[Senate Document 105-14]
[From the U.S. Government Printing Office]



105th Congress                                                 Document
                                 SENATE

 1st Session                                                     105-14
_______________________________________________________________________


 
                         HOW OUR LAWS ARE MADE


                          Revised and Updated


                by Charles W. Johnson, Parliamentarian,

                     U.S. House of Representatives

 


                        Presented by Mr. Warner

               November 12, 1997.--Ordered to be printed

                   U.S. GOVERNMENT PRINTING OFFICE
44-600                    WASHINGTON : 1998

_______________________________________________________________________

            For sale by the Superintendent of Documents, 
                   U.S. Government Printing Office
                       Washington, D.C. 20402



      S. Con. Res. 62                  Agreed to November 12, 1997

                       One Hundred Fifth Congress

                                 of the

                        United States of America

                          AT THE FIRST SESSION

Begun and held at the City of Washington on Tuesday, the seventh day of 
          January, one thousand nine hundred and ninety-seven

                         Concurrent Resolution

    Resolved by the Senate (the House of Representatives 
concurring), That (a) a revised edition of the brochure 
entitled ``How Our Laws Are Made'', under the direction of the 
Parliamentarian of the House of Representatives in consultation 
with the Parliamentarian of the Senate, shall be printed as a 
Senate document, with suitable paper cover in the style 
selected by the chairman of the Joint Committee on Printing. 
(b) There shall be printed--
          (1)(A) 250,000 copies of the brochure for the use of 
        the House of Representatives, distributed in equal 
        numbers to each Member;
          (B) 100,000 copies of the brochure for the use of the 
        Senate, distributed in equal numbers to each Member;
          (C) 2,000 copies of the brochure for the use of the 
        Joint Committee on Printing; and
          (D) 1,400 copies of the brochure for distribution to 
        the depository libraries; or
          (2) if the total printing and production costs of 
        copies in paragraph (1) exceed $180,000, such number of 
        copies of the brochure as does not exceed total 
        printing and production costs of $180,000, with 
        distribution to be allocated in the same proportion as 
        in paragraph (1).

Attest:
                                             Gary L. Sisco,
                                           Secretary of the Senate.

Attest:
                                            Robin H. Carle,
                             Clerk of the House of Representatives.



                               FOREWORD

                              ----------                              


    First published in 1953 by the Committee on the Judiciary 
of the House of Representatives, this 21st edition of ``How Our 
Laws Are Made'' reflects changes in congressional procedures 
since the 20th edition, which was revised and updated in 1989 
by the Law Revision Counsel of the House of Representatives. 
This edition was prepared by the Office of the Parliamentarian 
of the U.S. House of Representatives in consultation with the 
Office of the Parliamentarian of the U.S. Senate.
    The framers of our Constitution created a strong federal 
government resting on the concept of ``separation of powers.''
    In Article I, Section 1, of the Constitution, the 
Legislative Branch is created by the following language: ``All 
legislative Powers herein granted shall be vested in a Congress 
of the United States, which shall consist of a Senate and House 
of Representatives.'' In furtherance of this empowerment, 
Article I, Section 5, of the Constitution authorizes each House 
to determine its own rules.
    Upon this elegant, yet simple, grant of legislative powers 
and rulemaking authority has grown an exceedingly complex and 
evolving legislative process much of it unique to each House of 
Congress. To aid the public's understanding of the legislative 
process, we have revised this popular brochure. For more 
detailed information on how our laws are made, the reader 
should refer to pertinent House and Senate publications for 
sale by the Superintendent of Documents, U.S. Government 
Printing Office, Washington, D.C. 20402.



                                                 Charles W. Johnson
                          EARLIER PRINTINGS

                              ----------                              

                                                                  Number
        Document                                               of copies

1953, H. Doc. 210, 83d Cong. (H. Res. 251 by Mr. Reed)........    36,771

1953, H. Doc. 210, 83d Cong. (H. Res. 251 by Mr. Reed)........   122,732

1955, H. Doc. 210, 83d Cong. (H. Con. Res. 93 by Mr. Willis)..   167,728

1956, H. Doc. 451, 84th Cong. (H. Con. Res. 251 by Mr. Willis)    30,385

1956, S. Doc. 152, 84th Cong. (S. Res. 293 by Senator Kennedy)   182,358

1959, H. Doc. 156, 86th Cong. (H. Con. Res. 95 by Mr. 
    Lesinski).................................................   228,591

1961, H. Doc. 136, 87th Cong. (H. Con. Res. 81 by Mr. Willis).   211,797

1963, H. Doc. 103, 88th Cong. (H. Con. Res. 108 by Mr. Willis)    14,000

1965, H. Doc. 103, 88th Cong. (S. Res. 9 by Senator Mansfield)   196,414

1965, H. Doc. 164, 89th Cong. (H. Con. Res. 165 by Mr. Willis)   319,766

1967, H. Doc. 125, 90th Cong. (H. Con. Res. 221 by Mr. Willis)   324,821

1969, H. Doc. 127, 91st Cong. (H. Con. Res. 192 by Mr. Celler)   174,500

1971, H. Doc. 144, 92d Cong. (H. Con. Res. 206 by Mr. Celler).   292,000

1972, H. Doc. 92-323, 92d Cong. (H. Con. Res. 530 by Mr. 
    Celler)...................................................   292,500

1974, H. Doc. 93-377, 93d Cong. (H. Con. Res. 201 by Mr. 
    Rodino)...................................................   246,000

1976, H. Doc. 94-509, 94th Cong. (H. Con. Res. 540 by Mr. 
    Rodino)...................................................   282,400

1978, H. Doc. 95-259, 95th Cong. (H. Con. Res.190 by Mr. 
    Rodino)...................................................   298,000

1980, H. Doc. 96-352, 96th Cong. (H. Con. Res. 95 by Mr. 
    Rodino)...................................................   298,000

1981, H. Doc. 97-120, 97th Cong. (H. Con. Res.106 by Mr. 
    Rodino)...................................................   298,000

1985, H. Doc. 99-158, 99th Cong. (H. Con. Res. 203 by Mr. 
    Rodino)...................................................   298,000

1989, H. Doc. 101-139, 101st Cong. (H. Con. Res. 193 by Mr. 
    Brooks)...................................................   298,000



                            C O N T E N T S

                              ----------                              
                                                                   Page
   I. INTRODUCTION....................................................1
  II. THE CONGRESS....................................................1
 III. SOURCES OF LEGISLATION..........................................3
  IV. FORMS OF CONGRESSIONAL ACTION...................................4
          BILLS..................................................     5
          JOINT RESOLUTIONS......................................     6
          CONCURRENT RESOLUTIONS.................................     6
          SIMPLE RESOLUTIONS.....................................     7
   V. INTRODUCTION AND REFERENCE TO COMMITTEE.........................7
  VI. CONSIDERATION BY COMMITTEE.....................................10
          COMMITTEE MEETINGS.....................................    10
          PUBLIC HEARINGS........................................    10
          BUSINESS MEETINGS......................................    12
          COMMITTEE ACTION.......................................    12
          POINTS OF ORDER WITH RESPECT TO COMMITTEE HEARING 
              PROCEDURE..........................................    13
 VII. REPORTED BILLS.................................................13
          CONTENTS OF REPORTS....................................    14
          FILING OF REPORTS......................................    15
          AVAILABILITY OF REPORTS AND HEARINGS...................    15
VIII. LEGISLATIVE OVERSIGHT BY STANDING COMMITTEES...................16
  IX. CALENDARS......................................................16
          UNION CALENDAR.........................................    17
          HOUSE CALENDAR.........................................    17
          PRIVATE CALENDAR.......................................    17
          CORRECTIONS CALENDAR...................................    17
          CALENDAR OF MOTIONS TO DISCHARGE COMMITTEES............    18
   X. OBTAINING CONSIDERATION OF MEASURES............................18
          UNANIMOUS CONSENT......................................    18
          SPECIAL RESOLUTION OR ``RULE''.........................    00
          CONSIDERATION OF MEASURES MADE IN ORDER BY RESOLUTION 
              PREVIOUSLY REPORTED FROM THE COMMITTEE ON RULES....    19
          MOTION TO DISCHARGE COMMITTEE..........................    20
          MOTION TO SUSPEND THE RULES............................    20
          CALENDAR WEDNESDAY.....................................    21
          DISTRICT OF COLUMBIA BUSINESS..........................    21
          PRIVILEGED MATTERS.....................................    21
  XI. CONSIDERATION AND DEBATE.......................................22
          COMMITTEE OF THE WHOLE HOUSE...........................    22
          SECOND READING.........................................    23
          AMENDMENTS AND THE GERMANENESS RULE....................    24
          THE COMMITTEE ``RISES''................................    24
          HOUSE ACTION...........................................    24
          MOTION TO RECOMMIT.....................................    25
          QUORUM CALLS AND ROLLCALLS.............................    25
          VOTING.................................................    27
          ELECTRONIC VOTING......................................    28
          PAIRING OF MEMBERS.....................................    28
          SYSTEM OF LIGHTS AND BELLS.............................    29
          RECESS AUTHORITY.......................................    29
          LIVE COVERAGE OF FLOOR PROCEEDINGS.....................    29
 XII. CONGRESSIONAL BUDGET PROCESS...................................30
XIII. ENGROSSMENT AND MESSAGE TO SENATE..............................31
 XIV. SENATE ACTION..................................................31
          COMMITTEE CONSIDERATION................................    31
          CHAMBER PROCEDURE......................................    32
  XV. FINAL ACTION ON AMENDED BILL...................................35
          REQUEST FOR A CONFERENCE...............................    35
          AUTHORITY OF CONFEREES.................................    36
          MEETINGS AND ACTION OF CONFEREES.......................    37
          CONFERENCE REPORTS.....................................    38
          CUSTODY OF PAPERS......................................    41
 XVI. BILL ORIGINATING IN SENATE.....................................41
XVII. ENROLLMENT.....................................................41
XVIII.PRESIDENTIAL ACTION............................................42

          VETO MESSAGE...........................................    43
          LINE ITEM VETO.........................................    44
 XIX. PUBLICATION....................................................44
          SLIP LAWS..............................................    44
          STATUTES AT LARGE......................................    45
          UNITED STATES CODE.....................................    46
APPENDIX.........................................................    47


                         HOW OUR LAWS ARE MADE

                            I. INTRODUCTION

    This brochure is intended to provide a basic outline of the 
numerous steps of our federal lawmaking process from the source 
of an idea for a legislative proposal through its publication 
as a statute. The legislative process is a matter about which 
every citizen should be well informed in order to understand 
and appreciate the work of Congress.
    It is hoped that this guide will enable every citizen to 
gain a greater understanding of the federal legislative process 
and its role as one of the foundations of our representative 
system. One of the most practical safeguards of the American 
democratic way of life is this legislative process with its 
emphasis on the protection of the minority, allowing ample 
opportunity to all sides to be heard and make their views 
known. The fact that a proposal cannot become a law without 
consideration and approval by both Houses of Congress is an 
outstanding virtue of our bicameral legislative system. The 
open and full discussion provided for under the Constitution 
often results in the notable improvement of a bill by amendment 
before it becomes law, or it may result in the defeat of an 
inadvisable proposal.
    As the majority of laws originate in the House of 
Representatives, this discussion will focus principally on the 
procedure in that body.

                            II. THE CONGRESS

    Article I, Section 1, of the United States Constitution, 
provides that:

    All legislative Powers herein granted shall be vested in a Congress 
of the United States, which shall consist of a Senate and House of 
Representatives.

    The Senate is composed of 100 Members--two from each state, 
regardless of population or area--elected by the people in 
accordance with the 17th Amendment to the Constitution. The 
17th Amendment changed the former constitutional method under 
which Senators were chosen by the respective state 
legislatures. A Senator must be at least 30 years of age, have 
been a citizen of the United States for nine years, and, when 
elected, be a resident of the state for which the Senator is 
chosen. The term of office is six years and one-third of the 
total membership of the Senate is elected every second year. 
The terms of both Senators from a particular state are arranged 
so that they do not terminate at the same time. Of the two 
Senators from a state serving at the same time the one who was 
elected first--or if both were elected at the same time, the 
one elected for a full term--is referred to as the ``senior'' 
Senator from that state. The other is referred to as the 
``junior'' Senator. If a Senator dies or resigns during the 
term, the governor of the state must call a special election 
unless the state legislature has authorized the governor to 
appoint a successor until the next election, at which time a 
successor is elected for the balance of the term. Most of the 
state legislatures have granted their governors the power of 
appointment.
    Each Senator has one vote.
    As constituted in the 105th Congress, the House of 
Representatives is composed of 435 Members elected every two 
years from among the 50 states, apportioned to their total 
populations. The permanent number of 435 was established by 
federal law following the Thirteenth Decennial Census in 1910, 
in accordance with Article I, Section 2, of the Constitution. 
This number was increased temporarily to 437 for the 87th 
Congress to provide for one Representative each for Alaska and 
Hawaii. The Constitution limits the number of Representatives 
to not more than one for every 30,000 of population. Under a 
former apportionment in one state, a particular Representative 
represented more than 900,000 constituents, while another in 
the same state was elected from a district having a population 
of only 175,000. The Supreme Court has since held 
unconstitutional a Missouri statute permitting a maximum 
population variance of 3.1 percent from mathematical equality. 
The Court ruled in Kirkpatrick v. Preisler, 394 U.S. 526 
(1969), that the variances among the districts were not 
unavoidable and, therefore, were invalid. That decision was an 
interpretation of the Court's earlier ruling in Wesberry v. 
Sanders, 376 U.S. 1 (1964), that the Constitution requires that 
``as nearly as is practicable one man's vote in a congressional 
election is to be worth as much as another's''.
    A law enacted in 1967 abolished all ``at-large'' elections 
except in those less populous states entitled to only one 
Representative. An ``at-large'' election is one in which a 
Representative is elected by the voters of the entire state 
rather than by the voters in a congressional district within 
the state.
    A Representative must be at least 25 years of age, have 
been a citizen of the United States for seven years, and, when 
elected, be a resident of the state in which the Representative 
is chosen. If a Representative dies or resigns during the term, 
the governor of the state must call a special election pursuant 
to state law for the choosing of a successor to serve for the 
unexpired portion of the term.
    Each Representative has one vote.
    In addition to the Representatives from each of the States, 
a Resident Commissioner from the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico 
and Delegates from the District of Columbia, American Samoa, 
Guam, and the Virgin Islands are elected pursuant to federal 
law. The Resident Commissioner and the Delegates have most of 
the prerogatives of Representatives including the right to vote 
in committees to which they are elected. However, the Resident 
Commissioner and the Delegates do not have the right to vote on 
matters before the House.
    Under the provisions of Section 2 of the 20th Amendment to 
the Constitution, Congress must assemble at least once every 
year, at noon on the 3rd day of January, unless by law they 
appoint a different day.
    A Congress lasts for two years, commencing in January of 
the year following the biennial election of Members. A Congress 
is divided into two sessions.
    Unlike some other parliamentary bodies, both the Senate and 
the House of Representatives have equal legislative functions 
and powers. However, the Constitution provides that only the 
House of Representatives originate revenue bills. By tradition, 
the House also originates appropriation bills. The designation 
of one as the ``upper'' House and the other as the ``lower'' 
House is not appropriate.
    The Constitution authorizes each House to determine the 
rules of its proceedings. Pursuant to that authority, the House 
of Representatives adopts its rules on the opening day of each 
Congress. The Senate considers itself a continuing body and 
operates under continuous standing rules that it amends from 
time to time.
    The chief function of Congress is the making of laws. In 
addition, the Senate has the function of advising and 
consenting to treaties and to certain nominations by the 
President. In the matter of impeachments, the House of 
Representatives presents the charges--a function similar to 
that of a grand jury--and the Senate sits as a court to try the 
impeachment. No person may be impeached without a two-thirds 
vote of the Senate. The Congress also plays a role in 
presidential elections. Both Houses meet in joint session on 
the sixth day of January, following a presidential election, 
unless by law they appoint a different day, to count the 
electoral votes. If no candidate receives a majority of the 
total electoral votes, the House of Representatives, each state 
delegation having one vote, chooses the President from among 
the three candidates having the largest number of electoral 
votes and the Senate chooses the Vice President from the two 
candidates having the largest number of votes for that office.

