Research Press, 1993. 522 p. HV6439.U5G35 1993 Partial contents.--Psychological interventions.--Contextual interventions.--Criminal justice interventions.--Special intervention parameters. Gang suppression and intervention: community models: research summary. Washington, Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention, 1994. 26 p. HV6439.U5G357 1994 "Dr. Irving Spergel and his colleagues at the University of Chicago have conducted the first comprehensive national survey of organized agency and community group responses to gang problems in the United States." Goldstein, Arnold P. Glick, Barry. The prosocial gang: implementing aggression replacement training. Thousand Oaks, Calif., Sage Publications, 1994. 123 p. HV6439.U5G654 1994 Hernandez, Efrain, Jr. Padrinos; they are known as the godfathers, veteranos whose roots in East L.A. run deep; their days as street toughs long gone, they are now committed to reducing bloodshed caused by Latino gang warfare. Los Angeles times, Mar. 12, 1995: 12. Reports on the Padrinos, "a group of volunteers with roots in East Los Angeles, who use street savey and donation to try to stem street violence," especially violence caused by Latino gangs. Hunzeker, Donna. Ganging up against violence. State legislatures, v. 19, May 1993: 28-31. "Criminal street-gangs have spread across the country, creating fear and challenging policymakers to prevent or suppress their activities . . . . Gang members overwhelmingly belong to an urban minority underclass." Kainec, Lisa A. Curbing gang related violence in America: do gang members have a constitutional right to loiter on our streets? Case Western Reserve law review, v. 43, winter 1993: 651-668. "This Comment will first explore the history of loitering laws and the constitutional challenges most commonly experienced. Specific types of loitering laws will then be discussed, with close consideration paid to the ways in which such laws have been able to overcome constitutional challenges. Next, the particular terms of the Chicago ordinance will be examined in light of challenges to prior loitering laws. This Comment argues that Chicago's ordinance should pass constitutional muster and be upheld as a legitimate and appropriate means by which to combat the problems of escalating violence and crime in American cities." Leighton, Gerald. When gangs become unpopular. World & I, v. 7, Oct. 1992: 414-419. "Nationwide, gangs are growing, but one police chief in Los Angeles County has reduced the gangs in his area." McLean, Gordon R. Cities of lonesome fear: God among the gangs. [With Dave & Neta Jackson] Chicago, Moody Press, 1991. 190 p. BV4464.5.M28 1991 With no reason to live and no fear of dying, street-wise gangs are turning cities into battlegrounds. In fact, if a kid makes it to adulthood, he is considered a survivor. Many, caught up in a web of drugs, gangs, and violence, end up on the streets, in jail, or even in the morgue. . . . [The author] tells how gang members have been changed through the truths of Jesus Christ and the impact of Christ's love." Mondragon, Delfi. Clinical assessment of gang violence risk through history and physical exam. Journal of health care for the poor and underserved, v. 6, no. 2, 1995: 209-216. "Primary-care clinicians can assess gang involvement and gang violence risk during the routine history and physical exam. . . . It works best in a managed care setting with a high incentive for violence prevention and cost reduction, and where access to a broad range of traditional and nontraditional referral sources exist. Representative referrals are discussed." Murphy, Paul D. Restricting gang clothing in public schools: does a dress code violate a student's right of free expression? Southern California law review, v. 64, July 1991: 1321-1362. Comment concludes that dress codes should probably only be adopted in schools with "a true gang problem," since prevention is not a "compelling rationale" to infringe on freedom of expression. Rodriguez, Luis J. Turning youth gangs around. Nation, v. 259, Nov. 21, 1994: 605-609. "These young people need guidance and support; they don't need adults to tell them what to do and how to do it; to corral, crush or dissuade their efforts. We must reverse their sense of helplessness. The first step is to invest them with more authority to run their own lives, their communities, even their schools. The aim is to help them stop being instruments of their own death and to choose a revolutionary service to life." Spergel, Irving A. The youth gang problem: a community approach. New York, Oxford University Press, 1995. 346 p. HV6439.U5S64 1995 Partial contents.--Gangs, drugs, and violence.--The structure of the gang.--Youth gangs and organized crime.--Planning for youth gang control and violence reduction.--Prosecution, defense, and the judiciary.--Local community mobilization and evolving national policy. U.S. Congress. House. Committee on Education and Labor. Subcommittee on Human Resources. Congressional oversight hearing on local gang diversion programs. Hearing, 103d Congress, 1st session. June 4, 1993. Washington, G.P.O., 1993. 146 p. Hearing held in El Monte, CA. "Serial no. 103-19" U.S. Congress. Senate. Committee on the Judiciary. Subcommittee on Juvenile Justice. The gang problem in America: formulating an effective Federal response. Hearing, 103d Congress, 2nd session to examine how the Federal Government can establish effective programs to deter youth violence in America. Feb. 9, 1994. Washington, G.P.O., 1995. 88 p. (Hearing, Senate, 103d Congress, 2nd session, S. Hrg. 103-1004) "Serial no. J-103-40" Willis-Kistler, Pat. Fighting gangs with recreation. Parks and recreation, v. 23, Nov. 1988: 44-49. Describes several programs implemented in California to encourage youth to participate in recreational activities rather than becoming involved in gang activity. Yoo, Christopher S. The constitutionality of enjoining criminal street gangs as public nuisances. Northwestern University law review, v. 89, fall 1994: 212-267. Student Comment "explores the constitutionality of recent civil remedies used to control gang activities, particularly in California. The author explores the possible constitutional objections, both procedural and substantive, that arise from the issuance of injunctions, concluding that `a properly drafted antigang injunction should be found constitutional.' Nonetheless, the author argues that defendants should be given greater procedural protections in the context of antigang injunctions." VII. SCHOOL VIOLENCE AND SECURITY A. GENERAL Barber, Mary Beth. Lack of school safety related to growth of gang activity on campus. California journal, v. 24, June 1993: 27-30. "About 15 percent of weapons violations at schools throughout the United States were in the Los Angeles area." Campus violence: kinds, causes, and cures. Leighton C. Whitaker and Jeffrey W. Pollard, editors. New York, Haworth Press, 1993. 313 p. LB2355.C36 1993 Fisher, Bonnie S. Crime and fear on campus. Annals of the American Academy of Political and Social Science, v. 539, May 1995: 85-101. "This article discusses the legal, legislative, and administrative responses to victimization and fear on campuses and critically examines issues raised by these responses and the media. Several court decisions have addressed issues concerning university liability to student victims of campus crime and have used the doctrine of foreseeability as the standard for establishing liability. Congress responded by passing the Crime Awareness and Campus Security Act of 1990, which mandates postsecondary schools to publicly report certain crime statistics and security policies. Several state legislatures have also enacted reporting legislation. Further, administrators have begun to implement a variety of educational crime prevention and safety programs, as well as security procedures, to reduce crime, risk and fear." Hostile hallways: the AAUW survey on sexual harassment in America's schools. Washington, American Association of University Women Educational Foundation, 1993. 25 p. (Study number 923012) "The questions we wanted answered: How widespread is sexual harassment in school? Who is doing it . . . and to whom? Where is it happening? What forms does it take? How are kids affected by it--what happens to their attitudes toward school and their ability to learn, grow, and achieve?" Knox, George W. Laske, David L. Tromanhauser, Edward D. Schools under siege. Dubuque, Iowa, Kendall/Hunt, 1992. 230 p. LB3013.3.K56 1992 Larson, Erik. The story of a gun. Atlantic monthly, v. 271, Jan. 1993: 48-78. "Gun laws remain weak, gunmakers continue to promote killing power, and gun dealers accept no responsibility for the criminal use of what they sell." The author illustrates this contention by showing how a Virginia Beach teenager bought a semi-automatic handgun used to kill a schoolteacher and wound another in Dec. 1988. Maginnis, Robert L. Violence in the schoolhouse: a 10-year update. Washington, Family Research Council  13 p. (Insight IS94E5CR) "Violence at school is worse today than ten years ago. . . . Considers the current school violence trend, its impact on the education environment, an analysis of the changed nature of school violence, and the roots of the problem." Mansfield, Wendy. Alexander, Debbie. Farris, Elizabeth. Teacher survey on safe, disciplined, and drug-free schools. Washington, U.S. Office of Educational Research and Improvement  43 p. LB3012.2.M36 1991 "This report presents statistics on teachers' perspectives of issues related to safety, discipline, and drug use prevention in public elementary and secondary schools. A national sample of 1,350 public school teachers responded to questions concerning the extent of discipline problems within schools and the nature and effectiveness of current policies and drug education programs." Nolin, Mary Jo. Davies, Elizabeth. Chandler, Kathryn. Student victimization at school. Washington, National Center for Education Statistics, 1995. 8 p. (Statistics in brief, NCES 95-204) "This report presents information on personal victimization from a national survey of 6th- through 12th-grade students conducted in the spring of 1993 . . . . This report is based upon the responses of the 6,504 students in grades 6 through 12 who were surveyed." Nordland, Rod. Deadly lessons. Newsweek, v. 119, Mar. 9, 1992: 22-26, 29-30. "Big cities, small towns: more and more guns in younger and younger hands . . . . The root causes of this bizarre and lethal trend include all the usual demons of American society--the easy availability of guns, the rise of drug-related crime, parental irresponsibility and so on. As always, educators contend that public schools merely mirror the broader trends in society--and if guns, drugs and violent crime are on the increase, they say, schools will be affected, too." Pipho, Chris. States get tough on juvenile crime. Phi Delta Kappan, v. 75, Dec. 1993: 286-287. Public school district survey on safe, disciplined, and drug-free schools. [Contact] Judi Carpenter. Washington, National Center for Education Statistics  37 p. LB3012.2.P83 1992 "The statistics represent public school district superintendents' perspectives on issues related to safety, discipline, and drug use prevention in public elementary and secondary schools. A national sample of 790 public school district superintendents was selected; 739 of these superintendents responded to questions concerning the extent of discipline problems within schools, the nature and effectiveness of current policies and drug education programs, and disciplinary actions." Sanday, Peggy Reeves. Fraternity gang rape: sex, brotherhood, and privilege on campus. New York, New York University Press, 1990. 203 p. University of Pennsylvania anthropologist presents a case study of a 1983 incident involving one of her students. "The book explores what happened through interviews with the victim, the participants, onlookers, and university administrators. Professor Sanday reconstructs the daily life in the fraternity, showing the role played by pornography, male bonding, degrading jokes, and ritual dances, in shaping the fraternity's attitude toward women and toward sexuality . . . . Gang rape occurs widely on our college campuses. The evidence suggests a common pattern . . . . Incidents of this sort are rarely prosecuted or even labeled rape, part of an institutional attitude that, according to Professor Sanday and others, privileges men and sanctions sexual power." Sheley, Joseph F. McGee, Zina T. Wright, James D. Weapon-related victimization in selected inner-city high school samples. Washington, National Institute of Justice, 1995. 13, 5 p. "This Summary Report explores the issue of weapon-related victimization by inner-city youths attending high schools with histories of violence. It focuses both on levels of such victimization and on characteristics, settings, and activities--including participation in illegal behaviors--that might influence victimization status." Special issue: violence and youth. Harvard educational review, v. 65, summer 1995: whole issue (127-366 p.) Partial contents.--Sexual harassment in school: the public performance of gendered violence.--Reconstructing masculinity in the locker room: the mentors in violence prevention project.--Preventing and producing violence: a critical analysis of responses to school violence.--Life after death: critical pedagogy in an urban classroom. Toby, Jackson. The politics of school violence. Public interest, no. 116, summer 1994: 34-56. Questions "political differences arising from the fact of more frequent disciplinary measures taken against blacks than against whites to control school violence. This political reality has colored the congressional response to public concern about school violence." U.S. Congress. House. Committee on Education and Labor. Subcommittee on Elementary, Secondary, and Vocational Education. Field hearing on violence in our nation's schools. Hearing, 102nd Congress, 2nd session. May 4, 1992. Washington, G.P.O., 1992. 79 p. "Serial no. 102-107" Hearing held in Bronx, NY. ----- Hearing on school violence. Hearing, 103d Congress, 2nd session. July 20, 1994. Washington, G.P.O., 1994. 124 p. "Serial no. 103-93" U.S. Congress. Senate. Committee on the Judiciary. Children carrying weapons: why the recent increase. Hearing, 102nd Congress, 2nd session, on the possession of weapons among children and the presence of these weapons in our schools. October 1, 1992. Washington, G.P.O., 1993. 58 p. KF26.J8 1992b Violence in schools . . . Federal Bar news & journal, v. 41, Oct. 1994: 630-634. "This article will analyze the current statutory law relating to the discipline of children with disabilities and its theoretical underpinnings. In addition, the judicial decisions, particularly the U.S. Supreme Court's decision in Honig v. Doe, will be examined." Webster, Daniel W. Gainer, Patricia S. Champion, Howard R. Weapon carrying among inner-city junior high school students: defensive behavior vs aggressive delinquency. American journal of public health, v. 83, Nov. 1993: 1604-1608. "Students in two inner-city junior high schools [in the District of Columbia] completed anonymous questionnaires. Logistic regression models were fit for having ever carried a weapon for protection or use in a fight and were stratified by sex and weapon type . . . . Knife carrying was associated with aggressiveness but did not appear to be related to serious delinquency. Gun carrying within this nonrandom sample appeared to be a component of highly aggressive delinquency rather than a purely defensive behavior." B. PREVENTION AND INTERVENTION Bey, Theresa M. Turner, Gwendolyn Y. Making school a place of peace. Thousand Oaks, Calif., Corwin Press, 1996. 166 p. LB3013.3.B49 1996 Partial contents.--Creating a peacable environment.--Encouraging peaceful communication.--Planning for peace across the curriculum.--Building family-school-community partnerships. Carroll, Constance M. Sexual harassment on campus: enhancing awareness and promoting change. Educational record, v. 74, winter 1993: 21-26. "Through affirmative efforts and attention to preventive measures, colleges and universities can become models of humane and professional standards of interaction at all levels." Caudle, Melissa. Eliminating school violence: why can't Johnny be safe? High school magazine, no. 1., Sept. 1994: 10-13. "How will schools provide an environment free of violence? Focusing on eight specific areas can help school leaders establish safe learning environments and meet the goals set forth by America 2000." Chandler, Kathryn. Nolin, Mary Jo. Davies, Elizabeth. Student strategies to avoid harm at school. Washington, National Center for Education Statistics, 1995. 7 p. (Statistics in brief, NCES 95-203) "This report presents information from a national survey of 6th- through 12th-grade students on student strategies to avoid harm at school." Clinchy, Evans. Learning in and about the real world: recontextualizing public schooling. Phi Delta Kappan, v. 76, Jan. 1995: 400-404. "What students most desperately need if they are to survive in the violent, dangerous, and often quite inhumane real world and if they are to be capable of changing it for the better is, first, an education that has been reconnected to that world." Dealing with youth violence: what schools and communities need to know. Rose M. Duhon-Sells, editor. Bloomington, Ind., National Educational Service, 1995. 112 p. LB3013.3.D43 1995 Partial contents.--Family violence and the schools, by Victor C. Kirk.--Governmental initiatives to reduce violence in the schools, by Leon R. Tarver II.--Techniques for reducing school violence, by Mary M. Addison and Dolores A. Westmoreland.--Nourishing the sense of self in school-age children, by Emma Thomas Pitts.--Students as conflict resolvers in schools: two models that work, by Cynthia L. Jackson and Luis C. Hines.--Resolving school conflicts through appropriate multicultural education programs, by Calvin Walker, Preston Dinkins, and Jane W. Robinson.--Restoring human dignity: a model for prevention and intervention, by VerJanis A. Peoples and Gerald C. Peoples. Gilbert, Shirl E., II. Violence in schools: why--and what can we do about it? Journal of health care for the poor and underserved, v. 6, no. 2, 1995: 205-208. "The author explores the notion of need (to be a part of, to belong, and to be connected) as it relates to the tendency toward violence, and conversely, the association between success in school, which allows for the development of positive self-esteem and therein socially acceptable behavior, with a tendency toward nonviolence." Glazer, Sarah. Sex on campus: will new programs cut the sexual assault rate? CQ researcher, v. 4, Nov. 4, 1994: whole issue (963-981 p.) "Colleges are getting tougher with male students who press unwanted sex on women. The date rape movement, started by victims protesting insensitive treatment by campus police and administrators, has become institutionalized. The federal government now requires virtually every college to offer programs aimed at stopping sexual assaults. Rape-prevention educators argue that the heightened awareness of rape will help place sexual relations between men and women on an equal footing, reducing sexual exploitation by men. Critics say the movement is creating needless hysteria on campus, encouraging women to cry rape over miscommunication and regretted sex." ----- Violence in schools: can anything be done to curb the growing violence? CQ researcher, v. 2, Sept. 11, 1992: whole issue (p. 785-808). "While some experts blame a breakdown in school discipline, others point to drugs and gangs. And some say schools merely reflect an increasingly violent society, whose attitudes are passed on through television and movies to children who lack the traditional counterweights of parental guidance, community kinship or religion. As violence mounts, many teachers and criminologists argue for a crackdown on hard-core troublemakers through toughened expulsion policies. But other educators believe that schools must take on the basic task of teaching students to resolve conflicts peacefully--a lesson that many children no longer seem to receive at home." Gun decision puts a check on Federal authority. Congressional Quarterly weekly report, v. 53, Apr. 29, 1995: 1199-1200. "Following are excerpts from the U.S. Supreme Court decision April 26 in United States v. Lopez, which struck down a federal law banning the possession of guns near schools. The majority opinion was written by Chief Justice William H. Rehnquist. He was joined by Justices Sandra Day O'Connor, Antonin Scalia and Clarence Thomas." Hill, Marie Somers. Hill, Frank W. Creating safe schools: what principals can do. Thousand Oaks, Calif., Corwin Press, 1994. 132 p. (Principals taking action series) LB3013.3.H56 1994 Partial contents.--Building principals' awareness: sources of violence in schools.--Violence in schools: not just an urban issue.--Involving the community and parents.