                      III. SOURCES OF LEGISLATION

    Sources of ideas for legislation are unlimited and proposed 
drafts of bills originate in many diverse quarters. Primary 
among these is the idea and draft conceived by a Member or 
Delegate. This may emanate from the election campaign during 
which the Member had promised, if elected, to introduce 
legislation on a particular subject. The entire campaign may 
have been based upon one or more such proposals. The Member may 
have also become aware after taking office of the need for 
amendment to or repeal of an existing law or the enactment of a 
statute in an entirely new field.
    In addition, the Member's constituents, either as 
individuals or through citizen groups or associations may avail 
themselves of the right to petition and transmit their 
proposals to the Member. The right to petition is guaranteed by 
the First Amendment to the Constitution. Many excellent laws 
have originated in this way, as someorganizations, because of 
their vital concern with various areas of legislation, have 
considerable knowledge regarding the laws affecting their interests and 
have the services of legislative draftspersons at their disposal for 
this purpose. Similarly, state legislatures may ``memorialize'' 
Congress to enact specified federal laws by passing resolutions to be 
transmitted to the House and Senate as memorials. If favorably 
impressed by the idea, the Member may introduce the proposal in the 
form in which it has been submitted or may redraft it. In any event, 
the Member may consult with the Legislative Counsel of the House or the 
Senate to frame the ideas in suitable legislative language and form.
    In modern times, the ``executive communication'' has become 
a prolific source of legislative proposals. This is usually in 
the form of a message or letter from a member of the 
President's Cabinet or the head of an independent agency--or 
even from the President--transmitting a draft of a proposed 
bill to the Speaker of the House of Representatives and the 
President of the Senate. Despite the structure of separation of 
powers, Article II, Section 3, of the Constitution imposes an 
obligation on the President to report to Congress from time to 
time on the ``State of the Union'' and to recommend for 
consideration such measures as the President considers 
necessary and expedient. Many of these executive communications 
follow on the President's message to Congress on the state of 
the Union. The communication is then referred to the standing 
committee or committees having jurisdiction of the subject 
matter of the proposal. The chairman or the ranking minority 
member of the relevant committee usually introduces the bill 
promptly either in the form in which it was received or with 
desired changes. This practice is usually followed even when 
the majority of the House and the President are not of the same 
political party, although there is no constitutional or 
statutory requirement that a bill be introduced to effectuate 
the recommendations. The committee or one of its subcommittees 
may also decide to examine the communication to determine 
whether a bill should be introduced. The most important of the 
regular executive communications is the annual message from the 
President transmitting the proposed budget to Congress. The 
President's budget proposal, together with testimony by 
officials of the various branches of the government before the 
Appropriations Committees of the House and Senate, is the basis 
of the several appropriation bills that are drafted by the 
Committee on Appropriations of the House.
    Several of the executive departments and independent 
agencies employ trained legislative counsels whose functions 
include the drafting of bills to be forwarded to Congress with 
a request for their enactment.
    The drafting of statutes is an art that requires great 
skill, knowledge, and experience. In some instances, a draft is 
the result of a study covering a period of a year or more by a 
commission or committee designated by the President or a member 
of the Cabinet. The Administrative Procedure Act and the 
Uniform Code of Military Justice are only two of many examples 
of enactments resulting from such studies. In addition, 
congressional committees sometimes draft bills after studies 
and hearings covering periods of a year or more.

                   IV. FORMS OF CONGRESSIONAL ACTION

    The work of Congress is initiated by the introduction of a 
proposal in one of four forms: the bill, the joint resolution, 
the concurrent resolution, and the simple resolution. The most 
customary form used in both Houses is the bill. During the 
104th Congress (1995-1996), 6,545 bills and 263 joint 
resolutions were introduced in both Houses. Of the total number 
introduced, 4,344 bills and 198 joint resolutions originated in 
the House of Representatives.
    For the purpose of simplicity, this discussion will be 
confined generally to the procedure on a House of 
Representatives bill, with brief comment on each of the forms.

                                 bills

    A bill is the form used for most legislation, whether 
permanent or temporary, general or special, public or private.
    The form of a House bill is as follows:

                                 a bill

           For the establishment, etc. [as the title may be].

Be it enacted by the Senate and House of Representatives of the United 
          States of America in Congress assembled, That, etc.

    The enacting clause was prescribed by law in 1871 and is 
identical in all bills, whether they originate in the House of 
Representatives or in the Senate.
    Bills may originate in either the House of Representatives 
or the Senate with one notable exception provided in the 
Constitution. Article I, Section 7, of the Constitution 
provides that all bills for raising revenue shall originate in 
the House of Representatives but that the Senate may propose or 
concur with amendments. By tradition, general appropriation 
bills also originate in the House of Representatives.
    There are two types of bills--public and private. A public 
bill is one that affects the public generally. A bill that 
affects a specified individual or a private entity rather than 
the population at large is called a private bill. A private 
bill is used for relief in matters such as immigration and 
naturalization and claims against the United States.
    A bill originating in the House of Representatives is 
designated by the letters ``H.R.'' followed by a number that it 
retains throughout all its parliamentary stages. The letters 
signify ``House of Representatives'' and not, as is sometimes 
incorrectly assumed, ``House resolution''. A Senate bill is 
designated by the letter ``S.'' followed by its number. The 
term ``companion bill'' is used to describe a bill introduced 
in one House of Congress that is similar or identical to a bill 
introduced in the other House of Congress.
    A bill that has been agreed to in identical form by both 
bodies becomes the law of the land only after--
          (1) Presidential approval; or
          (2) failure by the President to return it with objections to 
        the House in which it originated within 10 days while Congress 
        is in session; or
          (3) the overriding of a presidential veto by a two-thirds 
        vote in each House.
    It does not become law without the President's signature if 
Congress by their final adjournment prevent its return with 
objections. This is known as a ``pocket veto''. For a 
discussion of presidential action on legislation, see Part 
XVIII.

                           joint resolutions

    Joint resolutions may originate either in the House of 
Representatives or in the Senate and not, as is sometimes 
incorrectly assumed, jointly in both Houses. There is little 
practical difference between a bill and a joint resolution and 
the two forms are often used interchangeably. One difference in 
form is that a joint resolution may include a preamble 
preceding the resolving clause. Statutes that have been 
initiated as bills have later been amended by a joint 
resolution and vice versa. Both are subject to the same 
procedure except for a joint resolution proposing an amendment 
to the Constitution. When a joint resolution amending the 
Constitution is approved by two-thirds of both Houses, it is 
not presented to the President for approval. Following 
congressional approval, a joint resolution to amend the 
Constitution is sent directly to the Archivist of the United 
States for submission to the several states where ratification 
by the legislatures of three-fourths of the states within the 
period of time prescribed in the joint resolution is necessary 
for the amendment to become part of the Constitution.
    The form of a House joint resolution is as follows:

                            joint resolution

                Authorizing, etc. [as the title may be].

   Resolved by the Senate and House of Representatives of the United 
        States of America in Congress assembled, That all, etc.

    The resolving clause is identical in both House and Senate 
joint resolutions as prescribed by statute in 1871. It is 
frequently preceded by a preamble consisting of one or more 
``whereas'' clauses indicating the necessity for or the 
desirability of the joint resolution.
    A joint resolution originating in the House of 
Representatives is designated ``H.J. Res.'' followed by its 
individual number which it retains throughout all its 
parliamentary stages. One originating in the Senate is 
designated ``S.J. Res.'' followed by its number.
    Joint resolutions, with the exception of proposed 
amendments to the Constitution, become law in the same manner 
as bills.

                         concurrent resolutions

    Matters affecting the operations of both Houses are usually 
initiated by means of concurrent resolutions. In modern 
practice, and as determined by the Supreme Court in I.N.S. v. 
Chadha, 462 U.S. 919 (1983), concurrent and simple resolutions 
normally are not legislative in character since not 
``presented'' to the President for approval, but are used 
merely for expressing facts, principles, opinions, and purposes 
of the two Houses. A concurrent resolution is not equivalent to 
a bill and its use is narrowly limited within these bounds.
    The term ``concurrent'', like ``joint'', does not signify 
simultaneous introduction and consideration in both Houses.
    A concurrent resolution originating in the House of 
Representatives is designated ``H. Con. Res.'' followed by its 
individual number, while a Senate concurrent resolution is 
designated ``S. Con. Res.'' together with its number. On 
approval by both Houses, they are signed by the Clerk of the 
House and the Secretary of the Senate and transmitted to the 
Archivist of the United States for publication in a special 
part of the Statutes at Large volume covering that session of 
Congress.

                           simple resolutions

    A matter concerning the rules, the operation, or the 
opinion of either House alone is initiated by a simple 
resolution. A resolution affecting the House of Representatives 
is designated ``H. Res.'' followed by its number, while a 
Senate resolution is designated ``S. Res.'' together with its 
number. Simple resolutions are considered only by the body in 
which they were introduced. Upon adoption, simple resolutions 
are attested to by the Clerk of the House of Representatives or 
the Secretary of the Senate and are published in the 
Congressional Record.

               V. INTRODUCTION AND REFERENCE TO COMMITTEE

    Any Member, the Resident Commissioner from Puerto Rico, or 
the Delegates in the House of Representatives may introduce a 
bill at any time while the House is in session by simply 
placing it in the ``hopper'', a wooden box provided for that 
purpose located on the side of the rostrum in the House 
Chamber. Permission is not required to introduce the measure. 
Printed blank forms for an original bill are available through 
the Clerk's office. The Member introducing the bill is known as 
the sponsor. An unlimited number of Members may co-sponsor a 
bill. To prevent the possibility that a bill might be 
introduced in the House on behalf of a Member without that 
Member's prior approval, the sponsor's signature must appear on 
the bill before it is accepted for introduction. Members who 
co-sponsor a bill upon its date of introduction are original 
co-sponsors. Members who co-sponsor a bill after its 
introduction are additional co-sponsors. Co-sponsors are not 
required to sign the bill. A Member may not be added or deleted 
as a co-sponsor after the bill has been reported by the last 
committee authorized to consider it, but in no event shall the 
Speaker entertain a request to delete the name of the sponsor. 
In the Senate, unlimited multiple sponsorship of a bill is 
permitted. Occasionally, a Member may insert the words ``by 
request'' after the Member's name to indicate that the 
introduction of the measure is at the suggestion of some other 
person or group.
    In the Senate, a Senator usually introduces a bill or 
resolution by presenting it to one of the clerks at the 
Presiding Officer's desk, without commenting on it from the 
floor of the Senate. However, a Senator may use a more formal 
procedure by rising and introducing the bill or resolution from 
the floor. A Senator usually makes a statement about the 
measure when introducing it on the floor. Frequently, Senators 
obtain consent to have the bill or resolution printed in the 
body of the Congressional Record following their formal 
statement.
    If any Senator objects to the introduction of a bill or 
resolution, the introduction of the bill or resolution is 
postponed until the next day. If there is no objection, the 
bill is read by title and referred to the appropriate 
committee.
    In the House of Representatives, it is no longer the custom 
to read bills, even by title, at the time of introduction. The 
title is entered in the Journal and printed in the 
Congressional Record, thus preserving the purpose of the 
custom. The bill is assigned its legislative number by the 
Clerk. The bill is then referred as required by the rules of 
the House to the appropriate committees by the Speaker, the 
Member elected to be the Presiding Officer of the House, with 
the assistance of the Parliamentarian. The bill number and its 
referral appear in the next issue of the Congressional Record. 
It is then sent to the Government Printing Office where it is 
printed in its introduced form and printed copies are made 
available in the document rooms of both Houses. Printed and 
electronic versions of the bill are also made available to the 
public.
    Copies of the bill are sent to the office of the chairman 
of the committee to which it has been referred. The clerk of 
the committee enters it on the committee's Legislative 
Calendar.
    Perhaps the most important phase of the legislative process 
is the action by committees. The committees provide the most 
intensive consideration to a proposed measure as well as the 
forum where the public is given their opportunity to be heard. 
A tremendous volume of work is done by the Members in this 
phase and is sometimes overlooked by the public. There are, at 
present, 19 standing committees in the House and 16 in the 
Senate as well as several select committees. In addition, there 
are four standing joint committees of the two Houses, that have 
oversight responsibilities but no legislative jurisdiction. The 
House may also create select committees or task forces to study 
specific issues and report on them to the House. A task force 
may be established formally through a resolution passed by the 
House or informally through an organization of interested 
Members and committees by House leadership.
    Each committee's jurisdiction is divided into certain 
subject matters under the rules of each House and all measures 
affecting a particular area of the law are referred to the 
committee with jurisdiction over the particular subject matter. 
For example, the Committee on the Judiciary in the House has 
jurisdiction over measures relating to judicial proceedings 
generally, and 17 other categories, including constitutional 
amendments, immigration and naturalization, bankruptcy, 
patents, copyrights, and trademarks. In total, the rules of the 
House and of the Senate each provide for over 200 different 
classifications of measures to be referred to committees. Until 
1975, the Speaker of the House could refer a bill to only one 
committee. In modern practice, the Speaker may refer an 
introduced bill to multiple committees for consideration of 
those provisions of the bill within the jurisdiction of each 
committee concerned. The Speaker must designate a primary 
committee of jurisdiction on bills referred to multiple 
committees. The Speaker may place time limits on the 
consideration of bills by all committees, but usually time 
limits are placed only on additional committees. Additional 
committees are committees other than the primary committee to 
which a bill has been referred, either initially on its 
introduction or sequentially following the report of the 
primary committee. A time limit would be placed on an 
additional committee only when the primary committee has 
reported its version to the House.
    Membership on the various committees is divided between the 
two major political parties. The proportion of the Members of 
the minority party to the Members of the majority party is 
determined by the majority party, except that half of the 
members on the Committee on Standards of Official Conduct are 
from the majority party and half from the minority party. The 
respective party caucuses nominate Members of the caucus to be 
elected to each standing committee at the beginning of each 
Congress. Membership on a standing committee during the course 
of a Congress is contingent on continuing membership in the 
party caucus that nominated the Member for election to the 
committee. If the Member ceases to be a Member of the party 
caucus, the Member automatically ceases to be a member of the 
standing committee.
    Members of the House may serve on only two committees and 
four subcommittees with certain exceptions. However, the rules 
of the caucus of the majority party in the House provide that a 
Member may be chairman of only one subcommittee of a committee 
or select committee with legislative jurisdiction, except for 
certain committees performing housekeeping functions and joint 
committees.
    A Member usually seeks election to the committee that has 
jurisdiction over a field in which the Member is most qualified 
and interested. For example, the Committee on the Judiciary 
traditionally is composed almost entirely of lawyers. Many 
Members arenationally recognized experts in the specialty of 
their particular committee or subcommittee.
    Members rank in seniority in accordance with the order of 
their appointment to the full committee and the ranking 
majority member with the most continuous service is usually 
elected chairman. The rules of the House require that committee 
chairmen be elected from nominations submitted by the majority 
party caucus at the commencement of each Congress. No Member of 
the House may serve as chairman of the same standing committee 
or of the same subcommittee thereof for more than three 
consecutive Congresses.
    The rules of the House prohibit committees from having more 
than five subcommittees with the exception of the Committee on 
Appropriations, the Committee on Government Reform and 
Oversight, and the Committee on Transportation and 
Infrastructure.
    Each committee is provided with a professional staff to 
assist it in the innumerable administrative details and 
problems involved in the consideration of bills and conduct of 
oversight. For standing committees, the professional staff is 
limited to 30 persons appointed by a vote of the committee. 
Two-thirds of the committee staff are selected by a majority 
vote of the majority committee members and one-third of the 
committee staff are selected by a majority vote of minority 
committee members. All staff appointments are made without 
regard to race, creed, sex, or age. The minority staff 
provisions do not apply to the Committee on Standards of 
Official Conduct because of its bipartisan nature. The 
Committee on Appropriations has special authority under the 
rules of the House for appointment of staff for the minority.
    Under certain conditions, a standing committee may appoint 
consultants on a temporary or intermittent basis. The committee 
may also provide financial assistance to members of its 
professional staff for the purpose of acquiring specialized 
training, whenever the committee determines that such training 
will aid the committee in the discharge of its 
responsibilities.