--How the central office can help prevent school violence. Hood, John. School violence. Freeman, v. 4, Feb. 1994: 85-90. "Today's public educators are probably incapable of dealing effectively with school violence and discipline problems. To do so requires rethinking how education is organized and the proper relationship between pupil and teacher, and more generally, between pupil and school." LeBan, Levon A. The S.T.A.G. Program: students targeted against guns: a 24-hour, toll-free, anonymous source for reporting potential incidents of weapons at school. [Lousisiana? The Program, 1994] 48 p. HV7437.L8L42 1994 "The S.T.A.G. Program is an innovative three-year program [in Louisiana] designed to assist the community in the ultimate eradication of weapons in the schools. . . . S.T.A.G. asserts that some students know of cases of other students bringing guns onto school property and are concerned but are afraid to voice that concern. With an assured sense of anonymity, both students and the community will report potential incidents involving weapons." Managing crisis, resolving conflict. NASSP [National Association of Secondary School Principals] bulletin, v. 77, Apr. 1993: 1-36. Partial contents.--Coping with the ultimate tragedy--the death of a student, by Lawrence Grant and Barry Schakner.--Dealing with violence and threats of violence in the school, by David Frisby and Joseph Beckham.--A CLEAR plan for school crisis management, by Anthony Moriarty, Robert G. Maeyama, and Patrick J. Fitzgerald.--Combating racism: helping students move beyond color, by Raymond L. Calabres and Reginald Wilson. Quarles, Chester L. Staying safe at school. Thousand Oaks, Calif., Corwin Press, 1993. 86 p. LB3013.3.Q38 1993 Rembodt, Carole. Zimman, Richard N. Respect & protect: a practical, step-by-step violence prevention and intervention program for schools and communities: a complete program manual and guide for educators and other professionals. Minneapolis, Johnson Institute, 1996. 423 p. LB3013.3.Z45 1995 Sautter, R. Craig. Standing up to violence. Phi Delta Kappan, v. 76, Jan. 1995: K1-K12. Special Kapplan report on school violence. A Response guide for action is also included. School-based conflict resolution programs. Health affairs, v. 13, fall 1994: 163-177. Selected articles written in response "to a commentary (winter 1993) on school-based conflict resolution programs." Contents.--School-based conflict resolution: give educators more credit, by William DeJong.--Unconvincing evidence for condemning school-based conflict resolution programs, by Patricia S. Gainer and Howard R. Champion.--Comprehensive approaches to school-based violence prevention, by Renee Wilson-Brewer.--The positive case for school-based violence prevention programs, by Better R. Yung and W. Rodney Hammond. School security screening: with metal detectors: a basic planning handbook. By Garrett Metal Detectors. 3rd ed. Dallas, Ram Pub. Co.  122 p. (A security planning manual) LB3013.3.G37 1993 Schreck, Myron. The fourth amendment in the public schools: issues for the 1990s and beyond. Urban lawyer, v. 25, winter 1993: 117-157. "This paper will review the current state of Fourth Amendment law with regard to public school searches and seizures and then proceed to discuss the controversial and unresolved legal issues that will continue to preoccupy courts this decade." Smith, J. W., Jr. Interscholastic athletic programs: a positive factor in school reform. NASSP [National Association of Secondary School Principals] bulletin, v. 78, Feb. 1994: 93-98. "Research findings indicate that interscholastic athletic programs result in reduced discipline problems, increased academic achievement, and higher graduation rates." Swope, Christopher. Tracking down truants. Governing, v. 8, Aug. 1995: 52-53. "Convinced there's a link between playing hooky and juvenile crime, a growing number of cities and states are cracking down on class-cutters." U.S. Congress. House. Committee on Education and Labor. Subcommittee on Elementary, Secondary, and Vocational Education. Field hearing on violence in our nation's schools. Hearing, 102nd Congress, 2nd session. May 4, 1992. Washington, G.P.O., 1992. 79 p. "Serial no. 102-107" Hearing held in Bronx, NY. U.S. Congress. House. Committee on the Judiciary. Subcommittee on Crime and Criminal Justice. Selected crime issues: prevention and punishment. Hearings, 102nd Congress, 1st session. May 29-July 25, 1991. Washington, G.P.O., 1991. 927 p. "Serial no. 18" Hearing on safe schools held on July 17, 1991. U.S. Congress. Senate. Committee on Labor and Human Resources. Subcommittee on Education, Arts and Humanities. Recess from violence: making our schools safe. Hearing, 103d Congress, 1st session on S. 1125. Sept. 23, 1993. Washington, G.P.O., 1993. 87 p. ( Hearing, Senate, 103d Congress, 1st session, S. Hrg. 103-313) U.S. General Accounting Office. School safety: promising initiatives for addressing school violence; report to the Ranking Minority Member, Subcommittee on Children and Families, Committee on Labor and Human Resources. Apr. 25, 1995. Washington, G.A.O., 1995. 46 p. "GAO/HEHS-95-106, B-256397" Provides information "about some of the programs used by schools to curb violence." U.S. Office of Educational Research and Improvement. Goal 6 Work Group. Reaching the goals; Goal 6: safe, disciplined, and drug-free schools. Washington, The Group, 1993. 37 p. "PIP 93-1022" "While the use of alcohol and other drugs among America's youth has declined in recent years, it is unacceptably high, and in a large percentage of our schools, violence, misbehavior, and a lack of engagement in learning interfere seriously with the education process . . . . This report is designed to share information with policymakers about both effective and ineffective approaches, as well as about those for which little research exists." Violence and the schools: a collection. Edited by Phillip Harris. Palatine, Ill., IRI/Skylight Pub., 1994. 260 p. LB3013.3.V58 1994 Violence in school. Educational leadership, v. 52, Feb. 1995: 50-78. Partial contents.--A guide to violence prevention, by Robert Watson.--What cities are doing to protect kids, by Elizabeth Crouch and Debra Williams.--Why violence prevention programs don't work--and what does, by David W. Johnson and Roger T. Johnson.--How one high school improved school climate, by Rebecca Shore. VIII. VIOLENCE IN MASS MEDIA Andrews, Lewis M. Private ratings. National review, v. 47, Sept. 25, 1995: 81-83. "If we are to be required to purchase the V-chip, at least let us choose the rating system." Ballard, Ian Matheson, Jr. See no evil, hear no evil: television violence and the First Amendment. Virginia law review, v. 81, Feb. 1995: 175-222. "Part I provides an overview of the forty-year history of government action and the broadcast industry's response, and concludes with a brief discussion of recent congressional attempts to regulate violence on television. Part II reviews and criticizes the social science research often cited to support such regulation. Part III places the regulation of television violence in the context of related First Amendment jurisprudence. Finally, Part IV evaluates current proposals and offers an alternative approach." Barry, David S. Screen violence and America's children. Spectrum, v. 66, summer 1993: 37-42. "Studies show that murder rates have risen in response to televised violence, not only in the United States, but elsewhere. Despite this correlation, the broadcast industry continues to saturate children's programming with violence." Big world, small screen: the role of television in American society. Aletha C. Huston. . . [et al.] Lincoln, University of Nebraska Press, 1992. 195 p. (Child, youth, and family services) HQ520.B54 1992 Bok, Sissela. TV violence, children, and the press: eight rationales inhibiting public policy debates. [Cambridge, Mass.] Joan Shorenstein Barone Center on the Press, Politics, and Public Policy, 1994. 21 p. (Discussion paper D-16) "Although the depth of [the author's] concerns about televised violence is plain from this paper, she aims primarily not to make the case for one policy prescription or another. Rather, her goal is to expose some number of weak arguments whose dominance in current deliberation about the consequences of televised violence seems to her to be out of all proportion to their validity." Cannon, Carl M. Honey, I warped the kids. Mother Jones, v. 18, July-Aug. 1993: 16-21. Discusses violence in Hollywood-made movies and television. A companion article, "Passing the buck in Tinseltown," by Michael Krasny, gives personal comments by producers, directors, and actors on their thoughts about "excess violence in the movie industry." Catholic Church. Pontificial Commission for Social Communications. Pornography and violence in the media: a pastoral response. Origins, v. 19, June 8, 1989: 49, 51-54. Text of a Vatican statement dated May 7 and released May 16, 1989. "Professional communicators, parents, educators, the church and religious groups, youth, the public and public authorities represent seven sectors of society whose obligations in the face of pornography and violence in the media are examined." Censorship and music: rock, rap, and the First Amendment: symposium essays. William and Mary Bill of Rights journal, v. 2, spring 1993: 151-163. In the first of two essays from the Bill of Rights Institute's Student Division symposium, Village Voice writing fellow Jimmie L. Briggs defends the message of rap music, while another participant, National Association of Chiefs of Police President Dennis R. Martin criticizes it as "the music of murder." Centerwall, Brandon S. Television and violence: the scale of the problem and where to go from here. JAMA [Journal of the American Medical Association], v. 267, June 10, 1992: 3059-3063. Psychiatrist purposes to "discuss television's effects within the context of normal child development; give an overview of natural exposure to television as a cause of aggression and violence; summarize [his] own research findings on television as a cause of violence; and suggest a course of action." Clark, Charles S. Sex, violence and the media: is it time to crack down on TV and movies? CQ researcher, v. 5, Nov. 17, 1995: whole issue (1017-1039 p.). "Questions whether sex and violence are damaging society and examines what government should do." Edwards, Harry T. Berman, Mitchell N. Regulating violence on television. Northwestern University law review, v. 89, summer 1995: 1487-1566. The authors first conclude that banning, zoning, balancing, and labelling regulations are content-based, despite the arguments of some commentators that zoning is content-neutral. Applying exacting scrutiny to the proposals, the authors conclude that such proposals `cannot survive scrutiny under the First Amendment," while the v-chip can. Flesh and blood: the National Society of Film Critics on sex, violence, and censorship. Edited by Peter Keough. San Francisco, Mercury House, 1995. 