                     VI. CONSIDERATION BY COMMITTEE

    One of the first actions taken by a committee is the 
transmittal of copies of the bill to the relevant departments 
and agencies. Frequently, the bill is also submitted to the 
General Accounting Office with a request for an official report 
of views on the necessity or desirability of enacting the bill 
into law. Normally, ample time is given for the submission of 
the reports and they are accorded serious consideration. These 
reports are not binding on the committee in determining whether 
or not to act favorably on the bill. Reports of the departments 
and agencies in the executive branch are submitted first to the 
Office of Management and Budget to determine whether they are 
consistent with the program of the President. Many committees 
adopt rules requiring referral of measures to the appropriate 
subcommittee unless the full committee votes to retain the 
measure at the full committee.

                           committee meetings

    Standing committees are required to have regular meeting 
days at least once a month. The chairman of the committee may 
also call and convene additional meetings. Three or more 
members of a standing committee may file with the committee a 
written request that the chairman call a special meeting. The 
request must specify the measure or matter to be considered. If 
the chairman fails to call the requested special meeting within 
three calendar days after the filing of the request, to be held 
within seven calendar days after the filing of the request, a 
majority of the members of the committee may call the special 
meeting by filing with the committee written notice specifying 
the time and date of the meeting and the measure or matter to 
be considered. In the Senate, the Chair may still control the 
agenda of the special meeting through the power of recognition.
    The rules of the House provide that House committees may 
not meet during a joint session of the House and Senate or 
during a recess when a joint meeting of the House and Senate is 
in progress. Committees may meet at other times during an 
adjournment or recess up to the expiration of the 
constitutional term.

                            public hearings

    If the bill is of sufficient importance, the committee may 
set a date for public hearings. Each committee, except for the 
Committee on Rules, is required to make public announcement of 
the date, place, and subject matter of any hearing to be 
conducted by the committee on any measure or matter at least 
one week before the commencement of that hearing, unless the 
committee chairman with the concurrence of the ranking minority 
member or the committee by majority vote determines that there 
is good cause to begin the hearing at an earlier date. If the 
committee makes that determination, it must make a public 
announcement to that effect at the earliest possible date. 
Public announcements are published in the Daily Digest portion 
of the Congressional Record as soon as possible after the 
announcement is made by the committee and are often noted in 
newspapers and periodicals. Personal notice of the hearing, 
usually in the form of a letter, is sometimes sent to relevant 
individuals, organizations, and government departments and 
agencies.
    Each hearing by a committee and subcommittee, except the 
Committee on Standards of Official Conduct, is required to be 
open to the public except when the committee or subcommittee, 
in open session and with a majority present, determines by 
rollcall vote that all or part of the remainder of the hearing 
on that day shall be closed to the public because disclosure of 
testimony, evidence, or other matters to be considered would 
endanger the national security, would compromise sensitive law 
enforcement information, or would violate a law or a rule of 
the House. The committee or subcommittee by the same procedure 
may vote to close one subsequent day of hearing, except that 
the Committees on Appropriations, National Security, and the 
Permanent Select Committee on Intelligence, and subcommittees 
thereof, may vote to close up to five additional consecutive 
days of hearings. When a quorum for taking testimony is 
present, a majority of the members present may close a hearing 
to discuss whether the evidence or testimony to be received 
would endanger national security or would tend to defame, 
degrade, or incriminate any person. Open committee hearings may 
be covered by the media. Permission to cover hearings and 
meetings is granted under detailed conditions as provided in 
the rules of the House.
    Hearings on the budget are required to be held by the 
Committee on Appropriations in open session within 30 days 
after its transmittal to Congress, except when the committee, 
in open session and with a quorum present, determines by 
rollcall vote that the testimony to be taken at that hearing on 
that day may be related to a matter of national security. The 
committee may by the same procedure close one subsequent day of 
hearing.
    On the day set for the public hearing in a committee or 
subcommittee, an official reporter is present to record the 
testimony on the bill or relevant subject matter. After a brief 
introductory statement by the chairman and often by the ranking 
minority member or other committee member, the first witness is 
called. Members or Senators who wish to be heard are sometimes 
given preference out of courtesy and because of the limitations 
on their time. Cabinet officers and high-ranking civil and 
military officials of the government, as well as interested 
private individuals, testify either voluntarily or by subpoena 
voted on by the committee or subcommittee.
    So far as practicable, committees require that witnesses 
who appear before it file a written statement of their proposed 
testimony in advance of their appearance and limit their oral 
presentations to a brief summary of their arguments. In the 
case of a witness appearing in a nongovernmental capacity, a 
written statement of proposed testimony shall include a 
curriculum vitae and a disclosure of the amount and source of 
any federal grant or contract received during the current 
fiscal year or either of the two previous fiscal years by the 
witness or by an entity represented by the witness.
    Minority party members of the committee are entitled to 
call witnesses of their own to testify on a measure during at 
least one day of the hearing.
    All committee rules in the House must provide that each 
member shall have only five minutes in the interrogation of 
each witness until each member of the committee who desires to 
question a witness has had an opportunity to do so. In 
addition, a committee may adopt a rule or motion permitting an 
equal number of its majority and minority party members each to 
question a witness for a specified period not longer than 30 
minutes. Committee staff may also be permitted to question a 
witness for equal specified periods.
    A transcript of the testimony taken at a public hearing is 
made available for inspection in the office of the clerk of the 
committee. Frequently, the complete transcript is printed and 
distributed widely by the committee.

                           business meetings

    After hearings are completed, the subcommittee usually will 
consider the bill in a session that is popularly known as the 
``markup'' session. The views of both sides are studied in 
detail and at the conclusion of deliberation a vote is taken to 
determine the action of the subcommittee. It may decide to 
report the bill favorably to the full committee, with or 
without amendment, or unfavorably, or without recommendation. 
The subcommittee may also suggest that the committee ``table'' 
it or postpone action indefinitely. Each member of the 
subcommittee, regardless of party affiliation, has one vote. 
Proxy voting is no longer permitted in House committees.
    All meetings for the transaction of business of standing 
committees or subcommittees, except the Committee on Standards 
of Official Conduct, must be open to the public, except when 
the committee or subcommittee, in open session with a majority 
present, determines by rollcall vote that all or part of the 
remainder of the meeting on that day shall be closed to the 
public. This requirement does not apply to any meeting that 
relates solely to internal budget or personnel matters. Members 
of the committee may authorize congressional staff and 
departmental representatives to be present at any business or 
markup session that has been closed to the public. Open 
committee meetings may be covered by the media. Permission to 
cover hearings and meetings is granted under detailed 
conditions as provided in the rules of the House.

                            committee action

    At full committee meetings, reports on bills may be made by 
subcommittees. Bills are read for amendment in committees and 
subcommittees by section and members may offer germane 
amendments. Committee amendments are only proposals to change 
the bill as introduced and are subject to acceptance or 
rejection by the House itself. A vote of committee members is 
taken to determine whether the full committee will report 
favorably or table the bill. If the committee votes to report 
the bill favorably to the House, it may report the bill with or 
without amendments or report a ``clean bill''. If the committee 
has approved extensive amendments, the committee may decide to 
report the original bill with one ``amendment in the nature of 
a substitute'' consisting of all the amendments previously 
adopted, or may report a new bill incorporating those 
amendments, commonly known as a clean bill. The new bill is 
introduced (usually by the chairman of the committee), and, 
after referral back to the committee, is reported favorably to 
the House by the committee. A committee may table a bill or not 
take action on it and prevent further action on a bill, making 
adverse reports to the House by the full committee unusual. On 
rare occasions, a committee may report a bill without 
recommendation or unfavorably.
    Generally, a majority of the committee or subcommittee 
constitutes a quorum. A quorum is the number of members who 
must be present in order for the committee to report. This 
ensures participation by both sides in the action taken. 
However, a committee may vary the number of members necessary 
for a quorum for certain actions. For example, a committee may 
fix the number of its members, but not less than two, necessary 
for a quorum for taking testimony and receiving evidence. 
Except for the Committees on Appropriations, on the Budget, and 
on Ways and Means, a committee may fix the number of its 
members, but not less than one-third, necessary for a quorum 
for taking certain other actions. The absence of a quorum is 
subject to a point of order, an objection that the proceedings 
are in violation of a rule of the committee or of the House, 
because the required number of members are not present.
      points of order with respect to committee hearing procedure
    A point of order in the House does not lie with respect to 
a measure reported by a committee on the ground that hearings 
on the measure were not conducted in accordance with required 
committee procedure. However, certain points of order may be 
made by a member of the committee that reported the measure if, 
in the committee hearing on that measure, that point of order 
was (1) timely made and (2) improperly overruled or not 
properly considered.

                          VII. REPORTED BILLS

    If the committee votes to report the bill favorably to the 
House, one of the committee staff in the name of a committee 
member writes the committee report. The report describes the 
purpose and scope of the bill and the reasons for its 
recommended approval. Generally, a section-by-section analysis 
is set forth explaining precisely what each section is intended 
to accomplish. All changes in existing law must be indicated in 
the report and the text of laws being repealed must be set out. 
This requirement is known as the ``Ramseyer'' rule. A similar 
rule in the Senate is known as the ``Cordon'' rule. Committee 
amendments also must be set out at the beginning of the report 
and explanations of them are included. Executive communications 
regarding the bill may be referenced in the report.
    If at the time of approval of a bill by a committee, except 
the Committee on Rules, a member of the committee gives notice 
of an intention to file supplemental, minority, or additional 
views, that member is entitled to not less than two additional 
calendar days after the day of such notice (excluding 
Saturdays, Sundays, and legal holidays unless the House is in 
session on those days) in which to file those views with the 
clerk of the committee. Those views that are timely filed must 
be included in the report on the bill. Committee reports, with 
certain exceptions, must be filed while the House is in session 
unless unanimous consent is obtained from the House to file at 
a later time or unless the committee is awaiting additional 
views.
    The report is assigned a report number upon its filing and 
is sent to the Government Printing Office for printing. House 
reports are given a prefix-designator that indicates the number 
of the Congress. For example, the first House report in the 
105th Congress was numbered 105-1.
    In the printed report, committee amendments are indicated 
by showing new matter in italics and deleted matter in line-
through type. The report number is printed on the bill and the 
calendar number is shown on both the first and back pages of 
the bill. However, in the case of a bill that was referred to 
two or more committees for consideration in sequence, the 
calendar number is printed only on the bill as reported by the 
last committee to consider it. For a discussion of House 
calendars, see Part IX.
    Committee reports are perhaps the most valuable single 
element of the legislative history of a law. They are used by 
courts, executive departments, and the public generally as a 
source of information regarding the purpose and meaning of the 
law.

                          contents of reports

    The report of a committee on a measure that has been 
approved by the committee must include (1) the committee's 
oversight findings and recommendations, (2) a statement 
required by the Congressional Budget Act of 1974, if the 
measure provides new budget authority (other than continuing 
appropriations), new entitlement authority, new credit 
authority, or an increase or decrease in revenues or tax 
expenditures, (3) a cost estimate and comparison prepared by 
the Director of the Congressional Budget Office whenever the 
Director has submitted that estimate and comparison to the 
committee prior to the filing of the report, and (4) a summary 
of the oversight findings and recommendations made by the 
Committee on Government Reform and Oversight whenever they have 
been submitted to the legislative committee in a timely fashion 
to allow an opportunity to consider the findings and 
recommendations during the committee's deliberations on the 
measure. Each report accompanying a bill or joint resolution 
relating to employment or access to public services or 
accommodations must describe the manner in which the provisions 
apply to the legislative branch. Each of these items are set 
out separately and clearly identified in the report.
    With respect to each rollcall vote by a committee, the 
total number of votes cast for, and the total number of votes 
cast against any public measure or matter or amendment thereto 
and the names of those voting for and against, must be included 
in the committee report.
    In addition, each report of a committee on a bill or joint 
resolution of a public character reported by the committee must 
contain a statement citing the specific powers granted to 
Congress in the Constitution to enact the law proposed by the 
bill or joint resolution. Committee reports that accompany 
bills or resolutions that contain federal unfunded mandates are 
also required to include an estimate prepared by the 
Congressional Budget Office on the cost of the mandates on 
state, local, and tribal governments. If an estimate is not 
available at the time a report is filed, committees are 
required to publish the estimate in the Congressional Record. 
Each report also mustcontain an estimate, made by the 
committee, of the costs which would be incurred in carrying out that 
bill or joint resolution in the fiscal year reported and in each of the 
five fiscal years thereafter or for the duration of the program 
authorized if less than five years. In the case of a measure involving 
revenues, the report need contain only an estimate of the gain or loss 
in revenues for a one-year period. The report must include a comparison 
of the estimates of those costs with the estimate made by any 
Government agency and submitted to that committee. The Committees on 
Appropriations, on House Oversight, on Rules, and on Standards of 
Official Conduct are not required to include cost estimates in their 
reports. In addition, the committee's own cost estimates are not 
required to be included in reports when a cost estimate and comparison 
prepared by the Director of the Congressional Budget Office has been 
submitted prior to the filing of the report and included in the report.

                           filing of reports

    Measures approved by a committee must be reported promptly 
after approval. A majority of the members of the committee may 
file a written request with the clerk of the committee for the 
reporting of the measure. When the request is filed, the clerk 
must immediately notify the chairman of the committee of the 
filing of the request, and the report on the measure must be 
filed within seven days (excluding days on which the House is 
not in session) after the day on which the request is filed. 
This does not apply to a report of the Committee on Rules with 
respect to the rules, joint rules, or order of business of the 
House or to the reporting of a resolution of inquiry addressed 
to the head of an executive department.

                  availability of reports and hearings

    With certain exceptions (relating to emergency situations, 
such as a measure declaring war or other national emergency and 
government agency decisions, determinations, and actions that 
are effective unless disapproved or otherwise invalidated by 
one or both Houses of Congress), a measure or matter reported 
by a committee (except the Committee on Rules in the case of a 
resolution making in order the consideration of a bill, 
resolution, or other order of business) may not be considered 
in the House until the third calendar day (excluding Saturdays, 
Sundays, and legal holidays unless the House is in session on 
those days) on which the report of that committee on that 
measure has been available to the Members of the House. 
However, it is always in order to consider a report from the 
Committee on Rules specifically providing for the consideration 
of a reported measure or matter notwithstanding this 
restriction. If hearings were held on a measure or matter so 
reported, the committee is required to make every reasonable 
effort to have those hearings printed and available for 
distribution to the Members of the House prior to the 
consideration of the measure in the House. Committees are also 
required, to the maximum extent feasible, to make their 
publications available in electronic form. General 
appropriation bills may not be considered until printed 
committee hearings and a committee report thereon have been 
available to the Members of the House for at least three 
calendar days (excluding Saturdays, Sundays, and legal holidays 
unless the House is in session on those days).

           VIII. LEGISLATIVE OVERSIGHT BY STANDING COMMITTEES

    Each standing committee, other than the Committees on 
Appropriations and on the Budget, is required to review and 
study, on a continuing basis, the application, administration, 
execution, and effectiveness of the laws dealing with the 
subject matter over which the committee has jurisdiction and 
the organization and operation of federal agencies and entities 
having responsibility for the administration and evaluation of 
those laws.
    The purpose of the review and study is to determine whether 
laws and the programs created by Congress are being implemented 
and carried out in accordance with the intent of Congress and 
whether those programs should be continued, curtailed, or 
eliminated. In addition, each committee having oversight 
responsibility is required to review and study any conditions 
or circumstances that may indicate the necessity or 
desirability of enacting new or additional legislation within 
the jurisdiction of that committee, and must undertake, on a 
continuing basis, future research and forecasting on matters 
within the jurisdiction of that committee. Each standing 
committee also has the function of reviewing and studying, on a 
continuing basis, the impact or probable impact of tax policies 
on subjects within its jurisdiction.
    The rules of the House provide for special treatment of an 
investigative or oversight report of a committee. Committees 
are allowed to file joint investigative reports and to file 
investigative and activities reports after the House has 
completed its final session of a Congress. In addition, several 
of the standing committees have special oversight 
responsibilities. The details of those responsibilities are set 
forth in the rules of the House.