398 p. PN1995.F56 1995 Galligan, Ann. Brown, Timothy. Warning labels on records and tapes: the mapping of two conflicting policy positions. Journal of arts management and law, v. 21, winter 1992: 355-372. "The issue of warning labels is a fascinating study of First Amendment freedom that has focused public opinion around two very different and often conflicting policy options. The first option is what Ithiel de Sola Pool terms a `policy of freedom,' one that places the emphasis on the rights of individual over the rights of the state. The second option is what could be termed a policy of `justified control,' one that emphasizes the values of community and stability over that of individual liberty, viewing freedom of expression as part of a broader constellation of interests that must be balanced in response to the needs of society as a whole." Gerbner, George. Morgan, Michael. Signorielli, Nancy. Television violence profile no. 16: the turning point; from research to action. Philadelphia, University of Pennsylvania, 1994. 14 p. Contents.--Violence profile.--Dynamics of violence.--Cultivation analysis.--Structural basis of violence. Gitlin, Todd. Imagebusters: the hollow crusade against TV violence. American prospect, no. 16, winter 1994: 42-49. "The question liberal crusaders fail to address is just how much real-world violence can be blamed on the media." Jonathan Rowe argues in part two (no. 17, spring 1994: 108-114) that TV violence matters. Hershinger, Jessalyn. State restrictions on violent expression: the impropriety of extending an obscenity analysis. Vanderbilt law review, v. 46, Mar. 1993: 473-501. Comment "concludes that even though states may have a stronger constitutional basis for regulating violent material than they have for restricting obscene expression, current violence statutes violate the First and Fourteenth Amendments." Kristol, Irving. Valenti, Jack. Children, Hollywood, and censorship. American enterprise, v. 6, Sept.-Oct. 1995: 21-22. "Does concern for children's upbringing justify restrictions on the liberties of adults? Irving Kristol and Jack Valenti have two views." Leland, John. Criminal records: gansta rap and the culture of violence. Newsweek, v. 122, Nov. 29, 1993: 60-67. "For rap music--particularly for the school known as gangsta rap, which has found a pot of gold in selling images of black-on-black crime to mainstream America--the confluence of the arrests [of several rap artists] raises disturbing questions: what is the relationship between the violence on the records and the violence in the communities, between capital rhymes and capital crimes? In broader terms, how does art--particularly art often consumed by very young listeners--influence life?" Includes related articles, Crime: rap is wake-up call for the crisis of Black-on-Black violence, by Tom Morganthau and Let's stop crying wolf on censorship, by Jonathan Alter. ----- Violence, reel to real. Newsweek, v. 126, Dec. 11, 1995: 46-48. "`Copycat' crimes in New York's subways reignited the debate: Do TV and movies cause actual mayhem? The evidence isn't as clear as you might think." Lichter, S. Robert. Jarvik, Laurence. Symposium: on television violence. Insight (Washington times), v. 10, Dec. 19, 1994: 18-22. "The public is sick and tired of violent programming, but the industry still doesn't get it, says S. Robert Lichter. Don't blame the messenger, responds Laurence Jarvik, simply because you don't like the message--popular culture." Liebert, Robert M. Sprafkin, Joyce. The early window: effects of television on children and youth. 3rd ed. New York, Pergamon Press, 1988. 306 p. (Pergamon general psychology series, v. 34) Partial contents.--TV violence: early politics, theories and research.--The surgeon general's report.--Aftermath of the report.--Twenty years of TV violence research. Link, David. Facts about fiction: in defense of TV violence. Reason, v. 25, Mar. 1994: 22-26. "Despite millennia of moral teachings to the contrary, some people are going to murder, rape, mutilate, and torture others, and there seems to be no certain way to predict who will, or to prevent them from doing so. But violence continues to be a story--both on the news and in drama--because it is unusual, something the vast majority of people do not engage in." Minow, Newton N. LaMay Craig L. Abandoned in the wasteland: children, television, and the First Amendment. 1st ed. New York, Hill and Wang, 1995. 237 p. KF2840.M56 1995 Olmsted, Dan. Anders, Gigi. Turned off; special TV survey: sex & vulgarity. USA weekend, June 2-4, 1995: 4-6. "Nearly all of the 65,000 readers responding to our write-in survey say TV is too vulgar, too violent and too racy. TV execs call it reality." Sunstein, Cass R. Is violent speech a right? American prospect, no. 22, summer 1995: 34-37. "Advocacy of illegal violence to kill people is not necessarily constitutionally protected speech." Symposium on Television and Violence (1994 : Hofstra University) Television and violence: a symposium. Hofstra law review, v. 22, summer 1994: 773-895. Partial contents.--Congressional interest in the problem of television and violence, by John Windhausen [Senior Counsel, Communications Subcommittee, Senate Committee on Commerce, Science and Transportation].--A sociological perspective on television and violence [research reports], by [panelists] John P. Murray, Edward Donnerstein, and Jonathan Freedman.--An industry perspective, by [panelists] Beth Bressan [CBS], Peggy Charren [Action for Children's Television], and Marvin Kittman.--What is the constitutional solution? By William Abbott [National Foundation to Improve Television]. TV violence: more objectionable in entertainment than in newscasts. Washington, Times Mirror Center for the People & the Press, 1993. 53 p. "For release: Wednesday, March 25, 1993, A.M." "Many more Americans express concern about the amount of violence on entertainment television programs than about the increasingly violent content of broadcast news. TV news, while seen as containing more graphic violence than in the past, is also seen as reflecting the reality of a violent society. Further, a large sector of the public appears desensitized to violent video in newscasts because of the graphically brutal movies and entertainment television programs it watches. These are the principal findings of a recent Times Mirror nationwide survey . . . of 1,516 Americans conducted February 20-23." U.S. Congress. House. Committee on Energy and Commerce. Subcommittee on Commerce, Consumer Protection, and Competitiveness. Music lyrics and commerce. Hearings, 103d Congress, 2nd session. Feb. 11-May 5, 1994. Washington, G.P.O., 1994. 155 p. "Serial no. 103-112" U.S. Congress. House. Committee on Energy and Commerce. Subcommittee on Telecommunications and Finance. Violence in video games. Hearing, 103d Congress, 2nd session. June 30, 1994. Washington, G.P.O., 1994. 61 p. "Serial no. 103-124" ----- Violence on television. Hearing, 103d Congress, 1st session. May 12-Sept. 15, 1993. Washington, G.P.O., 1994. 390 p. "Serial no. 103-79" U.S. Congress. Conference Committees, 1996. Telecommunications Act of 1996; conference report to accompany S. 652. Washington, G.P.O., 1996. 214 p. (Report, Senate, 104th Congress, 2nd session, no. 104-230) U.S. Congress. Senate. Committee on Commerce, Science, and Transportation. Children's Protection from Violent Programming Act of 1995; report . . . together with additional and minority views on S. 470. Washington, G.P.O., 1995. 32 p. (Report, Senate, 104th Congress, 1st session, report 104-171) ----- Television Violence Report Card Act of 1995; report, together with minority views on S. 772. Washington, G.P.O., 1996. 19 p. (Report, Senate, 104th Congress, 2nd session, no. 104-234) U.S. Congress. Senate. Committee on the Judiciary. Subcommittee on Juvenile Justice. Rating video games: a parent's guide to games. Joint hearings before the Subcommittee on Juvenile Justice of the Committee on the Judiciary and the Subcommittee on Regulation and Government Information of the Committee on Governmental Affairs, U.S. Senate. Dec. 9, 1993-July 29, 1994. Washington, G.P.O., 1995. 251 p. (Hearings, Senate, 103d Congress, 1st session, S. Hrg. 103-887) "Serial no. J-103-37" ----- Shaping our responses to violent and demeaning imagery in popular music. Hearing, 103d Congress, 2nd session to examine the effects of violent and demeaning imagery in popular music on American youth. Feb. 23, 1994. Washington, G.P.O., 1995. 132 p. (Hearing, Senate, 103d Congress, 2nd session, S. Hrg. 103-1005) "Serial no. J-103-43" U.S. Congress. Senate. Committee on the Judiciary. Subcommittee on the Constitution. Implementation of the Television Program Improvement Act of 1990. Joint hearings before the Subcommittee on the Constitution and the Subcommittee on Juvenile Justice of the Committee on the Judiciary, United States Senate, 103d Congress, 1st session. May 21 and June 8, 1994. Washington, G.P.O., 1994. 205 p. "Serial no. J-103-13" Violence on television: pros & cons. Congressional digest, v. 72, Dec. 1993: whole issue (289-314 p.) Presents background information on and separate arguments for and against legislation to regulate television violence. Wulf, Steven. Glued to the tube. Time, v. 145, June 26, 1995: 66-68, 70, 72. "New concerns are raised about what TV is doing to our kids." Zoglin, Richard. Chips ahoy. Time, v. 147, Feb. 19, 1996: 58-61. "As a new study warns that violence saturates the airwaves, a technological quick fix promises to help. But will the V-chip really protect our children?" Resolved that the Federal Government should establish a program to substantially reduce juvenile crime in the United States A Guide to Information Sources on the 1996-1997 High School Debate Topic Tangela G. Roe Senior Bibliographer Library Services Division with the assistance of Valerie Miles-Washington, Bibliographic Assistant June 1996 CONTENTS INTRODUCTION 69 RESEARCH SOURCES 70 HOW TO LOCATE REFERENCE SOURCES 72 BOOKS AND MONOGRAPHS 72 ENCYCLOPEDIAS AND DIRECTORIES 73 JOURNAL ARTICLES 73 NEWSPAPER ARTICLES 76 ONLINE DATABASES 78 CD-ROM DATABASES 79 DISSERTATIONS 79 GOVERNMENT PUBLICATIONS 79 LEGISLATIVE INFORMATION 80 STATISTICAL SOURCES 81 INTERNET RESOURCES 82 AGENCIES AND ORGANIZATIONS 82 DIRECTORIES TO AGENCIES AND ORGANIZATIONS 82 FEDERAL GOVERNMENT AGENCIES 83 A GUIDE TO INFORMATION SOURCES on the 1996-1997 High School Debate Topic INTRODUCTION This research guide identifies sources of information on juvenile crime and related topics that will be discussed by high school debaters. It describes reference and research tools and suggests particular search strategies that can be used to retrieve information on these topics. Search terms provided are not exhaustive. The primary terms are included to help the debaters begin their search for supporting materials on the range of issues relating to juvenile crime. Although printed sources are emphasized in this guide, debaters should also take note of the Federal organizations listed in the section on further contacts at the end of the guide. These offices may be able to furnish additional information or publications on various policy options. RESEARCH SOURCES This is a list of key information resources described in this guide, and the page where each is described. ABC Pol Sci (Advance Bibliography of Contents: Political Science & Government) 74 Academic Index 74 American Library Directory 73 American Statistics Index (ASI) 81 Atlanta Journal, The Atlanta Constitution Index 76 Black Newspapers Index 77 Books in Print 72 Boston Globe Index 77 Business Periodicals Index 74 Christian Science Monitor Index 77 CIS Index 80 Clearinghouse Directory 82 Comprehensive Dissertation Index (CDI) 79 Congressional Index 80 Congressional Quarterly Weekly Report 80 Congressional Record 81 Criminal Justice Abstracts 74 Criminal Justice Periodical Index 74 Current Law Index 74 DATATIMES 78 Denver Post Index 77 Depository Libraries 79 Detroit News Index 77 DIALOG 78 Directory of Directories 73 Dissertation Abstracts International (DAI) 79 Encyclopedia of Associations 82 Encyclopedia of Governmental Advisory Organizations 83 Federal Depository Library Program 79 Government Reports Announcements and Index 79 Government Research Directory 83 GPO Access 79 Guardian Index 77 Houston Chronicle Index 77 Houston Post Index 77 Index To Legal Periodicals 74 Index To U.S. Government Periodicals 80 Information USA 73 Infotrac II 75 Law Reviews Library (LAWREV) 78 LC MARVEL (Machine-Assisted Realization of the Virtual Electronic Library) 82 Legal News Library (LEGNEW) 78 Legal Reference Library (LEXREF) 78 Legal Resource Index 75 LegalTrac 75 LEXIS/NEXIS 78 Library of Congress Information System (LOCIS) 82 Library of Congress Subject Headings 72 Los Angeles Times Index 77 Magazine Index Plus 75 Minneapolis Star and Tribune Index 77 Monthly Catalog of United States Government Publications 80 National Journal 81 National Newspaper Index 86 National Referral Center Resources File (NRCM) 82 National Technical Information Service (NTIS) 75 New York Times Index 76 News Library (NEWS) 78 NEWSNET 78 Newssearch 76 Ovid Online (Formerly BRS) 78 Policy Research Center Directory 83 Public Affairs Information Service (PAIS) 75 Reader's Guide To Periodical Literature 76 Research Center's Directory 83 San Francisco Chronicle Index 77 Sears List of Subject Headings 72 Social Sciences Citation Index 76 Social Sciences Index 76 St. Louis Post-Dispatch Index 77 Statistical Abstract of the United States 81 Statistical Reference Index 81 THOMAS 81 Times-Picayune Index 77 United States Government Manual 83 University Microfilms International Indexes 76 USA Today Index 77 VUTEXT 78 Wall Street Journal Index 77 Washington Information Directory 83 Washington Post Index 77 Washington Times Index 77 Weekly Compilation of Presidential Documents 80 WilsonLine 79 World Wide Web 82 HOW TO LOCATE REFERENCE SOURCES BOOKS AND MONOGRAPHS Many libraries around the country, particularly large academic and research libraries, use Library of Congress subject headings in their catalogs. To learn how books on juvenile crime and related topics are categorized in these libraries, consult the four-volume guide, Library of Congress Subject Headings. It is usually kept near the card catalog or near the terminals for an automated catalog. The most relevant LC subject headings for research on juvenile crime and related topics are listed below: Child prostitution Children and violence Children--Alcohol use Children--Drug use Children--Substance use Drug abuse and crime Drug abuse--Prevention Gangs Juvenile corrections Juvenile courts Juvenile delinquency Juvenile delinquency--Prevention Juvenile delinquents Juvenile delinquents--Rehabilitation Juvenile detention Juvenile detention homes Juvenile homicide Juvenile justice, Administration of Juvenile parole Juvenile probation Narcotics and crime Police services for juveniles Reformatories School violence Shock incarceration Status offenders Teenage sex offenders Teenagers--Alcohol use Teenagers--Drug use Teenagers--Substance use Violence in mass media Violence in motion pictures Violence in television Youth--Alcohol use Youth--Drug use Youth--Substance use These terms may also be used in searching the Library of Congress catalogs on the Internet. Consult the section on Internet Resources, below. In many school and public libraries, books are arranged by the Dewey Decimal classification system. In these libraries, books are usually assigned subject headings from the Sears List of Subject Headings, also generally found near the card catalog. If you have trouble locating books that are listed here or in other bibliographic sources, ask your librarian about Books in Print and about interlibrary loan. Books in Print will be useful in identifying the addresses of publishers for the purchase of materials, and in identifying additional and recently published books. Look particularly under the term juvenile delinquency. Interlibrary loan may make it possible for your library to borrow materials from other libraries that you have identified, but that your library does not have available. ENCYCLOPEDIAS AND DIRECTORIES ENCYCLOPEDIAS Most libraries carry a selection of encyclopedias; these can be an excellent starting point in gathering basic background information on a topic. Subject headings vary from one publication to another; begin by checking the index volume(s) for basic keywords like juvenile deinquency, gangs, drug abuse, and related subjects. Encyclopedia articles often have bibliographies appended, which can be used to locate additional information on the topic. INFORMATION USA This general purpose directory provides access to more than 12,000 agencies and organizations in the U.S. DIRECTORY OF DIRECTORIES This publication serves as a guide to the many catalogs, encyclopedias, checklists, and other compilations of information that exist in print. Any publication which includes addresses of individuals or organizations is eligible for inclusion in this resource. It lists a wide range of publications, including lists of cultural institutions, directories of professional organizations and societies, and membership lists of a variety of special interest groups. This resource can be used to locate more specialized directories of organizations and individuals involved in the field of juvenile delinquency. Entries are grouped by subject categories, and the publication includes a title and a subject index. AMERICAN LIBRARY DIRECTORY Edited and compiled by R. R. Bowker, this directory lists public, academic, government and special libraries in the United States, and regions administered by it, and in Canada. Arranged geographically, the entries are alphabetized by state, region, or province; then by city; and finally by the institution or library name. Entries include the name and address of the library, names of key personnel and information on the library's holdings. In addition, most entries provide information on some or all of these additional areas: Income; Expenditures, including salaries; Subject interests; Special collections; Automation and publication. JOURNAL ARTICLES Citations to journal articles and other materials about juvenile delinquency and related topics can be found in a number of printed indexes, online bibliographic databases, and CD-ROM products. The materials covered by selected printed indexes are briefly described here, along with recommended search terms for each. Printed indexes include lists of periodicals indexed and the abbreviations referring to these publications. Introductory sections of these reference tools are helpful in using these indexes. Online bibliographic databases are useful for locating citations to journal articles and other materials quickly by using a computer terminal to search a machine readable file. The researcher may combine search terms in ways that are impossible in a printed index or library catalog, and may also simultaneously search material covering several years that would be contained in separate printed indexes. Many of the printed indexes described in this guide are also available as online databases. Brief descriptions of some major online services providing access to bibliographic databases are provided. A reference librarian can advise you on the availability of computerized search services in your area; there is often a fee for the use of these services. Many libraries now have CD-ROM products of printed indexes available for researchers. This technology enables a user to search materials available in printed and online indexes using a personal computer. Check with a reference librarian to determine if these products are available in your area. ABC POL SCI (Advance Bibliography of Contents: Political Science & Government) This is a guide to current periodical literature in the field of political science and government as well as in the related disciplines of sociology, law, and history. Started in 1969 and published five times a year, it reproduces edited tables of contents of about 300 international journals. ACADEMIC INDEX This index provides access to the 400 scholarly and general interest publications most commonly held by academic libraries, expanding on the coverage of its sister publication, Magazine Index. Subject coverage of the index includes economics, government, and political science. The Academic Index exists commercially as an online product, and there may be a fee for searching. BUSINESS PERIODICALS INDEX Articles from over 300 business periodicals are listed in this index. It is published monthly, except for August, and a bound cumulation is issued each year. A wide range of business publications, such as the Economist and Barrons are indexed here. Use Library of Congress subject headings to seach, along with the cross-references provided in the index. CRIMINAL JUSTICE ABSTRACTS Criminal Justice Abstracts is issued quarterly, and includes in-depth abstracts to articles, books, reports, dissertations, and unpublished papers in the field of criminal justice. The main journals in the field are covered comprehensively; other materials receive broad coverage. CRIMINAL JUSTICE PERIODICAL INDEX The Criminal Justice Periodical Index indexes U.S., British, and Canadian journals in the field of criminal justice. This index is issued in three parts each year: two noncumulative softcover issues, and a yearly cumulative hardbound issue that supplements and replaces the softcover copies. An author index and a subject index are provided. CURRENT LAW INDEX The American Association of Law Libraries sponsors this index of articles in legal periodicals. Separate subject and author indexes and tables of cases and of statutes are included in eight monthly issues, three quarterly cumulations, and a cumulative annual. Library of Congress subject headings are the search terms used primarily. INDEX TO LEGAL PERIODICALS