                             IX. CALENDARS

    The House of Representatives has five calendars of 
business: the Union Calendar, the House Calendar, the Private 
Calendar, the Corrections Calendar, and the Calendar of Motions 
to Discharge Committees. The calendars are compiled in one 
publication printed each day the House is in session. This 
publication also contains a history of Senate-passed bills, 
House bills reported out of committee, bills on which the House 
has acted, as well as other useful information.
    When a public bill is favorably reported by all committees 
to which referred, it is assigned a calendar number on either 
the Union Calendar or the House Calendar, the two principal 
calendars of business. The calendar number is printed on the 
first page of the bill and, in certain instances, is printed 
also on the back page. In the case of a bill that was referred 
to multiple committees for consideration in sequence, the 
calendar number is printed only on the bill as reported by the 
last committee to consider it.

                             union calendar

    The rules of the House provide that there shall be:

    First. A Calendar of the Committee of the Whole House on the state 
of the Union, to which shall be referred bills raising revenue, general 
appropriation bills, and bills of a public character directly or 
indirectly appropriating money or property.

    The large majority of public bills and resolutions reported 
to the House are placed on the Union Calendar. For a discussion 
of the Committee of the Whole House, see Part XI.

                             house calendar

    The rules further provide that there shall be:

    Second. A House Calendar, to which shall be referred all bills of a 
public character not raising revenue nor directly or indirectly 
appropriating money or property.

    The public bills and resolutions that are not placed on the 
Union Calendar are referred to the House Calendar.

                            private calendar

    The rules also provide that there shall be:

    Third. A Calendar of the Committee of the Whole House, to which 
shall be referred all bills of a private character.

    All private bills reported to the House are placed on the 
Private Calendar. The Private Calendar is called on the first 
and third Tuesdays of each month. If objection is made by two 
or more Members to the consideration of any measure called, it 
is recommitted to the committee that reported it. There are six 
official objectors, three on the majority side and three on the 
minority side, who make a careful study of each bill or 
resolution on the Private Calendar. The official objectors' 
role is to object to a measure that does not conform to the 
requirements for that calendar and prevent the passage without 
debate of nonmeritorious bills and resolutions. Private bills 
that have been reported from committee are only considered 
under the calendar procedure. Alternative procedures reserved 
for public bills are not applicable for reported private bills.

                          corrections calendar

    If a measure pending on either the House or Union Calendar 
is of a noncontroversial nature, it may be placed on the 
Corrections Calendar. The Corrections Calendar was created to 
address specific problems with federal rules, regulations, or 
courtdecisions that bipartisan and narrowly targeted bills 
could expeditiously correct. After a bill has been favorably reported 
and is on either the House or Union Calendar, the Speaker may, after 
consultation with the Minority Leader, file with the Clerk a notice 
requesting that such bill also be placed upon a special calendar known 
as the Corrections Calendar. On the second and fourth Tuesdays of each 
month, the Speaker directs the Clerk to call any bill that has been on 
the Corrections Calendar for three legislative days. A three-fifths 
vote of the Members voting is required to pass any bill called from the 
Corrections Calendar. A failure to adopt a bill from the Corrections 
Calendar does not necessarily mean the final defeat of the bill because 
it may then be brought up for consideration in the same way as any 
other bill on the House or Union Calendar.

              calendar of motions to discharge committees

    When a majority of the Members of the House sign a motion 
to discharge a committee from consideration of a public bill or 
resolution, that motion is referred to the Calendar of Motions 
to Discharge Committees. For a discussion of motions to 
discharge, see Part X.

                 X. OBTAINING CONSIDERATION OF MEASURES

    Certain measures pending on the House and Union Calendars 
are more important and urgent than others and a system 
permitting their consideration ahead of those that do not 
require immediate action is necessary. If the calendar numbers 
alone were the determining factor, the bill reported most 
recently would be the last to be taken up as all measures are 
placed on the House and Union Calendars in the order reported.

                           unanimous consent

    The House occasionally employs the practice of allowing 
measures to be considered by the unanimous agreement of all 
Members in the House Chamber. The power to recognize Members 
for a unanimous consent request is ultimately in the discretion 
of the Chair but recent Speakers have issued strict guidelines 
on when such a request is to be entertained. Most unanimous 
consent requests for consideration of measures may only be 
entertained by the Chair when assured that the majority and 
minority floor and committee leaderships have no objection.

                     special resolution or ``rule''

    To avoid delays and to allow selectivity in the 
consideration of public measures, it is possible to have them 
taken up out of their order on their respective calendar by 
obtaining from the Committee on Rules a special resolution or 
``rule'' for their consideration. The Committee on Rules, which 
is composed of majority and minority members but with a larger 
proportion of majority members than other committees, is 
specifically granted jurisdiction over resolutions relating to 
the order of business of the House. Usually the chairman of the 
committee that has favorably reported the bill requests the 
Committee on Rules to originate a resolution that will provide 
for its immediate or subsequent consideration. Under unusual 
circumstances, the Committee on Rules may originate a 
resolution providing for a measure that has not been reported 
by the legislative committee(s) of jurisdiction. If the 
Committee on Rules is satisfied that the measure should be 
taken up, it may report a resolution reading substantially as 
follows with respect to a bill on the Union Calendar or an 
unreported bill:

          Resolved, That upon the adoption of this resolution the 
        Speaker declares pursuant to rule XXIII that the House resolve 
        itself into the Committee of the Whole House on the State of 
        the Union for the consideration of the bill (H.R. ________) 
        entitled, etc., and the first reading of the bill shall be 
        dispensed with. After general debate, which shall be confined 
        to the bill and shall continue not to exceed ________ hours, to 
        be equally divided and controlled by the chairman and ranking 
        minority member of the Committee on ________, the bill shall be 
        read for amendment under the five-minute rule. At the 
        conclusion of the consideration of the bill for amendment, the 
        Committee shall rise and report the bill to the House with such 
        amendments as may have been adopted, and the previous question 
        shall be considered as ordered on the bill and amendments 
        thereto to final passage without intervening motion except one 
        motion to recommit with or without instructions.

    If the measure is on the House Calendar or the 
recommendation is to avoid consideration in the Committee of 
the Whole, the resolution reads substantially as follows:

          Resolved, That upon the adoption of this resolution it shall 
        be in order to consider the bill (H.R. ________) entitled, 
        etc., in the House.

    The resolution may waive points of order against the bill. 
A point of order is an objection that a pending matter or 
proceeding is in violation of a rule of the House. The bill may 
be susceptible to various points of order that may be made 
against its consideration, including an assertion that the bill 
carries a retroactive federal income tax increase, contains a 
federal unfunded mandate, or has not been reported from 
committee properly. When the resolution limits or prevents 
floor amendments, it is popularly known as a ``closed rule'' or 
``modified closed rule.'' However, a special resolution may not 
deny the minority party the right to offer a motion to recommit 
the bill with amendatory or general instructions. For a 
discussion of the motion to recommit, see Part XI.

   consideration of measures made in order by resolution previously 
                  reported from the committee on rules

    When a special resolution has been reported to the House 
and is not considered immediately, it is referred to the 
calendar and, if not called up for consideration by the Member 
making the report within seven legislative days thereafter, any 
member of the Committee on Rules may call it up as a privileged 
matter, after having given one calendar day notice of the 
Member's intention to do so. The Speaker will recognize any 
member of the committee seeking recognition for that purpose.
    If, within seven calendar days after a measure has, by 
resolution adopted by the House, been made in order for 
consideration, a motion has not been offered for its 
consideration, the Speaker may recognize a member of the 
committee that reported the measure to offer a motion that the 
House consider it, if the Member has been duly authorized by 
that committee to offer the motion.
    There are several other methods of obtaining consideration 
of bills that either have not been reported by a committee or, 
if reported, for which a special resolution has not been 
granted. Two of those methods, a motion to discharge a 
committee and a motion to suspend the rules, are discussed 
below.

                     motion to discharge committee

    A Member may present to the Clerk a motion in writing to 
discharge a committee from the consideration of a public bill 
or resolution that has been referred to it 30 days prior 
thereto. A Member also may file a motion to discharge the 
Committee on Rules from further consideration of a resolution 
providing a special rule for the consideration of a public bill 
or resolution reported by a standing committee, or a special 
rule for the consideration of a public bill or resolution that 
has remained in a standing committee 30 legislative days or 
more without action. This motion to discharge the Committee on 
Rules may be made only when the resolution has been referred to 
that committee at least seven legislative days prior to the 
filing of the motion to discharge. The motion may not permit 
consideration of nongermane amendments. The motion is placed in 
the custody of the Journal Clerk, where Members may sign it at 
the House rostrum only when the House is in session. The names 
of Members who have signed a discharge motion are published in 
the Congressional Record on a weekly basis. When a majority of 
the total membership of the House have signed the motion, it is 
entered in the Journal, printed with all the signatures thereto 
in the Congressional Record, and referred to the Calendar of 
Motions to Discharge Committees.
    On the second and fourth Mondays of each month, except 
during the last six days of a session, a Member who has signed 
a motion to discharge that has been on the calendar at least 
seven legislative days may seek recognition and be recognized 
for the purpose of calling up the motion. The motion to 
discharge is debated for 20 minutes, one-half in favor of the 
proposition and one-half in opposition.
    If the motion to discharge the Committee on Rules from a 
resolution pending before that committee prevails, the House 
shall immediately consider such resolution. If the resolution 
is adopted, the House proceeds to its execution. This is the 
modern practice for utilization of the discharge rule.
    If the motion to discharge one of the standing committees 
of the House from a public bill or resolution pending before 
the committee prevails, a Member who signed the motion may move 
that the House proceed to the immediate consideration of the 
bill or resolution. If the motion is agreed to, the bill or 
resolution is considered immediatelyunder the general rules of 
the House. If the House votes against the motion for immediate 
consideration, the bill or resolution is referred to its proper 
calendar with the same rights and privileges it would have had if 
reported favorably by the standing committee.

                      motion to suspend the rules

    On Monday and Tuesday of each week and during the last six 
days of a session, the Speaker may entertain a motion to 
suspend the rules of the House and pass a public bill or 
resolution. Members need to make arrangements in advance with 
the Speaker to be recognized to offer such a motion. The motion 
to suspend the rules and pass the bill is debatable for 40 
minutes, one-half of the time in favor of the proposition and 
one-half in opposition. The motion may not be separately 
amended but may be amended in the form of a manager's amendment 
included in the motion when it is offered. Because the rules 
may be suspended and the bill passed only by affirmative vote 
of two-thirds of the Members voting, a quorum being present, 
this procedure is usually used only for expedited consideration 
of relatively noncontroversial public measures.
    The Speaker may postpone all recorded and yea-nay votes on 
certain questions before the House, including a motion to 
suspend the rules and the passage of bills and resolutions, 
until a specified time on that legislative day or the next two 
legislative days. At that time, the House disposes of the 
postponed votes consecutively without further debate. After the 
first postponed fifteen minute vote is taken, the Speaker may 
reduce to not less than five minutes the time period for 
subsequent postponed votes. If the House adjourns before 
completing action on postponed votes, the postponed votes must 
be the first order of business on the next legislative day. 
Eliminating intermittent recorded votes on suspensions reduces 
interruptions of committee meetings and allows more efficient 
scheduling of voting.

                           calendar wednesday

    On Wednesday of each week, unless dispensed with by 
unanimous consent or by affirmative vote of two-thirds of the 
Members voting, a quorum being present, the standing committees 
are called in alphabetical order. A committee when named may 
call up for consideration any bill reported by it on a previous 
day and pending on either the House or Union Calendar. The 
bill's report must have been available for three days in 
accordance with House rules and must not be the subject of a 
special order of business providing for its consideration. Not 
more than two hours of general debate is permitted on any 
measure called up on Calendar Wednesday and all debate must be 
confined to the subject matter of the measure, the time being 
equally divided between those for and those against it. The 
affirmative vote of a simple majority of the Members present is 
sufficient to pass the measure. The general purpose of this 
procedure is to provide an alternative method of consideration 
when the Committee on Rules has not reported a special 
resolution for a specific bill.

                     district of columbia business

    On the second and fourth Mondays of each month, after the 
disposition of motions to discharge committees and after the 
disposal of business on the Speaker's table requiring only 
referral to committee, the Committee on Government Reform and 
Oversight may call up for consideration any District of 
Columbia business.

                           privileged matters

    Under the rules of the House, certain matters are regarded 
as privileged matters and may interrupt the order of business. 
Conference reports, veto messages from the President, and 
certain amendments to measures by the Senate after the stage of 
disagreement between the two Houses are examples of privileged 
matters. Certain reports from House committees are also 
privileged, including reports from the Committee on Rules, 
reports from the Committee on Appropriations on the general 
appropriation bills, printing and committee funding resolutions 
reported from the Committee on House Oversight, and reports on 
Member's conduct from the Committee on Standards of Official 
Conduct. Bills, joint resolutions, and motions may also take on 
privileged status as a result of special procedures written 
into statute. The Member in charge of such a matter may call it 
up at practically any time for immediate consideration. 
Usually, this is done after consultation with both the majority 
and minority floor leaders so that the Members of both parties 
will have advance notice.
    In addition, at any time after the reading of the Journal, 
a Member, by direction of the Committee on Appropriations, may 
move that the House resolve itself into the Committee of the 
Whole House on the State of the Union for the purpose of 
considering general appropriation bills. General appropriation 
bills may not be considered in the House until three calendar 
days (excluding Saturdays, Sundays, and legal holidays unless 
the House is in session on those days) after printed committee 
reports and hearings on them have been available to the 
Members. The limit on general debate on such a bill is 
generally fixed by a special resolution reported from the 
Committee on Rules.

                      XI. CONSIDERATION AND DEBATE

    Our democratic tradition demands that bills be given 
consideration by the entire membership usually with adequate 
opportunity for debate and the proposing of amendments.

                      committee of the whole house

    In order to expedite the consideration of bills and 
resolutions, the rules of the House provide for a parliamentary 
mechanism, known as the Committee of the Whole, that enables 
the House to act with a quorum of less than the requisite 
majority of 218. A quorum in the Committee of the Whole is 100 
members. All measures on the Union Calendar--those involving a 
tax, making appropriations, authorizing payments out of 
appropriations already made, or disposing of property--must be 
first considered in the Committee of the Whole.
    The Committee on Rules reports a special resolution 
allowing for immediate consideration of a measure by the 
Committee of the Whole. After adoption of the resolution by the 
House, the Speaker may declare the House resolved into the 
Committee of the Whole. When the House resolves into the 
Committee of the Whole, the Speaker leaves the chair after 
appointing a Chairman to preside.
    The resolution referred to in the preceding paragraph also 
fixes the length of the debate in the Committee of the Whole. 
This may vary according to the importance and controversial 
nature of the measure. As provided in the resolution, the 
control of the time is divided equally between the chairman and 
the ranking minority member of the committee(s) that reported 
the measure. Members seeking to speak for or against the 
measure may arrange in advance with the Member in control of 
the time on their respective side to be allowed a certain 
amount of time in the debate. Members may also ask the Member 
speaking at the time to yield to them for a question or a brief 
statement. A transcript of the proceedings and debate in the 
House and the Senate is printed daily in the Congressional 
Record. Frequently, permission is granted a Member by unanimous 
consent to revise and extend his remarks in the Congressional 
Record if sufficient time to make a lengthy oral statement is 
not available during actual debate. These revisions and 
extensions are printed in a distinctive type and cannot 
substantively alter the verbatim transcript.
    The conduct of the debate is governed principally by the 
rules of the House that are adopted at the opening of each 
Congress. Jefferson's Manual, prepared by Thomas Jefferson for 
his own guidance as President of the Senate from 1797 to 1801, 
is another recognized authority. The House has a long-standing 
rule that provides that the provisions of Jefferson's Manual 
should govern the House in all applicable cases and where they 
are not inconsistent with the rules of the House. The House 
also relies on an 11-volume compilation of parliamentary 
precedents, entitled Hinds' Precedents and Cannon's Precedents 
of the House of Representatives, dating from the earliest days 
of Congress to 1935, to guide its action. A later compilation, 
Deschler-Brown Precedents of the House of Representatives, 
covers 1936 to date. In addition, a summary of the House 
precedents prior to 1959 can be found in a single volume 
entitled Cannon's Procedure in the House of Representatives. 
Procedure in the U.S. House of Representatives, fourth edition, 
as supplemented, and House Practice, published in 1996, are 
recent compilations of the precedents of the House, in summary 
form, together with other useful related material. Also, 
various rulings of the Speaker are set out as notes in the 
current House Rules and Manual. Most parliamentary questions 
arising during the course of debate are responded to by a 
ruling based on a precedent of action in a similar situation. 
The Parliamentarian of the House is present in the House 
Chamber in order to assist the Speaker or the Chairman in 
making a correct ruling on parliamentary questions.