The Index lists articles "of high quality and permanent reference value" in legal periodicals published in the United States, Canada, Great Britain, and other English language countries. The articles are indexed under author and subject. A complete list of subjects is included at the front of each bound volume. The Index is also available on CD-ROM and is updated quarterly. Selected search terms are listed below; also use the cross references: Administration of juvenile justice Gangs Juvenile offenders Narcotics Schools and school districts Substance abuse Violence INFOTRAC II This CD-ROM product provides a subject index to more than 400 popular and widely-read magazines plus the New York Times. Its coverage includes current affairs, people, home and leisure activities, travel, arts and entertainment, education, companies and products. LEGAL RESOURCE INDEX Legal Resource Index is the companion microfilm service of the Current Law Index, above. It is available online commercially through the DIALOG Information Service as file 150. LEGALTRAC LegalTrac is an index on CD-ROM to more than 800 legal periodicals starting from 1980; it is updated monthly. MAGAZINE INDEX PLUS Magazine Index Plus is a microfilm product that provides citations to materials in over 400 of the periodicals most requested by small-to-average sized public and academic libraries. The focus is on coverage of current affairs, world affairs, business, and science and technology. References from the last five years are listed alphabetically by subject and author in one alphabetical display on the Magazine Index Plus microfilm reader-terminal. Its link to the full text Magazine Collection microfilm system provides identification of full text availability; optional full text on CD-ROM in Magazine ASAP Plus provides instant article retrieval. The index is updated monthly, and uses Library of Congress subject headings. NATIONAL TECHNICAL INFORMATION SERVICE (NTIS) This database is available commercially online and via the Internet. NTIS consists of Government-sponsored research, development, and engineering information prepared by Federal agencies, their contractors, or grantees. Through this system, unclassified, publicly available reports from such agencies as the Defense Technical Information Center and others are made available. The database includes materials from both the hard and soft sciences, including materials on business procedures and regulatory matters. PUBLIC AFFAIRS INFORMATION SERVICE (PAIS) PAIS is a subject index of books, pamphlets, government publications, reports of public and private agencies, and periodical articles relating to political and economic conditions, public administration, and international affairs. Effective January 1991, the PAIS Bulletin was merged with the PAIS Foreign Language Index to produce an enhanced publication, PAIS International in Print. It is issued monthly, with cumulations in April and August, and an annual bound volume with an author index. Some of the terms which you may use to search this year's debate topic are listed below; also use the cross-references: PAIS is also available on CD-ROM. The CD-ROM version of PAIS contains an online thesaurus. Some of the terms you may use to search this year's debate topic are listed below; also use the cross-references: Drug abuse Gangs Juvenile delinquents Juvenile justice Narcotics and crime School violence Violence in mass media READER'S GUIDE TO PERIODICAL LITERATURE The Reader's Guide is an author/subject index to over 180 periodicals of general interest published in the United States and Canada. It is published twice a month from September through December and in March, April, and June. It appears monthly in January, February, May, July, and August. Library of Congress subject headings are used to organize materials. The quarterly and annual cumulations can expedite your search of this index. It is also available on CD-ROM and is updated quarterly. SOCIAL SCIENCES CITATION INDEX Social Sciences Citation Index, which covers hundreds of journals, is issued quarterly and annually. It differs from other indexes in that there are no standard subject headings; but you may search by topic by looking up key words from an article's title in its Permuterm Subject Index and referring to the Source Index for the full reference. The index is available online as DIALOG file 7 and is updated weekly. It is also available on CD-ROM. This index is also useful in finding critiques or responses to identified articles. SOCIAL SCIENCES INDEX Social Sciences Index, published quarterly and cumulated annually, provides author and title access to 350 journals in area studies, economics, international relations, political science, and related areas. Use the Library of Congress subject headings listed previously. NEWSPAPER ARTICLES NATIONAL NEWSPAPER INDEX National Newspaper Index indexes the Christian Science Monitor, New York Times, Wall Street Journal, Los Angeles Times, and Washington Post. References from the last five years are listed alphabetically by subject headings. An online version of this index is available commercially on DIALOG file 111 and is updated monthly. NEW YORK TIMES INDEX The New York Times Index provides extensive abstracts for articles appearing in the New York Times. It is issued twice a month, with quarterly and annual cumulations. Consult "How to use the New York Times Index" in the index volume itself for guidance. NEWSSEARCH Newssearch is the commercially available, daily update of Magazine Index, National Newspaper Index, and Legal Resource Index. It provides front-page to back-page indexing of the Christian Science Monitor, Wall Street Journal, and New York Times, as well as popular magazines, law journals, and legal newspapers. There may be a fee for searches. UNIVERSITY MICROFILMS INTERNATIONAL INDEXES UMI distributes The New York Times Index listed above. In addition, UMI publishes indexes to a number of other newspapers using search terms from its own list of subjects. In some cases UMI took over this service from another publisher, such as Bell & Howell, or an in-house indexer. In these cases, the earlier volumes for these papers use different subject terms than the later volumes, so care should be taken when searching for earlier material. Newspapers indexed by UMI include the following: Atlanta Journal, The Atlanta Constitution Index. FREQUENCY: Annual Black Newspapers Index. 1st quarter 1987- FREQUENCY: Quarterly, with annual cumulation Boston Globe Index. Jan. 1987- FREQUENCY: Monthly, with quarterly and annual cumulations Christian Science Monitor Index. Jan. 1987- FREQUENCY: Monthly, with quarterly and annual cumulations Denver Post Index. Jan. 1987- FREQUENCY: Monthly, with quarterly and annual cumulations Detroit News Index. Jan. 1987- FREQUENCY: Monthly, with quarterly and annual cumulations Guardian Index. Vol. 1 (Jan. 1986)- FREQUENCY: Monthly, with annual cumulation Houston Chronicle Index. Jan. 1993- FREQUENCY: Monthly, with quarterly and annual cumulations Houston Post Index. Jan. 1987- FREQUENCY: Monthly, with quarterly and annual cumulations Los Angeles Times Index. Jan. 1984- FREQUENCY: Monthly, with annual cumulations Minneapolis Star and Tribune Index. Jan. 1984- FREQUENCY: Monthly, with annual cumulations, 1985- Monthly, with semiannual and annual cumulations, 1984 San Francisco Chronicle Index. Jan. 1987- FREQUENCY: Monthly, with quarterly and annual cumulations St. Louis Post-Dispatch Index. Jan. 1987- FREQUENCY: Monthly, with quarterly and annual cumulations Times-Picayune Index. Jan. 1987- FREQUENCY: Monthly, with quarterly cumulations USA Today Index. Jan. 1987- FREQUENCY: Monthly, with quarterly and annual cumulations Washington Post Index. Jan. 1989- FREQUENCY: Monthly, with quarterly and annual cumulations Washington Times Index. FREQUENCY: Monthly, with quarterly and annual cumulations WALL STREET JOURNAL INDEX The Wall Street Journal Index is issued in eight monthly and four quarterly cumulations, and a bound annual volume. OTHER NEWSPAPER INDEXES In addition, many newspapers are indexed locally; ask a librarian about indexes to your local newspaper. ONLINE DATABASES Many libraries now have access to computerized versions of printed indexes. The information is stored in databases that can be accessed through personal computers. The advantages of using these computerized databases are search speed and flexibility; the disadvantages are the often high costs charged for access. Check with your local reference librarian to determine availability and costs of the systems listed. Online systems are also included with the journal article and newspaper article sections of this Guide. There may be a fee for searches. DATATIMES DATATIMES is an online search and retrieval service. This information network can access hundreds of sources, including newswires, newspapers, magazines, and a number of business and financial sources. Ask a reference librarian if DATATIMES is available at your institution. There may be a fee for DATATIMES searches. DIALOG DIALOG Information Service is an online service that includes a wide variety of databases, ranging from newspaper and journal indexes through statistical references and airline information. LEXIS/NEXIS LEXIS/NEXIS is an online search and retrieval service with numerous subfiles of information. The News Library (NEWS) contains more than 2,300 full-text information sources from U.S. and overseas newspapers, magazines, journals, newsletters, wire services, and broadcast transcripts; also included is abstract material from an additional 1,000 information sources. The Law Reviews Library (LAWREV) includes the full text of over 70 law reviews, several American Bar Association publications, ALR and LEd2d articles, and two legal indices, with a focus on State and national issues of legal significance. The Legal News Library (LEGNEW) provides general news information about the domestic legal industry and profession, including sources which track jury verdicts and a hot file of case list summaries on recently decided U.S. Supreme Court cases. The Legal Reference Library (LEXREF) includes abstracts from over 700 legal journals, yearbooks, institutes, bar associations, university publications, specialty journals, and legal journals. Ask a reference librarian if LEXIS/NEXIS is available in your area. There may be a fee for searches. NEWSNET NEWSNET includes comprehensive bibliographic data on more than 380 newsletters and other news and information services. OVID ONLINE (FORMERLY BRS) OVID online is an online service providing primarily bibliographic information. The service offers access to information in the fields of science, social sciences, business, health and related areas. It is also available on CD-Rom. VUTEXT VUTEXT indexes