                             second reading

    During general debate on a bill, an accurate account is 
kept of the time used on both sides and the Chairman terminates 
the debate when all the time allowed under the special 
resolution has been consumed. After general debate, the second 
reading of the bill begins. The second reading is a section-by-
section reading during which time germane amendments may be 
offered to a section when it is read. Under some special 
``modified closed'' rules adopted by the House, certain bills 
are considered as read and open only to prescribed amendments 
under limited time allocations. Under the normal ``open'' 
amendment process, a Member is permitted five minutes to 
explain the proposed amendment, after which the Member who is 
first recognized by the Chair is allowed to speak for five 
minutes in opposition to it. There is no further debate on that 
amendment, thereby effectively preventing filibuster-like 
tactics. This is known as the ``five-minute rule''. However, 
Members may offer a pro forma amendment--``to strike out the 
last word''--which does not change the language of the 
amendment but allows the Member five minutes for debate. Each 
substantive amendment and amendment thereto is put to the 
Committee of the Whole for adoption unless the House has 
adopted a special resolution ``self-executing'' the adoption of 
certain amendments in the Committee of the Whole.
    At any time after debate has begun on proposed amendments 
to a section or paragraph of a bill under the five-minute rule, 
the Committee of the Whole may by majority vote of the Members 
present close debate on the section or paragraph. However, if 
debate is closed on a section or paragraph before there has 
been debate on any amendment that a Member has caused to be 
printed in the Congressional Record after the reporting of the 
bill by the committee but at least one day prior to floor 
consideration of the amendment, the Member who caused the 
amendment to be printed in the Record is given five minutes in 
which to explain the amendment. Five minutes is also given to 
speak in opposition to the amendment and no further debate on 
the amendment is allowed. Amendments placed in the 
Congressional Record must be signed by the Member offering the 
amendment, must indicate the full text of the proposed 
amendment, the number of the bill to which it will be offered 
and the point in the bill or amendment thereto where the 
amendment is intended to be offered. These amendments appear in 
the portion of the Record designated for that purpose.

                  amendments and the germaneness rule

    The rules of the House prohibit amendments of a subject 
matter different from the text under consideration. This rule, 
commonly known as the germaneness rule, is considered the 
single most important rule of the House of Representatives 
because of the obvious need to keep the focus of a body the 
size of the House on a predictable subject matter. The 
germaneness rule applies to the proceedings in the House, the 
Committee of the Whole, and the standing committees. There are 
hundreds of prior rulings or ``precedents'' on issues of 
germaneness available to guide the Chair.

                        the committee ``rises''

    At the conclusion of the consideration of a bill for 
amendment, the Committee of the Whole ``rises'' and reports the 
bill to the House with the amendments that have been adopted. 
In rising, the Committee of the Whole reverts back to the House 
and the Chairman of the Committee is replaced in the chair by 
the Speaker of the House. The House then acts on the bill and 
any amendments adopted by the Committee of the Whole.

                              house action

    Debate on a bill in the House is cut off by moving and 
ordering ``the previous question''. All debate is cut off on 
the bill if this motion is carried by a majority of the Members 
voting, a quorum being present, or by a special resolution 
ordering the previous question upon the rising of the Committee 
of the Whole. The Speaker then puts the question: ``Shall the 
bill be engrossed and read a third time?'' If this question is 
decided in the affirmative, the bill is read a third time by 
title only and voted on for passage.
    If the previous question has been ordered by the terms of 
the special resolution on a bill reported by the Committee of 
the Whole, the House immediately votes on whatever amendments 
have been reported by the Committee in the order in which they 
appear in the bill unless voted on en bloc. After completion of 
voting on the amendments, the House immediately votes on the 
passage of the bill with the amendments it has adopted. 
However, a motion to recommit, as described in the next 
section, may be offered and voted on prior to the vote on 
passage.
    The Speaker may postpone a recorded vote on final passage 
of a bill or resolution or agreement to a conference report for 
up to two legislative days.
    Measures that do not have to be considered in the Committee 
of the Whole are considered in the House in accordance with the 
terms of the rule limiting debate on the measure or under the 
``hour rule''. The hour rule limits the amount of time that a 
Member may occupy in debate on a pending question to 60 
minutes. Generally, the opportunity for debate may also be 
curtailed when the Speaker makes the rare determination that a 
motion is dilatory.
    After passage or rejection of the bill by the House, a pro 
forma motion to reconsider it is automatically made and laid on 
the table. The motion to reconsider is tabled to prohibit this 
motion from being made at a later date because the vote of the 
House on a proposition is not final and conclusive on the House 
until there has been an opportunity to reconsider it.

                           motion to recommit

    After the previous question has been ordered on the passage 
of a bill or joint resolution, it is in order to offer one 
motion to recommit the bill or joint resolution to a committee 
and the Speaker is required to give preference in recognition 
for that purpose to a minority party Member who is opposed to 
the bill or joint resolution. This motion is normally not 
subject to debate. However, a motion to recommit with 
instructions offered after the previous question has been 
ordered is debatable for 10 minutes, except that the majority 
floor manager may demand that the debate be extended to one 
hour. Whatever time is allotted for debate is divided equally 
between the proponents and opponents of the motion. 
Instructions in the motion to recommit normally take the form 
of germane amendments proposed by the minority to change the 
final form of the bill prior to passage.

                       quorum calls and rollcalls

    Article 1, Section 5, of the Constitution provides that a 
majority of each House constitutes a quorum to do business and 
authorizes a smaller number than a quorum to compel the 
attendance of absent Members. In order to fulfill this 
constitutional responsibility, the rules of the House provide 
alternative procedures for quorum calls in the House and the 
Committee of the Whole.
    The rules of the House provide special authority for the 
Speaker to recognize a Member of the Speaker's choice to move a 
call of the House at any time. This motion for the call of the 
House is in order notwithstanding the rule that a point of 
order of no quorum may be made in the House only when the 
Speaker has put the pending question to a vote and not during 
periods of debate.
    In the absence of a quorum, 15 Members may initiate a call 
of the House to compel the attendance of absent Members. Such a 
call of the House must be ordered by a majority vote. A call of 
the House is then ordered and the call is taken by electronic 
device or by response to the alphabetical call of the roll of 
Members. Absent Members have a minimum of 15 minutes from the 
ordering of the call of the House by electronic device to have 
their presence recorded. If sufficient excuse is not offered 
for their absence, they may be sent for by the Sergeant-at-Arms 
and their attendance secured and retained. The House then 
determines the conditions on which they may be discharged. 
Members who voluntarily appear are, unless the House otherwise 
directs, immediately admitted to the Hall of the House and must 
report their names to the Clerk to be entered in the Journal as 
present. Compulsory attendance or arrest of Members has been 
rare in modern practice.
    When a question is put to a vote by the Speaker and a 
quorum fails to vote on such question, if a quorum is not 
present and objection is made for that reason, there is a call 
of the House unless the House adjourns. The call is taken by 
electronic device and the Sergeant-at-Arms may bring in absent 
Members. The yeas and nays on the pending question are at the 
same time considered as ordered and an ``automatic'' rollcall 
vote is taken. The Clerk utilizes the electronic system or if 
inoperative, calls the roll and each Member who is present may 
vote on the pending question as the Member answers the roll. If 
those voting on the question and those who are present and 
decline to vote together make a majority of the House, the 
Speaker declares that a quorum is constituted, and the pending 
question is decided according to the will of the majority of 
those voting.
    The rules prohibit points of order of no quorum (1) before 
or during the daily prayer, (2) during administration of the 
oath of office to the Speaker or any Member, (3) during the 
reception of messages from the President or the Senate, and (4) 
in connection with motions incidental to a call of the House. 
If the presence of a quorum has been established at least once 
on any day, further points of no quorum are prohibited (1) 
during the reading of the Journal, (2) between the time a 
Committee of the Whole rises and its Chairman reports, and (3) 
during the period on any legislative day when Members are 
addressing the House under special orders. The language 
prohibiting quorum calls ``during any period'' when Members are 
speaking under special orders includes the time between 
addresses delivered during this period as well as the addresses 
themselves. Furthermore, a quorum call is not in order when no 
business has intervened since the previous call. For the 
purposes of this provision, all the situations described above 
are not to be considered as ``business''.
    The rules of the House also prohibit points of order of no 
quorum when a motion or proposition is being debated in the 
House unless the Speaker has put the motion or proposition to a 
vote.
    The rules for quorum calls are different in some respects 
in the Committee of the Whole. The first time the Committee of 
the Whole finds itself without a quorum during any day the 
Chairman is required to order the roll to be called by 
electronic device, unless the Chairman orders a call of the 
Committee. If on a call, a quorum (100 Members) appears, the 
Committee continues its business. If a quorum does not appear, 
the Committee rises and the Chairman reports the names of the 
absentees to the House. The rules provide for the expeditious 
conduct of quorum calls in the Committee of the Whole. The 
Chairman may suspend a quorum call after 100 Members have 
recorded their presence. Under such a short quorum call, the 
Committee will not rise and present or absent Members' names 
will not be published. In that case, a recorded vote, if 
ordered immediately following the termination of the short 
quorum call, is a minimum of 15 minutes. In the alternative, 
the Chair may choose to permit a full 15 minute quorum call, 
wherein all Members names are recorded as present or absent, to 
be followed by a five-minute recorded vote on the pending 
question. Once a quorum of the Committee of the Whole has been 
established for the day, quorum calls in the Committee are only 
in order when the Committee is operating under the five-minute 
rule and the Chairman has put the pending motion or proposition 
to a vote. The rules prohibit a point of order of no quorum 
against a vote in which the Committee of the Whole agrees to 
rise. However, an appropriate point of order of no quorum would 
be permitted against a vote defeating a motion to rise.

                                 voting

    There are three methods of voting in the Committee of the 
Whole that are also employed in the House. These are the voice 
vote, the division, and the recorded vote. The yea-and-nay vote 
is an additional method used only in the House, which may be 
automatic if a Member objects to the vote on the ground that a 
quorum is not present.
    To conduct a voice vote the Chair puts the question: ``As 
many as are in favor (as the question may be) say `Aye'. As 
many as are opposed, say `No'.'' The Chair determines the 
result on a comparison of the volume of ayes and noes. This is 
the form in which the vote is ordinarily taken in the first 
instance.
    If it is difficult to determine the result of a voice vote, 
a division may be demanded by a Member or initiated by the 
Chair. The Chair then states: ``As many as are in favor will 
rise and stand until counted''. After counting those in favor 
he calls on those opposed to stand and be counted, thereby 
determining the number in favor of and those opposed to the 
question.
    If any Member requests a recorded vote and that request is 
supported by at least one-fifth of a quorum of the House, or 25 
Members in the Committee of the Whole, the vote is taken by 
electronic device. After the recorded vote is concluded, the 
names of those voting and those not voting are entered in the 
Journal. Members have a minimum of 15 minutes to be counted 
from the time the recorded vote is ordered. The Speaker may 
reduce the period for voting to five minutes on subsequent 
votes in certain situations where there has been no intervening 
debate or business. The Speaker is not required to vote unless 
the Speaker's vote would be decisive.
    In the House, if the yeas and nays are demanded, the 
Speaker directs those in favor of taking the vote by that 
method to stand and be counted. The support of one-fifth of the 
Members present is necessary for ordering the yeas and nays. 
When the yeas and nays are ordered or a point of order is made 
that a quorum is not present, the Speaker states: ``As many as 
are in favor of the proposition will vote `Aye'. As many as are 
opposed will vote `No'.'' The Clerk activates the electronic 
system or calls the roll and reports the result to the Speaker, 
who announces it to the House.
    The rules of the House require a three-fifths vote to pass 
a bill, joint resolution, amendment, or conference report that 
contains a federal income tax rate increase.
    The rules prohibit a Member from (1) casting another 
Member's vote or recording another Member's presence in the 
House or the Committee of the Whole or (2) authorizing another 
individual to cast a vote or record the Member's presence in 
the House or the Committee of the Whole.

                           electronic voting

    Recorded and rollcall votes are usually taken by electronic 
device, except when the Speaker orders the vote to be recorded 
by other methods prescribed by the rules of the House, or in 
the failure of the electronic device to function. In addition, 
quorum calls are generally taken by electronic device. 
Essentially the system works as follows: A number of vote 
stations are attached to selected chairs in the Chamber. Each 
station is equipped with a vote card slot and four indicators, 
marked ``yea'', ``nay'', ``present'', and ``open'' that are lit 
when a vote is in progress and the system is ready to accept 
votes. Each Member is provided with a personalized Vote-ID 
Card. A Member votes by inserting the voting card into any one 
of the vote stations and depressing the appropriate button to 
indicate the Member's choice. If a Member is without a Vote-ID 
Card or wishes to change his vote during the last five minutes 
of a vote, the Member may be recorded by handing a paper ballot 
to the Tally Clerk, who then records the vote electronically 
according to the indicated preference of the Member. The paper 
ballots are green for ``yea'', red for ``nay'', and amber for 
``present''. The voting machine records the votes and reports 
the result when the vote is completed.

                           pairing of members

    When a Member anticipates being unavoidably absent at the 
time a vote is to be taken, the Member may arrange in advance 
to be recorded as being either in favor of or opposed to the 
question by being ``paired'' with a Member who will also be 
absent and who holds contrary views on the question. A specific 
pair of this kind shows how the Member would have voted if 
present. Occasionally, a Member who has arranged in advance to 
be paired is present at the time of voting. The Member then 
votes as if not paired, subsequently withdraws that vote, and 
asks to be marked ``present'' to protect the other Member. This 
is known as a ``live pair''.
    Absent Members often sign statements for submission in the 
Record stating how they would have voted if present on specific 
votes.

                       system of lights and bells

    Due to the diverse nature of daily tasks that they have to 
perform, it is not practicable for Members to be present in the 
House or Senate Chamber at every minute that the body is in 
session. Furthermore, many of the routine matters do not 
require the personal attendance of all the Members. A 
legislative call system consisting of electric lights and bells 
or buzzers located in various parts of the Capitol Building and 
House and Senate Office Buildings alerts Members to certain 
occurrences in the House and Senate Chambers.
    In the House, the Speaker has ordered that the bells and 
lights comprising the system be utilized as follows:

          1 long ring followed by a pause and then 3 rings and 3 lights 
        on the left--Start or continuation of a notice or short quorum 
        call in the Committee of the Whole that will be vacated if and 
        when 100 Members appear on the floor. Bells are repeated every 
        five minutes unless the call is vacated or the call is 
        converted into a regular quorum call.

          1 long ring and extinguishing of 3 lights on the left--Short 
        or notice quorum call vacated.

          2 rings and 2 lights on the left--15 minute recorded vote, 
        yea-and-nay vote or automatic rollcall vote by electronic 
        device. The bells are repeated five minutes after the first 
        ring.

          2 rings and 2 lights on the left followed by a pause and then 
        2 more rings--Automatic rollcall vote or yea-and-nay vote taken 
        by a call of the roll in the House. The bells are repeated when 
        the Clerk reaches the R's in the first call of the roll.

          2 rings followed by a pause and then 5 rings--First vote 
        under Suspension of the Rules or on clustered votes. Two bells 
        are repeated five minutes after the first ring. The first vote 
        will take 15 minutes with successive votes at intervals of not 
        less than five minutes. Each successive vote is signaled by 
        five rings.

          3 rings and 3 lights on the left--15 minute quorum call in 
        either the House or in the Committee of the Whole by electronic 
        device. The bells are repeated five minutes after the first 
        ring.

          3 rings followed by a pause and then 3 more rings--15 minute 
        quorum call by a call of the roll. The bells are repeated when 
        the Clerk reaches the R's in the first call of the roll.

          3 rings followed by a pause and then 5 more rings--Quorum 
        call in the Committee of the Whole that may be followed 
        immediately by a five-minute recorded vote.

          4 rings and 4 lights on the left--Adjournment of the House.

          5 rings and 5 lights on the left--Any five-minute vote.

          6 rings and 6 lights on the left--Recess of the House.

          12 rings at 2-second intervals with 6 lights on the left--
        Civil Defense Warning.

          The 7th light indicates that the House is in session.
                            recess authority
    The House may by vote authorize the Speaker to declare a 
recess under the rules of the House. The Speaker also has the 
authority to declare the House in recess for a short time when 
no question is pending before the House.
                   live coverage of floor proceedings
    The rules of the House provide for unedited radio and 
television broadcasting and recording of proceedings on the 
floor of the House. However, the rules prohibit the use of 
these broadcasts and recordings for any political purpose or in 
any commercial advertisement. The rules of the Senate also 
provide for broadcasting and recording of proceedings in the 
Senate Chamber with similar restrictions.

                   XII. CONGRESSIONAL BUDGET PROCESS

    The Congressional Budget and Impoundment Control Act of 
1974 as amended provides Congress with a procedure establishing 
appropriate spending and revenue levels for each year. The 
congressional budget process, as set out in the 1974 Budget 
Act, is designed to coordinate decisions on sources and levels 
of revenues and on objects and levels of expenditures. Its 
basic method is to prescribe the overall size of the fiscal pie 
and the particular sizes of its various pieces. Each year the 
Congress adopts a concurrent resolution imposing overall 
constraints on revenues and spending and distributing the 
overall constraint on spending among groups of programs and 
activities.
    Congress aims to complete action on a concurrent resolution 
on the budget for the next fiscal year by April 15. Congress 
may adopt a later budget resolution that revises the most 
recently adopted budget resolution. One of the mechanisms 
Congress uses to implement the constraints on revenue and 
spending is called the reconciliation process. Reconciliation 
is a two-step process designed to bring existing law in 
conformity with the most recently adopted concurrent resolution 
on the budget. The first step in the reconciliation process is 
the language found in a concurrent resolution on the budget 
instructing House and Senate committees to determine and 
recommend changes in laws or bills that will achieve the 
constraints established in the concurrent resolution on the 
budget. The instructions to a committee specify the amount of 
spending reductions or revenue increases a committee must 
attain and leave to the discretion of the committee the 
specific changes to laws or bills that must be made. The second 
step involves the combination of the various instructed 
committee's recommendations into an omnibus reconciliation bill 
which is reported by the Committee on the Budget and considered 
by the whole House.
    The Budget Act maintains that reconciliation provisions 
must be related to reconciling the budget. This principle is 
codified in section 313 of the Budget Act, the so-called Byrd 
Rule, named after Senator Robert C. Byrd of West Virginia. 
Section 313 provides a point of order in the Senate against 
extraneous matter in reconciliation bills. Determining what is 
extraneous is a difficult task for the Senate's Presiding 
Officer. The Byrd Rule may only be waived in the Senate by a 
three-fifths vote and sixty votes are required to overturn the 
Presiding Officer's ruling.
    Congress aims to complete action on a reconciliation bill 
or resolution by June 15 of each year. After Congress has 
completed action on a concurrent resolution on the budget for a 
fiscal year, it is generally not in order to consider 
legislation that does not conform to the constraints on 
spending and revenue set out in the resolution.
    Congress has enacted legislation under which breaches are 
remedied by ``sequestration'', that is, automatic cancellations 
of spending authority. Sequestration results when the statutory 
parameters for the deficit, discretionary spending, or the 
``Paygo'' requirement have been exceeded. Paygo requires that 
tax reductions or increases in entitlements must be offset by 
tax increases or reductions in entitlements.

                XIII. ENGROSSMENT AND MESSAGE TO SENATE

    The preparation of a copy of the bill in the form in which 
it has passed the House can be a detailed and complicated 
process because of the large number and complexity of 
amendments to some bills adopted by the House. Frequently, 
these amendments are offered during a spirited debate with 
little or no prior formal preparation. The amendment may be for 
the purpose of inserting new language, substituting different 
words for those set out in the bill, or deleting portions of 
the bill. It is not unusual to have more than 100 amendments 
adopted, including those proposed by the committee at the time 
the bill is reported and those offered from the floor during 
the consideration of the bill in the Chamber. In some cases, 
amendments offered from the floor are written in longhand. Each 
amendment must be inserted in precisely the proper place in the 
bill, with the spelling and punctuation exactly as it was 
adopted by the House. It is extremely important that the Senate 
receive a copy of the bill in the precise form in which it has 
passed the House. The preparation of such a copy is the 
function of the enrolling clerk.
    In the House, the enrolling clerk is under the Clerk of the 
House. In the Senate, the enrolling clerk is under the 
Secretary of the Senate. The enrolling clerk receives all the 
papers relating to the bill, including the official Clerk's 
copy of the bill as reported by the standing committee and each 
amendment adopted by the House. From this material, the 
enrolling clerk prepares the engrossed copy of the bill as 
passed, containing all the amendments agreed to by the House. 
At this point, the measure ceases technically to be called a 
bill and is termed ``an act'' signifying that it is the act of 
one body of the Congress, although it is still popularly 
referred to as a bill. The engrossed bill is printed on blue 
paper and is signed by the Clerk of the House.

                           XIV. SENATE ACTION

    The Parliamentarian, in the name of the Vice President, as 
the President of the Senate, refers the engrossed bill to the 
appropriate standing committee of the Senate in conformity with 
the rules of the Senate. The bill is reprinted immediately and 
copies are made available in the document rooms of both Houses. 
This printing is known as the ``Act print'' or the ``Senate 
referred print''.

                        committee consideration

    Senate committees give the bill the same detailed 
consideration as it received in the House and may report it 
with or without amendment. A committee member who wishes to 
express an individual view or a group of Members who wish to 
file a minority report may do so by giving notice, at the time 
of the approval of a report on the measure, of an intention to 
file supplemental, minority, or additional views. These views 
may be filed within three days with the clerk of the committee 
and become a part of the report. When a committee reports a 
bill, it is reprinted with the committee amendments indicated 
by showing new matter in italics and deleted matter in line-
through type. The calendar number and report number are 
indicated on the first and back pages, together with thename of 
the Senator making the report. The committee report and any minority or 
individual views accompanying the bill also are printed at the same 
time.
    All committee meetings, including those to conduct 
hearings, must be open to the public. However, a majority of 
the members of a committee or subcommittee may, after 
discussion in closed session, vote in open session to close a 
meeting or series of meetings on the same subject for no longer 
than 14 days if it is determined that the matters to be 
discussed or testimony to be taken will disclose matters 
necessary to be kept secret in the interests of national 
defense or the confidential conduct of the foreign relations of 
the United States; will relate solely to internal committee 
staff management or procedure; will tend to charge an 
individual with a crime or misconduct, to disgrace or injure 
the professional standing of an individual, or otherwise to 
expose an individual to public contempt, or will represent a 
clearly unwarranted invasion of the privacy of an individual; 
will disclose law enforcement information that is required to 
be kept secret; will disclose certain information regarding 
certain trade secrets; or may disclose matters required to be 
kept confidential under other provisions of law or government 
regulation.

                           chamber procedure

    The rules of procedure in the Senate differ to a large 
extent from those in the House. The Senate relies heavily on 
the practice of obtaining unanimous consent for actions to be 
taken. For example, at the time that a bill is reported, the 
Majority Leader may ask unanimous consent for the immediate 
consideration of the bill. If the bill is of a noncontroversial 
nature and there is no objection, the Senate may pass the bill 
with little or no debate and with only a brief explanation of 
its purpose and effect. Even in this instance, the bill is 
subject to amendment by any Senator. A simple majority vote is 
necessary to carry an amendment as well as to pass the bill. If 
there is any objection, the report must lie over one 
legislative day and the bill is placed on the calendar.
    Measures reported by standing committees of the Senate may 
not be considered unless the report of that committee has been 
available to Senate Members for at least two days (excluding 
Sundays and legal holidays) prior to consideration of the 
measure in the Senate. This requirement, however, may be waived 
by agreement of the Majority and Minority leaders and does not 
apply in certain emergency situations.
    In the Senate, measures are brought up for consideration by 
a simple unanimous consent request, by a complex unanimous 
consent agreement, or by a motion to proceed to the 
consideration of a measure on the calendar. A unanimous consent 
agreement, sometimes referred to as a ``time agreement'', makes 
the consideration of a measure in order and often limits the 
amount of debate that will take place on the measure and lists 
the amendments that will be considered. The offering of a 
unanimous consent request to consider a measure or the offering 
of a motion to proceed to the consideration of a measure is 
reserved, by tradition, to the Majority Leader.
    Usually a motion to consider a measure on the calendar is 
made only when unanimous consent to consider the measure cannot 
be obtained. There are two calendars in the Senate, the 
Calendar of Business and the Executive Calendar. All 
legislation is placed on the Calendar of Business and treaties 
and nominations are placed on the Executive Calendar. Unlike 
the House, there is no differentiation on the Calendar of 
Business between the treatment of (1) bills raising revenue, 
general appropriation bills, and bills of a public character 
appropriating money or property, and (2) other bills of a 
public character not appropriating money or property.
    The rules of the Senate provide that at the conclusion of 
the morning business for each ``legislative day'' the Senate 
proceeds to the consideration of the calendar. In the Senate, 
the term ``legislative day'' means the period of time from when 
the Senate adjourns until the next time the Senate adjourns. 
Because the Senate often ``recesses'' rather than ``adjourns'' 
at the end of a daily session, the legislative day usually does 
not correspond to the 24-hour period comprising a calendar day. 
Thus, a legislative day may cover a long period of time--from 
days to weeks, or even months. Because of this and the modern 
practice of waiving the call of the calendar by unanimous 
consent at the start of a new legislative day, it is rare to 
have a call of the calendar. When the calendar is called, bills 
that are not objected to are taken up in their order, and each 
Senator is entitled to speak once and for five minutes only on 
any question. Objection may be interposed at any stage of the 
proceedings, but on motion the Senate may continue 
consideration after the call of the calendar is completed, and 
the limitations on debate then do not apply.
    On any day (other than a Monday that begins a new 
legislative day), following the announcement of the close of 
morning business, any Senator, usually the Majority Leader, 
obtaining recognition may move to take up any bill out of its 
regular order on the calendar. The five-minute limitation on 
debate does not apply to the consideration of a bill taken up 
in this manner, and debate may continue until the hour when the 
Presiding Officer of the Senate ``lays down'' the unfinished 
business of the day. At that point consideration of the bill is 
discontinued and the measure reverts back to the Calendar of 
Business and may again be called up at another time under the 
same conditions.
    When a bill has been objected to and passed over on the 
call of the calendar it is not necessarily lost. The Majority 
Leader, after consulting the Minority Leader, determines the 
time at which the bill will be considered. At that time, a 
motion is made to consider the bill. The motion is debatable if 
made after the morning hour.
    Once a Senator is recognized by the Presiding Officer, the 
Senator may speak for as long as the Senator wishes and loses 
the floor only when the Senator yields it or takes certain 
parliamentary actions that forfeit the Senator's right to the 
floor. However, a Senator may not speak more than twice on any 
one question in debate on the same legislative day without 
leave of the Senate. Debate ends when a Senator yields the 
floor and no other Senator seeks recognition, or when a 
unanimous consent agreement limiting the time of debate is 
operating.
    On occasion, Senators opposed to a measure may extend 
debate by making lengthy speeches intended to prevent or defeat 
action on the measure. This is the tactic known as 
``filibustering''. Debate, however, may be closed if 16 
Senators sign a motion to that effect and the motion is carried 
by three-fifths of the Senators duly chosen and sworn. Such a 
motion is voted on one hour after the Senate convenes, 
following a quorum call on the next day after a day of session 
has intervened. This procedure is called ``invoking cloture''. 
In 1986, the Senate amended its rules to limit ``post-cloture'' 
consideration to 30 hours. A Senator may speak for not more 
than one hour and may yield all or a part of that time to the 
majority or minority floor managers of the bill under 
consideration or to the Majority or Minority leader. The Senate 
may increase the time for ``post-cloture'' debate by a vote of 
three-fifths of the Senators duly chosen and sworn. After the 
time for debate has expired, the Senate may consider only 
amendments actually pending before voting on the bill.
    While a measure is being considered it is subject to 
amendment and each amendment, including those proposed by the 
committee that reported the bill, is considered separately. 
Generally, there is no requirement that proposed amendments be 
germane to the subject matter of the bill except in the case of 
general appropriation bills or where ``cloture'' has been 
invoked. Under the rules, a ``rider'', an amendment proposing 
substantive legislation to an appropriation bill, is 
prohibited. However, this prohibition may be suspended by two-
thirds vote on a motion to permit consideration of such an 
amendment on one day's notice in writing. Debate must be 
germane during the first three hours after business is laid 
down unless determined to the contrary by unanimous consent or 
on motion without debate. After final action on the amendments 
the bill is ready for engrossment and the third reading, which 
is by title only. The Presiding Officer then puts the question 
on the passage and a voice vote is usually taken although a 
yea-and-nay vote is in order if demanded by one-fifth of the 
Senators present. A simple majority is necessary for passage. 
Before an amended measure is cleared for its return to the 
House of Representatives, or an unamended measure is cleared 
for enrollment, a Senator who voted with the prevailing side, 
or who abstained from voting, may make a motion within the next 
two days to reconsider the action. If the measure was passed 
without a recorded vote, any Senator may make the motion to 
reconsider. That motion is usually tabled and its tabling 
constitutes a final determination. If, however, the motion is 
granted, the Senate, by majority vote, may either affirm its 
action, which then becomes final, or reverse it.
    The original engrossed House bill, together with the 
engrossed Senate amendments, if any, is then returned to the 
House with a message stating the action taken by the Senate. 
Where amendments have been made by the Senate, the message 
requests that the House concur in them.
    For a more detailed discussion of Senate procedure, see 
Enactment of a Law, by Robert B. Dove, Parliamentarian of the 
Senate, Senate Doc. No. 97-20.

                    XV. FINAL ACTION ON AMENDED BILL

    On their return to the House, the official papers relating 
to the amended measure are placed on the Speaker's table to 
await House action on the Senate amendments. Although rarely 
exercised, the Speaker has the authority to refer Senate 
amendments to the appropriate committee(s) with or without time 
limits on their consideration of such amendments. If the 
amendments are of a minor or noncontroversial nature, the 
chairman of the committee that originally reported the bill--or 
any Member--may, at the direction of the committee, ask 
unanimous consent to take the bill with the amendments from the 
Speaker's table and agree to the Senate amendments. At this 
point, the Clerk reads the title of the bill and the Senate 
amendments. If there is no objection, the amendments are then 
declared to be agreed to, and the bill is ready to be enrolled 
for presentation to the President. If unanimous consent is not 
obtainable, the few bills that do not require consideration in 
the Committee of the Whole are privileged and may be called up 
from the Speaker's table by motion for immediate consideration 
of the amendments. A simple majority is necessary to carry the 
motion and thereby complete floor action on the measure. A 
Senate amendment to a House bill is subject to a point of order 
that it must first be considered in the Committee of the Whole, 
if, originating in the House, it would be subject to that point 
of order. Most Senate amendments require consideration in the 
Committee of the Whole and this procedure by privileged motion 
is seldom utilized.