local and regional newspapers for most of the major metropolitan areas in the United States. WILSONLINE The H. W. Wilson Company, which publishes the Reader's Guide to Periodical Literature, along with a number of other indexes to journal literature, has its own online service. CD-ROM DATABASES Some libraries have installed CD-ROM databases as an alternative to print and online indexes. CD-ROM is a technology that allows a great deal of information to be stored on a compact disk that can be read by a personal computer. A number of indexes are available in this format, allowing searching capabilities similar to those available with online services, but without the charge per hour. Consult with your local reference librarian to determine which databases may be available in your area. DISSERTATIONS Dissertation Abstracts International (DAI) is a monthly list of doctoral dissertations submitted to University Microfilms International by more than 450 academic institutions in the United States and Canada. DAI is divided into two sections: Humanities (A) and Science (B). Keyword title and author indexes are provided each month for each section. The author index is cumulated annually. A retrospective Comprehensive Dissertation Index (CDI) is a subject index and is available, grouped by disciplines of knowledge (e.g., law and political science, history) for 1861-1972 in 32 volumes, and for 1973-1979 in 16 volumes. DAI is commercially available online as DIALOG file 35 and is updated monthly. It is also available on CD-ROM and is updated biannually. GOVERNMENT PUBLICATIONS FEDERAL DEPOSITORY LIBRARY PROGRAM Under this program, Federal Government publications are made available to designated depository libraries. In order to provide the greatest possible access to Government publications, these libraries are located in each State and congressional district. There are currently over 1,350 depository libraries. Of this number, 50 have been designated as regional depositories. The regional libraries assume the responsibility of retaining depository material permanently and of providing inter-library loan and reference service for their regions. Copies of documents no longer available for sale can usually be found in regional Federal depository library collections. Each issue of the Monthly Catalog of United States Government Publications (see below) prints a current directory of these regional libraries. A directory of all depository libraries is available from: Superintendent of Documents, U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, D.C. 20402. GOVERNMENT REPORTS ANNOUNCEMENTS AND INDEX Government research reports are indexed in the Government Reports Announcements and Index, which is issued twice a month by the National Technical Information Service (NTIS). A keyword index lists significant words from titles. The NTIS index is available online through commercial systems and via the Internet. GPO ACCESS GPO Access is an Internet database provided by the Government Printing Office. It contains full text congressional bills from the 103rd and 104th Congresses, congressional documents from the 104th Congress, the Congressional Record from 1994 to present and the Congressional Record Index from 1992 to present, GAO reports, public laws from the 104th Congress, and other publications. INDEX TO U.S. GOVERNMENT PERIODICALS The index covers individual periodical articles published by over 100 Federal agencies, using a thesaurus created exclusively for itself. MONTHLY CATALOG OF UNITED STATES GOVERNMENT PUBLICATIONS The Monthly Catalog lists documents issued by all branches of the Federal Government. The catalog has monthly, semiannual, and annual indexes, arranged by author, title, subject, keywords, and series/report title. The Monthly Catalog is often the access point for materials in Government depository libraries; it may also be used to obtain information for ordering materials for purchase from the Superintendent of Documents at the U.S. Government Printing Office. The Monthly Catalog is commercially available online on DIALOG file 66 and is updated monthly. Library of Congress subject headings are the catalog's subject authority. See search terms under BOOKS AND MONOGRAPHS in this guide. There is also a Periodicals Supplement to the monthly catalog which contains current serial titles for Government publications issued three or more times a year. WEEKLY COMPILATION OF PRESIDENTIAL DOCUMENTS This publication contains statements, messages, and other Presidential materials released by the White House during the preceding week. There are weekly, quarterly, and annual published indexes. This information is also available online commercially. Public Papers of the Presidents of the United States is an annual compilation of Presidential Statements. LEGISLATIVE INFORMATION Congressional and executive department activities on juvenile crime and related issues may be monitored by searching the following printed publications: CIS INDEX The CIS Index, produced by the Congressional Information Service, abstracts all congressional publications except the Congressional Record. The Index is published monthly, and cumulated quarterly and annually. Each issue of the Index is divided into both index and abstract portions. CIS also publishes legislative histories annually. Refer to the abstract section for full bibliographic information. The Index is commercially available online as DIALOG file 101 and is updated monthly. CONGRESSIONAL INDEX The Congressional Index, published by the Commerce Clearing House, is a weekly looseleaf service providing content and status information for bills and resolutions pending in Congress. The progress of bills and resolutions is reported, from the introduction of the legislation to the final disposition. CONGRESSIONAL QUARTERLY WEEKLY REPORT This periodical provides current information on congressional activities, the progress of major bills, and background information on major policy issues. Recent articles of particular importance are indexed on the back cover of each issue. Important recent articles are indexed on the back cover of each issue. A quarterly and annual index are also issued. Congressional Quarterly also publishes an annual volume which cumulates material from the weekly reports. There is an index at the back of each volume, which uses similar subject headings. CONGRESSIONAL RECORD The Congressional Record provides an edited transcript of the activities on the floor of the House and the Senate. It is published each day Congress is in session. The Extensions of Remarks section may provide reprints of newspaper and journal articles which Members of Congress insert, in addition to those statements spoken by Members on the floor of the House or Senate and recorded by chamber. Subject and name indexes are published biweekly and cumulated annually. Search under such topics as: Children and youth, schools, crime, and related topics. NATIONAL JOURNAL National Journal provides information on important executive, congressional, and judicial actions. In addition to the weekly and semi-annual indexes, there is a page entitled "Recent Weeks" toward the end of most issues. THOMAS THOMAS is an online public access system of legislative and Congressional information named in honor of Thomas Jefferson. Initiated by the leadership of the 104th Congress, THOMAS is being made available free to Internet users through the Library of Congress. Since it is based on the Internet system known as the World Wide Web, to use THOMAS, one should have a computer with Internet access, and World Wide Web client or "browser" software. Although many large non-profit institutions and businesses already have an Internet connection, dial-up Internet access may be obtained by the private user, for a fee, from an Internet service provider. Reference staff at a local library, classified newspaper ads, or the employees of a local computer store may be able to provide contact information for commercial service providers. STATISTICAL SOURCES AMERICAN STATISTICS INDEX (ASI) The American Statistics Index indexes and describes the statistical publications of the U.S. Government, including periodicals, annuals, biennials, semi-annuals, and special publications. It provides access to statistical materials by subject, organization, name, issuing source, and title. The index is published monthly and cumulated annually. ASI is also available through commercial online systems. STATISTICAL ABSTRACT OF THE UNITED STATES: NATIONAL DATA BOOK AND GUIDE TO SOURCES Published by the U.S. Department of Commerce, Bureau of the Census, on an annual basis, this source includes pertinent statistical information under Juveniles, Juvenile delinquency, Crime, and related topics. This publication should be available in any depository library, as well as in the reference collections of most large public or academic libraries. STATISTICAL REFERENCE INDEX The Statistical Reference Index provides a guide and index to selected statistical reference material from non-Federal sources on a wide variety of topics. It includes the publications of trade, professional, and other non-profit associations and institutions, business organizations, commercial publishers, university and independent research centers, and State government agencies. Information can be accessed by subject, organization, name, issuing source, and/or title. The index is published monthly and cumulated annually. INTERNET RESOURCES THE LIBRARY OF CONGRESS GOPHER: LC MARVEL The Library of Congress provides Internet access to its campus-wide information system, LC MARVEL (Machine-Assisted Realization of the Virtual Electronic Library), based on Gopher software from the University of Minnesota. LC MARVEL provides information by and about the Library as well as links to a vast and diverse collection of Internet resources worldwide, all arranged in an easy-to-navigate hierarchical menu structure. Although most information on LC MARVEL is available in plain text (ASCII format), LC MARVEL also offers Library of Congress image files (e.g., gif and jpeg formats) and a small number of files in special formats (e.g., WordPerfect). LC MARVEL resources provided directly by the ibrary include image and text files from the Library's exhibits; services and information for visitors and researchers, including loan and photoduplication policies; background on Library collections and reading rooms; subject-specific bibliographies and guides; services for the blind and physically handicapped; information on LC publications and products; coverage of literacy programs; documents on cataloging (including the CIP, ISSN, and ISBN programs), acquisitions, standards, and preservation; copyright information, including circulars, form letters and regulations; employment