                        request for a conference

    If, however, the amendments are substantial or 
controversial, a Member, usually the chairman of the committee 
of jurisdiction, may request unanimous consent to take the 
House bill with the Senate amendments from the Speaker's table, 
disagree to the amendments and request or agree to a conference 
with the Senate to resolve the disagreeing votes of the two 
Houses. In the case of a Senate bill with House amendments, the 
House may insist on the House amendments and request a 
conference. For a discussion of bills originating in the 
Senate, see Part XVI. If there is objection, the Speaker may 
recognize a Member for a motion, authorized by the committee(s) 
having jurisdiction over the subject matter of the bill, to (1) 
disagree to the Senate amendments and ask for or agree to a 
conference or (2) insist on the House amendments to a Senate 
bill and request or agree to a conference. This may also be 
accomplished by a motion to suspend the rules with a two-thirds 
vote or by a special resolution from the Committee on Rules. If 
there is no objection to the request, or if the motion is 
carried, a motion to instruct the managers of the conference 
would be in order. This initial motion to instruct is the 
prerogative of the minority party. The instructions to 
conferees usually urge the managers to accept or reject a 
particular Senate or House provision. However, such 
instructions are not binding on House or Senate conferees. 
After the motion to instruct is dispensed with, the Speaker 
then appoints the managers, as the conferees are called, on the 
part of the House and a message is sent to the Senate advising 
it of the House action. A majority of the Members appointed to 
be managers must have been supporters of the House position, as 
determined by the Speaker. The Speaker must appoint Members 
primarily responsible for the legislation and must include, to 
the fullest extent feasible, the principal proponents of the 
major provisions of the bill as it passed the House. The 
Speaker usually follows the suggestions of the chairman of the 
committee in charge of the bill in designating the managers on 
the part of the House from among the members of the committee 
or committees with jurisdiction over the House or Senate 
provisions. Occasionally, the Speaker appoints conferees from 
more than one committee and may specify the portions of the 
House and Senate versions to which they are assigned. The 
number is fixed by the Speaker and majority party 
representation generally reflects the ratio for the full House 
committee, but may be greater on important bills. The Speaker 
also has the authority to add or remove conferees after his 
original appointment. Representation of both major parties is 
an important attribute of all our parliamentary procedures but, 
in the case of conference committees, it is important that the 
views of the House on the House measure be fully represented.
    If the Senate agrees to the request for a conference, a 
similar committee is appointed by unanimous consent by the 
Presiding Officer of the Senate. Both political parties may be 
represented on the Senate conference committee. The Senate and 
House committees need not be the same size but each House has 
one vote in conference as determined by a majority within each 
set of managers.
    The request for a conference can be made only by the body 
in possession of the official papers. Occasionally, the Senate, 
anticipating that the House will not concur in its amendments, 
votes to insist on its amendments and requests a conference on 
passage of the bill prior to returning the bill to the House. 
This practice serves to expedite the matter because time may be 
saved by the designation of the Senate conferees before 
returning the bill to the House. The matter of which body 
requests the conference is not without significance because the 
body asking for the conference normally acts last on the report 
to be submitted by the conferees and a motion to recommit the 
conference report is not available to the body that acts last.

                         authority of conferees

    The conference committee is sometimes popularly referred to 
as the ``Third House of Congress''. Although the managers on 
the part of each House meet together as one committee they are 
in effect two separate committees, each of which votes 
separately and acts by a majority vote. For this reason, the 
number of managers from each House is largely immaterial.
    The conferees are strictly limited in their consideration 
to matters in disagreement between the two Houses. 
Consequently, they may not strike out or amend any portion of 
the bill that was not amended by the Senate. Furthermore, they 
may not insert new matter that is not germane to or that is 
beyond the scope of the differences between the two Houses. 
Where the Senate amendment revises a figure or an amount 
contained in the bill, the conferees are limited to the 
difference between the two numbers and may neither increase the 
greater nor decrease the smaller figure. Neither House may 
alone, by instructions, empower its managers to make a change 
in the text to which both Houses have agreed, but the managers 
for both bodies may be given that authority by a concurrent 
resolution adopted by a majority of each House.
    When a disagreement to an amendment in the nature of a 
substitute is committed to a conference committee, managers on 
the part of the House may propose a substitute consisting of a 
germane modification of the matter in disagreement, but the 
introduction of language in that substitute presenting a 
specific additional topic, question, issue, or proposition not 
committed to the conference committee by either House is not in 
order. Moreover, their report may not include matter not 
committed to the conference committee by either House. The 
report may not include a modification of any specific topic, 
question, issue, or proposition committed to the conference 
committee by either or both Houses if that modification is 
beyond the scope of that specific topic, question, issue, or 
proposition as committed to the conference committee.
    The managers on the part of the House are under specific 
guidelines when in conference on general appropriation bills. 
An amendment by the Senate to a general appropriation bill 
which would be in violation of the rules of the House, if such 
amendment had originated in the House, including an amendment 
changing existing law or providing appropriations not 
authorized by law, or an amendment by the Senate providing for 
an appropriation on a bill other than a general appropriation 
bill, may not be agreed to by the managers on the part of the 
House. However, the House may grant specific authority to agree 
to such an amendment by a separate vote on each specific 
amendment.

                    meetings and action of conferees

    The rules of the House require that conference meetings be 
open, unless the House, in open session, determines by a 
rollcall vote of a majority of those Members voting that all or 
part of the meeting will be closed to the public. When the 
report of the conference committee is read in the House, a 
point of order may be made that the conferees failed to comply 
with the House rule requiring open conference meetings. If the 
point of order is sustained, the conference report is 
considered rejected by the House and a new conference is deemed 
to have been requested.
    There are generally four forms of recommendations available 
to the conferees when reporting back to their bodies:
          (1) The Senate recede from all (or certain of) its 
        amendments.
          (2) The House recede from its disagreement to all (or certain 
        of) the Senate amendments and agree thereto.
          (3) The House recede from its disagreement to all (or certain 
        of) the Senate amendments and agree thereto with amendments.
          (4) The House recede from all (or certain of) its amendments 
        to the Senate amendments or its amendments to the Senate bill.
    In many instances, the result of the conference is a 
compromise growing out of the third type of recommendation 
available to the conferees. The complete report may be composed 
of any one or more of these recommendations with respect to the 
various amendments. Occasionally, on general appropriation 
bills with numbered Senate amendments, because of the special 
rules preventing House conferees from agreeing to Senate 
amendments changing existing law or appropriations not 
authorized by law, the conferees find themselves, under the 
rules or in fact, unable to reach an agreement with respect to 
one or more amendments and report back a statement of their 
inability to agree on those particular amendments. These 
amendments may then be acted upon separately. This partial 
disagreement is not practicable where one House strikes out all 
after the enacting clause and substitutes its own bill that 
must be considered as a single amendment.
    If they are unable to reach any agreement whatsoever, the 
conferees report that fact to their respective bodies and the 
amendments are in the position they were before the conference 
was requested. New conferees may be appointed in either or both 
Houses. In addition, the Houses may provide a new nonbinding 
instruction to the conferees as to the position they are to 
take.
    After House conferees on any bill or resolution in 
conference between the two bodies have been appointed for 20 
calendar days and have failed to make a report, the rules of 
the House provide for a motion of the highest privilege to 
instruct the House conferees or discharge them and appoint new 
conferees. The motion can be made only after the Member 
announces his intention to offer the motion and only at a time 
designated by the Speaker in the legislative schedule of the 
following day. In addition, during the last six days of a 
session, it is a privileged motion to move to discharge, 
appoint, or instruct House conferees after House conferees have 
been appointed 36 hours without having made a report.

                           conference reports

    When the conferees, by majority vote of each group, have 
reached complete agreement or find that they are able to agree 
with respect to some but not all separately numbered 
amendments, they make their recommendations in a report made in 
duplicate that must be signed by a majority of the conferees 
appointed by each body. The minority portion of the managers 
have no authority to file a statement of minority views in 
connection with the conference report. The report is required 
to be printed in both Houses and must be accompanied by an 
explanatory statement prepared jointly by the conferees on the 
part of the House and the conferees on the part of the Senate. 
The statement must be sufficiently detailed and explicit to 
inform Congress as to the effect that the amendments or 
propositions contained in the report will have on the measure 
to which those amendments or propositions relate. The engrossed 
bill and amendments and one copy of the report are delivered to 
the body that is to act first on the report, usually, the body 
that had agreed to the conference requested by the other.
    In the Senate, the presentation of a conference report 
always is in order except when the Journal is being read, a 
point of order or motion to adjourn is pending, or while the 
Senate is voting or ascertaining the presence of a quorum. When 
the report is received, the question of proceeding to the 
consideration of the report, if raised, is immediately voted on 
without debate. The report is not subject to amendment in 
either body and must be accepted or rejected as an entirety. If 
the time for debate on the adoption of the report is limited, 
the time allotted must be equally divided between the majority 
and minority party. The Senate, acting first, prior to voting 
on agreeing to the report may by majority vote order it 
recommitted to the conferees. When the Senate agrees to the 
report, its managers are thereby discharged and it then 
delivers the original papers to the House with a message 
advising that body of its action.
    A report that contains any recommendations which extend 
beyond the scope of differences between the two Houses is 
subject to a point of order in its entirety unless that point 
of order is waived in the House by unanimous consent, adoption 
of a special resolution reported from the Committee on Rules, 
or the suspension of the rules by a two-thirds vote.
    The presentation of a conference report in the House always 
is in order, except when the Journal is being read, while the 
roll is being called, or the House is dividing on any 
proposition. The report is considered in the House and may not 
be sent to the Committee of the Whole on the suggestion that it 
contains matters ordinarily requiring consideration in that 
Committee. The report may not be received by the House if the 
required statement does not accompany it.
    However, it is not in order to consider either (1) a 
conference report or (2) an amendment (including an amendment 
in the nature of a substitute) proposed by the Senate to a 
measure reported in disagreement between the two Houses, by a 
conference report, that the conferees have been unable to 
agree, until the third calendar day (excluding Saturdays, 
Sundays, and legal holidays unless the House is in session on 
those days) after the report and accompanying statement have 
been filed in the House. Consideration is then in order only if 
the report and accompanying statement have been printed in the 
Congressional Record for the day on which the report and 
statement have been filed. However, these provisions do not 
apply during the last six days of the session. It is also not 
in order to consider a conference report or such an amendment 
unless copies of the report and accompanying statement, 
together with the text of the amendment, have been available to 
Members for at least two hours before their consideration. By 
contrast, it is always in order to call up for consideration a 
report from the Committee on Rules on the same day reported 
only making in order the consideration of a conference report 
or such an amendment notwithstanding the requirement that the 
report and text of the amendment be available for at least two 
hours before the beginning of consideration. The time allotted 
for debate on a conference report or such an amendment is one 
hour, equally divided between the majority party and the 
minority party. However, if the majority and minority floor 
managers both are supporters of the conference report, one-
third of the debate time must be allotted to a Member who is 
opposed to the conference report. If the House does not agree 
to a conference report that the Senate has already agreed to, 
the report may not be recommitted to conference. In that 
situation, the Senate conferees are discharged when the Senate 
agrees to the report. The House may then request a new 
conference with the Senate and conferees must be reappointed.
    When a conference report is called up before the House 
containing matter which would be in violation of the rules of 
the House with respect to germaneness if the matter had been 
offered as an amendment in the House, and which is contained 
either (1) in the Senate bill or Senate amendment to the House 
measure (including a Senate amendment in the nature of a 
substitute for the text of that measure as passed by the House) 
and accepted by the House conferees or agreed to by the 
conference committee with modification or (2) in a substitute 
amendment agreed to by the conference committee, a point of 
order may be made at the beginning of consideration that 
nongermane matter is contained in the report. If the point of 
order is sustained, it is in order for the Chair to entertain a 
motion of high privilege that the House reject the nongermane 
matter covered by the point of order. The motion is debatable 
for 40 minutes, one-half of the time to be given to debate in 
favor of, and one-half in opposition to, the motion. 
Notwithstanding the final disposition of a point of order made 
with respect to the report, or of a motion to reject nongermane 
matter, further points of order may be made with respect to the 
report, and further motions may be made to reject other 
nongermane matter in the conference report not covered by any 
previous point of order which has been sustained. If a motion 
to reject has been adopted, after final disposition of all 
points of order and motions to reject, the conference report is 
considered rejected and the question then pending before the 
House is whether (1) to recede and concur with an amendment 
that consists of that portion of the conference report not 
rejected or (2) to insist on the House amendment. If all 
motions to reject are defeated and the House thereby decides to 
permit the inclusion of the nongermane Senate matter in the 
conference report, then, after the allocation of time for 
debate on the conference report, it is in order to move the 
previous question on the adoption of the conference report.
    Similar procedures are available in the House when the 
Senate proposes an amendment to a measure that would be in 
violation of the rule against nongermane amendments, and 
thereafter it is (1) reported in disagreement by a committee of 
conference or (2) before the House and the stage of 
disagreement is reached.
    The numbered amendments of the Senate reported from 
conference in disagreement may be voted on separately and may 
be adopted by a majority vote after the adoption of the 
conference report itself as though no conference had been had 
with respect to those amendments. The Senate may recede from 
all amendments, or from certain of its amendments, insisting on 
the others with or without a request for a further conference 
with respect to them. If the House does not accept the 
amendments insisted on by the Senate, the entire conference 
process may begin again with respect to them. One House may 
also further amend an amendment of the other House until the 
third degree stage of amendment within that House is reached.

                           custody of papers

    The custody of the original official papers is important in 
conference procedure because either body may act on a 
conference report only when in possession of the papers. The 
papers are transmitted to the body agreeing to the conference 
and from that body to the managers of the House that asked for 
the conference. The latter in turn carry the papers with them 
to the conference and at its conclusion turn them over to the 
managers of the House that agreed to the conference. The 
managers of the House that agreed to the conference deliver 
them to their own House, that acts first on the report, and 
then delivers the papers to the other House for final action on 
the report. However, if the managers on the part of the House 
agreeing to the conference surrender the papers to the House 
asking for the conference, the report may be acted on first by 
the House asking for the conference.
    At the conclusion of the conference, each group of 
conferees retains one copy of the report that has been made in 
duplicate and signed by a majority of the managers of each 
body. The House copy is signed first by the House managers and 
the Senate copy is signed first by its managers.
    A bill cannot become a law of the land until it has been 
approved in identical form by both Houses of Congress. When the 
bill has finally been approved by both Houses, all the original 
papers are transmitted to the enrolling clerk of the body in 
which the bill originated.

                    XVI. BILL ORIGINATING IN SENATE

    The preceding discussion has described the legislative 
process for bills originating in the House. When a bill 
originates in the Senate, this process is reversed. When the 
Senate passes a bill that originated in the Senate, it is sent 
to the House for consideration. The bill is referred to the 
appropriate House committee for consideration or held at the 
Speaker's desk for possible amendment following action on a 
companion House bill. If the committee reports the bill to the 
full House and if the bill is passed by the House without 
amendment, it is ready for enrollment. If the House passes an 
amended version of the Senate bill, the bill is returned to the 
Senate for action on the House amendments. The Senate may agree 
to the amendments or request a conference to resolve the 
disagreement over the House amendments. In accordance with the 
Constitution, the Senate cannot originate revenue measures. If 
the Senate does originate a revenue measure, it can be returned 
to the Senate by a vote of the House as an infringement of the 
constitutional prerogative of the House.

                            XVII. ENROLLMENT

    When the bill has been agreed to in identical form by both 
bodies--either without amendment by the Senate, or by House 
concurrence in the Senate amendments, or by agreement in both 
bodies to the conference report--a copy of the bill is enrolled 
for presentation to the President.
    The preparation of the enrolled bill is a painstaking and 
important task because it must reflect precisely the effect of 
all amendments, either by way of deletion, substitution, or 
addition, agreed to by both bodies. The enrolling clerk of the 
House, with respect to bills originating in the House, receives 
the original engrossed bill, the engrossed Senate amendments, 
the signed conference report, the several messages from the 
Senate, and a notation of the final action by the House, for 
the purpose of preparing the enrolled copy. From these the 
enrolling clerk must prepare meticulously the final form of the 
bill, as it was agreed to by both Houses, for presentation to 
the President. On occasion, as many as 500 amendments have been 
adopted, each of which must be set out in the enrollment 
exactly as agreed to, and all punctuation must be in accord 
with the action taken.
    The enrolled bill is printed on parchment paper and 
certified by the Clerk of the House stating that the bill 
originated in the House of Representatives. A bill originating 
in the Senate is examined and certified by the Secretary of the 
Senate. A House bill is then examined for accuracy by the 
Committee on House Oversight. When the committee is satisfied 
with the accuracy of the bill, the chairman of the committee 
attaches a slip stating that it finds the bill truly enrolled 
and sends it to the Speaker of the House for signature. All 
bills, regardless of the body in which they originated, are 
signed first by the Speaker and then by the Vice President of 
the United States, who, under the Constitution, serves as the 
President of the Senate. The President pro tempore of the 
Senate may also sign enrolled bills. The Speaker of the House 
may sign enrolled bills whether or not the House is in session. 
The President of the Senate may sign bills only while the 
Senate is actually sitting but advance permission is normally 
granted to sign during a recess or after adjournment. If the 
Speaker or the President of the Senate is unable to sign the 
bill, it may be signed by an authorized Member of the 
respective House. After both signatures are affixed, a House 
bill is returned to the Committee on House Oversight for 
presentation to the President for action under the 
Constitution. A Senate bill is presented to the President by 
the Secretary of the Senate.

                       XVIII. PRESIDENTIAL ACTION

    Article I, Section 7, of the Constitution provides in part 
that:

    Every Bill which shall have passed the House of Representatives and 
the Senate, shall, before it becomes a Law, be presented to the 
President of the United States.

    In actual practice, a clerk of the Committee on House 
Oversight, or the Secretary of the Senate when the bill 
originated in that body, delivers the original enrolled bill to 
a clerk at the White House and obtains a receipt. The fact of 
the delivery is then reported to the House by the chairman of 
the committee. Delivery to a White House clerk has customarily 
been regarded as presentation to the President and as 
commencing the 10-day constitutional period for presidential 
action.
    Copies of the enrolled bill usually are transmitted by the 
White House to the various departments interested in the 
subject matter so that they may advise the President on the 
issues surrounding the bill.
    If the President approves the bill, he signs it and usually 
writes the word ``approved'' and the date. However, the 
Constitution requires only that the President sign it.
    The bill may become law without the President's signature 
by virtue of the constitutional provision that if the President 
does not return a bill with objections within 10 days 
(excluding Sundays) after it has been presented to the 
President, it become law as if the President had signed it. 
However, if Congress by their adjournment prevent its return, 
it does not become law. The latter event is known as a ``pocket 
veto''; that is, the bill does not become law even though the 
President has not sent his objections to the Congress. The 
Congress has interpreted the President's ability to pocket veto 
a bill to be limited to final adjournment ``sine die'' of a 
Congress and not to interim adjournments or first session 
adjournments where the originating House of Congress through 
its agents is able to receive a veto message for subsequent 
reconsideration by that Congress when it reconvenes. The extent 
of pocket veto authority has not been definitively decided by 
the courts.
    Notice of the signing of a bill by the President is sent by 
message to the House in which it originated and that House 
informs the other, although this action is not necessary for 
the act to be valid. The action is also noted in the 
Congressional Record.
    A bill becomes law on the date of approval or passage over 
the President's veto, unless it expressly provides a different 
effective date.

                              veto message

    By the terms of the Constitution, if the President does not 
approve the bill ``he shall return it, with his Objections to 
that House in which it shall have originated, who shall enter 
the Objections at large on their Journal, and proceed to 
reconsider it''. A bill returned with the President's 
objections, need not be voted on at once when laid before the 
House since the vetoed bill can be postponed, referred back to 
committee, or tabled before the question on passage is pending. 
A vetoed bill is always privileged until directly voted upon, 
and a motion to take it from the table or from committee is in 
order at any time.
    Once the relevant Member moves the previous question on the 
question of override, the question is then put by the Speaker 
as follows: ``Will the House on reconsideration agree to pass 
the bill, the objections of the President to the contrary 
notwithstanding?''. Under the Constitution, a vote by the yeas 
and nays is required to pass a bill over the President's veto. 
The Clerk activates the electronic system or calls the roll 
with those in favor of passing the bill answering ``Aye'', and 
those opposed ``No''. Iffewer than two-thirds of the Members 
present vote in the affirmative, a quorum being present, the bill is 
rejected, and a message is sent to the Senate advising that body of the 
House action. However, if two-thirds vote in the affirmative, the bill 
is sent with the President's objections to the Senate, unless that body 
has acted first, together with a message advising it of the action in 
the House.
    The procedure in the Senate is the same as a two-thirds 
affirmative vote is also necessary to pass the bill over the 
President's objections. If the Senate joins the House and votes 
two-thirds in the affirmative to pass the bill, the measure 
becomes the law of the land notwithstanding the objections of 
the President, and it is ready for publication as a binding 
statute.

                             line item veto

    The Line Item Veto Act provides the President authority to 
cancel certain individual items contained in a bill or joint 
resolution that he has signed into law. The President may 
cancel only three types of fiscal items: a dollar amount of 
discretionary budget authority, an item of new direct spending, 
and a tax change benefiting a class of 100 or fewer. The 
cancellations must be received by the House and Senate within 
five calendar days of the enactment of such a law and are 
effective unless disapproved. The President submits a single 
message to both Houses containing all the cancellations per 
law. The Act also provides special expedited procedures by 
which the House and Senate may consider a bill or joint 
resolution disapproving a President's cancellation. Such a 
``disapproval bill'' may be passed by a majority vote in the 
House and Senate and presented to the President for his 
signature or veto under the Constitution. If the disapproval 
bill were vetoed by the President, the House and Senate could 
override the veto by a two-thirds vote in each House in which 
case the President's cancellations would be null and void. The 
constitutionality of the Line Item Veto Act is the subject of 
pending litigation at the time of publication of this edition.

                            XIX. PUBLICATION

    One of the important steps in the enactment of a valid law 
is the requirement that it shall be made known to the people 
who are to be bound by it. There would be no justice if the 
state were to hold its people responsible for their conduct 
before it made known to them the unlawfulness of such behavior. 
In practice, our laws are published immediately upon their 
enactment so that the public will be aware of them.
    If the President approves a bill, or allows it to become 
law without signing it, the original enrolled bill is sent from 
the White House to the Archivist of the United States for 
publication. If a bill is passed by both Houses over the 
objections of the President, the body that last overrides the 
veto transmits it. It is then assigned a public law number, and 
paginated for the Statutes at Large volume covering that 
session of Congress. The public and private law numbers run in 
sequence starting anew at the beginning of each Congress and 
since 1957 are prefixed for ready identification by the number 
of the Congress. For example, the first public law of the 105th 
Congress is designated Public Law 105-1 and the first private 
law of the 105th Congress is designated Private Law 105-1. 
Subsequent laws of this Congress also will contain the same 
prefix designator.

                               slip laws

    The first official publication of the statute is in the 
form generally known as the ``slip law''. In this form, each 
law is published separately as an unbound pamphlet. The heading 
indicates the public or private law number, the date of 
approval, and the bill number. The heading of a slip law for a 
public law also indicates the United States Statutes at Large 
citation. If the statute has been passed over the veto of the 
President, or has become law without the President's signature 
because he did not return it with objections, an appropriate 
statement is inserted instead of the usual notation of 
approval.
    The Office of the Federal Register, National Archives and 
Records Administration prepares the slip laws and provides 
marginal editorial notes giving the citations to laws mentioned 
in the text and other explanatory details. The marginal notes 
also give the United States Code classifications, enabling the 
reader immediately to determine where the statute will appear 
in the Code. Each slip law also includes an informative guide 
to the legislative history of the law consisting of the 
committee report number, the name of the committee in each 
House, as well as the date of consideration and passage in each 
House, with a reference to the Congressional Record by volume, 
year, and date. A reference to presidential statements relating 
to the approval of a bill or the veto of a bill when the veto 
was overridden and the bill becomes law is included in the 
legislative history as a citation to the Weekly Compilation of 
Presidential Documents.
    Copies of the slip laws are delivered to the document rooms 
of both Houses where they are available to officials and the 
public. They may also be obtained by annual subscription or 
individual purchase from the Government Printing Office and are 
available in electronic form for computer access. Section 113 
of title 1 of the United States Code provides that slip laws 
are competent evidence in all the federal and state courts, 
tribunals, and public offices.

                           statutes at large

    The United States Statutes at Large, prepared by the Office 
of the Federal Register, National Archives and Records 
Administration, provide a permanent collection of the laws of 
each session of Congress in bound volumes. The latest volume 
containing the laws of the first session of the 104th Congress 
is number 109 in the series. Each volume contains a complete 
index and a table of contents. From 1956 through 1976, each 
volume contained a table of earlier laws affected. These tables 
were cumulated for 1956-1970 and supplemented for 1971-1975 in 
pamphlet form and discontinued in 1976. From 1963 through 1974, 
each volume also contained a most useful table showing the 
legislative history of each law in the volume. This latter 
table was not included in subsequent volumes because the 
legislative histories have appeared at the end of each law 
since 1975. There are also extensive marginal notes referring 
to laws in earlier volumes and to earlier and later matters in 
the same volume.
    Under the provisions of a statute originally enacted in 
1895, these volumes are legal evidence of the laws contained in 
them and will be accepted as proof of those laws in any court 
in the United States.
    The Statutes at Large are a chronological arrangement of 
the laws exactly as they have been enacted. There is no attempt 
to arrange the laws according to their subject matter or to 
show the present status of an earlier law that has been amended 
on one or more occasions. The code of laws serves that purpose.

                           united states code

    The United States Code contains a consolidation and 
codification of the general and permanent laws of the United 
States arranged according to subject matter under 50 title 
headings, in alphabetical order to a large degree. It sets out 
the current status of the laws, as amended, without repeating 
all the language of the amendatory acts except where necessary 
for that purpose. The Code is declared to be prima facie 
evidence of those laws. Its purpose is to present the laws in a 
concise and usable form without requiring recourse to the many 
volumes of the Statutes at Large containing the individual 
amendments.
    The Code is prepared by the Law Revision Counsel of the 
House of Representatives. New editions are published every six 
years and cumulative supplements are published after the 
conclusion of each regular session of the Congress. The Code is 
also available in electronic form for computer access.
    Twenty-two of the 50 titles have been revised and enacted 
into positive law, and two have been eliminated by 
consolidation with other titles. Titles that have been revised 
and enacted into positive law are legal evidence of the law and 
the courts will receive them as proof of those laws. Eventually 
all the titles will be revised and enacted into positive law. 
At that point, they will be updated by direct amendment.


                            A P P E N D I X

                 SELECT LIST OF GOVERNMENT PUBLICATIONS

Constitution of the United States of America

    Analysis and Interpretation, with annotations of cases decided by 
the Supreme Court of the United States to June 29, 1992; prepared by 
Congressional Research Service, Library of Congress, Johnny H. Killian, 
George A. Costello, co-editors: Senate Document 103-6 (1996).

House Rules and Manual

    Constitution, Jefferson's Manual, and Rules of the House of 
Representatives of the United States, prepared by Charles W. Johnson, 
Parliamentarian of the House, House Document 104-272 (1997). New 
editions are published each Congress.

Senate Manual

    Containing the rules, orders, laws, and resolutions affecting the 
business of the United States Senate; Jefferson's Manual, Declaration 
of Independence, Articles of Confederation, Constitution of the United 
States, etc., prepared under the direction of Senate Committee on Rules 
and Administration. New editions are published each Congress.

Hinds' and Cannon's Precedents of the House of Representatives

    Including references to provisions of the Constitution, laws, and 
decisions of the Senate, by Asher C. Hinds. Vols. 1-5 (1907).
    Vols. 6-8 (1935), as compiled by Clarence Cannon, are supplementary 
to vols. 1-5 and cover the 28-year period from 1907 to 1935, revised up 
to and including the 73d Congress.
    Vols. 9-11 (1941) are index-digest to vols. 1-8.

Deschler-Brown Precedents of the United States House of Representatives

    Including references to provisions of the Constitution and laws, 
and to decisions of the courts, covering the period from 1928 to date, 
by Lewis Deschler, J.D., D.J., M.P.L., LL.D., Parliamentarian of the 
House (1928-1974), Wm. Holmes Brown, Parliamentarian of the House 
(1974-1994).
    Vols. 1-13 have been published, additional volumes in preparation.

Cannon's Procedure in the House of Representatives

    By Clarence Cannon, A.M., LL.B., LL.D., Member of Congress, 
sometime Parliamentarian of the House, Speaker pro tempore, Chairman of 
the Committee of the Whole, Chairman of the Committee on 
Appropriations, etc.

House Practice, A Guide to the Rules, Precedents and Procedures of the 
    House

    By Wm. Holmes Brown, Parliamentarian of the House (1974-1994)

Procedure in the U.S. House of Representatives, Fourth Edition (1982) 
    (1987 Supp.)

    By Lewis Deschler, J.D., D.J., M.P.L., LL.D., Parliamentarian of 
the House (1928-1974), and Wm. Holmes Brown, Parliamentarian of the 
House (1974-1994).

Senate Procedure

    By Floyd M. Riddick, Parliamentarian Emeritus of the Senate, Alan 
S. Frumin, Parliamentarian of the Senate: Senate Document No. 101-28 
(1992).

Calendars of the House of Representatives and History of Legislation

    Published each day the House is in session; prepared under the 
direction of the Clerk of the House of Representatives.

Committee Calendars

    Published periodically by most of the standing committees of the 
House of Representatives and Senate, containing the history of bills 
and resolutions referred to the particular committee.

Digest of Public General Bills and Resolutions

    A brief synopsis of public bills and resolutions, and changes made 
therein during the legislative process; prepared by American Law 
Division, Congressional Research Service, Library of Congress.

Congressional Record

    Proceedings and debates of the House and Senate, published daily, 
and bound with an index and history of bills and resolutions at the 
conclusion of each session of the Congress. The record of debates prior 
to 1874 was published in the Annals of Congress (1789-1824), The 
Register of Debates (1824-1837), and the Congressional Globe (1833-
1873).

Journal of the House of Representatives

    Official record of the proceedings of the House, published at the 
conclusion of each session under the direction of the Clerk of the 
House.

Journal of the United States Senate

    Official record of the proceedings of the Senate, published at the 
conclusion of each session under the direction of the Secretary of the 
Senate.

United States Statutes at Large

    Containing the laws and concurrent resolutions enacted, and 
reorganization plans and proclamations promulgated during each session 
of the Congress, published annually under the direction of the 
Archivist of the United States by the Office of the Federal Register, 
National Archives and Records Administration, Washington, D.C. 20408.
    Supplemental volumes: Tables of Laws Affected, Volumes 70-84 (1956-
1970), Volumes 85-89 (1971-1975), containing tables of prior laws 
amended, repealed, or patently affected by provisions of public laws 
enacted during that period.
    Additional parts, containing treaties and international agreements 
other than treaties, published annually under the direction of the 
Secretary of State until 1950.

United States Code

    The general and permanent laws of the United States in force on the 
day preceding the commencement of the session following the last 
session the legislation of which is included: arranged in 50 titles; 
prepared under the direction and supervision of the Law Revision 
Counsel of the House of Representatives. New editions are published 
every six years and cumulative supplements are published annually.

Federal Register

    Presidential Proclamations, Executive Orders, and federal agency 
orders, regulations, and notices, and general documents of public 
applicability and legal effect, published daily. The regulations 
therein amend the Code of Federal Regulations. Published by the Office 
of the Federal Register, National Archives and Records Administration, 
Washington, D.C. 20408.

Code of Federal Regulations

    Cumulates in bound volumes the general and permanent rules and 
regulations of Federal agencies published in the Federal Register, 
including Presidential documents. Each volume of the Code is revised at 
least once each calendar year and issued on a quarterly basis. 
Published by the Office of the Federal Register, National Archives and 
Records Administration, Washington, D.C. 20408.

Weekly Compilation of Presidential Documents

    Containing statements, messages, and other presidential materials 
released by the White House up to 5:00 p.m. Friday of each week, 
published every Monday by the Office of the Federal Register, National 
Archives and Records Administration, Washington, D.C. 20408.

History of the United States House of Representatives

    Prepared by Congressional Research Service, Library of Congress, 
House Document 103-324.

The Senate, 1789-1989, Addresses on the History of the United States 
    Senate, Vol. 1

    By Senator Robert C. Byrd, Senate Document No. 100-20 (1988).

Historical Almanac of the United States Senate

    By Senator Bob Dole, Senate Document No. 100-35 (1989).