opportunities; backgrounders on health, safety, and finance. A link to the Library of Congress Information System (LOCIS) is also provided under MARVEL. The preferred access to LC MARVEL is through a local gopher client or via another gopher server pointing to marvel.loc.gov, port 70. WORLD WIDE WEB (WWW) The Web is an Internet-based online information delivery tool which makes use of hypertext and hypermedia documents. Hypertex/media refers to specialy coded electronic documents that can link to other Internet resources, which can be text, images, audio, video, software, or even other databases. In order to access WWW over the Internet, a "browser" client appropriate to your computing platform is used. There are WWW browsers for DOS, Windows, OS/2, Macintosh, and UNIX platforms as well as many others. Some browsers allow for the dispay of grahics and other multimedia effects (such as audio or full-motion video), while otheres do not. Additional hardware or software may be required for the display or playing of many of the special-format files available on the WWW. The current Library of Congress WWW offerings can be accessed via a "homepage" or initial selection screen. Connections to WWW resources are made by specifying a uniform Resource Locator or URL through your client software. The URL for LC Web is: http://www.loc.gov. AGENCIES AND ORGANIZATIONS There are numerous public policy-oriented organizations with an interest in juvenile crime. The list which follows is a selection of some of the many available guides to agencies and organizations. An additional place to search is the Library of Congress's National Referral Center Resources File (NRCM), which contains over 13,000 descriptions of organizations qualified and willing to answer questions and provide information on many topics. The NCRM is available on the Internet through LC MARVEL. Consult the description on LC MARVEL in the section on Internet Resources. DIRECTORIES TO AGENCIES AND ORGANIZATIONS Clearinghouse Directory, 1991-92. 1st ed. Donna Batten, editor. Detroit, Gale Research Co., 1991. 429 p. "A guide to information clearinghouses and their resources, services, and publications." Encyclopedia of Associations, 1996. 30th ed. Detroit, Gale Research Co., 1995. 3 v. Vols. 1-2. National organizations of the U.S.--Vol. 3. Name and key word index. Available online as DIALOG file 114. Available on CD-ROM, Gale Global access: Associations. Encyclopedia of Governmental Advisory Organizations, 1996-97. 10th ed. Detroit, Gale Research Co., 1995. 1573 p. "A reference guide to 6,800 permanent, continuing, and ad hoc U.S. Presidential advisory committees, congressional advisory committees, . . . and other similar bodies." Government Research Directory, 1996-1997. 9th ed. Jacqueline K. Barrett and Monica M. Hubbard, editors. Detriot, Gale Research Co., 1996. 1038 p. Policy Research Center Directory. Urbana, Policy Studies Organization, University of Illinois. "A directory describing university and non-university centers, institutes, or organizations that conduct policy studies research. Research Centers Directory, 1996. 20th ed. Anthony L. Gerring. editor. Detroit, Gale Research Co., 1995. 2 v. A guide to university-related and other nonprofit research organizations established on a permanent basis and carrying on continuing research programs in several fields including behavioral and social sciences, business, economics, government and public affairs, law, and other subjects. United States Government Manual, 1995/1996. Prepared by the U.S. Office of the Federal Register. Washington, G.P.O., 1995. 894 p. Issued annually, this is the official organization handbook of the Federal Government, giving information on the organization, activities, and current officials of the various departments, bureaus, commissions, etc. Includes descriptions of quasi-official agencies and selected international organizations. Washington Information Directory. Washington, Congressional Quarterly, 1975/6- Provides information on agencies and departments of the Federal Government as well as information on non-governmental organizations. The directory is divided into three categories, the executive agencies, Congress, and non-governmental organizations. Each subject heading includes references to all three types of organizations. FEDERAL GOVERNMENT AGENCIES The following is a list of some Federal agencies which may be able to provide materials on juvenile crime and related topics. Sources listed under Directories to Agencies and Organizations will provide additional information about these agencies and organizations. Executive Office of the President National Drug Control Policy Old Executive Office Building Washington, DC 20500 National Institute of Justice (Department of Justice) 633 Indiana Ave., N.W., #1142 Washington, DC 20531 National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism (NIH) 6000 Executive Blvd., Suite 400 Rockville, MD 20892-7003 National Institute on Drug Abuse (NIH) 5600 Fishers Lane Rockville, MD 20857 U.S. Department of Education Safe and Drug-Free Schools 604 Portals Building (mailing address: 600 Independence Ave., S.W. Washington, DC 20202-6123) U.S. Department of Justice Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention 633 Indiana Ave. N.W.., #742 Washington, DC 20531 U.S. GOVERNMENT PRINTING OFFICE SUPERINTENDENT OF DOCUMENTS WASHINGTON, DC 20402 SB-043 U.S. Government Information about the: HIGH SCHOOL DEBATE TOPIC, 1996-1997 * * * * * * RESOLVED: That the Federal Government should establish a program to substantially reduce juvenile crime in the United States. * * * * * * County and City Data Book, 1994: A Statistical Abstract Supplement. BOOK. 1994. Presents a variety of information on States, counties, cities, and places in the United States. Includes statistics on crime. (Clothbound) 1104 p.; ill. 0-16-045040-3 C 3.134/2:C 83/2/994 S/N 003-024-08753-7 $40.00 Federal Probation: A Journal of Correctional Philosophy and Practice. SUBSCRIPTION. LIST ID FPQ. Issued quarterly. Contains articles relating to all the phases of preventive and correctional activities in delinquency and crime. Subscription price: Domestic - $7.00 a year; Foreign - $8.75 a year. Single copy price: Domestic - $6.00 a copy; Foreign - $7.50 a copy. File Code 2R. Ju 10.8: S/N 727-001-00000-0 7.00 National Drug Control Strategy: Strengthening Communities' Response to Drugs and Crime, February 1995. BOOK. 1995. Includes sections on: Strategy overview; Drug use in America; Drug use and its consequences; Illicit drug availability; Action plan for reducing crime, violence and drug availability; Action plan for enhancing domestic drug program flexibility and efficiency at the community level; Federal drug control resource priorities; and Conclusion. 196 p.; ill. 0-16-045505-7 PREX 1.2:D 84/18 S/N 040-000-00655-9 13.00 Preventing Crime and Promoting Responsibility: 50 Programs That Help Communities Help Their Youth. BOOK. 1995. Presents a catalog of Federal crime prevention strategies. Makes these Federal programs more accessible. Provides planning guidance and describes some of the most promising Federal crime prevention programs. 100 p.; ill. 0-16-048383-2 S/N 040-000-00665-6 $8.00 Report to the Nation on Crime and Justice. BOOK. 1988. Includes data from the Bureau of Justice statistics, the FBI Uniform Crime Reports, the Bureau of the Census, the National Institute of Juvenile Justice, and others concerning various aspects of crime. Data are presented in a non-technical format, using detailed graphics. Topics covered include: the criminal event, victims, offenders, response to crime, and the cost of justice. 138 p.; ill. 0-16-003620-8 J 29.2:R 29/2 S/N 027-000-01295-7 8.50 Responding to Drug Use and Violence: Helping People, Families, and Communities, A Directory and Resource Guide to Public- and Private-Sector Drug Control Grants. BOOK. 1995. Describes Federal anti-drug grant programs from these agencies: Department of Education; Department of Health and Human Services; Department of Housing and Urban Development; Department of Interior; Department of Justice; Department of Labor; Department of Transportation; Department of the Treasury; Corporation for National Service; and Ounce of Prevention Council. Also includes information about State drug control programs and points of contacts. 171 p. S/N 040-000-00656-7 12.00 Sourcebook of Criminal Justice Statistics, 1993. BOOK. 1994. Brings together nationwide data of interest to the criminal justice community. Compiles information from a variety of sources. Information is national in scope and displayed by regions, States, and cities. 809 p. 0-16-045627-4 J 29.9.6:993 S/N 027-000-01355-4 41.00 Strategies for Keeping Kids in School: Evaluation of Dropout Prevention and Reentry in Vocational Education, Final Report. BOOK. 1995. Summarizes the findings of the evaluation of the Office of Vocational and Adult Education's (OVAE) three-year program to demonstrate the efficacy of projects that included vocational education as a key component in encouraging at-risk youth to remain in or return to school. 232 p. 0-16-048143-0 S/N 065-000-00783-5 $15.00 Uniform Crime Reports for the United States, 1994. BOOK. 1995. Gives a nationwide view of crime based on statistics contributed by State and local law enforcement agencies. Utilizes population size as the only correlate of crime. Consists chiefly of tables and statistics. Generates a reliable set of criminal statistics for use in law enforcement administration, operation, and management. 407 p.; ill. 0-16-048362-X S/N 027-001-00069-6 25.00 Violent Crime Control and Law Enforcement Act of 1994, Public Law 103-322. BOOK. 1994. An Act to Control and Prevent Crime. Approved September 13, 1994. Contains over 20 shorter laws, including: Public Safety Partnership and Community Policing Act; Community Schools Youth Services and Supervision Grant Program Act; Family and Community Endeavor Schools Act; National Community Economic Partnership Act; Family Unity Demonstration Project Act; Violence Against Women Act; Safe Streets for Women Act; Safe Homes for Women Act; Civil Rights Remedies for Gender-Motivated Violence Act; Federal Death Penalty Act; Drive By Shooting Prevention Act; Public Safety and Recreational Firearms Use Protection Act; Police Corps Act; and other acts. 356 p. AE 2.100:103-322 S/N 869-024-00112-7 13.00 Where to Order Superintendent of Documents P.O. Box 371954 Pittsburgh, PA 15250-7954 How to Remit Regulations require payment in advance of shipment. Check or money order should be made payable to the Superintendent of Documents. Orders may also be charged to your Superintendent of Documents prepaid deposit account with this Office, MasterCard or VISA. 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